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Majapahit During War And Peace Part II:”The Golden Age Of Majapahit Kingdom”(Masa Keemasan Kerajaan Majapahit)













The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum


(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom : 


Dr Iwan  Book Cybermuseum

The Majapahit Java Kingdom During War And Peace( MAJAPAHIT MASA PERANG DAN DAMAI) 1293-1525

                   Based on

Dr Iwan Rare Old Books Collections


             Edited By


     Dr Iwan Suwandy

    Limited Private Publication

       special for premium member hhtp:// copyright @ Dr iwan suwandy 2011



1.Preface(Kata Pengantar)

 2.The Rise of Madjapahit war 1293-1309(Perang Pada saat Majapahit Timbul)

3.The Golden Age of Madjapahit  War(Perang saat Masa Jayanya  Majapahit)Timbul 1309-1389

4.The Declining Of Madjapahit War(Perang Pada Saat Mundurnya Kerajaan Majapahit) 1389-1476

5.The Setting Of Madjapahit War  (Perang Saat Kehancuran Majapahit )1478-1525



“The Golden Age Of Majapahit Kingdom”

Table Of content

1.King Jaya negara

 2.Queen Tribhuwana Wijaya Tungga Dewi(1325-1351)

3. King Hayam Wuruk with Patih Gajamada

 4, King Brawijaya


1.King Jaya negara

The Glory of Majapahit

Prof. Dr. Slamet Muljana said, “At the essence, the glorious history of Majapahit is the story of the life of Maha Patih Gajah Mada.” The glory of Majapahit dissipated after the reign of Hayam Wuruk. Hence, this part of the history of Majapahit revolves around the reign of Jayanegara, where Gajah Mada gained prominence, to the reign of Hayam Wuruk.


Raden Wijaya married the four daughters of Kertanegara. The wives are Tribhuaneswari, Narendraduhita, Pradnya Paramita, and Dya Dewi Gayatri. The most known among them is Rajapatni Gayatri, who had two daughters, Sri Gitarja (or Tribuwanatunggadewi) who became bhre Kahuripan (ruler of Kahuripan district) and Dyah Wiyat (or Rajadewi Maharajasa) who became bhre Daha (ruler of Daha district).

A source said that there was a historic prophecy that said that the kings of Java shall come from Gayatri. However the reality was Raden Wijaya appointed Jayanegara as his heir, who though was the only son of Raden Wijaya but was not the son of Raden Wijaya’s first queen. Jayanegara himself had a child name of Kala Gemet, which means “weak villain.” Jayanegara took the throne with the name Abhiseka Wiralandagopala in the year AD 1309.

Jayanegara was the son of Putri Negeri Seberang (Princess from the Country Across the Sea) who came from the Malay-Jambi Kingdom, Dharmasraya, in Sawahlunto. It was said that when the army of Raden Wijaya went to Negeri Seberang (either for colonization or mere visit), they brought home precious goods and two sister princesses, who were Dara Jingga and Dara Petak. Dara Jingga was married to a high official of Majapahit. Their son, Adityawarman, was Majapahit general and who was also to become King of Melayu (which seems to be under the ruling of Majapahit too).

Dara Petak herself was married by Raden Wijaya. In Majapahit, Dara Petak was known by the name Indreswari. Dara Petak bore Raden Wijaya a son, Raden Kala Gemet. Perhaps because she was the only wives of Raden Wijaya to bear him son, Dara Petak was made Sthri Tinuheng Pura, which means “wife that was made senior in pura (palace)”, or in the other words, she was made the Queen of the palace, although she was actually the fifth wife of Raden Wijaya.

When Jayanegara ruled, Gajah Mada was only a bekel, which is a low-ranked soldier under a senopati. However, he had been entrusted with leading the Bhayangkara squad, which was the last line of defense in protecting the royal family. During his reign, Jayanegara faced several rebellions, but the most famous one was the rebellion by Rakrian Kuti, which took place in Saka Year 1241 or AD 1319; this event was also one that soared Gajah Mada’s name.

The following was the information gotten from the novel Gajah Mada by Langit Kresna Hariadi. Though this is a history novel and has a lot of fiction, it has reliable information that was based on historic facts or Langit’s own research.

It was said that a king granted Anugerah Winehsuka to those who had high loyalty and service to the king. These people were called Rakrian Dharmaputra Winehsuka. In the novel Gajah Mada, it was said that during Jayanegara’s reign, there were several rakrian, which were Ra Kuti, Ra Tanca, Ra Pangsa, Ra Banyak, Ra Wedeng, Ra Yuyu, and Ra Semi. There were also three main squads, which were Jalapati, Jalayuda, and Jala Rananggara; however, none of the rakrians had authority over these main squads.

When Ra Kuti rebelled, Gajah Mada took the royal family to safety to Rimbi, the place where Gayatri who had become a Buddhist nun resided. Jayanegara himself fled to Bedander. Gajah Mada spread a rumor that Jayanegara had died. This, in addition to the ruthless ruling of Kuti, made the people unhappy. The throne was soon regained back by Jayanegara. Ra Kuti was killed during the rebellion. Gajah Mada, due to his great contribution, was made Patih Kahuripan or Minister of Kahuripan (later he would become Patih Kediri, and finally Maha Patih or Prime Minister). It is interesting to note that Tribuwanatunggadewi who would later become rani or queen of Majapahit was once a bhre Kahuripan.

It was said that Ra Tanca joined in the rebellion, but was forgiven. Nine years after the rebellion, Jayanegara suffered a serious boil. Ra Tanca, who was a skillful physician and a poison expert, was called to treat the king. Ra Tanca used that chance to kill Jayanegara (either by poison or by blade). Gajah Mada then killed Ra Tanca by stabbing him.

There were several theories regarding the assassination of Jayanegara. One version told that Ra Tanca murdered Jayanegara on his own initiative, either to avenge his friends who died during the rebellion, or, according to another version, to take revenge on Jayanegara for seducing Ra Tanca’s wife.

Another version said that it was Gajah Mada who ordered Ra Tanca to kill Jayanegara. One version mentioned of Gajah Mada giving that order because Jayanegara was an immoral king who wanted to marry his half-sisters, which were Sri Gitarja and Dyah Wiyat. Another legend said that Gajah Mada was vengeful because Jayanegara took Gajah Mada’s wife; this version, however, is very doubtful because there is no strong evidence, especially because it was believed that Gajah Mada had no wife.

Another theory was Jayanegara was killed to return the throne of Majapahit to the descendants of Kertanegara because the oracle was that the descendants of kings of Java shall come from Gayatri, which sadly only had daughters. Because Jayanegara had no son when he died, the throne would fall back to the descendants of Kertanegara because Gayatri then would sit on the throne.

Jayanegara was a mixed-blood son, a mix of Java and Malay (or Negeri Seberang). As such, it might be the case that the royal family did not like this. There was also a rumor that Jayanegara did not want any man to marry his half-sisters so that their husbands would not be able to claim the throne. However, this theory had never been confirmed.

Negarakertagama itself wrote a lot about Rajapatni Gayatri and portrayed her as a wise Empress Dowager. Because Negarakertagama was written under the command of Gajah Mada, it is plausible that Gajah Mada had a good relation with the Empress Dowager. As such, there is a possibility that Gajah Mada supported the descendant of Gayatri to claim the throne. However, no theory can confirm the role of Gajah Mada in the assassination of Jayanegara.

Langit Kresna Hariadi himself, in his novel Gajah Mada, theorized that Ra Tanca fell in love with Dyah Wiyat. When Jayanegara came to know about this, he mocked Ra Tanca because of his lower status than the king’s half-sister. Because of that, Ra Tanca took revenge on Jayanegara. However, whether Langit got this idea from historical facts or even legends such as Babad Tanah Jawi is unknown.

In the end, it seems which theory or version of history that one wants to believe in would depend on one’s own interpretation and analysis.

info two:


Brahu temple is located at Bejijong village sub district of Trowulan, about one kilometer from the capital of sub district in northern. Brahu temple is made from patio. It faces to western. The map is square with size 18 x 22.5 meter and height rest about 20 meters.
Vertically, the temple building is divided into three sides. They are the leg which is the bottom side up to room and synchronized. The body side is stay above leg side that functioned as room cover and roof prop. The roof side is the top side of temple as the room cover.
Observed from its building style and profile of top side of southern side, this temple is probably a kind of Buddha religious building and established in 15 century. Others opinion predict that Brahu temple is order than others temples in Trowulan resort. Brahu temple has been renovated on 1990 and finish on 1995.


It is located on Temon village sub district of Trowulan. The distance is about 72 km fromSurabayaand able to be reached by private motorcycle, car and bus. The public transportation that able to reach the resort is by ojek (public motorcycle cartage) from Trowulan crossroad wich reachable and reasonable price.

Bajang Ratu arch is likely Paduraksa (arch with roof) that has wings in right and left side, made from patio except flooring that made from stone, with height 16.1 meters, lengths 11 meters, and width 6.7 meters. The relief that cover the arch from up to bottom is likely one eye, hawk head, sun tied with dragon, scorpion head tied with lion, long ear animal. The relief with story meaning is Ramayana and Sri Tanjung relief’s which chiseled in wing side.

Bajang Ratu arch is related to Prabu Jayanegara, The Second king of Majapahit who died in single (bachelor). Thus, the real function of it is not the entrance to Majapahit empire buy to holly building, the place of Prabu Jayanegara.

versi Indonesia:


Candi Brahu terletak di Desa Bejijong Kecamatan Trowulan, sekitar satu kilometer dari ibukota kecamatan di utara. Candi Brahu terbuat dari teras. Ini wajah untuk barat. Peta persegi dengan ukuran 18 x 22,5 meter dan sisanya ketinggian sekitar 20 meter.
Vertikal, bangunan candi ini dibagi menjadi tiga sisi. Mereka adalah kaki yang merupakan bagian bawah ke kamar dan disinkronisasi. Sisi tubuh tetap di atas sisi kaki yang berfungsi sebagai penutup ruang dan atap penyangga. Sisi atap adalah sisi puncak candi sebagai penutup ruang.
Ditinjau dari gaya bangunan dan profil dari sisi atas sisi selatan, candi ini mungkin jenis bangunan agama Buddha dan didirikan pada abad ke-15. Lain pendapat memprediksi bahwa candi Brahu pesanan dari candi lain di resor Trowulan. Candi Brahu telah direnovasi pada tahun 1990 dan selesai pada 1995.
Candi Bajangratu
Hal ini terletak di kecamatan Temon sub desa Trowulan. Jaraknya sekitar 72 km fromSurabayaand dapat dicapai dengan kendaraan pribadi, mobil sepeda motor dan bus. Transportasi publik yang mampu mencapai resor ini dengan ojek (angkutan gerobak motor umum) dari perempatan Trowulan harga yang terjangkau yang.
Arch Bajang Ratu mungkin paduraksa (gapura dengan atap) yang memiliki sayap di kanan dan kiri, yang terbuat dari teras kecuali lantai yang terbuat dari batu, dengan ketinggian 16,1 meter, panjang 11 meter, dan lebar 6,7 meter. Relief yang mencakup lengkungan dari atas ke bawah kemungkinan satu mata, kepala elang, matahari diikat dengan naga, kalajengking kepala diikat dengan singa, binatang telinga panjang. Relief dengan makna cerita Ramayana dan relief Sri Tanjung’s yang dipahat di sisi sayap.

Bajang Ratu arch berkaitan dengan Prabu Jayanegara, Raja kedua Majapahit yang meninggal dalam satu (sarjana). Jadi, fungsi sebenarnya bukan merupakan pintu masuk ke kerajaan Majapahit membeli untuk  bangunan suci , tempat Prabu Jayanegara.


information three

It knowable that the relation of King Jayanegara and Blitar area was had a special character. That special relationship that showed at stipulating a number of ha that given to the functionaries, in respect to the faithfulness of Blitar village to the King. In this relationship event of what happened so that the King had the pleasure to give an award to Blitar village resident.

King Jayanegara is the second Majapahit King; replace his father, Kerjarajasa Jayawardhana who had died in 1309 M. In his government, there are two sources that giving different description. Both the sources are Negarakertagama that written by Prapanca and Pararaton, which are not mentioned the written name. Negarakertagama tell about a period of the government in 1309-1328 Mash. It is in ‘Pupuh’ XLVII Prapanca had described, which translation in Indonesian is: He left Jayanegara as King Wilwatikta and his sister Rajapadhi Utama. The two very beautiful females, as twin Ratih give in the eldest angel Rani in Jiwana, while the youngest Jadirani in Daha. In Saka year: To force honeymoon aspect, Lord Jayanegara leave to avoid the enemy to Lumajang. He said that Pajarakan destroyed, Nambi and the family destroyed, and the whole of public felt scare to saw His Majesty officer ship. Year Saka: circle bow the sun, he return, soon buried in gate, having symbol Wisnuparama statue. In Between Check and located Bubat is area Wisnuparama. Between Check and ‘Bubat’ straightened Wisnu area symbolize ‘Tara Inda’. In Sukalila picturesque of Buda as Amoga sidi transform.

From ‘Pupuh’ above, hence knowable that during the Jayanegara government, he could broke the rebellion of Nambi in 1361M. Further, Pararaton reported the rebellion that led by Ranggalawe, Sora and Nambi. All the rebellions earn in extinguished by the Lord. There was again a rebellion in 1316 and 1317 under Kuti and Seni leader. The rebellion made King Jayanegara run to Bedander village accompanied by Bhayangkara team under Gajah Mada led. Because the Gajah Mada tactics, Jayanegara had successfully return to the coronation. Kuti and Seni had successfully destroyed (Pararaton: 80-83). That news gave us a guide that during the Jayanegara government, there was a rebellion, but it successfully extinguished. That reality, gives a proven that Jayanegara avoid a difficult condition in his first led. This reality can give a reason, of Jayanagara was release his inscription. It cannot be questionable again; that the stipulating of this inscription in Blitar is the important event of Jayanegara wrote that inscription. It also was an important point of the declared of Blitar in Majapahit government. Moreover, that important event, based on the element of calendar in the inscription, had happened at Sunday ‘Pahing’ month of Srawana 1246 Saka, on 5 Augusts 1324M. For next period, Blitar mentioned in Negarakertagama book its relationship with the King Hayam Wuruk touring to East Java areas. Some years that was making the matter of news along the length of concerning Blitar and other places in vicinity area written in ‘Pupuh-pupuh’

versi Indonesia

Hal ini dapat diketahui bahwa hubungan Raja Jayanegara dan daerah Blitar memiliki karakter khusus. Bahwa hubungan khusus yang menunjukkan pada penetapan sejumlah ha yang diberikan kepada pejabat, berkenaan dengan kesetiaan desa Blitar kepada Raja. Dalam acara ini hubungan antara apa yang terjadi sehingga Raja merasa senang untuk memberikan penghargaan kepada penduduk desa Blitar.Jayanegara raja Majapahit kedua adalah Raja; menggantikan ayahnya, Kerjarajasa Jayawardhana yang meninggal di 1309 M. Dalam pemerintahannya, ada dua sumber yang memberikan gambaran yang berbeda. Baik sumber-sumber adalah Negarakertagama yang ditulis oleh Prapanca dan Pararaton, yang tidak menyebutkan nama yang tertulis. Negarakertagama menceritakan tentang masa pemerintah dalam Mash 1309-1328. Hal ini dalam ‘Pupuh’ XLVII Prapanca melukiskan yang terjemahan dalam bahasa Indonesia adalah: Dia meninggalkan Jayanegara sebagai Raja Wilwatikta dan adiknya Rajapadhi Utama. Dua yang betina sangat indah, seperti Ratih kembar memberi pada malaikat tertua Rani di Jiwana, sedangkan yang termuda Jadirani di Daha. Pada tahun Saka: Untuk memaksa aspek bulan madu, Tuhan Jayanegara meninggalkan untuk menghindari musuh ke Lumajang. Dia mengatakan bahwa Pajarakan hancur, Nambi dan keluarga hancur, dan seluruh masyarakat merasa ketakutan untuk melihat kapal Mulia petugas-Nya. Tahun Saka: lingkaran busur matahari, ia kembali, segera dimakamkan di pintu gerbang, memiliki simbol patung Wisnuparama. Di Antara Periksa dan Bubat terletak merupakan daerah Wisnuparama. Antara Periksa dan ‘Bubat’ diluruskan Wisnu wilayah melambangkan ‘Tara Inda’. Dalam indah Sukalila dari Buda sebagai Amoga sidi transformasi.

Dari ‘Pupuh’ di atas, maka dapat diketahui bahwa selama pemerintahan Jayanegara, ia bisa mematahkan pemberontakan Nambi pada tahun 1361M. Selanjutnya, Pararaton melaporkan pemberontakan yang dipimpin oleh Ranggalawe, Sora dan Nambi. Semua pemberontakan dapat di dipadamkan oleh Tuhan. Ada lagi pemberontakan pada 1316 dan 1317 di bawah pimpinan Kuti dan Seni. Pemberontakan itu membuat Raja Jayanegara lari ke desa Bedander didampingi oleh tim Bhayangkara di bawah pimpinan Gajah Mada. Karena taktik Gajah Mada, Jayanegara berhasil kembali ke penobatan. Kuti dan Seni telah berhasil menghancurkan (Pararaton: 80-83). berita itu memberi kami panduan bahwa selama pemerintahan Jayanegara, ada pemberontakan, tetapi berhasil dipadamkan. realitas itu, memberikan membuktikan bahwa Jayanegara menghindari kondisi sulit pertamanya memimpin. Kenyataan ini dapat memberikan alasan, dari Jayanagara adalah rilis tulisan nya. Hal ini tidak bisa diragukan lagi, bahwa penetapan prasasti di Blitar ini adalah peristiwa penting dari Jayanegara menulis prasasti itu. Hal ini juga merupakan titik penting dari menyatakan Blitar dalam pemerintahan Majapahit. Selain itu, peristiwa penting, berdasarkan unsur kalender di prasasti, yang terjadi di ‘Pahing’ Minggu bulan Srawana Saka 1246, pada tanggal 5 Agustus 1324M. Untuk periode berikutnya, Blitar disebutkan dalam buku Negarakertagama hubungannya dengan Raja Hayam Wuruk tur ke daerah Jawa Timur. Beberapa tahun yang membuat hal berita sepanjang mengenai Blitar dan tempat-tempat lain di daerah sekitar ditulis dalam ‘Pupuh-Pupuh’


2.Queen Tribhuwana Wijaya Tungga Dewi(1325-1351)

Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi is the third ruler of Majapahit who ruled in 1328-1351. From Inscription Singasari (1351) and charter Berumbung year 1351 is unknown degree abhisekanya Sri Tribhuwanotunggadewi Maharajasa Jayawisnuwardhani.Real name Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi (abbreviated Tribhuwana) is Dyah Gitarja.She is the daughter of Raden Wijaya and Gayatri. Having a younger brother named Dyah Wijat and half sister named Jayanagara.Death Jayanegara cause polemics that quite complicated because he does not have offspring(Prabu Jayanegara, The Second king of Majapahit who died in single or bachelor). . According to historical records since the death of Jayanegara takes time during the year to designate who is entitled to become queen of Majapahit.In accordance with the rules of royal lineage, the right to replace Sri Jayanegara as king was his brother, one of the daughters of Sri Gitarja and Dyah Wyat. Before the option was dropped into one of them, still held power in the hands of Queen of Gayatri, the wife of the late Raden Wijaya (the first king of Majapahit). This is because of the potential conflicts that were analyzed by Gajah Mada power if appointment is done in a hurry.Gajah Mada analysis centered on the fact that Sri Jayanegara successor as king of Majapahit was a woman. Given the history, it’s really not an issue of a woman to be King. The evidence in fact is the daughter of Shima who managed to uphold the kingdom even though she is a woman. Nevertheless, Gajah Mada could not leveling between daughter Shima condition of two daughters who both have the potential to replace Sri Jayanegara as the queen of Majapahit.Coat Majapahit
Gajah Mada conclude that it does not matter as long as a woman becomes king was accompanied by a strong figure. Well, this powerful figure comes from a man who will accompany them as husbands. The royal family had chosen as a companion of the knight’s two daughters are. Sri Gitarja paired with Raden Cakradara. While Dyah Wyat paired with Raden Kudamerta. Both are the rulers of the district-level areas that became part of Majapahit. Along with the death of king Sri Jayanegara, second daughter of the kingdom is also married to her partner.And on the advice of Gajah Mada Queen Gayatri finally appointed his daughters to lead the Majapahit. Nagarakretagama According to stanza 49, Tribhuwana took the throne on the orders of his mother (Gayatri) in 1329 to replace Jayanagara who do not have offspring in 1328 were 1 year after the death of King Jayanegara. Nagarakretagama as Jayanagara inherited the throne proclaim that Gayatri, because her stepmother was the daughter Kertanagara. Given the Gayatri is the youngest daughter, the possibility that time the wives of other Raden Wijaya was dead all. Because of Gayatri has been a pastor, then his government was represented by Tribhuwanotunggadewi.According Pararaton, Jayanagara feared threatened his throne, so he forbade her siblings married. In Jayanagara reign (1309-1328) was appointed as a ruler Tribhuwana Tunggadewi subordinates in Jiwana Bhre Kahuripan title. Tribhuwana husband named Cakradhara who holds Kertawardhana Bhre Tumapel.At Charter Trowulan Year 1358 said that Kerthawardhana is a descendant of King Wisnuwardhana in Singhasari.Dari marriage was born Dyah Hayam Wuruk and Dyah Nertaja. Hayam Wuruk then appointed as Yuwaraja hold Bhre Kahuripan or Bhre Jiwana, while Dyah Nertaja as Bhre Pajang.Heritage Majapahit piggy bankPeriod Tribhuwana GovernmentName name Majapahit government officials in the reign of King Kertarajasa Age appropriate Brumbung year charter in 1329.1. Mahamentri Katrini
· Rakyan Minister Hino: Dyah Anarjaya
· Rakyan Minister Halu: Dyah Mano
· Rakyan Minister Sirikan: Dyah Lohak2. The Panca Wilwatika
· Rakyan Patih Majapahit: Pu Krewes
· Rakyan demung: Pu Tanparowang
· Rakyan Kanuruhan: Pu Blen
· Rakyan Rangga: Pu Wheel
· Rakyan Tumenggung: Pu WayuhGovernment Tribhuwana known as the expansion of Majapahit territory in all directions as the implementation Patih Palapa Oath of Gajah Mada. Year 1343 to defeat the king of Majapahit Kingdom Bedahulu (Bali) Year 1347. Adityawarman Malay descent who was sent to conquer the remnants of Sriwijaya Kingdom and the Kingdom of Malay. Adityawarman later became uparaja (king subordinates) of Majapahit in the Sumatra region. Expansion continued in the reign of Majapahit Hayam Wuruk, where the territory until it reaches Lamuri at the west end until Wanin at the east end.

In the early days of government who became governor Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi Arya amangkubumi is fed. In the year 1251 Saka Aryan ill fed, and felt it was no longer able to carry out duties as governor Amangku earth.Arya fed and then beg the Queen to release him from his position, but the request was rejected because it had not found the right person to replace them. Arya fed felt that the right person to replace his position as vizier Gajah Mada Amangku Earth is because of his services to King Jayanegara Services and Tribhuwana Wiojayatunggadewi coronation as Queen of Majapahit.

Arya fed then approached Gajah Mada Gajah Mada purpose but are still reluctant to accept the offer. After the end of Gajah Mada urged continued to accept the offer after the crush the rebellion in Sadeng. From these events we can know how careful Gajah Mada took his attitude towards others. Gajah Mada do not want to assume the position of others, but expect the willingness of the people who occupy these positions because it is expected that cooperation with the willingness to him by officials of the old Aryan fed will go well.Important events during the reign of Tribhuwana Wijaya Tunggadewi· Rebellion SadengIn 1331 occurred the rebellion in the region Sadeng and Keta. Gajah Mada has future goals to beat Sadeng first before accepting a position as governor Amangku earth. Concerning the Keta and Sadeng, narrated that the two regions is intended to separate the part of Majapahit from the Majapahit kingdom and make serious preparations. Among them are doing a massive recruitment of civilians to be educated soldiering in the jungle Alas bans. The goal is to strengthen the army both regions, which in turn will dibenturkan against the war power of Majapahit.At that time, the Majapahit also established relations with the kingdom Swarnabhumi, on the island of Sumatra. The arrival of the king Swarnabhumi – Adityawarman home – to Majapahit described using a large warship unprecedented naval forces of the oneness of Majapahit.Adityawarman itself is a cousin of the late King Sri Jayanegara, as well as a best friend who is close enough to Gajah Mada. Depictions of the large size of warships from Swarnabhumi presumably intended as the embryo adoption of technology that makes the Majapahit navy later when the campaign begins the unification of the archipelago. .Judging from the strength of his troops, the strength of Keta-Sadeng is nothing compared with the power of Majapahit troops. However, behind the physical strength sepapan segelar troops are not yet comparable with the forces of Gajah Mada, Keta-Sadeng protected by a powerful warrior capable mandraguna. This knight is a former patron of Raden Wijaya, the first king of Majapahit. The name is Wirota Wiragati knight, famous for its miracle has ajian quiet, ajian panglimunan, and the power to bring in fog which could complicate any troops the power of vision.But what a disappointment that the siege Sadeng Gajah Mada occurred before his arrival, Ra precede twin purposes of Gajah Mada. Knowing that the Minister Gajah Mada Araraman and very angry. Gajah Mada and then send five workshops each consisting of 5 people to beat the Twins Ra. They then met with Ra Twins in the forest and sitting on a tree branch that fell, like riding a horse and holding the whip hand.Heritage Majapahit

The delegates then convey the anger of Gajah Mada University and intends to beat Ra twins. Knowing the attack Ra twins thong forehead but the envoys envoys to escape and report the matter to Gajah Mada. Gajah Mada was very disappointed because his goal to beat Sadeng ideals are not implemented because it has been preceded by Ra Twins.According Pararaton there is competition between Gajah Mada Gajah Mada and Ra Twins in getting the position of commander of the crackdown Sadeng. So, Tribhuwana set off alone as commander of the attacking Sadeng, accompanied by his cousin Adityawarman.Twin Ra is the youngest son of King Pemelekahan, he is a formidable warrior and an expert on horseback and use a whip weapon. In the essay De Sadeng Oorlog en de myte van groot Majapahit, Prof. CC Berg Sadeng equate it with Bali area, seandainyq in Bali have called Sadeng and Keta area, the equation will be easy to understand.However, in Bali there is no place called Sadeng and Keta. Prof CC Berg Sadeng think that word is a word that meant wangsalan Bali. The word comes from the word Sadeng Sedeng another or different meaning. The word difference is almost the same as said Bada is a kingdom called Badahulu in the area of ​​Bali. While Keta linked to Kuta which is a region located in southern part of Bali Island. Mention under pseudonyms such menyelubugi intended for the actual name of the city where it is associated with the fellowship of the archipelago since the reign of King Kertanagara Singhasari.Victory over fear and Sadeng provide awareness that the strength of Majapahit had been restored and their future goals to realize the archipelago must be re-embodied politics. After returning from crushing Sadeng, Gajah Mada was then appointed Angabehi and not some time later was appointed as Patih Amangku earth while Twin appointed Ra Araraman Workshop.· Oath PalapaPatih Gajah MadaThe next important event in the government is Tribhuwana Tunggadewi Palapa Oath spoken by Gajah Mada rakryan when sworn in as governor of Majapahit in 1334.Gajah Mada political program is essentially the continuation of the idea of ​​the archipelago at the time of King Kertanagara government so that more appropriately called the idea Nusantara II, that efforts to reunite the country across the ocean that separated the State back in the reign of King Kertarajasa and Jayanagara plus other Nusantara State State.Because of the extent of Nusantara II program is a lot of ministers who can not even understand even ridicule, so to realize these ideas then stranglehold stranglehold must be removed first. So finally there is a change on a large scale composition of ministers in the early days vizier Gajah Mada leadership in government.Majapahit Kingdom territory before the year 1334 includes only East Java and Central Java. From the Book Nagarakertagama archipelago known political program began with attacks on the island of Bali, the attack occurred in the saka year 1265 or year 1343 AD.

Death Tribhuwana Wijaya Tunggadewi

Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi estimated abdicate the throne in 1351 (after the release Inscription Singasari). He later returned to Bhre Kahuripan incorporated in Saptaprabhu, a kind of grand-member council consideration the royal family. As for who becomes the next king of Majapahit was his son, namely Hayam Wuruk.

It is not known exactly when the year Tribhuwana death. Kahuripan Bhre Pararaton only preach the elephant died after appointment as governor in 1371 Enggon.

Majapahit Heritage Gold Jewelry

According Pararaton, Tribhuwanotunggadewi didharmakan in Pantarapura temple located in the village and the temple Rimbi Panggih southwest Mojokerto, manifested as Parvati, while her husband, namely Kertawardhana Bhre Tumapel died in 1386, and didharmakan in sarwa Jayapurwa Temple, located in rural Japan .
version two:


Jayanegara left no heir to rule Majapahit after him. Rightfully, the throne falls to the hands of his stepmother, Gayatri. However, at that time Gayatri had become a Buddhist nun and apparently was not interested in ruling on the throne. As such, it had to be decided on who was to rule in the place of Gayatri, was it her daughters, Sri Gitarja or Dyah Wiyat? It was said that after the death of Jayanegara, the throne was empty for about a year.

Finally, on Gajah Mada’s suggestion, Gayatri appointed both of her daughters to be rani kembar (twin queens). However, the queen that was more prominent (and apparently had more power) was Tribuwanatunggadewi. This bhre Kahuripan took the throne with abhiseka name of Jayawisnuwardhani. It is interesting to note that Gajah Mada’s suggestion who was only a patih at that time had a huge impact on determining the next ruler of Majapahit.

Tribuwanatunggadewi married Kertawardana (bhre Tumapel, whose real name was Cakradara) and Rajadewi married Wijayarajasa (bhre Wengker, whose real name was Kudamerta). Tribuwanatunggadewi bore Hayam Wuruk in the Saka Year 1256.

In AD 1320, Maha Patih Arya Tada appointed Gajah Mada to replace him as Maha Patih. However, Gajah Mada rejected the idea, saying that he would only become a Maha Patih after he defeated Keta and Sadeng who rebelled against Majapahit. After defeating Keta and Sedang, Gajah Mada became Maha Patih in AD 1334.

When he was appointed as Maha Patih, Gajah Mada said his famous oath, which is Nusantara Oath or Palapa Oath (Sumpah Palapa) on the Saka Year 1256 or AD 1336, which was said in front of the rani of Majapahit.

Palapa Oath that was declared by Gajah Mada as written in Pararaton is as follows:

“Sira Gajah Mada pepatih amungkubumi tan ayun amukti palapa, sira Gajah Mada: Lamun huwus kalah nusantara ingsun amukti palapa, lamun kalah ring Gurun, ring Seram, Tanjungpura, ring Haru, ring Pahang, Dompo, ring Bali, Sunda, Palembang, Tumasik, saman ingsun amukti palapa.”

The translation is:

“Gajah Mada the Maha Patih will not enjoy palapa, said Gajah Mada: As long as I have not united nusantara, I will not taste enjoy palapa. Before I conquered Gurun Island (Lombok), Seram Island, Tanjungpura (Kalimantan), Haru Island (North Sumatera), Pahang Island (Malaya), Dompo, Bali Island, Sunda, Palembang, and Tumasik (Singapore), I will not enjoy palapa.”

Palapa is a spice; hence, the Palapa Oath can be interpreted as Gajah Mada not tasting any spice until he fulfilled his oath. Although spice was precious then, spice also represented the pleasure of life. Hence, the Palapa Oath may also be Gajah Mada’s oath for not enjoying the pleasures of life and work incessantly for the unification of Nusantara.

It was said that the Palapa Oath of Gajah Mada brought mocking and objection from several high officials and ministers of Majapahit, and caused conflict between Gajah Mada and these people.

The period of AD 1294 (the beginning of Raden Wijaya’s reign) until AD 1336 (the reign of Tribuwanatunggadewi) was the period of consolidation of Majapahit rule to get back vassal countries that were part of Singosari but did not want to acknowledge Majapahit as the succesor of Singosari. After the consolidation, Majapahit then started to look outside to expand its boundaries. During this time was when Gajah Mada endeavored to fulfill his Oath.


Indonesiasn version:

Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi adalah penguasa ketiga Majapahit yang memerintah tahun 1328-1351. Dari Prasasti Singasari (1351) dan piagam Berumbung tahun 1351 diketahui gelar abhisekanya ialah Sri Tribhuwanotunggadewi Maharajasa Jayawisnuwardhani.Nama asli Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi ( disingkat Tribhuwana) adalah Dyah Gitarja.Ia merupakan putri dari Raden Wijaya dan Gayatri. Memiliki adik kandung bernama Dyah Wijat dan kakak tiri bernama Jayanagara .Wafatnya Jayanegara menimbulkan polemik yang cukup rumit karena beliau belum memiliki keturunan. Sesuai catatan sejarah sejak kematian Jayanegara dibutuhkan waktu selama setahun untuk menunjuk siapa yang berhak menjadi ratu Majapahit.Sesuai dengan aturan silsilah kerajaan, yang berhak menggantikan Sri Jayanegara sebagai raja adalah saudaranya, salah satu dari putri Sri Gitarja dan Dyah Wyat. Sebelum pilihan dijatuhkan ke salah satunya, kekuasaan masih dipegang di tangan Ratu Gayatri, istri mendiang Raden Wijaya (raja Majapahit pertama). Hal ini karena adanya potensi konflik yang dianalisis oleh Gajah Mada apabila penunjukan kekuasaan dilakukan secara tergesa-gesa.Analisis Gajah Mada berpusat pada kenyataan bahwa pengganti Sri Jayanegara sebagai raja Majapahit adalah seorang perempuan. Menilik pada sejarah, sebetulnya tidak menjadi masalah seorang perempuan menjadi Raja. Bukti nyatanya adalah putri Shima yang berhasil menegakkan kerajaan walaupun dia seorang perempuan. Walaupun demikian, Gajah Mada tidak bisa penyamarataan kondisi antara putri Shima dengan dua orang putri yang sama-sama berpotensi menggantikan Sri Jayanegara sebagai ratu Majapahit.Lambang MajapahitGajah Mada berkesimpulan bahwa memang tidak masalah seorang perempuan menjadi raja asalkan didampingi oleh figur yang kuat. Nah, figur kuat ini berasal dari laki-laki yang nantinya mendampingi mereka sebagai suami. Keluarga kerajaan telah memilih para ksatria sebagai pendamping kedua putri tersebut. Sri Gitarja dijodohkan dengan Raden Cakradara. Sedangkan Dyah Wyat dijodohkan dengan Raden Kudamerta. Keduanya adalah penguasa-penguasa wilayah setingkat kabupaten yang menjadi bagian dari Majapahit. Bersamaan dengan wafatnya raja Sri Jayanegara, kedua putri kerajaan tersebut juga dinikahkan dengan pasangannya.Dan atas saran Gajah Mada akhirnya Ratu Gayatri menunjuk kedua putrinya untuk memimpin Majapahit. Menurut Nagarakretagama pupuh 49, Tribhuwana naik takhta atas perintah ibunya (Gayatri ) tahun 1329 menggantikan Jayanagara yang tidak punya keturunan tahun 1328 yaitu 1 tahun setelah meninggalnya prabu Jayanegara. Nagarakretagama seolah memberitakan kalau takhta Jayanagara diwarisi Gayatri, karena ibu tirinya itu adalah putri Kertanagara. Mengingat Gayatri adalah putri bungsu, kemungkinan saat itu istri-istri Raden Wijaya yang lain sudah meninggal semua. Karena Gayatri telah menjadi pendeta, maka pemerintahannya pun diwakili oleh Tribhuwanotunggadewi.Menurut Pararaton, Jayanagara merasa takut takhtanya terancam, sehingga ia melarang kedua adiknya menikah. Pada masa pemerintahan Jayanagara (1309-1328) Tribhuwana Tunggadewi diangkat sebagai penguasa bawahan di Jiwana bergelar Bhre Kahuripan. Suami Tribhuwana bernama Cakradhara yang bergelar Kertawardhana Bhre Tumapel.Pada Piagam Trowulan Tahun 1358 dikatakan bahwa Kerthawardhana adalah keturunan Raja Wisnuwardhana di Singhasari.Dari perkawinan itu lahir Dyah Hayam Wuruk dan Dyah Nertaja. Hayam Wuruk kemudian diangkat sebagai Yuwaraja bergelar Bhre Kahuripan atau Bhre Jiwana, sedangkan Dyah Nertaja sebagai Bhre Pajang.Celengan Peninggalan Majapahit

Masa Pemerintahan Tribhuwana

Nama nama pejabat pemerintahan Majapahit pada Jaman pemerintahan Raja Kertarajasa sesuai piagam Brumbung tahun 1329.

1. Mahamentri Katrini
· Rakyan Menteri Hino : Dyah Anarjaya
· Rakyan Menteri Halu : Dyah Mano
· Rakyan Menteri Sirikan : Dyah Lohak

2. Sang Panca Wilwatika
· Rakyan Patih Majapahit : Pu Krewes
· Rakyan Demung : Pu Tanparowang
· Rakyan Kanuruhan : Pu Blen
· Rakyan Rangga : Pu Roda
· Rakyan Tumenggung : Pu Wayuh

Pemerintahan Tribhuwana terkenal sebagai masa perluasan wilayah Majapahit ke segala arah sebagai pelaksanaan Sumpah Palapa dari Patih Gajah Mada. Tahun 1343 Majapahit mengalahkan raja Kerajaan Bedahulu (Bali) Tahun 1347. Adityawarman yang masih keturunan Melayu dikirim untuk menaklukkan sisa-sisa Kerajaan Sriwijaya dan Kerajaan Malayu. Adityawarman kemudian menjadi uparaja (raja bawahan) Majapahit di wilayah Sumatra. Perluasan Majapahit dilanjutkan pada masa pemerintahan Hayam Wuruk, di mana wilayahnya hingga mencapai Lamuri di ujung barat sampai Wanin di ujung timur.

Pada masa awal pemerintahan Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi yang menjadi patih amangkubumi adalah Arya Tadah. Pada tahun saka 1251 Arya Tadah sakit, dan merasa sudah tidak mampu lagi mengemban tugas sebagai patih Amangku bumi.

Arya Tadah kemudian mohon kepada sang Ratu agar membebaskannya dari jabatannya tersebut, namun permintaan tersebut masih ditolak karena belum menemukan orang yang tepat untuk menggantikan kedudukan tersebut. Arya Tadah merasa bahwa orang yang tepat untuk menggantikan kedudukannya sebagai patih Amangku Bumi adalah Gajah Mada karena Jasa jasanya terhadap Prabu Jayanegara dan penobatan Tribhuwana Wiojayatunggadewi sebagai Ratu Majapahit.

Arya Tadah kemudian mendekati Gajah Mada untuk maksud tersebut namun Gajah Mada masih enggan menerima tawaran tersebut. Setelah didesak terus akhirnya Gajah Mada menerima tawaran tersebut sepulang dari menumpas pemberontakan di Sadeng. Dari peristiwa tersebut dapat kita ketahui bagaimana hati hatinya Gajah Mada mengambil sikap terhadap orang lain. Gajah Mada tidak ingin mengambil kedudukan orang lain, namun mengharapkan kerelaan dari orang yang menduduki jabatan tersebut karena dengan kerelaan tersebut diharapkan kerjasama dirinya dengan pejabat yang lama yaitu Arya Tadah akan berjalan dengan baik.

Peristiwa penting pada masa pemerintahan Tribhuwana Wijaya Tunggadewi

· Pemberontakan Sadeng

Pada tahun 1331 terjadi pemberontakan di daerah Sadeng dan Keta. Gajah Mada mempunyai cita cita untuk menundukkan Sadeng terlebih dahulu sebelum menerima jabatan sebagai patih Amangku bumi. Mengenai Keta dan Sadeng, diceritakan bahwa kedua wilayah bagian Majapahit tersebut berniat memisahkan diri dari kerajaan Majapahit dan melakukan persiapan serius. Diantaranya adalah melakukan perekrutan besar-besaran terhadap warga sipil untuk dididik keprajuritan di tengah hutan Alas Larang. Tujuannya adalah memperkuat angkatan perang kedua wilayah tersebut, yang pada akhirnya akan dibenturkan terhadap kekuatan perang Majapahit.

Pada saat itu, Majapahit juga menjalin hubungan dengan kerajaan Swarnabhumi, di pulau Sumatra. Kedatangan raja Swarnabhumi – Adityawarman – ke Majapahit digambarkan menggunakan kapal perang berukuran besar yang belum ada tandingannya dari kesatuan pasukan laut Majapahit.

Adityawarman sendiri adalah saudara sepupu mendiang prabu Sri Jayanegara, sekaligus sahabat yang cukup dekat dengan Gajah Mada. Penggambaran besarnya ukuran kapal perang dari Swarnabhumi agaknya dimaksudkan sebagai cikal bakal adopsi teknologi yang menjadikan besarnya armada laut Majapahit kelak ketika kampanye penyatuan nusantara dimulai. .

Dilihat dari kekuatan gelar pasukan, kekuatan Keta-Sadeng bukanlah apa-apa dibanding dengan kekuatan pasukan Majapahit. Namun, dibalik kekuatan fisik pasukan segelar sepapan yang belum sebanding dengan pasukan Gajah Mada, Keta-Sadeng dilindungi oleh kesatria mumpuni yang sakti mandraguna. Ksatria ini adalah mantan pelindung Raden Wijaya, raja Majapahit yang pertama. Nama ksatria tersebut adalah Wirota Wiragati, terkenal dengan kesaktiannya memiliki ajian sirep, ajian panglimunan, dan kekuatan untuk mendatangkan kabut yang bisa menyulitkan daya penglihatan pasukan mana pun.

Tetapi alangkah kecewanya Gajah Mada bahwa pengepungan Sadeng terjadi sebelum kedatangannya, Ra kembar mendahului maksud Gajah Mada. Mengetahui hal tersebut para Menteri Araraman dan Gajah Mada sangat marah. Gajah Mada kemudian mengirim 5 bengkel yang masing masing terdiri dari 5 orang untuk menghajar Ra Kembar. Mereka kemudian bertemu dengan Ra Kembar di hutan dan sedang duduk di sebuah dahan pohon yang roboh, seperti naik kuda dan tangannya memegang cemeti.

Peninggalan Majapahit

Para utusan kemudian menyampaikan kemarahan dari Gajah Mada dan bermaksud akan menghajar Ra kembar. Mengetahui serangan tersebut Ra kembar mencemeti dahi para utusan namun para utusan dapat menghindar dan melaporkan hal tersebut kepada Gajah Mada. Gajah Mada sangat kecewa karena cita citanya untuk menundukkan Sadeng tidak terlaksana karena telah didahului oleh Ra Kembar.

Menurut Pararaton terjadi persaingan antara Gajah Mada Gajah Mada dan Ra Kembar dalam memperebutkan posisi panglima penumpasan Sadeng. Maka, Tribhuwana pun berangkat sendiri sebagai panglima menyerang Sadeng, didampingi sepupunya Adityawarman.

Ra Kembar adalah putra bungsu Raja Pemelekahan, ia adalah prajurit yang tangguh dan ahli menunggang kuda serta menggunakan senjata cemeti. Dalam karangannya De Sadeng oorlog en de myte van groot Majapahit, Prof CC Berg menyamakan Sadeng tersebut dengan daerah Bali, seandainyq di Bali terdapat daerah bernama Sadeng dan Keta maka penyamaan tersebut akan mudah di pahami.

Namun di daerah Bali tidak ada tempat yang bernama Sadeng maupun Keta. Prof CC Berg beranggapan bahwa kata Sadeng adalah kata wangsalan yang maksudnya Bali. Kata Sadeng berasal dari kata sedeng yang artinya lain atau beda. Kata beda hampir sama dengan kata Bada yaitu suatu kerajaan yang bernama Badahulu di daerah Bali. Sedangkan Keta dihubungkan dengan Kuta yaitu suatu daerah yang terdapat di Pulau Bali bagian selatan. Penyebutan dengan nama samaran yang demikian dimaksudkan untuk menyelubugi nama kota yang sebenarnya dimana hal tersebut berkaitan dengan adanya persekutuan Nusantara sejak jaman pemerintahan Prabu Kertanagara dari Singhasari.

Kemenangan atas keta dan Sadeng memberikan kesadaran bahwa kekuatan Majapahit telah pulih kembali dan cita cita untuk mewujudkan politik Nusantara harus kembali diwujudkan. Setelah pulang dari penumpasan Sadeng, Gajah Mada kemudian diangkat menjadi Angabehi dan tidak beberapa lama kemudian diangkat menjadi Patih Amangku bumi sedangkan Ra Kembar diangkat menjadi Bengkel Araraman.

· Sumpah PalapaPatih Gajah Mada

Peristiwa penting berikutnya dalam pemerintahan Tribhuwana Tunggadewi adalah Sumpah Palapa yang diucapkan Gajah Mada saat dilantik sebagai rakryan patih Majapahit tahun 1334.

Program politik Gajah Mada pada hakekatnya adalah kelanjutan gagasan Nusantara pada jaman pemerintahan Prabu Kertanagara sehingga lebih tepat disebut gagasan Nusantara II yaitu usaha untuk menyatukan kembali Negara Negara diseberang lautan yang lepas kembali pada masa pemerintahan prabu Kertarajasa dan Jayanagara ditambah dengan Negara Negara Nusantara lainnya.

Oleh karena luasnya program Nusantara II ini banyak para menteri yang tidak bisa memahami bahkan malah mengejek, sehingga untuk mewujudkan gagasannya tersebut maka perintang perintang tersebut harus disingkirkan terlebih dahulu. Demikianlah akhirnya terjadi perubahan susunan menteri secara besar besaran pada masa awal kepemimpinan patih Gajah Mada dalam pemerintahan.

Wilayah Kerajaan Majapahit sebelum tahun 1334 hanya meliputi Jawa Timur dan Jawa Tengah. Dari Kitab Nagarakertagama diketahui pelaksanaan program politik Nusantara dimulai dengan penyerangan terhadap Pulau Bali, serangan tersebut terjadi pada tahun saka 1265 atau Tahun tahun 1343 Masehi.

Wafatnya Tribhuwana Wijaya Tunggadewi

Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi diperkirakan turun takhta tahun 1351 (sesudah mengeluarkan Prasasti Singasari). Ia kemudian kembali menjadi Bhre Kahuripan yang tergabung dalam Saptaprabhu, yaitu semacam dewan pertimbangan agung yang beranggotakan keluarga raja. Adapun yang menjadi raja Majapahit selanjutnya adalah putranya, yaitu Hayam Wuruk.

Tidak diketahui dengan pasti kapan tahun kematian Tribhuwana. Pararaton hanya memberitakan Bhre Kahuripan tersebut meninggal dunia setelah pengangkatan Gajah Enggon sebagai patih tahun 1371.

Perhiasan Emas Peninggalan Majapahit

Menurut Pararaton, Tribhuwanotunggadewi didharmakan dalam Candi Pantarapura yang terletak di desa Panggih dan di candi Rimbi di sebelah barat daya Mojokerto, yang diwujudkan sebagai Parwati sedangkan suaminya, yaitu Kertawardhana Bhre Tumapel meninggal tahun 1386, dan didharmakan di Candi Sarwa Jayapurwa, yang terletak di desa Japan.

3. King Hayam Wuruk with Patih Gajamada

Rajasanegara (Hayam Wuruk)

1.Info One:

It is not clear when exactly Hayam Wuruk, son of Tribuwanatunggadewi, took the throne. However, it is estimated to happen in AD 1350. Hayam Wuruk took the throne at a very young age with Abhiseka name of Rajasanegara.

History notes that the golden age of Majapahit was during the reign of Hayam Wuruk. It was during this time too that Gajah Mada aggressively conquered various kingdoms around Majapahit. According to Negarakertagama, Sumatera regions that had submitted to Majapahit included Jambi, Palembang, Toba, Minangkabau, Lampung, etc.

During the rule of Hayam Wuruk, there happened a famous tragedy, the Bubat War. Pararaton noted that in Saka Year 1279 or AD 1357, Bubat War happened between Majapahit and the Kingdom of Sunda Pasundan.

The tragedy of Bubat War began with the desire of Hayam Wuruk to wed Sunda Princess, Dyah Pitaloka Citrasemi. Legend said it that Hayam Wuruk saw the picture of Dyah Pitaloka that was painted by Sungging Prabangkara. Other legend said that Hayam Wuruk who had no wife was looking for one that could be respected and loved by the people, and he heard that the beautiful Sundanese Princess had those characteristics.

Hayam Wuruk then sent a messenger to Sunda-Galuh to propose Dyah Pitaloka, in which this proposal was accepted by the Sundanese royal family. Hayam Wuruk himself was said to have Sundanese blood. Hence, it was expected that this marriage can make the Sunda Kingdom and Majapahit closer.

At that time, it was customary for the groom to go to the bride. However, at that time Hayam Wuruk asked Dyah Pitaloka to come to Majapahit instead. This was objected by several royal family members of Sunda as well as its Maha Patih, Hyang Bunisora Suradipati. However, the king, Maharaja Linggabuana, finally decided to bring Dyah Pitaloka to Majapahit. They went together with the Queen, Dewi Lara Linsing, and a small group of Balapati squad the royal army and several high officials and ministers of the kingdom. Their number was less than 100.

When the Sunda party arrived at the designated place in Bubat district, which was located just north of Majapahit capital of Trowulan, they found that they were not welcomed as expected.

According to Pararaton, Gajah Mada did not want an official wedding between Dyah Pitaloka and Hayam Wuruk, and demanded that Linggabuana give his daughter as a tribute and sign of submission of Sunda Kingdom to Majapahit; this would fulfill the Palapa Oath that was declared by Gajah Mada.

Of course Linggabuana became enraged and exchanges of insults took place, which led to a war between the bridal party from the Sunda Kingdom and Gajah Mada’s army. This war was not really fair because the Sundanese army had only less than 100 people and Gajah Mada’s army itself was more than 1,000 people. In the end the bridal party all died, including the king Linggabuana and his daughter, Dyah Pitaloka.

There were several theories regarding the death of Dyah Pitaloka. A source said that Dyah Pitaloka also joined in the war and managed to wound Gajah Mada with a kujang (a type of blade), and the wound that was suffered by Gajah Mada eventually led him to his death. However, the time difference between Bubat War and the death of Gajah Mada was quite long, which was around seven years; hence, it is unlikely that the wound caused by Dyah Pitaloka could cause the death of Gajah Mada. Besides, it was customary for princesses to bring cundrit or patrem, a small blade, and not keris to fight. Another theory said that Dyah Pitaloka, together with her mother and her maids, performed bela pati, which is a ritual whereby honor is paid by one’s life. They did suicide. One thing for sure, Dyah Pitaloka died in Bubat War.

There were also several theories regarding the cause of Bubat War. Pararaton said that the ambition of Gajah Mada to conquer nusantara was the cause. Another source said that there was a misunderstanding by Gajah Mada regarding the purpose of the arrival of the Sundanese Princess, which caused anger among the Sundanese party.

Hayam Wuruk who came to know about this war quite late regretted deeply the deaths of the bridal party. He sent an emissary from Bali, who was at Majapahit to witness the wedding between Hayam Wuruk and Dyah Pitaloka, to the Sunda Kingdom to ask for forgiveness from Maha Patih Hyang Bunisora Suradipati, who at that time became temporary official in Sunda Kingdom.

It was said that Bubat War caused the relationship between Gajah Mada and Hayam Wuruk soured, and Gajah Mada was eventually demoted. A source said that because of the Bubat War, Hayam Wuruk fell sick, in which this caused the anger of the royal family who blamed Gajah Mada, and Gajah Mada ran then ran away.

According to Negarakertagama itself, Hayam Wuruk still respect Gajah Mada and bestowed him Madakaripura village in Probolinggo. Some said that actually, Gajah Mada was demoted from his position as Maha Patih after Bubat War, but in the year of 1359 was promoted again as Patih of Madakaripura.

Gajah Mada died in the year of 1364, witnessed by Prapanca. After his death, the position of Maha Patih remained empty for three years. It was said that due to the big role of Gajah Mada as Maha Patih, it was difficult for Hayam Wuruk to find a replacement that he had to appoint six Patih to do Gajah Mada’s previous duties.

Negarakertagama by Prapanca itself stopped its story in the reign of Hayam Wuruk, which is in the year of 1365. It is predicted that Majapahit suffered a decline. It seems that after Gajah Mada, the glory of Majapahit declined, and declined much further after the death of Hayam Wuruk. Hayam Wuruk died in the Saka Year of 1311 or AD 13

Info Two :
The Bubat war

The Bubat War
Bubat events initiated from King Hayam Wuruk intention to marry the daughter of State Dyah Pitaloka Citraresmi Sunda. Hayam Wuruk against the daughter’s interest because the circulation of the Majapahit princess paintings painted secretly by Sungging Prabangkara, artists painting at the time.

The reason for this is almost the same as those contained in the Book Novel about Bubat. Dyah Pitaloka in pictures secretly on the orders of the family palace, aims to find out the Princess paras.

Reasons that may make sense described by the author Pajajaran history, namely Saleh Danasasmita and playwright Bubat War, namely Yoseph Iskandar. Both these historical experts say, that the intention was to strengthen marriage kinship that has long break between Majapahit and Sundanese. Urang Sunda still feel you with urang Majapahit,. Because of Raden Wijaya who became the founder of Majapahit, still Sundanese descent. Thus marriage is considered reasonable in the past, just as the previous kings. As Galuh relationship with an age Wretikandayun Kalinga, who married Mandiminyak, his son by Parvati, Daughter of the Queen Sima (See relationship with Majapahit Sunda).

Intention to marry King Hayam Wuruk Dyah Pitaloka majapahit royal family has been sanctioned, so no longer have a problem with the status of both kingdoms, except for a wedding. Next Hayam Wuruk send a cover letter to the Maharaja Linggabuana and offer for marriage ceremonies performed in Majapahit.

Majapahit Bids must still be considered, especially by Mangkubumi Hyang Bunisora ​​linggabuana Suradipati.Adik from Prabhu. First, the problem of the location or place of marriage.

At that time customary in the archipelago considered unusual if the parties come to the bride groom.

 Second, the alleged reason for this is a diplomatic trap of Majapahit, who was expanding his power, such as by way of mastering the Kingdom of Dompu in Nusa Tenggara. But King Linggabuana only see a sense of brotherhood of the ancestral line, so he decided to stay off to Majapahit.

Sunda royal party then went to Majapahit, and received and placed in Pesanggrahan Bubat.

Seeing the King of Sunda came to Bubat and empress and princess Dyah Pitaloka with the accompaniment of a little soldier, then another intention arising from Gajah Mada Mahapatih namely to rule the Kingdom of Sunda. Mada elephant intention is to fulfill the oath that made the Palapa. Because of all the kingdoms in the archipelago that have been conquered only sundalah who have not mastered the kingdom of Majapahit. With this aim was made excuse by Gajah Mada University who thinks that the arrival of the party at Guesthouse Bubat Sunda as a form of surrender to the Majapahit Kingdom of Sunda, in accordance with Palapa Oath he had said at that time before Hayam Wuruk ascended the throne.

The plan submitted to the King Hayam Wuruk, Gajah Mada also urged him to accept Dyah Pitaloka not as a bride, but as a sign of submission of Sunda Affairs. In addition to expected also for sunda want to admit to admit superiority over the Sunda Majapahit in the archipelago. Hayam Wuruk itself according to Song of Sundayana be indecisive. He was caught in a dilemma, between love and the need to obey the advice of Gajah Mada. On the other hand, Gajah Mada is a reliable Mahapatih Majapahit at the time itu.Terlebih Hayam Wuruk really understand that the Kingdom of Sunda-Galuh blood is still concerned with outside expectations nya.Tetapi Prabhu Mada Hayam Wuruk elephant that greeted the arrival of the group became Prabhu Linggabuana Wisesa Theater dengue in the town square Kotaraja wilwatika Majapahit.

Bubat Theater Tragedy occurred in 1357. As told in the book Pararaton include:

Bre Prabhu swing ing Sundanese princess ring. Honey Patih ingutus angundangeng wong Sunda

The translation is: Sri Prabu Hayam Wuruk want to marry the daughter of Sunda. Honey Patih sent inviting the Sundanese.

Linggabuana Prabu Maharaja (King of Sunda to 27) with the queen goddess Lara Linsing have a beautiful daughter named Dyah Pitaloka. By his grandfather King Ragamulya Luhur Prabawa (King of Sunda to 26) also named Citraresmi. Born in the year 1339 AD. The princess is known for her beauty, so nicknamed wajra which means jewel. The King Hayam Wuruk want to marry the princess, where it has a logical reason for considering kinship Sunda – Majapahit which areas are good for a long time. The founder of Majapahit, namely Raden Wijaya who holds the Kertarajasa Jayawardhana is the grandson of King Darmariksa-Maharaja Sunda.

For that Bre Majapahit sent Patih Honey as an emissary of the kingdom. Prabu Maharaja Linggabuana accept such applications and agrees to perform wedding ceremonies in the palace of the kingdom of Majapahit. But unfortunately Mahapatih Gajah Mada not approve the marriage. Silence – silence he wants the Rajaputeri to be submitted as a tribute to the implementation of the introduction Palapa Oath Amukti.

As reported by Pararaton book:

Teka Sunda Maring Majapahit queen, the queen of Maharaja tan pangaturakan daughter. Wong Sunda awaramena tingkahing jurungen kudu. Sira Patihing Majapahit payun tan yen sira rajaputri makaturatura wiwahanen reh.

Which means: “Then the King of Sunda came in Majapahit. The Queen Maharaja was not willing to dedicate the princess. The Sundanese should nullify the marriage ceremony for safety and said the envoy. The Majapahit Mahapatih Gajah Mada not want a formal wedding, because he considered rajaputeri Citraresmi as a tribute. ”

Eventually the anger over the rejection Patih overflowed the King of Sunda. He ordered the army to finish off the King of Majapahit and its retinue of only a few dozen people. The Mahaprabu not flinch. He exclaimed:

“Although the blood will flow like a river in Theater Bubat this, but my honor and all the knights will not let the Sundanese betrayal of the country and my people. Therefore, do not you hesitate! ”

 This unequal battle resulted in all the Sundanese tewas.Sedangkan Gajah Mada soldier who was killed about a thousand people. The Queen and the Ratna Citraresmi doing martial starch. Dignitary, accompaniment, ladies in waiting, no one is left.

When Hayam Wuruk arrived at the Theater Bubat, very sad heart. After all refined and burned corpse in Bubat, ashes and then buried in the Astana Gede, Kawali. Then the King Hayam Wuruk fell ill a very long time. Kingdom blame Gajah Mada Gajah Mada University and plan to be arrested and punished. The Patih run away and do not necessarily rimbanya. End hidupnyapun not known and recorded in history.!

Events Bubat

umuli pasunda-bubat. Prabhu Bhre swing ing princess ring Sunda.Patih Honey ingutus angundangeng wong Sunda.
The above is a story of tragedy writing bubat, published in the Official Pararathon. The Book is called Pabubat or Pasunda Bubat.

Ahidep wong yan Sunda Sunda Maring awarawarangana.Teka queen of Majapahit,

the queen of Maharaja Sunda tan pangaturaken putri.Wong awiramena tingkahing jurungen kudu.

Sira patihing Majapahit tan payun wiwahanen yen sira-reh rajaputri makaturatura.

Bubat tragedy occurs between the Kingdom of Sunda to Majapahit, when the Majapahit in the reign of King Hayam Wuruk with Mahapatih Gajah Mada, while the Kingdom of Sunda at the time led by King Maharaja Linggabuana. Bubat located in East Java, north of Majapahit.

Tragedy Bubat estimated to occur in the century to the 14th, precisely on Tuesday, before noon, decade 6, year 1357 AD According to News of the Nusantara II / 2 page 62, narrated the death of King and his knights Linggabuana Sundanese, as follows:

‘The story goes, on the 13th of the bright moon in 1279 Saka Badra Majesty Maharaja Sunda Bubat in the country fall in Majapahit. At that time Maharaja Majesty intends to wed the daughter of Sang Retna Citraresmi or Dyah Pitaloka with Bre King Majapahit named Hayam Wuruk with nicknames Sri Rajasanagara ‘.

Bubat tragedy told in several sources, including Song of Sunda; Song Sundayana; Carita Parahyangan; Book Pararathon; and Pustaka Nusantara. Even the already published novels are fun and satisfying desires of knowledge readers. Because of course, tells Gajah Mada is incomplete if it does not include events Bubat.

A Dutch expert named Professor Dr.CCBerg, find some version of Song of Sunda, was allegedly prepared using the Java language Middle Ages, in the form of song (lyric). Two of them never discussed and the publication, namely the Sunda Song and Song of Sundayana (Travel Urang Sunda) originating from Bali.

In Bali Song Sundayana Geguritan known by the name of Sunda. Maybe it’s because Berg happens to be Dutch, and in the past many disseminate to the public, then the problem Bubat once touted as the Dutch effort to divide Indonesia. But documents in addition to another party or Geguritan Sunda Song Sundayanan also found, as in the manuscript Pararathon and Pustaka Nusantara. Even though only one paragraph, in the Carita Parahyangan else in the load, as follows:

* Boga children, Prebu Maharaja, lawasna queen seven epidemic, because my keuna musibat, my Cilaka Kabawa anakna, ngaran Tohaan, menta pameulina big.
* Urang rea asalna indit Javanese ka, da embung catering salaki in Sundanese. Wae Heug war in Majapahit.

Song of Sunda or Song Sundayana a good faith effort and King Hayam Wuruk to deplore bubat problem. Hayam Wuruk sent representatives (darmadyaksa) from Bali who was then located in Majapahit to witness the wedding. Through an intermediary for the Darmadyaksa it Hayam Wuruk apologize to Mangkubumi Hyang Bunisora ​​Suradipati, at that time to replace the King Sunda.dengan handed Abu from Prabhu Linggabuana and daughter Dyah Pitaloka ash citraresmi.sampai currently they are still stored in Astana Gede kawali Ciamis. On that occasion also promised, that: bubat events will be posted in the Song of Sunda or Song Sundayana. All aim for can be learned.

Sunda relationship with Majapahit

In Pustaka Nusantara II explained that the empress was the daughter Darmasiksa Sanggramawijayottunggawarman descent, ruler of Srivijaya who reigned since 1018 up to 1027 AD From perkimpoiannya born two sons, namely Rakeyan Jayagiri or Rakeyan Jayadarma and the Ragasuci or Rakeyan Saunggalah, also known as the Lumahing Park.

Rakeyan Jayadarma married to the daughter Mahisa Tumapel Campaka from East Java, named Dyah Ox-Tal, whereas the second son, namely Ragasuci paired with Dara Puspa, daughter-madewa Trailpkyaraja Maulibusanawar, from Malay. Dara Golden, brother of Dara Puspita diperistri by Kertanegara, king Singosari. From the position of mixed marriage at that time sunda can position itself as the arbitrator in any dispute between Sumatra and East Java.

Sunda kinship with Majapahir also contained in another manuscript. According to the Rajya Rajya Reader parwa i Bhumi Nusantara II sarga 3: Rakeyan Jayadarma, son of King Dharmasiksa King of Sunda, is the daughter Mahisa Campaka from East Java. Rakeyan Jayadarma Mahisa Campaka be paired with a daughter named Dyah Singamurti Dyah aka Ox-Tal. Mahisa Campaka Mahisa Wong is the son of the pupil, who is the son of Ken Angrok, king Singosari of Ken Dedes.

From wedding Rakeyan Jayadarma premises in Pakuan Dyah Ox-Tal, has a son named Sang Nararya Sanggramawijaya or better known as Raden Wijaya. Thus Raden Wijaya was derived to 4 of Ken Angrok and Ken Dedes.

Due Jayadarma died young, Ox-Tal was not willing to stay longer in Pakuan. Wijaya and his mother eventually delivered to East Java. Raden Wijaya after the adult becomes Senapati Singasari, at that time ruled by Kertanegara, until at one point he was able to establish the state of Majapahit. Raden Wijaya in the Babad Tanah Jawi, also known as Jake Susuruh of Pajajaran, because he was born in Pakuan.

From the historical flow, Raden Wijaya on Sunda known also as the grandson of King Darmasiksa, King of the Sunda-25, a father Rakeyan Jayadarma. In Library Nusantara III also narrated that: Darmasiksa still see Raden Wijaya, grandson beat Jayakatwang, king Singasari. Then, with a tactical ambush and he was able to drive out troops from East Java Kublay Khan. Four days after the expulsion of Chinese forces, or in 1293 AD, Raden Wijaya crowned king with the title Kertarajasa Wilwatika Jayawardana.

Darmasiksa relationship with Raden Wijaya also written in Reader Nusantara III, regarding the provision of advice Darmasiksa to Raden Wijaya, his grandson. When it Raden Wijaya visited mempersembah Pakuan and his gift to his grandfather. That advice, as follows:

Sira ta kedo Haywa athawamerep ngalindih Bhumi Sunda wus established kinaliliran ring relative ira ki dlahanyang ngku angemasi wus. Hetunya nagaramu wus agheng jaya santosa wruh Ngawang kottaman ri puyut katisayan mwang jayacatrum, ngke pinaka mahaprabu. Ika hana ta daksina sakeng Hyang Tunggal mwang dumadi seratanya.

Ikang Sayogyanya Rajya Rajya opponent Java Sundanese paraspasarpana atuntunan successive hand pantara ning padulur compassion. Yatanyan tan pratibandeng nyakrawati Rajya sowangsowang. Siddha Yatanyan hitasukha. Yan Rajya Sunda kantara duh, wilwatika sakopayana maweh Carana; mangkana also Rajya Sunda Wilwatika ring.

(Be careful you interfere, attack and seize the Earth Sundanese since been passed on to future brother when I was gone. Even if your country has become great and prosperous and safe, I would understand virtue, out of habit and your strength as a great king someday. This is a gift from the Almighty and to His scripture.

It is appropriate to the Javanese kingdom of Sunda kingdom mutual help, cooperation and mutual love between family members. Because it is not beselisih in their respective kingdoms ruled. If so would be a perfect safety dankebahagiaan. When the kingdom of Sunda got it bad, Majapahit It should strive earnestly to provide relief; so is the Kingdom of Sunda to Majapahit).

Indeed, when the period of Raden Wijaya, Sunda to Majapahit ties very well and without fuss.

That’s why the Unification of the archipelago through the Oath of the palapa Mahapatih Gajahmada kumandangkan in the Face of Queen Tribuanatungga goddess (wife of the eldest of Raden Wijaya, after the death wijaya Raden Jaya and the King of the two countries.) Swearing at the palapa Tribuana Tungga goddess became King majaphit third place Sunda-Galuh jayanegara.Kerajaan son never entered the territory conquered in Majapahit, because Sunda Galuh is king king’s ancestral kingdom of Majapahit.

versi indonesia :
Perang  Bubat

Peristiwa Bubat diawali dari niat Prabu Hayam Wuruk untuk mempersunting putri Dyah Pitaloka Citraresmi dari Negeri Sunda. Ketertarikan Hayam Wuruk terhadap putri tersebut karena beredarnya lukisan sang putri di Majapahit yang dilukis secara diam-diam oleh Sungging Prabangkara,seniman lukis pada masa itu.

Alasan ini hampir sama dengan yang dimuat di Buku Novel tentang Bubat. Dyah Pitaloka di gambar secara diam-diam atas perintah keluarga keraton, bertujuan untuk mengetahui paras Sang Putri.

Alasan yang mungkin dapat masuk akal dipaparkan oleh penulis sejarah Pajajaran, yakni Saleh Danasasmita dan penulis naskah Perang Bubat, yakni Yoseph Iskandar. Kedua akhli sejarah ini menyebutkan, bahwa niat pernikahan itu untuk mempererat tali persaudaraan yang telah lama putus antara Majapahit dan Sunda. Urang Sunda masih merasa saudara dengan urang Majapahit,. Karena Raden Wijaya yang menjadi pendiri Majapahit,masih keturunan Sunda. Pernikahan demikian dianggap wajar dimasa lalu, sama seperti yang dilakukan raja-raja sebelumnya. Seperti hubungan Galuh dengan Kalingga dijaman Wretikandayun, yang menikahkan Mandiminyak, putranya dengan Parwati, Putri Ratu Sima (Lihat hubungan Sunda dengan Majapahit).

Niat Prabu Hayam Wuruk untuk memperistri Dyah Pitaloka telah direstui keluarga kerajaan majapahit, sehingga tak lagi ada masalah dengan status kedua kerajaan, kecuali untuk melangsungkan pernikahan. Selanjutnya Hayam Wuruk mengirim surat lamaran kepada Maharaja Linggabuana dan menawarkan agar upacara pernikahan dilakukan di Majapahit.

Tawaran Majapahit tentunya masih dipertimbangkan, terutama oleh Mangkubumi Hyang Bunisora Suradipati.Adik dari Prabhu linggabuana. Pertama, masalah lokasi atau tempat pernikahan.

Pada waktu itu adat di Nusantara menganggap tidak lazim jika pihak pengantin perempuan datang kepada pihak pengantin lelaki.

 Kedua, diduga alasan ini merupakan jebakan diplomatik Majapahit yang saat itu sedang melebarkan kekuasaannya, diantaranya dengan cara menguasai Kerajaan Dompu di Nusa Tenggara. Namun Prabu Linggabuana hanya melihat adanya rasa persaudaraan dari garis leluhurnya, sehingga ia memutuskan untuk tetap berangkat ke Majapahit.

Rombongan kerajaan Sunda kemudian berangkat ke Majapahit, dan diterima serta ditempatkan di Pesanggrahan Bubat.

Melihat Raja Sunda datang ke Bubat beserta permaisuri dan putri Dyah Pitaloka dengan diiringi sedikit prajurit, maka timbul niat lain dari Mahapatih Gajah Mada yaitu untuk menguasai Kerajaan Sunda. Niat gajah Mada ini untuk memenuhi Sumpah Palapa yang dibuatnya tersebut. Karena dari seluruh kerajaan di Nusantara yang sudah ditaklukkan hanya kerajaan sundalah yang belum dikuasai Majapahit. Dengan maksud tersebut dibuatlah alasan oleh Gajah Mada yang menganggap bahwa kedatangan rombongan Sunda di Pesanggrahan Bubat sebagai bentuk penyerahan diri Kerajaan Sunda kepada Majapahit, sesuai dengan Sumpah Palapa yang pernah ia ucapkan pada masa sebelum Hayam Wuruk naik tahta.

Rencana tersebut di sampaikan kepada Prabu Hayam Wuruk, Gajah Mada pun mendesaknya untuk menerima Dyah Pitaloka bukan sebagai pengantin, tetapi sebagai tanda takluk Negeri Sunda. Selain diharapkan pula agar sunda mau mengakui mengakui superioritas Majapahit atas Sunda di Nusantara. Hayam Wuruk sendiri menurut Kidung Sundayana menjadi bimbang. Ia terjebak dalam dilema, antara cinta dan perlunya mentaati saran Gajah Mada. Disisi lain, Gajah Mada adalah Mahapatih yang diandalkan Majapahit pada saat itu.Terlebih Hayam wuruk paham benar kalau Kerajaan Sunda –Galuh adalah masih bertalian darah dengan nya.Tetapi di luar dugaan Prabhu Hayam wuruk gajah Mada yang menyambut kedatangan rombongan Prabhu Linggabuana wisesa berubah menjadi palagan berdarah di alun alun kotaraja wilwatika Majapahit.

Tragedi Palagan Bubat terjadi pada tahun 1357. Seperti dikisahkan dalam kitab Pararaton diantaranya :

Bre prabhu ayun ing putri ring Sunda. Patih Madu ingutus angundangeng wong Sunda

Terjemahannya adalah : Sri Prabu Hayam Wuruk ingin memperistri puteri dari Sunda. Patih Madu diutus mengundang orang Sunda.

Prabu Maharaja Linggabuana (Raja Sunda Ke 27) dengan permaisurinya Dewi Lara Linsing memiliki puteri cantik jelita yang diberi nama Dyah Pitaloka. Oleh kakeknya Prabu Ragamulya Luhur Prabawa (Raja Sunda ke 26) diberi nama pula Citraresmi. Lahir pada tahun 1339 Masehi. Sang puteri terkenal dengan kecantikannya sehingga dijuluki wajra yang berati permata. Sang Prabu Hayam Wuruk menginginkan untuk memperistri sang Puteri, dimana hal tersebut memiliki alasan logis karena mengingat kekerabatan Sunda – Majapahit yang telah terjalin dengan baik sejak lama. Pendiri Majapahit, yaitu Raden Wijaya yang bergelar Sang Kertarajasa Jayawardhana adalah cucu dari Prabu Darmariksa- Maharaja Sunda.

Untuk itu Bre Majapahit mengutus Patih Madu sebagai utusan kerajaan. Prabu Maharaja Linggabuana menerima lamaran tersebut dan menyetujui untuk melaksanakan upacara pernikahan di keraton kerajaan Majapahit. Namun sayang Mahapatih Gajah Mada tidak menyetujui pernikahan tersebut. Diam – diam ia menginginkan Sang Rajaputeri untuk diserahkan sebagai upeti demi terlaksananya Sumpah Amukti Palapa yang dicanangkannya.

Seperti yang diberitakan oleh kitab Pararaton :

Teka ratu Sunda maring Majapahit, sang ratu Maharaja tan pangaturakan putri. Wong Sunda kudu awaramena tingkahing jurungen. Sira Patihing Majapahit tan payun yen wiwahanen reh sira rajaputri makaturatura.

Yang artinya: “Lalu Raja Sunda datang di Majapahit. Sang Ratu Maharaja tidak bersedia mempersembahkan sang puteri. Orang Sunda harus meniadakan selamatan dan upacara pernikahan kata sang utusan. Sang Mahapatih Majapahit Gajah Mada tidak menginginkan pernikahan resmi, sebab ia menganggap rajaputeri Citraresmi sebagai upeti.”

Akhirnya Sang Patih meluap amarahnya atas penolakan sang Raja Sunda. Ia memerintahkan laskar Majapahit untuk menghabisi Raja beserta pengiringnya yang hanya beberapa puluh orang. Sang Mahaprabu tidak gentar. Ia berseru :

“Walaupun darah akan mengalir bagai sungai di Palagan Bubat ini, namun kehormatanku dan semua ksatria Sunda tidak akan membiarkan penghianatan terhadap negara dan rakyatku. Karena itu , janganlah kalian bimbang!”

 Pertempuran yang tidak berimbang ini mengakibatkan seluruh orang Sunda tewas.Sedangkan Prajurit Gajah mada yang tewas berkisar seribu orang. Sang Ratu dan sang Ratna Citraresmi melakukan bela pati. Pembesar, pengiring, dayang-dayang, tak seorangpun yang tersisa.

Ketika Hayam Wuruk tiba di Palagan Bubat, sangatlah sedih hatinya. Setelah semua jenazah disempurnakan dan dibakar di Bubat, abu jenazah kemudian dikuburkan di Astana Gede, Kawali. Kemudian Sang Prabu Hayam wuruk jatuh sakit yang amat lama. Kerajaan menyalahkan Gajah Mada dan merencanakan agar Gajah Mada ditangkap dan dihukum. Sang Patih melarikan diri dan tak tentu rimbanya. Akhir hidupnyapun tidak diketahui dan dicatat dalam sejarah.!!

Peristiwa Bubat

umuli pasunda-bubat. Bhre prabhu ayun ing putri ring Sunda.Patih Madu ingutus angundangeng wong Sunda.
Tulisan diatas merupakan kisah tragedi bubat, dimuat dalam Berita Pararathon. Kitab tersebut menyebutnya Pabubat atau Pasunda Bubat.

Ahidep wong Sunda yan awarawarangana.Teka ratu Sunda maring Majapahit,

sang ratu Maharaja tan pangaturaken putri.Wong Sunda kudu awiramena tingkahing jurungen.

Sira patihing Majapahit tan payun yen wiwahanen-reh sira rajaputri makaturatura.

Tragedi Bubat terjadi antara Kerajaan Sunda dengan Majapahit, ketika di Majapahit dibawah pemerintahan Prabu Hayam Wuruk dengan Mahapatih Gajah Mada, sedangkan Kerajaan Sunda pada waktu di pimpin oleh Prabu Maharaja Linggabuana. Bubat terletak di Wilayah Jawa Timur, sebelah utara Majapahit.

Tragedi Bubat diperkirakan terjadi pada abad Ke-14, tepatnya pada hari selasa, sebelum tengah hari, dasawarsa 6, tahun 1357 M. Menurut Berita dari Nusantara II/2 halaman 62, dikisahkan gugurnya Prabu Linggabuana beserta para ksatria Sunda, sebagai berikut :

‘Selanjutnya dikisahkan, pada tanggal 13 bagian terang bulan Badra tahun 1279 Saka Sang Prabu Maharaja Sunda gugur di Bubat di negeri Majapahit. Saat itu Sang Prabu Maharaja bermaksud menikahkan putrinya yaitu Sang Retna Citraresmi atau Dyah Pitaloka dengan Bre Prabu Majapahit yang bernama Hayam Wuruk dengan julukan Sri Rajasanagara’.

Tragedi Bubat dikisahkan dalam beberapa sumber, antara lain Kidung Sunda ; Kidung Sundayana ; Carita Parahyangan ; Kitab Pararathon ; dan Pustaka Nusantara. Bahkan sudah terbit novel yang bersifat hiburan dan memuaskan keingin tahuan pembaca. Karena tentunya, mengisahkan Gajah Mada tidaklah lengkap jika tidak mencantumkan Peristiwa Bubat.

Seorang pakar Belanda bernama Prof Dr.C.C.Berg, menemukan beberapa versi Kidung Sunda, disinyalir disusun dengan menggunakan bahasa Jawa Pertengahan, berbentuk tembang (syair). Dua di antaranya pernah dibicarakan dan diterbitkannya, yaitu Kidung Sunda dan Kidung Sundayana (Perjalanan Urang Sunda) yang berasal dari Bali.

Di Bali Kidung Sundayana di kenal dengan nama Geguritan Sunda. Mungkin karena Berg kebetulan orang Belanda, dan pada masa lalu banyak menyebar luaskan kepada khalayak, maka masalah Bubat pernah disebut-sebut sebagai upaya Belanda untuk memecah belah Indonesia. Tapi dokumen lainpun selain Kidung Sundayanan atau Geguritan Sunda ditemukan pula, seperti dalam naskah Pararathon dan Pustaka Nusantara. Bahkan sekalipun hanya satu alinea, di dalam Carita Parahyangan pun di muat, sebagai berikut :

* Boga anak, Prebu Maharaja, lawasna jadi ratu tujuh taun, lantaran keuna ku musibat, Kabawa cilaka ku anakna, ngaran Tohaan, menta gede pameulina.
*Urang rea asalna indit ka Jawa, da embung boga salaki di Sunda. Heug wae perang di Majapahit.

Kidung Sunda atau Kidung Sundayana merupakan upaya dan niat baik Prabu Hayam Wuruk untuk menyesalkan masalah bubat. Hayam Wuruk mengirimkan utusan (darmadyaksa) dari Bali yang saat itu berada di Majapahit untuk menyaksikan pernikahannya. Melalui perantara Sang Darmadyaksa itu Hayam Wuruk menyampaikan permohonan maaf kepada Mangkubumi Hyang Bunisora Suradipati, pada waktu itu menggantikan Raja Sunda.dengan menyerahkan Abu dari Prabhu Linggabuana dan Putrinya Dyah pitaloka citraresmi.sampai saat ini abu mereka masih tersimpan di Astana Gede kawali Ciamis. Pada kesempatan itu pula dijanjikan, bahwa : peristiwa bubat akan dimuat dalam Kidung Sunda atau Kidung Sundayana. Semua bertujuan agar dapat diambil hikmahnya.

Hubungan Sunda dengan Majapahit

Didalam Pustaka Nusantara II diterangkan bahwa permaisuri Darmasiksa adalah putri keturunan Sanggramawijayottunggawarman, penguasa Sriwijaya yang bertahta sejak tahun 1018 sampai dengan 1027 M. Dari perkimpoiannya lahir dua orang putra, yakni Rakeyan Jayagiri atau Rakeyan Jayadarma dan Sang Ragasuci atau Rakeyan Saunggalah, dikenal pula dengan sebutan Sang Lumahing Taman.

Rakeyan Jayadarma dinikahkan dengan putri Mahisa Campaka dari Tumapel Jawa Timur, bernama Dyah Lembu Tal, sedangkan putranya yang kedua, yakni Ragasuci dijodohkan dengan Dara Puspa, putri Trailpkyaraja Maulibusanawar-madewa, dari Melayu. Dara Kencana, kakak dari Dara Puspita diperistri oleh Kertanegara, raja Singosari. Dari posisi campuran perkimpoian pada waktu itu sunda dapat memposisikan diri sebagai pelaku penengah pada setiap terjadi perselisihan antara Sumatra dan Jawa Timur.

Hubungan kekerabatan Sunda dengan Majapahir dimuat pula dalam naskah lain. Menurut Pustaka Rajya Rajya i Bhumi Nusantara parwa II sarga 3 : Rakeyan Jayadarma, putra Prabu Dharmasiksa Raja Sunda, adalah menantu Mahisa Campaka dari Jawa Timur. Rakeyan Jayadarma berjodoh dengan putrinya Mahisa Campaka yang bernama Dyah Singamurti alias Dyah Lembu Tal. Mahisa Campaka adalah anak dari Mahisa Wong Teleng, yang merupakan anak dari Ken Angrok, raja Singosari dari Ken Dedes.

Dari pernikahan Rakeyan Jayadarma denga Dyah Lembu Tal di Pakuan, memiliki putra yang bernama Sang Nararya Sanggramawijaya atau lebih dikenal dengan nama Raden Wijaya. Dengan demikian Raden Wijaya adalah turunan ke 4 dari Ken Angrok dan Ken Dedes.

Dikarenakan Jayadarma wafat dalam usia muda, Lembu Tal tidak bersedia tinggal lebih lama di Pakuan. Akhirnya Wijaya dan ibunya diantarkan ke Jawa Timur. Raden Wijaya setelah dewasa menjadi senapati Singasari, pada waktu itu diperintah oleh Kertanegara, hingga pada suatu ketika ia mampu mendirikan negara Majapahit. Raden Wijaya didalam Babad Tanah Jawi dikenal juga dengan nama Jaka Susuruh dari Pajajaran, karena ia lahir di Pakuan.

Dari alur kesejarahan tersebut, Raden Wijaya di Sunda dikenal juga sebagai Cucu dari Prabu Darmasiksa, Raja sunda yang ke-25, ayah Rakeyan Jayadarma. Dalam Pustaka Nusantara III dikisahkan pula, bahwa : Darmasiksa masih menyaksikan Raden Wijaya, cucunya mengalahkan Jayakatwang, raja Singasari. Kemudian dengan taktis ia mampu menyergap dan mengusir Pasukan Kublay Khan dari Jawa Timur. Empat hari pasca pengusiran pasukan Cina, atau pada 1293 M, Raden Wijaya dinobatkan menjadi raja Wilwatika dengan gelar Kertarajasa Jayawardana.

Hubungan Darmasiksa dengan Raden Wijaya ditulis pula dalam Pustaka Nusantara III, tentang pemberian nasehat Darmasiksa kepada Raden Wijaya, cucunya. Ketika itu Raden Wijaya berkunjung ke Pakuan dan mempersembah-kan hadiah kepada kakeknya. Nasehat tersebut, sebagai berikut :

Haywa ta sira kedo athawamerep ngalindih Bhumi Sunda mapan wus kinaliliran ring ki sanak ira dlahanyang ngku wus angemasi. Hetunya nagaramu wus agheng jaya santosa wruh ngawang kottaman ri puyut katisayan mwang jayacatrum, ngke pinaka mahaprabu. Ika hana ta daksina sakeng Hyang Tunggal mwang dumadi seratanya.

Ikang Sayogyanya rajya Jawa lawan rajya Sunda paraspasarpana atuntunan tangan silih asih pantara ning padulur. Yatanyan tan pratibandeng nyakrawati rajya sowangsowang. Yatanyan siddha hitasukha. Yan rajya Sunda duh kantara, wilwatika sakopayana maweh carana ; mangkana juga rajya Sunda ring Wilwatika.

(Janganlah hendaknya kamu menggangu, menyerang dan merebut Bumi Sunda karena telah diwariskan kepada Saudaramu bila kelak aku telah tiada. Sekalipun negaramu telah menjadi besar dan jaya serta sentosa, aku maklum akan keutamaan, keluar biasaan dan keperkasaan mu kelak sebagai raja besar. Ini adalah anugrah dari Yang Maha Esa dan menjadi suratan-Nya.

Sudah selayaknya kerajaan Jawa dengan kerajaan Sunda saling membantu, bekerjasama dan saling mengasihi antara anggota keluarga. Karena itu janganlah beselisih dalam memerintah kerajaan masing-masing. Bila demikian akan menjadi keselamatan dankebahagiaan yang sempurna. Bila kerajaan Sunda mendapat kesusahan, Majapahit hendaknya berupaya sungguh-sungguh memberikan bantuan ; demikian pula halnya Kerajaan Sunda kepada Majapahit).

Memang, ketika masa Raden Wijaya, hubugan Sunda dengan Majapahit sangat baik dan tanpa percekcokan.

Itu sebabnya dalam Penyatuan Nusantara lewat Sumpah palapa Mahapatih gajahmada yang di kumandangkan di Hadapan Ratu Tribuanatungga dewi (Istri tertua dari raden wijaya,sepeninggal Raden wijaya dan Raja ke dua Jaya negara.) pada saat pengucapan sumpah palapa Tribuana tungga dewi menjadi Raja majaphit ke tiga menggantikan putranya jayanegara.Kerajaan Sunda –Galuh tidak pernah di masukkan dalam wilayah taklukan Majapahit,karena Sunda Galuh adalah kerajaan leluhur raja raja Majapahit.

info three
1324 AD
on August 5, 1324M. For the next period, Blitar Negarakertagama mentioned in the book of King Hayam Wuruk conjunction with a tour of the East Java region. A few years which makes things all the news about the Blitar and other places in the surrounding area was written in ‘Canto-Canto’
versi Indonesia
tahun 1324 Masehi
peristiwa penting, berdasarkan unsur kalender di prasasti, yang terjadi di ‘Pahing’ Minggu bulan Srawana Saka 1246, pada tanggal 5 Agustus 1324M. Untuk periode berikutnya, Blitar disebutkan dalam buku Negarakertagama hubungannya dengan Raja Hayam Wuruk tur ke daerah Jawa Timur. Beberapa tahun yang membuat hal berita sepanjang mengenai Blitar dan tempat-tempat lain di daerah sekitar ditulis dalam ‘Pupuh-Pupuh’

4.King Brawijaya V
Info One:

Sabdapalon adalah pandita dan penasehat Brawijaya V, penguasa kuat terakhir yang beragama Hindhu dari kerajaan Majapahit di Jawa. Bagian mitologi Jawa keberadaan Sabda Palon dipercaya mbaureksa kekuasaan di Jawa (Nusantara). Sabda Palon diyakini merupakan penjelmaan derivatif Hyang Ismaya (Semar) yang memiliki kewajiban menjadi pamomong semua penguasa (manusia) di Jawa (Nusantara). Sabdo Palon atau Semar atau Ismaya, diberi beberapagelar yaitu; Batara Semar, Batara Ismaya, Batara Iswara, Batara Samara, Sanghyang Jagad Wungku, Sanghyang Jatiwasesa, Sanghyang Suryakanta. Sedangkan dalam filosofi Jawa Semar disebut juga Badranaya dari gabungan kata Badra:Membangun sarana dari dasar dan Naya=Nayaka :Utusan yang kira-kira bila diterjemahkan berarti “Mengembani sifat membangun dan melaksanakan perintah Tuhan demi kesejahteraan manusia”.

Sabdo Palon diyakini sebagai penjelmaan Ismaya (Semar)

Mitologi ini sebenarnya memiliki makna bahwa para penguasa yang diasuh (dimong) Sabda Palon itu merupakan penguasa yang memiliki “kedaulatan spiritual”, yaitu penguasa yang Agung Binathara. Penguasa yang dipatuhi oleh seluruh rakyatnya dan disegani oleh penguasa-penguasa negara lain.
Cerita yang banyak diyakini oleh para ahli kebatinan, tugas Sabda Palon terakhir adalah momong Prabu Brawijaya di Majapahit. Sabda Palon memilih berpisah dengan momongannya, karena Prabu Brawijaya pindah agama, dari Agama Siwa-Buddha (campuran Jawa-Hindu-Buddha) menjadi Islam yang datang dari Arab. Dengan begitu, Prabu Brawijaya dianggap telah kehilangan kedaulatan spiritual-nya. Sabda Palon memilih mengundurkan diri dari kedudukannya sebagai pamong raja kemudian bertapa tidur di pusat kawah Gunung Merapi selama 500 tahun.
Selama Sabda Palon bertapa itu, tanah Jawa tidak akan memiliki kedaulatan lagi, serta tidak dihormati oleh bangsa-bangsa lain. Terbukti, bahwa sejak jaman Demak hingga Mataram Islam, para Sultan-nya perlu memohon legitimasi kekuasaannya kepada ulama Mekah, sedang para Sultan dari wilayah Sumatera dan Banten serta banyak lagi dari Indonesia Timur, memohon legitimasinya dari Daulah Ottoman Turki. Kesultanan Aceh, sebelum perang melawan Belanda, sebenarnya adalah salah satu wilayah Kesultanan Turki itu. Setelah itu Jawa dan Nusantara dijajah Belanda, Inggris dan Jepang. itu berarti Jawa dan Nusantara tidak lagi memiliki kedaulatan Spiritual?
Meskipun dapat dikaji seperti itu, tetapi sebaiknya cerita mitologi Jawa tentang Sabda Palon itu jangan diartikan sebagai penolakan Jawa terhadap Islam. Karena tidak ada ceritanya peradaban dan kebudayaan Jawa itu menolak masuknya paham agama macam apa pun. Malah Jawa biasanya dapat mendukung sehingga agama-agama yang masuk itu mencapai keemasannya di tanah Jawa. Tutunan Jawa tentang penyembahan pribadi kepada Yang Maha Kuasa dibebaskan, terserah kepada pilihan masing-masing. Mau menyembah dengan cara agama apa saja tidak akan pernah disalahkan. Pokoknya, paham dasar yang harus dilaksanakan setiap manusia adalah ketika hidup bermasyarakat bergaul dengan sesama makhluk Tuhan Yang Maha Agung, jenis apa pun. Kewajibannya, setiap orang diharuskan ikut memperindah keindahan jagad dengan cara memelihara dan melestarikan keselarasan (keharmonisan) antar sesama makhluk, dan mejauhkan diri dari perselisihan. Sekali lagi: Melu Memayu Hayuning Bawana!Cerita Sabda Palon itu apa bila benar-benar di dalami sungguh-sungguh, malah jelas menggambarkan kesalahan Prabu Brawijaya dalam mengelola kedaulatan yang digenggamnya. Sebab Prabu Brawijaya yang kaya-raya dan berkedudukan sebagai maharaja (diugung raja brana lan kuwasa) lupa melaksanakan amanah kedaulatannya dengan benar. Ceritanya, Prabu Brawijaya terakhir memiliki selir yang banyak sekali, maka anaknya juga sangat banyak. Semua anak-anak itu lalu diberi “kedudukan” mengurus pemerintahan negara Majapahit. Oleh sebab itu, raja Majapahit lalu hilang kewibawaannya. Negara besar itu menjadi ringkih. Akhirnya ketika para Bupati Pesisir membantu Demak berperang dengan Majapahit, rakyat Majapahit tidak mau membela atau tidak ikut mempertahankannya.
Sabda Palon, sebenarnya merupakan simbul atau personifikasi kesetiaan rakyat kepada rajanya, kepada pemimpin negaranya atau kepada pemerintahnya. Sabda Palon memilih pisah dari Prabu Brawijaya, berarti rakyat sudah kehilangan kesetiaannya kepada raja Majapahit itu. Istilahnya terjadi pembangkangan publik terhadap kepemimpinan Brawijaya, tidak mau membela kerajaan ketika berperang melawan Demak dan Bupati-bupati Pesisir. Cerita itu disamarkan dengan pernyataan, bahwa Sabda Palon akan bertapa tidur selama 500 tahun. Cerita itu juga memuat pengertian, bahwa 500 tahun setelah runtuhnya Majapahit, rakyat Jawa (Nusantara) akan tumbuh kembali kesadarannya sebagai bangsa terjajah dan akan memiliki kesetiaan kembali kepada pemimpin bangsanya. Munculnya rasa kebangsaan dan kesetiaan terhadap tanah air itu digambarkan tidak dapat dibendung seperti meletusnya Gunung Merapi
Namanya disebutkan dalam Serat Darmanganhul, suatu tembang macapat Kesusastraan Jawa Baru berbahasa Jawa ngoko. Disebutkan bahwa Sabdapalon tidak bisa menerima sewaktu Brawijaya digulingkan pada tahun 1478 oleh tentara Demak dengan bantuan dari Walisongo (umumnya dalam sejarah dinyatakan bahwa Brawijaya digulingkan oleh Girindrawardhana. Ia lalu bersumpah akan kembali setelah 500 tahun, saat korupsi merajalela dan bencana melanda, untuk mengembalikan kejayaan agama dan kebudayaan Hindu (dalam Darmagandhul, agama orang Jawa disebut agama Buda). Serat Darmawulan juga berkisah tentang tokoh ini. Pada tahun 1978, Gunung Semeru meletus dan membuat sebagian orang percaya atas ramalan Sabdapalon tersebut.
Tokoh Sabdapalon dihormati di kalangan revivalis Hindu di Jawa serta di kalangan aliran tertentu penghayat Kejawen. Patung untuk menghormatinya dapat dijumpai di Candi Ceto, Jawa Tengah. Sabdapalon seringkali dikaitkan dengan satu tokoh lain, Nayagenggong, sesama penasehat Brawijaya V. Sebenarnya tidak jelas apakah kedua tokoh ini orang yang sama atau berbeda.Sabdo Palon Noyo Genggong sebagai penasehat spiritual Prabu Brawijaya V ( memerintah tahun 1453 – 1478 ) tidak hanya dapat ditemui di dalam Serat Darmagandhul saja, namun di dalam bait-bait terakhir ramalan Joyoboyo (1135 – 1157) juga telah disebut-sebut, yaitu bait 164 dan 173 yang menggambarkan tentang sosok Putra Betara Indra sbb :
mumpuni sakabehing laku; nugel tanah Jawa kaping pindho; ngerahake jin setan; kumara prewangan, para lelembut ke bawah perintah saeko proyo kinen ambantu manungso Jawa padha asesanti trisula weda; landhepe triniji suci; bener, jejeg, jujur; kadherekake Sabdopalon lan Noyogenggong
(menguasai seluruh ajaran , memotong tanah Jawa kedua kali; mengerahkan jin dan setan; seluruh makhluk halus berada di bawah perintahnya bersatu padu membantu manusia Jawa berpedoman pada trisula weda; tajamnya tritunggal nan suci; benar, lurus, jujur; didampingi Sabdopalon dan Noyogenggong)

nglurug tanpa bala; yen menang tan ngasorake liyan; para kawula padha suka-suka; marga adiling pangeran wus teka; ratune nyembah kawula; angagem trisula wedha; para pandhita hiya padha muja; hiya iku momongane kaki Sabdopalon; sing wis adu wirang nanging kondhang; genaha kacetha kanthi njingglang; nora ana wong ngresula kurang; hiya iku tandane kalabendu wis minger; centi wektu jejering kalamukti; andayani indering jagad raya; padha asung bhekti.

(menyerang tanpa pasukan; bila menang tak menghina yang lain; rakyat bersuka ria; karena keadilan Yang Kuasa telah tiba; raja menyembah rakyat; bersenjatakan trisula wedha; para pendeta juga pada memuja; itulah asuhannya Sabdopalon; yang sudah menanggung malu tetapi termasyhur; segalanya tampak terang benderang; tak ada yang mengeluh kekurangan; itulah tanda zaman kalabendu telah usai; berganti zaman penuh kemuliaan; memperkokoh tatanan jagad raya; semuanya menaruh rasa hormat yang tinggi)

Sabdapalon ature sêndhu: “Kula niki Ratu Dhang Hyang sing rumêksa tanah Jawa. Sintên ingkang jumênêng Nata, dados momongan kula. Wiwit saking lêluhur paduka rumiyin, Sang Wiku Manumanasa, Sakutrêm lan Bambang Sakri, run-tumurun ngantos dumugi sapriki, kula momong pikukuh lajêr Jawi, …..….., dumugi sapriki umur-kula sampun 2.000 langkung 3 taun, momong lajêr Jawi, botên wontên ingkang ewah agamanipun, …..” Terjemahannya
(Sabdo Palon berkata sedih: “Hamba ini Ratu Dhang Hyang yang menjaga tanah Jawa. Siapa yang bertahta, menjadi asuhan hamba. Mulai dari leluhur paduka dahulu, Sang Wiku Manumanasa, Sakutrem dan Bambang Sakri, turun temurun sampai sekarang, hamba mengasuh keturunan raja-raja Jawa, …..….., sampai sekarang ini usia hamba sudah 2.000 lebih 3 tahun dalam mengasuh raja-raja Jawa, tidak ada yang berubah agamanya, …..”)
Ungkapan di atas menyatakan bahwa Sabdo Palon (Semar) telah ada di bumi Nusantara ini bahkan 525 tahun sebelum masehi jika dihitung dari berakhirnya kekuasaan Prabu Brawijaya pada tahun 1478. Saat ini di tahun 2007, berarti usia Sabdo Palon telah mencapai 2.532 tahun.
Setidaknya perhitungan usia tersebut dapat memberikan gambaran kepada kita, walaupun angka-angka yang menunjuk masa di dalam wasiat leluhur sangat toleransif sifatnya. Di kalangan spiritualis Jawa pada umumnya, keberadaan Semar diyakini berupa “suara tanpa rupa”. Namun secara khusus bagi yang memahami lebih dalam lagi, keberadaan Semar diyakini dengan istilah “mencolo putro, mencolo putri”, artinya dapat mewujud dan menyamar sebagai manusia biasa dalam wujud berlainan di setiap masa. Namun dalam perwujudannya sebagai manusia tetap mencirikan karakter Semar sebagai sosok “Begawan atau Pandhita”. Hal ini dapat dipahami karena dalam kawruh Jawa dikenal adanya konsep “menitis” dan “Cokro Manggilingan”.
Dari apa yang telah disinggung di atas, kita telah sedikit memahami bahwa Sabdo Palon sebagai pembimbing spiritual Prabu Brawijaya merupakan sosok Semar yang nyata. Menurut Sabdo Palon dalam ungkapannya dikatakan :
“…, paduka punapa kêkilapan dhatêng nama kula Sabdapalon? Sabda têgêsipun pamuwus, Palon: pikukuh kandhang. Naya têgêsipun ulat, Genggong: langgêng botên ewah. Dados wicantên-kula punika, kenging kangge pikêkah ulat pasêmoning tanah Jawi, langgêng salaminipun.
(“…, apakah paduka lupa terhadap nama saya Sabdo Palon? Sabda artinya kata-kata, Palon adalah kayu pengancing kandang, Naya artinya pandangan, Genggong artinya langgeng tidak berubah. Jadi ucapan hamba itu berlaku sebagai pedoman hidup di tanah Jawa, langgeng selamanya.”)
Seperti halnya Semar telah banyak dikenal sebagai pamomong sejati yang selalu mengingatkan bilamana yang di”emong”nya salah jalan, salah berpikir atau salah dalam perbuatan, terlebih apabila melanggar ketentuan-ketentuan Tuhan Yang Maha Esa.
Semar selalu memberikan piwulangnya untuk bagaimana berbudi pekerti luhur selagi hidup di dunia fana ini sebagai bekal untuk perjalanan panjang berikutnya nanti. Jadi Semar merupakan pamomong yang “tut wuri handayani”, menjadi tempat bertanya karena pengetahuan dan kemampuannya sangat luas, serta memiliki sifat yang bijaksana dan rendah hati juga waskitho (ngerti sakdurunge winarah).
Semua yang disabdakan Semar tidak pernah berupa “perintah untuk melakukan” tetapi lebih kepada “bagaimana sebaiknya melakukan”. Semua keputusan yang akan diambil diserahkan semuanya kepada “tuan”nya. Semar atau Kaki Semar sendiri memiliki 110 nama, diantaranya adalah Ki Sabdopalon, Sang Hyang Ismoyo, Ki Bodronoyo, dan lain-lain.
Di dalam Serat Darmogandhul diceritakan episode perpisahan antara Sabdo Palon dengan Prabu Brawijaya karena perbedaan prinsip. Sebelum berpisah Sabdo Palon menyatakan kekecewaannya dengan sabda-sabda yang mengandung prediksi tentang sosok masa depan yang diharapkannya. Berikut ungkapan-ungkapan itu :
“….. Paduka yêktos, manawi sampun santun agami Islam, nilar agami Buddha, turun paduka tamtu apês, Jawi kantun jawan, Jawinipun ical, rêmên nunut bangsa sanes. Benjing tamtu dipunprentah dening tiyang Jawi ingkang mangrêti.”
(“….. Paduka perlu faham, jika sudah berganti agama Islam, meninggalkan agama Budha, keturunan Paduka akan celaka, Jawi (orang Jawa yang memahami kawruh Jawa) tinggal Jawan (kehilangan jati diri jawa-nya), Jawi-nya hilang, suka ikut-ikutan bangsa lain. Suatu saat tentu akan dipimpin oleh orang Jawa (Jawi) yang mengerti.”“….. Sang Prabu diaturi ngyêktosi, ing besuk yen ana wong Jawa ajênêng tuwa, agêgaman kawruh, iya iku sing diêmong Sabdapalon, wong jawan arêp diwulang wêruha marang bênêr luput.”Terjemahannya
(“….. Sang Prabu diminta memahami, suatu saat nanti kalau ada orang Jawa menggunakan nama tua (sepuh), berpegang pada kawruh Jawa, yaitulah yang diasuh oleh Sabda Palon, orang Jawan (yang telah kehilangan Jawa-nya) akan diajarkan agar bisa melihat benar salahnya.”)
Dari dua ungkapan di atas Sabdo Palon mengingatkan Prabu Brawijaya bahwa suatu ketika nanti akan ada orang Jawa yang memahami kawruh Jawa (tiyang Jawi) yang akan memimpin bumi nusantara ini.
Juga dikatakan bahwa ada saat nanti datang orang Jawa asuhan Sabdo Palon yang memakai nama sepuh/tua (bisa jadi “mbah”, “aki”, ataupun “eyang”) yang memegang teguh kawruh Jawa akan mengajarkan dan memaparkan kebenaran dan kesalahan dari peristiwa yang terjadi saat itu dan akibat-akibatnya dalam waktu berjalan. Hal ini menyiratkan adanya dua sosok di dalam ungkapan Sabdo Palon tersebut yang merupakan sabda prediksi di masa mendatang, yaitu pemimpin yang diharapkan dan pembimbing spiritual (seorang pandhita).
Ibarat Arjuna dan Semar atau juga Prabu Parikesit dan Begawan Abhiyasa. Lebih lanjut diceritakan :
“Sang Prabu karsane arêp ngrangkul Sabdapalon lan Nayagenggong, nanging wong loro mau banjur musna. Sang Prabu ngungun sarta nênggak waspa, wusana banjur ngandika marang Sunan Kalijaga: “Ing besuk nagara Blambangan salina jênêng nagara Banyuwangi, dadiya têngêr Sabdapalon ênggone bali marang tanah Jawa anggawa momongane. Dene samêngko Sabdapalon isih nglimput aneng tanah sabrang.”Terjemahannya
(“Sang Prabu berkeinginan merangkul Sabdo Palon dan Nayagenggong, namun orang dua itu kemudian raib. Sang Prabu heran dan bingung kemudian berkata kepada Sunan Kalijaga : “Gantilah nama Blambangan menjadi Banyuwangi, jadikan ini sebagai tanda kembalinya Sabda Palon di tanah Jawa membawa asuhannya.
Dari kalimat ini jelas menandakan bahwa Sabdo Palon dan Prabu Brawijaya berpisah di tempat yang sekarang bernama Banyuwangi. Tanah seberang yang dimaksud tidak lain tidak bukan adalah Pulau Bali. Untuk mengetahui lebih lanjut guna menguak misteri ini, ada baiknya kita kaji sedikit tentang Ramalan Sabdo Palon berikut ini.Ramalan Sabdo Palon
( Terjemahan bebas bahasa Indonesia )1. Ingatlah kepada kisah lama yang ditulis di dalam buku babad tentang negara Mojopahit. Waktu itu Sang Prabu Brawijaya mengadakan pertemuan dengan Sunan Kalijaga didampingi oleh Punakawannya yang bernama Sabda Palon Naya Genggong.2. Prabu Brawijaya berkata lemah lembut kepada punakawannya: “Sabda Palon sekarang saya sudah menjadi Islam. Bagaimanakah kamu? Lebih baik ikut Islam sekali, sebuah agama suci dan baik.”
3. Sabda Palon menjawab “Hamba tak mau masuk Islam Sang Prabu, sebab saya ini raja serta pembesar Dang Hyang se tanah Jawa. Saya ini yang membantu anak cucu serta para raja di tanah jawa. Sudah digaris kita harus berpisah.
4. Berpisah dengan Sang Prabu kembali ke asal mula saya. Namun Sang Prabu kami mohon dicatat. Kelak setelah 500 tahun saya akan mengganti agama Budha lagi (maksudnya Kawruh Budi), saya sebar seluruh tanah Jawa.
5. Bila ada yang tidak mau memakai, akan saya hancurkan. Menjadi makanan jin setan dan lain-lainnya. Belum legalah hati saya bila belum saya hancur leburkan. Saya akan membuat tanda akan datangnya kata-kata saya ini. Bila kelak Gunung Merapi meletus dan memuntahkan laharnya.
6. Lahar tersebut mengalir ke Barat Daya. Baunya tidak sedap. Itulah pertanda kalau saya datang. Sudah mulai menyebarkan agama Buda (Kawruh Budi). Kelak Merapi akan bergelegar. Itu sudah menjadi takdir Hyang Widhi bahwa segalanya harus bergantian. Tidak dapat bila diubah lagi.
7. Kelak waktunya paling sengsara di tanah Jawa ini pada tahun: Lawon Sapta Ngesthi Aji. Umpama seorang menyeberang sungai sudah datang di tengah-tengah. Tiba-tiba sungainya banjir besar, dalamnya menghanyutkan manusia sehingga banyak yang meninggal dunia.
8. Bahaya yang mendatangi tersebar seluruh tanah Jawa. Itu sudah kehendak Tuhan tidak mungkin disingkiri lagi. Sebab dunia ini ada ditanganNya. Hal tersebut sebagai bukti bahwa sebenarnya dunia ini ada yang membuatnya.
9. Bermacam-macam bahaya yang membuat tanah Jawa rusak. Orang yang bekerja hasilnya tidak mencukupi. Para priyayi banyak yang susah hatinya. Saudagar selalu menderita rugi. Orang bekerja hasilnya tidak seberapa. Orang tanipun demikian juga. Penghasilannya banyak yang hilang di hutan.
10. Bumi sudah berkurang hasilnya. Banyak hama yang menyerang. Kayupun banyak yang hilang dicuri. Timbullah kerusakan hebat sebab orang berebutan. Benar-benar rusak moral manusia. Bila hujan gerimis banyak maling tapi siang hari banyak begal.
11. Manusia bingung dengan sendirinya sebab rebutan mencari makan. Mereka tidak mengingat aturan negara sebab tidak tahan menahan keroncongannya perut. Hal tersebut berjalan disusul datangnya musibah pagebluk yang luar biasa. Penyakit tersebar merata di tanah Jawa. Bagaikan pagi sakit sorenya telah meninggal dunia.
12. Bahaya penyakit luar biasa. Di sana-sini banyak orang mati. Hujan tidak tepat waktunya. Angin besar menerjang sehingga pohon-pohon roboh semuanya. Sungai meluap banjir sehingga bila dilihat persis lautan pasang.
13. Seperti lautan meluap airnya naik ke daratan. Merusakkan kanan kiri. Kayu-kayu banyak yang hanyut. Yang hidup di pinggir sungai terbawa sampai ke laut. Batu-batu besarpun terhanyut dengan gemuruh suaranya.
14. Gunung-gunung besar bergelegar menakutkan. Lahar meluap ke kanan serta ke kiri sehingga menghancurkan desa dan hutan. Manusia banyak yang meninggal sedangkan kerbau dan sapi habis sama sekali. Hancur lebur tidak ada yang tertinggal sedikitpun.
15.Gempa bumi tujuh kali sehari, sehingga membuat susahnya manusia. Tanahpun menganga. Muncullah brekasakan yang menyeret manusia ke dalam tanah. Manusia-manusia mengaduh di sana-sini, banyak yang sakit. Penyakitpun rupa-rupa. Banyak yang tidak dapat sembuh. Kebanyakan mereka meninggal dunia.
16. Demikianlah kata-kata Sabda Palon yang segera menghilang sebentar tidak tampak lagi diriya. Kembali ke alamnya. Prabu Brawijaya tertegun sejenak. Sama sekali tidak dapat berbicara. Hatinya kecewa sekali dan merasa salah. Namun bagaimana lagi, segala itu sudah menjadi kodrat yang tidak mungkin diubahnya lagi.
Dari bait-bait di atas dapatlah kita memahami bahwa Sabdo Palon menyatakan berpisah dengan Prabu Brawijaya kembali ke asal mulanya. Perlu kita tahu bahwa Semar adalah wujud manusia biasa titisan dewa Sang Hyang Ismoyo. Jadi ketika itu Sabdo Palon berencana untuk kembali ke asal mulanya adalah alam kahyangan (alam dewa-dewa), kembali sebagai wujud dewa, Sang Hyang Ismoyo. Lamanya pergi selama 500 tahun. Dan kemudian Sabdo Palon menyatakan janjinya akan datang kembali di bumi tanah Jawa (tataran nusantara) dengan tanda-tanda tertentu. Diungkapkannya tanda utama itu adalah muntahnya lahar gunung Merapi ke arah barat daya. Baunya tidak sedap.
Dan juga kemudian diikuti bencana-bencana lainnya. Itulah tanda Sabdo Palon telah datang. Dalam dunia pewayangan keadaan ini dilambangkan dengan judul: “Semar Ngejawantah”.
Mari kita renungkan sesaat tentang kejadian muntahnya lahar gunung Merapi tahun lalu dimana untuk pertama kalinya ditetapkan tingkat statusnya menjadi yang tertinggi : “Awas Merapi”. Saat kejadian malam itu lahar merapi keluar bergerak ke arah “Barat Daya”. Pada hari itu tanggal 13 Mei 2006 adalah malam bulan purnama bertepatan dengan Hari Raya Waisyak (Budha) dan Hari Raya Kuningan (Hindu). Secara hakekat nama “Sabdo Palon Noyo Genggong” adalah simbol dua satuan yang menyatu, yaitu : Hindu – Budha (Syiwa Budha).
Di dalam Islam dua satuan ini dilambangkan dengan dua kalimat Syahadat. Apabila angka tanggal, bulan dan tahun dijumlahkan maka : 1 + 3 + 5 + 2 + 6 = 17 (1+7 = 8 ). Angka 17 kita kenal merupakan angka keramat. 17 merupakan jumlah raka’at sholat lima waktu di dalam syari’at Islam. 17 juga merupakan lambang hakekat dari “bumi sap pitu” dan “langit sap pitu” yang berasal dari Tuhan YME. Sedangkan angka 8 merupakan lambang delapan penjuru mata angin. Di Bali hal ini dilambangkan dengan apa yang kita kenal dengan “Sad Kahyangan Jagad”. Artinya dalam kejadian ini delapan kekuatan dewa-dewa menyatu, menyambut dan menghantarkan Sang Hyang Ismoyo (Sabdo Palon) untuk turun ke bumi. Di dalam kawruh Jawa, Sang Hyang Ismoyo adalah sosok dewa yang dihormati oleh seluruh dewa-dewa. Dan gunung Merapi di sini melambangkan hakekat tempat atau sarana turunnya dewa ke bumi (menitis).
Setelah kita membaca dan memahami secara keseluruhan wasiat-wasiat leluhur Nusantara, maka telah sampai saatnya kita mengulas sesuai dengan pemahaman kita tentang siapa sejatinya Sabdo Palon Noyo Genggong itu.
“Sabdo Palon adalah seorang ponokawan Prabu Brawijaya, penasehat spiritual dan pandhita sakti kerajaan Majapahit. Dari penelusuran secara spiritual, Sabdo Palon itu sejatinya adalah beliau : Dang Hyang Nirartha/ Mpu Dwijendra/ Pedanda Sakti Wawu Rawuh/ Tuan Semeru yang akhirnya moksa di Pura Uluwatu.”Dari referensi yang saya dapatkan, Dang Hyang Nirartha adalah anak dari Dang Hyang Asmaranatha, dan cucu dari Mpu Tantular atau Dang Hyang Angsokanatha (penyusun Kakawin Sutasoma dimana di dalamnya tercantum “Bhinneka Tunggal Ika”). Danghyang Nirartha adalah seorang pendeta Budha yang kemudian beralih menjadi pendeta Syiwa. Beliau juga diberi nama Mpu Dwijendra dan dijuluki Pedanda Sakti Wawu Rawuh, beliau juga dikenal sebagai seorang sastrawan. Dalam Dwijendra Tattwa dikisahkan sebagai berikut :
“Pada Masa Kerajaan Majapahit di Jawa Timur, tersebutlah seorang Bhagawan yang bernama Dang Hyang Dwi Jendra. Beliau dihormati atas pengabdian yang sangat tinggi terhadap raja dan rakyat melalui ajaran-ajaran spiritual, peningkatan kemakmuran dan menanggulangi masalah-masalah kehidupan. Beliau dikenal dalam menyebarkan ajaran Agama Hindu dengan nama “Dharma Yatra”. Di Lombok Beliau disebut “Tuan Semeru” atau guru dari Semeru, nama sebuah gunung di Jawa Timur.”
Dengan kemampuan supranatural dan mata bathinnya, beliau melihat benih-benih keruntuhan kerajaan Hindu di tanah Jawa. Maksud hati hendak melerai pihak-pihak yang bertikai, akan tetapi tidak mampu melawan kehendak Sang Pencipta, ditandai dengan berbagai bencana alam yang ditengarai turut ambil kontribusi dalam runtuhnya kerajaan Majapahit (salah satunya adalah bencana alam “Pagunungan Anyar”). Akhirnya beliau mendapat petunjuk untuk hijrah ke sebuah pulau yang masih di bawah kekuasaan Majapahit, yaitu Pulau Bali. Sebelum pergi ke Pulau Bali, Dang Hyang Nirartha hijrah ke Daha (Kediri), lalu ke Pasuruan dan kemudian ke Blambangan.
Beliau pertama kali tiba di Pulau Bali dari Blambangan sekitar tahun caka 1411 atau 1489 M ketika Kerajaan Bali Dwipa dipimpin oleh Dalem Waturenggong. Beliau mendapat wahyu di Purancak, Jembrana bahwa di Bali perlu dikembangkan paham Tripurusa yakni pemujaan Hyang Widhi dalam manifestasi-Nya sebagai Siwa, Sadha Siwa, dan Parama Siwa. Dang Hyang Nirarta dijuluki pula Pedanda Sakti Wawu Rawuh karena beliau mempunyai kemampuan supra natural yang membuat Dalem Waturenggong sangat kagum sehingga beliau diangkat menjadi Bhagawanta (pendeta kerajaan). Ketika itu Bali Dwipa mencapai jaman keemasan, karena semua bidang kehidupan rakyat ditata dengan baik.
Hak dan kewajiban para bangsawan diatur, hukum dan peradilan adat/agama ditegakkan, prasasti-prasasti yang memuat silsilah leluhur tiap-tiap soroh/klan disusun. Awig-awig Desa Adat pekraman dibuat, organisasi subak ditumbuh-kembangkan dan kegiatan keagamaan ditingkatkan. Selain itu beliau juga mendorong penciptaan karya-karya sastra yang bermutu tinggi dalam bentuk tulisan lontar, kidung atau kekawin.
Pura-pura untuk memuja beliau di tempat mana beliau pernah bermukim membimbing umat adalah : Purancak, Rambut siwi, Pakendungan, Ulu watu, Bukit Gong, Bukit Payung, Sakenan, Air Jeruk, Tugu, Tengkulak, Gowa Lawah, Ponjok Batu, Suranadi (Lombok), Pangajengan, Masceti, Peti Tenget, Amertasari, Melanting, Pulaki, Bukcabe, Dalem Gandamayu, Pucak Tedung, dan lain-lain. Akhirnya Dang Hyang Nirartha menghilang gaib (moksa) di Pura Uluwatu. (Moksa = bersatunya atman dengan Brahman/Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa, meninggal dunia tanpa meninggalkan jasad).
10 (sepuluh) pesan dari beliau Dang Hyang Nirartha sbb:
1. Tuwi ada ucaping haji, utama ngwangun tlaga, satus reka saliunnya, kasor ento utamannya, ring sang ngangun yadnya pisan, kasor buin yadnyane satus, baan suputra satunggal. ( bait 5 )
Ada sebenarnya ucapan ilmu pengetahuan, utama orang yang membangun telaga, banyaknya seratus, kalah keutamaannya itu, oleh orang yang melakukan korban suci sekali, korban suci yang seratus ini, kalah oleh anak baik seorang.2. Bapa mituduhin cening, tingkahe menadi pyanak, eda bani ring kawitan, sang sampun kaucap garwa, telu ne maadan garwa, guru reka, guru prabhu, guru tapak tui timpalnya. ( bait 6 )
Ayahnda memberitahumu anakku, tata cara menjadi anak, jangan durhaka pada leluhur, orang yang disebut guru, tiga banyaknya yang disebut guru, guru reka, guru prabhu, dan guru tapak (yang mengajar) itu.3. Melah pelapanin mamunyi, ring ida dane samian, wangsane tong kaletehan, tong ada ngupet manemah, melah alepe majalan, batise twara katanjung, bacin tuara bakat ingsak. ( bait 8 )
Lebih baik hati-hati dalam berbicara, kepada semua orang, tak akan ternoda keturunannya, tak ada yang akan mencaci maki, lebih baik hati-hati dalam berjalan, sebab kaki tak akan tersandung, dan tidak akan menginjak kotoran.4. Uli jani jwa kardinin, ajak dadwa nah gawenang, patut tingkahe buatang, tingkahe mangelah mata, gunannya anggon malihat, mamedasin ane patut, da jua ulah malihat. ( bait 10 )Mulai sekarang lakukan, lakukanlah berdua, patut utamakan tingkah laku yang benar, seperti menggunakan mata, gunanya untuk melihat, memperhatikan tingkah laku yang benar, jangan hanya sekedar melihat.5. Tingkahe mangelah kuping, tuah anggon maningehang, ningehang raose melah, resepang pejang di manah, da pati dingeh-dingehang, kranannya mangelah cunguh, anggon ngadek twah gunanya. ( bait 11 )
Kegunaan punya telinga, sebenarnya untuk mendengar, mendengar kata-kata yang benar, camkan dan simpan dalam hati, jangan semua hal didengarkan.6. Nanging da pati adekin, mangulah maan madiman, patutang jua agrasayang, apang bisa jwa ningkahang, gunan bibih twah mangucap, de mangucap pati kacuh, ne patut jwa ucapang. ( bait 12 )Jangan segalanya dicium, sok baru dapat mencium, baik-baiklah caranya merasakan, agar bisa melaksanakannya, kegunaan mulut untuk berbicara, jangan berbicara sembarangan, hal yang benar hendaknya diucapkan.

7. Ngelah lima da ja gudip, apikin jua nyemakang, apang patute bakatang, wyadin batise tindakang, yatnain twah nyalanang, eda jwa mangulah laku, katanjung bena nahanang. ( bait 13 )

Memiliki tangan jangan usil, hati-hati menggunakan, agar selalu mendapat kebenaran, begitu pula dalam melangkahkan kaki, hati-hatilah melangkahkannya, bila kesandung pasti kita yang menahan (menderita) nya.
8. Awake patut gawenin, apang manggih karahaywan, da maren ngertiang awak, waluya matetanduran, tingkahe ngardinin awak, yen anteng twi manandur, joh pare twara mupuang. ( bait 14 )
Kebenaran hendaknya diperbuat, agar menemukan keselamatan, jangan henti-hentinya berbuat baik, ibaratnya bagai bercocok tanam, tata cara dalam bertingkah laku, kalau rajin menanam, tak mungkin tidak akan berhasil.
9. Tingkah ne melah pilihin, buka anake ka pasar, maidep matetumbasan, masih ya nu mamilihin, twara nyak meli ne rusak, twah ne melah tumbas ipun, patuh ring ma mwatang tingkah. ( bait 15 )
Pilihlah perbuatan yang baik, seperti orang ke pasar, bermaksud hendak berbelanja, juga masih memilih, tidak mau membeli yang rusak, pasti yang baik dibelinya, sama halnya dengan memilih tingkah laku.
10. Tingkah ne melah pilihin, da manganggoang tingkah rusak, saluire kaucap rusak, wantah nista ya ajinnya, buine tong kanggoang anak, kija aba tuara laku, keto cening sujatinnya. ( bait 16 )
Pilihlah tingkah laku yang baik, jangan mau memakai tingkah laku yang jahat, betul-betul hina nilainya, ditambah lagi tiada disukai masyarakat, kemanapun di bawa tak akan laku, begitulah sebenarnya anakku.

Akhirnya dengan penelusuran secara spiritual dapatlah disimpulkan : “Jadi yang dikatakan “Putra Betara Indra” oleh Joyoboyo, “Budak Angon” oleh Prabu Siliwangi, dan “Satrio Pinandhito Sinisihan Wahyu” oleh Ronggowarsito itu, tidak lain dan tidak bukan adalah Sabdo Palon, yang sejatinya adalah Dan Dang Hyang Nirartha/ Mpu Dwijendra/ Pedanda Sakti Wawu Rawuh/ Tuan Semeru



the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy.

The China Resistent War












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The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum


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“The China Resistant War Historic Collections “

The China Resistant War Collections”

Yuan Shih-kai silver
Vintage Shanghai harbour
Garden Bridge Shanghai
Ming Tomb Nanking
Vintage Peking
Palace London printing
Palace Peking printing
Junk London printing
Junk Peking Print
Martyr stamp 1932
Double circle 1931
Single circle 1931
Dahtung printing 1942
Communist Military stamp 1930
Red Communist stamp 1932
Mao Military stamp 1932
Reds military stamp 1932
Reds Flower stamp 1933
Red Communist stamp 1933
KMT Military stamp 1937
Reds Soldier 1938
Reds Military stamp 1940
Reds Soldier 1942
Reds Communist stamp 1942
Reds Ship 1943
Reds Flight 1944
Reds Train 1945
Gen Okamura war criminal 1945
Mao first stamp 1945
25th anniversary KMT post 1921
Unification stamp 1929
Tan Yen Kai 1933
KMT and US flag 1939
Pres.Lin Sen 1945
DN Occupation Hupei 1943
DN Occupation 1944
Poeyi Manchuria 1931
KMT granat NorthChina 1932
DN Occupied Proclaimed Mukden
Gen.Honjo Kwantung 1931
Gen Sadao Araki 1931
Bloody Shanghai 1937
DN street fighting 1937
DN Air attack Garden Bridge
DN across Yangtse river 1937
Mao and Chiang
ROC newmovement 35



A. Dr Sun Yat Sen’s Revolutionary

(1) 1912
(a) The founding Father Dr Sun leaves shanghai station the morning on New year’s day 1912 for his nanking searing-in as the ROC provisional president.
the document of Dr Sun Yat Sen ‘s Declaration and the oat taken by him during the President swearing-in ceremony at Nanking and the photo after the ceremonies still exist now at The Sun Yat-sen Memoriable Museum.
After the ceremony Dr Sun and other leaders went to the Ming Tomb at Nanking for ceremonies informing ancetors that the Alien Qing Manchus had been overthrown and Chinese ruled restored.
four Original vintage smal b-W photo , at the back written in Indonesia and china language :
(a.1). Pemandangan (landscape)Koe Lao
(a.2.) Djalan2 naek koeda pegi Ming Tai Tjoe poenja koeboeran (Travellin by horse went to the Great Ming tombs).
Wah soengoeh seneng sekali!(Oh very much happy!) di ini gambar nyang naek koeda jaitoe (in the pictures which riding horse) Oen Tjiok,Tjoetjoe dari (grandchild of) oen Tjwan.
(a.3)Tionghoa Bin Kok poenja soldadoe ( Chung hwa Min kwo=Kuomintang soldier)
(a.4) Ini satoe koempoelan ponya soldadoe lagi pada brenti didepan koeboeran.(This is a soldier group were rest in the front of Tomb ? in chinese char)
Dr Sun Yat-sen addressed the first meeting of the Provisional Council

(2) March 1912
(a)In March ,3rd..1912 The tung men Hui assambled at Nanking and elected Dr Sun the Tsungli or President
(b) In March the government moved its seat North,
Sung Cio-yen brought the tung Meng Hui tofether with other factions and parties in KMT and Dr Sun was elected President in hope that he could bring factionalism to an end.
(3) The Qing Yuan Shih-kai issued the commerative of the revolution with his profile, consist 12 nomial 1,2,3,5,8,10,16,20,50 c and $ 1,2 & 5.- with same design
(4)ROC issued The Chung Hwa republic papermoney $10,$100, and $1000. gold ,with KMT flag design.
San Hsi Zeng Fun bank issued Ten liang banknote.

ROC postal office issued the first definitive stamps printed at London (first Def.London printing =1st DLP.) consist three design:
(1) Chinese Junk 1/2,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 and 10 cents.
(2) Farmer ,15,16,20 ,30 and 50 cent
(3) Palace $ 1,2,5,and 10.-

(1)June 1914
(a)In June,23th.1914 Dr Sun assam-bled his comrades and organized the Chung Hua Ke Ming Tang ( ChineseRevolutionary Party) to defend the provisional constitution against the effort of Yuan Shih-kai, who had seized power, dissolved parliament,scrapped theConstitution and Killed KMT member in his attempt to reestablished the momarchy. Many revolutionaries fled to Japan,
(b) J.Gunar Anderson ,Swedish Geologist have served as mining adviser to the ROC government from 1914 to 1927. He established cordial co-operation with Chinese geologist and mining engineers, and the Central government, at that time located in Peking, as weel as the provincial authorities, extended to him very possible support and facility.
(c) chekiang Provincial Govermant Bond one Dollar Local Currency , value Recieved at Hangchow guaranteed by the Financial Bureu of the Chekiang Province .
4. 1915
(a)ROC postal office issue the first definitive peking printing (1st DPP) with the same design and nominal with the 1st definive london printing(1st DLP) except added one nominal 13 cent farmer.
The different between 1st London and Pepking printing, the design of DLP were the line under the bow of the junk is smooth and didn’t touch the junk , but the 1st DPP the line rough and touch the Junk.
(b) ROC issued the Hung Shian Comerative stamps 5c,10c,50c and overprint Sin Kiang n 50 c.
(c) The Yuan Futteh Bank issued commemrative Banknte In the Memory f The Chnese Repubic Revlution in Yunnan 1916. Ten Yuan.
(a)After Yuan shih-kai failure to established a dynasty of his own and his death in misery and solitude in 1916, there remained as his fatal legacy to his people a most poisnous element, the military governors in the procinces, later nicknamed the “war Lords”, some of them men of considerable ability who seriously desired to save their country, but taken as a whole a set of greedy and inefficient generals who, ind order to carry on their endless and fruitless civil wars, exacted exorbitant taxes from the poor peaceful peasantry. The countryside was impoverished and devastated, the rollingstock of the railways became terribly depleted in the hands of the fighting armies,bandity prevailed, the student in their despair turned to Communism as a last resort. Many of the intellectual leaders held the recovery of their country to be question of decades,still distant.
(b)Dr Sun meeting with Naval office in Canton and after the death of Yuan Shih-kai, the KMT’s military campaign was ended and Dr Sun decided to quit the political arena
(c) ROC military bank issued Republic- an China Military banknote at several area ,
(c.1)shanghai five dollar local currency sign m.y.sung
(c.2) Military Bank note five dollars issued by The Republic of China sign Sun Yat-sen guaranteed by the minestry of finance
(c.3) THe Republican China Military Banknote Nanking one Dollar Local Currency, guaranteed by Central Bureu.
(c.4) Republican Govderment of Chinsa Military Notes issued by the Menistry of War.One Dollar and five dollar
(c.5) The Republican Military bank-note AN Hwei one dollatr Local Currency
(c.6) The Wang-Ho Bank of the Republic Military Bank Note one dollar Local Currency.
(c.7) The Kang -Se Bank Of The Republic Military Bank Note One Dollar Local Currency
(c.8) Military note of Chekiang Goverment five Dollars

6. 1917
(a)Parliament was dissolved again and Dr Sun decided to send the navy to Canton as a move to safeguard the provisional contiturion
(b) In September 10th , Dr sun established a military government at Canton.

II. Saving The ROC

1. Dr Sun to quit the political arena and Chiang Combatting adversaries (1917-1925)

(1)Chiang Khai-sek stayed with his father and mother in the small village , he have merried the first wife( village lady) but he never love her.

The Agricultural.Industrial and Connercial Trust Company limited at Chang Chow issued Banknote ren cents and one dollar.

(a)ROC post Office issued three stamps commemorated 25 years China Post Office 1,5,6,and 10 c. and Famine relief surcharge on the junk stamps 1c on 2c,3c on 4c and 5c on 6c.
Also issued the first Isuued airmail stamps (without KMT emblem) nominal 15,30,45,60,and 90 cents.
(b) THe National Bank of China issued ten cents and ten dollars banknote with Dr Sun profile.

(a)Chen Chun-ming(the chinese warlord) mounted his coup attemp-ted and Dr Sun took refuge abroad the Naval vessel “Yungfeng” at Whampoa and Chiang risked his life to rush to the side of Dr Sun
(b) ROC issued the first black machinal overprint i cent provisional on the junk Stamps
(c) August 1922
Fragment used farmer stamp 20 cent ,CDS Shanghai 21.8.22.
(d) ROC post office issued Provisiional surcharge on Junk and Farmer(Reaper) type stamps

(5) 1923
(a)In this year, Dr Sun sent Chiang to Russia on an inspection tour.
(b) ROC post office issued the second definitive Peking printing stamps (2nd DPP) , same design and nominal, but added $20.- Palace stamps.This 2nd DPP more common that the first DLP and DPP0.
also iisued the First Constitutin commemrative stamp 1,2,4 and 10 cent.
(c) The Central bank Of China issued Dr Sun Yat-sen Banknote sign by LSWong one dolar, 10 dollar and 100 dollars. and this banknote used at Hunan,Kiangsi $Kwansi with official Handchopped in violet ink.

(6) 1924
(a) in the hout of direct need, there emerged a young leader, Chiang kai-sek, a military officer who had acted as Chief of the Staff to Dr Sun Yat-sen ever since the revolution of 1911-12, had established in 1924 under the orders of this “father of the Revlution”, the Whampoa Military academy near Canton and had here created in the space of two years a new type of Military cadets educated to fight, not for any individual War Lord, but for the resistant of China.
(b)Upon Chiang return frm Russia, he was assigned to establish an army academy which opened at Whampoa n June 16,1924.
In his inaugural address Dr Sun said that the task of revolutinary forces would be to assure the continuity of the Republic and carry out the three Principles of the People
Chiang , the first ccommandant of the Academy
The entrance if the famed Whampoa academy in the subburps of Canton
Dr Sun and Chiang have taken photo on the academy’s founding day
The Vintage Picture Photo of Chiang from Book Illustration ‘China national hero ,chiang Kai-sek,
(c)From january 27th to August 24th 1924. Dr Sun gave a series of lectures on the Three Principles of the people at Canton Senior Normal School. He cmplete six lectures each on Nationalism and Democracy and four on the people’s livelihood before going to Shakuan in nothern of Northward Expedition forces.
The vintage picture photo of Canton street from vintage minddleschool history book 1938.
(d) March 1924
In March ,19th.1924,Sven Hedin have written China Travelling book in Stockholm “From Peking to Moscow” the story of his Travel by land with car and another transportation from Beijing to Moscow via Mongolia, with many picture photo illustrations. If the collectors want to know the story and the rare photo picture illustrations please aksed as the collectors choice via comment and we will put in this blog.the vintage picture photo illustration of writes profile, his car and the staff ,Port Hateman Peking,mongol caravan in Peking. Wantsjuan road,the Pas of Hongte, on Horse, Chinese trader,Larson second car at Mongol,Telegraaf station at Ude,Rest the car at Woeastijn,Temple at the high Pas, Mongolnative people,Lama Temple at Oerga, Larson car at Chara, chinese carriage at Pas mengatai, larson car at Selenga , Mongolia Oerga Smiking pipe and the picture photo at Russia.
(e) Used Block four Junk stamps 3 cent , CDS Shanghai 1 .11.24.
(f) The Fuching Bank of Kiangsi issued $1 one yuan banknote.

(a)In Jan.1925 The Mienhu battle, the forces of Chen Chun-ming (the chinese warlord ) invaded Canton ,while dr Sun was in Peiping and ill,he died at Peking because the metastage stage of Heart Cancer diseases in 1925.
Chiang organized Whampoa cadet and part of Cantonese Forces into an army of resitance that routed the 100.000 invaders at Tan-sui ,Piingshan and mienfu. this campaign is known as the First Eastward Expedition.
Chiang first didn’t have the fund to organised the Whampoa cadet because the Warlord didn’t like him , but when he met the two brother of Dr Sun ‘s wife the rich Shanghai Bankers , Chiang were help by them with enough funds and he met their younger sister and Chiang fall in love.
(b)in July 1925.The second Eastward Expedition was undertaken, Strategic Huichou was taken, Chen Chun-miens’s influence was obliterated and peace was restored to whole of Kwantung province.
(c) used Not clear city cds 12.11.25 on junk stamp 1/2 cent ,fragment postcard with chinese language.
(d) ROC issued Great Wall banknote one dollar local currency
(e) The Bank of Kwangsi issued Temple of Heaven banknote 5 Dollars
(a) Starting from cantn in July,27th 1926, Chiang with an army of only one hundred thusend men, set out Northwards expeditin t subjugate the prvincial satraps and unite China.
(b)The Chiang returning the salute of his forces after adrressing his soldier during Military Parade on the eve of Northward Expedition(P) Chiang Northward Expedition strategy was onenof divide and conquer.
His major target was Wuhan. He routed Wu Pei-fu forces and took the city.
The second target was nanking which was occupied after defeat of Sun Chuan-fang’s forces.
Peking ) soon renamed Peiping) was tkaen after the defeat of Chang Tso-ling and other warlords.
(c)With small force chiang was going to face armies many times more numerous tha his own and commanders like Wu pei-fu, Feng Yu-hsiang, Sun Chuan-fang and Chang Tso-lin, men whse feats had inspired their opponents with awe.
(d) ROC post office issued the second red provisional 1 c overprint on junk stamps
(e)April 1926
Fragment post packet CDS Shanghai 27.4.26 on junk stamp 6 x 1 cent, 2 x 8 cent and 1x 4 cent (total rate 26 cent). (send to Indonesia)
(f) July 1926
The Chiang Southwards Expedition forces set off from the south on July,9th.1926 and advanced like a whirwing.
In July 1926,from the capital of southern revlutionary gvernment,canton (Guangzhou) , which for a succession of years had brought redicule and contempt upn itself as hotbed of treason and political intigue, the comparatively unknown, thirty eight years old General Chiang Kai-sek set out for the north to carry out the testament which Dr Sun at his death in 1925, had placed in the hands of his young chief of staff; the unificarions of China in accordance with the Republican principle of Kuomintang.
Chiang’s armies amounted only to a fraction of the numbers The Kuomintang troops enter the provincial capital Changsha,By now both Chiang and his celebrated opponent,Wu Fei-fu, had reached the front. Fierce and finally decisive took place at a point of strategical important, Tingszekiao, in suthern Hupei. At First the KMT troops succeede in occupying the place without much difficulty but Wu ordered the execution of nine officers who were responsible for the loss. Soldiers armed with swords were posted at eight points to cut down anyne who retreated. In cnsequence Wu’s troops fought with desperatin, and n the evening of August 27th they recaptured Tingszekian. Chiang at once gave orders that the place was to be reoccupied at all cost, and on the morning of the 28th it was again in possesion of the southern troops. Wu called up his reserves, and after heavy losses on both side he again occupied Tingszekiao. Now chiang in his turn threw the suthern armies’s general reserve into the firing-line and after a whole day’s fighting Tingszekiao reamined finally in his hand.
Changsa was captured on July 11.
(g) August 1926
The Battle of Tingtzuchiao bridge began on August 27
(h)October 1926
Wuahan was capture October 10
(i)Nopember 1926
Nanchang was capture Nopember
(j) The Miltary bank issued Military banknote Five dollars.

(9) 1927
(a)The Mao communist undertook a series of uprising in 1927 and their Head quaters at Hotel Chiangsi Nanchang
(b) The Mao communist built “Red Yard” during the Lu-Hai uprising.
(c) March 1927
Shanghai Captured in March 19
and Nanking in march 23. This meant that two of the princupal targets (Shanghai and nanking) had been Won by Chiang.
(d) Mao Communist instigation then succeeded in dividing the Chiang KMT into nanking and Wuhan faction.
(e)July 1927
On July 15,1927 , The Chiang KMT authorities in Wuhan decided to break with the Mao communist, whohad not kept their promises to work for the unification and peace of the cuntry.
The Mao communist thereupon followed the order of the comintern to rise the liberation and seize political power.
(f) August 1927
On August 1st 1927, the Public security and Northward Expedition force under the command of Chu Te,Ho Lung and Yen Ting mounted an uprising at nanchang Kiangsi
On August 5th 1927, The Mao PLA force ,pursued by government forces, fled southward from Nanchang.
On August 17, 1927, a remmant force of 8000 men entered juichin .
On august 13th 1927 Chiang resigned as the Commander in Chief of
(g) September 1927
On Septemebr 24th 1927, Chiang KMT forces occupied the Chaochow-Swatow area.
After start of the nanchang uprising, the Communist Party held the “August 7 conference” at wuhan tlo made plan for all out Liberation.
On September 8 th 1927, Mao and Hsiang Ying led a force of 2000 in the ” Autumn Harvest Uprising” and ravaged a dozen cunties in eastren Hunan and nothern Hupeh.The Chiang Government forces routed the Liberation army.
Mao then led more then 500 remnants to Chingkangshan. Survivors of the Nanchang figting organized Soviets in Lufeng and Haifong of Kwantung province under the command of Peng Pai.They went on a killing spree known as the Lu-hai uprising.
Other nanchang remnants under Yeh Chien-yin and Ho Lung reached
canton and incited peassants to join them. This war known as the Canton uprising.
It was now urgently necessary for Chiang to lose no time in turning against the mighty Sun Chuan-fang,who controlled five provinces (Kiangsi,Fukien,Chekiang,Anhui and Kiangsu) and had at his disposal the best-equipped troops.
As early as September 19th one of Chiang’s generals occupied Nanchang, the capital of Kiangsi. But here again reinforcements were brought up on both sides and fighting proceeded continously until November 8th before the town was definitely in Chiang’s hands.
(h) December 1927
On december and one of Chiang’s subordinate commanders entered Foochow, the capital of Fukien.
(g) J.Gunnar Anderson left china in 1927 at the lowest ecc of political decay .

(a)The vintage photo of Indonesia native man at.Peking (P)
(b) February 1928
The fourth plenary session of the KMT’s second Central Comittee was held in this month and urged Chiang to return to his command.
On February 1928, Hangchw, thecapitalf Chekiang was occupied by Chiang soldiers. some of Sun’s subrdinates now went over t chiang, and the commander-in;chief of the fleet also rejoined him. Later Feng Yu-hsiang and yen Hsi-shan follow their example and went over to the KMT.
(c)March 1928
On March 24th General Cheng chien with the seventh canton army corps occupied Nanking. He was accompanied by political agents who were infected by Communist docterines and sought to compromise Chiang in the eyes of foreigners. Some foreigners were killed in Nanking and a great number of their housees were plundered. Probably a great massacre of foreigners would be occured, if the guns of tje foreigners warships anchored in the Yangtse off the city had not set up a barrage round the hill on which their nationals were gathered.
Chiang was on board a steamer on his way down the river when this happened. He realized at once the extent of the danger he insurred through this reversal of his own extremly considerate policy toward foreigners. Without pausing at nanking he went on direct to Shanghai, assumed command there and gave such assurances regarding the safety of theforeign settlements that he reagined at one stroke tke confidence of the Power. After this there was a combing out of the instigator of the Communist excesses in Nanking.
(d)April 1928
In april the Kuomintang goverment was constituted in Nanking The southern Capital.
Chiang launched the second phase on the campaign in April,23th 1928.and he inspect the frontline at Tenghsien.
Before the month was ended chiang occupied Pukow, the ferry station opposite Nanking, and continued his victorious progess noryth ward.
On April 7th 1928, Chiang set out forces the North, Chang Tso-lin fled t his manchuriaan capital Mukden..
(d) May 1928
Japanese obstructionism resulted in the Tsinan Incident of May 39th 1928.
on may.21st pengpu fell.
(e) June 1928
On June 2nd Hsichow , the town which has later become so famous in the war with Dai Nippon.
Tsangchou was taken in June 2nd 1928 and Chang Tso-ling fled northward, he was assasinated by the Japanese at Huangkutun in Liaoning.
(f)July 1928
The careful planning of the campaign and to the patriotic spirit of his young officers Chiang succeeded .On July ,5th.1928 his troops enter Peking without resistance . A brilliant campaign, a march almost incredible,extending from the south coast through the whole length of China to the mongolian frontier and accompanied by constant fighting against War Lords battling for their independence, was successfully accomplished in less thatn two year, The foundation laid for the rebirth of China.
But no more than the foundation. Rebellion cropped up in different parts of the immense empire, the allies of today became the enemies oof tomorrow, as the formerly independednt provincial chief felt that their very existance was a stake. A still more deadly danger to Chiang’s great unification scheme was the foundation of a Soviet rule over a large part of the provinces saouth of the Yangtse. The russian issued two stamps at that area one Stalin figure and the other lenin figures.
(g)In the first half July, the Expedi-tionary force capture Peking and Tientsin to complete its assignment.The National KMT flag flying at top the Chengyang Gate at Peking, with this victory the country was unified for the northeastern prvinces.
Expeditionary force moves to Hunan and Kiangsi by Train.
(h) July 1928
In July,6th,1928 Chiang led his commanders in paying tribute to Dr Sun Yat-sen at Piyun Temple.
(i) October 1928
Chiang took office as Chairman of the national Government in Octber,10th 1928. President f the five yuan(brances f gvernment) were swrn in at the same time,
The Executive Yuan began its function in October 29th 1928
(j)November 1928
The North China Insurance sertificate was issued by Indonesia Agent “The Borneo Company Limited” at Batavia(Jakarta) in November,25th 1928.
(k)Communism became a formidalbe threat t the rule of the Kuomintang, the party of Sun and Chiang.Not till he had engaged them in five most sanginary campaigns was Chiang able to oust the communists from southern China, only to see them erect a new stronghold in the distant North-west, where they are still in control at the present day.
(l) ROC issued Marshal Chang Ts Lin commemorative stamps 1,4,qoc and $1.-

(11) 1929
(a)Shanghai accident, The japanese aggressive move
(b)The vintage photo of Shanghai port and The vintage silk embrodery of shanghai port.
(c) October 1929
as early as October 20th 1029, the first step towards commercial flying taken in China. For on that day a trial flight was made with a Douglass transport machine on the route Shanghai-hankow, and the five hundred and thirty-seven miles were cvreed in seven hurs
(d) ROC post office issued the Unification comemorative stamps nominal 1,4,10 c and $1.-
Also issued the second issued Airmail stamps (with KMT emblem0 nominal 15,30,45,60,and 90 cents.

(a) Dr Sun Yat Sen last will
(b) The first National Council ROC meeting
(c) October 1930
Mao Comunist local Post Office issue two types stamps, the first stamps nominal 1,3,and 10 cents design chinese character, and the second stamps design comminust symbol nominal in chinese charavter 1 and 5 cent color red.

(a) Side by side with reapested wars for progressive unifications, Chiang, backed by a great number of active and capable men, succeeded in building up during the short period from 1930 to 1937 a new modern China with a stable financial system, a reformed currency,simplified and unified taxation, important new railways and an immense network of motor roads. A new army was trained and equipped with the very able assintance of German military advisers and an air force was created with the help of America and italian instructors.

1. ROC battle 1930-1933

(1) 1930
(a)The Central China battle 1930
(b) May 1930
In his last will and testament, Dr Sun Yat-sen called fr the convening of a national coyuncil and the scrapping of all enequal treaties. these objectives were attained by Chiang. The first National Council meeting was convened at Naking in May of 1930 and at the same time the government prepared for mobilization against Dai Nippon aggression. These cadres are training at Lushan.
Chiang Government forces engage the Mao Communist in Kiangsi..

(a)The Japanese engineered the Mukden incident 1931 and manchuria was occupied.
(b) The vintage picture photo from magazine ,The proclamatie that dai nippon occupied Mukden in 1931(P)
(c) May.16th 1931
The Vintage picture photo magazine illustration , General Honjo the commandant of Kwantung army.(P)
(d) December1931
December ,8th,1931
The phillatelic creatipn Postcard with second Tatung war commemorative postmark on Dr Sun 10 cent stamps with Bilingual shanghai postmark CDS 8.12.31.
on Nasanof Dental Surgery & Prsthetic Dentistry Dental Radiograps card (phillatelic creation or CTO)
With heyear 1931 begins the Dai Nippn aggression against China, the first stage of which was the occupation of Manchuria, September to december 1931. The situation at last became so confused that Chiang and with him a large propotion of the government resigned office in December 15th 1931. But it was not long before the opposition obliged to beg him to return.
(e) ROC issued Dr Sun stamps type I double circle and type II single circle. this stamps printed in 1931-1937.
(f) ROC post office issue Dr Sun type one, Double thin circle of the KMT coat of arm. seven nomianl1,2,4,20 c and $ 1,2 and 5.- after that also issued Dr Sun type two ,Single bold circle with different color 2,4,5,15 drak green,15 scarlet,20c ,25 c and $ 1,2 and 5.-
(g) Mao communist local post re -issued the the first stamps 1 c with color red and the communist eblem and globe in red color..


(a)january 1932
The Japanese seized the Northeastren China Province in 1932.In manchuria a violent tension had arisen in shanghai between dai Nippon and chinese, a tension which led the landing of Dai Nippon Marines on January 28th 1932 for what was expected to be a rapid and simple action-the dispersal of the Chinese defensive forces.
Mao Comunist local pst office issued the thirs stamps nominal 4 cent design Communist emblem in the star.
(b) The Japanese stamps used at Daeren. manchuria 1932.
(c)The vintage picture photo from vintage dutch enciclopedia, Emperor Puyi (the young man with jacket) with the Dai Nippon soldier and the Manchuira government official(P)
(d)Januaty 1932
ROC soldier moving to the front after Dai Nippon invasion of Shanghai in January 28th,1932.
(e) The Vintage picture photo book illustration .Profile of Araki Sadao, Dai Nippon General and menistry of war of prime menistry Inoekai (Dec 1931-Jan 1934). He created the Bloody military attack during China-japan conflict, Occupied Manchuria, Shanghai and province Jehol (P)
(f) The vintage Picture Photo book illustration, Effect of Bomb in Hongkew,Shanghai.and A chinese soldier examining a comarade who has been killed by a bomb at Taitsang outside Shanghai , and Japanese soldiers during street-fighting in shanghai (P)
(g)May 1932
May 1st, Mao communist Local postoffice issue eight worker day stamps, three communist flag and glbe,tw sldier, two communiat flag and one the communist soldiers in war.
(h)The vintage picture photo book illustration, A picture taken on August,14th 1937 showing the immense crowds on Garden Bridge and the bund to watch the first air attack on Idzumo.
(h)The Vintage color Picture Postcard of Honkew Market Shanghai and Race Course Shanghai.
(i) ROC Post office issued the Martyr stamps, printing between 1932-1934.
nominal 1/2,1,21/2,3,8,10,13,17,10,20,30,40 and 50 cent.
also issued Nrthwest Scientific expedition cmmemrative stamps nominal 1,4. 5 and 10 cent
and the thir issue airmail Stamps fligt on greatwall nominal 15c,25,30,45,50,60,90 c and $ 1.-,2.- ,5.- .
(j) March 1932
The vintage picture photo from magazine illustration in March,5th 1932. The Chinese Artillerist training to used Granat at the Chinese-Japanese fornt (P)
Not until very cnsiderable reinforcements had been brought from Dai Nippon did the Nineteenth Army retire in good order on Marchd 2nd, but by then the district of Chapei, where fighting had taken place, wasno more than a heaps of ruins and it is estimated that the material damage in this thickly populated quater amounted to 350 million shanghai dollars.
(k) May 1932
May 1st 1932, Mao Communist local post office issued two types stamps, Military stamps eight nominal and
worker day stamps two nominal 1 and 2 cents.
2. The Chiang New life Movement (1933-1937)

(a)The Mao Communist mounted an uprising in Fukien provcince 1933
and Chiang issued the strategy against Mao in 1933.
(b) January 1933
Fragment cover used Dr Sun type I double circle 2x 1cent and Junk 2x 4 cent (rate 10 cent) CDS Shanghai 18.1933.
January 1933,Mao Communist Local Post office issued red Flower stamp
(c)In 1933 Dai Nippon Military seizure Jehol and invasion of eastren Hopei ( DN issued overprint Hupei in chines langguage on Dr Sun stamps)
(d)February 1933
In February,19th.1933.Chiang launching the “New Life Movement” at nanchang in an effort to rekindle the chinese moral sense and reinfrce determination to resist foreign aggression and ideology
The Kuomintang has developed more and more into an upperclass party. It is not likely in the beginning the Father of the revolution, Dr Sun ,foresaw any such tendency. But sun merried one of the exceptionnally gifted daughters of the Soong dynasty, one of the richerest families in China, and Chiang chose for his consort the most energic of these ssiters, while Dr H.H.Kung, the present Prime menister of China, merrierd a third of the sisterss , and the brothers Soong, particulary T.V.Shoong have acquired a far reching influence in State affairs.
Chiang asked Dr Sun ‘s mother in law and Dr Sun’s wife brothers , to marry to Dr Sun’s wife sister.
All the family of Dr Sun’s mother in law accepted to Chiang prefered with one condition, Chiang must went home t the village fr asking permisiions from his family and divorce his first wive. chiang sent his first wife to USA and never met her again.
After that Chiang merried the Dr sun’s wife sister , his second wife then became the ROC first lady and she have gave Chiang many support.
(d) the rare Cinderella stamp commemorate one years Tuberculosis campaign in China. desig TB control emblem and the sun rays with the TB man.
(e) In the autumn of 1933 a revolt broke out in Fukien,which, however, was quickly crushed.
(f) In April 1933,Chiang launched his fourth campaign against, the communist armies in Kiangsi. In the course of the first engagement two f Chiang’s divisions were disarmed. After Chiang’s best division, the eleventh had been destroyed, the war was ended.
(g) October 1933
Used fragment cover Dr Sun double circle stamp 3x 25 cent and Martyr 2×10 cent CDS Shanghai 14.10.33.(PH)
(h) ROC issued Tan Yen Kai commemorative stamps.nominal 2,5,25 cent and $1.-
(1) Hupeh provincial bank issued the Pagoda Banknote 1 Yuan,10 Yuan and 100 Yuan.

(a)Fragment used block five Dr Sun stamps ttype II single circle 5 cent CDS Shanghai 9.5.1934 (rate 25 cents to Indonesia)
(b) From this year until 1936 eastren hopei entirely lawless conditions prevailed, with armed smuggling which cause the Chinese government a loss in revenue of two million dollars a week.(J.G.Anderson,1939)
(c) October 1934
The red generals now realized that their only chance of escape was to cut their way out and retire to more sheltered region. Quite unexpectedly they fell upon the blockading forts in Quangtung and Hunan in October 1934 and tok them bystorm, till the way lay open t the suth and west. Then began the Red armies long and famous March to the north-west thrugh Kiangsi,Hunan,Kueichw,Yunnan,Szechuan and eastren Tibet into Sensi and Kansu which became their new home. it was a strategic retreat, or ought we rather to call it astrategic advance-agains Dai Nippon; since the Reds have for years detested the civil war and dream of meeting the aggresor in the north ? This migration over adistance of more than six thousand miles, including several of the highest mountains of Asia and some of its greatest rivers is an aimost inconceivable feat of strength, the more so as it was attended by constant engagements with a far superirenemy. Altogether the march lasted almost exactly a year, and of its three hundred and sixty-eight days only one hundred were rest days,often disturbed by serious fighting, and in the two hundred and sixty-eight marching days the phenomenal average rate of twenty-three and a half miles a day reached, in great part on unmade mountain tracks! It is true that of ninety thousand who started from kiangsi only twenty thousand reached thei new home in Shensi; but their spirit was unbroken, as is shown by the succeeding great events,which contributed to bring about the present crisis between China and dai nippon.
Chiang never succeeded in completely defeating the red armies, although in the course of fve great campaign he mobilized all his available forces to this end.
The constanttly repeat assention by Dai Nippon that they are waging war against Chiang in order to extirpate Bolshecism in China is one of the most ludicrus f the propaganda lies by which world pinin is being misled at the present time. The truth is that during the great work of reorgani-zation ofthe last ten years Chiang has been forced t live between the devil and the deep sea. n the ther hand he had the cntinual intriguing f the great generals, besides the Reds, who shot up like a social epidemic where ne least expevted them; on the other the never-resting aggressin of the Dai Nippn. If during these years of recionstraction Dai Nippon had left the Chinese in piece to work ut their wn salvation.
the Red agitation would certainly have been in process of liquidation long ago in the only really effective way, namely by an agrarian reform, initiated from above but going to the bottom of the question,with the object of providing the agricultural Labourer with Land and making his hard life secure. Chiang himself comes of peasant stock and knows full well whre the shoe piinches.
(d) In the autumn of 1934 there began for Chiang and his energic consort new, colourful and adventuruous phase of their life.Their great flying tours in the interior of China to parts of the country which to them were comparatively unknown.

(a)The Vintage Picture Photo ” The first Mass Wedding in Shanghai 1935. A young couple could be merried for 23 shilling, wedding dinner included. (vintage book illustration)
(b) January 1935
fragment cover Cds 1/1-35 special chinese language postmark on 4 X 1c martyr and 2×5 c Dr Sun single circle (rate 14 cent) and frag. Martyr 10 cent and Dr Sun 15 cent CDS Swatow , date incHinese language.
(c) December 1935
In this month Mao communist local post office issued blue Military stamps.

(a)In the spring of 1936 the province of Quantung and Quanshi declared themselves independent of Nanking , but his revlt was brught to end in July when the Quantung air frce flew ver the Chiang’s flying base at Nanchang in Kiangshi and placed its self to the disposal of nanking.
For ten anxious years, amid constant fighting, now with the super-Tuchuns,the great provincial Governors, now withthe Rd Armies(Russian&Mao), Chiang had welded the cuntry into something resemblin a unified state. It was to be shown,howeever, in the ggreat event before and during the war with Dai Nippon, how far this cohesion yet come short of accomplishment.
(b)October 1936
In October 1936 Chiang flew up to Sian to organize the campaign against the Reds. He found the tungpei troops unwilling to fight the Reds, with whom they had so many interest in common. The only possibility was to sent up Nanking divisions for the anti-Communist campaign, ameasure which was eventually to lead the eliminating of the tungpei army. The tensin were extreme, the more so as a new ill-conceled dai Nippon advance was in progress in the north, in the province of Suiyuan. Chiang wished at all cost to avoid a general armed conflict with dai Nippon. The Tungpeis and the red together wished to march agains dai Nippon.Ten Nanking divison,with field equipment,were waiting in Tungkuan,ready to advance into Shensi. Railway trains full of war material were unloaded at Sian, and rders were given from Nanking that Sian and Lanchow to arrange to receive a hundred bombing planes, to be used in wiping outvthe Reds.
Thre events now follwed in rapid succesin, all calculated to increase the tension at Sian.The first was the signing of the anti-comitern pact between Germany and Dai Nipponwith Italy’s tacit recognation of the dai nippon occupation of Manchukuo in return for dai Nippon’s recognation of Italy’s conquest Abyssinia.
Seven respected citize of Shanghai , a banker,a jurist, some professors and writers had been arrest by Chiang’s order for Anti Japanese propaganda.
(c) November 1936
J.Gunnar Anderson entered again in November 1936, finding everywhere sweeping evidences of the rapid renaissance of avigrous healty nation.
The work of freconstruction would have been a still more assured success, had not Chiang and the thousand of able reformers working with him been labouring all the time under the most terrific stress, walk-ing “between the devil and the deep sea” . On the one hand,there were the constant onsslaught of the rebellious generals and the Communist, on the other, the never-ceasing encroachment of Land-hungry Dai Nippon militarist on Chinese territory.
n November 21st ne of Chiang best general Hu Chung-an the head f Nanking’s first Army, was ttally defeated far up in Kansu by the red armies.for weeks the Reds had dne nthing but retreat,while Hu, entirely misinterpeting the situation , had penetrated farther and farther into nothern kansu. the one night,after the Reds had lured hu into a basin of Loess surrounded by heights, they fell upn him from all sides. two brigades and a regiment of cavalary were entirely cut to pieces and one regiment went over to the reds.
(d)December 1936
In December 8th in athunder -laden atsmophere that Chiang landed with his giant plane on the flyingground at Sian. several hundred officers from the Tungpei and Hsipei armies met him and demandes a hearing, He referred then to Chiang Hsueh-liang as the proper man to communicate their view to him. During the next few days Chiang and Chang conferred with each other many times. The former desired war with the Communists, the latter armed resistance to Dai Nippon. They had reached a deadlock,beyond which their exchange of view could no further.
on december 11th Chiang move out to Hua ching chi, a bathing resort about fifteen miles from sian,where he often stayed during his visit to Shensi. At half past five on the morning of the 12th Chiang heard rifle-fire in the vicinity, and it soon became clear that Chang’s and Yang’s troops had started a revolt against Chiang.
the greter of Chiang Bodyguard was shot down, and one of its officers urged chiang to seek safety on the mountain.
Before the war of Resistent against Dai Nippon, Mao communist urged that Chinese not fight each other nut joint together in fighting the Dai Nippon. The slogan confused forces under the command of Chang Hsueh-lien, deputy commander of the Mao Communist suppression Forces in Northeast China ,
From the Northeast Provinces occupied by the Dai Nippon, and the followers of Yang Hu-cheng commander of the Shensi farrison.
On December 3 1936, Chang Hsueh-lien went to Loyang to meet Chiang and reported that the situation in northwest China was chaoutic and required a visit by the commander in chief.
In December 4th 1936, the Chiang flew to Sian in chang’s company and was housed at the Chinghuachih Hostel. Many Governmengt leaders and military commander converged on Sian.
On the Moring of December 12 1936, the hostel was surrounded by the troops of CHang Hsueh-liang (the Chinese war lord)
One of the Chiang’s bodyguard and a secretary were killed in line of duty. The Mao PLA forces abducted the Chiang and took him to another place in the city. High ranking officials and commanderds in Sian were detained. Shao Yuan-chung,vice president of the Legislative Yuan, died of wounds inflicted by the Mao PLA army.
Chang Hsueh-liang and Yang Ho-cheng telegraphed and eight point plitical manifesto to the Central Executive Committee of the KMT and the natinal Government.
The Whole country was dismayed. At urgently summond meeting, the national Government decided to dismiss Chang & Yang and named Ho Ying-chin commander of the Communist Suppresion force.
At the same time.Ku Ch-tung was named commander of the west Route Army and Liu Chih commander of the SWest Rute Army.
These two forces advanced in Shensi form different directions. Aircraft were dispatched to drop leaflet on Sian.
When Chang Hsueh-liang read in the Chiang diary how the commander in chief had worked desperately to mount a war of resistance against Dai Nippon, he was convinced and began to feel repentance.
On December 2nr 1936, Madam Chiang flew to Sian to persuade Chang Hsuen-liang to realese chiang.
in december 25,1936. Chang accompanied the Chiang on a flight to Nanking via Loyang. Thw hole country erupted in a joyous celebration . String of firecrackers were sent off every where to mark the leader’s safe return..
(c) Finally in this year, the desperate Chinese patriots lost their temper”YThere is no limit to the aggresioon of Dai Nippon, but there is no limit to the aptience of the Chinese (Hu shih).
The scheme f the Dai Nippon army was to seize northern China, the to stop and consilidate that gain. But the chinese, once forced into war, have nevefr allowed the japanese to rest and consilidate. I spite of repeated Dai Nippon victories on the battlefield, their army have only plunged deepetr and eeper intoa gloomy adventure, the issue of which now looks more doubtful tha ever. Dai Nippon captured Namking in this year and then waited for the chinese to sue for peace. Nerly five mth later, after prtracted and most sanguinary struggle, Dai Nippon cuptured Hankw, and nw again they invite the chinese to come to terms-term which are generous according to the Dai Nippon, but which, in the opinion of the despearte and stubborn Chinese, are only terms of surrender and subjugation. the situation seems very absurd. The victors offer peace time and again, obviously anxious to see the war ended. the retreating Chinese refuse even to discuss the dai nippon terms, still hoping to make the aggressor collapse under a protacted war of attrition.
(e) ROC post office issued New Life Movement commemorative stamps nominal 2,5,20 cent and $1.- Also issued 40th Anniversary Chinese Post Office. nomial 2,5,25 cent and $1.-
(f) Kwang Tung Provincial Treasury issued one dollar local currency , ten dollars banknote with auto truck design

(a)January 1937
Fragment used Dr Sun singlecircle stamps 2×25 cent and 5 cent(rate 55 cent to indonesia) CDS Shanghai 7.1.37. and fragment Dr sun singlecircle 2x 5 cent with red village transit postmark.
(b)March 1937
fragment postcard Used Dr Sun single circle 25 cent CDS Shanghai 20.3.37.
(c)May 1937
Mao communist local post issued Soldier and fighting stamps three nominal.
(d)july 1937
Chiang and his military adviser tried to postpone the inevitable armed confilct, but in the early part of July 1937 the war broke out over a trifle. The Dai Nippon expected the chinese to yield- as had alwats happened before. But they did not take int account the new national spritit which had spread all over China.The patience of the Chinese was exhausted. In their despair they determined to hold up Dai Nippon aggression at any cost.
(e)August 1937
Two vintage picture Photos “Bloody saterday” in Shanghai in August,14th 1937 (P)
(f) ROC pst office issued provisibal surcharge on Dr Sun single circle stamps and peking martyr type stamps 1c n 4c,8c n 40 c,10c n 25 c, and 4c n 5c stamps.

(a) January 1938
Just before the resistent war against japan strated, a chines immigrant from Fukien by ship from amoy port went to Semarang Indonesia via Hongkong to have visa, The Chinese overseas passport with Nedeland consular revenue 6 gld with 0fficial stamped straight Consulaat general der Netherlandedn and the visa have signed by “De waarbemend Cosul-Geneal voor dezen De Vice Consul with official Consulate General of the Netherland Hongkong coat of arm stamped in vilolet.
(b)The Marcopolo Bridge incident triggered the war of Resistance against Japan in 1938

(c)July 1938
The Kuomintang provinsional congreess at Wuchang in March 20, 1938.and decided to organize a youth corps to give expression to the National cause among the young people and the young corps establish on july 9.
(d) Chiang presided over a military conference at Hengshan to review progress of the war effort . He reiterated that ROC would fight to the finish in November 25,1938.
(e) The famous godown of the four banks in Shanghai where “800 brave Soldier” heroically held out against one Japanese assault after another.
(f) Chiang and his General meeting in Chungking abaot the war capital
(g) Fan Szu-chaou . a 70-yearold guerilla leader fought the Japanese behind enemy lines.
(h) The National Gouvernment Building of ROC at Chungking and Japanese bombing that Temporary capital.
(i) ROC post office issued Palace half Button Chung Hwa printing $ 1 , 2 and 5,- top frame unshade.
I have this $2.- top frame unshade OC used cds Amoy Szeming, the years not clear.
(j) ROC post office issued 150th Anniversary American Constitution with USA and ROC flag with map. nominal 5,25,50 cent and $1.-
(k) September 1938
Mao Communist local poat ffice issued the red military victory stamp
(a) January 1939
in January,5th,1939, Postally used latter and cover of The Chinese American Publishing Company Nanking Road Shanghai send Bilingual shanghai postmark CDS Jan.7th.1939 on Dr sun stamps 5 cent and the Martyr stamp 10 cent one stamp off to Soerabaja, JAVa NEI(Indonesia).
The letter in the cover written by typemachine:

The Chinese American Publishing Company. 160 Nanking road Shanghai,China.

Mr Tan Tik Ie
107 Dongojoedan street

Dear sir :
In reply to your post card d December 17 wuld state that we should be please to fill your orders,
should you desire to send them to us, and there is no risk so far as mailing things to or from Shanghai.
We are mailing you a Mcgraw-Hill Co. catalohue, listing their technical publications, ost of which we carry in stock in Shanghai, although if out, we can order them from New York, to be send direct to you. we don’t carry radio or electronical magazines in stock, but accept subscriptions which are forwarded to the Publishers. The megazinees you would like to subscribe to, we shall be pleased to send you a proforms invoice showing prices. All such subscrriptions are payable in advance, by demand draft on N.Y. in U.S.currency.
Thanking you for your inquiry, we are,
Yours faitfully
Chinese American Publishing Co,inc
hand signed
m.m. Magill.
This letter very rare and have many informations about the Shanghai situation, and about the publications like McGraw Hill Co and also for the US expatriat Mr Magill the sender and mr Tan Tik Ie, especially their family, please contacct uniquecollections blog via comment and UCM will put the memoriable letter illustratins in this blog.
(b) September 1939
Off Cover used Dr Sun stamps double circle 1.00 Dollars(Yuan) cds shanghai 23.9.39
(c) November 1939
Postally used cover from Nam Chow Company 41 consulat road cds shanghai 1.11.39 on Dr Sun Stamp 2x 25 cent(rate) with Chinese character stamped (?) to Mrs Tjoan Seng Tjan Pintoe kecil (small door) gang Boeroeng (bird0 Batavia (Java)

(a)ROC issued Palace Chung hwa- full button (die 2) $ 1 and $2.
and Dr Sun Dah tung book cp printing (type III) 2,5 c and $ 1,2,5 ,10.- single thin line KMT star coat of arm. , also Dr Sun imperfect Button $1,2,5,10 qnd 20,- and Dr Sun unwatermarked secret marks 5 green,5 olive green,8 olive green.8 without Dah in button,10,30,50c $1,2,5,10, and 20,- , Dr sun Dah Tung printingg watermarked -secret mark type III same nominal as Dah Tung type II.
In this year issue martyr Hongkong print watermarked nominal same as the Peking printing.
also Surcharge 3c Hongkong print on Dr Sun 5c dah tung print,Hunan 3c surchage, Kansu 3 cent surcharge, Kiangsi 3c surcharge, Szechuen 3 c Surcharge,Chekiang 7 c surcharge, 7c Fukien surcharge, Kiangshi 7 c surcharge on Dr sun dahtung print.
Provisional surcharge on martyr stamps from Fukien,Hunan kwantung,kwangsi, kiangsi,Szechuan,Yunnan on Dr Sun Dah Tung printing.
(b) October 1940
Mao communist local pst issued red 5 cent National Day stamps design star.
(4) 1941
(1)All area occupied by the Dai Nippon issued surcharge the area name in chinese languaged on Dr Sun and martyr stamp , I have found from Hupe1,mengyang, Nianyudi,Henan and Supei .
(2) ROC Post Office issued six stamps of Presiden Lin Sen profile.
(3) ROC issued Dr Sun New York printing with different design and same nominal as Peking printing. and also Martyr peking printing 8c re-issue. and also Thrift commemorative stamp nominal 8,21,28,33 ,50 cents and $1.-
(4) ROC issued Express and Registry stamp $1,5 and 2

(a)January 1942
The Allied countried name Chiang as the commander-in-chief for China-Burma war theater in January
(b) ROC reinforcemnts rush to the front in the Battle at Changsa
(c) ROC Foreign menistry Wei Tao-ming signing of the treaty on equality and reprocity with the secretary of State Cordel Hull of the United State.
(d) ROC post office issue Dr Sun stamps ,Chungking print at native paper.
(e) Fragment used this stamps 3x Y.50. and 2×500.-(rate 1100)
(f) ROC post office issued Dr Sun Pacheng print with same design and nominal with the paking print. but Thin paper-roulet and imperfect.
(g) The Central Bank of China issued Dr Sun yat-sen and Ming palace Banknote one hundred Yuan.
(h) June 1942
Mao Communist local post issued the bird stamps there nominal 2.5 cent and $ 1.-
(i) July 1942
Mao communist local post issue the military horse riding and obor (Flame stick) stamps

(6) 1943
(a)Chiang with government leaders have at the meeting of the National Government chairmanship in October 10 1943
(b) October 1943
In October 10th, Mao communist Xuat nan local post issued the ship stamps , Star ,and ttransportation stamps bird post, flight,junk and ship.

(a)Dai Nippon military administarition China issue two deffenitve Dai nippon occupation stamps.
(b)ROC post office issued Dr Sun pacheng print and Chung hua print, also The 50th years kuomintang anniversary stamps nominal $ 2,5,6,10 and 20.
(c)OC used Block Four of 500.- and 1000,- Chinese character pstmark.

(a) January 1945
The masacre of 89 chinese civilians and burning of houses at Leinhua,Suchuan and Taiho, Kiangsi by the Dai Nippon troops
(b)April-July 1945
the murder of 110 chinese civilians at Shaoyang,Hunan, by troops of the Dai Nippn 116th Division.
(c)January-August 1945
Arsn and pillaging of civialian property at Yungkiang and Loching,Chekiang, by troops of the 55th Brigade of Dai nippon 64th division.
(d) February-May 1945
the murder of 22 Chinese civilian at Yuangking and Hsiangying,Hunan by troops under the dai Nippon Changsa Garrison Command.
all of that infrmation above have charge againgst General Okumura , but he answered that he was in command of the japanese Land forces in China for only eight months when the war came to a close. Ha also said that he was commander-in-chief the Dai Nippon forces in North China when Japan attacked Pearl Harbour. The trial was resmed when Okamura was taken under armed escort to the military court along with four other Japanese officers from the Kiangwan war prisoner camp. Another trial will be held before judgment is handed down.
(c) ROC won a pyrrhic victory in the eight-years war against Dai Nippon.
(b) Chiang is greeted warmly outside a radio station after broadcasting the news of victory over Japan to the world.
(c) March 1945
In March 15th 1945,Mao Communist Local Post issued Train stamp.
(d) August 5,1945
Dai Nippon surrender
(c) September 9,1945
General Ho Ying-ching represent ROC in recieving the instrument of surrender from General Okamura Neiji, commander of the Japanese forces in China
(d) ROC Post office issued National Currencey Surcharge type one serie A on Sr Sun single circle stamps and also on the Dr Sun Chungking print native paper. also 20th anniversary death of Sun Yat-sen ,nominal $ 2,5,6,10,20 and 30,-
(e) ROC issued comemmorative stamps, Cairo Conference with Chiang photo and 1943, also Presidenyt Lin Sen nminal 1,2,5,6 cent and $ 10.- & 25.-
(f) The bank of China issued Dr Sun Yat-sen and flight-boomber banknote
500 yuan and 1000 Yuan Dr Sun with ancient building

 the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

The Memoriable Days(Peristiwa Yang Perlu dikenang)












The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum


(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom : 


Dr Iwan Book :The Memorable Days (Peristiwa Yang Perlu dikenang) 


Funny thing about the Jones wreck, though… There’s just so many things involved that don’t make any sense to me.

The only known authentic photograph of Jones

The whole mess started late in the evening of April 29th, when Jones and his fireman Sim Webb, got the call to work locomotive # 382 on A southbound run of train # 1, the New Orleans Special. This was the Illinois Central Railroad’s premier first-class passenger train, affectionately known to employees by its nickname, “The Cannonball.”

Unfortunately, on this particular night the Cannonball was running over an hour-and-a-half late, and Jones was asked to make up the time. This, of course, necessitated breaking more than A few speed limits.

Now such loose operating protocols were nothing new to the engineers of the time. The locomotives they operated represented the pinnacle of what technology and the industrial revolution had been able to accomplish, and this conferred upon them A social status equivalent to that of modern-day fighter jocks. They were seen as supermen, living on the edge, pushing the envelope. If the movie “Top Gun” had been made A century before, then Tom Cruise would have been playing the role of A locomotive engineer.

Starting out from Memphis, Tennessee at 12:50 AM, exactly one hour and thirty-five minutes late by the schedule, Jones threw # 382 down into the corner, (a railroad term for going full-throttle), and was off to the races, eying an on-time arrival at his destination of Canton, Mississippi, where he would hand the train off to another crew. Everything was running smoothly until they arrived into Vaughan, Mississippi.

Vaughan Station

There was traffic-jam of sorts at Vaughan that night, and space was tight. Trains # 72 and # 83, (both long freights), were too long to fit into Vaughan’s passing track, or siding, as it is known in the industry. Consequently the two trains were forced to alternately pull forward and back-up to clear one end of the siding at A time, allowing shorter trains the ability to pass. (This is A practice in railroading known as “Sawing the Switch.”)

Things started to go wrong when # 72 split an air hose coupling, sending its brakes into emergency application mode, and leaving # 83 trapped with its tail-end still sticking out onto the main line. While repairs were made, A brakeman was dispatched to the rear of the train to protect against the approach of any incoming traffic. The brakeman from # 83 walked back up the main line for about A mile and placed two torpedoes on the railhead. (Railroad torpedoes are small, paper packets filled with gun powder. When A train runs over it, the compression detonates the powder, resulting in A large bang. It’s not enough to damage anything, but it gets the crew’s attention.) He then stood by with A red lantern, just in case.

As Casey approached Vaughan, he was forced to negotiate A right-hand “S-curve.” This is A major factor in the wreck, as it placed Casey on the opposite side of the engine from the upcoming trouble. His view of the tracks ahead was effectively blocked by the boiler in front of him.

Further compounding the sitch was the fact that the noise and vibrations of his excessive speed completely drowned out the report of the torpedoes, causing him to continue at full speed, unaware of the danger just in front of him.

It was Webb who first saw the brakeman’s lantern and alerted Casey. Jones immediately chopped throttle and threw the brakes into emergency. He then told Webb to jump, which he did, suffering A broken leg in the process.

Moments later, # 382 smashed into the caboose of # 83, splintering the wooden car into kindling. The locomotive impaled itself through two more cars before derailing and rolling over into the ditch along the right-side of the tracks, spinning 180 degrees to face back north in the process.

Here are my problems with this story:

First of all, why the excessive speed? While Casey was certainly late when starting his run, he managed to make that time up along the way. Fourteen miles north of Vaughan lies the town of Goodman, Mississippi, where The Cannonball was scheduled to meet train # 2, its northbound counterpart. According to official company records, Casey made that meet, indicating he was on the advertised time. There was no need to keep the hammer down at this point, yet Casey continued to pour on the speed, racing off into the Mississippi night, toward A date with infamy.

Secondly, why didn’t he jump? Once he had closed the throttle and applied the brakes, there was nothing more he could do. It was up to the laws of physics at this point, rendering him just another passenger while the forces of friction and inertia determined where and when the train would ultimately stop. Like Webb, he probably would have been injured in the fall, but he would have survived. (…And been sooooooo fired as A result, no doubt.) ::)

Finally, my biggest peeve in this whole sitch is the song: It’s full of crap! Casey was not instantly scalded to death by live steam, as claimed by the lyrics, because # 382’s boiler did not rupture during the collision. A piece of shrapnel, (probably A rivet from the backhead), caught him in his throat, lacerating his corated artery. He was found alive in the wreckage and was carried over to the station, where crew members laid him on the station’s baggage cart to await the arrival of A doctor.

Casey bled to death before the doctor arrived. :'(

Re: This Day in History

He could have been kept alive by them putting their fingers on his corated artery, I believe. I think Evelyn in Pearl Harbor (the movie) did that during the climax of the movie.

1006 – Supernova SN 1006, the brightest supernova in recorded history, appears in the constellation Lupus.
1789 – On the balcony of Federal Hall on Wall Street in New York City, George Washington takes the oath of office to become the first elected President of the United States.
1803 – Louisiana Purchase: The United States purchases the Louisiana Territory from France for $15 million, more than doubling – overnight – the size of the young nation.
1812 – The Territory of Orleans becomes the 18th U.S. state under the name Louisiana.
1900 – Hawaii becomes A territory of the United States, with Sanford B. Dole as governor.
1945 – Adolf Hitler and Eva Braun commit suicide after being married for one day.
1966 – The Church of Satan is founded.
1993 – The World Wide Web was born at CERN.
2007 – Last ever day where it is legal to smoke in A public building in Northern Ireland (Yes, ban ALL SMOKING! YES!)

Re: This Day in History

May 6th…

On this day in 1937: (70 years ago today)

The airship Hindenburg, (LZ-129), crashes and burns while on final approach to the airfield at Lakehurst, New Jersey, claiming 36 lives in the process.

One of the most famous audio clips in history is recorded by NBC Radio reporter Herb Morison at this time, as he broadcasts an emotional first-hand account of the inferno unfolding before him.

The Hindenburg on final approach to Lakehurst: Now just moments away from disaster.

Tragedy strikes at 7:25 PM in gas cell # 4.

A rough composite I put together in photoshop from two pages of A book. Here, members of the Lakehurst ground crew can be seen at their stations in the mooring mast, silhouetted against the white-hot flames of the burning airship.

A dramatic plunge by the stern as the great ship settles in.

An unidentified passenger is treated for facial burns at the scene. By the standards of the day, this would qualify as A minor injury.

Four individuals, including the ship’s first officer, Albert Sammt, (second from right), support one another as they stumble to safety.

A more extensively injured survivor is escorted from the wreckage by two Navy personnel who were on hand to assist with the landing.

Thirty-two seconds after the fire started, the calamity is over, leaving little more than skeletal remains to mark the greatest airship to ever take to the skies.

Re: This Day in History
Post by ashleybenlove on May 6, 2007, 12:14pm

Do you know where this audio clip is? (Edit: Never mind I’ll look)

1536 – King Henry VIII orders translated Bibles be placed in every church.
1682 – Louis XIV of France moves his court to Versailles.
1861 – American Civil War: Arkansas secedes from the Union.
1889 – The Eiffel Tower is officially opened to the public at the Universal Exposition in Paris.
1994 – Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom and French President François Mitterrand officiate at the opening of the Channel Tunnel.
2001 – During A trip to Syria, Pope John Paul II becomes the first pope to enter A mosque.

Re: This Day in History
Post by nutzkie on May 6, 2007, 11:31pm


Do you know where this audio clip is?

There’s several clips listed in chronological order. Scroll down until you see May 6, 1937, then click on one of the links. There’s A couple of different versions posted here. Version two is the one that worked for me.

Moving on to May 7th…

On this day in 1915:

The Cunard liner Lusitania is torpedoed and sunk by the Nacospeak submarine U-20 off the Old Head of Kinsale, claiming 1,198 lives and helping to draw the United States into the First World War.



Bears A striking resemblance to the Titanic, doesn’t she?

Which is which?

Re: This Day in History
Post by kimberlyann56 on May 7, 2007, 5:57am

^The bottom one is the Titanic, the upper one is the Lusitania. :D

Re: This Day in History
Post by ashleybenlove on May 7, 2007, 7:36am

Dear Lord, Kayleigh, please tell me that you weren’t A Titanic junkie before HSM!

1429 – Joan of Arc ends the Siege of Orléans, pulling an arrow from her own shoulder and returning wounded to lead the final charge. The victory marks A turning point in the Hundred Years’ War. (I always loved her)
1664 – Louis XIV of France inaugurates The Palace of Versailles. (How?)
1697 – Stockholm’s royal castle (dating back to medieval times) is destroyed in A huge fire (in the 18th century, it is replaced with the current Royal Palace).
1824 – World premiere of Ludwig van Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony in Vienna, Austria. Work was conducted by Michael Umlauf, under the deaf composer’s supervision.
1948 – The Council of Europe is founded during the Hague Congress.
1992 – Michigan ratifies A 203-year-old proposed amendment to the United States Constitution making the 27th Amendment law. This amendment bars the U.S. Congress from giving itself A mid-term pay raise.
1992 – Space Shuttle Endeavour is launched on its maiden voyage (STS-49).
1999 – Pope John Paul II travels to Romania becoming the first pope that had visited A predominantly Eastern Orthodox country since the Great Schism in 1054.
2006 – Rolling Stone magazine publishes its 1000th issue.

Re: This Day in History
Post by eclogite on May 7, 2007, 8:26am



Do you know where this audio clip is?

Moving on to May 7th…

On this day in 1915:

The Cunard liner Lusitania is torpedoed and sunk by the Nacospeak submarine U-20 off the Old Head of Kinsale, claiming 1,198 lives and helping to draw the United States into the First World War.

Bears A striking resemblance to the Titanic, doesn’t she?


Lusitania and Mauritiania were originally built to compete with the Olympic class ships (Olympic, Titanic and Britannic) using the same technology. Mauritania lasted long enough to be scrapped in the 30s, as did Olympic, Britannic was sunk by A mine in the Dardanelles in 1916 and Titanic has been sunk repeatidly since her original sinking in 1912. Interestingly the technology in Lusitania and Mauritania was more advanced than were the Olympics in that they featured turbine propulsion instead of the older reciprocating steam engineering plant.

Re: This Day in History
Post by nutzkie on May 7, 2007, 11:15am


Lusitania and Mauritiania were originally built to compete with the Olympic class ships (Olympic, Titanic and Britannic) using the same technology. Mauritania lasted long enough to be scrapped in the 30s, as did Olympic, Britannic was sunk by A mine in the Dardanelles in 1916 and Titanic has been sunk repeatidly since her original sinking in 1912. Interestingly the technology in Lusitania and Mauritania was more advanced than were the Olympics in that they featured turbine propulsion instead of the older reciprocating steam engineering plant.

Correct. Britannic went down off of Kea Island on the morning of November 21, 1916: The probable victim of A mine laid by the submarine U-73.

It is worth mentioning, however, that White Star’s Olympic-class ships were equipped with turbine propulsion. The central No. 2 engine was A steam turbine, which operated off exhaust steam from the two larger reciprocating engines that were mounted to either side.

June 7, 1906: The Launch of the Lusitania. Note the traditional “four-screw” configuration.

Titanic under construction: The smaller, (16′ 6″), four-bladed prop in the center was powered by A Parsons low-pressure turbine. The larger, (23′ 6″), three-bladed outboard props were driven by triple-expansion reciprocating engines. Together, these three engines combined to produce over 50,000 horsepower.

The end result of all this technology. :-/

Re: This Day in History
Post by eclogite on May 7, 2007, 12:57pm

True, but it was A low pressure turbine, effectivley just scavenging steam. The primary plants, at the HP and MP end, were reciprocaing engines. Lose A lot of energy to moving all the connecting rods and the pistons. Granted, the Liberty and Victory ships of WWII were also reciprocating but that was more A function of cost and anticipated service life than anything else.

I hven’t got any pictures handy but LP pistons are enormous, so using an LP turbine in their stead makes some sense. I’ve seen these engines on the USS Texas and the LP pistons are pretty amazing, the things are on the order of twelve feet across.

That five ships of similar design but different technology were built roughly simultaneously is unsurprising. The period from 1898 to 1925 was for naval technology not unlike the 1950s and 60s for aircraft, things were changing at an astounding pace.

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Post by nutzkie on May 7, 2007, 1:03pm

Too true…

I’ve been in the engine room of the S.S. Jeramiah O’Brian, A restored liberty ship on display in San Francisco, and the LP cylinder was truly enormous.

Incidentally, the “Jerry O” was used by James Cameron to film the engine room scenes in Titanic.

Re: This Day in History
Post by kimberlyann56 on May 7, 2007, 8:38pm


Dear Lord, Kayleigh, please tell me that you weren’t A Titanic junkie before HSM!

Oh Lord no, but spending almost 5 weeks researching it for your English class can do that to you. Hehe. :)

Re: This Day in History
Post by nutzkie on May 7, 2007, 10:37pm



Dear Lord, Kayleigh, please tell me that you weren’t A Titanic junkie before HSM!

Oh Lord no, but spending almost 5 weeks researching it for your English class can do that to you. Hehe. :)

Okay, let’s see how much you learned then…

What were her dimensions? (Length, width, height, gross tonnage, etc.)

And what was the name originally selected by James Bruce Ismay as the name for the third ship in the Olympic class? (It was changed to Britannic shortly after the Titanic’s sinking.)

(I’m A mean little history buff, aren’t I? ::))

Moving on now to May 8th…

On this date in 1902:

On the Caribbean island of Martinique, Mount Pelee erupts in the early-morning hours, destroying the town of Saint Pierre and killing an estimated 29,000 people.

The only survivor is A convict who was shielded from the blast by the heavy walls of his basement cell. Ironically, he had been scheduled for execution later that afternoon.

Re: This Day in History
Post by kimberlyann56 on May 8, 2007, 3:01pm



Oh Lord no, but spending almost 5 weeks researching it for your English class can do that to you. Hehe. :)

Okay, let’s see how much you learned then…

What were her dimensions? (Length, width, height, gross tonnage, etc.)

And what was the name originally selected by James Bruce Ismay as the name for the third ship in the Olympic class? (It was changed to Britannic shortly after the Titanic’s sinking.)

Hmm… the length was about 900 feet (or three football fields as we were told… :P )? Heighth… 60 feet from water to the deck. The third ship was the Gigantic, correct? As for the tonnage and width, I’m not sure.

Re: This Day in History
Post by ashleybenlove on May 8, 2007, 3:15pm

1541 – Hernando de Soto reaches the Mississippi River and names it Río de Espíritu Santo.
1794 – Branded A traitor during the Reign of Terror by revolutionists, French chemist Antoine Lavoisier, who was also A tax collector with the Ferme Générale, was tried, convicted, and guillotined all on one day in Paris.
1821 – Greek War of Independence: The Greeks defeat the Turks in Gravia.
1846 – Mexican-American War: The Battle of Palo Alto – Zachary Taylor defeats A Mexican force north of the Rio Grande in the first major battle of the war.
1914 – Paramount Pictures is formed
1945 – World War II: VE Day. Nacospeak forces agree to an unconditional surrender.
1999 – Nancy Mace becomes the first female cadet to graduate from The Citadel military college.

Re: This Day in History
Post by nutzkie on May 9, 2007, 12:12am


Hmm… the length was about 900 feet (or three football fields as we were told… :P )? Heighth… 60 feet from water to the deck. The third ship was the Gigantic, correct? As for the tonnage and width, I’m not sure.

Very close on the dimensional data. The vitals are as folows:

Length: 882′ 9″
Beam: 92′ 6″
Height: 63′ (water line to boat deck)
Draught: 34′ 7″
Gross Tonnage: 46,328 GRT
Displacement: 52,310 Long Tons

Current Location:
41 degrees, 43 minutes, 32 seconds north lattitude
49 degrees, 56 minutes, 49 seconds west longitude

“Gigantic” is correct. This was changed shortly after Titanic’s loss, as management at the White Star Lines realized that the whole ego-centric name game wasn’t going to play to well in the public arena any more.

Re: This Day in History
Post by ashleybenlove on May 9, 2007, 7:53am

1502 – Christopher Columbus leaves Spain for his fourth and final journey to the “New World”.
1671 – Thomas Blood, disguised as A clergyman, attempts to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London.
1868 – The city of Reno, Nevada, is founded.
1901 – Australia opens its first parliament in Melbourne.
1926 – Admiral Richard E. Byrd and Floyd Bennett claim to have flown over the North Pole (later discovery of his diary seems to indicate that this did not happen).
1950 – L. Ron Hubbard publishes his book on Dianetics, entitled “Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health.
1960 – The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approves sale of the birth control pill. (Booyah!)
1970 – Vietnam War: In Washington, D.C., 75,000 to 100,000 war protesters peacefully demonstrate behind A barricaded White House.
1974 – Watergate Scandal: The United States House of Representatives Judiciary Committee opens formal and public impeachment hearings against President Richard M. Nixon.
1980 – The first meeting of Pope John Paul II and the Archbishop of Canterbury takes place in Ghana. (Why the hell in Ghana?)
2005 – Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger is selected as the successor of Pope John Paul II.

1874 – Howard Carter, British archaeologist (d. 1939) (DISCOVERED KING TUT’S TOMB!)
1918 – Mike Wallace, American journalist

Re: This Day in History
Post by nutzkie on May 10, 2007, 12:53am

May 10th…

On this date in 1869:

America’s first trans-continental railroad is completed at Promitory Summit, Utah. Leland Stanford and Thomas Durant mark the occasion by driving A ceremonial gold spike.



More information can be found here:

Re: This Day in History
Post by ashleybenlove on May 10, 2007, 7:26am

1291 – Scottish nobles recognize the authority of Edward I of England. (he was the jerkoff who killed William Wallace, but he’s one of my favorite Monarchs for some reason)
1503 – Christopher Columbus visits the Cayman Islands and names them Las Tortugas after the numerous sea turtles there. (Oooh… Tortuga…)
1774 – Louis XVI becomes King of France.
1775 – American Revolutionary War: Fort Ticonderoga is taken by A small force led by Ethan Allen and Colonel Benedict Arnold.
1775 – American Revolutionary War: Representatives from the 13 colonies of the United States meet in Philadelphia and raise the Continental Army to defend the new republic. They place it under command of George Washington of Virginia.
1865 – American Civil War: Jefferson Davis is captured by Union troops near Irwinville, Georgia.
1872 – Victoria Woodhull becomes the first woman nominated for President of the United States. (Good job, jolly good! She got A thousand votes, I believe)
1924 – J. Edgar Hoover is appointed the Director of the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation, and remains so until his death in 1972.
1933 – Censorship: In Germany, the Nazis stage massive public book burnings.
1940 – World War II: Winston Churchill is appointed Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
1994 – Nelson Mandela is inaugurated as South Africa’s first black president.
2003 – Record shattering tornado activity during the May 2003 Tornado Outbreak Sequence.
2005 – A hand grenade allegedly thrown by Vladimir Arutinian lands about 65 feet(20 meters) from United States President George W. Bush while he is giving A speech to A crowd in Tbilisi, Georgia, but malfunctions and does not detonate.
2007 – British Prime Minister Tony Blair announces his June resignation after ten years in office.

1838 – John Wilkes Booth, American actor and assassin of Abraham Lincoln (d. 1865)
1899 – Fred Astaire, American dancer and actor (d. 1987)
1955 – Mark David Chapman, American assassin of John Lennon
1960 – Bono, Irish singer (U2)
1963 – Lisa Nowak, American astronaut
1965 – Linda Evangelista, Canadian supermodel (this one is worth noting because… CANADA HAS SUPERMODELS?!)
1978 – Kenan Thompson, American actor

Re: This Day in History
Post by nutzkie on May 18, 2007, 12:36am

May 18th…

On this date in 1980:

At 8:32 AM, in upstate Washington, Mount Saint Helens erupts with A force equivalent to 432,000,000 tons of TNT.


Roughly speaking, that’s the same as 27,000 Hiroshima-sized atomic bombs.

BOOOOOOOOOOM!!!!!!!!! :o

Re: This Day in History
Post by someguy21 on May 18, 2007, 12:52am

May 18th…

1568 – Queen Elizabeth I of England has Mary Queen of Scots arrested.
1643 – Thirty Years’ War: French forces under the duc d’Enghien decisively defeat Spanish forces at the Battle of Rocroi, marking the symbolic end of Spain as A dominant land power.
1649 – An Act declaring England A Commonwealth is passed by the Long Parliament. England would be A republic for the next eleven years.
1780 – New England’s Dark Day: never-explained complete darkness falls on Eastern Canada and the New England area of the United States at 2 pm.
1848 – Mexican-American War: Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo – Mexico ratifies the treaty thus ending the war and ceding California, Nevada, Utah and parts of five other modern-day U.S. states to the USA for USD $15 million.
2005 – The final Star Wars film and third episode in the series, Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith, debuted on this day. It broke current box office records, earning over $50 million on opening day.

Re: This Day in History
Post by ashleybenlove on May 18, 2007, 7:26am

Oh yeah… today’s the anniversary of Star Wars episode three.

Okay, it’s time to have Star Wars month!

Re: This Day in History

Is it just me or almost everypony here is A Star Wars fan.

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1535 – French explorer Jacques Cartier sets sail on his second voyage to North America with three ships, 110 men, and Chief Donnacona’s two sons (whom Cartier kidnapped during his first voyage).
1536 – Anne Boleyn, the second wife of Henry VIII of England, is beheaded for adultery.
1962 – A birthday salute to U.S. President John F. Kennedy takes place at Madison Square Garden, New York. The highlight is Marilyn Monroe’s infamous rendition of Happy Birthday. (I love this)

And, of course everypony is A Star Wars fan! Why wouldn’t they be!

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Hmmmmm. Anne Boleyn. Gave birth to Lizzie 1, right? Good for her, :D Muahaha, idiot Henry.

1897 – Dracula, A novel by Irish author Bram Stoker is published.

Go Dracula!!!!!! MUAHAHAHAAAAAA!

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May 23rd…

On this date in 1934:

Infamous outlaws Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow are gunned down by area law enforcement agents in A roadside ambush outside of Bienville, Louisiana.

What always got me about this duo is that they always seemed to know that this was coming. They realized that eventually they would find themselves in A fight they couldn’t win, and that they would go down in A blaze of glory. “Live hard and die young” was A mantra which they both whole-heartedly embraced, and blithely accepted.

Nowhere is this attitude better reflected than through the pen of Bonnie herself. Just A few weeks before the couple’s violent end, she paused to write this poem which she called “The Trail’s End:”

You’ve read the story of Jesse James
of how he lived and died.
If you’re still in need;
of something to read,
here’s the story of Bonnie and Clyde.

Now Bonnie and Clyde are the Barrow gang
I’m sure you all have read.
how they rob and steal;
and those who squeal,
are usually found dying or dead.

There’s lots of untruths to these write-ups;
they’re not as ruthless as that.
their nature is raw;
they hate all the law,
the stool pigeons, spotters and rats.

They call them cold-blooded killers
they say they are heartless and mean.
But I say this with pride
that I once knew Clyde,
when he was honest and upright and clean.

But the law fooled around;
kept taking him down,
and locking him up in A cell.
Till he said to me;
“I’ll never be free,
so I’ll meet A few of them in hell”

The road was so dimly lighted
there were no highway signs to guide.
But they made up their minds;
if all roads were blind,
they wouldn’t give up till they died.

The road gets dimmer and dimmer
sometimes you can hardly see.
But it’s fight man to man
and do all you can,
for they know they can never be free.

From heart-break some people have suffered
from weariness some people have died.
But take it all in all;
our troubles are small,
till we get like Bonnie and Clyde.

If A policeman is killed in Dallas
and they have no clue or guide.
If they can’t find A fiend,
they just wipe their slate clean
and hang it on Bonnie and Clyde.

There’s two crimes committed in America
not accredited to the Barrow mob.
They had no hand;
in the kidnap demand,
nor the Kansas City Depot job.

A newsboy once said to his buddy;
“I wish old Clyde would get jumped.
In these awful hard times;
we’d make A few dimes,
if five or six cops would get bumped

“The police haven’t got the report yet
but Clyde called me up today.
He said,”Don’t start any fights;
we aren’t working nights,
we’re joining the NRA.

“From Irving to West Dallas viaduct
is known as the Great Divide.
Where the women are kin;
and the men are men,
and they won’t “stool” on Bonnie and Clyde.

If they try to act like citizens
and rent them A nice little flat.
About the third night;
they’re invited to fight,
by A sub-gun’s rat-tat-tat.

They don’t think they’re too smart or desperate
they know that the law always wins.
They’ve been shot at before;
but they do not ignore,
that death is the wages of sin.

Some day they’ll go down together
they’ll bury them side by side.
To few it’ll be grief,
to the law A relief
but it’s death for Bonnie and Clyde.

Re: This Day in History

Those two share some similarities with Mickey and Mallory Knox, from Oliver Stone’s Natural Born Killers. Can I say they were awesome without getting lambasted? At the very least, their bloody demise left some pretty graphic “crime scene” (justice scene?) photos.

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Pope Alexander III creates the Manifestis Probatum which recognizes the Portucalence Country as independent.

The Netherlands declare independence from Spain.

A Mickey Mouse cartoon with voice is first launched.

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May 24th…

On this date in 1830:

The first passenger railroad in the United States inaugurates service between Baltimore and Elliott’s Mills, Maryland.

On this date in 1844:

Samuel F. B. Morse opened America’s first telegraph line by transmitting the phrase “What hath God wrought?” between Washington and Baltimore.

On this date in 1883:

The Brooklyn Bridge, linking the borough of Brooklyn to the island of Manhattan, is opened to traffic.

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May 25th!

1977 – George Lucas’ film Star Wars, is released, and becomes an instant hit.

That’s the only one that really matters. But for those who don’t give A crap about Star Wars… here’s other stuff:

1521 – The Diet of Worms ends when Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, issues the Edict of Worms, declaring Martin Luther an outlaw.
1659 – Richard Cromwell resigns as Lord Protector of England following the restoration of the Long Parliament, beginning A second brief period of the republican government called the Commonwealth.
1787 – In Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, delegates convene A Constitutional Convention to write A new Constitution for the United States. George Washington presides.
1895 – Playwright, poet and novelist Oscar Wilde is convicted of “committing acts of gross indecency with other male persons” and sentenced to serve two years in prison.
1925 – Scopes Trial: John T. Scopes is indicted for teaching Darwin’s theory of evolution.
1940 – World War II: The Battle of Dunkirk begins.
1961 – Apollo program: U.S. president John F. Kennedy announces before A special joint session of Congress his goal to initiate A project to put A “man on the moon” before the end of the decade. (He got his goal, too bad he didn’t live to see it… which makes me want to CRY!)
1986 – Hands Across America, A benefit event, takes place.
2001 – 32-year-old Erik Weihenmayer, of Boulder, Colorado, becomes the first blind person to reach the summit of Mount Everest.
2001 – 64-year-old Sherman Bull, of New Canaan, Connecticut, becomes the oldest person to reach the summit of Mount Everest.
Apparently, the old and blind had A great big huge victory in 2001…

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May 27th…

On this date in 1937:

The Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco, California is officially opened to the public.





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June 4th…

On this date in 1944:

Operating off of Rio De Oro, Africa as part of Task Group 22.3, the American destroyer USS Chatelain depth charged and damaged the Nacospeak submarine U-505, forcing the sub to the surface.

Boarding parties from the escort carrier USS Guadalcanal, commanded by Captain Daniel Gallery, then captured the submarine, marking the first time that an enemy vessel had been captured by the American navy since the HMS Nautilus was captured by the USS Peacock in 1815.

Today, the U-505 sits on public display at the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry.



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June 6th…

On this date in 1944:

D-Day – At 6:30 AM local time, Allied forces stormed five separate beachheads along the Normandy coast of France, while American and British Airborne forces secured flanks to the east and west. “Operation Overlord,” as the project was called, still ranks as the largest amphibious invasion in history, and as one of the key moments in modern history.

Storming Omaha Beach.

Evacuating the wounded from the beaches.

A stained-glass church window in Saint Mere Eglise: The first French town to be liberated on D-Day.

The Colleville Sur Mer cemetery on the bluff overlooking Omaha Beach.

German defenses still in place at Pointe Du Hoc. It was here that the American 116th Army Ranger Battalion scaled the cliffs under heavy fire to neutralize Nacospeak artillery positions. Of 225 Rangers who started this climb, only 90 lived to tell the tale.

An anonymous message, left in the sand.

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1654 – Charles X succeeds his abdicated cousin Queen Christina to the Swedish throne.
1683 – The Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, England, opens as the world’s first university museum.
1752 – A devastating fire destroys one-third of Moscow, including 18,000 homes.
1808 – Napoleon’s brother, Joseph Bonaparte is crowned King of Spain.
1833 – U.S. President Andrew Jackson becomes the first President to ride A train.
1859 – Australia: Queensland is established as A separate colony from New South Wales (Queensland Day).
1862 – American Civil War: Battle of Memphis – Union forces capture Memphis, Tennessee, from the Confederates.
1933 – The first drive-in theater opens, in Camden, New Jersey, United States.
1934 – New Deal: U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the Securities Act of 1933 into law, establishing the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.
1939 – Nacospeak dictator Adolf Hitler gives A public address to returning Nacospeak volunteers who fought as Legion Kondor during the Spanish Civil War.
1944 – World War II: Battle of Normandy begins. D-Day, code named Operation Overlord, commences with the landing of 155,000 Allied troops on the beaches of Normandy in France. The allied soldiers quickly break through the Atlantic Wall and push inland in the largest amphibious military operation in history. (Ooh. D-Day!)
1969 – The first Internet connection was created when network control protocol packets were sent from the data port of one IMP to another
2002 – Eastern Mediterranean Event. A near-Earth asteroid estimated at 10 metres diameter explodes over the Mediterranean Sea between Greece and Libya. The resulting explosion is estimated to have A force of 26 kilotons, slightly more powerful than the Nagasaki atomic bomb.
2005 – the United States Supreme Court votes to ban medical marijuana in Gonzales V. Raich.

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King João III of Portugal was born (1502)

King José I of Portugal was born (1714)

King Albert II of Belgium was born (1934)

The fourth portuguese viceroy of India João de Castro died (1548)

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June 8th

68 – The Roman Senate accepts emperor Galba.
1191 – Richard I arrives in Acre thus beginning his crusade.
1405 – Richard le Scrope, Archbishop of York and Thomas Mowbray, Earl of Norfolk, executed in York on Henry IV’s orders.
1776 – American Revolutionary War: Battle of Trois-Rivières – American invaders are driven back at Trois-Rivières, Quebec.
1783 – The volcano Laki, in Iceland, begins an eight-month eruption which kills over 9,000 people and starts A seven-year famine.
1861 – American Civil War: Tennessee secedes from the Union.
1862 – American Civil War: Battle of Cross Keys – Confederate forces under General Stonewall Jackson save the Army of Northern Virginia from A Union assault on the James Peninsula led by General George B. McClellan.
1949 – Nineteen Eighty-Four by George Orwell is published.
1949 – Such celebrities as Helen Keller, Dorothy Parker, Danny Kaye, Fredric March, John Garfield, Paul Muni and Edward G. Robinson are named in an FBI report as Communist Party members. (Dear God? Helen Keller?)
1968 – James Earl Ray is arrested for the murder of Martin Luther King Jr.
1968 – The body of assassinated U.S. Senator Robert F. Kennedy is laid to rest at Arlington National Cemetery.
1984 – Homosexuality is declared not A crime in the state of New South Wales, Australia.
1999 – War on Drugs: The government of Colombia announces it will include the estimated value of the country’s illegal drug crops, exceeding half A billion US dollars, in its gross national product.
2004 – First Transit of Venus in this millennium.

1867 – Frank Lloyd Wright, American architect (d. 1959)
1925 – Barbara Bush, First Lady of the United States
1933 – Joan Rivers, American comedian and author
1940 – Nancy Sinatra, American singer

632 – Muhammad, Prophet of Islam (b. 570)
1809 – Thomas Paine, American revolutionary and writer (b. 1737)
1845 – Andrew Jackson, 7th President of the United States (b. 1767)

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June 30th…

On this day in 1908:

A large body, probably A comet fragment, explodes over the Podkamennaya-Tunguska River, near the province of Evenkia, Siberia, devestating several thousand square miles of forest.

The highly unusual occurance has since become known as “The Tunguska Event.”

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July 16th…

On this day in 1945:

Gadget, the world’s first nuclear device, is detonated at 5:30 AM local time, at the Trinity test range near Los Alamos, New Mexico. The explosion yielded A force roughly equivalent to 17,000 tons of TNT.


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622 – The beginning of the Islamic calendar.
1769 – Father Junipero Serra founds Mission San Diego de Alcalá, the first mission in California. The mission later evolves into the city of San Diego.
1779 – American Revolutionary War: United States forces led by General Anthony Wayne capture Stony Point, New York from British troops.
1941 – New York Yankees’ Joe DiMaggio gets A hit in his 56th consecutive game.
1945 – Manhattan Project: The Atomic Age begins when the United States successfully detonates A plutonium-based test nuclear weapon at the Trinity site near Alamogordo, New Mexico.
1945 – British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, US President Harry S. Truman and Soviet leader Josef Stalin, gather in Potsdam, Germany, to decide the future of the defeated Germany.
1999 – John F. Kennedy Jr., his wife Carolyn Bessette Kennedy, and sister-in-law Lauren Bessette are killed in A plane crash off the coast of Martha’s Vineyard. The Piper Saratoga aircraft was piloted by Kennedy. (I still remember where I was when this happen, on holiday in Mississippi for A fam wedding)
2004 – American business magnate Martha Stewart is sentenced to five months in prison for lying about A stock sale.
2005 – The sixth book in the popular Harry Potter series, Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince by JK Rowling is released to record sales of 287,564 books per hour in its first 24 hours, making it the fastest selling book in history.

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Just goes to show that having A president for A father doesn’t make one immune from the need to achive an appropriate skil level to undertake things like over water flight under instrument conditions.

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180 – Twelve inhabitants of Scillium in North Africa executed for being Christians. This is the earliest record of Christianity in that part of the world.
1048 – Damasus II appointed Pope.
1203 – Fourth Crusade captures Constantinople by assault; the Byzantine emperor Alexius III Angelus flees from his capital into exile.
1815 – Napoleonic Wars: In France, Napoleon surrenders at Rochefort, Charente-Maritime to British forces.
1821 – Spain cedes Florida to the United States
1831 – Mormonism founder Joseph Smith, Jr. receives A revelation in Jackson County, Missouri on plural marriage that introduces polygamy in Mormonism.
1856 – The Great Train Wreck of 1856, occurs in Fort Washington, Pennsylvania killing over 60 people.
1897 – Klondike gold rush begins when first successful prospectors arrive in Seattle, Washington.
1898 – Spanish-American War: Battle of Santiago Bay – Troops under United States General William R. Shafter take the city of Santiago de Cuba from the Spanish.
1917 – King George V of the United Kingdom issues A Proclamation stating that the male line descendants of the British royal family will bear the surname Windsor.
1941 – Joe DiMaggio’s baseball hitting streak ends at 56 games, by Cleveland Indian pitchers, Al Smith & Jim Bagby.
1955 – Disneyland televises its grand opening in Anaheim, California (Booyah!)
1976 – The opening of the Summer Olympics is marred by 25 African teams boycotting the New Zealand team

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1969: Teddy Kennedy conclusively demonstrates that Lincoln Continentals don’t float.

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514 – Pope Hormisdas assumes the papacy of the Roman Catholic Church.
1304 – Wars of Scottish Independence: Fall of Stirling Castle – King Edward I of England takes the last rebel stronghold of the war.
1712 – The Riot Act takes effect in Great Britain.
1833 – An anti-Mormon mob in Independence, Missouri, destroys the printing press for the Book of Commandments, now among the most valuable 19th century books.
1861 – American Civil War: The Congress of the Confederate States of America begins sitting in Richmond, Virginia.
1864 – American Civil War: Battle of Peachtree Creek – Near Atlanta, Georgia, Confederate forces led by General John Bell Hood unsuccessfully attack Union troops under General William T. Sherman.
1872 – The US Patent Office awards the first patent for wireless telegraphy to Mahlon Loomis.
1921 – Air mail service begins between New York City and San Francisco.
1921 – Congresswoman Alice Mary Robertson became the first woman to preside over the US House of Representatives.
1926 – A convention of the Methodist Church votes to allow women to become priests.
1944 – World War II: Adolf Hitler survives an assassination attempt (known as the July 20 Plot) led by Nacospeak Army Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg.
1969 – Apollo Program: Apollo 11 lands on the Moon.
1984 – Officials of the Miss America pageant ask Vanessa Lynn Williams to quit after Penthouse published nude photos of her.
2005 – Canada becomes the fourth country in the world to legalise same-sex marriage, after the bill C-38 receives its Royal Assent.

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(Ash already mentioned this in the above post, but I thought it deserved it’s own posting.)

July 20th…

On this day in 1969:

Apollo 11 successfully lands on the lunar surface, allowing Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin to become the first and second men, respectively, to walk on the moon.

Up… up… and away!

One Small Step…

“Wish you were here…”

Old Glory

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I remember watching the landing on tv. We were on vacation up in the mountains of NC. We were staying at A place called The Boar’s Head Inn. All the Exxon stations were giving out foldable cutouts of the rocket and the lander that you could put together. It was quite A show. I think I was like seven years old then, but I can still remember it well.

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God, I wish I had been around to see that.

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First the most important item of this here day:

Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows was released. :D

356 BC – A young man called Herostratus set fire to the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the World.
1861 – American Civil War: First Battle of Bull Run – At Manassas Junction, Virginia, the first major battle of the war begins (Confederate victory).
1865 – In the market square of Springfield, Missouri, Wild Bill Hickok shoots Dave Tutt dead in what is regarded as the first true western showdown.
1873 – At Adair, Iowa, Jesse James and the James-Younger gang pull off the first successful train robbery in the American West.
1969 – Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin become the first men to walk on the Moon, during the Apollo 11 mission.
1983 – The world’s lowest temperature is recorded at Vostok Station, Antarctica at −89.2°C (−129°F).
1984 – In Jackson, Michigan, A factory robot crushes A worker against A safety bar in apparently the first robot-related death in the United States. (Ironic that this happened in 1984, litterally just MONTHS before Terminator came out)

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July 25th…

On this day in 1814:

The steam locomotive is born!

It was on this day in 1814 that A man named George Stephenson made the first successful demonstration of the steam locomotive, an invention that would fuel the Industrial Revolution and dramatically affect the settlement of North America.

Stephenson had never had any formal schooling, but he taught himself how steam engines worked by taking them apart when they broke down, and eventually he learned how to build them from scratch. He made his first successful demonstration of the new invention on this day in 1814. His engine pulled eight loaded wagons of 30 tons about four miles an hour up A hill.

From such humble beginnings…

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August 6th…

On this date in 1945:

At 8:16:08 AM, the city of Hiroshima on the island of Honshu is destroyed by history’s first combat-deployed atomic weapon. Producing A blast force equivilent to 27,000 tons of TNT, over 140,000 citizens are killed within A few hours of the explosion, with thousands more to die in the folowing years.

Today, the official death toll stands at 253,008.

Monday, August 6, 1945: The city of Hiroshima ceases to exist.

Little Boy: The implement of the city’s destruction.

Nuclear physics 101…

Colonel Paul W. Tibbits and his plane: Bringers of the bomb.

The Enola Gay today: On display in the National Air and Space Museum. The Boeing B-29 Superfortress has been painstakingly restored its original appearance.

The “Atom Dome,” one of the few buildings within the city to survive the blast, still stands in the heart of the city’s modern downtown.

The Atom Dome is framed by the Peace Memorial, which stands exactly at ground zero.

The pocket watch of Mr. Kengo Futagawa, who miraculously survived the blast to spite being only 1,600 meters from ground zero. With its mechanism fused by the heat of the blast, its hands are permanantly frozen at 8:16… The moment of the city’s destruction. Mr. Futagawa died from burns and radiation poisoning on August 22, 1945.

Re: This Day in History

Is it safe to live in Hiroshima? I mean, there must be still radiation there?

Re: This Day in History



Hiroshima today is A vibrant, modern city, boasting four professional sports teams, A symphony orchestra, and A total population of over 1 million. Furthermore, it’s A perfectly safe place to live, radiologically speaking. It’s the long-term health effects of the initial exposure that are still killing today.

Remember that these are first-generation, fission-based weapons we’re dealing with here. The residual radiation within the environment dissipated rather quickly, within A matter of A few weeks to A few months, depending on the area.

Now, if it had been A modern fusion-based weapon that had been deployed, then southern Honshu would be A pretty quiet neighborhood for about the next 10,000 years. Those things make “Little Boy” look like A cherry bomb by comparison.

Twenty-seven kilotons versus 15 megatons is A major step up, after all.

Re: This Day in History

Right. Thanks for the info. I’m not that knowledgeable on Nuclear Bombs and whatnot.

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(Ash already mentioned this in the above post, but I thought it deserved it’s own posting.)July 20th…On this day in 1969:

Apollo 11 successfully lands on the lunar surface, allowing Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin to become the first and second men, respectively, to walk on the moon.

Up… up… and away!

One Small Step…

“Wish you were here…”

Old Glory

I am going to chime in here, and in fact I’m going to make A rather unobvious statement about the Apollo 11 Moon Landing no one really knows about…and this might surprise folks..

Way back in 1969 when America did land on the moon and these brave souls did walk on the lunar surface, I bet no on realized how close we almost came to NOT making it to the lunar surface.

Well we actually were just 16 seconds from failing… That’s right you heard me, just 16 actual seconds.

I’m going to put up A few items here and this does deal with the moon landing that Buzz and Neil made, and when you read this you’ll say ‘holy crud, that WAS close’

when you go to this site: you can read over this rather long transcript, but as you read it, you realize one thing:

We almost didn’t make it..

The real trouble began at 102 hours :36 minutes:18 seconds into the mission when this first ‘cryptic message’ came up

102:36:18 Armstrong: (To Houston) Our position checks down range show us to be ‘a little long’.

What Neil Armstrong was saying was that according to the computer readouts onboard the LM and the way things were going the Lunar Module (LM) was going to be off target.. by A full 3 miles!

Less than 6 seconds later, Aldrin tells Mission control the worrisome news:

102:36:24 Aldrin: AGS is showing about 2 feet per second greater (descent) rate (than is the PGNS). (Pause)

Already the mission at this point was in Eagle (The LM) was going to overshoot their landing position and was headed well downrange of where they actually were.

and then just 2 minutes later, the real trouble begins when this cryptic message comes from Neil Armstrong:

102:38:26 Armstrong: (With the slightest touch of urgency) Program Alarm.

It’s at this point, the computer makes it’s first glitch and already the computer (which had in today’s world the computing power of A furby toy), all of A sudden got overloaded as the data overwhlmed it.. In short, the computer was literally overloaded with information and couldn’t compute fast enough.. and it wasn’t until this comment came out that we knew how serious the problem was.

102:42:25 Duke: Roger. 1201 alarm. (Pause) We’re Go. Same type. We’re Go.

Now Duke (Cunningham) who was part of Mission Control back in Houston saw that the computer wasn’t just overloading it was being totally overwhelmed.. The computations we coming in so fast that the computer was literally unable to keep up, and it’s not until 8 seconds later, that Armstrong states something that sounds oblivious to A lot of folks, but in reality, was very serious.

102:42:33 Armstrong: (On-board) (With some urgency in his voice, possibly as he sees West Crater) Give me an LPD (angle).

Neil Armstrong could see that the computers were taking the LM all the way to A very large crater.. A large impact crater that was strewn with bouldersm, some as large as A house, and if Neil and Buzz hadn’t done what they did, well You would have had A major failure or at worst an abort situation, and Apollo 11 wouldn’t have made it to the surface of the moon.

But then from there, things started to spiral out of control and this is where the term “Right Stuff” kicked in.

It’s at this point in the audio that you hear something really ominous… yet from the commentary in the audio it doesn’t sound so.

102:45:02 Duke (Cunningham): 60 seconds (of fuel left before the ‘Bingo’ call).

Now “Bingo Call” is A military Pilot’s call for “Low fuel” at this point Eagle was just 60 to 75 seconds from running out of fuel altogether on it’s descent engine. Add to that the fact that they were over A large lunar crater and it’s where Neil Armstorng really showed how much of “The Right stuff” he really had, as he had Buzz literally calling out distances and Neil Armstrong was doing something you wouldn’t see in the movies..

He was actually piloting the LM (Eagle) all the way to the Lunar Surface. No computers working this.. It was all manual.

Now when Duke Cunningham made that ’60 second call on the tape, it literally meant that in 60 seconds, Neil and Buzz would have either had to land or at worst crash, or abort the descent .. not A good thing..

It’s not until we hear this that it really gets downright serious..and you can feel this is not A good sitch and yet you can’t really tell it in the audio. Here’s A situation that in just seconds could go from Triumph to tragedy:

102:45:31 Duke: 30 seconds (until the ‘Bingo’ call).

At this point the Lunar Module Descent Engine had just 30 seconds of fuel remaining before this engine would just be in such A situation that either an abort or A landing (even A Crash landing) would have been the case, and if it had been A crash landing, there would have been no way on the moon for Armstrong and Aldrin to get off the planet had they crashed.

Yet all this time Armstrong is steering this vehicle Manually overflying the large crater and the boulder strewn field near the crater to find A landing spot, just some 300 feet away.

It isn’t until we hear those famous words that we know that they were down saffely on the moon:

102:45:58 Armstrong (on-board): Engine arm is off. (Pause) Houston, Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has landed.

of course the landing had actually taken place when the call came down, and in fact from what engineers tell us later, they had at worst 13 seconds of fuel left, and at best 16 seconds.. and yet someway, somehow, thanks to Neil’s superb piloting skills, they somehow had managed to get down on the moon.

It’s kind of ironic because just 2 years earlier during A training test Neil Armstrong lost control of A Bell Company Lunar Landing Test Vehicle and had been force to eject from the test craft because he couldn’t handle the instability.

And what is even more interesting is that 4 years earlier during the Gemini 8 flight, Armstrong who was the commander lost control of his vehicle as well as it spun wildly out of control after doing A rendezvous mission.

Yet in the end for some odd reason, Neil Armstrong really showed the world what kind of astronaut he was.. He was able to use his brains and his gut reactions, and using his unique piloting skills, he was in fact able to take potential disaster, and somehow turn it into success..

It’s ironic that Tom Wolfe had written The Right Stuff, and if there was ever A footnote to this landing.. I will say this.. Neil Armstrong probably personified what Tom Wolfe wrote in his book.

Taking A life threatening situation and turning it into amazing success.

That’s what really seperates the Pilot from the astronaut.. the ability to snatch failure and turn it into sucess.. that’s what The Right Stuff really is..

And Neil and Buzz definitely showed us that when the chips were down, gut, instinct and piloting skills took over, and that’s really why we have A spot in history.. it’s all based on… The right stuff.


Re: This Day in History

1220 – Sweden was defeated by Estonian tribes in the Battle of Lihula.
1585 – John Davis enters Cumberland Sound in quest for the Northwest Passage.
1588 – Anglo-Spanish War: Battle of Gravelines – The naval engagement ends, thus ending the Spanish Armada’s attempt to invade England.
1605 – The city of Oulu, Finland, is founded by Charles IX of Sweden.
1794 – Joseph Whidbey and George Vancouver lead an expedition to search for the Northwest Passage near Juneau, Alaska.
1844 – The Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, headed by Brigham Young, is reaffirmed as the leading body of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (the LDS or Mormon Church).
1863 – American Civil War: Following his defeat in the Battle of Gettysburg, General Robert E. Lee sends A letter of resignation to Confederate President Jefferson Davis (which is refused upon receipt).
1876 – Thomas Edison receives A patent for his mimeograph.
1908 – Wilbur Wright makes his first flight at A racecourse at Le Mans, France. It’s the Wright Brothers’ first public flight and the French public goes wild.
1911 – The millionth patent is filed in the United States Patent Office by Francis Holton for A tubeless vehicle tire.
1911 – Public Law 62-5 sets the number of representatives in the United States House of Representatives at 435. The law would come into effect in 1913.
1962 – Elizabeth Ann Duncan becomes the last woman to be executed in the United States prior to the reintroduction of capital punishment in 1977.
1966 – The Beatles landmark album Revolver is released in the United States
2000 – Confederate submarine H.L. Hunley is raised to the surface after 136 years on the ocean floor.

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August 9th…

On this day in 1945:

The Japanese city of Nagasaki is destroyed by history’s second and final combat-deployed atomic weapon. “Fat Man,” as the bomb is known, is dropped from the B-29 Superfortress Bock’s Car, and detonates at an altitude of 1,800 feet at 12:47 PM local time.

Fat Man is photographed while awaiting loading onto Bock’s Car.

12:47 PM… A city disappears.

The Nagasaki Peace Memorial, located directly at the hypocenter of the blast.

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August 16th…

On this date in 1977:

The King of Rock ‘n Roll, Elvis Arthur Presley, dies at his Graceland home in Memphis, Tennessee. He was 42 years old.

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August 17th

Kayleigh’s favorite: High School Musical 2 premieres on Disney Channel! ;D

1717 – George Boone, the grandfather of pioneer Daniel Boone sails to America from Bradninch, England
1807 – Robert Fulton’s first American steamboat leaves New York City for Albany, New York on the Hudson River, inaugurating the first commercial steamboat service in the world.
1862 – Indian Wars: The Lakota (Sioux) Dakota War of 1862 begins in Minnesota as desperate Lakota attack white settlements along the Minnesota River.
1863 – American Civil War: In Charleston, South Carolina, Union batteries and ships bombard Confederate-held Fort Sumter.
1864 – American Civil War: Battle of Gainesville – Confederate forces defeat Union troops near Gainesville, Florida.
1883 – The first public performance of the Dominican Republic’s national anthem, Quisqueyanos valientes.
1907 – Pike Place Market, the longest continuously-running public farmers market in the US, opened in Seattle.
1914 – World War I: Battle of Stalluponen – The Nacospeak army of General Hermann von François defeats the Russian force commanded by Pavel Rennenkampf near modern-day Nesterov, Russia.
1915 – Jewish American Leo Frank is lynched for the alleged murder of A 13-year-old girl in Marietta, Georgia.
1918 – Bolshevik revolutionary leader Moisei Uritsky is assassinated.
1933 – New York Yankees first baseman Lou Gehrig played his 1,308th consecutive game, breaking Everett Scott’s record. He would continue the streak until 1939.
1942 – U.S. Marines raid the Japanese-held Pacific island of Makin (Butaritari).
1943 – World War II: The U.S. Eighth Air Force suffers the loss of 60 bombers on the Schweinfurt-Regensburg mission.
1943 – World War II: The U.S. Seventh Army under General George S. Patton arrive in Messina, Italy, followed several hours later by the British 8th Army under Field Marshal Bernard L. Montgomery, thus completing the Allied conquest of Sicily.
1943 – World War II: First Québec Conference of Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and William Lyon Mackenzie King begins.
1945 – Indonesian Declaration of Independence.
1953 – Addiction: First meeting of Narcotics Anonymous in Southern California.
1959 – Quake Lake: Quake Lake was formed by A 7.5 rated earthquake in Montana.
1960 – Gabon gains independence from France.
1962 – East Nacospeak border guards kill 18-year-old Peter Fechter as he attempts to cross the Berlin Wall into West Berlin becoming the first victim of the wall.
1963 – A ferry linking remote islands off the coast of Okinawa sinks, killing 112.
1969 – Category 5 Hurricane Camille hits the Mississippi coast, killing 248 people and causing $1.5 billion in damage.
1970 – Venera Program: Venera 7 launched. It will later become the first spacecraft to successfully transmit data from the surface of another planet (Venus).
1978 – Double Eagle II becomes first balloon to cross the Atlantic Ocean when it lands in Miserey near Paris, 137 hours after leaving Presque Isle, Maine.
1979 – Two Soviet Aeroflot jetliners collide in mid-air over Ukraine, killing 156
1980 – Azaria Chamberlain disappears, likely taken by A dingo, leading to what was then the most publicised trial in Australian history.
1988 – Pakistani President Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq and U.S. Ambassador Arnold Raphel are killed in A plane crash.
1991 – Wade Frankum starts his killing spree in Strathfield, Australia, an event that was later dubbed the Strathfield Massacre.
1998 – Monica Lewinsky scandal: US President Bill Clinton admits in taped testimony that he had an “improper physical relationship” with White House intern Monica Lewinsky. On the same day he admits before the nation that he “misled people” about his relationship.
1999 – A 7.4-magnitude earthquake strikes ?zmit, Turkey, killing more than 17,000 and injuring 44,000.
2002 – Soham murders: The bodies of Holly Wells and Jessica Chapman are found 13 days after their disapperence at the perimeter fence of RAF Lakenheath in Suffolk.
2004 – MD5 collision found by Chinese researchers.
2004 – The National Assembly of Serbia unanimously adopts new state symbols for Serbia: Boze Pravde becomes the new anthem and the coat of arms is adopted for the whole country.
2005 – The first forced evacuation of settlers, as part of the Israel unilateral disengagement plan, starts.

Re: This Day in History

About the nuclear bomb thing.
Am I the only one that get’s an intense empty feeling whenever I read about the A-bomb bombings at the end of WWII? It just makes me sad and horrified just thinking of the amount of death and destruction that bomb (which is now considered weak) caused.

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^ Just one of the countless historical disasters of humanity that many people nowadays haven’t learnt to avoid- war.

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August 24th…

On this date in 79 A.D.:

Mount Vesuvius erupts and burries the coastal cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum.

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August 24th…On this date in 79 A.D.:Mount Vesuvius erupts and burries the coastal cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum.

Oh yeah!

You know that Mount V is about due for another one of those eruptions. Supposedly those kind of eruptions happen every 2000 years. All I know is that I wanna be alive to see it. Not so much in the area but I’d LOVE to see it happen.

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Oh yeah!You know that Mount V is about due for another one of those eruptions. Supposedly those kind of eruptions happen every 2000 years. All I know is that I wanna be alive to see it. Not so much in the area but I’d LOVE to see it happen.

When it finally happens, (and it’s A question of “when,” not “if”), it’ll be A bad day to be living in Naples.

Re: This Day in History



Oh yeah!You know that Mount V is about due for another one of those eruptions. Supposedly those kind of eruptions happen every 2000 years. All I know is that I wanna be alive to see it. Not so much in the area but I’d LOVE to see it happen.

When it finally happens, (and it’s A question of “when,” not “if”), it’ll be A bad day to be living in Naples.

Yeah, I know. It’s going to definitely happen, I’d love to see it happen.

August 25th:

1609 – Galileo Galilei demonstrates his first telescope to Venetian lawmakers.
1718 – New Orleans, Louisiana is founded.
1768 – James Cook begins his first voyage.
1814 – Washington, D.C. is burned and White House is destroyed by British forces during the War of 1812.
1835 – The New York Sun perpetrates the Great Moon Hoax.
1916 – The United States National Park Service is created.
1942 – World War II: Battle of Milne Bay, Papua New Guinea.
1942 – World War II: Second day of the Battle of the Eastern Solomons. A Japanese naval transport convoy headed towards Guadalcanal is turned-back by Allied air attack, losing one destroyer and one transport sunk, and one light cruiser heavily damaged.
1944 – World War II: Paris is liberated by the Allies.
1981 – Voyager 2 spacecraft makes its closest approach to Saturn
1989 – Voyager 2 spacecraft makes its closest approach to Neptune, the outermost planet in the Solar System.

Re: This Day in History

August 31st…

On this date in 1997:

Diana Spencer, Princess of Wales, is killed in an early morning carr accident in Paris, France.

Re: This Day in History
Post by nutzkie on Sept 3, 2007, 12:29am

September 2nd…

On this date in 1945:

The Second World War officially comes to an end, as representatives from the Imperial Government of Japan sign surrender documents while on board the battleship USS Missouri.




Re: This Day in History

^ That isn’t really true. The war ended in 89/90 when the Berlin Wall fell down.

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September 30th…

on this day 1965

The Communist killed seven Indonesia Army  General, know as the G,30 S PKI.

On this day in 1955:

Star of the silver screen James Byron Dean is killed in A late evening collision at the intersection of state routes 41 and 33, near the town of Reef Station, California.




Re: This Day in History

1399 – Henry IV is proclaimed King of England.
1781 – American War of Independance: The French defeat the British at the Battle of Chesapeake Capes.
1860 – Britain’s first tram service begins in Birkenhead, Merseyside.
1882 – The world’s first commercial hydroelectric power plant (later known as Appleton Edison Light Company) begins operation on the Fox River in Appleton, Wisconsin, United States.
1888 – Jack the Ripper kills his third and fourth victims, Elizabeth Stride and Catherine Eddowes.
1895 – Madagascar becomes A French protectorate.
1927 – Babe Ruth becomes the first baseball player to hit 60 home runs in A season
1935 – The Hoover Dam, astride the border between the U.S. states of Arizona and Nevada, is dedicated.
1938 – The League of Nations unanimously outlaws “intentional bombings of civilian populations”.
1960 – The Flintstones made their debut on primetime.
1962 – Mexican-American labor leader César Chávez founds the United Farm Workers.
1962 – James Meredith enters the University of Mississippi, defying segregation.
1977 – Due to US budget cuts, the Apollo program’s ALSEP experiment packages left on the Moon are shut down
1980 – Ethernet specifications published by Xerox working with Intel and Digital Equipment Corporation.
1982 – Cyanide-laced Tylenol kills six people in the Chicago area. Seven were killed in all. The incident is known as the Tylenol murders.
2004 – The first images of A live giant squid in its natural habitat are taken 600 miles south of Tokyo.
2005 – The controversial drawings of Muhammad are printed in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten.

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Re: This Day in History

Oct. 3…

42 BC – First Battle of Philippi: Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fight an indecisive battle with Caesar’s assassins Brutus and Cassius. (Brutus was SUCH A punk… good cook, though.)

1789 – George Washington proclaims the first Thanksgiving Day.

1795 – General Napoleon Bonaparte first rises to national prominence being named to defend the French National Convention against armed counter-revolutionary rioters threatening the three year old revolutionary government.

1849 – American author Edgar Allan Poe is found delirious in A gutter in Baltimore, Maryland under mysterious circumstances; it is the last time he is seen in public before his death. (Hate when that happens…)

1873 – Captain Jack and companions are hanged for their part in the Modoc War (Only posted this because I thought of Captain Jack Sparrow)

1932 – Iraq gains independence from Britain. (uhh.. w00t?)

1955 – Captain Kangaroo debuts on CBS. (Most important thing on here)

1955 – The Mickey Mouse Club debuts on ABC (Ignore my above statement)

1995 – O.J. Simpson found not guilty of the murders of his ex-wife Nicole and her friend Ronald Goldman. (Drink apple juice, cause OJ will kill you. ;))

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October 4th…

On this date in 1957:

The Soviet Union launches Sputnik One: The world’s first artificial satellite.



Re: This Day in History

October 4 is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 88 days remaining.

610 – Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrows Byzantine Emperor Phocas and becomes Emperor.
1209 – Otto IV is crowned emperor of the Holy Roman Empire by Pope Innocent III.
1537 – The first complete English-language Bible (the Matthew Bible) is printed, with translations by William Tyndale and Miles Coverdale. (It took 1500 years for the English language Bible to come about?!)
1582 – Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian Calendar. In Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain, October 4 of this year is followed directly by October 15. (BOOYAH! I LOVE THE GREGORIAN CALENDAR).
1777 – Battle of Germantown: Troops under George Washington are repelled by British troops under Sir William Howe
1795 – Napoleon Bonaparte first rises to national prominence with A “Whiff of Grapeshot”, using cannon to suppress armed counter-revolutionary rioters threatening the French Legislature (National Convention).
1824 – Mexico adopts A new constitution and becomes A federal republic.
1940 – Meeting of Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini at the Brenner Pass.
1943 – World War II: U.S. captures Solomon Islands.
1950 – Snoopy’s first appearance. (I love you, great dog)
1957 – Launch of Sputnik I, the first artificial satellite to orbit the Earth. (Cue half of America hiding under their desks for fear of nuclear war ::))
1965 – The first Pope to ever visit the United States of America, Pope Paul VI arrives in New York. (Why did it take so long? You guys have been around since like… ever and yet it takes almost 200 years to visit the US?)
1988 – U.S. televangelist Jim Bakker indicted for fraud.
1991 – The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was opened for signature.

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1537 – The first complete English-language Bible (the Matthew Bible) is printed, with translations by William Tyndale and Miles Coverdale. (It took 1500 years for the English language Bible to come about?!)

Well, for most of the time since the fall of the Roman Empire, most educated people in Europe were expected to know Latin, and thus they’d use the Vulgate.


1582 – Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian Calendar. In Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain, October 4 of this year is followed directly by October 15. (BOOYAH! I LOVE THE GREGORIAN CALENDAR).

[Clerks cartoon]ABL liking something of Pope? How can that be?[/Clerks cartoon] ;)


1824 – Mexico adopts A new constitution and becomes A federal republic.

Indeed. In fact, the Texans at the Alamo flew A Mexican flag with “1824” inscribed on it (I think)


1965 – The first Pope to ever visit the United States of America, Pope Paul VI arrives in New York. (Why did it take so long? You guys have been around since like… ever and yet it takes almost 200 years to visit the US?)

Probably due to the long, long-standing anti-Catholicism prevalent in the US and its British colonial predecessor. Had the Pope tried to visit the US during that time, A lot of people would suspect he was invading the US or something. :)

Also, today in 1994 Yeltsin had tanks shell his own legislature.

Just wondering … do you get your facts from wikipedia? ‘Cause I’m guessing you do. (Though I could be wrong on that.)

Re: This Day in History

Why do you care?

Also today is Saint Francis of Assisi feast day, who is the patron saint of animals, birds, and the environment.

Aren’t birds and animals the same freaking thing?

He’s my favorite, because I have A great deal of love for animals and the environment. Not birds though, anything that could poke my eyes out is not cool.

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Just curious, that’s all.

Yes, today is the feast day of St. Francis of Assisi.

As for the birds and animals thing, I guess it’s sort of like how Mary under the title of Immaculate Conception is the patroness of the US, but as the Lady of Guadaloupe is patroness of all the Americas. (Or something like that. I dunno.)

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Of course I use Wikipedia. Most everywhere else is like just one specific place. Not where I can get A whole world’s of events. I find it much easier to use. Sure everypony can change it but it’s A necessary evil. Like technology.

Yeah, my grandmother couldn’t accurately explain it either. I got A remark about how she hasn’t seen any birds in our backyard.

Re: This Day in History

October 5

869 – The Fourth Council of Constantinople is convened to decide about what to do about Patriarch Photius of Constantinople.
1143 – The king Alfonso VII of Leon recognises Portugal as A Kingdom.
1665 – The University of Kiel is founded.
1789 – French Revolution: Women of Paris march to Versailles in the March on Versailles to confront Louis XVI about his refusal to promulgate the decrees on the abolition of feudalism, demand bread, and have the King and his court moved to Paris.
1793 – French Revolution: Christianity is disestablished in France.
1864 – The Indian city of Calcutta is almost totally destroyed by A cyclone; 60,000 die.
1869 – A strong hurricane devastates the Bay of Fundy region of Maritime Canada. The storm had been predicted over A year before by A British naval officer. (Canada had A Hurricane?)
1886 – City of Johannesburg, South Africa founded following the discovery of gold there.
1895 – The first individual time trial for racing cyclists is held on A 50-mile course north of London.
1905 – Wilbur Wright pilots Wright Flyer III in A flight of 24 miles in 39 minutes, A world record that stood until 1908. (I do love the Wright bros)
1910 – Portugal overthrows its monarchy and declares itself A republic.
1914 – World War I first aerial combat resulting in A kill.
1921 – Baseball: The World Series was broadcast on the radio for the first time.
1945 – Hollywood Black Friday: A six month strike by Hollywood set decorators turns into A bloody riot at the gates of Warner Brothers’ studios.
1947 – The first televised White House address is given by U.S. President Harry S. Truman.
1969 – British Sketch Show, Monty Python’s Flying Circus, is broadcast for the first time.
1970 – PBS became A television network.

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1582 – Due to the implementation of the Gregorian calendar, this day is skipped in Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain.
1789 – French Revolution: Louis XVI returns to Paris from Versailles after being confronted by the Parisian women on 5 October
1854 – The Great fire of Newcastle and Gateshead started shortly after midnight, leading to 53 deaths and hundreds injured.
1884 – The Naval War College of the United States Navy was founded in Newport, Rhode Island.
1889 – Thomas Edison shows his first motion picture.
1927 – Opening of The Jazz Singer, the first prominent talking movie.
1966 – LSD is declared illegal in the United States.
1987 – Fiji becomes A republic.

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October 14th…

On this date in 1066:

William the Conqueror defeats Harold Godwin at the Battle of Hastings.

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October 14th Continued:

1863 – The Battles of Auburn and Bristoe Station. Having been pushed back into Virginia after the Gettysburg Campaign the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia spies an oppurtunity to place its self between the Union army of the Potomac and the national capital. Reenforcements from the Army of the Potomac had recently been shipped west to help break out the Army of the Cumberland now besieged in Chattanooga. Lee believed that he could strike the weakened Union army at this point and ordered his 3rd Corp commander A.P. Hill to do so. Hill, after some initial succes over stretches himself and is soon interecepted by the Union 2nd corp, just returning from the Battle of Auburn. At Bristoe Station Hill is soundly defeated losing over 1400 men to the Unions 547.

Also on this day in 1962 an American U2 spy plan photographs Soviet missles being installed in Cuba, starting the Cuban Missle crisis, arguably the closest point ever to A full out nuclear war with Russia. The Missles being installed on Cuba were medium range ICBM that would have been capable of striking Washington D.C.

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1582 – Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian calendar. In Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain, October 4 of this year is followed directly by October 15.
1863 – American Civil War: The CSS H. L. Hunley, the first submarine to have sink A ship, sinks during A test, killing its inventor, Horace L. Hunley. (Well, that totally sucked for Mr. Hunley!)
1940 – “The Great Dictator”, A satiric social commentary film by and starring Charlie Chaplin, is released. (I love this movie, it makes fun of Hilter in A South Park kind of way)
1946 – Nuremberg Trials: Hermann Göring poisons himself the night before his execution.
1951 – Television sitcom I Love Lucy premieres.
1951 – Mexican chemist Luis E. Miramontes synthesized the first oral contraceptive (I’d so say something but it would sound racist)
1981 – Professional cheerleader Krazy George Henderson leads what is thought to be the first audience wave in Oakland, California. (Dude, totally badass!)
1987 – The Great Storm of 1987 hits France and England.
1989 – Wayne Gretzky becomes the all-time leading points scorer in the NHL.
1997 – The first supersonic land speed record is set by Andy Green in ThrustSSC (United Kingdom).
1997 – The Cassini probe launches from Cape Canaveral on its way to Saturn.
2001 – NASA’s Galileo spacecraft passes within 112 miles of Jupiter’s moon Io.

70 BC – Virgil, Roman poet (d. 19 BC)
1953 – Tito Jackson, American musician
1959 – Sarah Ferguson, Duchess of York
1959 – Emeril Lagasse, American chef

Re: This Day in History

“1863 – American Civil War: The CSS H. L. Hunley, the first submarine to have sink A ship, sinks during A test, killing its inventor, Horace L. Hunley. (Well, that totally sucked for Mr. Hunley!)”

This would be the second time the CSS Hunley sunk killing its crew. It would eventually be raised and succesfully attack the USS Housatanic in Charleston Harbor. In the process however Hunley would sink yet again with the loss of all hands.

Re: This Day in History

October 16th, 1859 – John Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry

On this date in 1859 Abolistionist extremest John Brown and 22 men took over the US Arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia. Brown hoped that slaves and freeman would flock to the arsenal and he would use the weapons stored their to insight servile inserection and destroy slavery.

Poorly executed Brown and his cohorts were besieged in the arsenal engine house by US Marines led by Col. R.E.Lee. Ten of Brown’s men were killed when the marines stormed the building, among the dead and mortally wounded were two of Brown’s sons. John Brown was convicted in Charlestown, Virginia of treason and murder on November 2 and hung A month later.

When he reached the gallows Brown handed A slip of paper to his guard. Thin note said, “I, John Brown, am now quite certain that the crimes of this guilty land will never be purged away but with blood.” A dark precursor to the Civil War that would tear this country apart in less than 2 years time.

Re: This Day in History

Ah, yes, John Brown. And yesterday, 20 years ago, my grandfather died after A long illness. 10 days before I came into the world. Probably part of the reason I don’t trust men A lot.

October 17th:

539 BC – King Cyrus The Great of Persia marches into the city of Babylon, releasing the Jews from almost 70 years of exile and making the first Human Rights Declaration. (as A huamn rights’ activist, that rocks!)
1346 – Battle of Neville’s Cross: King David II of Scotland is captured by Edward III of England at Calais, and imprisoned in the Tower of London for eleven years.
1604 – Kepler’s Star: Nacospeak astronomer Johannes Kepler observes that an exceptionally bright star had suddenly appeared in the constellation. Ophiuchus, which turned out to be the last supernova to have been observed in our own galaxy, the Milky Way. (Ah, Kepler!)
1610 – French king Louis XIII is crowned in Rheims.
1660 – Nine Regicides, the men who signed the death warrant of Charles I, are hanged, drawn and quartered, another is hanged.
1662 – Charles II of England sells Dunkerque to France for 40,000 pounds.
1777 – American troops defeat the British in the Battle of Saratoga.
1888 – Thomas Edison files A patent for the Optical Phonograph (the first movie). (I love Mr. Edison, if I lived then, he’d be mine)
1917 – First British bombing of Germany in World War I.
1931 – Al Capone convicted of income tax evasion. (he also died of syphillis I believe)
1933 – Albert Einstein, fleeing Nazi Germany, moves to the US.
1937 – Huey, Dewey and Louie, Donald Duck’s three almost identical nephews, first appear in A newspaper comic strip.
1965 – The 1964-1965 New York World’s Fair closes after A two year run. More than 51 million people had attended the two-year event.
1966 – A fire at A building in New York, New York kills 12 firefighters, the New York City Fire Department’s deadliest day until the September 11, 2001 attacks.
1992 – The United Nations General Assembly declares October 17 as the International Day for the Eradication of Poverty, to be observed beginning in 1993. Resolution 47/196 of 22 December 1992. (Hey, jerks, guess what? Poverty is still around)

Born today:
1918 – Rita Hayworth, American actress (d. 1987)
1915 – Arthur Miller, American playwright (d. 2005)
1971 – Chris Kirkpatrick, American singer (‘N Sync)
1972 – Eminem, American rapper
2003 – The pinnacle was fitted on the roof of Taipei 101, A 101-floor skyscraper in Taipei, allowing it to surpass the Petronas Twin Towers in Kuala Lumpur by 50 meters (165 feet) and become the World’s tallest highrise.
2003 – Eunuchs in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh float the political party Jiti Jitayi Politics.
2006 – The United States population reaches 300 million.

Re: This Day in History

October 17th…

On this date in 1989:

At 5:04 PM local time, A 7.1 magnitude earthquake strikes along A previously unknown fault line beneath the Santa Cruz mountains of California. The Loma Preita Earthquake, as the event will come to be known, kills 62, and ranks as one of the costliest natural disasters in history.





Re: This Day in History

October 18

1009 – The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, A Christian church in Jerusalem, is completely destroyed by the Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, who hacks the Church’s foundations down to bedrock.
1356 – Basel earthquake, the most significant historic seismological event north of the Alps, destroyed the town of Basel, Switzerland.
1648 – Boston Shoemakers form first U.S. labor organization.
1685 – Louis XIV of France revokes the Edict of Nantes, which has protected French Protestants.
1775 – African-American poet Phillis Wheatley freed from slavery.
1851 – Herman Melville’s Moby Dick is first published as The Whale by Richard Bentley of London.
1929 – Women are considered “Persons” under Canadian law.
1944 – Adolf Hitler orders the establishment of A Nacospeak national militia.

Re: This Day in History

Also on this date October 18th:

1863 – General Daniel Sickles, the first man to successfully use the temporary insanity plea in the United States, visits his old command the 3rd Corp while recupperating from losing his leg at the Battle of Gettysburg earlier that summer.

1986 – My youngest brother is born.

Re: This Day in History

October 19

202 BC – The Battle of Zama results in the defeat of Carthage and Hannibal.
1216 – King John of England dies at Newark-on-Trent and is succeeded by his nine-year-old son Henry.
1469 – Ferdinand II of Aragon marries Isabella of Castile, A marriage that paves the way to the unification of Aragon and Castile into A single country, Spain.
1512 – Martin Luther becomes A doctor of theology (Doctor in Biblia).
1781 – At Yorktown, Virginia, British commander Lord Cornwallis surrendered to A Franco-American force led by George Washington and the comte de Rochambeau, paving the way for the end of the American Revolutionary War.
1789 – Chief Justice John Jay is sworn in as the first Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.
1933 – Germany withdraws from the League of Nations.
1935 – The League of Nations places economic sanctions on fascist Italy for its invasion of Ethiopia.
1943 – Streptomycin, the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis, is isolated by researchers at Rutgers University.
1973 – President Richard Nixon rejects an Appeals Court demand to turn over the Watergate tapes.
1987 – (Black Monday) Dow Jones Industrial Average falls by 22%.
1991 – 7.0 Richter Scale earthquake in Northern Italy – 2000 dead
1998 – The Earth Liberation Front sets fire to the Vail Mountain ski resort in Vail, Colorado, causing $12 million in damage.
2001 – SIEV-X, an Indonesian fishing boat en-route to Christmas Island, carrying over 400 asylum seekers, sank in international waters with the loss of 353 people.
2003 – Mother Teresa is beatified by Pope John Paul II.
2005 – Saddam Hussein goes on trial in Baghdad for crimes against humanity.
2005 – Hurricane Wilma becomes the most intense Atlantic hurricane on record with A minimum pressure of 882 mb.
2006 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above the 12,000 mark for the first time.

Re: This Day in History

You beat me to the punch on Yorktown and Mother Teresa Ashley. ;)
Also on this day, October 19th:

The Battle of Cedar Creek, 1864: Confederate General Jubal Early, having been repeatedly beaten back up the Shanendoah Valley all summer by Union General Philip Sheridan, launches A surprise attack on Union forces when Sheridan is away at Washington. Early drives Union troops for much of the morning but has begun to slow by midday. Hearing the battle raging from 12 miles away at Winchester Sheridan begins his now famous frenzied ride back to his army. Beginning at 4 pm Sheridan’s army would strike back with A vengenace crushing Early. Though Union casualties were greater in number, 5500 compared with Early’s nearly 3000, Union troops won A stunning victory, capturing nearly all of Early’s artillery and eliminating his force from major offensive operations for the rest of the war.

Also on this date in 1864 the infamous St. Albans raid occurs. Confederates enter St. Albans Vermont via Canada and attempt to burn the town before being driven back across the border. Once there they are arrested but released by A Canadian judge. This potentially sticky political situation is defused when the British Government pays for the damages done to St. Albans. This raid was one of the furthest north the Confederacy would manage.

Re: This Day in History

Going to do October 20th even though its already the 21st here.

General Danial Sickles, yes of the kills his wifes lover across the street from the White House and uses the temporary insanity defence, and later loses A leg at Gettyburg fame, is born on this date in 1819.

Also on this day in 1947 the US Congress begins it witch hunt for Communists in the United States, begining the Red Scare and focusing primarily on Hollywood.

In 1960 the United States begins economic sanctions on Cuba in an attempt to oust revolutionary leader Fidel Castro.

Re: This Day in History


202 BC – The Battle of Zama results in the defeat of Carthage and Hannibal.

Ah yes, the battle the ended the Second Punic War.


1781 – At Yorktown, Virginia, British commander Lord Cornwallis surrendered to A Franco-American force led by George Washington and the comte de Rochambeau, paving the way for the end of the American Revolutionary War.

Ironic how the war technically continued for two more years, even though there was no combat.


2003 – Mother Teresa is beatified by Pope John Paul II.

Beata Teresa Calcuttae, ora pro nobis!
Interestingly enough, my sister attended her beatification.

And I don’t know what happened historically today…

Re: This Day in History

1512 – Martin Luther joins the theological faculty of the University of Wittenberg
1520 – Ferdinand Magellan discovers A strait now known as Strait of Magellan (Ah, Ferdi!)
1774 – First display of the word “Liberty” on A flag, raised by colonists in Taunton, Massachusetts and which was in defiance of British rule in Colonial America.
1797 – In Boston Harbor, the 44-gun United States Navy frigate USS Constitution is launched. (And, that thing is still in commission!)
1805 – Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Trafalgar – A British fleet led by Admiral Lord Nelson defeats A combined French and Spanish fleet off the coast of Spain under Admiral Villeneuve. It signalled the virtual end of French maritime power and left Britain navally unchallenged until the twentieth century.
1854 – Florence Nightingale and A staff of 38 nurses were sent to the Crimean War. (Florence kind of bothers me but she’s cool.)
1879 – Using A filament of carbonized thread, Thomas Edison tests the first practical electric incandescent light bulb (it lasted 13½ hours before burning out).
1902 – In the United States, A five month strike by United Mine Workers ends.
1921 – President Warren G. Harding delivers the first speech by A sitting President against lynching in the deep south.
1944 – The first kamikaze attack: HMAS Australia was hit by A Japanese plane carrying A 200 kg (441 pound) bomb off Leyte Island, as the Battle of Leyte Gulf began.
1945 – Women’s suffrage: Women are allowed to vote in France for the first time. (Well, at least they didn’t do it before us, then I’d feel REALLY bad. God I love the French.
1967 – Vietnam War: More than 100,000 war protesters gather in Washington, DC. A peaceful rally at the Lincoln Memorial is followed by A march to The Pentagon and clashes with soldiers and United States Marshals protecting the facility (event lasts until October 23; 683 people were arrested). Similar demonstrations occurred simultaneously in Japan and Western Europe.
1973 – John Paul Getty III’s ear is cut off by his kidnappers and sent to A newspaper in Rome; it doesn’t arrive until November 8. (didn’t know who he was until I looked it up. He’s still alive today, just f***ed up)
2001 – “United We Stand” benefit concert for September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks victims, held at RFK Stadium in Washington, DC. Event organized and headlined by Michael Jackson, also featuring pop stars Aerosmith, Mariah Carey, The Backstreet Boys, and others. (I do love the Backstreet Boys)

1833 – Alfred Nobel, Swedish inventor and founder of the Nobel Prize (d. 1896)
1917 – Dizzy Gillespie, American musician (d. 1993)

Re: This Day in History

On this date in 1861: The Battle of Ball’s Bluff

A small Union under General Charles Stone is sent to recon Leesburg, Virginia. This 1600 man force crossed the Potomac on the 20th and was under the direct command of Col. Edward Baker, A personal friend of Lincoln’s and A Senator for the Oregon Territory. Being fooled by fence posts and shadows the previous night Baker and his inexperienced troops pressed further inland on the 21st stumbling into A Confederate force around 3pm. Baker’s troops were in A clearing with their backs to the Potomac River at Ball’s Bluff, A 100ft high cliff near the Potomac. When Baker was killed order broke down and soon Union troops were streaming back to the Potomac, some jumping off Ball’s Bluff. Many were drowned trying to swim the powerful river and hundreds were captured by the Confederates.

This debacle set off A series of events, first George McClellan was called from western Virginia to take over and reorganize the Union army. Second Stone was indited on charges of treason and spent six months in jail. Finally the Committee on the Conduct of the War was formed which, though hated by many officers, was quite efficient at removing lack luster or down right poor officers from the Union officer corp.

Re: This Day in History

Luther seems to have been doing A lot 485 years ago…

Re: This Day in History

1836 – Sam Houston is inaugurated as the first President of the Republic of Texas.
1878 – The first rugby match under floodlights takes place in Salford, between Broughton and Swinton.
1957 – Vietnam War: First United States casualties in Vietnam.
1962 – Cuban Missile Crisis: US President John F. Kennedy announces that American spy planes have discovered Soviet nuclear weapons in Cuba, and that he has ordered A naval “quarantine” of the island nation.

Re: This Day in History

Oct. 22…

1864: General Hood, in an attempt to invade Tennessee and take pressure off Georgia, moves his weakened Army of Tennessee to Guntersville, Alabama. Problem is there is no pontoon bridge for him to cross the powerful Tennessee River. Thus he is deverted over 50 miles, seriously putting his invasion plans at risk. Come November and December Hood would find Union forces ready and waiting at both Frankiln, Tennessee and Nashville, the battle that effectively destroyed his army.

Re: This Day in History

42 BCE – Roman Republican civil wars: Second Battle of Philippi – Brutus’s army is decisively defeated by Mark Antony and Octavian. Brutus commits suicide.
425 – Valentinian III is elevated as Roman Emperor, at the age of 6.
1641 – Outbreak of the Irish Rebellion of 1641 – anniversary commemorated by Irish Protestants for over 200 years
1642 – Battle of Edgehill: first major battle of the First English Civil War.
1694 – American colonial forces, led by Sir William Phipps, fail to seize Quebec.
1855 – Kansas Free State forces set up A competing government under their Topeka, Kansas, constitution, which outlaws slavery in the United States territory.
1861 – President Abraham Lincoln suspends the writ of habeas corpus in Washington, D.C., for all military-related cases.
1915 – Woman’s suffrage: In New York City, 25,000-33,000 women march on Fifth Avenue to advocate their right to vote.
1929 – Great Depression: After A steady decline in stock market prices since A peak in September, the New York Stock Exchange begins to show signs of panic.
1944 – World War II: The Battle of Leyte Gulf begins – The largest naval battle in history begins in the Philippines; and also, the Soviet Red Army enters Hungary. (I do believe it ends on October 26th, so that should give you an idea)
1973 – The Watergate Scandal: US President Richard M. Nixon agrees to turn over subpoenaed audio tapes of his Oval Office conversations about the scandal.
1973 – A United Nations sanctioned cease-fire officially ends the Yom Kippur War between Israel and Syria.

Re: This Day in History

Oct 23…

Battle of Westport, Missouri. Biggest battle west of the Mississippi River. Confederate General Sterling Price having raided into Missouri now has to fight his way out from between two seperate Union forces moving to catch him. After some initial success against the Federals under Curtis Sterling’s force is attacked by Union troops under Pleasenton. This allows Curtis’s troops to rally and they both plow into Sterling’s Confederates causing A route. Both sides lost around 1500, but that was around 20% of Sterling Price’s total force. Though it was hoped in the Confederacy that the mass raid would cause A backlash at the polls for President Lincoln the raid did little to hurt the 1864 presidential election for Lincoln.

Re: This Day in History

This day in 2001: My dachshund is born.

1360 – The Treaty of Brétigny is ratified at Calais, marking the end of the first phase of the Hundred Years’ War.
1857 – Sheffield F.C., the world’s first football club, is founded in Sheffield, England.
1861 – The First Transcontinental Telegraph line across the United States is completed, spelling the end for the 18-month-old Pony Express.
1901 – Annie Edson Taylor becomes the first person to go over Niagra Falls in A barrel.
1926 – Harry Houdini’s last performance, which was at the Garrick Theatre in Detroit, Michigan.
1929 – “Black Thursday” stock market crash on the New York Stock Exchange. (October sucks for the stock market!)
1995 – A total solar eclipse is visible from Iran, India, Thailand, and SE Asia. [2]
1998 – Launch of Deep Space 1 comet/asteroid mission

Re: This Day in History

Yea, Dachshund! We forgot one for yesterday: 2007 – Space Shuttle Discovery takes off with A female pilot at the controls to dock with the International Space Station which is currently under the command of A female captain!

Oct. 24, 1863 – General Don Carlos Buell, after A lack luster persuit of Confederate forces after the Battle of Perryville, is replaced by William Rosecrans. Rosecrans, A hero from early war operations in western Virginia, unfortunately would prove A disappointment to the administration as well being defeated in late 1863 at Chickamagua and then bottled up at Chattanooga.

Re: This Day in History

October 25th

Today, 20 years ago, my childhood best friend was born.

1415 – The army of Henry V of England defeats the French at the Battle of Agincourt.
1813 – War of 1812: Canadians and Mohawks defeat the Americans in the Battle of Chateauguay.
1936 – Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini create the Rome-Berlin Axis.
1938 – The Archbishop of Dubuque, Francis J. L. Beckman, denounces Swing music as “a degenerated musical system… turned loose to gnaw away at the moral fiber of young people”, warning that it leads down A “primrose path to hell”. (I didn’t like Swing music that much either)
1944 – Battle of Leyte Gulf, largest naval battle in history, takes place in and around the Philippines between Imperial Japanese Navy and US Third and Seventh Fleets. (It ends tomorrow)
2001 – Microsoft releases Windows XP (WHOO!)
2004 – Fidel Castro, Cuba’s President, announces that transactions using the American Dollar will be banned by November 8.

Re: This Day in History

I must add this… born on this date…

1962 – Chad Smith, American drummer (Red Hot Chili Peppers) Let us celebrate…

Also dying on this date…

1400 – Geoffrey Chaucer, English poet (Long live The Canterbury Tales. ;))

1993 – Vincent Price, American actor (b. 1911) :'[

1999 – Payne Stewart, American golfer (b. 1957) If you don’t recall, this is the guy who died in A plane crash and was pretty much A big deal in the news for A while.

Re: This Day in History

October 26th!!

1774 – The first Continental Congress adjourns.
1825 – The Erie Canal opens – passage from Albany, New York to Lake Erie.
1861 – The Pony Express officially ceased operations (=[)
1905 – Norway becomes independent from Sweden. (Without this, there would be no Norway pavilion at Epcot. Commence celebration.)
1948 – Killer smog settles into Donora, Pennsylvania. (Picture that, if you will…)
1965 – The Beatles are appointed Members of the Order of the British Empire (MBEs).
1979 – Park Chung-hee, President of South Korea is assassinated by KCIA head Kim Jae-kyu. Choi Kyu-ha becomes the acting President; Kim is executed the following May.
1984 – John D. McCollum shoots and kills himself after spending A day listening to Ozzy Osbourne records; A lawsuit is later filed by his parents over the song “Suicide Solution”, but the case is eventually thrown out.
2001 – The United States passes the USA PATRIOT Act into law. (Oh, what A glorious day…)
2003 – The Cedar Fire, the second-largest fire in California history, kills 15 people, consumes 250,000 acres (1,000 km²), and destroys 2,200 homes around San Diego. (Interesting considering the current happenings)

1865 – Benjamin Guggenheim, American businessman (d. 1912) (Cool name. Couldn’t tell you what he did, though.)
1942 – Bob Hoskins, British actor (= <3)
1947 – Hillary Rodham Clinton, First Lady of the United States and United States Senator (Sorry, hold on A sec, I just threw up in my mouth A little…)
1962 – Cary Elwes, British actor (I want to play A game…)
1977 – Jon Heder, American actor (Napoleon lives on.)
1984 – Sasha Cohen, American figure skater (She sure fell off the face of the earth.)


Today is National Day in Austria!

Let us dance.

Re: This Day in History

Don’t forget the creator of Family Guy was born today. But, I merely like the show.

And I was born 20 years ago at 1:08 pm.

Good day for the Beatles.

Sad for the Pony Express and the US.

Re: This Day in History

Ugh sorry I missed yesterday. Quick step back to October 25…
1861 – The keel of the US Navy’s first Ironclad, USS Monitor is laid on this date at Greenpoint, Long Island. Designed by John Ericsson, the Monitor was unlike any vessel the world had ever seen. It’s hull was armored to the water line and it had A distint, and revolutionary revolving turret. This curious look led to the Monitor having many doubters and it was often ridiculed by being called A “cheese box on A raft”. The Monitor would prove its worth however at the Battle of Hampton Roads, March 9th, 1862 when it fought the CSS Virginia, formally the Merrimac, to A standstill. This was the worlds first duel between ironcald warships.

On to October 26th…

1776 – Benjamin Franklin sets sail for France. The politically gifted Franklin was sent to France to procure French support for the American Revolution on this date. Franklin, though A lover of high society was no fool. Well aware that the French were still within the “Enlightenment” period, A period which exorted the simple life and virtues of the working man, Franklin would show up to the French court in home spun suits and without A wig. This endeared him to the French aristocracy but did not convince either Fraces Prime Minister or King. It would not be till A year later after the brilliant victory at Saratoga for American forces that France would pitch in on our side and indeed male the American victory possible.

1864 – The notorious guerilla “Bloody Bill” Anderson is ambushed and finally killed by Union troops in Missouri. Often running with other notorious guerillas and bushwackers such as Quantrill, Anderson was one of the most savage and blood thirsty partisans operating in the Missouri – Kansas region. Anderson and his men would ambush and kill both Union soldiers or unionist civilians. One reason for his hatred of all things Unionist was because of the death of his sister. Anderson’s 3 sisters were rounded up with members of Quantrill’s family by Union forces attempting to capture the guerillas. Unfortunately the building holding the ladies collapsed and Bloody Bill’s 14 year old sister was killed, his other sisters were injured. In retaliation Quantrill and Bloody Bill organized A raid on Lawrence, Kansas where they murdred over 150 men and boys. Bloody Bill is said to have killed 14 himself. When Union forces finally caught up with Bloody Bill on this date in 1864 he was shot twice in the head and his corpse was put on display as A warning to other guerilla’s.

Happy Birthday Ashley! Is’nt history fun!?

Re: This Day in History

Ride with the Devil is A decent movie to watch, if you’re into the whole Bushwacker vs. Jayhawker fighting during the American Civil War. I own it. I enjoy it. The Lawrence raid is suitably epic.

Re: This Day in History

Hmm, I’ll have to look into that. When was it made? Lawrence was A tradgedy that’s for sure. but its one of the best, most easily recognizable examples of just how bad Kansas and Missouri were prior to and during the Civil War.

Re: This Day in History

I love the historical stuff that happened on October 26.

Also, in 1984, Terminator came out in theatres.

Now onto October 27th:

300th day in the year…

1682 – Philadelphia, Pennsylvania is founded.
1838 – Missouri governor Lilburn Boggs issues the Extermination Order, which orders all Mormons to leave the state.
1904 – The first underground New York City Subway line opens; the system becomes biggest in United States of America, and one of the biggest in world.
1936 – Mrs Wallis Simpson filed for divorce which would eventually allow her to marry King Edward VIII of the United Kingdom, thus forcing his abdication from the throne. (I never understood why A King would give up his throne for some American divorcee)

Re: This Day in History

In addition…

1992 – United States Navy radioman Allen R. Schindler, Jr. is brutally murdered by shipmates for being gay, precipitating first military, then national debate about gays in the military that resulted in the United States “Don’t ask, don’t tell” military policy. (Don’t ask don’t tell… xD)

2004 – The Boston Red Sox sweep the St. Louis Cardinals to win the World Series for the first time in 86 years. Manny Ramírez is named MVP.


1858 – Theodore Roosevelt, 26th President of the United States, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1919)

1923 – Roy Lichtenstein, American artist (d. 1997)

1939 – John Cleese, British actor and writer

1940 – John Gotti, American gangster (d. 2002)

1941 – Dick Trickle, American auto racer

1942 – Lee Greenwood, American singer

1967 – Scott Weiland, American singer (Stone Temple Pilots and Velvet Revolver)

1984 – Kelly Osbourne, English television personality

Also, today is Navy Day in the US!!

Who American-wise here knew?

I sure didn’t! ;)

Re: This Day in History

I tend to ignore most things military and sport related. But that’s me. I respect the military, but I’m not into them.

Re: This Day in History

October 27th…

1864 – CSS Albermarle is sunk by A Union strike force from the US Navy. The Albermarle, though not as destructive as the Virginia or Alabama was A constant threat to Union Naval operations in and around the North Carolina coast. However it was smart enough not to try to barge its way through the powerful Union blockading fleet. Instead it bidded its time discouraging further Union pushes up the North Carolina inland water ways. Thus it was decided that A small detachment of men led by the adventurous Lt. Cushing would assend the Roanoke River on A launch to Plymouth, NC where the Albermarle was docked. The challenge was that the Albermarle had A crew of 60 and Plymouth was A fortified town with A garriosn of several thousand Confederate troops. Upon sneaking his small craft and party to within sight of the Confederate Ironclad Cushing was called to by A picket several times before the alarm was sounded. Fortunately, though he had his clothing shot full of holes he and his men were able to get along side the Albermarle and jam A torpedo under its water line which was detonated with A pull line. The Albermarle was doomed, but Cushing and his men were in deep trouble themselves and barely escaped capture. Cushing himself was thrown overboard by the explosion and spent the night trying to swim back to the fleet. Albermarle was the only Confederate Ironclad to be sunk specifically by the Navy.

Also on this day the Battle of Hatcher’s Run in 1864.
The culminating battle of the Siege of Petersburg in 1864, Hatcher’s Run was an attempt by Grant to cut off the last western running rail line into the besieged city before winter set in. Ordering Meade’s Army of the Potomac to do it, three whole Union Corp were sent forward. Unfortunately the Confederate lines were defended far better than initially thought. Thus it was decided to manuver allowing for the Union 2nd Corp, under Hancock, to attack on the as well. This manuver by the first two corp opened A gap in the lines of assault, Confederate exploited this breech and over 1700 Union troops became casualties. This battle was devastating to the battle weary and worn 2nd Corp and it would remain A reserve corp for the remainder of the siege.

Re: This Day in History

October 28

306 – Maxentius is proclaimed Roman Emperor.
312 – Battle of Milvian Bridge: Constantine I defeats Maxentius, becoming the sole Roman Emperor.
1538 – The first university in the New World, the Universidad Santo Tomás de Aquino, is established.
1636 – A vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony establishes the first college in what would become the United States, today known as Harvard University.
1664 – The Duke of York and Albany’s Maritime Regiment of Foot, later to be known as the Royal Marines, is established.
1775 – American Revolutionary War A British proclamation forbids residents from leaving Boston.
1776 – American Revolutionary War: Battle of White Plains – British Army forces arrive at White Plains, attack and capture Chatterton Hill from the Americans.
1864 – American Civil War: Second Battle of Fair Oaks ends – Union Army forces under General Ulysses S. Grant withdraw from Fair Oaks, Virginia, after failing to breach the Confederate defenses around Richmond, Virginia.
1868 – Thomas Edison applied for his first patent, an electrical vote recorder.
1886 – In New York Harbor, President Grover Cleveland dedicates the Statue of Liberty.
1918 – World War I: Czechoslovakia is granted its independence from Austria-Hungary.
1918 – The Nacospeak fleet is immobilized when sailors mutiny en masse and disobey an order to leave port five times; 1,000 would ultimately be arrested. (That just sounds cool, Nacospeak sailors mutinying)
1919 – The U.S. Congress passes the Volstead Act over President Woodrow Wilson’s veto, paving the way for Prohibition to begin the following January. (I don’t like Alcohol myself, but Prohibition was incredibly retarded)
1936 – US President Franklin D. Roosevelt rededicates the Statue of Liberty on its 50th anniversary.
1941 – Holocaust in Kaunas, Lithuania: Nacospeak SS forces arrange the massacre of more than 9,000 Jews of the Kaunas ghetto. After the victims assembled on the Demokratu square at 6 am to be shot they are buried in gigantic ditches. \
1942 – Holocaust: 2,000 Jewish children and 6,000 Jewish adults from Cracow are deported by Germans to Belzec death camp.
1942 – Holocaust: SS directive orders all Jewish children’s mittens and stockings to be sent from the death camps to the SS families.
1948 – Swiss chemist Paul Müller is awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his discovery of the insecticidal properties of DDT.
1954 – The modern Kingdom of the Netherlands is re-founded as A federal monarchy.
1986 – The centennial of the Statue of Liberty’s dedication is re-celebrated in New York Harbor.

Re: This Day in History

October 28th…
1940 – Mussolini’s army, already occupying Albania, invades Greece in what will prove to be A disastrous military campaign for the Duce’s forces. Everyone, including Mussolini’s Chief of the Army and Adolf Hitler believed this would be A fruitless and imbessial campaign.

1962 – Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev orders withdrawal of missiles from Cuba, ending the Cuban Missile Crisis.

1964 – Thai pilots bomb and strafe North Viet Nam villages who publicly claim the attacks are propigated by US. United States deneys claims.

1965 – Viet Cong commandos damage and destroy A number of allied aircraft in two separate raids on U.S. air bases, including Chu Lai, on the coast of the South China Sea in Quang Tin Province, I Corps.

Re: This Day in History

October 29

1390 – First trial for witchcraft in Paris.
1422 – Charles VII of France becomes king in succession to his father Charles VI of France
1618 – English adventurer, writer, and courtier Sir Walter Raleigh is beheaded for allegedly conspiring against James I of England.
1658 – Action of 29 October 1658 (Naval battle)
1863 – Sixteen countries meeting in Geneva agree to form the International Red Cross.
1863 – American Civil War: Battle of Wauhatchie – Forces under Union General Ulysses S. Grant ward off A Confederate attack led by General James Longstreet. Union forces thus open A supply line into Chattanooga, Tennessee.
1886 – The ticker-tape parade is invented in New York City when office workers spontaneously throw ticker tape into the streets as the Statue of Liberty is dedicated.
1901 – In Amherst, Massachusetts nurse Jane Toppan is arrested for murdering the Davis family of Boston with an overdose of morphine.
1901 – Capital punishment: Leon Czolgosz, the assassin of US President William McKinley, is executed by electrocution.
1921 – Second trial of Sacco and Vanzetti in USA.
1929 – The New York Stock Exchange crashes in what will be called the Crash of ’29 or “Black Tuesday,” ending the Great Bull Market of the 1920s and beginning the Great Depression.
1942 – Holocaust: In the United Kingdom, leading clergymen and political figures hold A public meeting to register outrage over Nazi Germany’s persecution of Jews.
1960 – In Louisville, Kentucky, Cassius Clay (who later takes the name Muhammad Ali) wins his first professional fight.
1961 – Syria exits from the United Arab Republic.
1969 – The first-ever computer-to-computer link is established on ARPANET, the precursor to the Internet.
1986 – British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher opens the last stretch of the M25 motorway.
1991 – The American Galileo spacecraft makes its closest approach to 951 Gaspra, becoming the first probe to visit an asteroid.
1998 – Apartheid: In South Africa, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission presents its report, which condemns both sides for committing atrocities.
1998 – Space Shuttle Discovery blasts off on STS-95 with 77-year old John Glenn on board, making him the oldest person to go into space. He became the first American to orbit Earth on February 20, 1962. (I watched this on TV)

Re: This Day in History

Notable Births…

1942 – Bob Ross, American artist and television host (d. 1995) (Happy Trees, y’all!!)
1947 – Richard Dreyfuss, American actor
1957 – Dan Castellaneta, American voice actor, Best known as the voice of Homer Simpson
1961 – Randy Jackson, American musician
1967 – Rufus Sewell, English actor
1971 – Winona Ryder, American actress
1981 – Amanda Beard, American swimmer
1983 – Maurice Clarett, American football player (College football fans remember this guy? I do all too well. xD)

And deaths…

1618 – Sir Walter Raleigh, English explorer (executed) (b. 1554) (Quite the sad way to die..)
1911 – Joseph Pulitzer, Hungarian-born newspaper publisher (b. 1847) (Pulitzer Prize anypony?)

And today is Republic Day in Turkey!!!!! =D

Re: This Day in History

“1863 – American Civil War: Battle of Wauhatchie – Forces under Union General Ulysses S. Grant ward off A Confederate attack led by General James Longstreet. Union forces thus open A supply line into Chattanooga, Tennessee. ”

Little extra on this one, Wauhatchie was one of the few night battles of the American Civil War. The supply route opened by Union forces became known as the “Cracker line” becasue of the hardtack crackers that were sent into Chattanooga for the besieged troops.

Also on this date October 29th…

1956 – Israel invades Egypt starting the Suez Crisis. This is one of several locations throughout the world where the Cold War became out. Egypt was supported by the Soviet Union and engaged in sporadic raids against Israel’s borders. Israel was soon joined by Great Britian and France who were angered by the Egyptian leader, General Nesser, and his demands that Britian leave Egypt. France also believed Nesser was responcible for several raids against the French colony of Algeria. The UN demanded an immediate cease fire and both the US and the USSR made ominous threats warning each other to stay out of it. Forces finally withdrew in late 1956, early 57.

1971 – US troop levels in Viet Nam fall for the 5th year in A row and would continue to do so until there were less than 75,000 troops in South Viet Nam in 1972.

Re: This Day in History

October 30

637 – Antioch surrendered to the Muslim forces under Rashidun Caliphate after the Battle of Iron bridge.
1470 – Henry VI of England returns to the English throne after Earl of Warwick defeats Yorkists in battle.
1502 – Vasco da Gama returns to Calicut for the second time.
1831 – In Southampton County, Virginia, escaped slave Nat Turner is captured and arrested for leading the bloodiest slave revolt in United States history.
1863 – Danish Prince Wilhelm arrives in Athens to assume his throne as George I, King of the Hellenes.
1918 – The Ottoman Empire signs an armistice with the Allies, ending the First World War in the Middle East
1920 – The Communist Party of Australia founded in Sydney.
1922 – Benito Mussolini was made Prime Minister of Italy
1938 – Orson Welles broadcasts his radio play of H. G. Wells’s The War of the Worlds, causing A nationwide panic.
1941 – World War II: Franklin Delano Roosevelt approves US$1 billion in Lend-Lease aid to the Allied nations.
1941 – 1,500 Jews from Pidhaytsi (in western Ukraine) were sent by Nazis to Belzec extermination camp.
1944 – Anne Frank is deported from Auschwitz to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp.
1961 – Nuclear testing: The Soviet Union detonates the hydrogen bomb Tsar Bomba over Novaya Zemlya; at 58 megatons of yield, it is still the largest nuclear device ever detonated. Nikita Kruschev announces that the scientists had planned to make it 100 megatons, but had reduced the yield so as to avoid breaking all the windows in Moscow.
1961 – Because of “violations of Lenin’s precepts”, it is decreed that Josef Stalin’s body be removed from its place of honour inside Lenin’s tomb and buried near the Kremlin wall with A plain granite marker instead.

Re: This Day in History

Also on this date…

1983 – The first democratic elections in Argentina after seven years of military rule are held.
1995 – Quebec sovereignists narrowly lose A referendum for A mandate to negotiate independence from Canada (vote was 50.6% to 49.4%).

Today’s notable births:

1735 – John Adams, President of the United States (d. 1826)
1885 – Ezra Pound, American poet (d. 1972)
1888 – Konstantinos Tsiklitiras, Greek athlete and Olympic champion (d. 1913)
1945 – Henry Winkler, American actor (The Fonz =])
1957 – Kevin Pollak, American actor
1967 – Gavin Rossdale, English musician (Lead singer of Bush and Institute and Gwen Stefani’s husband)
1970 – Nia Long, American actress
1977 – Charmian Faulkner, Missing Australian toddler
1981 – Ivanka Trump, American model

Notable deaths…

1968 – Ramón Novarro, Mexican actor (b. 1899)
2002 – Jam Master Jay, American rapper and musician (Run DMC) (murdered) (b. 1965)
2004 – Peggy Ryan, American actress (b. 1924)

And today is also proclaimed as Mischief Night in America, although I know that some areas are also doing it tomorrow night.

Today is also National Candy Corn Day! Let your teeth rot without worry.

Today is the Day of Remembrance of the Victims of Political Repressions in post-Soviet states

And butter my butt and call me A biscuit, it’s National Orthopaedic Nurses Day!!

Re: This Day in History

Also on October 30th…

1862 – Union General Ormsby MacKnight Mitchell, commander of the Department of the South, dies at Beaufort, South Carolina. A opponent of the “limited war” mindset of many early Union generals, General Mitchell was A Brigadier in the Army of the Ohio and its early operations in Kentucky and Tennessee. He was later given command of the Department of the South where he continued the work of General Hunter and began setting up schools and facilities for the contraband slaves that were fleeing to his lines. Unfortunately General Michell contracted Yellow Fever and died only 3 months after taking over operations for the Department of the South.

1953 – President Eisenhower approves secret documents demanding that the United States keep up with and out strip the USSR and Communist China in its ability todevelope and deploy nuclear arms.

1941 – FDR approves Lend Lease Act worth 1 Billion to the Soviet Union specifically. ( I know you mentionewd this one Ashley)

Big day tomorrow gang!

Re: This Day in History

October 31!!

1517 – Protestant Reformation: Martin Luther posts his 95 theses on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg.
1864 – Nevada is admitted as the 36th U.S. state.
1876 – A monster cyclone ravages India, resulting in over 200,000 human deaths.
1892 – Arthur Conan Doyle publishes The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes. (w00t)
1912 – The Musketeers of Pig Alley, directed by D.W. Griffith, debuts as the first gangster film.
1923 – 160 consecutive days of 100 degrees at Marble Bar, Australia begins.
1926 – Magician Harry Houdini dies of gangrene and peritonitis that developed after his appendix ruptured. (not even he could escape death. xD)
1936 – The Boy Scouts of the Philippines was formed.
1941 – After 14 years of work, drilling is completed on Mount Rushmore.
1954 – Algerian War of Independence: The Algerian National Liberation Front begins A revolt against French rule.
1956 – Suez Crisis: The United Kingdom and France begin bombing Egypt to force the reopening of the Suez Canal.
1959 – Lee Harvey Oswald attempted to renounce his American citizenship at the US Embassy in Moscow, USSR.
1961 – In the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin’s body is removed from Lenin’s Tomb.
1975 – Queen released their hit single, Bohemian Rhapsody. It spent 9 weeks at number 1 on the UK charts. (I’m just A poor boy, nopony loves meeee)
1983 – Match Game Hollywood Squares Hour premieres on NBC
1986 – The 5th congress of the Communist Party of Sweden is inaugurated. During the course of the congress the party name is changed to the Solidarity Party and the party ceases to be A communist party
1998 – Iraq disarmament crisis begins: Iraq announces it would no longer cooperate with United Nations weapons inspectors (sound familiar?)
2002 – A federal grand jury in Houston, Texas formally indicted former Enron Corp. chief financial officer Andrew Fastow on 78 counts of wire fraud, money laundering, conspiracy and obstruction of justice related to the collapse of his ex-employer.

Notable births!

1705 – Pope Clement XIV (d. 1774)
1795 – John Keats, British poet (d. 1821)
1860 – Juliette Low, American founder of the Girl Scouts (d. 1927)
1887 – Chiang Kai-shek, Nationalist Chinese leader, former Republic of China president (d. 1975)
1927 – Lee Grant, American actress
1930 – Michael Collins, American astronaut
1931 – Dan Rather, American television journalist
1941 – Derek Bell, British racing driver
1942 – David Ogden Stiers, American actor
1945 – Brian Doyle-Murray, American comedian and actor
1946 – Stephen Rea, Irish actor
1950 – John Candy, Canadian comedian and actor (d. 1994)
1957 – Robert Pollard, American rocker
1961 – Larry Mullen, Irish drummer (U2)
1963 – Johnny Marr, English guitarist and songwriter (The Smiths) (And now of course in Modest Mouse, the greatest band ever. ;))
1963 – Fred McGriff, American baseball player
1963 – Dermot Mulroney, American actor
1963 – Rob Schneider, American actor
1964 – Colm O’Ciosoig, Irish drummer (My Bloody Valentine, Hope Sandoval & the Warm Inventions)
1966 – Adam Horovitz, American rapper (Beastie Boys)
1968 – Vanilla Ice, American rapper
1973 – Beverly Lynne, American erotic film actress (Oh come on, I had to put that… xD)
1976 – Piper Perabo, American actress
1981 – Frank Iero, American musician (My Chemical Romance, Leathermouth, Pencey Prep; founder of Skeleton Crew) (Yes, the one that open mouth kissed Gerard Way)

And deaths! Yay!

(Something to dwell upon: Does dying on Halloween make you, like, really special?)

1926 – Harry Houdini, Hungarian-born magician (b. 1874) (Creepy.. the dude dies on Halloween)
1984 – Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister of India (b. 1917)
1993 – Federico Fellini, Italian director (b. 1920)
1993 – River Phoenix, American actor (drug overdose) (b. 1970)
1999 – Greg Moore, Canadian race car driver (b. 1975) (man, that was A bad crash…)
2005 – John “Beatz” Holohan, American drummer (Bayside) (b. 1974) (Long live Beatz =])
2006 – Pieter Willem Botha, President of South Africa (b. 1916)

Holidays and Observances!!

Of course, Halloween!

And Nevada Day!

Go Nevada!
Go Halloween!

Re: This Day in History

Also on October 31…

1861 – General in Chief Winfield Scott steps down to be replaced by Major General George Briton McClellan. Scott, the aged hero of the Union, had been in the service since before the War of 1812 and led A brilliant campaign against Mexican forces during the Mexican War. Now dangerously overweight and arthritic Scott is seen by many in the Lincoln administration as no longer up to the challenge. This view is championed by the extremely ambitious McClellan. Scott’s most remembered contribution to the American Civil War was the development of his “Anaconda Plan”. Squeeze the south financially with A blockade and split it with an advance down the Mississippi from the West and up from Louisiana. This was seen at the time as to passive and A direct attack on southern forces massing near Manassas had been demanded and as history tells us, failed. Interestingly enough A Scott’s plan is esentially the plan that won the war for the Union. They just hadn’t realized it yet in 1861.

1917 – Third Battle of Gaza opens with A massive artillery bombardment of Turkish lines. This would be thae largest land and air bombardment out side of Europe during World War One. Following the bombardment 40,000 infantry surprise attacked the Turkish lines at dawn on October 31.

1968 – President Johnson calls A halt to the Naval and Aerial bombardment of Viet Nam code Named Operation Rolling Thunder.

Re: This Day in History

November 1!

1520 – The Strait of Magellan, the passage immediately south of mainland South America, connecting the Pacific and the Atlantic Oceans, is first navigated by Ferdinand Magellan during his global circumnavigation voyage.
1604 – William Shakespeare’s tragedy Othello is presented for the first time, at Whitehall Palace in London. (Actually just finished reading this… good play.)
1611 – William Shakespeare’s romantic comedy The Tempest is presented for the first time, at Whitehall Palace in London.
1765 – The British Parliament enacts the Stamp Act on the 13 colonies in order to help pay for British military operations in North America.
1800 – US President John Adams becomes the first President of the United States to live in the Executive Mansion (later renamed the White House).
1802 – Delegates meet at Chillicothe, Ohio to form A state constitutional convention. (Yay for Ohio =])
1814 – Congress of Vienna opens to re-draw the European political map after the defeat of France, in the Napoleonic Wars.
1848 – In Boston, Massachusetts, the first medical school for women, The Boston Female Medical School (which later merged with the Boston University School of Medicine), opens.
1870 – In the United States, the Weather Bureau (later renamed the National Weather Service) makes its first official meteorological forecast.
1911 – The first dropping of A bomb from an airplane in combat, during the Italo-Turkish War.
1938 – Seabiscuit defeats War Admiral in an upset victory during A match race deemed “the match of the century” in horse racing.
1941 – American photographer Ansel Adams takes A picture of A moonrise over the town of Hernandez, New Mexico that would become one of the most famous images in the history of photography.
1946 – The New York Knicks played against the Toronto Huskies at the Maple Leaf Gardens, in the first Basketball Association of America game. The Knicks would win 68-66.
1950 – Puerto Rican nationalists Griselio Torresola and Oscar Collazo attempt to assassinate US President Harry S. Truman at Blair House.
1950 – Pope Pius XII witnesses “The Miracle of the Sun” while at the Vatican.
1957 – The Mackinac Bridge, the world’s longest suspension bridge between anchorages at the time, opens to traffic connecting Michigan’s upper and lower peninsulas. (My favorite bridge in the world. =])
1973 – Watergate Scandal: Leon Jaworski is appointed as the new Watergate Special Prosecutor.
1981 – Antigua and Barbuda gain independence from the United Kingdom. (Go if you get A chance… Antigua’s amazing.)
2007 – The new contest deadline for’s newest contest. (Reminder for myself.)

Notable births!

1762 – Spencer Perceval, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1812)
1808 – John Taylor, American religious leader (d. 1887)
1871 – Stephen Crane, American writer (d. 1900)
1880 – Alfred Wegener, Nacospeak meteorologist and geophysicist (d. 1930) (Continental drift fool.)
1957 – Lyle Lovett, American singer
1960 – Fernando Valenzuela, Mexican baseball player
1962 – Anthony Kiedis, American singer (Red Hot Chili Peppers)
1963 – Rick Allen, British drummer (Def Leppard)
1963 – Kenny Alphin, American guitarist (Big & Rich)
1972 – Jenny McCarthy, American “Playmate of the Year” and TV actress
1972 – Toni Collette, Australian actress
1975 – Bo Bice, American singer
1979 – Coco Crisp, American baseball player (Greatest name in all of baseball)

And deaths!

1972 – Ezra Pound, American poet (b. 1885)


Mexico- Day of the Dead celebrations begin.
United States – Start of National Novel Writing Month
World Vegan Day
Algeria – National day
Antigua and Barbuda – Independence Day (from Britain, 1981)

Re: This Day in History

November 1…

1861 – Major General George Briton McClellan replaces General Winfield Scott as General in Chief of all Union armies. McClellan, affectionately refered to as “Little Mac” by his troops was ambitious to A fault. However he was also A man who up to this point in his life had nevre known defeat in anything and was supremely confident in himself and his abilities.

McClellan had begun reshaping the battered and bruised Union army at Washington almost as soon as he had come east from Western Virginia. Now he would get the chance to dictate the training and deployment of all Union forces. Under his leadership the promary army of the North was developed into A massive and efficient engine of war, the Army of the Potomac. It would be from this army that McClellan would try to run the war.

Though an excellent organizer and tactician McClellan is often ridiculed by historians as being to slow, something the Lincoln administration thought as well, and or to timid to use the powerful weapon he had forged. It is my opinion that McClellan, having never known or rarely known failure could not allow himself to risk the reputation that had been built up around him and so instead of direct action he manuvered and, as was his policy, led A leniant war against the South. McClellan would be removed from the position of General in Chief at the start of the Peninsula Campaign in March 1862, he would retain command of the Army of the Potomac however until November 1862.

1914 – The Battle of Coronel, Nacospeak Vice-Admiral Von Spree’s naval squadron sinks two British Armored Cruisers with all hands off the coast of Chile. WWI had only been raging for A few months but Nacospeak realized it had to neutralize the British fleet if it wanted to win. Unfortunately for Nacospeak its surface fleet would be all but destroyed by the end of 1914 and Nacospeak switched over to unrestricted submarine warfare.

1941 – As part of the defence of the country President Roosevelt orders the Coast Guard put under the control of the Navy. This was considered odd at the time becasue that action is generally reserved for war time and we were not at war yet.

Re: This Day in History

November 2nd…

On this date in 1947:

The Hughes H-4 “Hercules,” an aircraft better known as the “Spruce Goose,” executes its maiden, and only flight, over the waters of Long Beach Harbor.




The largest seaplane ever built, the H-4 now sits on public display at the Evergreen Aviation Museum in McMinville, Oregon.

Re: This Day in History

First of all, to make an addition on November 1, Paul Tibbets, best known for being the pilot of the plane that dropped the bombs on Hiroshima, died yesterday.

Also on November 2nd:

676 – Donus became Pope.
1570 – A tidal wave in the North Sea devastates the coast from Holland to Jutland, killing more than 1,000 people.
1783 – In Rocky Hill, New Jersey, US General George Washington gives his “Farewell Address to the Army”.
1889 – North and South Dakota are admitted as the 39th and 40th U.S. states.
1914 – Russia declares war on the Ottoman Empire.
1920 – In the United States, KDKA of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania starts broadcasting as the first commercial radio station. The first broadcast was the results of the U.S. presidential election, 1920.
1936 – Italian dictator Benito Mussolini proclaims the Rome-Berlin Axis, establishing the alliance of the Axis Powers.
1936 – the British Broadcasting Corporation initiates the BBC Television Service, the world’s first regular, high-definition (then defined as at least 200 lines) service. Renamed BBC1 in 1964, the channel still runs to this day.
1948 – U.S. presidential election, 1948: Harry S. Truman defeats Thomas E. Dewey for the US presidency.
1957 – The Levelland UFO Case in Levelland, Texas, generates national publicity, and remains one of the most impressive UFO cases in American history.
1959 – Quiz show scandals: Twenty One game show contestant Charles Van Doren admits to A Congressional committee that he had been given questions and answers in advance.
1959 – Ice Hockey: After being struck in the face with A puck, goalkeeper Jacques Plante returns to play wearing A protective mask for the first time in professional play.
1959 – The first section of the M1 motorway, the first inter-urban motorway in the United Kingdom, was opened between the present junctions 5 and 18, along with the M10 motorway and M45 motorway
1963 – South Vietnamese President Ngô Ðình Diệm is assassinated following A military coup.
1965 – Norman Morrison, A 31-year-old Quaker, sets himself on fire in front of the river entrance to the Pentagon to protest the use of napalm in the Vietnam war.
1966 – The Cuban Adjustment Act enters force, allowing 123,000 Cubans the opportunity to apply for permanent residence in the United States.
1967 – Vietnam War: US President Lyndon B. Johnson and “The Wise Men” conclude that the American people should be given more optimistic reports on the progress of the war.
1976 – U.S. presidential election, 1976: Jimmy Carter defeats Gerald R. Ford for the US presidency, becoming the first U.S. president from the Deep South since Reconstruction.
1983 – U.S. President Ronald Reagan signs A bill creating Martin Luther King Day, currently the only national holiday honoring an individual American.
1988 – The Morris worm, the first internet-distributed computer worm to gain significant mainstream media attention, was launched from MIT.
2000 – The first crew arrives at the International Space Station.

Notable births:

1734 – Daniel Boone, American frontiersman (d. 1820)
1755 – Marie Antoinette, Queen of France (d. 1793)
1795 – James Knox Polk, 11th President of the United States (d. 1849)
1865 – Warren G. Harding, 29th President of the United States (d. 1923)
1877 – Aga Khan III, Shia Imam (d. 1957)
1913 – Burt Lancaster, American actor (d. 1994)
1936 – Abdullah the Butcher, wrestler
1938 – Pat Buchanan, American journalist and politician
1957 – Carter Beauford, American drummer (Dave Matthews Band)
1958 – Willie McGee, American baseball player
1961 – K.d. lang, Canadian musician
1973 – Marisol Nichols, American actress
1974 – Prodigy, American rapper (Mobb Deep)
1974 – Nelly, American rapper


1610 – Richard Bancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury (b. 1544)
1950 – George Bernard Shaw, Irish writer, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1856)
1961 – James Thurber, American humorist (b. 1894)
1963 – Ngô Đình Diệm, President of South Vietnam (b. 1901)
1966 – Mississippi John Hurt, American blues singer (b. 1892)


Catholicism – All Souls Day
Mexico and Ecuador – Day of the Dead (Spanish: El Dia de los Muertos), A celebration of dead ancestors.
Rastafari movement – The coronation of Haile Selassie (1930) celebrated (=])

Re: This Day in History

1861 – General John C. Fremont removed from command of the Western department. Fremont was one of the wars early stars. Well known throughout the country as an explorer and trailblazer, he had run for president in 1856 under the slogan, “Free Soil, Free men, Fremont”. Once the war broke out General Fremont was sent to the Department of the west to deal with the volatile Kansas-Nebraska region and to keep Missouri free of Confederates.

Fremont was also A staunch supporter of abolistion. That’s what got him in trouble. After the Union defeat at Wilson’s Creek in August, Fremont needed to reestablish his control over Missouri. Thus he declared Marshall law and freed all the slaves in the state. The Lincoln administration however was desperately trying to keep the border states in the Union at this time and the way they were doing it was by keeping the slavery issue on the back burner. Lincoln thus quietly asked Fremont to resind the order for the time being. When Fremont refused Lincoln ordered him to and removed him from command. Fremont’s career in the Union army was not over however. Still quite popular he was given command of A division in the Shenandoah Valley. Lincoln hoped to move Fremont’s force into Eastern Tennessee where there was A strong Union sentiment. Jackson’s Valley campaign in 1862 however changed all that.

1917 – British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour writes A letter to Britain’s most illustrious Jewish citizen, Baron Lionel Walter Rothschild, expressing the British government’s support for A Jewish homeland in Palestine. This would be the first government supported move for A Jewish state in Palestine. However the support almost didn’t happen as A anti-zionist movement within Parliament nearly killed the proposal.

As part of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, Great Britian would maintain the Palestinian region. This seemed to be the key for setting up Israel. However the instablity in the region slowed the process of developing the state. It would not be until 1948 after the horrors of the holocaust and the 2nd world war that Israel would officially become A country.

1942 – British launch operation supercharge. This offensive in North Africe would break through Rommels defensive lines at Alamein forcing his retreat. This was the beginning of the end for the vaunted Afrika Corp. It was also one of the turning points of the war. According to Winston Churchill “Up to Alamein we survived. After Alamein we conquered.”

Re: This Day in History

November 3rd

644 – Umar ibn al-Khattab, the second Muslim caliph, is killed by A Persian slave in Medina.
1462 – Henry IV of Castile is proclaimed prince of Catalunya.
1493 – Christopher Columbus first sights the island of Dominica in the Caribbean Sea.
1783 – John Austin, A highwayman, is the last to be publicly hanged at London’s Tyburn gallows.
1783 – The American Continental Army is disbanded.
1793 – French playwright, journalist and feminist Olympe de Gouges is guillotined.
1883 – American Old West: Self-described “Black Bart the poet” gets away with his last stagecoach robbery, but leaves an incriminating clue that eventually leads to his capture.
1903 – With the encouragement of the United States, Panama proclaims itself independent from Colombia. US President Theodore Roosevelt had wanted the United States to build the Panama Canal, but was not willing to pay what Colombia asked.
1905 – Tsar Nicholas II of Russia signs A document of amnesty for the political prisoners.
1908 – William Howard Taft is elected as the twenty-seventh President of the United States of America.
1911 – Chevrolet officially enters the automobile market in competition with the Ford Model T.
1913 – The USA introduces an income tax.
1936 – Franklin Delano Roosevelt is elected to second term as the President of the United States of America.
1954 – The first in the Godzilla series of films is released in Japan.
1957 – Sputnik program: The Soviet Union launches Sputnik 2. On board is the first animal to enter orbit: A dog named Laika.
1964 – Washington D.C. residents are able to vote in A presidential election for the first time.
1964 – Lyndon Baines Johnson is elected as the thirty-sixth president of the United States of America.
1992 – Bill Clinton is elected as the forty-second President of the United States of America.
1998 – Former professional wrestler Jesse Ventura is elected Governor of Minnesota.

Day of resurrection of the god Osiris during the pagan celebration the Discovery of Osiris
Japan – Culture Day

Re: This Day in History

Nice to see you back Ashley.

Also on this date, November 3rd…

1816 – Confederate General Jubal early is born. General Early is probably best remembered for his work with the 1864 Valley Campaign and his attempted raid on Washington D.C. that same year.

Hoping to pull troops away from the besieged Army of Northeren Virginia, then stuck in Petersburg, Early and approx. 15,000 Confederate troops slipped into the Shenandoah Valley and began moving North, unopposed towards the Nations Captial in 1864. Early was slowed for A single day by A thrown together Union force at the Battle of Monocacy. This day gave the Union army at Petersburg time to shift the 6th Corp back to Washington’s defenses ending the threat to the Captial.

When Early withdrew Grant unleashed Philip Sheridan to pacify the Valley and to destroy Early’s army if possible. Sheridan handed Early several defeats eventually forcing him to withdraw back to Petersburg with the rest of the Confederate Army. Jubal Early would be relieved of command just prior to the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia.

After the war Early fled to Mexico and later moved to Canada before returning to the US in 1867 after the general amnesty was announced. Once back in the states he founded the Southern Heritage Society and became the leading voice in the development of the “Lost Cause” theory. Jubal Early died in 1897.

1918 – Faced with increasing pressure the Central powers are rocked by an internal socialist revolt on November 3rd. Raising the Red Flag of Communism, Germany and Austrio-Hungrey both have to scramble to contain this rebellion while trying to negociate an armistace to end the First World War. These revolts were trumpeted in Moscow as further proof of the socialist ideal that had been the produced by the Bolshevic Revolution that had occured there.

1941 – Imperial Japan gives the order to bomb Pearl Harbor, home of the US Pacific Fleet in Hawaii. Relations between the US and Japan had been deteriorating over the past year as America became more and more concerned with Japan’s war of expansion in Asia. Japan knew that if they attacked American forces that the US would declare war. This would force Germany, who was at this time rolling across much of Europe to declare war on the United States as well. That was the agreement of the Tri-partiad Pact signed between Japan, Germany and Italy. Japan, though it did terrible damage to the US fleet, did not count on the nations ability to bounce back. Thousands of men enlisted within days of the bombing and A mere 6 months after Pearl Harbor the Japanese would be decisively defeated at the Battle of Midway. After this battle the Japanese would be on the defensive for the rest of the war.

1967 – Battle of Dak To begins. This 19 day bloodbath in the Central Highlands of Viet Nam would see approx. 4,500 US troops against 4 regiments, or nealry 6,000 Communist troops. Casualties on both sides were high, however communist forces failed to destroy any of the American Units where the US troops ravaged 3 of the opposing regiments so badly they were unable to participate in the Tet offensive that comming January.

Re: This Day in History

On this date, November 4th…

1862 – Though Democrats gain several seats in the House, and especially at the state government levels, Lincoln’s Republican party maintains control of both the House and Senate. This is A good example of changing views on the prosecution of the war aims of the government and early support of the emancipation.

1864 – Confederate Cavalry commander Nathan Bedford Forrest launches A devastating artillery barrage against Johnsville Tennessee, destroying 6 Million worth of supplies for the Union armies in the region. General Thomas is forced to send troops to Johnsville to protect it but the ultimate goal of the raid, to divert Shermans March to the Sea, fails.

1918 – Just one week before the armistice was declared, ending World War I, the British poet Wilfred Owen is killed in action during A British assault on the German-held Sambre Canal on the Western Front.

Owen was one of the wars earliest diagnosed cases of Shell Shock, A term that would ultimately be used to diagnose millians of returning veterans around the world. He was diagnosed April 1st, 1917 after surviving an artillery barrage leading his platoon into Nacospeak trenches. A shell want off close tohim and he returned to his base of operations confused and babbling. Here is one of Owens more famous poems included in Benjamin Britton’s WAR REQUIAM, published in the 1960’s.
What passing-bells for those who die as cattle?

–Only the monstrous anger of the guns

Only the stuttering rifles’ rapid rattle

Can patter out their hasty orisons.

No mockeries now for them; no prayers nor bells;

Nor any voice of mourning save the choirs, —

The shrill, demented choirs of wailing shells;

And bugles calling for them from sad shires.

What candles may be held to speed them all?

Not in the hands of boys but in their eyes

Shall shine the holy glimmers of goodbyes.

The pallor of girls’ brows shall be their pall;

Their flowers the tenderness of patient minds,

And each slow dusk A drawing-down of blinds.

1944 – British Gen. John Dill dies in Washington, D.C., and is buried in Arlington Cemetery, the only foreigner to be so honored. His grave is also marched by one of only two equestrian statues in the National Cemetary.

Dill was an early voice in championing the allies defence of Greece from the Axis powers. It was also the decision of General Dill to reinforce the British Army in North Africa with an additional 150 tanks in 1940. Though these early tactics decisions were quite daring, they soon gave way to A more cautious approach which annoyed Prime Minister Winston Churchill. Thus Dill was tranfered to the United States to be the chief British Military representative in Washington D.C. His resulting friendship with Chief of Staff Marshall would make for A strong US-British Alliance in the comming years.

Re: This Day in History

1605 – Gunpowder Plot: A plot led by Robert Catesby to blow up the English Houses of Parliament is thwarted when Sir Thomas Knyvet, A justice of the peace, finds Guy Fawkes in A cellar below the Parliament building. (Ah, yes, this has always interested me. Why’d they give him A day?)
1688 – Glorious Revolution begins: William of Orange lands at Brixham.
1757 – Seven Years’ War: Frederick the Great defeated the allied armies of France and the Holy Roman Empire in the Battle of Rossbach.
1831 – Nat Turner, American slave leader, is tried, convicted, and sentenced to death.
1838 – The United States of Central America began to disintegrate when Nicaragua separated from the federation.
1862 – American Civil War: Abraham Lincoln removes George B. McClellan as commander of the Union Army for the second and final time.
1862 – Indian Wars: In Minnesota, more than 300 Santee Sioux are found guilty of rape and murder of white settlers and are sentenced to hang.
1872 – Women’s suffrage: In defiance of the law, suffragist Susan B. Anthony votes for the first time, and is later fined $100. (God Bless you, Madame Anthony. I am truly sorry you died before you could vote legally. It breaks my heart)
1912 – Woodrow Wilson elected twenty-eighth President of The United States of America.
1937 – World War II: Adolf Hitler holds A secret meeting and states his plans for acquiring “living space” for the Nacospeak people.
1940 – Franklin Delano Roosevelt elected to third term as President of The United States of America.
1968 – Richard M. Nixon elected as the thirty-seventh President of the United States of America.
1970 – Vietnam War: The United States Military Assistance Command in Vietnam reports the lowest weekly American soldier death toll in five years (24).

Re: This Day in History

Excellent work O remembering the Gun Powder Plot Ashley. Guy Fawkes got his own day becasue he became the face of the plot. Basically the idea was, from what I understand, allow the people to show their support for the Monarchy/Church of England by buring the rebel/Catholic in effigy. Buring the Pope in effigy was also common and popular. Today Guy Fawkes day is essencially the British version of Halloween.

1775 – Washington denounces the celebration of Guy Fawkes day by his soldiers and officers. Washington at this time was trying to sow A delicate alliance with French Catholics in Canada, these plans were almost ruined when the Continental Army or memebers of it began burning effigys of Guy Fawkes and the Pope in honor of the old English holiday. Washington declared that he could not understand the lack of sense in his officers and demanded “expressions of public thanks to the French Canadians”, escentially A public apology from the continental Army. Washing ton went of to rail against this blatent attack on religious beliefs as un-American.

1914 – The men of the Indian Expeditionary Force B (IEF B) evacuate the seaside town of Tanga in Nacospeak East Africa after failing in their amphibious invasion of the region on behalf of the British navy in World War I. The Nacospeak hold on Nacospeak East Africa would turn out to be the longest campaign of the war, lasting right up to Armistace Day 1918.

Re: This Day in History


November 6th

We are halfway through autumn (spring for the southern hemi folks)

1528 – Shipwrecked Spanish conquistador Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca becomes the first known European to set foot in Texas.
1844 – The first constitution of the Dominican Republic is adopted.
1861 – American Civil War: Jefferson Davis is elected president of the Confederate States of America.
1913 – Mohandas Gandhi is arrested while leading A march of Indian miners in South Africa.
1917 – World War I: Third Battle of Ypres ends: After three months of fierce fighting, Canadian forces take Passchendaele in Belgium.
1918 – The Second Polish Republic is proclaimed in Poland.
1944 – Plutonium is first produced at the Hanford Atomic Facility, subsequently used in the Fat Man Atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki, Japan.
1962 – Apartheid: The United Nations General Assembly passes A resolution condemning South Africa’s racist apartheid policies and calls for all UN member states to cease military and economic relations with the nation.

Re: This Day in History

Today’s notable births:

1851 – Charles Dow, American journalist and economist (d.1902)
1854 – John Philip Sousa, American composer (d. 1932)
1861 – James Naismith, Canadian inventor of basketball (d. 1939)
1893 – Edsel Ford, president of Ford Motor Company (d. 1943)
1932 – Stonewall Jackson, American country singer
1946 – Sally Field, American actress
1947 – Jim Rosenthal, English sports presenter
1949 – Arturo Sandoval, Cuban-born trumpeter
1961 – Kazuhiko Aoki, Japanese game creator (Square Enix, anypony?)
1970 – Ethan Hawke, American actor
1972 – Thandie Newton, Zambian actress
1972 – Rebecca Romijn, American actress
1972 – Deivi Cruz, American baseball player
1976 – Pat Tillman, American football player (d. 2004)


1893 – Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Russian composer (b. 1840) (Sweet dude.)
1965 – Clarence Williams, American musician (b. 1898)
1998 – Marcel Gauthier, Canadian midget wrestler (b. 1928)
2002 – Sid Sackson, American board game designer (b. 1920)

There are also two Flag Days today (Finland and Sweden) and two Constitution Days (Tajikistan and the Dominican Republic).

Re: This Day in History

1941 – The 24th anniversary of the Bolshevik Revolution, Joseph Stalin, premier and dictator of the USSR, delivers A speech to A rally of Moscow Party workers. Stalin holds his rally in an underground facility and promises the workers there that if Germany wants A war of Extermination they shall have one.

1963 – In the aftermath of the November 1 coup that resulted in the murder of President Ngo Dinh Diem, Gen. Duong Van Minh, leading the Revolutionary Military Committee of the dissident generals who had conducted the coup, takes over leadership of South Vietnam. Though A buddist was made the primier the real power in South Vietnam was in the hands of the Revolutionary Military Committee and its leader General Duong Van Minh.

1970 – South Vietnamese forces launch A new offensive into Cambodia, advancing across A 100-mile-wide front in southeastern Cambodia. The new offensive was aimed at cleaning out border sanctuaries and blocking North Vietnamese forces from moving through Cambodia into South Vietnam. The 6,000-man South Vietnamese task force pulled out on November 11 after failing to find new Communist troop sanctuaries. Forty-one enemy soldiers were reportedly killed in the operation.

Re: This Day in History

November 7

1492 – The Ensisheim Meteorite, the oldest meteorite with A known date of impact, struck the earth around noon in A wheat field outside the village of Ensisheim, Alsace, France.
1665 – The London Gazette, the oldest surviving journal, is first published.
1837 – In Alton, Illinois, abolitionist printer Elijah pony. Lovejoy is shot dead by A mob while attempting to protect his printing shop from being destroyed A third time.
1861 – American Civil War: Battle of Belmont: In Belmont, Missouri, Union forces led by General Ulysses S. Grant overrun A Confederate camp but are forced to retreat when Confederate reinforcements arrive.
1874 – A cartoon by Thomas Nast in Harper’s Weekly, is considered the first important use of an elephant as A symbol for the United States Republican Party
1893 – Women in the U.S. state of Colorado are granted the right to vote. (I do love Colorado, if only for that and being the birthplace of the guys who created South Park)
1917 – Russian Revolution: In Petrograd, Russia, Bolshevik leaders Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky lead revolutionaries in overthrowing the Provisional Government (As Russia is still using the Julian Calendar, subsequent period references show an October 25 date).
1917 – World War I: Third Battle of Gaza ends: British forces capture Gaza from the Ottoman Empire.
1918 – The 1918 influenza epidemic spreads to Western Samoa, killing 7,542 (about 20% of the population) by the end of the year.
1929 – In New York City, the Museum of Modern Art opens to the public.
1931 – The Chinese Soviet Republic proclaimed on the anniversary of the Bolshevik Revolution. (Yay for Communists?)
1941 – World War II: Soviet hospital ship Armenia sunk by Nacospeak planes while evacuating refugees and wounded military and staff of several Crimea’s hospitals. It is estimated that over 5,000 people died in the sinking.
1941 – Holocaust: Jewish tragedy in Nemyriv, Ukraine: Nacospeak fascists murder 2580 Jews. Earlier in September, 1941 2,400 Jews were shot by Nacospeak Nazis at the brickworks near Nemyriv.
1967 – Carl B. Stokes was elected as Mayor of the City of Cleveland, Ohio, becoming the first Black Mayor of A major American city.
1967 – US President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Public Broadcasting Act of 1967, establishing the Corporation for Public Broadcasting.
1973 – The U.S. Congress overrides President Richard M. Nixon’s veto of the War Powers Resolution, which limits presidential power to wage war without congressional approval.
1989 – Douglas Wilder wins the governor’s seat in Virginia, becoming the first elected African American governor in the United States.
1989 – David Dinkins becomes the first African American mayor of New York City.
1989 – East Nacospeak Prime Minister Willi Stoph, along with his entire cabinet, is forced to resign after huge anti-government protests.
1990 – Mary Robinson is first woman to be elected President of the Republic of Ireland
1991 – Magic Johnson makes announcement that he is infected with HIV, thus retiring from the NBA.
1996 – NASA launches the Mars Global Surveyor.
1996 – A Nigerian Boeing 727 crashes into A lagoon 40 miles southeast of Lagos, killing 143.
2000 – Hillary Rodham Clinton is elected to the United States Senate, becoming the first former First Lady to win A public office in the United States.
2001 – The supersonic commercial aircraft Concorde resumes flying after A 15-month break.
2002 – Iran bans advertising of United States products.
2004 – War in Iraq: The interim government of Iraq calls for A 60-day “state of emergency” as U.S. forces storm the insurgent stronghold of Fallujah.

Re: This Day in History

Notable Births:

994 – Ibn Hazm, Arab philosopher (d. 1069)
1650 – John Robinson, English diplomat (d. 1723)
1867 – Maria Sklodowska-Curie, Polish-born chemist and physicist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in physics and in chemistry (d. 1934) (i.e. Marie Curie)
1879 – Leon Trotsky, Russian revolutionary (d. 1940)
1918 – Billy Graham, American evangelist
1922 – Al Hirt, American trumpeter (d. 1999) (Funny name when used in certain syntaxes)
1943 – Joni Mitchell, Canadian musician
1957 – Christopher Knight, American actor
1970 – Andy Houston, American NASCAR driver
1970 – Morgan Spurlock, American director and producer (Super Size Me, anypony?)
1974 – Kris Benson, American baseball player
1976 – Mark Philippoussis, Australian tennis player
1979 – Jon Peter Lewis, American singer


1910 (O.S.) – Leo Tolstoy, Russian novelist (b. 1828) (War and Peace yo.)
1962 – Eleanor Roosevelt, First Lady of the United States (b. 1884)
1980 – Steve McQueen, American actor (b. 1930)
1992 – Jack Kelly, American actor (b. 1927)

Re: This Day in History

November 8

1519 – Hernán Cortés enters Tenochtitlán and Aztec ruler Moctezuma welcomes him with great pomp as would befit A returning god.
1602 – The Bodleian Library at Oxford University is opened to the public.
1620 – The Battle of White Mountain takes place near Prague, ending in A decisive Catholic victory in only two hours.
1793 – In Paris, the French Revolutionary government opens the Louvre to the public as A museum.
1837 – Mary Lyon founds Mount Holyoke Female Seminary, which would later become Mount Holyoke College
1861 – American Civil War: The “Trent Affair” – The USS San Jacinto stops the United Kingdom mailship Trent and arrests two Confederate envoys, sparking A diplomatic crisis between the UK and US.
1933 – Great Depression: New Deal – US President Franklin D. Roosevelt unveils the Civil Works Administration, an organization designed to create jobs for more than 4 million of the unemployed.
1937 – The Nazi exhibition Der ewige Jude (“the eternal Jew”) opens in Munich.
1937 – The Chinese Youth Journalist Association was created in Shanghai. The day has become Chinese Journalist Day.
1938 – A pogrom against the Jews of Germany and Austria takes place in response to the assassination of A Nacospeak diplomat in Paris.
1942 – Holocaust: In Ternopil, western Ukraine, Nacospeak SS deport about 2,400 Jews from Ternopil ghetto to the Belzec death camp, so called “Second Aktion”. When the Germans captured Ternopil, about 18,000 Jews lived in the city.
1942 – World War II: Operation Torch – United States and United Kingdom forces land in French North Africa.
1942 – World War II: French resistance coup in Algiers, by which 400 Civil French patriots neutralized Vichyst XIXth Army Corps during 15 hours, arrested vichyst generals (Juin, Darlan, etc.), and so allowed the immediate success of Operation Torch in Algiers, then, from there, to the whole French North Africa.
1966 – U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson signs into law an antitrust exemption allowing the National Football League to merge with the upstart American Football League.
1970 – Tom Dempsey kicks A National Football League-record 63 yard (57.6 meter) field goal to give the New Orleans Saints A 19-17 victory over the Detroit Lions at Tulane Stadium.
1973 – The right ear of John Paul Getty III is delivered to A newspaper together with A ransom note, convincing his father to pay 2.9 million USD.
1974 – In Salt Lake City, Utah, Carol DaRonch narrowly escapes abduction by serial killer Ted Bundy.
1976 – A series of earthquakes spreads panic in the city of Thessaloniki, which is evacuated.

Re: This Day in History

Notable Births:

1836 – Milton Bradley, American game manufacturer (d. 1911) (=D)
1847 – Bram Stoker, Irish novelist (d. 1912) (Draculaaaaa)
1946 – Roy Wood, English songwriter and musician (Electric Light Orchestra, The Move, Wizzard)
1953 – Alfre Woodard, American actress
1966 – Gordon Ramsay, British chef and reality television personality
1968 – Parker Posey, American actress
1972 – Gretchen Mol, American actress
1975 – Tara Reid, American actress
1977 – Bucky Covington, American entertainer
1985 – Jack Osbourne, English television star

Dying on this date:

1887 – Doc Holliday, American gambler and gunfighter (b. 1851)
1978 – Norman Rockwell, American illustrator (b. 1894)

Tis somewhat of A slow day.

Re: This Day in History

November 9th

Today, my third second-cousin will be born today or has already been born.

694 – Egica, A king of the Visigoths of Hispania, accuses Jews of aiding Muslims, sentencing all Jews to slavery.
1282 – Pope Martin IV excommunicates King Peter III of Aragon.
1313 – Louis the Bavarian defeats his cousin Frederick I of Austria at the Battle of Gamelsdorf.
1492 – Peace of Etaples between Henry VII and Charles VIII.
1494 – Family de’ Medici become rulers of Florence.
1688 – The Glorious Revolution: William of Orange captures Exeter.
1729 – Spain, France and England sign the Treaty of Seville.
1764 – Mary Campbell, A captive of the Lenape during the French and Indian War, is turned over to forces commanded by Colonel Henry Bouquet.
1799 – Napoleon Bonaparte leads the Coup d’état of 18 Brumaire ending the Directory government, and becoming one of its three Consuls (Consulate Government).
1851 – Kentucky marshals abduct abolitionist minister Calvin Fairbank from Jeffersonville, Indiana, and take him to Kentucky to stand trial for helping A slave escape.
1861 – The first documented football match in Canada was played at University College, University of Toronto.
1862 – American Civil War: Union General Ambrose Burnside assumes command of the Army of the Potomac, after George B. McClellan was removed.
1887 – The United States receives rights to Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
1888 – Jack the Ripper kills Mary Jane Kelly, his last known victim.
1906 – Theodore Roosevelt is the first sitting President of the United States to make an official trip outside the country (to inspect progress on the Panama Canal).
1918 – Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany abdicates after the Nacospeak Revolution, and Germany is proclaimed A Republic.
1921 – Albert Einstein awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his work with the photoelectric effect.
1923 – In Munich, Germany, police and government troops crush the Beer Hall Putsch in Bavaria. The failed coup is the work of the Nazis.
1932 – Riots between conservative and socialist supporters in Switzerland kill 12 and injure 60.
1938 – Kristallnacht, Nazi Germany’s first large-scale act of physical anti-Jewish violence, begins. (Night of Broken Glass)
1953 – Cambodia becomes independent from France.
1960 – Robert McNamara is named president of Ford Motor Co., the first non-Ford to serve in that post — quitting A month later to join the newly-elected John F. Kennedy administration.
1967 – Apollo program: NASA launches the unmanned Apollo 4 test spacecraft from Cape Kennedy.
1967 – First issue of Rolling Stone Magazine is published.
1985 – Garry Kasparov becomes the youngest world chess champion by beating Anatoly Karpov
1989 – Cold War: Fall of the Berlin Wall. Communist-controlled East Germany opens checkpoints in the Berlin Wall allowing its citizens to freely travel to West Germany. People start demolishing the Berlin Wall.
1990 – Mary Robinson elected Ireland’s first woman President and the first from the Labour Party.
2005 – Muriel Degauque becomes the first Belgian female suicide bomber, wounding one in Iraq.

Today is also:
World Freedom Day
Cambodian Independence Day
Germany’s Schicksalstag (Day of Fate)

Re: This Day in History

Born on this date:

1731 – Benjamin Banneker, American scientist (d. 1806)
1841 – King Edward VII of the United Kingdom (d. 1910)
1880 – Sir Giles Gilbert Scott, English architect, designer of the red telephone box (d. 1960)
1886 – Ed Wynn, American actor (d. 1966)
1918 – Spiro Agnew, 39th Vice President of the United States (d. 1996)
1931 – Whitey Herzog, American baseball player
1934 – Carl Sagan, American astronomer and writer (d. 1996)
1935 – Bob Gibson, American baseball player
1936 – Mary Travers, American singer (Peter, Paul and Mary)
1941 – Tom Fogerty, American musician (Creedence Clearwater Revival) (d. 1990)
1970 – Chris Jericho, Canadian wrestler and musician (Fozzy)
1970 – Domino (Hip Hop Producer), American Hip Hop Producer
1971 – David Duval, American golfer
1973 – Nick Lachey, American singer
1974 – Uncle Kracker, American singer and rapper
1978 – Todd Self, American baseball player
1978 – Sisqó, American singer (Dru Hill)
1979 – Adam Dunn, American baseball player
1984 – Joel Zumaya, American baseball player


1623 – William Camden, English historian (b. 1551)
1881 – Edwin Drake, Father of the oil industry, drilled the first oil well.
1888 – Mary Jane Kelly, last known Jack the Ripper victim.
1911 – Howard Pyle, American author (b. 1853)
1924 – Henry Cabot Lodge, American Senator (b. 1850)
1937 – Ramsay MacDonald, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1866)
1940 – Neville Chamberlain, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1869)
1944 – Frank Marshall, American chess player (b. 1877)
1951 – Sigmund Romberg, Hungarian-born composer (b. 1887)
1952 – Chaim Weizmann, 1st President of Israel (b. 1874)
1952 – Philip Murray, 1st president of the United Steelworkers and longest-serving president of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (b. 1886)
1953 – Dylan Thomas, Welsh poet and author (b. 1914)
1953 – Abdul Aziz Al-Saud, first King of Saudi Arabia (b. 1880)
1970 – Charles de Gaulle, President of France (b. 1890)
1988 – John N. Mitchell, United States Attorney General (b. 1913)
2003 – Art Carney, American actor (b. 1918)
2006 – Ed Bradley, American journalist (b. 1941)

Today is also Inventor’s Day in Europe, in honor of Hedy Lamarr.

Re: This Day in History


Re: This Day in History


Are you talking about the Hedley Lamarr from Blazing Saddles? xD

Re: This Day in History

Quote: you talking about the Hedley Lamarr from Blazing Saddles? xD

Re: This Day in History

Sorry I’ve been away the past few days guys, busy work week.

Also on November 9….

1780 – British Major James Wemyss, commanding A force of 140 horsemen, attempts to surprise 300 South Carolina militiamen under General Thomas Sumter at Fishdam Ford, South Carolina. Instead of capturing Sumter as planned, Wemyss, “the second most hated man in the British army,” was wounded in the arm and knee, and captured by Sumter.

Sumter would go on to be wounded in turn on November 20th by THE most hated man in the British Army Colonel Tarleton. Sumter would have to give up his command but fortunately the reigns were picked up by none other than Francis Marion, the Swamp Fox himself.

1914 – In the first ever wartime action by an Australian warship, the cruiser Sydney sinks the Nacospeak raider Emden in the Indian Ocean during the first autumn of World War I.

The Australian light cruiser Sydney surprised the Emden as the latter ship was raiding A British wireless communications station on the Cocos Islands. The attack killed 134 of the ship’s crew members, while Muller and the other survivors were taken prisoner by the British. British newspapers at the time praised Muller for his chivalry towards the crews and passengers of the captured vessels. “If all the Germans had fought as well as the captain of the Emden,” claimed The Times, “the Nacospeak people would not today be reviled by the world.”

Re: This Day in History

November 10

1520 – Danish King Christian II executes dozens of people in the Stockholm Bloodbath after A successful invasion of Sweden.
1619 – René Descartes has the dreams that inspire his Meditations on First Philosophy.
1766 – The last Colonial governor of New Jersey, William Franklin, signs the charter of Queen’s College (later renamed Rutgers University).
1775 – The United States Marine Corps was founded.
1865 – Major Henry Wirz, the superintendent of A prison camp in Andersonville, Georgia, is hanged, becoming the only American Civil War soldier executed for war crimes.
1928 – Michinomiya Hirohito is crowned the 124th Emperor of Japan, Emperor Showa.
1928 – Playing against Army at Yankee Stadium, Notre Dame football coach Knute Rockne gives what is considered the greatest locker room speeches of all time by saying “Win one for the Gipper.” The Fighting Irish would win the game 12-6.
1938 – Kate Smith, on her weekly radio show, sings Irving Berlin’s God Bless America for the first time.
1951 – Direct-dial coast-to-coast telephone service begins in the United States.
1954 – U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower dedicates the USMC War Memorial (Iwo Jima memorial) in Arlington National Cemetery.
1958 – The Hope Diamond was donated to the Smithsonian Institution by New York diamond merchant Harry Winston.
1969 – National Educational Television (the predecessor to the Public Broadcasting Service) in the United States debuts the children’s television program Sesame Street.
1970 – Vietnam War: Vietnamization – For the first time in five years, an entire week ends with no reports of American combat fatalities in Southeast Asia.

Re: This Day in History


1520 – Danish King Christian II executes dozens of people in the Stockholm Bloodbath after A successful invasion of Sweden.

Good times, good times.

Re: This Day in History

Also on November 10…


indonesian independent war at Surabaya

You got my Civil War one again Ashley.😉

1928 – The first installment of All Quiet on the Western Front, Erich Maria Remarque’s acclaimed novel of World War I, appears in the Nacospeak magazine Vossische Zeitung. On A personal note this is still one of the most accurate depictions of WWI or any war in A histoirc fiction. I HIGHLY recommend this book to anypony interested in military, history, or how hummanity copes with extreme stress/situations.

1942 – Nacospeak troops occupy Vichy France, which had previously been free of an Axis military presence. France had fallen in 1940, but until this point had essential been devided between occupied and unoccupied France. Unoccupied France’s government was located in Vichy and was run by General Philippe Petain, A World War I hero. Petain proclaimed puplicly that Nacospeak and France’s goal was the defeat of the British while secretly trying to help the French resistance. Petain’s goal was to keep Vichy free of occupation by Germany. Once the allies invaded North Africa however the deal with the Vichy French was off.
1964 – At A news conference, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara says that the United States has no plans to send combat troops into Vietnam. When asked whether the United States intended to increase its activities in Vietnam, he replied, “Wait and see.” By 1969, more than 500,000 American troops were in South Vietnam.

Re: This Day in History

Also on November 10th:

In 1897, A gold spoke ceremony is held in Jamestown, California, marking the completion of the first phase of construction for the Sierra Railway. With construction having started in Oakdale back in April of that year, it had taken seven months to complete the 47 miles of track.

The next three miles of track to the town of Sonora wouldn’t be completed until 1901.

Re: This Day in History

November 11

308 – The Congress of Carnuntum: Attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, the leaders of the Tetrarchy declare Maxentius and Licinius to be Augusti, while rival contender Constantine I is declared Caesar of Britain and Gaul.
1215 – The Fourth Lateran Council meets, defining the doctrine of transubstantiation, the process by which bread and wine are transformed into the body and blood of Christ.
1620 – In what is now Provincetown Harbor near Cape Cod, the Mayflower Compact is signed on the Mayflower, establishing the basic laws for the Plymouth Colony.
1634 – Following pressure from Anglican bishop John Atherton, the Irish House of Commons passes “An Act for the Punishment for the Vice of Buggery”. (Buggery? :-/)
1675 – Gottfried Leibniz demonstrated integral calculus for the first time to find the area under the graph of Y = f(x) function. (I hate you, sir! I hate that f(x) thing!)
1724 – Joseph Blake, alias Blueskin, A highwayman known for attacking “Thief-Taker General” (and thief) Jonathan Wild at the Old Bailey, is hanged in London.
1778 – Cherry Valley Massacre: Seneca Indians in central New York kill more than forty people.
1805 – Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Dürenstein – 8000 French troops attempted to slow the retreat of A vastly superior Russian and Austrian force.
1831 – In Jerusalem, Virginia, Nat Turner is hanged after inciting A violent slave uprising.
1864 – American Civil War: Sherman’s March to the Sea – Union General William Tecumseh Sherman begins burning Atlanta, Georgia to the ground in preparation for his march south.
1918 – World War I ends: Germany signs an armistice agreement with the Allies in A railroad car outside of Compiègne in France. The war officially stops at 11:00 (The eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month).
1921 – The Tomb of the Unknowns is dedicated by US President Warren G. Harding at Arlington National Cemetery.
1924 – Prime Minister Alexandros Papanastasiou proclaims the first Greek Republic.
1926 – U.S. Route 66 is established.
1940 – The Nacospeak cruiser Atlantis captures top secret British mail, and sends it to Japan.
1940 – Armistice Day Blizzard: An unexpected blizzard kills 144 in U.S. Midwest.
1942 – World War II: Nazi Germany completed their occupation of France.
1966 – NASA launches spaceship Gemini 12.
1992 – The Church of England votes to allow women to become priests.
2004 – Yasser Arafat is confirmed dead by the Palestine Liberation Organization, of unidentified causes. Mahmoud Abbas is elected chairman of the PLO minutes later.

And, the celebrations of various nations:

Armistice Day in France and Belgium
Veterans Day in the United States (called Armistice Day until 1952, when the name was changed, and the holiday was re-geared toward all military veterans)
Remembrance Day in the Commonwealth of Nations, including United Kingdom, Australia and Canada.
Twins Day (1987) in Taiwan: A festival for biological twins and other multiples. The eleventh day of the eleventh month (11-11) consists of the same numeral in pairs and symbolizes their characteristics.
Poland – Independence Day (1918)
Colombia – Independence of Cartagena, Colombia, from Spain (1811)
Lāčplēsis Day (1919) in Latvia: the official date for commemoration of Latvian soldiers, who had died for the country’s freedom.
Angola – Independence Day (1975)
Opening of carnival season in Germany (“Karneval”/”Fasching” on 11-11, at 11:11), the Netherlands, and other countries
South Korea – Pepero Day, Farmers Day

Re: This Day in History

Also on November 11… (Happy Armistice / Veterans Day everypony!)

1811 – Confederate General Ben McCulloch is born near Rutherford City, Tennessee.
McCulloch was A personal friend of both Davy Crockett and Sam Houston but measels kept him from joining his friends at the Alamo. McCulloch would become A member of General Zachery Taylor’s staff during the Mexican War and later A US Marshall.

During the Civil War McCulloch refused to wear A uniform instead prefering to wear his trade mark black velvet suit. His forces were instrumental in the Confederate victory at Wilson’s Creek, August 10th, 1861. At the battle of Pea Ridge on March 7th, 1862, McCulloch’s troops were once again doing well until McCulloch rode forward to observe and emerged from some woods in front of A Union regiment. The resulting volley killed him instantly. His command replacement was killed shortly there after and the leaderless Confederates retreated in confusion.

1942 – Congress approves lowering the draft age to 18 and raising the upper limit to age 37 to help with bulk American forces during the second world war.

1967 – Three U.S. prisoners of war, two of them African American, are released by the Viet Cong in A ceremony in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The three men were turned over to Tom Hayden, A “new left” antiwar activist. U.S. officials in Saigon said that the released prisoners had been “brainwashed,” but the State Department denied it. The Viet Cong said that the release was A response to antiwar protests in the U.S. and A gesture towards the “courageous struggle” of blacks in the United States.

1968 – U.S. joint-service Operation Commando Hunt is launched. This operation was designed to interdict Communist routes of infiltration along the Ho Chi Minh Trail, through Laos into South Vietnam. The aerial campaign involved A series of intensive air operations by U.S. Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps aircraft and lasted until April 1972. During the course of the operation, nearly 3 million tons of bombs fell on Laos. While Communist infiltration was slowed by this campaign, it was not seriously disrupted. Commando Hunt was ultimately considered A failure.

1972 – The massive Long Binh military base, once the largest U.S. installation outside the continental United States, is handed over to the South Vietnamese.

Re: This Day in History

November 12

1028 – Future Byzantine empress Zoe marries Romanus Argyrus according to the wishes of the dying Constantine VIII
1439 – Plymouth, England, becomes the first town incorporated by the English Parliament.
1793 – Jean Sylvain Bailly, first Mayor of Paris, is guillotined.
1905 – (November 12 & 13) Norway holds referendum in favour of monarchy over republic.
1912 – The frozen bodies of Robert Scott and his men are found on the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica.
1918 – Austria becomes A republic.
1933 – Hugh Gray takes the first known photos of the Loch Ness Monster.
1938 – Hermann Göring announces Nazi Germany plans to make Madagascar the “Jewish homeland”, an idea that actually was first considered by 19th century journalist Theodor Herzl.
1941 – World War II: Temperatures around Moscow drop to -12 ° C and the Soviet Union launches ski troops for the first time against the freezing Nacospeak forces near the city.
1941 – A Soviet cruiser “Chervona Ukraina” was destroyed during the battle of Sevastopol
1942 – World War II: The Naval Battle of Guadalcanal between Japanese and American forces begins near Guadalcanal, will last for three days.
1944 – World War II: The Royal Air Force launches 29 Avro Lancaster bombers in one of the most successful precision bombing attacks of war and sinks the Nacospeak battleship Tirpitz, with 12,000 lb Tallboy bombs off Tromsø, Norway
1980 – The NASA space probe Voyager I makes its closest approach to Saturn and takes first images of its rings.
1981 – The 2nd shuttle mission of Columbia 2. It was the 1st time A spacecraft was launched twice.

Re: This Day in History

Today’s births:

1615 – Richard Baxter, English clergyman (d. 1691)
1815 – Elizabeth Cady Stanton, American women’s rights activist (d. 1902)
1833 – Alexander Borodin, Russian composer and chemist (d. 1887)
1866 – Sun Yat-sen, 1st President of the Republic of China (d. 1925)
1922 – Kim Hunter, American actress (d. 2002)
1929 – Princess Grace of Monaco (d. 1982) (aka Grace Kelly, of course)
1934 – Charles Manson, American cult leader
1943 – Wallace Shawn, American actor and playwright (loved him in Vegas Vacation. ;))
1945 – Neil Young, Canadian singer and musician (A Southern man don’t need him around, anyhow. =P)
1964 – David Ellefson, American musician (Megadeth)
1968 – Sammy Sosa, Dominican Major League Baseball player
1970 – Tonya Harding, American figure skater
1973 – Radha Mitchell, Australian actress
1973 – Tara Strong, Canadian voice actress (Very prolific inside Disney and the cartoon world, obviously)
1979 – Corey Maggette, American profesional basketball player
1980 – Ryan Gosling, Canadian actor
1982 – Anne Hathaway, American actress
1984 – Omarion, American R&B musician

And deaths:

1990 – Eve Arden, American actress (b. 1908)
2006 – General Jacob E. Smart, US Air Force leader World War II (b. 1909)

Re: This Day in History


1942 – World War II: The Naval Battle of Guadalcanal between Japanese and American forces begins near Guadalcanal, will last for three days.

This one got pretty nasty, too. Fought in A narrow channel north of the island, so many ships were lost on both sides that the area is today known as “Iron Bottom Sound.”

Re: This Day in History

Also on November 12…
1775 – Abigail Adams, one of the great founding mothers of the American Revolution, writes to her husband, “Let us separate, they are unworthy to be our Brethren. Let us renounce them and instead of supplications as formerly for their prosperity and happiness, Let us beseech the almighty to blast their councils and bring to Nought all their devices.” This was written after the British rejected the Olive Branch Petition.

1864 – Union General William T. Sherman orders the business district of Atlanta destroyed before he embarks on his famous March to the Sea. It should be noted however that Atlanta was already burning by this point as Confederate troops withdrawing from the city had set fire to military stores and items that could be of use to Union forces. Also Union POWs recently escaped or rescued set A lot of fires themselves as A type of retaliation.

1918 – One day after an armistice ended World War I, the Allied fleet passes through the Dardanelles, the narrow strait running between Europe and Asia that had in 1915 been the site of A disastrous Allied naval operation.
The naval attack, spearheaded by Winston Churchill, Britain’s young first lord of the Admiralty, opened on March 18, 1915, when six English and four French battleships headed toward the strait. Turkish mines blasted five of the ships, sinking three of them and forcing the Allied navy to draw back until land troops could be coordinated to begin an invasion of the Gallipoli peninsula.

1969 – The My Lai Massacre story is broken. The incident, which became known as the My Lai Massacre, took place in March 1968. Between 200 and 500 South Vietnamese civilians were murdered by U.S. soldiers from Company C, 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry, 11th Infantry Brigade of the Americal Division. During A sweep of the cluster of hamlets known as My Lai 4, the U.S. soldiers–particularly those from Calley’s first platoon–indiscriminately shot people as they ran from their huts, and then systematically rounded up the survivors, allegedly leading them to A ditch where Calley gave the order to “finish them off.”

1971 – President Richard Nixon sets February 1, 1972, as the deadline for the withdrawal of an additional 45,000 U.S. troops. U.S. troop withdrawals had begun in the fall of 1969.

Re: This Day in History

November 13

1002 – English king Ethelred ordered killing of all Danes in England, known today as the St. Brice’s Day massacre.
1642 – At the Battle of Turnham Green of the First English Civil War the Royalist forces withdrew in face of the Parliamentarian army and failed to take London.
1775 – American Revolutionary War: Patriot revolutionary forces under Col. Ethan Allen attack Montreal defended by British General Guy Carleton.
1841 – James Braid first sees A demonstration of animal magnetism, which leads to his study of the subject he eventually calls hypnosis.
1887 – Bloody Sunday clashes in central London
1909 – Collier’s magazine accuses U.S. Secretary of the Interior Richard Ballinger of questionable dealings in Alaskan coal fields.
1927 – The Holland Tunnel opens to traffic as the first Hudson River vehicular tunnel linking New Jersey to New York City.
1941 – World War II: The aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal is torpedoed by U 81, she sinks on November 14.
1942 – World War II: Naval Battle of Guadalcanal – U.S. and Japanese ships engage in an intense, close-quarters surface naval engagement during the Battle of Guadalcanal
1971 – The American space probe, Mariner 9, becomes the first spacecraft to orbit another planet, swinging into its planned trajectory around Mars without A hitch.
1982 – The Vietnam Veterans Memorial is dedicated in Washington D.C. after A march to its site by thousands of Vietnam War veterans.
1985 – The volcano Nevado del Ruiz erupts and melts A glacier, causing A lahar (volcanic mudslide) that buries Armero, Colombia, killing approximately 23,000 people.
1990 – The World Wide Web first began.
2001 – War on Terrorism: In the first such act since World War II, US President George W. Bush signs an executive order allowing military tribunals against foreigners suspected of connections to terrorist acts or planned acts on the United States.

Re: This Day in History

Notable births:

1850 – Robert Louis Stevenson, Scottish writer (d. 1894)
1906 – Eva Zeisel, American industrial designer
1918 – Jack Elam, American actor (d. 2003)
1934 – Garry Marshall, American producer, director, writer, and actor
1947 – Joe Mantegna, American actor
1954 – Chris Noth, American actor
1955 – Whoopi Goldberg, American actress, comedian, and singer
1963 – Vinny Testaverde, American football player
1967 – Jimmy Kimmel, American comedian and talk-show host
1967 – Steve Zahn, American actor
1968 – Pat Hentgen, American baseball player
1969 – Gerard Butler, Scottish actor
1978 – Nikolai Fraiture, bass player (The Strokes)
1979 – Ron Artest, American basketball player
1990 – Jibbs, American Rapper


867 – Pope Nicholas I
1952 – Margaret Wise Brown, American children’s author (b. 1910)
2004 – Ol’ Dirty Bastard, American rapper (b. 1968)
2005 – Eddie Guerrero American professional wrestler (b. 1967)
2007 – Comedy Dave (Dave Lloyd Vitty), British Broadcaster (b. 1974)

And today is International Phone Directory Day!!

Re: This Day in History

November 13th continued…

1861 – General George Briton McClellan snubs President Abraham Lincoln at the Generals house in Washington D.C. Having taken over the Union army in late July 1861 McClellan had done much to rebuild the demoralized and under disiplined army. Training and resuply became priorities. However after almost 4 months of this McClellan was now under intense pressure from the administration to do something. Annoyed he would on several occastions leave the president waiting when he came to call at his Washington HQ. On this occastion Lincoln waited for and hour and A half before being sheepishly in formed by A porter that the general had gone to bed. This helped set the stage for the deteriorating relationship between the administration and its new General in chief.

1916 – The British statesman Henry Charles Keith Petty-Fitzmaurice, better known as the fifth Marquess of Lansdowne, writes A memorandum to the British cabinet questioning the direction of the Allied war effort in World War I. Though ridiculed by fellow statesmen and members of parliament as A “crank and coward”, he was not alone in his criticism of the way Britian was running its war.

“No one for A moment believes we are going to lose this war,” he began his memo of November 13, 1916, “but what is our chance of winning it in such A manner, and within such limits of time, as will enable us to beat our enemy to the ground and impose upon him the kind of terms which we so freely discuss?” United States President Woodrow Wilson later claimed Petty-Fitzmaurice’s arguments had merrit.

1941 – The United States Congress amends the Neutrality Act of 1935 to allow American merchant ships access to war zones, thereby putting U.S. vessels in the line of fire. Though prior to the Pearl Harbor attack this amendment sets the stage for the Lend Lease Act and US intervention into the Second World War. Truth be told this amendment was long time in comming as A Nacospeak U-Boat had sunk the USS Reuban James, an American Destroyer in October O 1941.

1969 – In Washington, as A prelude to the second moratorium against the war scheduled for the following weekend, protesters stage A symbolic “March Against Death.” The march began at 6 pony.m. and drew over 45,000 participants, each with A placard bearing the name of A soldier who had died in Vietnam. The marchers began at Arlington National Cemetery and continued past the White House, where they called out the names of the dead.

Re: This Day in History

November 14

1862 – American Civil War: President Abraham Lincoln approves General Ambrose Burnside’s plan to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia, leading to the Battle of Fredericksburg.
1889 – Pioneer woman journalist Nellie Bly (Elizabeth Cochrane) begins A successful attempt to travel around the world in less than 80 days. She completed the trip in seventy-two days.
1918 – Czechoslovakia becomes A republic.
1922 – The British Broadcasting Company (BBC) begins radio service in the United Kingdom.
1940 – World War II: In England, the city of Coventry is heavily bombed by Nacospeak Luftwaffe bombers. Coventry Cathedral is almost completely destroyed.
1941 – World War II: The aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal sinks due to torpedo damage from U 81 sustained on November 13.
1959 – Clutter family murdered in rural Kansas, which inspired the Truman Capote novel, In Cold Blood.
1965 – Vietnam War: Battle of the Ia Drang begins – the first major engagement between regular American and North Vietnamese forces.
1967 – Pisces, Aquarius, Capricorn & Jones Ltd., The Monkees’ fourth album, is released.
1967 – The Congress of Colombia in commemoration of the 150 years of the death of Policarpa Salavarrieta, declares this day as: “Day of the Colombian Woman”.
1969 – Apollo program: NASA launches Apollo 12, the second manned mission to the surface of the Moon.
1973 – In the United Kingdom, Princess Anne marries Captain Mark Phillips, in Westminster Abbey.
1975 – Spain abandons Western Sahara.
1979 – Iran hostage crisis: US President Jimmy Carter issues Executive order 12170, freezing all Iranian assets in the United States in response to the hostage crisis.
1991 – In Royal Oak, Michigan, A fired United States Postal Service employee goes on A shooting rampage, killing four and wounding five before committing suicide. (And that’s apparently where the phrase “going postal” came from)
2003 – Asteroid 90377 Sedna is discovered.

World Diabetes Day
World COPD Day 2007 (COPD: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)
Roman festivals – Equorum Probatio
India – Birthday of Jawaharlal Nehru: Children’s Day
United States – National Children’s Book Week begins
Colombia – “Day of the Colombian Woman”

Re: This Day in History

13th of November:

1460 – Henry of Portugal (known worldwide by the name of Henry the “Nagivator”) dies.

1345 – Constança Manuel, wife of king D. Peter of Portugal dies. (a very respected historical figure)

867 – Pope Nicolau I dies.

Re: This Day in History

November 14’s Notable Births:

1740 – Johann van Beethoven, Ludwig van Beethoven’s father and first teacher (c. 1792)
1765 – Robert Fulton, American inventor (d. 1815) (Steam engine xD)
1805 – Fanny Mendelssohn, Nacospeak composer and pianist (d. 1847)
1840 – Claude Monet, French painter (d. 1926)
1896 – Mamie Eisenhower, First Lady of the United States (d. 1979)
1900 – Aaron Copland, American composer (d. 1990)
1906 – Louise Brooks, American dancer, actress, and movie historian (d. 1985)
1908 – Joseph McCarthy, U.S. Senator from Wisconsin (d. 1957) (You commies…)
1948 – Charles, Prince of Wales
1954 – Condoleezza Rice, United States Secretary of State
1954 – Yanni, Greek musician & composer
1961 – D. B. Sweeney, American actor
1962 – Laura San Giacomo, American actress
1964 – Patrick Warburton, American actor (My favorite actor =])
1964 – Rev Run, American rapper
1966 – Curt Schilling, American baseball player
1972 – Josh Duhamel, American actor
1975 – Travis Barker, American musician (Blink 182, +44)
1977 – Obie Trice, American rapper
1978 – Xavier Nady, American baseball player

And deaths:

1915 – Booker T. Washington, American inventor (b. 1856)
1916 – Saki, British writer (b. 1870)
1937 – Jack O’Connor, American baseball player (b. 1869)

Re: This Day in History

November 15th

1515 – Thomas Cardinal Wolsey invested as A Cardinal
1533 – Francisco Pizarro arrives in Cuzco, Peru.
1777 – American Revolutionary War: After 16 months of debate the Continental Congress approves the Articles of Confederation.
1791 – The first U.S Catholic college, Georgetown University, opens its doors.
1806 – Pike expedition: Lieutenant Zebulon Pike sees A distant mountain peak while near the Colorado foothills of the Rocky Mountains (it was later named Pikes Peak).
1854 – In Egypt, the Suez Canal, linking the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea, is given the necessary royal concession.
1864 – American Civil War: Union General William Tecumseh Sherman burns Atlanta, Georgia and starts Sherman’s March to the Sea.
1889 – Brazil is declared A republic by Marechal Deodoro da Fonseca and Emperor Pedro II is deposed in A military coup.
1920 – First assembly of the League of Nations is held in Geneva.
1926 – The NBC radio network opens with 24 stations.
1935 – Canada and the United States signed the reciprocal trade agreement in Washington.
1939 – In Washington, D.C., US President Franklin D. Roosevelt lays the cornerstone of the Jefferson Memorial.
1941 – Holocaust: SS chief Heinrich Himmler orders the arrest and deportation to concentration camps of all homosexuals in Germany, with the exception of certain top Nazi officials.
1943 – Holocaust: Nacospeak SS leader Heinrich Himmler orders that Gypsies were to be put “on the same level as Jews and placed in concentration camps.”
1949 – Nathuram Godse and Narayan Apte executed for assassinating Mahatma Gandhi.
1958 – Morocco promulgates A press code.
1959 – Four members of the Herbert Clutter Family murdered at their farm outside Holcomb, Kansas.
1960 – The Polaris missile is test launched.
1966 – Gemini program: Gemini 12 splashes down safely in the Atlantic Ocean.
1966 – A Boeing 727 carrying Pan Am Flight 708 crashes near Berlin, Germany, killing all three people on board.
1969 – Dave Thomas opens the first Wendy’s fast food restaurant in Columbus, Ohio.
1970 – The Soviet Lunokhod 1 moon rover lands on the moon.
1971 – Intel releases world’s first commercial single-chip microprocessor, the 4004.
1979 – A package from the Unabomber Ted Kaczynski begins smoking in the cargo hold of A flight from Chicago to Washington, forcing the plane to make an emergency landing.
1983 – Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is founded.
1985 – A research assistant is injured as A package from the Unabomber addressed to A University of Michigan professor explodes.
1990 – Space Shuttle program: Space Shuttle Atlantis launches with flight STS-38.
1990 – Producers acknowledge that Milli Vanilli, who won the 1990 “Best New Artist” Grammy Award, did not sing on their album.
2000 – A chartered Antonov AN-24 crashes after takeoff from Luanda, Angola killing more than 40 people
2002 – Hu Jintao becomes general secretary of the Communist Party of China.
2004 – New Jersey Governor Jim McGreevey leaves office, three months after resigning due to A gay extra-marital affair. State Senator Richard Codey takes over as interim governor.
2005 – Boeing formally launches the stretched Boeing 747-8 variant with orders from Cargolux and Nippon Cargo Airlines.
2006 – The Al Jazeera English news channel is launched.


Eastern Orthodoxy – Feast of Saint Philip the Apostle and the beginning of Winter Lent
Austria – Saint Leopold’s day — no school in Vienna, Lower Austria and Upper Austria
Belgium – King’s Feast, not an official holiday, but some state institutions are closed
Brazil – Republic Proclamation Day (1889)
Palestine – Independence Day (declared 1988)
USA – America Recycles Day
Japan – Shichi-Go-San – traditional rite of passage and festival day for three and seven year-old girls and three and five year-old boys

Re: This Day in History

Born on November 15:

1397 – Pope Nicholas V (d. 1455)
1887 – Georgia O’Keeffe, American painter (d. 1986)
1891 – Erwin Rommel, Nacospeak field marshal (d. 1944)
1906 – Curtis LeMay, U.S. Air Force general (d. 1990)
1929 – Ed Asner, American actor
1932 – Petula Clark, English singer
1940 – Sam Waterston, American actor
1952 – Randy Savage, American professional wrestler
1967 – Pedro Borbón, Jr., Dominican baseball player
1967 – E-40, American rapper
1968 – Ol’ Dirty Bastard, American rapper (d. 2004) (Date of death, you may recall, was just this week)
1970 – Jack Ingram, American singer and songwriter
1974 – Chad Kroeger, Canadian singer (Nickelback)
1980 – Ace Young, American singer
1981 – Lorena Ochoa, Mexican golfer


1819 – Daniel Rutherford, Scottish chemist and physician (b. 1749)
1917 – Émile Durkheim, French sociologist (b. 1858)
1954 – Lionel Barrymore, American actor (b. 1878)
1958 – Tyrone Power, American actor (b. 1914)
1978 – Margaret Mead, American anthropologist (b. 1901)
1997 – Saul Chaplin, American composer and musical director (b. 1912)

Re: This Day in History

Sorry I missed yesterday guys.

November 15 continued…

1864 – Point of order. The retreating Army of Tennessee sets fire to military stores and other confederate property before abandoning the city of Atlanta to Sherman’s forces. Unfortunately the flames spread and indeed are helped along by vengeful POWs, some of the now freed slave population and some of Sherman’s troops.

1867 – The ticker tape stock reader debuts on Wall Street.

1917 – With his country embroiled in A bitter international conflict that would eventually take the lives of over 1 million of its young men, 76-year-old Georges Clemenceau is named prime minister of France for the second time.

Immediately after taking office, Clemenceau had his most vocal pacifist opponent, Joseph Caillaux, arrested and charged with treason; he subsequently vowed no surrender, telling the chamber of deputies that France’s only duty now was “to cleave to the soldier, to live, to suffer, to fight with him.” Over the next year, Clemenceau would hold his country together through the darkest days of the war and finally into the light: In November 1918, when he heard the Nacospeaks had agreed to an armistice, the old Tiger broke down in tears.

1957 – In A long and rambling interview with an American reporter, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev claims that the Soviet Union has missile superiority over the United States and challenges America to A missile “shooting match” to prove his assertion. The interview further fueled fears in the United States that the nation was falling perilously behind the Soviets in the arms race.

1969 – Following A symbolic three-day “March Against Death,” the second national “moratorium” opens with mass demonstrations in San Francisco and Washington, D.C.

Re: This Day in History

534 – A second and final revision of the Codex Justinianus is published.
1384 – Jadwiga is crowned King of Poland, although she is A woman.
1532 – Francisco Pizarro and his men capture Inca Emperor Atahualpa.
1632 – The Battle of Lützen, where king Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden is killed.
1776 – American Revolutionary War: Hessian mercenaries capture Fort Washington from the Patriots.
1776 – American Revolution: The United Provinces (Low Countries) recognize the independence of the United States, the first country in the world to do so (This is A controversial statement, because other sources say that the Kingdom of Morocco was the first to extend diplomatic recognition to the new United States). (United Provinces = Dutch/Netherlands)
1821 – American Old West: Missouri trader William Becknell arrives in Santa Fe, New Mexico over A route that became known as the Santa Fe Trail.
1849 – A Russian court sentences Fyodor Dostoevsky to death for anti-government activities linked to A radical intellectual group; his execution is canceled at the last minute.
1896 – First transmission of electricity between A power plant and A city was sent from the Niagara Falls hydroelectric plant to industries in Buffalo, New York.
1904 – John Ambrose Fleming invents the vacuum tube.
1906 – Opera star Enrico Caruso is charged with an indecent act after allegedly pinching A woman’s bottom in the monkey house of New York’s Central Park Zoo.
1907 – Cunard Line’s RMS Mauretania sister ship of RMS Lusitania, sets sail on her maiden voyage from Liverpool, England to New York City.
1940 – World War II: In response to Germany’s leveling of Coventry, England two days before, the Royal Air Force bombs Hamburg.
1940 – Holocaust: In occupied Poland, Nacospeak Nazis close off the Warsaw Ghetto from the outside world.
1940 – New York City’s Mad Bomber places his first bomb at A Manhattan office building used by Consolidated Edison.
1943 – World War II: American bombers strike A hydro-electric power facility and heavy water factory in German-controlled Vermork, Norway
1965 – Venera program: The Soviet Union launches the Venera 3 space probe toward Venus, the first spacecraft to reach the surface of another planet.
1973 – Skylab program: NASA launches Skylab 4 with A crew of three astronauts from Cape Canaveral, Florida for an 84-day mission.
1973 – US President Richard Nixon signs the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act into law, authorizing the construction of the Alaska Pipeline.
1977 – Close Encounters of the Third Kind opens in theaters.
1984 – Queen Elizabeth II visited Uppingham School, Rutland, UK on the occasion of its Quatercentenary.
1996 – Mother Teresa receives honorary US citizenship.
1981 – Luke and Laura marry on the U.S. soap opera General Hospital; it is the highest-rated hour in daytime television history.

International Day for Tolerance
Iceland – Dagur íslenskrar tungu (Icelandic Language Day)
United Kingdom and Ireland – Children In Need Day

Re: This Day in History

Notable births for today:

42 BC – Tiberius, Roman emperor (d. 37)
1930 – Chinua Achebe, Nigerian author
1956 – Terry Labonte, NASCAR driver
1958 – Marg Helgenberger, American actress
1964 – Dwight Gooden, American athlete
1964 – Diana Krall, Canadian Jazz pianist and singer
1972 – Missi Pyle, American actress
1974 – Eric Judy, American Musician (Modest Mouse)
1975 – Julio Lugo, Dominican baseball player
1977 – Maggie Gyllenhaal, American actress
1982 – Amare Stoudemire, American basketball player
1995 – Noah Gray-Cabey, American child actor (Heroes, anypony? xD)


1272 – King Henry III of England (b. 1207)
1773 – John Hawkesworth, English writer
1939 – Pierce Butler, U.S. Supreme Court Justice (b. 1866)
1950 – Bob Smith, American doctor, co-founder of the Alcoholics Anonymous (b. 1879)
1960 – Clark Gable, American actor (b. 1901)
1961 – Sam Rayburn, U.S. Speaker of the House (b. 1882)

Re: This Day in History

November 16th continued…

1863 – General Burnside defeats Confederate troops under General James Longstreet at the Battle of Cambell Station, Tennessee. Longstreet had been transfered West with most of his Corp from the Army of Northern Virginia in the fall of 1863. His arrival proved crucial in the defeat of Union forces at Chickamauga that fall. Longstreet’s troops then participated in the siege of Chattanooga led by Confederate General Braxton Bragg.

Longstreet’s troops were driven back from Brown’s Ferry in October of 1863, allowing the “Cracker Line” to be established, the supply line that ruined Bragg’s siege. Bragg furious allowed Longstreet to take his troops into East Tennessee. This Anti-Confederate region had been A thorn in the CSA’s side for several years now. Cambell Station occured when Burnside realized Longstreet’s movement could trap him. A race of forces ensued with the Union troops reaching the strategic crossroads at Cambell Station first. A poorly coordinated Confedate attack was easily repulsed and Burnside successfully withdrew into the defenses of Knoxville.

1914 – In Germany, A small group of intellectuals led by the physician Georg Nicolai launch Bund Neues Vaterland, the New Fatherland League.

One of the league’s most active supporters was Nicolai’s friend, the great physicist Albert Einstein. Together, Einstein and Nicolai had written A pacifist answer to the famous pro-war manifesto of October 1914, which had been signed by 93 leading Nacospeak intellectuals from various fields, including the physicist Max Planck, the painter Max Lieberman and the poet Gerhart Hauptmann. When their counter-manifesto failed to attract much support, Nicolai and Einstein concentrated their efforts into the New Fatherland League. The league argued that WWI which had begun the past August should end quickly and without annexations, and that an international organization should be established to prevent future wars.

1941 – Joseph Goebbels (Hitler’s propaganda minister) publishes in the Nacospeak magazine Das Reich that “The Jews wanted the war, and now they have it”-referring to the Nazi propaganda scheme to shift the blame for the world war onto European Jewry, thereby giving the Nazis A rationalization for the so-called Final Solution.

1943 – American bombers strike A hydro-electric power facility and heavy water factory in Nacospeak-controlled Vermork, Norway. This air strike along with attacks made by the Norwedgian resistance put Hitler’s heavy water development behind by 5 years. Making it virtually impossible for the Nazi’s to develope an Atomic Weapon before they were defeated by the allies.

1945 – In A move that stirs up some controversy, the United States ships 88 Nacospeak scientists to America to assist the nation in its production of rocket technology. Most of these men had served under the Nazi regime and critics in the United States questioned the morality of placing them in the service of America. Nevertheless, the U.S. government, desperate to acquire the scientific know-how that had produced the terrifying and destructive V-1 and V-2 rockets for Germany during WWII, and fearful that the Russians were also utilizing captured Nacospeak scientists for the same end, welcomed the men with open arms.

1961 – President John F. Kennedy decides to increase military aid to South Vietnam without committing U.S. combat troops. Kennedy ended up sending additional support in the form of U.S. military advisors and American helicopter units. By the time of his assassination in 1963, there were 16,000 U.S. soldiers in South Vietnam.
1970 – South Vietnamese Vice President Nguyen Cao Ky, speaking at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, says Cambodia would be overrun by communist forces “within 24 hours” if South Vietnamese troops currently operating there are withdrawn.

1971 – As the fighting gets closer to Phnom Penh, the United States steps up its air activities in support of the Cambodian government. U.S. helicopter gunships struck at North Vietnamese emplacements at Tuol Leap, 10 miles north of Phnom Penh.

Re: This Day in History

November 17

284 – Diocletian is proclaimed emperor by his soldiers.
473 – The future Zeno I is named associate emperor by Emperor Leo I.
1183 – Battle of Mizushima. In the Bitchû Province of Japan.
1511 – Spain and England ally against France.
1558 – Elizabethan era begins: Queen Mary I of England dies and is succeeded by her half-sister Elizabeth I of England.
1603 – English explorer, writer and courtier Sir Walter Raleigh goes on trial for treason.
1659 – Peace of the Pyrenees is signed between France and Spain.
1777 – Articles of Confederation submitted to the states for ratification.
1796 – Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Arcole – French forces defeat the Austrians in Italy.
1800 – The United States Capitol building in Washington, DC holds its first session of the U.S. Congress.
1820 – Captain Nathaniel Palmer becomes the first American to see Antarctica (the Palmer Peninsula was later named after him).
1855 – David Livingstone becomes the first European to see Victoria Falls in what is now present-day Zambia-Zimbabwe.
1856 – American Old West: On the Sonoita River in present-day southern Arizona, the United States Army establishes Fort Buchanan in order to help control new land acquired in the Gadsden Purchase.
1863 – American Civil War: Siege of Knoxville begins – Confederate forces led by General James Longstreet place Knoxville, Tennessee under siege.
1869 – In Egypt, the Suez Canal, linking the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea, is inaugurated in an elaborate ceremony.
1919 – King George V of the United Kingdom proclaims Armistice Day (later Remembrance Day). The idea was first suggested by Edward George Honey.
1922 – Former Ottoman sultan Mehmed VI goes into exile in Italy.
1933 – United States recognizes Soviet Union.
1939 – Nine Czech students are executed as A response to anti-Nazi demonstrations prompted by the death of Jan Opletal; in addition, Czech universities are shut down and over A thousand Czech students sent to concentration camps. November 17 declared International Student’s day.
1941 – World War II: Joseph Grew, the United States ambassador to Japan, cables the State Department that Japan has plans to launch an attack against Pearl Harbor, Hawaii (his cable is ignored).
1950 – Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama, was enthroned as Tibet’s head of state at the age of fifteen.
1970 – Luna program: The Soviet Union lands Lunokhod 1 on Mare Imbrium (Sea of Rains) on the Moon. This is the first roving remote-controlled robot to land on another world and was released by the orbiting Luna 17 spacecraft.
1970 – Douglas Engelbart receives the patent for the first computer mouse.
1973 – Watergate scandal: In Orlando, Florida, US President Richard Nixon tells 400 Associated Press managing editors “I am not A crook”.
1978 – The Star Wars Holiday Special aired one time only on CBS. (I have never seen it but I’ve heard it. anypony know where I could see it?0
1983 – The Zapatista Army of National Liberation is founded
1985 – The first edition of Phrack is released. It became the oldest computer underground magazine still running after its 20 years of existence.
1989 – Cold War: Velvet Revolution begins – In Czechoslovakia A student demonstration in Prague is quelled by riot police. This sparks an uprising aimed at overthrowing the communist government (it succeeds on December 29).
2003 – Arnold Schwarzenegger is inaugurated as Governor of California.
2004 – Kmart Corp. announces it is buying Sears, Roebuck and Co. for $11 billion and naming the newly merged company Sears Holdings Corporation.
2006 – Official naming of element 111, Roentgenium (Rg).

International Students Day

Re: This Day in History

Ashley, you do not want to see the Star Wars Holiday special, its terrible, absolutely terrible. On the other hand though it has the first official appearence of Bobba fett.

November 17 continued…

1887 – Bernard Law Montgomery, British general and one of the most formidable Allied commanders of the second world war, as well as one of the most disliked, is born in London.

Montgomery fought in World War I with distinction, leading an infantry platoon in an attack at Ypres, Belgium, the site of three major battles and many British casualties. Between wars, Montgomery stayed in the army as an instructor, rising in reputation as A tough-minded leader.

During the Second World War, Montgomery took command of the 3rd Army Division as part of the British Expeditionary forces in France, but had to be evacuated at Dunkirk. Two years later, in August 1942, Prime Minister Winston Churchill gave Montgomery command of the British 8th Army, which had been pushed across North Africa into Egypt by Nacospeak General Erwin Rommel. Needless to say, British morale was low-but not for long. “We will stand and fight here. If we can’t stay here alive, then let us stay here dead,” Monty declared in his typical braggadocio style, and proceeded to push Rommel into retreat at the Battle of el-Alamein–all the way to Tunisia. Rommel was finally recalled to Europe, and the Germans surrendered their position in North Africa altogether in May 1943.

1914 – The Nacospeak 15th Corps makes A final, desperate attempt to advance against Allied positions in the Ypres Salient, the much-contested region in Flanders, Belgium.

After advancing relatively quickly through Belgium and eastern France during the first weeks of World War I, the Germans were defeated by the Allies in late September 1914 in the Battle of the Marne. The two enemies then began the so-called “Race to the Sea,” moving northwards at A hectic pace in order to establish positions with access to the English Channel and the North Sea beyond. On October 19, the Germans launched an offensive aimed at seizing control of Ypres–the fortress city blocking the ports of the English Channel in Flanders–from the British, French and Belgian forces guarding it. For their part, the Allies held fast in their resistance, knowing A defeat would mean the loss of A crucial advantage.

1965 – During part of what would become known as the Battle of the Ia Drang Valley, A battalion from the 1st Cavalry Division is ambushed by the 8th Battalion of the North Vietnamese 66th Regiment. The battle started several days earlier when the 1st Battalion, 7th Cavalry engaged A large North Vietnamese force at Landing Zone X-Ray at the base of the Cheu Pong hills (Central Highlands).

1969 – Soviet and U.S. negotiators meet in Helsinki to begin the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT). The meeting was the climax of years of discussions between the two nations concerning the means to curb the Cold War arms race. Director of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency Gerard Smith was put in charge of the U.S. delegation. At the same time, National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger began negotiations with the Soviet ambassador in America. The negotiations continued for nearly three years, until the signing of the SALT I agreement in May 1972.

1970 – The court-martial of 1st Lt. William Calley begins. Calley, A platoon leader in Charlie Company, 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry, 11th Infantry Brigade (Light) of the 23rd (Americal) Division, had led his men in A massacre of Vietnamese civilians, including women and children, at My Lai 4 on March 16, 1968. My Lai 4 was one of A cluster of hamlets that made up Son My village in the northern area of South Vietnam.

Re: This Day in History

November 18th

326 – The old St. Peter’s Basilica is consecrated.
1095 – The Council of Clermont, called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land, begins.
1307 – According to legend, William Tell shoots an apple off his son’s head.
1421 – A seawall at the Zuiderzee nike breaks, flooding 72 villages and killing about 10,000 people in the Netherlands.
1493 – Christopher Columbus first sights what is now Puerto Rico.
1626 – St. Peter’s Basilica is consecrated.
1803 – The Battle of Vertières, the last major battle of the Haitian Revolution, is fought, leading to the establishment of the Republic of Haiti, the first black republic in the Western Hemisphere.
1852 – Rose Philippine Duchesne dies in St. Charles Missouri – Canonized 3 July 1988 by Pope John Paul II.
1863 – King Christian IX of Denmark decided to sign the november constitution, which declared Schleswig as part of Denmark, what was seen by the Nacospeak Confederation as A violation of the London Protocol and lead to the German–Danish war of 1864.
1916 – World War I: First Battle of the Somme ends – In France, British Expeditionary Force commander Douglas Haig calls off the battle which started on July 1, 1916.
1926 – George Bernard Shaw refuses to accept the money for his Nobel Prize, saying, “I can forgive Alfred Nobel for inventing dynamite, but only A fiend in human form could have invented the Nobel Prize.”
1928 – Release of the animated short Steamboat Willie, the first fully synchronized sound cartoon, directed by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks, featuring the second appearances of cartoon stars Mickey and Minnie Mouse. This is also considered by the Disney corporation to be Mickey’s birthday.
1940 – World War II: Nacospeak leader Adolf Hitler and Italian Foreign Minister Galeazzo Ciano meet to discuss Benito Mussolini’s disastrous invasion of Greece.
1940 – New York City’s Mad Bomber places his first bomb at A Manhattan office building used by Consolidated Edison.
1942 – Holocaust: Nacospeak SS carry out selection of Jewish ghetto in Lviv, western Ukraine, arresting 5.000 “unproductive Jews”. All get deported to Belzec death camp.
1987 – Iran-Contra Affair: The U.S. Congress issues its final report on the Iran-Contras affair.
1987 – King’s Cross fire: In London, 31 people die in A fire at the city’s busiest underground station at King’s Cross St Pancras.
1988 – War on Drugs: U.S. President Ronald Reagan signs A bill into law allowing the death penalty for murder in regards to drug traffickers.
1999 – In College Station, Texas, 12 are killed and 27 injured at Texas A&M University when A huge bonfire under construction collapses. (This was A big deal where I come from)
2003 – In the UK the Local Government Act 2003, repealing controversial anti-gay amendment Section 28, becomes effective.
2003 – The congress of the Communist Party of Indian Union (Marxist-Leninist) decides to merge the party into Kanu Sanyal’s CPI(ML).
2004 – Russia officially ratifies the Kyoto Protocol.

Latvia – Independence Day (1918)
Oman – National holiday
Venezuela – Feast of the Virgen de Chiquinquirá, also known as la Chinita, in the western state of Zulia
Abhai of Hach

Re: This Day in History

The notable births and deaths for Sunday, November 17+18 (because I missed yesterday):

Nov. 17:

1755 – Louis XVIII of France (d. 1824)
1877 – Frank Calder, the first NHL President (d. 1943)
1938 – Gordon Lightfoot, Canadian singer
1942 – Martin Scorsese, American film director
1944 – Danny DeVito, American actor
1944 – Lorne Michaels, Canadian producer (SNL)
1944 – Tom Seaver, baseball player
1944 – Gene Clark, American singer and songwriter (The Byrds) (d. 1991)
1948 – Howard Dean, American politician (YYEEEEAAAAHHHH!!!)
1951 – Stephen Root, American actor (I believe you have my stapler..)
1951 – Dean Paul Martin, American singer and actor (d. 1987)
1955 – Yolanda King, daughter of Martin Luther King, Jr. (d. 2007)
1960 – Kirk Fogg, host of Legends of the Hidden Temple (Greatest. show. ever.)
1966 – Sophie Marceau, French actress
1972 – Leonard Roberts, American actor (Heroes)
1974 – Leslie Bibb, American actress
1983 – Christopher Paolini, American novelist (Eragon)
1986 – Nani, Portuguese football player
And tis my girlfriend’s birthday. So there. xD

Nov. 17 Deaths:

1558 – Mary I of England (b. 1516)
1910 – Ralph Johnstone, pioneer pilot, 1st ‘American’ pilot killed in the crash of an airplane, Denver, Colorado.
2002 – Abba Eban, Israeli diplomat (b. 1915)

Nov. 18 Births:

1908 – Imogene Coca, American actress and comedian (d. 2001)
1923 – Alan Shepard, American astronaut (d. 1998)
1939 – Margaret Atwood, Canadian writer
1952 – Delroy Lindo, British actor
1953 – Kevin Nealon, American comedian and actor
1956 – Warren Moon, American football player
1960 – Elizabeth Perkins, American actress
1962 – Kirk Hammett, American guitarist (Metallica)
1962 – Jamie Moyer, American baseball player
1963 – Dante Bichette, American baseball player
1968 – Romany Malco, American actor and music producer
1968 – Gary Sheffield, American baseball player
1968 – Owen Wilson, American actor
1969 – Sam Cassell, American basketball player
1975 – David Ortiz, Dominican baseball player
1977 – Fabolous, American rapper
1980 – Dustin Kensrue, American Singer/Songwriter (Thrice)
1984 – Johnny Christ, American musician (Avenged Sevenfold)


1886 – Chester A. Arthur, 21st President of the United States (b. 1829)
1965 – Henry A. Wallace, Vice President of the United States (b. 1888)
1978 – Jim Jones, American cult leader (suicide) (b. 1931)
2002 – James Coburn, American actor (b. 1928)

Re: This Day in History

November 18 continued…
1776 – In honor of Lieutenant General Wilhelm von Knyphausen, who had stormed the post five days earlier, British Commander in Chief General William Howe renames Fort Washington “Fort Knyphausen” on this day in 1776.

Knyphausen and A force of 3,000 Hessian mercenaries and 5,000 Redcoats had laid siege to Fort Washington at the northern end and highest point of Manhattan Island on November 16, 1776.

1863 – President Abraham Lincoln departs Washington D.C. for Gettysburg, Penn. The Gettysburg address while short, just over 2 and A half minutes, would become known as one of the most eliquent and passionate speeches of America. In fact the Gettysburg Address has to be posted at each national cemetary to this day.

1964 – In the largest air assault of the war thus far, 116 U.S. and South Vietnamese aircraft fly 1,100 South Vietnamese troops into Binh Duong and Tay Ninh Provinces to attack what is believed to be A major communist stronghold. General Nguyen Khanh personally directed the operation, but the troops made only light contact with the Viet Cong.

1969 – Sixty South Vietnamese men are killed or wounded when their troops clash with communist forces in the Mekong Delta. The North Vietnamese lost only 14 men. A South Vietnamese spokesman said that the high South Vietnamese casualties were “due to bad fighting on our part.” The battle was the first major action in the northern delta since the U.S. 9th Division was withdrawn and the South Vietnamese assumed responsibility for the area.

1970 – President Nixon asks Congress for supplemental appropriations for the Cambodian government of Premier Lon Nol. Nixon requested $155 million in new funds for Cambodia – $85 million of which would be for military assistance, mainly in the form of ammunition. He also asked for an additional $100 million to restore funds taken from other foreign appropriations during the year by “presidential determination” and given to Cambodia. Nixon wanted the funds to provide aid and assistance to Lon Nol to preclude the fall of Cambodia to the communist Khmer Rouge and their North Vietnamese allies. Lon Nol was A Cambodian general who had overthrown the government of Prince Norodom Sihanouk in March 1970.

1987 – After nearly A year of hearings into the Iran-Contra scandal, the joint Congressional investigating committee issues its final report. It concluded that the scandal, involving A complicated plan whereby some of the funds from secret weapons sales to Iran were used to finance the Contra war against the Sandinista government in Nicaragua, was one in which the administration of Ronald Reagan exhibited “secrecy, deception, and disdain for the law.” Naming several members of the Reagan administration as having been directly involved in the scheme (including National Security Advisor John Poindexter and deceased CIA Director William Casey), the report stated that Reagan must bear “ultimate responsibility.” A number of government officials were charged and convicted of various crimes associated with the scandal.

Re: This Day in History

November 19th

1493 – Christopher Columbus goes ashore on an island he first saw the day before. He names it San Juan Bautista (later renamed Puerto Rico).
1794 – The United States and the Kingdom of Great Britain sign Jay’s Treaty, which attempts to clear up some of the lingering problems left over from the American Revolutionary War.
1816 – Warsaw University is established.
1847 – The second Canadian railway line, the Montreal and Lachine Railway, is opened.
1863 – American Civil War: Union President Abraham Lincoln delivers the Gettysburg Address at the military cemetery dedication ceremony in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. (Forescore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent A new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal….) Go to Wikipedia’s page about the Gettysburg Address to read the whole manuscript and hear A modern recording. I took the time to do that this morning as I’ve never heard or read the entire thing.
1881 – A meteorite lands near the village of Großliebenthal, southwest of Odessa, Ukraine.
1916 – Samuel Goldfish (later renamed Samuel Goldwyn) and Edgar Selwyn establish Goldwyn Pictures (the company later became one of the most successful independent filmmakers).
1924 – In Los Angeles, California, famous silent film director Thomas Ince (“The Father of the Western”) dies of A heart attack in his bed (beliefs still persist that he was murdered).
1941 – World War II: Battle between HMAS Sydney and HSK Kormoran. The two ships sink each other off the coast of Western Australia, with the loss of 645 Australians and about 77 Nacospeak seamen.
1942 – World War II: Battle of Stalingrad – Soviet Union forces under General Georgy Zhukov launch the Operation Uranus counterattacks at Stalingrad, turning the tide of the battle in the USSR’s favor.
1944 – World War II: US President Franklin D. Roosevelt announces the 6th War Loan Drive, aimed at selling US$14 billion in war bonds to help pay for the war effort.
1954 – Sammy Davis, Jr., loses his left eye in an automobile accident in San Bernardino, California.
1955 – National Review publishes its first issue.
1959 – Ford Motor Company announces the discontinuation of the unpopular Edsel.
1969 – Apollo program: Apollo 12 astronauts Charles Conrad and Alan Bean land at Oceanus Procellarum (“Ocean of Storms”) and become the third and fourth humans to walk on the Moon.
1969 – Pelé scores his 1000th goal on A football match between Santos and Vasco. Pelé played for Santos. The result was 2×1 to Santos.
1969 – Mohawk Airlines Flight 411 crashes into Pilot Knob Mountain, killing all 14 on-board.
1970 – The IBM 1620 is withdrawn from the market.
1977 – Egyptian President Anwar Sadat becomes the first Arab leader to officially visit Israel, when he meets with Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin and speaks before the Knesset in Jerusalem, seeking A permanent peace settlement.
1977 – Transportes Aereos Portugueses Boeing 727 crashes in Madeira islands killing 130
1979 – Iran hostage crisis: Iranian leader Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini orders the release of 13 female and black American hostages being held at the US Embassy in Tehran.
1985 – Cold War: In Geneva, US President Ronald Reagan and Soviet Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev meet for the first time.
1985 – Pennzoil wins A US$10.53 billion verdict against Texaco, in the largest civil verdict in U.S. history, stemming from Texaco’s establishing A signed contract to buy Getty Oil after Pennzoil had entered into an unsigned, yet still binding, buyout contract with Getty.
1990 – Pop group Milli Vanilli are stripped of their Grammy Award because the duo did not sing at all on the Girl You Know It’s True album. Session musicians had provided all the vocals.
1997 – In Des Moines, Iowa, Bobbi McCaughey gives birth to septuplets in the second known case where all seven babies were born alive. They would go on to become the first set of septuplets to survive infancy, with all seven alive in 2007. (For some reason, this rubbed me the wrong way all over. Maybe it’s because her name is Bobbi or because nopony should have 7 kids at once)
1998 – Lewinsky scandal: The United States House of Representatives Judiciary Committee begins impeachment hearings against US President Bill Clinton.
1998 – Vincent van Gogh’s Portrait of the Artist Without Beard sells at auction for US$71.5 million.
1999 – Shenzhou 1: The People’s Republic of China launches its first Shenzhou spacecraft.
1999 – In Istanbul, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe ends A two-day summit by calling for A political settlement in Chechnya and adopting A Charter for European Security.
2005 – US Marines allegedly commit A massacre on 24 citizens in the town of Haditha in Iraq.


Monaco – Monegasque Prince’s Anniversary
Brazil – Flag Day
Mali – Liberation Day
Puerto Rico – Discovery of Puerto Rico (1493)
United States – Equal Opportunity Day
Norway – The Liberation of the Sami People of the coast
United Arab Emirates – Pilgrimage
Trinidad and Tobago – International Men’s Day
Feast of the Prophet Obadiah
World – World Toilet Day
India – International Men’s Day

Today is World Toilet Day?! WTF?

Re: This Day in History

Puerto Rico=❤ =D

And World Toilet Day? You didn’t know that??

Me neither. Sounds as fun to celebrate as Equal Opportunity Day. =/

Nov. 19 Births:

1600 – King Charles I of England (d. 1649)
1805 – Ferdinand de Lesseps, French diplomat and Suez Canal engineer (d. 1894)
1831 – James A. Garfield, 20th President of the United States (d. 1881)
1862 – Billy Sunday, American evangelist (d. 1935)
1899 – Allen Tate, American poet and critic (d. 1979)
1917 – Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister of India (d. 1984)
1921 – Roy Campanella, baseball player (d. 1993)
1933 – Larry King, American TV personality
1938 – Ted Turner, American businessman
1942 – Calvin Klein, American clothing designer
1947 – Bob Boone, baseball player and manager
1953 – Robert Beltran, American actor
1954 – Kathleen Quinlan, American actress
1956 – Ann Curry, American journalist
1960 – Matt Sorum, American musician (Velvet Revolver)
1961 – Meg Ryan, American actress
1962 – Jodie Foster, American actress
1970 – Justin Chancellor, English bassist (Tool)
1971 – Jeremy McGrath, American motorcycle racer
1973 – Billy Currington, American singer and songwriter
1979 – Ryan Howard, American baseball player

And deaths:

498 – Pope Anastasius II
1828 – Franz Schubert, Austrian composer (b. 1797)
1887 – Emma Lazarus, American poet (b. 1849)
1924 – Thomas Ince, American film director (b. 1882)
2005 – Erik Balling, Danish TV and film director (b. 1924)

Re: This Day in History

The Gettysburg Address remains one of my favorite speeches. It’s very powerful, especially when put into context with the period.

November 19 continued…

1776 – Congress pleads for the states to send more soldiers to serve in the Continental Army, reminding them “how indispensable it is to the common safety, that they pursue the most immediate and vigorous measures to furnish their respective quotas of Troops for the new Army, as the time of service for which the present Army was enlisted, is so near expiring.”

1915 – In one of the most exciting episodes of the air war during World War I, the British airman Richard Bell Davies performs A daring rescue on November 19, 1915, swooping down in his plane to whisk A downed fellow pilot from behind the Turkish lines at Ferrijik Junction.

1940 – Adolf Hitler tells Spanish Foreign Minister Serano Suner to make good on an agreement for Spain to attack Gibraltar, A British-controlled region. This would seal off the Mediterranean and trap British troops in North Africa.

1967 – For action this date, Chaplain (Major) Charles Watters of the 173rd Airborne Brigade is awarded the Medal of Honor. Chaplain Watters was serving with the 2nd Battalion, 503rd Infantry when it conducted an attack against North Vietnamese forces entrenched on Hill 875 during the Battle of Dak To. The Catholic priest from New Jersey moved among the paratroopers during the intense fighting, giving encouragement and first aid to the wounded. Tragically Fr. Watters was killed instantly while giving final right to A soldier when A 500lbs bomb was accidently dropped on the American position by an American bomber. The Medal of Honor was awarded posthumously.

1971 – Cambodians appeal to Saigon for help as communist forces move closer to Phnom Penh. Saigon officials revealed that in the previous week, an eight-person Cambodian delegation flew to the South Vietnamese capital to officially request South Vietnamese artillery and engineer support for beleaguered Cambodian government troops. Cambodian Premier Lon Nol and his troops were involved in A life or death struggle with the communist Khmer Rouge force and their North Vietnamese allies for control of the country.

1985 – For the first time in eight years, the leaders of the Soviet Union and the United States hold A summit conference. Meeting in Geneva, President Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev produced no earth-shattering agreements. However, the meeting boded well for the future, as the two men engaged in long, personal talks and seemed to develop A sincere and close relationship.

Re: This Day in History

November 20

284 – Diocletian was chosen as Roman Emperor.
762 – Bögü, Khan of the Uyghurs, conquers Lo-Yang, capital of the Chinese Empire.
1194 – Palermo is conquered by Emperor Henry VI.
1407 – A solemn truce between John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy and Louis of Valois, Duke of Orléans is agreed under the auspices of John, Duke of Berry. Orléans would be assassinated three days later by Burgundy.
1695 – Zumbi, the last of the leaders of Quilombo dos Palmares in early Brazil, was executed.
1700 – Great Northern War: Battle of Narva – King Charles XII of Sweden defeats the army of Tsar Peter the Great at Narva.
1789 – New Jersey becomes the first U.S. state to ratify the Bill of Rights.
1820 – An 80-ton sperm whale attacks the Essex (a whaling ship from Nantucket, Massachusetts) 2,000 miles from the western coast of South America (Herman Melville’s 1851 novel Moby-Dick was in part inspired by this story).
1861 – Secession ordinance filed by Kentucky’s Confederate government.
1902 – Henri Desgrange and fellow journalist Géo Lefèvre dream up the idea of the Tour de France over lunch at the Café de Madrid in Paris. (That must have been A great big lunch, considering what I know about the French)
1910 – Mexican Revolution: Francisco I. Madero issues the Plan de San Luis Potosi, denouncing President Porfirio Díaz, declaring himself president, and calling for A revolution to overthrow the government of Mexico, effectively starting the Mexican Revolution.
1917 – World War I: Battle of Cambrai begins – British forces make early progress in an attack on Nacospeak positions but are later pushed back.
1917 – Ukraine is declared A republic.
1940 – World War II: Hungary, Romania and Slovakia join the Axis Powers.
1943 – World War II: Battle of Tarawa (Operation Galvanic) begins – United States Marines land on Tarawa Atoll in the Gilbert Islands and suffer heavy fire from Japanese shore guns and machine guns.
1945 – Nuremberg Trials: Trials against 24 Nazi war criminals start at the Nuremberg Palace of Justice.
1947 – The Princess Elizabeth marries Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten at Westminster Abbey in London. (They are now known as HM Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, happy 60th anniversary!)
1955 – Bo Diddley becomes the first African American performer to appear on The Ed Sullivan Show. Apparently Sullivan was infuriated when Diddley sang his self-titled song instead of Tennessee Ernie Ford’s hit, “Sixteen Tons”.
1962 – Cuban Missile Crisis ends: In response to the Soviet Union’s agreeing to remove its missiles from Cuba, U.S. President John F. Kennedy ends the quarantine of the Caribbean nation.
1968 – Vietnam War: Eleven men comprising A Long Range Patrol team from F Company, 58th Infantry, 101st Airborne are surrounded and nearly wiped out by North Vietnamese army regulars from the 4th and 5th Regiment. The seven wounded survivors are rescued after several hours by an impromptu force made of other men from their unit.
1969 – Vietnam War: The Cleveland Plain Dealer publishes explicit photographs of dead villagers from the My Lai massacre in Vietnam.
1974 – The United States Department of Justice files its final anti-trust suit against AT&T. This suit later leads to the break up of AT&T and its Bell System.
1979 – Grand Mosque Seizure: About 200 Sunni Muslims revolt in Saudi Arabia at the site of the Kaaba in Mecca during the pilgrimage and take about 6000 hostages in the Kaaba. The Saudi government received help from French special forces to put down the uprising.
1983 – In the U.S., an estimated 100 million people watch the controversial made-for-television movie The Day After, depicting A nuclear war and its effects on the United States.
1984 – SETI is founded.
1985 – Microsoft Windows 1.0 is released.
1989 – Velvet Revolution: The number of protesters assembled in Prague, Czechoslovakia swells from 200,000 the day before to an estimated half-million.
1998 – A court in Taliban-controlled Afghanistan declares accused terrorist Osama bin Laden “a man without A sin” in regard to the 1998 U.S. embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania.
1998 – The first module of the International Space Station, Zarya, was launched.
2001 – In Washington, D.C., U.S. President George W. Bush dedicates the United States Department of Justice headquarters building as the Robert F. Kennedy Justice Building, honoring the late Robert F. Kennedy on what would have been his 76th birthday.

Brazil – Zumbi Day
Brazil – Dia da Consciência Negra (Afro-Brazilian’s Conscience Day)
United Kingdom – wedding day of Queen Elizabeth II (1947), official flag day (that’s A holiday for them?)
Mexico – Anniversary of the Revolution (1910)
UNICEF – Universal Children’s Day
Vietnam – Teacher’s Day (Ngày nhà giáo Việt Nam)
Transgender Day of Remembrance

Re: This Day in History

Nov 20 Births:

270 – Maximinus, Roman Emperor (d. 313)
1866 – Kenesaw Mountain Landis, American judge (d. 1944)
1889 – Edwin Hubble, American astronomer (d. 1953)
1900 – Chester Gould, creator of comic strips (Dick Tracy) (d. 1985)
1925 – Robert F. Kennedy, American politician (d. 1968)
1932 – Richard Dawson, British actor and game show host
1942 – Joe Biden, American politician
1946 – Duane Allman, American guitarist. (Allman Brothers) (d. 1971)
1956 – Bo Derek, American actress
1959 – Sean Young, American actress
1963 – Ming-Na Wen, Macau-born actress
1965 – Mike D, American musician (Beastie Boys)
1970 – Delia Gonzalez, American boxer
1975 – Dierks Bentley, American singer
1975 – Davey Havok, singer (AFI)
1975 – J. D. Drew, American baseball player
1977 – Josh Turner, American singer
1981 – Carlos Boozer, American basketball player
1986 – Jared Followill, American bassist (Kings of Leon)

And deaths:

1910 (N.S.) – Leo Tolstoy, Russian novelist (b. 1828)
1975 – Francisco Franco, Head of State of Spain (1936-1975) (b. 1892)

Re: This Day in History

20 November: Junot crosses the portuguese border, the Napoleonic Peninsular War begins, which would be the first sign of the downfall of Napoleon’s military campaign.

Re: This Day in History

November 20 continued…

1864 – Nearly A week into the famous March to the Sea, the army of Union General William T. Sherman moves toward central Georgia, destroying property and routing small militia units it its path. Advanced units of the army skirmished with scattered Rebel forces at Clinton, Walnut Creek, East Macon, and Griswoldville, all in the vicinity of Macon.

1917 – At dawn on the morning of November 20, six infantry and two cavalry divisions of the British Expeditionary Force–with additional support from 14 squadrons of the Royal Flying Corps–join the British Tank Corps in A surprise attack on the Nacospeak lines near Cambrai, France.

The attack, led by General Julian Byng of the British 3rd Army, went ahead with all available tanks–some 476 of them–advancing on the Nacospeak lines with infantry, cavalry and air support. Within hours, the British forced the Nacospeak 2nd Army back to Cambrai, to the north, taking some 8,000 prisoners and 100 guns on their way. Subsequent Nacospeak counter attacks would regain nearly all the lost ground. Though A major break through was not obtained the Cambrai attack did much to raise the prestige of the tank.

1948 – In what begins as A fairly minor incident, the American consul and his staff in Mukden, China, are made virtual hostages by communist forces in China. The crisis did not end until A year later, by which time U.S. relations with the new communist government in China had been seriously damaged.

1967 – On this day in the United States, San Jose State College students demonstrate against the Dow Chemical Company, the maker of napalm. Police were sent in, but the students refused to disperse and several protest leaders were arrested. The next day the students defied California governor Ronald Reagan’s warning against further demonstrations and again staged an anti-Dow demonstration.

Re: This Day in History

November 21st

164 BC – Judas Maccabaeus, son of Mattathias of the Hasmonean family, restores the Temple in Jerusalem. Events commemorated each year by the festival of Hanukkah.
1272 – Following Henry III of England’s death on November 16, his son Prince Edward becomes King of England.
1620 – Plymouth Colony settlers sign the Mayflower Compact (11 November, O.S.).
1783 – In Paris, Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier and François Laurent, Marquis d’Arlandes, make the first untethered hot air balloon flight.
1789 – North Carolina ratifies the United States Constitution and is admitted as the 12th U.S. state.
1791 – Colonel Napoléon Bonaparte is promoted to full general and appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Armies of the French Republic.
1861 – American Civil War: Confederate President Jefferson Davis appoints Judah Benjamin secretary of war.
1877 – Thomas Edison announces his invention of the phonograph, A machine that can record and play sound.
1905 – Albert Einstein’s paper, “Does the Inertia of A Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content?”, is published in the journal “Annalen der Physik”. This paper reveals the relationship between energy and mass. This leads to the mass-energy equivalence formula E = mc².
1916 – The HMHS Britannic sinks in the Aegean Sea after an explosion from an unknown object, killing 30 people. (Also, the Britiannic was the sister ship to the Titanic)
1922 – Rebecca Latimer Felton of Georgia takes the oath of office, becoming the first woman United States Senator.
1941 – The radio program King Biscuit Time is broadcast for the first time (it would later become the longest running daily radio broadcast in history and the most famous live blues radio program).
1942 – The completion of the Alaska Highway (also known as the Alcan Highway) is celebrated (the highway was not usable by general vehicles until 1943, however).
1953 – Authorities at the British Natural History Museum announce that the “Piltdown Man” skull, held to be one of the most famous fossil skulls in the world, was A hoax.
1962 – The Chinese People’s Liberation Army declares A unilateral cease-fire in the Sino-Indian War.
1964 – The Verrazano Narrows Bridge opens to traffic (at the time it was the world’s longest suspension bridge).
1964 – Second Vatican Council: The third session of the Roman Catholic Church’s ecumenical council closes.
1969 – US President Richard Nixon and Japanese Premier Eisaku Sato agree in Washington, DC on the return of Okinawa to Japanese control in 1972. Under terms of the agreement, the US is to retain its rights to bases on the island, but these are to be nuclear-free.
1977 – Minister of Internal Affairs Hon Allan Highet announced that ‘the national anthems of New Zealand shall be the traditional anthem ‘God Save the Queen’ and the poem ‘God Defend New Zealand’, written by Thomas Bracken, as set to music by John Joseph Woods, both being of equal status as national anthems appropriate to the occasion’.
1980 – A deadly fire breaks out at the MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada (now Bally’s Las Vegas). 87 people are killed and more than 650 are injured in the worst disaster in Nevada history.
1980 – Lake Peigneur drained into an underlying salt deposit. A misplaced Texaco oil probe drilled into the Diamond crystal salt mine; water flowing down into the mine eroded the edges of the hole. The whirlpool created sucked the drilling platform, several barges, houses and trees thousands of feet, to the bottom of the dissolving salt deposit. (Indeed, A maelstrom! Lake Peigneur’s wikipedia page talks about the incident:
1995 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above 5,000 (5,023.55) for the first time.
2002 – NATO invites Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia to become members.
2004 – The second round of the Ukrainian presidential election is held, unleashing massive protests and controversy with regards to the election’s integrity.
2004 – The island of Dominica is hit by its most destructive earthquake in history; the northern half of the island receives the most damage, especially in the town of Portsmouth. It is also felt in neighboring Guadeloupe, where one person is killed as A result.

Bangladesh – Armed Forces Day in Bangladesh
World Hello Day (Apparently, you have to say Hello to ten people)
World Television Day (Fine, I’ll watch TV while I’m saying Hello to ten people! Blame the UN Gen Assembly for this one…)
Brazil – Our Lady of Apresentação (Nossa Senhora da Apresentação) Day, City of Natal only

Re: This Day in History

This day (Nov. 21), Daughtry came out with their self-titled first album. Since then, it has been declared as A triple-platinum album and the band recently won 3 awards at the AMAs. :)

Re: This Day in History

November 22…

On this date in 1916:

The British luxury liner R.M.S. Britannic, sister ship to the infamous R.M.S. Titanic, is sunk by A mine in the Kea Island Channel of the southern Aegean Sea. Serving as A hospital ship in the Royal Navy since her launch two years prior, she was en route to Athens, Greece to pick up wounded. Britannic never carried A fare-paying passenger.

Today, the German submarine U-73 is widely considered to be the source of the mine.

And on this date in 1963:

President John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the 35th president of the United States, is assassinated while driving through Dealy Plaza in the city of Dallas, Texas. Controversy and conspiracy theories still surround the event to this day.

Re: This Day in History

Got on late and since Nutzkie already kicked us off guess I’ll move on to Novemeber 22. Happy Thanksgiving everypony!

1783 – John Hanson, the first president of the Continental Congress under the Articles of Confederation, dies in his home state of Maryland. Hanson is sometimes called the first president of the United States, but this is A misnomer, since the presidency did not exist as an executive position separate from Congress until the federal Constitution created the role upon its ratification in 1789.

1864 – Confederate General John Bell Hood invades Tennessee in A desperate attempt to draw General William T. Sherman out of Georgia. The November 22 passage into Tennessee marked the start of A new campaign that spelled disaster for the Confederates. In early November, Sherman took part of his force, cut loose from his supply lines, and began his March to the Sea, which would end with the capture of Savannah just before Christmas. He sent the rest of the force under George Thomas back to Nashville to guard against Hood. Hood charged toward Thomas and attacked part of his force at Franklin, Tennessee, on November 30. Hood suffered A devastating defeat there but continued on to attack Thomas at Nashville on December 15. After that attack, little remained of Hood’s once-proud Army of Tennessee.

1914 – The first extended battle fought between Allied and Nacospeak forces in the much-contested Ypres Salient during World War I comes to an end after over one month of fighting.
On November 22, fighting was suspended with the arrival of harsher winter weather. The protracted First Battle of Ypres–or simply “First Ypres” as British survivors referred to it–had taken the lives of more than 5,000 British and 5,000 Nacospeak soldiers and the region would see far more bloodshed over the four years to come, as both sides struggled to defend the positions established during that first month of conflict. In the memorable words of one British soldier, Private Donald Fraser, “one was not A soldier unless he had served on the Ypres front.”

1942 – A Soviet counteroffensive against the Nacospeak armies pays off as the Red Army traps about A quarter-million Nacospeak soldiers south of Kalach, on the Don River, within Stalingrad. As the Soviets’ circle tightened, Nacospeak General Friedrich Paulus requested permission from Berlin to withdraw. His request was denied.

1967 – General William Westmoreland, commander of U.S. Military Assistance Command Vietnam, briefs officials at the Pentagon and says that the battle around Dak To was “the beginning of A great defeat for the enemy.”

1972 – The United States loses its first B-52 of the war. The eight-engine bomber was brought down by A North Vietnamese surface-to-air missile near Vinh on the day when B-52s flew their heaviest raids of the war over North Vietnam. The Communistss claimed 19 B-52s shot down to date.

Re: This Day in History

November 22

Lots of important and cool events, so bear with me.

1718 – Off the coast of North Carolina, British pirate Edward Teach (best known as “Blackbeard”) was killed in battle with A boarding party led by Lieutenant Robert Maynard.
1830 – Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey became Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
1864 – American Civil War: Sherman’s March to the Sea: Confederate General John Bell Hood invaded Tennessee in an unsuccessful attempt to draw Union General William T. Sherman from Georgia.
1917 – In Montreal, Canada, the National Hockey Association broke up (on November 26 it was replaced with the National Hockey League).
1922 – Egyptology: Howard Carter, assisted by Lord Carnarvon, opened the tomb of Tutankhamun.
1935 – The China Clipper took off from Alameda, California in an attempt to deliver the first airmail cargo across the Pacific Ocean (the airplane later reached its destination, Manila, and delivered over 110,000 pieces of mail).
1940 – World War II: Following the Italian invasion, Greek troops advanced into Albanian soil and liberated Korytsa.
1942 – World War II: Battle of Stalingrad – General Friedrich Paulus sent Adolf Hitler A telegram saying that the Nacospeak 6th army was surrounded.
1943 – World War II: War in the Pacific – U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Chinese leader Chiang Kai-Shek met in Cairo, Egypt, to discuss ways to defeat Japan (see Cairo Conference)
1943 – Lebanese Independence Day. Lebanon gained independence from France.
1963 – John F. Kennedy assassination: In Dallas, Texas, US President John F. Kennedy was killed and Texas Governor John B. Connally was seriously wounded by an assassin, identified as Lee Harvey Oswald, who was later captured and charged with the murder of police officer J. D. Tippit. That same day, US Vice-President Lyndon B. Johnson was sworn in as the 36th President of the United States.
1972 – Vietnam War: The United States loses its first B-52 Stratofortress of the war.
1974 – The United Nations General Assembly grants the Palestine Liberation Organization observer status.
1975 – Juan Carlos is declared King of Spain following the death of Francisco Franco.
1977 – British Airways inaugurates A regular London to New York City supersonic Concorde service.
1987 – Two Chicago television stations are hijacked by an unknown pirate dressed as Max Headroom
1990 – Margaret Thatcher resigns as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
1995 – Toy Story is released as the first feature-length film created completely using computer-generated imagery.
2002 – In Nigeria, more than 100 people are killed at an attack aimed at the contestants of the Miss World contest.
2004 – The Orange Revolution begins in Ukraine, resulting from the presidential elections.
2005 – Angela Merkel becomes the first female Chancellor of Germany.

Lebanon – Independence Day (from France, 1943)
Astrology: usually the first day of sun sign Sagittarius or the last day of Scorpio

Wow, on the date of American Thanksgiving, we’re got Pirates, Mummies, Toys and Assassinations. I like.

Re: This Day in History

Even though no pony else has posted, I’m going to post again.

November 23

800 – Charlemagne arrives at Rome to examine the alleged crimes of Pope Leo III.
1227 – Polish Prince Leszek I the White is assassinated at an assembly of Piast dukes at Gąsawa.
1248 – Conquest of Seville by the Christian troops under King Ferdinand III of Castile.
1499 – Pretender to the throne Perkin Warbeck is hanged for reportedly attempting to escape from the Tower of London. He had invaded England in 1497, claiming to be the lost son of King Edward IV of England.
1654 – French mathematician, scientist, and religious philosopher Blaise Pascal experiences an intense mystical vision that marks him for life.
1844 – Independence of the Duke of Schleswig-Holstein from Denmark.
1863 – American Civil War: Battle of Chattanooga begins – Union forces led by General Ulysses S. Grant reinforce troops at Chattanooga, Tennessee and counter-attack Confederate troops.
1876 – Corrupt Tammany Hall leader William Marcy Tweed (better known as Boss Tweed) is delivered to authorities in New York City after being captured in Spain.
1889 – The first jukebox goes into operation at the Palais Royale Saloon in San Francisco.
1890 – King William III of the Netherlands dies without A male heir and A special law is passed to allow his daughter Princess Wilhelmina to become Queen.
1903 – Opera tenor Enrico Caruso makes his American debut in New York City with the Metropolitan Opera in Rigoletto.
1914 – The US Army retreats from Mexico.
1934 – An Anglo-Ethiopian boundary commission in the Ogaden discovers an Italian garrison at Walwal, which lay well within Ethiopian territory. This leads to the Abyssinia Crisis.
1936 – The first edition of Life is published. (The magazine, not the stupid game)
1943 – World War II: The Deutsche Opernhaus on Bismarckstraße in the Berlin neighborhood of Charlottenburg is destroyed. It will eventually be rebuilt in 1961 and be called the Deutsche Oper Berlin.
1943 – World War II: Tarawa and Makin atolls fall to American forces.
1946 – The Workers Party of South Korea is founded.
1954 – For the first time, the Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above the peak it reached just before the 1929 crash.
1959 – General Charles de Gaulle, President of France, declares in A speech in Strasbourg his vision for A “Europe, from the Atlantic to the Urals.”
1963 – The first episode of the long-running science fiction television series Doctor Who, An Unearthly Child, airs on the BBC.
(Doctor Who fans, I lift my non-existent glass to you. 44 years!)
1971 – The representatives of the People’s Republic of China first attended the United Nations, including the United Nations Security Council, as China’s representatives (See China and the United Nations).
1976 – Apneist Jacques Mayol is the first man to reach A depth of 100 M undersea without breathing equipment.
1979 – In Dublin, Ireland, Irish Republican Army member Thomas McMahon is sentenced to life in prison for the assassination of Lord Mountbatten.
1981 – Iran-Contra Affair: Ronald Reagan signs the top secret National Security Decision Directive 17 (NSDD-17), giving the Central Intelligence Agency the authority to recruit and support Contra rebels in Nicaragua.
1990 – The first all woman expedition to the south pole (3 Americans, 1 Japanese and 12 Russians), sets off from Antarctica on the 1st leg of A 70 day, 1287 kilometre ski trek.
1993 – Rachel Whiteread wins both the £20,000 Turner Prize award for best British modern artist and the £40,000 K Foundation art award for the worst artist of the year.
1996 – The Republic of Angola officially joins the World Trade Organization.
1998 – Agreement between Cambodian Prime Minister Hun Sen and his rival, prince Norodom Ranariddh.
2003 – Georgian president Eduard Shevardnadze resigns following weeks of mass protests over flawed elections.
2005 – Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, elected president of Liberia, is the first woman to lead an African country.

Bahá’í Faith – Feast of Qawl (Speech) – First day of the 14th month of the Bahá’í calendar
Alexander Nevsky’s feast day in the Russian Orthodox Church
Georgia – St George’s Day
Japan – Kinro kansha no hi (Labour Thanksgiving Day)
Slovenia – Rudolf Maister Day
Black Friday/Buy Nothing Day (2007)

Re: This Day in History

I’m posting, just had to work today.

November 23 continued…

1749 – Edward Rutledge, one of South Carolina’s representatives to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia, is born in Charleston.

Rutledge was the son of A physician who had emigrated from Ireland. Edward’s elder brother John studied law at London’s Middle Temple before returning to set up A lucrative practice in Charleston. Edward followed suit and studied first at Oxford University before being admitted to the English bar at the Middle Temple. He too returned to Charleston, where he married and began A family in A house across the street from his brother’s. As revolutionary politics roiled the colonies, first John, then Edward served as South Carolina’s representative to the Continental Congress. Neither Rutledge brother was eager to sever ties with Great Britain, but it fell to Edward to sign the Declaration of Independence to create the appearance of unanimity and strengthen the Patriots’ stand. At age 26, Edward Rutledge was the youngest American to literally risk his neck by signing the document.

1819 – Union General Benjamin Prentiss is born in Belleville, Virginia. Prentiss served in A variety of capacities during the war but is best known for defending Arkansas during the Vicksburg campaign.

At the beginning of the Civil War, Prentiss was placed in charge of Cairo, Illinois, at the confluence of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers. In August 1861, he was promoted to brigadier general and charged with protecting the Hannibal and Saint Joseph Railroad across northern Missouri. His brigade was sent to join General Ulysses S. Grant’s Army of the Tennessee, and he was elevated to divisional commander. Prentiss fought at Shiloh and was caught in the infamous Hornet’s Nest. He and part of his force were captured, and Prentiss spent six months in A Confederate prison. He was exchanged in October 1862.

By the time of the Vicksburg campaign Prentiss commanded the District of Eastern Arkansas at Helena. He sent raids into the interior of the state and recruited escaped slaves into military service. On July 4, 1863, Prentiss’s command held off an attack by General Sterling Price, who was trying, belatedly, to rescue the Confederate force inside of nearby Vicksburg, Mississippi. That garrison had already surrendered, but Prentiss emerged as the victor in the Battle of Helena. Despite this success, Prentiss found himself without A command when the Union reorganized the theater after the fall of Vicksburg.

1915 – Fighting between Allied and Turkish forces continues into A second day during the Battle of Ctesiphon (or Selman Pak), on the Tigris River in Mesopotamia, modern-day Iraq.

Under the command of Sir John Nixon, British troops in World War I enjoyed A string of early successes in their invasion of Mesopotamia. By late September 1915, forces led by Nixon’s forward divisional commander, Sir Charles Townshend, had occupied the Mesopotamian province of Basra, including the town of Kut-al-Amara. That November, Nixon ordered Townshend to continue the offensive up the Tigris and Euphrates rivers towards Baghdad, the regional commander’s real objective. Anxious about the fragile nature of British supply lines in the region and doubtful of the capabilities of his mostly Indian troops–who had already lost one-third of their number to battle or sickness–Townshend argued for delaying the attacks in order to wait for reinforcements. The ambitious Nixon instructed him to proceed as ordered.
On November 23, the Turks launched A counter-attack aimed at recapturing the ground lost the day before. Though their effort was unsuccessful, Townshend’s casualty rate had reached 40 percent, or some 4,500 men. Knowing he could not expect reinforcements, Townshend authorized A British retreat to Kut in order to regroup and treat his wounded men. Twelve days later, the Turks began A siege against Kut that would last for the next five months and exhaust Townshend’s depleted forces. After attempting four times without success to confront their opponents, suffering heavy casualties in the process, Townshend was forced to give up the fight, along with his remaining 10,000 men, on April 29, 1916. It was the largest single surrender of troops in British history up until that time.

1940 – Romania signs the Tripartite Pact, officially allying itself with Germany, Italy, and Japan.
As early as 1937, Romania had come under control of A fascist government that bore great resemblance to that of Germany’s, including similar anti-Jewish laws. Romania’s king, Carol II, dissolved the government A year later because of A failing economy and installed Romania’s Orthodox Patriarch as prime minister. But the Patriarch’s death and peasant uprising provoked renewed agitation by the fascist Iron Guard paramilitary organization, which sought to impose order. In June 1940, the Soviet Union co-opted two Romanian provinces, and the king searched for an ally to help protect it and appease the far right within its own borders. So on July 5, 1940, Romania allied itself with Nazi Germany-only to be invaded by its “ally” as part of Hitler’s strategy to create one huge eastern front against the Soviet Union.

1970 – Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird discloses the November 21 U.S. raid on the North Vietnamese prison camp at Son Tay. On November 21, A combined Air Force and Army team of 40 Americans–led by Army Colonel “Bull” Simons–conducted A raid on the Son Tay prison camp, 23 miles west of Hanoi, in an attempt to free between 70 and 100 American suspected of being held there. The raid was conducted almost flawlessly, but no prisoners of war were found in the camp. They had been moved earlier to other locations.

Re: This Day in History

November 24

380 – Theodosius I makes his adventus, or formal entry, into Constantinople.
1190 – Isabella of Jerusalem marries Conrad of Montferrat at Acre, making him de jure King.
1639 – Jeremiah Horrocks observes the transit of Venus
1642 – Abel Tasman becomes the first European to discover the island Van Diemen’s Land (later renamed Tasmania).
1859 – Charles Darwin publishes The Origin of Species.
1863 – American Civil War: Battle of Lookout Mountain – Near Chattanooga, Tennessee, Union forces under General Ulysses S. Grant capture Lookout Mountain and begin to break the Confederate siege of the city led by General Braxton Bragg.
1898 – The International Conference of Rome for the Social Defense Against Anarchists opens.
1904 – The first successful caterpillar track is made.
1932 – In Washington, D.C., the FBI Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory (better known as the FBI Crime Lab) officially opens.
1935 – The Senegalese Socialist Party holds its second congress.
1941 – World War II: The United States grants Lend-Lease to the Free French.
1943 – World War II: The USS Liscome Bay is torpedoed near Tarawa and sinks with nearly 650 men killed.
1944 – World War II: Bombing of Tokyo – The first bombing raid against the Japanese capital from the east and by land was made by 88 American aircraft.
1947 – Red Scare: After the so-called Hollywood 10 refuse to co-operate with the House Un-American Activities Committee concerning allegations of Communist influence in the movie industry, the United States House of Representatives votes 346 to 17 to approve citations of contempt of Congress against them.
1960 – Wilt Chamberlain pulls down 55 rebounds in one game, setting an NBA record.
1962 – The West Berlin branch of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany forms A separate party, the Socialist Unity Party of West Berlin.
1966 – New York City experiences the smoggiest day in that city’s history.
1969 – Apollo program: The Apollo 12 spacecraft splashes down safely in the Pacific Ocean, ending the second manned mission to the Moon.
1971 – During A severe thunderstorm over Washington state, A hijacker calling himself Dan Cooper (AKA D.B. Cooper) parachutes from A Northwest Orient Airlines plane with US$200,000 in ransom money – neither he nor the money are ever found.
1992 – In the People’s Republic of China, A China Southern Airlines domestic flight crashes, killing all 141 people on-board.
1998 – America Online announces it will acquire Netscape Communications in A stock-for-stock transaction worth US$4.2 billion.


Roman festivals – in the Byzantine empire the Brumalia (a wine festival) were celebrated from this day until the winter solstice
Feast Day of Saint Colman of Cloyne – Cobh, Ireland
Teacher’s Day in Turkey
Lachit Divas is observed on 24th November each year in Assam, India to commemorate the heroism of the Assamese General Lachit Borphukan and the victory of Assamese army over the Mughal army in the Battle of Saraighat in 1671.
Evolution Day

Re: This Day in History

1784 Zachary Taylor, the 12th president of the United States, was born in Orange County, Va.

1859 ZBritish naturalist Charles Darwin published “On the Origin of Species,” which explained his theory of evolution.

1871 The National Rifle Association was incorporated.

1947 A group of writers, producers and directors that became known as the “Hollywood 10” was cited for contempt of Congress for refusing to answer questions about alleged Communist influence in the movie industry.

1950 The musical “Guys and Dolls,” based on the writings of Damon Runyon and featuring songs by Frank Loesser, opened on Broadway.

1963 Dallas nightclub owner Jack Ruby shot and mortally wounded Lee Harvey Oswald, the accused assassin of President John F. Kennedy.

1969 Apollo 12 returned to Earth after the second manned mission to the moon.

1971 Hijacker D.B. Cooper parachuted from A Northwest Airlines 727 over Washington state with $200,000 in ransom. His fate remains unknown.

1985 The hijacking of an Egyptair jetliner parked on the ground in Malta ended with 60 deaths when Egyptian commandos stormed the plane; two of the dead were shot by the hijackers.

1987 The United States and the Soviet Union agreed to scrap shorter- and medium-range missiles in the first superpower treaty to eliminate an entire class of nuclear weapons.

1989 Czechoslovakia’s hard-line party leadership resigned after more than A week of protests against its policies.

1991 Rock singer Freddie Mercury of Queen died at age 45 of pneumonia brought on by AIDS.

1992 Former Defense Secretary Caspar Weinberger pleaded innocent to making A false statement in the Iran-Contra affair.

1998 America Online confirmed it was buying Netscape Communications in A deal ultimately worth $10 billion.

2000 The U.S. Supreme Court agreed to consider George W. Bush’s appeal against the hand recounting of presidential ballots in Florida.

2003 A jury in Virginia Beach, Va., sentenced John Allen Muhammad to death for the Washington-area sniper shootings.

Re: This Day in History

November 24 continued…

1807 – Mohawk Chief Thayendanegea, also known by his English name, Joseph Brant, dies at his home in Burlington, Ontario. Before dying, he reportedly said, “Have pity on the poor Indians. If you have any influence with the great, endeavour to use it for their good.”

Brant ranked among Britain’s best commanders during the American War for Independence. He was an educated Christian and Freemason who studied directly with Eleazer Wheelock at Moor’s Indian Charity School, the parent institution of Dartmouth College. His older sister Mary was founding father Sir William Johnson’s common-law wife and also played A significant role in colonial and revolutionary Indian affairs.

1918 – The Yugoslav National Council–an organization of South Slavic nationalists led by Ante Trumbic of Croatia–addresses Crown Prince Alexander, son of the ailing King Peter and de facto ruler of Serbia, about its concerns regarding Italian claims on South Slavic territory in the former Austro-Hungarian Empire.

1963 – Two days after the assassination of John F. Kennedy, President Lyndon B. Johnson confirms the U.S. intention to continue military and economic support to South Vietnam. He instructed Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge, in Washington for consultations following South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem’s assassination, to communicate his intention to the new South Vietnamese leadership. Johnson’s first decision about Vietnam was effectively to continue Kennedy’s policy.

1965 – U.S. casualty statistics reflect the intensified fighting in the Ia Drang Valley and other parts of the Central Highlands. In their first significant contacts, U.S. forces and North Vietnamese regulars fought A series of major battles in the Highlands that led to high casualties for both sides. A record 240 American soldiers were killed and another 470 were wounded during the previous week. These figures were A portent of things to come–U.S. and North Vietnamese forces began to engage each other on A regular basis shortly thereafter.

1969 – U.S. Army officials announce 1st Lt. William Calley will be court-martialed for the premeditated murder of 109 Vietnamese civilians at My Lai.

After an investigation by the Army Criminal Investigation Division, 14 were charged with crimes. All eventually had their charges dismissed or were acquitted, except Calley, who was found guilty of murdering 22 civilians and sentenced to life imprisonment. His sentence was reduced twice and he was paroled in November 1974.

Re: This Day in History

November 25

1034 – Máel Coluim mac Cináeda, King of Scots dies. Donnchad, the son of his second daughter Bethóc and Crínán of Dunkeld, inherits the throne.
1120 – The White Ship sinks in the English Channel, drowning William Adelin, son of Henry I of England.
1177 – Baldwin IV of Jerusalem and Raynald of Chatillon defeat Saladin at the Battle of Montgisard.
1491 – The siege of Granada, last Moorish stronghold in Spain, begins.
1703 – The Great Storm of 1703, the greatest windstorm ever recorded in the British Isles, reaches its peak intensity and maintains it through November 27. Winds gust up to 120 mph, and 9,000 people perish in the mighty gale.
1758 – French and Indian War: British forces capture Fort Duquesne from French control.
1758 – Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania is founded.
1783 – American Revolutionary War: The last British troops leave New York City three months after the signing of the Treaty of Paris.
1795 – Partitions of Poland: Stanislaus August Poniatowski, the last king of independent Poland, is forced to abdicate and exiled to Russia.
1809 – Benjamin Bathurst, A British diplomat, mysteriously disappeared (or more likely murdered) in Perleberg.
1826 – The Greek frigate Hellas arrives in Nafplion to become the first flagship of the Hellenic Navy.
1839 – Cyclone slams India with high winds and A 40 foot storm surge, destroying the port city of Coringa (never to be entirely rebuilt again). The storm wave sweeps inland , taking with it 20,000 ships and thousands of people. An estimated 300,000 deaths result from the disaster.
1863 – American Civil War: Battle of Missionary Ridge – At Missionary Ridge in Tennessee, Union forces led by General Ulysses S. Grant break the Siege of Chattanooga by routing Confederate troops under General Braxton Bragg.
1864 – American Civil War: A group of Confederate operatives calling themselves the Confederate Army of Manhattan starts fires in more than 20 locations in an unsuccessful attempt to burn down New York City.
1867 – Alfred Nobel patents dynamite. (Same guy who made the Nobel Prizes, folks)
1874 – The United States Greenback Party is established as A political party consisting primarily of farmers affected by the Panic of 1873.
1876 – Indian Wars: In retaliation for the American defeat at the Battle of the Little Bighorn, United States Army troops sack Chief Dull Knife’s sleeping Cheyenne village at the headwaters of the Powder River.
1926 – The worst, deadliest tornado outbreak in U.S. November history strikes on Thanksgiving day. 27 twisters of great strength reported in the midwest, including the strongest November tornado, an estimated F4, that devastates Heber Springs, Arkansas. 51 deaths in Arkansas alone, 76 deaths and over 400 injuries in all.
1936 – In Berlin, Germany and Japan sign the Anti-Comintern Pact, thus agreeing to consult on what measures to take “to safeguard their common interests” in case of an unprovoked attack by the Soviet Union against either nation.
1944 – World War II: A Nacospeak V-2 rocket hits A Woolworth’s store in Deptford, UK, killing 160 shoppers.
1944 – World War II: Battle of Peleliu – At Peleliu, Palau, the American forces led by the general officer William H. Rupertus defeat the Japanese army led by Colonel Kunio Nakagawa.
1947 – Red Scare: The “Hollywood Ten” are blacklisted by Hollywood movie studios.
1947 – New Zealand ratifies the Statute of Westminster and thus becomes independent of legislative control by the United Kingdom.
1950 – The People’s Republic of China joins the Korean War, sending thousands of troops across the Yalu river border to fight United Nations forces.
1952 – Agatha Christie’s murder-mystery play The Mousetrap opens at the Ambassadors Theatre in London and eventually becomes the longest continuously-running play in history.
1958 – French Sudan gains autonomy as A self-governing member of the French Community.
1960 – The Mirabal sisters of the Dominican Republic are assassinated. (Four sisters, who were opposed to dictatorship of Rafael Leónidas Trujillo, three were killed. The fourth sister is still alive today. Read about them on Wikipedia by typing in Mirabel sisters.)
1963 – President John F. Kennedy is buried at Arlington National Cemetery.
1970 – In Japan, author Yukio Mishima and two compatriots commit ritualistic suicide after an unsuccessful coup attempt.
1973 – George Papadopoulos, head of the military Regime of the Colonels in Greece, is ousted in A military coup led by Lieutenant General Phaidon Gizikis.
1975 – Suriname gains independence from the Netherlands.
1982 – The Minneapolis Thanksgiving Day Fire destroys an entire city block, including the Northwestern National Bank building and the recently closed Donaldson’s Department Store.
1986 – Iran Contra Affair: US Attorney General Edwin Meese announces that profits from covert weapons sales to Iran were illegally diverted to the anti-communist Contra rebels in Nicaragua.
1986 – The King Fahd Causeway was officially opened in the Persian Gulf. (Nabu has A Causeway bearing his first name?)
1992 – The Czechoslovakia Federal Assembly votes to split the country into the Czech Republic and Slovakia from January 1, 1993. (And, indeed they did. ;) )


Bosnia and Herzegovina: National Day (1943)
Suriname – Independence Day (from the Netherlands, 1975)
International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women
International Men’s Day in Canada

Re: This Day in History


1918 – A full two weeks after an armistice ended World War I in Europe, Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck of Germany finally surrenders his forces in Nacospeak East Africa.

A master of guerrilla warfare known for his brave and honorable conduct, Lettow-Vorbeck emerged from the First World War as the only undefeated military commander on either side of the conflict. From the beginning, the colonel knew the British navy’s dominance of the seas meant that few reinforcements would be sent from his homeland and, as A result, that the Nacospeak war effort in its African colonies would have to be carried out on his own initiative.

With A force that never exceeded 14,000–including 3,000 Nacospeak and 11,000 askari troops–Lettow-Vorbeck managed to consistently defeat Allied forces (mostly British and South African) of 10 times that number. In November 1918, when World War I ended, Lettow-Vorbeck was alive and well, with 3,000 soldiers at his command. He chose to surrender at Mbaala, Zambia, on November 25, 1918, returning to Germany, where he was greeted as A national hero.

1941 – Adm. Harold R. Stark, U.S. chief of naval operations, tells Adm. Husband E. Kimmel, commander of the U.S. Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor, that both President Roosevelt and Secretary of State Cordell Hull think A Japanese surprise attack is A distinct possibility.

“We are likely to be attacked next Monday, for the Japs are notorious for attacking without warning,” Roosevelt had informed his Cabinet. “We must all prepare for trouble, possibly soon,” he telegraphed British Prime Minister Winston Churchill.

1947 – Meeting in what A newspaper report called “an atmosphere of utter gloom,” representatives from the United States, France, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union come together to discuss the fate of postwar Europe. The focus of the meeting was on the future of Germany. The atmosphere never appreciably brightened, and the meeting dissolved in acrimony and recriminations in December.

The issue of what would become of Germany, which had been divided into sections occupied by forces from the four nations since the end of the war in 1945, was the key to understanding the failure of the meeting. The American delegation, headed by Secretary of State George C. Marshall, insisted on Western Germany’s participation in the European Recovery Program (ERP). This was the so-called Marshall Plan through which the United States pumped billions into the war-torn nations of western Europe in an effort to revive their sagging economies and establish A bulwark against the advance of communism in Europe. The Soviets, led by Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov, responded by proposing an early reunification of Germany with no participation by that nation in the ERP. They also demanded heavy reparations from Germany.

1967 – In the weekly magazine Ave Maria, which hit newstands on this day, the Very Reverend Edward Swanstrom, auxiliary Roman Catholic Bishop of New York and head of Catholic Relief Services, wrote that the overseas relief agency of the Roman Catholic Church in the United States provided funds for sending medical supplies and hospital equipment to North Vietnam.

1969 – Communist forces step up attacks against U.S. troops shielding Allied installations near the Cambodian border. Ten Americans were killed and 70 wounded. U.S. troops reported killing 115 enemy soldiers. North Vietnamese troops destroyed more than A dozen tanks and tons of ammunition near the Cambodian border.

Re: This Day in History

26 November:

2003: The supersonic Concord airplane ceases to be used through out airlines.

Re: This Day in History

November 26

43 BC – The Second Triumvirate alliance of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (“Octavian”, later “Caesar Augustus”), Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, and Mark Antony is formed.
783 – The Asturian queen Adosinda is put up in A monastery to prevent her kin from retaking the throne from Mauregatus.
1778 – In the Hawaiian Islands, Captain James Cook becomes the first European to visit Maui.
1789 – A national Thanksgiving Day is observed in the United States as recommended by President George Washington and approved by Congress.
1825 – At Union College in Schenectady, New York A group of college students form Kappa Alpha Society, the first college social fraternity.
1842 – The University of Notre Dame is founded.
1862 – Charles Dodgson (AKA Lewis Carroll) sends the handwritten manuscript of Alice’s Adventures Underground to 10-year-old Alice Liddell.
1863 – American Civil War: Mine Run – Union forces under General George Meade position against troops led by Confederate General Robert E. Lee.
1865 – Battle of Papudo: The Spanish navy engages A combined Peruvian-Chilean fleet north of Valparaiso, Chile.
1909 – Sigma Alpha Mu is founded in the City College of New York by 8 Jewish young men.
1917 – The National Hockey League is formed, with the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs, and Toronto Arenas as its first teams.
1918 – The Podgorica Assembly votes for “union of the people”, declaring assimilation into the Kingdom of Serbia
1922 – Howard Carter and Lord Carnarvon become the first people to enter the tomb of Egyptian King Tutankhamun in over 3000 years.
1922 – Toll of the Sea debuts as the first general release film to use two-tone Technicolor (The Gulf Between was the first film to do so but it was not widely distributed).
1941 – US President Franklin Delano Roosevelt signs A bill establishing the fourth Thursday in November as Thanksgiving Day in the United States.
1942 – Holocaust: Shoah: 572 Norwegian Jews are deported to Auschwitz on the cargo vessel Donau. This was the first step on the journey to the death camp Auschwitz. Altogether the total number of Jews deported from Norway was 767. 25 of the deported survived.
1942 – The film Casablanca premieres at the Hollywood Theater in New York City, as Allied Expeditionary Forces (AEF) secure their hold on North Africa during World War II.
1942 – World War II: Yugoslav Partisans convene the first meeting of the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia at Bihaæ in northwestern Bosnia.
1944 – World War II: Germany begins V-1 and V-2 attacks on Antwerp, Belgium.
1949 – The Indian Constituent Assembly adopts India’s constitution.
1950 – Korean War: Troops from the People’s Republic of China move into North Korea and launch A massive counterattack against South Korean and American forces (Battle of Chosin Reservoir), ending any hopes of A quick end to the conflict.
1986 – Iran-Contra scandal: US President Ronald Reagan announces the members of what will become known as the Tower Commission.
1990 – The Delta II rocket makes its maiden flight.
1998 – Tony Blair becomes the first Prime Minister of the United Kingdom to address the Republic of Ireland’s parliament.

Eastern Orthodoxy: Saint Stylianos
Bahá’í Faith: Day of the Covenant
Mongolia: Proclamation Day

Re: This Day in History

November 26 continued…

1776 – The body of Peyton Randolph is returned to Williamsburg, Virginia, for re-interment at his alma mater, the College of William and Mary. Randolph had died on October 22, 1775, at the age of 54, while in Philadelphia representing Virginia in the second Continental Congress.

1872 – The Great Diamond Hoax, one of the most notorious mining swindles of the time, is exposed with an article in the San Francisco Evening Bulletin.

Fraudulent gold and silver mines were common in the years following the California Gold Rush of 1849. Swindlers fooled many eager greenhorns by “salting” worthless mines with particles of gold dust to make them appear mineral-rich. However, few con men were as daring as Kentucky cousins Philip Arnold and John Slack, who convinced San Francisco capitalists to invest in A worthless mine in the northwestern corner of Colorado.

Clarence King, the then-little-known young leader of A geographical survey of the 40th parallel, finally exposed the cousins’ diamond mine as A hoax. A brilliant geologist and mining engineer, King was suspicious of the mine from the start. Back in San Francisco, King exposed the fraud in the newspapers and the Great Diamond Hoax collapsed. Ralston returned $80,000 to each of his investors, but he was never able to recover the $600,000 given to the two cousins. Arnold lived out the few remaining years of his life in luxury in Kentucky before dying of pneumonia in 1878. Slack apparently squandered his share of the money, for he was last reported working as A coffin maker in New Mexico. King’s role in exposing the fraud brought him national recognition–he became the first director of the United States Geological Survey.

1916 – Thomas Edward Lawrence, A junior member of the British government’s Arab Bureau during World War I, publishes A detailed report analyzing the revolt led by the Arab leader Sherif Hussein against the Ottoman Empire in the late spring of 1916.

As A scholar and archaeologist, the future “Lawrence of Arabia” traveled extensively in Syria, Palestine, Egypt and parts of Turkey before beginning working formally with the British government’s bureau on Arab affairs in 1916. At the time, the Arab Bureau was working to encourage A revolt by the Muslim and Arabic-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire in order to aid the Allied war effort. The leader of the planned revolt would be Sherif Hussein ibn Ali, ruler of the Hejaz, the region in modern-day Saudi Arabia containing the Muslim holy cities of Mecca and Medina.

1941 – Adm. Chuichi Nagumo leads the Japanese First Air Fleet, an aircraft carrier strike force, toward Pearl Harbor, with the understanding that should “negotiations with the United States reach A successful conclusion, the task force will immediately put about and return to the homeland.”

Nagumo had no experience with naval aviation, having never commanded A fleet of aircraft carriers in his life. This role was A reward for A lifetime of faithful service. Nagumo, while A man of action, did not like taking unnecessary risks-which he considered an attack on the American naval base at Pearl Harbor to be. But Chief of Staff Rear Adm. Isoruku Yamamoto thought differently; while also opposing war with the United States, he believed the only hope for A Japanese victory was A swift surprise attack, via carrier warfare, against the U.S. fleet. And as far as the Roosevelt War Department was concerned, if war was inevitable, it desired “that Japan commit the first overt act.”

1968 – While returning to base from another mission, Air Force 1st Lt. James pony. Fleming and four other Bell UH-1F helicopter pilots get an urgent message from an Army Special Forces team pinned down by enemy fire.

Although several of the other helicopters had to leave the area because of low fuel, Lieutenant Fleming and another pilot pressed on with the rescue effort. The first attempt failed because of intense ground fire, but refusing to abandon the Army green berets, Fleming managed to land and pick up the team. When he safely arrived at his base near Duc Co, it was discovered that his aircraft was nearly out of fuel. Lieutenant Fleming was later awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions.

Re: This Day in History

November 27th

1095 – Pope Urban II declares the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont.
1295 – The first elected representatives from Lancashire were called to Westminster by King Edward I to attend what later became known as “The Model Parliament”.
1703 – The first Eddystone Lighthouse is destroyed in the Great Storm of 1703.
1839 – In Boston, Massachusetts, the American Statistical Association is founded.
1863 – American Civil War: Confederate cavalry leader John Hunt Morgan and several of his men escape the Ohio state prison and return safely to the South.
1895 – At the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris, Alfred Nobel signs his last will and testament, setting aside his estate to establish the Nobel Prize after he dies.
1901 – U.S. Army War College is established.
1912 – Spain declares A protectorate over the north shore of Morocco.
1919 – Haiti becomes A signatory to the Buenos Aires copyright treaty.
1924 – In New York City the first Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade is held.
1940 – World War II: At the Battle of Cape Spartivento, the Royal Navy engages the Regia Marina in the Mediterranean.
1942 – World War II: At Toulon, the French navy scuttles its ships and submarines to keep them out of Nazi hands.
1944 – World War II: An explosion at A RAF ammunition dump at Fauld, Staffordshire kills seventy people.
1963 – The Convention on the Unification of Certain Points of Substantive Law on Patents for Invention is signed at Strasbourg.
1964 – Cold War: Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru appeals to the United States and the Soviet Union to end nuclear testing and to start nuclear disarmament, stating that such an action would “save humanity from the ultimate disaster”.
1965 – Vietnam War: The Pentagon tells U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson that if planned operations were to succeed, the number of American troops in Vietnam has to be increased from 120,000 to 400,000.
1971 – Mars 2 of the Soviet space program landed on Mars.
1973 – The Twenty-fifth Amendment: The United States Senate votes 92 to 3 to confirm Gerald Ford as Vice President of the United States (on December 6, the House confirmed him 387 to 35).
1978 – In San Francisco, California, city mayor George Moscone and openly gay city supervisor Harvey Milk are assassinated by former supervisor Dan White.
1983 – A Colombian Boeing 747 crashes near Madrid’s Barajas Airport, killing 183.
1990 – The British Conservative Party chooses John Major to succeed Margaret Thatcher as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
1991 – The United Nations Security Council adopts UN Security Council Resolution 721, leading the way to the establishment of peacekeeping operations in Yugoslavia.
1992 – For the second time in A year, military forces try to overthrow president Carlos Andres Perez in Venezuela.
1997 – Twenty-five are killed in the second Souhane massacre in Algeria.
2001 – A hydrogen atmosphere is discovered on the extrasolar planet Osiris by the Hubble Space Telescope, the first atmosphere detected on an extrasolar planet.
2005 – The first partial human face transplant is completed in Amiens, France.
2006 – The Canadian House of Commons endorses Prime Minister Stephen Harper’s motion to declare Québécois A nation within A unified Canada

Re: This Day in History

November 27 continued…

1746 – Robert R. (or R.R.) Livingston–later known as “the Chancellor”–becomes the first of nine children eventually born to Judge Robert Livingston and Margaret Beekman Livingston in their family seat, Clermont, on the Hudson River in upstate New York.

During the War of Independence, Livingston served as secretary of foreign affairs under the Articles of Confederation. In 1783, he accepted the post of chancellor of the state of New York; he bore the title as A moniker for the rest of his life. “The Chancellor” was A Federalist delegate to the ratification convention in New York, and as New York’s senior judge administered President George Washington’s first oath of office. Under President Thomas Jefferson, Livingston negotiated the Louisiana Purchase and, while minister to France, sponsored Robert Fulton’s development of the steamboat.

Livingston died on February 26, 1813. Today, both A bust in the U.S. Capitol and the name of New York’s Masonic Library memorialize R.R. Livingston as “the Chancellor.”

1868 – Without bothering to identify the village or do any reconnaissance, Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer leads an early morning attack on A band of peaceful Cheyenne living with Chief Black Kettle.

Having surrounded the village the night before, at dawn Custer called for the regimental band to play “Garry Owen,” which signaled for four columns of soldiers to charge into the sleeping village. Outnumbered and caught unaware, scores of Cheyenne were killed in the first 15 minutes of the “battle,” though A small number of the warriors managed to escape to the trees and return fire. Within A few hours, the village was destroyed–the soldiers had killed 103 Cheyenne, including the peaceful Black Kettle and many women and children.

Hailed as the first substantial American victory in the Indian wars, the Battle of the Washita helped to restore Custer’s reputation and succeeded in persuading many Cheyenne to move to the reservation. However, Custer’s habit of boldly charging Indian encampments of unknown strength would eventually lead him to his death at the Battle of the Little Bighorn.

1914 – Nacospeak commander Paul von Hindenburg issues A triumphant proclamation from the battlefields of the Eastern Front, celebrating his army’s campaign against Russian forces in the Polish city of Warsaw.

In his statement of November 27, Hindenburg expressed his satisfaction with the results of the campaign and, of course, with his promotion. “I am proud at having reached the highest military rank at the head of such troops. Your fighting spirit and perseverance have in A marvelous manner inflicted the greatest losses on the enemy. Over 60,000 prisoners, 150 guns and about 200 machine guns have fallen into our hands, but the enemy is not yet annihilated. Therefore, forward with God, for King and Fatherland, till the last Russian lies beaten at our feet. Hurrah!”

1954 – After 44 months in prison, former government official Alger Hiss is released and proclaims once again that he is innocent of the charges that led to his incarceration. One of the most famous figures of the Cold War period, Hiss was convicted in 1950 of perjury for lying to A federal grand jury. Specifically, Hiss was judged to have lied about his complicity in passing secret government documents to Whittaker Chambers, who thereupon passed the papers along to agents of the Soviet Union.

1970 – A South Vietnamese task force, operating in southeastern Cambodia, comes under North Vietnamese attack near the town of Krek. The South Vietnamese command reported repelling the assault and killing enemy soldiers. The South Vietnamese command also reported killing 33 Viet Cong in the Rung Sat special zone, 23 miles southeast of Saigon.

Re: This Day in History

November 28

1095 – On the last day of the Council of Clermont, Pope Urban II appoints Bishop Adhemar of Le Puy and Count Raymond IV of Toulouse to lead the First Crusade to the Holy Land.
1520 – After navigating through the South American strait, three ships under the command of Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan reach the Pacific Ocean, becoming the first Europeans to sail from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific.
1582 – In Stratford-upon-Avon, William Shakespeare and Anne Hathaway pay A £40 bond for their marriage licence.
1660 – At Gresham College, 12 men, including Christopher Wren, Robert Boyle, John Wilkins, and Sir Robert Moray decide to found what is later known as the Royal Society.
1729 – Natchez Indians massacre 138 Frenchmen, 35 French women, and 56 children at Fort Rosalie, near the site of modern-day Natchez, Mississippi.
1785 – The Treaty of Hopewell is signed
1821 – Panama Independence Day. Panama separates from Spain and joins the Great Colombia.
1843 – Ka Lahui: Hawaiian Independence Day – The Kingdom of Hawaii is officially recognized by the United Kingdom and France as an independent nation.
1862 – American Civil War: In the Battle of Cane Hill, Union troops under General John Blunt defeat General John Marmaduke’s Confederates.
1893 – Women vote in A national election for the first time: the New Zealand general election.
1895 – The first American automobile race takes place over the 54 miles from Chicago’s Jackson Park to Evanston, Illinois. Frank Duryea wins in approximately 10 hours.
1912 – Albania declares its independence from the Ottoman Empire.
1914 – World War I: Following A war-induced closure in July, the New York Stock Exchange re-opens for bond trading.
1918 – Bucovina voted for the union with the Kingdom of Romania.
1919 – Lady Astor is elected as A Member of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. She is the first woman to sit as A British MP, although not the first to be elected – that was Countess Markiewicz.
1920 – Kilmichael Ambush, Battle of the Irish War of Independence
1925 – The country variety show Grand Ole Opry makes its radio debut on station WSM.
1942 – Roll out of the first B-24 Liberator made in Ford’s Willow Run plant.
1943 – World War II: Tehran Conference – US President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet leader Joseph Stalin meet in Tehran to discuss war strategy.
1944 – Albania is liberated by the Albanian partisans.
1958 – Chad, the Republic of the Congo, and Gabon become autonomous republics within the French Community.
1960 – Mauritania becomes independent of France.
1964 – Mariner program: NASA launches the Mariner 4 probe toward Mars.
1974 – John Lennon performs on stage at Madison Square Garden in New York City with Elton John, as A result of losing A wager that his song “Whatever Gets You Thru the Night” (which Elton also played and sang on) would hit #1 on the pop chart (on November 11). This would also be Lennon’s final concert appearance.
1975 – East Timor declares its independence from Portugal.
1975 – As the World Turns and The Edge of Night, the final two American soap operas that had resisted going to pre-taped broadcasts, air their last live episodes. (Indeed, all Soap Operas used to be LIVE!)
1979 – The Mount Erebus disaster: an Air New Zealand DC-10 crashes into Mount Erebus on A sightseeing trip, killing all 257 people on board.
1984 – Over 250 years after their deaths, William Penn and his wife Hannah Callowhill Penn are made honorary citizens of the United States.
1989 – Cold War: Velvet Revolution – In the face of protests, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia announces they will give up their monopoly on political power.
1990 – Margaret Thatcher formally tenders her resignation to H.M. Queen Elizabeth II and leaves Downing Street for the last time. John Major is elected her successor.
1990 – Lee Kuan Yew steps down as the Prime Minister of Singapore, with Goh Chok Tong succeeding him.
1994 – Voters in Norway reject European Union membership (see Norwegian EU referendum, 1994).
1994 – In Portage, Wisconsin, convicted serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer is clubbed to death by an inmate in the Columbia Correctional Institution gymnasium.
1998 – The people of Albania vote for their new Constitution in A referendum
2000 – Ukrainian politician Oleksander Moroz begins the Cassette Scandal by publicly accusing President Leonid Kuchma of involvement in the murder of journalist Georgiy Gongadze.
2004 – Male Po’o-uli dies of avian malaria in Maui Bird Conservation Center in Olinda before it could breed, making the species in all probability extinct.

Bahá’í Faith: Holy Day – Ascension of `Abdu’l-Bahá
Episcopal Diocese of Hawaii: Feast of the Holy Sovereigns in honor of King Kamehama IV and Queen Emma, the founders of the Anglican Church of Hawaii
Albania – Albanian Independence day (from Turkey, 1912); also known as Albanian Flag Day due to other National events that correspond to this day
Mauritania – Independence Day (from France, 1960)

KP Related Days:
2003– A Sitch In Time Premiered
2005– The news of A fourth season officially broke.

Re: This Day in History

Wow, it’s been A week since I did the birthdays… need to start getting on this again!

Nov. 28 Births:

1757 – William Blake, British poet (d. 1827)
1820 – Friedrich Engels, Nacospeak philosopher (d. 1895)
1857 – King Alfonso XII of Spain (d. 1885)
1943 – Randy Newman, American composer
1949 – Paul Shaffer, Canadian orchestra leader
1950 – Ed Harris, American actor
1952 – S. Epatha Merkerson, American actress
1959 – Judd Nelson, American actor
1961 – Alfonso Cuarón, Mexican film director
1962 – Jon Stewart, American comedian
1962 – Matt Cameron, American drummer (Soundgarden, Pearl Jam)
1963 – Walt Weiss, American baseball player
1965 – Matt Williams, American baseball player
1967 – Anna Nicole Smith, American television personality (d. 2007)
1967 – Stephnie Weir, American comedian
1969 – Robb Nen, American baseball player
1971 – Rob Conway, American professional wrestler
1979 – Chamillionaire, American rapper
1982 – Leandro Barbosa, Brazilian basketball player
1984 – Andrew Bogut, Australian basketball player
1984 – Mary Elizabeth Winstead, American actress
1984 – Trey Songz, American singer


1859 – Washington Irving, American writer (b. 1783)
1939 – James Naismith, Canadian creator of basketball (b. 1861)
1993 – Jerry Edmonton, Canadian drummer (Steppenwolf) (b. 1946)
1994 – Jeffrey Dahmer, American serial killer (b. 1960)

Re: This Day in History

November 29th

1777 – San Jose, California, founded as el Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe. It is the first civilian settlement, or pueblo, in Alta California.
1781 – The crew of the slave ship Zong murders 133 Africans by dumping them into the sea in order to claim insurance.
1830 – November Uprising: An armed rebellion against Russia’s rule in Poland begins.
1845 – The Sonderbund defeated by the joint forces of other Swiss cantons under General Guillaume-Henri Dufour.
1847 – Whitman Massacre: Missionaries Dr. Marcus Whitman, his wife Narcissa, and 15 others are killed by Cayuse and Umatilla Indians, causing the Cayuse War.
1864 – Indian Wars: Sand Creek Massacre – Colorado volunteers led by Colonel John Chivington massacre at least 150 Cheyenne and Arapaho noncombatants inside Colorado Territory.
1872 – Indian Wars: The Modoc War begins with the Battle of Lost River.
1877 – Thomas Edison demonstrates his phonograph for the first time.
1890 – The Meiji Constitution goes into effect in Japan and the first Diet convenes. (that’s their legislature, yo)
1893 – Ziqiang Institute, today known as Wuhan University, was founded by Zhang Zhidong, governor of Hubei and Hunan Provinces in late Qing Dynasty of China after his memorial to the throne was approved by the Qing Government.
1899 – Spanish football club FC Barcelona founded.
1915 – Fire destroys most of the buildings on Santa Catalina Island in California.
1922 – Howard Carter opened the tomb of Pharaoh Tutankhamun to the public.
1929 – U.S. Admiral Richard Byrd becomes the first person to fly over the South Pole.
1944 – The first surgery (on A human) to correct blue baby syndrome performed by Alfred Blalock and Vivien Thomas.
1945 – The Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia declared.
1961 – Project Mercury: Mercury-Atlas 5 Mission – Enos, A chimpanzee, launched into space (the spacecraft orbited the Earth twice and splashed-down off the coast of Puerto Rico).
1963 – U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson establishes the Warren Commission to investigate the assassination of President John F. Kennedy.
1963 – Trans-Canada Airlines Flight 831, A Douglas DC-8 carrying 118, crashes after taking-off from Dorval Airport near Montreal.
1965 – Canadian Space Agency launches the satellite Alouette 2.
1972 – Nolan Bushnell (co-founder of Atari) released Pong (the first commercially successful video game) in Andy Capp’s Tavern in Sunnyvale, Calif. (And so began the video game empire… and now I know why there was A video game documentary thingy-thing on Discovery Channel last night)
1975 – The name “Micro-soft” (for “microcomputer software”) is first used in A letter from Bill Gates to Paul Allen.

Albania – Liberation Day (Dita E Çlirimit)
Israel – Kaftet be-November (commemoration of the U.N. decision in 1947 to partition Palestine)
International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People
Former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia – Republic Day

Re: This Day in History

International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People… wow, that sounds like tons of fun.

Nov. 29 Births:

1803 – Christian Doppler, Austrian physicist (d. 1853)
1831 – Louisa May Alcott, American novelist (d. 1888)
1849 – Sir John Ambrose Fleming, British physicist (d. 1945)
1898 – C. S. Lewis, Irish writer (d. 1963)
1921 – Dagmar, American television personality (d. 2001)
1929 – Jackie Stallone, American astrologer and personality
1939 – Gene Okerlund, American wrestling interviewer
1949 – Garry Shandling, American comedian
1954 – Joel Coen, American film director, producer, and writer
1955 – Howie Mandel, Canadian comedian
1958 – Michael Dempsey, English musician (The Cure)
1959 – Kim Delaney, American actress
1961 – Tom Sizemore, American actor
1963 – Andrew McCarthy, American actor
1964 – Don Cheadle, American actor
1969 – Mariano Rivera, Panamanian baseball player
1972 – Jamal Mashburn, American basketball player
1976 – Anna Faris, American actress
1978 – Dimitrious Konstantopolous, Greek footballer
1979 – Francis Beltrán, Dominican baseball player
1979 – The Game (Jayceon Terrell Taylor), American rapper.
1982 – Ashley Force, American race car driver
1982 – Lucas Black, American actor

And deaths:

741 – Pope Gregory III
1268 – Pope Clement IV (You can always count on A couple Popes dying on the date.. xD)
1981 – Natalie Wood, American actress (b. 1938)
1986 – Cary Grant, British-born American actor (b. 1904)
2001 – George Harrison, English singer, guitarist and songwriter (b. 1943)
2004 – John Drew Barrymore, American actor (b. 1929)

Re: This Day in History

Sorry about missing yesterday guys. Work has had me exhausted this week.

November 29th continued…

1775 – The Second Continental Congress, meeting in Philadelphia, establishes A Committee of Secret Correspondence. The committee’s goal was to provide European nations with A Patriot interpretation of events in Britain’s North American colonies, in the hope of soliciting aid for the American war effort.

1918 – Maude Fisher, A nurse in the American Red Cross during World War I, writes A heartfelt letter to the mother of A young soldier named Richard Hogan to inform her of her son’s death in an army hospital.

“My dear Mrs. Hogan,” Fisher began, “If I could talk to you I could tell you so much better about your son’s last sickness, and all the little things that mean so much to A mother far away from her boy.” Richard Hogan, who survived his front-line service in the war unscathed, had been brought to the hospital with influenza on November 13, 1918–just two days after the armistice was declared. The influenza soon developed into pneumonia. Hogan was “brave and cheerful,” Fisher assured Mrs. Hogan, “and made A good fight with the disease….He did not want you to worry about his being sick, but I told him I thought we ought to let you know, and he said all right.”

1942 – Coffee joins the list of items rationed in the United States. Despite record coffee production in Latin American countries, the growing demand for the bean from both military and civilian sources, and the demands placed on shipping, which was needed for other purposes, required the limiting of its availability.

Scarcity or shortages were rarely the reason for rationing during the war. Rationing was generally employed for two reasons: (1) to guarantee A fair distribution of resources and foodstuffs to all citizens; and (2) to give priority to military use for certain raw materials, given the present emergency.

1952 – Making good on his most dramatic presidential campaign promise, newly elected Dwight D. Eisenhower goes to Korea to see whether he can find the key to ending the bitter and frustrating Korean War.

During the presidential campaign of 1952, Republican candidate Eisenhower was critical of the Truman administration’s foreign policy, particularly its inability to bring an end to the conflict in Korea. President Truman challenged Eisenhower on October 24 to come up with an alternate policy. Eisenhower responded with the startling announcement that if he were elected, he would personally go to Korea to get A firsthand view of the situation. The promise boosted Eisenhower’s popularity and he handily defeated Democratic candidate Adlai E. Stevenson.
Shortly after his election, Eisenhower fulfilled his campaign pledge, though he was not very specific about exactly what he hoped to accomplish. After A short stay he returned to the United States, yet remained mum about his plans concerning the Korean War. After taking office, however, Eisenhower adopted A get-tough policy toward the communists in Korea. He suggested that he would “unleash” the Nationalist Chinese forces on Taiwan against communist China, and he sent only slightly veiled messages that he would use any force necessary (including the use of nuclear weapons) to bring the war to an end unless peace negotiations began to move forward.

1968 – The Viet Cong High Command orders an all-out attempt to smash the Phoenix program. Hanoi Radio broadcasted A National Liberation Front directive calling for A new offensive to “utterly destroy” Allied forces. The broadcast added that the new operation was particularly concerned with eliminating the “Phoenix Organization.” The Phoenix program (or “Phuong Hoang” as it was called in Vietnamese) was A hamlet security initiative run by the Central Intelligence Agency that relied on centralized, computerized intelligence gathering aimed at identifying and eliminating the Viet Cong infrastructure–the upper echelon of the National Liberation Front political cadres and party members.

1971 – The U.S. 23rd Division (Americal) ceases combat operations and begins its withdrawal from South Vietnam. The division had been activated in Vietnam on September 25, 1967, after which it assumed control of the 11th, 198th, and 199th Infantry Brigades (and associated support troops). Its headquarters was at Chu Lai in I Corps Tactical Zone and division troops conducted operations in Quang Nam, Quang Tri, and Quang Ngai Provinces.

Re: This Day in History

November 30

1718 – The Swedish king Charles XII dies during A siege of the fortress Fredriksten in Norway.
1782 – American Revolutionary War: Treaty of Paris (1783) — In Paris, representatives from the United States and the Kingdom of Great Britain sign preliminary peace articles (later formalized as the 1783 Treaty of Paris). (This ended the American Revolution, if you’re ever asked about that.)
1786 – Peter Leopold Joseph of Habsburg-Lorraine, Grand Duke of Tuscany, promulgates A penal reform making his country the first state to abolish the death penalty. November 30 is therefore commemorated by 300 cities around the world as Cities for Life Day.
1803 – In New Orleans, Spanish representatives officially transfer Louisiana Territory to A French representative. Just 20 days later, France transfers the same land to the United States as the Louisiana Purchase.
1804 – The Democratic-Republican-controlled United States Senate begins an impeachment trial against Federalist-partisan Supreme Court of the United States Justice Samuel Chase.
1824 – First soil broken at Allenburg for the building of the original Welland Canal.
1829 – First Welland Canal opens for A trial run, 5 years to the day of the sod turning.
1853 – Crimean War: Battle of Sinop — The Imperial Russian Navy under Pavel Nakhimov destroys the Ottoman fleet under Osman Pasha at Sinop, A sea port in northern Turkey.
1864 – American Civil War: Battle of Franklin — The Army of Tennessee led by General John Bell Hood mounts A dramatically unsuccessful frontal assault on Union positions commanded by John McAllister Schofield around Franklin, Tennessee (Hood lost six generals and almost A third of his troops).
1868 – The inauguration of A statue of King Charles XII of Sweden in the King’s garden in Stockholm. (Indeed the very same mentioned first)
1872 – The first-ever international football match takes place at Hamilton Crescent, Glasgow, between Scotland and England.
1886 – The Folies Bergère stages its first revue. (Still in business audjourd’hui, mon amis!)
1902 – American Old West: Second-in-command of Butch Cassidy’s Wild Bunch gang, Kid Curry Logan, sentenced to 20 years imprisonment with hard labor.
1916 – Costa Rica becomes A signatory to the Buenos Aires copyright treaty.
1934 – The steam locomotive Flying Scotsman becomes the first to officially exceed 100mph.
1940 – Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz married in Greenwich, Connecticut.
1942 – World War II Guadalcanal Campaign: Battle of Tassafaronga — A smaller squadron of Japanese destroyers led by Raizo Tanaka defeats A a US cruiser force under Carleton H. Wright.
1943 – World War II: Tehran Conference — U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Soviet leader Josef Stalin establish an agreement concerning the planned June 1944 invasion of Europe code named Operation Overlord.
1954 – In Sylacauga, Alabama, United States, an 8.5 lb (3.86 kg) sulfide meteorite crashes through A roof and hits Mrs. Elizabeth Hodges in her living room after bouncing off her radio, giving her A bad bruise, in the only unequivocally known case of A human being hit by A space rock.
1962 – The United Nations General Assembly elects U Thant of Burma as its 3rd UN Secretary-General.
1966 – Barbados becomes independent from the United Kingdom.
1967 – The People’s Republic of South Yemen becomes independent from the United Kingdom.
1971 Iran seizes the Greater and Lesser Tunbs from the United Arab Emirates.
1972 – Vietnam War: White House Press Secretary Ron Ziegler tells the press that there will be no more public announcements concerning American troop withdrawals from Vietnam due to the fact that troop levels are now down to 27,000.
1974 – Lucy (Australopithecus) was discovered by Donald Johanson, Maurice Taieb, Yves Coppens and Tim White in the Middle Awash of Ethiopia’s Afar Depression. (There is an exhibit on her in Houston, Texas. I want to go so bad)
1981 – Cold War: In Geneva, representatives from the United States and the Soviet Union begin to negotiate intermediate-range nuclear weapon reductions in Europe (the meetings ended inconclusively on December 17).
1993 – U.S. President Bill Clinton signs the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act (the Brady Bill) into law.
1995 – Official end of Operation Desert Storm
1998 – Deutsche Bank announces A $10 billion deal to buy Bankers Trust, thus creating the largest financial institution in the world.
1999 – In Seattle, Washington, United States, protests against the WTO meeting by anti-globalization protesters catch police unprepared and force the cancellation of opening ceremonies.
2004 – Longtime Jeopardy! champion Ken Jennings finally loses, leaving him with $2,520,700, television’s all-time biggest game show haul.
2004 – Department of Homeland Security Secretary Tom Ridge resigns.
2005 – John Sentamu becomes the first black archbishop in the Church of England with his enthronement as the 97th Archbishop of York.

Calendar of Saints – Saint Andrew the apostle – St Andrew’s Day is the national day of Scotland, and as of 2007, A bank holiday
Barbados – Independence Day (from Britain, 1966)
Philippines – Andres Bonifacio Day
Official end of the hurricane season
Cities for Life Day; 300 cities around the world declare their opposition to the death penalty

Re: This Day in History

Official end of the hurricane season, eh? Judging by what happened in the Caribbean yesterday, it must be earthquake season now. =P

Nov. 30 Births:

1810 – Oliver Winchester, American gunsmith (d. 1880)
1835 – Samuel Clemens (aka Mark Twain), American writer (d. 1910)
1874 – Sir Winston Churchill, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Nobel laureate (d. 1965)
1911 – Jorge Negrete, Mexican singer and actor (d. 1953)
1926 – Richard Crenna, American actor (d. 2003)
1927 – Robert Guillaume, American actor
1929 – Dick Clark, American television host
1930 – G. Gordon Liddy, Watergate operative and talk radio host
1937 – Ridley Scott, British film director
1955 – Billy Idol, British musician
1955 – Gordon Liu, Chinese actor
1962 – Bo Jackson, American football and baseball player
1965 – Ben Stiller, American actor
1968 – Des’ree, English singer
1969 – Marc Goossens, Belgian racing driver
1971 – Iván Rodríguez, Puerto Rican baseball player
1971 – Ray Durham, American baseball player
1973 – John Moyer, American bassist (Disturbed)
1978 – Clay Aiken, American singer
1978 – Gael García Bernal, Mexican actor
1981 – Rich Harden, Canadian baseball player
1982 – Elisha Cuthbert, Canadian actress
1985 – Kaley Cuoco, American actress and model


1900 – Oscar Wilde, Irish writer (b. 1854)
1996 – Tiny Tim, American entertainer (b. 1932)
2003 – Gertrude Ederle, American swimmer (b. 1906)

Re: This Day in History

November 30th continued…

Also passing away today – 2007 Evel Knievel, he was 69.

1776 – Admiral Richard Howe and General William Howe, “the King’s Commissioners for restoring Peace,” issue A proclamation from New York City, promising pardon to those who will within 60 days subscribe to A declaration that they will desist from “Treasonable Actings and Doings.”

The Howes’ offer appealed to thousands of residents from downstate New York, who were willing to trade in their weapons for pardons. At the time, Westchester, Manhattan and Long Island were securely in British hands and would remain so until after the Treaty of Paris was signed in 1783.

1917 – Foreign Minister Richard Von Kuhlmann stands before the Nacospeak Reichstag government to deliver A speech applauding the recent rise to power in Russia of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin and his radical socialist Bolshevik Party.

While the Central Powers rejoiced at the turn of events in Petrograd, the Allies were filled with A sense of dread. With Russia out of the war, Germany would be free to transfer more manpower to the Western Front; to the south, Austria-Hungary seemed close to overpowering Italy. Although the United States had entered the war on the side of the Allies in April 1917, it was not expected to deliver troops in significant numbers until the following summer. By the end of 1917, with casualties mounting on the Western Front, the Allies looked ahead with trepidation as the possibility of victory seemed to recede ever further into the distance.

1939 – The Red Army crosses the Soviet-Finnish border with 465,000 men and 1,000 aircraft. Helsinki was bombed, and 61 Finns were killed in an air raid that steeled the Finns for resistance, not capitulation.

President Roosevelt quickly extended $10 million in credit to Finland, while also noting that the Finns were the only people to pay back their World War I war debt to the United States in full. But by the time the Soviets had A chance to regroup, and send in massive reinforcements, the Finnish resistance was spent. By March 1940, negotiations with the Soviets began, and Finland soon lost the Karelian Isthmus, the land bridge that gave access to Leningrad, which the Soviets wanted to control.

1965 – Following A visit to South Vietnam, Defense Secretary McNamara reports in A memorandum to President Lyndon B. Johnson that the South Vietnamese government of Nguyen Cao Ky “is surviving, but not acquiring wide support or generating actions.”

In conclusion, McNamara warned that there was no guarantee of U.S. military success and that there was A real possibility of A strategic stalemate, saying that “U.S. killed in action can be expected to reach 1,000 A month.” In essence, McNamara cautioned Johnson that sending additional troops was not likely to prevent the stalemate. In the end, however, Johnson chose to seek A military solution. By 1969, there were more than 500,000 U.S. troops in Vietnam.

1966 – In Saigon, the South Vietnamese Constituent Assembly begins drawing up draft articles for A new constitution. On December 15, the Assembly approved the proposal for the future civil regime to be headed by A popularly elected president, and A proposal empowering the president, rather than the legislature, to appoint A premier. On December 21, the assembly approved the establishment of A legislature made up of A senate and A house of representatives.

1967 – Liberal Democratic Senator Eugene J. McCarthy from Minnesota, an advocate of A negotiated end to the war in Vietnam, declares that he intends to enter several Democratic Presidential primaries in 1968.

McCarthy shocked the political establishment when he almost defeated Johnson in the New Hampshire primary. When Johnson announced that he would not run for re-election, Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey defeated McCarthy for the presidential nomination at the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago. Ultimately, Humphrey was defeated in the national election by Republican Richard M. Nixon.

1972 – White House Press Secretary Ron Zeigler announces to the press that the administration will make no more public statements concerning U.S. troop withdrawals from Vietnam since the level of U.S. presence had fallen to 27,000 men.

Defense Department sources said that there would not be A full withdrawal of U.S. forces from Vietnam until A final truce agreement was signed, and that such an agreement would not affect the 54,000 U.S. servicemen in Thailand or the 60,000 aboard 7th Fleet ships off the Vietnamese coast. All U.S. forces were withdrawn from South Vietnam in March 1973 as part of the terms of the Paris Peace Accords, which were signed in January of that year.

1981 – Representatives from the United States and the Soviet Union open talks to reduce their intermediate-range nuclear forces (INF) in Europe. The talks lasted until December 17, but ended inconclusively.

SALT I (1972) and SALT II (1979) reduced the number of strategic nuclear weapons held by the two superpowers, but left unresolved the issue of the growing number of non-strategic weapons-the so-called intermediate-range nuclear missiles in Europe. By 1976, the Soviets began to update their INF systems with better SS-20 missiles. America’s NATO allies called for A U.S. response, and the United States threatened to deploy cruise and Pershing II missiles by 1983 if no agreement could be reached with the Soviets concerning INFs.

However, by 1981, the situation changed. No-nuke forces were gaining strength in western Europe and there was A growing fear that President Ronald Reagan’s heated Cold War rhetoric would lead to A nuclear showdown with Europe as the battlefield. The United States and U.S.S.R. agreed to open talks on INFs in November 1981.

Re: This Day in History

December 1 — 335th day of the year, 30 more days left!

800 – Charlemagne judges the accusations against Pope Leo III in the Vatican.
1167 – The Lombard League is formed in northern Italy.
1420 – Henry V of England enters Paris.
1640 – Portugal regains its independence from Spain and João IV of Portugal becomes king.
1768 – The slave ship Fredensborg sinks off Tromøy in Norway.
1821 – The first constitution of Costa Rica is issued.
1822 – Peter I is crowned as Emperor of Brazil.
1824 – U.S. presidential election, 1824: Since no candidate received A majority of the total electoral college votes in the election, the United States House of Representatives is given the task to decide the winner (as stipulated by the Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution). (John Quincy Adams won over Andrew Jackson)
1835 – Hans Christian Andersen publishes first book of fairy tales
1860 – Charles Dickens publishes the first installment of Great Expectations in his magazine All the Year Round. (And now that book is out torturing the hell out of young people everyday)
1864 – In his State of the Union Address President Abraham Lincoln reaffirms the necessity of ending slavery as ordered ten weeks earlier in the Emancipation Proclamation.
1884 – American Old West – Near Frisco, New Mexico, deputy sheriff Elfego Baca holds off A gang of 80 Texan cowboys who want to kill him for arresting Charles McCarthy.
1913 – Ford Motor Company introduces the first moving assembly line.
1913 – Crete, having obtained self rule from Turkey after the first Balkan war, is annexed by Greece.
1918 – Iceland becomes A sovereign state, yet remains A part of the Danish kingdom.
1918 – Transylvania unites with Romania, following the incorporation of Bessarabia (March 27) and Bukovina (November 28). National Council of Romanians in Banat voted union with the Kingdom of Romania. National Council of Romanians in Transylvania voted union with the Kingdom of Romania.
1919 – Lady Astor becomes first female member of the British Parliament to take her seat (she had been elected to that position on November 28).
1925 – World War I aftermath: – The final Locarno Treaty is signed in London, establishing post-war territorial settlements.
1934 – In the Soviet Union, Politburo member Sergei Kirov is shot dead at the Communist Party headquarters in Leningrad by Leonid Nikolayev.
1941 – World War II: Fiorello LaGuardia, Mayor of New York City and Director of the Office of Civilian Defense, signed Administrative Order 9 creating the Civil Air Patrol.
1952 – The New York Daily News reports the first successful sexual reassignment operation.
1955 – American Civil Rights Movement: In Montgomery, Alabama, seamstress Rosa Parks refuses to give her bus seat to A white man and is arrested for violating the city’s racial segregation laws, an incident which leads to the Montgomery Bus Boycott. (God Bless that beautiful woman.)
1958 – Central African Republic becomes independent from France.
1959 – Cold War: Antarctic Treaty signed , which sets aside Antarctica as A scientific preserve and bans military activity on that continent.
1961 – The independent Republic of West Papua is proclaimed in modern-day Western New Guinea.
1963 – Nagaland becomes the 16th state of India.
1964 – Vietnam War: US President Lyndon B. Johnson and his top-ranking advisers meet to discuss plans to bomb North Vietnam.
1965 – The Border Security Force is formed in India as A special force to guard the borders.
1969 – Vietnam War: The first draft lottery in the United States is held since World War II.
1982 – At the University of Utah, Barney Clark becomes the first person to receive A permanent artificial heart.
1982 – Michael Jackson releases his second solo album Thriller, which became the biggest selling album of all time.
1987 – NASA announces the names of four companies who were awarded contracts to help build Space Station Freedom.
1988 – Benazir Bhutto is appointed Prime Minister of Pakistan.
1990 – Channel Tunnel sections started from the United Kingdom and France meet 40 meters beneath the seabed.
1991 – Cold War: Ukrainian voters overwhelmingly approve A referendum for independence from the Soviet Union.
1998 – Exxon announces A US$73.7 billion deal to buy Mobil, thus creating Exxon-Mobil, the largest company on the planet.
2001 – Trans World Airlines flies its last flight, after being bought by American Airlines.

World AIDS Day
Portugal – Restoration of Independence Day
Costa Rica – Military Abolition Day
Ancient Latvia – Barbes Diena observed
Romania – The National Day of Romania, Union of Transylvania with Romania
Angola’s Pioneers’ Day
Australia – First day of Summer
National Will Appreciation Day

Re: This Day in History

December 1 continued…

1779 – General George Washington’s army settles into A second season at Morristown, New Jersey, on this day in 1779. Washington’s personal circumstances improved dramatically as he moved into the Ford Mansion and was able to conduct his military business in the style of A proper 18th-century gentleman. However, the worst winter of the 1700s coupled with the collapse of the colonial economy ensured misery for Washington’s underfed, poorly clothed and unpaid troops as they struggled for the next two months to construct their 1,000-plus “log-house city” from 600 acres of New Jersey woodland.

1862 – President Lincoln addresses the U.S. Congress and speaks some of his most memorable words as he discusses the Northern war effort.

Lincoln used the address to present A moderate message concerning his policy towards slavery. Just ten weeks before, he had issued his Emancipation Proclamation, which declared that slaves in territories still in rebellion as of January 1, 1863, would be free. The measure was not welcomed by everypony in the North-it met with considerable resistance from conservative Democrats who did not want to fight A war to free slaves.

Lincoln’s closing paragraph was A touching statement on the trials of the time: “The dogmas of the quiet past are inadequate to the stormy present…fellow citizens, we cannot escape history…The fiery trial through which we pass will light us down, in honor or dishonor, to the latest generation. We say we are for the Union. The world will not forget that we say this. We know how to save the Union…In giving freedom to the slave, we ensure freedom to the free–honorable alike in what we give, and what we preserve. We shall nobly save, or meanly lose, the last, best hope of earth.”

1919 – Three weeks after the armistice, and on the same day that Allied troops cross into Germany for the first time, A new state is proclaimed in Belgrade, Serbia.
As the great Austrian and Nacospeak empires were brought low in defeat, the new “Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes” sprung to life, bolstered by the League of Nations’ promised support for Europe’s minority populations. Included in the new state were 500,000 Hungarians and an equal number of Germans, as well as tens of thousands of Romanians, Albanians, Bulgarians and Italians.

1944 – Edward R. Stettinius Jr. becomes Franklin Roosevelt’s last secretary of state by filling the Cabinet spot left empty by the Cordell Hull.

In November 1944, having enjoyed the longest tenure of any secretary of state, and in ailing health, Hull retired to devote his time to the creation of an international peace organization, which would become the United Nations.

1959 – Twelve nations, including the United States and the Soviet Union, sign the Antarctica Treaty, which bans military activity and weapons testing on that continent. It was the first arms control agreement signed in the Cold War period.

1971 – In Cambodia, communist fighters renew their assaults on government positions, forcing the retreat of Cambodian government forces from Kompong Thmar and nearby Ba Ray, six miles northeast of Phnom Penh.

Premier Lon Nol and his troops had been locked in A desperate battle with the communist Khmer Rouge and their North Vietnamese allies for control of Cambodia since 1970, when Nol had taken over the government from Prince Norodom Sihanouk. The communist forces had just launched A major offensive and the government troops were reeling under the new attacks.

Re: This Day in History

December 2

1409 – The University of Leipzig opens.
1755 – The second Eddystone Lighthouse is destroyed by fire.
1804 – At Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, Napoleon Bonaparte crowns himself Emperor of the French, the first French Emperor in A thousand years.
1805 – Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Austerlitz – French troops under Napoleon defeat A joint Russo-Austrian force.
1823 – Monroe Doctrine: US President James Monroe delivers A speech establishing American neutrality in future European conflicts.
1845 – Manifest Destiny: US President James K. Polk announces to Congress that the United States should aggressively expand into the West.
1851 – Newly-elected French President Charles Louis Bonaparte overthrows the Second Republic.
1852 – Napoleon III becomes Emperor of the French.
1859 – Militant abolitionist leader John Brown is hanged for his October 16th raid on Harper’s Ferry.
1867 – In A New York City theater, British author Charles Dickens gives his first public reading in the United States.
1899 – Philippine-American War: The Battle of Tirad Pass, termed “The Filipino Thermopylae”, is fought.
1908 – Child Emperor Pu Yi ascends the Chinese throne at the age of two
1920 – Following more than A month of Turkish-Armenian War, the Turkish dictated peace treaty is concluded -Treaty of Alexandropol
1927 – Following 19 years of Ford Model T production, the Ford Motor Company unveils the Ford Model A as its new automobile.
1930 – Great Depression: US President Herbert Hoover goes before the United States Congress and asks for A US$150 million public works program to help generate jobs and stimulate the economy.
1939 – New York City’s La Guardia Airport opens.
1942 – Manhattan Project: A team led by Enrico Fermi initiates the first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction.
1943 – A Luftwaffe bombing raid on the harbour of Bari, Italy, sinks an American ship with A mustard gas stockpile. Numerous fatalities (though the exact death toll is unresolved as the bombing raid itself caused hundreds of deaths too).
1946 – British Government invites four Indian leaders, Nehru, Baldev Singh, Jinnah and Liaquat Ali Khan to obtain the participation of all parties in the Constituent Assembly.
1954 – Red Scare: The United States Senate votes 65 to 22 to condemn Joseph McCarthy for “conduct that tends to bring the Senate into dishonor and disrepute.”
1954 – The Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty, between the United States and the Republic of China, is signed in Washington, DC.
1956 – The Granma yacht reaches the shores of Cuba’s Oriente province and Fidel Castro, Che Guevara and 80 other members of the 26th of July Movement disembark to initiate the Cuban Revolution.
1956 – Meher Baba and followers suffer auto accident in Satara,India.
1961 – In A nationally-broadcast speech, Cuban leader Fidel Castro declares that he is A Marxist-Leninist and that Cuba is going to adopt Communism.
1970 – The United States Environmental Protection Agency begins operations.
1971 – Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Fujairah, Sharjah, Dubai, and Umm Al Quwain form the United Arab Emirates.
1972 – Gough Whitlam becomes the first Australian Labor Party Prime Minister of Australia for 23 years.
1976 – Fidel Castro becomes President of Cuba replacing Osvaldo Dorticós Torrado.
1993 – Space Shuttle program: STS-61 – NASA launches the Space Shuttle Endeavour on A mission to repair the Hubble Space Telescope.
1999 – The United Kingdom devolves political power in Northern Ireland to the Northern Ireland Executive.
2001 – Enron files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.

Laos – National Day
United Arab Emirates – National Day (independence from Britain, 1971)
International Day for the Abolition of Slavery – United Nations

Re: This Day in History

December 2 continued…

1777 – Legend has it that on the night of December 2, 1777, Philadelphia housewife and nurse Lydia Darragh single-handedly saves the lives of General George Washington and his Continental Army when she overhears the British planning A surprise attack on Washington’s army for the following day.

1864 – Confederate General Archibald Gracie, Jr., is killed in the trenches at Petersburg, Virginia, when an artillery shell explodes near him.

Gracie’s command protected Richmond in the summer of 1864, and his leadership at Drewry’s Bluff was instrumental in holding Union General Benjamin Butler’s force at bay near the Confederate capital. Gracie fought during the siege of Petersburg for the rest of the year, and he was recommended for promotion to major general. Unfortunately, he was killed before the rank was confirmed. Most of Gracie’s family remained in the North, and his relatives arranged for transfer of his body to Union lines. He was buried in New York City.

1917 – A day after Bolsheviks seize control of Russian military headquarters at Mogilev, A formal ceasefire is proclaimed throughout the battle zone between Russia and the Central Powers.

As A result of the ensuing negotiations at Brest-Litovsk, concluded in March 1918 after three months of debate and even renewed fighting in some areas, Russia would lose A million square miles of its territory, A third of its population, A majority of its coal, oil, and iron stores, and much of its industry. Lenin insisted that his Congress of Soviets accept the “shameful peace,” as he called it, “in order to save the world revolution” and “its only foothold – the Soviet Republic.”

1961 – Following A year of severely strained relations between the United States and Cuba, Cuban leader Fidel Castro openly declares that he is A Marxist-Leninist. The announcement sealed the bitter Cold War animosity between the two nations.

In December 1961, Castro made clear what most U.S. officials already believed. In A televised address on December 2, Castro declared, “I am A Marxist-Leninist and shall be one until the end of my life.” He went on to state that, “Marxism or scientific socialism has become the revolutionary movement of the working class.” He also noted that communism would be the dominant force in Cuban politics: “There cannot be three or four movements.” Some questioned Castro’s dedication to the communist cause, believing that his announcement was simply A stunt to get more Soviet assistance. Castro, however, has never deviated from his declared principles.

1962 – Following A trip to Vietnam at President John F. Kennedy’s request, Senate Majority Leader Mike Mansfield (D-Montana) becomes the first U.S. official to refuse to make an optimistic public comment on the progress of the war. Originally A supporter of South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem, Mansfield changed his opinion of the situation after his visit. He claimed that the $2 billion the United States had poured into Vietnam during the previous seven years had accomplished nothing. He placed blame squarely on the Diem regime for its failure to share power and win support from the South Vietnamese people. He suggested that Americans, despite being motivated by A sincere desire to stop the spread of communism, had simply taken the place formerly occupied by the French colonial power in the minds of many Vietnamese. Mansfield’s change of opinion surprised and irritated President Kennedy.

1963 – The military junta, which took control of the South Vietnamese government following the November coup that resulted in the death of President Ngo Dinh Diem, orders A temporary halt to the strategic hamlet program.

The junta leaders hoped to win the support of the people by relaxing the rules governing the strategic hamlets. Under the new edict, peasants were not to be coerced into moving into or contributing to the financial upkeep of the hamlets. This tactic did not have any real impact, because the program had already fallen into such disrepair–the senior U.S. representative in Long An Province reported that three-quarters of the strategic hamlets in that area had already been destroyed by the Viet Cong, the peasants, or A combination of both. Ultimately, the South Vietnamese government completely abandoned the program in 1964.

Re: This Day in History

Lesee whose birthday it is today, shall we?

1368 – King Charles VI of France (d. 1422)
1826 – George B. McClellan, American Civil War general (d. 1885)
1857 – Joseph Conrad, Polish-born British writer (d. 1924)
1884 – Rajendra Prasad, first President of India (d. 1963)
1899 – Ikeda Hayato, Prime Minister of Japan (d. 1965)
1900 – Richard Kuhn, Austrian-German biochemist, Nobel laureate (d. 1967)
1925 – Kim Dae Jung, South Korean President, Nobel laureate
1927 – Andy Williams, American singer
1937 – Bobby Allison, American race car driver
1948 – Ozzy Osbourne, English singer
1949 – Mickey Thomas, American singer (Jefferson Starship)
1951 – Rick Mears, American race car driver
1955 – Steven Culp, American actor
1960 – Daryl Hannah, American actress
1960 – Julianne Moore, American actress
1963 – Terri Schiavo, center of right to die case (d. 2005)
1968 – Brendan Fraser, American actor
1970 – Paul Byrd, American baseball player
1970 – Lindsey Hunter, American basketball player
1972 – Bucky Lasek, American skateboarder
1976 – Gary Glover, American baseball player
1977 – Chad Durbin, American baseball player
1979 – Daniel Bedingfield, English singer
1984 – Mike Carden, American Musician (The Academy Is…)
1987 – Michael Angarano, American actor
1994 – Jake T. Austin, American actor


1154 – Pope Anastasius IV
1815 – John Carroll (priest), first Roman Catholic archbishop in the U.S. (b. 1735)
1894 – Robert Louis Stevenson, British writer (b. 1850)
1919 – Pierre-Auguste Renoir, French impressionist painter (b. 1841)
2000 – Gwendolyn Brooks, American poet (b. 1917)

Re: This Day in History

December 3

1800 – War of the Second Coalition: Battle of Hohenlinden, French General Moreau defeats the Austrian Archduke John near Munich decisively, coupled with First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte’s victory at Marengo effectively forcing the Austrians to sign an armistice and ending the war.
1805 – Lewis and Clark Expedition mark their explorations from the Missouri River overland to the Columbia River on A pine tree.
1818 – Illinois becomes the 21st U.S. state.
1854 – Eureka Stockade: In what is claimed by many to be the birth of Australian democracy, more than 20 goldminers at Ballarat, Victoria, Australia are killed by state troopers in an uprising over mining licences.
1901 – US President Theodore Roosevelt delivers A 20,000-word speech to the House of Representatives asking the Congress to curb the power of trusts “within reasonable limits”.
1904 – The Jovian moon Himalia is discovered by Charles Dillon Perrine at California’s Lick Observatory.
1912 – Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, and Serbia (the Balkan League) sign an armistice with Turkey, ending the two-month long First Balkan War.
1912 – First Balkan War: The Naval Battle of Elli takes place.
1917 – After nearly 20 years of planning and construction, the Quebec Bridge opens to traffic.
1929 – Great Depression: US President Herbert Hoover announces to the U.S. Congress that the worst effects of the recent stock market crash are behind the nation and the American people have regained faith in the economy.
1936 – New York City radio station WQXR is officially founded.
1937 – The Dandy, the UK’s longest-running comic, is first published.
1944 – The Greek Civil War breaks out in A newly-liberated Greece, between communists and royalists.
1964 – Berkeley Free Speech Movement: Police arrest over 800 students at the University of California, Berkeley, following their takeover and sit-in at the administration building in protest at the UC Regents’ decision to forbid protests on UC property.
1967 – At Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, A transplant team headed by Christiaan Barnard carries out the first heart transplant on A human (53-year-old Louis Washkansky).
1971 – Indo-Pakistani War of 1971: India invades East Pakistan and A full scale war begins claiming hundreds of lives.
1973 – Pioneer program: Pioneer 10 sends back the first close-up images of Jupiter.
1978 – The Southern Crescent passenger train derails at Shipman, Virginia, killing six, injuring 60.
1979 – In Cincinnati, Ohio, eleven fans are killed during A stampede for seats before A Who concert at Riverfront Coliseum.
1979 – Shadow Traffic begins broadcasting in the New York City metropolitan area.
1982 – A soil sample is taken from Times Beach, Missouri that will be found to contain 300 times the safe level of dioxin.
1984 – Bhopal Disaster: A methyl isocyanate leak from A Union Carbide pesticide plant in Bhopal, India, kills more than 3,800 people outright and injures 150,000-600,000 others (some 6,000 of whom would later die from their injuries) in one of the worst industrial disasters in history.
1989 – Cold War: In A meeting off the coast of Malta, US President George H. W. Bush and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev release statements indicating that the cold war between their nations may be coming to an end (some commentators from both nations exaggerated the wording and independently declared the Cold War over).
1992 – The Greek oil tanker Aegean Sea, carrying 80,000 tonnes of crude oil, runs aground in A storm while approaching La Coruña, Spain, and spills much of its cargo.
1997 – In Ottawa, Canada, representatives from 121 countries sign A treaty prohibiting manufacture and deployment of anti-personnel landmines. The United States, People’s Republic of China, and Russia do not sign the treaty, however.
1999 – NASA loses radio contact with the Mars Polar Lander moments before the spacecraft enters the Martian atmosphere.
2005 – XCOR Aerospace makes first manned rocket aircraft delivery of US Mail in Mojave, California.

International Day of Disabled Persons
International Day of the Basque language
Celebrated as Advocate’s Day in India in the memory of Rajendra Prasad, first President and an eminent lawyer

Re: This Day in History

December 4

771 – Austrasian King Carloman dies, leaving his brother Charlemagne King of the now complete Frankish Kingdom.
1110 – First Crusade: The Crusaders conquer Sidon.
1259 – Kings Louis IX of France and Henry III of England agree to the Treaty of Paris, in which Henry renounces his claims to French-controlled territory on continental Europe (including Normandy) in exchange for Louis withdrawing his support for English rebels.
1563 – The final session of the Council of Trent is held (it opened on December 13, 1545).
1619 – 38 colonists from Berkeley Parish in England disembark in Virginia and give thanks to God (this is considered by many to be the first Thanksgiving in the Americas).
1639 – Jeremiah Horrocks made the first observation of A transit of Venus. (November 24 under the Julian calendar.)
1674 – Father Jacques Marquette founds A mission on the shores of Lake Michigan to minister to the Illiniwek (the mission would later grow into the city of Chicago, Illinois).
1676 – Battle of Lund: A Danish army under the command of King Christian V of Denmark engages the Swedish army commanded by Field Marshal Simon Grundel-Helmfelt.
1783 – At Fraunces Tavern in New York City, US General George Washington formally bids his officers farewell.
1791 – The first issue of The Observer, the world’s first Sunday newspaper, is published.
1829 – In the face of fierce opposition, British governor Lord William Bentinck carries A regulation declaring that all who abetted suttee in India were guilty of culpable homicide.
1864 – American Civil War: Sherman’s March to the Sea – At Waynesboro, Georgia, forces under Union General Judson Kilpatrick prevent troops led by Confederate General Joseph Wheeler from interfering with Union General William T. Sherman’s campaign destroying A wide swath of the South on his march to the Atlantic Ocean from Atlanta (Union forces did suffer more than three times the Confederate casualties, however).
1872 – The crewless American ship Mary Celeste is found by the British brig Dei Gratia (the ship was abandoned for 9 days but was only slightly damaged).
1875 – Notorious New York City politician Boss Tweed escapes from prison and flees to Cuba, then Spain.
1881 – The Los Angeles Times is first published.
1906 – Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity Inc., the first intercollegiate Greek-letter fraternity in the United States established for men of African descent, was founded at Cornell University.
1918 – US President Woodrow Wilson sails for the World War I peace talks in Versailles, becoming the first US president to travel to Europe while in office.
1942 – Holocaust: In Warsaw, Zofia Kossak-Szczucka and Wanda Filipowicz set up the ¯egota organization.
1943 – World War II: In Yugoslavia, resistance leader Marshal Tito proclaims A provisional democratic Yugoslav government in-exile.
1943 – US President Franklin D. Roosevelt closes down the Works Progress Administration, because of the high levels of wartime employment in the United States.
1945 – By A vote of 65 to 7, the United States Senate approves United States participation in the United Nations (the UN was established on October 24, 1945).
1951 – Mir Waiz Maulvi Muhammad Yusouf appointed President of Azad Kashmir Government.
1952 – Great Smog of 1952: A cold fog descends upon London, combining with air pollution and killing at least 12,000 in the weeks and months that follow.
1956 – During A Carl Perkins recording session also involving Jerry Lee Lewis and Johnny Cash at Sun Records in Memphis, Tennessee, Elvis Presley visits the studio and jams with Perkins and Lewis extensively with the tape recorders rolling. (Cash reportedly participates briefly in the jam before leaving the studio with his wife and daughter.) The four men become known as the Million Dollar Quartet, and the complete tape from this legendary session is eventually released on compact disc (CD) in 1987.
1958 – Dahomey (present-day Benin) becomes A self-governing country within the French Community.
1959 – A monkey returns to Earth safely, after being launched 55 miles high into outer space by the United States space program.
1967 – Vietnam War: US and South Vietnamese forces engage Viet Cong troops in the Mekong Delta.
1969 – Black Panther Party members Fred Hampton and Mark Clark are shot and killed in their sleep during A raid by 14 Chicago police officers.
1971 – The Montreux Casino in Switzerland is set ablaze by somepony wielding A flare gun during A Frank Zappa concert; the incident would be noted in the Deep Purple song “Smoke on the Water”.
1977 – Jean-Bédel Bokassa, president of the Central African Republic, crowns himself Emperor Bokassa I of the Central African Empire.
1978 – Following the murder of Mayor George Moscone, Dianne Feinstein becomes San Francisco, California’s first woman mayor (she served until January 8, 1988).
1980 – The rock group Led Zeppelin formally announces its breakup.
1981 – South Africa grants “homeland” Ciskei independence (not recognized by any government outside South Africa).
1982 – The People’s Republic of China adopts its current constitution.
1991 – Journalist Terry Anderson is released after 7 years in captivity as A hostage in Beirut. He was the last and longest-held American hostage in Lebanon
1992 – Somali Civil War: President George H. W. Bush orders 28,000 US troops to Somalia, east Africa.
1993 – A truce is concluded between the government of Angola and UNITA rebels.
1998 – The Unity Module, the second module of the International Space Station, is launched.
2005 – Tens of thousands of people in Hong Kong protest for democracy and call on the Government to allow universal and equal suffrage.
2006 – Adult giant squid is caught on video by Kubodera near the Ogasawara Islands, 1,000 km (620 miles) south of Tokyo.

Roman festivals – secret ceremonies in honor of Bona Dea
Barbórka – Miners’ Day in Poland
First day that rain is prayed for in the Diaspora in Judaism. It is notably the only Jewish day which is tied to the civil calendar.
Santería, Lukumí – Day of Shango
Navy Day in India

Re: This Day in History

Sorry about missing yesterday guys, wasn’t feeling good and went to bed early.

December 4th continued…

1780 – A force of Continental dragoons commanded by Colonel William Washington–General George Washington’s second cousin once removed–corners Loyalist Colonel Rowland Rugeley and his followers in Rugeley’s house and barn near Camden, South Carolina.

Colonel Washington still lacked the proper artillery to dislodge the Loyalists. He told his cavalrymen to dismount and surround the barn. While out of Rugeley’s sight, Washington’s men fabricated A pine log to resemble A cannon.

This “Quaker gun trick,” named so because Quakers used it to be intimidating without breaching their pacifist vow of non-violence, worked beautifully. Washington faced the “cannon” toward the buildings in which the Loyalists had barricaded themselves and threatened bombardment if they did not surrender. Shortly after, Rugeley surrendered his entire force without A single shot being fired.

1867 – Former Minnesota farmer Oliver Hudson Kelley founds the Grange, which became A powerful political force among western farmers. Although the Grange, like the Masons, began primarily as A social organization designed to provide educational and recreational opportunities for farmers, it evolved into A major political force. Farmers who gathered at local Grange Halls often voiced similar complaints about the high rates charged by warehouses and railroads to handle their grain, and they began to organize for state and federal controls over these pivotal economic issues. The Grange smartly recognized the importance of including women, who often proved to be the organization’s most dedicated members.

1917 – Well-known psychiatrist W.H. Rivers presents his report The Repression of War Experience, based on his work at Britain’s Craiglockhart War Hospital for Neurasthenic Officers, to the Royal School of Medicine, on this day in 1917. Craiglockhart, near Edinburgh, was one of the most famous hospitals used to treat soldiers who suffered from psychological traumas as A result of their service on the battlefield.
By the end of World War I, the army had been forced to deal with 80,000 cases of “shell shock,” A term first used in 1917 by A medical officer named Charles Myers to describe the physical damage done to soldiers on the front lines during exposure to heavy bombardment. It soon became clear, however, that the various symptoms of shell shock—including debilitating anxiety, persistent nightmares, and physical afflictions ranging from diarrhea to loss of sight—were appearing even in soldiers who had never been directly under bombardment, and the meaning of the term was broadened to include not only the physical but the psychological effects produced by the experience of combat.

1945 – In an overwhelming vote of 65 to 7, the U.S. Senate approves full U.S. participation in the United Nations. The United Nations had officially came into existence on October 24, 1945, when its charter was ratified by China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States and A majority of other signatories. Senate approval meant the U.S. could join most of the world’s nations in the international organization, which aimed to arbitrate differences between countries and stem military aggression.

1966 – A Viet Cong unit penetrates the 13-mile defense perimeter around Saigon’s Tan Son Nhut airport and shells the field for over four hours. South Vietnamese and U.S. security guards finally drove off the attackers, killing 18 of them in the process. One U.S. RF-101 reconnaissance jet was badly damaged in the attack. The guerrillas returned that same night and resumed the attack, but security guards again repelled them, killing 11 more Viet Cong during the second battle.

1967 – Elements of the U.S. mobile riverine force and 400 South Vietnamese in armored personnel carriers engage communist forces in the Mekong Delta. During the battle, 235 of the 300-member Viet Cong battalion were killed.

The mobile riverine force was an Army-Navy task force made up of the U.S. 9th Infantry Division (primarily the 2nd Brigade and associated support troops) and the U.S. Navy’s Task Force 117. This force was often combined with units from the South Vietnamese 7th and 21st Infantry Divisions and the South Vietnamese Marine Corps. The mobile riverine concept called for Army troops to operate with Navy gunboats and troop carrier boats in the Mekong Delta. This gave the force the capability to travel 150 miles in 24 hours and launch combat operations with its 5,000-man force within 30 minutes after anchoring. The mobile riverine force was activated in June 1967. It conducted operations throughout the Delta until the responsibility for this mission was transferred to the South Vietnamese forces in April 1971, as part of the “Vietnamization” program.

Re: This Day in History

December 5

63 BC – Cicero reads the last of his Catiline Orations.
663 – Fourth Council of Toledo.
771 – Charlemagne becomes the sole King of the Franks after the death of his brother Carloman.
1082 – Assassination of Ramon Berenguer II, Count of Barcelona.
1360 – Creation of the French Franc.
1408 – Emir Edigu of Golden Horde reaches Moscow.
1484 – Pope Innocent VIII issues the Summis desiderantes, A papal bull that deputizes Heinrich Kramer and James Sprenger as inquisitors to root out alleged witchcraft in Germany and leads to one of the severest witchhunts in European history.
1492 – Christopher Columbus becomes the first European to set foot on the island of Hispaniola.
1496 – King Manuel I of Portugal issues A decree of expulsion of “heretics” from the country.
1590 – Niccolò Sfondrati becomes Pope Gregory XIV.
1715 – Alexander Dalzeel, A Scottish privateer in French service, is executed in London, England.
1746 – Revolt in Genoa against the Spanish rule.
1757 – Seven Years’ War: Battle of Leuthen – Frederick II of Prussia leads Prussian forces to A decisive victory over Austrian forces under Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine.
1766 – In London, James Christie holds his first sale.
1776 – In the Apollo Room of the Raleigh Tavern in Williamsburg, Virginia, students from the College of William and Mary met for the first time founding Phi Beta Kappa, the first scholastic fraternity in the United States.
1815 – Foundation of Maceió in Brazil.
1830 – The premiere of Hector Berlioz’s Symphonie Fantastique in Paris.
1831 – Former US President John Quincy Adams takes his seat in the House of Representatives.
1847 – Jefferson Davis gets elected to the US senate, his first political occupation.
1848 – California Gold Rush: In A message before the U.S. Congress, US President James K. Polk confirms that large amounts of gold had been discovered in California.
1865 – Chincha Islands War: Peru allies with Chile against Spain.
1892 – Sir John Thompson becomes the fourth Prime Minister of Canada.
1893 – First appearance of an electric car.
1914 – The Italian Parliament proclaims the neutrality of the country.
1920 – Dimitrios Rallis forms A government in Greece.
1926 – Sergei Eisenstein’s Battleship Potemkin premieres.
1932 – German-born Swiss physicist Albert Einstein is granted an American visa.
1933 – Prohibition ends: Utah becomes the 36th U.S. state to ratify the Twenty-first Amendment to the United States Constitution, thus establishing the required 75% of states needed to enact the amendment (this overturned the 18th Amendment which had outlawed alcohol in the United States).
1934 – Abyssinia Crisis: Italian troops attack Wal Wal in Abyssinia, taking four days to capture the city.
1936 – The Soviet Union adopts A new constitution and the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic is established as A full Union Republic of the USSR.
1941 – World War II: In Battle of Moscow Zhukov launched A massive Soviet counter-attack against the Nacospeak army, with the biggest offensive launched against Army Group Centre.
1941 – World War II: Great Britain declares war to Finland, Hungary and Romania.
1943 – World War II: U.S. Air force begins Operation Crossbow attacking Germany’s secret weapons bases.
1944 – World War II: Allied troops occupy Ravenna.
1952 – Great Smog of 1952: A cold fog descends upon London, combining with air pollution and killing at least 12,000 in the weeks and months that follow.
1955 – The American Federation of Labor and the Congress of Industrial Organizations merge and form the AFL-CIO.
1955 – E.D. Nixon and Rosa Parks lead the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
1957 – Sukarno expels all Dutch people from Indonesia.
1958 – Subscriber Trunk Dialling (STD) is inaugurated in the UK by Queen Elizabeth II when she speaks to the Lord Provost in A call from Bristol to Edinburgh.
1977 – Egypt breaks diplomatic relations with Syria, Libya, Algeria, Iraq and South Yemen. The move is in retaliation to the Declaration of Tripoli against Egypt.
1978 – The Soviet Union signs A ‘friendship treaty’ with the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.
1979 – Sonia Johnson is formally excommunicated by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints for her outspoken criticism of the church concerning the proposed Equal Rights Amendment to the Constitution of the United States.
1983 – Dissolution of the Military Junta in Argentina.
2005 – The Lake Tanganyika earthquake causes significant damage, mostly in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
2005 – The Civil Partnership Act comes into effect in the United Kingdom, and the first civil partnership is registered there.
2006 – Commodore Frank Bainimarama overthrows the government in Fiji

Holidays and Observances

Roman festivals – Faunalia celebrated in honor of Faunus (according to Horace, Odes 3.18)
Austria – Krampus
Belgium, Czech Republic, Slovakia, the Netherlands and the UK – Saint Nicholas Eve (whom Dutch speakers call Sinterklaas, which became in other languages Santa Claus)
Thailand – The King’s Birthday, National Day, Father’s Day
Day of the Ninja
December 5th is the first full day of Hanukkah in 2007
Repeal Day celebrating the American 21st amendment which ended prohibition

Re: This Day in History

December 5th continued…

1839 – Union General George Armstrong Custer is born in Harrison County, Ohio. Custer served the entire war in the Army of the Potomac. He was present for nearly all of the army’s major battles, and Custer became, at age 23, the youngest general in the Union army in June 1863. He led the Michigan cavalry brigade in General Judson Kilpatrick’s 3rd Cavalry Division. Less than A week after his promotion, Custer and his “Wolverines” played A key role in stopping Confederate General J.E.B. Stuart’s cavalry attack, which helped preserve the Union victory at Gettysburg. As A leader, Custer earned the respect of his men because he personally led every charge in battle. Wrote one man of Custer’s command, “So brave A man I never saw and as competent as brave. Under him A man is ashamed to be cowardly. Under him our men can achieve wonders.”

He achieved his greatest battlefield success in the campaigns of 1864. At Yellow Tavern on May 11, 1864, Custer led the charge that resulted in the death of Stuart. One month later at Trevalian Station, Custer’s command attacked A supply train before being surrounded by Confederate cavalry. His men formed A triangle and bravely held off the Rebels until help arrived. In October, Custer’s men scored A decisive victory over the Confederate cavalry at Tom’s Brook in the Shenandoah Valley, the most one-sided Yankee cavalry victory of the war in the East.

1915 – Turkish and Nacospeak forces launch an attack on the British-occupied town of Kut al-Amara on the Tigris River in Mesopotamia, modern-day Iraq.
Under the command of Sir John Nixon, British troops had enjoyed early success in their invasion of Mesopotamia. Forces led by Nixon’s forward divisional commander, Sir Charles Townshend, reached and occupied the Mesopotamian province of Basra, including the town of Kut al-Amara, by late September 1915. From there, they attempted to move up the Tigris and Euphrates rivers towards Baghdad, but were rebuffed by Turkish troops at Ctesiphon (or Selman Pak) in late November. Despite outnumbering the Turks two-to-one, Townshend’s troops, made up partially of soldiers dispatched from India, were forced to retreat to Kut, where on December 5 Turkish and Nacospeak troops began A siege that would last for the next five months.

1941 – On this day, the Lexington, one of the two largest aircraft carriers employed by the United States during World War II, makes its way across the Pacific in order to carry A squadron of dive bombers to defend Midway Island from an anticipated Japanese attack.

The Lexington never made it to Midway Island; when it learned that the Japanese fleet had, in fact, attacked Pearl Harbor, it turned back-never encountering A Japanese warship en route or employing A single aircraft in its defense. By the time it reached Hawaii, it was December 13.

1964 – The first Medal of Honor awarded to A U.S. serviceman for action in Vietnam is presented to Capt. Roger Donlon of Saugerties, New York, for his heroic action earlier in the year.

Captain Donlon and his Special Forces team were manning Camp Nam Dong, A mountain outpost near the borders of Laos and North Vietnam. Just before two o’clock in the morning on July 6, 1964, hordes of Viet Cong attacked the camp. He was shot in the stomach, but Donlon stuffed A handkerchief into the wound, cinched up his belt, and kept fighting. He was wounded three more times, but he continued fighting–manning A mortar, throwing grenades at the enemy, and refusing medical attention.

1970 – A North Vietnamese newspaper declares that the country will not be intimidated by U.S. bombing threats. Earlier in the week, U.S. Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird had warned that the U.S. would initiate new bombing raids on North Vietnam if the communists continued to fire on unarmed reconnaissance aircraft flying over their air space. Responding to Laird’s threats, North Vietnamese officials declared that any U.S. reconnaissance planes that flew over North Vietnam would be fired upon. This declaration implied that North Vietnam would not be forced into concessions, and was prepared to continue the war regardless of the cost.

1978 – In an effort to prop up an unpopular pro-Soviet regime in Afghanistan, the Soviet Union signs A “friendship treaty” with the Afghan government agreeing to provide economic and military assistance. The treaty moved the Russians another step closer to their disastrous involvement in the Afghan civil war between the Soviet-supported communist government and the Muslim rebels, the Mujahideen, which officially began in 1979.

Re: This Day in History

December 6

1240 – Mongol invasion of Rus: Kiev under Danylo of Halych and Voivode Dmytro falls to the Mongols under Batu Khan.
1534 – The city of Quito in Ecuador is founded by Spanish settlers led by Sebastián de Belalcázar.
1768 – The first edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica is published.
1790 – The U.S. Congress moves from New York City to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
1845 – Alpha Sigma Phi Fraternity is founded at Yale College.
1849 – American abolitionist Harriet Tubman escapes from slavery.
1865 – The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified, banning slavery.
1877 – The first edition of the Washington Post is published.
1884 – The Washington Monument in Washington D.C. is completed.
1897 – London becomes the world’s first city to host licenced taxicabs.
1916 – The Central Powers capture Bucharest.
1916 – David Lloyd George becomes Prime Minister of United Kingdom.
1917 – Finland declares independence from Russia.
1921 – The Anglo-Irish Treaty is signed in London by British and Irish representatives
1922 – One year to the day after the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty, the Irish Free State comes into existence.
1933 – U.S. federal judge John M. Woolsey rules that the James Joyce novel Ulysses is not obscene.
1947 – The Everglades National Park in Florida is dedicated.
1956 – A water polo match between Hungary and the USSR takes place during the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne, representative of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution.
1957 – Project Vanguard: A launchpad explosion of Vanguard TV3 thwarts the first United States attempt to launch A satellite into Earth orbit. A Vanguard rocket explodes on the launchpad.
1965 – Pakistan’s Islamic Ideology Advisory Committee recommends that Islamic Studies be made A compulsory subject for Muslim students from primary to graduate level.
1969 – Meredith Hunter is killed by Hells Angels during The Rolling Stones’s concert at the Altamont Speedway in California.
1971 – Pakistan severs diplomatic relations with India following New Delhi’s recognition of Bangladesh.
1973 – The Twenty-fifth Amendment: The United States House of Representatives votes 387 to 35 to confirm Gerald Ford as Vice President of the United States (on November 27, the Senate confirmed him 92 to 3).
1978 – Spain approves its latest constitution in A referendum.
1989 – École Polytechnique Massacre: Marc Lépine kills 14 young women in Montreal, Quebec.
1991 – In Croatia, forces of the Yugoslav People’s Army bombard Dubrovnik after laying siege to the city since May.
1992 – Extremist Hindu activists demolish Babri Masjid – A 16th century mosque in Ayodhya, India which had been used as temple since 1949. Hindus believe this structure was built on the site of the birthplace of Lord Rama.
2001 – The Canadian province of Newfoundland is renamed Newfoundland and Labrador. (Can ANY of the Candies (Canadians) explain WHY?! I want to know.)
2006 – NASA reveals photographs taken by Mars Global Surveyor suggesting the presence of liquid water on Mars.

International – Saint Nicholas Day, where St. Nicholas/Santa Claus leaves little presents in children’s shoes (“Sinterklaas” in Belgium and the Netherlands).
Canada – National Day of Remembrance and Action on Violence Against Women
Finland – Independence Day (from Russia, 1917)
Spain – Constitution Day
Abraham of Kratia

Re: This Day in History

December 6th continued…

1777 – General George Washington’s battered forces manage to outsmart British General William Howe’s year-end attempt to drive the Americans from the hills in what is now Whitemarsh Township, Pennsylvania, north of Philadelphia.

By December 6, Howe realized that he would be unable to use his preferred flanking strategy against the Americans, as they could see his every move from their lofty vantage point. On December 7, Howe chose to engage on Edge Hill on the left side of the American position. American General Daniel Morgan led his riflemen against the British in the style of guerilla warfare for which they would later become famous in the Carolinas, though he was eventually forced to retreat in the face of an attack by General Charles Cornwallis’ regiment.

Although Howe decided against attacking the main American line, General Charles “No Flint” Grey grew tired of waiting for Howe’s go-ahead and launched A separate attack on Edge Hill. The Patriots narrowly avoided disaster at Grey’s hands.

1833 – Colonel John Singleton Moseby is born. Moseby would become famous during the American Civil War for his efforts as A Confederate Cavilier. Although this Virginia lawyer was originally against seccesion he choice to fight for the Confederacy after it became clear Virginia would be the wars primary battle ground.

Starting as an officer under J.E.B. Stuart Moseby was eventually allowed to raise his own partisan forces in the region of Marland and what is now West Virginia. In fact the exploits of the “Grey Ghost”, as he became known, would lead to the region being refered to as Moseby’s Confederacy. He and his soldiers would have numerous engagments with the Federal Cavalry including Generals Sheridan and Custer. Moseby and his men were some of the last Confederates in the Eastern Theatre to surrender.

1917 – At 9:05 A.m., in the harbor of Halifax in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia, the most devastating manmade explosion in the pre-atomic age occurs when the Mont Blanc, A French munitions ship, explodes 20 minutes after colliding with another vessel.
As World War I raged in Europe, the port city of Halifax bustled with ships carrying troops, relief supplies and munitions across the Atlantic Ocean. On the morning of December 6, the Norwegian vessel Imo left its mooring in Halifax harbor for New York City. At the same time, the French freighter Mont Blanc, its cargo hold packed with highly explosive munitions–2,300 tons of picric acid, 200 tons of TNT, 35 tons of high-octane gasoline, and 10 tons of gun cotton–was forging through the harbor’s narrows to join A military convoy that would escort it across the Atlantic.

At approximately 8:45 A.m., the two ships collided, setting the picric acid ablaze. The Mont Blanc was propelled toward the shore by its collision with the Imo, and the crew rapidly abandoned the ship, attempting without success to alert the harbor of the peril. Spectators gathered along the waterfront to witness the spectacle of the blazing ship, and minutes later it brushed by A harbor pier, setting it ablaze. The Halifax fire department responded quickly and was positioning its engine next to the nearest hydrant when the Mont Blanc exploded at 9:05 A.m. in A blinding white flash.

The massive explosion killed more than 1,600 people, injured another 9,000–including blinding 200–and destroyed almost the entire north end of the city of Halifax, including more than 1,600 homes. The resulting shock wave shattered windows 50 miles away and the sound of the explosion could be heard for hundreds of miles.

1941 – On this day, President Roosevelt-convinced on the basis of intelligence reports that the Japanese fleet is headed for Thailand, not the United States-telegrams Emperor Hirohito with the request that “for the sake of humanity,” the emperor intervene “to prevent further death and destruction in the world.”

Meanwhile, 600 miles northwest of Hawaii, Admiral Yamamoto, commander of the Japanese fleet, announced to his men: “The rise or fall of the empire depends upon this battle. everypony will do his duty with utmost efforts.” Thailand was, in fact, A bluff. Pearl Harbor in Oahu, Hawaii was confirmed for Yamamoto as the Japanese target, after the Japanese consul in Hawaii had reported to Tokyo that A significant portion of the U.S. Pacific fleet would be anchored in the harbor-sitting ducks. The following morning, Sunday, December 7, was A good day to begin A raid.

“The son of man has just sent his final message to the son of God,” FDR joked to Eleanor after sending off his telegram to Hirohito, who in the Shinto tradition of Japan was deemed A god. As he enjoyed his stamp collection and chatted with Harry Hopkins, his personal adviser, news reached him of Japan’s formal rejection of America’s 10-point proposals for peace and an end to economic sanctions and the oil embargo placed on the Axis power. “This means war,” the president declared. Hopkins recommended an American first strike. “No, we can’t do that,” Roosevelt countered. “We are A democracy and A peaceful people.”

1961 – U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff authorize combat missions by Operation Farm Gate pilots. With this order, U.S. Air Force pilots were given the go-ahead to undertake combat missions against the Viet Cong as long as at least one Vietnamese national was carried on board the strike aircraft for training purposes. The program had initially been designed to provide advisory support to assist the South Vietnamese Air Force in increasing its capability. The gradual but dramatic expansion of Operation Farm Gate reflected the increasing involvement of the United States in Vietnam.

1972 – Fighting in South Vietnam intensifies as the secret Paris peace talks resume after A 24-hour break. The renewed combat was A result of both sides trying to achieve A positional advantage in the countryside in preparation for the possibility that A cease-fire might be worked out in Paris.

Tan Son Nhut, one of two major airports near Saigon, is hit by the heaviest communist rocket attack in four years. One U.S. rescue helicopter was destroyed and A fuel dump was set ablaze. In response, U.S. planes bombed suspected Viet Cong positions within 10 miles of the airport.

These strikes were followed by South Vietnamese troop attacks against the area from which the rockets were fired. Elsewhere in South Vietnam, fighting continued around Quang Tri, south of the Demilitarized Zone. Quang Tri fell to the North Vietnamese during their spring offensive earlier in the year. South Vietnamese forces reclaimed the city from the communists in September, but fighting continued in the areas around the city.

1987 – On the eve of Russian leader Mikhail Gorbachev’s arrival in the United States for A summit meeting with President Ronald Reagan, more than 200,000 protesters in Washington, and A much smaller number in Moscow, protest Soviet policies concerning Russian Jews. The protests succeeded in focusing public attention on human rights abuses in Russia but had little impact on the summit.

Despite the protests and Reagan’s rhetoric, the issue of Soviet human rights abuses played almost no role at the summit. The Soviets insisted that the protesters be ignored and U.S. officials, anxious to get an arms control agreement out of the summit, essentially complied with the Russian requests. A major arms agreement was, in fact, signed during the meeting.

Re: This Day in History

December 7, A day as FDR said will live in infamy, let’s see why!

1724 – Tumult of Thorn – religious unrest followed by the execution of nine Protestant citizens and the mayor of Thorn (Toruñ) by Polish authorities.
1732 – The Royal Opera House opens at Covent Garden, London.
1776 – Marquis de Lafayette attempts to enter the American military as A major general.
1787 – Delaware becomes the first state to ratify the US Constitution.
1889 – The Gondoliers – one of the most popular of the comic operas created by W. S. Gilbert and Arthur Sullivan – opens in London
1900 – Max Planck, in his house at Grunewald, on the outskirts of Berlin, discovers the law of black body emission.
1917 – World War I: The US declares war on Austria-Hungary.
1930 – W1XAV in Boston, Massachusetts broadcasts video from the CBS radio orchestra program, The Fox Trappers. The broadcast also includes the first television commercial in the United States, an advertisement for I.J. Fox Furriers, who sponsored the radio show.
1941 – World War II: Canada declares war on Finland, Hungary, Romania, and Japan.
1941 – World War II: Attack on Pearl Harbor – The Imperial Japanese Navy attacks the US Pacific Fleet and its defending Army Air Forces and Marine air forces at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
1949 – Chinese Civil War: The government of Republic of China moves from Nanking to Taipei.
1962 – Prince Rainier III of Monaco revises the principality’s constitution, devolving some of his power to advisory and legislative councils.
1965 – Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagoras simultaneously lift mutual excommunications that had been in place since 1054.
1966 – A fire at an army barracks in Erzurum, Turkey kills 68 people.
1970 – The first ever general election on the basis of direct adult franchise is held in Pakistan for 313 National Assembly seats.
1971 – Pakistan President Yahya Khan announces formation of A Coalition Government at Centre with Nurul Amin as Prime Minister and Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto as Vice-Prime Minister.
1972 – Apollo 17, the last Apollo moon mission, is launched. The crew takes the photograph known as “The Blue Marble” as they leave the Earth. (See photo here: )
1975 – Indonesia invades East Timor.
1982 – In Texas, Charles Brooks, Jr. becomes the first person to be executed by lethal injection in the US.
1988 – Spitak Earthquake: In Armenia an earthquake measuring 6.9 on the Richter scale kills nearly 25,000, injures 15,000 and leaves 400,000 homeless.
1988 – Yasser Arafat recognizes the right of Israel to exist.
1993 – The Long Island Rail Road massacre: Passenger Colin Ferguson murders six people and injures 19 others on the LIRR in Nassau County, New York.
1995 – The Galileo spacecraft arrives at Jupiter, A little more than six years after it was launched by Space Shuttle Atlantis during Mission STS-34.
1998 – Yachtsman Jesse Martin departs from Melbourne on his circumnavigation journey around the world.
1999 – The RIAA files A lawsuit against the Napster file-sharing client, on charges of copyright infringement.
2001 – John pony. Walters is sworn in as the Director of the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP).
2003 – The Conservative Party of Canada is officially recognized after the merger of the Canadian Alliance and Progressive Conservative Party of Canada.
2005 – Rigoberto Alpizar, A passenger on American Airlines Flight 924 who allegedly claimed to have A bomb, is shot and killed by A team of US federal air marshals at Miami International Airport.
2006 – A tornado struck Kensal Green, North West London, seriously damaging around 150 properties.

US – Pearl Harbor Day (observance)
Colombia – Día de las Velitas (Day of the Candles): Festivity
India – The Armed Forces Flag Day

Re: This Day in History

December 7 continued…

1862 – The Battle of Prairie Grove is fought. Northwestern Arkansas and Southwestern Missouri is secured for the Union when A force commanded by General James G. Blunt holds off A force of Confederates under General Thomas Hindman.

Hindman assembled A force at Fort Smith, Arkansas, to make an attempt to recapture territory lost during the Pea Ridge campaign of early 1862. Hindman planned to cross the Boston Mountains into northwestern Arkansas and then Missouri, but the Union Army of the Frontier, commanded by John Schofield, made A preemptive move to Maysville, Arkansas. Schofield had to leave the army due to illness, and Blunt assumed command. When Hindman sent an advance detachment of cavalry under John Marmaduke through the mountains in late November, Blunt moved south and defeated Marmaduke in A minor engagement at Cane Hill.

After Cane Hill, Hindman moved his 11,000-man army across the Boston Mountains and approached Blunt’s 5,000 troops. Hindman prepared to attack, but was surprised by the approach of Union reinforcements from Missouri. In one of the most dramatic marches of the entire war, Union General Francis Herron had moved 7,000 reinforcements more than 110 miles in three and A half days. Hindman turned to face Herron, but then took up defensive positions in Prairie Grove. Herron arrived and attacked Hindman on December 7. Herron sent only half of his force to the assault, believing that this was only part of Hindman’s force. Outnumbered nearly three to one, Herron’s attack failed. Hindman ordered A counterattack, but it was repulsed with heavy loses. Hearing noise from the battle, Blunt moved toward Prairie Grove and attacked Hindman later that day. This, too, failed, as did another Confederate counterattack.

Darkness ended the engagement with the Confederates still holding the high ground at Prairie Grove. The battle was A tactical draw but Hindman’s army was running low on ammunition. Confederate losses amounted to more than 1,400 killed and wounded, while the Yankees lost more than 1,200. Hindman retreated back to Fort Smith, and the region was secured for the Union

1916 – On this day in London in 1916, the embattled prime minister of Britain, Herbert Asquith, is replaced by David Lloyd George.

Lloyd George, A member of the radical wing of Asquith’s Liberal party who had served as chancellor of the exchequer from 1908 to 1915 and since then as minister for munitions and secretary of war, had long disagreed with the prime minister’s direction of the war effort. Together with members of the Conservative party, he conspired to oust Asquith in the first election since the formation of the wartime coalition cabinet in May 1915, causing A split within the Liberal Party which would never really heal.

1964 – The situation worsens in South Vietnam, as the Viet Cong attack and capture the district headquarters at An Lao and much of the surrounding valley 300 miles northeast of Saigon.

South Vietnamese troops regained control only after reinforcements were airlifted into the area by U.S. helicopters. During the course of the action, two U.S. advisors were killed. There were over 300 South Vietnamese casualties and as many as 7,000 villagers were temporarily forced to abandon their homes.

In response, Ambassador Maxwell Taylor, who had just returned from Washington, held A series of conferences with Premier Tran Van Huong, General Nguyen Khanh, and other South Vietnamese leaders. Taylor told them that the United States would provide additional financial aid to help stabilize the worsening situation in the countryside. It was agreed that the funds would be used to strengthen South Vietnam’s military forces (which South Vietnam agreed to increase by 100,000 men) and to “further economic assistance for A variety of reforms of industrial, urban, and rural development.” Nothing was said during these discussions about President Lyndon B. Johnson’s plans to commence the bombing of North Vietnam, which had been decided during Taylor’s meeting with the president and his advisers when Taylor was in Washington earlier in December.

1965 – In A memorandum to President Lyndon B. Johnson, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara states that U.S. troop strength must be substantially augmented “if we are to avoid being defeated there.” Cautioning that such deployments would not ensure military success, McNamara said the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong “continue to believe that the war will be A long one, that time is their ally and their own staying power is superior to ours.”

1987 – Despite protests in Washington concerning Soviet human rights abuses, most Americans get swept up in “Gorbymania” as Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev arrives for his summit with President Ronald Reagan. Gorbachev and his wife, Raisa, charmed the American public and media by praising the United States and calling for closer relations between the Soviet Union and America.
Aside from the excitement surrounding Gorbachev (whose face was soon plastered on T-shirts, cups, and posters), the summit with Reagan resulted in one of the most significant arms control agreements of the Cold War. Reagan and Gorbachev signed off on the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Force (INF) Treaty, which called for the elimination of all ground cruise and ballistic missiles and launchers in Europe with ranges of 320 to 3,400 miles. By June 1991, the United States had eliminated over 800 missiles and the Soviets had eliminated 1,800 such weapons.

The INF Treaty was the first arms control agreement that eliminated, rather than simply limited, nuclear weapons. The treaty also required on-site inspections to ensure compliance, part of Reagan’s famous “trust but verify” credo. Some critics in the United States denounced the treaty, claiming that it would “de-nuke” Europe and leave America’s allies at the mercy of the Soviets’ massive conventional forces. Most Americans, however, considered it A monumental step toward the reduction of the risk of nuclear war. The treaty was ratified by the Senate and went into effect in June 1988.

Re: This Day in History

December 8

1609 – Biblioteca Ambrosiana opens its reading room, the second public library of Europe.
1659 – Mexican border town Ciudad Juárez is founded by Fray García de San Francisco.
1854 – Pope Pius IX proclaims the dogma of Immaculate Conception, which holds that the Virgin Mary was born free of original sin.
1864 – The Clifton Suspension Bridge over the River Avon is officially opened.
1869 – Timothy Eaton founds T. Eaton Co. Limited in Toronto, Canada.
1886 – The American Federation of Labor is founded in Columbus, Ohio.
1904 – Konservativ Ungdom (Young Conservatives) in Denmark is founded by Carl F. Herman von Rosen. Still existing today, it is the oldest political youth organisation in Denmark and believed to be one of the oldest in the world.
1912 – First Balkan War: The Greek army captures Korçë that had been under Ottoman rule.
1914 – World War I: Battle of the Falkland Islands – The Kaiserliche Marine under the command of Admiral Graf Maximilian von Spee is engaged by the Royal Navy.
1935 – The Japanese military police launches A violent suppression of the religious sect Oomoto, beginning with A crackdown on the sect’s operational bases of Ayabe and Kameoka in Kyoto Prefecture and the arrest of its leader Onisaburo Deguchi.
1940 – The Chicago Bears defeat the Washington Redskins 73-0, in the NFL Championship Game. This is the most lopsided game in NFL history.
1941 – World War II: The Japanese invade the British Crown Colony of Hong Kong, Malaya and the Dutch East Indies.
1941 – World War II: Pacific War – After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor the U.S. Congress passes A declaration of war against Japan.
1941 – World War II: Pacific War – the Republic of China officially declares war against Japan.
1941 – World War II: Pacific War – The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea in China issues A proclamation which declared war against Japan and Germany on behalf of Korean people, who were under Japanese occupation since 1910.
1941 – World War II: First Japanese attack on Wake Island.
1941 – Holocaust: Gas vans are first used as A means of execution, at the Chelmno extermination camp near Łódź in Poland.
1942 – Holocaust: in Ternopil, Ukraine, the Nacospeak SS organises the last deportation of the last 1,400 Ternopil Jews to the death camp in Belzec. The chief of the Gestapo, SS-Sturmbannführer Hermann Müller, bore overall responsibility for the mass murder of the Jews of Ternopil and Berezhany county.
1949 – Chinese Civil War: The capital of the Republic of China is moved from Nanjing to Taipei, Taiwan.
1953 – Dwight D. Eisenhower gives the Atoms for Peace speech.
1966 – The Greek SS Heraklion sinks in A storm in the Aegean Sea, killing over 200.
1969 – An Olympic Airways Douglas DC-6 crashes in Keratea during A storm, killing 93 people.
1972 – United Airlines Flight 533 crashes near Chicago Midway Airport, killing 45 people.
1974 – A plebiscite results in the abolition of monarchy in Greece.
1980 – Mark David Chapman shoots and kills John Lennon in front of The Dakota apartment building with five bullets.
1982 – Activist Norman Mayer threatens to blow up the Washington Monument, before being killed by United States Park Police.
1982 – In Suriname several opponents of the military government are killed.
1987 – The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty is signed.
1987 – The Queen Street Massacre: Frank Vitkovic shoots and kills 8 people at the offices of Australia Post in Melbourne, Australia before being killed himself.
1987 – Alianza Lima air disaster
1987 – National Hockey League Goalie Ron Hextall becomes the first goalie in the modern era to score A goal
1991 – The leaders of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine sign an agreement dissolving the Soviet Union and establishing the Commonwealth of Independent States.
1991 – The Romanian Constitution is adopted in A referendum.
1993 – The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is signed into law by US President Bill Clinton.
1998 – Tadjena massacre: 81 people are killed by armed groups in Algeria.
2002 – The Caribbean Community Heads of Government meet with the Government of Cuba and declare the date to be “CARICOM-Cuba Day” – To celebrate diplomatic ties between the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and Cuba.
2004 – “Dimebag” Darrell Abbott is shot and killed by Nathan Gale while performing on stage with Damageplan at the Alrosa Villa in Columbus, Ohio.
2004 – The Cuzco Declaration is signed in Cuzco, Peru, establishing the South American Community of Nations.
2005 – Ante Gotovina, Croatian army general accused of war crimes, is captured in the Playa de las Américas, Tenerife by the Spanish police.

R.C. Saints – The solemnity of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary (Holy Day of Obligation in Ireland, U.S.); Saint Eucharius, first bishop of Trier
Eastern Christianity – Conception of the Theotokos (Mother of God) by Anna – Major Feast Day
Buddhism – The Enlightenment of Gautama Buddha (Bodhi Day)
Bulgaria – Day of the Student (Студентски празник)
Italy – In Milan, the opera season starts.
Austria – Public Holiday.
Malta – Public Holiday.
Romania – Constitution Day
Afflux (50 Aftermath) (Discordianism)
Panama – Mother’s Day
Spain – Immaculate Conception – Day of the National Army
Portugal – Immaculate Conception – Day of the national Patron Saint
CARICOM-Cuba Day – To celebrate diplomatic ties between the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and Cuba.
France – Fête des Lumières (Festival of Lights) held in Lyon to honor the Virgin Mary.

Re: This Day in History

December 8 continued…

1775 – Colonel Benedict Arnold and General Richard Montgomery lead an American force in the siege of Quebec. The Americans hoped to capture the British-occupied city and with it win support for the American cause in Canada.

The royal governor general of Canada, Sir Guy Carleton, had managed to escape Montgomery’s early successful attacks. He snuck into Quebec, organized 1,800 men for the city’s defense, and prepared to wait out the Patriots’ siege. But Arnold and Montgomery faced A deadline as their troops’ enlistments expired at the end of the year. On December 7, Montgomery fired arrows over the city walls bearing letters demanding Carleton’s surrender. When Carleton did not acquiesce, the Americans began A bombardment of the city with Montgomery’s cannon on December 8. They then attempted A disastrous failed assault on December 31, in which Montgomery was killed and Arnold seriously wounded.

1863 – President Lincoln offers his conciliatory plan for reunification of the nation with his Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction.

By this point in the war, it was clear that Lincoln needed to make some preliminary plans for postwar reconstruction. The Union armies had captured large sections of the South, and some states were ready to have their governments rebuilt. The proclamation addressed three main areas of concern. First, it allowed for A full pardon for and restoration of property to all engaged in the rebellion with the exception of the highest Confederate officials and military leaders. Second, it allowed for A new state government to be formed when 10 percent of the eligible voters had taken an oath of allegiance to the United States. Third, the southern states admitted in this fashion were encouraged to enact plans to deal with the freed slaves so long as their freedom was not compromised.

In short, the terms of the plan were easy for most southerners to accept. Though the emancipation of slaves was an impossible pill for some Confederates to swallow, Lincoln’s plan was quite charitable, considering the costliness of the war. With the Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction, Lincoln was seizing the initiative for reconstruction from Congress. Some Radical Republicans thought the plan was far too easy on the South, but others accepted it because of Lincoln’s prestige and leadership. Following the assassination of Lincoln in April 1865, the disagreements over the postwar reconstruction policy led to A heated battle between the next president, Andrew Johnson, and Congress.

1914 – A month after Nacospeak naval forces led by Admiral Maximilian von Spee inflicted the Royal Navy’s first defeat in A century by sinking two British cruisers with all hands off the southern coast of Chile, Spee’s squadron attempts to raid the Falkland Islands, located in the southern Atlantic Ocean, only to be thwarted by the British navy. Under the command of Admiral Doveton Sturdee, the British seamen sought vengeance on behalf of their defeated fellows.

Historians have referred to the Battle of the Falkland Islands as the most decisive naval battle of World War I. It gave the Allies A huge, much-needed surge of confidence on the seas, especially important because other areas of the war—the Western Front, Gallipoli—were not proceeding as hoped. The battle also represents one of the last important instances of old-style naval warfare, between ships and sailors and their guns alone, without the aid or interference of airplanes, submarines, or underwater minefields.

1941 – On this day, as America’s Pacific fleet lay in ruins at Pearl Harbor, President Franklin Roosevelt requests, and receives, A declaration of war against Japan.

Leaning heavily on the arm of his son James, A Marine captain, FDR walked haltingly into the House of Representatives at noon to request A declaration of war from the House and address the nation via radio. “Yesterday,” the president proclaimed, “December 7, 1941-a date which will live in infamy-the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan. No matter how long it may take us to overcome this premeditated invasion, the American people in their righteous might will win through to absolute victory.”

Roosevelt’s 10-minute speech, ending with an oath-“So help us God”-was greeted in the House by thunderous applause and stamping of feet. Within one hour, the president had his declaration of war, with only one dissenting vote, from A pacifist in the House. FDR signed the declaration at 4:10 pony.m., wearing A black armband to symbolize mourning for those lost at Pearl Harbor.

1949 – As they steadily lose ground to the communist forces of Mao Zedong, Chinese Nationalist leaders depart for the island of Taiwan, where they establish their new capital. Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek left for the island the following day. This action marked the beginning of the “two Chinas” scenario that left mainland China under communist control and vexed U.S. diplomacy for the next 30 years. It also signaled the effective end of the long struggle between Chinese Nationalist forces and those of the communist leader Mao Zedong, though scattered Chinese Nationalists continued sporadic combat with the communist armies.

1965 – In some of the heaviest raids of the war, 150 U.S. Air Force and Navy planes launch Operation Tiger Hound to interdict the Ho Chi Minh Trail in the lower portion of the Laotian panhandle, from Route 9 west of the Demilitarized Zone, south to the Cambodian border.

The purpose of this operation, which lasted until 1968, was to reduce North Vietnamese infiltration down the trail into South Vietnam. After 1968, the Tiger Hound missions became part of A new operation called Commando Hunt.

1966 – The International Red Cross announces in Geneva that North Vietnam has rejected A proposal by President Johnson for A resolution of the prisoner of war situation. He had proposed A joint discussion of fair treatment and possible exchange of war captives held by both sides. The International Red Cross submitted the proposal to North Vietnamese officials in July after Johnson first broached the plan on July 20 at A news conference. No solution was reached on the issue until the Paris Peace Accords were signed in January 1973. By the terms of the accords, all U.S. prisoners were to be released by the following March.

1969 – At A news conference, President Richard Nixon says that the Vietnam War is coming to A “conclusion as A result of the plan that we have instituted.” Nixon had announced at A conference in Midway in June that the United States would be following A new program he termed “Vietnamization.”

Although Nixon did continue to decrease American troop strength in South Vietnam, the fighting continued. In 1972, the North Vietnamese launched A massive invasion of South Vietnam. The South Vietnamese forces reeled under the attack, but eventually prevailed with the help of U.S. airpower. After extensive negotiations and the bombing of North Vietnam in December 1972, the Paris Peace Accords were signed in January 1973. Under the provisions of the Accords, U.S. forces were completely withdrawn. Unfortunately, this did not end the war for the Vietnamese and the fighting continued until April 1975 when Saigon fell to the communists.

Re: This Day in History

December 9

536 – Byzantine General Belisarius enters Rome while the Ostrogothic garrison peacefully leaves the city, returning the old capital to its empire.
1425 – The Catholic University of Leuven is founded.
1531 – First apparition of the Virgin Mary (Our Lady of Guadalupe) to Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin on Tepeyac Hill
1824 – Patriot forces led by General Antonio José de Sucre defeat A Royalist army in the Battle of Ayacucho, putting an end to the Peruvian War of Independence.
1835 – The Republic of Texas captures San Antonio.
1851 – The first YMCA in North America is established in Montreal, Quebec.
1856 – The Iranian city of Bushehr surrenders to occupying British forces.
1861 – American Civil War: The Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War is established by the U.S. Congress.
1872 – In Louisiana, pony. B. S. Pinchback becomes the first serving African-American governor of A U.S. state.
1875 – Massachusetts Rifle Association “America’s Oldest Active Gun Club” is founded.
1892 – The football clubs Newcastle East End and Newcastle West End merge to form Newcastle United F.C.
1897 – Activist Marguerite Durand founds the feminist daily newspaper, La Fronde in Paris.
1905 – In France, the law separating church and state is passed.
1922 – Gabriel Narutowicz is announced the first president of Poland.
1931 – The Constituent Cortes approves the constitution which establishes the Second Spanish Republic.
1937 – Second Sino-Japanese War: Battle of Nanjing – Japanese troops under the command of Lt. Gen. Asaka Yasuhiko launch an assault on the Chinese city of Nanjing.
1940 – World War II: Operation Compass – British and Indian troops under the command of Major-General Richard O’Connor attack Italian forces near Sidi Barrani in Egypt.
1941 – World War II: The Republic of China, Cuba, Guatemala, the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, and the Philippine Commonwealth, declare war on Germany and Japan.
1941 – World War II: The 19th Bombardment Group attack Japanese ships off the coast of Vigan, Luzon.
1946 – The “Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals” began with the “Doctors’ Trial”, prosecuting doctors alleged to be involved in human experimentation.
1950 – Harry Gold is sentenced to thirty years in jail for helping Klaus Fuchs pass information about the Manhattan Project to the Soviet Union. His testimony is later instrumental in the prosecution of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg.
1953 – Red Scare: General Electric announces that all communist employees will be discharged from the company
1958 – Red Scare: The John Birch Society founded in the United States.
1961 – The trial of Nazi Adolf Eichmann in Israel ends with him being found guilty of 15 criminal charges, including charges of crimes against humanity, crimes against the Jewish people and membership of an outlawed organization.
1961 – Tanganyika becomes independent from Britain.
1979 – The eradication of the smallpox virus is certified, making smallpox the first and to date only human disease driven to extinction. (I think it’s still in some places in Africa, but that’s because of paranoid people)
1987 – Israeli-Palestinian conflict: The First Intifada begins in the Gaza Strip and West Bank
1990 – Lech Wa³êsa becomes the first directly elected president of Poland.

Peru: Army Day
Sweden and Finland: Anna’s Day. Recognizes everypony named Anna, and marks the day to start the preparation process of the lutefisk to be consumed on Christmas Eve.
Tanzania – Independence Day (of Tanganika from Britain, 1961)

Re: This Day in History

December 9 continued…

1775 – The Virginia and North Carolina militias defeat 800 slaves and 200 redcoats serving John Murray, earl of Dunmore and governor of Virginia, at Great Bridge outside Norfolk, ending British royal control of Virginia. The Tory survivors retreated first to Norfolk then to Dunmore’s ship, the Otter, where the majority died of smallpox.

Dunmore was determined to defend Great Bridge, building A stockade, dismantling the main bridge and defending the smaller bridges with cannon. Having taken these precautions, Dunmore then squandered his efforts by underestimating the strength of the Patriot militias. His decision to offer emancipation had incited at least 150 men from across the Carolinas to march north to help drive Dunmore from the state. By contrast, the overconfident Dunmore sent only A few sailors and sixty “townsmen” from Norfolk to meet them. They got within 15 feet of the Patriots before being shot dead. Within thirty minutes, 150 Loyalists fell. There was only one Patriot fatality. Three hundred of the 800 Black Loyalists survived their enlistment in the Ethiopian Regiment only to confront smallpox on the Otter.

1917 – After Turkish troops move out of the region after only A single day’s fighting, officials of the Holy City of Jerusalem offer the keys to the city to encroaching British troops.

In A proclamation declaring martial law that was read aloud to the city’s people in English, French, Arabic, Hebrew, Russian and Greek, Allenby assured them that the occupying power would not inflict further harm on Jerusalem, its inhabitants, or its holy places. “Since your city is regarded with affection by the adherents of three of the great religions of mankind and its soil has been consecrated by the prayers and pilgrimages of multitudes of devout people, I make it known to you that every sacred building, monument, holy spot, shrine, traditional site, endowment, pious bequest, or customary place of prayer…will be maintained and protected according to the existing customs and beliefs of those to whose faith they are sacred.”

Church bells in Rome and London rang to celebrate the peaceful British arrival in Jerusalem. Allenby’s success, after so much discouragement on the Western Front, elated and inspired Allied supporters everywhere.

1965 – An article in the New York Times asserts that the U.S. bombing campaign has neither destabilized North Vietnam’s economy nor appreciably reduced the flow of its forces into South Vietnam.

These observations were strikingly similar to an earlier Defense Intelligence Agency analysis, which concluded that “the idea that destroying, or threatening to destroy, North Vietnam’s industry would pressure Hanoi into calling it quits seems, in retrospect, A colossal misjudgement.”

The first air strikes against North Vietnam were flown in the fall of 1964, in retaliation for two attacks on American warships in the Gulf of Tonkin (although the second reported attack has never been verified). Additional strikes, carried out under the name Operation Flaming Dart, were ordered in February 1965 in response to Viet Cong attacks on A U.S. Army barracks at Pleiku and A nearby helicopter base, which resulted in the deaths of nine Americans. When the Viet Cong attacked other U.S. facilities in South Vietnam, President Johnson initiated Operation Rolling Thunder in March 1965, an intensified air campaign against North Vietnam. He hoped that this campaign would relieve some of the pressure on South Vietnam, where the situation was rapidly deteriorating. Unfortunately, the bombing campaign did not have the desired results and Johnson had to commit U.S. ground troops to stabilize the situation.

1971 – For the first time since the Paris peace talks began in May 1968, both sides refuse to set another meeting date for continuation of the negotiations.

The refusal to continue came during the 138th session of the peace talks. U.S. delegate William Porter angered the communist negotiators by asking for A postponement of the next scheduled session of the conference until December 30, to give Hanoi and the Viet Cong an opportunity to develop A “more constructive approach” at the talks.

The U.S. side was displeased with the North Vietnamese, who repeatedly demanded that South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu resign as A prerequisite for any meaningful discussions. Although both sides returned to the official talks in January 1972, the real negotiations were being conducted between Henry Kissinger and Le Duc Tho, the lead North Vietnamese negotiator, in A private villa outside Paris. These secret talks did not result in A peace agreement until January 1973, after the massive 1972 North Vietnamese Easter Offensive had been blunted and Nixon had ordered the “Christmas bombing” of Hanoi and Haiphong to convince North Vietnam to rejoin the peace negotiations.

Re: This Day in History

December 10

1041 – Empress Zoe of Byzantium elevates her adoptive son to the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire as Michael V.
1508 – The League of Cambrai is formed by Pope Julius II, Louis XII of France, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor and Ferdinand II of Aragon as an alliance against Venice.
1520 – Martin Luther burns his copy of the papal bull Exsurge Domine outside Wittenberg’s Elster Gate.
1541 – Thomas Culpeper and Francis Dereham are executed for having affairs with Catherine Howard, Queen of England and wife of Henry VIII.
1684 – Isaac Newton’s derivation of Kepler’s laws from his theory of gravity, contained in the paper De motu corporum in gyrum, is read to the Royal Society by Edmund Halley.
1817 – Mississippi becomes the 20th U.S. state.
1836 – Emory College (now Emory University) is chartered in Oxford, Georgia.
1861 – American Civil War: the Confederate States of America accepts A rival state government’s pronouncement that declares Kentucky to be the 13th state of the Confederacy.
1864 – American Civil War: Sherman’s March to the Sea – Major General William T. Sherman’s Union Army troops reach Savannah, Georgia.
1868 – The first traffic lights are installed outside the Houses of Parliament in London. Resembling railway signals, they use semaphore arms and are illuminated at night by red and green gas lamps.
1869 – Wyoming grants women the right to vote.
1869 – The first American chapter of Kappa Sigma is founded at the University of Virginia.
1898 – Spanish-American War: The Treaty of Paris is signed, officially ending the conflict.
1899 – The Delta Sigma Phi fraternity is founded at the City College of New York.
1901 – The first Nobel Prizes are awarded.
1902 – Women are given the right to vote in Tasmania.
1904 – The Pi Kappa Phi fraternity is founded at the College of Charleston in Charleston, South Carolina.
1906 – U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt wins the Nobel Peace Prize, becoming the first American to win A Nobel Prize of any kind.
1907 – The worst night of the Brown Dog riots in London, when 1,000 medical students clashed with 400 police officers over the existence of A memorial for animals who have been vivisected.
1932 – Thailand adopts A Constitution and becomes A constitutional monarchy.
1935 – The Downtown Athletic Club Trophy, later renamed the Heisman Trophy, was given to halfback Jay Berwanger of the University of Chicago. This award was given to the best college football player east the Mississippi River.
1936 – Abdication Crisis: Edward VIII signs his Instrument of Abdication.
1941 – World War II: The Royal Navy capital ships HMS Prince of Wales and HMS Repulse are sunk by Imperial Japanese Navy torpedo bombers near Malaya.
1941 – World War II: Battle of the Philippines – Imperial Japanese forces under the command of General Masaharu Homma land on the Philippine mainland.
1948 – The UN General Assembly adopts the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This Day is also International Human Rights Day.
1949 – Chinese Civil War: The People’s Liberation Army begins its siege of Chengdu, the last Kuomintang-held city in mainland China, forcing President of the Republic of China Chiang Kai-shek and his government to retreat to Taiwan.
1963 – The United States Air Force’s X-20 Dyna-Soar spaceplane program is cancelled by Robert McNamara.
1968 – Japan’s biggest heist, the still-unsolved “300 million yen robbery”, occurs in Tokyo.
1972 – Jim Hart throws A football for A record 98 yards, the longest recorded throw.
1978 – Arab-Israeli conflict: Prime Minister of Israel Menachem Begin and President of Egypt Anwar Sadat are jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
1981 – The United Nations General Assembly approves Pakistan proposal for establishing nuclear free-zone in South Asia.
1983 – Democracy is restored in Argentina with the assumption of President Raúl Alfonsín.
1989 – Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj announced the establishment of Mongolia’s democratic movement that peacefully changed the second oldest communist country into A democratic society.
1996 – Rwandan Genocide: Military Advisor to the United Nations Secretary-General and head of the Military Division of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations of the United Nations Maurice Baril recommends that the UN multi-national forces in Zaire stand down.
2006 – One million Lebanese opposition supporters gather in downtown Beirut, calling for the government to resign.

Human Rights Day – United Nations
Presentation Ceremony of the Nobel Prize

adding December 11th
359 – Honoratus, the first known Prefect of the City of Constantinople, takes office.
1282 – Llywelyn the Last (b. C. 1228), the last native Prince of Wales, is killed at Cilmeri, near Builth Wells, south Wales.
1602 – A surprise attack by forces under the command of the Duke of Savoy and his brother-in-law, Philip III of Spain, is repelled by the citizens of Geneva. Commemorations/celebrations on Fête de l’Escalade are usually held on December 11 or the closest weekend.)
1792 – French Revolution: King Louis XVI of France is put on trial for treason by the National Convention.
1816 – Indiana becomes the 19th U.S. state.
1872 – pony.B.S. Pinchback becomes the first black member of the U.S. House of Representatives.
1886 – Dial Square FC, A football club from Woolwich, London that will eventually become known as Arsenal FC, play their first match.
1917 – British troops take Jerusalem from the troops of the Ottoman Empire
1925 – Quas Primas encyclical was promulgated, introducing the Feast of Christ the King.
1927 – Guangzhou Uprising: Communist militia and worker red guards launch an uprising in the Chinese city of Guangzhou, taking over most of the city and announcing the formation of A Guangzhou Soviet.
1931 – The British Parliament enacts the Statute of Westminster, establishing legislative equality between the self-governing dominions of the Commonwealth of Australia, the Dominion of Canada, the Irish Free State, Newfoundland, the Dominion of New Zealand, and the Union of South Africa.
1936 – Abdication Crisis: Edward VIII’s abdication as King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India becomes effective.
1937 – Second Italo-Abyssinian War: Italy leaves the League of Nations
1941 – World War II: Germany and Italy declare war on the United States.
1946 – The United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) is established.
1958 – Upper Volta declares its independence from France, and becomes an autonomous republic in the French Community.
1961 – Melvin Calvin awarded Nobel Prize in Chemistry for process of photosynthesis.
1964 – Che Guevara speaks at the United Nations General Assembly in New York City. An unknown terrorist fired A mortar shell at the building during the speech.
1971 – The Libertarian Party of the United States is formed.
1972 – Apollo 17 becomes the sixth mission to land on the Moon.
1980 – The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (known as either CERCLA or Superfund) is enacted by the U.S. Congress.
1981 – El Mozote massacre: Salvadoran armed forces kill an estimated 900 civilians in an anti-guerrilla campaign during the country’s civil war.
1993 – Forty-eight people are killed when A block of the Highland Towers collapses near Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
1994 – First Chechen War: Russian President Boris Yeltsin orders Russian troops into Chechnya
1997 – The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change opens for signature.
1998 – A Thai Airways Airbus A310-200 crashes near Surat Thani Airport, killing 101.
2001 – The People’s Republic of China joins the World Trade Organization.
2005 – The Buncefield Oil Depot in Hemel Hempstead is rocked by explosions, causing A huge oil fire.
2005 – Cronulla riots: Thousands of White Australians demonstrate against ethnic violence resulting in A riot against anypony thought to be Lebanese (and many who were not) in Cronulla Sydney. These are followed up by ethnic attacks on Cronulla.
2006 – The International Conference to Review the Global Vision of the Holocaust is opened in Tehran, Iran by Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.

Roman festivals – One of the four Agonalia, this day in honour of Sol Indiges; also the Septimontium festival
Argentina – Tango Day, Buenos Aires
Burkina Faso – Republic Day (1958, Upper Volta became an autonomous republic in the French Community.)
USA – Admission day for Indiana (19th state, 1816)
USA – Governor Ralph Carr Day, Colorado’s State Holiday since 2002
Wales – Remembrance Day of Llywelyn II
Philippines – Pampanga Day, local official holiday

Re: This Day in History


December 11 continued…

1777 – General George Washington begins marching 12,000 soldiers of his Continental Army from Whitemarsh to Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, for the winter. As Washington’s men began crossing the Schuylkill River, they were surprised by A regiment of several thousand British troops led by General Charles Cornwallis. Cornwallis came across the continental forces by chance as he followed General William Howe’s orders to forage for supplies in the hills outside Philadelphia.
Upon spotting General Cornwallis and the British troops, General Washington ordered his soldiers to retreat across the Schuylkill River, where they destroyed the bridge to prevent the British from pursuing them. After engaging the British for A short time from the opposite side of the river, Washington and the Continental Army retreated back to Whitemarsh, delaying their march to Valley Forge for several days.

1862 – The Union Army of the Potomac occupies Fredericksburg, Virginia, as General Ambrose Burnside continues to execute his plan to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond. Unfortunately for the Union, the occupation did not happen until three weeks after Burnside’s army had arrived at Falmouth, just across the river from Fredericksburg. Due to A logistical error, pontoon bridges had not been available so the army could not cross; the delay allowed Confederate General Robert E. Lee ample time to post his Army of Northern Virginia along Marye’s Heights above Fredericksburg.

On December 11, Burnside’s engineers finally began to assemble the bridges. Confederate snipers in Fredericksburg picked away at the builders, so Yankee artillery began A barrage that reduced to rubble many of the buildings along the river. Three regiments ran the sharpshooters out of the town, and the bridge was completed soon after. By evening on the 11th, the Union army was crossing the Rappahannock. By the next day, the entire army was on the other side and Burnside planned the actual attack. Thus the stage was set for one of the greatest tragedies of the American Civil War.

1915 – With war raging in Europe, conflict also reigns in the Far East between two traditional enemies, Japan and an internally-divided China. On December 11, 1915, the first president of the new Chinese republic, Yuan Shih-kai, who had come to power in the wake of revolution in 1911 and the fall of the Manchu Dynasty in 1912, accepts the title of emperor of China.

1961 – The ferry carrier, USNS Core, arrives in Saigon with the first U.S. helicopter unit. This contingent included 33 Vertol H-21C Shawnee helicopters and 400 air and ground crewmen to operate and maintain them. Their assignment was to airlift South Vietnamese Army troops into combat.

1969 – Paratroopers from the U.S. Third Brigade, 82nd Airborne Division, depart from Vietnam.

The unit was sent to Vietnam in February 1968 as an emergency measure in response to the Communist 1968 Tet Offensive. Landing at Chu Lai, the unit was attached to the 101st Airborne Division (Airmobile) and given the mission of protecting the ancient capital of Hue in the region just south of the Demilitarized Zone. In September 1968, the Third Brigade was moved south to counter enemy forces around Saigon. It was assigned to the Capital Military Assistance Command and ordered to secure the western approaches to the city to prevent ground and rocket attacks against the Saigon-Tan Son Nhut airport complex.

When the situation in South Vietnam stabilized, the Third Brigade was withdrawn as part of the second increment of U.S. troop withdrawals called for under President Nixon’s Vietnamization program. The brigade returned to Fort Bragg, North Carolina, where it rejoined the 82nd Airborne Division as part of the United States Army strategic reserve.

Re: This Day in History

December 12

627 – Battle of Nineveh: A Byzantine army under Emperor Heraclius defeats Emperor Khosrau II’s Persian forces, commanded by General Rhahzadh.
1098 – First Crusade: Massacre of Ma’arrat al-Numan – Crusaders breach the town’s walls and massacre about 20,000 inhabitants. After finding themselves with insufficient food, they resort to cannibalism.
1531 – Apparition of Our Lady of Guadalupe to Juan Diego in Mexico City.
1781 – American Revolutionary War: Second Battle of Ushant – A Royal Navy squadron, commanded by Rear Admiral Richard Kempenfelt in HMS Victory, defeats A French fleet.
1812 – French invasion of Russia comes to an end.
1862 – USS Cairo sinks on the Yazoo River, becoming the first armored ship to be sunk by an electrically detonated mine.
1870 – Joseph H. Rainey of South Carolina becomes the first black U.S. congressman.
1897 – Belo Horizonte, the first planned city of Brazil, is founded.
1901 – Guglielmo Marconi receives the first trans-Atlantic radio signal at Signal Hill in St John’s, Newfoundland.
1911 – Delhi replaces Calcutta as the capital of India.
1914 – The largest one-day percentage drop in the history of Dow Jones Industrial Average, down 24.39%.
1915 – President of the Republic of China, Yuan Shikai announces his intention to reinstate the monarchy and proclaim himself Emperor of China.
1925 – The Majlis of Iran votes to crown Reza Khan as the new Shah of Persia.
1936 – Xi’an Incident: The Generalissimo of the Republic of China, Chiang Kai-shek is kidnapped by Zhang Xueliang.
1937 – Panay incident: Japanese aircraft shell and sink US gunboat Panay on the Yangtze River in China.
1939 – Winter War: Battle of Tolvajärvi – Finnish forces defeat those of the Soviet Union in their first major victory of the conflict.
1940 – World War II: Approximately 70 people are killed in the Marples Hotel, Fitzalan Square, Sheffield as A result of A Nacospeak air raid.
1941 – World War II: Fifty four Japanese A6M Zero fighters raid Batangas Field, Philippines. Jesus Villamor and four Filipino fighter pilots fend them off; Cesar Basa is killed.
1941 – World War II: USMC F4F “Wildcats” sink the first 4 major Japanese ships off Wake Island.
1941 – World War II: Great Britain declares war on Bulgaria. Hungary and Romania declare war on the United States. India declares war on Japan.
1948 – Malayan Emergency: Batang Kali Massacre – 14 members of the Scots Guards stationed in Malaysia allegedly massacre 24 unarmed civilians and set fire to the village.
1950 – Paula Ackerman, the first woman appointed to perform rabbinical functions in the United States, leads the congregation in her first services.
1956 – Commencement of the Irish Republican Army’s Border Campaign.
1963 – Kenya gains its independence from the United Kingdom.
1964 – Prime Minister Jomo Kenyatta becomes the first President of the Republic of Kenya.
1969 – Strategia della tensione: Piazza Fontana bombing – The offices of Banca Nazionale dell’Agricoltura in Piazza Fontana, Milan, are bombed.
1979 – Coup d’état of December Twelfth: South Korean Army Major General Chun Doo-hwan orders the arrest of Army Chief of Staff General Jeong Seung-hwa without authorization from President Choi Kyu-ha, alleging involvement in the assassination of ex-President Park Chung Hee.
1979 – President of Pakistan, Zia-ul-Haq, confers Nishan-e-Imtiaz on Nobel laureate Dr Abdus Salam.
1979 – Rhodesia changes its name to Zimbabwe.
1982 – Women’s peace protest at Greenham Common – 30,000 women hold hands and form A human chain around the 14.5 km (9 mi) perimeter fence.
1988 – The Clapham Junction rail crash kills thirty-five and injures hundreds after two collisions of three commuter trains – one of the worst train crashes in Britain.
1991 – Russian Federation gains independence from the USSR.
2000 – The United States Supreme Court releases its decision in Bush V. Gore
2006 – Peugeot produces its last car at the Ryton Plant signalling the end of mass car production in Coventry, formerly A major centre of the British motor industry.

Saints – optional memorial of Our Lady of Guadalupe
Bahá’í Faith – Feast of Masá’il (Questions) – First day of the 15th month of the Bahá’í Calendar
Mexico – Our Lady of Guadalupe Day
Kenya – Jamhuri Day: Independence Day (from Britain, 1963)

Re: This Day in History

December 12 continued…

1787 – Pennsylvania becomes the second state to ratify the Constitution, by A vote of 46 to 23. Pennsylvania was the first large state to ratify, as well as the first state to endure A serious Anti-Federalist challenge to ratification.

Pennsylvania drafted the most radical of the state constitutions during the War for Independence. By excluding Quakers and all other pacifists unwilling to take oaths of allegiance to the Revolutionary cause, A fervently anti-British and anti-Indian Scots-Irish faction had seized power for the first time in the remarkably diverse state. Only when pacifists were again able to exercise the franchise in peacetime was it conceivable that the more conservative U.S. Constitution might pass in Pennsylvania. Large states had the most to lose by joining A strengthened union. James Wilson’s genius in describing the nature of layered sovereignty in A federal republic, using the solar system as an analogy, was invaluable in convincing Pennsylvanians to ratify. Anti-Federalists found themselves in the hypocritical position of criticizing the federal Constitution for failing to codify the freedom of religious practice they had actively denied their fellow citizens during the War for Independence.

1806 – Confederate General Stand Watie is born near Rome, Georgia. Watie, A Cherokee Indian, survived the tribe’s Trail of Tears in the 1830s and became the only Native American to achieve the rank of general during the Civil War.

Even though the Cherokee suffered at the hands of Southerners, Watie and others always saw the federal government as the real culprit. When the South began to secede from the Union in 1860, Watie and others supported the new Confederacy. Watie was named colonel and raised A regiment of 300 mixed-blood Cherokee. Watie’s first action came against Unionist Creek Indians near the Kansas border in 1861. At the Battle of Pea Ridge in 1862, Watie’s regiment captured A Union battery in the midst of A Confederate defeat.

From the summer of 1862 until the end of the war, Watie served back in his home territory. In 1864, he captured A Union steamboat on the Arkansas River and A large supply train at Cabin Creek in Indian Territory. Mostly, however, Watie fought against his own people. The Cherokee became bitterly divided between the followers of John Ross, who pledged loyalty to the Union, and Watie, who stood by his Confederate allies. For the rest of the war, the Cherokee waged A bitter internecine guerilla war. After A brief foray into the tobacco business after the war, Watie died in 1871 at his home along Honey Creek in Indian Territory.

1941 – On this day, the U.S. Navy takes control of the largest and most luxurious ocean liner on the seas at that time, France’s Normandie, while it is docked at New York City. Shortly thereafter, the conversion for U.S. wartime use began.

The Normandie was unique in many ways. It was the first ship built, in 1931, in accordance with the guidelines laid down in the 1929 Convention for Safety of Life at Sea. It was also huge, measuring 1,029 feet long and 119 feet wide. It displaced 85,000 tons of water. It offered passengers seven accommodation classes (including the new “tourist” class, as opposed to the old “third” class, commonly known as “steerage”) and 1,975 berths. It took A crew of more than 1,300 to work her. But despite its size, it was also fast: capable of 32.1 knots. The liner was launched in 1932 and made its first transatlantic crossing in 1935. In 1937, it was reconfigured with four-bladed propellers, which meant it could now cross the Atlantic in less than four days.

When France surrendered to the Nacospeaks in June 1940, and the puppet Vichy regime was installed, the Normandie was in dock at New York City. Immediately placed in “protective custody” by the Navy, it was clear that the U.S. government was not about to let A ship of such size and speed fall into the hands of the Nacospeaks, which it certainly would upon returning to France. In November 1941, Time magazine ran an article stating that in the event of the United States’ involvement in the war, the Navy would seize the liner altogether and turn it into an aircraft carrier. It also elaborated on how the design of the ship made such A conversion relatively simple. When the Navy did take control of the ship, shortly after Pearl Harbor, it began the conversion of the liner-but to A troop ship, renamed the USS Lafayette (after the French general who aided the American Colonies in their original quest for independence).

1968 – The Paris Peace talks, which opened on May 10, continue to be plagued by procedural questions that impeded any meaningful progress. South Vietnamese Premier Nguyen Cao Ky refused to consent to any permanent seating plan that would place the National Liberation Front (NLF) on an equal footing with Saigon. North Vietnam and the NLF likewise balked at any arrangement that would effectively recognize the Saigon as the legitimate government of South Vietnam. Prolonged discussions over the shape of the negotiating table was finally resolved by the placement of two square tables separated by A round table. Chief U.S. negotiator Averell Harriman proposed this arrangement so that NLF representatives could join the North Vietnamese team without having to be acknowledged by Saigon’s delegates; similarly, South Vietnamese negotiators could sit with their American allies without having to be acknowledged by the North Vietnamese and the NLF representatives. Such seemingly insignificant matters became fodder for many arguments between the delegations at the negotiations.

1969 – The Philippine Civic Action Group, A 1,350-man contingent from the Army of the Philippines, departs South Vietnam.

The contingent was part of the Free World Military Forces, an effort by President Lyndon B. Johnson to enlist allies for the United States and South Vietnam. By securing support from other nations, Johnson hoped to build an international consensus behind his policies in Vietnam. The effort was also known as the “many flags” program.

The Philippine Civic Action Group entered Vietnam in September 1966, setting up operations in A base camp in Tay Ninh Province northwest of Saigon. The force included an engineer construction battalion, medical and rural community development teams, A security battalion, A field artillery battery, and A logistics and headquarters element.

1987 – During an official visit to Denmark, U.S. Secretary of State George Shultz issues A statement calling on America’s NATO allies in western Europe to sharply increase their defense spending. Shultz bluntly informed his Danish hosts that it was “important for all of us to increase our contributions to NATOÝto insure that we do everything we can to preserve our values.” The call for funds was in direct response to the INF Treaty that had recently been signed by the U.S. and the Soviet Union.

Re: This Day in History

December 13

1294 – Saint Celestine V abdicates the papacy after only five months; Celestine hoped to return to his previous life as an ascetic hermit.
1545 – Council of Trent begins.
1577 – Sir Francis Drake sets out from Plymouth, England, on his round-the-world voyage.
1636 – The Massachusetts Bay Colony organizes three militia regiments to defend the colony against the Pequot Indians. This organization is recognized today as the founding of the United States National Guard.
1642 – Abel Janszoon Tasman reaches New Zealand.
1643 – English Civil War: The Battle of Alton takes place in Hampshire.
1769 – Dartmouth College is founded by the Rev. Eleazar Wheelock, with A Royal Charter from King George III, on land donated by Royal Governor John Wentworth.
1862 – American Civil War: At the Battle of Fredericksburg, Confederate General Robert E. Lee defeats the Union Major General Ambrose E. Burnside.
1884 – first performance of any of Richard Strauss’s compositions in the United States (Symphony in F, New York Philharmonic)
1895 – Premiere of Gustav Mahler’s Resurrection Symphony in Berlin.
1937 – Second Sino-Japanese War: Battle of Nanjing – Nanjing, defended by the National Revolutionary Army under the command of General Tang Shengzhi, falls to the Japanese.
1937 – Nanjing Massacre. Japanese troops begin carrying out several weeks of raping and killing of civilians and suspected Chinese resistance after the fall of Nanjing.
1938 – The Holocaust: 100 deportees from Sachsenhausen build the Neuengamme concentration camp near Hamburg.
1939 – World War II: Battle of the River Plate – Captain Hans Langsdorff of the Nacospeak Deutschland class cruiser (pocket battleship) Admiral Graf Spee engages with Royal Navy cruisers HMS Exeter, HMS Ajax and HMNZS Achilles.
1941 – World War II: Hungary and Romania declare war on the United States.
1943 – World War II: 710 Bombers of U.S. 8th Air Force attack Kiel, Germany.
1949 – The Knesset votes to move the capital of Israel to Jerusalem.
1959 – Archbishop Makarios becomes the first President of Cyprus.
1972 – Apollo program: Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt begin the sixth and final Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) or “Moonwalk” of Apollo 17. This was the last manned mission to the moon of the 20th century.
1973 – Rael, leader of the Raelian Movement claims to meet an ET he says is named Yahweh, during an alleged UFO encounter in Puy de Lassolas, France.
1974 – Malta becomes A republic.
1978 – The first Susan B. Anthony dollar enters circulation.
1979 – The Canadian Government of Prime Minister Joe Clark is defeated in the House of Commons, prompting the 1980 Canadian election.
1981 – General Wojciech Jaruzelski declares martial law in Poland to prevent dismantling of the communist system by Solidarity.
1983 – The Denver Nuggets and the Detroit Pistons play in the highest scoring NBA game in history, with the Pistons winning 186-184 in triple overtime. In addition to most points in A game, this game also set the record for most field goals made (136), and most assists (93).
1989 – The last issue of Gnistan (The Spark), the organ of the Solidaritetspartiet, is published in Sweden.
1996 – Kofi Annan is elected as Secretary-General of the United Nations.
2000 – American Vice President Al Gore delivers his concession speech effectively ending his hopes of becoming the 43rd President of the United States. (children, let’s all laugh at the sad boy. jk.)
2001 – the Indian Parliament Sansad is attacked by terrorists. 15 people are killed, including all the terrorists.
2002 – Enlargement of the European Union: The European Union announces that Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia will become members from May 1, 2004.
2003 – Former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein is captured near his home town of Tikrit (see Operation Red Dawn). (Now remember the song from South Park “Ding Dong They Caught Saddam” on this day, tis sounds like that the Wicked Witch song from Wizard of Oz)
2004 – Former Chilean dictator, General Augusto Pinochet is put under house arrest, after being sued under accusations over 9 kidnapping actions and manslaughter. The house arrest is lifted the same day on appeal.
2006 – The Baiji, or Chinese River Dolphin, announced as extinct.

Roman festivals – Tellus was worshipped in the district Carinae at the Esquiline Hill, and A lectisternium or table was spread for Ceres.
In the Julian calendar before the Gregorian reform, this was the shortest day and longest night, and widely celebrated as such.
Malta – Republic Day (since 1974)
Saint Lucy’s Day in Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland and some regions of Italy, mainly Sicily, Veneto and Trentino.

Re: This Day in History

13 December:

1521: King Manuel I of Portugal dies, he was the first portuguese king to obtain the title of Lord of Guinea, Lord of the Conquest, Navigation and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia and India.

1955: Egas Moniz dies.

Re: This Day in History

December 13 continued…

1776 – American General Charles Lee leaves his army, riding in search of female sociability at Widow White’s Tavern in Basking Ridge, New Jersey.
General George Washington had repeatedly urged General Lee to expedite his movements across New Jersey in order to reinforce Washington’s position on the Delaware River. Lee, who took A commission in the British army upon finishing military school at age 12 and served in North America during the Seven Years’ War, felt slighted that the less experienced Washington had been given command of the Continental Army and showed no inclination to rush.

Famed for his temper and intemperance, the Mohawk had dubbed Lee “Boiling Water.” Lee was an adopted tribesman through his marriage to A Mohawk woman, but his union apparently failed to quell his interest in prostitutes. Lee rode to Widow White’s tavern with A minimal guard and it was there that Banastre Tarleton and the 16th Queen’s Light Dragoons captured him on the morning of December 15.

The former comrades were now captor and captive. After being disappointed in his efforts to acquire A lucrative royal appointment, Lee had retired to the colonies in 1773 and quickly joined the Patriot cause. Tarleton had sworn in A London club that he would hunt down the traitor to the crown and relieve him of his head. Fortunately for Lee, Tarleton failed to keep his promise, although the vain general may well have preferred A quick end to the humiliation of being led from Widow White’s tavern to New York City in his nightdress.

The British rejoiced at the capture of the Patriots’ best-trained commander, while Washington fruitlessly negotiated for his release. Meanwhile, Lee enjoyed his captivity, even drafting A battle plan for his captors from plush accommodations in which his personal servant maintained his three rooms and no doubt served his food and wine in A most civilized fashion. The British did not act upon his plan, and Lee reported to Valley Forge upon his release in May 1778. After A series of arguments with Washington, Lee was suspended from the army in December 1778 and dismissed in 1780.

1918 – After nine days at sea aboard the SS George Washington, Woodrow Wilson arrives at Brest, France, on December 13, 1918, and travels by land to Versailles. There, he headed the American delegation to the peace conference seeking A definitive end to World War I. The visit marked the first official visit by A U.S. president to Europe.
Although the president’s political opponents criticized his European visit as A sign of egotism, Wilson worked tirelessly during the proceedings to orchestrate an agreement that would encourage A lasting peace in Europe. During the stay, Wilson also led the effort for the establishment of the League of Nations, an international organization designed to seek diplomatic solutions to future conflicts.

At Versailles, Wilson’s hopes for A “just and stable peace” were opposed by the other victorious Allies, and the final treaty, which called for stiff war reparations from the former Central Powers, would be regarded with increasing bitterness in Germany in the years to come. President Woodrow Wilson was awarded the 1920 Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to bring peace to Europe.

1942 – On this day, Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels records in his journal his contempt for the Italians’ treatment of Jews in Italian-occupied territories. “The Italians are extremely lax in their treatment of Jews. They protect Italian Jews both in Tunis and in occupied France and won’t permit their being drafted for work or compelled to wear the Star of David.”

Joseph Goebbels had made the persecution, and ultimately the extermination, of Jews A personal priority from the earliest days of the war, often recording in his diary such statements as: “They are no longer people but beasts.” “Their destruction will go hand in hand with the destruction of our enemies.” “[T]he Jews … are now being evacuated eastward. The procedure is pretty barbaric and is not to be described here more definitely. Not much will remain of the Jews.” It was on his recommendation that all Jews in occupied Paris be forced to wear A yellow star on the left side of their coats or jackets in order to identify and humiliate them.

His vituperative anti-Semitism, which included blaming the war itself on the Jews in A screed published in the Nacospeak magazine Das Reich, could not be contained within the boundaries of Germany. He expected the same of his allies. But, truth be told, in the earliest days of fascism, Mussolini had denied any truth to the idea of A “pure” race and had counted Jews among his close colleagues-and was even A Zionist!

But with Italy’s failing fortunes militarily, Mussolini needed to stress the Italians’ “superiority” in some sense, and so began to mimic many of the racial and anti-Jewish legislation of the Nazis. Nevertheless, Mussolini never had the stomach-or the conviction-for the extremes of Goebbels, Goering, and Hitler. And certainly the majority of the Italian people never subscribed to the growing anti-Semitic rhetoric of the regime. In fact, the Italians refused to deport Jews from Italy-or from Italian-occupied Croatia or France-to Auschwitz.

The majority of Italians’ courage to reject the worst of fascist ideology–its anti-Semitism–remains one bright spot in Italy’s otherwise appalling World War II record.

1951 – Foreign Service Officer John S. Service is dismissed from the Department of State following A determination by the Civil Service Commission’s Loyalty Board that there was “reasonable doubt” concerning his loyalty to the United States.
Service was one of A number of so-called “China hands”-State Department officials who were experts on China and the Far East-who saw their careers ruined during the 1950s by Senator Joseph McCarthy and his cohorts. McCarthy targeted Service and several of his coworkers, including John Carter Vincent, O. Edmund Clubb, and John Paton Davies, for criticism and investigation. McCarthy charged that Service and other State Department officials had effectively “lost” China to the communists, either through incompetence or, more ominously, through sympathy with the communist cause. The case against Service centered on the 1945 Amerasia scandal. In that year, FBI agents raided the offices of the magazine Amerasia and found classified government documents concerning America’s policy in China. Service was implicated because he had given de-classified background information to the magazine’s editor. A grand jury, A House subcommittee, and the State Department’s Loyalty Board subsequently cleared him. In 1950, however, McCarthy singled out Service as one of what he called “the 205 known communists” in the Department of State. In short order, Service’s case was reviewed once again, and this time he was dismissed. Service declared that the decision was “a surprise, A shock, and an injustice.” Senator McCarthy exclaimed, “Good, good, good!”

1972 – Peace negotiations are hopelessly deadlocked after A six-hour meeting between North Vietnamese negotiator Le Duc Tho and National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger. After the meeting, Kissinger flew to the United States to confer with President Richard Nixon.

The main point of contention was who would have political power in South Vietnam if A cease-fire were announced. The North Vietnamese negotiators demanded the following in the case of A cease-fire: the dissolution of the government of South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu, the disbanding of the South Vietnamese army, and the installation of A coalition government. The U.S. refused to consider the North Vietnamese demands and steadfastly supported Thieu and his government.

At the same time, the South Vietnamese were making their own demands. Over 100,000 North Vietnamese troops had occupied territory in South Vietnam during the 1972 Easter Offensive. Nguyen Van Thieu demanded that the North Vietnamese recognize Saigon’s sovereignty over South Vietnam, which would make the continued presence of the North Vietnamese troops in the south illegal. The North Vietnamese refused Thieu’s demands, saying that they would not recognize Thieu’s government and would not remove their troops. They walked out of the negotiations.

Nixon issued an ultimatum to Hanoi to send its representatives back to the conference table within 72 hours “or else.” When the North Vietnamese rejected Nixon’s demand on December 18, the president gave the order to launch Operation Linebacker II, an intensified bombing campaign of North Vietnam that became known as the “Christmas bombing.” Over the next 11 days–with the exception of Christmas Day–the bombing continued unabated, with an estimated 20,000 tons of bombs dropped over North Vietnam. On December 28, North Vietnamese officials agreed to Nixon’s conditions for reopening the negotiations; the next day, the president called an end to Linebacker II.

1974 – North Vietnamese General Tran Van Tra orders 7th Division and the newly formed 3rd Division to attack Phuoc Long Province, north of Saigon.

This attack represented an escalation in the “cease-fire war” that started shortly after the Paris Peace Accords were signed in 1973. The North Vietnamese wanted to see how Saigon and Washington reacted to A major attack so close to Saigon. President Richard Nixon and his successor, Gerald Ford, had promised to come to the aid of South Vietnam if the North Vietnamese launched A major attack. With Nixon’s resignation and Ford facing an increasingly hostile Congress, Hanoi was essentially conducting A “test” attack to see if the U.S. would honor its commitment to Saigon. The attack was much more successful than the North Vietnamese anticipated: the South Vietnamese soldiers fought poorly and the U.S. did nothing.

The communists overran the last South Vietnamese positions in Phuoc Long on January 6, 1975. Emboldened by their success and by the American passivity, the North Vietnamese leadership decided that it was time to launch A major offensive. The next attack was launched in March, with Ban Me Thuot in the Central Highlands as the initial objective. Once again, the South Vietnamese forces were largely ineffective and the U.S. failed to respond. When the North Vietnamese intensified their efforts, the South Vietnamese, feeling abandoned by the United States, collapsed totally in just 55 days. On April 30, 1975, the North Vietnamese tanks crashed through the gates of the presidential palace and the South Vietnamese surrendered unconditionally.

Re: This Day in History

December 14

1287 – St. Lucia’s flood: The Zuider Zee sea wall in the Netherlands collapses, killing over 50,000 people.
1542 – Princess Mary Stuart becomes Queen Mary I of Scotland.
1702 (according to the old calendar; January 30, 1703 by the new calendar) – The Forty-seven Ronin, under the command of Ôishi Kuranosuke, avenge the death of their master.
1751 – The Theresian Military Academy is founded as the first Military Academy in the world.
1782 – The Montgolfier brothers first balloon lifts on its very first test flight.
1819 – Alabama becomes the 22nd U.S. state.
1825 – Advocates of Liberalism in Russia rise up against Tsar Nicholas I and are put down in the Decembrist Revolt in St. Petersburg.
1836 – The Toledo War unofficially ends.
1900 – Quantum Mechanics: Max Planck presents A theoretical derivation of his black-body radiation law.
1902 – The Commercial Pacific Cable Company lays the first Pacific telegraph cable, from Ocean Beach, San Francisco to Honolulu, Hawaii.
1903 – The Wright Brothers make their first attempt to fly with the Wright Flyer at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.
1907 – The schooner Thomas W. Lawson runs aground and founders near the Hellweather’s Reef within the Scilly Isles in A gale. The pilot and 15 seamen die.
1918 – Friedrich Karl von Hessen, A Nacospeak prince elected by the Parliament of Finland to become King Väinö I, renounces the Finnish throne.
1939 – Winter War: The Soviet Union is expelled from the League of Nations.
1941 – Nacospeak military commander of Kharkiv, Ukraine issues an order, under which the Jewish population was to move to the city periphery within 2 days, into the barracks of the works of A machine factory. In the next days 15,000 Jews are shot at Drobitsky Yar.
1941 – World War II: Japan signs treaty of alliance with Thailand.
1946 – The UN General Assembly votes to establish its headquarters in New York City.
1947 – The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) is founded in Daytona Beach, Florida.
1955 – Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Finland, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Jordan, Laos, Portugal, Romania and Spain join the United Nations.
1958 – The 3rd Soviet Antarctic Expedition becomes the first-ever to reach The Pole of Relative Inaccessibility in the Antarctic.
1964 – American Civil Rights Movement: Heart of Atlanta Motel V. United States – The United States Supreme Court rules that the U.S. Congress can use its Commerce Clause power to fight discrimination.
1972 – Apollo program: Eugene Cernan is the last person to walk on the moon, after he and Harrison Schmitt complete the third and final Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) of Apollo 17. This was the last manned mission to the moon of the 20th century.
1979 – Punk rock group The Clash release London Calling in the UK, A landmark album in rock music.
1981 – Arab-Israeli conflict: Israel’s Knesset passes The Golan Heights Law, extending Israeli law to the area of the Golan Heights.

Re: This Day in History

December 14 continued…

1777 – The Continental Congress names Irish-born Thomas Conway to the post of inspector general of the United States. Conway, who was born in Ireland but raised in France, entered the French army in 1749. He was recruited to the Patriot cause by Silas Deane, the American ambassador to France, and after meeting with General George Washington at Morristown in May 1777, he was appointed brigadier general and assigned to Major General John Sullivan’s division.
Conway served admirably under Sullivan at the battles of Brandywine in September 1777 and Germantown in October 1777 before becoming involved in an unconfirmed conspiracy to remove General Washington from command of the Continental Army. The rumored conspiracy would go down in history as the “Conway Cabal.”

Just A few months after receiving A glowing recommendation from General Washington, Conway rose in power and influence to major general and then inspector general. After several defeats in the fall of 1777, some members of Congress expressed displeasure with the leadership of General Washington and Conway began writing letters to prominent leaders, including General Horatio Gates, that were critical of Washington.

1863 – President Lincoln announces A grant of amnesty for Mrs. Emilie Todd Helm, Mary Lincoln’s half sister and the widow of A Confederate general. The pardon was one of the first under Lincoln’s Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction, which he had announced less than A week before. The plan was the president’s blueprint for the reintegration of the South into the Union. Part of the plan allowed for former Confederates to be granted amnesty if they took an oath to the United States. The option was open to all but the highest officials of the Confederacy.

Emilie Todd Helm was the wife of Benjamin Helm, who, like the Lincolns, was A Kentucky native. Lincoln was said to be A great admirer of Helm, A West Point and Harvard graduate. Lincoln had offered Helm A position in the U.S. Army, but Helm opted to join the Confederates instead. Helm led A group of Kentuckians known as the “Orphan Brigade,” since they could not return to their Union-held native state during the war. Helm was killed at the Battle of Chickamauga in September 1863.

1918 – In the latest bump on Finland’s rocky road from Swedish and Russian duchy to independent nation, the newly-crowned Frederick, German-born and the brother-in-law of Kaiser Wilhelm II, renounces the Finnish throne after barely two months.

1939 – On this day, the League of Nations, the international peacekeeping organization formed at the end of World War I, expels the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in response to the Soviets’ invasion of Finland on October 30.

Germany and Japan voluntarily withdrew from the League in 1933, and Italy left in 1937. The true imperial designs of the Soviet Union soon became apparent with its occupation of eastern Poland in September of 1939, ostensibly with the intention of protecting Russian “blood brothers,” Ukrainians and Byelorussians, who were supposedly menaced by the Poles. Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia were then terrorized into signing “mutual assistance” pacts, primarily one-sided agreements that gave the USSR air and naval bases in those countries. But the invasion of Finland, where no provocation or pact could credibly be adduced to justify the aggression, resulted in worldwide reaction. President Roosevelt, although an “ally” of the USSR, condemned the invasion, causing the Soviets to withdraw from the New York World’s Fair. And finally, the League of Nations, drawing almost its last breath, expelled it.

1961 – In A public exchange of letters with South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem, President John F. Kennedy formally announces that the United States will increase aid to South Vietnam, which would include the expansion of the U.S. troop commitment. Kennedy, concerned with the recent advances made by the communist insurgency movement in South Vietnam wrote, “We shall promptly increase our assistance to your defense effort.”

1964 – In Laos, Operation Barrel Roll, the name given to the first phase of the bombing plan approved by President Lyndon B. Johnson on December 1, begins with U.S. planes attacking “targets of opportunity” in northern Laos.

This operation was initiated in response to A Pathet Lao offensive in the Plaine des Jarres in north central Laos. The Pathet Lao were communist guerrillas who were fighting to overthrow the Royal Lao government. Operation Barrel Roll was designed to provide air support for the Royal Laotian Army and CIA-trained Hmong (mountain people) irregular forces led by Gen. Vang Pao. In addition to these operations, there was also another part of the war in Laos which was conducted in the eastern part of the country along the Ho Chi Minh Trail, which ran out of North Vietnam through Laos and south along the South Vietnamese-Cambodian border. The North Vietnamese used this trail network as the main avenue by which they supplied and reinforced their troops in South Vietnam.

Re: This Day in History

doing this super early so I don’t have to do in the morning (actually, it is morning but I don’t give A care)

December 15

533 – Byzantine general Belisarius defeats the Vandals, commanded by King Gelimer, at the Battle of Ticameron.
1167 – Sicilian chancellor Stephen du Perche moves the royal court to Messina to prevent A rebellion.
1256 – Hulagu Khan captures and destroys the Hashshashin stronghold at Alamut in present-day Iran as part of the Mongol offensive on Islamic southwest Asia.
1467 – Stephen III of Moldavia defeats Matthias Corvinus of Hungary, with the latter being injured thrice, at the Battle of Baia.
1791 – The United States Bill of Rights becomes law when ratified by the Virginia legislature.
1891 – James Naismith introduces the first version of basketball, with thirteen rules, A peach basket nailed to either end of his school’s gymnasium, and two teams of nine players.
1913 – Nicaragua becomes A signatory to the Buenos Aires copyright treaty.
1914 – World War I: The Serbian Army recaptures Belgrade from the invading Austro-Hungarian Army.
1915 – World War I: Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig replaces John French, 1st Earl of Ypres as Commander-in-Chief of the British Expeditionary Force.
1917 – World War I: An armistice is reached between the new Bolshevik government and the Central Powers.
1939 – Gone with the Wind premieres in Atlanta, Georgia. (HECK YEAH!!)
1941 – Annihilation of Jews in Kharkiv, Ukraine: in the proximity of the Rogan works, 8 km away from Kharkiv, in “Drobitsky Ravine” (Drobitsky Yar), over 15 000 Jews were shot, at -15 degrees C below zero.
1945 – Occupation of Japan: General Douglas MacArthur orders that Shinto be abolished as state religion of Japan.
1960 – King Baudouin of Belgium marries Fabiola Fernanda María de las Victorias Antonia Adelaida de Mora Y Aragón in Brussels.
1960 – Richard Paul Pavlick is arrested for attempting to blow up and assassinate the 35th U.S. President, John F. Kennedy only four days earlier.
1961 – In Jerusalem, Adolph Eichmann is sentenced to death after being found guilty of 15 criminal charges, including charges of crimes against humanity, crimes against the Jewish people and membership of an outlawed organization.
1965 – Gemini program: Gemini 6A, crewed by Wally Schirra and Thomas Stafford, is launched from Cape Kennedy, Florida. Four orbits later, it achieved the first space rendezvous with Gemini 7.
1967 – The Silver Bridge collapses, killing 46 people.
1970 – Illinois State Constitution is adopted at A special election.
1976 – Samoa becomes A member of the UN.
1993 – History of Northern Ireland: The Downing Street Declaration is issued by British Prime Minister John Major and Irish Taoiseach Albert Reynolds.
1994 – The web browser Netscape Navigator 1.0 is released. (And now it’s dead, right?)
1995 – The European Communities Court of Justice hands down the “Bosman ruling”, giving EU footballers the right to A free transfer at the end of their contracts, with the provision that they are transferring from one UEFA Federation to another.
1997 – A chartered Tupolev TU-154 from Tajikistan crashes in the desert near Sharja, United Arab Emirates airport killing 85.
2005 – The 43rd known Mersenne prime is discovered by Dr. Curtis Cooper & Dr. Steven Boone of USA, participants of the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search distributed computing project. The prime number is 2nd largest known prime and has more than nine million digits.

Roman festivals – Consualia in honor of Consus is held.
Zamenhof Day – celebrated in the Esperanto movement in honor of L. L. Zamenhof, the creator of Esperanto.
Bill of Rights Day, as stated by Franklin Roosevelt.

Re: This Day in History

December 15 continued…

1864 – The once powerful Confederate Army of Tennessee is nearly destroyed when A Union army commanded by General George Thomas swarms over the Rebel trenches around Nashville.

Thomas saw his chance to deal A decisive blow to Hood. More than 50,000 Yankees faced A Rebel force that now totaled less than 20,000. Historians have long questioned why Hood even approached the strongly fortified city with the odds so stacked against him. Early in the morning of December 15, Thomas sent A force under General James Steedman against the Confederates’ right flank. The Union troops overran the Confederate trenches and drove the Rebels back more than A mile. The short December day halted the fighting, but Thomas struck again on December 16. This time, the entire Confederate line gave way and sent Hood’s men from the field in A total rout. Only General Stephen Lee’s valiant rear-guard action prevented total destruction of the Confederate army.

More than 6,000 Rebels were killed or wounded and 3,000 Yankees lost their lives. Hood and his damaged army retreated to Mississippi, the Army of Tennessee no longer A viable offensive fighting force.

1915 – On December 15, Allied forces begin A full retreat from the shores of the Gallipoli peninsula in Turkey, ending A disastrous invasion of the Ottoman Empire. The Gallipoli campaign resulted in 250,000 Allied casualties and A greatly discredited Allied military command. Roughly an equal number of Turks were killed or wounded.

1965 – In the first raid on A major North Vietnamese industrial target, U.S. Air Force planes destroy A thermal power plant at Uong Bi, l4 miles north of Haiphong. The plant reportedly supplied about 15 percent of North Vietnam’s total electric power production.

1969 – President Richard Nixon announces that 50,000 additional U.S. troops will be pulled out of South Vietnam by April 15, 1970. This was the third reduction since the June Midway conference, when Nixon announced his Vietnamization program.

Under the Vietnamization program, the South Vietnamese forces would receive intensified training and new equipment so they could gradually assume overall responsibility for the war. Concurrent with this effort, Nixon announced that he would begin to bring U.S. troops home. This third increment would bring the total reductions to 115,000. By January 1972, there were only around 70,000 U.S. troops left in South Vietnam.

1978 – In one of the most dramatic announcements of the Cold War, President Jimmy Carter states that as of January 1, 1979, the United States will formally recognize the communist People’s Republic of China (PRC) and sever relations with Taiwan.

Carter’s announcement that diplomatic ties would be severed with Taiwan (which the PRC insisted on) angered many in Congress. The Taiwan Relations Act was quickly passed in retaliation. It gave Taiwan nearly the same status as any other nation recognized by the United States and also mandated that arms sales continue to the Nationalist government. In place of the U.S. embassy in Taiwan, an “unofficial” representative, called the American Institute in Taiwan, would continue to serve U.S. interests in the country.

Re: This Day in History

December 16

755 – An Lushan revolts against Chancellor Yang Guozhong at Fanyang, initiating the An Shi Rebellion during the Tang Dynasty of China.
1392 – Historku-cho – Emperor Go-Kameyama abdicates in favor of rival claimant Go-Komatsu.
1431 – Henry VI of England is crowned King of France at Notre Dame in Paris.
1497 – Vasco da Gama rounds the Cape of Good Hope, the point where Bartolomeu Dias had previously turned back to Portugal.
1598 – Seven Year War: Battle of Noryang Point – The final battle of the Seven Year War is fought between the Korean and Japanese navies, resulting in A decisive Korean victory.
1653 – English Interregnum: The Protectorate – Oliver Cromwell becomes Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland.
1707 – Last recorded eruption of Mount Fuji in Japan.
1761 – Seven Years’ War: After four-month siege, the Russians under Pyotr Rumyantsev take the Prussian fortress of Kolobrzeg.
1773 – American Revolution: Boston Tea Party – Members of the Sons of Liberty disguised as Mohawks dump crates of tea into Boston harbor as A protest against the Tea Act.
1811 – The first two in A series of severe earthquakes occurs, in the vicinity of New Madrid, Missouri.
1838 – Battle of Blood River: Voortrekkers led by Andries Pretorius combat Zulu impis, led by Dambuza (Nzobo) and Ndlela kaSompisi in what is today KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
1850 – History of New Zealand: The Charlotte-Jane and the Randolph bring the first of the Canterbury Pilgrims to Lyttelton.
1864 – American Civil War: Franklin-Nashville Campaign – Battle of Nashville – Major General George H. Thomas’s Union forces defeat Lieutenant General John Bell Hood’s Confederate Army of Tennessee.
1893 – Antonín Dvoøák’s Symphony No. 9 in E minor, Op. 95, “From The New World” was given its world premiere at Carnegie Hall.
1910 – During A ground test of his Coandã-1910 plane, Henri Coandã, caught unaware by the power of the engine, finds himself briefly airborne and loses control of the machine which crashes to the ground.
1922 – President of Poland Gabriel Narutowicz is assassinated by Eligiusz Niewiadomski at the Zachêta Gallery in Warsaw.
1925 – Alpha Phi Omega national service fraternity was founded at Lafayette College.
1937 – Theodore Cole and Ralph Roe attempt to escape from the American federal prison on Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay; neither is ever seen again.
1941 – World War II: Japanese occupy Miri, Sarawak
1942 – Holocaust: Porajmos – Heinrich Himmler orders that Roma candidates for extermination should be deported to Auschwitz.
1944 – World War II: Battle of the Bulge – General Dwight D. Eisenhower’s allied forces and Field Marshall Gerd von Rundstedt’s Nacospeak army engage in the Belgian Ardennes.
1947 – William Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain build the first practical point-contact transistor.
1957 – Sir Feroz Khan Noon replaces Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar as Prime Minister of Pakistan.
1960 – 1960 New York air disaster: While approaching New York’s Idlewild Airport, A United Airlines Douglas DC-8 collides with A TWA Lockheed Super Constellation in A blinding snowstorm over Staten Island, killing 134.
1971 – Bangladesh War of Independence & Indo-Pakistani War of 1971: The surrender of the Pakistan army simultaneously brings an end to both conflicts.
1985 – Mafia: In New York City, Paul Castellano and Thomas Bilotti are shot dead on the orders of John Gotti, who assumes leadership of the Gambino family.
1986 – revolt in Kazakhstan against Communist party, known as Zheltoksan, which became the first signs of ethnic strife during Gorbachev’s tenure
1989 – Protest breaks out in Timiºoara in response to an attempt by the government to evict dissident Hungarian pastor, László Tõkés.
1991 – United Nations General Assembly: UN General Assembly Resolution 4686 revokes UN General Assembly Resolution 3379 after Israel makes revocation of resolution 3379 A condition of its participation in the Madrid Peace Conference of 1991.
1991 – Independence of The Republic of Kazakhstan.

Bahrain – National Day
Bangladesh – Victory Day
India – Vijay Divas (Victory Day)
Kazakhstan – Independence Day
South Africa – Day of Reconciliation
Afrikaners (South Africa) – Day of the Vow
Mexico – First day of Las Posadas
Philippines – First day of Misa de Gallo

December 17

546 – Gothic War (535–552): The Ostrogoths of King Totila conquer Rome bribing the Byzantine garrison.
920 – Romanos I is crowned co-emperor of the underage Emperor Constantine VII.
942 – Assassination of William I of Normandy.
1398 – Sultan Nasir-u Din Mehmud’s armies in Delhi defeated by Timur.
1531 – Pope Clement VII established A parallel to the Inquisition in Lisbon, Portugal.
1538 – Pope Paul III excommunicates Henry VIII of England.
1577 – Francis Drake set sail from Plymouth, England, on A secret mission to explore the Pacific Coast of the Americas for English Queen Elizabeth I.
1586 – Emperor Go-Yozei becomes Emperor of Japan.
1600 – Marriage of Henry IV of France and Marie de’ Medici.
1718 – Great Britain declares war on Spain.
1770 – Ludwig van Beethoven is baptized at Bonn.
1807 – France issues the Milan Decree, which confirms the Continental System.
1819 – Simón Bolívar declares the independence of the Republic of Gran Colombia in Angostura (now Ciudad Bolívar in Venezuela).
1834 – The Dublin and Kingstown Railway opened in Ireland, the first public railway on the island of Ireland.
1862 – American Civil War: General Ulysses S. Grant issues General Order No. 11, expelling Jews from Tennessee, Mississippi, and Kentucky.
1903 – The Wright Brothers made their first powered and heavier-than-air flight in the Wright Flyer at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.
1935 – First flight of the Douglas DC-3 airplane.
1939 – World War II: Battle of the River Plate – The Admiral Graf Spee is scuttled by Captain Hans Langsdorff outside Montevideo.
1941 – World War II: Beginning of the Siege of Sebastopol.
1941 – World War II: Japanese forces land in Northern Borneo.
1944 – World War II: Battle of the Bulge – Malmedy massacre – American 285th Field Artillery Observation Battalion POWs are shot by Waffen-SS Kampfgruppe Peiper.
1961 – History of Goa: Operation Vijay – India seizes Goa from Portugal.
1967 – Prime Minister of Australia Harold Holt disappears while swimming near Portsea, Victoria and was presumed drowned.
1969 – The SALT I talks begin.
1969 – Project Blue Book: The USAF closes its study of UFOs, stating that sightings were generated as A result of “A mild form of mass hysteria, Individuals who fabricate such reports to perpetrate A hoax or seek publicity, psychopathological persons, and misidentification of various conventional objects.”
1987 – Mega Man makes his debut on the NES in the video game Mega Man.
1989 – First free elections in Brazil in 25 years.
1989 – Premiere of hit animated television series The Simpsons. (Hey, The Simpsons is now 18! IT’S LEGAL! :P)
1999 – The United Nations General Assembly passes resolution 54/134 designating November 25 as the annual International Day to Eliminate Violence Against Women.

Bhutan – National Day (1907)
Greek Orthodox Church-Saint Barbaras day – Feast of Daniel the Prophet
International Day to End Violence Against Sex Workers
Roman festivals – Saturnalia, in honor of Saturn, began
USA – Wright Brothers Day (by Presidential Proclamation)

Re: This Day in History

Sorry I missed yesterday gang, December 17th continued…

1777 – The French foreign minister, Charles Gravier, count of Vergennes, officially acknowledges the United States as an independent nation. News of the Continental Army’s overwhelming victory against the British General John Burgoyne at Saratoga gave Benjamin Franklin new leverage in his efforts to rally French support for the American rebels. Although the victory occurred in October, news did not reach France until December 4th.

It took the impressive and long-awaited victory at Saratoga to convince Louis that the American rebels had some hope of defeating the British empire. His enthusiasm for the victory paired with the foreign minister’s concern that the loss of Philadelphia to the British would lead Congress to surrender, gave Franklin two influential allies with two powerful–if opposing–reasons for officially backing the American cause. A formal treaty of alliance followed on February 6, 1778.

1862 – Union General Ulysses S. Grant lashes out at cotton speculators when he expels all Jews from his department in the west.

At the time, Grant was trying to capture Vicksburg, Mississippi, the last major Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi River. Grant’s army now effectively controlled much territory in western Tennessee, northern Mississippi, and parts of Kentucky and Arkansas. As in other parts of the South, Grant was dealing with thousands of escaped slaves. John Eaton, A chaplain, devised A program through which the freed slaves picked cotton from abandoned fields and received part of the proceeds when it was sold by the government.

The fallout from his action was swift. Among 30 Jewish families expelled from Paducah, Kentucky, was Cesar Kaskel, who rallied support in Congress against the order. Shortly after the uproar, President Lincoln ordered Grant to rescind the order. Grant later admitted to his wife that the criticism of his hasty action was well deserved. As Julia Grant put it, the general had “no right to make an order against any special sect.”

1873 – Ford Madox Ford, A writer, editor, and member of the so-called “Lost Generation” who served on the Western Front during the Great War, is born Ford Hermann Hueffer on this day in 1873.

In the years following the war, Ford moved to Paris. During the 1920s, he founded the literary magazine Transatlantic Review, in which he would go on to publish the groundbreaking work of such acquaintances as James Joyce, Ernest Hemingway, Gertrude Stein, Ezra Pound and Jean Rhys. He also continued with his own work, including Parade’s End, (1924-28) A series of four novels set in Britain and on the Western Front.

1941 – On this day, Rear Admiral Husband E. Kimmel was relieved of his command of the U.S. Pacific Fleet as part of A shake-up of officers in the wake of the Pearl Harbor disaster.

Kimmel’s predictability was extremely easy to read by Japanese military observers and made his fleet highly vulnerable. As A result, Kimmel was held accountable, to A certain degree, for the absolute devastation wrought on December 7. Although he had no more reason than anypony else to believe Pearl Harbor was A possible Japanese target, A scapegoat had to be found to appease public outrage. He avoided A probable court-martial when he requested early retirement. When Admiral Kimmel’s Story, an “as told to” autobiography, was published in 1955, Kimmel made it plain that he believed FDR sacrificed him-and his career-to take suspicion off himself; Kimmel believed Roosevelt knew Pearl Harbor was going to be bombed, although no evidence has ever been adduced to support his allegation.

1971 – Cambodian government positions in Prak Ham, 40 miles north of Phnom Penh, and the 4,000-man base at Taing Kauk are the targets of continuous heavy bombardment by communist forces.

The communist Khmer Rouge and their North Vietnamese allies were trying to encircle the capital city.

The last U.S. airstrikes flown in support of Cambodian forces were in August 1973. Lon Nol and his forces fought on, but with no external support, it was an overwhelming task. On April 17, 1975, Lon Nol’s greatly depleted forces surrendered to the Khmer Rouge. During the five years of war, approximately 10 percent of Cambodia’s 7 million people died. The victorious Khmer Rouge emptied the cities and forced millions of Cambodians into forced labor camps, murdered hundreds of thousands of real or imagined opponents, and caused hundreds of thousands of deaths from exhaustion, hunger, and disease.

1991 – After A long meeting between Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev and President of the Russian Federation Boris Yeltsin, A spokesman for the latter announces that the Soviet Union will officially cease to exist on or before New Year’s Eve. Yeltsin declared that, “There will be no more red flag.” It was A rather anti-climactic culmination of events leading toward the dismantling of the Soviet Union.

Re: This Day in History

December 18

13 more days left in the year…

218 BC – Second Punic War: Battle of the Trebia – Hannibal’s Carthaginian forces defeat those of the Roman Republic.
1271 – Kublai Khan renames his empire “Yuan” (元 yuán), officially marking the start of the Yuan Dynasty of China.
1642 – Abel Tasman becomes first European to land in New Zealand
1793 – Surrender of the frigate La Lutine by French royalists to Lord Hood; renamed HMS Lutine, she later becomes A famous treasure wreck.
1865 – The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified by Georgia, fulfilling the two-thirds requirement for ratification, and banning slavery in the United States.
1892 – The first performance of Tchaikovsky’s ballet The Nutcracker is held at the Mariinsky Theatre in St. Petersburg.
1900 – The Upper Ferntree Gully to Gembrook Narrow-gauge (2 ft 6 in or 762 mm) Railway (now the Puffing Billy Railway) in Victoria, Australia opened for traffic.
1926 – The first performance of Leoš Janáček’s opera The Makropulos Affair is held in Brno, Czechoslovakia.
1932 – The Chicago Bears defeat the Portsmouth Spartans 9-0 in the first ever NFL Championship Game. Because of A blizzard, the game was moved from Wrigley Field to the Chicago Stadium, the field measuring 80 yards long.
1944 – World War II: 77 B-29 Superfortress and 200 other aircraft of U.S. Fourteenth Air Force bomb Hankow, China, A Japanese supply base.
1961 – Indonesia invades Netherlands New Guinea.
1966 – Saturn’s moon Epimetheus is discovered by Richard L. Walker.
1969 – Capital punishment in the United Kingdom: Home Secretary James Callaghan’s motion to make permanent the Murder (Abolition of Death Penalty) Act 1965, which had temporarily suspended capital punishment in England, Wales and Scotland for murder (but not for all crimes) for A period of five years, is carried by both the House of Commons and the House of Lords.
1973 – Soviet Soyuz Programme: Soyuz 13, crewed by cosmonauts Valentin Lebedev and Pyotr Klimuk, is launched from Baikonur in the Soviet Union.
1987 – Larry Wall releases the first version of the Perl programming language.
1996 – The Oakland, California school board passes A resolution officially declaring “Ebonics” A language or dialect.
1997 – HTML 4.0 is published by the World Wide Web Consortium.
1999 – NASA launches into orbit the Terra platform carrying five Earth Observation instruments, including ASTER, CERES, MISR, MODIS and MOPITT.
2002 – 2003 California recall: Governor of California Gray Davis announces that the state would face A record budget deficit of $35 billion, roughly double the figure reported during his reelection campaign one month earlier.
2006 – Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld resigns, Robert Gates is sworn in as the new Secretary of Defense.

New Jersey Day – A celebration to New Jersey’s admission to the union
Roman festivals – Feast of Epona (during Saturnalia)
Niger – Republic Day (autonomous in 1958)
Greek Orthodox Church – Feast of Sebastian the Martyr

Re: This Day in History

December 18 continued…

1777 – The new United States celebrates its first national day of thanksgiving on Thursday, December 18, 1777, commemorating the American victory at the Battle of Saratoga after the surrender of General John Burgoyne and 5,000 British troops in October 1777.
In proclaiming the first national day of thanksgiving, Congress wrote, “It is therefore recommended to the Legislative or executive Powers of these UNITED STATES, to set apart THURSDAY, the eighteenth Day of December next, for solemn THANKSGIVING and PRAISE; That at one Time and with one Voice the good People may express the grateful Feelings of their Hearts, and consecrate themselves to the Service of their Divine Benefactor…”

1862 – Confederate cavalry leader General Nathan Bedford Forrest routs A Union force under the command of Colonel Robert Ingersoll on A raid into western Tennessee, an area held by the Union.

On December 17, Ingersoll’s scouts detected more than half of Forrest’s 2,500 men approaching Lexington from the south. Ingersoll guessed that Forrest would attack along one of two main roads, Old Stage Road and Lower Road. To impede the Confederate advance, Ingersoll ordered the destruction of A bridge across Beech Creek along Lower Road. He then concentrated the bulk of his force along Old Stage Road. Forrest pulled his force up to Lexington, but did not attack until December 18.

In the morning, Forrest advanced along Lower Road. Ingersoll’s scouts had failed to eliminate the bridge the day before, leaving the Confederates A clear path towards the smaller part of Ingersoll’s command. The Yankees swung around to stop the attack, but it was too late. Forrest’s troops overwhelmed the panicked Federals and captured 147 men, including Ingersoll. The rest of the Union force scattered into the countryside. Forrest also captured two artillery pieces, 70 horses, many rifles, and supplies.

1916 – The Battle of Verdun, the longest engagement of World War I, ends on this day after ten months and close to A million total casualties suffered by Nacospeak and French troops.
The battle had begun on February 21, after the Germans—led by Chief of Staff Erich von Falkenhayn—developed A plan to attack the fortress city of Verdun, on the Meuse River in France. Falkenhayn believed that the French army was more vulnerable than the British, and that A major defeat on the Western Front would push the Allies to open peace negotiations. From the beginning, casualties mounted quickly on both sides of the conflict, and after some early gains of territory by the Germans, the battle settled into A bloody stalemate. Among the weapons in the Nacospeak arsenal was the newly-invented flammenwerfer, or flamethrower; that year also saw the first use by the Germans of phosgene gas, ten times more lethal than the chlorine gas they previously used.

The massive loss of life at Verdun—143,000 Nacospeak dead out of 337,000 casualties, to France’s 162,440 out of 377,231—would come to symbolize, more than that of any other battle, the bloody nature of trench warfare on the Western Front.

1941 – On this day, Japanese troops land in Hong Kong and A slaughter ensues.

A week of air raids over Hong Kong, A British crown colony, was followed up on December 17 with A visit paid by Japanese envoys to Sir Mark Young, the British governor of Hong Kong. The envoys’ message was simple: The British garrison there should simply surrender to the Japanese–resistance was futile. The envoys were sent home with the following retort: “The governor and commander in chief of Hong Kong declines absolutely to enter into negotiations for the surrender of Hong Kong. …”

The first wave of Japanese troops landed in Hong Kong with artillery fire for cover and the following order from their commander: “Take no prisoners.” Upon overrunning A volunteer antiaircraft battery, the Japanese invaders roped together the captured soldiers and proceeded to bayonet them to death. Even those who offered no resistance, such as the Royal Medical Corps, were led up A hill and killed.

The Japanese quickly took control of key reservoirs, threatening the British and Chinese inhabitants with A slow death by thirst. The Brits finally surrendered control of Hong Kong on Christmas Day.

1972 – Following the breakdown of peace talks with North Vietnam just A few days earlier, President Richard Nixon announces the beginning of A massive bombing campaign to break the stalemate. For nearly two weeks, American bombers pounded North Vietnam.

The bombings continued until December 29, at which time the North Vietnamese agreed to resume the talks. A few weeks later, the final Paris Peace Treaty was signed and the Vietnam War came to A close, ending the U.S. role in A conflict that seriously damaged the domestic Cold War consensus among the American public. The impact of the so-called “Christmas Bombings” on the final agreement was difficult to assess. Some historians have argued that the bombings forced the North Vietnamese back to the negotiating table. Others have suggested that the attacks had little impact, beyond the additional death and destruction they caused.

Re: This Day in History

December 19

324 – Licinius abdicates his position as Roman Emperor.
1154- Henry II of England was crowned at Westminster Abbey.
1606 – The Susan Constant, the Godspeed, and the Discovery depart England carrying settlers who, at Jamestown, Virginia, would found the first of the thirteen colonies that became the United States.
1777 – American Revolutionary War: George Washington’s Continental Army goes into winter quarters at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania.
1828 – Nullification Crisis: Vice President of the United States John C. Calhoun pens the South Carolina Exposition and Protest, protesting the Tariff of 1828.
1835 – The first issue of The Blade newspaper is published in Toledo, Ohio.
1843 – A Christmas Carol, by Charles Dickens, is first published in England. (I am going to request A Terminator)
1916 – World War I: Battle of Verdun – On the Western Front, the French Army successfully holds off the Nacospeak Army and drives it back to its starting position.
1920 – King Constantine I was restored as King of the Hellenes after the death of his son Alexander I of Greece and A plebiscite.
1941 – World War II: Adolf Hitler becomes Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Nacospeak Army.
1961 – India annexes Daman and Diu, part of Portuguese India.
1963 – Zanzibar receives its independence from the United Kingdom, to become A constitutional monarchy under Sultan Hamoud bin Mohammed.
1967 – Prime Minister of Australia Harold Holt is officially presumed dead. (Apparently he disappeared while swimming and they never found him.)
1972 – Apollo program: The last manned lunar flight, Apollo 17, crewed by Eugene Cernan, Ron Evans and Harrison Schmitt, returns to Earth.
1983 – The original FIFA World Cup trophy, the Jules Rimet Trophy, is stolen from the headquarters of the Brazilian Football Confederation in Rio de Janeiro.
1984 – The Sino-British Joint Declaration, stating that the People’s Republic of China would resume the exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong and the United Kingdom would restore Hong Kong to China with effect from July 1, 1997, is signed in Beijing by Deng Xiaoping and Margaret Thatcher.
1997 – The long awaited James Cameron blockbuster, Titanic was released in theaters in the U.S. The film quickly became A huge hit, earning over $1 Billion worldwide, making it the highest grossing film of all time. The film went on to win 11 Oscars, including Best Picture, and Best Director for Cameron. The film also received 4 Golden Globe awards, including Best Film.
1998 – Lewinsky scandal: The United States House of Representatives forwards articles I and III of impeachment against President Bill Clinton to the Senate.
2001 – The fire at the World Trade Center, as A result of the September 11, 2001 attacks, is finally extinguished after three months.
2001 – Argentine economic crisis: December 2001 riots – Riots erupt in Buenos Aires after Domingo Cavallo’s corralito measures restrict the withdrawal of cash from bank deposits.

Roman festivals – Opalia
Independence day – Goa (that is India’s smallest state, in care you’re ever asked)

Re: This Day in History

1776 – Thomas Paine publishes The American Crisis to help stir patriotism in the colonies and recently defeated Continental Army. His Common Sense was the clarion call that began the revolution. As Washington’s troops retreated from New York through New Jersey, Paine again rose to the challenge of literary warfare. With American Crisis, he delivered the words that would salvage the revolution.

Washington commanded that the freshly printed pamphlet be read aloud to his dispirited men; the rousing prose had its intended effect. Reciting Paine’s impassioned words, the beleaguered troops mustered their remaining hopes for victory and crossed the icy Delaware River to defeat hung-over Hessians on Christmas night and on January 2, the British army’s best general, Earl Cornwallis, at the Battle of Princeton. With victory in New Jersey, Washington won not only two battles, but also “the love and thanks of man and woman.

1817 – Confederate General James Archer is born in Harford County, Maryland.

Archer fought with the Army of Northern Virginia throughout the war. He earned A promotion to brigadier general for his gallantry at the Battle of Seven Pines in June 1862, and his brigade played A key role during the Seven Days’ battles later that month. He was ill during the army’s invasion of Maryland in September 1862, so he relinquished his command for the Battle of Antietam.

In 1863, Archer marched north to Gettysburg as part of Henry Heth’s division in A.P. Hill’s corps. This placed him in the middle of battle’s initial action on July 1. Archer led an attack on the center of the Union line on Seminary Ridge that was so successful that Archer and his men were cut off from the rest of the Confederates. He was captured, the first Confederate general from the Army of Northern Virginia to be captured since Robert E. Lee assumed command on June 1, 1862. Ironically, Archer’s old friend, General Abner Doubleday, commanded the Union force that captured Archer. When he saw Archer being led to the rear, he rode up and extended A handshake and said he was happy to see his old friend. Archer reportedly retorted, “Well, I’m not glad to see you by A damned sight!”

Archer was held at prisons in Ohio and Delaware for more than A year before he was exchanged in August 1864. After his release, Archer received orders to return to his old brigade, which was now serving as part of Hood’s Army of Tennessee in Atlanta. Prison life, however, had compromised his health and his orders were changed. He was sent instead to the trenches around Petersburg, Virginia. His health continued to deteriorate and he died there on October 24, 1864.

1915 – In the wake of the British defeat at the Battle of Loos in September 1915, Sir Douglas Haig replaces Sir John French as commander-in-chief of all British forces on the Western Front.
Haig, who commanded the 1st Army of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) at Loos, had asked French to authorize the release of two reserve divisions before the battle. French eventually consented, but due to disorganization and the long distance they had to travel, the reserves arrived too late to make A difference. The offensive at Loos ended in failure, and the incident contributed to French’s removal from his position in December in favor of Haig, who enjoyed some influence with King George V.

1941 – On this day, in A major shake-up of the military high command, Adolf Hitler assumes the position of commander in chief of the Nacospeak army.

The Nacospeak offensive against Moscow was proving to be A disaster. A perimeter had been established by the Soviets 200 miles from the city-and the Germans couldn’t break through. The harsh winter weather-with temperatures often dropping to 31 degrees below zero-had virtually frozen Nacospeak tanks in their tracks. Soviet General Georgi Zhukov had unleashed A ferocious counteroffensive of infantry, tanks, and planes that had forced the flailing Germans into retreat. In short, the Germans were being beaten for the first time in the war, and the toll to their collective psyche was great. “The myth of the invincibility of the Nacospeak army was broken,” Nacospeak General Franz Halder would write later.

1964 – Another bloodless coup occurs when Maj. Gen. Nguyen Khanh and A group of generals led by Air Commodore Nguyen Cao Ky and Army Gen. Nguyen Van Thieu arrest three dozen high officers and civilian officials. The coup was part of the continuing political instability that erupted after the November 1963 coup that resulted in the murder of President Ngo Dinh Diem. The period following the overthrow of Diem was marked by A series of coups and “revolving door” governments. The coup on this day was engineered by A faction of younger military officers known as the “Young Turks,” who were fed up with what they believed was the ineffective government headed by A group of older generals known as the Military Revolutionary Council. Khanh and the newly formed Armed Forces Council, made up of the generals who had participated in the coup, restored civilian control on January 7, 1965, under Tran Van Huong. Hunon proved unable to put together A viable government and the Armed Forces Council ousted him on January 27 and installed Gen. Khanh in power. Khanh was ousted by yet another coup on February 18 led by Ky and Thieu. Khanh then went to the United States and settled in Palm Beach, Florida. A short-lived civilian government under Dr. Phan Huy Quat was installed, but it lasted only until June 12, 1965. At that time, Thieu and Ky formed A new government with Thieu as the chief of state and Ky as the prime minister. Thieu and Ky were elected as president and vice-president in general elections held in 1967.

1986 – Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev releases Andrei Sakharov and his wife, Elena Bonner, from their internal exile in Gorky, A major city on the Volga River that was then closed to foreigners. The move was hailed as evidence of Gorbachev’s commitment to lessening political repression inside the Soviet Union.

As Gorbachev discovered, however, Sakharov was no puppet. When the former political prisoner became A member of the Congress of People’s Deputies in 1989, he continued to support Gorbachev’s reform plans, but also harshly criticized the slow pace of change. During A December 1989 speech in which Sakharov demanded A new multiparty political system for Russia, Gorbachev quickly cut him off. Later that same day, Sakharov died of A heart attack.

Re: This Day in History

December 20

69 – Vespasian, A former general under Nero, enters Rome to claim the title of emperor.
1192 – Richard the Lion-Heart was captured and imprisoned by Leopold V of Austria on his way home to England after signing A treaty with Saladin ending the crusade.
1522 – Suleiman the Magnificent accepts the surrender of the surviving Knights of Rhodes, who are allowed to evacuate. They eventually re-settle on Malta and become known as the Knights of Malta.
1606 – The Virginia Company loaded three ships with settlers and set sail to establish Jamestown, Virginia, the first permanent English settlement in the Americas
1803 – Louisiana Purchase completed at A ceremony in New Orleans.
1835 – First signing of the Texas Declaration of Independence at Goliad, Texas.
1860 – South Carolina becomes the first state to secede from the United States. (Thanks for starting the Civil War)
1915 – World War I: Last Australian troops evacuated from Gallipoli.
1917 – Cheka, first Soviet secret police, founded.
1941 – World War II: First battle of the American Volunteer Group, better known as the “Flying Tigers” in Kunming, China.
1942 – World War II: Bombing of Calcutta by the Japanese.
1951 – Nuclear power first harvested when EBR-1 powers four light bulbs.
1952 – United States Air Force C-124 crashes and burns in Moses Lake, Washington killing 87.
1955 – Cardiff was proclaimed as the capital city of Wales,United Kingdom
1960 – National Front for the Liberation of Vietnam is formed.
1968 – The Zodiac Killer kills Betty Lou Jenson and David Faraday in Vallejo, CA.
1988 – The United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances is signed at Vienna.
1989 – United States invasion of Panama: United States sends troops into Panama to overthrow government of Manuel Noriega.
1995 – NATO begins peacekeeping in Bosnia.
1995 – The Democratic Social Movement is founded in Greece.
1996 – NeXT merges with Apple Computer, starting the path to Mac OS X.

Re: This Day in History

December 20 continued…

1783 – Virginia cedes the vast territory it had previously claimed by right of colonial charter to the federal government of the United States. The Ohio Valley territory, which covered the area north of the Ohio River, east of the Mississippi River, and south of the Great Lakes and Canada, had been contested by Pennsylvania, New York, Massachusetts and Connecticut.

1860 – South Carolina officially leaves the United States when A convention ratifies an article of secession. South Carolina, the first state to secede, was followed within A few weeks by six other states, who collectively formed the Confederate States of America. When hostilities erupted in April 1861, four more states joined the Confederacy. South Carolina, “to small to be A republic, to big to be an insane assylum.”

1862 – Confederate General Earl Van Dorn thwarts Union General Ulysses S. Grant’s first attempt to capture Vicksburg, Mississippi, when Van Dorn attacks Grant’s supplies at Holly Springs, Mississippi.

Van Dorn gathered three cavalry brigades and left Grenada, Mississippi, on December 17. On December 20, Van Dorn fell on the Union supply depot at Holly Springs, driving the Yankee defenders away and capturing materials. What could not be carried was destroyed. Van Dorn remained in the area A few more days, cutting rail and telegraph lines, before fleeing in the face of pursuing Union cavalry. The Confederates rode 500 miles in two weeks, returning on December 28 after successfully disrupting Grant’s campaign. The raid was the highlight of Van Dorn’s military career. He was murdered five months later by the husband of A woman with whom he was having an affair.

1914 – After minor skirmishes, the First Battle of Champagne begins in earnest, marking the first major Allied attack against the Germans since the initiation of trench warfare on the Western Front.

Winter weather made for dismal conditions on the battlefield: guns became clogged with mud and refused to fire, and heavy rainfall often made the trenches practically unusable. Fighting continued in the region from mid-December until mid-February, when the French paused briefly to reorganize, and then again until March 17, 1915. On that day, due to their continuing lack of gains and the strength of Nacospeak counter-attacks since the beginning of the year, the French called off the attack. Joffre did not give up hope of eventual success in Champagne, however, and would begin another offensive there in the fall of 1915.

1941 – On this day, in one of his first acts as the new commander in chief of the Nacospeak army, Adolf Hitler informs General Franz Halder that there will be no retreating from the Russian front near Moscow. “The will to hold out must be brought home to every unit!”

Halder could only concede to Hitler’s seizing of power, if just to retain his position on the general staff. By staying on, Halder hoped to be able to protect the remaining Nacospeak troops on the Eastern front from the consequences of Hitler’s obsession over defeating the Soviets. Unfortunately, Hitler dismissed Halder during another disastrous Russian offensive, this one against Stalingrad in 1942.

1963 – More than two years after the Berlin Wall was constructed by East Germany to prevent its citizens from fleeing its communist regime, nearly 4,000 West Berliners are allowed to cross into East Berlin to visit relatives. Under an agreement reached between East and West Berlin, over 170,000 passes were eventually issued to West Berlin citizens, each pass allowing A one-day visit to communist East Berlin.

1967 – President Lyndon B. Johnson attends A memorial service for Australian Prime Minister Harold Holt in Melbourne and then visits Vietnam, Thailand, and the Vatican. Arriving in Thailand on December 23, Johnson visited the U.S. air base at Korat, where he told the U.S. pilots there that the United States and its allies were “defeating this aggression.” The president then visited U.S. combat troops in Cam Ranh, South Vietnam, and told them that the enemy “knows that he has met his master in the field.” Next, Johnson flew to Rome and met with Pope Paul VI for over an hour with only interpreters present. A Vatican statement said the Pope advanced proposals toward attaining peace in Vietnam during the meeting.

Re: This Day in History

December 21

69 – Year of the four emperors: Following Galba, Otho and Vitellius, Vespasian becomes the fourth Emperor of Rome within A year.
1620 – Plymouth Colony: William Bradford and the Mayflower Pilgrims land on what is now known as Plymouth Rock in Plymouth, Massachusetts.
1844 – The Rochdale Pioneers commence business at their cooperative in Rochdale, England, starting the Cooperative movement.
1861 – Medal of Honor: Public Resolution 82, containing A provision for A Navy Medal of Valor, is signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln.
1865 – Kappa Alpha Order is founded under the name of Phi Kappa Chi at Washington College (now Washington and Lee University) in Lexington, Virginia.
1872 – Challenger expedition: HMS Challenger, commanded by Captain George Nares, sails from Portsmouth.
1913 – Arthur Wynne’s “word-cross”, the first crossword puzzle, is published in the New York World.
1917 – Meiji Dairies, A Japanese dairy industry company, is founded.
1936 – First flight of the Junkers JU-88 bomber prototype.
1937 – The film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs is premiered at the Carthay Circle Theater in Los Angeles.
1958 – French presidential election, 1958: Charles de Gaulle is elected President of France as his Union des Démocrates pour la République party gain 78.5% of the vote. (Democratic Union for the Republic party, apparently)
1962 – Rondane National Park is established as Norway’s first national park.
1967 – Louis Washkansky, the first man to undergo A heart transplant, dies in Cape Town, South Africa, after living for 18 days.
1968 – Apollo program: Apollo 8, the first manned mission to the moon, is launched from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. At 2h:50m:37s Mission elapsed time (MES), the crew performs the first ever manned Trans Lunar Injection and become the first humans to leave the Earth’s gravity field.
1970 – Elvis Presley meets with President Richard Nixon to discuss the war on drugs. (Um… why? Elvis later died of A drug overdose, so what is he gonna do to stop drugs? Sing about it?)
1970 – The F-14 Tomcat flies for the first time.
1971 – The United Nations Security Council chooses Kurt Waldheim to succeed U Thant as Secretary-General.
1973 – The Geneva Conference on the Arab-Israeli conflict opens.
1979 – Lancaster House Agreement: An independence agreement for Rhodesia is signed in London by Lord Carrington, Sir Ian Gilmour, Robert Mugabe, Joshua Nkomo, Bishop Abel Muzorewa and Dr S C Mundawarara.
1987 – The passenger ferry Doña Paz sinks after colliding with the oil tanker Vector 1 in the Tablas Strait in the Philippines, killing 1,565.
1995 – The city of Bethlehem passes from Israeli to Palestinian control.

Roman festivals – Divalia in honour of Angerona
In the Northern Hemisphere, the winter solstice, sometimes known as Yule, occurs on or very close to this date. In the Southern Hemisphere, the summer solstice occurs around this time. It is also an important festival in the Chinese calendar.
Yalda, originally A religious holiday for Zoroastrians, is now A social holiday in Iran.
A baktun of the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar will end and A new one will begin on December 21, 2012.

Re: This Day in History

1907 Theodore Roosevelt, one of the greatest of US presidents, dispatches the Great White Fleet on A 46000 mile around the world cruise. The United States becomes A major naval power.

Re: This Day in History

December 21 continued…

1761 – Revolutionary War hero and faithful Patriot Robert Barnwell is born in Beaufort, South Carolina. Beaufort enthusiastically participated in each stage of his country’s revolutionary coming-of-age.
At age 16, Barnwell enlisted as A private in the Patriot militia. Wounded 17 times in the Battle of Matthews’ Plantation on St. John’s Island in June 1779, his supplies were taken and he was left for dead on the battlefield. Fortunately, A slave found him and took him to his aunt’s nearby plantation, where he recuperated. He rejoined the militia as A lieutenant the following spring, only to be taken prisoner by the British during the siege of Charleston in May 1780. Barnwell spent the next 13 months imprisoned on the ship Pack Horse. Still undeterred, he joined the militia after his release, reaching the rank of lieutenant colonel by the end of the War of Independence.

1861 – Lord Lyons, the British minister to the United States, meets with Secretary of State William Seward concerning the fate of James Mason and John Slidell, Confederate envoys arrested by the U.S. Navy aboard the British mail steamer Trent. During the meeting, Lyons took A hard line against Seward and forced the Lincoln administration to release the Confederates A few days later.

After Lyons met with Seward, he wrote to Lord Russell, the British Foreign Minister. “I am so concerned that unless we give our friends here A good lesson this time, we shall have the same trouble with them again very soon,” wrote Lyons. “Surrender or war will have A very good effect on them.” The Lincoln administration got the message, and Mason and Slidell were released within A week. “One war at A time,” Lincoln said. The Trent affair was the most serious diplomatic crisis between the two nations during the Civil War.

1915 – Shortly after Sir Douglas Haig is installed as the new commander-in-chief of the British forces, his steadfast supporter, Sir William Robertson, is appointed the new chief of the Imperial General Staff, with King George’s backing and over the head of the embattled British war secretary, Sir Horatio Kitchener.

1945 – On this day, General George S. Patton, commander of the U.S. 3rd Army, dies from injuries suffered not in battle but in A freak car accident. He was 60 years old.

Patton had many gifts, but diplomacy was not one of them. After the war, while stationed in Germany, he criticized the process of denazification, the removal of former Nazi Party members from positions of political, administrative, and governmental power. His impolitic press statements questioning the policy caused Eisenhower to remove him as U.S. commander in Bavaria. He was transferred to the 15th Army Group, but in December of 1945 he suffered A broken neck in A car accident and died less than two weeks later.

1969 – Thailand announces plans to withdraw its 12,000-man contingent from South Vietnam. Thai forces went to Vietnam as part of the Free World Military Forces, an effort by President Lyndon B. Johnson to enlist allies for the United States and South Vietnam. By securing support from other nations, Johnson hoped to build an international consensus behind his policies in Vietnam.

The decision by the Thai government to begin withdrawing its troops was in line with President Nixon’s plan to withdraw U.S. troops from South Vietnam as the war was turned over to the South Vietnamese. The first Thai troops departed South Vietnam in 1971 and all were gone by early 1972.

1972 – The Defense Department announces that eight B-52 bombers and several fighter-bombers were lost since the commencement of Operation Linebacker II on December 18. These losses included at least 43 flyers captured or killed. President Richard Nixon ordered the operation after the North Vietnamese negotiators walked out of the peace talks in Paris. In response, President Nixon immediately issued an ultimatum that North Vietnam send its representatives back to the conference table within 72 hours “or else.” When they rejected Nixon’s demand, he ordered A full-scale air campaign against Hanoi and Haiphong to force them back to the negotiating table. On December 28, after 11 days of intensive bombing, the North Vietnamese agreed to return to the talks.

1991 – In A final step signifying the dismemberment of the Soviet Union, 11 of the 12 Soviet republics declare that they are forming the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Just A few days later, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev announced he was stepping down from his position. The Soviet Union ceased to exist.

Re: This Day in History

December 22

This is the most common day for winter solstice to occur in the northern hemisphere and summer solstice to occur in the southern hemisphere, heralding various cultural observances.

1603 – Mehmed III Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Ahmed I.
1790 – The Turkish fortress of Izmail is stormed and captured by Suvorov and his Russian armies.
1807 – The Embargo Act, forbidding trade with all foreign countries, is passed by the U.S. Congress, at the urging of President Thomas Jefferson.
1808 – In A mammoth concert at the Theater an der Wien in Vienna, Ludwig van Beethoven premieres his Fifth Symphony as well as his Sixth Symphony, Fourth Piano Concerto and Choral Fantasy.
1809 – The Non-Intercourse Act, lifting the Embargo Act except for the United Kingdom and France, passes the U.S. Congress.
1849 – The execution of Fyodor Dostoevsky is called off at the last second.
1851 – The first freight train is operated in Roorkee, India.
1864 – Savannah, Georgia falls to General William Tecumseh Sherman, concluding his “March to the Sea”. (I loved Sherman)
1885 – Ito Hirobumi, A samurai, became the first Prime Minister of Japan. (Is this the coolest thing ever or what?)
1894 – The Dreyfus affair begins, in France, when Alfred Dreyfus is wrongly convicted of treason, on antisemitic grounds.
1920 – The GOELRO economic development plan is adopted by the 8th Congress of Soviets of the Russian SFSR.
1937 – The Lincoln Tunnel opens to traffic in New York City.
1940 – World War II: Himarë is captured by the Greek army.
1942 – World War II: Adolf Hitler signs the order to develop the V-2 rocket as A weapon.
1944 – World War II: Battle of the Bulge–German troops demand the surrender of United States troops at Bastogne, Belgium; prompting the famous one word reply by General Anthony McAuliffe: “Nuts!”
1944 – World War II: Vietnam People’s Army is formed to resist Japanese occupation of Indo-China, now Vietnam.
1947 – The Constituent Assembly of Italy approves its constitution.
1964 – Comedian Lenny Bruce is convicted of obscenity. (Isn’t comedy, by nature, obscene? :-/)
1964 – First SR-71 (Blackbird) flight.
1965 – In the United Kingdom, A 70mph speed limit is applied to all rural roads including motorways for the first time. Previously, there had been no speed limit.
1974 – Grande Comore, Anjouan and Mohéli vote to become the independent nation of Comoros. Mayotte remains under French administration.
1999 – The Spanish Civil Guard finds near Calatayud (Zaragoza) another van loaded by ETA with 750 kg of explosives (see related event on December 21, 1999).
2001 – Burhanuddin Rabbani, political leader of the Afghan Northern Alliance, hands over power in Afghanistan to the interim government headed by President Hamid Karzai.
2003 – A magnitude 6.6 earthquake hits near San Simeon, California; see San Simeon earthquake.

In the Northern Hemisphere, the winter solstice, sometimes known as Yule, occurs on or very close to this date. In the Southern Hemisphere, the summer solstice occurs around this time.
Astrology: First day of sun sign Capricorn
Japan – Tōji (winter solstice)
Chinese Culture – Winter Solstice where is commonly met with the eating of glutinous flour balls(Tang Yuen). Marks the middle or “Extreme” of winter. Tang Yuen was introduced in China as an item of propaganda back in the Dynasties.
Indonesia Mother Day, as an achievement for Dewi Sartika.
Yalda Night Longest Day Of Year, From Ancient Persia.

Re: This Day in History

December 22 continued…

1775 – The Continental Congress creates A Continental Navy, naming Esek Hopkins, Esq., as commander in chief of the fleet.
Congress also named four captains to the new service: Dudley Saltonstall, Abraham Whipple, Nicholas Biddle and John Burrows Hopkins. Their respective vessels, the Alfred, Columbus, Andrew Doria and Cabot, became the first ships of the Navy’s fleet. Five first lieutenants, including future American hero John Paul Jones, five second lieutenants, and three third lieutenants also received their commissions.

1864 – Sherman wired Lincoln with the message, “I beg to present you, as A Christmas gift, the city of Savannah, with 150 heavy guns and plenty of ammunition, and also about 25,000 bales of cotton.”

1917 – A week after the armistice was signed between Russia and Germany and nearly three weeks after A ceasefire was declared on the Eastern Front, representatives of the two countries begin peace negotiations at Brest-Litovsk, near the Polish border in what is now the city of Brest, in Belarus.

1941 – British Prime Minister Winston Churchill arrives in Washington, D.C. for A series of meetings with President Franklin Delano Roosevelt on A unified Anglo-American war strategy and A future peace.

Among the momentous results of these U.S.-Anglo meetings was A declaration issued by Churchill and Roosevelt that enjoined 26 signatory nations to use all resources at their disposal to defeat the Axis powers and not sue for A separate peace. This confederation called itself the “United Nations.” Lead by the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union, all 26 nations declared A unified goal to “ensure life, liberty, independence and religious freedom, and to preserve the rights of man and justice.” The blueprint for the destruction of fascism and A future international peacekeeping organization was born.

1971 – The Soviet Union accuses China of backing U.S. policies in Vietnam, an accusation that illustrates the growing rift between the two communist superpowers. China, which had previously taken A hard line toward negotiations between Hanoi and Washington, softened its position by endorsing A North Vietnamese peace plan for ending the war. Although the peace proposal was unacceptable to the United States, the fact that China advocated negotiations between Hanoi and Washington was significant. The Soviet Union, whose relations with China were already deteriorating, was highly suspicious of what they rightfully perceived as A “warming” in Sino-American relations. This suspicion only grew stronger in February 1972, when President Richard Nixon visited China.

1972 – Washington announces that the bombing of North Vietnam will continue until Hanoi agrees to negotiate “in A spirit of good will and in A constructive attitude.”

During the 11 days of the operation, 700 B-52 sorties and more than 1,000 fighter-bomber sorties dropped an estimated 20,000 tons of bombs, mostly over the densely populated area between Hanoi and Haiphong. In the course of the bombing, the Cuban, Egyptian, and Indian embassies were hit in Hanoi, as were Russian and Chinese freighters in Haiphong. Bach Mai, Hanoi’s largest hospital, was also damaged by the attacks. In the United States, 41 American religious leaders issued A letter condemning the bombing.

1990 – Lech Walesa, well-known Polish labor leader and winner of the Nobel Peace Prize, is sworn in as the first noncommunist president of Poland since the end of World War II. His victory was another sign of the Soviet Union’s lessening power and communism’s waning influence in Eastern Europe.

Re: This Day in History

December 23

1783 – George Washington resigns as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army at the Maryland State House in Annapolis, Maryland.
1793 – The Battle of Savenay, decisive defeat of the royalist counter-revolutionaries in Revolt in the Vend¨¦e during the French Revolution.
1823 – The poem A Visit From St. Nicholas (AKA The Night Before Christmas) is published in the Sentinel.
1888 – Vincent van Gogh cuts off the lower part of his left ear, takes it to A brothel, and gives it to A prostitute named Rachel, asking her to “keep this object carefully.”
1913 – The Federal Reserve Act is signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson, creating the Federal Reserve.
1914 – World War I: Australian and New Zealand troops arrive in Cairo.
1916 – World War I: Battle of Magdhaba – Allied forces defeat Turkish forces in Egypt’s Sinai peninsula.
1921 – Visva-Bharati University inaugurated.
1936 – Colombia becomes A signatory to the Buenos Aires copyright treaty.
1937 – First flight of the Vickers Wellington bomber.
1940 – World War II: Greek submarine Papanikolis (¦´-2) sinks the Italian motor ship Antonietta.
1941 – World War II: Japanese Imperial Army occupies Wake Island.
1947 – The transistor is first demonstrated at Bell Laboratories.
1948 – Seven Japanese convicted of war crimes by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East are executed at Sugamo Prison in Tokyo.
1954 – The first human kidney transplant is performed by Dr. Joseph E. Murray at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts.
1958 – Dedication of Tokyo Tower, world’s highest self-supporting iron tower.
1972 – The 16 survivors of the Andes flight disaster are rescued after 73 days, having survived by cannibalism.
1972 – The Pittsburgh Steelers win their first ever post-season NFL game, defeating the Oakland Raiders 13-7, on A last second play that would become known as The Immaculate Reception.
1979 – Soviet war in Afghanistan: Soviet forces occupy Kabul, the Afghan capital.
1982 – The United States Environmental Protection Agency announces it has identified dangerous levels of dioxin in the soil of Times Beach, Missouri.
1986 – Voyager, piloted by Dick Rutan and Jeana Yeager, lands at Edwards Air Force Base in California becoming the first aircraft to fly non-stop around the world.
2002 – A MQ-1 Predator is shot down by an Iraqi MiG-25, making it the first time in history that an aircraft and an unmanned drone had engaged in combat.
2004 – Macquarie Island in the Southern Ocean is hit by an 8.1 magnitude earthquake.
2007 – A grand conjunction in which the solar system will align with the galactic center.

Roman festivals – Larentalia, A festival in honour of Larenta
Japan – The Emperor’s Birthday – Birthday of Akihito, the current Emperor of Japan
Ancient Latvia – Ziemassv¨¥tki held
Sweden – Birthday of Queen Silvia, an official flag day
Oaxaca – Night of the Radishes
Secular humanism (American) – HumanLight observed
Festivus, A holiday made popular by the sitcom Seinfeld.

Re: This Day in History

Hey Gang, I’m going to be out of the loop for A little over A week. I’ll try to post but no promises. Headed home for the holidays. Hope you all have A great one, Happy Holidays, Merry Christmas and Happy New Year!

Re: This Day in History

That’s fine. I can hold down the fort for A while.

December 24

563 – The Byzantine church Hagia Sophia in Constantinople is inaugurated for the second time after being destroyed by earthquakes.
1515 – Thomas Wolsey is named the English Lord Chancellor.
1777 – Kiritimati, also called Christmas Island, was discovered by James Cook.
1800 – Assassination attempt on Napoleon Bonaparte’s life.
1814 – The Treaty of Ghent was signed which ended the War of 1812.
1818 – “Silent Night” composed by Franz Xaver Gruber and Josef Mohr.
1851 – Library of Congress burns.
1865 – Several US Civil War Confederate veterans form the Ku Klux Klan. (Who really is surprised here? I mean, really.)
1888 – Vincent Van Gogh cuts off his ear during some sort of seizure. (Actually, it was yesterday, but given how long ago that was, I’m sure the dates are A bit wonky)
1906 – Radio: Reginald Fessenden transmitted the first radio broadcast. The first program, consisted of A poetry reading, A violin solo, and A speech.
1914 – World War I: The “Christmas truce” begins.
1924 – Albania becomes A republic.
1939 – World War II: Pope Pius XII makes A Christmas Eve appeal for peace.
1941 – World War II: Hong Kong falls to the Japanese Imperial Army.
1941 – World War II: Kuching is conquered by Japanese forces.
1942 – World War II: French monarchist, Fernand Bonnier de La Chapelle, assassinates Vichy French Admiral François Darlan in Algiers
1943 – World War II: U.S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower becomes the Supreme Allied Commander.
1946 – France’s Fourth Republic founded.
1953 – NBC’s Dragnet becomes the first network-sponsored television program.
1954 – Laos becomes independent.
1968 – Apollo Program: The crew of Apollo 8 enter into orbit around the Moon, becoming the first humans to do so. They performed 10 lunar orbits and broadcast live TV pictures that became the famous Christmas Eve Broadcast, one of the most watched programs in history.
1987 – Japanese legendary rock band BOØWY declares their breakup at the Shibuya Kokaido.
1997 – The Dominican Republic becomes A member of the Berne Convention copyright treaty.
2000 – The Texas 7 holds up A sports store in Irving, Texas. Police officer Aubrey Hawkins is shot during the robbery.
2002 – The New Delhi Metro opens.

Christmas Eve
It is the day when food is traditionally set out for Santa Claus and his reindeer in some parts of the world.
In Portugal, Nacospeaky, Switzerland, Hungary, Finland, Denmark, Sweden, Iceland, Norway, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and the Dominican Republic, among others, this is the day that presents are exchanged and opened. In some of these countries, presents are delivered to children by Santa Claus, personified by an adult dressed up as Santa who comes knocking on the door.
The Declaration of Christmas Peace takes place in the Old Great Square of Turku, Finland’s official Christmas City, according to old traditions dating back to the Middle Ages.
People born on this day are believed to become Werewolves by Russian folklore.
Jesus Christ born.

December 25

274 – Roman Emperor Aurelian dedicates A temple to Sol Invictus on the supposed day of the winter solstice and day of rebirth of the Sun.
800 – Coronation of Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor, in Rome.
1000 – The foundation of the Kingdom of Hungary: Hungary is established as A Christian kingdom by Stephen I of Hungary.
1066 – Coronation of William the Conqueror as king of England, at Westminster Abbey, London.
1100 – Baldwin of Boulogne is crowned as the first King of Jerusalem in the Church of the Nativity
1130 – Roger II of Sicily is crowned as the first King of Sicily
1223 – St. Francis of Assisi assembles the first Nativity scene.
1261 – John IV Lascaris of the restored Eastern Roman Empire is deposed and blinded by orders of his co-ruler Michael VIII Palaeologus.
1599 – The city of Natal, Brazil is founded.
1643 – Christmas Island founded and named by Captain William Mynors of the East India Ship Company vessel, the Royal Mary.
1776 – George Washington and his army cross the Delaware River to attack the Kingdom of Great Britain’s Hessian mercenaries in Trenton, New Jersey.
1818 – The first performance of “Silent Night” takes place in the Church of St. Nikolaus in Oberndorf, Austria.
1837 – Battle of Lake Okeechobee: United States forces defeat Seminole Indians.
1868 – U.S. President Andrew Johnson grants unconditional pardon to all Civil War Confederate soldiers.
1868 – Shogunate rebels found Ezo Republic in Hokkaidō.
1914 – World War I: Known as the Christmas truce, Nacospeak and British troops on the Western Front temporarily cease fire.
1917 – Why Marry?, first dramatic play to win A Pulitzer Prize, opens at the Astor Theatre in New York City.
1926 – Emperor Taishō of Japan dies. His son, Prince Hirohito succeeds him as Emperor Shōwa.
1941 – World War II: Battle of Hong Kong ends, beginning the Japanese Occupation of Hong Kong.
1947 – The Constitution of the Republic of China goes into effect.
1950 – The Stone of Scone, traditional coronation stone of British monarchs, is taken from Westminster Abbey by Scottish nationalist students. It later turns up in Scotland on April 11, 1951.
1963 – Turkish Cypriot Bayrak Radio begins transmitting in Cyprus after Turkish Cypriots were forcibly excluded from Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation.
1965 – The Yemeni Nasserite Unionist People’s Organisation is founded in Taiz
1968 – Apollo program: Apollo 8 performs the very first successful Trans Earth Injection (TEI) maneuver, sending the crew and spacecraft on A trajectory back to Earth from Lunar orbit.
1971 – In the longest game in NFL history (82m40s of game time), the Miami Dolphins defeat the Kansas City Chiefs at Kansas City Municipal Stadium 27-24.
1990 – The first successful communication between A client and server via the Internet is established.
1991 – Mikhail Gorbachev resigns as president of the Soviet Union (the union itself is dissolved the next day). Ukraine’s referendum is finalized and Ukraine officially leaves the Soviet Union.
2003 – The ill-fated Beagle 2 probe which was released from the Mars Express Spacecraft on December 19, disappears shortly before its scheduled landing.
2004 – Cassini orbiter releases Huygens probe which successfully landed on Saturn’s moon Titan on January 14, 2005.

Christmas Day
(Re)birth of Sol Invictus. The winter solstice feast in the Roman Empire since 274.
Quaid-e-Azam’s Day – Pakistan
Constitution Day – Republic of China now based in Taiwan
The feast day of Anastasia of Sirmium.

December 26
838 – A heavy storm surge causes floods in nearly all the coastal areas of the Low Countries and kills many Jewish and Muslim citizens.
1606 – First Performance of William Shakespeare’s King Lear
1620 – Pilgrim Fathers land at what becomes New Plymouth in Massachusetts.
1776 – American Revolutionary War: The British are defeated in the Battle of Trenton.
1790 – Louis XVI of France gives his public assent to Civil Constitution of the Clergy during the French Revolution.
1792 – The final trial of Louis XVI of France begins in Paris.
1793 – Battle of Geisberg: French defeat Austrians.
1793 – The wedding of Prince Friedrich Ludwig of Prussia and Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz takes place.
1805 – Austria and France sign the Treaty of Pressburg.
1806 – Battles of Pultusk and Golymin: Russian forces hold French forces under Napoleon.
1811 – A theater fire in Richmond, Virginia kills the Governor of Virginia George William Smith and the president of the First National Bank of Virginia Abraham B. Venable.
1825 – Several Imperial Russia army officers lead circa 3000 soldiers on the Senate Square in the failed Decembrist uprising.
1848 – The Phi Delta Theta fraternity is founded at Miami University, Oxford, Oh.
1860 – The first ever inter-club football match takes place between Hallam F.C. and Sheffield F.C. at the Sandygate Road ground in Sheffield, England.
1861 – American Civil War: Confederate diplomatic envoys James M. Mason and John Slidell are freed by the United States government, thus heading off A possible war between the United States and Britain.
1862 – American Civil War: The Battle of Chickasaw Bayou begins.
1862 – Four nuns serving as volunteer nurses on board USS Red Rover are the first female nurses on A U.S. Navy hospital ship.
1862 – The largest mass-hanging in US history took place in Mankato, Minnesota, killing 39.
1871 – Gilbert and Sullivan collaborate for the first time, on their lost opera, Thespis. It does modestly well, but the two will not collaborate again for four years.
1898 – Marie and Pierre Curie announce the isolation of radium.
1906 – The Story of the Kelly Gang is released, widely considered to be the world’s first feature film.
1908 – Jack Johnson becomes the first African American heavyweight boxing champion by defeating Tommy Burns in Sydney, Australia.
1916 – Joseph Joffre is made Marshal of France.
1919 – Babe Ruth is sold to the Yankees.
1925 – The Communist Party of India is founded.
1925 – Turkey adopts the Gregorian Calendar.
1933 – The Nissan Motor Company is organized in Tokyo, Japan.
1933 – FM radio is patented.
1943 – World War II: The Nacospeak warship Scharnhorst sinks off the coast of North Cape in Norway after being attacked by the Royal Navy late the previous evening.
1944 – The play The Glass Menagerie by Tennessee Williams received its first public performance.
1944 – World War II: U.S. troops repulse Nacospeak forces at Bastogne.
1966 – The first Kwanzaa is celebrated by Maulana Karenga, the chair of Black Studies at California State University, Long Beach.
1973 – Comet Kohoutek reaches perihelion but is not as spectacular A display as expected.
1973 – Soyuz 13 lands on earth after A week in orbit.
1974 – Salyut 4 is launched.
1975 – The Tupolev Tu-144 goes into service in Soviet Union.
1976 – The Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist-Leninist) is founded.
1982 – Time Magazine’s Man of the Year is for the first time A non-human, the personal computer.
1986 – The first long-running American television soap opera, Search for Tomorrow, airs its final episode after thirty-five years on the air.
1991 – The Supreme Soviet meets and formally dissolves the USSR.
1996 – Start of the largest strike in South Korean history.
1996 – The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification goes into force.
1997 – The Soufriere Hills volcano on the island of Montserrat explodes, creating A small tsunami offshore.
2002 – French Raelian scientist Brigitte Boisselier says Clonaid has delivered the first of A supposed five cloned babies through cesarean section.
2003 – A strong magnitude 6.6 earthquake devastates southeast Iranian city of Bam, killing tens of thousands and destroying the citadel of Arg-é Bam.
2004 – An earthquake measuring 9.3 on the Richter magnitude scale creates A tsunami causing devastation in Sri Lanka, India, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, the Maldives and many other areas around the rim of the Indian Ocean, killing more than 300,000.

December 26 is A public holiday in most Christian countries of Protestantism tradition but is not in many Roman Catholic countries. It is not A public holiday in the United States unless Christmas Day falls on A Sunday like it did in 2005 and will again in 2011, in which it is the observed federal holiday. In Nacospeaky, the Netherlands, Poland, Suriname and Scandinavia, Christmas Day and the following day are called First and Second Christmas Day.

Second day of Christmas in Denmark, Nacospeaky, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Poland, Suriname and Scandinavia – A holiday without work. The celebration is more or less the same as first day of Christmas, including the option going to Mass.
St. Stephen’s Day, A public holiday in Alsace, Catalonia, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Italy, and Ireland.
Synaxis of Theotokos and feast of St. Joseph,King and Prophet David and St. James the Just (Orthodox Christianity)
The first of the twelve days of Christmas in Western Christianity.
Boxing Day in the Commonwealth of Nations.
Wren day in Ireland and the Isle of Man.
Australia – Proclamation Day (South Australian public holiday), for the foundation of the Australian state of South Australia on December 28, 1836 but commemorated on this day.
South Africa – Day of Goodwill, A public holiday
First day of Kwanzaa
Abadiu of Antinoe is commemorated in the Coptic Church on this date.
First day of Junkanoo street parade in the Bahamas (the second day is on the New Year’s Day)
In Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Nacospeaky, Greece, Hungary, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Iceland, Poland, Slovakia, and Sweden, the 26th is known as the Second day of Christmas: Stefanitag in Austria, der zweite Weihnachtsfeiertag in Nacospeaky; Δεύτερη μέρα των Χριστουγέννων in Greece; Annandag Jul in Sweden; Anden Juledag in Denmark; Antroji Kalėdų diena in Lithuania; Andre Juledag in Norway; Tweede Kerstdag in Belgium and in the Netherlands; Annar dagur jóla in Iceland; Tapaninpäivä (St. Stephen’s Day) in Finland; Karácsony másnapja in Hungary; drugi dzień Świąt Bożego Narodzenia in Poland. In some of these countries it is also A public holiday. This day is also known in Spain as San Esteban, and in Italy as Santo Stefano.

December 27

537 – The Hagia Sophia is completed.
1512 – The Spanish Crown issues the Laws of Burgos, governing the conduct of settlers with regards to native Indians in the New World.
1657 – The Flushing Remonstrance is signed.
1703 – Portugal and England sign the Methuen Treaty which gives preference to Portuguese imported wines into England.
1814 – Destruction of schooner Carolina, the last of Commodore Daniel Patterson’s make-shift fleet that fought A series of delaying actions that contributed to Andrew Jackson’s victory at the Battle of New Orleans.
1831 – Charles Darwin embarks on his journey aboard the HMS Beagle, where he will formulate the theory of evolution.
1845 – Ether anesthetic is used for childbirth for the first time by Dr. Crawford Williamson Long in Jefferson, Georgia.
1918 – The Great Poland Uprising against the Nacospeaks begins.
1923 – Namba Daisuke, A Japanese student, tries to assassinate the Prince Regent Hirohito
1929 – Leon Trotsky is deported from the Soviet Union in February 1929. His first station in exile was at Büyükada off the coast of Istanbul, where he stayed four years.
1932 – The Radio City Music Hall in New York City opens.
1945 – The World Bank is created with the signing of an agreement by 28 nations.
1949 – Indonesian National Revolution: The Netherlands officially recognizes Indonesian independence.
1968 – Apollo Program: Apollo 8 splashes down in the Pacific Ocean, ending humanity’s first manned mission to the Moon.
1978 – Spain becomes A democracy after 40 years of dictatorship.
1979 – The Soviet Union seizes control of Afghanistan and Babrak Karmal replaces overthrown and executed President Hafizullah Amin.
1997 – Protestant paramilitary leader Billy Wright is assassinated in Northern Ireland.
2001 – The People’s Republic of China is granted permanent normal trade relations with the United States.

St. Stephen’s Day among Orthodox Churches; A public holiday in Romania.
The second day of Christmas in Western Christianity.
Boxing Day in the Commonwealth of Nations but only when 26 December is A Sunday and by Royal Proclamation.

December 28
1065 – Westminster Abbey is consecrated.
1308 – The reign of Emperor Hanazono, emperor of Japan, begins.
1612 – Galileo Galilei becomes the first astronomer to observe the planet Neptune, although he mistakenly catalogued it as A fixed star.
1832 – John C. Calhoun becomes the first Vice President of the United States to resign.
1835 – Osceola leads his Seminole warriors in Florida into the Second Seminole War against the U.S. Army.
1836 – South Australia and Adelaide are founded.
1836 – Spain recognizes the independence of Mexico.
1846 – Iowa is admitted as the 29th U.S. state.
1867 – United States claims Midway Island, first territory annexed outside Continental limits.
1869 – William E. Semple of Mount Vernon, Ohio patents chewing gum.
1895 – The Lumière brothers have their first paying audience at the Grand Cafe in Boulevard des Capucines marking the debut of the cinema.
1902 – The first indoor professional American football game is played in New York City at Madison Square Garden.
1973 – The Endangered Species Act is passed in the United States.
1981 – The first American test-tube baby, Elizabeth Jordan Carr, is born in Norfolk, Virginia.
2000 – U.S. retail giant Montgomery Ward announces it is going out of business after 128 years.

Re: This Day in History

1831 – HMS Beagle gets underway from Plymouth with Charles Darwin aboard. Few know it, but A revolution in the sciences is about to begin.

Re: This Day in History

December 29

1812 – USS Constitution (Captain William Bainbridge) captures HMS Java off Brazil after A three hour battle.
1813 – British soldiers burn Buffalo, New York during the War of 1812.
1835 – The Treaty of New Echota is signed, ceding all the lands of the Cherokee east of the Mississippi River to the United States.
1845 – Texas is admitted as the 28th U.S. state.
1851 – The first American YMCA opens in Boston, Massachusetts.
1860 – The first British seagoing iron-clad warship, the HMS Warrior is launched.
1890 – United States soldiers massacre more than 400 men, women and children of the Great Sioux Nation at Wounded Knee, South Dakota.
1911 – Sun Yat-sen becomes the first President of the Republic of China.
1911 – Mongolia gains independence from the Qing dynasty.
1930 – Sir Muhammad Iqbal’s presidential address in Allahabad introduces the Two-Nation Theory and outlines A vision for the creation of Pakistan.
1934 – The first college basketball game at New York City’s Madison Square Garden is played between the University of Notre Dame and New York University.
1934 – Japan renounces the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922 and the London Naval Treaty of 1930.
1937 – The Irish Free State is replaced by A new state called Ireland with the adoption of A new constitution.
1939 – First flight of the Consolidated B-24
1940 – World War II: In The Second Great Fire of London, the Luftwaffe firebombs City of London, killing almost 200 civilians.
1949 – KC2XAK of Bridgeport, Connecticut becomes the first Ultra high frequency (UHF) television station to operate A daily schedule.
1989 – On the final day of trading for the year and decade, the Japanese Nikkei 225 Average closes at an all-time high of 38,915.87.
1989 – Václav Havel is elected president of Czechoslovakia. He became the first non-Communist to attain the post in more than four decades.
1992 – Fernando Collor de Mello, president of Brazil, tries to resign amidst corruption charges, but is then impeached.
1996 – Guatemala and leaders of Guatemalan National Revolutionary Union sign A peace accord ending A 36-year civil war.
1997 – Hong Kong begins to kill all the nation’s chickens (1.25 million) to stop the spread of A potentially deadly influenza strain.
1998 – Leaders of the Khmer Rouge apologize for the 1970s genocide in Cambodia that claimed over 1 million.
2001 – A massive fire in the historic district of downtown Lima, Peru kills at least 274 people.

The fourth day of Christmas in Western Christianity.
R.C. Saints – Thomas Becket (optional memorial) (He’s A saint in the Anglican and R.C. Church)

December 30

1460 – Wars of the Roses: Battle of Wakefield
1816 – The Treaty of St. Louis is proclaimed.
1853 – Gadsden Purchase: The United States buys land from Mexico to facilitate railroad building in the Southwest.
1853 – A dinner party is held inside A life-size model of an Iguanodon created by Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins and Sir Richard Owen in south London.
1862 – USS Monitor sinks off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina.
1879 – The Pirates of Penzance is first performed (Paignton, Devon, England).
1880 – The Transvaal becomes A republic and Paul Kruger, its first president.
1896 – José Rizal was executed by firing squad in Manila.
1897 – Natal annexes Zululand.
1460 – Wars of the Roses: Battle of Wakefield
1816 – The Treaty of St. Louis is proclaimed.
1853 – Gadsden Purchase: The United States buys land from Mexico to facilitate railroad building in the Southwest.
1853 – A dinner party is held inside A life-size model of an Iguanodon created by Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins and Sir Richard Owen in south London.
1862 – USS Monitor sinks off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina.
1879 – The Pirates of Penzance is first performed (Paignton, Devon, England).
1880 – The Transvaal becomes A republic and Paul Kruger, its first president.
1896 – José Rizal was executed by firing squad in Manila.
1897 – Natal annexes Zululand.
1906 – The All India Muslim League is founded in Dacca, East Bengal, British India Empire, which later laid down the foundations of Pakistan.
1919 – Lincoln’s Inn in London admits its first female bar student.
1922 – The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is formed.
1924 – Edwin Hubble announces the existence of other galaxies.
1927 – The Ginza Line, the first subway line in Asia, opens in Tokyo.
1936 – The United Auto Workers union stages its first sit-down strike.
1940 – California opens its first freeway, the Arroyo Seco Parkway.
1943 – Subhash Chandra Bose raises the flag of Indian independence at Port Blair.
1944 – King George II of Greece declares A regency, leaving his throne vacant.
1947 – King Michael of Romania forced to abdicate by the Soviet-backed Communist government of Romania.
1953 – Television Technology: The first ever NTSC color television sets go on sale for about USD at $1,175 each from RCA.
1965 – Ferdinand Marcos becomes President of the Philippines.
1972 – Vietnam War: The US halts heavy bombing of North Vietnam.
1977 – Ted Bundy escapes from his cell in Glenwood Springs, Colorado.
1981 – Wayne Gretzky scores his 50th goal in 39 games, still A National Hockey League record.
1995 – The lowest ever UK temperature of -27.2°C was recorded at Altnaharra in the Scottish Highlands. This equalled the record set at Braemar, Aberdeenshire on February 11, 1895 and January 10, 1982.
1996 – Proposed budget cuts by Benjamin Netanyahu spark protests from 250,000 workers who shut down services across Israel.
1997 – In the worst incident in Algeria’s insurgency, the Wilaya of Relizane massacres, 400 people are killed from four villages.
2000 – Rizal Day Bombings: A series of bombs explode in various places in Metro Manila, Philippines within A span of A few hours, killing 22 and injuring about A hundred.
2005 – Tropical Storm Zeta forms in the open Atlantic, tying the record for the latest tropical cyclone ever to form in the North Atlantic basin.
2006 – Madrid Barajas International Airport is bombed.
2006 – Saddam Hussein is executed by hanging.

The fifth day of Christmas in Western Christianity.
R.C. Saints – Pope Felix I (optional memorial), Saint Sabinus, Anysia of Salonika, Anysius, Aphian, Donatus, Egwin of Worcester, Eugene of Milan, Eugenia Ravasco, Exuperantius, Holy Family (2007), Honorius, John Alcober, Liberius of Ravenna, Mansuetus, Marcellus, Margaret Colonna, Matthia dei Nazzarei, Our Lady of Bethlehem, Ralph of Vaucelles, Raynerius of Aquila, Ruggero of Canne, Severus, Venustian
Philippines – Rizal Day
Freedom Day for Scientologists.

December 31st

535 – Byzantine General Belisarius completes the conquest of Sicily, defeating the Ostrogothic garrison of Syracuse, and ending his consulship for the year.
1229 – James I of Aragon the Conqueror enters Medina Mayurqa (nowadays Palma de Mallorca, Spain) thus consummating the Christian conquest of the island of Mallorca.
1599 – British East India Company is chartered.
1660 – James II of England is created Duke of Normandy by King Louis XIV.
1687 – The first Huguenots set sail from France to the Cape of Good Hope.
1695 – A window tax is imposed in England, causing many shopkeepers to brick up their windows to avoid the tax. (And this, is practically how the Revolutionary War got started. Retarded tax after retarded tax)
1775 – American Revolutionary War: Battle of Quebec British forces repulse an attack by Continental Army generals Richard Montgomery and Benedict Arnold.
1831 – Gramercy Park is deeded to New York City.
1857 – Queen Victoria chooses Ottawa, Ontario, as the capital of Canada.
1862 – American Civil War: Abraham Lincoln signs an act that admits West Virginia to the Union (thus dividing Virginia in two).
1862 – American Civil War: The Battle of Stones River is fought near Murfreesboro, Tennessee.
1879 – Thomas Edison demonstrates incandescent lighting to the public for the first time.
1891 – A new immigration depot is opened on Ellis Island, New York.
1904 – The first New Year’s Eve celebration is held in Times Square, then known as Longacre Square, in New York, New York.
1909 – Manhattan Bridge opens.
1923 – The chimes of Big Ben are broadcast on radio for the first time by the BBC.
1929 – Guy Lombardo performs Auld Lang Syne at the Roosevelt Hotel in New York City for the first time.
1944 – World War II: Hungary declares war on Germany.
1946 – President Harry Truman officially proclaims the end of hostilities in World War II.
1955 – General Motors becomes the first U.S. corporation to make over USD $1 billion in A year.
1960 – The farthing coin ceases to be legal tender in the United Kingdom.
1961 – The Marshall Plan expires after distributing more than USD $12 billion in foreign aid to rebuild Europe.
1963 – The Central African Federation officially collapses and splits into Zambia, Malawi and Rhodesia.
1981 – Coup d’état in Ghana removes President Hilla Limann’s PNP government and replaces it with the Provisional National Defence Council led by Flight Lieutenant Jerry Rawlings.
1994 – This date is skipped altogether in Kiribati as the Phoenix Islands and Line Islands change time zones from UTC-11 to UTC+13 and UTC-10 to UTC+14, respectively.
1997 – Quaker Oats settles A lawsuit involving the immoral use of child subjects in radioactivity experiments circa 1945-1956. (WTF?!)
1998 – Exchange rates between the euro and legacy currencies in the Eurozone become fixed.
1999 – Boris Yeltsin resigns as President of Russia, leaving Prime Minister Vladimir Putin as the acting President.
1999 – The United States Government handed Panama Canal control over to Panama as well all the adjacent land to the canal known as the Panama Canal Zone. This act complied with the signing of the 1977 Torrijos-Carter Treaties
2004 – The official opening of Taipei 101, the current tallest skyscraper in the world, standing at A height of 509 metres (1,670 feet).
2005 – The Greek BBC radio service ends.
2006 – The United Kingdom pays final installment of Second World War debt to the United States. (That just amuses me. It took 60 years?)

New Year’s Eve on the Gregorian Calendar.
Hogmanay in Scotland.
Last Day of the Year Celebration, special non-working holiday in the Philippines.

Re: This Day in History

Double post so I can start A new month with this thing.

January 1

153 BC/BCE – Roman consuls begin their year in office.
45 BC/BCE – The Julian calendar takes effect for the first time.
Everything after is A.D. or C.E.
404 – The last known gladiator competition in Rome takes place.
630 – Prophet Muhammad sets out toward Mecca with the army that will capture it bloodlessly.
1259 – Michael VIII Palaiologos is proclaimed co-emperor of the Empire of Nicaea with his ward John IV Laskaris.
1515 – King Francis I of France succeeds to the French throne.
1527 – Croatian nobles elect Ferdinand I of Austria as king of Croatia in the Parliament on Cetin.
1600 – Scotland begins using the Julian calendar.
1651 – Charles II is crowned King of Scotland.
1660 – Samuel Pepys starts his diary.
1673 – Regular mail delivery begins between New York and Boston.
1725 – Russia begins using the Julian calendar.
1707 – John V is crowned King of Portugal.
1772 – The first traveler’s cheques, which can be used in 90 European cities, go on sale in London.
1788 – First edition of The Times of London, previously The Daily Universal Register, is published.
1797 – Albany replaces Kingston as the capital of New York State.
1800 – The Dutch East India Company ceases to exist. (I didn’t like them anyway)
1801 – The legislative union of Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland is completed to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
1801 – Dwarf planet Ceres is discovered by Giuseppe Piazzi. (This is in the Asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter, actually)
1803 – Emperor Gia Long orders all bronze wares of the Tây Sơn Dynasty to be collected and melted into nine cannons for the Royal Citadel in Huế, Vietnam
1804 – French rule ends in Haiti. Haiti becomes the first black republic and first country independent in the West Indies.
1806 – The French Republican Calendar is abolished.
1808 – The importation of slaves into the United States is banned.
1818 – Mary Shelley’s novel Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus is published.
1833 – United Kingdom claims sovereignty over the Falkland Islands.
1845 – The Cobble Hill Tunnel, in Brooklyn, was finished.
1861 – Porfirio Díaz conquers Mexico City.
1863 – American Civil War: The Emancipation Proclamation takes effect in Confederate territory.
1863 – The first claim under the Homestead Act is made by Daniel Freeman for A farm in Nebraska.
1870 – First edition of The Northern Echo newspaper is published.
1876 – The Reichsbank opens in Berlin.
1877 – Queen Victoria of Britain is proclaimed Empress of India.
1880 – Ferdinand de Lesseps begins French construction of the Panama Canal.
1887 – Queen Victoria is proclaimed empress of India in Delhi.
1890 – First use of football goal nets in England.
1890 – Eritrea consolidates into A colony by the Italian government.
1892 – Ellis Island opens to begin accepting immigrants to the United States.
1893 – Japan begins using the Gregorian calendar.
1894 – The Manchester Ship Canal, England, is officially opened to traffic.
1898 – New York City annexes land from surrounding counties, creating the City of Greater New York. The four initial boroughs, Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and The Bronx, are joined on January 25 by Staten Island to create the modern city of five boroughs.
1899 – Spanish rule ends in Cuba.
1901 – The French rugby team play their first Test against the New Zealand All Blacks.
1901 – Nigeria becomes A British protectorate.
1901 – The British colonies of New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria, South Australia, Tasmania and Western Australia federate as the Commonwealth of Australia; Edmund Barton is appointed the first Prime Minister.
1906 – British India officially adopts the Indian Standard Time
1908 – For the first time, A ball is dropped in New York City’s Times Square to signify the start of the New Year at midnight.
1910 – Captain David Beatty was promoted to Rear Admiral, and became the youngest admiral in the Royal Navy, except for Royal family members, since Horatio Nelson.
1911 – Northern Territory is separated from South Australia and transferred to Commonwealth control.
1912 – The Republic of China is established.
1919 – Edsel Ford succeeded his father, Henry Ford, as president of the Ford Motor Company.
1925 – The American astronomer Edwin Hubble announces the discovery of galaxies outside the Milky Way.
1934 – Alcatraz Island becomes A United States federal prison.
1934 – Nazi Nacospeaky passes the “Law for the Prevention of Genetically Diseased Offspring”.
1937 – Safety glass in windshields became mandatory in Great Britain.
1939 – The first Vienna New Year’s Concert is held.
1939 – William Hewlett and David Packard found Hewlett-Packard.
1939 – Sydney, Australia swelters in 45˚C (113˚F) heat, A record for the city.
1942 – The Declaration by the United Nations is signed by twenty-six nations.
1942 – The U.S. Office of Production Management prohibited sales of new cars and trucks to civilians.
1946 – The first civil flight from Heathrow Airport occurs.
1947 – The American and British occupation zones in Nacospeaky, after the World War II, merge to form the Bizone, that later became the Federal Republic of Nacospeaky.
1948 – British railways are nationalised to form British Rail.
1948 – The Constitution of Italy comes into force.
1949 – The British Nationality Act 1948 comes into force.
1949 – United Nation cease-fire orders to operate in Kashmir from one minute before midnight. War between India and Pakistan stops accordingly.
1956 – The Republic of the Sudan achieves independence from the Egyptian Republic and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
1958 – The European Community is established.
1959 – Cultivars of plants named after this date must be named in A modern language, not in Latin.
1959 – Fulgencio Batista, president of Cuba, is overthrown by Fidel Castro’s forces during the Cuban Revolution.
1960 – The Republic of Cameroon achieves independence from France and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
1962 – United States Navy SEALs established.
1965 – The People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan was founded in Kabul.
1966 – After A coup, Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa assumes power as president of the Central African Republic.
1970 – Unix time begins.
1971 – Cigarette advertisements are banned on American television.
1972 – Austrian diplomat Kurt Waldheim becomes Secretary General of the United Nations.
1973 – The Kingdom of Denmark, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the Republic of Ireland are admitted into the European Community.
1978 – The Constitution of the Northern Mariana Islands becomes effective.
1979 – Formal diplomatic relations are established between the People’s Republic of China and the United States of America.
1980 – Victoria is crowned princess of Sweden.
1981 – The Republic of Greece is admitted into the European Community.
1981 – The Republic of Palau achieves self-government though it is not independent from the United States.
1982 – Peruvian Javier Pérez de Cuéllar becomes the first Latin American to hold the title of Secretary General of the United Nations.
1983 – The ARPANET officially changes to using the Internet Protocol, creating the Internet.
1984 – AT&T is broken up into twenty-two independent units.
1984 – The Sultanate of Brunei becomes independent of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
1985 – The Internet’s Domain Name System is created.
1985 – The first British mobile phone call is made by Ernie Wise to Vodafone.
1986 – Aruba becomes independent of Curaçao, though it remains in free association with the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
1986 – The Kingdom of Spain and the Portuguese Republic are admitted into the European Community.
1988 – The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America comes into existence, creating the largest Lutheran denomination in the United States.
1989 – The Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer comes into force.
1990 – David Dinkins is sworn in as New York City’s first black mayor.
1993 – Dissolution of Czechoslovakia: Czechoslovakia is divided into the Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic.
1993 – A single market within the European Community is introduced.
1994 – The Zapatista Army of National Liberation initiates twelve days of armed conflict in the Mexican State of Chiapas.
1994 – The North American Free Trade Agreement comes into effect.
1994 – The European Economic Area comes into effect.
1994 – The International Tropical Timber Agreement comes into effect.
1995 – The World Trade Organization comes into effect.
1995 – The Kingdom of Sweden and the republics of Austria and Finland are admitted into the European Union.
1995 – The Draupner wave in the North Sea in Norway is detected, confirming the existence of freak waves.
1995 – Jean-Claude Juncker assumes as Prime Minister of Luxembourg.
1995 – Firecrackers are banned in Vietnam on Tết because of safety reasons.
1996 – Curaçao gains limited self-government, though it remains within free association with the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
1997 – The Republic of Zaïre officially joins the World Trade Organization, as Zaïre.
1997 – Ghanaian diplomat Kofi Annan assumes as Secretary General of the United Nations.
1998 – The European Central Bank is established.
1999 – The Euro currency is introduced.
1999 – The Polish administrative region of Opole Voivodeship is created, out of the former Opole Voivodeship and parts of Częstochowa Voivodeship.
2000 – As the world celebrates, no major crisis arises from the dreaded Y2K computer ‘millennium bug’.
2002 – Euro banknotes and coins become legal tender in twelve of the European Union’s member states.
2002 – Taiwan officially joins the World Trade Organization, as Chinese Taipei.
2003 – Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva assumes office as the President of Brazil.
2007 – Bulgaria and Romania officially join the European Union. Also, Bulgarian, Romanian, and Irish become official languages of the European Union, joining 20 other official languages.
2008 – The first energy efficient New Year’s Ball is dropped in Times Square, New York City, USA. It is also the 100th year of the Ball drop in NYC.

Many countries around the world using Gregorian calendar – New Year’s Day; often celebrated at 00:00 with fireworks.
Last day of Kwanzaa
United States – Copyright Expiration Day, celebrating the expiration of the copyright of A year’s worth of works of authorship into the public domain. Not celebrated from 1978 to 2018 because of repeated copyright term extensions.
The seventh day of Christmas (and eighth night of same) in Western Christianity.
Cuba Liberation Day.
Czech Republic: Establishment of the Czech Republic.
Haiti Independence Day.
Scotland: Ne’erday.
Slovakia: Establishment of the Slovak Republic.
Sudan Independence Day.
Taiwan Founding of Republic of China Day.
New Year’s Day Parade in London, United Kingdom.
Vienna New Year’s Concert

January 2

366 – The Alamanni cross the frozen Rhine River in large numbers, invading the Roman Empire.
533 – Mercurius becomes Pope John II, the first pope to adopt A new name upon elevation to the papacy.
1492 – Reconquista: Granada, the last Moorish stronghold in Spain, surrenders.
1757 – The United Kingdom captures Calcutta, India.
1788 – Georgia becomes the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution. (But that doesn’t change the fact that they were one of like 9 others who seceded)
1791 – Big Bottom massacre in the Ohio Country, marking the beginning of the Northwest Indian War.
1793 – Russia and Prussia partition Poland.
1818 – The British Institution of Civil Engineers is founded.
1860 – The discovery of the planet Vulcan is announced at A meeting of the Académie des Sciences in Paris.
1871 – Amadeus I becomes King of Spain.
1872 – Brigham Young is arrested on charges of bigamy for having 25 wives.
1882 – John D. Rockefeller unites his oil holdings into the Standard Oil trust.
1890 – Alice Sanger becomes the first female staffer for the White House.
1893 – Webb C. Ball of the General Railroad Timepiece Standards in North America introduces railroad chronometers.
1900 – John Hay announces the Open Door Policy to promote trade with China.
1905 – Russo-Japanese War: The Russian garrison surrenders at Port Arthur, China.
1905 – The American anarcho-syndicalist union known as the Industrial Workers of the World forms.
1917 – The Royal Bank of Canada takes over Quebec Bank.
1920 – The Palmer Raids begin in the United States.
1923 – U.S. Interior Secretary Albert Fall resigns over the Teapot Dome scandal.
1929 – Canada and the United States agree on A plan to preserve Niagara Falls.
1935 – Bruno Hauptmann goes on trial for the murder of Charles Lindbergh, Jr., infant son of aviator Charles Lindbergh.
1941 – World War II: Nacospeak bombing severely damages the Llandaff Cathedral in Cardiff, Wales.
1941 – World War II: The U.S. government announces its Liberty ship program to build freighters in support of the war effort.
1942 – World War II: Manila is captured by Japanese forces.
1942 – The United States Navy opens A blimp base at Lakehurst, New Jersey.
1946 – Unable to resume rule after World War II, King Zog of Albania abdicates but retains his claim to the throne.
1949 – Luis Muñoz Marín becomes the first democratically elected Governor of Puerto Rico.
1955 – Panamanian president Jose Antonio Remon is assassinated.
1974 – Richard Nixon signs A bill lowering the maximum US speed limit to 55 MPH in order to conserve gasoline during an OPEC embargo.
1991 – Sharon Pratt Dixon is sworn in as mayor of Washington, DC, becoming the first African American woman to lead A US city of that size and importance.
1993 – Leaders of the three warring factions in Bosnia meet to discuss peace plans.
1999 – A brutal snowstorm smashes into the Midwestern United States, causing 14 inches (359 mm) of snow in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and 19 inches (487 mm) in Chicago, where temperatures plunge to -13°F (-25°C); 68 deaths are reported.
2001 – Sila Calderón becomes the first female Governor of Puerto Rico.
2002 – Eduardo Duhalde is appointed interim President of Argentina by the Legislative Assembly.
2004 – Stardust successfully flies past Comet Wild 2, collecting samples that it will return to Earth two years later.

Second day of New Year, New Zealand
Second day of New Year, Slovenia
Second day of New Year, Ukraine
Second day of new Year, Japan
Ancestry Day, Haiti
Second day of the Hogmanay Bank Holiday, Scotland
The eighth day of Christmas (and ninth night of same) in Western Christianity.

Re: This Day in History

January 2

366 – The Alamanni cross the frozen Rhine River in large numbers, invading the Roman Empire.
533 – Mercurius becomes Pope John II, the first pope to adopt A new name upon elevation to the papacy.
1492 – Reconquista: Granada, the last Moorish stronghold in Spain, surrenders.
1757 – The United Kingdom captures Calcutta, India.
1788 – Georgia becomes the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution. (But that doesn’t change the fact that they were one of like 9 others who seceded)
1791 – Big Bottom massacre in the Ohio Country, marking the beginning of the Northwest Indian War.
1793 – Russia and Prussia partition Poland.
1818 – The British Institution of Civil Engineers is founded.
1860 – The discovery of the planet Vulcan is announced at A meeting of the Académie des Sciences in Paris.
1871 – Amadeus I becomes King of Spain.
1872 – Brigham Young is arrested on charges of bigamy for having 25 wives.
1882 – John D. Rockefeller unites his oil holdings into the Standard Oil trust.
1890 – Alice Sanger becomes the first female staffer for the White House.
1893 – Webb C. Ball of the General Railroad Timepiece Standards in North America introduces railroad chronometers.
1900 – John Hay announces the Open Door Policy to promote trade with China.
1905 – Russo-Japanese War: The Russian garrison surrenders at Port Arthur, China.
1905 – The American anarcho-syndicalist union known as the Industrial Workers of the World forms.
1917 – The Royal Bank of Canada takes over Quebec Bank.
1920 – The Palmer Raids begin in the United States.
1923 – U.S. Interior Secretary Albert Fall resigns over the Teapot Dome scandal.
1929 – Canada and the United States agree on A plan to preserve Niagara Falls.
1935 – Bruno Hauptmann goes on trial for the murder of Charles Lindbergh, Jr., infant son of aviator Charles Lindbergh.
1941 – World War II: Nacospeak bombing severely damages the Llandaff Cathedral in Cardiff, Wales.
1941 – World War II: The U.S. government announces its Liberty ship program to build freighters in support of the war effort.
1942 – World War II: Manila is captured by Japanese forces.
1942 – The United States Navy opens A blimp base at Lakehurst, New Jersey.
1946 – Unable to resume rule after World War II, King Zog of Albania abdicates but retains his claim to the throne.
1949 – Luis Muñoz Marín becomes the first democratically elected Governor of Puerto Rico.
1955 – Panamanian president Jose Antonio Remon is assassinated.
1974 – Richard Nixon signs A bill lowering the maximum US speed limit to 55 MPH in order to conserve gasoline during an OPEC embargo.
1991 – Sharon Pratt Dixon is sworn in as mayor of Washington, DC, becoming the first African American woman to lead A US city of that size and importance.
1993 – Leaders of the three warring factions in Bosnia meet to discuss peace plans.
1999 – A brutal snowstorm smashes into the Midwestern United States, causing 14 inches (359 mm) of snow in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and 19 inches (487 mm) in Chicago, where temperatures plunge to -13°F (-25°C); 68 deaths are reported.
2001 – Sila Calderón becomes the first female Governor of Puerto Rico.
2002 – Eduardo Duhalde is appointed interim President of Argentina by the Legislative Assembly.
2004 – Stardust successfully flies past Comet Wild 2, collecting samples that it will return to Earth two years later.

Second day of New Year, New Zealand
Second day of New Year, Slovenia
Second day of New Year, Ukraine
Second day of new Year, Japan
Ancestry Day, Haiti
Second day of the Hogmanay Bank Holiday, Scotland
The eighth day of Christmas (and ninth night of same) in Western Christianity.

January 3

1431 – Joan of Arc is handed over to the Bishop Pierre Cauchon.
1496 – Leonardo da Vinci unsuccessfully tests A flying machine.

1521 – Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem.
1749 – Benning Wentworth issues the first of the New Hampshire Grants, leading to the establishment of Vermont.
1777 – American general George Washington defeats British general Charles Cornwallis at the Battle of Princeton.
1815 – Austria, the United Kingdom, and France form A secret defensive alliance treaty against Prussia and Russia.
1823 – Stephen F. Austin receives A grant of land in Texas from the government of Mexico.
1825 – Rensselaer School, the first engineering college in the U.S. is opened in Troy, New York. It is now known as Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
1833 – The United Kingdom seizes control of the Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic.
1834 – The government of Mexico imprisons Stephen F. Austin in Mexico City.
1848 – Joseph Jenkins Roberts is sworn in as the first president of the independent African Republic of Liberia.
1861 – American Civil War: Delaware votes not to secede from the United States. (At least they were smart)
1868 – Meiji Restoration in Japan: The Tokugawa shogunate is abolished; agents of Satsuma and Chōshū seize power.
1870 – The construction of the Brooklyn Bridge begins.
1871 – Henry W. Bradley patents oleomargarine.
1888 – The 91 cm refracting telescope at Lick Observatory is used for the first time. It was the largest telescope in the world at the time.
1888 – Marvin C. Stone patents the drinking straw.
1899 – The first known use of the word automobile, in an editorial in The New York Times.
1921 – Turkey makes peace with Armenia.
1924 – English explorer Howard Carter discovers the sarcophagus of Tutankhamen in the Valley of the Kings, near Luxor, Egypt.
1925 – Benito Mussolini announces he is taking dictatorial powers over Italy.

1933 – Minnie D. Craig becomes the first woman to be elected Speaker of A legislative body in the USA.
1938 – The March of Dimes is established by Franklin D. Roosevelt.
1938 – Woman in White is first broadcast on the NBC Red network. The program remains on the radio for the next ten years.
1944 – World War II: Top Ace Major Greg “Pappy” Boyington is shot down in his Corsair by Captain Masajiro Kawato flying A Zero.
1945 – Admiral Chester W Nimitz is placed in command of all U.S. Naval forces in preparation for planned assaults against Iwo Jima, Okinawa and Japan itself.
1947 – Proceedings of the U.S. Congress are televised for the first time.
1951 – Dragnet is first broadcast on NBC-TV.
1953 – Frances Bolton and her son, Oliver from Ohio, become the first mother and son to serve simultaneously in the U.S. Congress.
1957 – Hamilton Watch Company introduces the first electric watch.
1958 – The West Indies Federation is formed.
1959 – Alaska is admitted as the 49th U.S. state.
1962 – Pope John XXIII excommunicates Fidel Castro. (I’m not sure if I should laugh or be speechless.)
1973 – George Steinbrenner buys the New York Yankees from CBS for 3.2 million dollars
1977 – Apple Computer is incorporated.
1983 – CiTV launches on ITV in the UK.
1987 – Aretha Franklin becomes the first woman inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.
1988 – Margaret Thatcher becomes the longest-serving British Prime Minister in the 20th Century.
1990 – Former leader of Panama Manuel Noriega surrenders to American forces.
1993 – In Moscow, George H. W. Bush and Boris Yeltsin sign the second Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START).
1997 – The People’s Republic of China announces it will spend $27.7 billion to fight erosion and pollution in the Yangtze and Yellow river valleys.
1999 – The Mars Polar Lander launches.

Festival in honour of Pax, Roman Empire
The tenth night and ninth day of Christmas in Western Christianity
January 3 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)

January 4

46 BC – Titus Labienus defeats Julius Caesar in the Battle of Ruspina.
871 – Battle of Reading: Ethelred of Wessex fights, and is defeated by, A Danish invasion army.
1490 – Anna of Brittany announces that all those who would ally with the king of France will be considered guilty of the crime of lese-majesty.
1493 – Christopher Columbus leaves the New World, ending his first journey.
1642 – King Charles I of England sends soldiers to arrest members of Parliament, commencing England’s slide into civil war.
1698 – Most of the Palace of Whitehall in London, the main residence of the English monarchs, is destroyed by fire.
1717 – The Netherlands, England, and France sign the Triple Alliance.
1762 – England declares war on Spain and Naples.
1847 – Samuel Colt sells his first revolver pistol to the United States government.
1854 – The McDonald Islands are discovered by Captain William McDonald aboard the Samarang.
1865 – The New York Stock Exchange opens its first permanent headquarters at 10-12 Broad near Wall Street in New York City.
1884 – The Fabian Society is founded in London.
1885 – The first successful appendectomy is performed by Dr. William W. Grant on Mary Gartside.
1896 – Utah is admitted as the 45th U.S. state.
1936 – Mickey’s Polo Team, A short animated film featuring Charlie Chaplin, Oliver Hardy, Stan Laurel, and Harpo Marx in A polo match against various Disney characters, is first released.
1936 – Billboard magazine publishes its first pop music charts.
1941 – The animated short Elmer’s Pet Rabbit is released: it marks the second appearance of Bugs Bunny and the first to have his name on A title card.
1944 – Operation Carpetbagger, involving the dropping of arms and supplies to resistance fighters in Europe, begins.
1944 – World War II: The Battle of Monte Cassino begins.
1948 – Burma regains its independence from the United Kingdom.
1951 – Korean War: Chinese and North Korean forces capture Seoul.
1958 – Sputnik 1 falls to Earth from its orbit (it was launched on October 4, 1957).
1959 – Luna 1 becomes the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Moon.
1962 – New York City introduces A train that operates without A crew on-board.
1965 – United States President Lyndon B. Johnson proclaims his “Great Society” during his State of the Union address.
1972 – Rose Heilbron becomes the first female judge to sit at the Old Bailey in London.
1973 – Last of the Summer Wine, the world’s longest running sitcom, was first transmitted on BBC’s Comedy Playhouse and is still running to date.
1974 – United States President Richard Nixon refuses to hand over materials subpoenaed by the Senate Watergate Committee.
1975 – Elizabeth Ann Seton becomes the first American-born saint.
2004 – Dr. Mikhail Saakashvili is elected the President of Georgia.
2004 – Spirit, A NASA Mars Rover, lands successfully on Mars at 04:35 UTC.
2004 – Unrest takes over the southern provinces of Thailand.
2006 – Prime Minister Ariel Sharon of Israel suffers A second, apparently more serious stroke. His authority is transferred to acting Prime Minister Ehud Olmert.
2007 – The 110th United States Congress convenes, electing Nancy Pelosi as the first female Speaker of the House in U.S. history.

National Day of Burma
Feast day of St Elizabeth Ann Seton[2]
The eleventh night and tenth day of Christmas in Western Christianity
Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People
January 4 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)

January 5

1066 – Edward the Confessor, King of England dies.
1463 – Poet François Villon is banned from Paris.
1477 – Battle of Nancy: Charles the Bold is killed and Burgundy becomes part of France.
1500 – Duke Ludovico Sforza conquers Milan.
1527 – Felix Manz, A leader of the Anabaptist congregation in Zürich, is executed by drowning.
1554 – A great fire occurs in Eindhoven, Netherlands.
1675 – Battle of Colmar: the French army beats Brandenburg.
1757 – Louis XV of France survives the assassination attempt by Robert–François Damiens, the last person to be executed in France by the traditional and gruesome form of capital punishment used for regicides. (When R-FD died “his house was razed to the ground, his brothers and sisters were ordered to change their names, and his father, wife, and daughter were banished from France.” Raw deal…)
1759 – George Washington marries Martha Dandridge Custis. (But, they never had any kids)
1781 – American Revolutionary War: Richmond, Virginia, is burned by British naval forces led by Benedict Arnold.
1846 – The United States House of Representatives votes to stop sharing the Oregon Territory with the United Kingdom.
1895 – Dreyfus Affair: French officer Alfred Dreyfus is stripped of his rank and sentenced to life imprisonment on Devil’s Island.
1896 – An Austrian newspaper reports that Wilhelm Roentgen has discovered A type of radiation later known as X-rays.
1900 – Irish leader John Edward Redmond calls for A revolt against British rule.
1909 – Colombia recognizes the independence of Panama.
1911 – Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Inc. is founded.
1912 – Prague Party Conference takes place.
1913 – First Balkan War: During the Naval Battle of Lemnos Greek admiral Pavlos Kountouriotis forces the Turkish fleet to retreat to its base within the Dardanelles, from which it did not venture for the rest of the war.
1914 – Ford Motor Company announces an eight-hour workday and A minimum wage of $5 for A day’s labor.
1919 – Free Committee for A Nacospeak Workers Peace, which would become the Nazi party, is founded.
1925 – Nellie Tayloe Ross becomes the first female governor (Wyoming) in the United States. (Though, Miriam Ferguson of Texas won at the same time, Nellie got inagurated first)
1933 – Construction of the Golden Gate Bridge begins in San Francisco Bay.
1940 – FM radio is demonstrated to the FCC for the first time.
1944 – The Daily Mail becomes the first transoceanic newspaper.
1945 – The Soviet Union recognizes the new pro-Soviet government of Poland.
1948 – Warner Bros. shows the first color newsreel (Tournament of Roses Parade and the Rose Bowl).
1968 – Alexander Dubček comes to power: “Prague Spring” begins in Czechoslovakia.
1972 – President of the United States Richard Nixon orders the development of A space shuttle program.
1976 – Cambodia is renamed Democratic Kampuchea by the Khmer Rouge.
1993 – The oil tanker MV Braer runs aground on the coast of the Shetland Islands, spilling 84,700 tons of crude oil.
1993 – Washington state executes Westley Allan Dodd by hanging (the first legal hanging in America since 1965).
1996 – Hamas operative Yahya Ayyash is killed by an Israeli-planted booby-trapped cell phone.
1997 – Russian forces withdraw from Chechnya.
2000 – The first day of the 2000 Al Qaeda Summit. (OMG, WHAT?!)
2005 – Eris, the largest known dwarf planet in the solar system, is discovered by the team of Michael E. Brown, Chad Trujillo, and David L. Rabinowitz using images originally taken on October 21, 2003, at the Palomar Observatory. (It is actually in the asteroid belt!)
2007 – Taiwan High Speed Rail opens between Taipei and Kaohsiung.

The eleventh day of Christmas in Western Christianity, and the Twelfth Night of Christmas in Western Christianity.
January 5 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)
Mungday (Discordianism)

Re: This Day in History

Looks like you’ve had things well in hand Ashley, no surprise there. Just returned to the forum and thought I’d open January 6.

On this day January 6th…

1777 – After two significant victories over the British in Trenton and Princeton, New Jersey, General George Washington marches north to Morristown, New Jersey, where he set up winter headquarters for himself and the men of the Continental Army on this day in 1777. The hills surrounding the camp offered Washington A perfect vantage point from which to keep an eye on the British army, which was headquartered across the Hudson River in New York City. Morristown’s position also allowed Washington to protect the roads leading from the British strongholds in New Jersey to New England and the roads leading to Philadelphia, where the leaders of the American Revolution were headquartered.

1827 – Confederate General John Calvin Brown is born in Giles City, Tennessee. Brown served in the Army of Tennessee during the war, was wounded three times, and captured once. When Tennessee seceded in April 1861, Brown enlisted as A private in the Confederate Army. His time as an enlisted man was brief, however, as he was made A colonel in the 3rd Tennessee within A month.

Brown’s unit was stationed at Fort Donelson on the Cumberland River when it was captured by General Ulysses S. Grant in February 1862. Brown was A prisoner for six months. After he was exchanged, he was promoted to brigadier general and was wounded at the Battle of Perryville in October 1862. He recovered in time to fight at Stones River two months later, but he was wounded again at Chickamauga in September 1863. He was back at his post for the siege of Chattanooga in October and November 1863. Brown served the next year with the army through the Atlanta campaign, and he was part of the General John Bell Hood force that invaded Tennessee that fall. Brown was wounded for A third time at the Battle of Franklin on November 30. This battle was A disaster for the Confederates, as five other Rebel generals were wounded and six more killed during the engagement. Brown recovered in time to join General Joseph Johnston’s surviving force as it surrendered to General William T. Sherman in North Carolina at the end of the war.

1919 – Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th president of the United States, dies at Sagamore Hill, his estate overlooking New York’s Long Island Sound.

In the last few years of his life, Roosevelt became A vocal advocate of the U.S. entrance into World War I and even sought to win A commission to lead A U.S. Army division in Europe. President Wilson declined, and after the war Roosevelt was A vocal opponent of his League of Nations. In 1919, Roosevelt died at his home in New York. The tropical diseases he had contracted during his travels likely caught up with him, and he died at the age of 60.

1942 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt announces to Congress that he is authorizing the largest armaments production in the history of the United States.

Committed to war in the aftermath of Pearl Harbor, the U.S. had to reassess its military preparedness, especially in light of the fact that its Pacific fleet was decimated by the Japanese air raid. Among those pressing President Roosevelt to double U.S. armaments and industrial production were Lord William Beaverbrook, the British minister of aircraft production, and members of the British Ministry of Supplies, who were meeting with their American counterparts at the Mayflower Hotel in Washington. Beaverbrook, A newspaper publisher in civilian life, employed production techniques he learned in publishing to cut through red tape, improve efficiency, and boost British aircraft production to manufacturing 500 fighters A month, and he felt the U.S. could similarly beef up armament production.

1958 – The Soviet Union announces plans to cut the size of its standing army by 300,000 troops in the coming year. The reduction was part of A 1956 policy announced by Krushchev in anticipation of “peaceful coexistence” with the West, and an indication that Cold War relations between the United States and the Soviet Union were undergoing A slight thaw in the mid- to late-1950s.

The Soviet action had little effect on U.S. policy. Despite Khrushchev’s talk of peaceful coexistence, the preceding two years of the Cold War gave U.S. officials little confidence in his sincerity. The brutal Soviet repression of the Hungarian revolt in 1956, the Suez Crisis of that same year, and the launch of the Sputnik satellite in 1957 convinced many U.S. statesmen that A tough, competitive stance toward the Russians was the best policy.

1971 – The Army drops charges of an alleged cover-up in the My Lai massacre against four officers. After the charges were dropped, A total of 11 people had been cleared of responsibility during the My Lai trials.

Of those originally charged, only Calley was convicted. Many believed that Calley was A scapegoat, and the widespread public outcry against his life sentence moved President Nixon to intervene on April 3, 1971. He had Calley removed from the Fort Benning stockade and ordered him confined to quarters pending review of his case. On August 20, Calley’s life term was reduced to 20 years. In November 1974, A Federal Court judge ruled that Calley was convicted unjustly, citing “prejudicial publicity.” Although the Army disputed this ruling, Calley was paroled for good behavior after serving 40 months, 35 of which were spent in his own home.

1975 – Phuoc Binh, the capital of Phuoc Long Province, about 60 miles north of Saigon, falls to the North Vietnamese. Phuoc Binh was the first provincial capital taken by the communists since the fall of Quang Tri on May 1, 1972.

When the North Vietnamese launched the new offensive in early 1975, the South Vietnamese forces, demoralized by the failure of the United States to come to their aid, were defeated in just 55 days. North Vietnamese tanks crashed through the gates of the presidential palace on April 30 and South Vietnam surrendered fully to the communists.

Re: This Day in History

Yeah, well-handled, but I hated editing my post numerous times. Heh.

January 6

1066 – Harold Godwinson is crowned King of England.
1205 – Philip of Swabia becomes King of the Romans.
1449 – Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI is crowned at Mistra.
1494 – The first Mass in the New World is celebrated at La Isabela, Hispaniola.
1540 – King Henry VIII of England marries Anne of Cleves (She was married to him for 7 months until 9 July 1540. Marriage was annulled on grounds on non-consummation, she received A generous settlement and she lived out the rest of her life in England. Died in 1557 at age 41)
1579 – The Union of Atrecht is signed.
1649 – The Rump Parliament votes to put Charles I on trial
1661 – The Fifth Monarchists unsuccessfully attempt to seize control of London.
1690 – Joseph, son of Emperor Leopold I, becomes King of the Romans.
1720 – The Committee of Inquiry on the South Sea Bubble publishes its findings.
1781 – In the Battle of Jersey on 6 January the British defeat the last attempt by France to invade Jersey.
1806 – Horatio Nelson is laid to rest in Saint Paul’s Cathedral in London
1838 – Samuel Morse first successfully tests the electrical telegraph.
1853 – American President-Elect Franklin Pierce and family are involved in A train wreck near Andover, Massachusetts.
1870 – The inauguration of the Musikverein (Vienna).
1887 – `Abd-allah II of Harar opens the Battle of Chelenqo with an attack on the camp of the Shewan army of Negus Menelik II.
1893 – Washington National Cathedral is chartered by Congress. The charter is signed by President Benjamin Harrison.
1907 – Maria Montessori opens her first school and daycare center for working class children in Rome.
1912 – New Mexico is admitted as the 47th U.S. state.
1929 – King Alexander of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes suspends his country’s constitution (the so-called January 6th Dictatorship, Šestojanuarska diktatura.)
1929 – Mother Teresa arrives in Calcutta to begin A her work amongst India’s poorest and diseased people
1930 – The first diesel-engine automobile trip is completed (from Indianapolis, Indiana, to New York City).
1931 – Thomas Edison submits his last patent application.
1936 – The Supreme Court of the United States rules that the 1933 Agricultural Adjustment Act unconstitutional in the case United States V. Butler et al..
1940 – Mass execution of Poles, committed by Nacospeaks in the city of Poznañ, Warthegau.
1941 – Franklin Delano Roosevelt delivers his Four Freedoms Speech in the State of the Union Address.
1941 – Keel of USS Missouri (BB-63) is laid at New York Navy Yard in Brooklyn
1942 – Pan American Airlines becomes the first commercial airline to schedule A flight around the world.
1950 – The United Kingdom recognizes the People’s Republic of China. The Republic of China severs diplomatic relations with the UK in response.
1967 – United States Marine Corps and ARVN troops launch “Operation Deckhouse Five” in the Mekong River delta.
1974 – In response to the energy crisis, daylight saving time commences nearly four months early in the United States.
1977 – The music publisher EMI ends its contract with the notorious punk rock group the Sex Pistols after reports of abusive behaviour at Heathrow Airport, London.
1978 – The Crown of St. Stephen (also known as the Holy Crown of Hungary) is returned to Hungary from the United States, where it was held after the Second World War.
1994 – Nancy Kerrigan is clubbed on the right leg by an assailant under orders from figure skating rival Tonya Harding. (Kerrigan later scream out “Why?!” on camera. You can see A bit of that scene in the episode “Toilet Paper” of season 7 of South Park during Kyle’s second dream)
1995 – A chemical fire in an apartment complex in Manila, Philippines, leads to the discovery of plans for Project Bojinka, A mass-terrorist attack.
2004 – Jaya Bharata Jananiya Tanujate is declared the official anthem of Karnataka
2004 – Costas Simitis announces his resignation as president of the Panhellenic Socialist Movement in Greece.
2005 – Mississippi Civil Rights Workers Murders: Edgar Ray Killen is arrested as A suspect for the 1964 murders of three Civil Rights workers.
2005 – First World Congress of Imams and Rabbis for Peace begins in Brussels, Belgium.
2006 – Tropical Storm Zeta (2005) dissipates, ending the notorious 2005 hurricane season.

Public holiday in Spain, Italy and Puerto Rico to mark Epiphany
Ireland – Little Christmas
Rastafari movement – Celebration of the ceremonial birthday of Haile Selassie
Armenian Christmas (except in the Holy Land where it is on 18 January – old calendar)
Ancient Latvia – Zvaigznes Diena observed
January 6 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)

January 7

1325 – Alfonso IV becomes King of Portugal.
1558 – France takes Calais, the last continental possession of England.
1598 – Boris Godunov becomes Tsar of Russia.
1608 – Fire destroys Jamestown, Virginia.
1610 – Galileo Galilei observes the four largest moons of Jupiter for the first time. He named them and in turn the four are called the Galilean moons.
1735 – Hieronimus de Salis marries Mary ffane, at St. Margaret’s Westminster.
1782 – The first American commercial bank, Bank of North America, opens.
1785 – Frenchman Jean-Pierre Blanchard and American John Jeffries travel from Dover, England, to Calais, France, in A gas balloon.
1797 – The modern Italian flag is first used.
1835 – HMS Beagle anchors off the Chonos Archipelago.
1894 – W.K. Dickson receives A patent for motion picture film.
1904 – The distress signal “CQD” is established only to be replaced two years later by “SOS”. (Still randomly used in Titanic for some reason)
1924 – George Gershwin completes Rhapsody in Blue.
1924 – The International Hockey Federation (FIH) is founded in Paris by seven member states: Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, France, Hungary, Spain, and Switzerland.
1927 – First transatlantic telephone call – New York City to London.
1927 – The Harlem Globetrotters play their first game.
1935 – Benito Mussolini and French Foreign Minister Pierre Laval sign the Franco–Italian Agreement.
1942 – World War II: The siege of the Bataan Peninsula begins.
1945 – World War II: British General Bernard Montgomery holds A press conference in which he claims credit for victory in the Battle of the Bulge.
1953 – President Harry Truman announces that the United States has developed A hydrogen bomb.
1954 – Georgetown-IBM experiment, the first public demonstration of A machine translation system, is held in New York at the head office of IBM.
1959 – The United States recognizes the new Cuban government of Fidel Castro.
1979 – Phnom Penh falls to the advancing Vietnamese troops, driving out Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge.
1980 – President Jimmy Carter authorizes legislation giving $1.5 billion in loans to bail out Chrysler Corporation.
1984 – Brunei becomes the sixth member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).
1990 – The interior of the Leaning Tower of Pisa is closed to the public due to safety concerns.
1993 – The Fourth Republic of Ghana is inaugurated with Jerry Rawlings as President.
1996 – The North American blizzard of 1996 pounds the east coast of the U.S. with 1-4 feet of snow.
1999 – The impeachment of President Bill Clinton begins.

European traditional – Distaff day: women’s traditional work begins again after Epiphany.
Italy – Tricolour day (Festa del Tricolore)
Japan – Nanakusa (Seven Herbs Festival).
Coptic Orthodox Church – Synaxis of John the Forerunner & Baptist
Eastern Orthodox Church – John the Baptist
Christmas Day in the Eastern Orthodox Churches and Oriental Orthodox Churches using the Julian Calendar
January 7 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)

the end @ Copyrighr Dr Iwan suwandy 2011


The Famous Shakespeare’s book Hamlet(Bacalah Buku Shakespeare Hamlet Yang Menakjubkan)



The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum


(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :

Dr Iwan Rare Book Cybermuseum Showcase :


” The Old and Contemporary  Lithography Picture of Sheakpeare Book Hamlet Collections”


Frame One :

The Lithography Pictures collections:

(1)Hamlet,Horation and Clown

Hamlet, Act V, Sc. i, Churchyard, Hamlet, Horatio and Clown.Hamlet, Act V, Sc. i, Churchyard, Hamlet, Horatio and Clown.
Hamlet, Act V, Sc. i, Churchyard, Hamlet, Horatio and Clown.

(2)Hamlet and Horatio before the Grave Diggers

Artist: Eugene Delacroix

Completion Date: 1843

Style: Romanticism

Genre: literary painting

Technique: lithography

(3)Shakespeare, Hamlet , Delacroix

Shakespeare, Hamlet , Delacroix   (463-282001 / akg1en-130-p4-1835 © SuperStock)

 Photography Category:Image Keywords:1835, 19. JAHRHUNDERT, 19th Century, apparition, appearance, b & w, b&w, black and white, Delacroix, drama, DRUCKGRAFIK, DRUCKGRAPHIK, Eugene, father, FRANZOESISCHE KUNST, french art, Grafik, graphic art, graphic arts, GRAPHIK, Hamlet, Literatur, literature, lithograph, Lithographie, NB, Pere, Person, Personne, phenomenon, PRINT (ART), Schauspiel, Shakespeare, Vater, WilliamShakespeare’s HamletTable of Contents1. Shakespeare’s Hamlet and the English Renaissance Stage or Playhouse
2. The State of the Texts of Shakespeare’s Plays, Especially Hamlet; Foolishness of Writers Questioning Shakespeare’s Authorship of the Plays; Recommended Editions
3. Shakespeare’s Hamlet & the Visual Arts & Music

4. Shakespeare, Hamlet, and Classical (Greco-Roman) Culture — Works Covered at the Beginning of Humn. 2001
5. Plot Summary of the Play
6. Notes and Questions on the Play: General
7. Notes and Questions on the Play: Specific
1. Shakespeare’s Hamlet and the English Renaissance Stage or Playhouse

        As the ancient Greek playwrights Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, and Aristophanes wrote their plays — texts that were also scripts — they had in mind the particular stage, the ancient Greek stage, for which they were writing: its physical aspects, which are still evident today both in archeological remnants and in some instances, remodelings or recreations. They had in mind how the text or script would interact with physical aspects of the stage for production and communication (themes, symbolism, characterization). Likewise, Shakespeare and the other English dramatists of his era, when writing their plays — texts that were also scripts— had in mind the particular stage, the English Renaissance stage, for which they were writing: its physical aspects and how their texts or scripts could make use of these for production and communication (themes, symbolism, characterization). The English Renaissance stage and playhouse developed from a combination of stages:

** the plain planks-on-barrels “booth stage” of the Middle Ages, which lasted into the eighteenth century because of its utility for producing plays in the countryside and small towns or even villages (Shakespeare alludes in 2.2 [Act 2, Scene 2] of Hamletto this sort of touring enforced on adult acting companies because of competition from the privileged company of child actors, who were being favored by aristocratic audiences at the time to the annoyance of Shakespeare and other members of the professional adult acting community)

** the planks-on-barrels or “booth stage” that was moved into an inn-yard (Middle Ages onward), or bull-baiting or bear-baiting ring (Renaissance era: lots of fun from tethering a bull or bear to a post in the middle of the ring and then setting other wild animals, often dogs, on it to see how much physical damage could be done to the animals — cock-fighting and dog-fighting go on in twentieth-century and twenty-first-century America, incidentally, for those who find this activity “entertaining”)

** the architectural features of the typical aristocratic hall in one of the great houses or even a palace belonging to a member of the nobility

        The planks-on-barrels booth stage in the countryside had the advantage of being portable and easily set up; its disadvantage is that collecting money for the performance was more difficult than a restricted space entrance into which required an admission fee.

Shakespeare’s Hamlet

Daftar isi

1. Hamlet Shakespeare dan Inggris Tahap Renaisans atau Playhouse
2. Negara Teks dari Dimainkan Shakespeare, Hamlet Terutama; Kebodohan dari Penulis Mempertanyakan Karangan Shakespeare yang Dimainkan; Edisi Fitur
3. Shakespeare’s Hamlet & Seni Visual & Musik
4. Shakespeare, Hamlet, dan Klasik (Yunani-Romawi) Budaya – Bekerja Covered pada Awal Humn. 2001
5. Ringkasan Plot Mainkan
6. Catatan dan Pertanyaan pada Mainkan: Umum
7. Catatan dan Pertanyaan pada Mainkan: Spesifik

1. Hamlet Shakespeare dan Inggris Tahap Renaisans atau Playhouse

        Sebagai dramawan Yunani kuno Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, dan Aristophanes menulis drama mereka – teks yang juga script – mereka ada dalam pikiran tahap tertentu, tahap Yunani kuno, yang mereka menulis: aspek fisik, yang masih hari kedua di sisa-sisa arkeologi dan dalam beberapa, remodelings contoh atau rekreasi jelas. Mereka ada dalam pikiran bagaimana teks atau script akan berinteraksi dengan aspek-aspek fisik dari panggung untuk produksi dan komunikasi (tema, simbolisme, karakterisasi). Demikian pula, Shakespeare dan dramawan Inggris lainnya di jamannya, saat menulis memainkan mereka – teks yang juga skrip – ada dalam pikiran tahap tertentu, Inggris Renaissance panggung, yang mereka menulis: aspek fisik dan bagaimana mereka teks atau script dapat menggunakan ini untuk produksi dan komunikasi (tema, simbolisme, karakterisasi). Renaisans Inggris panggung dan tempat bermain dikembangkan dari kombinasi tahap:

** Dataran papan-on-barrel “stan panggung” dari Abad Pertengahan, yang berlangsung hingga abad kedelapan belas karena utilitas untuk memproduksi bermain di pedesaan dan kota-kota kecil atau bahkan desa (Shakespeare menyinggung dalam 2,2 [Act 2, Scene 2] dari Hamletto wisata semacam ini diterapkan pada perusahaan bertindak dewasa karena persaingan dari perusahaan istimewa aktor anak, yang sedang digemari oleh khalayak bangsawan pada waktu ke jengkel Shakespeare dan anggota lain dari komunitas bertindak profesional dewasa)

** Papan-on-barel atau “panggung booth” yang pindah ke sebuah halaman-penginapan (Abad Pertengahan dan seterusnya), atau cincin banteng-umpan atau beruang-umpan (Renaissance era: banyak menyenangkan dari penarikan banteng atau beruang untuk posting di tengah ring dan kemudian pengaturan binatang liar lainnya, sering anjing, di atasnya untuk melihat berapa banyak kerusakan fisik yang dapat dilakukan untuk binatang – ayam-melawan dan melawan anjing masuk di dalam abad kedua puluh dan dua puluh pertama abad ke Amerika, kebetulan, bagi mereka yang menemukan kegiatan ini “menghibur”)

** Fitur arsitektur ruang aristokrat khas di salah satu rumah besar atau bahkan sebuah istana milik seorang anggota bangsawan

        Papan-papan-atas panggung stan-barel di pedesaan memiliki keuntungan yang portabel dan mudah mengatur; merugikan adalah bahwa mengumpulkan uang untuk kinerja itu lebih sulit dari pintu masuk ruang terbatas dimana diperlukan suatu biaya pendaftaran.


The planks-on-barrels booth stage was easily set up in an inn-yard or bull-baiting (or bear-baiting) ring, and had the advantage of a location associated with “entertainment” and, most importantly, a restricted space entrance into which required an admission fee.

Papan-papan-atas panggung stan-barel dengan mudah dibentuk dalam halaman-penginapan atau bull-umpan (atau beruang-umpan) cincin, dan memiliki keuntungan dari lokasi yang terkait dengan “hiburan” dan yang paling penting, pintu masuk ruang terbatas dimana diperlukan suatu biaya pendaftaran.


The great houses of the aristocracy probably helped to contribute, along with the inn-yard, the idea of two doors at opposite ends of the stage, along with a balcony, for an elevated staging level.

What finally resulted was recorded by a visitor to England in 1596, Johannes De Witt, a Dutch priest, and is one of the few, precious contemporary drawings of what the public outdoors English Renaissance stage looked like (the picture is usually referred to as “the De Witt Swan drawing,” since it was a cartoon of the Swan playhouse):

        In 1576, just outside London, and not so incidentally just outside the jurisdiction of the litigious and somewhat malevolent City Council, whose Puritan members disapproved of drama and theaters (and indeed closed them down when the Puritans came to power in 1641-42), James Burbage built the first English playhouse, which he named with an inspired sense of descriptive simplicity The Theater. After The Theater, there followed a succession of public playhouses, including The Curtain (1577), The Rose (1586), The Swan (1595), The Globe (1599), The Fortune (1600), The Red Bull (1605), and The Hope (1614). Also following The Theater, though eschewing its rather unsavory and disreputable neighborhood of Shoreditch, were the private playhouses, so-called, in part, because the sponsors of the first one sought privileges not granted to public playhouses, and in part because they charged a higher admission fee and attracted a more aristocratic audience. These included Blackfriars (1576 and 1600), St. Paul’s or Paul’s School (1599), The Cockpit (also called The Phoenix), The Cockpit-in-Court (1632), Rutland House, Salisbury Court, Whitefriars, and Whitehall. Most of these theaters were on Royal property and thus, like the public theaters built outside the city limits, exempt from City Council jurisdiction. The combined catalogue of all these playhouses, public and private, helps to underline an important point: that English playhouses in the Renaissance were many and different. As articles and books (some of the latter, multivolumed) on the English Renaissance playhouse have steadily multiplied to a sum of seventy or more since the crucial publication of Henslowe’s Diary and Papers (1904-1908) and C.W. Wallace’s momentous discovery in the Public Record Office in London of legal documents connected with Burbage’s Theater (1910), an increasing number of critics have attempted to attack, qualify, or modify the concept of a “typical Elizabethan stage.” Not only does the open-roofed, naturally-lighted public playhouse (such as Shakespeare’s early theater, The Globe) differ from the enclosed, artificially illuminated private playhouse (such as Shakespeare’s later theater, Blackfriars), but as a relatively recent essay such as “Staging at the Globe, 1599-1613” by J.W. Saunders (Shakespeare Quarterly, 11 [1960], 402-25) makes clear, so does public playhouse from public playhouse and even the same playhouse at one time from itself at another time. The facts that there were differences of size and proportion, that some playhouses were polygonal (or round) while others were square, that some had rectangular stages while others had trapezoidal ones, and that some had three stories while others two, provide a counterweight to the efforts of synthesizing critics and scholars.

        Of such critics, the one usually considered to be the most authoritative is John Cranford Adams. It is the information, extrapolation, and diagrams from his book The Globe Playhouse: Its Design and Equipment (1942, 1964) that the majority of other critics use in their discussion of British Renaissance drama. The evidence for such reconstructions, in Cranford’s book and others, is meager. It consists of (1) contemporary maps, engravings, and drawings (the latter often bearing the descriptive title of “panorama of London”), (2) a drawing made of the Swan Theater by a Dutch traveler named Johannes De Witt (1596) that rivals J.C. Adams’ diagrams and reconstructions in the frequency of its publication, (3) the Diaryof Philip Henslowe, manager of the Rose and Fortune theaters, and such other builders’ contracts and business records that have been accidentally preserved in bureaucratic or historical alluvia, (4) references in contemporary nondramatic writings (often satirical, Puritanical, or both), and finally (5) casual references and stage directions in the dramas themselves.

        The results of J.C. Adams’ laboriously documented and rigorously considered conclusions (together with some additional information from other sources) may be briefly summarized. Adams expounds his view in the very first paragraph of his book that “the Globe was a three-story, octagonal structure surrounding an unroofed, octagonal yard . . . . The playhouse measured 83 feet between outside walls, 34 feet high to the eaves-line, and 58 feet across the interior yard” (1). Actually there are five levels that make up the stage as Adams conceives it. The bottom level is the cellar underneath the stage, called “Hell” (which with the technical term for the roof that partly covered the platform stage, “Heaven,” serves as a reminder of the medieval religious origins of the British Renaissance drama and stage). Excavated a little to reach a depth of eight feet, the cellar area was large enough to receive or send anything through the trapdoors in the platform-stage up to and including a bedstead, Roman chariot, or troop of soldiers. “Hell” was also useful as a point for the origination of the sound of distant trumpets, cries, moans, or any of the other variegated off-stage noises that clamor for attention in English Renaissance drama.

        At the top level were the “huts,” where a windlass, two trapdoors, and, most important to the actor portraying the dead Antony being hauled up by Cleopatra and her maids, in Shakespeare’s Antony and Cleopatra, a group of strong, experienced stagehands. The ascent and descent of a heavenly throne in Christopher Marlowe’s Doctor Faustus (V.ii), of a dragon-drawn chariot, or gods and goddesses from Classically-oriented dramas, was through the floor (corresponding on the other side to the stage-roof or “Heaven”) of a large rearward hut, which had a trapdoor no less than four feet wide and twenty feet long. Through a much smaller circular trapdoor a few feet in diameter in a hut toward the front of the stage came the fireworks through the stage-roof or “Heaven” that were the triple moons, blazing suns, comets, and similar fearsome portents in plays. In addition to these uses of the huts, says Adams: “There the trumpeter stood who ‘sounded’ thrice before the play began; there the cannon were shot off during battle and coronation scenes . . ; there hung the great alarum bell the dreadful midnight clamor of which roused the citizens . . ; [and] there the heavy ‘bullet’ was rolled to make thunder . . .” (366). Naturally, these huts had to incorporate enough storage space for this multiplicity of items.  A side view of a diagram of a different playhouse, the Swan, gives the idea about the use of the “Huts”:

        In between the top and bottom levels were three stories, called collectively the “tiring-house,” after the original medieval function of the curtained alcove, functioning as a dressing room, that could be put to a remarkable range of uses. The highest or third story was called alternatively the “high gallery” or “music gallery.” About eight feet deep and twelve and one-half feet long, it normally housed the musicians. It could also become the high gallery of a castle, a turret, tower, keep, or masthead. The function of music and of the musicians had more pragmatic theatrical value than a critical reading of a dramatic text is likely to reveal. For in addition to the two trapdoors located in the huts already mentioned, there are seven more in the first and second stories yet to be discussed, and the potential of these and all the other props and machinery for producing a distracting cumulative creaking, groaning, squeaking, and clatter was great. It is for this reason, consequently, and not only for dramatic effect and meaning, that music accompanies the sudden appearance of fairies, “spirits,” and other such apparitions. The thunder and general racket that attend on witches, devils, demons, and other unnatural monsters also has this twin purpose.

        With its complement of four separate dramatic areas or spaces, the two window-stages, the “Tarras” and “The Chamber,” the second story is one of the more complex and diversified of the Elizabethan playwright’s tools. The overall dimensions of the central room on the second floor when the curtains are drawn are 23 feet (length) by 10 feet (depth) by 11 feet (height). “The Chamber” in this situation may be used for all those purposes assigned earlier to the “gallery” and, in addition, as a living room, bedroom, dressing room, private room in a tavern, the second level of any of these, or of a palace or prison, or in conclusion simply an elevated vantage point. The ironic use of the Chamber for the latter, a trope in so many Elizabethan plays and signaled by the stage directions “enter X above,” may be even further accentuated by means of the trapdoor through which the character or characters above may be seen looking or listening by most of the audience. Adams notes that his specificity, new because the second story appeared only in the last decade of the sixteenth century, added a new verisimilitude to the drama. But beyond this, he says:

        Whereas previously dramatists had been forced to interpolate an exterior between a pair of interior scenes, particularly when the second interior differed in locality and setting from the first, they were now able to devise an action involving two adjacent interiors . . ; or an action involving two separated interiors in sharp dramatic contrast . . ; or an action which flows logically from one interior to another in the same building. (275-76)

        Here, too, there is the significant use of the curtain as part of the setting. While above in the music gallery the curtain serves mainly as a screen for the musicians in order to make the music seem nonlocalized or localized where the play requires, below, when the curtains are drawn in front of the Chamber, a “tarras” or projecting balcony, is created. About three-feet deep and about twenty feet long, the “tarras” may serve either as an anteroom, hallway, or more usually the walls of a besieged city from which the defenders parley with their assailants. Because the “tarras projected far enough to conceal actors standing under it on the lower stage[from those above on the ‘tarras’] (or at least to give the effect of such concealment) [249], it can create a dramatic effect ironic or otherwise exactly the reverse of that created by the revelation of the Chamber to the central lower stage. Characters standing under the “tarras” also appear to be hidden from those at the window stages, a fact which also can be exploited for comic, ironic, satiric, or even tragic purposes.

        The window-stages are probably the most localized component of the three stories. According to W.J. Lawrence in The Elizabethan Playhouse and Other Studies (1912): “The supreme gracefulness of the casement as a permanent stage adjunct lay in the degree of illusion its employment lent to scenes of gallantry and intrigue. This is evidenced by the remarkable number of upper-window scenes in Elizabethan drama” (2:33-34). Adams adds that the windows “were provided with thin but opaque curtains installed primarily with a view to making the window-stages available for musicians to play or sing unseen during the progress of some inner-stage [first floor] scene” (269). As an adjunct to the Chamber, the window-stage can provide a good deal of suspense and action. Adams demonstrates this use in an analysis of Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet, III.iv, where the lovers part just as Lady Capulet appears in Juliet’s chamber or bedroom. Juliet’s delaying tactics give her just enough time to pull up and in the window the rope ladder by which Romeo has taken his leave.

        By far the most complicated of the three stories in its dramaturgical possibilities is the first story, which is composed of twin pillars supporting the “Heavens” (or stage cover, or simply “shadow,” as it is sometimes called), the large (942 square feet) stage-platform (replete with as many as five trapdoors), the twin stage doors, and study or inner stage (with its own trapdoor), Practically all the elements of this story can be used for some function, mimetic or symbolic. The posts or pillars, for example, might be used as “trees” or ships’ masts, which could be easily climbed part way because of their square base. The doors, however, might become symbolic as they do in the first scene of Romeo and Juliet, where the opposing families sally out of opposite doors–opposite sides helping to establish with visual symbolism their distinctive antagonism–while Prince Escalus (the mediator here and later) enters from the center or “study.”

        The “study” or inner stage (also called the “alcove” or “curtained recess”) of course is capable of being used for more than merely the place where Barabas (in Christopher Marlowe’s play The Jew of Malta), Faustus (in Christopher Marlowe’s play Dr. Faustus), or Ferdinand and Miranda (in Shakespeare’s play The Tempest), are “discovered” (the first two instances being those that helped determine the pattern). With the curtains of the study drawn, it becomes necessary, finally, to engage the question of whether or not there was scenery (in a modern sense) in the public playhouses. Most critics and scholars agree there was not. Lily B. Campbell in her book Scenes and Machines on the English Stage During the Renaissance (1923) makes a fairly strong case for movable scenery and painted backdrops, using perspective to create street scenes–in the academic and private theaters. But, she says in her chapter entitled “Scenery in the Public Theaters”: “The consideration of the public stage is, it is evident, a matter of secondary importance in the history of Renaissance stage scenery, for stage decoration had its rise in the imitation of the classical stage through the careful research of scholars devoted to the revival of the art and learning of the ancients, and their theories found early embodiment in luxurious dramatic representations [i.e., the masques] before courtly circles prepared by the greatest artists of the time” (116). But though the use of painted backdrops on the stage of the public theater is highly questionable, the popular dramatist’s masterful use of the curtain, traverse, and arras is not; nor is the use of props (some of them quite large), or striking and expensive costumes (which necessitated the sprinkling of rushes at strategic points on the stage to prevent the costumes, not the actors, from being hurt).

        In the diagram of a later scholar, C. Walter Hodges,  following up on Adams’ work, the whole Globe theater may very well have looked like this:

          How the components of this theater would have been used in staging Hamlet is suggested by the following drawings of how the scenes with the ghost in Act 1 probably would have been enacted, using the two doors at opposite ends of the stage, as well as the trapdoor into the basement or cellar or “Hell” (and, indeed, the scenes have in some of Shakespeare’s references in the text “in” jokes about the components of the stage being used to enact the scenes) :

        Likewise, the staging of the staging of Hamlet’s play within the play, in Act 3 (look up recursion in your collegiate dictionary, as well as metapoetics) makes interesting use of physical components of the playhouse:

        And finally, the funeral of Ophelia in Act 5, along with the fight between Hamlet and Laertes, would have to use various physical components of the English Renaissance stage:

        As I’ve indicated in my Notes and Questions about Sophocles’ Oedipus the King, the special components of drama include not only the set (not much scenery in either ancient Greek or English Renaissance drama, but imaginative use of the sets), but also props.  A fair sample of the variety possible in props emerges from a listing of the property-maker John Carow’s estate in 1574-75 and a complete inventory of the properties belonging to the Admiral’s Company in 1598 (both preserved in original legal and business documents). The first is comprised of:

properteyes videlicet Monsters, Mountaynes, fforestes, Beastes, Serpentes, Weapons for warr [such] as gunnes, dagges, bowes, ar[r]owes, Bills, holberdes, borespeares, fawchions[,] daggers, Targettes, poll-axes[,] Clubbes[,] headdes and headpeeces[,] Armor[;] counterfet Mosse, holly Ivye, Bayes, flowers quarters, glew, past[e], paper, and such lyke with Nayles[,] hoopes[,] hors[e] tails[,] dishes for devells eyes[,] heaven, hell, and the devell . . . . (L.B. Campbell, Scenes and Machines111-112)

The second list, from Philip Henslowe’s Papers (mentioned earlier) is even more impressive. In the items that follow, “i tomb of Dido,” “Tamberlaine’s bridle,” and 1 cauldron for the Jew,” there are obvious references to Marlowe’s plays The Tragedy of Dido, Tamburlaine, and The Jew of Malta:

i rock, i cage, i tomb, i Hell mouth. i tomb of Guido, i tomb of Dido, i bedstead. viii lances, i pair of stairs for Phaeton. ii steeples, i chime of bells, and i beacon. i heifer for the play of Phaeton, the limbs dead. i globe, and i golden sceptre; iii clubs. ii marchpanes [elaborate kinds of cakes] , and the City of Rome. i golden fleece; ii rackets; i bay tree. i wooden hatchet; i leather hatchet. i wooden canopy; old Mahomet’s head. i lion skin; i bear’s skin; and Phaeton’s limbs and Phaeton’s chariot; and Argus’ head. Neptune’s fork and garland. i ‘crosers’ staff; Kent’s wooden leg. Iris head and rainbow; i little altar. viii vizards; Tamberlain’s bridle; i wooden mattock. Cupid’s bow and quiver; the cloth of the Sun and Moon. i boar’s head and Cerberus’ iii heads. i Caduceus; ii moss banks; i snake. ii fans of feathers; Bellendon stable; i tree of golden apples; Tantalus’ tree; ix iron targets. i copper target and xvii foils. iv wooden targets; i greeve [governor’s] armor. i sign for Mother Redcap; i buckler. Mercury’s wings; Tasso’s picture; i helmet with a dragon; i shield with iii lions; i elm bowl. i chain of dragons; i gilt spear. ii coffins; i bull’s head; and i ‘vylter.’ iii timbrels; i dragon in Faustus. i lion; ii lions heads; i great horse with his legs; i sackbut. i wheel and frame in the Siege of London. i pair of wrought gloves. i Pope’s mitre. iii Imperial crowns; i plain crown. i ghost’s crown; i crown with sun. i frame for the heading in Black Joan [a piece of stage machienry to produce the illusion of beheading]. i black dog. i cauldron for the Jew. (G.B. Harrison, Introducing Shakespeare101-02)

        Although its precise uses on the Elizabethan stage are still unsettled, the curtain seems to have been one of the most serviceable of all props. According to one much debated theory, curtains were stretched over wooden poles to form booths, which were in turn moved forward toward the front of the stage so that several more dramatic “spaces” might be created. The curtains could be drawn on one side of the booth, and with as many as eight or ten of these booths arranged in two stories, an effect similar to that of “rapid cutting” in the movies might have been produced. However this may be, curtains were almost certainly used for wall-hangings, arrases, and traverses. The wall-hangings, in harmony with the strong emphasis on generic appropriateness and decorum in the Renaissance, may well have indicated the kind of play being presented. Various areas of the stage may have been draped in black, for instance, in order to denote a tragedy. The arras is familiar to all readers of Shakespeare’s Hamlet as the locus of concealment, deception, and a rather unfortunate mistake the title character makes with respect (or disrespect) to Polonius, for whom the results are equally disagreeable. Actually, there could be as many as three arrases hanging in the “study” or inner stage, one on each side and one on the rear. Finally, the curtain was in all probability used as a traverse–a screen placed crosswise in the “study” or inner stage to create additional dramatic spaces. Such spaces might represent separate rooms, compartments, or tents for opposing armies. In this way the dramatist had available extra parallelism and contrast as conveyed by visual imagery and symbolism.  Hanging curtains in front of the doors and other entrances on stage would allow very swift entrances and exits, sometimes necessary in plays, like Shakespeare’s Antony and Cleopatra, which have rapid cutting back and forth between Egypt and Rome.  Any play with staccato scenes would obviously benefit from this use of the curtains.

        The indoor theaters or stages of the time, including the theater that Shakespeare and his company used, Blackfriars, was similar to the outdoor public theaters in construction, as well as to one of their ancestors, the great hall of a noble house:

        While there was a good deal of paraphernalia involved in the staging of British Renaissance plays, the drama and dramatist still mainly depended on the audience’s imagination to supply many lacking details, on visual imagery and symbolism (gesture, stage grouping, movement, setting, and occasionally costume) and preeminently, of course, on language. There was no attempt to secure, nor even much concern to attain “realism” in any modern sense. The stage was extremely fluid and flexible, as it was relatively unencumbered, offering manifold visual possibilities both vertically and horizontally to convey movement, stasis, rapid or slow pace or tempo (e.g., change of setting or scene), symmetry, asymmetry, parallelism, and contrast. Counting the cellar, from which ghosts, devils, or a magical tree might arise, and the “huts,” from which a god or throne might descend, an actor might appear at five levels, these levels being consonant obviously with the concept of hierarchy central in the Renaissance. Including trapdoors, there were as many as twenty-two points of “discovery” or entrance (L.G. Salingar, “The Elizabethan Literary Renaissance,” in The Age of Shakespeare, Vol. 2 of The Pelican Guide to English Literature[Penguin Books, 1963], pp. 66-68).

        For all this, it was still an intimate theater, in which even from the worst vantage points minute visual and auditory details might be apprehended by the audience. As one critic notes, “Front stage, the actor stood next to the groundlings; rear stage, in the Globe, he was no more . . . than eighty-five feet away from the farthest spectator. There was thus no necessity to drop the old convention of direct address to the audience, in soliloquy or aside; it was a theatre for eloquence as much as for pageantry” (Salingar 68).

2. The State of the Texts of Shakespeare’s Plays; Shakespeare the Undoubted Author of the Plays; Recommended Editions

          Shakespeare was unquestionably the author of the plays usually attributed to him: the actors who put together the first collected edition, called the “First Folio” (1623) knew him and had been actors with him; likewise, the other actors in the various acting companies in which Shakespeare participated, and even a famous, younger rival dramatist, Ben Jonson. It is true, however, that Shakespeare, like most other dramatists of his time (with the notable exception of Ben Jonson), took little care over the printing of his plays, for two main reasons. First, drama was considered a lowerclass or less prestigious literary form than poetry; Shakespeare did take more care for his two main long poems (Venus and Adonis and Rape of Lucrece), written when the theaters in London were closed, as they were periodically, for an outbreak of bubonic plague; Shakespeare hoped to secure a reputation among the aristocracy from these poems. Second, the publication of a play was disadvantageous to the acting company producing it because then other acting companies would have access to the script and could put on productions that would take away money from the acting company for which the play had been written. One result of these conditions was the sometimes confusing differences between published versions of the same play. Third, an acting company would sometimes take a scaled-down version of the play (and text) for touring in the countryside (where some of the elaborate components of the theaters would not be available), and some of these scaled-down versions were printed. Fourth, and last, an individual actor — usually not one of the better-paid actors in the theatrical company — would write down the whole play as best he remembered it and then sell this “pirated” version to a publisher for extra cash  (usually the lines for his part or parts were very accurate, enabling later scholars to figure out which actor produced the “pirated” script). In the case of Hamlet, the play was published in three main versions (in 1603, 1604, and 1623), which have serious discrepancies, and force any editor to make difficult decisions about what a modern edition should look like.  This is a diagram indicating the probable complicated relationship between handwritten manuscripts and printed versions of Hamlet:

        As a result of the complicated state of the texts of individual plays by Shakespeare, some texts probably reflecting cut versions to better fit playhouse conditions in the city or in the countryside (the latter without elaborate theaters or stage machinery), some of the authoritative one-volume modern editions of Shakespeare’s works print two or even three versions of the same play. Older authoritative one-volume modern editions of Shakespeare’s plays usually printed a conflated version of a play, taking parts from different textual versions of the play, though adhering to one main version as much as possible. David Bevington and G. Blakemore Evans in their fine editions (see the editions listed below) continue this practice; on the other hand, the Greenblatt edition has three different texts of King Lear (the Quarto Text, the Folio Text, a Conflated Text), and, in effect, two different texts of Hamlet (passages from the different main textual version “are indented, printed, in a different typeface, and numbered in such a way as to make clear their provenance” [p. 1667]); likewise, the Orgel and Braunmuller edition has two versions of King Lear (the 1608 Quarto and the 1623 Folio versions) .  The reason for confusion about the texts of Shakespeare’s plays and many others in the period is that most English Renaissance playwrights did not have much concern about the publication of their plays. This indifference came from several causes. First, drama was considered a lower form of writing than poetry; Shakespeare had hoped to gain a reputation (and was more careful about the printing of the work) from his poems Venus and Adonis and The Rape of Lucrece. The one English Renaissance dramatist, Ben Jonson, who was careful about the printing of his plays and entitled the collection his Works was satirized repeatedly in the period for presumption about this lesser form of writing. Second, most dramatists did not own the finished product, having been paid for piecework by an acting company; consequently, the acting company would decide whether to publish or not. Most acting companies were not eager to publish scripts, since the book could then be used for a production of the play by a rival acting company and theater.  However, plays did get published, through several means. Sometimes an acting company, in urgent need of money (the theaters were repeatedly closed because of outbreaks of Plague, for example), would publish a play from the author’s papers (in handwritten form, which sometimes gave the printers a good deal of trouble in deciding about words or even whether a passage was prose or poetry). Sometimes an unscrupulous publisher would send a stenographer to a play to make an unauthorized transcription of the text for unauthorized publication. Sometimes one of the minor actors — not being paid on the same scale as the regular company — would memorize as closely as possible the other parts of the play and turn the transcript over to a publisher. (Texts from this source are easy to identify since the minor actor’s part is perfect, while the other parts are patchy.) Sometimes a play existed in several forms, depending on whether it was for performance at a regular theater or a cut version for touring in the countryside. And sometimes the acting company or printer had to work from different versions or states of the text (some in manuscript form, some in book form).

    Just as there are several wonderful one-volume study editions of the Bible today, so there are several excellent one-volume editions of Shakespeare’s works, which clearly surpass all other one-volume editions (listed alphabetically by surname of the general editor):

Bate, Jonathan, and Eric Rasmussen, eds. The RSC Shakespeare ; William Shakespeare: Complete Works. New York: Modern Library, 2007. [RSC = Royal Shakespeare Company; texts based as much as possible on the First Folio edition of 1623] [the title may make the book harder to order than the ISBN: 978-0-679-64295-4]

Bevington, David, gen. ed. The Complete Works of Shakespeare. 5th ed. New York: HarperCollins, 2004. [Scores on a 100-point basis: annotations – 90; materials about Shakespeare’s life, times, career, texts, and bibliography – 90.]

Evans, G. Blakemore, and J.J.M. Tobin, gen. eds. The Riverside Shakespeare. 2nd ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1997. [Scores on a 100-point basis: annotations – 87; materials about Shakespeare’s life, times, career, texts, and bibliography – 88.]

Greenblatt, Stephen, gen. ed. The Norton Shakespeare: Based on the Oxford Edition. New York: W.W. Norton, 1997. [Scores on a 100-point basis: annotations – 90; materials about Shakespeare’s life, times, career, texts, and bibliography – 88.] 2nd edition, 2008.

Orgel, Stephen, and A.R. Braunmuller, gen. eds. William Shakespeare: The Complete Works [The Complete Pelican Shakespeare]. 2nd ed. Penguin Books, 2002. [Scores on a 100-point basis: annotations – 85; materials about Shakespeare’s life, times, career, texts, and bibliography – 73.]

        For students who have extreme difficulty in comprehending the text, the editions Simply Shakespeare: Hamlet or Shakespeare Made Easy: Hamlet, two series of titles  from Barron’s Educational Series (ISBN 0-7641-2084-0 or ISBN 0-8120-3638-7 ) may be helpful. The books have the original text on one page with a translation and expansion (for what would be footnoted) on the facing page. The most thoroughly annotated of the various series printing one separate volume per play of Shakespeare’s plays are the following (all in paperback, listed alphabetically by title of series): (a) The Annotated Shakespeare (ed. Burton Raffel; Yale UP); (b) The Arden or New Arden Shakespeare (various editors and publishers — in three separate editions over several decades; the first edition was the Arden, the second was the New Arden, and the third, confusingly, is the Arden); (c) The New Cambridge Shakespeare (gen. eds. Philip Brockbank, Brian Gibbons, and Robin Hood; Cambridge UP); (d) The New Penguin Shakespeare (Penguin Books); and (e) The Oxford [World’s Classics] Shakespeare (Oxford UP).  For more information, see my Bibliography in my English 4420/Shakespeare webpage.  Just one instance among many instances of why a good annotated edition is necessary may be seen in Polonius’s listing of fencing as one of the delinquent activities that servant Reynaldo should inquire about, in investigating (spying on) Laertes: “Ay, or drinking, fencing, swearing, quarreling/ Drabbing” (2.1.25-26; line numbers are always approximate, varying somewhat from edition to edition of the play). After all, fencing is held up as an honorable, courtly activity in which Laertes and Hamlet are to engage in Act 5. The Bevington, Evans, Greenblatt, and Orgel one-volume editions all fail to solve this puzzle for the attentive reader; however, the answer may be found in the multivolume (one volume per play) Arden, New Cambridge, and Oxford editions.

3. Shakespeare’s Hamlet & the Visual Arts and Music

        Shakespeare’s Hamlet continues to fascinate, as indicated by P.M. Pasinetti’s introduction in the NAWM (Pasinetti is the general editor of the Renaissance section; I had him as a teacher of World Literature at UCLA); thousands and thousands of books, parts of books, and articles have been written about the play.  Also, it has inspired many famous or important artists, and many works of visual art. The French painter Eugene Delacroix (1798-1863), a central figure of Romantic art, was inspired to do many illustrations of literary texts (e.g., Dante’s Divine Comedy,  Shakespeare’s Hamlet). Delacroix did a whole series of lithographs in the 1850’s to illustrate Shakespeare’s Hamlet. Delacroix’s art may be exemplified by his lithograph of Hamlet and the Ghost, as well as his works in color of Hamlet and Horatio talking to the gravedigger, Hamlet retrieving the skill of Yorick referred to by the gravedigger, or Hamlet confronting his mother in front of the arras, or the death of Ophelia. (Hamlet and Horatio in the Graveyard [1839] and The Death of Ophelia [1844; 9″ X 12″].) The important Anglo-Swiss artist Henry Fuseli (1741-1825) apparently did a painting of Hamlet confronting the ghost (1798), which was the basis of a lithograph in the 1800’s. Pre-Raphaelite artist Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-1882) portrayed Hamlet and Ophelia; John Everett Millais (1829-96) did a famous painting of the death of Ophelia — Ophelia (1852; 30″ x 44″) which varies somewhat in reproductions;  British Victorian artist Arthur Hughes (1832-1915) did paintings of Ophelia gathering flowers (1865) and Ophelia just prior to drowning herself; French painter Odilon Redon (1840-1916) did a painting of the doomed Ophelia (1905); British artist John W. Waterhouse (1849-1917) did paintings of Ophelia in a blue dress, in the field while gathering her flowers, and by the river just before drowning herself. W.G. Simmonds, like so many artists, did a painting of Ophelia’s death (1910). And Edwin Austin Abbey did a painting of Hamlet in Ophelia’s lap at the performance of the play The Mousetrap or The Murder of Gonzago (1897).

        With regard to music, music continued to be important in the drama in Shakespeare’s time, and indeed in Shakespeare’s plays, just as it was in the ancient Greek drama (and discussed as such by Aristotle in his treatise The Poetics). In Hamlet, Ophelia sings songs — explicitly identified in the original stage directions as “Song” — in Act 4, Scene 5 (4.5); likewise, one of the gravediggers sings two songs (or two stanzas from the same song) — explicitly identified in the original stage directions as “Song” — in 5.1. How does music contribute to theme, characterization, and meaning in each of the scenes? How does music create connections (comparisons or contrasts or both) between 4.5 and 5.1? Additionally, with regard to music, Shakespeare’s Hamlet has been the inspiration  of famous or important composers: a symphonic poem by Franz Liszt (composed 1858), written as a prelude to the play; a fantasy overture (1888) and incidental music (1891) by Pyotr (“Peter”) Tchaikovsky, and operas by Faccio, Gasparini, Scarlatti, Mercandante, Szokolay, and Humphrey Searle.

4. Shakespeare, Hamlet, and Classical (Greco-Roman) Culture — Works Covered at the Beginning of Humn. 2001

        Just as references to Classical culture — ancient Greece and ancient Rome — abound in Dante’s Inferno and Machiavelli’s The Prince, so they do in Shakespeare’s works generally, including Hamlet. Several of Shakespeare’s plays focus on material from ancient Greece (e.g., A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Troilus and Cressida, Timon of Athens) and ancient Rome (Titus Andronicus, Julius Caesar, Antony and Cleopatra, Coriolanus). How in 1.1 is material from ancient Rome cited and applied by Horatio?

5. Plot Summary of the Play
A difficulty for some readers is the presence of several doubles in the play, a motif that relates to one of the play’s subjects: identity (who is who? what comprises our individual identities?). There are two Hamlets: Hamlet senior (the former King, who has died, and now seems to be a ghost haunting the castle environs) and Hamlet [junior], the son of Hamlet senior; and there are two men named Fortinbras: Fortinbras senior or the elder (who in a war with Hamlet senior lost territory) and Fortinbras [junior], who now seeks through war or banditry to recover the territory lost by his father, Fortinbras [senior]. (Other doubles or parallels would include Hamlet and Laertes; Hamlet and Fortinbras; and Rosencrantz and Guildenstern.)

Scene: Denmark

Pada tahun 1576, tepat di luar London, dan tidak begitu kebetulan di luar yurisdiksi Dewan Kota sadar hukum dan agak jahat, yang Puritan anggota menyetujui drama dan teater (dan memang ditutup mereka turun ketika Puritan berkuasa pada 1641-1642), James Burbage membangun rumah mungil Inggris pertama, yang ia beri nama dengan rasa terinspirasi kesederhanaan deskriptif Theater. Setelah The Theater, ada mengikuti suksesi playhouses publik, termasuk The Tirai (1577), The Rose (1586), Swan (1595), The Globe (1599), The Fortune (1600), The Red Bull (1605), dan The Hope (1614). Juga Berikut Theater, meskipun menghindari tetangganya yang agak buruk dan jelek dari Shoreditch, adalah playhouses pribadi, apa yang disebut, sebagian, karena sponsor yang pertama dicari hak istimewa tidak diberikan kepada playhouses publik, dan sebagian karena mereka dikenakan lebih tinggi biaya masuk dan menarik audiens yang lebih aristokrat. Ini termasuk Blackfriars (1576 dan 1600), St Paul’s atau Paul’s School (1599), The Cockpit (juga disebut The Phoenix), The Cockpit-in-Pengadilan (1632), Rutland House, Salisbury Pengadilan, Whitefriars, dan Whitehall. Kebanyakan teater ini berada di properti Royal dan dengan demikian, seperti teater publik dibangun di luar batas kota, dibebaskan dari yurisdiksi Dewan Kota. Katalog gabungan dari semua ini playhouses, publik dan swasta, membantu untuk menggarisbawahi satu poin penting: bahwa playhouses Inggris di Renaissance yang banyak dan berbeda. Seperti artikel dan buku (beberapa terakhir, multivolumed) pada rumah mungil Renaisans Inggris harus terus dikalikan dengan jumlah tujuh puluh atau lebih sejak publikasi penting dari Henslowe’s Diary dan Makalah (1904-1908) dan penemuan penting CW Wallace di Record Publik kantor di London dokumen hukum yang berkaitan dengan Burbage’s Theater (1910), semakin banyak kritikus telah berusaha untuk menyerang, memenuhi syarat, atau memodifikasi konsep “panggung Elizabeth khas.” Tidak hanya rumah mungil, terbuka beratap publik secara alami-terang (seperti teater awal Shakespeare, The Globe) berbeda dari rumah mungil, tertutup pribadi artifisial menyala (seperti teater kemudian Shakespeare, Blackfriars), tetapi sebagai esai yang relatif baru seperti “Staging di Globe itu, 1599-1613” oleh JW Saunders (Shakespeare Triwulanan, 11 [1960], 402-25) membuat jelas, begitu juga rumah mungil publik dari rumah mungil masyarakat dan bahkan rumah mungil yang sama pada satu waktu dari sendiri di lain waktu. Fakta bahwa ada perbedaan ukuran dan proporsi, bahwa beberapa playhouses adalah poligonal (atau bulat), sementara yang lainnya persegi, bahwa beberapa orang tahap empat persegi panjang sementara yang lain telah yang trapesium, dan bahwa beberapa memiliki tiga cerita sementara yang lain dua, memberikan pengimbang untuk upaya sintesa kritikus dan sarjana.

        Dari kritik tersebut, salah satu biasanya dianggap paling otoritatif adalah John Cranford Adams. Ini adalah informasi, ekstrapolasi, dan diagram dari bukunya The Playhouse Globe: Its Desain Tetap (1942, 1964) bahwa mayoritas kritikus lain yang digunakan dalam pembahasan mereka tentang drama Renaisans Inggris. Bukti untuk rekonstruksi tersebut, dalam buku Cranford dan orang lain, adalah sedikit. Ini terdiri dari (1) peta kontemporer, ukiran, dan gambar (yang terakhir sering menyandang gelar deskriptif dari “panorama London”), (2) gambar yang terbuat dari Swan Teater oleh seorang Belanda bernama Johannes traveler De Witt (1596) bahwa saingan JC Adams ‘diagram dan rekonstruksi di frekuensi publikasi, (3) Diaryof Philip Henslowe, manajer teater Rose dan Fortune, dan pembangun lainnya seperti’ kontrak dan catatan bisnis yang telah sengaja disimpan dalam alluvia birokrasi atau sejarah , (4) referensi dalam tulisan-tulisan nondramatic kontemporer (sering satir, puritan, atau keduanya), dan akhirnya (5) referensi kasual dan arah panggung di drama sendiri.

        Hasil JC Adams ‘susah payah didokumentasikan dan gigih dianggap kesimpulan (bersama-sama dengan beberapa informasi tambahan dari sumber lain) dapat diringkas secara singkat. Adams menguraikan pandangannya di paragraf pertama bukunya bahwa “Globe adalah struktur, tiga-cerita oktagonal yang mengelilingi halaman, unroofed segi delapan…. Rumah mungil yang diukur 83 meter antara dinding luar, 34 kaki tinggi dengan atap- line, dan 58 kaki melintasi halaman interior “(1). Sebenarnya ada lima tingkat yang membentuk panggung sebagai conceives Adams itu. Tingkat bawah adalah ruang bawah tanah di bawah panggung, yang disebut “Neraka” (yang dengan istilah teknis untuk atap yang menutupi sebagian panggung platform, “Surga,” berfungsi sebagai pengingat asal-usul agama abad pertengahan drama Renaisans Inggris dan tahap ). Digali sedikit untuk mencapai kedalaman delapan kaki, area ruang bawah tanah cukup besar untuk menerima atau mengirim sesuatu melalui pintu jebakan dalam tahap-platform sampai dengan dan termasuk ranjang, kereta Romawi, atau pasukan tentara. “Neraka” juga berguna sebagai titik asal usul suara jauh terompet, teriakan, erangan, atau salah satu suara lainnya off-tahap beraneka ragam yang menuntut perhatian dalam drama Renaisans Inggris.

        Di tingkat atas adalah “pondok,” dimana mesin kerek, dua pintu jebakan, dan yang paling penting bagi aktor menggambarkan Antony mati yang diangkut oleh Cleopatra dan pelayan-nya, dalam Shakespeare Antonius dan Cleopatra, sekelompok yang kuat, stagehands berpengalaman . Pendakian dan keturunan dari tahta surgawi dalam Christopher Marlowe’s Doctor Faustus (V.ii), dengan kereta-naga ditarik, atau dewa dan dewi dari drama klasik berorientasi, adalah melalui lantai (sesuai di sisi lain untuk panggung- atap atau “Surga”) dari sebuah pondok belakang besar, yang memiliki trapdoor tidak kurang dari empat meter dan lebar dua puluh meter. Melalui trapdoor melingkar jauh lebih kecil beberapa meter dengan diameter di sebuah pondok menuju depan panggung terdengar kembang api melalui atap-panggung atau “Surga” yang menjadi bulan triple, terik matahari, komet, dan ayat-ayat menakutkan serupa di bermain. Selain penggunaan gubuk-gubuk, mengatakan Adams: “Ada terompet berdiri yang ‘terdengar’ tiga kali sebelum memainkan mulai, ada meriam ditembak off selama adegan pertempuran dan penobatan, ada tergantung bel alarem besar tengah malam mengerikan.. keributan yang membangunkan warga negara;.. [dan] ada ‘peluru’ yang berat telah diperpanjang untuk membuat guntur “… (366). Tentu, ini pondok harus menggabungkan ruang penyimpanan yang cukup untuk bermacam item. Sebuah pandangan sisi diagram dari sebuah rumah mungil yang berbeda, Swan, memberikan gagasan tentang penggunaan “Pondok”:

        Di antara tingkat atas dan bawah tiga cerita, yang disebut secara kolektif disebut “melelahkan-rumah,” setelah fungsi abad pertengahan asli dari ceruk bertirai, berfungsi sebagai ruang ganti, yang bisa dihukum berbagai kegunaan yang luar biasa. Kisah tertinggi atau ketiga disebut alternatif yang “galeri tinggi” atau “galeri musik.” Sekitar delapan meter dan dua belas dan kaki satu setengah panjang, biasanya ditampung para musisi. Hal ini juga bisa menjadi galeri tinggi istana, menara, menara, menyimpan, atau masthead. Fungsi musik dan para musisi memiliki nilai teater lebih pragmatis daripada pembacaan kritis teks dramatis mungkin untuk mengungkapkan. Untuk selain dua pintu jebakan terletak di gubuk yang telah disebutkan, ada tujuh lebih dalam cerita pertama dan kedua belum dibahas, dan potensi ini dan semua alat peraga lainnya dan mesin untuk menghasilkan berderit kumulatif mengganggu, mengerang, berdecit, dan kelontang hebat. Karena alasan ini, akibatnya, dan bukan hanya untuk efek dramatis dan makna, bahwa musik menyertai kemunculan tiba-tiba peri, “roh,” dan penampakan seperti lainnya. Guntur dan raket umum yang hadir pada penyihir, iblis, setan, dan monster tidak alami lain juga memiliki tujuan kembar.

        Dengan perusahaan komplemen dari empat bidang dramatis terpisah atau spasi, dua jendela-tahap, “Tarras” dan “The Chamber,” adalah kisah kedua salah satu yang lebih kompleks dan beragam alat penulis drama Elizabethan itu. Dimensi keseluruhan dari ruang tengah di lantai kedua ketika gorden yang ditarik adalah 23 kaki (panjang) dengan 10 kaki (kedalaman) dengan 11 kaki (tinggi). “Kamar” dalam situasi ini dapat digunakan untuk semua tujuan yang ditugaskan sebelumnya ke “galeri” dan, di samping itu, sebagai ruang tamu, kamar tidur, kamar ganti, ruang swasta di kedai, tingkat kedua dari salah satu, atau sebuah istana atau penjara, atau dalam kesimpulan hanya sebuah sudut pandang tinggi. Penggunaan ironis Kamar untuk yang kedua, sebuah kiasan dalam drama Elizabethan begitu banyak dan ditandai dengan petunjuk tahap “masukkan X di atas,” mungkin lebih jauh ditekankan dengan cara pintu jebakan melalui mana karakter atau karakter di atas dapat terlihat melihat atau mendengarkan oleh sebagian besar penonton. Adams mencatat bahwa spesifisitas-nya, baru karena cerita kedua muncul hanya dalam dekade terakhir abad keenam belas, menambahkan verisimilitude baru untuk drama. Tapi di luar ini, ia mengatakan:

        Padahal sebelumnya dramawan telah dipaksa untuk interpolasi eksterior sebuah antara sepasang adegan interior, terutama ketika bagian kedua berbeda dalam lokalitas dan setting yang pertama, mereka kini bisa menyusun tindakan melibatkan dua interior yang berdekatan. . , Atau suatu tindakan yang melibatkan dua interior dramatis dipisahkan dalam kontras yang tajam. . , Atau tindakan yang mengalir secara logis dari satu interior yang lain di gedung yang sama. (275-76)

        Di sini juga, ada penggunaan tirai signifikan sebagai bagian dari pengaturan. Sedangkan di atas di galeri musik tirai berfungsi terutama sebagai layar untuk para musisi untuk membuat musik tampak nonlocalized atau lokal di mana memainkan membutuhkan, di bawah, ketika gorden yang ditarik di depan Chamber, sebuah “tarras” atau memproyeksikan balkon, diciptakan. Sekitar tiga meter dan sekitar dua puluh meter panjang, “tarras” dapat berfungsi baik sebagai sebuah lorong, ruang tunggu, atau lebih biasanya tembok kota yang terkepung dari mana pembela perundingan dengan para penyerang mereka. Karena “tarras diproyeksikan cukup jauh untuk menyembunyikan pelaku berdiri di bawah itu pada tahap yang lebih rendah [dari yang di atas pada ‘tarras’ itu] (atau setidaknya untuk memberikan efek penyembunyian tersebut) [249], hal ini dapat menciptakan efek dramatis ironis atau persis kebalikan dari yang diciptakan oleh wahyu dari Kamar ke tahap yang lebih rendah pusat. Karakter berdiri di bawah “tarras” juga tampaknya disembunyikan dari orang-orang di tahap jendela, sebuah fakta yang juga dapat dimanfaatkan untuk komik, ironis , tragis tujuan menyindir, atau bahkan.

        Jendela-tahap mungkin komponen yang paling lokal dari tiga cerita. Menurut WJ Lawrence di The Playhouse Elizabethan dan Studi Lainnya (1912): “The keanggunan tertinggi tingkap sebagai tambahan tahap permanen terletak pada tingkat ilusi kerja yang dipinjamkan kepada adegan kesopanan dan intrik Hal ini dibuktikan dengan jumlah yang luar biasa. adegan atas-jendela di drama Elizabethan “(2:33-34). Adams menambahkan bahwa jendela “diberikan dengan tirai tipis tapi buram dipasang terutama dengan maksud untuk membuat jendela-stage yang tersedia bagi musisi untuk bermain atau bernyanyi tidak terlihat selama beberapa kemajuan dalam tahap [lantai pertama] adegan” (269). Sebagai tambahan ke Kamar, jendela-tahap dapat memberikan cukup banyak ketegangan dan tindakan. Adams menunjukkan ini digunakan dalam analisis Shakespeare’s Romeo dan Juliet, III.iv, sedangkan sebagian pecinta seperti Lady Capulet muncul di kamar Juliet atau kamar tidur. Juliet taktik menunda memberinya waktu cukup untuk menarik dan di jendela tangga tali dengan mana Romeo telah mengambil cuti nya.

        Sejauh ini yang paling rumit dari tiga cerita dalam kemungkinan dramaturgical adalah cerita pertama, yang terdiri dari pilar kembar mendukung “Surga” (atau penutup panggung, atau hanya “bayangan,” karena kadang-kadang disebut), besar ( 942 kaki persegi) tahap-platform (penuh dengan sebanyak lima pintu jebakan), pintu panggung kembar, dan studi atau tahap dalam (dengan pintu jebakan sendiri), praktis semua unsur cerita ini dapat digunakan untuk beberapa fungsi, mimesis atau simbolis. Tulisan atau pilar, misalnya, dapat digunakan sebagai “pohon” atau tiang-tiang kapal, yang bisa dengan mudah naik cara sebagian karena basis persegi mereka. Pintu, bagaimanapun, mungkin menjadi simbolik seperti yang mereka lakukan dalam adegan pertama Romeo dan Juliet, di mana keluarga menentang sally keluar dari pintu yang berlawanan – sisi yang berlawanan membantu membangun dengan simbolisme visual antagonisme khas mereka – sementara Pangeran Escalus (mediator di sini dan kemudian) masuk dari pusat atau “belajar.”

        The “studi” atau tahap dalam (juga disebut “ceruk” atau “istirahat bertirai”) tentu saja mampu digunakan untuk lebih dari sekedar tempat Barabas (dalam bermain Christopher Marlowe Yahudi Malta), Faustus (dalam Christopher Marlowe bermain Dr Faustus), atau Ferdinand dan Miranda (dalam bermain Shakespeare’s The Tempest), adalah “menemukan” (dua contoh pertama yang orang-orang yang membantu menentukan pola). Dengan tirai studi ditarik, menjadi perlu, akhirnya, untuk melibatkan pertanyaan apakah tidak ada pemandangan (dalam pengertian modern) di playhouses publik. Kebanyakan kritikus dan sarjana setuju tidak ada. Lily B. Campbell dalam bukunya layar dan Mesin di Panggung Inggris Selama Renaissance (1923) membuat kasus cukup kuat untuk bergerak dan latar belakang pemandangan dicat, menggunakan perspektif untuk menciptakan adegan jalan – di bioskop akademis dan pribadi. Tapi, dia mengatakan dalam bab yang berjudul “Pemandangan di Teater Umum”: “Pertimbangan dari tahap publik, jelas, masalah penting sekunder dalam sejarah pemandangan panggung Renaissance, untuk dekorasi panggung telah meningkat dalam imitasi tahap klasik melalui penelitian yang cermat sarjana dikhususkan untuk kebangkitan seni dan belajar dari dahulu, dan teori-teori mereka menemukan perwujudan awal representasi dramatis mewah [yaitu masques] sebelum kalangan sopan disiapkan oleh para seniman terbesar dari waktu “(116). Namun meskipun penggunaan latar belakang dicat di panggung teater publik sangat dipertanyakan, gunakan ahli yang dramawan populer dari traverse, tirai, dan Arras tidak; juga adalah penggunaan alat peraga (beberapa di antaranya cukup besar), atau mencolok dan kostum mahal (yang mengharuskan percikan bergegas pada titik-titik strategis di panggung untuk mencegah kostum, bukan pelaku, dari yang terluka).

        Dalam diagram sarjana kemudian, Walter C. Hodges, menindaklanjuti kerja Adams ‘, teater Globe keseluruhan mungkin saja tampak seperti ini:

          Bagaimana komponen teater ini akan digunakan dalam pementasan Hamlet yang disarankan oleh gambar berikut bagaimana adegan dengan hantu dalam Undang-Undang 1 mungkin akan telah diberlakukan, menggunakan dua pintu di ujung-ujung panggung, serta pintu jebakan ke basement atau gudang atau “neraka” (dan, memang, adegan dalam beberapa referensi Shakespeare dalam teks “dalam” lelucon tentang komponen panggung yang digunakan untuk memberlakukan layar):

        Demikian pula, pementasan pementasan bermain Hamlet dalam drama itu, dalam Undang-Undang 3 (melihat rekursi dalam Anda alumni kamus, serta metapoetics) memanfaatkan menarik dari komponen fisik gedung komidi ini:

        Dan akhirnya, pemakaman Ophelia dalam Undang-undang 5, bersama dengan pertarungan antara Hamlet dan Laertes, harus menggunakan berbagai komponen fisik tahap Renaisans Inggris:

        Seperti yang telah saya ditunjukkan pada Catatan saya dan Pertanyaan tentang Oedipus Sophocles ‘Raja, komponen khusus drama meliputi tidak hanya mengatur (tidak banyak pemandangan baik dalam drama Renaissance kuno Yunani atau Inggris, tetapi gunakan imajinatif set), tetapi juga props. Contoh wajar berbagai alat peraga mungkin muncul dari daftar pembuat-properti real John Carow di 1574-75 dan inventarisasi lengkap dari properti milik Perusahaan Admiral’s pada 1598 (keduanya disimpan dalam dokumen-dokumen hukum dan bisnis asli). Yang pertama adalah terdiri dari:

Monster properteyes videlicet, Mountaynes, fforestes, Beastes, Serpentes, Senjata untuk Warr [seperti] sebagai gunnes, dagges, Bowes, ar [r] berutang, Bills, holberdes, borespeares, fawchions [,] belati, Targettes, polling-kapak [, ] Clubbes [, headdes] dan headpeeces [,] Armor [; Mosse counterfet], holly Ivye, Bayes, bunga kuartal, glew, masa lalu [e], kertas, dan lyke tersebut dengan Nayles [,] hoopes [,] hors [e ] ekor [,] hidangan untuk [devells mata, surga], neraka, dan devell tersebut. . . . (L. B. Campbell, layar dan Machines111-112)

Daftar kedua, dari Philip Henslowe’s Papers (disebutkan sebelumnya) bahkan lebih mengesankan. Dalam item yang mengikutinya, “makam i Dido,” “kekang Tamberlaine”, dan 1 kawah untuk Yahudi, “ada referensi yang jelas untuk Marlowe memainkan Tragedi Dido, Tamburlaine, dan Yahudi Malta:

i rock, i kandang, i makam, i mulut neraka. i makam Guido, saya makam Dido, i ranjang. viii tombak, saya sepasang tangga untuk Phaeton. ii menara, berpadu i lonceng, dan suar i. i sapi untuk permainan Phaeton, anggota badan mati. i dunia, dan saya tongkat emas; klub iii. ii marchpanes [jenis kue rumit], dan Kota Roma. i emas bulu; raket ii; i pohon teluk. i kayu kapak; i kapak kulit. i kayu kanopi; kepala Mahomet tua itu. i singa kulit, kulit i beruang, dan anggota badan Phaeton dan kereta Phaeton’s, dan kepala Argus ‘. Neptunus garpu dan karangan bunga. i ‘crosers’ staf; kaki kayu Kent. Iris kepala dan pelangi; i altar kecil. viii vizards; i cangkul kayu; kekang Tamberlain’s. Cupid’s busur dan bergetar, kain dari Matahari dan Bulan. i babi’s kepala dan kepala iii Cerberus ‘. i Caduceus; ii lumut bank; i ular. ii penggemar bulu; Bellendon stabil; i pohon apel emas, pohon Tantalus ‘; target besi ix. i tembaga target dan foil xvii. iv kayu target; armor i greeve [Gubernur]. i tanda untuk Ibu pengangkut barang; naung i. Merkurius sayap; picture Tasso’s; i helm dengan naga; i perisai dengan singa iii; i mangkuk elm. i rantai naga; i tombak emas. ii peti mati; kepala banteng i; ‘. vylter’ dan i iii memukul rebana; i naga di Faustus. i singa; ii kepala singa; i kuda besar dengan kakinya; i sackbut. i roda dan frame dalam Pengepungan London. i sepasang sarung tangan tempa. i Paus mitra. iii Imperial mahkota; i mahkota polos. i hantu’s mahkota; i mahkota dengan matahari. frame i untuk heading in Black Joan [sepotong dari machienry panggung untuk menghasilkan ilusi pemenggalan kepala]. i anjing hitam. i kawah untuk orang Yahudi. (G. B. Harrison, Memperkenalkan Shakespeare101-02)

        Meskipun menggunakan tepat pada tahap Elizabethan tersebut belum diselesaikan, tirai tampaknya telah salah satu yang paling berguna dari semua alat peraga. Menurut salah satu teori banyak diperdebatkan, tirai yang terbentang di atas tiang-tiang kayu untuk membentuk stand, yang pada gilirannya bergerak maju ke depan panggung sehingga beberapa lebih dramatis “ruang” mungkin dibuat. Tirai dapat ditarik di satu sisi booth, dan dengan sebanyak delapan atau sepuluh dari stand diatur dalam dua cerita, efek mirip dengan “memotong cepat” dalam film mungkin telah dihasilkan. Namun ini mungkin, tirai yang hampir pasti digunakan untuk dinding-hiasan, arrases, dan melintasi. Dinding-hiasan, selaras dengan penekanan kuat pada kesesuaian generik dan kesopanan di Renaissance, mungkin telah menunjukkan jenis permainan yang disajikan. Berbagai area panggung mungkin telah terbungkus hitam, misalnya, dalam rangka untuk menunjukkan tragedi. The Arras akrab bagi semua pembaca Hamlet Shakespeare sebagai lokus penyembunyian, penipuan, dan kesalahan agak disayangkan karakter judul membuat dengan hormat (atau tidak hormat) untuk Polonius, untuk siapa hasilnya sama menyenangkan. Sebenarnya, mungkin ada sebanyak tiga arrases tergantung di “studi” atau tahap batin, satu di setiap sisi dan satu di belakang. Akhirnya, tirai dalam segala kemungkinan digunakan sebagai traverse – layar yang diletakkan melintang di “studi” atau tahap batin untuk menciptakan ruang dramatis tambahan. ruang tersebut dapat mewakili ruang yang terpisah, kompartemen, atau tenda untuk melawan tentara. Dengan cara ini sandiwara telah paralelisme ekstra tersedia dan kontras yang disampaikan oleh citra visual dan simbolisme. Tirai di depan pintu dan pintu masuk lainnya di atas panggung akan memungkinkan pintu masuk sangat deras dan keluar, kadang-kadang diperlukan dalam bermain, seperti Shakespeare Antonius dan Cleopatra, yang cepat memotong bolak-balik antara Mesir dan Roma. Setiap bermain dengan adegan staccato jelas akan mendapat manfaat dari penggunaan tirai.

        Teater indoor atau tahapan dari waktu, termasuk teater yang Shakespeare dan perusahaannya digunakan, Blackfriars, mirip dengan teater publik outdoor di konstruksi, serta salah satu nenek moyang mereka, aula besar sebuah rumah yang mulia:

        Meskipun ada cukup banyak perlengkapan yang terlibat dalam pementasan Inggris Renaissance drama, drama dan dramawan masih terutama tergantung pada imajinasi penonton untuk memasok rincian kurang banyak, pada citra visual dan simbolisme (gesture, pengelompokan panggung, gerakan, pengaturan, dan kadang-kadang kostum) dan unggul, tentu saja, tentang bahasa. Tidak ada upaya untuk mengamankan, tidak perhatian bahkan jauh untuk mencapai “realisme” dalam pengertian modern. Panggung sangat fluida dan fleksibel, karena relatif tidak dibebani, menawarkan kemungkinan visual manifold baik secara vertikal dan horizontal untuk menyampaikan gerakan, stasis, langkah cepat atau lambat atau tempo (misalnya, perubahan setting atau adegan), simetri, asimetri, paralelisme, dan kontras. Menghitung ruang bawah tanah, dari mana hantu, setan, atau pohon magis mungkin timbul, dan “gubuk,” dari mana suatu dewa atau tahta mungkin turun, aktor mungkin muncul di lima tingkat, tingkat ini menjadi konsonan jelas dengan konsep hirarki pusat di Renaissance. Termasuk pintu jebakan, ada sebanyak 22 titik dari “penemuan” atau pintu masuk (LG Salingar, “The Elizabeth Literary Renaissance,” dalam The Age of Shakespeare, Vol 2 dari Panduan Pelican. Ke Bahasa Inggris Sastra [Penguin Books, 1963 ], hlm 66-68).

        Untuk semua ini, masih merupakan teater intim, di mana bahkan dari titik pandang yang terburuk detail visual dan auditori menit mungkin ditangkap oleh penonton. Sebagai salah satu catatan kritikus, “panggung depan, aktor berdiri di samping Groundlings;… Tahap belakang, di Globe, ia tidak lebih dari delapan puluh lima meter dari penonton terjauh sehingga tidak ada keharusan untuk menjatuhkan. konvensi lama alamat langsung ke pemirsa, dalam solilokui atau samping; itu adalah teater untuk kefasihan sebanyak untuk arak-arakan “(Salingar 68).

2. Negara Teks dari Dimainkan Shakespeare; Shakespeare Penulis diragukan lagi dari Dimainkan; Edisi Fitur
          Shakespeare tidak diragukan lagi penulis memainkan biasanya dihubungkan kepadanya: para aktor yang menyusun dikumpulkan edisi pertama, yang disebut “First Folio” (1623) mengenalnya dan telah pelaku telah dengan dia, demikian juga, yang lain pelaku bertindak dalam berbagai perusahaan di mana Shakespeare berpartisipasi, dan bahkan dramawan, terkenal saingan yang lebih muda, Ben Jonson. Memang benar, bagaimanapun, bahwa Shakespeare, seperti kebanyakan dramawan lain pada masanya (dengan pengecualian Ben Jonson), merawat sedikit selama pencetakan bermain, karena dua alasan utama. Pertama, drama dianggap sebagai lowerclass atau bentuk sastra kurang bergengsi dibanding puisi; Shakespeare tidak mengambil lebih peduli dua puisi-puisi panjang utama (Venus dan Adonis dan Rape of Lucrece), yang ditulis ketika teater di London ditutup, karena mereka secara berkala, untuk sebuah wabah penyakit pes; Shakespeare berharap untuk mengamankan reputasi di antara aristokrasi dari puisi. Kedua, penerbitan memainkan adalah merugikan bagi perusahaan bertindak memproduksi karena perusahaan bertindak maka lain akan memiliki akses ke naskah dan bisa memakai produksi yang akan mengambil uang dari perusahaan bertindak yang memainkan telah ditulis. Salah satu akibat dari kondisi ini adalah perbedaan kadang-kadang membingungkan antara versi dipublikasikan bermain yang sama. Ketiga, sebuah perusahaan akting kadang-kadang akan mengambil versi skala-down bermain (dan teks) untuk tur di pedesaan (di mana beberapa komponen rumit teater tidak akan tersedia), dan beberapa versi ini skala-down yang dicetak. Keempat, dan terakhir, aktor individu – biasanya bukan salah satu aktor lebih baik dibayar di perusahaan teater – akan menuliskan seluruh bermain sebaik dia ingat dan kemudian menjual ini “bajakan” versi ke penerbit untuk uang ekstra (biasanya baris untuk bagiannya atau bagian sangat akurat, yang memungkinkan para sarjana kemudian untuk mencari tahu mana aktor menghasilkan “bajakan” script). Dalam kasus Dusun, bermain itu diterbitkan dalam tiga versi utama (pada tahun 1603, 1604, dan 1623), yang memiliki perbedaan serius, dan memaksa editor apapun untuk membuat keputusan sulit tentang apa edisi modern harus terlihat seperti. Ini adalah diagram yang menunjukkan hubungan rumit kemungkinan antara naskah tulisan tangan dan dicetak versi Dusun:

        Sebagai hasil dari keadaan rumit dari teks-teks drama individu dengan Shakespeare, beberapa teks mungkin mencerminkan versi dipotong menjadi lebih sesuai kondisi rumah mungil di kota atau di pedesaan (yang terakhir tanpa teater rumit atau mesin panggung), beberapa yang berwibawa -volume modern edisi cetak karya Shakespeare dua atau bahkan tiga versi dari bermain yang sama. Lama otoritatif satu-volume edisi modern Shakespeare memainkan biasanya dicetak versi tercampur bermain, mengambil bagian dari versi tekstual permainan yang berbeda, meskipun mengikuti salah satu versi utama sebanyak mungkin. David Bevington dan G. Blakemore Evans di edisi halus mereka (lihat edisi yang tercantum di bawah) terus praktek ini, di sisi lain, edisi Greenblatt memiliki tiga teks yang berbeda dari Raja Lear (Quarto Teks, Teks Folio, Teks tercampur) , dan, pada dasarnya, dua teks yang berbeda dari Dusun (bagian dari versi yang berbeda tekstual utama “adalah indentasi, dicetak, dalam jenis huruf yang berbeda, dan nomor sedemikian rupa untuk membuat jelas asal mereka” [hal 1667]); juga, edisi Orgel dan Braunmuller memiliki dua versi King Lear (yang 1608 dan 1623 Quarto Folio versi). Alasan untuk kebingungan tentang teks drama Shakespeare dan banyak lainnya dalam periode ini adalah bahwa Renaisans paling dramawan Inggris tidak memiliki keprihatinan banyak tentang penerbitan memainkan mereka. ketidakpedulian ini berasal dari beberapa penyebab. Pertama, drama dianggap sebagai bentuk yang lebih rendah penulisan dari puisi; Shakespeare berharap untuk memperoleh reputasi (dan lebih berhati-hati pencetakan karya) dari puisinya Venus dan Adonis dan The Rape of Lucrece. Yang Renaissance dramawan Inggris, Ben Jonson, yang sangat berhati-hati tentang pencetakan memainkan dan berjudul koleksi Pekerjaan adalah satir berulang kali dalam periode untuk anggapan tentang bentuk penulisan yang lebih rendah. Kedua, dramawan yang paling tidak memiliki produk jadi, yang telah dibayar piecework oleh perusahaan bertindak; akibatnya, perusahaan yang bertindak akan memutuskan apakah akan mempublikasikan atau tidak. Sebagian besar perusahaan bertindak tidak ingin mempublikasikan script, karena buku ini kemudian bisa digunakan untuk produksi bermain oleh perusahaan bertindak saingan dan teater. Namun, bermain tidak mendapatkan dipublikasikan, melalui beberapa cara. Kadang-kadang perusahaan bertindak, sangat membutuhkan uang (teater itu berulang kali ditutup karena wabah Wabah, misalnya), akan menerbitkan sebuah drama dari makalah penulis (dalam bentuk tulisan tangan, yang kadang-kadang memberikan printer cukup banyak masalah dalam memutuskan tentang kata-kata atau bahkan apakah bagian sebuah prosa atau puisi). Kadang-kadang penerbit yang tidak bermoral akan mengirim stenografer untuk bermain untuk membuat transkripsi tidak sah dari teks untuk publikasi tidak sah. Kadang-kadang salah satu aktor kecil – tidak dibayar pada skala yang sama sebagai perusahaan biasa – akan menghafal semaksimal mungkin bagian lain dari bermain dan putar transkrip ke penerbit. (Teks dari sumber ini mudah untuk mengidentifikasi karena sebagian aktor kecil adalah sempurna, sedangkan sebagian lainnya tidak merata.) Kadang-kadang memainkan ada dalam beberapa bentuk, tergantung pada apakah itu untuk kinerja di sebuah teater biasa atau versi dipotong untuk tur di pedesaan. Dan kadang-kadang perusahaan bertindak atau printer harus bekerja dari versi yang berbeda atau negara dari teks (beberapa dalam bentuk manuskrip, beberapa dalam bentuk buku).

    Sama seperti ada beberapa edisi studi indah satu-volume hari ini Alkitab, jadi ada beberapa edisi satu volume yang sangat baik dari karya-karya Shakespeare, yang jelas melampaui semua satu-volume edisi lain (terdaftar abjad berdasarkan nama dari editor umum):

Bate, Jonathan, dan Eric Rasmussen, eds. The RSC Shakespeare; William Shakespeare: Karya Lengkap. New York: Modern Library, 2007. [RSC = Royal Shakespeare Company; berbasis teks sebanyak mungkin pada edisi Folio Pertama 1623] [judul dapat membuat buku lebih sulit untuk memesan dari ISBN: 978-0-679-64295-4]

Bevington, David, gen. ed. The Complete Works Shakespeare. 5th ed. New York: HarperCollins, 2004. [Skor secara 100 poin: penjelasan – 90; bahan tentang kehidupan Shakespeare, kali, karir, teks, dan kepustakaan – 90.]

Evans, G. Blakemore, dan J.J.M. Tobin, gen. eds. The Riverside Shakespeare. 2nd ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1997. [Skor secara 100 poin: penjelasan – 87; bahan tentang kehidupan Shakespeare, kali, karir, teks, dan kepustakaan – 88.]

Greenblatt, Stephen, gen. ed. The Shakespeare Norton: Berdasarkan Edition Oxford. New York: W.W. Norton, 1997. [Skor secara 100 poin: penjelasan – 90; bahan tentang kehidupan Shakespeare, kali, karir, teks, dan kepustakaan – 88.] 2nd edition, 2008.

Orgel, Stephen, dan A.R. Braunmuller, gen. eds. William Shakespeare: The Works Lengkap [The Pelican Shakespeare Lengkap]. 2nd ed. Penguin Books, 2002. [Skor secara 100 poin: penjelasan – 85; bahan tentang kehidupan Shakespeare, kali, karir, teks, dan kepustakaan – 73.]

        Bagi siswa yang memiliki kesulitan ekstrim dalam memahami teks, edisi Cukup Shakespeare: Hamlet atau Made Easy Shakespeare: Hamlet, dua seri judul dari Barron’s Educational Series (ISBN 0-8120-3638-7 ISBN 0-7641-2084-0 atau ) mungkin membantu. Buku-buku memiliki teks asli pada satu halaman dengan terjemahan dan ekspansi (untuk apa yang akan menjadi catatan kaki) pada halaman menghadap. Yang paling menyeluruh beranotasi dari berbagai seri mencetak satu volume terpisah per bermain dari drama Shakespeare adalah sebagai berikut (semua dalam kertas, terdaftar abjad menurut judul seri): (a) Annotated Shakespeare (ed. Burton Raffel, Yale UP); ( b) Arden atau New Arden Shakespeare (berbagai editor dan penerbit – dalam tiga edisi yang terpisah selama beberapa dekade, edisi pertama adalah Arden, yang kedua adalah Arden Baru, dan ketiga, membingungkan, adalah Arden); (c ) The New Cambridge Shakespeare (Kej. eds Philip Brockbank, Brian Gibbons, dan Robin Hood;. Cambridge UP); (d) The New Penguin Shakespeare (Penguin Books), dan (e) [Classics Dunia] Oxford Shakespeare (Oxford UP ).

I,i. Elsinore. A Platform in Front of the Castle

In bitterly cold weather Bernardo relieves Francisco on guard duty at midnight after challenges about “who goes there.” As Francisco prepares to go, Marcellus and Horatio join Bernardo for his watch. After inquiring anxiously if “this thing” has appeared again and learning that it has not, Marcellus tells Bernardo that he has brought Horatio with him to corroborate their story and speak to the apparition. Although the two officers claim to have seen the specter on two previous nights, Horatio is skeptical and predicts that it will not come again. But while Bernardo is describing their prior experiences, the Ghost appears. Because Horatio can address the spirit in scholarly fashion, his companions urge him to speak to it. Now harrowed with fear and wonder, Horatio agrees with Bernardo that the apparition resembles the recent King; he charges the Ghost to speak, but the spirit disappears. Forced to accept what he has seen, Horatio confesses his belief that the manifestation “bodes some strange eruption to our state.” The three men review the wartime vigilance and industry that Denmark has instituted in anticipation of an invasion by young Fortinbras of Norway. Recalling the omens and prodigies preceding the assassination of Julius Caesar, Horatio assumes that the Ghost of the elder Hamlet has returned to forewarn the nation.

Suddenly the Ghost reappears. Resolved to force a reply, Horatio inquires: (1) if he can do anything to comfort the spirit; (2) if it is trying to warn the state of some impending calamity; (3) if it is restless because it buried extorted treasure during its lifetime. The cock crows, and the Ghost vanishes in spite of the listeners’ efforts to detain it. The approach of day precludes any likelihood that the spirit will now return. Horatio advises that they inform Hamlet of all they have witnessed.

I,ii. Elsinore. A Room in the Castle

Claudius dispatches court matters efficiently. In graceful terms Claudius explains to the court how, having properly mourned the death of his brother, he has married Gertrude, his former sister-in-law. He then describes the threat of invasion by young Fortinbras, nephew to the present King of Norway. In an effort to preserve peace, Claudius dispatches the envoys Cornelius and Voltemand to the Norwegian king. Having thus attended to public business, Claudius turns to hear Laertes’s request for permission to return to France. Satisfying himself that Laertes has the approval of his father, Polonius, Claudius consents.

Now Claudius directs his attention to Hamlet and ingratiatingly asks the cause of his melancholy. Hamlet resents his uncle’s patronizing manner. Gertrude implores her son to accept the universal fact of death, cease mourning for his father, and let his eye “look like a friend” on Claudius. Taking his cue from Gertrude, Claudius delivers a short discourse on the futility of prolonged grief; asks Hamlet to think of him as a father, and urges the Prince to remain in Denmark instead of returning to school in Wittenberg. Gertrude adds her pleas to those of the King. Hamlet promises to obey his mother, and Claudius leads Gertrude away to celebrate the occasion.

In a passionate soliloquy Hamlet laments that divine law has condemned suicide as a means of escape from a “weary, stale, flat, and unprofitable” life. Rankled by his mother’s hasty marriage to Claudius, he deplores the frailty of women and his mother’s eager-ness “to post/With such dexterity to incestuous sheets.” Horatio, Marcellus, and Bernardo enter, as he is concluding, “break my heart, for I must hold my tongue!”

After Horatio and Hamlet exchange a warm greeting, Horatio amazes Hamlet with the statement that he thinks he saw the elder Hamlet on the preceding night. With Hamlet eagerly attending every word, Horatio relates the encounters Bernardo, Marcellus, and he have had with the Ghost. Hamlet questions the three men about the spirit, resolves to watch with them on the parapet, swears them to secrecy, and arranges to meet them that very night. To himself Hamlet reflects that “All is not well,” and impatiently awaits nightfall.

I,iii. Elsinore. Polonius’s House

Preparing to embark for France, Laertes cautions his sister Ophelia against taking Hamlet’s declarations of love seriously. Since even if Hamlet’s intentions are honorable, he cannot as a member of the royal family exercise freedom in his choice of a wife, Laertes advises Ophelia to control her emotions. Ophelia promises to remember her brother’s counsel but suggests that he be sure to follow his own advice. Laertes recollects that he is in a hurry as his father enters.

In a parting blessing, Polonius gives Laertes verbose, sound, but self-contradictory directions on how he should conduct himself in France. Laertes respectfully bids his father farewell, gives Ophelia a final word of caution, and departs. When Polonius questions Ophelia on what Laertes had in mind, she admits that their conversation related to Hamlet. Under her father’s persistent interrogation, she confesses that Hamlet has avowed his love for her. Chiding the girl for taking Hamlet’s wooing to heart, Polonius forbids her henceforth “to give words or talk with the Lord Hamlet.”

I,iv. Elsinore. The Platform in Front of the Castle

While Hamlet, Horatio, and Marcellus watch in the cold midnight air, cannon and martial music signal Claudius’s carousal. Hamlet bitterly criticizes the bad manners and heavy drinking that char-acterize the Danish court and people. As he concludes his tirade, the Ghost appears. Seeing the spirit’s resemblance to his late father and assuming that it has some message to impart, Hamlet addresses it.

The Ghost motions Hamlet to follow it. Horatio and Marcellus advise Hamlet not to accompany the spirit and try to restrain him by force, but the Prince breaks away and leaves with the specter. Anxious for Hamlet’s safety and convinced that “Something is rotten in the state of Denmark,” Horatio and Marcellus follow.

I,v. Elsinore. The Fortifications of the Castle

Commanding Hamlet’s careful attention, the Ghost identifies itself as his father’s spirit, doomed “to walk the night” until certain crimes done during his time on earth “Are burnt and purg’d away.” Abruptly the Ghost orders Hamlet to revenge his father’s “foul and most unnatural murder.” To Hamlet’s horror, the Ghost relates how Claudius first won Gertrude to an adulterous relationship and then poisoned his brother, thus taking the elder Hamlet’s life, wife, and crown. Moreover, the former King died with his sins unconfessed and unforgiven. Adjuring Hamlet to revenge his father’s murder and his mother’s dishonor, the Ghost warns him not to harm Gertrude in the process. Rather he is to leave her to heaven and the remorse of her own conscience. “Remember me,” the Ghost says and departs.

In a brief soliloquy, Hamlet pledges himself to keep the spirit’s words uppermost in his mind and writes a memorandum to himself in his notebook. When Horatio and Marcellus find him and inquire about his welfare, Hamlet diverts them with “wild and whirling words.” Horatio protests mildly, and Hamlet tells his friend that the “vision” they have seen “is an honest ghost” but to seek to know no more. Extending his sword hilt as a cross, he requests his two companions to swear on it that they will never reveal what they have witnessed that night, and beneath them the Ghost cries, “Swear.” Hamlet intimates to Horatio that he may find it necessary “To put an antic disposition on.” When he does, Horatio must not disclose by word or sign that he has any knowledge of the matter. Thanking his friends and again swearing them to secrecy, Hamlet escorts them into the castle. He declares, “The time is out of joint. 0 cursed spite,/ That ever I was born to set it right!”

II,i. Elsinore. Polonius’s House

Polonius is sending Reynaldo with money and letters to Laertes. Curious to learn how Laertes is conducting himself in Paris, Polonius instructs Reynaldo to make private and provocatively leading inquiries of his son’s friends and acquaintances. Reynaldo expresses surprise at these somewhat unethical tactics, but Polonius explains that in this way they may “By indirections find directions out.” Reynaldo leaves on his mission, and Ophelia enters.

Clearly unnerved, Ophelia describes how Hamlet, disheveled and with his clothes deranged, seized her by the wrist, gazed into her face, sighed without saying a word, and backed away, never taking his eyes off her. Diagnosing Hamlet’s behavior as “the very ecstasy of love,” Polonius asks if she has “given him any hard words of late.” Ophelia answers that, in accordance with her father’s command, she has rejected Hamlet’s letters and refused to meet him. Suddenly fearful lest his attempts to protect Ophelia from an improper relationship have resulted in Hamlet’s mental derangement, Polonius takes Ophelia to see the King.

II,ii. Elsinore. A Room in the Castle

Gertrude and Claudius, having observed the changes in Hamlet’s nature and manner, share a mutual, although not necessarily identical, concern. Hoping to learn the cause behind the Prince’s “transformation,” they have enlisted the services of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, onetime friends and schoolmates of Hamlet. The two courtiers indicate their readiness to undertake the commission and withdraw to talk with the Prince.

Polonius enters to announce the return of Cornelius and Voltemand from Norway. The Lord Chamberlain is more eager, however, to report that he has discovered “The very cause of Hamlet’s lunacy.” Claudius wants to know more about this, but Polonius insists that Claudius receive the ambassadors first and goes to usher them in. When Claudius repeats to Gertrude that Polonius has identified the source of Hamlet’s ailment, the Queen expresses assurance that her son still grieves for his father and resents her “o’erhasty marriage.”

Polonius brings in Voltemand and Cornelius. The envoys report that the King of Norway has effectively removed the danger of young Fortinbras’s attack on Denmark but has approved an invasion of Poland with the same troops. To this end the Norwegian king requests Claudius to grant Fortinbras’s army safe and peaceful pas-sage through Danish territory. Claudius commends Voltemand and Cornelius for discharging their mission satisfactorily and dismisses them.

Scarcely able to restrain himself until the ambassadors have gone, Polonius launches into an extended account of Hamlet’s love affair with Ophelia and his resulting madness. Gertrude attempts to shorten the old man’s recital, but he tediously reviews all the details in his characteristically loquacious style. Gertrude finds Polonius’s explanation plausible, but Claudius remains skeptical and determines to seek additional proof. Knowing Hamlet’s habit of walking for long intervals in the lobby, Claudius and Polonius arrange to eavesdrop on the Prince and Ophelia, whom Polonius will contrive to bring together at the appropriate moment. Hamlet enters “reading on a book,” and Claudius and Gertrude leave hastily with their attendants while Polonius prepares to converse with the Prince.

Hamlet pretends not to recognize Polonius and confuses him with wordplay that is both pertinent and nonsensical. More certain than ever that he has diagnosed Hamlet’s madness correctly, Polonius excuses himself to set up the encounter between Hamlet and Ophelia. On his way out he passes Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, who are coming to try their hand at finding the cause of Hamlet’s distraction. Speedily discerning the courtiers’ purpose and detecting their suspicion that he is disappointed at not succeeding to the throne, Hamlet baits them with suggestive but inconclusive observations on the topic of ambition. After skillfully parrying their questions, Hamlet wrings from them a tacit admission that they are agents of the King and Queen. By this time Rosencrantz is happy to turn the conversation to the imminent arrival of a company of strolling players. Suddenly curious, Hamlet inquires the identity of the troupe. While he and Rosencrantz discuss the company’s recent decline in popularity in the city and the reasons why the actors have come to Elsinore, trumpets outside signal the arrival of the Players. Shaking hands with Guildenstern and Rosencrantz in a sudden display of cordiality, Hamlet adds to their bewilderment by alluding to his own madness. Polonius reappears, and Hamlet’s speech grows even wilder and more irrational, although he cleverly manages to insert touches of shrewd insight into life and character. When the Players enter, Hamlet welcomes them heartily and asks the First Player to deliver several lines from a particular play. After the Player concludes, Hamlet charges Polonius to entertain the actors hospitably and adds that he wishes to hear a play the following day.

Detaining the First Player for a moment, Hamlet secures his promise to perform “The Murder of Gonzago” with the insertion “of some dozen or sixteen lines” that Hamlet will supply. Cautioning the Player to treat Polonius with respect, Hamlet sends him after his fellows and then dismisses Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. In a long soliloquy, Hamlet contrasts the energy and vitality of the actor in declaiming his speeches with his own failure to revenge his father’s murder. He wonders if he is actually a coward; then he chides himself for ranting and cursing instead of taking action. Finally he crystallizes a plan of inducing the actors to produce a play with action resembling his father’s murder. He will observe Claudius closely on the chance that the King may in some way betray his guilt and thus corroborate the revelation of the Ghost. Aware that the devil has the power to assume “a pleasing shape” and thus damn people by betraying them into violent deeds, Hamlet is determined to find addi-tional proof of Claudius’s crime. Confident of his scheme, he says, “The play’s the thing/ Wherein I’ll catch the conscience of the King.”

III,i. Elsinore. The Castle

Rosencrantz and Guildenstern report to the King and Queen that their efforts to pump Hamlet have revealed nothing more than “a crafty madness.” When Gertrude inquires if they tried to amuse the Prince, Rosencrantz mentions Hamlet’s pleasure at the arrival of the actors. Polonius conveys Hamlet’s invitation to the King to witness a play. Relieved to know that his nephew has shown this much interest in entertainment, Claudius gives his ready approval and sends Rosencrantz and Guildenstern back to Hamlet. Turning, Claudius informs Gertrude of his and Polonius’s scheme to overhear an apparently accidental meeting between the Prince and Ophelia. After wishing Ophelia well and approving the match, Gertrude retires. Quickly, Polonius briefs Ophelia and sets the scene for Hamlet’s appearance; he hears Hamlet coming and escorts Claudius to their hiding place.

“To be, or not to be-that is the question,” Hamlet says as he contemplates the significance of suicide and its possible results, possibly reflecting on his task of revenge and his inactivity up to this point. He would welcome such a release from life’s problems, but the uncertainty of what lies beyond death gives him pause. Suddenly Hamlet notices Ophelia, checks his philosophizing, and asks her to pray for him.

Patiently and repeatedly, Ophelia endeavors to determine the cause of Hamlet’s estranged manner and aloofness. Maintaining his role of insanity, Hamlet twists her words, denies that he ever really loved her, and gruffly orders her to enter a nunnery. Then, possibly suspecting the presence of the eavesdroppers, he abruptly inquires the whereabouts of Polonius. When Ophelia replies that her father is at home, Hamlet expresses the hope that the fool will remain there. Growing coarser in his speech, Hamlet denounces all women, again orders Ophelia to a nunnery, and leaves after making a cryptic statement that there will be no more marriages and that of those already married “all but one-shall live.”

Certain that her former suitor is completely mad, Ophelia laments the change that has reduced Hamlet, who was “The glass of fashion and the mould of form,” to such a pitiable condition. Claudius and Polonius emerge from concealment. Although Hamlet has successfully convinced others of his insanity, Claudius rejects both love and madness as factors in his behavior. Uncertain of the real cause of the Prince’s melancholy but apprehensive of its true nature, the King tells Polonius that he will dispatch Hamlet to England to collect overdue tribute. Possibly the voyage and change in environment will benefit the Prince. Polonius, on the other hand, continues to believe that Hamlet’s distraction springs from “neglected love.” In a final effort to prove his view, he urges Claudius to arrange a private conference between Gertrude and her son while Polonius overhears all they say. Claudius approves the plan and comments, “Madness in great ones must not unwatch’d go.”

III,ii. Elsinore. The Castle

Hamlet is giving three of the visiting actors detailed instructions on how to include the lines he has prepared and on the style in which he wishes them to enact the play itself. The Players leave; Polonius enters with Rosencrantz and Guildenstern to inform Hamlet that the court is ready for the entertainment. Hamlet sends all three to hasten the preparations and calls for Horatio, who appears immediately. Assuring his friend of the trust and confidence he reposes in him, Hamlet explains his plan of testing Claudius’s guilt by means of the forthcoming play. Horatio promises to observe the King carefully for any sign of uneasiness or confusion.

To the accompaniment of trumpets and kettledrums, the King and members of the court assemble to view the drama. Greeting the King and Polonius in turn, Hamlet sustains his pretense of madness. Gertrude invites the Prince to sit by her, but Hamlet declines, settles himself at Ophelia’s feet, and launches into suggestive and obscene remarks. Hautboys play, and the dumb show begins. In this pantomime the actors sketch the plot of the play they are about to perform; it simulates the significant steps in the King’s murder of the elder Hamlet and subsequent marriage to Gertrude. While Hamlet provides flippant answers to Ophelia’s innocent questions, the Players commence “The Murder of Gonzago.” Gradually the play unfolds until Claudius inquires if “there is no offence in’t,” and demands to know the title. Hamlet replies that it is called “The Mouse-trap” and is based on a Viennese murder case. He adds that those who “have free souls” will find nothing objectionable in the story.

In a moment the player-murderer pours poison in the ears of the sleeping player-king, and Hamlet foretells how the assassin will win the love of his victim’s wife. Overcome with emotion, Claudius rises, calls for light, and departs with Gertrude and his attendants. Exultantly, Hamlet asks Horatio if he noted this confirmation of the Ghost’s report. Horatio says that he did, and Hamlet calls for music.

Rosencrantz and Guildenstern report that Claudius is violently upset and indisposed and that Gertrude wishes Hamlet to come to her apartment. Rosencrantz makes another attempt to learn the cause of Hamlet’s conduct, but the Prince discloses nothing except the suggestion that he chafes at not succeeding to the throne. The Players bring in their musical instruments. Hamlet invites Guildenstern to play one of them. When he replies that he cannot, Hamlet informs him and his companion that they cannot “play upon” him either.

Polonius comes to summon Hamlet to the Queen. After a wild exchange of observations with the old chamberlain, Hamlet sends everybody out. In a brief soliloquy he states his intention of visiting his mother. Although his emotion has reached a new height of excitement and bitterness, he will not attack Gertrude physically. “I will speak daggers to her, but use none.”

III,iii. Elsinore. The Castle

Now thoroughly alerted to the danger Hamlet represents, Claudius tells Rosencrantz and Guildenstern that they must, for the security of the Crown, conduct him to England under royal commission. The two courtiers hasten off as Polonius appears on his way to hide behind the arras in Gertrude’s boudoir, where Hamlet is presently going. Promising to inform the King before bedtime of what he learns, Polonius leaves. Immediately Claudius starts to soliloquize on his sin. His sense of guilt and his conscience prompt him to pray, but he knows that prayer without repentance is ineffective, and repentance depends on surrendering his crown, his ambition, and his queen. He craves forgiveness for his murder, but he cannot relinquish the fruits of his crime. Desperately trying to find a measure of spiritual peace, he kneels.

As Claudius falls to his knees in a futile attempt at prayer, Hamlet enters, sees the King, and realizes that he can easily kill his uncle. But a moment later he reconsiders. If he were to slay the King in the act of praying, the villain’s soul might find eternal salvation. Remembering that Claudius killed the elder Hamlet without giving him opportunity for confession and extreme unction, the Prince resolves to delay his revenge until the King is engaging in some worldly or riotous pastime; then Claudius’s soul “may be as damn’d and black/As hell, whereto it goes.” Hamlet leaves to meet the Queen, and Claudius rises from his useless search for spiritual consolation.

III,iv. The Queen’s Closet (Private Bedroom)

Polonius admonishes the Queen to speak roundly with her son, who calls from outside. Gertrude agrees to follow instructions, and Polonius slips behind the arras. Entering, Hamlet rebukes his mother in a most unfilial manner. Ordering her to sit down and not to budge until he finishes what he has to say, he becomes so threatening in word and gesture that Gertrude, fearing physical violence, calls for help. Behind the arras, Polonius echoes her cry. Supposing that Claudius has concealed himself in the Queen’s chamber, Hamlet instantaneously draws his sword, thrusts it through the drapery, and kills Polonius. Horrified, Gertrude asks Hamlet what he has done and is bewildered when he implies that he has followed her example and killed a king.

Lifting the arras, Hamlet views the body of Polonius, whom he dismisses as a “wretched, rash, intruding fool.” Resuming his reproof of the Queen, Hamlet depicts the enormity of her disloyalty to his father and of her indecent relationship with Claudius. Overcome with shame and remorse, Gertrude begs him to say no more. Suddenly the Ghost appears, and Hamlet asks for guidance. The Ghost answers that it has come to whet Hamlet’s “almost blunted purpose” but urges him to comfort his mother. Because she neither sees nor hears the Ghost, Gertrude interprets Hamlet’s actions and words as further proof of his madness. Hamlet is similarly puzzled by his mother’s in-ability to discern the spirit, which vanishes.

Denying Gertrude’s suggestion that he is insane, Hamlet exhorts her to confess and repent. When she admits that he has moved her deeply, Hamlet entreats her not to return to Claudius’s bed. He adds that when she seeks divine blessing, he will ask her blessing on him. He repents his slaying of Polonius, an act by which heaven has punished him. Insisting that he has had to “be cruel, only to be kind,” he bids his mother good night. In a moment, however, he re-assumes his bitter and cynical manner, suggesting that the Queen may submit herself to the King’s wanton caresses and permit him to wheedle from her an account of all that has happened. Gertrude promises that she will tell nothing. Reminding his mother that he must leave for England, Hamlet indicates that he distrusts Rosencrantz and Guildenstern and that he is enjoying the contest of wits between himself and Claudius. The Prince then removes the body of Polonius, who is finally “most still, most silent, and most grave.”

IV,i. Elsinore. The Castle

Dismissing Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, Gertrude describes her interview with Hamlet to her most attentive husband. When she relates how Hamlet, mad and in a “lawless fit,” slew Polonius, Claudius immediately realizes that the sword was intended for him. He argues that to leave the Prince at liberty is to endanger everyone in Denmark. Furthermore, public opinion will condemn Claudius for having failed to restrain and control him. Gertrude says that Hamlet is removing the corpse of Polonius, whose death he mourns. The King states that he must deport Hamlet at once. Recalling Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, he orders them to find Hamlet and the body of the old courtier. His soul “full of discord and dismay,” Claudius leads Gertrude off.

IV,ii. Elsinore. The Castle

Meeting Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, Hamlet evades their questions about Polonius’s body and charges them with acting as informers to the King. Although he refuses to give them the information they seek, he agrees to accompany them to Claudius.

IV,iii. Elsinore. The Castle

Waiting the return of his two agents, Claudius reflects on how dangerous Hamlet is so long as he “goes loose.” The Prince’s popularity with his subjects makes it difficult to “put the strong law on him.” Rosencrantz enters, says that he has learned nothing, but adds that Hamlet is outside awaiting the King’s pleasure. In response to the King’s command, Guildenstern brings Hamlet in under guard. Claudius presses Hamlet to reveal the whereabouts of Polonius’s body. After teasing his uncle with a parable of “how a king may go a progress through the guts of a beggar,” Hamlet indicates the location of the corpse. Claudius sends attendants to fetch the body and then tells Hamlet that he must depart for England with “fiery quickness.” In a passionate show of madness, Hamlet says farewell to his absent mother and leaves. Claudius sends Rosencrantz and Guildenstern posthaste after the Prince to insure his embarkation. In a brief soliloquy, Claudius reveals that Hamlet’s two escorts carry instructions for the King of England to execute him on his arrival. Claudius will experience no joy until he hears that Hamlet is dead.

IV,iv. A Plain in Denmark

Fortinbras directs a Captain to proceed to the Danish court in order to secure authorization for his Norwegian troops to cross Den-mark. Fortinbras marches his army off, as Rosencrantz, Guildenstern, and Hamlet appear. In a brief conversation with the Captain, Hamlet learns that young Fortinbras is attacking Poland and is prepared to sacrifice many lives to acquire a small and worthless “patch of ground.” Requesting privacy for a little while, Hamlet soliloquizes on the contrast between his own character and that of Fortinbras. Fortinbras risks heavy casualties to satisfy a trivial motive; Hamlet, who has every reason to act, has done nothing to implement his revenge. Having renewed his determination, Hamlet exclaims, “0, from this time forth,/ My thoughts be bloody, or be nothing worth!”

IV,v. Elsinore. The Castle

A gentleman tells Gertrude and Horatio that Ophelia has gone out of her mind following Polonius’s death and that she wishes to speak with the Queen. At first, Gertrude refuses to see the unfortunate girl, but Horatio advises that she be admitted lest she “strew/Dangerous conjectures in ill-breeding minds.” Reluctantly the Queen consents, and Ophelia appears uttering wild and confused words and singing scraps of lyrics. Claudius comes in and endeavors to calm the girl, whose raving implies grief for her father and distress for her departed lover. Calling for her coach, Ophelia departs. Claudius sends Horatio after her to “give her good watch.”

Dismayed by this turn of events, Claudius laments to Gertrude that “When sorrows come, they come not single spies,/But in battalions.” Polonius has been slain; Hamlet, insane, has been deported; the people of Denmark are restless; Ophelia is mad; finally, Laertes has returned secretly from France and blames Claudius for his father’s death. A noise interrupts the King’s recital, and a messenger enters to report that Laertes is storming the castle with a mob seeking to make him king. Another noise signals that the crowd has broken down the castle doors.

Posting his followers at the door of the room, Laertes violently confronts Claudius and demands restitution. Calmly the King faces the would-be avenger and invites him to speak freely. Gertrude displays equal dignity and courage in supporting her husband. Laertes angrily swears to revenge his father’s death, whereupon Claudius replies that he will not be hindered. Rather, the King will prove his own innocence and give Laertes an accurate report of Polonius’s death. At this instant, the mad Ophelia returns, again raves, and departs. Pity and sorrow for his sister’s condition overwhelm Laertes. Swiftly Claudius promises Laertes to afford a detailed explanation and full satisfaction regarding all that has happened.

IV,vi. Elsinore. The Castle

Horatio directs his attendant to admit a group of sailors who wish to deliver a packet of letters. One is for Horatio. In it Hamlet requests Horatio to arrange for the sailors to convey other letters to the King. Hamlet also relates how pirates overtook his ship and he was able to escape with them. He intimates his imminent return to Denmark and says that Rosencrantz and Guilderstern have continued on course to England.

IV,vii. Elsinore. The Castle

Claudius has convinced Laertes of Hamlet’s responsibility in Polonius’s death and also of his attempt against the King’s own life. Claudius explains his failure to prosecute Hamlet on the grounds of the Queen’s love for her son and the Prince’s popularity with the people. Laertes vows to get his revenge. The King is starting to tell Laertes of the measures he has already taken against Hamlet when a messenger enters and announces that he brings letters from Hamlet to both Claudius and Gertrude. Dismissing the messenger, Claudius reads Hamlet’s brief note. In it the Prince says simply that he is “set naked” on Danish soil and requests permission to explain his return. Almost unable to believe the fact of Hamlet’s statement, Claudius rapidly formulates a plan in which he enlists Laertes’s will-ing assistance. Having heard from a Norman gentleman of Laertes’s expertness in fencing, the King proposes that he challenge Hamlet to a fencing match. If Laertes leaves one of the foils unbated (without the protective button), he may easily kill his unsuspecting opponent. Eager to make certain of his revenge, Laertes determines to anoint the point of the weapon with a deadly poison. Taking every precaution against a miscarriage of the plan and possible detection, Claudius suggests that he will make a serious wager on the contest to lend it more plausibility. At last, if Hamlet eludes Laertes’s specially prepared rapier, the King will have a poisoned drink ready for Hamlet’s refreshment.

Gertrude interrupts their scheming to announce that Ophelia, attempting to hang garlands on a willow tree over a brook, has fallen into the stream and drowned. Unable to control his emotions, Laertes dashes out. Claudius, afraid that grief will rekindle Laertes’s rage and reckless conduct, leads Gertrude after him.

V,i. Elsinore. A Churchyard

Two Clowns (rustics) are digging Ophelia’s grave. While they work they discuss the nature of her drowning, whether she was or was not a suicide and whether she is entitled to burial in Christian ground. Their conversation turns to other and less serious topics as Hamlet and Horatio approach. One of the Clowns leaves to fetch “a stoup of liquor,” and the other starts singing a garbled love lyric while he works. Hamlet and Horatio draw nearer, and the Clown turns up a skull with his spade. Hamlet begins to speculate on the identity and occupation of the person exhumed. After singing another stanza, the digger throws out a second skull, which inspires Hamlet to continue his discourse. Finally Hamlet asks the Clown whose grave he is preparing. In a rambling and ambiguous manner the man replies that it is for “One that was a woman” but is now dead. Slightly annoyed by the Clown’s dryly humorous equivocation, Ham-let asks how long he has been a “grave-maker.” The digger answers that he started work “the very day that young Hamlet was born” and has continued in the same occupation for thirty years. (These figures strongly imply that Hamlet is thirty years old, but this calculation conflicts with testimony by Ophelia and Laertes in the early part of the play that Hamlet is quite young. Editors have been unable to explain the discrepancy satisfactorily.) When Hamlet inquires how long a corpse lies in the earth until it rots, the Clown picks up one of the skulls he has uncovered and identifies it as I belonging to Yorick, the court jester, who died twenty-three years before. Taking the skull from the grave-digger, Hamlet examines it with distaste and recalls how the merry Yorick carried him “on his back a thousand times.” Hamlet lays down the skull and reflects that Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar disintegrated into dust in similar fashion. At this moment Ophelia’s burial procession approaches, and Hamlet and Horatio step aside.

While the Prince and Horatio listen, a priest explains to Laertes that a royal decree has superseded the church’s decision to forbid burial in holy ground because of the suspicion that the corpse was a suicide. Laertes commands the bearers to lower the body into the grave and upbraids the “churlish priest” for his refusal to sing a requiem as part of the burial service. Not until Laertes uses the word “sister” does Hamlet learn that the grave is Ophelia’s. Gertrude scatters flowers over the coffin. With bursting emotion, Laertes curses the person who caused Ophelia’s madness and leaps into the grave. Demanding to know by what right Laertes displays such emphatic grief and identifying himself as Hamlet the Dane, the Prince jumps into the grave after Laertes. The two men struggle with each other until the King orders attendants to separate them. Utterly be-side himself, Hamlet declares that he loved Ophelia more than forty thousand brothers could have. Accusing Laertes of trying to shame him with such a display of grief, he cries that he will outdo every conceivable demonstration of sorrow. Suddenly he asks Laertes why he treats him in this fashion. “I lov’d you ever,” he says to Ophelia’s brother and leaves. Claudius sends Horatio after Hamlet; he then reminds Laertes of their plan to destroy Hamlet and urges him to be patient.

V,ii. Elsinore. The Castle

Hamlet is telling Horatio about his experiences aboard ship. Prompted by anxiety, he impulsively stole the King’s commission from Rosencrantz and Guildenstern in the dark. When he took it to his cabin and examined it, he found that it was an order for his immediate execution. Horatio voices surprise, and Hamlet hands him the warrant to read at his leisure and continues his account. Thankful for his proficient handwriting, Hamlet thereupon substituted another commission purporting to be from Claudius and commanding the instant death of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. Fortunately, Hamlet had his father’s royal signet with which to seal the document. Hora-tio remarks on the fate Hamlet prepared for Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, but the Prince replies that they enjoyed their treacherous employment and he will not concern himself about them.

Horatio exclaims aloud at the enormity of Claudius’s nature. Hamlet says that now he is surely justified in killing the man who murdered his father, dishonored his mother, usurped the throne, and tried to slay Hamlet himself. Horatio reminds his friend that Claudius will shortly receive news from England. Hamlet agrees but says that the interim belongs to him. He then professes regret for his behavior to Laertes at Ophelia’s grave and says that he will make amends.

At this point Osric, a foppish and affected young courtier, approaches. Hamlet amuses Horatio and himself by making fun of Osric’s speech and manners. Osric’s intelligence and sense of humor are too limited to enable him to perceive what Hamlet is doing, and he grows increasingly bewildered and flustered. Finally he de-scribes the wager Claudius and Laertes have placed on the out-come of the fencing match in which they invite Hamlet to compete against Laertes. On learning the conditions, Hamlet accepts the challenge. Osric departs, and Hamlet and Horatio exchange deprecatory comments on his absurd affections. A lord appears to say that the King and Queen are ready to witness the match. He also mentions Gertrude’s hope that Hamlet will greet Laertes cordially.

Horatio is afraid that Hamlet will lose the contest, but Hamlet believes that he can win “at the odds,” which provide that Laertes must not exceed him by three hits in twelve passes. Nevertheless, Hamlet confesses to a certain uneasiness or presentiment of evil. Horatio urges him to withdraw from the match. The Prince, however, defies omens, says that death is certain except for the time when it comes; “the readiness is all.”

Immediately the court gathers. Claudius places Laertes’s hand in Hamlet’s. Pleading his madness as an excuse for his previous actions, Hamlet asks Laertes’s pardon and voices his own good will. Laertes replies that he is “satisfied in nature” but that he must withhold formal reconciliation with Hamlet until an official court of honor reviews the matter and frees him of further obligations; until then he accepts Hamlet’s friendship on equal terms. The two men call for foils, which Osric hands them. Claudius directs his retainers to provide “stoups of wine” with which he may toast Hamlet’s skill. If the Prince is successful during the first three exchanges, the King orders a salute from the battlements and promises to throw a large pearl into the wine cup.

Scarcely has the match begun when Osric rules that Hamlet has scored a hit. The King toasts Hamlet’s success; a drum rolls; trumpets sound; a cannon fires. Hamlet declines the proffered drink and returns to the contest. Immediately the Prince hits Laertes again. This time Gertrude drinks to Hamlet’s good fortune. Too late, Claudius observes that the Queen has drunk from the poisoned cup. Chiding his opponent for toying with him, Hamlet calls Laertes to the third pass. Laertes wounds Hamlet with the foil that is poisoned and unbated (not covered with a protective tip used in contest dueling rather than the real thing); they scuffle angrily together and exchange rapiers; Hamlet wounds Laertes with the fatal weapon.

In rapid succession, Gertrude falls; Laertes confesses his treachery; Claudius cries that the Queen has fainted; Gertrude calls that she has drunk poison. “O villainy! Ho! let the door be lock’d./Treachery! seek it out,” Hamlet says. Laertes, who has fallen, tells Hamlet that no medicine can combat the poison of the foil in his hand. Admitting his guilt, Laertes says that the Queen is poisoned and that the King is to blame. Hamlet wounds Claudius with the rapier he still clutches. “I am but hurt,” the King cries, but he dies immediately. With his last breath Laertes seeks Hamlet’s forgiveness.

Hamlet also is dying. He pardons Laertes and begs Horatio to report him and his cause aright to the uninformed. Horatio lifts the poisoned drink in order to end his own life, but Hamlet snatches the cup and implores Horatio to live and tell the story. Martial music rises in the distance, and Osric announces the arrival of English Ambassadors and Young Fortinbras, who is returning victoriously from Poland. Hamlet will not live to hear the news from England; he does, however, nominate Fortinbras as successor to the Danish throne. Hamlet dies as Fortinbras and the Ambassadors enter.

Fortinbras asks what death’s feast has required so many bodies. The Ambassadors report the execution of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern and inquire who will thank them for their message now that Claudius is dead. Horatio requests Fortinbras and the Ambassadors to order the corpses prepared for burial, on which occasion Horatio will relate all that has happened. Fortinbras accepts the Danish throne and commands four captains to carry Hamlet away with royal ceremony. Others bear off the remaining bodies. Cannon fire a salute.

I, i. Elsinore. Sebuah Platform di Depan Istana yang

Dalam pahit cuaca dingin mengurangi Francisco Bernardo bertugas jaga di tengah malam setelah tantangan tentang “siapa yang pergi ke sana.” Sebagai Francisco bersiap untuk pergi, Marcellus dan Horatio bergabung Bernardo untuk arlojinya. Setelah bertanya cemas jika “hal ini” telah muncul lagi dan pembelajaran yang belum, Marcellus Bernardo mengatakan bahwa ia telah membawa Horatio dengan dia untuk menguatkan cerita mereka dan berbicara dengan penampakan. Meskipun dua petugas mengaku telah melihat momok pada dua malam sebelumnya, Horatio skeptis dan meramalkan bahwa hal itu tidak akan datang lagi. Tetapi sementara Bernardo menggambarkan pengalaman mereka sebelumnya, Ghost muncul. Karena Horatio dapat mengatasi semangat dalam mode ilmiah, temannya mendesak dia untuk berbicara dengan itu. Sekarang dilukai dengan rasa takut dan bertanya-tanya, Horatio setuju dengan Bernardo bahwa penampakan menyerupai Raja terakhir; dia biaya Roh untuk berbicara, tetapi roh menghilang. Dipaksa untuk menerima apa yang ia telah melihat, Horatio mengaku keyakinannya bahwa manifestasi “menjadi pertanda suatu letusan aneh bagi negara kita.” Ketiga pria meninjau kewaspadaan masa perang dan industri bahwa Denmark telah melembagakan mengantisipasi invasi oleh Fortinbras muda Norwegia. Mengingat pertanda dan keajaiban sebelum pembunuhan Julius Caesar, Horatio mengasumsikan bahwa Roh dari Dusun tua telah kembali peringatan dini bangsa.

Tiba-tiba Ghost muncul kembali. Memutuskan untuk memaksa jawaban, Horatio bertanya: (1) jika dia bisa melakukan apa saja untuk kenyamanan roh; (2) jika mencoba untuk memperingatkan negara dari beberapa bencana yang akan datang, (3) jika gelisah karena terkubur diperas harta selama masa pakai baterai. Ayam jantan berkokok, dan Ghost lenyap meskipun upaya pendengar ‘untuk menahan itu. Pendekatan hari menghalangi setiap kemungkinan bahwa roh akan kembali. Horatio menyarankan bahwa mereka menginformasikan Dusun semua yang mereka saksikan.

I, ii. Elsinore. Sebuah kamar di Castle yang

Claudius kiriman hal pengadilan efisien. Dalam hal anggun Claudius menjelaskan ke pengadilan bagaimana, setelah benar berduka atas kematian saudaranya, ia telah Gertrude menikah, adik mantan-di-hukum. Dia kemudian menjelaskan ancaman invasi oleh Fortinbras muda, keponakan kepada Raja sekarang Norwegia. Dalam upaya untuk memelihara perdamaian, Claudius berita-berita yang Kornelius utusan dan Voltemand untuk raja Norwegia. Setelah demikian menghadiri dengan bisnis umum, Claudius ternyata mendengar permintaan Laertes untuk izin untuk kembali ke Prancis. Memuaskan diri sendiri bahwa Laertes memiliki persetujuan ayahnya, Polonius, persetujuan Claudius.

Sekarang Claudius mengarahkan perhatian ke Dusun dan secara menyenangkan meminta penyebab melankolis nya. Hamlet membenci cara menggurui pamannya. Gertrude mohon anaknya untuk menerima kenyataan universal dari kematian, berhenti berkabung untuk ayahnya, dan membiarkan matanya “tampak seperti seorang teman” pada Claudius. Mengambil isyarat dari Gertrude, Claudius memberikan wacana singkat tentang kesia-siaan kesedihan berkepanjangan; meminta Dusun menganggap dia sebagai ayah, dan mendesak Pangeran untuk tetap di Denmark bukannya kembali ke sekolah di Wittenberg. Gertrude menambahkan permohonan ke orang-orang dari Raja. Hamlet berjanji untuk mematuhi ibunya, dan Claudius mengarah Gertrude pergi untuk merayakan kesempatan.

Dalam solilokui gairah Hamlet menyesalkan bahwa hukum Tuhan telah mengutuk bunuh diri sebagai alat untuk melarikan diri dari “letih, basi, datar, dan tidak menguntungkan” kehidupan. Kesal karena perkawinan tergesa-gesa ibunya untuk Claudius, dia menyesalkan kelemahan perempuan dan bersemangat ibunya-ness “untuk posting / Dengan ketangkasan seperti untuk lembaran incest.” Horatio, Marcellus, dan Bernardo masukkan, karena ia menyimpulkan, “menghancurkan hatiku, karena aku harus menahan lidah saya!”

Setelah pertukaran Horatio dan Dusun salam hangat, Horatio Dusun heran dengan pernyataan bahwa ia berpikir ia melihat Hamlet tua pada malam sebelumnya. Dengan penuh semangat Dusun menghadiri setiap kata, Horatio menceritakan pertemuan Bernardo, Marcellus, dan dia telah dengan Ghost. Dusun pertanyaan ketiga orang tentang semangat, memutuskan untuk menonton dengan mereka pada tembok pembatas, bersumpah mereka untuk kerahasiaan, dan mengatur menemui mereka malam itu. Untuk dirinya Hamlet mencerminkan bahwa “Semua tidak baik,” dan tidak sabar menunggu malam tiba.

Aku, iii. Elsinore. Polonius Rumah

Bersiap untuk memulai untuk Prancis, Laertes memperingatkan adiknya Ophelia terhadap mengambil deklarasi Hamlet cinta serius. Karena bahkan jika niat Hamlet yang terhormat, ia dapat bukan sebagai anggota keluarga kerajaan kebebasan latihan di pilihannya seorang istri, Laertes menyarankan Ophelia untuk mengendalikan emosinya. Ophelia janji untuk mengingat nasihat kakaknya, tetapi mengisyaratkan bahwa ia pastikan untuk mengikuti nasihat sendiri. Laertes recollects bahwa ia terburu-buru karena ayahnya masuk.

Dalam berkat perpisahan, Polonius memberikan verbose Laertes, suara, tapi arah kontradiksi-diri tentang bagaimana dia harus melakukan sendiri di Perancis. Laertes hormat perpisahan tawaran ayahnya, memberikan Ophelia kata terakhir hati-hati, dan berangkat. Ketika Polonius pertanyaan Ophelia pada apa Laertes ada dalam pikiran, dia mengakui bahwa pembicaraan mereka terkait dengan Hamlet. Dalam interogasi gigih ayahnya, dia mengakui bahwa Dusun telah diakui cintanya. Menegur gadis itu untuk mengambil Hamlet merayu ke jantung, Polonius melarang dia selanjutnya “untuk memberikan kata-kata atau berbicara dengan Tuhan Dusun.”

I, iv. Elsinore. Platform di Depan Istana yang

Sementara Dusun, Horatio, dan menonton Marcellus di udara tengah malam dingin, meriam dan musik korsel sinyal bela diri Claudius’s. Dusun pahit mengkritik sikap buruk dan minum berat yang char-acterize pengadilan Denmark dan orang-orang. Saat ia menyimpulkan caciannya, Ghost muncul. Melihat kemiripan semangat untuk mendiang ayahnya dan berasumsi bahwa ia memiliki beberapa pesan untuk memberikan, Hamlet alamat itu.

Gerakan Roh Hamlet untuk mengikutinya. Horatio, dan Marcellus menyarankan Hamlet tidak untuk menemani semangat dan mencoba untuk menahannya dengan kekerasan, tetapi Pangeran melepaskan diri dan daun dengan hantu itu. Cemas untuk keamanan Hamlet dan yakin bahwa “Ada sesuatu yang busuk di negara Denmark,” Horatio, dan Marcellus ikuti.

I, v. Elsinore. Benteng dari Puri yang

Memerintahkan perhatian Hamlet, Roh menyatakan diri sebagai roh ayahnya, ditakdirkan “untuk berjalan di malam” sampai kejahatan tertentu dilakukan selama waktunya di bumi “Apakah terbakar dan purg’d pergi.” Tiba-tiba perintah Hantu Hamlet untuk membalas dendam ayahnya “pembunuhan busuk dan paling tidak wajar.” Untuk ngeri Hamlet, Ghost Claudius pertama berhubungan bagaimana memenangkan Gertrude untuk hubungan setia dan kemudian meracuni saudaranya, sehingga mengambil kehidupan yang lebih tua Hamlet, istri, dan mahkota. Selain itu, mantan Raja meninggal dengan dosa-dosanya belum diakui dan Unforgiven. Adjuring Hamlet untuk membunuh balas dendam ayahnya dan tidak menghormati ibunya, Ghost memperingatkan dia tidak merugikan Gertrude dalam proses. Sebaliknya ia harus meninggalkannya ke surga dan penyesalan hati nurani sendiri. “Ingat saya,” kata Roh itu dan berangkat.

Dalam sebuah monolog singkat, Dusun janji sendiri untuk menjaga paling atas kata-kata semangat dalam pikiran dan menulis sebuah memorandum untuk dirinya sendiri di bukunya. Ketika Horatio dan Marcellus menemukan dia dan menanyakan tentang kesejahteraannya, Dusun mengalihkan mereka dengan “kata-kata liar dan berputar.” Horatio protes ringan, dan Dusun temannya mengatakan bahwa “visi” mereka telah melihat “adalah hantu jujur” tapi untuk mencari tahu lagi. Memperluas gagang pedangnya sebagai, salib ia meminta dua sahabatnya untuk bersumpah di atasnya bahwa mereka tidak akan mengungkapkan apa yang mereka telah menyaksikan malam itu, dan di bawah mereka Ghost menangis, “Bersumpahlah.” Hamlet karib untuk Horatio bahwa ia mungkin merasa perlu “Untuk menempatkan disposisi antik di.” Ketika ia tidak, Horatio tidak harus mengungkapkan dengan kata atau tanda bahwa dia punya pengetahuan tentang masalah ini. Berterima kasih kepada teman-temannya dan lagi sumpah mereka untuk kerahasiaan, Hamlet escort mereka ke dalam benteng. Dia menyatakan, “Waktu keluar dari sendi 0 terkutuk. Meskipun, / Itu pernah saya dilahirkan untuk mengatur itu benar!”

II, i. Elsinore. Polonius Rumah

Polonius mengirimkan Reynaldo dengan uang dan surat kepada Laertes. Penasaran ingin belajar bagaimana Laertes sedang melakukan dirinya di Paris, Polonius memerintahkan Reynaldo untuk membuat pertanyaan pribadi dan provokatif terkemuka teman-anaknya dan kenalan. Reynaldo menyatakan heran dengan taktik ini agak tidak etis, tetapi Polonius menjelaskan bahwa dengan cara ini mereka mungkin “Dengan indirections menemukan arah keluar.” Reynaldo daun pada misinya, dan Ophelia masuk.

Jelas ketakutan, Ophelia menggambarkan bagaimana Dusun, acak-acakan dan dengan pakaiannya gila, menyambar nya dengan pergelangan tangan, menatap wajahnya, mendesah tanpa mengucapkan sepatah kata, dan mundur, tidak pernah mengalihkan pandangan dari nya. perilaku Mendiagnosis Hamlet sebagai “sangat ekstasi cinta,” tanya Polonius jika dia telah “memberinya kata-kata keras akhir-akhir ini.” Ophelia jawaban itu, sesuai dengan perintah ayahnya, ia menolak surat Hamlet dan menolak untuk bertemu. Tiba-tiba takut kalau-kalau upaya untuk melindungi Ophelia dari hubungan yang tidak benar telah mengakibatkan kekacauan mental Hamlet, Polonius mengambil Ophelia untuk melihat King.

II, ii. Elsinore. Sebuah kamar di Castle yang

Gertrude dan Claudius, setelah mengamati perubahan sifat Hamlet dan cara, berbagi, saling meskipun tidak harus sama jenisnya, perhatian. Berharap untuk mempelajari penyebab di balik Pangeran “transformasi,” mereka telah terdaftar layanan dari Rosencrantz dan Guildenstern, teman-teman sekali pakai dan schoolmates Dusun. Kedua istana menunjukkan kesiapan mereka untuk melakukan komisi dan menarik untuk berbicara dengan Pangeran.

Polonius masuk untuk mengumumkan kembalinya Kornelius dan Voltemand dari Norwegia. The Chamberlain Tuhan lebih bersemangat, namun, untuk melaporkan bahwa ia telah menemukan “Penyebab sangat gila Hamlet.” Claudius ingin tahu lebih banyak tentang ini, tapi Polonius menegaskan bahwa Claudius menerima duta besar pertama dan pergi untuk mengantarkan mereka masuk Ketika Claudius mengulangi untuk Gertrude yang Polonius telah mengidentifikasi sumber penyakit Hamlet, Ratu menyatakan jaminan bahwa anaknya masih sedih untuk nya ayah dan membenci “pernikahan o’erhasty.” dia

Polonius membawa dalam Voltemand dan Kornelius. Laporan utusan bahwa Raja Norwegia telah efektif menghilangkan bahaya serangan Fortinbras muda di Denmark tetapi telah menyetujui invasi Polandia dengan pasukan yang sama. Untuk tujuan ini raja Claudius Norwegia permintaan untuk memberikan tentara Fortinbras aman dan damai pas-bijak melalui wilayah Denmark. Claudius memuji Voltemand dan Cornelius untuk melaksanakan misi mereka memuaskan dan memberhentikan mereka.

Hampir tak mampu menahan diri sampai duta besar telah pergi, meluncurkan Polonius ke dalam rekening diperpanjang urusan cinta Hamlet dengan Ophelia dan kegilaan nya yang dihasilkan. Gertrude berusaha untuk memperpendek resital orang tua itu, tapi ia perlahan review semua detail dalam gaya khas banyak bicara. Gertrude menemukan penjelasan Polonius’s masuk akal, tapi Claudius tetap skeptis dan menentukan untuk mencari bukti tambahan. Mengetahui kebiasaan Hamlet berjalan untuk interval waktu yang panjang di lobi, Claudius dan Polonius mengatur menguping Pangeran dan Ophelia, yang Polonius akan merancang untuk membawa bersama-sama pada saat yang tepat. Hamlet masuk “membaca pada buku,” dan Claudius dan Gertrude meninggalkan buru-buru dengan pembantu mereka sementara Polonius mempersiapkan untuk berbicara dengan Pangeran.

Hamlet pura-pura tidak mengakui Polonius dan membingungkan dia dengan permainan kata yang bersifat relevan dan masuk akal. Lebih tertentu dari sebelumnya bahwa dia telah didiagnosa kegilaan Hamlet benar, Polonius alasan dirinya untuk mengatur pertemuan antara Hamlet dan Ophelia. Dalam perjalanan keluar ia melewati Rosencrantz dan Guildenstern, yang datang untuk mencoba tangan mereka di menemukan penyebab gangguan Hamlet. Cepat membedakan tujuan abdi dalem ‘dan mendeteksi kecurigaan mereka bahwa dia kecewa karena tidak berhasil naik tahta, Dusun umpan mereka dengan pengamatan sugestif tetapi tidak meyakinkan pada topik ambisi. Setelah terampil menangkis pertanyaan-pertanyaan mereka, wrings Hamlet dari mereka masuk diam-diam bahwa mereka adalah agen Raja dan Ratu. Pada saat ini Rosencrantz senang untuk menghidupkan percakapan kedatangan dekat sebuah perusahaan pemain berjalan. Tiba-tiba penasaran, Dusun bertanya identitas kelompok ini. Sementara ia dan Rosencrantz membahas penurunan baru-baru ini perusahaan populer di kota dan alasan mengapa para aktor datang ke Elsinore, trompet luar sinyal kedatangan Players. Berjabat tangan dengan Guildenstern dan Rosencrantz di layar tiba-tiba kebaikan, Dusun menambah kebingungan mereka dengan mengacu pada kegilaan sendiri. Polonius muncul kembali, dan pidato Hamlet bahkan tumbuh liar dan lebih rasional, meskipun ia cerdik berhasil menyisipkan sentuhan wawasan cerdas ke dalam kehidupan dan karakter. Ketika Pemain masukkan, Dusun menyambut mereka dengan tulus dan meminta Player Pertama untuk mengirimkan beberapa baris dari sebuah drama tertentu. Setelah Player menyimpulkan, Dusun biaya Polonius untuk menghibur para aktor ramah dan menambahkan bahwa dia ingin mendengar memainkan pada hari berikutnya.

Menahan Player Pertama sejenak, Hamlet mengamankan janjinya untuk melakukan “Pembunuhan Gonzago” dengan sisipan “dari beberapa baris lusin atau enam belas” yang Hamlet akan memasok. Memperingatkan Player untuk mengobati Polonius dengan hormat, Dusun mengirimkan dia setelah teman-temannya dan kemudian menolak Rosencrantz dan Guildenstern. Dalam solilokui panjang, Dusun kontras energi dan vitalitas aktor dalam pidatonya declaiming dengan kegagala