Category Archives: rare chinese ceramic

The Highest Value of Rarest Chinese Red In Glazed Vase

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :

The Rarest and valuable Chinese red In Glazed Vase

 

I have read about the New world record for Ming vase
from China Daily newspaper Updated: 2006-05-31 05:52 HONG KONG: about A rare underglaze copper-red Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) vase sold for HK$78.52 million (US$10.13 million) in Hong Kong yesterday, setting a world auction record for Ming porcelain.Ming Vase Theow Tow, Deputy Chairman of Christie’s Asia and the Americas International Director of Chinese works of Arts, looks at an early Ming underglaze copper-red vase after it was sold for a world record of US$10,122,558 for any Ming porcelain during an auction in Hong Kong May 30, 2006. [Reuters]
“He’s bought the vase at the right price, making a world record,” said Edward Dolman, chief executive officer of Christie’s International, referring to buyer Steve Wynn, chairman of Macao-based Wynn Resorts.

 

The pear-shaped vase, decorated with a peony scroll, is the only copper-red vase of the early Ming Dynasty still in perfect condition to be offered at auction in more than 15 years, said Christie’s Hong Kong office.

The vase was originally inherited by a Scottish couple who used it as a lamp and did not realize its value until they saw a similar example in a museum.

Ceramics with underglaze copper-red decoration are very rare, owing to their complicated production process.

Dr Iwan note

I have found in Indonesia near same copper red vase but in broken condition one only top and the other which have restoration.,what about the value of this artifact ,please comment.This artifact important to compere with your own collections because many fake exist now.

 

I also found semipor celain red in glazed in boken near 80% per shape vase, so0meonje said to me that this is from anamaese,please comment

 

the end @ copyright Dr iwan suwandy 2011

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The Chinese ceramic Exhibiiton at Beijing

Cina dan Swedia: kenangan berharga

Pembukaan pameran hari Senin 26 September 2005
 

Pagi-pagi persiapan terakhir untuk pembukaan berjalan baik. Area pintu masuk dan penerimaan (kanan atas) yang memimpin para Tamu Kehormatan hingga ruang pameran yang sebenarnya sedang disiapkan di sisi timur pintu gerbang Meridian (Wumen) dari Kota Terlarang. Aula memaksakan langsung di atas Wumen adalah tempat pameran diadakan. Ini harus menjadi ruang pameran yang paling mengesankan yang pernah, untuk sebuah pameran porselen Cina.

Gambar 1:

Sebuah pemandangan spektakuler dari Meridian Gate (Wumen) dari Kota Terlarang, puncak-puncak atap puncak diselimuti kabut pagi sedikit. Kami berada di sana bersama-sama dengan dan seantusias ratusan wisatawan sudah berkumpul di tempat itu. Paviliun di atas drum ditempatkan gerbang yang dipukuli mengumumkan keberangkatan kaisar untuk Kuil Surga dan lonceng berdering untuk mengumumkan keberangkatannya ke Kuil Leluhur. Lonceng dan genderang di sini juga terdengar ketika kaisar akan menerima menteri di Taihedian itu (Aula Agung Harmony). Saat itu di tengah paviliun yang megah tepat di atas Gerbang Meridian bahwa Pameran itu digelar, pintu masuk bagi kita ditandai dengan bendera Swedia dan Cina yang mengapit tangga batu hingga lorong, paling kanan dari gambar. Lima jembatan di bagian tengah dari gambar berjalan di sebuah sungai berkelok-kelok. Air yang disuplai dapat digunakan untuk memadamkan kebakaran wabah di Kota Terlarang. Untuk mengabaikan ini mitos memegangnya bahwa sejumlah (lima) naga akan melihat keluar untuk ini tapi karena semua dalam semua, Kota Terlarang terbakar sekitar 55 kali itu juga diadakan bahwa naga itu tidak sepenuhnya melakukan pekerjaan mereka. Di latar depan gambar batu ukiran yang rumit naga pada jalur miring, ditumpangi oleh panggangan logam hari ini. Ini ukiran naga yang terletak langsung pada “tulang belakang Dragon” yang berjalan melalui Kota Terlarang seluruh dan seterusnya, adalah Feng Shui fitur dalam keyakinan bahwa roh-roh jahat tidak dapat melakukan perjalanan menaiki lereng jika tangga yang hilang, sehingga menjaga Kaisar aman dari kejahatan roh, dalam ukiran naga juga merupakan fitur pelindung untuk Kaisar. Yang cukup menarik, Saya telah browsing di Pasar Antik di Beijing beberapa hari kemudian dan menemukan untuk dijual, apa yang tampaknya menjadi pilar batu yang asli dating kembali ke Dinasti Ming mirip dengan yang Anda dapat melihat ke kiri dan kanan di latar depan gambar ini, dengan kesamaan yang mencolok dengan orang-orang yang benar-benar mengelilingi Altar Surga. Berat padat itu akan patung penyisihan tas tangan, jadi saya memutuskan untuk menyampaikan harta karun itu. Mudah-mudahan akhirnya akan menemukan jalan kembali ke altar.
 

Gambar 2:

Upacara Pembukaan dimulai. Mulia Putri Mahkota Swedia Victoria di tengah telah di sebelah kirinya Menteri Swedia untuk Perindustrian dan Perdagangan Mr Thomas Östros dan Duta Besar Swedia di Cina Mr Börje Ljunggren. Ke kanan nya Menteri, Deputi Cina Kebudayaan, Direktur Palace Museum, Mr Zheng Xinmiao dan Wakil Direktur Museum Istana, Mr Li Ji.
 

Gambar 3:

Sponsor utama dari seluruh acara – Volvo – diwakili oleh Wakil Presiden Senior AB Volvo Mr Karl Erling Trogen yang juga mengambil kesempatan untuk hadir ke Museum Istana sumbangan dari 18 potongan selcted dari porselen dari pameran.
 

Gambar 4:

Kerumunan selama pidato-pidato resmi pada Upacara Pembukaan. Panas musim gugur dan pengaturan berdiri canggung untuk para tamu pada acara itu mereda oleh angin dingin dan mengundang Beijing yang melanda sekitar kita. Tiba-tiba aku merasa nyata mendengarkan kata-kata yang dipertukarkan antara kedua negara dan menyadari bahwa tempat ini, di mana saya berdiri untuk acara ini, telah ada selama ratusan tahun sebelumnya. saat ini. Perasaan yang hadir di ‘sini dan sekarang’ di tempat bersejarah membuat saya merasa seolah-olah aku tidak tahu waktu lagi. Aku setengah berharap Kaisar Qianlong untuk pop turun dari lorong di atas untuk bergabung dengan kerumunan atau lebih kemungkinan beberapa kasim marah datang sekitar untuk memberitahu kita untuk segera jelas tangga sampai ke ruang Wumen upacara karena kita tidak punya urusan di sini. Suasana sangat menyengat dan peristiwa bersejarah kami hanyalah satu bagian dalam sejarah panjang tempat ini. Masih aneh yang tepat dan satu untuk bersukacita. Ke kanan bawah, pameran Swedia komisaris, penulis dan sarjana Jarl Vansvik, berjalan menaiki tangga, menuju ruang pameran.
 

Gambar 5:

Pada panggung Menteri Swedia untuk Perindustrian dan Perdagangan Mr Thomas Östros memberikan pidato introductury untuk acara tersebut, segera diikuti oleh Wakil Menteri Kebudayaan Cina, Direktur Palace Museum, Mr Zheng Xinmiao. Selain Mr Östros, seorang penerjemah Cina. Gadis-gadis cantik di qipaos fuschia berwarna itu pengawal ke acara tersebut.
 

Gambar 6:

Rapat Profesor Geng Baoshang, terkenal karena tulisan-tulisan yang mendalam dan beasiswa di porselen Imperial Chineses, adalah salah satu titik yang tinggi dari upacara pembukaan kepada saya, namun di luar program.
 

Gambar 7:

Tangga batu yang menuju ke Aula Pameran itu sendiri, warna-warna bendera Swedia mengapit tangga. Para architecuture tempat itu adalah sesuatu yang sangat menakjubkan.
 

Gambar 8:

Pintu masuk ke Aula Pameran dengan bendera dari dua negara dan peta rute perdagangan Timur Indiaman Gotheborg III, pelacakan pelayaran kapal untuk datang.
 

Gambar 9:

Sebuah pandangan dalam Hall Pameran. Membandingkan dalam dengan arsitektur luar kita menemukan bahwa apa yang tampaknya dua lantai sebenarnya adalah langit-langit yang tinggi dengan hanya berjalan di dalam balkon jendela fasad atas kedua tier. Ke kiri langsung di Ru yao hidangan dari The Museum Röhss itu ditampilkan dalam sebuah karya sendiri. Pada preview tekan seorang reporter mencoba untuk membuka menampilkan bahwa untuk mendapatkan gambar yang lebih baik dengan lemari kaca pergi, menyebabkan cukup keributan di antara staf keamanan.
 

Gambar 10:

Pecahan dari penggalian Wästfeldt dari koleksi Museum Maritim. Sebagian besar pecahan masih dalam tas mereka, diurutkan sesuai nomor untuk menemukan mereka, penentuan lokasi mereka di situs kecelakaan. Semua dalam semua beberapa 7 ton pecahan dibesarkan, dibersihkan, disortir dan terdaftar selama penggalian, pecahan-pecahan yang dipajang di sini hanya sebagian kecil dari total temukan.
 

Gambar 11:

Model abad ke-18 Indiamen Timur – atau, kapal dagang Barat ke Cina dan ‘Semua negara-negara Timur India’ sebagai dokumen lama juga dipajang memilikinya.
 

Gambar 12:

Sebuah tembakan dari diriku sendiri dan ke (kanan saya) Lars-Olof kiri Lööf, Kepala Departemen Koleksi dari Museum Kota Gothenburg di Swedia. Di belakang kami adalah Entourage Kerajaan dengan Mulia Putri Mahkota Victoria.
 

Gambar 13:

Dengan HRH Victoria meter hanya beberapa itu hanya masalah waktu sebelum tertangkap Entourage Kerajaan dengan kami dan saya merasa senang pertemuan HRH Victoria secara pribadi. Menjadi mana kami berada, aku tidak bisa membantu meminta kesan nya ini Imperial Palace – Kota Terlarang – sejauh ini, dan pikirannya tentang bagaimana dibandingkan dengan lingkungannya Stockholm. Saya harap saya tidak melampaui apapun kepercayaan kalau aku bilang dia merasa itu adalah tempat yang megah dan bahwa dia mungkin bisa mempertimbangkan tinggal di tempat seperti ini, tapi mungkin tidak kembali pada era Dinasti.
 

Gambar 14:

Sebuah tur yang menarik dari Pameran berakhir dan di sini, keluar Entourage Kerajaan dengan sebanyak, jika tidak lebih, perhatian seperti ketika mereka masuk. Setidaknya 25 fotografer dan wartawan bergegas setelah HRH Victoria tak terlihat dalam gambar ini. Itu adalah yang paling dekat dengan terburu-buru paparazi saya telah menyaksikan.
 

Gambar 15:

Pandangan langsung di luar pintu masuk ruang pameran akan pandangan Kaisar ketika melakukan pengumuman kepada kerumunan di luar Wumen tersebut. Itu adalah perasaan aneh berdiri di sini. Seolah-olah kaisar hanya sebelah Anda. Dari sini Anda cari di atap Beijing dalam cahaya yang sama seperti yang telah dilihat dan angin pada wajah Anda sama saja yang telah sini dari waktu paling awal. Itu hanya kerumunan di bawah yang baru, dan ya, bahwa Anda benar-benar memiliki hak untuk berada di sini dan hanya melihat.
 

Gambar 16:

Setelah badai … menenangkan. Orang banyak telah tersebar, setelah kenyang mereka dari harta di layar dan menyerap suasana seluruh acara. Salah satu tembakan terakhir saya untuk acara ini adalah dari tangga batu menuju ruang pameran itu sendiri dengan gambar Indiaman Timur III Gotheborg meluncurkan selama Upacara Pembukaan. Aku mengambil waktu sejenak untuk merefleksikan gambar dan Nya. Saya hanya bisa membayangkan apa yang kedatangan-Nya di tahun Kanton depan akan seperti, kenyataan akan menaungi gambar dalam sekejap! Di latar depan gambar adalah menunjukkan keramahan dipikirkan dengan baik dari sponsor yang tidak pernah gagal untuk mengesankan. Makanan dan minuman terus dilayani bahkan sebagai tamu meninggalkan, memastikan pada semua tahap melalui acara itu, para tamu makan dengan baik dan bahagia.

AKHIR

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

ORIGINAL INFO FROM GOTHEBERG.

China and Sweden: Treasured Memories

 

PICTURES

The exhibition Opening day Monday 26th of September 2005

Early in the morning the last preparations for the grand opening was well under way. The entrance and reception area (top right) that was to lead the Guests of Honor up to the actual exhibition hall was being prepared at the east side of the Meridian gate (Wumen) of the Forbidden City. The imposing hall directly on top of the Wumen was where the exhibition was held. This must be the most imposing exhibition hall ever, for a Chinese porcelain exhibition.Picture 1:A spectacular view of Meridian Gate (Wumen) of the Forbidden City, the crests of the roof tops enveloped in a slight morning mist. We were there together with and as enthusiastic as the hundreds of tourists already gathered in the place. The pavillion on top of the gate housed drums which were beaten to announce the emperor’s departure for the Temple of Heaven and bells to ring to announce his departure to the Ancestral Temple. The bells and drums here were also sounded when the emperor was going to receive his ministers in the Taihedian (Hall of Supreme Harmony). It was in the majestic centre pavillion right above the Meridian Gate that the Exhibition was held, its entrance for us indicated by the Swedish and Chinese flag that flanked a stone stairway up to the hall, far right of the picture. Five bridges in the mid-section of the picture run across a meandering river. The water supplied could be used to douse outbreaks of fires in the Forbidden City. To overlook this the myths held it that a number of (five) dragons would look out for this but since all in all, the Forbidden City had caught fire about 55 times it was also held that the dragons was not entirely doing their job. In the foreground of the picture is an intricate stone carving of dragons on a sloped pathway, boarded by metal grills today. This dragon carving that lies directly on the “Dragon’s spine” that runs through the entire Forbidden City and beyond, is a Feng Shui feature in belief that evil spirits cannot travel up the slope if the stairs are missing, thus keeping the Emperor safe from evil spirits, the dragons in the carving is also a protective feature for the Emperor. Interestingly enough, I was browsing at the Antiques Market in Beijing a few days later and found for sale, what seemed to be a genuine stone pillar dating back to the Ming Dynasty similar to those you can see to the left and right in the foreground of this picture, with striking similarity to those that actually surrounds the Altar of the Heaven. The solid weight of it would bust the hand luggage allowance, so I decided to pass on that treasure. Hopefully it will eventually find its way back to the altar.
Picture 2:The Opening Ceremony begins. HRH the Swedish Crown Princess Victoria in the middle has to her left the Swedish Minister for Industry and Trade Mr. Thomas Östros and the Swedish Ambassador in China Mr. Börje Ljunggren. To her right, Chinese Deputy Minister of Culture, Director of Palace Museum, Mr. Zheng Xinmiao and Deputy Director of Palace Museum, Mr. Li Ji.
Picture 3:The main sponsor of the whole event – Volvo – was represented by the Senior Vice President of AB Volvo Mr. Karl Erling Trogen who also took the opportunity to present to the Palace Museum a donation of 18 selcted pieces of porcelain from the exhibition.
Picture 4:The crowds during the official speeches at the Opening Ceremony. The autumn heat and awkward standing arrangements for the guests at the event was eased by the cool and inviting Beijing winds that swept around us. All at once I felt surreal listening to the words exchanged between the two countries and realizing that this place, where I stood for the event, had existed for hundreds of years before. this moment. The feeling of being present in the ‘here and now’ in such a historic place made me feel as if I couldn’t tell time any longer. I half expected the Emperor Qianlong to pop down from the hall above to join the crowd or more likely some angry eunuchs coming around to tell us to immediately clear the stairs up to the Wumen hall of ceremony because we had no business here. The atmosphere was overpowering and the historic event we were part was just one in the long history of this place. Still strangely appropriate and one to rejoice. To the bottom right, the Swedish exhibition commissar, writer and scholar Jarl Vansvik, making his way up the stairs, towards the exhibition hall.
Picture 5:At the stage the Swedish Minister for Industry and Trade Mr. Thomas Östros giving the introductury speach to the event, immediately to be followed by the Chinese Deputy Minister of Culture, Director of Palace Museum, Mr. Zheng Xinmiao. Beside Mr. Östros, a Chinese translator. The pretty girls in the fuschia colored qipaos were escorts to the event.
Picture 6:Meeting Professor Geng Baoshang, well known for his profound writings and scholarship on Chineses Imperial porcelain, was one of the high points of the opening ceremony to me, however outside the program.
Picture 7:The stone stairway leading up to the Exhibition Hall itself, the Swedish flag colours flanking the stairs. The architecuture of the place is something quite amazing.
Picture 8:The entrance to the Exhibition Hall with the flags of the two countries and a trading route map of the East Indiaman Gotheborg III, tracking the ship’s voyage to come.
Picture 9:An inside view of the Exhibition Hall. Comparing the inside with the outside architecture we find that what appears to be two floors is actually a high ceiling with only a balcony running inside the windows of the second upper facade tier. To the immediate left the Ru yao dish from The Röhss Museum was displayed in a showcase of its own. At the press preview a reporter had tried to open that showcase to get a better picture with the cabinet glass away, causing quite a stir among the security staff.
Picture 10:Shards from the Wästfeldt’s excavation from the collection of the Maritime Museum. Much of the shards were still in their bags, sorted according to their find numbers, pinpointing their exact location on the wreck site. All in all some 7 tons of shards was brought up, cleaned, sorted and registered during the excavation, the shards on display here being a mere fraction of the total find.
Picture 11:Models of 18th century East Indiamen – or, western ships trading to China and ‘All countries East of India’ as the old documents also on display had it.
Picture 12:A shot of myself and to the left (my right) Lars-Olof Lööf, Head of the Collections Departments of the Gothenburg City Museum in Sweden. Behind us is the Royal Entourage with HRH the Crown Princess Victoria.
Picture 13:With HRH Victoria only metres away it was only a matter of time before the Royal Entourage caught up with us and I had the pleasure of meeting HRH Victoria in person. Being where we were, I could not help asking for her impression of this Imperial Palace – the Forbidden City – so far, and her thoughts on how it compared to her Stockholm surroundings. I hope I am not overstepping any confidences if I tell she felt it was a magnificent place and that she possibly could consider living in such a place like this, but perhaps not back in the Dynastic era.
Picture 14:An interesting tour of the Exhibition comes to an end and here, the Royal Entourage exits with as much, if not more, attention as when they entered. At least 25 photographers and reporters rush after HRH Victoria unseen in this picture. It was the closest to a paparazzi rush I have witnessed.
Picture 15:This view directly outside the entrance of the exhibition hall would be the view of the Emperor when doing his announcements to the crowd outside the Wumen. It was a strange feeling standing here. It was almost as if the emperor was just next to you. From here you were looking at the roof tops of Beijing in same light as he had seen and the wind on your face was just the same that has been here from the earliest time. It was just the crowd below that was new, and yes, that you actually had the right to be here and just look.
Picture 16:After the storm… the calm. The crowds have dispersed, having had their fill of the treasures on display and soaking up the atmosphere of the entire event. One of my final shots for the event was of the stone stairway leading up to the exhibition hall itself with a picture of the East Indiaman Gotheborg III unveiled during the Opening Ceremony. I took a moment to reflect on the picture and on Her. I can only imagine what Her arrival in Canton next year would be like, the reality will overshadow the picture in an instant! In the foreground of the picture is a show of the well thought out hospitality of the sponsors that never failed to impress. Food and drinks continued to be served even as the guests were leaving, ensuring at all stages through the event, the guests were well fed and happy.THE END

The Rare Ming Monkey and Ming Kui Xing Ceramic Exhibition

kui Xing,the god of literatue(provenance Dr Iwan Suwandy,found at West Java Indonesia)

Driwancybermuseum’s Blog

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                                          DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

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                                THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

                           MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

                 DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

                                        PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                     THE FOUNDER

                                            Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                                                         

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Showcase :

The Rare Ming Monkey and Min Kui Xing  Ceramic

Ming Monkey Figurine( the god monkey-Sun Go Kong)
The Magic Ring

 The design like monkey, but Mr NH KOH tell me that this the god of Literature Ming Kui Xing, this collection found in West Java.

Kui Xing

 

Rubbing of Kui Xing stele (with the 鰲 ao turtle and a 斗 ladle) at Stele Forest Museum in Xi’an.

Kui Xing (Chinese: 魁星; pinyin: kuí xīng; Wade–Giles: K’uei Hsing), originally called 奎星 (also kuí xīng), also known as 大魁夫子 “Great Master Kui” or 大魁星君 “Great Kui the Star Prince”, is a character in Chinese mythology, the god of examinations, and an associate or servant of the god of literature, Wen Chang.

The name ‘Kui Xing’ literally means “Chief Star(s)”, and anciently referred to the ‘spoon’ of the Big Dipper. The Chun Qiu Yun Dou Shu defines the ‘Kui Xing’ as “The four stars in the first section of the dipper”. The ‘handle’ was referred to as the 杓 shao, or ladle/spoon. Kui Xing’s original name, 奎星, is the original name of the star in the Big Dipper located furthest from the ‘handle’ – Dubhe.

Contents

 Folk Beliefs

 

Folk Beliefs

Kui Xing, holding a ladle and standing on an ao (depicted as a fish), on Xiao Family Temple in Xinwupu, Yangxin County, Hubei

In Daoist tradition, Kui Xing is said to have been “bent and hunchbacked, as if he were an actual calligraphy character”, and came to be viewed as a saint of human fortune, particularly with regard to imperial examinations. Late Ming Dynasty scholar Gu Yan-Wu, often referred to as Gu Ting-Lin, wrote of Kui Xing in his Record of Historical Knowledge: “The date of the beginning of modern people’s veneration of Kui Xing is unknown. Since Kui (奎) was taken to be the master of composition, therefore the people established shrines to venerate him. Being unable to sculpt an image of the star (奎), his name was thus changed to [the homophonous character] 魁. Again being unable to directly construct an image of 魁, the character was split into its constituent radicals [鬼 Gui – Ghost/Spirit and 斗 Dou – Ladle/Gourd] and illustrated as such.” Gu’s statement suggests the name change was a creative measure designed to facilitate Kui Xing’s veneration.

As his form developed, people depicted Kui Xing’s right foot standing on a character 鰲 (ao), a giant turtle, in reference to a traditional saying, 獨佔鰲頭, “to stand lonely on the ao’s head”, meaning coming in first in examinations[1]), his left foot support a ladle, a writing brush in his hand, and his body full of vigor and life. Stylized calligraphy of Confucian adages often compose his torso.

Artists have also depicted the ao on which Kui Xing stands as a giant fish (see the image of a temple in Xinwupu, Hubei), or as a realistic-looking turtle (e.g., the statue near Bijiacheng – the “Brush-rest wall” – in Changde, Hu

KUI-XING

Also known as K’UEI-HSING, KURI-HSING
Picture of KUI-XING

One of WEN-CHANG‘s servants, he’s the starry-eyed God of Official Documents and Paperwork.

KUI-XING was once a mortal in the academic world — a highly-talented student but also extremely ugly. In fact he was a typical nerd. But after having fallen off a cliff, he was rescued from certain death by a dragon and given the job of Literary Affairs Minister.

Now he stands next to WEN-CHANG in the night sky, and oversees official paperwork, publications and Post-It notes. No memo is small enough to escape his scrutiny. We presume by now he is also the God of Fax Machines and Email.

KUI-XING is often depicted standing on the head of a turtle waving a Chinese brush in the air. Never having received a communication from Heaven,

please compare with  Mr NH KOH collections below

compare with

(a) Christy collections

 
MING Dynasty, 1368-1644 (China)
Title : A FIGURE OF KUI XING

Date :
 
Category : Sculptures
Medium :
: Lacquered and gold painted bronze
 
 
 
MING Dynasty,A FIGURE OF KUI XING,Christie's,London

MING Dynasty,A FIGURE OF KUI XING,Christie’s,London
 
 
Estimate : 300 GBP – 500 GBP

(b)kui xing ceramic , Lady Lever art Galery Collections

Accession no: LL 61
Object type: Ceramic
Name: Figure of K’uei Hsing (Kui Xing)
Materials: Porcelain with overglaze enamel decoration in famille verte style
Place made: Jingdezhen, China
Date made: Qing Dynasty, Kangxi (1662-1722 AD)
Measurements: H. 32 cm

Description: K’uei Hsing (Kui Xing) is a character in Chinese mythology, the god of examinations, and an associate or servant of the god of literature, Wen Chang.
Standing on a fish-dragon’s head, he holds up a writing brush in his right hand. He is said to have been an historical figure, a poor but brilliant student called Zhong Kui who passed the imperial examinations with high honours. However, because he was ugly, he was not allowed to enter government service. In despair, he drowned himself but was carried by a fish-dragon up to heaven where he became a star (‘Xing’ in Chinese) of the Great Bear constellation (known in China as the Palace of Literary Genius).

Provenance
Bought from Frank Partridge, 29 July 1915, gifted to the Lady Lever Art Gallery, 1922. Partridge to A. J. H. Howard, 9 August, 1915, Partridge Papers.

Literature
R. L. Hobson, Chinese Porcelain and Wedgwood Pottery with Other Works of Ceramic Art, London: B. T. Batsford, Ltd., 1928, No. 340.

(c)NH KOH collectiona “Kuixing”

 

The demon-faced like figure in the below picture is the God of Literature/Examiniation, Kui Xing.  He is usually depicted holding in one hand a brush and the other, a cake of ink.  He is widely worshipped by those who are seeking office or success in public examination.

 Kuixing

 

The demon-faced like figure in the below picture is the God of Literature/Examiniation, Kui Xing.  He is usually depicted holding in one hand a brush and the other, a cake of ink.  He is widely worshipped by those who are seeking office or success in public examination.

 

In below figurine, he is depicted with one foot on the head of  a big turtle.  This is related to the auspicious message on imperial examination success: du zhan ao tou (独占螯头), literally  it can be translated as (du zhan) standing alone, (ao tou) on the head of the turtle. 

In ancient China, the top 3 candidates in the metroplitan examination are given an audience with the emperor.   During the audience, the top candidate would stand alone on one of the steps leading to the throne.  On that step is curved a turtle-like creature.  That is how the phrase “du zhan ao tou” originated.

 

 Ming Monkey Ceramic

 

I. THE CHINESE ETHNIC HISTORY OF MONKEY

1.The skin of the golden brown monkey or Rhinopethicusbroxellane of Szechuan and kansu is much valued by the Chinese and it is asid at one time only members of the Imperial family were entitle to wear it (couling,Encyclopedia Sinica,Monkeys)

2. The Monkey is one of the symbolic aninal correspondent with the ninth of the Tweleve Terretrial Branches, and though worshipped to some extent by the Buddhists, is commonly regarded as the emblem of ugliness and trickery.

3. The monkey was first worshipped in return for some supposed services rendered the individual who went to India, by special command of an Emperor of thereligion-so some affirm. This Emperor deified the monkey or at least he conferred the august tittle of ‘The Great Sage equal to Heaven’ upon that quaduped, The birthday of ‘His Excellency, The holy King’, is believed to occur on the twenty-third of the second Chinese Month, when His Majesty is pecially worshipped by men from all classes of society.

4. The Monkey is believed to have the general control of hobgoblins, Witches , elves etc. It is also supposed to be able to bestow health (Dr Iwan S. birth at the last day of Monkey Years, that is why his parent said him the tail of monkey, and also became the physiciann and master of Healt & Hospital Administration), protection , and sucess on mankind, if not directly, indirectly, by keeping away maliciuos spirits or goblin. Chinese People often imagine that sickness , or want of sucess in study or trade, is caused by witches and hobgoblins. Hence the sick, or the unsuccesful, worship the monkey in order to obtain its kind offices in driving away or preventing the evil influences of various imaginary spirits or powers(Doolittle;social life Of chinese p.228)

5 In Tionghoa ethnic history, the Monkey very known as the Sun Go Kong

. or now in China Sun wu-Kang , the Monkey Ancetors with the Magic ring ar0und his forhead

 

that will smaller and made the head’s pain if he made the wrong sexual act , also he have the power to duplicated himself by pull his armpit’s hair.
In the Chinesehomeland and Tionghoa etnic folklore story THE TRAVELLING TO WEST , the Monkey was the emblem of Human’s Cleverness(kecerdasan) and the power of human pshycollogic brains powers (akal budi) , and the name- the King of all Monkeys have given to someone who have many strategic actions(tipu muslihat) , also during this travelling the Monkey very clever in medical therapy (as therapist)
( everybody have ever seen the movie or video of the famous Sun go Kong or Dewa Kera, but until this time UCM only found one Sun Go Kong -the Ming sancai Monkey figurine, and this is the first report and never seen in the International auctions,this Figurine very rare and very high investation value because the chinese belief that he have the power to control all the creator which made the sickness and unsuceesfull,you will always healthy and sucess if collect this rare Monkey figurine, that is why in my senior age I am alway healthy and succeed,don’t you believed?
please if the collectors have the same Ming Monkey figurine please contact via comment with your opinion-Dr Iwan S)

6. Sun go kong or Sun Wu-Kong (wu and go ast the same meaning and character but different dialeg Fukian an Kek), was borned from a magic stone and after have the magic power and trined by the monk Tao P’u ti Tsu-shih , he have the magic stick Yu which could made the the Dragon king became afraid. he became the king of Monkey and command all the animal all over the world . But Sun Go-kong didnot sastified, he asked the air’s queen (Ratu langit) to be the as same with her and he still the the Queen Long Life Peer fruit, but he was kninapped ,but the monkey cannot destroyed by the Queen and the flame of eight diagram Lao Tzu., The Buddhist Queen Quan-yin have traped the Monkey in the below of the Mointain to wait the Hsuan Tsang monk which travel to India in order to get the Buddhish Books . The instersting story about how the Monkey ancetors , with The Pig ancetors and the Mountain monk help the Hsuan Tang monk travel to India and found the Buddhist Books, The travel to the West was the original history during The Tang dinasty which the emperor order the Monk travelto India to get the Budddiht books, this book were written during the Ming dinasty (please read the Ancient Travel Unique collection and the Book Unique Collec-tions ) The story based on the India Hindu Ramayana story about the clever and magic power of The King of Money Hamonan in Rama-Shinta history.
The history of the magic Yu stick were original during the third emperor of last emperor Tayu of Hsia dinasty , this emperor Nefrit was the first man who used the stick to estimate the water level of fload and control that fload, and the Water Ancetor was the Monkey which could control the water animal which caused the fload before the devil had tied at the mountain but i could free itself and made fload .The traditional Chinese yu dancing were in actions during the anti Fload ceremony.

II. THE CHINESE ETHNIC LUCKY FENGZUI OF MNKEY

1. The Monkey is the emblem of long life and Healthyness

2. The Monkey Could control the evil and women whictcraft that is why the Monkey have believed will bring the healthyness, protections against diseases and pull out the criminal factors against humankind.

3. The relation bertween the Monkey and the Yu emperor and the Dewa Guntur had told how important the Monkey in China or Tionghoa tradition, they honored to the Sun Go-kong , that is why the Chinese artcraft didnot painting the Holy Monkey figure in ceramic , and very difficult to found the Sun Wu-kon figurine small statue during dinasty Ming, because the Brown gold Monkey only used by the Ming Imperial court or as the given the Indonesia’s King or the Tionghoa Commander in Chief . please the sinolog help me with more informations via comment, also if the collectors who found the Ming Monkey Figurine please report via comment.

2cpyright Dr Iwan S.2010

Pameran Keramik Langka Kerajaan Tiongkok produksi De Hua

Driwancybermuseum’s Blog

tarian betawi tempo dulu                 

                           WELCOME COLLECTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD

                          SELAMAT DATANG KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN ASIAN

                                                AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                          DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

_____________________________________________________________________

SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR

_____________________________________________________________________

 *ill 001

                      *ill 001  LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

                                THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

                           MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

                 DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

                                        PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                     THE FOUNDER

                                            Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                                                         

    BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)

  

                         WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

                     SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showcase :

 Pameran Keramik Langka Produksi De Hua

Frame satu : Pengantar

Pabrik keramik De Hua lokasinya di propinsi Fukien,dekat kota Changzhou(Tjiangtjioe) tanah kelahiran Kakek saya.

Tahun 2008 saya sempat mengunjungi kota tersebut dan melihat temple Kai Yuan yang sangat indah dan menyaksikan tanah kelahiran suku hokian termasuk wilayah kelahiran kakek saya,  lihat di webblok saya

 ,silahkan klik hhtp://www.uniquecollections.wordpress.com)sayang karena keterbatasan waktu saya  tidak berhasil menemukan lokasi pabrik tersebut.apakah mungkin berada diprovinsi lain,harap yang pernah ke pabrik De Hua berkenan memberikan info.

Artifact keramik De Hua yang bewarna putih dengan atau tanpa dekorasi ditemukan di Indonesia,keramik ini tergolong langka .

Silahkan melihat koleksi pribadi saya dibawah ini.

Salam dari penemu Cybermuseum blog

Dr Iwan Suwandy

 

Frame dua : De Hua Biru Putih

Frame tiga :

De Hua Putih “Blanc de Chine”

1.DE HUA SUNG DINASTY

2.DEHUA MING DYNASTY

LIHATLAH SEBUAH MANGKUK DE HUA PUTIH DENGAN RELIEF DELAPAN DEWA, BARU DITEMUKAN SATU MANGKUK DENGAN EMPAT DEWA,SEDANGKAN PASANGANNYA DENGAN EMPAT DEWA LAGI BELUM KETEMU. kOLEKSI PRIBADI DR IWAN INI SANGAT LANGKA HANYA SATU SAJA YANG BARU KETEMU DIDUNIA(ONLY ONE EXIST IN THE WORLD) , LIHATLAH ILLUSTRASI YANG DIAMBIL DARI BEBERAPA ARAH,MULAI DARI PANTATNYA,DAN SETIAP DEWA SATU ILLUSTRASI,HARAP YANG MEMILIKI MANGKUK DELAPAN DEWA INI UNTUK MELAPORKAN PENEMUANNYA (WHO HAVE THE SAME  EIGHT IMMORTAL CUP PLEASE TELL ME INCLUDING ALL THE MUSEUM ALL OVER THE WORLD,THANKS)

2.DEHUA QING DINASTY

 

Statue of Guan Yin, Ming Dynasty (Shanghai Museum)

Blanc de Chine (French for “Chinese white”) is the traditional European term for a type of white Chinese porcelain, made at Dehua in the Fujian province, otherwise known as Dehua porcelain or similar terms. It has been produced from the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) to the present day. Large quantities arrived in Europe as Chinese Export Porcelain in the early 18th century and it was copied at Meissen and elsewhere. It was also exported to Japan in large quantities.

Dehua porcelain, Wade-Giles romanization Te-hua, Chinese porcelain made at Dehua in Fujian province. Although the kiln began production some time during the Song period (960–1279), most examples of the porcelain are attributed to the Ming dynasty (1368–1644). The characteristic product of Dehua was the white porcelain known to the French as blanc de chine, which had the appearance of blancmange, or milk jelly. Figures of Buddhist deities, vases, and stoves with molded reliefs of plum blossom were common forms. Dehua ware was exported in large quantities to Southeast Asia and, starting in the 18th century, to Europe, where it .

The first Dehua Kiln, whose white porcelain became a representative genre of the Chinese porcelain industry, was a famous kiln that specialized in white porcelain making. Its sites spread about within the scope of today’s Dehua County, in East China’s Fujian Province.

Dehua County in central Fujian Province is known as one of the Three Porcelain Capitals in China, together with Jingdezhen in East China’s Jiangxi Province and Liling in Central China’s Hunan Province.

Dehua porcelain dates back to the Song Dynasty (960-1279). Solid and smooth, Dehua porcelain is resistant to both heat and cold. One type of “Jianbai” porcelain in particular has a sparkle and luster even more stunning than white jade, and its ivory-white color and superb workmanship make it a favorite of art lovers.

The body of its white porcelain was low in iron but high in potassium, while the color of the glazed surface was of a bright, smooth luster, as milky as frozen fat. It was thus often called “lard white” or “ivory white.” Dehua white porcelain used to be one of the major export varieties in various dynasties. In the West it was called the “Chinese white porcelain” or “Marco Polo porcelain.”

The most common objects of Dehua porcelain were a burner, cup, bottle, plate, tin, Zun (a kind of wine vessel), and Ding (an ancient cooking vessel), which were often decorated with appliqués (kinds of ornament) and stamps; the porcelain figurine was also remarkably exquisite. In fact, the masterpiece of Dehua porcelain was the white porcelain figure of Buddha.

Among Dehua porcelains, white Buddha figures, the most famous, represented the highest firing technique of Dehua kilns at that time. With a refined design and an elegant touch, the white porcelain of Dehua kilns became a representative genre of Chinese porcelain industry in that period and was reputed as the Bright Pearl of Porcelain in the World.

Although by the Song and Yuan dynasties (960-1368), Dehua porcelains were already being exported to other countries and regions, it was during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) that Dehua porcelain gradually developed its own techniques and styles and enjoyed great development.

In modern times, quite a few Dehua porcelains of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) have won gold prizes in expositions held both at home and abroad, such as Shanghai (East China), Taiwan Province, Japan, and Britain; in addition, Dehua porcelain is one of the main products of the national porcelain export, being exported to more than 80 countries and regions.

Keramik Yang ditemukan dari Kapal Karam Termasuk dari De Hua

Ceramics

The number of ceramic pieces of each type recovered from the Desaru ship is listed at the end of this section.

 
Type number & description
Lion-dog dish
1: Lion dog dish
Large porcelain dish from Jingdezhen; rounded sides with a well-mended low foot-ring. Infrequent chatter marks can be seen in the base. The dish is decorated in underglaze cobalt blue and copper red, and depicts a lion dog playing with a brocade ball. Four bands of stylised Tibetan characters decorate the cavetto. The lion dog, or dog of fu, is the Buddhist guardian lion; it looks like a Pekinese dog with a brushy tail. It is often shown playing with a ball and ribbons. It appears in the Ming dynasty but also used in Qing dynasty. The base is unglazed.
Size: 27-29 cm diameter.
Flower dish
2 & 2.1: Flower dish
Large dish from Jingdezhen; rounded sides with a well-mended low foot-ring and unglazed base. Infrequent chatter marks can be seen in the base. The dish is decorated in underglaze cobalt blue, and features stylised chrysanthemum blossoms amidst scroll motifs. The chrysanthemum flower is the emblem of autumn and steadfast friendship, associated with a life of ease and retirement. The flower can be used as a tonic or cosmetic. It appears in decorations from the Yuan dynasty (1280-1368) onwards.
2 – large: 27-29 cm diameter.
2.1 – medium: 23-25 cm diameter.
Longevity dish
3 & 3.1: Longevity dish
Large dish from Jingdezhen; rounded sides with a well-mended low foot-ring and unglazed base. Infrequent chatter marks can be seen in the base. The dish is decorated in underglaze cobalt blue. It shows the Chinese character shou (for long life) at the centre with bands of a stylised Sanskrit character for om (sacred syllable) on the cavetto. The longevity mark promises a long happy life, full of good luck and happy circumstances.
3 – large: 27-29 cm diameter.
3.1 – medium: 23-25 cm diameter.
Small flower dish, face & base 4: Small flower dish
Small dish with rounded sides and a well-made low foot-ring. Probably manufactured at one of the Dehua kilns. The centre medallion is decorated in cobalt blue, and features stylised chrysanthemums altering with various scroll motifs. The chrysanthemum flower is the emblem of autumn and steadfast friendship. The base is glazed and shows the manufacturer’s mark in cobalt blue.
Size: 17-19 cm diameter.
Character dish 5: Character dish
Small dish with rounded sides and low foot-ring. Probably manufactured at one of the Dehua kilns. The centre medallion is decorated in cobalt blue, and features the Sanskrit character for om (sacred syllable), and three tiers of a stylised version of the same character on the cavetto. The base is glazed and shows the manufacturer’s mark in cobalt blue.
Size: 17-19 cm diameter.
Flower plate 7: Flower plate
Small well-made dish with flat rim, decorated in cobalt blue oxides, with a stylised chrysanthemum flower surrounded by a flower spray in the medallion. The plate is probably made in the Jingdezhen area. The base, which is low and well-mended, is glazed, and shows the manufacturer’s mark in cobalt blue.
Size: 18-21 cm diameter.
Flower saucer 8: Flower saucer
Similar design as the above flower plate: exterior decorated in cobalt blue with a lingzhi fungus motif connected by a scroll of fungus. The base is glazed and shows the mark of its manufacturer.
Size: 9-11 cm diameter.
Flower bowl 9: Flower bowl
Bowl with everted mouth rim, decorated with cobalt blue oxide, showing a lingzhi fungus motif at the centre bottom, a fungus scroll at the mouth rim, and lotus scroll above a band of lotus panels on the exterior. The base is glazed and shows the manufacturer’s name.
Size: 13-15 cm diameter.
lotus-shape flower bowl 10: Lotus-shape flower bowl
Blue and white decorated bowl with straight mouth rim. The decoration, a lotus flower and scrolls, is drawn only in outline, not filled with the traditional wash. The foot-ring is well-mended, glazed and shows the manufacturer’s mark in the glazed base.
Size: 13-15 cm diameter.
celadon white bowl 11: Celadon-white bowl
Chinese bowl from the Jingdezhen area with a translucent glaze on the interior and celadon glaze on the exterior. The foot-ring and manufacturer’s mark are similar to those of the bowls listed above.
Size: 13-15 cm diameter.
qing bowl 12: Qing bowl
Chinese bowl from Guangdong province. The underglaze blackish-blue decoration includes floral motifs equally spaced round the exterior. The interior has an unglazed stacking ring.
Size: 13-15cm diameter.
spoon
13: Spoon
More than 50,000 spoons were found on the ship. There were three main designs and qualities. The ‘nice’ spoon was perfectly moulded and finished, and decorated with a finely drawn floral motif. Another design included the Chinese symbols for yin and yang. Most spoons however were decorated with a simple floral scroll. The base is usually rather rough and has a low unglazed foot-ring.
Size: 10-11 cm long.
covered bowl
14: Covered bowl
Chinese blue and white covered bowl from Jingdezhen. This example is decorated with four double-happiness characters, alternating with geometric motifs, equally spaced around the exterior of the body. Other covered bowls of the same size and form have similar exterior decoration featuring various flower motifs. The base is very low and glazed but does not show any mark of the manufacturer. The foot-ring is thin and free from glaze and grits.
Size: 10-12 cm high.
yixing teapot
15, 15.1 & 15.2: Yixing teapot
Chinese Yixing teapots from Jiangsu province. Various potters’ marks and seals appear on the base. These pots are handmade and beaten into the desired shape, usually by famous potters specializing in teapot making.
15 – Small: 4-6 cm high.
15.1 – Medium: 8-10 cm high.
15.2 – Large: 10-12 cm high.
teapot with cover
16: Teapot with cover
Chinese blue and white teapot with recessed lid, probably made at one of the Jingdezhen kilns. The clay is white, glaze is clear and transparent, and the foot-ring is low but well mended. Decorations around the body are made within a centralized band of medallions, separated by two bands of stylized lappets. The missing handle was probably made of double brass wires, fitting into the double bracket. The base is glazed but shows no manufacturer’s mark.
Size: 16-18 cm high.
black-glazed basin
17: Black-glazed basin
‘Flowerpot’ from southern China, thrown on a wheel. A number of carved, horizontal lines high on the body terminate at the rounded mouth rim. Black-glazed, with no other decoration. These pots were fired on spur discs; many show spur marks from rectangular discs.
Size: 12-14cm high.
black-glazed covered box
18: Black-glazed covered box
Yixing covered boxes: in sets of four, of different sizes, fitting one inside the other. Originally green-glazed, many of the boxes had turned black due to oxidation. These pots are light due to their porous clay and thin walls. They are handmade in traditional Yixing manner. The box and lid form imitate ‘Jun’ ware dating from the Song dynasty.
Size: 9-22cm high.
brown-glazed basin
19: Brown-glazed basin
Brown-glazed garden pot from southern China, made of coarse clay thrown on a wheel in diminishing sizes (sets of three). The exterior is decorated with various stamped motifs. A light brownish glaze ends well above the foot-ring. The mouth rim and foot-ring are cut flat.
Size: 7, 10 and 11 cm high.
brown-glazed bowls
20: Brown-glazed bowls
Garden pots made from Yixing clay. These pots, like all other Yixing wares, are assembled from a round handmade base and rectangular side pieces, assembled into a desired shape and then beaten into the final form. These pots are extremely light in weight. The joint between the side and bottom piece can often be seen.
Size: 11- 24 cm diameter.
brown-glazed jar
21: Brown-glazed jar
Brown-glazed storage jar from southern China, of very coarse clay and roughly finished. Jars of this type were stored below deck, and accommodated smaller pots of various types. The shoulder and upper body are decorated with crossing horizontal and vertical carved lines.
Size: 18-20 cm high.
brown-glazed storage jar
22: Brown-glazed storage jar
Larger brown-glazed storage jar from southern China, of very coarse clay and roughly finished. Jars of this type were stored below deck, and accommodated smaller pots of various types. The shoulder and upper body are decorated with crossing horizontal and vertical carved lines.
Size: 49-51cm high.
brown-glazed urn
23: Brown-glazed urn
Smaller brown-glazed storage jar from southern China, of very coarse clay and roughly finished. These jars were stored below deck, filling the cargo space between larger jars. The shoulder and upper body are decorated with crossing horizontal and vertical carved lines. The glaze ends above the base.
Size: 15-17 cm high.
brown-glazed kendi
24: Brown-glazed kendi
Unusual type of kendi, apparently of the same rough clay as the storage jars and probably made in southern China. The kendis are likely to have been used for wine or other relatively valuable drinks, rather than water. These kendis belong to the same group as the brown-glazed urns (32) and ring-handled spouted jar (33).
Size: 24 cm high.
guan covered jar
25: ‘Guan’ covered jar
This type of jar is often referred to as a Kamcheng and was made at Jingdezhen. The lid handle is moulded in the form of a Buddhist lion (lion dog or ‘dog of fu’), and the cobalt blue decoration includes sweet pea blossoms on a ground of sweet pea foliage. Pairs of small handles are set below the shoulder. The form of the Kamcheng is derived from the ‘Guan’ shaped jar of the Yuan dynasty.
Size: 20-25 cm high.
enamel-decorated covered bowl
26: Enamel-decorated covered bowl
Thin-walled white porcelain bowl, made at Jingdezhen, and often used for serving wine. The lid is ‘reversible’ and can be used to serve smaller dishes. The bowl has an overglaze enamel motif, depicting anything from bamboo to dragons. A few of these bowls show calligraphic characters often quoting famous Chinese poems.
Size: 8.5cm high.
water pot
27: Water pot
Yixing chamber pot or water pot assembled from handmade pieces of clay. The colour of the clay, as with other Yixing wares, varies greatly. Water pots seen elsewhere are mostly green-glazed, while many pots on the Desaru ship were black-glazed. The green-glazed pots are often oxidized, appearing black.
Size: 13.5 cm high.
spouted jar
28: Spouted jar
Brown-glazed spouted jar made at Yixing, assembled from individual pieces of clay, and used to store and serve wine. Four lug handles are distributed evenly around the flattened shoulder. These jars are most commonly black-glazed, and have no decoration of any kind.
Size: 14cm high.
tall basin
29: Tall basin
Yixing jar, unusual for the carved vertical striations on the exterior. These basins were found with lids, stored in separate areas. As with other Yixing wares, the basins are assembled from individual pieces of clay. Originally covered with green and black glaze, some of the green-glazed basins appear black due to oxidation.
Size: 22cm high.
wine cup
30: Wine cup
Wine or tea cup from Dehua or other Fukien kilns. The sides are straight with a rounded mouth rim. Geometric motifs are painted in cobalt oxide. The base is glazed, with no manufacturer’s mark.
Size: 4 -5 cm high.
tea bowl
31: Tea bowl
Teacup from Dehua or other Fukien kilns. The sides are everted and end with a slightly rounded attachment to the foot-ring. The bowls are plain or show light cobalt blue decorations. The base is unglazed, with no manufacturer’s mark.
Size: 4-5 cm high.
brown-glazed spouted jar
32: Brown-glazed spouted jar
These urns of rather rough clay are probably made in southern China and belong to the same group as the brown-glazed kendis (24) and ring-handled spouted jar (33). The spout resembles the traditional Arabic style, but is crudely attached to the body. The glaze ends well above the base.
Size: 25 cm high.
ring-handled spouted jar
33: Ring-handled spouted jar
One of these jars was found. It probably comes from southern China, and is of the same group as the brown-glazed urns (32) but with a refinement: an additional pad below the handles, attached high on the shoulder. The glaze terminates in the middle of the body. The jar is likely to have been used to hold and serve water.
Size: 25 cm high.
shanghai jar
34: Shanghai jar
The ‘Shanghai jars’, actually made at Suzhou, are of coarse clay, similar to that used in the brown-glazed kendis and urns. The exterior is glazed in yellow-brown slip over hand-formed and carved motifs which include flowers, birds, bamboo and dragons. A key fret normally decorated the shoulder. Jars of this type were once used to store preserved eggs.
Size: 75 cm high.
green-glazed storage jar
35: Green-glazed storage jar
These storage jars are of a clay apparently identical to that of the Shanghai jars, so are probably from Suzhou. They were originally green-glazed, and have no decoration.
Size: 75 cm high.
large beaker
36: Large beaker
These beakers are made from coarse clay with frequent grits of stones. They probably come from southern China, and are rather heavy for wheel-thrown pots. They have no decoration, but the mouth rim is well mended.
Size: 47 cm diameter.
gunpowder urn
37: Gunpowder urn
Globular, black-glazed stoneware jar with short neck and four small lug handles placed high on the shoulder. Two were found; they are thought to have contained gunpowder.
Size: 35 cm high.
spring dish
38: Spring dish
These dishes, made at Jingdezhen, are decorated with blue cobalt oxide and red copper oxides below a clear glaze. The design features birds and prunus blossoms against a backdrop of a lake and what may be a pavilion in the foreground.
Size: 24.5 cm diameter.
mineral water bottle
39: Mineral water bottle
Light-brown stoneware bottle. On the shoulder is a stamped medallion showing a lion rampant encircled by the letters ‘SELTERS’. This may be the name of the German manufacturer. Under this is a horizontal inscription ‘HERZUGTHUM NASSAU’. The bottle is dated to c.1800(1).
Size: 29 cm high.

 

//

 Dehua porcelain

The area along the Fujian coast was traditionally one of the main ceramic exporting centers. Over one-hundred and eighty kiln sites have been identified extending in historical range from the Song period to present. The two principal kiln sites were those of Qudougong 屈斗宫 and Wanpinglun 碗坪仑. The Wanpinglun site is the older of the two and manufactured pressed wares and others. The kilns of Dehua also produced other ceramic wares, including some with under glaze blue decoration.

Tripod Early 17th Century, Nantoyōsō Collection, Japan

From the Ming period porcelain objects were manufactured that achieved a fusion of glaze and body traditionally referred to as “ivory white” and “milk white.” The special characteristic of Dehua porcelain is the very small amount of iron oxide in it, allowing it to be fired in an oxidising atmosphere to a warm white or pale ivory color. This color makes it instantly recognizable and quite different from the porcelain from the Imperial kilns of Jingdezhen, which contains more iron and has to be fired in reduction (i.e., an atmosphere with carbon dioxide) if it is not to appear an unpleasant straw color.[1]

The unfired porcelain body is not very plastic but vessel forms have been made from it. Donnelly lists the following types of product: figures, boxes, vases and jars, cups and bowls, fishes, lamps, cup-stands, censers and flowerpots, animals, brush holders, wine and teapots, Buddhist and Taoist figures, secular figures and puppets. There was a large output of figures, especially religious figures, e.g. Guanyin, Maitreya, Lohan and Ta-mo figures. Guanyin, the Goddess of Mercy, was particularly revered in Fujian and there exist innumerable figures of her. Donnelly says, “There is no doubt that figures constitute the great glory of blanc de Chine.” Some have been produced with little modification from the late 16th or early 17th century.[2] Crisply modeled figures with a smooth white glaze were popular as were joss-stick holders, brush pots, Dogs of Fo, libation cups and boxes.

The devotional objects produced at Dehua (incense burners, candlesticks, flower vases and statuettes of saints) “conformed to the official stipulations of the early Ming period, not only in their whiteness but also in imitating the shape of archaic ritual objects”.[3] They were probably used in the domestic shrines that every Chinese home possessed. However, one Confucian polemicist, Wen Zhenheng (1585–1645), specifically forbade the use of Dehua wares for religious purposes, presumably for their lack of antiquity: “Among the censers the use of which should be specifically forbidden are those recently made in the kilns of Fujian (Dehua).”[3]

The numerous Dehua porcelain factories today make figures and tableware in modern styles. During the Cultural Revolution “Dehua artisans applied their very best skills to produce immaculate statuettes of the Great Leader and the heroes of the revolution. Portraits of the stars of the new proletarian opera in their most famous roles were produced on a truly massive scale.”[3] Mao figures later fell out of favor but have been revived for foreign collectors.

Precise dating of blanc de Chine of the Ming and Qing (1644–1911) dynasties is often difficult because the conservatism of the Dehua potters led them to produce similar pieces for decades or even for centuries. There are blanc de Chine figures being made in Dehua today (e.g. the popular Guanyin and Maitreya figures) little different from those made in the Ming dynasty.

Notable artists in blanc de Chine, such as the late Ming period He Chaozong, signed their creations with their seals. Wares include crisply modeled figures, cups, bowls and joss stick-holders.

Dehua

Dehua is a town near Quanzhou in Fujian.

Get in

Get around

 See

Do

 In Japan

Maria Kannon, Nantoyōsō Collection, Japan

Tripod Box Cover Edo Period, Nantoyōsō Collection, Japan

Many of the best examples of blanc de Chine are found in Japan where they are used in family altars (butsudan) and other funerary and religious uses. In Japan the white variety was termed hakugorai or “Korean white”, a term often found in tea ceremony circles. The British Museum in London has a large number of blanc de Chine pieces, having received as a gift in 1980 the entire collection of P.J.Donnelly.[4]

Dehua white porcelain in Japan was traditionally known among Japanese as hakugorai or “Korean White Ware.” Although Korai was a term for an ancient Korean kingdom, the term also functioned as a ubiquitous term for various products from the Korean peninsula.

This is not to suggest that historically Japanese were entirely oblivious to the existence of the Fujian province kilns and their porcelain, now known as Dehua or Blanc de Chine ware. The Dehua kilns are located in Fujian province opposite the island of Taiwan. Coastal Fujian province was traditionally a trade center for the Chinese economy with its many ports and urban centers. Fujian white ware was meant for all of maritime Asia.

However a large quantity of these ceramics was intended for a Japanese market before drastic trade restrictions by the mid 17th century. Items were largely Buddhist images and ritual utensils utilized for family altar use. Associations with funerals and the dead have perhaps led to a certain disinterest in this ware among present day Japanese, despite an intense interest in other aspects of Chinese ceramic culture and history.

Many examples of great beauty of this ware have made their way to collections in the west from Japan. Among the countless Buddhist images meant for the Japanese market are those that with strongly stylized robes that show an influence from the Kano School of painting that dominated Tokugawa Japan. It seems a certainty that Dehua white ware was made with Japanese tastes in mind.

Perhaps also likely is Japanese taste in the very plain white incense tripods and associated objects for Japanese religious and ritual observance. Of interest also are the Buddhist Goddesses of Mercy with child figures that close resembled Christian figurines. Such figurines were known as Maria Kannon or “Blessed Virgin Goddesses of Mercy” and were part of the “hidden Christian” culture of Tokugawa Japan which had strictly banned the religion.

White porcelain Buddhist statuary was extensively produced in Japan at the Hirado kilns and elsewhere. The two wares can be easily distinquished. Japanese figures are usually closed on the base and a small hole for ventilation can be seen. Hirado Ware also displays a slightly orange tinge on unglazed areas.

References

  • Ayers, J and Kerr, R., (2000), Blanc de Chine Porcelain from Dehua, Art Media Resources Ltd.
  • Moujian, S., (1986) An Encyclopedia of Chinese Art, p. 292.
  • Shanghai Art Museum, Fujian Ceramics and Porcelain, Chinese Ceramics, vol. 27, Kyoto, 1983.
  • Kato Tokoku, Genshoku toki daijiten (A Dictionary of Ceramics in Color), Tokyo, 1972, p. 777.

Notes

  1. ^ Wood, N., Chinese Glazes: Their Chemistry, Origins and Re-creation, A & C Black, London, and University of Pennsylvania Press, USA, 2007
  2. ^ Donnelly, P.J., Blanc de Chine, Faber and Faber, London, 1969
  3. ^ a b c Ayers, J. and Bingling, Y., Blanc de Chine: Divine Images in Porcelain, China Institute, New York, 2002
  4. ^ Harrison-Hall, J., Ming Ceramics in the British Museum, British Museum, London, 2001

 

Porcelain
 
China

Chinese porcelain · Chinese export porcelain · Chinese influences on Islamic pottery

Types: Proto-celadon (16th century BCE) · Celadon (1st century) · Yue (2nd century) · Jingdezhen (6th century) · Sancai (8th century) · Ding (10th century) · Qingbai (12th century) · Blue and white (14th century) · Blanc de Chine (14th century) · Kraak (16th century) · Swatow (16th century) · Kangxi (17th century) · Famille jaune, noire, rose, verte (17th century) · Tenkei (17th century) · Canton (18th century)

Ming plate 15th century Jingdezhen kilns Jiangxi
Meissen hard porcelain vase 1735
 
Korea

Korean porcelain

Types: Joseon (14th century)

 
Japan

Japanese porcelain

Types: Imari (17th century) · Kakiemon (17th century) · Kutani (17th century)

 
Europe

French porcelain · Chinese porcelain in European painting

Types: Fonthill Vase (1338) · Medici (1575) · Rouen (1673) · Nevers · Saint-Cloud (1693) · Meissen (1710) · Chantilly (1730) · Vincennes (1740) · Chelsea (1743) · Oranienbaum (1744) · Mennecy (1745) · Bow (1747) · Plymouth (1748) · Worcester (1751) · Sèvres (1756) · Derby (1757) · Wedgwood (1759) · Etiolles (1770) · Limoges (1771) · Clignancourt (1775) · Revol (1789)

 
Technologies
 
People
 
Collections

the end@ copyright  Dr Iwan suwandy 2010

Pameran Koleksi Keramik Kerajaan Tiongkok Produksi Jing De Zhen kuno

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                                            Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                                                         

    BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)

  

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                     SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showcase :

Pameran Keramik Langka Kerajaan Tiongkok  Produksi  Jing De Zhen

Frame Pertama : 

Dr Iwan’s  Jing De Zhen private Collections Found In Indonesia

I.Yuan Dinasty

1.The Red Inglaze

2.The Qinh-pai glaze

3. The White Sufu

4.The Tobi Seji

5a The Mohamedan Blue

5 Celadon

II.Ming Dinasty.

1.Spiritual Animal

1) Dragon

2a) rare unusual decoration Fish flying to the gate of heaven and incarnationatuio to Dragon

2b)Chillin

3)horse

4) Ming kui_xing,the god of literatur

compare with NH KOH collectiona “Kuixing”

 

The demon-faced like figure in the below picture is the God of Literature/Examiniation, Kui Xing.  He is usually depicted holding in one hand a brush and the other, a cake of ink.  He is widely worshipped by those who are seeking office or success in public examination.

 Kuixing

 

The demon-faced like figure in the below picture is the God of Literature/Examiniation, Kui Xing.  He is usually depicted holding in one hand a brush and the other, a cake of ink.  He is widely worshipped by those who are seeking office or success in public examination.

 

In below figurine, he is depicted with one foot on the head of  a big turtle.  This is related to the auspicious message on imperial examination success: du zhan ao tou (独占螯头), literally  it can be translated as (du zhan) standing alone, (ao tou) on the head of the turtle. 

In ancient China, the top 3 candidates in the metroplitan examination are given an audience with the emperor.   During the audience, the top candidate would stand alone on one of the steps leading to the throne.  On that step is curved a turtle-like creature.  That is how the phrase “du zhan ao tou” originated.

2. Lucky Fengsui long life  Animal

3. Lucky Fengsui Flower Chrysanthenum  and lotus  etc

4.Lucky Shou loglife and happ1ness calligraphy

5. The Eight Type of Buddhis  Emblem

6.Monochrome blue king

7.Polichrome santsai

8. insect

III.Transisi Ming-Qing

 

IV.Qing Dinasty

1) The early Qing (Kang Hsi)

2) The Lates Qing

Frame Kedua:

Sejarah Kiln Jing de Zhen (google explorations)

Keramik Jingdezhen

Mangkuk glasir Qingbai (“Blueish-green)yang diukiran (carved) disain  bunga peony , Jingdezhen, Song Selatan , 1127-1279.

Keramik Jingdezhen  (Chinese: 景德镇陶瓷) , terutama  porcelain, diproduksi di  Jingdezhen, China. Jingdezhen dijakini sudah memproduksi keramik sejak abad ke enam sebelum Masehi (is believed to have produced pottery as early as the sixth century CE).

Daftar Isi (Contents)

Jingdezhen bluish-white ware

Vase Fonthill merupakan poselein Jin de zhen paling dini  yang ditemukan di Eropa tahun 1338,(tipe seperti ini belum pernah ditemui di Indonesia-Dr Iwan) 

Jingdezhen ware became particularly important from the Song period with the production of Qingbai (青白, “Blueish-white”) ware(keramik Jin de Zhen menjadi sangat terkenal sejak memproduksi keramik jenis Qingbai). The Jingdezhen Qingbai was a transparent and jade-like type of porcelain, with a blueish-white glaze. Decoration was made by delicate carving or incising.(Keramik Qingbai memiliki warna yang transparant seperti batu giok-jade -kumala -warna putih kebiruan dengan dekorasi jenis  sayatan-incised atau diukir)[1]

The earliest piece of Chinese porcelain documented to have reached Europe, was a Qingbai porcelain bottle from Jingdezhen, which arrived in Europe in the middle of the 14th century: the Fonthill vase.(jenis keramik yang paling awal dikirim ke Eropa adalah jenis Botol Qingbai dari Jing de Zhen, yang tiba di Euro pada pertengahan abad ke -14: vase Fonthill)

Later, Jingdezhen produced Shufu ware, named after the two character inscription on some pieces. Shufu may mean the pieces were ordered for the Shumiyuan (Ministry of Defense). The Shufu pieces have a thick, somewhat opaque, glaze, almost white in color, with a faint blue-green tint,look Dr Iwan private collection below (Kemudian ,Jing de Zhen memproduksi keramik yang dinamakan Shufu. Shufu berarti keramik yang dipesan untuk Shumiyuan-menteri Pertahanan. Keramik Shufu tebal ,opak-padat,glasir bewarna putih dengan tinta bewarna  biru-kehijauan , lihat koleksi Dr iwan dibawah ini)

.[1]

Qingbai glazed lamp, Jingdezhen ware, 1271-1368.

Shufu stem bowl, Jingdezhen, 1271-1368.

Jingdezhen blue-and-white porcelain

Early blue and white porcelain, manufactured circa 1335, Jingdezhen.(tipe seperti ini juga terdapat dimuseum Tukrki Tokapi Sayai,banyak yang di tiru saat juga ada tirusn tersebut di Indonesia,saya menemukan artifact fragment kemdi bawang ini yang asli di Kalimantan Barat,silahkan perhatikan illustrasi dibawah ini untuk memahami bentuk yang orisinil untuk dijadikan alat pembanding dengan koleksi anda atau koleksi lain yang palsu-Dr Iwan)

Yuan Jing De Zhen Porcelain development of china

27 六

Yuan Dynasty Jingdezhen of china pottery

Yuan less than a hundred years in our history, but the development of porcelain pottery in the history of our country still has a very important position, can not be ignored. Porcelain in the Yuan Dynasty in its considerable weight handicrafts, fifteen years from the Yuanshizhu Emperor Yuan (1278) set up in Jingdezhen, “Fuliang porcelain Bureau” can be seen, this is my first time at the local establishment of the ruling class Porcelain management agencies, Jingdezhen Porcelain for the Ming and Qing government opened the first of its kind, also known as the largest one stroke after Jingdezhen ceramics producing future. Famous Yuan Dynasty Jingdezhen kilns have Hutian, Zhu Shan, Lok Ma Bridge, the Goddess of Mercy Court, had family get, and mainly produce blue white porcelain, copper red vitreous enamel, egg albumin cobalt blue vitreous enamel and porcelain. Also fired in the blue and underglaze red porcelain, ceramic history of China opened a new bright page. This is also in the Yuan Dynasty Jingdezhen greatest contribution, is also a milestone in the history of Chinese ceramic creation. In porcelain technology, the more the invention of the dual formula approach kaolin mined system plus tires, burn and create conditions for the large objects. Department of Jingdezhen blue and white Yuan Dynasty was founded in, it is blank on the porcelain painted with cobalt decoration, and then the transparent glazes, 1200 ℃ in order to restore the flame around a firing temperature of porcelain, also known as “underglaze blue,” ” Glaze in Green “,” white glaze blue flowers. ” Yuan blue and white porcelain of Jingdezhen porcelain stone plus with the dual method of kaolin system tire. Taizhi delicate white, due to high levels of obviousness deformation of aluminum oxide. Glaze slightly flashing blue, Guangrun translucent, bright and clear, with a rich ruby blue Xiangying harmony. Decorated with pine, bamboo, plum, flowers, birds, birds and animals, the main character profile. Objects are mostly large, with bottles, cans, plates, bowls and so on. Jingdezhen blue and white great achievements in the Yuan Dynasty, Jingdezhen blue and white porcelain features:

1, as more special with a glaze to glaze coloring stability, rich and gaudy green quiet;

2, as the underglaze blue and white color, ornamentation Wing do not brown off, beautiful and durable;

3, decorated mostly white blue flower, like a fresh purer traditional Chinese ink painting, timeless elegance.

And Red is an important element of the invention of the mid-Jingdezhen.

Contemporary blue and white porcelain manufacturing processes and substantially the same. It is made of copper oxide colorant, the tire on the painting decoration, the cover applied transparent glaze, reducing flame atmosphere at high temperature firing. Because of the red pattern in underglaze, it said and Red.

 And Red on the kiln atmosphere, demanding, difficult to burn than blue, so production is very low, Yuan underglaze red porcelain excavated and handed down the extremely rare. Underglaze red and blue in decorative patterns and glazes are slightly different, more sculptural simplicity underglaze red, theme quite small, glaze with darker levels, the decorative lines often bloom.

随机文章

From the mid-14th century, Jindezhen began to mass-produced underglaze blue porcelain.[1] During the Ming period, official kilns for Imperial productions were established in Jingdezhen.[1]

Dish with underglaze blue design of interlaced flowers, Jingdezhen ware, Xuande Reign 1426-1435, Ming, Shanghai Museum

Dish with underglazed blue design of 2 lions playing a ball, Jingdezhen ware, mid 15th century, Shanghai Museum

Foliated dish with underglaze blue design of melons, bamboo and grapes, Jingdezhen ware, Yuan, 1271-1368, Shanghai Museum

Qing period

With the Qing period, designs became more varied, combined folk and Imperial styles, and Jingdezhen ware became famous around the world.[1] Export were hampered after the French jesuit François Xavier d’Entrecolles visited Jingdezhen and wrote to Europe about its manufacturing secret between 1712 and 1720. From that point, European countries would start to rival Chinese porcelain productions, initially by imitating Chinese styles, and later by developing their own original artistic patterns.

Cowpea-red glazed seal-box, Jingdezhen ware, Kangxi reign 1662-1722, Shanghai Museum

Dish with underglazed blue and overglazed red design of clouds and dragons, Jingdezhen ware, Yongzheng reign 1723-1735, Qing, Shanghai Museum

Main article: Jingdezhen ware

Early Kangxi 17th Century, Jingdezhen Ware, Nantoyōsō Collection, Japan,koleksi pribadi Dr iwan yang ditemukan di Indonesia mutunya agak kurang dari koleksi Nantoyoso diatas Qing awal Kang hsi ,mungkin produksi dinasti Qing akhir lihatlah dibawah ini

Ming plate with grape design, 15th century, Jingdezhen kilns, Jiangxi. British Museum.

Porcelain workshop in Jingdezhen

Jingdezhen’s porcelain has been famous not only in China but in time it became known internationally for being “as thin as paper, as white as jade, as bright as a mirror, and as sound as a bell”. The late Guo Moruo, a senior official who was also a famous historian and scholar of PRC wrote a poem that says (in translation): “China is well known in the world for its porcelain, and Jingdezhen is the most well-known centre, with the highest quality porcelain in China”.[2]

Most Jingdezhen porcelain is valued by collectors of antique porcelain throughout the world. According to media reports, a blue and white porcelain jar produced in Jingdezhen during the Yuan Dynasty was auctioned for the equivalent of RMB 230,000,000 yuan in London, UK in July 12, 2005. This was the highest price achieved by a piece of porcelain in the history of all porcelain auctions of the world. The reason for the high price is experts believe that the blue and white Yuan Dynasty porcelain has a dominant position in the history of Chinese ceramics. It represents the pinnacle of the development of Chinese blue and white porcelain.[7][8]

During the Cultural Revolution, Jingdezhen produced a large number of porcelain Mao badges and statues of a seated Mao Zedong.

Jingdezhen soft paste porcelain flower holder, “Famille Rose”, 1736-1796, Qianlong period.

Jingdezhen blue and white plate, mid-14th century.

 Rail

The WanGan Railway (Wan:Anhui Province; Gan:Jiangxi Province) connects Jingdezhen to many key cities in China such as Shanghai, Nanjing, Jinan, Qingdao, Hefei, Guangzhou, Fuzhou, Xiamen, Nanchang, Kunming and Guiyang, etc. In addition, the Jiu-Jing-Qu Railway (Jiujiang– Jingdezhen – Quzhou) is under construction. In the near future, the two railwaylines will intersect in Jingdezhen, which will make the city the most important railway transportation hub in Jiangxi Province and East China. The Jingdezhen Railway Station is located in the city center and is under the control of the Nanchang Bureau of Railways.

 Air

The Airlines Routes of Jingdezhen

Jingdezhen Airport is located at Luojian Village, northwest of Jingdezhen city, and about 8 km from the city’s downtown.

CAAC statistics show that in 2008 Jingdezhen Airport served 189,256 passengers. This ranks the airport 81st amongst all Chinese airports. Annual cargo and mail traffic was 119.8 tons; annual landings were 2424. By these measures the airport ranked 111 and 91 in China.[11]

There are flights from Jingdezhen to Beijing(CA), Shanghai(ZH), and Guangzhou (ZH), Shenzhen(ZH). There are no international flights. Jingdezhen Airport is the second largest airport in Jiangxi Province. The largest is at Nanchang.

Local transit

There was only one bus line in Jingdezhen before the 1980s, which was from Huang-ni-tou to Nan-men-tou with a total line distance of 7 kilometers. In that time , the city had no taxi service and the buses were channel-type bus, it could carry more than one hundred passengers at most at the same time. This kinds of buses were renewed when they were operated to the end of 1990s.

Currently,Jingdezhen public buses and taxis are the two main means of transportation within the city. Nearly more than 20 public bus lines crisscross the city and its countryside. Taxis in Jingdezhen are plentiful; fares start at ¥5 for the first 2 kilometers.

.[2]

Residents of rural Jingdezhen

 Attractions

  • Jingdezhen Ceramic Museum

  • Jingdezhen Ceramic Historical Exhibition Area

  • Hutian Ancient Kiln Site

  • Porcelain Street

  • China Porcelain Garden

  • Lotus Pond
  • sanbao village created by world famous ceramic artist Jackson Li

Frame Ketiga:

Informasi Tentang Pabrik Keramik Terkenal di Tiongkok Jing De Zhen (berdasarkan Artikel “The World’s Ancient Porcelain Center” Lentz.Frank.S.National geography,Nov 1920 )

1.Illustrasi Pabrik tahun 1927

*ill

*ill Para artis sedang melukis dekorasi porselein disalah satu pabrik keramik terbesar di tiongkok,Jing De zhen. Terlihat ribuan keramik sedang menunggu untuk dilukis decorasi biru dibawah glasir, dan setelah selesia dekorasi , glasir di diaplikasikan melalui beberapa cara  dengan “Dipping”, Dengan di hembus liwat sebuah tabung (tube), atau dengan “sprinkling”. Kemudian keramik tersebut siap untuk dikilatkan (furnance),trenyata saat itu tidak di goaok (brushing) atau di siram(pouring) seperti tempo dulu (penulis melihat pabrik secara langsung tahun 1927)

2.Lokasi

*ill

*ill pabrik keramik Jing de Zhen  masih dilestarikan sampai saat ini

Pabrik Jing De zhen (juga disebut King-te-chen,King-te chin atau Chang-nan-chen) berada diprovinsi Kiangsi, dan merupakan pusat keramik bangsa Tiongkok ,saat in9i merupakan tanah air industri porseselein dunia. (This is the famous porcelain and pottery center of the nation – indeed, it is the original home of the porcelain industry of the world.)

3. Metode Produksi

Walaupun metode produksi masik primitif, kota ini dapat dikasifikasi sebagai pusat industri kendatipun demikian jarang dikunjungi , sehingga  penulis sangat tertariki untuk melihat lokasi yang kuno dan melihat dengan mata sendiri proses pembuatan keramik dari awal sampai selesai.

4. Bagaimana Caranya Mencapai Pabrik Jing Te Zhen 

Setelah menemulakan lokasi  Shanghai di peta tiongkok, kita harus menelusuri sungai  Yangtze ke   Kiukiang dengan rumah kapal Tiongkok , sebelah selatan dimana terletak danau  Po Yang Lake. Untuk mencapai  Jingdezhen dari  Kiukiang dengan kereta api ke  Nanchang. Perjalanan ini membutuhkan waktu satu hari walaupun jaraknya hanya  90 miles. Tidak terlihat disana pusat industri, tetapi ada toko porcelain yang menakjubkan yang disupply oleh perusahan kota keramik.

.5. Kota Jing De Zhen

.

 

pemandangan Jingdezhen dengan cerobong asap dari Kiln,berbeda dari tempat lain di Tiongkok yang biasanya terlihat Menara dan temple.Bukit-bukit yang indah mengelilingi kota. Dipingir sungai terdapat pohon pinus dan camphor (barus), sedangkan pohon bambu tumbuh dengan subur.

Produksi keramik sudah dimulai pada dinasti  Han tahun 220 AD, saat itu merupakan  produksi keramik pertama di tiongkok ,mungkin gerabah sudah diproduksi beberapa abad sebelumya.

Sangat banyak keramik yang pecah atau rusak ditumpuk sepanjang tepi sungai di   Jingdezhen.dan disana terlihat   78 cerobong asap kuning yang besar .Kota dengan penduduk 300.000 , tetapi tidak ada surat kabar.Jingdezhen belum ada listrik dan telefon (is devoid of electric lights and telephones.)dan  beberapa  rickshaws saat ini sudah ada disana. 

Dipingir sunga terlihat sisa pecahan keramik dan keramik yang gagal produksi ditumpuk(padsa penelitian terakhir masih ditemukan pecahan artifact keramik dari dinasti Sung,dan Ming berada dibawah lapisan tanah disekitar pabrik keramik lama-Dr Iwan S lihat illustrasi dibawah ini)

.Di sekitar kota ini ditemui lusinan bahan baku keramik Clay yang sangat bagus terutama didistrik dekat danau Pao Yang .sehingga kota ini menjadi pusat produksi pabrik keramik.Tempat bahan keramik tersebut adalah Nan K’an, Yu Kan, Tung Kengn dan C’hi Men. At Ch’i Men, diperbatasan provinsi  Anhwei Province, disana seluruh gunung terdapat ” fine white clay.”yang dikenal sebagai kaolin atau the “bone” clay .

6. Cara Roda Pembuat Keramik dioperasikan

Seluruh bahan keramik “clay” dibawa dengan kapal datar  ke  Jingdezhen dalam bentuk bata kecil yang lunak bewarna putih . Ribuan pekerja Tiongkok terikat dengan pekerjaaan ini.

Setelah clay dibersihkan,dipisahkan dan dimurnikan (refined), kemudian disatukan sesuai dengan kebutuhan  dalam bervariasi secara  proposional , biasanya dengan mengunakan kaki oleh anak-anak sampai siap untuk dibuat keramik.

 

Clay yang lunak dan basah ditaruh di atas knob diatas roda putar pembuat keramik.

 Bentuk dari roda putar pembuat keramik sesuai penjelasan dalam buku sebagai berikut:

1.The potter’s wheel, which was invented by the Chinese, is a huge circular machine, about four feet in diameter, made of heavy timbers to lend it momentum. It rests on a perpendicular axis in a slight depression or pit, into which water and debris rapidly drain.

2.The potter is perched above the wheel, with one foot on either side, in order to allow sufficient space for the movement of his hands. After revolving the wheel swiftly with a short pole, he deftly and with mechanical precision fashions a plate, bowl or vase. After years of practice, he can estimate to within a hair’s breadth the proper size.

3.The piece is then removed and placed on a long tray in front of the potter, where it awaits the next artisan. Handles and other decorations, made in molds, are added, and then the whole is scraped smooth and allowed to dry until it is ready for the next process – the under-glaze decoration.

4.Several basic colors, like blue and red, can be painted on under the glaze. The glaze is next applied in various ways – by dipping, by blowing on with a tube, or by sprinkling.

 After the mark has been added the piece is ready for the furnace.

7.Straw and wood scarce; coal not suited for kilns

Porcelain placed in the kiln to be fired has to be protected in strong, cylindrical clay vessels, called saggers. These trays can be used from three to six times before they are ready for the scrap heap on the river bank. Every piece of porcelain, as it is set into the sagger, is placed on a small, round, clay chip, sprinkled with straw ashes. This prevents fusing together of the two pieces.

The fuel for the furnaces at Jingdezhen is of two kinds – straw and wood. Coal has been tried, but it was found that its fumes discolored the porcelain, and accordingly its use was discontinued. Straw is used to burn only the coarser ware.

The fuel problem is a very acute one and it is only with greatest difficulty that wood can be secured at all. The neighboring hills have long ago been deforested, and firewood must be transported to Jingdezhen in river boats, often from sources 200 or 300 miles distant. Boats piled high with straw, projecting over the sides almost to the capsizing point, are common sights all along the river. Wood-boats, too, are seen everywhere.

The kilns are large, egg-shaped ovens of brownish brick, fifty feet long and twelve feet high at the highest point. Because of the intense heat, both the kilns and chimneys must be rebuilt annually.

Every piece of porcelain is placed in the furnace with great precision and arranged according to the temperature which is necessary for its complete firing. Only certain pieces can be placed at the top of the kiln.

The furnace when full is entirely bricked up, and the whole contents are kept at a temperature of 1,600 to 2,000 degrees centigrade, usually for a night and a day, after which the kiln is allowed to cool off, and in due time the porcelain is removed. It has been found that one kiln is large enough to keep nine or ten factories in operation.

This completes the process if no decorations other than the under-glaze paintings are desired, but if more elaborate colorings are used, further burnings in a smaller kiln take place. In applying other ornamental designs the artist often spends weeks, or even months, in completing a single piece, as was the case with a beautiful vase portraying the five relationships, which we had the pleasure of inspecting in the leading factory in the city.

8.Porcelain is classified according to shape

We found porcelain to be classified, according to shape, as follows: “yuan c’hi” or round ware, which includes cups, bowls, saucers and plates; “tso c’hi” or irregular rounds, including teapots, vases, and small, flat ink and paint boxes; “tiao hsiang”, or irregulars, such as images, statues, representations of trees and other objects.

An interesting feature of the manufacturing process is that the factories are also classified according to the shape of the piece they produce – that is, Mr. Wang makes only round ware, or he may even confine himself to the manufacture of bowls, while Mr. Li’s factory is devoted entirely to the production of teapots.

Clustered around the Fukien Guild Hall, in the eastern part of the city, for example, we found about twenty Fukienese families devoting their entire time to the making of images and statues, such as the God of War, Goddess of Mercy, the Three Stars – Happiness, Longevity and Posterity – and the Gods of Harmony. Among the collection we also noticed some obscene pieces.

There is only one plant in Jingdezhen which produces all varieties of porcelain and pottery – the Kiangsi Porcelain Company. It was organized several years ago by a number of prominent stockholders on a modern basis. No foreigners are connected with it in any capacity. We hear a good deal these days about the inability of Chinese to run their own business firms, but the success of this company, which received the grand prize for the best exhibition of porcelain at the Panama Pacific International Exposition in 1915, seems to indicate that they have some business capacity.

Boats loaded with soft, white clay bricks for the porcelain factories

Thousands of boats are engaged in hauling wood for the porcelain furnaces

Kneading clay by foot-power after it has been thoroughly cleansed and sifted

This milk-like liquid is the porcelain glaze ready to be blown or brushed upon the potters’ product

9.The imperial pottery’s long and noble history

Among the four hundred male employees of this concern are one hundred formerly engaged by the Imperial Pottery. In fact, with the downfall of the Qing Dynasty in 1911, the Kiangsi Porcelain Company took over practically the entire plant of the famous old factory.

The Imperial Pottery had a long and noble history. It was established in the Sung Dynasty, which lasted from 960 to 1279 AD. The emperor Chiu Tsung, who founded the dynasty, established the manufactory at Jingdezhen, and down through the centuries each succeeding emperor gave it his support and encouragement. It is reported that it was a part of the Yuan Shih K’ai’s imperial plans to reopen the pottery on his ascendancy to the throne. This is but one of the would-be emperor’s dreams that was cut short by his sudden death.

Although the empire no longer exists, porcelain is still used in large quantities by officials in Peking. It was my pleasure on several occasions to meet at feasts President Hsu His Chang’s representative, who had been in Jingdezhen for several months purchasing special wares to be used as gifts in the capital. We visited the factory which filled his orders and saw there dozens of vases, in every stage of development, later to be presented to foreign ambassadors and Mongol princes.

Mixing porcelain clays
Some clays are brittle, some are tough. This is the method of mixing used in all the factories.

The potter at his wheel
After placing the ball of soft clay on the knob of the rapidly revolving wheel, he deftly forms a cup, vase or bowl with mechanical precision.

One method of applying glaze
Here the operator is blowing the glaze through a bamboo tube as the vase is slowly revolved by his toe.

Where the teapot multiplies
In the center of the porcelain industry the product is classified according to shape, as follows: “Yuan c’hi”, “tso c’hi” and “tiao hsiang” – round ware (cups, bowls, saucers, and plates), irregular rounds (teapots, vases, etc.), and irregulars (statues, trees, etc.). The factories are likewise classified according to the shape of the ware they manufacture.

A potter and his unfinished ware
Almost large enough to have served as the jars in which Ali Baba’s Forty Thieves concealed themselves! Those jars of Arabian Names might have been made in Jingdezhen, for China’s ancient porcelain center was manufacturing such wares as early as 220 A.D.[No, not really, production here started in Five Dynasties and Ali Babas jars would more likely have been Pegu or Martaban jars, and not from Jingdezhen at all. / JE]

Cheap porcelain piled high along porcelain street.

The way in which porcelain is moved from place to place.

No unemployment in the porcelain city

There is no unemployment in Jingdezhen. Work is plentiful, but industrial conditions are bad. Long hours, poor food, no rest days and unsanitary living conditions cause a great deal of dissatisfaction among the laborers.

The best decorative artists receive three dollars a day (Mexican)
The unskilled wielders of the brush can earn as little as fifteen cents a day, however, the men are paid not by the hour but according to the quality of their work and the number of pieces finished.

Workers are organized, first according to the parts of the country from which they come – Jingdezhen, from Anhwei and all other provinces. They are further formed into guilds, according to the kind of work upon which they are engaged. Strikes are infrequent, but there is seldom resort to violence. The Chamber of Commerce is a regular mediator.

Many women are engaged in various forms of porcelain production, such as painting, engraving, and lettering. The apprentice system prevails throughout the industry, as in every trade in China. It was interesting to note the artistic ability of a number of small boys engaged in paint birds, flowers, fish and bats, the last being an omen of good fortune.

Wages range from ten cents to one dollar per day, Mexican, for potters and molders. This includes food and room. The artist’s wage ranges from twelve cents to three dollars per day, varying not according to the number of hours but, but according to he number and quality of the pieces produced. But no artisan must work too long. If a man is found doing too much and working beyond the time limit, he is set upon by his fellow workers and severely beaten.

We learned from the revenue collector that about $5,000,000 worth of porcelain and pottery is shipped out of Jingdezhen every year. Every piece has to be hauled down the river in small boats to Raochow, whence it is reshipped in large junks to Shanghai and other cities. Most of this is for domestic use, the Chinese not yet having learned the value of stimulating international trade.

“Ling Lung”, or rice pattern dishes require much time and skill

Perhaps the most popular design of porcelain with foreigners is the “ling lung” or rice pattern found in dishes, cups and bowls. The Chinese have learned the art of producing foreign-style dinner sets in this pattern and are finding a ready market for them.

Making the famous rice-pattern ware
Patient skill and no small amount of time are required in making this pattern, which is known in Jingdezhen as “Ling lung” [devils’ work]. It is made not by pressing kernels of the grain into the wet clay, but by cutting the apertures with a sharp knife, after which the holes are filled by repeatedly dipping into the glazing fluid.

Patient skill and no small amount of time are required for the making of rice pattern. The wet clay is first formed into a crude cup or plate on the potter’s wheel. After the piece has dried for several hours or for a day, it is carefully scraped with a special kind of knife which conforms to the curvature of the vessel. The next step is to cut in the kernel-shaped holes. This is done by a skilled workman, who uses a small, flexible steel lancet.

I had always thought that the rice pattern was made by pressing kernels of rice into the damp clay. It was not until I saw the actual process that this erroneous impression was corrected. After these small apertures have been completed the vessel is ready for the under-glaze painting. Decorating finished, the next step is to apply the glazing fluid. This is a thin, milky substance of high-grade porcelain. Sometimes the bowl is dipped, but the cold, raw liquid is usually put on with a soft wool brush.

The operation is repeated about thirty times, with an interval for drying, until all the holes are filled. Five or six coatings only can be applied in one day. The piece is then fired in the usual manner, and comes out of the furnace with the filled holes standing out in beautiful translucent designs.

The firm exporting the largest quantity of porcelain from Jingdezhen is a Chinese company in New York City.

Packing porcelain in rice straw to be shipped to America
The firm exporting the largest quantity of porcelain and pottery from Jingdezhen is a New York concern. Each piece is carefully packed by hand in rice straw before being packed in large boxes.

Each piece is carefully packed by hand in rice straw before it is packed in large boxes. These foreign boxes are made in Jingdezhen and after being marked both in Chinese and English, are shipped directly to New York.

Jingdezhen has a big future

The outstanding impression which a Westerner carries away from this teeming industrial city is the primitiveness of the methods in use. In not a single shop or factory does on find modern machines. Not even the simplest mechanical devices for operating a series of wheels by means of belts are to be found. Every pieces of porcelain is turned out by hand- or by foot.

Yet it is astonishing how much these patient workmen produce with their obsolete methods and crude devices. New ideas penetrate interior China slowly, but with the opening of the Nanking-Nanchang Railway, which has been planned and surveyed, Jingdezhen will assume as position of commercial influence that will astonish the world. The enormous clay deposits, together with the quantity of cheap labor, touched by the magic hand of a twentieth century artist engineer, will push this old and interesting city into a position that will far outshine her ancient glory.

FRAME EMPAT : JING DE ZHEN SAAT INI

1. INFO

1.Jalur Darat ke Jing de Zhen

  • Jalan Raya negara Tiongkok  G206 dari  Yantai, Shandong ke  Shantou, Guangdong.

2. Jalur Kereta Api

Jalan Kereta api  WanGan Railway (Wan:Anhui Province; Gan:Jiangxi Province) menghubungkan Jingdezhen ke banyak kota di Tiongkok seperti  Shanghai, Nanjing, Jinan, Qingdao, Hefei, Guangzhou, Fuzhou, Xiamen, Nanchang, Kunming dan Guiyang, etc. sebagai tambahan , jalan kereta api t Jiu-Jing-Qu Railway (Jiujiang– Jingdezhen – Quzhou) dalam pembangunan . Pada waktu tak lama lagi , dua jalur kereta api yang meliwati  Jingdezhen, tang membuat kota ini merupakan jalur kereta api yang paling penting di provinsi Jiangxi dan Timur Tiongkok . Stasiun Kereta api  Jingdezhen Railway lokasi di tengah kota  dan dibawah pengawasan   Nanchang Bureau of Railways.

 JALUR UDARA

Peta Rute Pesawat udara ke Jingdezhen

Jingdezhen Airport is located at Luojian Village, northwest of Jingdezhen city, and about 8 km from the city’s downtown.

CAAC statistics show that in 2008 Jingdezhen Airport served 189,256 passengers. This ranks the airport 81st amongst all Chinese airports. Annual cargo and mail traffic was 119.8 tons; annual landings were 2424. By these measures the airport ranked 111 and 91 in China.[11]

There are flights from Jingdezhen to Beijing(CA), Shanghai(ZH), and Guangzhou (ZH), Shenzhen(ZH). There are no international flights. Jingdezhen Airport is the second largest airport in Jiangxi Province. The largest is at Nanchang.

Transit Lokal

There was only one bus line in Jingdezhen before the 1980s, which was from Huang-ni-tou to Nan-men-tou with a total line distance of 7 kilometers. In that time , the city had no taxi service and the buses were channel-type bus, it could carry more than one hundred passengers at most at the same time. This kinds of buses were renewed when they were operated to the end of 1990s.

Currently,Jingdezhen public buses and taxis are the two main means of transportation within the city. Nearly more than 20 public bus lines crisscross the city and its countryside. Taxis in Jingdezhen are plentiful; fares start at ¥5 for the first 2 kilometers.

.[2]

Penduduk asli  Jingdezhen

 Attractions

  • Jingdezhen Ceramic Museum
  • Jingdezhen Ceramic Historical Exhibition Area
  • Hutian Ancient Kiln Site
  • Porcelain Street
  • China Porcelain Garden
  • Lotus Pond
  • sanbao village created by world famous ceramic artist Jackson Li

2.PRODUK BARU JING DE ZHEN

3.PABRIK KERAMIK DAN TOKO KERAMIK JING DE ZHEN

selesai@ hak cipta Dr Iwan suwandy 2010

Protected: THE RARE MIDDLE MING CERAMIC EXHIBITION

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Protected: The Late Ming Ceramic collections Exhibition

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