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The Vintage Hungary Music record History(piring hitam antik Hongaria)



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The Hungary Music record History(Sejarah rekaman Musik Hongaria  ) Frame Ore : The Hungary Music record Found In Indonesia(Dr Iwan s,Collection)

1.Classic Music

Classic Music written by Hungarian Franz Liszt.

Franz Liszt

Portrait by Pierre Petit, circa 1860–1877

Franz Liszt (Hungarian: Ferencz Liszt, in modern use Ferenc Liszt,[note 1] from 1859 to 1867 officially Franz Ritter von Liszt)[note 2] (October 22, 1811 – July 31, 1886) was a 19th century Hungarian composer, virtuoso pianist and teacher.

Liszt became renowned throughout Europe during the 19th century for his great skill as a performer. He was said by his contemporaries to have been the most technically advanced pianist of his age and perhaps the greatest pianist of all time.[1] He was also an important and influential composer, a notable piano teacher, a conductor who contributed significantly to the modern development of the art, and a benefactor to other composers and performers, notably Richard Wagner, Hector Berlioz, Camille Saint-Saëns, Edvard Grieg and Alexander Borodin.

As a composer, Liszt was one of the most prominent representatives of the “Neudeutsche Schule” (“New German School”). He left behind an extensive and diverse body of work, in which he influenced his forward-looking contemporaries and anticipated some 20th-century ideas and trends. Some of his most notable contributions were the invention of the symphonic poem, developing the concept of thematic transformation as part of his experiments in musical form and making radical departures in harmony.[2]

2. Folk Song

 Palace Record, Imre Magyari Gypsy Orchestra plays Hungarian Gypsy Music



Gypsy may refer, often pejoratively, to any of the following nomadic peoples:

  • the Romani people, the largest ethnic group popularly referred to as gypsies
  • the Dom people, an ethnic group of the Middle East possibly related to the Romani
    • Lyuli, a branch of the Dom people of Central Asia
  • the Lom people, an ethnic group of East Anatolia and Armenia possibly related to the Romani
  • the Banjara, an ethnic group of India
  • the Irish Travellers (or Pavee), an ethnic group of Irish origin mostly found in Ireland, Great Britain, and the United States
  • the Ceàrdannan (literally “Craftsmen”), a ethnic group of the Scottish Highlands.
  • the Yeniche people, mostly in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, France, and Belgium
  • Sea Gypsies, a number of different peoples of Southeast Asia




 Literature and derived works

Music and dance


Frame Two :

The Hungry Music Record History

1.Music history of Hungary

Little is known about Hungarian music prior to the 11th century, when the first Kings of Hungary were Christianized and Gregorian chant was introduced. During this period a bishop from Venice wrote the first surviving remark about Hungarian folk song when he commented on the peculiar singing style of a maid [1]. Church schools in Hungary taught Western Christian chanting, especially in places like Esztergom, Nyitra, Nagyvárad, Pannonhalma, Veszprém, Vác and Csanád [2]; and later schools began focusing on singing, spreading Latin hymns across the country.

Information about music education during this period is known thanks to manuscripts such as the Notebook of László Szalkai, Jacobus de Liège’s Speculum musicae (c. 1330-1340, which mentions the use of solmization [3]), the Hahót Codex, the Codex Albensis and the Sacramentarium of Zagreb. The Pray Codex is a collection of “liturgical melodies … in neumatic notation … containing among other things the earliest written record extant of the Hungarian language, the Funeral Oration, … independent forms of notation and even independent melodies (Hymn to Mary)” [4].

The first known example of exchange between Hungarian and Western European music is from the 13th century, the “first encounter with the more secular melodic world of the Western world” [5].

The earliest documented instrumentation in Hungarian music dates back to the whistle in 1222, followed by the koboz in 1326, the bugle in 1355, the fiddle in 1358, the bagpipe in 1402, the lute in 1427 and the trumpet in 1428 [6]. Thereafter the organ came to play a major role.

Though virtually nothing is known about them, Hungarian minstrels existed throughout the Middle Ages and may have kept ancient pagan religious practices alive [7]. At the Synod of Buda in 1279 the church banned their congregation from listening to them, despite their having come to be employed by noblemen in courts. By the 14th century instrumental music had become their most important repertoire and minstrel singers had become known as igric [8]. The golden age of courtly music (which had followed French models for most of the early Middle Ages before musicians from Flanders, Italy and Germany arrived) was during the reign of Matthias Corvinus and Beatrice. [9]



16th century

The Nádor Codex of 1508 presents the first use of Gregorian melodies with Hungarian texts [10]. The same period saw the local folk styles grow more diverse, while political authorities railed against secular music. Szavolcsi notes the author of the Sándor Codex (early 16th century), who described secular music as accompanied by “fiddle, lute, drums and cimbalom… and used tenor, discant and contratenor” singers, meaning it was in the style of the motet [11].

Song by András Farkas from the 1533 Hofgreff Songbook

The 16th century saw the rise of Transylvania, a region the Turks never occupied, as a center for Hungarian music [12], as well as the first Hungarian publications of music, both published in Kraków. István Gálszécsi‘s songbook was the “first Hungarian gradual to the Gregorian hymn-melodies and German choral music of which we can see new Hungarian translations”, while the Cronica of András Farkas includes the first surviving historical song [13]. About forty melodies are known from this era, and are already in a distinctively Hungarian style which took influences from across much of Europe in several dozen distinct forms that were “mostly notated in a rigid and clumsy way” but were “undoubtedly much more colourful and flexible in living performance” and were in reality “little masterpieces of melodic structure” [14]. The most significant musician of this period was Sebestyén Tinódi, the “greatest stylist and master of expression of ancient Hungarian epic poetry… whose heritage the people’s music of two centuries was unconsciously nourished” [15].

Accentuated declamation was fashionable in music education during the early 16th century; a more rigid choir style is represented by a collection called the Melopoeiae, from 1507 [16]. A collection by Johannes Honterus was the first Hungarian printed work with music, dating from 1548. These collections were enriched by “melodic configurations” that, according to Bence Szabolcsi, could be explained by the arrival of the “song material of the Czech Reformation, the melodic treasure of the German Reformation and the psalter of French Huguenots[17]. The poet Bálint Balassi remains well-regarded for his poems from this period, which were based on Polish, Turkish, Italian and German melodies, and may have also been influenced by the villanella [18]. Some songs from this period, influenced by the music of the nobles and their minstrels from as far away as Italy, remained a part of the Hungarian folk tradition at least until modern song collection began. Religious and secular music were closely connected at this time, and documentation of the former grew with the publication of many songbooks filled with free psalm paraphrases called lauds, facilitating the practice of communal singing among the nascent Protestant churches [19]. This conflation of religious and secular song was much criticized from the pulpit, from the both the Protestant and Catholic churches. The latter allowed popular songs after a 1564 edict from Ferdinand I, which allowed the bishops to use them only after close scrutiny [20]. They were again banned in 1611, however, and a Catholic collection of Hungarian church songs was not agreed upon until 1629, at the Synod of Nagyszombat. The collection, Benedek Szőlősy‘s Cantus Catholici, was published in 1651, and wasn’t followed by a Protestant version for about 90 years [21].

Hungarian instrumental music was well-known in Europe in the 16th century. The lutenist and composer Bálint Bakfark was especially famous, known as a virtuoso player of the lute [22]; his works were collected and published as Intavolatura and Harmoniae musicae (published in 1553 and 1565 respectively) [23]. He was one of the pioneers of a style based on vocal polyphony. Also important were the lutenist brothers, the Neusiedlers, and the author of an important work of music theory, Epithoma utriusque musices, Stephan Monetarius [24].

17th century

During the 17th century, Hungary was divided into three parts, one the region of Transylvania, one controlled by the Turks, and another by the Habsburg. Historic songs declined in popularity, replaced by lyrical poetry [25]. Minstrels were replaced by courtly musicians, who played the trumpet and whistle, or cimbalom, violin or bagpipes; many courts and households had large groups of instrumentals [26]. Some of these musicians were German, Polish, French or Italian, and even included a Spanish guitarist at the court of Gábor Bethlen, Prince of Transylvania. Little is known about the actual music of this time, however.

Instrumental music from the 17th century is known from the collections of various Upper Hungarian and Transylvanian collectors, such as János Kájoni, who collected the Cantionale Catholicum, Kájoni Codex, Organo Missale and Sacri Concentus [27]. The collectors of the Vietórisz Codex, whose identities are unknown, and another anonymous collector from Lőcse, also published “the first examples of autonomous, developed virginal music, equally accomplished in style, melodic texture and technique of adaptation” [28]. These songs were characterized by “flexible, finely shaded melodies, a tendency to create wider and looser forms, and a gradual independence of the forma (sic) principles of song melodies toward a clearly instrumental conception” [29]. At the same time, rhythm became more complicated and notation more general. The Lőcse manuscript also notably presents an arrangement of dances, the first example of the Hungarian cyclic form [30]; this music and dance had similarities both to the Polish music of the time as well as the subsequent development of the verbunkos style.

17th century Hungarian church music was revolutionized after the 1651 publication of the Cantus Catholici, in which genuine Hungarian motives played a major part. By 1674, the Hungarian Mass was also part of the Cantus Catholici, followed by the adoption of Calvinist psalm tunes in 1693 and Hungarian choral music in 1695 [31]. János Kájoni Organo Missale of 1667 was the first experiment in the creation of a new kind of Hungarian church music, a style that strung together short motives that were shortened, extended or syncopated in a complex rhythmic structure [32]. Italian religious music played an important role in this development, which was documented in an “unparalleled example of ancient Hungarian music”, the Harmonia Caelestis of Prince Pál Eszterházy [33], who tried to create a distinctively Hungarian style of church music using influences from opera, oratio literature, the German music of Johann Kaspar von Kerll and Johann Schmeltzer, and the oratorio and cantata styles [34]. Eszterházy’s efforts did not last, as the following century saw an influx of muic from Western Europe under the Habsburgs.

Around the turn of the 18th century, however, the last national uprising of the period occurred, leading the spread of “Kuruc songs“. These songs were authentically Hungarian and hold a “central position between the style of the ancient and the new folk music” [35]. Their influences include elements of Polish, Romanian, Slovak and Ukrainian music in addition to Hungarian melodies.

18th century

During the 18th century, students at Hungary’s Calvinist colleges, some of whom, being minor nobles, lived in small rural villages, brought with them to their schools their regional styles of music. Colleges like Sárospatak and Székelyudvarhely developed choirs that adopted new elements like polyphony. György Maróthi of Debrecen published several influential works, and his French psalm book became very popular [36]. By around 1790, the four voice choirs were expanded to eight using accessory voices like accantus, subcantus and concantus, and the discant voice was systematically transpoed into a lower pitch, producing a new form of choral design with similarities to midieval organum and fauxbourdon [37]. The same period saw the popularity of homophoning songs which are recorded in the students’ song books; notation, however, was crude, and no extensive collection appeared until 1853, with the publication of Ádám Pálóczi Horváth’s Ötödfélszáz Énekek [38]. These songs show that the mid to late 18th century was a period when the old Hungarian styles died out, and a new style appeared [39].

Many Hungarian musicians and composers of the 18th century preached closer cultural ties with Europe, not believing that Hungarian music could reach the levels of development in Italy and Germany [40]. The aristocracy were interested in the court music of Louis XIV, like the minuet and rondeaux [41]. Many of these people tried to popularize Viennese-style songs with Hungarian texts, or to use German and Italian forms; these people included the poet László Amadé, novelist Ignác Mészáros and the author and linguist Ferenc Verseghy [42]. Hungarian music did, however, have an effect on composers from elsewhere in Europe. Joseph Haydn‘s Rondo all’ Ongarese (from the Trio in G major (No. 1), is an example, as is the finale of Beethoven‘s Symphony No. 3 (Eroica), which uses a Magyar march, and Symphony No. 7, which is a 2/4 tempo with a syncopated rhythm. Beethoven also used Hungarian idioms in the prologue of King Stephen and the epiloque for Ruins of Athens [43].

The 18th century also saw the rise of verbunkos, a form of music that was used by army recruiters. Like much of Hungarian music at the time, it was focused on the melody, with a subordinate text; in spite of this, the vocals became a major part of verbunkos [44].

19th century

By the middle of the 19th century, verbunkos was a major symbol of Hungarian culture, and numerous people published groundbreaking studies and collections of the field. The Musicians’ Society National School of Music in Pest, headed after 1840 by Gábor Mátray, one of the “leading personalities of Hungarian musical life”, did much to encourage this study [45]. András Bartay‘s 1835 study of Hungarian harmonics, Magyar Apollo and his 1833-34 Eredeti Népdalok, were pioneering works in the field [46].

In 1838, a young Franz Liszt was inspired to travel home to Hungary, studying the music of the country; he would go on to incorporate what he learned in many of his world-famous compositions [47]. Other composers from this period included Béni Egressy, who used 18th century secular songs in his compositions, Kálmán Simonffy, who was the “most original and most inventive” songwriter of the era, whose works “most nearly approached the ideal of ‘popular melodic culture’, as well as lesser-known figures like Gusztáv Szénfy, Gusztáv Nyizsnyai and Ignác Bognár [48]. In spite of their desires to glorify Hungarian folk culture, the music these composers used remained primarily the music of the middle and upper classes [49]. It was not until the very end of the century and into the 20th that the authentic music of ethnic Hungarians became a major part of compositions. Other Hungarian composers did not attempt to use verbunkos or other Hungarian styles in their music. German music was a much stronger influence on the music of the Catholic Church and in the songbooks of Mihály Bozóky [50].

The playwright Elemér Szentirmay (also known as János Németh) was very popular in his time, known for his “form of expression and scale of popular character” whose “works surpassed in popularity everything written by his contemporaries” [51]. The Hungarian operetta first appeared in the 1860s, popularized by Ignác Bognár, Geza Allaga and Jeno Huber, followed by Elek Erkel and György Bánffy; in the early 20th century, the Viennese style predominated in the work of Huszka, Pongrác KacsóhKacsóh, Buttykay, Jacobi, Kálmán and Lehár [52]. Aside from the popular operetta, the field of Hungarian opera reached fruition in the 19th century. Ferenc Enkel was of great importance in his field, creating the first opera in the Hungarian language using music from popular songs, the verbunkos tradition as well as the singing forms of Italian and French opera [53]. There were other opera composers as well, though the most important was Mihály Mosonyi, who did much to use Hungarian themes in his work [54].

The late 19th century saw a decline in the nationalistic tendencies of Hungarian music, which deteriorated “into the works of salon composers, into the poorly written genre of stylish ‘Hungarian fantasies’, ‘Gipsy arrangements'” and other styles more influenced by foreign countries than Hungarian traditions [55]. The result was increased antagonism between those enamoured of foreign music and the cultivators of Hungarian (and Roma-Hungarian) music, a dichotomy that “could only result in deceiving the country with the opium of semi-education on the one hand and superficial nationalism on the other” [56]. Hans Koessler, a teacher with the Academy of Music, did more than anyone to accentuate the German classical elements in Hungarian music [57], though some of his students, like Ernst von Dohnányi, placed prominent Hungarian themes in their own works [58].

Music of Hungary

Music of Hungary: Topics
verbunkos táncház
csárdás nóta
History: (Timeline and Samples)
Genres ClassicalFolkHardcoreHip hopOperaOperettPopReggaeRockWedding popWedding rock
Organisations Mahasz
Awards Golden Giraffe
Charts MAHASZ TOP 40 album, MAHASZ Kislemez TOP 10, Dance TOP 40
Festivals Sziget Festival, Táncháztalálkozó, Mayday, Miskolc Opera Festival, Kaláka Folk Festival
Media Radio Petőfi, Hungaroton, VIVA, Danubius Rádió, Sláger Rádió, Tilos Radio
National anthem Himnusz
Hungarian minorities’ music abroad
Transylvania, Vojvodina, Slovakia, Transcarpathia

Hungary has made many contributions to the fields of folk, popular and classical music. Hungarian folk music is a prominent part of the national identity and continues to play a major part in Hungarian music. Hungarian folk music has been influential in neighboring areas such as Romania, Slovakia, southern Poland and especially in southern Slovakia and the Romanian region of Transylvania, both home to significant numbers of Hungarians.[1][2] It is also strong in the Szabolcs-Szatmár area and in the southwest part of Transdanubia, near the border with Croatia. The Busójárás carnival in Mohács is a major Hungarian folk music event, formerly featuring the long-established and well-regarded Bogyiszló orchestra.[3]

Hungarian classical music has long been an “experiment, made from Hungarian antedecents and on Hungarian soil, to create a conscious musical culture [using the] musical world of the folk song”.[4] Although the Hungarian upper class has long had cultural and political connections with the rest of Europe, leading to an influx of European musical ideas, the rural peasants maintained their own traditions such that by the end of the 19th century Hungarian composers could draw on rural peasant music to (re)create a Hungarian classical style.[5] For example, Béla Bartók and Zoltán Kodály, two of Hungary’s most famous composers, are known for using folk themes in their music. Bartók collected folk songs from across Eastern Europe, including Romania and Slovakia, whilst Kodály was more interested in creating a distinctively Hungarian musical style.

During the era of Communist rule in Hungary (1944–1989) a Song Committee scoured and censored popular music for traces of subversion and ideological impurity. Since then, however, the Hungarian music industry has begun to recover, producing successful performers in the fields of jazz such as trumpeter Rudolf Tomsits, pianist-composer Károly Binder and, in a modernized form of Hungarian folk, Ferenc Sebő and Márta Sebestyén. The three giants of Hungarian rock, Illés, Metró and Omega, remain very popular, especially Omega, which has followings in Germany and beyond as well as in Hungary. Older veteran underground bands such as Beatrice from the 1980s also remain popular.




Franz Liszt, prominent Hungarian composer

Unlike other Eastern European peoples, the Hungarian people, Magyars, emerged from the intermingling of Finno-Ugric and Eastern Turkish peoples during the fifth to eighth centuries CE.[5] This makes the origins of their traditional music unique in Europe. According to author Simon Broughton, the composer and song collector Kodály identified songs that “apparently date back 2,500 years” in common with the Mari people of Russia;[3] and, as well as the Mari, the ethnomusicologist Bruno Nettl indicates similarities in traditional Hungarian music with Mongolian and Native American musical styles.[6] Bence Szabolcsi, however, claims that the Finno-Ugric and Turkish-Mongolian elements are present but “cannot be attached to certain, definite national or linguistic groups”. Nonetheless, Szabolcsi claims links between Hungarian musical traditions and those of the Mari, Kalmyk, Ostyak, northwest Chinese, Tatar, Vogul, Anatolian Turkish, Bashkirian, Mongol and Chuvash musics. These, he claims, are evidence that “Asian memories slumber in the depths of Hungarian folk music and that this folk music is the last Western link in the chant of ancient Eastern cultural relations”.[5]

According to Broughton, traditional Hungarian music is “highly distinctive” like the “Hungarian language, which invariably is stressed on the first syllable, lending a strongly accented dactylic rhythm to the music”.[3] Nettl identifies two “essential features” of Hungarian folk music to be the use of “pentatonic scales composed of major seconds and minor thirds” (or “gapped scales”[6]) and “the practice of transposing a bit of melody several times to create the essence of a song”. These transpositions are “usually up or down a fifth“, a fundamental interval in the series of overtones and an indication perhaps of the “influence of Chinese musical theory in which the fifth is significant”.[6]

According to Szabolcsi, these ‘Hungarian transpositions’, along with “some melodic, rhythmical and ornamental peculiarities, clearly show on the map of Eurasia the movements of Turkish people from the East to the West”.[5] The subsequent influence on neighboring countries’ music is seen in the music of Slovakia and, with intervals of the third or second, in the music of the Czech Republic. Hungarian and other Finno-Ugric musical traditions are also characterized by the use of an ABBA binary musical form, with Hungary itself especially known for the A A’ A’ A variant, where the B sections are the A sections transposed up or down a fifth (A’).[6] Modern Hungarian folk music evolved in the 19th century, and is contrasted with previous styles through the use of arched melodic lines as opposed to the more archaic descending lines.[7]

 Music history

15th-century manuscript, depicting a movement for two voices

The earliest documentation of Hungarian music dates from the introduction of Gregorian chant in the 11th century. By that time, Hungary had begun to enter the European cultural establishment with the country’s conversion to Christianity and the musically important importation of plainsong, a form of Christian chant. Though Hungary’s early religious musical history is relatively well documented, secular music remains mostly unknown, though it was apparently a common feature of community festivals and other events.[7] The earliest documented instrumentation in Hungary dates back to the whistle in 1222, followed by the kobzos in 1326, the bugle in 1355, the fiddle in 1358, the bagpipe in 1402, the lute in 1427 and the trumpet in 1428. Thereafter the organ came to play a major role.[5]

The 16th century saw the rise of Transylvania (a region inhabited by Hungarians, never occupied by the Turks) as a center for Hungarian music. It also saw the first publication of music in Hungary, in Kraków. At this time Hungarian instrumental music was well-known in Europe; the lutenist and composer Bálint Bakfark, for example, was famed as a virtuoso player. His compositions pioneered a new style of writing for the lute based on vocal polyphony. The lutenist Neusiedler brothers were also noted and authored an important early work in music theory, the Epithoma utriusque musices.[5]

During the 17th century, Hungary was divided into three parts: an area controlled by the Turks; an area controlled by the Habsburgs; and Transylvania. Historic songs declined in popularity and were replaced by lyrical poetry, whilst minstrels were replaced by court musicians. Many courts or households maintained large ensembles of musicians who played the trumpet, whistle, cimbalom, violin or bagpipes. Some of these ensemble musicians were German, Polish, French or Italian; the court of Gábor Bethlen, Prince of Transylvania, included a Spanish guitarist. Little detail about the music played during this era survives, however.[5] Musical life in the areas controlled by the Ottoman Turks declined precipitously, with even the formerly widespread and entrenched plainsong style disappearing by the end of the 17th century. Outside of the Ottoman area, however, plainsong flourished after the establishment of Protestant missions in around 1540, while a similarly styled form of folk song called verse chronicles also arose.[7]

During the 18th century, some of the students at colleges such as those in Sárospatak and Székelyudvarhely were minor nobles from rural areas who brought with them their regional styles of music. Whilst the choirs in these colleges adopted a more polyphonic style, the students’ songbooks indicate a growth in the popularity of homophonic songs. Their notation, however, was relatively crude and no extensive collection appeared until the publication of Ádám Pálóczi Horváth’s Ötödfélszáz Énekek in 1853. These songs indicate that during the mid to late 18th century the previous Hungarian song styles died out and musicians looked more to other (Western) European styles for influence.

The 18th century also saw the rise of verbunkos, a form of music initially used by army recruiters. Like much Hungarian music of the time, melody was treated as more important than lyrics, although this balance changed as verbunkos became more established.[

Folk music

Main article: Hungarian folk music

Hungarian folk music changed greatly beginning in the 19th century, evolving into a new style that had little in common with the music that came before it. Modern Hungarian music was characterized by an “arched melodic line, strict composition, long phrases and extended register”, in contrast to the older styles which always utilize a “descending melodic line”.[7]

Modern Hungarian folk music was first recorded in 1895 by Béla Vikár, setting the stage for the pioneering work of Béla Bartók, Zoltán Kodály and László Lajtha in musicological collecting. Modern Hungarian folk music began its history with the Habsburg Empire in the 18th century, when central European influences became paramount, including a “regular metric structure for dancing and marching instead of the free speech rhythms of the old style. Folk music at that time consisting of village bagpipers who were replaced by string-based orchestras of the Gypsy, or Roma people.[3]

In the 19th century, Roma orchestras became very well-known throughout Europe, and were frequently thought of as the primary musical heritage of Hungary, as in Franz Liszt‘s Hungarian Dances and Rhapsodies, which used Hungarian Roma music as representative of Hungarian folk music [8] Hungarian Roma music is often represented as the only music of the Roma, though multiple forms of Roma music are common throughout Europe and are often dissimilar to Hungarian forms. In the Hungarian language, 19th-century folk styles like the csardas and the verbunkos, are collectively referred to as cigányzene, which translates literally as Gypsy music.[9]

Hungarian nationalist composers, like Bartók, rejected the conflation of Hungarian and Roma music, studying the rural peasant songs of Hungary which, according to music historian Bruno Nettl, “has little in common with” Roma music,[6] a position that is held to by some modern writers, such as the Hungarian author Bálint Sárosi.[9] Simon Broughton, however, has claimed that Roma music is “no less Hungarian and… has more in common with peasant music than the folklorists like to admit”,[3] and authors Marian Cotton and Adelaide Bradburn claimed that Hungarian-Roma music was “perhaps… originally Hungarian in character, but (the Roma have made so many changes that) it is difficult to tell what is Hungarian and what is” the authentic music of the Roma.[10]

The ethnic Csángó Hungarians of Moldavia‘s Seret Valley have moved in large numbers to Budapest, and become a staple of the local folk scene with their distinctive instrumentation using flutes, fiddles, drums and the lute.[3]


Main article: Verbunkos

Early–19th-century lithograph depicting a recruitment with music

In the 19th century, verbunkos was the most popular style in Hungary. This consisted of a slow dance followed by a faster dance; this dichotomy, between the slower and faster dances, has been seen as the “two contrasting aspects of the Hungarian character”.[3] The rhythmic patterns and embellishments of the verbunkos are distinctively Hungarian in nature, and draw heavily upon the folk music composed in the early part of the century by Antal Csermak, Ferdinand Kauer, Janos Lavotta and others.[7]

Verbunkos was originally played at recruitment ceremonies to convince young men to join the army, and was performed, as in so much of Hungarian music, by Roma bands. One verbunkos tune, the “Rákóczi March” became a march that was a prominent part of compositions by both Liszt and Hector Berlioz. The 18th-century origins of verbunkos are not well-known, but probably include old dances like the swine-herd dance and the Hajduk dance, as well as elements of Balkan, Slavic and Levantine music, and the cultured music of Italy and Vienna, all filtered through the Roma performers. Verbunkos became wildly popular, not just among the poor peasantry, but also among the upper-class aristocratics, who saw verbunkos as the authentic music of the Hungarian nation. Characteristics of verbunkos include the bokázó (clicking of heels) cadence-pattern, the use of the interval of the augmented second, garlands of triplets, widely-arched, free melodies without words, and alternately swift and slow tempi. By the end of the 18th century, verbunkos was in use in opera, chamber and piano music, and in song literature, and was regarded as “the continuation, the resurrection of ancient Hungarian dance and music, and its success signified the triumph of the people’s art”.[5]

The violinist Panna Czinka was among the most celebrated musicians of the 19th century, as was the Roma bandleader János Bihari, known as the “Napoleon of the fiddle”.[3] Bihari, Antal Csermák and other composers helped make verbunkos the “most important expression of the Hungarian musical Romanticism” and have it “the role of national music”. Bihari was especially important in popularizing and innovating the verbunkos; he was the “incarnation of the musical demon of fiery imagination”.[11] Bihari and others after his death helped invent nóta, a popular form written by composers like Lóránt Fráter, Árpád Balázs, Pista Dankó, Béni Egressy, Márk Rózsavölgyi and Imre Farkas.[12] Many of the biggest names in modern Hungarian music are the verbunkos-playing Lakatos family, including Sándor Lakatos and Roby Lakatos.[3]

Roma music

Main article: Roma music

Though the Roma are primarily known as the performers of Hungarian styles like verbunkos, they have their own form of folk music that is largely without instrumentation, in spite of their reputation in that field outside of the Roma community. Roma music tends to take on characteristics of whatever music the people are around, however, embellished with “twists and turns, trills and runs”, making a very new, and distinctively Roma style. Though without instruments, Roma folk musicians use sticks, tapped on the ground, rhythmic grunts and a technique called oral-bassing which vocally imitates the sound of instruments. Some modern Roma musicians, like Ando Drom, Romani Rota and Kalyi Jag have added modern instruments like guitars to the Roma style, while Gyula BabosProject Romani has used elements of avant-garde jazz.[3]

Hungarian music abroad

Main article: Music of Transylvania

Ethnic Hungarians live in parts of Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, the United States and elsewhere. Of these, the Hungarian population of Romania (both in the region of Transylvania and among the Csángó people) – being the more rural, outer rims of the kingdom of Hungary – has had the most musical impact on Hungarian folk music. The Hungarian community in Slovakia has produced the rootsy band Ghymes, who play in the táncház tradition.[13] The Serbian region of Vojvodina is home to a large Hungarian minority

Transylvanian folk music remains vital part of life in modern Transylvania. Bartók and Kodály found Transylvania to be a fertile area for folk song collecting. Folk bands are usually a string trio, consisting of a violin, viola and double bass, occasionally with a cimbalom; the first violin, or primás, plays the melody, with the others accompanying and providing the rhythm.[3] Transylvania is also the original home of the táncház tradition, which has since spread throughout Hungary.

An a cappella song sung by Marta Sebestyen



Main article: Táncház

Táncház (literally “dance house”) is a dance music movement which first appeared in the 1970s as a reaction against state-supported homogenized folk music. They have been described as a “cross between a barn dance and folk club”, and generally begin with a slow tempo verbunkos (recruiting dance), followed by swifter csárdás dances. Csárdás is a very popular Hungarian folk dance that comes in many regional varieties, and is characterized by changes in tempo. Táncház began with the folk song collecting of musicians like Béla Halmos and Ferenc Sebő, who collected rural instrumental and dance music for popular, urban consumption, along with the dance collectors György Martin and Sándor Timár. The most important rural source of these songs was Transylvania, which is actually in Romania but has a large ethnic Hungarian minority. The instrumentation of these bands, based on Transylvanian and sometimes the southern Slovak Hungarian communities, included a fiddle on lead with violin, a kontra (a 3-string viola also called a brácsa), and bowed double bass, and sometimes a cimbalom as well.[3]

Many of the biggest names in modern Hungarian music emerged from the táncház scene, including Muzsikás and Márta Sebestyén. Other bands include Vujicsics, Jánosi, Téka and Kalamajka, while singers include Éva Fábián and András Berecz. Famous instrumentalists include fiddlers Csaba Ökrös and Balázs Vizeli, cimbalomist Kálmán Balogh, violinist Félix Lajkó (from Subotica in Serbia) and multi-instrumentalist Mihály Dresch.[3]

Classical music

Hungary’s most important contribution to the worldwide field of European classical music is probably Franz Liszt,[10] a renowned pianist in his own time and a well-regarded composer of 19 Hungarian Rhapsodies and a number of symphonic poems such as Les préludes. Liszt was among the major composers during the late 19th century, a time when modern Hungarian classical music was in its formative stage. Along with Liszt and his French Romantic tendencies, Ferenc Erkel‘s Italian and French-style operas, with Hungarian words, and Mihály Mosonyi‘s German classical style, helped set the stage for future music, and their influence is “unsurpassed even by their successors, because in addition to their individual abilities they bring about an unprecedented artistic intensification of the Romantic musical idiom, which is practically consumed by this extreme passion”.[14] Elements of Hungarian folk music, especially verbunkos, became an important elements of many composers, both Hungarians like Kalman Simonffy and foreign composers like Ludwig van Beethoven.[7]

George Szell, conductor

Hungary has also produced Karl Goldmark, composer of the Rustic Wedding Symphony, composer and pianist Ernő Dohnányi, composer and ethnomusicologist László Lajtha, and the piano composer Stephen Heller. A number of violinists from Hungary have also achieved international renown, especially Joseph Joachim, Jenő Hubay, Edward Reményi, Sándor Végh, Ferenc von Vecsey, de Zathurecky, Emil Telmányi and Leopold von Auer. Hungarian-born conductors include Antal Doráti; Adam, Gyorgy and Ivan Fischer; Eugene Ormandy; Fritz Reiner; George Szell and Georg Solti.[10] Pianists of international renown: Géza Anda, Tamás Vásáry, George Cziffra, Annie Fischer, Kocsis, Ránki, Schiff and Jenö Jandó

Hungarian opera

Main article: Hungarian opera

The origins of Hungarian opera can be traced to the late 18th century, with the rise of imported opera and other concert styles in cities like Pozsony, Kismarton, Nagyszeben and Budapest. Operas at the time were in either the German or Italian style. The field Hungarian opera began with school dramas and interpolations of German operas, which began at the end of the 18th century. School dramas in places like the Pauline School in Sátoraljaújhely, the Calvinist School in Csurgó and the Piarist School in Beszterce.[3]

Pozsony produced the first music drama experiments in the country, though the work of Gáspár Pacha and József Chudy; it was the latter’s 1793 Prince Pikkó and Jutka Perzsi that is generally considered the first opera in a distinctively Hungarian style. The text of that piece was translated from Prinz Schnudi und Prinzessin Evakathel by Philipp Hafner. This style was still strongly informed by the Viennese Zauberposse style of comedic play, and remained thus throughout the 19th century. Though these operas used foreign styles, the “idyllic, lyric and heroic” parts of the story were always based on verbunkos, which was becoming a symbol of the Hungarian nation during this time.[3] It was not until the middle of the 19th century that Ferenc Erkel wrote the first Hungarian language opera, using French and Italian models, thus launching the field of Hungarian opera.[12]

Bartók and Kodály

Main articles: Béla Bartók and Zoltán Kodály

At the end of the 19th century, Hungarian music was dominated by compositions in the German classical style, while Viennese-style operettas gained immensely in popularity. This ended beginning in about 1905, when Endre Ady‘s poems were published, composer Béla Bartók was published for the first time, and Zoltán Kodály began collecting folk songs. Bartók and Kodály were two exceptional composers who created a distinctively Hungarian style. Bartók collected songs across Eastern Europe, though much of his activity was in Hungary, and he used their elements in his music. He was interested in all forms of folk music, while Kodály was more specifically Hungarian in his outlook. In contrast to previous composers who worked with Hungarian idioms, Kodály and Bartók did not conflate Roma and ethnic Hungarian music, specifically seeking out the latter at the expense of the former. Their work was a watershed that incorporated “every great tradition of the Hungarian people” and influenced all the later composers of the country.[15]

Later 20th century

For the first half of the 20th century, Bartók and Kodály were potent symbols for a generation of composers, especially Kodály. Starting in about 1947, a revival in folk choir music began, ended as an honest force by 1950, when state-run art became dominant with the rise of Communism. Under Communism, “(c)ommitment and ideological affiliation (were) measured by the musical style of a composer; the ignominious adjectives ‘formalistic’ and ‘cosmopolitan’ gain currency … (and the proper Hungarian style was) identified with the major mode, the classical aria, rondo or sonata form, the chord sequences distilled” from Kodály’s works. Music was uniformly festive and optimistic, with every deviation arousing suspicion; this simplicity led to a lack of popular support from the public, who did not identify with the sterile approved styles. The most prominent composers of this period were Endre Szervánszky and Lajos Bárdos.[16]

Beginning in about 1955, a new wave of composers appeared, inspired by Bartók and breathing new life into Hungarian music. Composers from this era included Ferenc Szabó, Endre Szervánszky, Pál Kadosa, Ferenc Farkas and György Ránki. These composers both brought back old techniques of Hungarian music, as well as adapting imported avant-garde and modernist elements of Western classical music.[17] György Ligeti and György Kurtág are often mentioned in the same sentence. They were born near each other in Transylvania and studied in Budapest in the 1940s. Both were influenced by Stockhausen. Kurtág’s modernism borrowed many influences from the past. By contrast Ligeti invented a new language with chromatic tone clusters and elements of parody. Both were multi-lingual and became exiles. This is reflected in the texts for their works. The foundation of the New Music Studio in 1970 helped further modernize Hungarian classical music though promoting composers that felt audience education was as important a consideration as artistic merit in composition and performance; these Studio’s well-known composers include László Vidovszky, László Sáry and Zoltán Jeney.[7]

Popular music

Hungarian popular music in the early 20th century consisted of light operettas and the Roma music of various styles. Nagymező utca, the “Broadway of Budapest“, was a major center for popular music, and boasted enough nightclubs and theaters to earn its nickname. In 1945, however, this era abruptly ended and popular music was mostly synonymous with the patriotic songs imposed by the Russian Communists. Some operettas were still performed, though infrequently, and any music with Western influences was seen as harmful and dangerous.[13] In 1956, however, liberalization began with the “three Ts” (tűrés, tiltás, támogatás, meaning toleration, prohibition, support), and a long period of cultural struggle began, starting with a battle over African American jazz.[13] Jazz became a part of Hungarian music in the early 20th century, but did not achieve widespread renown until the 1970s, when Hungary began producing internationally known performers like the Benko Dixieland Band and Bela Szakcsi Lakatos.[7] Other renowned performers from the younger generation are the Hot Jazz Band and the Bohem Ragtime Jazz Band.


Main article: Hungarian rock

In the early 1960s, Hungarian youths began listening to rock in droves, in spite of condemnation from the authorities. Three bands dominated the scene by the beginning of the 1970s, Illés, Metró and Omega, all three of which had released at least one album. A few other bands recorded a few singles, but the Record-Producing Company, a state-run record label, did not promote or support these bands, which quickly disappeared.[18]

In 1968, the New Economic Mechanism was introduced, intending on revitalizing the Hungarian economy, while the band Illés won almost every prize at the prestigious Táncdalfesztivál. In the 70s, however, the Russians cracked down on subversives in Hungary, and rock was a major target. The band Illés was banned from performing and recording, while Metró and Omega left. Some of the members of these bands formed a supergroup, Locomotiv GT, that quickly became very famous. The remaining members of Omega, meanwhile, succeeded in achieving stardom in Germany, and remained very popular for a time.[18]

Rock bands in the late 1970s had to conform to the Record Company’s demands and ensure that all songs passed the inspection of the Song Committee, who scoured all songs looking for ideological disobedience. LGT was the most prominent band of a classic rock style that was very popular, along with Illés, Bergendy and Zorán, while there were other bands like The Sweet and Middle of the Road who catered to the desires of the Song Committee, producing rock-based pop music without a hint of subversion. Meanwhile, the disco style of electronic music produced such performers as the officially-sanctioned Neoton Familia, and Beatrice and Szűcs Judit, while the more critically acclaimed progressive rock scene produced bands like East, V73, Color and Panta Rhei.[18]

In the early 1980s, economic and cultural depression wracked Hungary, leading to a wave of disillusioned and alienated youth, exactly the people that rock, and the burgeoning worldwide field of punk rock, spoke to the most. Major bands from this era included Beatrice, who had moved from disco to punk and folk-influenced rock and were known for their splashy, uncensored and theatrical performances, P. Mobil, Bikini, Hobo Blues Band, a bluesy duo, A. E. Bizottság, Európa Kiadó, Sziámi and Edda művek.[18]

The 1980s saw the Record Production Company broken up because Hungary’s authorities realized that restricting rock was not effective in reducing its effect; they instead tried to water it down by encouraging young musicians to sing about the principles of Communism and obedience. The early part of the decade saw the arrive of punk and New Wave music in full force, and the authorities quickly incorporated those styles as well. The first major prison sentences for rock-related subversion were given out, with the members of the punk band CPg sentenced to two years for political incitement.[18]

By the end of the decade and into the 1990s, internal problems made it impossible for the Hungarian government to counter the activities of rock and other musical groups. After the collapse of the Communist government, the Hungarian scene become more and more like the styles played in the rest of Europe.[18]

Electronic music

Clubbing and electronic dance music started gaining popularity in Hungary following the change of regime in 1989[19] and corresponding to Electronic music‘s increasing popularity in the worldwide musical mainstream. The political freedom and cultural boom of western culture opened the way for the clubbing scene, with several venues starting all around the country, especially in Budapest and around Lake Balaton.

The 1990s also marked the creation of several dance formations, notably Soho Party, Splash, Náksi & Brunner and also rave formations such as Emergency House and Kozmix.[20] Notable techno and house DJ-s are Sterbinszky, Budai, and Newl. The workings of the scene culminated in events like Budapest Parade, the largest such street festival in Hungary, that was held yearly from 2000 to 2006, attracting more than half million visitors.[21] The history of Electronic Dance Music and Techno culture in Hungary is documented in Ferenc Kömlődy’s book “Fénykatedrális”, (1999 in Hungarian).

A thriving underground scene was marked by the start of Tilos Rádió in 1991, the first free independent community station, starting out as a pirate radio. The station soon developed strong ties with the first alternative electronic formations, and inspired to start many others.[22] Bands like Korai Öröm and Másfél (also check Myster Mobius) started, playing ambient, psychedelic music. Anima Sound System, one of the most influental bands on the scene, was created in 1993 playing dub and trip-hop influenced by acid jazz and ethnic music.[23] Several other bands and formations followed, like Colorstar and Neo. Neo has won a worldwide reputation for their unique electro-pop style and the “Mozart of pop music” award (Cannes, 2004) they received for their soundtrack album called “Control”. Apart from Anima, ethnic and folk influenced the scene in many ways, exemplified by formations like Balkan Fanatik, or Mitsoura. One of the most successful Hungarian electronic musician is Yonderboi, who recently co-created Žagar, gaining wide reputation in the country. In the past few years, dubstep has gained popular attention as well, nation-wide.

Experimental and minimal scene is in its early age, although several crews and DJs are working, organizing numerous events. Notable performers include c0p, Cadik, Ferenc Vaspöeri and Isu.

Hip hop

Main article: Hungarian hip hop

Hip hop and rap have been developing in Hungary with two scenes, underground and mainstream, which is mostly popular among young people in Hungary. Underground rappers condemn the mainstream for “selling” their music and usually provide deeper message. Mainstream hip hop is dominated by the pioneer of Gangsta rap in Hungary, Ganxsta Zolee, and there are also other famous ones including FankaDeli, Sub Bass Monster, Dopeman, and LL Junior. Mainstream hip-hop is extremely popular among the Roma youth.

Bëlga started as an offshoot hiphop project at Tilos Rádió. As lyrical innovators and phenomenal parodists, they gained wide popularity for an extremely explicit criticism of Budapest public transport company BKV, as well as hilarious wordplays and self-irony. Their lyrics are significant beyond the hip-hop scope as a cultural documentation of turn-of-the-millennia Culture of Hungary.[24]

Hungarian Slam sessions are rare and few, and still a novelty for the mainstream, but are gaining popularity with literary performers, emcees and audiences alike.[25]

 Hardcore, metal

Despite being unknown for common Hungarian people, hardcore and metal are flourishing styles of music in Hungary. Metal bands are formed all over the country. Dominant styles are death metal, black metal and thrash. There are also power metal, folk metal and heavy metal groups.

Hardcore and metalcore are most common in Budapest and Western Hungary, in towns like Győr, Csorna, Szombathely and Veszprém, but Eastern Hungary and Debrecen is getting into a more and more important place in the hardcore scene. The first Hungarian acts that tagged themselves Hardcore like AMD, Leukémia, Marina revue emerged in the late ’80s, and were followed by a number of acts, constituting a scene that flourishes since the early 90s.[26] Notable bands were Dawncore and Newborn of the late ’90-s gaining also some international success. Members of these bands went on to form Bridge to Solace and The Idoru. Other important, active bands: Hold X True, Fallenintoashes, Embers, Subscribe, Shell Beach, Hatred Solution, Stillborn (Hatebreed tribute). An internationally known band is Ektomorf, infusing heavy ethnic content with harsh vocals.[27]

Extreme hardcorepunk and grindcore bands from Hungary include Jack (crustgrind), Human Error(crustcore), Step On It (allschool hardcore), Another Way (fastcore), Gyalázat (crustpunk).


The origins of the Hungarian punk movement go back to the early eighties, when a handful of bands like ETA, QSS, CPG, and Auróra emerged as angry young men playing fast and raw punk rock music. Like many other musicians of their age, they often criticized the communist government. While British bands like the The Clash toyed with Communist ideology, punks in Hungary had to live under its reality, and were part of a national movement to reject it. As their music was on the verge of acceptance both by the public and the authorities, concerts were held under tight police control, and often caused moral outrage. With band members often living under constant surveillance, prison was a serious possibility. Two members of the band CPG were found guilty and sent to prison for two years for allegedly unmoral lyrics. After their release, they had to leave Hungary, as did Auróra’s lead singer.

The change of regime in 1989 brought a new situation, and bands now revolted against corruption and the Americanization of the country. They felt that the new system retained the bad things from the previous one, but lacked that good things that many expected. In lyrics, they often mention the newly appearing organized crime, and the still low standard of living.

Today the Hungarian punk scene is low profile, but vibrant with several active bands, often touring the country and beyond. Summer brings a slew of punk and alternative festivals where they can all be sampled. Top venues playing punk music around Budapest include Vörös Yuk, Borgödör, Music Factory and A38 Hajó.

Major bands include Auróra, the oldest Hungarian punk band with twenty-five years of history, come from the northwest Hungarian town of Győr and their originally street punk music has been recently updated with a ska-punk flavor, HétköznaPI CSAlódások (also called PICSA), a simplistic but powerful punk band, most popular in the end of ’90s. They, similarly to Junkies, Fürgerókalábak, and Prosectura, are part of the new wave of punk bands that had risen in the mid-late ’90s in Hungary. Out of the newer bands, two northeast Hungarian bands are the most known, both playing California punk: Alvin és a mókusok come from Nyíregyháza, while Macskanadrág are from Salgótarján.

Festivals, venues and other institutions

[edit] Folk and Classical Music

Budapest, the capital and music center of Hungary,[10] is one of the best places to go in Hungary to hear “really good folk music”, says world music author Simon Broughton. The city is home to an annual folk festival called Táncháztalálkozó (“Meeting of the Táncházak”, literally “dance houses”), which is a major part of the modern music scene.[3] The Budapest Spring Festival along with the Budapest Autumn Festival are large scale cultural events every year. The Budapesti Fesztivál Zenekar[28] (Budapest Festival Orchestra) has recently been awarded the Editor’s Choice Gramophone Award.[29] Long-standing venues in Budapest include the Philharmonic Society (founded 1853), the Opera House of Budapest (founded 1884) the Academy of Music, which opened in 1875 with President Franz Liszt and Director Ferenc Erkel and which has remained the center for music education in the country since.[5]

Popular Music Festivals

Main stage of Sziget Festival in 2006

Several musical festivals have been launched since the early 1990s propelled by increasing demand of the developing youth culture. Aside from country-wide events like Sziget Festival or Hegyalja Festival, local festivals started to emerge since the first half of the first decade of the new millennium, with the aim to showcase known bands in all regions of Hungary.[30]

Growing out of a low-profile student meeting in 1993, Sziget Festival became one of the largest open-air festival in the world, taking place each summer in the heart of Budapest, the 108 hectare Óbudai island. Visited by hundreds of thousands from all over Europe, it is the largest cultural event in Hungary, inviting world-class performers from all genres.[31]

Also having a history from 1993, VOLT Festival is the second-largest music festival in the country,[32] held each year in Sopron. With a colorful mix of musical styles, and popularity increasing each year, is considered to be the “cheaper version” of Sziget. Also founded by the Sziget management, Balaton Sound is a festival of mainly electronic music, held yearly in Zamárdi, next to Lake Balaton. With prestigious performers and exclusive surroundings, it tries to position itself as a high-standard event.[33]

Hegyalja Festival, held in Tokaj, the historic wine-region of the country, is the largest such event in the Northern part. Visited by 50.000 guests each year, it showcases mainly hard rock and rock formations, but many more genres are present. BalaTone, another major event near lake Balaton is held in Zánka. Magyar Sziget, held in Verőce, has a nationalist theme, with mainly right-wing performers, bands representing the recently emerged nationalistic rock, folk and folk-rock.[34]

As a tradition, each larger University (or more precisely, its students’ union) holds a periodical music festival, “University Days”, of various size, the largest one is PEN (of the University of Pécs). Examples of smaller, local festivals are SZIN held in Szeged, the free Utcazene Fesztivál held on the streets of Veszprém, Pannónia Fesztivál in Várpalota,[35] or the recently (2008) started Fishing on Orfű, held on the beach of the Orfű lake.

the end @copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011


The Vintage Romania Record Found in Indonesia (piring hitam antik Romania)



                                                AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                          DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.




 *ill 001

                      *ill 001  LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

                                THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM



                                        PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                     THE FOUNDER

                                            Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA


                                           ( CHRYSANTHENUM)




        Please Enter



     Driwan Music

Record Cybermuseum



The Romania  Music record History(Sejarah rekaman Musik Romania  ),

Frame One :

The Vintage Czescoslovakia Music Record Found In Indonesia

Music Populara Romineasca by Orccestra Popularia Rdia Televisi conducted by Victor  Predescu,derigent Lionel Budisteanu

side one Circilia and hora stacato

side two: Serba In Carruta and Perinita

Romanian Top 100

Romanian Record Charts
Radio Songs
International songs
Top 10 singles
2009, 2010

The Romanian Top 100 is the national airplay-based singles chart of Romania. It is weekly and it started running in 1996. It is recognized as an official chart by the European division of Billboard, Music & Media.[1] The Romanian Airplay Chart combines the airplays from the following charts:

The chart is made up by total number of airings by all the mainstream Radio and TV stations in Romania. Stations considered:


The artist with the most number ones is Kylie Minogue, with six songs that reached number one. The positions before 2002 are still unknown, as the official site only has charts starting 2002. From 2002 to date it has had 113 number-one singles, the longest being “Say It Right” by Nelly Furtado, for twelve weeks.

Starting with October 2009, the chart is premierly presented on Kiss FM, each Sunday afternoon and on the Media Forest homepage. The Kiss TV show presentes the chart with a delay of a week. The presenter is VJ Andreea Berghea. The current ranking of the chart was presented on February 20, 2011.

The current number-one single is “Only Girl (In The World)” by Rihanna (since February 20, 2011).




Artists with most number ones

Position↓ Artist↓ Number of hits↓ Songs↓
1 Kylie Minogue 6 Can’t Get You Out of My Head“, “In Your Eyes“, “Slow“, “Red Blooded Woman“, “I Believe in You“, “In My Arms
1 Madonna 6 Music“, “Die Another Day“, “Hung Up“, “Sorry“, “4 Minutes, “Give It 2 Me
2 Eminem 5 Stan“, “Without Me“, “Lose Yourself“, “Smack That“, “Love the Way You Lie
2 Enrique Iglesias 5 Hero“, “Maybe“, “Do You Know? (The Ping Pong Song)“, “Tired of Being Sorry“, “Takin’ Back My Love
3 3rei Sud Est 4 “Amintirile”, “Te voi pierde”, “Clipe”, “Vorbe care dor”
3 Black Eyed Peas 4 “Where is the Love?”, “Shut Up”, “I Gotta Feeling“, “Meet Me Halfway
3 Morandi 4 Beijo“, “Falling Asleep”, “A la lujeba”, “Angels”
3 Rihanna 4 Umbrella“, “Disturbia“, “Rude Boy“, “Only Girl (In the World)
3 Shakira 4 Objection (Tango)“, “La Tortura“, “Hips Don’t Lie“, “Illegal
4 Animal X 3 “Pentru ea”, “Fără ea”, “Să pot ierta”
4 Dan Bălan 3 Crazy Loop (Mm-ma-ma)“, “Johanna (Shut Up)”, “Justify Sex”
4 Lady Gaga 3 Poker Face“, “Bad Romance“, “Alejandro
4 Nelly Furtado 3 Turn Off the Light“, “Say it Right”, “Morning After Dark
4 Pussycat Dolls 3 Don’t Cha“, “Wait a Minute“, “I Hate This Part
4 Voltaj 3 “Tu”, “Şi ce”, “Povestea oricui”

NOTE: The positions for the 90s and half of the year 2000 aren’t known, which makes it possible that some artists, like Enrique Iglesias, Kylie Minogue or Madonna could have a bigger number of number ones.

 Artists with most weeks at number one

  1. Voltaj — 21 weeks (tie)
  2. Shakira — 21 weeks (tie)
  3. Black Eyed Peas — 20 weeks
  4. Morandi — 19 weeks (tie)
  5. Madonna — 19 weeks (tie)
  6. Activ — 17 weeks
  7. Kylie Minogue — 15 weeks
  8. Akcent — 14 weeks (tie)
  9. Lady Gaga — 13 weeks (tie)
  10. Nelly Furtado — 13 weeks (tie)
  11. Rihanna — 12 weeks
  12. Las Ketchup — 11 weeks
  13. Enrique Iglesias — 10 weeks

Artists with most top-tens

Position↓ Artist↓ Number of hits↓ Songs↓
1 Akcent 11 “Ti-am promis”, “Prima iubire”, “In culori”, “Buchet de trandafiri”, “Suflet pereche”, “Dragoste de inchiriat”, “Jokero”, “French Kiss”, “Stay With Me”, “That’s My Name“, “My Passion”
1 Enrique Iglesias 11 Hero“, “Escape“, “Love to See You Cry“, “Maybe“, “To Love a Woman“, “Mentiroso“, “Not In Love”, “Do You Know? (The Ping Pong Song)“, “Tired of Being Sorry“, “Push“, “Takin’ Back My Love
2 Kylie Minogue 10 “On A Night Like This”, “Can’t Get You Out of My Head“, “Love at First Sight“, “In Your Eyes“, “Slow“, “Red Blooded Woman“, “Chocolate“, “I Believe in You“, “In My Arms” and “The One
2 Shakira 10 Whenever, Wherever“, “Underneath Your Clothes“, “Objection (Tango)“, “La Tortura“, “Don’t Bother“, “Hips Don’t Lie“, “Illegal“, “Las de la Intuición“, “Beautiful Liar“, “Gypsy
3 Madonna 9 American Pie“, “Don’t Tell Me“, “Music“, “What It Feels Like for a Girl“, “Die Another Day“, “Hung Up“, “Sorry“, “4 Minutes, “Give It 2 Me
4 DJ Project 8 “Printre vise”, “Privirea ta”, “Soapte”, “Inca o noapte”, “Esti tot ce am”, “Doua anotimpuri”, “Lacrimi de inger”, “Nu”, “Regrete”
4 Morandi 8 “Love Me”, “Beijo“, “Falling Asleep”, “A La Lujeba”, “Afrika”, “Angels”, “Save Me”, “Colors”
4 Nelly Furtado 8 Turn Off the Light“, “Promiscuous“, “Te Busqué“, “Say It Right“, “All Good Things (Come to an End)“, “Do It“, “Morning After Dark“, “Give It To Me
4 Pussycat Dolls 8 Don’t Cha“, “Stickwitu“, “Buttons“, “I Don’t Need a Man“, “Wait a Minute“, “I Hate This Part“, “Jai Ho! (You Are My Destiny)“, “Hush Hush
4 Rihanna 8 Unfaithful“, “Umbrella“, “Don’t Stop the Music“, “Disturbia“, “Rehab“, “Russian Roulette“, “Rude Boy“, “Love the Way You Lie“, “Only Girl (In the World)

NOTE: The positions for the 90s and half of the year 2000 aren’t known, which makes it possible that some artists, like Enrique Iglesias, Kylie Minogue or Madonna could have a bigger number of top 10s. Also, the information regarding the peak position for songs recorded by many Romanian artists are missing.

 Most weeks on the chart

  1. Timbaland feat. SoShy & Nelly Furtado — “Morning After Dark” (+65 weeks)
  2. Black Eyed Peas — “I Gotta Feeling” (57 weeks)
  3. Crazy Loop — “Chica Bomb” (55 weeks)
  4. P!nk — “Please Don’t Leave Me” (52 weeks)
  5. Gloria Estefan — “Hoy” (50 weeks)
  6. Nelly Furtado — “Say It Right” (44 weeks)

 Most number ones in one year


  • Eminem (“Without Me”, “Lose Yourself”)


  • O-Zone (“Despre Tine”, “Dragostea din Tei”)


  • Kylie Minogue (“Slow”, “Red Blooded Woman”)
  • Black Eyed Peas (“Where Is the Love?”, “Shut Up”)


  • Madonna (“Hung Up”, “Sorry”)
  • Morandi (“Falling Asleep”, “A La Lujeba”)


  • Akon (Smack That, “Don’t Matter”)
  • Enrique Iglesias (“Do You Know? (The Ping Pong Song)”, “Tired of Being Sorry”)


  • Madonna (“4 Minutes”, “Give It 2 Me”)


  • Black Eyed Peas (“I Gotta Feeling”, “Meet Me Halfway”)
  • Lady Gaga (“Bad Romance”, “Alejandro”)
  • Rihanna (“Rude Boy”, “Love the Way You Lie”)
  • Smiley (“Plec pe Marte”, “Love is for Free”)

Singles with most weeks at number one

Position↓ Title↓ Artist↓ Weeks At #1↓ Year↓
1 Say It Right Nelly Furtado 12 weeks 2007
2 “Shut Up” Black Eyed Peas 10 weeks 2003
2 “Cry Cry” Oceana 10 weeks 2009
3 The Ketchup Song Las Ketchup 9 weeks 2002
3 “Doar cu tine” Activ 9 weeks 2004
3 Beijo Morandi 9 weeks 2005
3 Hung Up Madonna 9 weeks 2005
3 “Crazy Loop (Mm-Ma-Ma)” Crazy Loop 9 weeks 2007/2008
4 Hot n Cold Katy Perry 8 weeks 2009
4 “Şi Ce” Voltaj 8 weeks 2004
4 “Visez” Activ 8 weeks 2005
4 I Gotta Feeling Black Eyed Peas 8 weeks 2009/2010
4 Bad Romance Lady Gaga 8 weeks 2010
4 Mr. Saxobeat Alexandra Stan 8 weeks 2010/2011
5 “Luna mi-a zâmbit” Class 7 weeks 2003
5 “Povestea oricui” Voltaj 7 weeks 2005
5 “Jokero” Akcent 7 weeks 2006
5 Hips Don’t Lie Shakira 7 weeks 2006
5 Big Girls Don’t Cry Fergie 7 weeks 2007
5 “Stay With Me” Akcent 7 weeks 2008/2009
5 “In Love” DeepCentral 7 weeks 2010

 Frame two:

The Romania Music Record History


// <![CDATA[

Music of Romania

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Romania is a European country whose population consists mainly (approx. 90%) of ethnic Romanians, as well as a variety of minorities such as German, Hungarian and Roma (Gypsy) populations. This has resulted in a multicultural environment which includes active ethnic music scenes. Romania also has thriving scenes in the fields of pop music, hip hop, heavy metal and rock and roll. During the first decade of the 21st century some Europop groups, such as Morandi, Akcent, and Yarabi, achieved success abroad. Traditional Romanian folk music remains popular, and some folk musicians have come to national (and even international) fame.




Folk music is the oldest form of Romanian musical creation, characterised by great vitality; it is the defining source of the cultured musical creation, both religious and lay. Conservation of Romanian folk music has been aided by a large and enduring audience, and by numerous performers who helped propagate and further develop the folk sound. One of them, Gheorghe Zamfir, is famous throughout the world today, and helped popularize a traditional Romanian folk instrument, the panpipes.

The religious musical creation, born under the influence of Byzantine music adjusted to the intonations of the local folk music, saw a period of glory between the 15th-17th centuries, when reputed schools of liturgical music developed within Romanian monasteries. Russian and Western influences brought about the introduction of polyphony in religious music in the 18th century, a genre developed by a series of Romanian composers in the 19th and 20th centuries.

Traditional music


In Banat, the violin is the most common folk instrument, now played alongside imported woodwind instruments; other instruments include the taragot (today often the saxophone plays the taragot role in bands), which was imported in the 1920s from Hungary. Efta Botoca is among the most renowned violinists from Banat.


Bucovina is a remote province, and its traditions include some of the most ancient Romanian instruments, including the ţilincă and the cobza. Pipes (fluieraş or fluier mare) are also played, usually with accompaniment by a cobza (more recently, the accordion). Violins and brass instruments have been imported in modern times.


Crişana has an ancient tradition of using violins, often in duos. This format is also found in Transylvania but is an older tradition. Petrică Paşca has recently helped popularize the taragot in the region.


Dobrogea‘s population is especially diverse, and there exist elements of traditional Tartar, Ukrainian, Turkish and Bulgarian music among those populations. The most popular dance from Dobrogea is the geamparale, which is very different from the other traditional dances of Romania. In fact, Dobrujan music is characterized by Balkan and Turkish rhythms.

Maramureş and Oaş

The typical folk ensemble from Maramureş is zongora and violin, often with drums. Taragot, saxophone and accordion have more recently been introduced.

In Oaş, a violin adapted to be shriller is used, accompanied by the zongora. The singing in this region is also unique, shrill with archaic melodic elements.

Moldavia (Moldova)

Violin and ţambal are the modern format most common in Moldavian dance music. Prior to the 20th century, however, the violin was usually accompanied by the cobza. Brass ensembles are now found in the central part of the county. Among the most renowned violinists from this region is Ion Drăgoi. There are also many musicians among the Csango, ethnic Hungarians who live in the Siret Valley. Moldavia is also known for brass bands similar to those in Serbia.


Main article: Music of Transylvania

Transylvania has been historically and culturally more linked to Central European countries than Southeastern Europe, and its music reflects those influences.

Violin, viola and double bass, sometimes with a cimbalom, are the most integral ensemble unit. They are used to play a wide variety of songs, including numerous kinds of specific wedding songs.

Drum, guitar and violin make up the typical band in Maramureş, and virtuoso fiddlers are also popular in the area. In the end of the 1990s, the Maramuzical music festival was organized to draw attention to the indigenous music of the area.


Wallachia is home to the taraf bands, which are perhaps the best-known expression of Romanian folk culture. Dances associated with tarafs include brâu, geamparale, sârba and hora. The fiddle leads the music, with the cimbalom and double bass accompanying it. Lyrics are often about heroes like the Haidouks. Taraf de Haidouks is an especially famous taraf, and have achieved international attention since their 1988 debut with the label Ocora. The Haidouks first attained visibility as lăutari, traditional entertainers at weddings and other celebratory occasions.


Muntenia has a diverse set of instrumentation. The flute (fluier in Romanian) and violin are the traditional melodic element, but now clarinets and accordions are more often used. Accordionists include the renowned performers Vasile Pandelescu and Ilie Udilă.


Oltenia‘s folk music and dance is similar to Muntenia. Violins and pipes are used, as are ţambal and guitar, replacing the cobza as the rhythmic backing for tarafs. The cimpoi (bagpipe) is also popular in this region.


The most widespread form of Romanian folk music is the doina. There are other styles of folk music. These include the bocet (“lament”), cântec batrânesc (traditional epic ballads; literally “song of the elders”) and the când ciobanu şi-a pierdut oile (“when the shepherd has lost the sheep”).

Doina is poetic and often melancholic, sometimes compared to the blues for that reason. Doinas are often played with a slow, free rhythm melody against a fast accompaniment pattern in fixed tempo, giving an overall feeling of rhythmic tension. Melodies are sometimes repeated in differing songs, and typically follow a descending pattern.

Regional styles of doina:

Other styles of doina:

  • Ca din tulnic – unique type in which the melody imitates a type of bugle called the tulnic
  • Ciobanulshepherd‘s doina
  • De dragoste – popular form, usually about love; dragoste means “love”.
  • De jale – mellow, mournful doina; jale means “grief”.
  • De leagăn – a lullaby; leagăn means “cradle”.
  • De pahar – drinking song; pahar means “drinking glass”.
  • Foaie verde – classical form; literally “green leaves”.


 Music Festivals

Jazz festivals


the end @copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

The Vintage Czescoslovakia Record History(piring hitam antik Cekoslovakia)



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Record Cybermuseum



The Czeskoslovakia Music record History(Sejarah rekaman Musik Czeskoslovakia  ),

Frame One :

The Vintage Czescoslovakia Music Record Found In Indonesia

1.Supraphon records of Indonesian Song,Uprivil V.Prochazca,Marta Korcerova,Bohemil Zeman.Vaclav Kochera havajka kutara,Skuvina vaclava Kuceri

(please the native ceska and sovena help me to tranlate)

side 1 : Bengawan solo and Laka-laka

 side 2: opelu and  Pangajo

side 3: Mata Ninamu and Duke Kahanamoku

 2.Czeskoslovak Native Song    Supraphon Record,

   Promo white label

    compliment from

 Czeskoslovak Airlines

side one : wadding day cha cha(Miloslav Duchac),Karel Vloch Orchestra

side two: Praque blues(Camra-Dada-Mayer), Praque Dixieland Band

I had heard people talking very positively about Prague, but I don’t believe anything I haven’t seen myself. That’s why we travel, isn’t it? But, don’t believe me. Go there and see for yourself.


Prague travelogue picture

It’s not for nothing that Prague has nick names like the Golden City, The City Of The Hundred Towers or Rome North Of The Alpes. Situated in the very heart of Europe, Prague is like one big open air museum. Walking through Prague is like walking through history. Everywhere you look a story can be told. I still remember the images of the Russian tanks on the Wenceslas Square. Hardly anywhere in the world you’ll find a city centre that better preserved than Prague’s. In the heart of that centre is the Staromestske Square, where you can stand for an hour and still haven’t seen everything worth while. The beautiful St. Nicalas church, the Old City’s town hall with its famous astronomical clock, the Kinsky Palace, where Franz Kafka went to school and where his father had his shop on the ground floor. Cross the Karluv bridge into Mala Strana, where Hradcany Castle is situated. From there you have the most wonderful view of this breathtaking city. You could say that Prague consists of two parts. On the right side of the river is the old town, Franz Kafka’s Prague, Prague of the jewish community, Czech Pargue. On the left side of the river baroque catholic Prague, the Prague with its palaces of the gentry, Prague with its many monasteries and churches.

Favourite spots:
Prague travelogue picture

Staromestske Square is one of the most beautiful squares I’ve seen. Houses, palaces and churches in almost any known building style can be found there. Karluv Bridge, closed for traffic, is like a flee market : people selling trinkets, souvenirs and a live Dixieland band with real wash board player. That is when you go to Prague in the summer. Mala Strana, where the Hradcany Castle is situated is a place from you have a fantastic view over Prague.

What’s really great:
Prague travelogue picture

What struck me most is the wonderful condition in which the great majority of the buildings in Prague are. It seems like everything has been restored yesterday and that there is no pollution. Also the lack of heavy traffic you have in so many big cities. You can walk through the city without risking your life crossing a street.

Prague travelogue picture

The breathtaking view over the city from Hradcany Castle.
The washboard Dixieland band on Karluv bridge.
Staromestske Square; everywhere you look you see something beautiful.

Prague travelogue picture

As I came there by car, I chose to stay outside of Prague, so I don’t have any experience. But as a European capital it has every kind of accommodation big cities offer.

Prague travelogue picture

Reduta Jazz Club in Nove Mesto
Rock Café in Nove Mesto

1.U Cizku, Karlovo namesti, 34
Nice restaurant, good quality but not cheap.
2.U pavouka (The Spider), Celetna, 17
One of the oldest restaurants in Prague, good quality, but not cheap

Furthermore there is your number of various Indian, Chinese, Italian restaurants.

Frame Two:

The Chescoslovakia Record History (now Ceska  and Slovenia)

Jazz History

Jazz in dissident Czechoslovakia




Czechoslovakia’s jazz roots were established by Jaroslav Ježek and Rudolf Antonín Dvorský in the 1920’s and 30’s. Ježek’s influence in this realm is particularly noted and by the time he immigrated to the United States in 1939, his compositions blending jazz and classical music were among the most popular music. After the invasion of the Nazis, however, jazz was banned and it was not until 1947 when the Australian jazz pianist Graeme Bell and his Dixieland Jazz Band performed at a World Youth Festival in Prague that the jazz movement was revived.

When this movement began, the Stalinists were opposed to it, but as Josef Škvorecký writes in his The Bass Saxophone, “Its name was Dixieland. A type of the cannibal-music with roots so patently folkloristic and often (the blues) so downright proletarian that even the most Orwellian falsifier of facts would be hard put to deny them” (16). Similar to the situation during World War II, jazz was a developed by Africans and as such, regarded as trash. As this movement grew, it became increasingly intertwined with the growth of the dissident movement. Among the underground intellectuals, jazz was the genre that was most identified with. As the cultural scene in Czechoslovakia heated up, the jazz scene expanded along with it. In 1964, the First Prague International Jazz Festival was held, bringing hip bands of the time. When the Prague Spring occurred, jazz continued its success as an independent form that attracted the youth in all their rebellion. It was the music that was played at clubs and numerous individual bands formed. As one sees in Josef Škvorecký’s The Cowards, the day revolved around practicing jazz with the group and heroic daydreams. Even though the novel is set at the end of WWII, the books publishing in 1958 is clearly demonstrative of the excitement for jazz that is present at the time Škvorecký writes the novel.

 Jazz Section of the Czech Musician’s Union

The small victories that jazz won during this time, however, are not comparable to the Jazz Section of the Czech Musician’s Union that was created in 1971. Formed through an “administrative loophole,” a group of jazz musicians saw the opportunity to become part of the union, and despite jazz being seen as “trash music” for the underclasses, was accepted. The Ministry of the Interior issued a number of guidelines, most importantly that the section was limited to a membership of 3,000. For the first couple of years after its conception, the Jazz Section kept within the confines of the laws. It began the Prague Jazz Days festival, which was expected to be a yearly event. It published a bulletin that discussed the ongoing music scene. As the section grew, the heads of the section became bolder and launched a book series that discussed all popular culture at the time — from Czech art, to rock poetry, a dictionary of American rock bands, to the 1984 Nobel Prize acceptance speech by Jaroslav Seifert. The first problem or law that it transgressed was the size constraint. By the time the Section was shut down, membership had reached up to 7,000 — 4,000 more than was allowed. Membership was also breached in other ways. The bulletin and book series that the section published spread quickly from hand to hand. Škvorecký writes “If in a high school one student belonged to the Jazz Section, the books and periodicals he was allowed to buy were read by practically the whole student body and usually also by the teaching staff.” As the Section’s popularity grew and their ability to sponsor musical events became more limited, it reached beyond jazz, and even beyond music in general to literature and art. They began to publish volumes of samizdat, or communist suppressed literature. Publications that were sold only to members in cultural organizations were subject to less censorship and in this way, the Section published numerous manuscripts on “alternative culture” and escaped punishment by the government.

Tensions Between Jazz Section and Communist Government

The government’s approval of the Jazz Section was in part due to its intense dislike of rock music and the overwhelming popularity of that genre. As the rock movement began to become involved with the jazz scene, tensions erupted. At the fifth Jazz Days festival, the authorities got involved when a “rock operetta” was allowed to be performed. From then on until 1984 when the Section was shut down, the bureaucracy resorted to tactics of harassment. After the Jazz Section applied for membership in the European Jazz Federation, a member of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, in the early 80’s, the communist government feared bad publicity and could not shut down the section immediately. In 1980, the Jazz Days festival was cancelled under the pretext that 15,000 fans had bought tickets and the event could be listed as a “public disturbance.” In 1983, the bureaucrats sought to pressure the Czech Musician’s Union to dissolve the Jazz section. When this was refused, however, the government dissolved the entire organization. The heads, Karel Srp and Vladimír Kouřil, continued to run the Section even after its disbandment causing them to be jailed in 1986. This action was met with severe criticism from abroad including authors such as Kurt Vonnegut and John Updike. Beyond Srp and Kouřil, five other members were arrested and given fairly light sentences. Though the real causes for the light sentences are unknown, Škvorecký speculates “you cannot really hold such things in Czechoslovakia when Gorbachev is in Moscow releasing Andrei Sakharov and other people. So the trial was really a compromise between the hard-liners in the Czechoslovak party leadership who wanted to make it a warning to anyone who dared to do something not fully endorsed by the party, on the one hand, and the opportunists who smell a new wind from Moscow, on the other, who were against the trial. It reflects a split in the ruling party.” These sentiments are similar to the ideas present at the end of WWII when everybody had their own rescued Jew to prove that they were good beings. Not to be undone by these arrests however, the Jazz Section continued while Srp was in prison

Czechoslovakia 1920-1938 

** XSee copyringht information at bottom of page

The Predecessor States 

featured lens The Austro-Hungarian Empire and its Legacy
One late spring day a treaty was signed (The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867) which would seal the fate of Europe through two World Wars. Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria became also the King of Hungary. The two halves of the new empire would be…


The Velvet Divorce 

The dissolution of Czechoslovakia, which took effect on 1 January 1993, was an event that saw the self-determined separation of the federal state of Czechoslovakia. The Czech Republic and Slovakia, entities which had arisen in 1969 within the framework of Czechoslovak federalisation, became immediate subjects of the international law in 1993. It is sometimes known as the Velvet Divorce, a reference to the bloodless Velvet Revolution of 1989 that led to the end of the rule of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia and the formation of a democratic government.

The Successor Countries 

featured lens The Czech Republic
The Czech Republic is composed of the provinces of Bohemia and Moravia. The capital of the Czech Republic is Prague. Bohemia, Moravia, and other provinces not now part of the Czech Republic, were part of Czechoslovakia.
featured lens Slovakia
Slovakia and the Czech Republic went their separate ways after January 1, 1993, an event sometimes called the Velvet Divorce. Slovakia has remained a close partner with the Czech Republic, both countries cooperate with Hungary and Poland in the Viseg…

Czechoslovakia: History


Histories of Czechoslovakia 

Which is the best history book on Czechoslovakia?

Theresienstadt: Hitler's Gift to the Jews by Norbert Troller

Theresienstadt: Hitler’s Gift to the Jews by Norbert Troller

Norbert Troller’s unique account of life in Theres more…0 points

Norbert Troller’s unique account of life in Theresienstadt combines his intimate knowledge of the inner workings of the camp with two dozen of his own drawings and watercolors. Troller recounts his two years in Theresienstadt from early 1942 until September 1944, when he was deported to Auschwitz after the Nazis discovered he and other artists were smuggling out drawings that revealed the horrors of Hitler’s “model” ghetto. Miraculously preserved by his friends, Troller’s drawings and watercolor…0 points


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Prague Winter by Nikolaus Martin

Prague Winter by Nikolaus Martin

Prague Winter is my attempt to record a demented t more…0 points

Prague Winter is my attempt to record a demented time during which I was both witness and involuntary participant. For many years I was haunted by nightmares of being recaptured by the Gestapo or of being trapped in Prague under the communists.0 points


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National Cleansing: Retribution against Nazi Collaborators in Postwar Czechoslovakia (Studies in the Social and Cultural History of Modern Warfare) by Benjamin Frommer

National Cleansing: Retribution against Nazi Collaborators in Postwar Czechoslovakia (Studies in the Social and Cultural History of Modern Warfare) by Benjamin Frommer

This comprehensive history of postwar Czech retrib more…0 points

This comprehensive history of postwar Czech retribution examines the prosecution of more than one-hundred thousand suspected war criminals and collaborators by Czech courts and tribunals after the Second World War. Based on archival sources that remained inaccessible during the cold war, the book provides a new perspective on Czechoslovakia’s transition from Nazi occupation to Stalinist rule. Frommer asserts that the Czechs made a genuine, if flawed, attempt to confront past war crimes, includin…0 points


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Czechoslovakia (Brief Histories) by Maria Dowling

Czechoslovakia (Brief Histories) by Maria Dowling

Located at the heart of Europe between east and we more…0 points

Located at the heart of Europe between east and west, Czechoslovakia was the pivot of twentieth-century European history. Created in 1918 out of the ruins of an empire, it remained a beacon of democracy in a continent darkened by fascism and communism. But unable to resist the machinations of greater powers, it succumbed to Nazi invasion and partition on the eve of World War II. After that conflict it underwent a communist dictatorship, which was lightened only briefly by the Prague Spring of 19…0 points


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The United States, Revolutionary Russia, and the Rise of Czechoslovakia (Foreign Relations and the Presidency) by Betty Miller Unterberger

The United States, Revolutionary Russia, and the Rise of Czechoslovakia (Foreign Relations and the Presidency) by Betty Miller Unterberger

The First World War and the Bolshevik Revolution i more…0 points

The First World War and the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia set the stage on which Woodrow Wilson had to direct U.S. policy toward Czechoslovakia as it sought liberation in the early twentieth century. Betty Unterberger’s now classic study of the ferment of this period and the way President Wilson dealt with it gives insight into both Great Power relations and the next eighty years of developments in Central Europe. A decade after the original publication of The United States, Revolutionary Russi…0 points


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Twentieth-Century Czechoslovakia: The Meanings of Its History by Josef Korbel


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Czechoslovakia in a Nationalist and Fascist Europe, 1918-1948 (Proceedings of the British Academy)

Czechoslovakia in a Nationalist and Fascist Europe, 1918-1948 (Proceedings of the British Academy)

This volume presents fresh and original writing on more…0 points

This volume presents fresh and original writing on the history of Czechoslovakia, a state neglected in British historiography, but which is vital for understanding Europe after 1918. The country twice lost its independence, firstly to Hitler’s Germany and then to Stalin’s USSR – events that sent shock waves through the continent.0 points


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August 21st: the rape of Czechoslovakia;: With on the spot reports from Prague by Colin Chapman


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The Masaryks The Making of Czechoslovakia by Zbynek Zeman

The Masaryks The Making of Czechoslovakia by Zbynek Zeman

This is a dual biography of Thomas Masaryk, the fo more…0 points

This is a dual biography of Thomas Masaryk, the founder of the Czechoslovak republic, and of his son Jan who became its first foreign minister. Their lives are set against the dramatic background of central and east European history in the century following 1850.The Masaryks have often been seen as mavericks in terms of the prevailing ideologies of their days, some seeing them as egregious idealists, others as traitors to the cause of socialism. This book examines the controversy that their care…0 points


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Czechoslovakia: The Short Goodbye by Abby Innes

Czechoslovakia: The Short Goodbye by Abby Innes

Czechoslovakia’s ‘velvet divorce’ – the peaceful b more…0 points

Czechoslovakia’s ‘velvet divorce’ – the peaceful break-up of the nation into the new independent states of Czechia and Slovakia – is widely perceived as a victory of liberal democracy and an enlightened response to ethnic and nationalist differences. But in reality the disintegration of Czechoslovakia was neither of these, argues the author of this penetrating book. Abby Innes describes and analyses in detail the causes, process, and consequences of Czechoslovakia’s 1993 separation. Her account….0 points

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Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1911 

** The Region of Future Czechoslovakia

Tomas Masaryk 

With the fall of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1918, the Allies recognized Masaryk as head of the Provisional Czechoslovak government, and in 1920 he was elected the first President of Czechoslovakia. He won re-election twice subsequently, and held office until 14 December 1935, when he resigned owing to bad health and Edvard Benes succeeded him. Masaryk enjoyed almost legendary authority among the Czech and Slovak people.

Origins of Czechoslovakia 

Although the Czechs and Slovaks have similar languages, they have distinct cultures and experiences. The ancestors of the Czechs and Slovaks may have been united in the so-called “Samo Empire” for some thirty years in the seventh century. The ancestors of the Slovaks and Moravians were later united in Great Moravia between 833 and 907. The Czechs were only part of Great Moravia for some seven years before splitting from it in 895. Furthermore, in the second half of the tenth century, the Czechs may have conquered and controlled western Slovakia for around thirty years. This was the last time the two nations were united; the Hungarians had conquered Slovakia by the eleventh century, while the Czechs maintained their own principality (a kingdom from 1198) of Bohemia, from around 900 to 1918.

The creation of Czechoslovakia in 1918 was the culmination of the long struggle of the Czechs against their Austrian rulers and of the Slovaks against Hungarisation and their Hungarian rulers.

Annexations of Czechoslovakia in 1939 



Category: File – :Sudetendeutsche gebiete.svg|thumb|300px|Map of the Sudetenland (highlighted in black).

Category: Image – :?s. vojáci v Krásné Líp?.jpg|thumb|300px|right|Czechoslovak soldiers patrolling the town of Krásná Lípa () in the Sudeten Region, September, 1938.

Sudetenland (Czech and , ) is the German name used in English in the first half of the 20th century for the western regions of Czechoslovakia inhabited mostly by ethnic Germans, specifically the border areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia associated with Bohemia.

The name is derived from the Sudeten mountains, though the Sudetenland extended beyond these mountains which run along the border to Silesia and contemporary Poland. The German inhabitants were called Sudeten Germans (German: Sudetendeutsche, Czech: Sudet?tí N?mci, Polish: Niemcy Sudeccy). The German minority in Slovakia, the Carpathian Germans, is not included in this ethnic category.

Prague, August, 1968 

Prague Spring 

The Prague Spring (, ) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union after World War II. It began on 5 January 1968, when reformist Slovak Alexander Dub?ek came to power, and continued until 21 August when the Soviet Union and members of its Warsaw Pact allies invaded the country to halt the reforms.

The Prague Spring reforms were an attempt by Dub?ek to grant additional rights to the citizens in an act of partial decentralization of the economy and democratization. The freedoms granted included a loosening of restrictions on the media, speech and travel. After national discussion of separating the country into a federation of three republics, Bohemia, Moravia and Slovakia, Dub?ek oversaw the decision for two, the Czech Republic and Slovakia.Czech radio broadcasts 18?20 August 1968 This was the only change that survived the end of the Prague Spring.

The reforms, especially the decentralisation of administrative authority, were not received well by the Soviets who, after failed negotiations, sent thousands of Warsaw Pact troops and tanks to occupy the country. A large wave of emigration swept the nation. While there were many non-violent protests in the country, including the protest-suicide of a student, there was no military resistance. Czechoslovakia remained occupied until 1990.

After the invasion, Czechoslovakia entered a period of normalization: subsequent leaders attempted to restore the political and economic values that had prevailed before Dub?ek gained control of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KS?). Gustáv Husák, who replaced Dub?ek and also became president, reversed almost all of Dub?ek’s reforms. The Prague Spring inspired music and literature such as the work of Václav Havel, Karel Husa, Karel Kryl, and Milan Kundera’s novel The Unbearable Lightness of Being.

The Velvet Revolution 

The Velvet Revolution () or Gentle Revolution () (November 17 – December 29, 1989) was a non-violent revolution in Czechoslovakia that saw the overthrow of the communist government.[ RP’s History Online – Velvet Revolution]

On November 17, 1989, a Friday, riot police suppressed a peaceful student demonstration in Prague. That event sparked a series of popular demonstrations from November 19 to late December. By November 20 the number of peaceful protesters assembled in Prague had swollen from 200,000 the previous day to an estimated half-million. A two-hour general strike, involving all citizens of Czechoslovakia, was held on November 27.

With the collapse of other Warsaw Pact governments and increasing street protests, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia announced on November 28 that it would relinquish power and dismantle the single-party state. Barbed wire and other obstructions were removed from the border with West Germany and Austria in early December. On December 10, President Gustáv Husák appointed the first largely non-communist government in Czechoslovakia since 1948, and resigned. Alexander Dub?ek was elected speaker of the federal parliament on December 28 and Václav Havel the President of Czechoslovakia on December 29, 1989.

In June 1990 Czechoslovakia held its first democratic elections since 1946.

The term Velvet Revolution was used internationally to describe the revolution, although the Czech side also used the term internally. After the dissolution of the nation in 1993, Slovakia used the term Gentle Revolution, the term that Slovaks used for the revolution from the beginning. The Czech Republic continues to refer to the event as the Velvet Revolution.

The Velvet Revolution on Amazon 

The Velvet Revolution: Czechoslovakia, 1988-1991

by: Bernard Wheaton, Zdenek Kavan

Amazon Price: $34.00 (as of 02/21/2011) Buy Now

A Velvet Revolution: Vaclav Havel And the Fall of Communism (World Leaders)

by: John Duberstein

Amazon Price: $28.95 (as of 02/21/2011) Buy Now

Czechoslovakia: The Velvet Revolution and Beyond

by: Robin E. H. Shepherd

Amazon Price: $128.25 (as of 02/21/2011) Buy Now

The Prague Spring in Czechoslovak Art & Culture


HUSA: Music for Prague 1968 / Reflections / Fresque

Amazon Price: $17.88 (as of 02/22/2011)Buy Now

Music for Prague 1968 

Music for Prague 1968 is a programmatic work written by Czech-born composer Karel Husa for symphonic band and later transcribed for full orchestra, written shortly after the crushing of the Prague Spring reform movement in Czechoslovakia in 1968. Karel Husa was sitting on the dock at his cottage in America at the time, listening to the BBC broadcast of the events on the radio. He was deeply moved, and wrote Music for Prague 1968 to memorialize the events. This piece is a standard among wind ensemble repertoire.

The work was commissioned by Ithaca College and was premiered in January 1969 in Washington, DC at the Music Educators National Conference by Dr. Kenneth Snapp and the Ithaca College Concert Band.

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The Unbearable Lightness of Being 

Set in 1968 Prague, the novel details the circumstances of life for artists and intellectuals in Communist Czechoslovakia in the wake of the Prague Spring and the subsequent invasion by the USSR.

The major protagonists are Tomas, a well-known, successful surgeon who criticizes the Czech Communists and as a result loses his position, and his wife Tereza, a photographer in anguish over her husband’s many infidelities.

The book also explores the worlds of two other characters, Tomas’s lover Sabina (a painter) and Sabina’s lover Franz (a university professor).

The book centers on the idea that existence is full of unbearable lightness, because each of us has only one life to live: Einmal ist keinmal (once is nonce: “what happened once might never have happened at all”). Therefore, each life is, ultimately, insignificant; every decision, ultimately, does not matter. Since decisions do not matter, they are light, they don’t make us suffer: they do not bind, yet simultaneously, the insignificance of our decisions – our lives, our being – is unbearably light, hence, the unbearable lightness of being.

Because of the subject, some critics labeled this novel modernist, while others see it as a celebratory post-modern explosion of narrative craft

Music of Czechoslovakia 

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

The Vintage Frank Sinatra Record History(Piring Hitam antik Frank Sinatra)



                                                AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

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                      *ill 001  LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

                                THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM



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                         WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               


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The Vintage Frank Sinatra record History(Piring Hitam antik Frank Sinatra )

Frame One :

The Vintage Frank Sinatra and Nancy sinatra Record Found In Indonesia

(Dr Iwan suwandy Collections)

1.Frank Sinatra,China Record,Cycle

side A:

Rain in my heart,From both side now,Mittle green apple,Pretty coloor and Cycle

Side B :

Wandering,By the time I got to phoenix,Mooy river,My way of live,and gentle on My mind

2.Nancy Sinatra.

Frame Two:

The Frank Sinatra and

Nancy Sinatra Record History

1.Frank Sinatra


// <![CDATA[

Frank Sinatra

Frank Sinatra

Frank Sinatra at Girl’s Town Ball in Florida, March 12, 1960.
Background information
Birth name Francis Albert Sinatra
Also known as Ol’ Blue Eyes[1]
The Chairman of the Board[1]
The Voice[1]
Francis Albert
Born December 12, 1915(1915-12-12)
Hoboken, New Jersey, United States[2]
Died May 14, 1998(1998-05-14) (aged 82)
Los Angeles, California, United States
Genres Traditional pop, jazz, swing, big band, vocal[3]
Occupations Singer,[1] actor, producer,[1] director,[1] conductor[4]
Instruments Vocals
Years active 1935–1995[5]
Labels Columbia, Capitol, Reprise
Associated acts Rat Pack, Bing Crosby, Nancy Sinatra, Quincy Jones, Antonio Carlos Jobim, Frank Sinatra, Jr., Dean Martin

Francis Albert “Frank” Sinatra (pronounced /sɨˈnɑːtrə/; December 12, 1915 – May 14, 1998)[6] was an American singer and actor.

Beginning his musical career in the swing era with Harry James and Tommy Dorsey, Sinatra became a successful solo artist in the early to mid-1940s, being the idol of the “bobby soxers“. His professional career had stalled by the 1950s, but it was reborn in 1954 after he won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor (for his performance in From Here to Eternity).

He signed with Capitol Records and released several critically lauded albums (such as In the Wee Small Hours, Songs for Swingin’ Lovers, Come Fly with Me, Only the Lonely and Nice ‘n’ Easy). Sinatra left Capitol to found his own record label, Reprise Records (finding success with albums such as Ring-A-Ding-Ding, Sinatra at the Sands and Francis Albert Sinatra & Antonio Carlos Jobim), toured internationally, was a founding member of the Rat Pack and fraternized with celebrities and statesmen, including John F. Kennedy. Sinatra turned 50 in 1965, recorded the retrospective September of My Years, starred in the Emmy-winning television special Frank Sinatra: A Man and His Music, and scored hits with “Strangers in the Night” and “My Way“.

With sales of his music dwindling and after appearing in several poorly received films, Sinatra retired for the first time in 1971. Two years later, however, he came out of retirement and in 1973 recorded several albums, scoring a Top 40 hit with “(Theme From) New York, New York” in 1980. Using his Las Vegas shows as a home base, he toured both within the United States and internationally, until a short time before his death in 1998.

Sinatra also forged a successful career as a film actor, winning the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his performance in From Here to Eternity, a nomination for Best Actor for The Man with the Golden Arm, and critical acclaim for his performance in The Manchurian Candidate. He also starred in such musicals as High Society, Pal Joey, Guys and Dolls and On the Town. Sinatra was honored at the Kennedy Center Honors in 1983 and was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by Ronald Reagan in 1985 and the Congressional Gold Medal in 1997. Sinatra was also the recipient of eleven Grammy Awards, including the Grammy Trustees Award, Grammy Legend Award and the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award.



Early life

Born in December 1915 in Hoboken, New Jersey, Sinatra was the only child of Italian immigrants Natalie Della Garaventa and Antonino Martino Sinatra[7] and was raised Catholic.[8] He left high school without graduating,[9] having attended only 47 days before being expelled because of his rowdy conduct. Sinatra’s father, often referred to as Marty, served with the Hoboken Fire Department as a Captain. His mother, known as Dolly, was influential in the neighborhood and in local Democratic Party circles, but also ran an illegal abortion business from her home; she was arrested several times and convicted twice for this offense.[10] During the Great Depression, Dolly nevertheless provided money to their son for outings with friends and expensive clothes.[11] Sinatra was arrested for carrying on with a married woman, a criminal offense at the time.[12] He worked as a delivery boy at the Jersey Observer newspaper,[13] and as a riveter at the Tietjan and Lang shipyard,[14] but music was Sinatra’s main interest, and he carefully listened to big band jazz.[15] He began singing for tips at the age of eight, standing on top of the bar at a local nightclub in Hoboken. Sinatra began singing professionally as a teenager in the 1930s,[16] although he learned music by ear and never learned how to read music.[15]

1935–40: Start of career, work with James and Dorsey

Sinatra got his first break in 1935 when his mother persuaded a local singing group, The Three Flashes, to let him join. With Sinatra, the group became known as the Hoboken Four,[5] and they sufficiently impressed Edward Bowes. After appearing on his show, Major Bowes Amateur Hour, they attracted 40,000 votes and won the first prize — a six month contract to perform on stage and radio across the United States.

Sinatra left the Hoboken Four and returned home in late 1935. His mother secured him a job as a singing waiter and MC at the Rustic Cabin in Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, for which he was paid $15 a week.[17]

On March 18, 1939, Sinatra made a demo recording of a song called “Our Love”, with the Frank Mane band. The record has “Frank Sinatra” signed on the front. The bandleader kept the original record in a safe for nearly 60 years.[18] In June, Harry James hired Sinatra on a one year contract of $75 a week.[19] It was with the James band that Sinatra released his first commercial record “From the Bottom of My Heart” in July, 1939 [20]– US Brunswick #8443 and UK Columbia #DB2150.[21]

Fewer than 8,000 copies of “From the Bottom of My Heart” (Brunswick #8443) were sold, making the record a very rare find that is sought after by record collectors worldwide. Sinatra released ten commercial tracks with James through 1939, including “All or Nothing At All” which had weak sales on its initial release but then sold millions of copies when re-released by Columbia at the height of Sinatra’s popularity a few years later.[22]

In November 1939, in a meeting at the Palmer House in Chicago, Sinatra was asked by bandleader Tommy Dorsey to join his band as a replacement for Jack Leonard, who had recently left to launch a solo career. This meeting was a turning point in Sinatra’s career, since by signing with Dorsey’s band, one of the hottest bands at the time, he got greatly increased visibility with the American public. Though Sinatra was still under contract with James, James recognized the opportunity Dorsey offered and graciously released Sinatra from his contract. Sinatra recognized his debt to James throughout his life and upon hearing of James’s death in 1983, stated: “he [James] is the one that made it all possible.”[23]

On January 26, 1940, Sinatra made his first public appearance with the Dorsey band at the Coronado Theater in Rockford, Illinois.[24] In his first year with Dorsey, Sinatra released more than forty songs, with “I’ll Never Smile Again” topping the charts for twelve weeks beginning in mid-July.[25]

Sinatra’s relationship with Tommy Dorsey was troubled, because of their contract, which awarded Dorsey one-third of Sinatra’s lifetime earnings in the entertainment industry. In January 1942, Sinatra recorded his first solo sessions without the Dorsey band (but with Dorsey’s arranger Axel Stordahl and with Dorsey’s approval). These sessions were released commercially on the Bluebird label. Sinatra left the Dorsey band late in 1942 in an incident that started rumors of Sinatra’s involvement with the Mafia. A story appeared in the Hearst newspapers that mobster Sam Giancana coerced Dorsey to let Sinatra out of his contract for a few thousand dollars, and was fictionalized in the movie The Godfather.[15] According to Nancy Sinatra’s biography, the Hearst rumors were started because of Frank’s Democratic politics. In fact, the contract was bought out by MCA founder Jules Stein for $75,000.[23]

 1940–50: Sinatramania and decline of career

In May 1941, Sinatra was at the top of the male singer polls in the Billboard and Down Beat magazines.[26] His appeal to bobby soxers, as teenage girls of that time were called, revealed a whole new audience for popular music, which had been recorded mainly for adults up to that time.

On December 31, 1942, Sinatra made a “legendary opening” at the Paramount Theater in New York. Jack Benny later said, “I thought the goddamned building was going to cave in. I never heard such a commotion…All this for a fellow I never heard of.” When Sinatra returned to the Paramount in October 1944, 35,000 fans caused a near riot outside the venue because they were not allowed in.[15]

Sinatra being interviewed for American Forces Network during World War II.

During the musicians’ strike of 1942–44, Columbia re-released Harry James and Sinatra’s version of “All or Nothing at All” (music by Arthur Altman and lyrics by Jack Lawrence), recorded in August 1939 and released before Sinatra had made a name for himself. The original release did not even mention the vocalist’s name. When the recording was re–released in 1943 with Sinatra’s name prominently displayed, the record was on the best–selling list for 18 weeks and reached number 2 on June 2, 1943.[27]

Sinatra signed with Columbia on June 1, 1943, as a solo artist, and he initially had great success, particularly during the 1942-43 musicians’ strike. Although no new records had been issued during the strike, he had been performing on the radio (on Your Hit Parade), and on stage. Columbia wanted to get new recordings of their growing star as fast as possible, so Sinatra convinced them to hire Alec Wilder as arranger and conductor for several sessions with a vocal group called the Bobby Tucker Singers. These first sessions were on June 7, June 22, August 5, and November 10, 1943. Of the nine songs recorded during these sessions, seven charted on the best–selling list.[28]

Sinatra did not serve in the military during World War II. On December 11, 1943, he was classified 4-F (“Registrant not acceptable for military service”) for a perforated eardrum by his draft board. Additionally, an FBI report on Sinatra, released in 1998, showed that the doctors had also written that he was a “neurotic” and “not acceptable material from a psychiatric standpoint”. This was omitted from his record to avoid “undue unpleasantness for both the selectee and the induction service”.[29][30] Active-duty servicemen, like journalist William Manchester, said of Sinatra, “I think Frank Sinatra was the most hated man of World War II, much more than Hitler”, because Sinatra was back home making all of that money and being shown in photographs surrounded by beautiful women.[31] His deferment would resurface throughout his life and cause him grief when he had to defend himself.[29][32] There were accusations, including some from noted columnist Walter Winchell,[33] that Sinatra paid $40,000 to avoid the service — but the FBI found no evidence of this.[30][34]

In 1945, Sinatra co-starred with Gene Kelly in Anchors Aweigh. That same year, he was loaned out to RKO to star in a short film titled The House I Live In. Directed by Mervyn LeRoy, this film on tolerance and racial equality earned a special Academy Award shared among Sinatra and those who brought the film to the screen, along with a special Golden Globe for “Promoting Good Will”. 1946 saw the release of his first album, The Voice of Frank Sinatra, and the debut of his own weekly radio show.

By the end of 1948, Sinatra felt that his career was stalling, something that was confirmed when he slipped to No. 4 on Down Beats annual poll of most popular singers (behind Billy Eckstine, Frankie Laine, and Bing Crosby).[35]

The year 1949 saw an upswing, as Frank co-starred with Gene Kelly in Take Me Out to the Ball Game. It was well received critically and became a major commercial success. That same year, Sinatra teamed up with Kelly for a third time in On the Town.

 1950–60: Rebirth of career, Capitol concept albums

After two years’ absence, Sinatra returned to the concert stage on January 12, 1950, in Hartford, Connecticut. His voice suffered and he experienced hemorrhaging of his vocal cords on stage at the Copacabana on April 26, 1950.[11] Sinatra’s career and appeal to new teen audiences declined as he moved into his mid-30s.

This was a period of serious self-doubt about the trajectory of his career. In February of 1951, he was walking through Times Square, past the Paramount theatre, keystone venue of his earlier phenomenal success. The Paramount marquee glowed in announcement of Eddie Fisher in concert. Swarms of teen-age girls had gathered in frenzy, swooning over the current singing idol. For Sinatra this public display of enthusiasm for Fisher validated a fear he had harbored in his own mind for a long time. The Sinatra star had fallen; the shouts of “Frankieee” were echoes of the past. Agitated and disconsolate he rushed home, closed his kitchen door, turned on the gas and laid his head on the top of the stove. A friend returned to the apartment not long after to find Sinatra lying on the floor sobbing out the melodrama of his life, proclaiming his failure was so complete he could not even commit suicide. [36]

In September 1951, Sinatra made his Las Vegas debut at the Desert Inn. A month later, a second series of the Frank Sinatra Show aired on CBS. Ultimately, Sinatra did not find the success on television for which he had hoped. The persona he presented to the TV audience was not that of a performer easily welcomed into homes. He projected an arrogance not compatible with the type of cozy congeniality that played well on the small screen. [37]

Columbia and MCA dropped him in 1952.

The rebirth of Sinatra’s career began with the eve-of-Pearl Harbor drama From Here to Eternity (1953), for which he won an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. This role and performance marked a turnaround in Sinatra’s career: after several years of critical and commercial decline, becoming an Oscar-winning actor helped him regain his position as the top recording artist in the world.[38]

Also in 1953, Sinatra starred in the NBC radio program Rocky Fortune. His character, Rocko Fortunato (aka Rocky Fortune) was a temp worker for the Gridley Employment Agency who stumbled into crime-solving by way of the odd jobs to which he was dispatched. The series aired on NBC radio Tuesday nights from October 1953 to March 1954, following the network’s crime drama hit Dragnet. During the final months of the show, just before the 1954 Oscars, it became a running gag that Sinatra would manage to work the phrase “from here to eternity” into each episode, a reference to his Oscar-nominated performance.[39]

In 1953, Sinatra signed with Capitol Records, where he worked with many of the finest musical arrangers of the era, most notably Nelson Riddle,[20] Gordon Jenkins, and Billy May. With a series of albums featuring darker emotional material, Sinatra reinvented himself, including In the Wee Small Hours (1955)—Sinatra’s first 12″ LP and his second collaboration with Nelson Riddle—Where Are You? (1957) and Frank Sinatra Sings For Only The Lonely (1958). He also incorporated a hipper, “swinging” persona into some of his music, as heard on Swing Easy! (1954), Songs For Swingin’ Lovers (1956), and Come Fly With Me (1957).

By the end of the year, Billboard had named “Young at Heart” Song of the Year; Swing Easy!, with Nelson Riddle at the helm (his second album for Capitol), was named Album of the Year; and Sinatra was named “Top Male Vocalist” by Billboard, Down Beat and Metronome.

A third collaboration with Nelson Riddle, Songs For Swingin’ Lovers, was both a critical and financial success, featuring a recording of “I’ve Got You Under My Skin”.

Frank Sinatra Sings for Only the Lonely, a stark collection of introspective saloon songs and blues-tinged ballads, was a mammoth commercial success, spending 120 weeks on Billboard’s album chart and peaking at #1. Cuts from this LP, such as “Angel Eyes” and “One for My Baby (and One More for the Road)“, would remain staples of Sinatra’s concerts throughout his life.

Through the late fifties, Sinatra frequently criticized rock and roll music, much of it being his reaction to rhythms and attitudes he found alien. In 1958 he lambasted it as “sung, played, and written for the most part by cretinous goons. It manages to be the martial music of every sideburned delinquent on the face of the earth.”[40]

1960–70: Ring-A-Ding-Ding, Reprise records, Basie, Jobim, “My Way”

Sinatra started the 1960s as he ended the 1950s. His first album of the decade, Nice ‘n’ Easy, topped Billboard‘s chart and won critical plaudits. Sinatra grew discontented at Capitol and decided to form his own label, Reprise Records. His first album on the label, Ring-A-Ding-Ding (1961), was a major success, peaking at #4 on Billboard and #8 in the UK.

His fourth and final Timex TV special was broadcast in March 1960, and earned massive viewing figures. Titled It’s Nice to Go Travelling, the show is more commonly known as Welcome Home Elvis. Elvis Presley‘s appearance after his army discharge was somewhat ironic; Sinatra had been scathing about him in the mid fifties, saying: “His kind of music is deplorable, a rancid smelling aphrodisiac. It fosters almost totally negative and destructive reactions in young people.”[41] Presley had responded: “… [Sinatra] is a great success and a fine actor, but I think he shouldn’t have said it… [rock and roll] is a trend, just the same as he faced when he started years ago.”[42] Later, in efforts to maintain his commercial viability, Sinatra recorded Presley’s hit “Love Me Tender” as well as works by Paul Simon (“Mrs. Robinson“), The Beatles (“Something“, “Yesterday“), and Joni Mitchell (“Both Sides Now”).[43]

Following on the heels of the film Can Can was Ocean’s 11, the movie that became the definitive on-screen outing for “The Rat Pack”.

From his youth, Sinatra displayed sympathy for African Americans and worked both publicly and privately all his life to help them win equal rights. He played a major role in the desegregation of Nevada hotels and casinos in the 1960s. On January 27, 1961, Sinatra played a benefit show at Carnegie Hall for Martin Luther King, Jr. and led his fellow Rat Pack members and Reprise label mates in boycotting hotels and casinos that refused entry to black patrons and performers. He often spoke from the stage on desegregation and repeatedly played benefits on behalf of Dr. King and his movement. According to his son, Frank Sinatra, Jr., King sat weeping in the audience at a concert in 1963 as Sinatra sang Ol’ Man River, a song from the musical Show Boat that is sung by an African-American stevedore.

On September 11 and 12, 1961, Sinatra recorded his final songs for Capitol.

In 1962, he starred with Janet Leigh and Laurence Harvey in the political thriller, The Manchurian Candidate, playing Bennett Marco. That same year, Sinatra and Count Basie collaborated for the album Sinatra-Basie. This popular and successful release prompted them to rejoin two years later for the follow-up It Might as Well Be Swing, which was arranged by Quincy Jones. One of Sinatra’s more ambitious albums from the mid-1960s, The Concert Sinatra, was recorded with a 73-piece symphony orchestra on 35mm tape.

Sinatra’s first live album, Sinatra at the Sands, was recorded during January and February 1966 at the Sands Hotel and Casino in Las Vegas.

In June, 1965, Sinatra, Sammy Davis, Jr., and Dean Martin played live in Saint Louis to benefit Dismas House. The concert was broadcast live via satellite to numerous movie theaters across America. Released in August, 1965, was the Grammy Award–winning album of the year, September of My Years, with a career anthology, A Man and His Music, following in November, itself winning Album of the Year at the Grammys in 1966. The TV special, Frank Sinatra: A Man and His Music, garnered both an Emmy award and a Peabody Award.

In the spring, That’s Life appeared, with both the single and album becoming Top Ten hits in the US on Billboard’s pop charts. Strangers in the Night went on to top the Billboard and UK pop singles charts, winning the award for Record of the Year at the Grammys. The album of the same name also topped the Billboard chart and reached number 4 in the UK.

Sinatra started 1967 with a series of important recording sessions with Antônio Carlos Jobim. Later in the year, a duet with daughter Nancy, “Somethin’ Stupid“, topped the Billboard pop and UK singles charts. In December, Sinatra collaborated with Duke Ellington on the album Francis A. & Edward K..

During the late 1960s, press agent Lee Solters would invite columnists and their spouses into Sinatra’s dressing room just before he was about to go on stage. The New Yorker recounted that “the first columnist they tried this on was Larry Fields of the Philadelphia Daily News, whose wife fainted when Sinatra kissed her cheek. ‘Take care of it, Lee,’ Sinatra said, and he was off.” The professional relationship Sinatra shared with Solters focused on projects on the west coast while those focused on the east coast were handled by Solters’ partner, Sheldon Roskin of Solters/Roskin/Friedman, a well-known firm at the time.[44]

Back on the small-screen, Sinatra once again worked with Jobim and Ella Fitzgerald on the TV special, A Man and His Music + Ella + Jobim.

Watertown (1970) was one of Sinatra’s most acclaimed concept albums[45] but was all but ignored by the public. Selling a mere 30,000 copies and reaching a peak chart position of 101, its failure put an end to plans for a television special based on the album.

With Sinatra in mind, singer-songwriter Paul Anka wrote the song “My Way“, inspired from the French “Comme d’habitude” (“As Usual”), composed by Claude François and Jacques Revaux. (The song had been previously commissioned to David Bowie, whose lyrics did not please the involved agents.) “My Way” would, ironically, become more closely identified with him than any other song over his seven decades as a singer even though he reputedly did not care for it.

 1970–80: Retirement and comeback

On June 13, 1971 — at a concert in Hollywood to raise money for the Motion Picture and TV Relief Fund — at the age of 55, Sinatra announced that he was retiring, bringing to an end his 36-year career in show business.

In 1973, Sinatra came out of retirement with a television special and album, both entitled Ol’ Blue Eyes Is Back. The album, arranged by Gordon Jenkins and Don Costa, was a great success, reaching number 13 on Billboard and number 12 in the UK. The TV special was highlighted by a dramatic reading of “Send in the Clowns” and a song and dance sequence with former co-star Gene Kelly.

In January, 1974, Sinatra returned to Las Vegas, performing at Caesars Palace despite vowing in 1970 never to play there again after the manager of the resort, Sanford Waterman, pulled a gun on him during a heated argument.[46] With Waterman recently shot, the door was open for Sinatra to return.

In Australia, he caused an uproar by describing journalists there — who were aggressively pursuing his every move and pushing for a press conference — as “fags”, “pimps”, and “whores”. Australian unions representing transport workers, waiters, and journalists went on strike, demanding that Sinatra apologize for his remarks.[47] Sinatra instead insisted that the journalists apologize for “fifteen years of abuse I have taken from the world press”.[47] The future Prime Minister of Australia, Bob Hawke, then the Australian Council of Trade Unions (ACTU) leader, also insisted that Sinatra apologize, and a settlement was eventually reached to the apparent satisfaction of both parties,[47] Sinatra’s final show of his Australian tour was televised to the nation.

In October 1974, Sinatra appeared at New York City’s Madison Square Garden in a televised concert that was later released as an album under the title The Main Event – Live. Backing him was bandleader Woody Herman and the Young Thundering Herd, who accompanied Sinatra on a European tour later that month. The TV special garnered mostly positive reviews while the album — actually culled from various shows during his comeback tour — was only a moderate success, peaking at #37 on Billboard and #30 in the UK.

In August, 1975, Sinatra held several back-to-back concerts together with the newly-risen singer, John Denver. Soon they became friends with each other. John Denver later appeared as a guest in the Sinatra and friends TV Special, singing “September Song” together with Sinatra. Sinatra covered the John Denver hits “My Sweet Lady” and “Leaving on a Jet Plane“. And, according to Denver, his song “A Baby Just Like You” was written at Sinatra’s request.

In 1979, in front of the Egyptian pyramids, Sinatra performed for Anwar Sadat. Back in Las Vegas, while celebrating 40 years in show business and his 64th birthday, he was awarded the Grammy Trustees Award during a party at Caesars Palace.

1980–90: Trilogy, She Shot Me Down, L.A. Is My Lady

Sinatra sings with then First Lady Nancy Reagan at the White House.

In 1980, Sinatra’s first album in six years was released, Trilogy: Past Present Future, a highly ambitious triple album that found Sinatra recording songs from the past (pre-rock era) and present (rock era and contemporary) that he had overlooked during his career, while ‘The Future’ was a free-form suite of new songs linked à la musical theater by a theme, in this case, Sinatra pondering over the future. The album garnered six Grammy nominations — winning for best liner notes — and peaked at number 17 on Billboard’s album chart, while spawning yet another song that would become a signature tune, “Theme from New York, New York“, as well as Sinatra’s much lauded (second) recording of George Harrison‘s “Something” (the first was not officially released on an album until 1972’s Frank Sinatra’s Greatest Hits, Vol. 2).

The following year, Sinatra built on the success of Trilogy with She Shot Me Down, an album that revisited the dark tone of his Capitol years, and was praised by critics as a vintage late-period Sinatra. Sinatra would comment that it was “A complete saloon album… tear-jerkers and cry-in-your-beer kind of things”.[48]

Also in 1981, Sinatra was embroiled in controversy when he worked a ten-day engagement for $2 million in Sun City, South Africa, breaking a cultural boycott against apartheid-era South Africa. See Artists United Against Apartheid

He was selected as one of the five recipients of the 1983 Kennedy Center Honors, alongside Katharine Dunham, James Stewart, Elia Kazan, and Virgil Thomson. Quoting Henry James in honoring his old friend, President Ronald Reagan said that “art was the shadow of humanity” and that Sinatra had “spent his life casting a magnificent and powerful shadow”.[49]

In 1984, Sinatra worked with Quincy Jones for the first time in nearly two decades on the album, L.A. Is My Lady, which was well received critically. The album was a substitute for another Jones project, an album of duets with Lena Horne, which had to be abandoned. (Horne developed vocal problems and Sinatra, committed to other engagements, could not wait to record.)

1990s: Duets, final performances

In 1990, Sinatra celebrated his 75th birthday with a national tour,[50] and was awarded the second “Ella Award” by the Los Angeles–based Society of Singers. At the award ceremony, he performed for the final time with Ella Fitzgerald.[51]

In December, as part of Sinatra’s birthday celebrations, Patrick Pasculli, the Mayor of Hoboken, made a proclamation in his honor, declaring that “no other vocalist in history has sung, swung, crooned, and serenaded into the hearts of the young and old … as this consummate artist from Hoboken.”[52] The same month Sinatra gave the first show of his Diamond Jubilee Tour at the Brendan Byrne Arena in East Rutherford, New Jersey.

In 1993 Sinatra made a surprise return to Capitol and the recording studio for Duets, which was released in November.

The other artists who added their vocals to the album worked for free, and a follow-up album (Duets II) was released in 1994 that reached #9 on the Billboard charts.

Still touring despite various health problems, Sinatra remained a top concert attraction on a global scale during the first half of the 1990s. At times during concerts his memory failed him and a fall onstage in Richmond, Virginia, in March, 1994, signaled further problems.

Sinatra’s final public concerts were held in Japan’s Fukuoka Dome in December, 1994. The following year, on February 25, 1995, at a private party for 1200 select guests on the closing night of the Frank Sinatra Desert Classic golf tournament, Sinatra sang before a live audience for the very last time. Esquire reported of the show that Sinatra was “clear, tough, on the money” and “in absolute control”. His closing song was “The Best is Yet to Come“.

Sinatra was awarded the Legend Award at the 1994 Grammy Awards, where he was introduced by Bono, who said of him, “Frank’s the chairman of the bad attitude… Rock ‘n roll plays at being tough, but this guy is the boss—the chairman of boss… I’m not going to mess with him, are you?”[53] Sinatra called it “the best welcome…I ever had”.[54] But his acceptance speech ran too long and was abruptly cut off, leaving him looking confused and talking into a dead microphone.

In 1995, to mark Sinatra’s 80th birthday, the Empire State Building glowed blue. A star-studded birthday tribute, Sinatra: 80 Years My Way, was held at the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles. At the end of the program Sinatra graced the stage for the last time to sing the final notes of “New York, New York” with an ensemble. It was Sinatra’s last televised appearance.

In recognition of his many years of association with Las Vegas, Frank Sinatra was elected to the Gaming Hall of Fame in 1997.[55]

Personal life

See also: Relationships of Frank Sinatra

Sinatra had three children, Nancy, Frank Jr., and Tina, all with his first wife, Nancy Barbato (married 1939-1951). He was married three more times, to actresses Ava Gardner (1951–1957) and Mia Farrow (1966–1968) and finally to Barbara Marx (married 1976), to whom he was still married at his death.

Throughout his life, Sinatra had mood swings and bouts of depression. Solitude and unglamorous surroundings were to be avoided at all cost. He struggled with the conflicting need “to get away from it all, but not too far away.”[56] He acknowledged this, telling an interviewer in the 1950s: “Being an 18-karat manic depressive, and having lived a life of violent emotional contradictions, I have an over-acute capacity for sadness as well as elation.”[57] In her memoirs My Father’s Daughter, his daughter Tina wrote about the “eighteen-karat” remark: “As flippant as Dad could be about his mental state, I believe that a Zoloft a day might have kept his demons away. But that kind of medicine was decades off.”[58]


“Sinatra was… the first modern pop superstar… Following his idol Bing Crosby, who had pioneered the use of the microphone, Sinatra transformed popular singing by infusing lyrics with a personal, intimate point of view that conveyed a steady current of eroticism… Almost singlehandedly, he helped lead a revival of vocalized swing music that took American pop to a new level of musical sophistication… his 1950’s recordings… were instrumental in establishing a canon of American pop song literature.”

Sinatra began to show signs of senility in his last years and after a heart attack in February 1997, he made no further public appearances. After suffering a further heart attack,[59] he died at 10:50 pm on May 14, 1998 at the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, with his wife Barbara by his side.[59] He was 82 years old.[59] Sinatra’s final words, spoken as attempts were made to stabilize him, were “I’m losing”.[60] The official cause of death was listed as complications from senility, heart and kidney disease, and bladder cancer.[61] His death was confirmed by the Sinatra family on their website with a statement accompanied by a recording of the singer’s version of “Softly As I Leave You”. The next night the lights on the Las Vegas Strip were dimmed for 10 minutes in his honor. President Bill Clinton, as an amateur saxophonist and musician, led the world’s tributes to Sinatra, saying that after meeting and getting to know the singer as President, he had “come to appreciate on a personal level what millions of people had appreciated from afar”.[62] Elton John stated that Sinatra, “was simply the best – no one else even comes close”.[62] In a concert live in Ephesus, John tells the audience of an experience which he explains as “one of the most special moments for me as a songwriter”, when he went to the Royal Albert Hall in London and seeing Frank Sinatra who sang John’s 1976 hit, “Sorry Seems To Be the Hardest Word”.

On May 20, 1998 at the Roman Catholic Church of the Good Shepherd (Beverly Hills) in Beverly Hills, Sinatra’s funeral was held, with 400[63] mourners in attendance and hundreds of fans outside.[63] Gregory Peck,[63] Tony Bennett,[63] and Frank, Jr., addressed the mourners, among whom were Jill St. John, Tom Selleck,[63] Joey Bishop, Faye Dunaway,[63] Tony Curtis,[63] Liza Minnelli,[63] Kirk Douglas,[63] Robert Wagner,[63] Bob Dylan, Don Rickles,[63] Nancy Reagan,[63] Angie Dickinson, Sophia Loren,[63] Bob Newhart,[63] Mia Farrow,[63] and Jack Nicholson.[60][63] A private ceremony was held later that day at St. Theresa’s Catholic Church in Palm Springs. Sinatra was buried following the ceremony next to his parents in section B-8 of Desert Memorial Park in Cathedral City, a quiet cemetery on Ramon Road where Cathedral City meets Rancho Mirage and near his compound, located on Rancho Mirage’s tree-lined Frank Sinatra Drive.[60] His close friends, Jilly Rizzo and Jimmy Van Heusen, are buried nearby in the same cemetery.

The words “The Best Is Yet to Come” are imprinted on Sinatra’s grave marker.[64]


Awards and recognitions

Sinatra’s music star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

Sidewalk star in front of Sinatra’s birthplace.


The U.S. Postal Service issued a 42-cent postage stamp in honor of Sinatra on May 13, 2008.[65] The design of the stamp was unveiled Wednesday, December 12, 2007 — on the anniversary of what would have been his 92nd birthday — in Beverly Hills, California, with Sinatra family members on hand.[66] The design shows a 1950s-vintage image of Sinatra, wearing a hat. The design also includes his signature, with his last name alone.[66] The Hoboken Post Office was renamed in his honor in 2002.[66] The Frank Sinatra School of the Arts in Astoria, Queens and the Frank Sinatra Park in Hoboken were named in his honor.

The U.S. Congress passed a resolution on May 20, 2008 designating May 13 as Frank Sinatra Day to honor his contribution to American culture. The resolution was introduced by Representative Mary Bono Mack.[67]

To commemorate the anniversary of Sinatra’s death, Patsy’s Restaurant in New York City, which Sinatra frequented, exhibited in May 2009 fifteen previously unseen photographs of Sinatra taken by Bobby Bank.[68] The photos are of his recording “Everybody Ought to Be in Love” at a nearby recording studio.[68]

Stephen Holden wrote for the 1983 Rolling Stone Record Guide:

Frank Sinatra’s voice is pop music history. […] Like Presley and Dylan — the only other white male American singers since 1940 whose popularity, influence, and mythic force have been comparable — Sinatra will last indefinitely. He virtually invented modern pop song phrasing.

Wynn Resorts dedicated a signature restaurant to Sinatra inside Encore Las Vegas on December 22, 2008.[69] Memorabilia in the restaurant includes his Oscar for “From Here to Eternity“, his Emmy for “Frank Sinatra: A Man and His Music“, his Grammy for “Strangers in the Night“, photographs and a gold album he received for “Classic Sinatra”.

There is a residence hall at Montclair State University named for him in recognition of his status as an iconic New Jersey native.[70]

The Frank Sinatra International Student Center at Israel’s Hebrew University, Mt. Scopus campus, was dedicated in 1978 in recognition of Sinatra’s charitable and advocacy activities on behalf of the State of Israel.

 Film portrayals

  • In 1992, CBS aired a TV mini-series about the entertainer’s life called Sinatra, directed by James Steven Sadwith and starred Philip Casnoff as Sinatra. Opening with his childhood in Hoboken, New Jersey, the film follows Sinatra’s rise to the top in the 1940s, through the dark days of the early 1950s and his triumphant re-emergence in the mid-1950s, to his status as pop culture icon in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. In between, the film hits all of the main events, including his three marriages, his connections with the Mafia and his notorious friendship with the Rat Pack. Tina Sinatra was executive producer. Casnoff received a Golden Globe nomination for his performance.

In 2003, Sinatra was portrayed by James Russo in “Stealing Sinatra”, which revolved around the kidnapping of Frank Sinatra Jr. in 1963

Also in 2003, he was portrayed by Dennis Hopper in “The Night we Called it a Day”, based upon events that occurred during a tour of Australia where Frank had called a member of the news media a “two-bit hooker” and all the unions in the country came crashing down on him.

  • Brett Ratner is currently developing a film adaptation of George Jacobs’ memoir Mr. S: My Life With Frank Sinatra.[71] Jacobs, who was Sinatra’s valet, will be portrayed by Chris Tucker.[72]

Alleged organized crime links

Main article: Alleged organized crime links

Sinatra garnered considerable attention due to his alleged personal and professional links with organized crime,[73] including figures such as Carlo Gambino,[74] Sam Giancana,[74] Lucky Luciano,[74] and Joseph Fischetti.[74] The Federal Bureau of Investigation kept records amounting to 2,403 pages on Sinatra. With his alleged Mafia ties, his ardent New Deal politics and his friendship with John F. Kennedy, he was a natural target for J. Edgar Hoover‘s FBI.[75] The FBI kept Sinatra under surveillance for almost five decades beginning in the 1940s. The documents include accounts of Sinatra as the target of death threats and extortion schemes. They also portray rampant paranoia and strange obsessions at the FBI and reveal nearly every celebrated Sinatra foible and peccadillo.[76]

For a year Hoover investigated Sinatra’s alleged Communist affiliations, but found no evidence. The files include his rendezvous with prostitutes, and his extramarital affair with Ava Gardner, which preceded their marriage. Celebrities mentioned in the files are Dean Martin, Marilyn Monroe, Peter Lawford, and Giancana’s girlfriend, singer Phyllis McGuire.

The FBI’s secret dossier on Sinatra was released in 1998 in response to Freedom of Information Act requests.

The released FBI files reveal some tantalizing insights into Sinatra’s lifetime consistency in pursuing and embracing seemingly conflicting affiliations. But Sinatra’s alliances had a practical aspect. They were adaptive mechanisms for behavior motivated by self-interest and inner anxieties. In September of 1950 Sinatra felt particularly vulnerable. He was in a panic over his moribund career and haunted by the continual speculations and innuendos in circulation regarding his draft status in World War II. Sinatra “was scared, his career had sprung a leak.” In a letter dated September 17, 1950 to Clyde Tolson, Sinatra offered to be of service to the FBI as an informer. An excerpted passage from a memo in FBI files states that Sinatra “… feels he can be of help as a result of going anywhere the Bureau desires and contacting any people from whom he might be able to obtain information. Sinatra feels as a result of his publicity he can operate without suspicion…he is willing to go the whole way.” The FBI declined his assistance. [77]

Political views

Sinatra held differing political views throughout his life.

Sinatra’s parents had immigrated to the United States in 1895 and 1897 respectively. His mother, Dolly Sinatra (1896–1977), was a Democratic Party ward boss.[78]

Sinatra, pictured here with Eleanor Roosevelt in 1960, was an ardent supporter of the Democratic Party until 1970.

Sinatra remained a supporter of the Democratic Party until the early 1970s when he switched his allegiance to the Republican Party.

Political activities 1944-1968

In 1944, after sending a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Sinatra was invited to meet Roosevelt at the White House, where he agreed to become part of the Democratic party’s voter registration drives.[79]

He donated $5,000 to the Democrats for the 1944 presidential election and by the end of the campaign was appearing at two or three political events every day.[80]

After World War II, Sinatra’s politics grew steadily more left wing,[81] and he became more publicly associated with the Popular Front. He started reading liberal literature and supported many organizations that were later identified as front organizations of the Communist Party by the House Un-American Activities Committee in the 1950s, though Sinatra was never brought before the committee.

Sinatra spoke at a number of New Jersey high schools in 1945, where students had gone on strike in opposition to racial integration. Later that year Sinatra would appear in The House I Live In, a short film that stood against racism. The film was scripted by Albert Maltz, with the title song written by Earl Robinson and Abel Meeropol (under the pseudonym of Lewis Allen).

In 1948, Sinatra actively campaigned for President Harry S. Truman.[82] In 1952 and 1956, he also campaigned for Adlai Stevenson.[82] In 1956 and 1960, Sinatra sang the National Anthem at the Democratic National Convention[82]

However, Sinatra’s closest friendship with a president came with John F Kennedy.[82] In 1960, Sinatra and his friends Peter Lawford, Dean Martin, and Sammy Davis Jr. actively campaigned for Kennedy throughout the United States;[82] On the campaign trail, Sinatra’s voice was heard even if he wasn’t physically present.[82] the campaign’s theme song, played before every appearance, was a newly recorded version of “High Hopes,” specially recorded by Sinatra with new lyrics saluting JFK.[82]

In January 1961, Sinatra and Peter Lawford organized the Inaugural Gala in Washington, D.C., held on the evening before new President John F. Kennedy was sworn into office.[82] The event, featuring many big show business stars, was an enormous success, raising a large amount of money for the Democratic Party. Sinatra also organized an Inaugural Gala in California in 1962 to welcome second term Democratic Governor Pat Brown.[11]

Sinatra’s move toward the Republicans seems to have begun when he was snubbed by President Kennedy in favor of Bing Crosby,[83] a rival singer and a Republican, for Kennedy’s visit to Palm Springs, in 1962. Kennedy had planned to stay at Sinatra’s home over the Easter holiday weekend, but decided against doing so because of Sinatra’s alleged connections to organized crime,[83]. Kennedy stayed at Bing Crosby’s house instead.[83] Sinatra had invested a lot of his own money in upgrading the facilities at his home in anticipation of the President’s visit.[84] At the time, President Kennedy’s brother, Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, was intensifying his own investigations into organized crime figures such as Chicago mob boss Sam Giancana, who had earlier stayed at Sinatra’s home.

Despite his break with Kennedy, however, he still mourned over Kennedy after he learned he was assassinated.[82] According to his daughter Nancy, he learned of Kennedy’s assassination while filming a scene of Robin and the Seven Hoods in Burbank.[82] After he learned of the assassination, Sinatra quickly finished filming the scene, returned to his Palm Springs home, and sobbed in his bedroom for three days.[82]

The 1968 election illustrated changes in the once solidly pro-JFK Rat Pack: Peter Lawford, Sammy Davis, Jr., and Shirley MacLaine all endorsed Robert Kennedy in the spring primaries; Sinatra, Dean Martin, and Joey Bishop backed Vice-President Hubert Humphrey. In the fall election, Sinatra appeared for Humphrey in Texas at the Houston Astrodome with President Lyndon Johnson and in a television commercial soliciting campaign contributions.[85] He also re-stated his support for Humphrey on a live election-eve national telethon.

 Political activities 1970-1984

In 1970, the first sign of Sinatra’s break from the Democratic Party came when he endorsed Ronald Reagan for a second term as Governor of California;[51][82] Sinatra, however, remained a registered Democrat and encouraged Reagan to become more moderate.[82] In July 1972, after a lifetime of supporting Democratic presidential candidates, Sinatra announced he would support Republican U.S. President Richard Nixon for re-election in the 1972 presidential election. His switch to the Republican Party was now official;[82] he even told his daughter Tina, who had actively campaigned for Nixon’s Democrat opponent George McGovern,[82] “the more older you get, the more conservative you get.”[82] Sinatra said he agreed with the Republican Party on most positions, except that of abortion.[79]

During Nixon’s Presidency, Sinatra visited the White House on several occasions.[82] Sinatra also became good friends with Vice President Spiro Agnew. In 1973, Agnew was charged with corruption and resigned as Vice President; Sinatra helped Agnew pay some of his legal bills.[86]

Sinatra is awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Ronald Reagan.

In the 1980 presidential election, Sinatra supported Ronald Reagan, and donated $4 million to Reagan’s campaign. Sinatra said he supported Reagan as he was “the proper man to be the President of the United States… it’s so screwed up now, we need someone to straighten it out.”[87] Reagan’s victory gave Sinatra his closest relationship with the White House since the early 1960s.[82] Sinatra arranged Reagan’s Presidential gala,[52] as he had done for Kennedy 20 years previously.

In 1984 Sinatra returned to his birthplace in Hoboken, bringing with him President Reagan, who was in the midst of campaigning for the 1984 presidential election. Reagan had made Sinatra a fund-raising ambassador as part of the Republicans’ ‘Victory 84 get-the-vote-out-drive.[88]

President Clinton never met Sinatra before taking office. They had dinner after Clinton’s inauguration. Clinton later said that he was glad “to appreciate on a personal level what hundreds of millions of people around the world, including me, appreciated from afar.”[89]

2.Nancy Sinatra

Nancy Sinatra

Nancy Sinatra
Birth name Nancy Sandra Sinatra
Born June 8, 1940 (1940-06-08) (age 70)
Origin Jersey City, New Jersey, United States
Genres Rock
Occupations Singer
Instruments Vocals
Years active 1961–present
Labels Boots Enterprises, Inc.
Reprise Records
RCA Records
Private Stock
Elektra Records
Cougar Records
Buena Vista Records
Attack Records
Associated acts Frank Sinatra
Lee Hazlewood
Frank Sinatra, Jr.
Mel Tillis

Nancy Sandra Sinatra (born June 8, 1940) is an American singer and actress. She is the daughter of singer/actor Frank Sinatra, and remains best known for her 1966 signature hitThese Boots Are Made for Walkin’“.

Other defining recordings include “Sugar Town“, the 1967 number one “Somethin’ Stupid” (a duet with her father), the title song from the James Bond film You Only Live Twice, several collaborations with Lee Hazlewood, and her cover of Cher‘s “Bang Bang (My Baby Shot Me Down)” (lyrics and music by Sonny Bono), which features during the opening sequence of Quentin Tarantino‘s Kill Bill.

Sinatra began her career as a singer and actress in the early 1960s, but initially achieved success only in Europe and Japan. In early 1966 she had a transatlantic number-one hit with “These Boots Are Made for Walkin'”, which showed her provocative but good-natured style, and which popularized and made her synonymous with go-go boots. The promo clip featured a big-haired Sinatra and six young women in tight tops, go-go boots and mini-skirts. The song was written by Lee Hazlewood, who wrote and produced most of her hits and sang with her on several duets, including the critical and cult favorite “Some Velvet Morning“. In 1966 and 1967, Sinatra charted with 13 titles, all of which featured Billy Strange as arranger and conductor.

Sinatra also had a brief acting career in the mid-60s including a co-starring role with Elvis Presley in the movie Speedway, and with Peter Fonda in The Wild Angels.



 Early life

Sinatra was born in Jersey City, New Jersey, the daughter of singer/actor Frank Sinatra from his first wife, Nancy Barbato. For her fourth birthday, Phil Silvers and Jimmy Van Heusen wrote the song “Nancy (With the Laughing Face)“, which her father recorded.

Recording career


In the late 1950s, Sinatra beḋgan to study music, dancing, and voice at the University of California in Los Angeles. She dropped out after a year, and made her professional debut in 1960 on her father’s television special with Elvis Presley, home from the army. Nancy was sent to the airport on behalf of her father to welcome Elvis when his plane landed. On the special, Nancy and her father danced and sang a duet, “You Make Me Feel So Young/Old”. That same year she began a five-year marriage to Tommy Sands.

Sinatra was signed to her father’s label, Reprise Records, in 1961. Her first single, “Cuff Links and a Tie Clip”, went unnoticed. However, subsequent singles charted in Europe and Japan. Without a hit in the U.S. by 1965, she was on the verge of being dropped. Her singing career received a boost with the help of songwriter/producer/arranger Lee Hazlewood, who had been making records for ten years, notably with Duane Eddy. Hazlewood became Sinatra’s inspiration. He had her sing in a lower key and crafted pop songs for her. Bolstered by an image overhaul — including bleached-blonde hair, frosted lips, heavy eye make-up and Carnaby Street fashions — Sinatra made her mark on the American (and British) music scene in early 1966 with “These Boots Are Made for Walkin'”, its title inspired by a line in Robert Aldrich‘s 1963 western comedy 4 for Texas starring her father and Dean Martin. One of her many hits written by Hazlewood, it received three Grammy Award nominations, including two for Sinatra and one for arranger Billy Strange. It sold over one million copies, and was awarded a gold disc.[1] The camp promo clip featured a big-haired Sinatra and six young women in loose sweaters, go-go boots and hot pants. The song has been covered by artists such as Geri Halliwell, Megadeth, Jessica Simpson, Lil’ Kim, Little Birdy, Billy Ray Cyrus, Faster Pussycat, KMFDM, Symarip (band), Operation Ivy and the Del Rubio Triplets and The Supremes.

A run of chart singles followed, including the two 1966 Top 10 hits “How Does That Grab You, Darlin’?” (#7) and “Sugar Town” (#5). “Sugar Town” became her second million seller.[1] The ballad “Somethin’ Stupid” — a duet with her father — hit #1 in the U.S. and the UK in April 1967 and spent nine weeks at the top of Billboard‘s easy listening chart. It earned a Grammy Award nomination for Record of the Year and remains the only father-daughter duet to hit No.1 in the U.S. It became Sinatra’s third million-selling disc.[1] Other 45s showing her forthright delivery include “Friday’s Child” (#36, 1966), and the 1967 hits “Love Eyes” (#15) and “Lightning’s Girl” (#24). She rounded out 1967 with the raunchy but low-charting “Tony Rome” (#83) — the title track from the detective film Tony Rome starring her father — while her first solo single in 1968 was the more wistful “100 Years” (#69).

Sinatra enjoyed a parallel recording career cutting duets with the husky-voiced, country-and-western-inspired Hazlewood, starting with “Summer Wine” (originally the B-side of “Sugar Town”). Their biggest hit was a cover of the country song, “Jackson“. The single peaked at #14 on the Billboard Hot 100 in the summer of 1967, when Johnny Cash and June Carter Cash also made the song their own. In December they released the “MOR“-psychedelic single “Some Velvet Morning“, regarded as one of the more unusual singles in pop, and the peak of Sinatra and Hazlewood’s vocal collaborations. It reached #26 in the USA. The promo clip is, like the song, sui generis. The British broadsheet The Daily Telegraph placed “Some Velvet Morning” in pole position in its 2003 list of the Top 50 Best Duets Ever. (“Somethin’ Stupid” ranked number 27) [1].

In 1967 she recorded the theme song for the James Bond film You Only Live Twice. In the liner notes of the CD reissue of her 1966 album, Nancy In London, Sinatra states that she was “scared to death” of recording the song, and asked the songwriters: “Are you sure you don’t want Shirley Bassey?” There are two versions of the Bond theme. The first is the lushly orchestrated track featured during the opening and closing credits of the film. The second – and more guitar-heavy — version appeared on the double A-sided single with “Jackson”, though the Bond theme stalled at #44 on the Billboard Hot 100.

In 1966 and 1967 Sinatra traveled to Vietnam to perform for the troops. Many U.S. soldiers adopted her song “These Boots Are Made for Walkin’” as their anthem, as shown in Pierre Schoendoerffer‘s academy award winning documentary The Anderson Platoon (1967) and reprised in a scene in Stanley Kubrick‘s Full Metal Jacket (1987). Sinatra recorded several anti-war songs, including “My Buddy“, featured on her album Sugar, “Home“, co-written by Mac Davis, and “It’s Such A Lonely Time of Year“, which appeared on the 1968 LP The Sinatra Family Wish You a Merry Christmas. In 1988 Sinatra recreated her Vietnam concert appearances on an episode of the television show China Beach. Today, Sinatra still performs for charitable causes supporting U.S. veterans who served in Vietnam, including Rolling Thunder Inc..

 Films and television

Sinatra starred in three teen musicals (otherwise known as ‘beach party‘ films) — For Those Who Think Young (1964), Get Yourself a College Girl (1964) and The Ghost in the Invisible Bikini (1966) — the latter of which featured her in a singing role. She was also scheduled to appear in the role that went to Linda Evans in Beach Blanket Bingo, but was unable. In 1966 she also starred in Roger Corman‘s The Wild Angels with Peter Fonda and Bruce Dern, and in 1968 she shared the screen with Elvis Presley in Speedway — her final film. She was the only singer to have a solo song on an Elvis album or soundtrack while he was still alive. Since his death, several previously unreleased Ann-Margret solo recordings have appeared on Elvis albums, but Sinatra’s was the first.

She also made appearances on The Ed Sullivan Show, The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour, The Man from U.N.C.L.E., and Rowan & Martin’s Laugh-In, The Virginian and starred in television specials. These include the Emmy-nominated 1966 Frank Sinatra special A Man and His Music – Part II, and the 1967 Emmy-winning special Movin’ With Nancy, in which she appeared with Lee Hazlewood, her father and his Rat Pack pals Dean Martin and Sammy Davis, Jr., with a cameo appearance by her brother Frank Sinatra, Jr..

 1970s and 1980s

Sinatra remained with Reprise until 1970. In 1971, she signed with RCA, resulting in three albums: Nancy & Lee – Again (1971), Woman (1972), and a compilation of some of her Reprise recordings under the title This Is Nancy Sinatra (1973). That year she released a non-LP single, “Sugar Me” b/w “Ain’t No Sunshine”. The former was written by Lynsey De Paul/Barry Blue and, with other covers of works by early-70s popular songwriters, resurfaced on the 1998 album How Does It Feel.

In the autumn of 1971 Sinatra and Hazlewood’s duet “Did You Ever?” reached number two in the UK singles chart. In 1972 they performed for a Swedish documentary, Nancy & Lee In Las Vegas, which chronicled their Vegas concerts at the Riviera Hotel and featured solo numbers and duets from concerts, behind-the-scenes footage, and scenes of Sinatra’s late husband, Hugh Lambert, and her mother.[2]. The film did not appear until 1975.

By 1975 she was releasing singles on Private Stock, which are the most sought-after by collectors. Among those released were “Kinky Love”, “Annabell of Mobile”, “It’s for My Dad,” and “Indian Summer” (with Hazlewood). “Kinky Love” was banned by some radio stations in the 1970s for “suggestive” lyrics. It saw the light of day on CD in 1998 on Sheet Music: A Collection of Her Favorite Love Songs. Pale Saints covered the song in 1991.

By the mid-1970s, she slowed her musical activity and ceased acting to concentrate on being a wife and mother. She returned to the studio in 1981 to record a country album with Mel Tillis called Mel & Nancy. Two of their songs made the Billboard Country Singles Chart: “Texas Cowboy Night” (#23) and “Play Me or Trade Me” (#43).

In 1985, she wrote the book Frank Sinatra, My Father.

Later Years: 1990s–present

At 54 she posed for Playboy in the May 1995 issue and made appearances on TV shows to promote her album One More Time. The magazine appearance caused some controversy. On the talk show circuit, she said her father was proud of the photos, but not everyone was convinced. Those close to the Sinatras claimed that family members were upset with the nude photo spread. Nancy told Jay Leno on a 1995 Tonight Show that her daughters gave their approval, but her mother said she should ask her father before committing to the project. Nancy claims that when she told her father what Playboy would be paying her, he said, “Double it.”

She and Lee Hazlewood embarked on a U.S. tour playing the House of Blues, the Viper Room, the Whiskey-a-Go-Go, the now-defunct Mama Kin in Boston, the Trocadero in Philadelphia, and The Fillmore.

That year, Sundazed Records began reissuing Sinatra’s Reprise albums with remastered sound, new liner notes and photos, and bonus tracks. She also updated her biography on her dad and published Frank Sinatra: An American Legend.

In 2003 she reunited with Hazlewood once more for the album Nancy & Lee 3. It was released only in Australia.

One of her recordings — a cover of CherBang Bang (My Baby Shot Me Down)” — was used to open the 2003 Quentin Tarantino film Kill Bill: Vol. One. In 2005, Sinatra’s recording was sampled separately by the Audio Bullys and Radio Slave into dance tracks (renamed into “Shot You Down” and “Bang Bang” respectively), and by hip-hop artist Young Buck in a song titled “Bang Bang”, as well as covered for a single and music video by R&B artist Melanie Durrant. Sinatra recorded the song for her second Reprise album, How Does That Grab You? in 1966. She and Billy Strange worked on the arrangement, and it was Sinatra’s idea to change from a mid-tempo romp (as sung in Cher‘s hit single) to a ballad. Sinatra’s father asked her to sing it on his 1966 TV special A Man and His Music – Part II. The footage of Sinatra’s performance on that special was used in the Audio Bullys’ music video of “Shot You Down.”

Taking her father’s advice from when she began her recording career (“Own your own masters”), she owns or holds an interest in most of her material, including videos.

In 2004 she collaborated with former Los Angeles neighbour Morrissey to record a version of his song “Let Me Kiss You“, which was featured on her autumn release Nancy Sinatra. The single — released the same day as Morrissey’s version — charted at #46 in the UK, providing Sinatra with her first hit for over 30 years. The follow-up single, “Burnin’ Down the Spark”, failed to chart. The album, originally titled To Nancy, with Love, featured rock performers such as Calexico, Sonic Youth, U2, Pulp‘s Jarvis Cocker, Steven Van Zandt, Jon Spencer, and Pete Yorn, who all cited Sinatra as an influence. Each artist crafted a song for Sinatra to sing on the album.

Two years later EMI released The Essential Nancy Sinatra – a UK-only greatest-hits compilation featuring the previously unreleased track, “Machine Gun Kelly“. The collection was picked by Sinatra and spans her 40-year career. The record was Sinatra’s first to make the UK album charts (#73) in 30 years.

Sinatra, also recorded “Another Gay Sunshine Day” for Another Gay Movie in 2006.

Nancy received her own star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame on May 11, 2006, which was also declared “Nancy Sinatra Day” by Hollywood’s mayor, Johnny Grant.

Sinatra appeared, as herself, on one of the final episodes (Chasing It) of the HBO mob drama The Sopranos. Her brother, Frank Jr., had previously appeared in the 2000 episode The Happy Wanderer.

Nancy Sinatra recorded a public service announcement for Deejay Ra’s ‘Hip-Hop Literacy’ campaign, encouraging reading of Tarantino screenplays and related books.

September 2009 saw the release of Nancy’s digital-only album Cherry Smiles: The Rare Singles, featuring previously unreleased tracks and songs only available on 45.

Nancy now hosts a weekly show on Sirius Satellite Radio – Siriusly Sinatra – most interesting for her personal insights about her father.



  • Tommy Sands, 1960–1965 (divorced)
  • Hugh Lambert, 1970–1985 (deceased)

Children (by her second husband):

  • Angela Jennifer Lambert (whose godparents are James Darren and his second wife)
  • Amanda Lambert.


the end @copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

The Vietnam Record History(sejarah rekaman Musik Vietnam)




                                                AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                          DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.




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                                THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM



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                                            Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA




                         WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               


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The Vietnam Music record History(Sejarah rekaman Musik Vietnam  ),

Frame One :

The Vietnam Music Record Found In Indonesia

1.  Before WWII

2.After WW II

1) Dr iwan Collections

Dihavian 45 record,distribution by Xunhasaba, Hanoi Vietnam

Plate Mono One :

Singer : Thuong Huyen Piano : Hoan Manh

side 1.Lulbaby

side 2: U cay Dau, and because the wind take it off

Plate Two :

composer  Nguyen Nhung,sing by Girl’s  Vocal group of Vietnamese People ‘s Army assamble

side one the folk song The Nice bamboo Leave

 soloist sopran Khan Van

side two: the iron Buffalo(Tran Chuong) and   (Van KY) the song of hope

2) from google exploration

(1)Music Review – Music Anthology: Next Stop Is Vietnam: The War On Record


The Gold-Plated Soundtrack of a War and an Era…

…Next Stop Is Vietnam: The War on Record, 1961-2008, 14 CD anthology
and 304-page companion book, by Hugo Keesing, with forward by Country Joe
McDonald, Bear Family Records, 2010.

THE LONGEST AMERICAN war of the 20th century inflamed the most divisive period in the nation’s entire history outside the Civil War. It is sometimes hard to recall the true depths of the chasm caused by the Vietnam War and how the nation was transformed under its influence. However, a new and unparalleled collection of the music of that era will clear out the cobwebs of those who lived through it, and for those who didn’t it will be a real eye opener. The epic anthology, …Next Stop Is Vietnam, through its 300-plus tracks of some of the most popular and most obscure music directly related to Vietnam, along with key news reports and speeches, takes listeners on the long journey of the war, from its flag-waving beginnings through its flag-burning opposition and on to its harsh aftermath and into sober reflections, regrets and healing.

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The heavily illustrated accompanying book—sort of liner notes on steroids—adds context and depth to the individual tracks, artists and to the era itself. In his forward, Country Joe McDonald concludes: “You will laugh. You will cry. But you will never quite be the same after you experience this box set of collective work.” That is true.

Hugo Keesing’s love for collecting music began long before he spent some time teaching GIs in Vietnam and writing his doctoral dissertation on the impact of rock ‘n’ roll on youth and then teaching a course called Popular Music in American Society at the University of Maryland. Years in the making, Next Stop Is Vietnam is no simple compilation of Keesing’s favorites from the era, but rather a careful distillation of a refined “Vietnam Discography” of some 4,000 Vietnam War–related songs.

“The challenge,” Keesing writes, “was to decide what to include and what would have to be left out,” all the while keeping a balance of pro-war, antiwar and neutral songs. The CDs are organized both chronologically and thematically, starting with “Mister, Where Is Vietnam?” (Disc 1), to “Hell No, We Won’t Go” and “Love It or Leave It” (Discs 4 and 5).

Music by artists who composed and performed their songs while serving in-country, and post-war veteran and commercial music, is also included. Discs 12 and 13 are veteran-only, offering perspectives on the war and its aftereffects, including PTSD and Agent Orange, culled from the collection of Country Joe McDonald (yes, he of the “I Feel Like I’m Fixin’-to-Die Rag” and “gimme an F” fame), who has long been a strong supporter of veterans. A 14th disc is a nifty compilation of the lyrics of each track in the anthology.

Among the best-known recording artists on the anthology: Hoyt Axton, Joan Baez, Pat Boone, Ernest Tubb, John Lennon, Glen Campbell, Johnny Cash, Jimmy Cliff,  Connie Francis, Merle Haggard, John Lee Hooker, Chris Noel, Phil Ochs, Tom Paxton, Peter Paul and Mary, John Prine, Steppenwolf, Paul Revere & The Raiders, Barry Sadler, Buffy Sainte-Marie, Pete Seeger, Hank Snow, Hank Williams Jr., Melanie, Dylan, Donovan, Springsteen, Simon & Garfunkel, and The Animals, Doors, Kingston Trio and Statler Brothers.

While the anthology includes most of what would be expected in the popular music vein, licensing or other issues have left some obvious gaps. For example, an extended section of the protest disc revolves around the Kent State shootings with three tunes directly related to the event. Neil Young’s “Ohio,” however, an iconic anti-war anthem, was not among them.

 Book Subject Locator

One Response to “Music Review – Music Anthology: Next Stop Is Vietnam: The War On Record”

I read review in my issue of VN. I’m pleased the review was positive. It is a great box set on a differcult subject. That said, we did have a war that many in our country gave it all for. It is only right that music was a part of that war. It gave many a piece of home when there. Those growing up in 50’s and 60’s loved their music. The set was produced tastefully and gave the veterans of that war something to be proud of–to be recognized. Something that wasn’t done for many when returning from a differcult part of their lives. Some lives that where ultered for ever. God Bless the veterans and those today who endure the battle–for us to be free

 (2)Vietnamese Music and LP



 to look the story in the black box,please use ctlr c and you will seen the word.

Vietnamese music is one of the most interesting and varied of the Southeast Asian (Indochinese) region. There are examples of remarkable percussion and odd timings, eerie ritual chants like throat-singing, and stringed instruments resembling the samisen or koto.LPs of Vietnamese music are extremely scarce, at least in the U.S., no doubt because of war throughout the period in which more recordings would have been made. France may be the best Vietnamese music is one of the most interesting and varied of the Southeast Asian (Indochinese) region. There are examples of remarkable percussion and odd timings, eerie ritual chants like throat-singing, and stringed instruments resembling the samisen or koto.LPs of Vietnamese music are extremely scarce, at least in the U.S., no doubt because of war throughout the period in which more recordings would have been made. France may be the best source.


6 [rec. Stephen Addiss:] Music from North & South Vietnam–Sung Poetry of the North, Theatre Music of the South; Folkways FE-4219; 1971
9 Tran Quang Hai & Hoang Mong Thuy: Music of Vietnam; ALBATROS–Italy (Lyrichord LLST-7337; great mouth harp & spoons)
7 Tran Quang Hai & Bach Yen: Vietnamese Dan Tranh Music; Lyrichord LLST-7375
7 [Frank Klos, editor] Vietnam: Dilemma for Christians; Impact CSM-640 (spoken w/music; Lutheran Church Press LCA School of Religion Series; excerpts Folkways FE-4352)
8 The Vietnamese National Song & Dance Ensemble: Songs & Dances of Vietnam; Monitor MFS-731
8 Unesco Collection Musical Sources: South Vietnam Entertainment Music; Philips 6586-028; 1975 (Art Music of the Far East, vol. VIII-2)
8 Unesco Collection–A Musical Anthology of the Orient: Viet-Nam 1; UNESCO Collection Musical Sources; Baren Reiter BM-30-L-2022
8 Various: Musiques du Viet-Nam; Disques BAM LD-434 (France)
8 Various: Music of Vietnam; Folk 

6 [rec. Stephen Addiss:] Music from North & South Vietnam–Sung Poetry of the North, Theatre Music of the South; Folkways FE-4219; 1971
9 Tran Quang Hai & Hoang Mong Thuy: Music of Vietnam; ALBATROS–Italy (Lyrichord LLST-7337; great mouth harp & spoons)
7 Tran Quang Hai & Bach Yen: Vietnamese Dan Tranh Music; Lyrichord LLST-7375
7 [Frank Klos, editor] Vietnam: Dilemma for Christians; Impact CSM-640 (spoken w/music; Lutheran Church Press LCA School of Religion Series; excerpts Folkways FE-4352)
8 The Vietnamese National Song & Dance Ensemble: Songs & Dances of Vietnam; Monitor MFS-731
8 Unesco Collection Musical Sources: South Vietnam Entertainment Music; Philips 6586-028; 1975 (Art Music of the Far East, vol. VIII-2)
8 Unesco Collection–A Musical Anthology of the Orient: Viet-Nam 1; UNESCO Collection Musical Sources; Baren Reiter BM-30-L-2022
8 Various: Musiques du Viet-Nam; Disques BAM LD-434 (France)
8 Various: Music of Vietnam; Folkways FE-4352; 1965
  Various: Songs

ways FE-4352; 1965

  Various: Songs





Frame Two :

The Recent record(google Expl.)

Vietnam -the anthem ,Ora CD record



in 2006, french-vietnamese dj-producer onra returned to the homeland of his grandparents in saigon, and returned not only with a bit of heritage, but also a crateful of old chinese and vietnamese vinyl records. the cuts from these findings formed the album he called chinoiseries, a delightful deconstruction of the oriental sounds from the perspective of a dj formerly disconnected from his past, but now piecing it together through his own hybridized worldview. the album was released at the start of the year, but i’d only stumbled upon it last week; since then, though, it’s been gaining much airtime on my stereo, especially one of the early standouts, “the anthem”. armed with a chinese big-band sound, the rousing violins (how often can they be described thus?) match perfectly the repeated Chinese lyrical couplet (i can’t quite make out the first half, but the second refers to the fantastical mentality of pearls!). such a gem, this one.

mp3: onra – the anthem

Music Frome Vietnam

Music from Vietnam Vol.1-5 – Caprice Records

Vol.1 – CAP 21406, recorded and released 1991
Vol.2 – The City of Hue – CAP 21463, recorded 1994, CD released 1995
Vol.3 – Ethnic Minorities – CAP 21479, recorded 1994, CD released 1995
Vol.4 – The Artistry of Kim Sinh, guitar – CAP 21673, recorded 2001, CD released 2003
Vol.5 – Minorities from Central Highland & Coast – CAP 21674, rec. 2001, CD released 2003

Frame Three : The Vietnam Music Record History

Music of Vietnam

Dan nguyet.jpg

Traditional Vietnamese music is highly diverse and syncretistic, combining native and foreign influences. Throughout its history, Vietnam has been heavily impacted by the Chinese musical tradition, as an integral part, along with Korea, Mongolia and Japan.[1] The ancient Indochinese kingdom of Champa also had an historical effect upon this music, because the Vietnamese court found it intriguing. However, even with these foreign influences, Vietnam has a unique musical tradition stemming from its native roots.


Vietnam Folk Song – Folk artisans – a treasure of Vietnams culture

Artisans play an important role in preserving national cultural value. Without them, cultural values would not be protected and no one would be able to pass them down through generations.The industrialisation and modernisation process creates an impetus to develop Vietnam culture. However, this raises a problem in relations between tradition and modernity. Therefore, its time to pay more attention to folk artisans who are possessing a great value of traditional culture.In Vietnam, intangible culture is an overwhelming part of the national culture heritage. Vietnams intangible culture is folk culture which is created by and belongs to the community. They are quan ho (love duet singing), classical opera, and of ceramic, silk weaving, and painting handicrafts.

These valuable intangible culture has been passed through generations by artisans who have contributed to preserving and enriching the communitys cultural identity.

UNESCO has made a proposal to honour them with title of Living Human Treasures while the Vietnamese people often call them artisans. Artisans play an important role in preserving national cultural value.

In Vietnam, the role of folk culture is even more important because among 54 other nationalities, only the Kinh people have a kind of academic culture while the 53 ethnic minority groups only have folk culture.

Vietnamese intangible heritage was created in the past, mainly prior to the August Revolution. Therefore, those artisans who possess the heritage are at least 70 years of age. During the countrys 30 years in war, they did not have a chance to practice or carry out activities to promote the culture. In the peace time, industrialisation and modernisation, the globalisation and urbanisation sometimes make people ignore the folk culture.

Therefore, in order to build a Vietnamese advanced culture imbued with national identity, its in a great need of seeking effective measures to help folk artisans to continue practising and popularising cultural treasures they are possessing.

To reach the goal, its now time to collect all intangible culture treasures while honouring folk artisans.

To realise this, recently the Vietnam Folk Literature and Art Association has called for 1,000 its members and 2,000 others nationwide to try to collect and preserve all intangible heritage treasures of Vietnams minorities as being set out in its Vision 2020. They also set up regulations to honour the title Folk Artisan as recognition of theirs efforts to preserve the national cultural value.




Imperial court music

Nhã nhạc is the most popular form of imperial court music, specifically referring to the court music played from the Trần Dynasty to the very last Nguyễn Dynasty of Vietnam, being synthesized and most highly developed by the Nguyễn emperors. It is based on earlier Vietnamese imperial court music, its primary influences coming from Ming Dynasty‘s imperial court and later the music of Champa. Along with nhã nhạc, the imperial court of Vietnam in the 19th century also had many royal dances which still exist to this day. The theme of most of these dances is to wish the kings longevity and the country wealth.

 Folk music

Vietnamese folk music is extremely diverse and includes dân ca, quan họ, hát chầu văn, ca trù, , and hát xẩm, among other forms.

 Quan họ

Quan họ (alternate singing) is popular in Hà Bắc (divided into nowadays Bắc Ninh and Bắc Giang Provinces) and across Vietnam; numerous variations exist, especially in the Northern provinces. Sung acappella, quan họ is improvised and is used in courtship rituals.

 Hát chầu văn

Hát chầu văn or hát văn is a spiritual form of music used to invoke spirits during ceremonies. It is highly rhythmic and trance-oriented. Before 1986, the Vietnamese government repressed hát chầu văn and other forms of religious expression. It has since been revived by musicians like Phạm Văn Tỵ.

 Nhạc dân tộc cải biên

Nhạc dân tộc cải biên is a modern form of Vietnamese folk music which arose in the 1950s after the founding of the Hanoi Conservatory of Music in 1956. This development involved writing traditional music using Western musical notation, while Western elements of harmony and instrumentation were added. Nhạc dân tộc cải biên is often criticized by purists for its watered-down approach to traditional sounds.

Ca trù

Ca trù (also hát ả đào) is a popular folk music which is said to have begun with Ả Đào, a female singer who charmed the enemy with her voice. Most singers remain female, and the genre has been revived since the Communist government loosened its repression in the 1980s, when it was associated with prostitution.

Ca trù, which itself has many forms, is thought to have originated in the imperial palace, eventually moving predominantly into performances at communal houses for scholars and other members of the elite (this is the type of Ca trù most widely known). It can be referred to as a geisha-type of entertainment where women, trained in music and poetry, entertained rich and powerful men.

“Hò” can be thought of as the southern style of Quan họ. It is improvisational and is typically sung as dialogue between a man and woman. Common themes include love, courtship, the countryside, etc. “Hò” is popular in Cần Thơ – Vietnam.

Ritual music

1940s -1980s

The Vietnam War, the consequent Fall of Saigon, and the plight of Vietnamese refugees gave rise to a collection of musical pieces that have become “classical” anthems for Vietnamese people both in Vietnam and abroad. Notable writers include Pham Duy and Trinh Cong Son. Singers include Khanh Ly and Le Thu.

 Modern music

In Vietnam, there is no official music chart across the country or digital sale.

Pop music

The embrace of Modern Pop music has increased as each new generation of people in Vietnam become more exposed to and influenced by westernized music along with CJK‘s fashion style. Musical production has improved and expanded over the years as visiting performers and organizers from other countries have helped to stimulate the Vietnamese entertainment industry. Such performances include international stages like the Asia Music Festival in South Korea where popular Vietnamese singers such as My Tam, Ho Ngoc Ha, Lam Truong, and others have performed along with other singers from different Asian countries. During the recent years such as 2006 and beyond, Vietnamese pop music has tremendously improved from years past. With the help of the Internet and sites such as Zing, Vietnamese music has been able to reach to audiences nationally and also overseas. There are many famous underground artists such as Andree Right Hand, Big Daddy, Shadow P (all featured in a popular song called De Anh Duoc Yeu) and countless others who have risen to fame through the Internet. In addition, there are also other singers that have gone mainstream such as M4U, Ho Ngoc Ha, Bao Thy, Wanbi Tuan, Tu Quynh, Radio Band, etc. There are also amateur singers whose songs have been hits in Vietnam such as Thuy Chi. These singers tend to view singing as a hobby, therefore not being labeled as a mainstream artist. Overall, the quality of recording and the style of music videos in Vietnam has improved a lot compared to the past years due to many private productions and also overseas Vietnamese coming back to produce a combination of Western and Vietnamese music.

Viet pop

(Vietnam 2009 R&B Pop) Ho Ngoc Ha – “Xin Hay Thu Tha (My Apology)”

Lots of other SE Asians say that Viet people are “smalled eyed and yellow skin like Chinese.” It’s racist and wrong. This singer is Vietnamese and she does not look Chinese at all. Stop alienating us from the rest of SE Asia! This video shows a HUGE leap for Vietnamese pop videos. Normally they…

 Ho ngoc ha  v-pop  vpop  vietnamese music  vietnamese pop music  vietnamese R&B  thai music  thai pop  indochina  lao pop music  khmer pop music  Southeast asian  SE Asian music  asian pop  vietnamese language 

Vietnamese Pop- It’s Luv

Starts off Slow but gets catchy after the intro By Rainie Thao Vy


 Vietnamese  Music  Song  Rainie  Thao  Vy  Girl  Viet  Asian  Pop 

Funny Vietnamese pimp boy

Funny kid dancing surrounded by older women who can’t dance!

Jordi  viet  Music  video  funny 

Minh Hang – Mot Vong Trai Dat

Brought to you by

 amnhacworld  minh  hang  mot  vong  trai  dat  viet  pop

Vietnamese Pop Music – Cold vietnamese rap pop hip hop r&b raggae dance trance techno music britney spears rihanna lady gaga beyonce numa numa taeyang lady killah x4 band 365 band bao thy lk emily click boom v4men mtv bi rain wonder girl big toes andree right hand backstreet daft punk ho chi minh city…


Vietnamese Pop Music – Awakening vietnamese rap pop hip hop r&b raggae dance trance techno music britney spears rihanna lady gaga beyonce numa numa taeyang lady killah x4 band 365 band bao thy lk emily click boom v4men mtv bi rain wonder girl big toes andree right hand backstreet daft punk ho chi minh city…


Vietnamese Pop Music – I Am Crazy For You vietnamese rap pop hip hop r&b raggae dance trance techno music britney spears rihanna lady gaga beyonce numa numa taeyang lady killah x4 band 365 band bao thy lk emily click boom v4men mtv bi rain wonder girl big toes andree right hand backstreet daft punk ho chi minh city…


Vietnamese Pop R&B Music – Sad R&B vietnamese rap pop hip hop r&b raggae dance trance techno music britney spears rihanna lady gaga beyonce numa numa taeyang lady killah x4 band 365 band bao thy lk emily click boom v4men mtv bi rain wonder girl big toes andree right hand backstreet daft punk ho chi minh city…


Vietnamese Pop Music – Right Now vietnamese rap pop hip hop r&b raggae dance trance techno music britney spears rihanna lady gaga beyonce numa numa taeyang lady killah x4 band 365 band bao thy lk emily click boom v4men mtv bi rain wonder girl big toes andree right hand backstreet daft punk ho chi minh city…


Vietnamese Pop R&B Music – Will Be Better

vietnamese rap pop hip hop r&b raggae dance trance techno music britney spears rihanna lady gaga beyonce numa numa taeyang lady killah x4 band 365 band bao thy lk emily click boom v4men mtv bi rain wonder girl big toes andree right hand backstreet daft punk ho chi minh city…

Chay Theo Co Be Yeu

my twin nieces singing Vietnamese Pop song


Luu  Chi  Vy  Chay  Theo  Co  Be  Yeu  Viet  Nam  Twin  cute  vietnamese  khmer  krom 

Vietnamese Pop Music – Homeland Viet Nam vietnamese rap pop hip hop r&b raggae dance trance techno music britney spears rihanna lady gaga beyonce numa numa taeyang lady killah x4 band 365 band bao thy lk emily click boom v4men mtv bi rain wonder girl big toes andree right hand backstreet daft punk ho chi minh city…


Brenda Le, Vietnamese Jazz/Pop Singer, Em oi Ha Noi Pho

Brenda Le -Vietnamese Jazz/pop Singer -Em oi Ha Noi Pho-similar artist Khanh Ly – Celine Dion- Toni Braxton- Trinh Cong Son….

Brenda Le  Jazz  Pop Singer  Vietnamese  Em oi Ha Noi Pho  Khanh Ly  Celine Dion  Toni Braxton  Trinh Cong Son 

Ðàm Vĩnh Hưng & Bài học LÝ TỐNG Trong buổi “nhạc hội” của văn công Đàm Vĩnh Hưng tại Santa Clara Convention Center, chiều 18/7/2010. Anh Lý Tống đã mua vé vào tham dự nhạc hội. Khi đến 1/2 chương trình của buổi nhạc, anh Lý Tống…

V-pop Artist _Vietnamese Singers Part 2

Hope you like the video – these are some V-pop singers/artists I try my best looking for Vietnamese singers and these are 28 artists that I know mostly for V-pop Part 1 has 14 artists and Part 2 has also 14 artists Please Do NOT Take this Video and take it as your own video. I made this video for…

Bảo Thy – Ký Ức Của Mưa [Viet-Pop MV 2010]

♦ Bảo Thy ♦ Ký Ức Của Mưa [Viet-Pop MV 2010]

Memories of Love / Hoi Am Ngay Xua – My Tam (English Sub)

Composed by: Nguyen Hong Thuan Performed by: My Tam Video clip: Song Da Tan / To the Beat Live Show DVD

Noo Phuoc Thinh: Ky Uc lyrics

Lyrics to “Ky Uc” sung by Noo Phuoc Thinh. Great dance song. (Sorry in advance for slow lyrics!)


 Rock and heavy metal

no info

 Traditional musical instruments

the end @ copyright Dr iwan suwandy 2011

Sejaran Rekaman Musik Orkes Tetap Segar dibp Rudi Pirngadie(R.Pirngadie And His Tetap Segar Orchestra History)



                                                AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                          DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.




 *ill 001

                      *ill 001  LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

                                THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM



                                        PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                     THE FOUNDER

                                            Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA




                         WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               


                     Please Enter


              DMRC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Music Record Cybermuseum)



The Indonesian Rudi Pirngadi and his Tetap Segar Orchestra Music record History

(Sejarah rekaman Musik Orkes tetap Segar dibp Rudi Pirngadi  )

Upaya go-international terhadap musik keroncong pernah dilakukan oleh Rudi Pirngadie melalui penampilan orkes keroncong Tetap Segar yang membawakan gagrak Keroncong-beat dalam New York World’s Fair tahun 1964. Keroncong beat merupakan konsep yang menampilkan irama keroncong dalam bentuk gedugan cello, rhythmic riff ukulele, dan banyu mili gitar untuk mengiringi semua jenis lagu termasuk lagu Barat. Tidak kurang penyanyi keroncong seperti M. Rivani, Rita Zahara, dan Sayekti berhasil menarik perhatian masyarakat Amerika dalam membawakan lagu Barat seperti I left my heart in San Francisco yang dikeroncongkan. Eksperimentasi Keroncong beat ternyata tidak membawa hasil disebabkan antara lain karena tidak memiliki akar budayanya yang kuat di Indonesia. Tidak mustahil bahwa kegagalan itu juga diakibatkan karakteristik iramanya yang eksotik, tidak berdaya melawan irama rock yang sensasional. Namun betapapun juga, inovasi Pirngadie telah berhasil menunjukkan posisi dan nilai tawar musik keroncong Indonesia dalam kancah internasional(google ekspl.)

Frame One :

Rudi Pirngadi Music Record (Dr Iwan Collections)

Rudi Pirngadi with his Tetap Segar (Always Fit) Orchestra had produced 14 Indonesian Nasional Folk Song Record, Dr iwan only have three records

( This record were sold during New York World fair 1964, I hope Mr Bob Tutupoly who also work there will give us more info about Mr Rudi Pirngadie with his Tetap Segar Orchestra ):

1. Down The Riverside Of Indonesia In Krontjong Beat Sing by Sri Sajekti

Side one : Sungai Deli, Sungai Tjiliwung, Tjitarum Disenja Raja,Ditepi Sungai Seraju,Bengawan Solo.

 Side Two: Sungai Seraju, Ditepi Bengawan Solo, Kali Brantas,Sungai Sampean,Sungai Barito and Padamu sungai Mahakam

2.Song From Minang in Krontjong Beat

 side one :Urang(people) Talu,Kampuang na Jauh Dimato(The Village far from seen or I have left behind),Sangsaro(Griel),Ayam Den Lapeh (My Cock was Gone Away),Takana Adiaek(Remenber My Sister),and Tanah Djawa(Java Island)

side two: Malam Bainai (the wedding night),Tari Payung (Umbrella Dance),Dajung Palinggam(the oarsman),Badju Kurung(Minang long loose blouse),Kambanglah Bungo Parawitan(Parawitan  flower bloom) and Laruik Sanjo(Late Night)

3.Song From Minahasa In Krontjong Beat


side one : O Inanikeke(O my mother of My Daughter), SiKaleonku( My dear friend),Si Patokaan(advice for patokaan),Ampuruk(On the top of Mountain), Kelana(one wreath of Flower), Ungkuanu (Do you think I will sad when you gone away)

side two:Waktu Ku Ketjil (When I was a child), O papa Ja( have a grant time),Esa Mokan (My thought only you), Pinindjang(better return her to her mother), Luri Wisa Ko ( Parakeet where have you flown), and Sa’aku Sumengkot(My love, I am sailing to a  far away)

 I hope who have another record , will be kind to send the list of songs in that record in other to make this arrticles more complete.

Please the collectors who have this record show us and report via comment thanks (Dr Iwan S)

 The Other record which list at the back cover of the record :

1.Indonesian country song From Sabang to Merauke


2.Song Of Molluca in Krontjong Beat

3.Old Time Melodies(Lagu tempo Doeloe)

4.Reveries in The Independent War (Lagu Perjuangan)

5.Song Of Central java In Kroncong Beat

6.Song From The Pennisula

7.Song From Tapanuli



8.Song From Jakarta(lagu betawi)

9.Song From Parahijangan(Lagu Sunda)

10.Indonesia Melody of Love

11. Indonesian Melodies Of heroes

Frame Two:

The Rudi Pirngadi and His ‘Tetap Segar ‘Orchestra History

the end # copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

The Icon Winston Churchill sound Record History




                                                AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                          DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.




 *ill 001

                      *ill 001  LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

                                THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM



                                        PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                     THE FOUNDER

                                            Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA




                         WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               


                     Please Enter


              DMRC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Music Record Cybermuseum)



The Winston Churchill sound record History(Piring Hitam antik suara Winston Churchill )

Frame One :

1.The Winston Churchill sound Record Found in Indonesia (Dr Iwan Collection)

2. from google exploration

CHURCHILL The Legend The Man Speeches Commentary VJLP-1130 Original 1965 LP Vinyl Record Album

Frame Two :

 The Winston Churchill history

The Right Honourable
 Sir Winston Churchill KG OM CH TD PC DL FRS

In office
26 October 1951 – 7 April 1955
Monarch George VI
Elizabeth II
Deputy Anthony Eden
Preceded by Clement Attlee
Succeeded by Anthony Eden
In office
10 May 1940 – 26 July 1945
Monarch George VI
Deputy Clement Attlee
Preceded by Neville Chamberlain
Succeeded by Clement Attlee

In office
6 November 1924 – 4 June 1929
Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin
Preceded by Philip Snowden
Succeeded by Philip Snowden

In office
19 February 1910 – 24 October 1911
Prime Minister Herbert Henry Asquith
Preceded by Herbert Gladstone
Succeeded by Reginald McKenna

In office
5 July 1945 – 15 October 1964
Preceded by Himself (Epping)
Succeeded by Patrick Jenkin

In office
29 October 1924 – 5 July 1945
Preceded by Sir Leonard Lyle
Succeeded by Leah Manning

In office
24 April 1908 – 15 November 1922
Preceded by Alexander Wilkie
Edmund Robertson
Succeeded by Edmund Morel
Edwin Scrymgeour

In office
8 February 1906 – 24 April 1908
Preceded by William Houldsworth
Succeeded by William Joynson-Hicks

In office
24 October 1900 – 12 January 1906
Preceded by Walter Runciman
Alfred Emmott
Succeeded by Alfred Emmott
John Albert Bright

Born 30 November 1874(1874-11-30)
Blenheim Palace, Woodstock, Oxfordshire
England, United Kingdom
Died 24 January 1965(1965-01-24) (aged 90)
Hyde Park, London, England
Resting place St Martin’s Church, Bladon, Oxfordshire
Birth name Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill
Nationality British
Political party Conservative (1900–4, 1924–64)
Liberal (1904–24)
Spouse(s) Clementine Churchill (m. 1908–1965) «start: (1908-09-12)–end+1: (1965-01-25)»”Marriage: Clementine Churchill to Winston Churchill” Location: (linkback:
Relations Pamela Harriman
Winston Churchill (grandson)
Children Diana Churchill
Randolph Churchill
Sarah Tuchet-Jesson
Marigold Churchill
Mary Soames
Residence 10 Downing Street (Official)
Chartwell (Private)
Alma mater Harrow School, Royal Military Academy Sandhurst
Profession Member of Parliament, statesman, soldier, journalist, historian, author, painter
Religion Anglican
Military service
Allegiance British Empire
Service/branch British Army
Years of service 1895–1900,
Rank Lieutenant-Colonel
Battles/wars Anglo-Afghan War
*Siege of Malakand
Mahdist War
*Battle of Omdurman
Second Boer War
*Siege of Ladysmith
First World War
*Western Front
Awards Galó de l'Orde del Mèrit (UK).png Order of Merit
Order of Companions of Honour ribbon.png Companion of Honour
India Medal BAR.svg India Medal
Queens Sudan Medal BAR.svg Queen’s Sudan Medal
Queens South Africa Medal 1899-1902 ribbon.png Queen’s South Africa Medal
1914 Star BAR.svg 1914–15 Star
British War Medal BAR.svg British War Medal
Allied Victory Medal BAR.svg Victory Medal
Territorial Decoration (UK) ribbon.PNG Territorial Decoration

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, PC, DL, FRS (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician and statesman known for his leadership of the United Kingdom during the Second World War (WWII). He is widely regarded as one of the great wartime leaders. He served as Prime Minister twice (1940–45 and 1951–55). A noted statesman and orator, Churchill was also an officer in the British Army, a historian, a writer, and an artist. To date, he is the only British prime minister to have received the Nobel Prize in Literature, and he was the first person created an honorary citizen of the United States.

Churchill was born into the aristocratic family of the Dukes of Marlborough. His father, Lord Randolph Churchill, was a charismatic politician who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer; his mother, Jenny Jerome, an American socialite. As a young army officer, he saw action in British India, the Sudan and the Second Boer War. He gained fame as a war correspondent and through books he wrote about his campaigns.

At the forefront of politics for fifty years, he held many political and cabinet positions. Before WWI, he served as President of the Board of Trade, Home Secretary and First Lord of the Admiralty as part of the Asquith Liberal government. During the war, he continued as First Lord of the Admiralty until the disastrous Gallipoli Campaign, which he had sponsored, caused his departure from government. He then served briefly on the Western Front, commanding the 6th Battalion of the Royal Scots Fusiliers. He returned to government as Minister of Munitions, Secretary of State for War, and Secretary of State for Air. After the War, Churchill served as Chancellor of the Exchequer in the Conservative (Baldwin) government of 1924-29, controversially returning the pound sterling in 1925 to the gold standard at its pre-War parity, a move widely seen as creating deflationary pressure on the UK economy. Also controversial were Churchill’s opposition to increased home rule for India, and his resistance to the 1936 abdication of Edward VIII.

Out of office and politically “in the wilderness” during the 1930s, Churchill took the lead in warning about the danger from Hitler and in campaigning for rearmament. On the outbreak of WWII, he was again appointed First Lord of the Admiralty. Following the resignation of Neville Chamberlain on 10 May 1940, Churchill became Prime Minister. His steadfast refusal to consider defeat, surrender or a compromise peace helped inspire British resistance, especially during the difficult early days of the War when Britain stood alone in its active opposition to Hitler. Churchill was particularly noted for his speeches and radio broadcasts, which helped inspire the British people. He led Britain as Prime Minister until victory had been secured over Nazi Germany.

After the Conservative Party lost the 1945 election, he became Leader of the Opposition. In 1951, he again became Prime Minister, before retiring in 1955. Upon his death, the Queen granted him the honour of a state funeral, which saw one of the largest assemblies of world statesmen ever.

Family and early life

Churchill aged seven in 1881

Born into the aristocratic Spencer family,[1] Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, like his father, used the surname Churchill in public life.[2] His ancestor George Spencer had changed his surname to Spencer-Churchill in 1817 when he became Duke of Marlborough, to highlight his descent from John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough. Winston’s father, Lord Randolph Churchill, the third son of John Spencer-Churchill, 7th Duke of Marlborough, was a politician; and his mother, Lady Randolph Churchill (née Jennie Jerome) was the daughter of American millionaire Leonard Jerome. Born on 30 November 1874, two months prematurely, in a bedroom in Blenheim Palace, Woodstock, Oxfordshire,[3] Churchill had one brother, John Strange Spencer-Churchill.

Blenheim Palace, the Churchill family home

Independent and rebellious by nature, Churchill generally did poorly in school, for which he was punished. He was educated at three independent schools: St George’s School in Ascot, Berkshire, followed by Brunswick School in Hove, near Brighton (the school has since been renamed Stoke Brunswick School and relocated to Ashurst Wood in West Sussex), and then at Harrow School from 17 April 1888, where his military career began. Within weeks of his arrival, he had joined the Harrow Rifle Corps.[4] He earned high marks in English and History and was the school’s fencing champion.

He was rarely visited by his mother (then known as Lady Randolph Churchill) and wrote letters begging her to either come to the school or to allow him to come home. His relationship with his father was a distant one; he once remarked that they barely spoke to each other.[5] Because of the lack of parental contact, he became very close to his nanny, Elizabeth Anne Everest, whom he used to call “Old Woom”.[6] His father died on 24 January 1895, aged 45, leaving Churchill with the conviction that he too would die young and so should be quick about making his mark on the world.[7]

Speech impediment

Various authors in the 1920s–1940s mentioned Churchill’s stutter;[8] and Churchill described himself as having a “speech impediment”, which he consistently worked to overcome. His dentures were specially designed to aid his speech (Demosthenes‘ pebbles).[9] After many years, he could finally state, “My impediment is no hindrance”.[10]

The Churchill Centre, however, flatly denies the claim that Churchill stuttered, while confirming that he did have difficulty pronouncing the letter S and spoke with a lisp[11] as did his father.[12]

Marriage and children

Churchill met his future wife, Clementine Hozier, in 1904 at a ball in Crewe House, home of the Earl of Crewe and Crewe’s wife Margaret Primrose (daughter of Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery).[13] In 1908, they met again at a dinner party hosted by Lady St Helier. Churchill found himself seated beside Clementine, and they soon began a lifelong romance.[14] He proposed to Clementine during a house party at Blenheim Palace on 10 August 1908, in a small Temple of Diana.[15] On 12 September 1908, they were married in St. Margaret’s, Westminster. The church was packed; the Bishop of St Asaph conducted the service.[16] In March 1909, the couple moved to a house at 33 Eccleston Square.

Their first child, Diana, was born in London on 11 July 1909. After the pregnancy, Clementine moved to Sussex to recover, while Diana stayed in London with her nanny.[17] On 28 May 1911, their second child, Randolph, was born at 33 Eccleston Square.[18] Their third child, Sarah, was born on 7 October 1914 at Admiralty House. The birth was marked with anxiety for Clementine, as Winston had been sent to Antwerp by the Cabinet to “stiffen the resistance of the beleaguered city” after news that the Belgians intended to surrender the town.[19]

Clementine gave birth to her fourth child, Marigold Frances Churchill, on 15 November 1918, four days after the official end of the First World War.[20] In the early days of August 1921, the Churchills’ children were entrusted to a French nursery governess in Kent named Mlle Rose. Clementine, meanwhile, travelled to Eaton Hall to play tennis with Hugh Grosvenor, 2nd Duke of Westminster and his family. While still under the care of Mlle Rose, Marigold had a cold, but was reported to have recovered from the illness. As the illness progressed with hardly any notice, it turned into septicaemia. Following advice from a landlady, Rose sent for Clementine. However the illness turned fatal on 23 August 1921, and Marigold was buried in the Kensal Green Cemetery three days later.[21]

On 15 September 1922, the Churchills’ last child was born, Mary. Later that month, the Churchills bought Chartwell, which would be Winston’s home until his death in 1965.[22][23]

Military service

Churchill in military uniform in 1895

After Churchill left Harrow in 1893, he applied to attend the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. It took three attempts before he passed the entrance exam; he applied for cavalry rather than infantry because the grade requirement was lower and did not require him to learn mathematics, which he disliked. He graduated eighth out of a class of 150 in December 1894,[24] and although he could now have transferred to an infantry regiment as his father had wished, chose to remain with the cavalry and was commissioned as a Cornet (Second Lieutenant) in the 4th Queen’s Own Hussars on 20 February 1895.[4] In 1941, he received the honour of being appointed Colonel of the Hussars.

Churchill’s pay as a second lieutenant in the 4th Hussars was £300. However, he believed that he needed at least a further £500 (equivalent to £25,000 in 2001 terms) to support a style of life equal to other officers of the regiment. His mother provided an allowance of £400 per year, but this was repeatedly overspent. According to biographer Roy Jenkins, this is one reason he took an interest in war correspondence.[25] He did not intend to follow a conventional career of promotion through army ranks, but to seek out all possible chances of military action and used his mother’s and family influence in high society to arrange postings to active campaigns. His writings both brought him to the attention of the public, and earned him significant additional income. He acted as a war correspondent for several London newspapers[26] and wrote his own books about the campaigns.


In 1895, Churchill travelled to Cuba to observe the Spanish fight the Cuban guerrillas; he had obtained a commission to write about the conflict from the Daily Graphic. To his delight, he came under fire for the first time on his twenty-first birthday.[4] He had fond memories of Cuba as a “…large, rich, beautiful island…”[27] While there, he soon acquired a taste for Havana cigars, which he would smoke for the rest of his life. While in New York, he stayed at the home of Bourke Cockran, an admirer of his mother. Bourke was an established American politician, and a member of the House of Representatives. He greatly influenced Churchill, both in his approach to oratory and politics, and encouraging a love of America.[28]

He soon received word that his nanny, Mrs Everest, was dying; he then returned to England and stayed with her for a week until she died. He wrote in his journal “She was my favourite friend.” In My Early Life he wrote: “She had been my dearest and most intimate friend during the whole of the twenty years I had lived.”[29]


In early October 1896, he was transferred to Bombay, British India. He was considered one of the best polo players in his regiment and led his team to many prestigious tournament victories.[30]

A young Winston Churchill on a lecture tour of the United States in 1900

In 1897, Churchill attempted to travel to both report and, if necessary, fight in the Greco-Turkish War, but this conflict effectively ended before he could arrive. Later, while preparing for a leave in England, he heard that three brigades of the British Army were going to fight against a Pashtun tribe in the North West Frontier of India and he asked his superior officer if he could join the fight.[31] He fought under the command of General Jeffery, who was the commander of the second brigade operating in Malakand, in the Frontier region of British India. Jeffery sent him with fifteen scouts to explore the Mamund Valley; while on reconnaissance, they encountered an enemy tribe, dismounted from their horses and opened fire. After an hour of shooting, their reinforcements, the 35th Sikhs arrived, and the fire gradually ceased and the brigade and the Sikhs marched on. Hundreds of tribesmen then ambushed them and opened fire, forcing them to retreat. As they were retreating four men were carrying an injured officer but the fierceness of the fight forced them to leave him behind. The man who was left behind was slashed to death before Churchill’s eyes; afterwards he wrote of the killer, “I forgot everything else at this moment except a desire to kill this man.”[32] However the Sikhs’ numbers were being depleted so the next commanding officer told Churchill to get the rest of the men and boys to safety.

Before he left he asked for a note so he would not be charged with desertion.[33] He received the note, quickly signed, and headed up the hill and alerted the other brigade, whereupon they then engaged the army. The fighting in the region dragged on for another two weeks before the dead could be recovered. He wrote in his journal: “Whether it was worth it I cannot tell.”[32][34] An account of the Siege of Malakand was published in December 1900 as The Story of the Malakand Field Force. He received £600 for his account. During the campaign, he also wrote articles for the newspapers The Pioneer and The Daily Telegraph.[35] His account of the battle was one of his first published stories, for which he received £5 per column from The Daily Telegraph.[36]

Sudan and Oldham

The River War was published in 1899

Churchill was transferred to Egypt in 1898. He visited Luxor before joining an attachment of the 21st Lancers serving in the Sudan under the command of General Herbert Kitchener. During this time he encountered two military officers with whom he would work during the First World War: Douglas Haig, then a captain and David Beatty, then a gunboat lieutenant.[37] While in the Sudan, he participated in what has been described as the last meaningful British cavalry charge, at the Battle of Omdurman in September 1898.[38] He also worked as a war correspondent for the Morning Post. By October 1898, he had returned to Britain and begun his two-volume work; The River War, an account of the reconquest of the Sudan which was published the following year. Churchill resigned from the British Army effective from 5 May 1899.

He soon had his first opportunity to begin a Parliamentary career, when he was invited by Robert Ascroft to be the second Conservative Party candidate in Ascroft’s Oldham constituency. Ascroft’s sudden death caused a double by-election and Churchill was one of the candidates. In the midst of a national trend against the Conservatives, both seats were lost; however Churchill impressed by his vigorous campaigning.

South Africa

Having failed at Oldham, Churchill looked about for some other opportunity to advance his career. On 12 October 1899, the Second Boer War between Britain and the Boer Republics broke out and he obtained a commission to act as war correspondent for the Morning Post with a salary of £250 per month. He rushed to sail on the same ship as the newly appointed British commander, Sir Redvers Buller. After some weeks in exposed areas he accompanied a scouting expedition in an armoured train, leading to his capture and imprisonment in a POW camp in Pretoria (converted school building for Pretoria High School for Girls). His actions during the ambush of the train led to speculation that he would be awarded the Victoria Cross, Britain’s highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy, but this did not occur.[4]

He escaped from the prison camp and travelled almost 300 mi (480 km) to Portuguese Lourenço Marques in Delagoa Bay, with the assistance of an English mine manager.[39] His escape made him a minor national hero for a time in Britain, though instead of returning home, he rejoined General Buller’s army on its march to relieve the British at the Siege of Ladysmith and take Pretoria.[40] This time, although continuing as a war correspondent, he gained a commission in the South African Light Horse. He was among the first British troops into Ladysmith and Pretoria. He and his cousin, the Duke of Marlborough, were able to get ahead of the rest of the troops in Pretoria, where they demanded and received the surrender of 52 Boer prison camp guards.[41]

Returning from the Boer War on the RMS Dunottar Castle, July 1900.[42] Standing L-R: Sir Byron Leighton, Claud Grenfel, Major Frederick Russell Burnham, Captain Gordon Forbes, Abe Bailey (his son John would marry Diana Churchill in 1932), next two unidentified, Lord John Weston Brooke. Seated L-R: Major Bobby White, Lord Downe, General Sir Henry Edward Colville (a year later Churchill as MP would demand an enquiry over his dismissal from South Africa), Major Harry White, Major Joe Laycock, Winston Churchill, Sir Charles Bentinck. Sitting L-R: unidentified, Col. Maurice Gifford (who had lost his arm in the Second Matabele War).

In 1900, Churchill returned to England on the RMS Dunottar Castle, the same ship on which he set sail for South Africa eight months earlier.[43] He there published London to Ladysmith and a second volume of Boer war experiences, Ian Hamilton’s March. Churchill stood again for parliament in Oldham in the general election of 1900 and won (his Conservative colleague, Crisp, was defeated) in the contest for two seats.[44][45] After the 1900 general election he embarked on a speaking tour of Britain, followed by tours of the United States and Canada, earning in excess of £5,000.[46]

Territorial service

In 1900, he retired from the regular army and in 1902 joined the Imperial Yeomanry where he was commissioned as a Captain in the Queen’s Own Oxfordshire Hussars on 4 January 1902.[47] In April 1905, he was promoted to Major and appointed to command of the Henley Squadron of the Queen’s Own Oxfordshire Hussars.[48] In September 1916, he transferred to the territorial reserves of officers where he remained till retiring in 1924, at the age of fifty.[48]

Western front

Churchill was First Lord of the Admiralty at the start of the First World War, but was obliged to leave the war cabinet after the disastrous Battle of Gallipoli. He attempted to obtain an appointment as a brigade commander, but settled for command of a battalion. After spending some time as a Major with the 2nd Battalion, Grenadier Guards, he was appointed Lieutenant-Colonel, commanding the 6th Battalion, Royal Scots Fusiliers (part of the 9th (Scottish) Division), on 1 January 1916. Correspondence with his wife shows that his intent in taking up active service was to rehabilitate his reputation, but this was balanced by the serious risk of being killed. As a commander he continued to exhibit the reckless daring which had been a hallmark of all his military actions, although he disapproved strongly of the mass slaughter involved in many western front actions.[49]

Lord Deedes opined to a gathering of the Royal Historical Society in 2001 why Churchill went to the front line: “He was with Grenadier Guards, who were dry at battalion headquarters. They very much liked tea and condensed milk, which had no great appeal to Winston, but alcohol was permitted in the front line, in the trenches. So he suggested to the colonel that he really ought to see more of the war and get into the front line. This was highly commended by the colonel, who thought it was a very good thing to do.”[50]

Political career to the Second World War

Churchill’s election poster for the 1900 general election. He contested Oldham, and won one of the seats.

Early years in Parliament

Churchill stood again for the seat of Oldham at the 1900 general election. After winning the seat, he went on a speaking tour throughout Britain and the United States, raising £10,000 for himself (about £800,000 today[51]). In Parliament, he became associated with a faction of the Conservative Party led by Lord Hugh Cecil; the Hughligans. During his first parliamentary session, he opposed the government’s military expenditure[52] and Joseph Chamberlain‘s proposal of extensive tariffs, which were intended to protect Britain’s economic dominance. His own constituency effectively deselected him, although he continued to sit for Oldham until the next general election. After the Whitsun recess in 1904 he crossed the floor to sit as a member of the Liberal Party. As a Liberal, he continued to campaign for free trade. When the Liberals took office with Henry Campbell-Bannerman as prime minister, in December 1905, Churchill became Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies dealing mainly with South Africa after the Boer War. From 1903 until 1905, Churchill was also engaged in writing Lord Randolph Churchill, a two-volume biography of his father which was published in 1906 and received much critical acclaim.[53]

Following his deselection in the seat of Oldham, Churchill was invited to stand for Manchester North West. He won the seat at the 1906 general election with a majority of 1,214 and represented the seat for two years, until 1908.[54] When Campbell-Bannerman was succeeded by Herbert Henry Asquith in 1908, Churchill was promoted to the Cabinet as President of the Board of Trade.[45] Under the law at the time, a newly appointed Cabinet Minister was obliged to seek re-election at a by-election; Churchill lost his seat but was soon back as a member for Dundee constituency. As President of the Board of Trade he joined newly appointed Chancellor Lloyd George in opposing First Lord of the Admiralty, Reginald McKenna‘s proposed huge expenditure for the construction of Navy dreadnought warships, and in supporting the Liberal reforms.[55] In 1908, he introduced the Trade Boards Bill setting up the first minimum wages in Britain,[56] In 1909, he set up Labour Exchanges to help unemployed people find work.[57] He helped draft the first unemployment pension legislation, the National Insurance Act of 1911.[58] As a supporter of eugenics, he participated in the drafting of the Mental Deficiency Act 1913, although the Act eventually passed rejected his preferred method of sterilisation of the feeble-minded in favour of their confinement in institutions.[59]

Churchill in 1904

Churchill also assisted in passing the People’s Budget[60] becoming President of the Budget League, an organisation set up in response to the opposition’s “Budget Protest League”.[61] The budget included the introduction of new taxes on the wealthy to allow for the creation of new social welfare programmes. After the budget bill was sent to the Commons in 1909 and passed, it went to the House of Lords, where it was vetoed. The Liberals then fought and won two general elections in January and December 1910 to gain a mandate for their reforms. The budget was then passed following the Parliament Act 1911 for which he also campaigned. In 1910, he was promoted to Home Secretary. His term was controversial, after his responses to the Siege of Sidney Street and the dispute at the Cambrian Colliery and the suffragettes.

In 1910, a number of coal miners in the Rhondda Valley began what has come to be known as the Tonypandy Riot.[55] The Chief Constable of Glamorgan requested troops be sent in to help police quell the rioting. Churchill, learning that the troops were already travelling, allowed them to go as far as Swindon and Cardiff but blocked their deployment. On 9 November, the Times criticised this decision. In spite of this, the rumour persists that Churchill had ordered troops to attack, and his reputation in Wales and in Labour circles never recovered.[62]

Winston Churchill (highlighted) at Sidney Street, 3 January 1911

In early January 1911, Churchill made a controversial visit to the Siege of Sidney Street in London. There is some uncertainty as to whether he attempted to give operational commands, and his presence attracted much criticism. After an inquest, Arthur Balfour remarked, “he [Churchill] and a photographer were both risking valuable lives. I understand what the photographer was doing, but what was the right honourable gentleman doing?”[63] A biographer, Roy Jenkins, suggests that he went simply because “he could not resist going to see the fun himself” and that he did not issue commands.[64]

Churchill’s proposed solution to the suffragette issue was a referendum on the issue, but this found no favour with Herbert Henry Asquith and women’s suffrage remained unresolved until after the First World War.[65]

In 1911, Churchill was transferred to the office of the First Lord of the Admiralty, a post he held into the First World War. He gave impetus to several reform efforts, including development of naval aviation (he undertook flying lessons himself),[66] the construction of new and larger warships, the development of tanks, and the switch from coal to oil in the Royal Navy.[67]

First World War and the Post War Coalition

On 5 October 1914, Churchill went to Antwerp, which the Belgian government proposed to evacuate. The Royal Marine Brigade was there and at Churchill’s urgings the 1st and 2nd Naval Brigades were also committed. Antwerp fell on 10 October with the loss of 2500 men. At the time he was attacked for squandering resources.[68] It is more likely that his actions prolonged the resistance by a week (Belgium had proposed surrendering Antwerp on 3 October) and that this time saved Calais and Dunkirk.[69]

Churchill was involved with the development of the tank, which was financed from naval research funds.[70] He then headed the Landships Committee which was responsible for creating the first tank corps and, although a decade later development of the battle tank would be seen as a tactical victory, at the time it was seen as misappropriation of funds.[70] In 1915, he was one of the political and military engineers of the disastrous Gallipoli landings on the Dardanelles during the First World War.[71] He took much of the blame for the fiasco, and when Prime Minister Asquith formed an all-party coalition government, the Conservatives demanded his demotion as the price for entry.[72]

Churchill with the Royal Scots Fusiliers, 1916

For several months Churchill served in the sinecure of Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. However on 15 November 1915 he resigned from the government, feeling his energies were not being used[73] and, though remaining an MP, served for several months on the Western Front commanding the 6th Battalion of the Royal Scots Fusiliers, under the rank of Colonel.[74] In March 1916, Churchill returned to England after he had become restless in France and wished to speak again in the House of Commons.[75] Future prime minister David Lloyd George acidly commented: “You will one day discover that the state of mind revealed in (your) letter is the reason why you do not win trust even where you command admiration. In every line of it, national interests are completely overshadowed by your personal concern.”[76] In July 1917, Churchill was appointed Minister of Munitions, and in January 1919, Secretary of State for War and Secretary of State for Air. He was the main architect of the Ten Year Rule, a principle that allowed the Treasury to dominate and control strategic, foreign and financial policies under the assumption that “there would be no great European war for the next five or ten years”.[77]

A major preoccupation of his tenure in the War Office was the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War. Churchill was a staunch advocate of foreign intervention, declaring that Bolshevism must be “strangled in its cradle”.[78] He secured, from a divided and loosely organised Cabinet, intensification and prolongation of the British involvement beyond the wishes of any major group in Parliament or the nation—and in the face of the bitter hostility of Labour. In 1920, after the last British forces had been withdrawn, Churchill was instrumental in having arms sent to the Poles when they invaded Ukraine. He became Secretary of State for the Colonies in 1921 and was a signatory of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921, which established the Irish Free State. Churchill was involved in the lengthy negotiations of the treaty and to protect British maritime interests, he engineered part of the Irish Free State agreement to include three Treaty Ports—Queenstown (Cobh), Berehaven and Lough Swilly—which could be used as Atlantic bases by the Royal Navy.[79] In 1938, however, under the terms of the Chamberlain-De Valera Anglo-Irish Trade Agreement the bases were returned to the Irish Free State.

Churchill advocated the use of tear gas on Kurdish tribesmen in Iraq,[80] Though the British did consider the use of poison gas in putting down Kurdish rebellions, it was not used, as conventional bombing was considered effective.[81]

Rejoining the Conservative Party – Chancellor of the Exchequer

In September, the Conservative Party withdrew from the Coalition government following a meeting of backbenchers dissatisfied with the handling of the Chanak Crisis, a move that precipitated the looming October 1922 General Election. Churchill fell ill during the campaign, and had to have an appendicectomy. This made it difficult for him to campaign, and a further setback was the internal division that continued to beset the Liberal Party. He came only fourth in the poll for Dundee, losing to the prohibitionist Edwin Scrymgeour. Churchill later quipped that he left Dundee “without an office, without a seat, without a party and without an appendix”.[54] He stood for the Liberals again in the 1923 general election, losing in Leicester, and then as an independent, first without success in a by-election in the Westminster Abbey constituency, and then successfully in the general election of 1924 for Epping. The following year, he formally rejoined the Conservative Party, commenting wryly that “anyone can rat, but it takes a certain ingenuity to re-rat.”[54][82]

Churchill was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1924 under Stanley Baldwin and oversaw Britain’s disastrous return to the Gold Standard, which resulted in deflation, unemployment, and the miners’ strike that led to the General Strike of 1926.[83] His decision, announced in the 1924 Budget, came after long consultation with various economists including John Maynard Keynes, the Permanent Secretary to the Treasury, Sir Otto Niemeyer and the board of the Bank of England. This decision prompted Keynes to write The Economic Consequences of Mr. Churchill, arguing that the return to the gold standard at the pre-war parity in 1925 (£1=$4.86) would lead to a world depression. However, the decision was generally popular and seen as ‘sound economics’ although it was opposed by Lord Beaverbrook and the Federation of British Industries.[84]

Churchill later regarded this as the greatest mistake of his life. However in discussions at the time with former Chancellor McKenna, Churchill acknowledged that the return to the gold standard and the resulting ‘dear money’ policy was economically bad. In those discussions he maintained the policy as fundamentally political – a return to the pre-war conditions in which he believed.[85] In his speech on the Bill he said “I will tell you what it [the return to the Gold Standard] will shackle us to. It will shackle us to reality.”[86]

The return to the pre-war exchange rate and to the Gold Standard depressed industries. The most affected was the coal industry. Already suffering from declining output as shipping switched to oil, as basic British industries like cotton came under more competition in export markets, the return to the pre-war exchange was estimated to add up to 10% in costs to the industry. In July 1925, a Commission of Inquiry reported generally favouring the miners, rather than the mine owners’ position.[87] Baldwin, with Churchill’s support proposed a subsidy to the industry while a Royal Commission prepared a further report.

That Commission solved nothing and the miners’ dispute led to the General Strike of 1926, Churchill was reported to have suggested that machine guns be used on the striking miners. Churchill edited the Government’s newspaper, the British Gazette, and, during the dispute, he argued that “either the country will break the General Strike, or the General Strike will break the country” and claimed that the fascism of Benito Mussolini had “rendered a service to the whole world,” showing, as it had, “a way to combat subversive forces”—that is, he considered the regime to be a bulwark against the perceived threat of Communist revolution. At one point, Churchill went as far as to call Mussolini the “Roman genius… the greatest lawgiver among men.”[88]

Later economists, as well as people at the time, also criticised Churchill’s budget measures. These were seen as assisting the generally prosperous rentier banking and salaried classes (to which Churchill and his associates generally belonged) at the expense of manufacturers and exporters which were known then to be suffering from imports and from competition in traditional export markets,[89] and as paring the Armed Forces too heavily.[90]

Churchill wrote a biography of his ancestor John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough in the mid 1930s

Political isolation

The Conservative government was defeated in the 1929 General Election. Churchill did not seek election to the Conservative Business Committee, the official leadership of the Conservative MPs. Over the next two years, Churchill became estranged from the Conservative leadership over the issues of protective tariffs and Indian Home Rule and by his political views and by his friendships with press barons, financiers and people whose characters were seen as dubious. When Ramsay MacDonald formed the National Government in 1931, Churchill was not invited to join the Cabinet. He was at the low point in his career, in a period known as “the wilderness years”.[91]

He spent much of the next few years concentrating on his writing, including Marlborough: His Life and Times—a biography of his ancestor John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough—and A History of the English Speaking Peoples (though the latter was not published until well after the Second World War),[91] Great Contemporaries and many newspaper articles and collections of speeches. He was one of the best paid writers of his time.[91] His political views, set forth in his 1930 Romanes Election and published as Parliamentary Government and the Economic Problem (republished in 1932 in his collection of essays “Thoughts and Adventures”) involved abandoning universal suffrage, a return to a property franchise, proportional representation for the major cities and an economic ‘sub parliament’.[92]

Indian independence

Churchill opposed Mohandas Gandhi’s peaceful disobedience revolt and the Indian Independence movement in the 1930s, arguing that the Round Table Conference “was a frightful prospect”.[93] Later reports indicate that Churchill favoured letting Gandhi die if he went on a hunger strike.[94] During the first half of the 1930s, Churchill was outspoken in his opposition to granting Dominion status to India. He was a founder of the India Defence League, a group dedicated to the preservation of British power in India. Churchill brooked no moderation. “The truth is,” he declared in 1930, “that Gandhi-ism and everything it stands for will have to be grappled with and crushed.”[95] In speeches and press articles in this period he forecast widespread unemployment in Britain and civil strife in India should independence be granted.[96] The Viceroy Lord Irwin, who had been appointed by the prior Conservative Government, engaged in the Round Table Conference in early 1931 and then announced the Government’s policy that India should be granted Dominion Status. In this the Government was supported by the Liberal Party and, officially at least, by the Conservative Party. Churchill denounced the Round Table Conference.

At a meeting of the West Essex Conservative Association specially convened so Churchill could explain his position he said, “It is alarming and also nauseating to see Mr Gandhi, a seditious Middle-Temple lawyer, now posing as a fakir of a type well-known in the East, striding half-naked up the steps of the Vice-regal palace… to parley on equal terms with the representative of the King-Emperor.”[97] He called the Indian National Congress leaders “Brahmins who mouth and patter principles of Western Liberalism”.[98]

Two incidents damaged Churchill’s reputation greatly within the Conservative Party in this period. Both were taken as attacks on the Conservative front bench. The first was his speech on the eve of the St George by-election in April 1931. In a secure Conservative seat, the official Conservative candidate Duff Cooper was opposed by an independent Conservative. The independent was supported by Lord Rothermere, Lord Beaverbrook and their respective newspapers. Although arranged before the by-election was set,[99] Churchill’s speech was seen as supporting the independent candidate and as a part of the Press Baron’s campaign against Baldwin. Baldwin’s position was strengthened when Duff Cooper won, and when the civil disobedience campaign in India ceased with the Gandhi-Irwin Pact. The second issue was a claim by Churchill that Sir Samuel Hoare and Lord Derby had pressured the Manchester Chamber of Commerce to change evidence it had given to the Joint Select Committee considering the Government of India Bill, and in doing so had breached Parliamentary privilege. He had the matter referred to the House of Commons Privilege Committee which after investigations, in which Churchill gave evidence, reported to the House that there had been no breach.[100] The report was debated on 13 June. Churchill was unable to find a single supporter in the House and the debate ended without a division.

Churchill permanently broke with Stanley Baldwin over Indian independence and never held any office while Baldwin was prime minister. Some historians see his basic attitude to India as being set out in his book My Early Life (1930).[101] Another source of controversy about Churchill’s attitude towards Indian affairs arises over what some historians term the Indian ‘nationalist approach’ to the Bengal famine of 1943, which has sought to place significant blame on Churchill’s wartime government for the excessive mortality of up to 3 million people.[102][103][104] While some commentators point to the disruption of the traditional marketing system and maladministration at the provincial level,[105] Arthur Herman, author of Churchill and Gandhi, contends, ‘The real cause was the fall of Burma to the Japanese, which cut off India’s main supply of rice imports when domestic sources fell short…[though] it is true that Churchill opposed diverting food supplies and transports from other theatres to India to cover the shortfall: this was wartime.’[106] In response to an urgent request by the Secretary of State for India, Leo Amery, and Viceroy of India, Wavell, to release food stocks for India, Churchill responded with a telegram to Wavell asking, if food was so scarce, “why Gandhi hadn’t died yet.”[107] In July 1940, newly in office, he welcomed reports of the emerging conflict between the Muslim League and the Indian Congress, hoping “it would be bitter and bloody”.[95]

German rearmament and conflicts in Europe and Asia

Portrait of Churchill by Ambrose McEvoy.

Beginning in 1932, when he opposed those who advocated giving Germany the right to military parity with France, Churchill spoke often of the dangers of Germany’s rearmament.[108] He later, particularly in The Gathering Storm, portrayed himself as being for a time, a lone voice calling on Britain to strengthen itself to counter the belligerence of Germany.[109] However Lord Lloyd was the first to so agitate.[110] Churchill’s attitude toward the fascist dictators was ambiguous. In 1931, he warned against the League of Nations opposing the Japanese in Manchuria “I hope we shall try in England to understand the position of Japan, an ancient state… On the one side they have the dark menace of Soviet Russia. On the other the chaos of China, four or five provinces of which are being tortured under Communist rule”.[111] In contemporary newspaper articles he referred to the Spanish Republican government as a Communist front, and Franco’s army as the “Anti-red movement”.[112] He supported the Hoare-Laval Pact and continued up until 1937 to praise Benito Mussolini.[113]

Speaking in the House of Commons in 1937, Churchill said “I will not pretend that, if I had to choose between communism and Nazism, I would choose communism”.[114] In a 1935 essay titled “Hitler and his Choice”, which was republished in his 1937 book Great Contemporaries, Churchill expressed a hope that Hitler, if he so chose, and despite his rise to power through dictatorial action, hatred and cruelty, might yet “go down in history as the man who restored honour and peace of mind to the great Germanic nation and brought it back serene, helpful and strong to the forefront of the European family circle.”[115] Churchill’s first major speech on defence on 7 February 1934 stressed the need to rebuild the Royal Air Force and to create a Ministry of Defence; his second, on 13 July urged a renewed role for the League of Nations. These three topics remained his themes until early 1936. In 1935, he was one of the founding members of The Focus, which brought together people of differing political backgrounds and occupations who were united in seeking ‘the defence of freedom and peace’.[116] The Focus led to the formation of the much wider Arms and the Covenant Movement in 1936.

Churchill was holidaying in Spain when the Germans reoccupied the Rhineland in February 1936, and returned to a divided Britain. Labour opposition was adamant in opposing sanctions and the National Government was divided between advocates of economic sanctions and those who said that even these would lead to a humiliating backdown by Britain as France would not support any intervention.[117] Churchill’s speech on 9 March was measured and praised by Neville Chamberlain as constructive. But within weeks Churchill was passed over for the post of Minister for Co-ordination of Defence in favour of the Attorney General Sir Thomas Inskip.[118] Alan Taylor called this ‘An appointment rightly described as the most extraordinary since Caligula made his horse a consul.’[119] In June 1936, Churchill organised a deputation of senior Conservatives who shared his concern to see Baldwin, Chamberlain and Halifax. He had tried to have delegates from the other two parties and later wrote “If the leaders of the Labour and Liberal oppositions had come with us there might have been a political situation so intense as to enforce remedial action”.[120] As it was the meeting achieved little, Baldwin arguing that the Government was doing all it could, given the anti-war feeling of the electorate.

On 12 November Churchill returned to the topic. Speaking in the Address in Reply debate after giving some specific instances of Germany’s war preparedness he said “The Government simply cannot make up their mind or they cannot get the prime minister to make up his mind. So they go on in strange paradox, decided only to be undecided, resolved to be irresolute, adamant for drift, solid for fluidity, all powerful for impotency. And so we go on preparing more months more years precious perhaps vital for the greatness of Britain for the locusts to eat.”

R.R. James called this one of Churchill’s most brilliant speeches in this period, Baldwin’s reply sounding weak and disturbing the House. The exchange gave new encouragement to the Arms and the Covenant Movement.[121]

Abdication crisis

Main article: Abdication Crisis of Edward VIII

In June 1936, Walter Monckton told Churchill that the rumours that King Edward VIII intended to marry Mrs Wallis Simpson were true. Churchill then advised against the marriage and said he regarded Mrs Simpson’s existing marriage as a ‘safeguard’.[122] In November, he declined Lord Salisbury’s invitation to be part of a delegation of senior Conservative backbenchers who met with Baldwin to discuss the matter. On 25 November he, Attlee and Liberal leader Archibald Sinclair met with Baldwin, were told officially of the King’s intention, and asked whether they would form an administration if Baldwin and the National Government resigned should the King not take the Ministry’s advice. Both Attlee and Sinclair said they would not take office if invited to do so. Churchill’s reply was that his attitude was a little different but he would support the government.[123]

The Abdication crisis became public, coming to a head in the first fortnight of December 1936. At this time Churchill publicly gave his support to the King. The first public meeting of the Arms and the Covenant Movement was on 3 December. Churchill was a major speaker and later wrote that in replying to the Vote of Thanks he made a declaration ‘on the spur of the moment’ asking for delay before any decision was made by either the King or his Cabinet.[124] Later that night Churchill saw the draft of the King’s proposed wireless broadcast and spoke with Beaverbrook and the King’s solicitor about it. On 4 December, he met with the King and again urged delay in any decision about abdication. On 5 December, he issued a lengthy statement implying that the Ministry was applying unconstitutional pressure on the King to force him to make a hasty decision.[125] On 7 December he tried to address the Commons to plead for delay. He was shouted down. Seemingly staggered by the unanimous hostility of all Members he left.[126]

Churchill’s reputation in Parliament and England as a whole was badly damaged. Some such as Alistair Cooke saw him as trying to build a King’s Party.[127] Others like Harold Macmillan were dismayed by the damage Churchill’s support for the King had done to the Arms and the Covenant Movement.[128] Churchill himself later wrote “I was myself smitten in public opinion that it was the almost universal view that my political life was ended.”[129] Historians are divided about Churchill’s motives in his support for Edward VIII. Some such as A J P Taylor see it as being an attempt to ‘overthrow the government of feeble men’.[130] Others such as Rhode James see Churchill’s motives as entirely honourable and disinterested, that he felt deeply for the King.[131]

Return from exile

Winston Churchill giving his famous ‘V’ sign

Churchill later sought to portray himself as (to some extent) an isolated voice warning of the need to rearm against Germany. While it is true that he had a small following in the House of Commons during much of the 1930s he was given privileged information by some elements within the Government, particularly by disaffected civil servants in the War Ministry. The “Churchill group” in the later half of the decade consisted only of himself, Duncan Sandys and Brendan Bracken. It was isolated from the other main factions within the Conservative Party pressing for faster rearmament and a stronger foreign policy.[132] Churchill continued to be consulted on many matters by the Government or seen as an alternative leader.[133]

Even during the time Churchill was campaigning against Indian independence, he received official and otherwise secret information. From 1932, Churchill’s neighbour, Major Desmond Morton with Ramsay MacDonald’s approval, gave Churchill information on German air power.[134] From 1930 onwards Morton headed a department of the Committee of Imperial Defence charged with researching the defence preparedness of other nations. Lord Swinton as Secretary of State for Air, and with Baldwin’s approval, in 1934 gave Churchill access to official and otherwise secret information.

Swinton did so, knowing Churchill would remain a critic of the government, but believing that an informed critic was better than one relying on rumour and hearsay.[135] Churchill was a fierce critic of Neville Chamberlain’s appeasement of Adolf Hitler[136] and in a speech to the House of Commons, he bluntly and prophetically stated, “You were given the choice between war and dishonour. You chose dishonour, and you will have war.”[137]

First term as prime minister

“Winston is back”

After the outbreak of the Second World War on 3 September 1939, the day Britain declared war on Germany, Churchill was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty and a member of the War Cabinet, as he had been during the first part of the First World War. When they were informed, the Board of the Admiralty sent a signal to the Fleet: “Winston is back”.[138][139] In this job, he proved to be one of the highest-profile ministers during the so-called “Phoney War“, when the only noticeable action was at sea. Churchill advocated the pre-emptive occupation of the neutral Norwegian iron-ore port of Narvik and the iron mines in Kiruna, Sweden, early in the war. However, Chamberlain and the rest of the War Cabinet disagreed, and the operation was delayed until the successful German invasion of Norway.

Churchill wears a helmet during an air raid warning in the Battle of Britain in 1940

Bitter beginnings of the war

On 10 May 1940, hours before the German invasion of France by a lightning advance through the Low Countries, it became clear that, following failure in Norway, the country had no confidence in Chamberlain’s prosecution of the war and so Chamberlain resigned. The commonly accepted version of events states that Lord Halifax turned down the post of prime minister because he believed he could not govern effectively as a member of the House of Lords instead of the House of Commons. Although the prime minister does not traditionally advise the King on the former’s successor, Chamberlain wanted someone who would command the support of all three major parties in the House of Commons. A meeting between Chamberlain, Halifax, Churchill and David Margesson, the government Chief Whip, led to the recommendation of Churchill, and, as a constitutional monarch, George VI asked Churchill to be prime minister and to form an all-party government. Churchill’s first act was to write to Chamberlain to thank him for his support.[140]

Churchill takes aim with a Sten submachine gun in June 1941. The man in the pin-striped suit and trilby on Churchill’s left is his bodyguard, Walter H. Thompson

Churchill had been among the first to recognise the growing threat of Hitler long before the outset of the Second World War, and his warnings had gone largely unheeded. Although there was an element of British public and political sentiment favouring negotiated peace with a clearly ascendant Germany, among them the Foreign Secretary Lord Halifax, Churchill nonetheless refused to consider an armistice with Hitler’s Germany.[141] His use of rhetoric hardened public opinion against a peaceful resolution and prepared the British for a long war.[142] Coining the general term for the upcoming battle, Churchill stated in his “finest hour” speech to the House of Commons on 18 June 1940, “I expect that the Battle of Britain is about to begin.”[143] By refusing an armistice with Germany, Churchill kept resistance alive in the British Empire and created the basis for the later Allied counter-attacks of 1942–45, with Britain serving as a platform for the supply of Soviet Union and the liberation of Western Europe.

In response to previous criticisms that there had been no clear single minister in charge of the prosecution of the war, Churchill created and took the additional position of Minister of Defence. He immediately put his friend and confidant, the industrialist and newspaper baron Lord Beaverbrook, in charge of aircraft production. It was Beaverbrook’s business acumen that allowed Britain to quickly gear up aircraft production and engineering that eventually made the difference in the war.[144]

Winston Churchill walks through the ruins of Coventry Cathedral, 1941

Churchill’s speeches were a great inspiration to the embattled British. His first speech as prime minister was the famous “I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears, and sweat“. He followed that closely with two other equally famous ones, given just before the Battle of Britain. One included the words:

… we shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender.[145]

The other:

Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duties, and so bear ourselves, that if the British Empire and its Commonwealth last for a thousand years, men will still say, ‘This was their finest hour‘.[146]

Churchill with Field Marshal Alan Brooke (left) and Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery, 1944

At the height of the Battle of Britain, his bracing survey of the situation included the memorable line “Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few”, which engendered the enduring nickname The Few for the RAF fighter pilots who won it.[147] He first spoke these famous words upon his exit from No. 11 Group’s underground bunker at RAF Uxbridge, now known as the Battle of Britain Bunker on 16 August 1940. One of his most memorable war speeches came on 10 November 1942 at the Lord Mayor’s Luncheon at Mansion House in London, in response to the Allied victory at the Second Battle of El Alamein. Churchill stated:

This is not the end. It is not even the beginning of the end. But it is, perhaps, the end of the beginning.[148]

Without having much in the way of sustenance or good news to offer the British people, he took a risk in deliberately choosing to emphasise the dangers instead.

“Rhetorical power”, wrote Churchill, “is neither wholly bestowed, nor wholly acquired, but cultivated.” Not all were impressed by his oratory. Robert Menzies, prime minister of Australia and himself a gifted phrase-maker, said of Churchill during the Second World War: “His real tyrant is the glittering phrase so attractive to his mind that awkward facts have to give way.”[149] Another associate wrote: “He is… the slave of the words which his mind forms about ideas…. And he can convince himself of almost every truth if it is once allowed thus to start on its wild career through his rhetorical machinery.”[150]

Relations with the United States

Churchill after his speech to the Parliament of Canada in December of 1941

Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Churchill at the Cairo Conference in 1943

Churchill’s good relationship with Franklin D. Roosevelt secured vital food, oil and munitions via the North Atlantic shipping routes.[151] It was for this reason that Churchill was relieved when Roosevelt was re-elected in 1940. Upon re-election, Roosevelt immediately set about implementing a new method of providing military hardware and shipping to Britain without the need for monetary payment. Put simply, Roosevelt persuaded Congress that repayment for this immensely costly service would take the form of defending the US; and so Lend-lease was born. Churchill had 12 strategic conferences with Roosevelt which covered the Atlantic Charter, Europe first strategy, the Declaration by the United Nations and other war policies. After Pearl Harbor was attacked, Churchill’s first thought in anticipation of US help was, “We have won the war!”[152] On 26 December 1941, Churchill addressed a joint meeting of the US Congress, asking of Germany and Japan, “What kind of people do they think we are?”[153] Churchill initiated the Special Operations Executive (SOE) under Hugh Dalton’s Ministry of Economic Warfare, which established, conducted and fostered covert, subversive and partisan operations in occupied territories with notable success; and also the Commandos which established the pattern for most of the world’s current Special Forces. The Russians referred to him as the “British Bulldog”.

Churchill’s health was fragile, as shown by a mild heart attack he suffered in December 1941 at the White House and also in December 1943 when he contracted pneumonia. Despite this, he travelled over 100,000 miles (160,000 km) throughout the war to meet other national leaders. For security, he usually travelled using the alias Colonel Warden.[154]

Churchill was party to treaties that would redraw post-Second World War European and Asian boundaries. These were discussed as early as 1943. At the Second Quebec Conference in 1944 he drafted and, together with US President Franklin D. Roosevelt, signed a toned-down version of the original Morgenthau Plan, in which they pledged to convert Germany after its unconditional surrender “into a country primarily agricultural and pastoral in its character.”[155] Proposals for European boundaries and settlements were officially agreed to by Harry S. Truman, Churchill, and Joseph Stalin at Potsdam. Churchill’s strong relationship with Harry Truman was also of great significance to both countries. While he clearly regretted the loss of his close friend and counterpart Roosevelt, Churchill was enormously supportive of Truman in his first days in office, calling him, “the type of leader the world needs when it needs him most.”[156]

Relations with the Soviet Union

Churchill secretly meets with President Ismet Inönü at the Yenice Station 15 miles (24 km) outside of Adana in south Turkey, on 30 January 1943

When Hitler invaded the Soviet Union, Winston Churchill, a vehement anti-Communist, famously stated “If Hitler invaded Hell, I would at least make a favourable reference to the Devil in the House of Commons,” regarding his policy toward Stalin.[157] Soon, British supplies and tanks were flowing to help the Soviet Union.[158]

The settlement concerning the borders of Poland, that is, the boundary between Poland and the Soviet Union and between Germany and Poland, was viewed as a betrayal in Poland during the post-war years, as it was established against the views of the Polish government in exile. It was Winston Churchill, who tried to motivate Mikołajczyk, who was prime minister of the Polish government in exile, to accept Stalin’s wishes, but Mikołajczyk refused. Churchill was convinced that the only way to alleviate tensions between the two populations was the transfer of people, to match the national borders.

As he expounded in the House of Commons on 15 December 1944, “Expulsion is the method which, insofar as we have been able to see, will be the most satisfactory and lasting. There will be no mixture of populations to cause endless trouble… A clean sweep will be made. I am not alarmed by these transferences, which are more possible in modern conditions.”[159][160] However the resulting expulsions of Germans were carried out in a way which resulted in much hardship and, according to a 1966 report by the West German Ministry of Refugees and Displaced Persons, the death of over 2.1 million. Churchill opposed the effective annexation of Poland by the Soviet Union and wrote bitterly about it in his books, but he was unable to prevent it at the conferences.[161]

Winston Churchill at the Yalta Conference, with Roosevelt and Stalin beside him

During October 1944, he and Eden were in Moscow to meet with the Russian leadership. At this point, Russian forces were beginning to advance into various eastern European countries. Churchill held the view that until everything was formally and properly worked out at the Yalta conference, there had to be a temporary, war-time, working agreement with regard to who would run what.[162] The most significant of these meetings were held on 9 October 1944 in the Kremlin between Churchill and Stalin. During the meeting, Poland and the Balkan problems were discussed.[163] Churchill recounted his speech to Stalin on the day:

Let us settle about our affairs in the Balkans. Your armies are in Rumania and Bulgaria. We have interests, missions, and agents there. Don’t let us get at cross-purposes in small ways. So far as Britain and Russia are concerned, how would it do for you to have ninety per cent predominance in Rumania, for us to have ninety per cent of the say in Greece, and go fifty-fifty about Yugoslavia?[162]

Stalin agreed to this Percentages Agreement, ticking a piece of paper as he heard the translation. In 1958, five years after the account of this meeting was published (in The Second World War), authorities of the Soviet Union denied that Stalin accepted the “imperialist proposal”.[163]

One of the conclusions of the Yalta Conference was that the Allies would return all Soviet citizens that found themselves in the Allied zone to the Soviet Union. This immediately affected the Soviet prisoners of war liberated by the Allies, but was also extended to all Eastern European refugees.[164] Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn called the Operation Keelhaul “the last secret of World War II.”[165] The operation decided the fate of up to two million post-war refugees fleeing eastern Europe.[166]

Dresden bombings controversy

Main article: Bombing of Dresden in the Second World War

The destruction of Dresden, February 1945

Between 13–15 February 1945, British and US bombers attacked the German city of Dresden, which was crowded with German wounded and refugees.[167] Because of the cultural importance of the city, and of the number of civilian casualties close to the end of the war, this remains one of the most controversial Western Allied actions of the war. Following the bombing Churchill stated in a top secret telegram:

It seems to me that the moment has come when the question of bombing of German cities simply for the sake of increasing the terror, though under other pretexts, should be reviewed… I feel the need for more precise concentration upon military objectives such as oil and communications behind the immediate battle-zone, rather than on mere acts of terror and wanton destruction, however impressive.[168]

On reflection, under pressure from the Chiefs of Staff and in response to the views expressed by Sir Charles Portal (Chief of the Air Staff,) and Sir Arthur Harris (AOC-in-C of RAF Bomber Command), among others, Churchill withdrew his memo and issued a new one.[169][170] This final version of the memo completed on 1 April 1945, stated:

It seems to me that the moment has come when the question of the so called ‘area-bombing’ of German cities should be reviewed from the point of view of our own interests. If we come into control of an entirely ruined land, there will be a great shortage of accommodation for ourselves and our allies… We must see to it that our attacks do no more harm to ourselves in the long run than they do to the enemy’s war effort.[169][170]

Ultimately, responsibility for the British part of the attack lay with Churchill, which is why he has been criticised for allowing the bombings to happen. The German historian Jörg Friedrich, claims that “Winston Churchill’s decision to [area] bomb a shattered Germany between January and May 1945 was a war crime”[171] and writing in 2006 the philosopher A. C. Grayling questioned the whole strategic bombing campaign by the RAF presenting the argument that although it was not a war crime it was a moral crime and undermines the Allies contention that they fought a just war.[172] On the other hand, it has also been asserted that Churchill’s involvement in the bombing of Dresden was based on the strategic and tactical aspects of winning the war. The destruction of Dresden, while immense, was designed to expedite the defeat of Germany. As the historian and journalist Max Hastings said in an article subtitled, “the Allied Bombing of Dresden”: “I believe it is wrong to describe strategic bombing as a war crime, for this might be held to suggest some moral equivalence with the deeds of the Nazis. Bombing represented a sincere, albeit mistaken, attempt to bring about Germany’s military defeat.” British historian, Frederick Taylor asserts that “All sides bombed each other’s cities during the war. Half a million Soviet citizens, for example, died from German bombing during the invasion and occupation of Russia. That’s roughly equivalent to the number of German citizens who died from Allied raids. But the Allied bombing campaign was attached to military operations and ceased as soon as military operations ceased.”[173]

The Second World War ends

Churchill waves to crowds in Whitehall on the day he broadcast to the nation that the war with Germany had been won, 8 May 1945.

In June 1944, the Allied Forces invaded Normandy and pushed the Nazi forces back into Germany on a broad front over the coming year. After being attacked on three fronts by the Allies, and in spite of Allied failures, such as Operation Market Garden, and German counter-attacks, including the Battle of the Bulge, Germany was eventually defeated. On 7 May 1945 at the SHAEF headquarters in Rheims the Allies accepted Germany’s surrender. On the same day in a BBC news flash John Snagge announced that 8 May would be Victory in Europe Day.[174] On Victory in Europe Day, Churchill broadcast to the nation that Germany had surrendered and that a final cease fire on all fronts in Europe would come into effect at one minute past midnight that night.[175][176] Afterwards, Churchill told a huge crowd in Whitehall: “This is your victory.” The people shouted: “No, it is yours”, and Churchill then conducted them in the singing of Land of Hope and Glory. In the evening he made another broadcast to the nation asserting the defeat of Japan in the coming months.[45] The Japanese later surrendered on 15 August 1945.

As Europe celebrated peace at the end of six years of war, Churchill was concerning on the possibility that the celebrations would soon be brutally interrupted.[177] He concluded that the UK and the US must prepare for the Red Army ignoring previously agreed frontiers and agreements in Europe, and prepare to “impose upon Russia the will of the United States and the British Empire.”[178] According to the Operation Unthinkable plan ordered by Churchill and developed by the British Armed Forces, the Third World War could have started on 1 July 1945 with a sudden attack against the allied Soviet troops. The plan was rejected by the British Chiefs of Staff Committee as militarily unfeasible.

Leader of the opposition

Churchill at Potsdam, July 1945

Although Churchill’s role in the Second World War had generated much support for him amongst the British population, he was defeated in the 1945 election.[179] Many reasons for this have been given, key among them being that a desire for post-war reform was widespread amongst the population and that the man who had led Britain in war was not seen as the man to lead the nation in peace.[180]

Churchill with American General Dwight D. Eisenhower and Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery at a meeting of NATO in October 1951, shortly before Churchill was to become prime minister for a second time

For six years he was to serve as the Leader of the Opposition. During these years Churchill continued to have an impact on world affairs. During his March 1946 trip to the United States, Churchill famously lost a lot of money in a poker game with Harry Truman and his advisors.[181] (He also liked to play Bezique, which he learned while serving in the Boer War.)

During this trip he gave his Iron Curtain speech about the USSR and the creation of the Eastern Bloc. Speaking on 5 March 1946 at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri, he declared:

From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an Iron Curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere.[182]

Churchill also argued strongly for British independence from the European Coal and Steel Community, which he saw as a Franco-German project. He saw Britain’s place as separate from the continent, much more in-line with the countries of the Commonwealth and the Empire and with the United States, the so-called Anglosphere.[183][184]

Churchill held the office of Deputy Lieutenant (DL) of Kent in 1949[185]

Second term as prime minister

Return to government and the decline of the British Empire

After the General Election of 1951, Churchill again held the office of Minister of Defence between October 1951 and January 1952. He also became prime minister in October 1951, and his third government—after the wartime national government and the brief caretaker government of 1945—lasted until his resignation in April 1955. His domestic priorities in his last government were overshadowed by a series of foreign policy crises, which were partly the result of the continued decline of British military and imperial prestige and power. Being a strong proponent of Britain as an international power, Churchill would often meet such moments with direct action. One example was his dispatch of British troops to Kenya to deal with the Mau Mau rebellion.[186] Trying to retain what he could of the Empire, he once stated that, “I will not preside over a dismemberment.”[186]

War in Malaya

This was followed by events which became known as the Malayan Emergency. In Malaya, a rebellion against British rule had been in progress since 1948.[187] Once again, Churchill’s government inherited a crisis, and Churchill chose to use direct military action against those in rebellion while attempting to build an alliance with those who were not.[45][188] While the rebellion was slowly being defeated, it was equally clear that colonial rule from Britain was no longer sustainable.[187][189]

Relations with the United States

Churchill also devoted much of his time in office to Anglo-American relations and, although Churchill did not always agree with President Dwight D. Eisenhower,[190] Churchill attempted to maintain the Special Relationship with the United States. He made four official transatlantic visits to America during his second term as prime minister.[191]

The series of strokes

Churchill had suffered a mild stroke while on holiday in the south of France in the summer of 1949. In June 1953, when he was 78, Churchill suffered a more severe stroke at 10 Downing Street. News of this was kept from the public and from Parliament, who were told that Churchill was suffering from exhaustion. He went to his country home, Chartwell, to recuperate from the effects of the stroke which had affected his speech and ability to walk.[45] He returned to public life in October to make a speech at a Conservative Party conference at Margate.[45][192] However, aware that he was slowing down both physically and mentally, Churchill retired as prime minister in 1955 and was succeeded by Anthony Eden. He suffered another mild stroke in December 1956.

Retirement and death

Churchill spent much of his retirement at his home Chartwell in Kent. He purchased it in 1922 after his daughter Mary was born.

Elizabeth II offered to create Churchill Duke of London, but this was declined due to the objections of his son Randolph, who would have inherited the title on his father’s death.[193] After leaving the premiership, Churchill spent less time in parliament until he stood down at the 1964 General Election. As a mere “back-bencher,” Churchill spent most of his retirement at Chartwell and at his home in Hyde Park Gate, in London.[45] In the 1959 General Election Churchill’s majority fell by more than a thousand, since many young voters in his constituency did not support an 85-year-old who could only enter the House of Commons in a wheelchair. As his mental and physical faculties decayed, he began to lose the battle he had fought for so long against the “black dog” of depression.[45] There was speculation that Churchill may have had Alzheimer’s disease in his last years, although others maintain that his reduced mental capacity was merely the result of a series of strokes. In 1963, US President John F. Kennedy, acting under authorisation granted by an Act of Congress, proclaimed him an Honorary Citizen of the United States, but he was unable to attend the White House ceremony.[194] Despite poor health, Churchill still tried to remain active in public life, and on St George’s Day 1964, sent a message of congratulations to the surviving veterans of the 1918 Zeebrugge Raid who were attending a service of commemoration in Deal, Kent, where two casualties of the raid were buried in the Hamilton Road Cemetery. On 15 January 1965, Churchill suffered a severe stroke that left him gravely ill. He died at his home nine days later, at age 90, on the morning of Sunday 24 January 1965, 70 years to the day after his father’s death.[194]


Churchill’s grave at St Martin’s Church, Bladon

By decree of the Queen, his body lay in state for three days and a state funeral service was held at St Paul’s Cathedral.[195] As his lead-lined coffin passed down the River Thames from Tower Pier to Festival Pier on the Havengore, dockers lowered their crane jibs in a salute.[196] The Royal Artillery fired a 19-gun salute (as head of government), and the RAF staged a fly-by of sixteen English Electric Lightning fighters. The coffin was then taken the short distance to Waterloo Station where it was loaded onto a specially prepared and painted carriage as part of the funeral train for its rail journey to Bladon.[197] The funeral also saw one of the largest assemblages of statesmen in the world.[198] The funeral train of Pullman coaches carrying his family mourners was hauled by Bulleid Pacific steam locomotive No. 34051 “Winston Churchill”. In the fields along the route, and at the stations through which the train passed, thousands stood in silence to pay their last respects. At Churchill’s request, he was buried in the family plot at St Martin’s Church, Bladon, near Woodstock, not far from his birthplace at Blenheim Palace. Churchill’s funeral van – Southern Railway Van S2464S – is now part of a preservation project with the Swanage Railway, having been repatriated to the UK in 2007 from the US, to where it had been exported in 1965.[199]

Later in 1965 a memorial to Churchill, cut by the engraver Reynolds Stone, was placed in Westminster Abbey.

Churchill as artist, historian, and writer

Statue of Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt in New Bond Street, London

Winston Churchill was an accomplished artist and took great pleasure in painting, especially after his resignation as First Lord of the Admiralty in 1915.[200] He found a haven in art to overcome the spells of depression, or as he termed it, the “Black Dog”, which he suffered throughout his life. As William Rees-Mogg has stated, “In his own life, he had to suffer the ‘black dog’ of depression. In his landscapes and still lives there is no sign of depression.”[201] Churchill was persuaded and taught to paint by his artist friend, Paul Maze, whom he met during the First World War. Maze was a great influence on Churchill’s painting and became a lifelong painting companion.[202] He is best known for his impressionist scenes of landscape, many of which were painted while on holiday in the South of France, Egypt or Morocco.[201] He continued his hobby throughout his life and painted hundreds of paintings, many of which are on show in the studio at Chartwell as well as private collections.[203] Some of his paintings can today be seen in the Wendy and Emery Reves Collection at the Dallas Museum of Art. Emery Reves and Winston Churchill indeed were close friends[204] and Churchill would often visit Emery and his wife in their villa in the South of France (villa La Pausa, originally built in 1927 for Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel). The villa was rebuilt within the museum in 1985 with a gallery of paintings and memorabilia from Sir Winston Churchill.[205][206] Most of his paintings are oil-based and feature landscapes, but he also did a number of interior scenes and portraits.

Due to obvious time constraints, Churchill attempted only one painting during the Second World War. He completed the painting from the tower of the Villa Taylor in Marrakesh.[207]

Despite his lifelong fame and upper-class origins, Churchill always struggled to keep his income at a level that would fund his extravagant lifestyle. MPs before 1946 received only a nominal salary (and in fact did not receive anything at all until the Parliament Act 1911) so many had secondary professions from which to earn a living.[208] From his first book in 1898 until his second stint as Prime Minister, Churchill’s income was almost entirely made from writing books and opinion pieces for newspapers and magazines. The most famous of his newspaper articles are those that appeared in the Evening Standard from 1936 warning of the rise of Hitler and the danger of the policy of appeasement.

Churchill was also a prolific writer of books, writing a novel, two biographies, three volumes of memoirs, and several histories in addition to his many newspaper articles. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1953 “for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values”.[209] Two of his most famous works, published after his first premiership brought his international fame to new heights, were his six-volume memoir The Second World War and A History of the English-Speaking Peoples; a four-volume history covering the period from Caesar’s invasions of Britain (55 BC) to the beginning of the First World War (1914).[210]


Statue in Parliament Square, London

In addition to the honour of a state funeral, Churchill received a wide range of awards and other honours. For example, he was the first person to become an Honorary Citizen of the United States.[211]

In 1945, while Churchill was mentioned by Halvdan Koht as one of seven appropriate candidates for the Nobel Prize in Peace, the nomination went to Cordell Hull.[212]

Churchill received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1953 for his numerous published works, especially his six-volume set The Second World War. In a 2002 BBC poll of the “100 Greatest Britons“, he was proclaimed “The Greatest of Them All” based on approximately a million votes from BBC viewers.[213] Churchill was also rated as one of the most influential leaders in history by Time.[214] Churchill College, Cambridge was founded in 1958 to memorialise him

the end @ copyright Dr iwan Suwandy 2011