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The Hungary Music record History(Sejarah rekaman Musik Hongaria ) Frame Ore : The Hungary Music record Found In Indonesia(Dr Iwan s,Collection)
Classic Music written by Hungarian Franz Liszt.
Portrait by Pierre Petit, circa 1860–1877
Franz Liszt (Hungarian: Ferencz Liszt, in modern use Ferenc Liszt,[note 1] from 1859 to 1867 officially Franz Ritter von Liszt)[note 2] (October 22, 1811 – July 31, 1886) was a 19th century Hungarian composer, virtuoso pianist and teacher.
Liszt became renowned throughout Europe during the 19th century for his great skill as a performer. He was said by his contemporaries to have been the most technically advanced pianist of his age and perhaps the greatest pianist of all time. He was also an important and influential composer, a notable piano teacher, a conductor who contributed significantly to the modern development of the art, and a benefactor to other composers and performers, notably Richard Wagner, Hector Berlioz, Camille Saint-Saëns, Edvard Grieg and Alexander Borodin.
As a composer, Liszt was one of the most prominent representatives of the “Neudeutsche Schule” (“New German School”). He left behind an extensive and diverse body of work, in which he influenced his forward-looking contemporaries and anticipated some 20th-century ideas and trends. Some of his most notable contributions were the invention of the symphonic poem, developing the concept of thematic transformation as part of his experiments in musical form and making radical departures in harmony.
2. Folk Song
Palace Record, Imre Magyari Gypsy Orchestra plays Hungarian Gypsy Music
Gypsy may refer, often pejoratively, to any of the following nomadic peoples:
- the Romani people, the largest ethnic group popularly referred to as gypsies
- the Dom people, an ethnic group of the Middle East possibly related to the Romani
- Lyuli, a branch of the Dom people of Central Asia
- the Lom people, an ethnic group of East Anatolia and Armenia possibly related to the Romani
- the Banjara, an ethnic group of India
- the Irish Travellers (or Pavee), an ethnic group of Irish origin mostly found in Ireland, Great Britain, and the United States
- the Ceàrdannan (literally “Craftsmen”), a ethnic group of the Scottish Highlands.
- the Yeniche people, mostly in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, France, and Belgium
- Sea Gypsies, a number of different peoples of Southeast Asia
Literature and derived works
- Gypsy: A Memoir, a book by Gypsy Rose Lee
- The Gypsy (novel), a novel by Steven Brust and Megan Lindholm
- The Gypsies (poem), a poem by Alexander Pushkin
- Gypsies, a fantasy novel by Robert Charles Wilson
- Gypsy Magic, a Macedonian film
Music and dance
- Gypsy (band), an American progressive rock band
- Gipsy.cz, a Romani hip hop group
- The Gypsies, a Sri Lankan band
- Gypsy (calypsonian) or Winston Edward Peters, Trinidad and Tobago calypsonian and politician
- Gypsy, a contra dance figure
- “The Gypsy“, a 1945 song written by Billy Reid, performed by several artists
- “Gypsy” (Fleetwood Mac song)
- “Gypsy” (Shakira song)
- “Gypsy (Of a Strange and Distant Time)“, a song by The Moody Blues from To Our Children’s Children’s Children
- “Gypsy”, a song by Armin van Buuren from Shivers
- “Gypsy”, a song by Black Sabbath from Technical Ecstasy
- “Gypsy”, a song by Brotherhood of Man from Higher Than High
- “Gypsy”, a song by Dio from Holy Diver
- “Gypsy”, a song by Ektomorf from Destroy
- “Gypsy”, a song by Emperor from In the Nightside Eclipse (1999 edition)
- “Gypsy”, a song by Luscious Jackson from Electric Honey
- “Gypsy”, a song by Mercyful Fate from Don’t Break The Oath
- “Gypsy”, a song by Savoy Brown from Looking In
- “Gypsy”, a song by Suzanne Vega from Solitude Standing
- “Gypsy”, a song by Uriah Heep from Very ‘eavy… Very ‘umble
- “Gypsy”, a song by Van Morrison from Saint Dominic’s Preview
- “Gypsy”, a song by Ronan Hardiman from Lord of the Dance
- “The Gypsy”, a song by Deep Purple from Stormbringer
- “The Gypsy song”, a song by Hedley (band)“
- “Gypsy Woman”, a song by “Hilary Duff“
- “Evil Gypsy/ Solomon’s Theme”, a song by “Sleep“
- “Gypsy Motherfucker”, a song by “GG Allin“
Frame Two :
The Hungry Music Record History
1.Music history of Hungary
Information about music education during this period is known thanks to manuscripts such as the Notebook of László Szalkai, Jacobus de Liège’s Speculum musicae (c. 1330-1340, which mentions the use of solmization ), the Hahót Codex, the Codex Albensis and the Sacramentarium of Zagreb. The Pray Codex is a collection of “liturgical melodies … in neumatic notation … containing among other things the earliest written record extant of the Hungarian language, the Funeral Oration, … independent forms of notation and even independent melodies (Hymn to Mary)” .
The first known example of exchange between Hungarian and Western European music is from the 13th century, the “first encounter with the more secular melodic world of the Western world” .
The earliest documented instrumentation in Hungarian music dates back to the whistle in 1222, followed by the koboz in 1326, the bugle in 1355, the fiddle in 1358, the bagpipe in 1402, the lute in 1427 and the trumpet in 1428 . Thereafter the organ came to play a major role.
Though virtually nothing is known about them, Hungarian minstrels existed throughout the Middle Ages and may have kept ancient pagan religious practices alive . At the Synod of Buda in 1279 the church banned their congregation from listening to them, despite their having come to be employed by noblemen in courts. By the 14th century instrumental music had become their most important repertoire and minstrel singers had become known as igric . The golden age of courtly music (which had followed French models for most of the early Middle Ages before musicians from Flanders, Italy and Germany arrived) was during the reign of Matthias Corvinus and Beatrice. 
The Nádor Codex of 1508 presents the first use of Gregorian melodies with Hungarian texts . The same period saw the local folk styles grow more diverse, while political authorities railed against secular music. Szavolcsi notes the author of the Sándor Codex (early 16th century), who described secular music as accompanied by “fiddle, lute, drums and cimbalom… and used tenor, discant and contratenor” singers, meaning it was in the style of the motet .
The 16th century saw the rise of Transylvania, a region the Turks never occupied, as a center for Hungarian music , as well as the first Hungarian publications of music, both published in Kraków. István Gálszécsi‘s songbook was the “first Hungarian gradual to the Gregorian hymn-melodies and German choral music of which we can see new Hungarian translations”, while the Cronica of András Farkas includes the first surviving historical song . About forty melodies are known from this era, and are already in a distinctively Hungarian style which took influences from across much of Europe in several dozen distinct forms that were “mostly notated in a rigid and clumsy way” but were “undoubtedly much more colourful and flexible in living performance” and were in reality “little masterpieces of melodic structure” . The most significant musician of this period was Sebestyén Tinódi, the “greatest stylist and master of expression of ancient Hungarian epic poetry… whose heritage the people’s music of two centuries was unconsciously nourished” .
Accentuated declamation was fashionable in music education during the early 16th century; a more rigid choir style is represented by a collection called the Melopoeiae, from 1507 . A collection by Johannes Honterus was the first Hungarian printed work with music, dating from 1548. These collections were enriched by “melodic configurations” that, according to Bence Szabolcsi, could be explained by the arrival of the “song material of the Czech Reformation, the melodic treasure of the German Reformation and the psalter of French Huguenots” . The poet Bálint Balassi remains well-regarded for his poems from this period, which were based on Polish, Turkish, Italian and German melodies, and may have also been influenced by the villanella . Some songs from this period, influenced by the music of the nobles and their minstrels from as far away as Italy, remained a part of the Hungarian folk tradition at least until modern song collection began. Religious and secular music were closely connected at this time, and documentation of the former grew with the publication of many songbooks filled with free psalm paraphrases called lauds, facilitating the practice of communal singing among the nascent Protestant churches . This conflation of religious and secular song was much criticized from the pulpit, from the both the Protestant and Catholic churches. The latter allowed popular songs after a 1564 edict from Ferdinand I, which allowed the bishops to use them only after close scrutiny . They were again banned in 1611, however, and a Catholic collection of Hungarian church songs was not agreed upon until 1629, at the Synod of Nagyszombat. The collection, Benedek Szőlősy‘s Cantus Catholici, was published in 1651, and wasn’t followed by a Protestant version for about 90 years .
Hungarian instrumental music was well-known in Europe in the 16th century. The lutenist and composer Bálint Bakfark was especially famous, known as a virtuoso player of the lute ; his works were collected and published as Intavolatura and Harmoniae musicae (published in 1553 and 1565 respectively) . He was one of the pioneers of a style based on vocal polyphony. Also important were the lutenist brothers, the Neusiedlers, and the author of an important work of music theory, Epithoma utriusque musices, Stephan Monetarius .
During the 17th century, Hungary was divided into three parts, one the region of Transylvania, one controlled by the Turks, and another by the Habsburg. Historic songs declined in popularity, replaced by lyrical poetry . Minstrels were replaced by courtly musicians, who played the trumpet and whistle, or cimbalom, violin or bagpipes; many courts and households had large groups of instrumentals . Some of these musicians were German, Polish, French or Italian, and even included a Spanish guitarist at the court of Gábor Bethlen, Prince of Transylvania. Little is known about the actual music of this time, however.
Instrumental music from the 17th century is known from the collections of various Upper Hungarian and Transylvanian collectors, such as János Kájoni, who collected the Cantionale Catholicum, Kájoni Codex, Organo Missale and Sacri Concentus . The collectors of the Vietórisz Codex, whose identities are unknown, and another anonymous collector from Lőcse, also published “the first examples of autonomous, developed virginal music, equally accomplished in style, melodic texture and technique of adaptation” . These songs were characterized by “flexible, finely shaded melodies, a tendency to create wider and looser forms, and a gradual independence of the forma (sic) principles of song melodies toward a clearly instrumental conception” . At the same time, rhythm became more complicated and notation more general. The Lőcse manuscript also notably presents an arrangement of dances, the first example of the Hungarian cyclic form ; this music and dance had similarities both to the Polish music of the time as well as the subsequent development of the verbunkos style.
17th century Hungarian church music was revolutionized after the 1651 publication of the Cantus Catholici, in which genuine Hungarian motives played a major part. By 1674, the Hungarian Mass was also part of the Cantus Catholici, followed by the adoption of Calvinist psalm tunes in 1693 and Hungarian choral music in 1695 . János Kájoni Organo Missale of 1667 was the first experiment in the creation of a new kind of Hungarian church music, a style that strung together short motives that were shortened, extended or syncopated in a complex rhythmic structure . Italian religious music played an important role in this development, which was documented in an “unparalleled example of ancient Hungarian music”, the Harmonia Caelestis of Prince Pál Eszterházy , who tried to create a distinctively Hungarian style of church music using influences from opera, oratio literature, the German music of Johann Kaspar von Kerll and Johann Schmeltzer, and the oratorio and cantata styles . Eszterházy’s efforts did not last, as the following century saw an influx of muic from Western Europe under the Habsburgs.
Around the turn of the 18th century, however, the last national uprising of the period occurred, leading the spread of “Kuruc songs“. These songs were authentically Hungarian and hold a “central position between the style of the ancient and the new folk music” . Their influences include elements of Polish, Romanian, Slovak and Ukrainian music in addition to Hungarian melodies.
During the 18th century, students at Hungary’s Calvinist colleges, some of whom, being minor nobles, lived in small rural villages, brought with them to their schools their regional styles of music. Colleges like Sárospatak and Székelyudvarhely developed choirs that adopted new elements like polyphony. György Maróthi of Debrecen published several influential works, and his French psalm book became very popular . By around 1790, the four voice choirs were expanded to eight using accessory voices like accantus, subcantus and concantus, and the discant voice was systematically transpoed into a lower pitch, producing a new form of choral design with similarities to midieval organum and fauxbourdon . The same period saw the popularity of homophoning songs which are recorded in the students’ song books; notation, however, was crude, and no extensive collection appeared until 1853, with the publication of Ádám Pálóczi Horváth’s Ötödfélszáz Énekek . These songs show that the mid to late 18th century was a period when the old Hungarian styles died out, and a new style appeared .
Many Hungarian musicians and composers of the 18th century preached closer cultural ties with Europe, not believing that Hungarian music could reach the levels of development in Italy and Germany . The aristocracy were interested in the court music of Louis XIV, like the minuet and rondeaux . Many of these people tried to popularize Viennese-style songs with Hungarian texts, or to use German and Italian forms; these people included the poet László Amadé, novelist Ignác Mészáros and the author and linguist Ferenc Verseghy . Hungarian music did, however, have an effect on composers from elsewhere in Europe. Joseph Haydn‘s Rondo all’ Ongarese (from the Trio in G major (No. 1), is an example, as is the finale of Beethoven‘s Symphony No. 3 (Eroica), which uses a Magyar march, and Symphony No. 7, which is a 2/4 tempo with a syncopated rhythm. Beethoven also used Hungarian idioms in the prologue of King Stephen and the epiloque for Ruins of Athens .
The 18th century also saw the rise of verbunkos, a form of music that was used by army recruiters. Like much of Hungarian music at the time, it was focused on the melody, with a subordinate text; in spite of this, the vocals became a major part of verbunkos .
By the middle of the 19th century, verbunkos was a major symbol of Hungarian culture, and numerous people published groundbreaking studies and collections of the field. The Musicians’ Society National School of Music in Pest, headed after 1840 by Gábor Mátray, one of the “leading personalities of Hungarian musical life”, did much to encourage this study . András Bartay‘s 1835 study of Hungarian harmonics, Magyar Apollo and his 1833-34 Eredeti Népdalok, were pioneering works in the field .
In 1838, a young Franz Liszt was inspired to travel home to Hungary, studying the music of the country; he would go on to incorporate what he learned in many of his world-famous compositions . Other composers from this period included Béni Egressy, who used 18th century secular songs in his compositions, Kálmán Simonffy, who was the “most original and most inventive” songwriter of the era, whose works “most nearly approached the ideal of ‘popular melodic culture’, as well as lesser-known figures like Gusztáv Szénfy, Gusztáv Nyizsnyai and Ignác Bognár . In spite of their desires to glorify Hungarian folk culture, the music these composers used remained primarily the music of the middle and upper classes . It was not until the very end of the century and into the 20th that the authentic music of ethnic Hungarians became a major part of compositions. Other Hungarian composers did not attempt to use verbunkos or other Hungarian styles in their music. German music was a much stronger influence on the music of the Catholic Church and in the songbooks of Mihály Bozóky .
The playwright Elemér Szentirmay (also known as János Németh) was very popular in his time, known for his “form of expression and scale of popular character” whose “works surpassed in popularity everything written by his contemporaries” . The Hungarian operetta first appeared in the 1860s, popularized by Ignác Bognár, Geza Allaga and Jeno Huber, followed by Elek Erkel and György Bánffy; in the early 20th century, the Viennese style predominated in the work of Huszka, Pongrác KacsóhKacsóh, Buttykay, Jacobi, Kálmán and Lehár . Aside from the popular operetta, the field of Hungarian opera reached fruition in the 19th century. Ferenc Enkel was of great importance in his field, creating the first opera in the Hungarian language using music from popular songs, the verbunkos tradition as well as the singing forms of Italian and French opera . There were other opera composers as well, though the most important was Mihály Mosonyi, who did much to use Hungarian themes in his work .
The late 19th century saw a decline in the nationalistic tendencies of Hungarian music, which deteriorated “into the works of salon composers, into the poorly written genre of stylish ‘Hungarian fantasies’, ‘Gipsy arrangements'” and other styles more influenced by foreign countries than Hungarian traditions . The result was increased antagonism between those enamoured of foreign music and the cultivators of Hungarian (and Roma-Hungarian) music, a dichotomy that “could only result in deceiving the country with the opium of semi-education on the one hand and superficial nationalism on the other” . Hans Koessler, a teacher with the Academy of Music, did more than anyone to accentuate the German classical elements in Hungarian music , though some of his students, like Ernst von Dohnányi, placed prominent Hungarian themes in their own works .
Music of Hungary
|Music of Hungary: Topics|
|History: (Timeline and Samples)|
|Genres||Classical – Folk – Hardcore – Hip hop – Opera – Operett – Pop – Reggae – Rock – Wedding pop – Wedding rock|
|Charts||MAHASZ TOP 40 album, MAHASZ Kislemez TOP 10, Dance TOP 40|
|Festivals||Sziget Festival, Táncháztalálkozó, Mayday, Miskolc Opera Festival, Kaláka Folk Festival|
|Media||Radio Petőfi, Hungaroton, VIVA, Danubius Rádió, Sláger Rádió, Tilos Radio|
|Hungarian minorities’ music abroad|
|Transylvania, Vojvodina, Slovakia, Transcarpathia|
Hungary has made many contributions to the fields of folk, popular and classical music. Hungarian folk music is a prominent part of the national identity and continues to play a major part in Hungarian music. Hungarian folk music has been influential in neighboring areas such as Romania, Slovakia, southern Poland and especially in southern Slovakia and the Romanian region of Transylvania, both home to significant numbers of Hungarians. It is also strong in the Szabolcs-Szatmár area and in the southwest part of Transdanubia, near the border with Croatia. The Busójárás carnival in Mohács is a major Hungarian folk music event, formerly featuring the long-established and well-regarded Bogyiszló orchestra.
Hungarian classical music has long been an “experiment, made from Hungarian antedecents and on Hungarian soil, to create a conscious musical culture [using the] musical world of the folk song”. Although the Hungarian upper class has long had cultural and political connections with the rest of Europe, leading to an influx of European musical ideas, the rural peasants maintained their own traditions such that by the end of the 19th century Hungarian composers could draw on rural peasant music to (re)create a Hungarian classical style. For example, Béla Bartók and Zoltán Kodály, two of Hungary’s most famous composers, are known for using folk themes in their music. Bartók collected folk songs from across Eastern Europe, including Romania and Slovakia, whilst Kodály was more interested in creating a distinctively Hungarian musical style.
During the era of Communist rule in Hungary (1944–1989) a Song Committee scoured and censored popular music for traces of subversion and ideological impurity. Since then, however, the Hungarian music industry has begun to recover, producing successful performers in the fields of jazz such as trumpeter Rudolf Tomsits, pianist-composer Károly Binder and, in a modernized form of Hungarian folk, Ferenc Sebő and Márta Sebestyén. The three giants of Hungarian rock, Illés, Metró and Omega, remain very popular, especially Omega, which has followings in Germany and beyond as well as in Hungary. Older veteran underground bands such as Beatrice from the 1980s also remain popular.
Franz Liszt, prominent Hungarian composer
Unlike other Eastern European peoples, the Hungarian people, Magyars, emerged from the intermingling of Finno-Ugric and Eastern Turkish peoples during the fifth to eighth centuries CE. This makes the origins of their traditional music unique in Europe. According to author Simon Broughton, the composer and song collector Kodály identified songs that “apparently date back 2,500 years” in common with the Mari people of Russia; and, as well as the Mari, the ethnomusicologist Bruno Nettl indicates similarities in traditional Hungarian music with Mongolian and Native American musical styles. Bence Szabolcsi, however, claims that the Finno-Ugric and Turkish-Mongolian elements are present but “cannot be attached to certain, definite national or linguistic groups”. Nonetheless, Szabolcsi claims links between Hungarian musical traditions and those of the Mari, Kalmyk, Ostyak, northwest Chinese, Tatar, Vogul, Anatolian Turkish, Bashkirian, Mongol and Chuvash musics. These, he claims, are evidence that “Asian memories slumber in the depths of Hungarian folk music and that this folk music is the last Western link in the chant of ancient Eastern cultural relations”.
According to Broughton, traditional Hungarian music is “highly distinctive” like the “Hungarian language, which invariably is stressed on the first syllable, lending a strongly accented dactylic rhythm to the music”. Nettl identifies two “essential features” of Hungarian folk music to be the use of “pentatonic scales composed of major seconds and minor thirds” (or “gapped scales”) and “the practice of transposing a bit of melody several times to create the essence of a song”. These transpositions are “usually up or down a fifth“, a fundamental interval in the series of overtones and an indication perhaps of the “influence of Chinese musical theory in which the fifth is significant”.
According to Szabolcsi, these ‘Hungarian transpositions’, along with “some melodic, rhythmical and ornamental peculiarities, clearly show on the map of Eurasia the movements of Turkish people from the East to the West”. The subsequent influence on neighboring countries’ music is seen in the music of Slovakia and, with intervals of the third or second, in the music of the Czech Republic. Hungarian and other Finno-Ugric musical traditions are also characterized by the use of an ABBA binary musical form, with Hungary itself especially known for the A A’ A’ A variant, where the B sections are the A sections transposed up or down a fifth (A’). Modern Hungarian folk music evolved in the 19th century, and is contrasted with previous styles through the use of arched melodic lines as opposed to the more archaic descending lines.
The earliest documentation of Hungarian music dates from the introduction of Gregorian chant in the 11th century. By that time, Hungary had begun to enter the European cultural establishment with the country’s conversion to Christianity and the musically important importation of plainsong, a form of Christian chant. Though Hungary’s early religious musical history is relatively well documented, secular music remains mostly unknown, though it was apparently a common feature of community festivals and other events. The earliest documented instrumentation in Hungary dates back to the whistle in 1222, followed by the kobzos in 1326, the bugle in 1355, the fiddle in 1358, the bagpipe in 1402, the lute in 1427 and the trumpet in 1428. Thereafter the organ came to play a major role.
The 16th century saw the rise of Transylvania (a region inhabited by Hungarians, never occupied by the Turks) as a center for Hungarian music. It also saw the first publication of music in Hungary, in Kraków. At this time Hungarian instrumental music was well-known in Europe; the lutenist and composer Bálint Bakfark, for example, was famed as a virtuoso player. His compositions pioneered a new style of writing for the lute based on vocal polyphony. The lutenist Neusiedler brothers were also noted and authored an important early work in music theory, the Epithoma utriusque musices.
During the 17th century, Hungary was divided into three parts: an area controlled by the Turks; an area controlled by the Habsburgs; and Transylvania. Historic songs declined in popularity and were replaced by lyrical poetry, whilst minstrels were replaced by court musicians. Many courts or households maintained large ensembles of musicians who played the trumpet, whistle, cimbalom, violin or bagpipes. Some of these ensemble musicians were German, Polish, French or Italian; the court of Gábor Bethlen, Prince of Transylvania, included a Spanish guitarist. Little detail about the music played during this era survives, however. Musical life in the areas controlled by the Ottoman Turks declined precipitously, with even the formerly widespread and entrenched plainsong style disappearing by the end of the 17th century. Outside of the Ottoman area, however, plainsong flourished after the establishment of Protestant missions in around 1540, while a similarly styled form of folk song called verse chronicles also arose.
During the 18th century, some of the students at colleges such as those in Sárospatak and Székelyudvarhely were minor nobles from rural areas who brought with them their regional styles of music. Whilst the choirs in these colleges adopted a more polyphonic style, the students’ songbooks indicate a growth in the popularity of homophonic songs. Their notation, however, was relatively crude and no extensive collection appeared until the publication of Ádám Pálóczi Horváth’s Ötödfélszáz Énekek in 1853. These songs indicate that during the mid to late 18th century the previous Hungarian song styles died out and musicians looked more to other (Western) European styles for influence.
The 18th century also saw the rise of verbunkos, a form of music initially used by army recruiters. Like much Hungarian music of the time, melody was treated as more important than lyrics, although this balance changed as verbunkos became more established.[
Hungarian folk music changed greatly beginning in the 19th century, evolving into a new style that had little in common with the music that came before it. Modern Hungarian music was characterized by an “arched melodic line, strict composition, long phrases and extended register”, in contrast to the older styles which always utilize a “descending melodic line”.
Modern Hungarian folk music was first recorded in 1895 by Béla Vikár, setting the stage for the pioneering work of Béla Bartók, Zoltán Kodály and László Lajtha in musicological collecting. Modern Hungarian folk music began its history with the Habsburg Empire in the 18th century, when central European influences became paramount, including a “regular metric structure for dancing and marching instead of the free speech rhythms of the old style. Folk music at that time consisting of village bagpipers who were replaced by string-based orchestras of the Gypsy, or Roma people.
In the 19th century, Roma orchestras became very well-known throughout Europe, and were frequently thought of as the primary musical heritage of Hungary, as in Franz Liszt‘s Hungarian Dances and Rhapsodies, which used Hungarian Roma music as representative of Hungarian folk music  Hungarian Roma music is often represented as the only music of the Roma, though multiple forms of Roma music are common throughout Europe and are often dissimilar to Hungarian forms. In the Hungarian language, 19th-century folk styles like the csardas and the verbunkos, are collectively referred to as cigányzene, which translates literally as Gypsy music.
Hungarian nationalist composers, like Bartók, rejected the conflation of Hungarian and Roma music, studying the rural peasant songs of Hungary which, according to music historian Bruno Nettl, “has little in common with” Roma music, a position that is held to by some modern writers, such as the Hungarian author Bálint Sárosi. Simon Broughton, however, has claimed that Roma music is “no less Hungarian and… has more in common with peasant music than the folklorists like to admit”, and authors Marian Cotton and Adelaide Bradburn claimed that Hungarian-Roma music was “perhaps… originally Hungarian in character, but (the Roma have made so many changes that) it is difficult to tell what is Hungarian and what is” the authentic music of the Roma.
The ethnic Csángó Hungarians of Moldavia‘s Seret Valley have moved in large numbers to Budapest, and become a staple of the local folk scene with their distinctive instrumentation using flutes, fiddles, drums and the lute.
In the 19th century, verbunkos was the most popular style in Hungary. This consisted of a slow dance followed by a faster dance; this dichotomy, between the slower and faster dances, has been seen as the “two contrasting aspects of the Hungarian character”. The rhythmic patterns and embellishments of the verbunkos are distinctively Hungarian in nature, and draw heavily upon the folk music composed in the early part of the century by Antal Csermak, Ferdinand Kauer, Janos Lavotta and others.
Verbunkos was originally played at recruitment ceremonies to convince young men to join the army, and was performed, as in so much of Hungarian music, by Roma bands. One verbunkos tune, the “Rákóczi March” became a march that was a prominent part of compositions by both Liszt and Hector Berlioz. The 18th-century origins of verbunkos are not well-known, but probably include old dances like the swine-herd dance and the Hajduk dance, as well as elements of Balkan, Slavic and Levantine music, and the cultured music of Italy and Vienna, all filtered through the Roma performers. Verbunkos became wildly popular, not just among the poor peasantry, but also among the upper-class aristocratics, who saw verbunkos as the authentic music of the Hungarian nation. Characteristics of verbunkos include the bokázó (clicking of heels) cadence-pattern, the use of the interval of the augmented second, garlands of triplets, widely-arched, free melodies without words, and alternately swift and slow tempi. By the end of the 18th century, verbunkos was in use in opera, chamber and piano music, and in song literature, and was regarded as “the continuation, the resurrection of ancient Hungarian dance and music, and its success signified the triumph of the people’s art”.
The violinist Panna Czinka was among the most celebrated musicians of the 19th century, as was the Roma bandleader János Bihari, known as the “Napoleon of the fiddle”. Bihari, Antal Csermák and other composers helped make verbunkos the “most important expression of the Hungarian musical Romanticism” and have it “the role of national music”. Bihari was especially important in popularizing and innovating the verbunkos; he was the “incarnation of the musical demon of fiery imagination”. Bihari and others after his death helped invent nóta, a popular form written by composers like Lóránt Fráter, Árpád Balázs, Pista Dankó, Béni Egressy, Márk Rózsavölgyi and Imre Farkas. Many of the biggest names in modern Hungarian music are the verbunkos-playing Lakatos family, including Sándor Lakatos and Roby Lakatos.
Though the Roma are primarily known as the performers of Hungarian styles like verbunkos, they have their own form of folk music that is largely without instrumentation, in spite of their reputation in that field outside of the Roma community. Roma music tends to take on characteristics of whatever music the people are around, however, embellished with “twists and turns, trills and runs”, making a very new, and distinctively Roma style. Though without instruments, Roma folk musicians use sticks, tapped on the ground, rhythmic grunts and a technique called oral-bassing which vocally imitates the sound of instruments. Some modern Roma musicians, like Ando Drom, Romani Rota and Kalyi Jag have added modern instruments like guitars to the Roma style, while Gyula Babos‘ Project Romani has used elements of avant-garde jazz.
Hungarian music abroad
Ethnic Hungarians live in parts of Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, the United States and elsewhere. Of these, the Hungarian population of Romania (both in the region of Transylvania and among the Csángó people) – being the more rural, outer rims of the kingdom of Hungary – has had the most musical impact on Hungarian folk music. The Hungarian community in Slovakia has produced the rootsy band Ghymes, who play in the táncház tradition. The Serbian region of Vojvodina is home to a large Hungarian minority
Transylvanian folk music remains vital part of life in modern Transylvania. Bartók and Kodály found Transylvania to be a fertile area for folk song collecting. Folk bands are usually a string trio, consisting of a violin, viola and double bass, occasionally with a cimbalom; the first violin, or primás, plays the melody, with the others accompanying and providing the rhythm. Transylvania is also the original home of the táncház tradition, which has since spread throughout Hungary.
An a cappella song sung by Marta Sebestyen
Táncház (literally “dance house”) is a dance music movement which first appeared in the 1970s as a reaction against state-supported homogenized folk music. They have been described as a “cross between a barn dance and folk club”, and generally begin with a slow tempo verbunkos (recruiting dance), followed by swifter csárdás dances. Csárdás is a very popular Hungarian folk dance that comes in many regional varieties, and is characterized by changes in tempo. Táncház began with the folk song collecting of musicians like Béla Halmos and Ferenc Sebő, who collected rural instrumental and dance music for popular, urban consumption, along with the dance collectors György Martin and Sándor Timár. The most important rural source of these songs was Transylvania, which is actually in Romania but has a large ethnic Hungarian minority. The instrumentation of these bands, based on Transylvanian and sometimes the southern Slovak Hungarian communities, included a fiddle on lead with violin, a kontra (a 3-string viola also called a brácsa), and bowed double bass, and sometimes a cimbalom as well.
Many of the biggest names in modern Hungarian music emerged from the táncház scene, including Muzsikás and Márta Sebestyén. Other bands include Vujicsics, Jánosi, Téka and Kalamajka, while singers include Éva Fábián and András Berecz. Famous instrumentalists include fiddlers Csaba Ökrös and Balázs Vizeli, cimbalomist Kálmán Balogh, violinist Félix Lajkó (from Subotica in Serbia) and multi-instrumentalist Mihály Dresch.
Hungary’s most important contribution to the worldwide field of European classical music is probably Franz Liszt, a renowned pianist in his own time and a well-regarded composer of 19 Hungarian Rhapsodies and a number of symphonic poems such as Les préludes. Liszt was among the major composers during the late 19th century, a time when modern Hungarian classical music was in its formative stage. Along with Liszt and his French Romantic tendencies, Ferenc Erkel‘s Italian and French-style operas, with Hungarian words, and Mihály Mosonyi‘s German classical style, helped set the stage for future music, and their influence is “unsurpassed even by their successors, because in addition to their individual abilities they bring about an unprecedented artistic intensification of the Romantic musical idiom, which is practically consumed by this extreme passion”. Elements of Hungarian folk music, especially verbunkos, became an important elements of many composers, both Hungarians like Kalman Simonffy and foreign composers like Ludwig van Beethoven.
Hungary has also produced Karl Goldmark, composer of the Rustic Wedding Symphony, composer and pianist Ernő Dohnányi, composer and ethnomusicologist László Lajtha, and the piano composer Stephen Heller. A number of violinists from Hungary have also achieved international renown, especially Joseph Joachim, Jenő Hubay, Edward Reményi, Sándor Végh, Ferenc von Vecsey, de Zathurecky, Emil Telmányi and Leopold von Auer. Hungarian-born conductors include Antal Doráti; Adam, Gyorgy and Ivan Fischer; Eugene Ormandy; Fritz Reiner; George Szell and Georg Solti. Pianists of international renown: Géza Anda, Tamás Vásáry, George Cziffra, Annie Fischer, Kocsis, Ránki, Schiff and Jenö Jandó
The origins of Hungarian opera can be traced to the late 18th century, with the rise of imported opera and other concert styles in cities like Pozsony, Kismarton, Nagyszeben and Budapest. Operas at the time were in either the German or Italian style. The field Hungarian opera began with school dramas and interpolations of German operas, which began at the end of the 18th century. School dramas in places like the Pauline School in Sátoraljaújhely, the Calvinist School in Csurgó and the Piarist School in Beszterce.
Pozsony produced the first music drama experiments in the country, though the work of Gáspár Pacha and József Chudy; it was the latter’s 1793 Prince Pikkó and Jutka Perzsi that is generally considered the first opera in a distinctively Hungarian style. The text of that piece was translated from Prinz Schnudi und Prinzessin Evakathel by Philipp Hafner. This style was still strongly informed by the Viennese Zauberposse style of comedic play, and remained thus throughout the 19th century. Though these operas used foreign styles, the “idyllic, lyric and heroic” parts of the story were always based on verbunkos, which was becoming a symbol of the Hungarian nation during this time. It was not until the middle of the 19th century that Ferenc Erkel wrote the first Hungarian language opera, using French and Italian models, thus launching the field of Hungarian opera.
Bartók and Kodály
At the end of the 19th century, Hungarian music was dominated by compositions in the German classical style, while Viennese-style operettas gained immensely in popularity. This ended beginning in about 1905, when Endre Ady‘s poems were published, composer Béla Bartók was published for the first time, and Zoltán Kodály began collecting folk songs. Bartók and Kodály were two exceptional composers who created a distinctively Hungarian style. Bartók collected songs across Eastern Europe, though much of his activity was in Hungary, and he used their elements in his music. He was interested in all forms of folk music, while Kodály was more specifically Hungarian in his outlook. In contrast to previous composers who worked with Hungarian idioms, Kodály and Bartók did not conflate Roma and ethnic Hungarian music, specifically seeking out the latter at the expense of the former. Their work was a watershed that incorporated “every great tradition of the Hungarian people” and influenced all the later composers of the country.
Later 20th century
For the first half of the 20th century, Bartók and Kodály were potent symbols for a generation of composers, especially Kodály. Starting in about 1947, a revival in folk choir music began, ended as an honest force by 1950, when state-run art became dominant with the rise of Communism. Under Communism, “(c)ommitment and ideological affiliation (were) measured by the musical style of a composer; the ignominious adjectives ‘formalistic’ and ‘cosmopolitan’ gain currency … (and the proper Hungarian style was) identified with the major mode, the classical aria, rondo or sonata form, the chord sequences distilled” from Kodály’s works. Music was uniformly festive and optimistic, with every deviation arousing suspicion; this simplicity led to a lack of popular support from the public, who did not identify with the sterile approved styles. The most prominent composers of this period were Endre Szervánszky and Lajos Bárdos.
Beginning in about 1955, a new wave of composers appeared, inspired by Bartók and breathing new life into Hungarian music. Composers from this era included Ferenc Szabó, Endre Szervánszky, Pál Kadosa, Ferenc Farkas and György Ránki. These composers both brought back old techniques of Hungarian music, as well as adapting imported avant-garde and modernist elements of Western classical music. György Ligeti and György Kurtág are often mentioned in the same sentence. They were born near each other in Transylvania and studied in Budapest in the 1940s. Both were influenced by Stockhausen. Kurtág’s modernism borrowed many influences from the past. By contrast Ligeti invented a new language with chromatic tone clusters and elements of parody. Both were multi-lingual and became exiles. This is reflected in the texts for their works. The foundation of the New Music Studio in 1970 helped further modernize Hungarian classical music though promoting composers that felt audience education was as important a consideration as artistic merit in composition and performance; these Studio’s well-known composers include László Vidovszky, László Sáry and Zoltán Jeney.
Hungarian popular music in the early 20th century consisted of light operettas and the Roma music of various styles. Nagymező utca, the “Broadway of Budapest“, was a major center for popular music, and boasted enough nightclubs and theaters to earn its nickname. In 1945, however, this era abruptly ended and popular music was mostly synonymous with the patriotic songs imposed by the Russian Communists. Some operettas were still performed, though infrequently, and any music with Western influences was seen as harmful and dangerous. In 1956, however, liberalization began with the “three Ts” (tűrés, tiltás, támogatás, meaning toleration, prohibition, support), and a long period of cultural struggle began, starting with a battle over African American jazz. Jazz became a part of Hungarian music in the early 20th century, but did not achieve widespread renown until the 1970s, when Hungary began producing internationally known performers like the Benko Dixieland Band and Bela Szakcsi Lakatos. Other renowned performers from the younger generation are the Hot Jazz Band and the Bohem Ragtime Jazz Band.
In the early 1960s, Hungarian youths began listening to rock in droves, in spite of condemnation from the authorities. Three bands dominated the scene by the beginning of the 1970s, Illés, Metró and Omega, all three of which had released at least one album. A few other bands recorded a few singles, but the Record-Producing Company, a state-run record label, did not promote or support these bands, which quickly disappeared.
In 1968, the New Economic Mechanism was introduced, intending on revitalizing the Hungarian economy, while the band Illés won almost every prize at the prestigious Táncdalfesztivál. In the 70s, however, the Russians cracked down on subversives in Hungary, and rock was a major target. The band Illés was banned from performing and recording, while Metró and Omega left. Some of the members of these bands formed a supergroup, Locomotiv GT, that quickly became very famous. The remaining members of Omega, meanwhile, succeeded in achieving stardom in Germany, and remained very popular for a time.
Rock bands in the late 1970s had to conform to the Record Company’s demands and ensure that all songs passed the inspection of the Song Committee, who scoured all songs looking for ideological disobedience. LGT was the most prominent band of a classic rock style that was very popular, along with Illés, Bergendy and Zorán, while there were other bands like The Sweet and Middle of the Road who catered to the desires of the Song Committee, producing rock-based pop music without a hint of subversion. Meanwhile, the disco style of electronic music produced such performers as the officially-sanctioned Neoton Familia, and Beatrice and Szűcs Judit, while the more critically acclaimed progressive rock scene produced bands like East, V73, Color and Panta Rhei.
In the early 1980s, economic and cultural depression wracked Hungary, leading to a wave of disillusioned and alienated youth, exactly the people that rock, and the burgeoning worldwide field of punk rock, spoke to the most. Major bands from this era included Beatrice, who had moved from disco to punk and folk-influenced rock and were known for their splashy, uncensored and theatrical performances, P. Mobil, Bikini, Hobo Blues Band, a bluesy duo, A. E. Bizottság, Európa Kiadó, Sziámi and Edda művek.
The 1980s saw the Record Production Company broken up because Hungary’s authorities realized that restricting rock was not effective in reducing its effect; they instead tried to water it down by encouraging young musicians to sing about the principles of Communism and obedience. The early part of the decade saw the arrive of punk and New Wave music in full force, and the authorities quickly incorporated those styles as well. The first major prison sentences for rock-related subversion were given out, with the members of the punk band CPg sentenced to two years for political incitement.
By the end of the decade and into the 1990s, internal problems made it impossible for the Hungarian government to counter the activities of rock and other musical groups. After the collapse of the Communist government, the Hungarian scene become more and more like the styles played in the rest of Europe.
Clubbing and electronic dance music started gaining popularity in Hungary following the change of regime in 1989 and corresponding to Electronic music‘s increasing popularity in the worldwide musical mainstream. The political freedom and cultural boom of western culture opened the way for the clubbing scene, with several venues starting all around the country, especially in Budapest and around Lake Balaton.
The 1990s also marked the creation of several dance formations, notably Soho Party, Splash, Náksi & Brunner and also rave formations such as Emergency House and Kozmix. Notable techno and house DJ-s are Sterbinszky, Budai, and Newl. The workings of the scene culminated in events like Budapest Parade, the largest such street festival in Hungary, that was held yearly from 2000 to 2006, attracting more than half million visitors. The history of Electronic Dance Music and Techno culture in Hungary is documented in Ferenc Kömlődy’s book “Fénykatedrális”, (1999 in Hungarian).
A thriving underground scene was marked by the start of Tilos Rádió in 1991, the first free independent community station, starting out as a pirate radio. The station soon developed strong ties with the first alternative electronic formations, and inspired to start many others. Bands like Korai Öröm and Másfél (also check Myster Mobius) started, playing ambient, psychedelic music. Anima Sound System, one of the most influental bands on the scene, was created in 1993 playing dub and trip-hop influenced by acid jazz and ethnic music. Several other bands and formations followed, like Colorstar and Neo. Neo has won a worldwide reputation for their unique electro-pop style and the “Mozart of pop music” award (Cannes, 2004) they received for their soundtrack album called “Control”. Apart from Anima, ethnic and folk influenced the scene in many ways, exemplified by formations like Balkan Fanatik, or Mitsoura. One of the most successful Hungarian electronic musician is Yonderboi, who recently co-created Žagar, gaining wide reputation in the country. In the past few years, dubstep has gained popular attention as well, nation-wide.
Hip hop and rap have been developing in Hungary with two scenes, underground and mainstream, which is mostly popular among young people in Hungary. Underground rappers condemn the mainstream for “selling” their music and usually provide deeper message. Mainstream hip hop is dominated by the pioneer of Gangsta rap in Hungary, Ganxsta Zolee, and there are also other famous ones including FankaDeli, Sub Bass Monster, Dopeman, and LL Junior. Mainstream hip-hop is extremely popular among the Roma youth.
Bëlga started as an offshoot hiphop project at Tilos Rádió. As lyrical innovators and phenomenal parodists, they gained wide popularity for an extremely explicit criticism of Budapest public transport company BKV, as well as hilarious wordplays and self-irony. Their lyrics are significant beyond the hip-hop scope as a cultural documentation of turn-of-the-millennia Culture of Hungary.
Hungarian Slam sessions are rare and few, and still a novelty for the mainstream, but are gaining popularity with literary performers, emcees and audiences alike.
Despite being unknown for common Hungarian people, hardcore and metal are flourishing styles of music in Hungary. Metal bands are formed all over the country. Dominant styles are death metal, black metal and thrash. There are also power metal, folk metal and heavy metal groups.
Hardcore and metalcore are most common in Budapest and Western Hungary, in towns like Győr, Csorna, Szombathely and Veszprém, but Eastern Hungary and Debrecen is getting into a more and more important place in the hardcore scene. The first Hungarian acts that tagged themselves Hardcore like AMD, Leukémia, Marina revue emerged in the late ’80s, and were followed by a number of acts, constituting a scene that flourishes since the early 90s. Notable bands were Dawncore and Newborn of the late ’90-s gaining also some international success. Members of these bands went on to form Bridge to Solace and The Idoru. Other important, active bands: Hold X True, Fallenintoashes, Embers, Subscribe, Shell Beach, Hatred Solution, Stillborn (Hatebreed tribute). An internationally known band is Ektomorf, infusing heavy ethnic content with harsh vocals.
Extreme hardcorepunk and grindcore bands from Hungary include Jack (crustgrind), Human Error(crustcore), Step On It (allschool hardcore), Another Way (fastcore), Gyalázat (crustpunk).
The origins of the Hungarian punk movement go back to the early eighties, when a handful of bands like ETA, QSS, CPG, and Auróra emerged as angry young men playing fast and raw punk rock music. Like many other musicians of their age, they often criticized the communist government. While British bands like the The Clash toyed with Communist ideology, punks in Hungary had to live under its reality, and were part of a national movement to reject it. As their music was on the verge of acceptance both by the public and the authorities, concerts were held under tight police control, and often caused moral outrage. With band members often living under constant surveillance, prison was a serious possibility. Two members of the band CPG were found guilty and sent to prison for two years for allegedly unmoral lyrics. After their release, they had to leave Hungary, as did Auróra’s lead singer.
The change of regime in 1989 brought a new situation, and bands now revolted against corruption and the Americanization of the country. They felt that the new system retained the bad things from the previous one, but lacked that good things that many expected. In lyrics, they often mention the newly appearing organized crime, and the still low standard of living.
Today the Hungarian punk scene is low profile, but vibrant with several active bands, often touring the country and beyond. Summer brings a slew of punk and alternative festivals where they can all be sampled. Top venues playing punk music around Budapest include Vörös Yuk, Borgödör, Music Factory and A38 Hajó.
Major bands include Auróra, the oldest Hungarian punk band with twenty-five years of history, come from the northwest Hungarian town of Győr and their originally street punk music has been recently updated with a ska-punk flavor, HétköznaPI CSAlódások (also called PICSA), a simplistic but powerful punk band, most popular in the end of ’90s. They, similarly to Junkies, Fürgerókalábak, and Prosectura, are part of the new wave of punk bands that had risen in the mid-late ’90s in Hungary. Out of the newer bands, two northeast Hungarian bands are the most known, both playing California punk: Alvin és a mókusok come from Nyíregyháza, while Macskanadrág are from Salgótarján.
Festivals, venues and other institutions
 Folk and Classical Music
Budapest, the capital and music center of Hungary, is one of the best places to go in Hungary to hear “really good folk music”, says world music author Simon Broughton. The city is home to an annual folk festival called Táncháztalálkozó (“Meeting of the Táncházak”, literally “dance houses”), which is a major part of the modern music scene. The Budapest Spring Festival along with the Budapest Autumn Festival are large scale cultural events every year. The Budapesti Fesztivál Zenekar (Budapest Festival Orchestra) has recently been awarded the Editor’s Choice Gramophone Award. Long-standing venues in Budapest include the Philharmonic Society (founded 1853), the Opera House of Budapest (founded 1884) the Academy of Music, which opened in 1875 with President Franz Liszt and Director Ferenc Erkel and which has remained the center for music education in the country since.
Popular Music Festivals
Main stage of Sziget Festival in 2006
Several musical festivals have been launched since the early 1990s propelled by increasing demand of the developing youth culture. Aside from country-wide events like Sziget Festival or Hegyalja Festival, local festivals started to emerge since the first half of the first decade of the new millennium, with the aim to showcase known bands in all regions of Hungary.
Growing out of a low-profile student meeting in 1993, Sziget Festival became one of the largest open-air festival in the world, taking place each summer in the heart of Budapest, the 108 hectare Óbudai island. Visited by hundreds of thousands from all over Europe, it is the largest cultural event in Hungary, inviting world-class performers from all genres.
Also having a history from 1993, VOLT Festival is the second-largest music festival in the country, held each year in Sopron. With a colorful mix of musical styles, and popularity increasing each year, is considered to be the “cheaper version” of Sziget. Also founded by the Sziget management, Balaton Sound is a festival of mainly electronic music, held yearly in Zamárdi, next to Lake Balaton. With prestigious performers and exclusive surroundings, it tries to position itself as a high-standard event.
Hegyalja Festival, held in Tokaj, the historic wine-region of the country, is the largest such event in the Northern part. Visited by 50.000 guests each year, it showcases mainly hard rock and rock formations, but many more genres are present. BalaTone, another major event near lake Balaton is held in Zánka. Magyar Sziget, held in Verőce, has a nationalist theme, with mainly right-wing performers, bands representing the recently emerged nationalistic rock, folk and folk-rock.
As a tradition, each larger University (or more precisely, its students’ union) holds a periodical music festival, “University Days”, of various size, the largest one is PEN (of the University of Pécs). Examples of smaller, local festivals are SZIN held in Szeged, the free Utcazene Fesztivál held on the streets of Veszprém, Pannónia Fesztivál in Várpalota, or the recently (2008) started Fishing on Orfű, held on the beach of the Orfű lake.
the end @copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011