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INDONESIA INDEPENDENT REVOLUTION AND WAR HISTORY COLLECTION 1945

THIS THE SAMPLE OF DR IWAN CD ROM,THE COMPLETE EXIST,IF YOU WANT THE COMPLETE CD 1945-1945,PRICE TIGA JUTA RUPIAH SUDAH TERMASUK BIAYA PENGIRIMAN LIWAT TIKI,BAGI KOLEKTOR LUAR NEGERI SILAHKAN MEMINTA BANTUAN KOLEKTOR INDONESIA BECAUASU DIFFICULT AND HIGH COST TO SEND ABROAD,

SILAHKAN MENGHUBUNGI EMAIL DR IWA

iwansuwandy@gmail.com

DENGAN MENGUPLOAD KOPI ktp,RIWAYAT HIDUP SINGKAT,SERTA ALAMAT LENGKAP DENGAN NOMOR TILPON AGAR TIBA DENGAN SELAMAT BILA DIKIRIM KE RUMAH ANDA

THIA AMPLE FROM JAULY TO AUGUST 1945

THE INDONESIAN INDEPENDENCE REVOLUTION AND WAR HISTORY COLLECTION

PART

INTRODUCTION

BY

DR IWANSUWANDY,MHA

LIMITED E-BOOK IN CD ROM EDITION

SPECIAL FOR SENIOR COLLECTORS ONLY

COPYRIGHT @DR IWAN 2014

kemrdekaan di sumatra,salah satu koleksi langka yang ditampilkan dalam buku saya

SEKALI MERDEKA TETAP MERDEKA

dependent day august,17th.1945

 

 

” Saudara-saudara sekalian.

saudara-saudara hadir disini untuk menyaksikan suatu peristiwa maha penting dalah sejarah kita.

Berpuluh-puluh tahun kita bangsa indonesia telah bejuang untuk kemerdekaan tanah air kita. Bahkan beratus-rqatus tahun !

Gelombang aksi kita untuk mencapai kemerdekaan kita itu ada naik dan turunnya,tetapi jiwa kita tetap menujuu ke arah cita-cita.

Juga didalm zanman Jepang , usaha kita untuk mencapai kemerdekaan nasional tidak berhenti-henti. di dalam zaman Jepang itu,tampaknya saja kita menyandarkan diri kepada mereka, tetapi pada hakekatnya tetap kita menyusun tenaga sendiri, tetap kita percaya kepada kekuatan sendiri.

Sekarang tibalah saatnya kita benar-benar mengambil nasib bangsa dn nasib tanah air didalam tangan kita sendiri.

Hanya bangsa yang berani mengambil nasib dalam tangan sendiri, akan dapt berdiri dengan kuatnya.

Maka,kami tadi malam telah menadakan musyawarah dengan pemuka-pemuka rakyat Indonesia dari seluru Indonesia .

Permusyawaratan ity seiiya sekata berpendapat,bahwa sekaranglah datang saatnya untuk menyatakan kemerdekaan itu.

Saudara-saudara dengan ini,kami menyatakan kebulatan tekat itu.

Dengarlah proklamasi kami.

PROKLAMASI

Kami bangsa Indonesia dengan ini menyatakan kemerdekaan Indonesia.

Hal-hal yang mengenai pemindahan kekuasaan dan lain-lain diselenggarakan dengan cara seksama dan dalam tempo sesingkat-singkatnya.

 

Jakarta,17 Agustus 1945

Atan nama Bangsa Indonesia

Soekarno -Hatta

Singkat,hanya dua kalimat,tidak sampai 30 kata.

Kata-kata sederhana dipilih dengan cermat,netral,tidak emosional,tidak menghasut,suatu pemberitahuan yang tidak menyinggung siapapun.

Ditujukan kepada bangsa sendiri dan kepada seluruh dunia.Bahwa,mulai saat ini,Indonesia bangsa merdeka.

Pemindahan kekuasaan dan bukan pengambilalihan kekuasaan dari siapapun. Diselenggarakan dengan cara seksama maksunya teratur dan bukan semerawutan.Dalam tempo yang sesingkat=singkatnya artinya sebelum siapapun datang atau datang kembali untuk meniadakan kemerdekaan kita.Disusul dengan kata-kata penutup yang juga singkat dan tenang,tapi jelas.

Demikianlah saudara-saudar .Kita sekarang telah merdeka.Kita sekarang telah merdeka.

Tidak ada satu ikatan lagi yang mengikat tanah air kita dan bangsa kita.Mulai saat ini kita menyusun Negara kita.Negara Merdeka.

Negara Republik Indonesia.Merdeka,kekal,dan abadi. Insyaalah Tuhan memberkahi kemerdekaan itu(diturunkan dari himpunan Peraturan Perundangan-Undangan RI ,1989 Jakrta.penusun dan penerbit PT Ichtiar Baru-van Hoeve)

After that Latief Hendranigrat with Peta Uniform mengerek(up) the Red and white flag with penghormatan (honour to ) .The Indonesian national anthem sing spontanously together without derigent(conductor0 .

The ceremony simple without protocoler, dihadiri only by hundreds people,with their ordinary shirt,without pasukan kehormatan(Honouraly ),without music corps,without radio journalist and without reception because that time Ramadhan month(puasa,feast) every bodies proud  and many cries.

No Dai nippon Kempetai attack ,although the Banteng Movement(Barisan banteng) Had already exist to protect command by Dr Muwardi and Sudiro with young man militan included the Medical Doctor student  in the command of Piet Mamahit and Suraryo whic send from their headquaters(Markas) at Prapatan 10 street

 

The Informations above always seeden in Indonesia exhibition,but the complete info in CD-ROM many unpublished info and illustrations exist.

Because too many of my frined still didn’t bought the original complete CD-ROM due to the many problem , I will show the list of Info part July-August 1945

Especially for my new friend Dr Eko Prasetyo manado,and Mr Richard susilo Tokyo

 

INDONESIA INDEPENDENCE REVOLUTION AND WAR

part one 1945

Base On Postal And Document Collections

 

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Private Limited   Edition  Special For Collectors.

 

 

 

 

Introduction

BACKGROUND

1945 TIMELINE
September 1 Van Mook, Dutch Lieutenant-Governor of the Indies, meets British Lord Mountbatten in Ceylon, and asks that Japanese troops still in Indonesia be ordered by the British to suppress the Republican government. Mountbatten agrees, but the Japanese delay.
October 23 1945 Under British pressure, Van Mook meets with Sukarno for informal talks. Neither side gives ground
October 25 British 49th Indian Infantry arrives under General Mallaby.
October 27 British airplanes drop leaflets on Surabaya demanding surrender by Republican forces within 24 hours. British troops on the ground are nearly destroyed by Indonesian troops and mobs of ordinary people
October 29 Sukarno and Hatta arrive in Surabaya by plane. Sukarno and General Mallaby agree on a truce. Poor communications and general chaos prevent Sukarno from enforcing the truce.
October 30 British Major General Hawthorn flies to Surabaya from Jakarta.
Sukarno, Hatta, Mallaby, and Hawthorn sign a cease-fire. Five hours later Mallaby is killed.
British bombard Surabaya as punishment, thousands are left dead or homeless. British strafe civilian refugees on highway.
November 1945 British 5th Indian Division lands at Surabaya.
November 10 (Heroes’ Day/Hari Pahlawan) Indonesian counterattack in Surabaya. Fighting continues for three weeks. 600 Indian troops defect from the British and join the Indonesians
1946
January 31 Gen. Spoor takes command of Dutch forces in the Indies
March 24 An ultimatum was given by the British commander in Bandung for the Indonesian combatants in Bandung to leave the city. In response, the southern part of Bandung was deliberately burned down in an act of defiance as they left, an event which came to be known as Bandung Lautan Api (or Bandung Sea of Fire)

The revolutionary song “Hallo-hallo Bandung” was sung
by hundreds of Indonesian nationalists in Bandung
April Dutch forces replace the British in Bandung.

“Bandung Lautan Api”: Indonesians start to burn down the city rather than surrender it to the Dutch. Much of the southern part of Bandung is burned.

April 14 Dutch and Indonesian representatives begin talks at
Hoge Veluwe in the Netherlands. The talks are unsuccessful.
July Allies officially turn over all of Indonesia except Java and Sumatra to Dutch.
July 15 Van Mook calls conference at Malino, Sulawesi,
to plan for new Dutch-sponsored state in eastern Indonesia.
September Talks are reopened between the Sjahrir government and the Dutch at Linggajati, near Cirebon.
October 14 Preliminary military truce signed at Linggajati
November 15 Linggajati agreement: Dutch recognize Republic of Indonesia authority in Java, Sumatra and Madura. Both sides agree to form United States of Indonesia with Netherlands crown as symbolic head.

The Dutch delayed ratifying the agreement.

November 29 Last British troops leave Indonesia.
November
Dutch Capt. Raymond Westerling begins campaign in
South Sulawesi against Republican youths.
Westerling and his men commit many war crimes against citizens, including atrocities against children and hospital patients.

Capt. Raymond Westerling was a notorious rogue officer for the Dutch during Indonesia’s war of independence.
He headed a KNIL detachment called the Depot Speciale Troepen, which was implicated in war crimes which took as many as 5000 civilian lives.

1947
March 25 Netherlands government finally ratifies Linggajati agreement
July 20 First Dutch “police action “Dutch troops occupy West Java, East Java, Madura, Semarang, Medan, Palembang, Padang, bomb many cities.

By the start of the first Dutch “police action”, there were 92,000 Dutch forces in Indonesia

On July 21, 1947, the Dutch, claiming violations of the Linggajati Agreement, launched the socalled “First Police action” against the Republic. Dutch troops drove the republicans out of Sumatra and East and West Java, confining them to the Yogyakarta region of Central Java.The United Nations (UN) Security Council established a Good Offices Committee to sponsor further negotiations.
This action led to the Renville Agreement (named for the United States Navy ship on which the negotiations were held), which was ratified by both sides on January 17, 1948. It recognized
temporary Dutch control of areas taken by the police action but provided for referendums in occupied areas on their political future.
July 24 20,000 March in anti-war demonstration in Amsterdam.
USA and Britain are unhappy with the “police action”; India, Australia, and the Soviet Union support the Republic of Indonesia in the UN. Refugees pour into Central Java. Australia boycotts Dutch shipping
August 1 UN Security Council calls for cease-fire in Indonesia
August 4 Ceasefire agreed to by Dutch and Sukarno, but is ignored in the field.

Dutch declare “Van Mook line” at the edge of their military advances in Java and Sumatra.

October Dutch military tries to consolidate control of areas within the “Van Mook line”.
Dutch take control of all of Madura.
United Nations “Good Offices Commission” is organized, with the goal of finding a settlement in Indonesia. Australia, Belgium, and the United States take part.
December 8 Dutch and Indonesian representatives meet on board the U.S.S. Renville, a U.S. Navy transport stationed in the Philippines, which was moved to akarta harbor for the talks.
1948
January 17 Renville agreement under UN auspices draws a ceasefire line favorable to Dutch.
The Renville agreement called for a truce along the so-called “Van Mook line”. The original draft did not even mention the Republic. Amendments were added that included mention of the Republic of Indonesia after the United States applied pressure on the Dutch, and it was only then that the Indonesians agreed.
March 9 Van Mook creates a provisional government for federated Indonesia: the “Voorlopige Federale Regering”. The name “Nederlands-Indië” is changed to “Indonesië” in the Netherlands constitution.

By this time, Van Mook saw that Indonesia would not remain a colony of the Netherlands forever.
His actions became not so much efforts to keep the Netherlands Indies, as ways to manage a slow transition to self-rule

October 11 Van Mook resigns as Lt.-Governor of the Indies.
Dutch abolish post of Governor-General, replacing it with a “High Representative of the Crown”
December 18 .
Dutch officials tell representatives of the United States and the Republic of Indonesia in Jakarta that they are cancelling the Renville agreement. The news does not reach Yogya, as the Dutch have already cut the phone lines there.
Immediately following the Madiun Affair, the Dutch launched a second “police action” that captured Yogyakarta on December 19, 1948. Soekarno, Hatta, and other republican leaders were arrested and exiled to northern Sumatra on the island of Bangka. An emergency republican government was established in western Sumatra. But The Hague’s hard-fisted policies aroused a strong international reaction not only among newly independent Asian countries, such as India, but also among members
of the UN Security Council, including the United States. In January 1949, the Security Council passed a resolution demanding the reinstatement of the republican government. The Dutch were also pressured to accept a full transfer of authority in the archipelago to Indonesians by July 1, 1950. The Round Table Conference was held in The Hague from August 23 to November 2, 1949 to determine the means by which the transfer could be accomplished. Parties to the negotiations were the Republic, the Dutch,
and the federal states that the Dutch had set up following their police actions.
December 19 Second Police action

Second Dutch “police action” begins at 5:30 A.M. without warning. Yogya falls to the Dutch.
Emergency government for Indonesia is declared (PDRI) at Payakumbuh nearby under Sjafruddin Prawiranegara. Soedirman radios his immediate support for the emergency government.
Civil government of republic, including Sukarno, Hatta, Sjahrir, allows itself to be captured, hoping to outrage world opinion; Sukarno and Sjahrir are taken into Dutch custody, and eventually flown to Bangka. Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX of Yogya remains in his palace, and does not leave during the entire Dutch occupation.

Dutch occupy Bukittinggi.

December 22 UN is outraged at Dutch; Dutch attack while UN observers are at Kaliurang.

19 Asian countries boycott Dutch

USA suspends postwar aid to the Netherlands (Marshall Plan money) that is budgeted for military use
in Indonesia.

December 24 UN Security Council calls for end to hostilities.
December 31 Dutch accept UN call for ceasefire in Java.
1949
January 5 Dutch accept UN call for ceasefire in Sumatra
There was significant guerilla activity against the Dutch during this period, led by Nasution and Sudirman. At the height of Dutch activity in the 1940s, there were around 150,000 Dutch forces in Indonesia.

Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX of Yogya refuses Dutch offer to head new Javanese state, resigns as head of Yogya government, and gives help to Republic guerilla fighters.

January 28 UN Security Council demands release of the Republican government, and independence for Indonesia by July 1, 1950.
February 7 Resolution is introduced in United States Senate to stop all Marshall Plan aid to the Netherlands. Resolution is defeated on March 8.
March 31 U.S. Secretary of State Dean Acheson privately tells Dutch that their Marshall Plan aid is still in jeopardy
April 6 United States Senate passes resolution to stop Marshall Plan aid to the Netherlands, but only if the UN Security Council votes sanctions against the Netherlands.
April 22 Dutch announce that they will return the Republican government to Yogya if the guerilla war stops
May Sukarno and Hatta remain in custody on Bangka.
May 7 “Roem-Van Royen” agreement: Dutch agree to restore the Republic of Indonesia government, to hold talks according to the UN Security Council resolution of January 28, and to work towards a settlement based on the Renville agreement.

General Spoor, commander of the Dutch troops in Indonesia, resigns.
He dies of a heart attack on May 25. (There are rumors that he was poisoned).

June 24 Dutch troops begin evacuating Yogya
June 29 Indonesian troops enter Yogya.
July 6 Republican government returns to Yogya.
Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX receives Sukarno and Hatta at the Kraton.
July 13 Power is transferred back from the emergency PDRI government under Prawiranegara to the
Republican government in Yogya under Sukarno.
Dutch-created states hold conference, support joining the Republic.
August Republic troops retake Surakarta
August 11 Ceasefire on Java
August 15 Ceasefire on Sumatra.
Hamengkubuwono IX of Yogya coordinates handovers from Dutch to Republic.
Dutch begin releasing 12,000 prisoners.
August 23 Round Table conference begins in the Hague. Hatta head delegation for the Republic of Indonesia, Sultan of Pontianak heads delegation from the Dutch-created states.
November 2 The Hague Agreement is the result of the Round Table Conference: “Republik Indonesia Serikat” is supposed to have the crown of the Netherlands as a symbolic head, Sukarno as President, and Hatta as Vice-President. It consists of 15 Dutch-created states plus the original Republic. Sovereigny is to be transferred by December 30. Dutch investments are protected, and the new government is responsible for the billion-dollar Netherlands Indies government debt.
The Dutch keep Irian Jaya.
December 27 Dutch formally transfer sovereignty to
“Republik Indonesia Serikat” (Republic of United States of Indonesia)
December 28

Sukarno returns to Jakarta

1950
January 23 Dutch Capt. Westerling attempts assassination and coup in Bandung; some members of Dutch-created Pasundan government are involved.
February 9 Pasundan government dissolves itself.
February 22 Westerling leaves Indonesia via Singapore using a forged Netherlands passport.
July Republic of Indonesia troops begin putting down Republic of South Maluku.
Fighting continues on Ambon and Buru until November.
July 20 The Netherlands Indies armed forces (KNIL) are officially disbanded
As many as 300,000 Dutch citizens left Indonesia for the Netherlands during the early 1950s
August 17 New constitution; the new Republic of Indonesia is made out of the original (now expanded) Republic, Sumatra Timur and East Indonesia/Negara Indonesia Timur Jakarta is the capital of the Republic.
The Netherlands and Indonesia remain in a theoretical constitutional union, but Indonesia is fully independent
September 26 Indonesia is admitted to the United Nations
1956
May 8 Constitutional union between Indonesia and the Netherlands is dissolved.
1961
September Indonesia introduces the West Irian issue into the U.N. General Assembly again,
and is again unsuccessful.
September 26 Netherlands foreign minister Luns tells the U.N. General Assembly that the Netherlands would be
willing to yield West Irian to U.N. administration.
1962
January 12 Army confirms to the press that operations have begun in West Irian
February 1 Dutch charter flight with 110 soldiers bound for West Irian stops to refuel in Alaska. A riot attacks the U.S. Embassy in Jakarta in retaliation.
The U.S. bans further Dutch charter flights through U.S. airspace as a result
February 11 U.S. Atty. Gen. Robert F Kennedy arrives in Jakarta for negotiations on West Irian.
February 25 Robert Kennedy continues to the Netherlands; informs the Netherlands government that the U.S. will not support the Dutch should the conflict escalate
April Indonesian military pressure on West Irian increases, including air and sea attacks.
June Dutch agree to follow the general line of the “Bunker Plan”.

(Editor’s note: In 1962, at the request of the United Nations US diplomat Ellsworth Bunker, mediated a dispute between the Netherlands and Indonesia over what was then known as Dutch New Guinea (later West Irian). After several months of negotiations, the “Bunker plan” that emerged was accepted on all sides, and the area was surrendered to Indonesia).

August 15 Dutch agree to transfer West Irian to United Nations on October 1. UN is to transfer West Irian to Indonesia on May 1, 1963. Elections are to decide the ultimate fate of the territory
September 21 U.N. General Assembly ratifies the West Irian agreement
1963
May 1 UN hands over control of West Irian to Indonesia
 

De Verenigde Staten van Amerika en de dekolonisatie van Indonesië

Het begrip ‘dekolonisatie’ verwijst naar een proces; het is niets iets dat zich plotseling voltrekt, geen overgang van ‘zwart’ naar ‘wit’, en het heeft nooit de vorm van een mooi afgesloten geheel. Dekolonisatie is een proces dat langzaam en zigzaggend verloopt, en waarbij er sprake is van zogenaamde ‘grijze’ gebieden. Daar komt nog bij dat er zowel processen van continuïteit als van verandering bij betrokken zijn.

Een voorbeeld waarbij deze complexiteit duidelijk naar voren komt is de periode van machtsovername door de Japanse bezettingsmacht: een tijdvak waarin de repressie tijdens het Nederlandse koloniale bewind overging in een nog grotere repressie onder Japans bewind. Gedurende hun relatief korte periode van overheersing waren de Japanners meer geneigd tot willekeur in hun optreden jegens de bevolking van Indonesië dan de vertegenwoordigers van het Nederlandse koloniale gezag vóór hen, en het aantal slachtoffers van de Japanse bezettingsmacht was dan ook navenant hoog. Iets dergelijks als het Japanse romusha-systeem [de Japanners zetten Indonesiërs als dwangarbeiders in, noot redactie] met de daaraan verbonden wreedheden jegens de Indonesische bevolking heeft in de Nederlandse koloniale tijd nooit bestaan. Dit hogere aantal slachtoffers was echter ook gedeeltelijk het gevolg van het feit dat de Japanners in een oorlog verwikkeld waren, de oorlog tegen de geallieerde strijdkrachten. Ook in de manier waarop de Indonesische bevolking in beweging kwam en zich organiseerde in een poging het vaderland te bevrijden van de vreemde overheersers, Nederlanders en Japanners, komt de complexiteit van de dekolonisatie tot uiting.

De machtswisseling die plaatsvond na het verlies van de Japanners verliep in feite relatief rustig; de machtsoverdracht vond plaats na de proclamatie van de onafhankelijkheidsverklaring op 17 augustus 1945 zonder massaal geweld. Die periode van schijnbare rust duurde echter niet lang: de twee politionele acties en de strijd gedurende de onafhankelijkheidsoorlog laten zien dat het proces van de dekolonisatie van Indonesië gepaard ging met veel geweld en bloedvergieten.

Het tekenen van de souvereiniteitsoverdracht in december 1949 betekende nog niet dat de dekolonisatie voltooid was. Zoals duidelijk werd uit de onderhandelingen tijdens de Ronde Tafel-conferentie in Den Haag, restten nog de problemen rondom Nieuw-Guinea, de kwestie van Indonesië’s schuld aan de Nederlandse regering, en de kwestie van de Indonesisch-Nederlandse Unie. En zelfs nadat deze zaken waren beslecht, bleken nog vele facetten binnen de Indonesische samenleving koloniale erfenissen te zijn, zoals het rechtssysteem, het sociaal-politieke optreden van de burgerlijke en militaire elite, en het model van de verhoudingen tussen centrum en periferie. Kortom, het feit dat de Indonesiërs het juk van de Nederlandse koloniale overheersing van zich af hadden weten te werpen betekende geenszins dat daarmee ook een eind was gekomen aan het proces van dekolonisatie.

En daarmee komen we bij het belang van het onderzoek naar de dekolonisatie van Indonesië zoals wordt uitgevoerd door de onderzoekers van het NIOD-onderzoeksprogramma ‘Van Indië naar Indonesië. De herschikking van de Indonesische samenleving’. Het onderzoeksprogramma omvat een zevental deelonderzoeken die tezamen tot doel hebben inzicht te verschaffen in de betekenis van het dekolonisatieproces voor de verschillende bevolkingsgroepen in de verschillende regio’s in Nederlands-Indië/Indonesië.’

Maar er is nog een andere belangrijke factor waarnaar gekeken dient te worden, namelijk de rol die de Verenigde Staten hebben gespeeld bij de dekolonisatie van Indonesië, in het bijzonder sinds de toename van de spanningen tijdens de Koude Oorlog.

Als gevolg van deze spanningen na de Tweede Wereldoorlog tussen het kapitalistische Westen onder leiding van de Verenigde Staten en het Oosten dat gedomineerd werd door de communistische Sovjet Unie, waren de Verenigde Staten bang dat Indonesië, na zich bevrijd te hebben van de Nederlanders, in handen van de communisten zou vallen. Deze angst van de Verenigde Staten was zeker niet ongegrond, aangezien het communisme een zekere aanhang genoot onder de Indonesiërs; dit werd ook weerspiegeld in de PKI opstand in 1926 en de Madiun-affaire in 1948.

Het zal dan ook geen verbazing wekken dat de Verenigde Staten zich actief opstelden tijdens de Ronde Tafel-conferentie in 1949, waar Merle Cochran optrad als vertegenwoordiger van de Verenigde Staten. Cochran trad echter niet op als een neutrale waarnemer, maar als een actieve en invloedrijke participant. Zo maakte de Indonesische delegatie tijdens deze conferentie bezwaar tegen enkele punten uit de overeenkomst van de Indonesisch-Nederlandse Unie, de schuld aan Nederland die op de schouders van de jonge Republiek Indonesië werd gelegd, en enkele zaken die betrekking hadden op de status van Nieuw-Guinea. Maar het was vanwege Amerikaanse drang (en de belofte van economische hulp) via Cochran dat de Indonesische delegatie bereid was water bij de wijn te doen en enkele punten te accepteren die later ten nadele van de Republiek Indonesië zouden blijken uit te werken.

Het was echter al ver voor de Ronde Tafel-conferentie in Den Haag dat de Verenigde Staten zich wilden bemoeien met de dekolonisatie van Indonesië. Zo schreef Roosevelt in april 1942 een brief aan koningin Wilhelmina waarin hij zijn steun betuigde voor het herstel van het Nederlandse koloniale gezag in Nederlands-Indië nadat de Japanners verslagen zouden zijn (sommigen meenden zelfs dat Roosevelt dit deed vanwege zijn Nederlandse achtergrond). Het mag duidelijk zijn dat een dergelijke steunbetuiging van de Verenigde Staten grote invloed heeft gehad op het voornemen van Nederland om de Archipel opnieuw te koloniseren.

Ten tijde van het kabinet Sukiman had de regering van president Truman het plan heimelijk de Indonesische regering te beïnvloeden via militaire en economische steun in het kader van de Mutual Security Act uit 1951. Echter voordat deze plannen verwezenlijkt konden worden, lekten ze uit; het aanvaarden van Amerikaanse hulp werd gezien als schending van de neutraliteit die de Indonesische buitenlandse politiek toentertijd kenmerkte. De plannen voor steun werden afgeblazen en het kabinet Sukiman werd gedwongen af te treden.

Tijdens de regering van president Eisenhower speelden de Verenigde Staten een actieve rol ten opzichte van de Indonesische regering. Dit kwam voornamelijk doordat Indonesië één van de initiatiefnemers was van de Beweging van de Niet-Gebonden Landen in Azië en Afrika en door het groeiend aantal stemmen voor de PKI zoals was gebleken bij de verkiezingen in 1955. Sinds die tijd gaf Washington steun aan de PRRI/Permesta opstanden die gericht waren tegen de centrale regering in Jakarta, die als pro-communistisch werd gezien.

President Kennedy heeft ook een rol gespeeld tijdens de dekolonisatie van Indonesië, zij het op een heel andere manier. Het kan namelijk niet ontkend worden dat de winst van Indonesië in het geschil met Nederland over Nieuw-Guinea ten dele de verdienste was van de regering Kennedy. Daarnaast zijn in diezelfde periode honderden Indonesische militaire officieren opgeleid in de Verenigde Staten; het waren deze officieren die later gedurende enkele decennia een grote rol speelden in het bepalen van de militaire en politieke dynamiek van de Indonesische republiek.

Ook tijdens de regering van Lyndon Johnson bleven de Verenigde Staten zich inspannen om het politieke leven in Indonesië in hun voordeel te beïnvloeden, bijvoorbeeld met betrekking tot de confrontatie met Maleisië en het politieke touwtrekken tussen president Sukarno, de PKI, en de Indonesische landmacht (TNI Angkatan Darat). Ofschoon er nooit een ‘smoking gun’ is gevonden dat de directe betrokkenheid van de Verenigde Staten bij de Peristiwa ’65 onomstotelijk aantoont, kan niet worden ontkend dat de uitroeiing van honderdduizenden PKI-leden en –sympathisanten zoals die zich in deze roerige periode voltrok goed viel bij de regering in Washington. Daarbij moet nog worden aangetekend dat de in de Verenigde Staten opgeleide militaire officieren een aanzienlijk aandeel hadden in deze massale moordpartijen.

Sinds de uitschakeling van de PKI en de machtsovername door president Suharto is Indonesië uitgesproken pro-Washington geworden, zowel op politiek alsook op economisch gebied. Onder Suharto’s Nieuwe Orde hebben de Verenigde Staten en medestanders een steeds grotere vrijheid gekregen om Indonesië van haar natuurlijke schatten te beroven, van Sumatra’s aardolie tot Irian Jaya’s koper en goud.

En zo loopt Indonesië, na zich op politiek gebied van Nederland te hebben losgemaakt, langzaam maar zeker in de val van een economische kolonisatie door de Verenigde Staten en zijn volgelingen. Dit nieuwe kolonisatiemodel verschilt weliswaar van het oude model, maar het uiteindelijke doel blijkt hetzelfde te zijn: Indonesië maken tot een regio waar men ongehinderd natuurlijke schatten kan roven en waar men tegelijkertijd de afzetmogelijkheden van deze grote markt kan aanboren. En net als het geval was met het oude kolonisatiemodel zorgt de samenwerking met een beperkt aantal leden van de lokale elite, zowel burgerlijk als militair, ervoor dat deze nieuwe vorm van dekolonisatie gestalte kan krijgen.

Misschien was dit het wat Bung Karno bedoelde met het kapitalistische en neo-koloniale gevaar; hij riep het Indonesische volk nadrukkelijk op in de tegenaanval te gaan. Maar dit was niet alles: vanaf het spreekgestoelte kon hij dan wel luid zijn boodschap verkondigen, over de strijd voor de dekolonisatie van Indonesië en over het verzet tegen de nieuwe vorm van kolonialisme, in werkelijkheid werd ook hij door de oprukkende machines van het kapitalisme en neo-kolonialisme verdrukt en platgewalst. Soekarno werd aan de kant gezet en verscheidene multinationals kwamen naar het ‘vrije’ Indonesië en vertrokken weer, met goed gevulde buidel. Niet alleen Soekarno werd het slachtoffer, miljoenen Indonesiërs werden hierdoor eveneens gedupeerd, dezelfde Indonesiërs die eerder al het slachtoffer waren van het Nederlandse kolonialisme.

Dit alles in ogenschouw nemend, wordt het duidelijk dat een verhaal over de dekolonisatie van Indonesië niet volledig is zonder nadere bestudering van de rol die de Verenigde Staten heeft gespeeld in de dekolonisatie. Daarnaast is het ook nodig aandacht te schenken aan de rol van de Verenigde Staten in de ‘rekolonisatie’ van Indonesië, die plaatsvond na
het vertrek van de Nederlanders; bij deze ‘rekolonisatie’ waren verscheidene landen betrokken die er hun politiek-economische voordeel mee probeerden te halen. Zonder een diepgaand onderzoek naar bovengenoemde zaken, zal een onderzoek naar de dekolonisatie van Indonesië niet compleet zijn.

Baskara T. Wardaya SJ
Fulbright-researcher aan de Lyndon B. Johnson Library
Austin, Texas
Verenigde Staten van Amerika

 

Dutch version

What really happen look Dr Iwan Info below

Prolog in  1945

At the Independence Revolution 1945-1950 Indonesian republic,

the people of Indonesia are very excited with the shriek and the Free greeting each other when news, and in every letter is always with the words Freedom, I found an interesting collection of writings which the people of Indonesia are not anonymous on the front pages in the book language dutch “Wat Gebuerde in 1945″ what is born in 1945, in the Indonesian language:


“So with this in the name of the people of Indonesia all the (entire) property confiscated the Dutch people.”

 

Pada saat Revolusi Kemerdekaan Repoeblik Indonesia 1945-1950,rakyat Indonesia sangat bersemangat dengan pekik dan salam  Merdeka bila saling jumpa, dan pada setiap surat selalu dengan tulisan Merdeka!,saya menemukan satu koleksi menarik tulisan rakyat Indonesia yang anonim tanpa nama, pada halaman depan buku bahasa belanda”Wat Gebuerde In 1945 “apa yang lahir tahun 1945,dalam bahasa Indonesia:

”Maka dengan ini atas nama rakyat Indonesia semua(seluruh) hak milik bangsa Belanda disita.”

(Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA)

 

 

 

 

 

AUGUST 1945

  1. Early August 1945:
    The Shimoda detachment of the First Special Attack Force (12 Kairyu type midgets) receives a report about the sighting of an American submarine shelling Mikimoto lighthouse, off Shimoda harbor. A Kairyu is diespatched to intercept the submarine, but fails to locate it.

August,2nd.1945

A leetr about sending a flower for in memoriam husband from Kediri to Malang,received by his wife  send from the flower shop

 

August ,6th.1945:


At 0815, Colonel (later Brig Gen) Paul W. Tibbetts’ B-29 “Superfortress”, nicknamed “ENOLA GAY”, of the 509th Composite Group, drops the 15-kiloton yield “Little Boy” uranium atomic bomb on Hiroshima.

Colonel Tibbetts with B-29 ENOLA GAY

That same day, following TG 35.3′s bombardment of Kushimoto, four Kaitens are deployed from Otsujima base to Tanabe to be attached to the Sixth Special Attack Unit.

 

 

C John Lennon Remembrance in Words for the 60th Anniversary of Hiroshima
     
The first atomic bomb
Imagine there’s no Heaven
It’s easy if you try
No hell below us
Above us only sky
Imagine all the people
Living for todayImagine there’s no countries
It isn’t hard to do
Nothing to kill or die for
And no religion too
Imagine all the people
Living life in peaceYou may say that I’m a dreamer
But I’m not the only one
I hope someday you’ll join us
And the world will be as oneImagine no possessions
I wonder if you can
No need for greed or hunger
A brotherhood of man
Imagine all the people
Sharing all the worldYou may say that I’m a dreamer
But I’m not the only one
I hope someday you’ll join us
And the world will live as one– Lyrics to “Imagine” by
John Lennon, 1971.
A-bomb goes off on Hiroshima
   
A watch that survived the blast which stopped at precisely 8:15
Devastation in Hiroshima….
   
One day after the bomb blast
Boy with burned back
   
A woman whose face is disfigured from the blast. Later, when the rain would fall, some of the mobile survivors would actually drink the rain water which was poisonous with radiation.
Young Japanese boy suffers from radiation burns
   
Japanese female whose face is totally disfigured from heat and radiation.
Another burn casualty from the A-bomb

 

May Man have learned from the lessons never to repeat again the tragedies of Hiroshima and Nagasaki…

 

Translate Indonesia:

Manusia mungkin telah belajar dari pelajaran untuk tidak mengulangi lagi

 

tragedi Hiroshima dan Nagasaki

Bayangkan ada Surga
Sangat mudah jika Anda mencoba
Tidak ada neraka di bawah kita
Di atas kita hanya angkasa
Bayangkan semua orang
Hidup untuk
Bayangan Hari ini

 

 

tidak ada negara
Hal ini tidak sulit untuk dilakukan
Tidak ada yang membunuh atau mati
Dan tidak ada agama juga
Bayangkan semua orang

 

Hidup dalam Damai Kamu  mungkin mengatakan bahwa saya adalah seorang pemimpi
Tapi aku bukan satu-satunya
Saya harap suatu hari nanti Anda akan bergabung dengan kami
Dan dunia akan menjadi seperti satu
bayangan tidak memiliki harta
Aku ingin tahu apakah Anda dapat
Tidak perlu untuk keserakahan atau kelaparan
Sebuah persaudaraan manusia
Bayangkan semua orang
Berbagi semua
dunia kamu dapat mengatakan bahwa saya adalah seorang pemimpi
Tapi aku bukan satu-satunya
Saya harap suatu hari nanti Anda akan bergabung dengan kami
Dan dunia akan hidup sebagai salah satu-
lirik untuk “Bayangkan”

oleh
John Lennon, 1971

John lennon Record Imagine 1971 Collections

 
 
 
Target Hiroshima Nagasaki
Dead/Missing 70,000-80,000 35,000-40,000
Wounded 70,000 40,000
Population Density 35,000 per sq mile 65,000 per sq mile
Total Casualties 140,000-150,000 75,000-80,000
Area Destroyed
  1. 7 sq mile
  2. 8 sq mile
Attacking Platform 1 B-29 1 B-29
Weapon(s) ‘Tall Boy’ 15 kT
(15,000 tons of TNT)
‘Fat Man’ 21 kT
(21,000 tons of TNT)    
   
  “Ground Zero” at Hiroshima. The A-bomb was dropped on August 6, 1945.JAPAN – The 509th CG B-29 takes off from North Field, Tinian at 0245 hours. At two-minute intervals, 2 observation B-29′s follow. At 0815 hours local, an atomic bomb is released over Hiroshima from 31,600 ft; it explodes 50 seconds later. More than 80% of the city’s buildings are destroyed and over 71,000 people are killed. The B-29 lands on Tinian at 1458 hours followed within the hour by the 2 observation aircraft.– Source: Air War Pacific Chronology: America’s Air War Against Japan in East Asia and the Pacific 1941-1945″ by Eric Hammel, (Pacifica, CA: Pacifica Press, 1988, ISBN 0-935553-26-6)  
   
     
   
     
The atomic bomb used to flatten Nagasaki…
 

 

Today, Japan does not forget the loss of life and destruction through nuclear weapons…
Hiroshima’s A-bomb dome is a constant daily reminder of the consequences of a nuclear bomb
A young woman rings the bell on the 60th Anniversary of Hiroshima
Japanese visitors at Peace Memorial Park
 
Japanese Youth Rally– they file in a field declaring “Stop Nuclear DU Weapons.”  The hut by the two vans at the top had musicians providing “live” entertainment.

August 7 BPUPKI renames itself to PPKI: Panitia Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia.

August,8th. 1945:
Moscow declares that from 9 August 1945, the Soviet Government will consider itself to be at war with Japan.

August 9 Sukarno, Hatta, and Radjiman Wediodiningrat are flown by the Japanese to Vietnam to meet with Marshal Terauchi. There they are informed of the collapse of Japanese forces, and that Japan will grant Indonesia independence on August 24.

 

 August ,9th.1945

:
At 1101, Major (later Brig Gen, ANG) Charles W. Sweeney’s B-29 “BOCKSCAR”, of the 509th Composite Group’s 393rd Bomb Squadron, drops the 21-kiloton yield “Fat Man” plutonium atomic bomb, on Nagasaki. [4]

That same day, carrying out Stalin’s pledge at Yalta, Marshal Aleksandr Vasilevsky, CINC, Soviet Far East Forces, launches Operation “August Storm”, the invasion of Japanese-held Manchuria (Manchukuo). The attack is made by three Soviet army groups (“fronts”) comprising 80 divisions of 1.5 million men. In less than two weeks, the Soviets defeat General Yamada Otsuzo’s depleted and ill-equipped Kwantung Army of over 600,000 men. [5]

August,10th. 1945:
Japan offers to surrender to the Allies, if Emperor Hirohito (Showa) is allowed to remain the nominal head of state.

 August,12th. 1945:
The United States announces it will accept the Japanese surrender and that the emperor can remain in a ceremonial capacity.

Shikoku, Kochi Prefecture. That same evening, the Suzaki kaiten detachment of the Eighth Special Attack Unit receives a report about the sighting of an enemy task force off Shionomisaki, Wakayama Prefecture. Based on that information the local IJA commander expects a landing at Tosa Bay the next morning. Two kaitens are immediately dispatched to Tosa Bay and sortie at 0600 the next morning, but fail to locate the enemy and return by 1000.

The Taiping  airport also marked a significant in the history of Malaysia, when Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta later became the President and Vice-President of Indonesia landed at the airport on 12 August 1945 for a meeting with Dr. Burhanuddin al-Helmi and Ibrahim Yaakub who were leaders of a political party named KRIS to talk about the possibility of joining Malaya with Indonesia, when Indonesia achieved independence. The meeting was arranged by the Japanese officers during the World War II. However, the plan was never succeed and Indonesia announced its independence without Malaya

.SUNDAY-AUGUST.12th.1945

On this Japanese callender,tehre were  the first day of August until 11th August , especially the day of  US “H”Bomb were thrown , Monday ,6th, at  Hirosima and thirsday, 9th, at Nagasaki

 

 

 

 

 

  1. THE V. ESBENSEN’S CATALOGUE 1980 OF INDONESIA STRUGGLE FOR INDPENDENCE POSTAL HISTORY COLLECTIONS 1945-19450

 

After the official end of the war on 15.8.45 the Japanese(Dai Nippon) were instructed to maintain Government service until Allied Forces arrived.Therefore the Dai Nippon Occupation Postal services continue operating after 15.8.45.TGhe Republic Postal services was officially inaugurated on Sumatra sometime during October 1945(the earliest date is note known).

The affect of the change of postal administration started to appear during the first week of November 1945.Thus for the purpose of postal history,the Japanese Occupation postal service ended during October 1945. But the cgange from one postal administration to the next was gradual and the effects of the occupation lasted for about three years.Japanese occupation stamp without Republican overprint were sold at some post offices as late as January or February 1948.The date on which Japanese occupation stamps because invaluid is not know,but it was probably about mid-1948.

Giving exact information about 1945-1949 postal history odf the Republic is practically imposible because nearly all official records were destroyed prior to 1950 and philatelist did not do any serious research inti this postal history while it was still fresh.

(Dr Iwan have starting in 1956 until now,and in 1985 had communication and echange info with Mr V.Esbesensen during he stayed at Canada,but in 1994 he moved to Singapore,but he did not want to met Mr Suwito Harsono,and one year after that he was pass away)

It appears that the Republic collected Japanese Occupation stamps at a number of central points.These stamps were then overprinted with Republican overprint and redistributed.However,many stamps without republican overprint also appear to have been redistributed.Thus one can find stamps of Bangka-Billiton Dai Nippon overprint were used in Tapanoeli or middle Sumatra,stamps of overprint Dai Nippon Palembang used in the East Coast province etc.How stamps of Bangka-Billiton came into Republican hands is not clear because the Republic did not control Bnagka-Billiton.

The situation in Java almost same with Sumatra,but in java the Dutch East Indie stamps without queen potriat like dancer stamps never overpr8int by dai Nippon ,also the postal stationer karbouw 31/2 cent,different in Sumatra all kind of DEI stamps were overprint in every province and redidency.

According to a post office circular Dutch east Indies and Japanese Occupation stamps remained valid after the postal service were taken over by the Republic,but the Nederlanda indies and Japanese characters were supposed to be crossed out .

As aresult many different crude overprints were used to cross out the words.It is believed,but cannot be proved.taht most of these overprints were applied to stocks of mint stamps at local post offices before the stamps were sold to the publ8ic(Dr Iwan have the unused stamps sample ).

But in some case it is imposisible to prove wheter an overprint was applied by the postal services(my friend,retires postman told Dr Iwan that the postman used parker ink ),  was applied by the postal services or by a private person.But at that time few people would have bought stamp to keep at home and street mail boxes were probably none existent.Thus the stamps pn most non-phillatelic items would have been purchased and applied when these iyems were brought into a post officed to be mailed.

(Dr Iwan will discussed about the rare philatelic items based on V.Esbensen Catalogue 1980 and other Dai Nippon Club catalogue,the discussion only in the specialist full illustration CD-ROM Only because the common philatelist very difficult to understand if they did not know about the Dai Nippon Occupation Java and Suamtra postal hisyory 1941-1945, for that Dr Iwan asked sorry in the common cheapest CD-ROM this infoo did not exist)

 

 

 

 

 

August .14th 1945

(1)14 August 1945:
Tokyo. At 1020, the emperor convenes a conference of his most senior military officers. Field Marshall Hata, freshly arrived from Hiroshima, expresses no confidence in Japan continuing the war over appeals from such strong-willed, arrogant personalities as Field Marshal Sugiyama Hajime and Fleet Admiral Nagano Osami who exhibit a dull-witted state of denial. The emperor dismisses their protestations for protracted carnage.

The emperor notes that with the Soviet entry into the Pacific War and the enemy’s use of atomic weapons, not even Onishi’s Special Attack forces can stop them. He requests that his senior officers cooperate with him to end the war. Later, the Japanese announce that the emperor has decided to accept the Potsdam Declaration’s terms and end the War, effective the following day. 

That same day, 167 B-29s of the 20th Air Force from Saipan bomb Hikari Naval Arsenal, Yamaguchi Prefecture. The raid is supported by North American P-51 “Mustang” fighters from Iwo Jima, attacking various targets in the same area until 1040 in the morning. 71.8 percent of the arsenal’s total roof area is destroyed. 738 workers, mostly mobilized middle school students, die in the attacks. 

Emperor Hirohito Reads an Imperial Rescript

 

The Dai Nippon Soldier hear the announcement

the allied forces very happy after hear the announcement

15 August 1945: Cessation of Hostilities:
Imperial Palace, Tokyo. At noon, the emperor announces Japan’s surrender that is broadcast by radio all over the Japanese Empire.

Port Arthur, Manchuria. Lost to Japan in 1905, the Soviet Navy Flag flies again on 22 August 

Sunday august,12th.1945

When Sukarno,Hatta and Dr R went to Dalat via Singapore  by flight  they stop at singapore

Sukarno ,hatta and dr Radjiman flight from Saigon to Singapor at taiping arport

Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta, who later became the President and Vice-President of Indonesia, respectively, landed at Taiping airport on 12 August 1945, for a meeting with Dr. Burhanuddin Helmi and Ibrahim Yaacob who were leaders of Kesatuan Rakyat Indonesia Semenanjung (KRIS) to talk about the possibility of uniting Malaya with Indonesia (the concept of Indonesia Raya) when the latter achieved independence.

The meeting was arranged by Japanese army officers during World War 2.

Source: Archives: taiping

Surkarno and Mohammad Hatta , the later president and vice-president of the Republic of Indonesia flew to Taping for discussions of independence in which Indonesia and Malaysia would fall under one flag.

The plan never got shape and in 1945, Indonesia declared independence without Malaysia.

Source

http://capuccino-lieza.blogspot.com/

Taiping Airport (IATA: TPG, ICAO: WMBI) is an airport in Taiping, Malaysia. It is located at Jalan Muzaffar Shah formerly Creagh Road, Assam Kumbang and also called as Tekah Airport.

.

 The Taiping  airport also marked a significant in the history of Malaysia, when Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta later became the President and Vice-President of Indonesia landed at the airport on 12 August 1945 for a meeting with Dr. Burhanuddin al-Helmi and Ibrahim Yaakub who were leaders of a political party named KRIS to talk about the possibility of joining Malaya with Indonesia, when Indonesia achieved independence.

 The meeting was arranged by the Japanese officers during the World War II. However, the plan was never succeed and Indonesia announced its independence without Malaya

 

Source

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiping_Airport

read more

  1. Dr. Burhanuddin al-Helmy, atau nama penuhnya, Burhanuddin

 

  1. jpg

national-express-malaysia.blogspot.com

200 × 285 – Dr Burhanuddin Al Helmi. Dr Burhanuddin, a colossal

Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta in Taiping, August 1945.

Another significant mark in the history of Taiping airport was when Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta, who later became the President and Vice-President of Indonesia, respectively, landed at Taiping airport on 12 August 1945, for a meeting with Dr. Burhanuddin Helmi and Ibrahim Yaacob who were leaders of Kesatuan Rakyat Indonesia Semenanjung (KRIS) to talk about the possibility of uniting Malaya with Indonesia (the concept of Indonesia Raya) when the latter achieved independence. The meeting was arranged by Japanese army officers during World War 2.

After the end of the Japanese occupation, Taiping airport only served flights to other airports within Perak, leaving Ipoh as the only Perak airport to provide passenger services to other Malay states. Today, the airport is no longer in regular use. Taiping airport is recognised by the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and carries the 3-letter IATA code of TPG

Source

http://sembangkuala.wordpress.com/tag/taiping/

 

 

 August,13th. 1945:
Tokyo. At an evening conference attended by General Umezu Yoshijiro, Chief of the Army General Staff and Admiral Toyoda Soemu (33), (former CO of HYUGA), Chief of the Navy General Staff , the Vice Chief of the NGS, wild-eyed Vice Admiral Onishi Takijiro (40)(former XO of KAGA) proposes “that if we are willing to sacrifice 20 million Japanese lives in special attacks (kamikaze), victory can still be achieved!”

Monday, August 13th 1945

1)After returning from Dalat to Saigon,we heard that Russia had attacked Manchuria, and thus the blows against Japan were complete,coming from all direction(ibid yazni,page 117)

 

August,14th. 1945:


  1. At 1020, the emperor convenes a conference of his most senior military officers. Field Marshall Hata, freshly arrived from Hiroshima, expresses no confidence in Japan continuing the war over appeals from such strong-willed, arrogant personalities as Field Marshal Sugiyama Hajime and Fleet Admiral Nagano Osami who exhibit a dull-witted state of denial. The emperor dismisses their protestations for protracted carnage.

The emperor notes that with the Soviet entry into the Pacific War and the enemy’s use of atomic weapons, not even Onishi’s Special Attack forces can stop them. He requests that his senior officers cooperate with him to end the war. Later, the Japanese announce that the emperor has decided to accept the Potsdam Declaration’s terms and end the War, effective the following day.

That same day, 167 B-29s of the 20th Air Force from Saipan bomb Hikari Naval Arsenal, Yamaguchi Prefecture. The raid is supported by North American P-51 “Mustang” fighters from Iwo Jima, attacking various targets in the same area until 1040 in the morning. 71.8 percent of the arsenal’s total roof area is destroyed. 738 workers, mostly mobilized middle school students, die in the attacks.

Emperor Hirohito Reads an Imperial Rescrip

The Dai Nippon Soldier hear the announcement

the allied forces very happy after hear the announcement


Dutch prisoners just after release from a Japanese concentration camp, 1945.Imperial Palace, Tokyo. At noon, the emperor announces Japan’s surrender that is broadcast by radio all over the Japanese Empire.

P

ort Arthur, Manchuria. Lost to Japan in 1905, the Soviet Navy Flag flies again on 22 August

August 14, 1945

the Japanese had surrendered to the allies. After that Soedirman and his friends returned to the propagators and respectively.

The Bali Sinbun closed, and the Indonesian  reporter K.Nandha which worked there preparing to open the Indonesian newspaper(130.K.Naha  sang perintis satria narada,bali,2001)

August 14 Sukarno, Hatta, and Radjiman Wediodiningrat return to Jakarta, mistrustful of the Japanese promise.

. August 15 Japan surrenders to the Allies. The Japanese army and navy still control Indonesia. Japan has agreed to return Indonesia to the Dutch.

-Tuesday, August .14th .1945

August,14th.1945

Sukarno,Hatta and Dr Radjiman  Wedijodiningrat were invited by the highest command Japanese Military in east Asia to Dalat (Indochina)

a)to recieved  the decision of  Japanese Government about Indonesia Independence. In the official meeting ,General Terauchi

said :”Depand on your masters to decide when Indodesia will Independent”( Hatta,Legend and reality around Proclamation 17 Agustus,Mimbar Indonesia 17 Agustus 1951,no 32/33)

b) On the 12th of August ( which happened to coincide with may birthday) MARSHAL TERAUCHI told us in Dalat (300 km from Saigon) the decision of the Japanese Government to give up the question of Indonesia’s Independence to the Committee for Preparation of Indonesian Independence.

He said : “It is you gentlemen who are to carry this out, and it is entirely up to you to decide its execution”.

 

Sukarno then asked :”It is right if we do it a week from now ?

“It is up to you gentlemen” Answered Terauchi.

(Yasni Z,Bung Hatta Anwers,1981,page 116)

Field Marshal Terauchi

(1) ,who waswn’t Indonesian’s  friend ,Independence was forced by the government in Tokyo (gogle,internet).

(2)the vintage photo of Field Marshal Terauchi and his room with Sukarno’s  photo (P,google,internet)

 

 

 

 

 

 

The vintage  photo of Indonesian Proclamators

(1) Sukarno and Hatta during that time.

(2) I haven’t found the photo of Dr Radjiman

e) The Vintage picture postcard of Dalat and Saigon cochinchina

(   Emperor Bodai’s palace were in Dalat and used by Marskal Terauchi as Dai Nippon East Asia Command administrations Building, and Saigon after vietnam liberation change name to be Ho Chi Minh City-read the Vietnam Document and Postal History-auth)

 

 

1) when back from Dalat to Jakarta (Via Saigon and Singapore-auth),

(1) the three delegations meet with Mr Teuku Hassan,Dr Amir and Mr Abbas  , the member of PPKI (Panitia Persiapan Kemerdekaan) or the committee for the Preparation of Independence from Sumatra, which will departed with us to Djakarta.They have heard that Russian have anounced the War to Japan and  in-vasion Mansjuria(Manchuria), After the discussion we have conclution that the Japanese were falling down  willn’t in month and we must proclaimed Indonesia Independence fastly. ( they don’t know about the US “H”Bomb auth)(Ibid,Hatta,1951)

(2 In the morning of August 14 , before we were to be flown back to Jakarta on a bomber, we met Dr Amir. He asked whether it was true that Russian had attacked Japan in Manchuria ? I said tjat it was right.Then Dr Amir said :” then it won’t be much longer”

I said ,”That’s right.We are not counting in months anymore bur a most in just weeks . Psychollogy Japan had already lost, being attacked from the south and the North”(ibid Yasni ,p-117,1985)

(3)So the three of us (Sukarno,Hatta and Radjiman) started home for Indonesia. In Singapore, we recieved an invitation from the Commander of the Japanese army there) . Delegates from North Sumatra (Dr Amir,Abbas and Hassan) were invited to a party by a lower level of the Japanese army leadership. We were invited by a higher level. It looked as though the Japanese were afraid for us to meet (ibid,Yasni,p 117,1984)

(2 )Sukarno annouced that  Independence will be fastly  in Kemayoran airpot.

(a)After came back at Jakarta, in Kemayoran airport (Kemayoran now the Jakarta Fair area, and Sukarno Hatta international airport in Cengkareng Tangerang-auth), sukarno have said in he front of many peoples “ In before I have said that our Independence  before the “Jagung”  berbuah”or seeds…., now I can concluded that. Independence before “Jagung” were flowered)”  (ibid Hatta,1951)

(b) When we arrived at Kemayoran airpot in Jakarta, we were met by the Gunseikan.

Without going home first, we were taken to the Palace to meet the Gunseikan. We were welcomed with a happy face and clear laughter by the Gunsereikan , and had dinner  with high –ranked  Japanese authoritied, there were even a toast and congratulation over “Indonesia Independence” (Yasni,p-117,1984)

(3) Emperor Hirohito asked the Dai Nippon Military  surrendered to allied Army(D)

(4) Sjahrir Told Hatta that Japanese have aksed peace to Allied Armed Forces and suggest Sukarno annouced via radio Indonesia Independence.

(a)In the afternoon 14th Agustus , Sjahrir came to told me that Japanese have asked peace to Allied, and he asked how about our Independence ? I have aswered our Independence was on our hands.

The Sjahrir’s opinion,that the Indonesia Indepen-dence proclamation  willn’t by the commitee of preparation Indonesian Independecde because the allied Army will said that the  birth of Republic of Indonesia  was made by the Japanese. Better only Sukarno  himself annouced as the  leader under the people’s named via Radio.(ibid,Hatta,1951)

(b) This party was over around 1.30 in the afternoon. Only then did we go home.At Home I found Syahrir waiting. “How was it?”he said .

I said that the japanese had given the matter up to us.  Then Syahrir said that it would be better if the proclamation of Independence  were not made by the Committee for the Preparationb of Independence, because Japan had already surrendered, whilst the Committee were made by Japan. It would be better if the proclamation were made just by Bung Karno.

I said , would he want to do that, because, after all, he was the Chairman of that Committee. I phoned Bung Karno tight away. I asked :”You weren’t asleep yet?”.Bung Karno answered :”No,not yet” Then I said :”Something important has come up, Syahrir and I would like to come now for a few minutes”. Bung karno said :”Alright,please comenow”

Syahrir and I went there immedietely. Bung Karno was waiting for us. Syahrir then suggested that Bung Karno himself should make the proclamation. Sukarno said that, however things might be, it would not be right for him to seize the opportunity himself in this matter without acting together with the Committee.

Syahrir said that with the regard to this matter, Bung Karno should act as leader of the people, while the Committee was made by Japan.

Again Bung Karno said that no matter how things might be, we had cooperated with the Japanese for quite a long time.

Bung Karno also said at that time that he did not yet know for certain and was not yet convinced that the Japanese had surrendered already, as Syahrir said.

“All right then , tommorow,together with Bung Hatta, I’ll go yo the Gunseikanbu to make inquiries; that won’t be too late ,will it?” Bung karno said. Said Syahrir ,”No,that won’t be too late”.(Yasni,1984,p-118)

August,14th.1945

Pelatihan Lanjutan PETA Di Bogor Dibatalkan

Sekalipun sudirman  dan kawan-kawan sudah berada di Bogor “Pelatihan Lanjutan” dibatalkan, karena tunggal 14 Agustus 1945 Jepang sudah menyerah kepada sekutu. Sesudah itu Soedirman dan kawan-kawannya kembali lagi ke dai dan masing-masing. Pada saat Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia dikumandangkan, Soedirman berada di Kroya.

On August 14

incident has happened KAKKON mausoleum. In such August 22 “Round Ogasawara” ship salvaged from Sakhalin, “Taitomaru”, “circle emerging” second wreck, which sank under the bombardment, torpedo submarine USSR (incident martyrs Mifune).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Pada tanggal 14 Agustus

 

insiden telah terjadi mausoleum KAKKON.

Pada bulan Agustus seperti 22 “Putaran Ogasawara” kapal diselamatkan dari Sakhalin, “Taitomaru”, “lingkaran muncul” kecelakaan kedua, yang tenggelam di bawah pemboman, Uni Soviet kapal selam torpedo (insiden Mifune martir).

 (2) Although Dai Nippon was officially surrendered, the Dai Nippon Military Administration still exist in Indonesia

(,they have waited to give the power to Allied army, but the allied army very late came to Indonesia, that is way the Japanese Military Administration still exist until The British Army under allied army came. The unique and postal  history collection will proved that situation-auth)

.In 15th August,

(a)the Japanese have asked” Peace” to Allied Armed forces( they didn.t like  to say “Surrendered”,may be they ashamed and still had the power -auth), that is way we dicided

(b) to invited the member of PPPK (Indonesia Independence prepatory Committee) to have the meeting at 10.00 morning in the Sanyo Office at Pejambon 2.

(c) Indonesia Indepence Proclamation must be announce as fast as we could, the Indonesia National Basic Law (UUD) must be “Mufakat” without any discussed  and the Indonesia Governerment at Central and Regional area must be done in several days only.

(d) The PPKI’s members from regional area must came back to their area with bring the complete instructions from the Indonesia Independence Government. If they back latetly,may be the Japanese will banned them backhome because the Japanese have the powered from the Allied Army( Jurukuasa  underpower.)

(e) That True Japanese had aggreed Indonesian Independence, but may be the allied army will asked the Japanese army to liquidatied Indonesia and will tried to gave back to Dutch East Indie Government.

(f) Organized revolution must exist, then Indonesion Independence could resisted with all Indonesian people’s struggled. Depend on this ,then I am “menentang” or against the Youngman,Peta and peoples’s “Merebut Kekuasaan” or Fight the Power theory, that suggested in the afternoon by in memoriam Subianto and subadio, the Parlemen’s member now.

(g)The fight of Power must be after the Independence Proclamation by Bung karno via Radio.To the two Men I said that I like Revulution, but against the “Putsch”or Rebellion.The Young men didn’t sustified to this explenation but latter they have said that that were true and Subianto have done my special tasked until he was died in Serpong. (ibid Hatta,1951)

The following morning (15th August 1945)

we went to the Gunseikanbu,( Dai nippon Military Administration Headquaters , the present Pertamina building-auth). There was nobody there. Except for a single Lieutenant by the name of Nomura, If I’m not mistaken.

Everybody had been summoned to the Gunserei-kanbu .I thought, the Japanese had indeed already surrendered.

Subardjo, assistant to  Admiral Tadashi Maeda,

who was also with us at the time suggested that we go straight away to Admiral Maeda. Which we did, and we met Maeda.(in 1946 Maera was arrested by the Allied army,in 1946 bring backhome to japan as ther retired Navy, and in 1976 he had gave Indonesia Narariya Star Medal  by Indonesian Gverment, and in 1977 he was pass away-info from samsi jacobalis book,2000)

Bung karno asked whether the rumours were true, the Japan had surrendered .Maeda was silent , for sevela minutes he did not anwer and his head was bowed. I pinched Bung Karno and whispered :”It looks as if the rumours are true”

In the end , Maeda drew a long breath and said :” According to Allied broadcasts,yes.But we have not yet recieved any instruction at all from Tokyo. It is those instructions  from Tokyo that are decive”(He didn’t told that The Tenno Haika Hirohito asked the Military to Surrender –auth)

After that we took leave from Maeda. As you know, Bung Karno was Chairman of The Preparatory Commi-tee, I was the Vice Chairmain, and for daily activity Siebardjo assited us. I told Soebardjo to call a meeting of all members of the Prepatory Committee for the morning of 16th August 1945 at Pejambon (now Foreign affair Ministry office-auth) Soebardjo called all the members by phone: they were all staying in the Hotel Des Indes.

In the afternoon of 15th August 1945

Two people came to my house, Soebianto (margono’s son) and soebadio. Both urged me to influence Soekarno to be willing to make the proclamation on behalf ofthe leaders of the people. Not on behalf of the Prepatory Committee, because ita was made by Japan.

I said that this depneded on Soekarno himself. I wondered whether he would want to do what or not. But I was afraid he would not want to, because he was the Chairman of that committee. If be stepped foward alone, he woulkd be usurping other people’s right. Maybe he wouldnot want to do that.

Soebianto and Soebadio continued to press me and said :” If you pres him, of course Bung Karno will do it.”I said :” On what grounds would I press him? He,myself, the member of the Committee, all have worked together with the Japanese, but if there somebody who will make the proclamation who ever never cooperated with the Japanese, it be best for him just vto do it.

We continue to argue, at the end those two people said : “Well, in arevolutionary period, Bung Hatta cannot be brought in.” I answered :” That is not how it is. I am now preparing a revolution. The revolution has not begun yet. We are preparing for it. I don not want to make a Putsch as Hitler did in Germany, which failed . If we act , we must succeed” then the two went away.

It shloud also be said here,that on the night of 15 august, in preparation fdor the meetinmg of the Prepatory Committee next morning in 16 August, I typed out the opening of the Constitution to be used as the text for proclamation.

While I was typing, Soebardjo came in, it was about eight o’clock at night.He said,”Bung Karno is being  attacked by the youth. We should go there together “. So I went in Soebardjo’s car because my driver was not there.Wikana talked a lot. Wikana insisted that the proclamation should be made the same night (The night of August 15th).Soekarno sait it could not de done because it was only tomorrow (August 16th) that we were going to have a meeting. Wikana said, we do not want the proclamation made by the Prepatory Committee is rgarded as made by Japan. I said, if the Prepatory Committee is regarded as made by Japan,Bung Karno and I, and also many other leaders, have been cooperatin with the Japanese for a long time.So if things are like this, it is neccessary to look for somebody to make the proclamation, chosen from among who have never cooperated with the Japanese.

And we will back them up.  But the youth still wanted Bung karno to do it. At the time Wikana said,that, if by twelve midninght Bung karno had not proclaimed the Indepnedence of Indonesia the on the following morning(16 August 1945) there would be bloodshed.Then Bung karno became angry.He stood up straight away and went up to Wikana, and, pointing to his neck, Bung karno said :” Here is my neck. You needn’t wait till tomorrow. Take me down and finishe me off this very night.”

“ Oh,that’s not what I mean,Bung” said Wikana.”Then ,what do you mean ?”.”The people and our youth will rebel and will start killing the Ambonese here”, said Wikana.

Then I put in ,:”Why  the Ambonese? You want to start a revolution, why do it by killing your own people , you want to kill innocent people? He answered :’ Well, the Ambonese are considered to be NICA (Netherlands Indische Civil Agency-auth) , aqccomplices of the Dutch”. I said :” That’s only what people think. For some time already, they have worked together with us, and now you want tokill them? What sort of way is that ?”

TEMPERS WERE RUNNING HIGH, the I SUGGESTED TO Bung Karno that the four of us should talk inside. These four were Bung karno, myself,Dr Boentaran and soebardjo. For fifteen minutes we talked in another room at Pegansaan Timur, I suggested to Bung Karno that he should tell thoise young people to find someone from among themselves who had never cooperated with Japanese to make the proclamation, and we would state we would(shall?) back them up to the full. Let them makes the proclamation.

After about fifteen minutes we came out again and Bung Karno firmly told them so.In turned out that they still wanted Bung Karno to make the proclamation. Not a single one of them was ready or dared do it.

“To nignt we will not come to an agreement. It is useless”’said Bung Karno,”I am determined to go on with the meeting of the Preparatory Commitee tomorrow. Then proceed with the proclamation of Independence. If you do not agree, that’sis your business.I’m not going to take their right for myself. There’s no use in your pressing me, just go home first, and we’ll stop here”(ibid Yasni,1984).

 

16 Agustus 1945

Dari Gyu Gun ke BKR dan TNI.
Tahun 1942 Yano Kazo; Residen ( zaman Jepang ) untuk wilayah Sumatera Barat , mengumpulkan pemuka masayarakat, Ninik Mamak, Ulama dan Cerdik Pandai Sumbar, ia mengemukakan akan membangun Gyu Gun ( Lasykar Rakyat ); Pembela Tanah Air ( PETA) namanya di pulau Jawa.


Setelah melalui diskusi dan tukar pendangan diantara pemuka masyarakat dalam rapat itu, akhirnya disepakati menerima usul Yano Kazo mendirikan Gyu Gun Ko En Kai, maka ditetapkan rapat tiga pemimpin yang akan membentukanya yakni Ahmad Dt. Simarajo (ninik Mamak), H. Machmud Yunus ( Ulama )dan Chatib Sulaiman (Cerdik Pandai ). Ketuanya ditetapkan Chatib Sulaiman dan dibantu oleh Suska, Rasuna Said, Latif Usman, Ratna Sari, Leon Salim, Mansur Taib, Rahmah El Yunusiah, Aziz Latif , Husin Ilyas, Tjik Ani, Nazarudin, Nurdin Kajai. Setelah diberikan penjelasan dan penerangan kepada masyarakat se Sumatera Barat, ternyata peminatnya cukup banyak.
“Nama-nama yang telah terdaftar cukup banyak antara alain tiga orang putera dari Syech . M. Djamil Djambek, seorang ulama besar di Minangkabau serta banyak lagi yang berpendidikan Barat maupun Islam”

Syech Abdullah, dikenal juga dengan sebutan “ Baliau Ketek” sejak awal, semasa usaha-usaha pra kemerdekaan RI ia aktif mendorong usaha-usaha pergerakan persiapan kemerdekaan, demikian pula dengan Syech Musatafa yang disebut juga “Baliau Godang”. Kedua beliau dari PERGURUAN Darul Funun, Puncak Bakuang ini melepaskan anaknya untuk ikut berjuang. Azhari Abbas anak baliau ketek di Koto Kociak, VII Koto, ikut berlatih Gyu Gun. dan Tantawi anak baliau Godang di Air Tobik ikut barisan Sabililah.
Ketika Agresi Belanda kedua 1948-1949, keduanya sudah muncul menjadi Perwira Pertama ( Pama ) TNI yakni Kapten Azhari Abbas dan Kapten Tantawi yang tewas dalam peristiwa 15 Januari 1949 di Lurah Kincir Situjuah. Nama Kapten Tantawi diabadikan Pemda menjadi nama lapangan bola kaki Payakumbuh yang semula bernama Poliko diganti dengan sebutan lapangan Kapten Tantawi.
“Berdirinya Gyu Gun di Sumatera Barat, yang sama dengan PETA di Jawa, mendapat sambutan yang hangat dari pemuda Payakumbuh dan Lima Puluh Kota, sehingga banyak diantara mereka yang mengambil bagian dalam Gyu Gun sebagai Pembela Tanah Air, seperti Nurmathias, Azhari Abbas, Amir Wahida, Inada Wahid, Makinudin HS dan lain-lainnya yang kemudian hari pada permulaan perjuangan kemerdekaan mereka memagang peranan di daerah ini”
 

Dua hari setelah Jepang menyerah, di Padang tanggal 16 Agustus 1945 Gyu Gun dibubarkan dan di Bukittinggi pembubarannya tanggal 18 Agustus 1945.(kolektorsejarah web blog)

August 16 Sukarno and Hatta are spirited away by youth leaders, including Chaerul Saleh, to Rengasdengklok at 3:00 A.M. They later return to Jakarta, meet with General Yamamoto, and spend the next night at Vice-Admiral Maeda Tadashi’s residence. Sukarno and Hatta are told privately that Japan no longer has the power to make decisions regarding the future of Indonesia.

 

Thursday-AUGUST 16th 1945

1)SUKARNO AND HATTA , IN THIS MORNING AT 4.00 PM carried off  BY SUKARNI CS TO RENGASDENGKLOK .

(1)Vintage Hatta’s version in 1951

At 16 August 1945 ,10.00 morning, all members of PPKI  and several femous man with pers were presented in Pedjambon 2 building, but who weren’t present were…

…..the invitator, Sukarno and Hatta, because they at 4.00 morning they were carried out to Rengasdengklok by Sukarni cs.

Their  reason have told by Sukarni  for bring us,  because Sukarno didn.t proclaimed the Indonesia Indepenced like what their will or  preffered , then the Youngmen , PETA(ex Dainippon defend Homeland army) and peoples will “bertindak” done themself.

In Jakarta will be an Revolution to fight the power from Japanese, that is way Bung karno and us must be flee to Rengasdengklok to administratived the Indonesia Independent Government there.

When heared that , in the front of my face(mind) that the Disasters will happened  to Indonesia, the mad actions of the younmen willn’t succeeded .This  Rebellion will killed the Indonesian Revolution.

At this day , the Hot blood youngmen could not relized their own theory. Rebellion didn’t happened , outside Jakarta theren’t preparations aanymore. The Japanese have ready with their completed war machined to welcome all will be happaned.

In Rengasdengklok weren’t any meeting. There we workless “mengangur” Lost worked one day to saw from far the vision without based with reality.But, if there a place in Indonesia that realy be the fight of the power was at Rengasdengklok. The Rengasdengklok’s PETA have arrested  theJapanese’s  Wedana(Village’s Chief and two or three Japanese”Sakura” who adminstratived the Rice. The Jakarta’s  Syotyokan(Mayor)this day have came to Rengasdengklok to check the Rice stock, he also arrested “coup d’etats .

For Who and under the whomed’s  name the PETA fight the power there? For  and under the name of Indonesian Independence?  Indonesian Independence wasn,t birth this day and There wasn,t exist Indonesia Revolusioner Government.

In the afternoon Mr Subardjo have came as the Gunseibu’s envoy to bring us Home and Sukarni didn’t against that. In the night we came back to Djakarta also with Sutardjo and Sukarn and the Peta asked what about the Wedana, we said released him. At this nignh the the chief of Revolutiuon , will be started, and came back to the hand of Sukarno-Hatta (ibid Hatta,1951)

(2)Later Version By Hatta in 1984

At four o’clock in the morning, after my last meal before sunrise ( this during the Moslem fasting month). Soekarni came to my house with somebody from PETA ( I don’t remenbmber his name anymore) to fetch me.

Soekarni said :”I,m asking you to came with us”. “Where to?” I said.”Out of town” he said.”What are we going out of town for ?”I said again. Soekarni anwered : “ Well, we are going to free Indonesia and continue the Goverment from there, out of town”

”What government, it hasn’t been formed ye t.Independence hasn’t been proclaimed yet, only tomorrow morning. What gouvernment are you talking about?”

“Well that is how it is.This is the decision of the youth. Bung Karno and you aare going to be taken out of town, independence will proclaimed there “ said Soekarni.

I answer ,:” Oh,that’s how it is. What you are trying to do is the same as Hitler’s abortive Putsch in Munich,that is,trying to seize power without any backbone and mature planning” I laso said :” We were gpoing to proclaim our independence and you’re going to make a failure of it”

Soekarni said again :” Well,in any case ,just come with us,Bung. If you don’t come. Bung karno won’t want to come either”

From my house I was tkaen to Bung Karno’shouse. From there Bung Karno, Fatmawati, Guntur, all of us, were taken to the border of Krawang in the direction of Rengasdengklok. Near krawang before turning off to Rengasdengklok, the car stopped. We were removed into a pick-up vehicle. The milk for baby Guntur was left behind in the previous car, which was sent back to Jakarta. Perhaps the reason was to prevent people from knowing where they had taken us. With that pick-up finally arrived in Rengasdengklok.

We were put in the office of the Daidan ( a lower administrative unit of PETA) . We were ordered to sit there. The house was two-storied, upstair seemed to be their bedrooms. We sat there together . Then the Wedana of Rengasdengklok was brought there.He was startled to see us there.

After sitting there for an hour, we were told to move to another house not far away.

It seemd to be the house of a Chinese, a landowner herer\.

 We were guarded by a young man with a bambooo spear. Until close to tweleve noon nothing happened . Then I called the guard and asked him to call Soekarni. I said :” The man who brought us here, his name is soekarni,” He still didn’t know. I told him to ask the daidan.

The guard went away, Of course, he should not have left us. But Bung Karno and I told him to go, so he went. Miltarily of course, he was in fact being indisciplinary. Not long after that the guard came back with Soekarni. We asked him :”How is it, have you stated your revolution ? This morning you said that the people would attack.Have the people attacked jakarta yet ?”

He said , there had been no contact with Jakarta,yet. Bung Karno and I told him tophone Jakarta, to contact his headquaters and asked them whether it had taken place or whether it had failed or was it just talk and there had been no realization at all

He went . We waited for a long time. It almost an hour, and still he had not comeback. I thought,  nothing was happenening.

About two o’clock in the afternoon he came back at last and said that he tried to contact Jakarta; it was very difficult to make contacct at first, but at least he had done so,he said.

“And what has happened ? have the people attacked Jakarta ?” .”No,there’s been no attack”,he said.”This morning you said that the people were going to attack and disarm the Japanese, therefore you brought us here. Now,itseems , nothing has happened. So,you’ve failed.” I said.”That is not sure yet.” H e replied.

Thus , we just waited and waited as we had done since morning. All that Bung Karno and I did was to take turns with Fatmawati holding Guntur and trying to quieten him.

Guntur with Sukarno and Fatmawati

Guntur kept on crying because there was no milk.

 Fatmawati couldnot feed him and there was no canned milk because it had been left in the car had been sent back to Jakarta that morning.

When it was my turn to be holding Guntur on my lap, he uninated. My trouser were wet and I had no change.So I could not say mt prayers, wheas it was fasting month. Only aound one in the afternoon was atin of milk brought and only then  did Guntur become quiet.

That evening toward six o’clock,Soebardjo came from Jakarta looking for us. He negotiated with the Daidan to take us  back to Jakarta.

First the daidan refused. Soebardjo pointed out “What is the use of detaining Bung karno and Bung Hatta here ? Nothing is happening in Jakarta. It is absolutely queit there. The meeeting this morning was cancelled because you brought Bung Karno and Bung Hatta here. Why must it be like this ?”

 

 

When we were to be taken back to Jakarta , i asked jokingly,”Better if we spent the night here, it is ill-time now,” Fatmawati(Soekarno’s wife)protested :”No, the tin of milk for Guntur which the guard brought is finished. Guntur will suffer and will cry again.At least we started for Jakarta.

In the end we were ready again to go back to Jakarta.

Soekarni also went with us.

Funny things happaned also on our way ack. Soekarno,myself and Soebardjo sat in the back in the car, while Soekarni sat in front next to the driver. Fatmawati and Guntur together with Soetardjo were in another car.

On our way to Jakarta before we passed Krawqang, we saw smoke in the distance, said Soekarni :” Now then the people have started to burn down the properties of the Chinese.” Bung Karno told the driver to goon, then to stop for a while when we told the driver to have a look. Laten on, he said it was only the people burning rice straw. We all doubled up with laughter. Soekarni did look slightly embarrassed.

When we reached jakarta, Soetardjo accompanied Fatmawati and Guntur home to 56 pegangsaan street (now Proklamasi street)with their own car ,

Bung Karno and myself ,Soebardjo and soekarni went to my place with our car.

I immediately asked Soebardjo to phone Hotel de Indess  to CALL A MEETING THAT SAME NIGHT OF MEMBERS OF THE PREPATORY COMMITTEE AT MIDNIGHT AT HOTEL das INDES to continue the meeting which had not taken place that morning.look at the picture of Hotel Des Indes  below

Those at Hotel des Indes said by phone that for some time past the Japanese has instructed the hotel management sot to allow meetings to be held after ten at night.

Soebardho suggested we try to ask MAEDA’S AGREEMENT TO HOLD THE MEEETING AT HIS HOUSE. We AGREED WITH Soebardjo suggestion.Maeda answered by phone:”He would with pleasure put his house at our disposal for the meeting and he was happy to hear that the two of us had returned to Jakarta. All 21 members were invited to hold that  MIDNIGHT MEETING.

Each of us wanted to go home first since there were still a few hours to go before midnight.”What about me?” asked Soekarni.”You go home too”I said. “But,I can’t go like this, in my PETA uniform”. “Why are you afraid. You took tke risk,you dared make a revolution, why should you be afraid of being arrested by the Japanese?”. In the end i lent him a few clothes, which happened to fiyt. Perhaps a bit tight, but he went home in those cloth. Going back to Jakaeta he was in PETA uniform, although he had no right to them because he was not a member of PETA.

Then there was a telephone call from Miyoshi, my laisson man at the Gunseikanbu, saying that the Sumobucho wanted to see me. I told Miyoshi that we would come around 10. p.m. . After taking bath I phoned Bung Karno to fetch me to go to Maeda’s and the Gunseikan at 10 p.m.

First we went to Maeda’s house and accompanied by Maeda too, we went to the house of the Sumabucho. (Read Dai Nippon Military adminstration Java about the Dai Nippon official goverment-auth) .

Maeda was delighted we were back and shook hands with us. The Sumobucho did not allow the holding of meeting any longer. “What can we do? We have surrendered to the Allies and now we are just tools of the Allies. The Allies instructed us to guard the status quo no changes are to be made anymore.

We immediately answered rather harshy :”You are a Samurai. General Terauchi at Dalat left it to us. What about your oath and your promise as a Samutai to us ?” “We are in a different position now”, he said. “You alway stalk, about your Samurai spirit. Show it to us no”,We retorted.

Bung karno and I indeed used rather harsh words and apparentley Miyoshi refined it translation a little, but eventually, we didn’t achieve anything.

Bung Karno said again :” So, if our youth takes action,will your army shoot them ?” The Sumobucho said :” Yes, we are forced to. Thoses are the Allied instructions, there is nothing esle to be done.”

Maeda went home earlier. He seemed bored by that endless talk. In the end, after about one hour, we also left the house of the Sumobucho and returned to Maeda’s house.Maeda just laughed, saying that the Sumobucho had no standpoint. At the beginning we were five people gathered there, that is,

Bung Karno

, myself(Bung Hatta)

, Soebardjo

 

, Sayuti Melik and Soekarni.

We agreed ten to write the text odf the proclamation. I said that the text had been prpared since last night, was at my place. It wasn’t quite ready; I was typing it, when I was taken to Bung Karno’s house.

Bung karno said that we should make just a short text ,” Bung Hatta knows better Indonesian than I do. Think about it and write it down” said Bung Karno.

To think and write at the same time is rather difficult. I’ll think out the sentences and Bung Karno write them down” I said.

Then I spoke the sentences of the draft proclamation, and Bung Karno wrote them down on paper. The two main sentences that i dictated were,” We, the Indonesian peopke, hereby proclaim the Independence of Indonesia. The tranfer of power and the like, matters relating there to will be carried out carefully and in the shortest possible time”

Bung Karno slowly read the text of the proclamation. Tree time he read it. Ultimately everybody agreed unanimously, everybody accepted it happily. Everybody shouter :”Agrreed”.

Then I asked the all saying:” So this is an important document for the history of our nation.Let us all who are present here sign this document . Just as when George Washington made his proclamation, evereybody present signed the document .” Nobody answere. Dilence. Then Soekarni said:” It is not good if all of us sign the document. Soekarno-Hatta is sufficient on behalf of all the people of Indonesia

Everybody was happy. I was rather annoyed, because they were given an opportunity to make history, but didn’it want to take it (may be they were affraid to Japanese ????-auth ,what your comment?). So, it seem they only looked like tigers from the outside. Iapparently they were brave, but in fact they were not).

The meeting was ended, everybody was happy.

Maeda came down from his room upstairs.

He shook hands with everybody present. We ordered the btext of the proclamation to be retyped, multiplied and broadcast.

Thus, only that night had the Sunobucho told us that since tweleve noon that day instruction had been recieved by Japan from the Allies that the status quo was not to be changed, and therefore the holding of meetings could not be approved. But Maeda not only gave permission , but even put his house at our disposal for that historic meeting.

I think the reason Maeda did that was HIS CONSCIENCE AS SAMURAI SOLDIER HE FELT BOUND BY Japan’s promise, and (perhaps) he felt he was going to punished by the Allies anyway, so it was better to help the wishes of the Indonesian ppeople to reach the treshold of their ieals.

That is my private guess. So, the meeting which was to be held in the morning 0f 16th August 1945 was cancelled which we had been carried off to Rengasdengklok, and it was not true the Japanese prevent it.

It is necessary to note here, which I learnt afterwards, that threre was a proposal by Soekarni which he conveyed through Soebardjo, to add five more names to participate in the signing of the text of the proclamation, but Soebardji did not mention this during the early morning meetin in August 17.

Maybe it was because Soekarni had said that night it was enough for just two people to sign it (ibid Yasni,1984).

and then typing by Sayuti Melik

(In the originnal text, Soekarno writting some off Hatta dictated were stripped and changed from”Af-voi vo q(not clear) change to”Penjerahan”(recapitulation) and then change to”pemindahan”, the word “ dioesahakan’ change to “diselenggarakan” Djakarta 17-8-’05 Wakil2 bangsa Indonesia.

This text of Proclamation’s concept than Type by Sayuti Melik with change Djakarta hari 17 Boelan 8 tahoen 05 (japanese year 2605 or 1945) , atas nama bangsa Indonesia(On behalf of Indonesian people ) Soekarno- Hatta, this original concept informed on the merdeka magazine during six moth Independent “Merdeka” by the owner B.M.Diah, and many years keep by him and then after many years he gave back to president Soeharto and now keep in MONAS monument Jakarta-auth)

(3)Other version were written by the Youngmen like Adam Malik,Sukarni,etc but didn’t listed here.

AUGUST,17.1945)Batavia, 17th/1945Photo: ABC Press

“Better to the hell than to be colonized again” was painted on a streetcar in Jakarta on 17 August 1945. This is the day of the Proclamasi, the day Sukarno plants the red and white flag in front of his home in Jakarta and proclaims the independent Republic of Indonesia. Two days after the surrender of Japan the situation is chaotic, and the Dutch government is not even inclined to consider acknowledging the republic.

The Indonesians will have to endure two wars and wait for more than four years until sovereignty is officially granted, on 29 December 1949.

.August,17th. 1945

 

Proclamation of Indonesian Independence

MERDEKA! MERDEKA! MERDEKA !

 

 

 

 

Declaration event

Sukarno, accompanied by Mohammad Hatta (right), proclaiming the independence of Indonesia.


Provisional guards for President Sukarno, Jakarta, 1945.

 

PRANGKO DEFINIT DAI NIPPON SUMATRA DIGUNAKAN DIKANTOR POS pADANG DENGAN STEMPEL DAI NIPPON HURUF KANJI pA-DA-N(G) DENGAN TANGGAL SHOWA 20.8.17 YANG BERARTI 17 AGUSTUS 1945, SAYANG SUDAH DICOPOT DARI SAMPUL, SURAT DIKIRIM SAAT KEMERDEKAN INDONESIA DI PROKLAMASI DI jAKARTA, INI KOLEKSI SANGAT HISTORIS, SAAT PROKLAMASI KANTOR POS PADANG MASIH DIKUASAI DAI NIPPON.

koleksi ini juga ditampilkan dalam buku Indonesia Independdent revolution and War

 

Money Order Frament  DEI stamp CDS Malang 17.8.5(August,17tgh.1945)

Postal History august,17th.1945 from other countries

Bussum – Zwitserland 1945 – Gezien door den Censuurdienst

( Wolfheze ) Bussum – Zurich 17.8.1945

August 17

Sukarno reads the brief, succinct, and unilateral “Proklamasi”; the Declaration of Independence.

PETA forces, radical youths, and ordinary people in Jakarta organize defense of Sukarno’s residence. Flyers are distributed proclaiming independence. Adam Malik sends out a shortwave announcement of the Proklamasi.

 

DURING AND AFTER INDEPENDENCE PROCLAMATION

IN 17th AUGUST 1945.

  1. Samsi Jacobalis ,2000,books info :

In the early moning Chaerul saleh bring  The copy of Indonesian independent proclamotion direct from Maeda house, and the documen gave to Eri sadewo at Prapatan 10 for copying and disebarluaskan after the ceremony at Eat pegangsaan styreet (private documantation by DR.Rushdy Hussein)

Mamahit had met Dr Muwardi the leader of Barisan banteng,he told hi  that Bung Karno this morning still sleep and did’t wat absudr(tak mau diganggu0 becaus eafter backhome fro m maeda house early in the morning his Malaria kambuh(exist again) . He will dibangunkan(call from sleep) about 9 o’clock for preparing himself to read the proclamation(mengucapkan proklamasi).

During proclamation only PPKI member,pejuang and old potiticia generation ,also the memeber of Prapatan 10 and student who live outside asrama ,with peoples. Sayhrir,Chaerul saleh.Sukarni and Adam malik didnot join the proclamation ceremony, Adam Malik in his book said that he didn’t joint (hadir)  because waiting the moment (kesempatan) in Domei for send telegraph about proclamation abroad(menirim berita proklamasi keluar negeri dari kantor berita jepang Domei).

During proclamation ceremony by Bung Karno in the front of his house at Pegangsaan street, the Studet at prapatan 10 jakarta also read the copy of Indonesian Independet Proclamation by Eri Sudewo as  the ceromy Inspectuer (inspektur upacara) ,The command of ceremony salamun,the up of flag Muhardewo.

 

Proklamasi 17 Agustus 1945 merupakan tonggak bagi kemerdekaan Indonesia. Proses proklamasi yang berjalan cepat dan agak mendadak mengakibatkan reaksi yang beragam di kalangan masyarakat, pun demikian di kalangan kepolisian.

 

Satu- satunya orang yang mengabadikan foto proklamasi kemerdekaan RI 17 Agustus 1945

Source :  arumijhan

Frans Soemarto Mendoer

Fotografi memang bukan hanya menjadi saksi sejarah, tapi juga menjadi bukti sejarah hidup manusia dan peristiwa-peristiwa yang melingkupinya. Dengan keberadaan foto, banyak orang bisa diingatkan dan disadarkan tentang suatu hal. Frans Soemarto Mendoer sangat memahami hal tersebut. Karena itulah, setelah mendapat kabar dari seorang sumber di harian Jepang Asia Raya bahwa akan ada kejadian penting di rumah kediaman Soekarno, Frans langsung bergerak menuju rumah bernomor 56 di Jalan Pegangsaan Timur itu sambil membawa kamera Leica-nya. Dan benar, pagi itu, Jumat, 17 Agustus 1945, sebuah peristiwa penting berlangsung di sana: pembacaan teks proklamasi kemerdekaan bangsa Indonesia oleh Soekarno.

Saat itu Frans hanya memiliki sisa tiga lembar plat film. Jadi dari peristiwa bersejarah itu, ia hanya bisa mengabadikan tiga adegan.

Yang pertama, adegan Soekarno membacakan teks proklamasi.

Yang kedua, adegan pengibaran bendera Merah Putih yang dilakukan oleh Latief Hendraningrat, salah seorang anggota PETA.

 

Dan yang ketiga, suasana ramainya para pemuda yang turut menyaksikan pengibaran bendera. Setelah menyelesaikan tugas jurnalisnya itu, Frans langsung bergegas meninggalkan rumah kediaman Soekarno karena menyadari bahwa tentara Jepang tengah memburunya.

Frans menjadi satu-satunya orang yang mengabadikan momen sakral itu karena Alex Alexius Impurung Mendoer, kakak kandungnya yang juga sempat memotret prosesi bersejarah tersebut, harus merelakan kameranya dirampas oleh tentara Jepang.

Dan sewaktu tentara Jepang menemui Frans untuk meminta negatif foto Soekarno yang sedang membacakan teks proklamasi, Frans mengaku film negatif itu sudah diambil oleh Barisan Pelopor.

Padahal negatif foto peristiwa yang sangat penting itu ia sembunyikan dengan cara menguburnya di tanah, dekat sebuah pohon di halaman belakang kantor harian Asia Raya. Kalau saja saat itu negatif film tersebut dirampas tentara Jepang, maka mungkin generasi sekarang dan generasi yang akan datang tidak akan tahu seperti apa peristiwa sakral tersebut.

Bahkan, mengenai kehadiran Frans di rumah Soekarno pada waktu itu, wartawan senior Alwi Shahab menulis “Andaikata tidak ada Frans Mendoer, maka kita tidak akan punya satu foto dokumentasi pun dari peristiwa proklamasi kemerdekaan…” Tulisan itu dimuat di harian Republika edisi Minggu, 14 Agustus 2005, tiga hari menjelang peringatan Hari Ulang Tahun Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia yang ke-60.

Pencucian tiga buah foto bersejarah itu juga tidaklah mudah karena dihalang-halangi pihak Jepang. Frans bersama Alex terpaksa secara diam-diam harus mengendap, memanjat pohon pada malam hari, dan melompati pagar di samping kantor Domei (sekarang kantor berita ANTARA) untuk bisa sampai ke sebuah lab foto guna mencetak foto-foto tersebut. Padahal, bila dua bersaudara itu tertangkap oleh tentara Jepang, mereka akan dipenjara, bahkan dihukum mati.

Foto pembacaan Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia itu pertama kali dimuat di harian Merdeka pada tanggal 20 Februari 1946, lebih dari setengah tahun setelah pembuatannya. Film negatif catatan visual itu sekarang sudah tak dapat ditemukan lagi. Ada dugaan bahwa negatif film itu ikut hancur bersama semua dokumentasi milik kantor berita Antara yang dibakar pada peristiwa di tahun 1965. Waktu itu, sepasukan tentara mengambil seluruh koleksi negatif film dan hasil cetak foto yang dimiliki Antara lalu membakarnya.

 

Catatan Dr Iwan

Ternyata peristiwa proklamasi masih ada foto kempat,yang sebenarnya  foto urutan pertama Sebelum Sukarno membacakan pidato proklamasinya ia berdoa menurut agama islam dengan membaca Bismillah Ya Rahman Ya Rahim,foto ini ditemukan wartawan senior  Alwi Shihab.

Masih ada foto yang belum diketemukan ialah saat Dr Mawardi membacakan mukadimah Undang-Undang dasar 1945 dan Pancasila.Bung Karno tidak membaca proklamasi langsung dari teks proklamasi yang diketik, dan proklamasi tulisan tangan ternyata disimpan oleh wartawan senior Merdeka yang kemudian ditampilkan dalam buku peringatan enam bulan merdeka tyterhitan hariian Merdeka,kemudian lama hilang dan akhirnya diserahkan kepada pak harto dna sekarang disimpan di MONAS.

  1. Info Of Indonesian Independent proclamation

(1)From Kuala tungkal Jambi

. August 17, 1945 Proclamation of Independence and Public Speech Kuala Tungkal

Head Office Telegraph Kuala Tungkal H. M. Kurchi / Madiah Syahbandar Kuala Tungkal, always follow the developments within and outside the country through radio broadcasts are heard in secret so as not known by the Japanese authorities. RI heard the news of the proclamation of independence by H. M. Kurchi on August 17, 1945, and then circulated(disebarluaskannya) to community leaders and youth. On August 20, 1945 a number of youth, among others, M. Kasim, Tuhirang Duladji at 07.00 am and flying the red and white flag at the port of Kuala Tungkal, which is then followed by a flag-raising by people in their homes.

 

 

(2)The Proclamation of Indonesian Independence

(Indonesian: Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia, or simply Proklamasi)

was read at 10.00 a.m. on Friday, August 17, 1945. The declaration marked the start of the diplomatic and armed-resistance of the Indonesian National Revolution, fighting against the forces of the Netherlands until the latter officially acknowledged Indonesia’s independence in 1949. In 2005, the Netherlands declared that they had decided to accept 17 August 1945 as Indonesia’s independence date[1]

Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta, who were appointed President and Vice-president, respectively, were the document’s signatories.

Declaration event

First Dr Mawardi read Mukadimah Undang-Undang dasar 45 and Pancasila ,

then

Before Sukarno read his announcement , he  prayed to Allah, Bismillah Ya Rahman Ya Rahim and the mighty only GOD as the moslem and the he speaked and then read the proclamations

Sukarno, accompanied by Mohammad Hatta (right), proclaiming the independence of Indonesia.

The draft was prepared only a few hours earlier, on the night of August 16, by Sukarno, Hatta, and Soebardjo, at Rear-Admiral Maeda (Minoru) Tadashi’s house, Miyako-Doori 1, Jakarta (now the “Museum of the Declaration of Independence“, JL. Imam Bonjol I, Jakarta).

The original Indonesian Declaration of Independence was typed by Sayuti Melik.[2][3] Maeda himself was sleeping in his room upstairs. He was agreeable to the idea of Indonesia‘s independence, and had lent his house for the drafting of the declaration. Marshal Terauchi, the highest-ranking Japanese leader in South East Asia and son of Prime Minister Terauchi Masatake, was however against Indonesia’s independence, scheduled for August 24.

While the formal preparation of the declaration, and the official independence itself for that matter, had been carefully planned a few months earlier, the actual declaration date was brought forward almost inadvertently as a consequence of the Japanese unconditional surrender to the Allies on August 15 following the Nagasaki atomic bombing.

The historic event was triggered by a plot, led by a few more radical youth activists such as Adam Malik and Chairul Saleh, that put pressure on Soekarno and Hatta to proclaim independence immediately. The declaration was to be signed by the 27 members of the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence (PPKI) symbolically representing the new nation’s diversity.

The particular act was apparently inspired by a similar spirit of the United States Declaration of Independence. However, the idea was heavily turned down by the radical activists mentioned earlier, arguing that the committee was too closely associated with then soon to be defunct Japanese occupation rule, thus creating a potential credibility issue.

Instead, the radical activists demanded that the signatures of six of them were to be put on the document. All parties involved in the historical moment finally agreed on a compromise solution which only included Soekarno and Mohammad Hatta as the co-signers ‘in the name of the nation of Indonesia’

Soekarno had initially wanted the declaration to be read at Ikada Plain, the large open field in the centre of Jakarta, but due to unfounded widespread apprehension over the possibility of Japanese sabotage, the venue was changed to Soekarno’s house at Pegangsaan Timur 56. In fact there was no concrete evidence for the growing suspicions, as the Japanese had already surrendered to the Allies, and the Japanese high command in Indonesia had given their permission for the nation’s independence. The declaration of independence passed without a hitch.

Draft

Indonesian

PROKLAMASI

Kami, bangsa Indonesia, dengan ini menjatakan kemerdekaan Indonesia.

Hal-hal jang mengenai pemindahan kekoeasaan,d.l.l., diselenggarakan dengan tjara saksama dan dalam tempoh yang sesingkat-singkatnja

Djakarta (Jakarta), 17-8-45

Wakil-Wakil Bangsa Indonesia

Amendments

Three amendments were made to the draft, as follows:

  • tempoh“: changed to “tempo“, both meaning “time period”.
  • 17-8-45: changed to “hari 17, boelan 8, tahoen 05″ (“day 17, month 8, year 05″ of the Japanese sumera calendar); the number “05″ is the short form for 2605.
  • Wakil-Wakil Bangsa Indonesia” (Representatives of the people of Indonesian nation): changed to “Atas nama bangsa Indonesia” (“in the name of the nation of Indonesia”).

 

Final text

The original Indonesian Declaration of Independence

The monument commemorating the Indonesian Declaration of Independence

PROKLAMASI

Kami, bangsa Indonesia, dengan ini menjatakan kemerdekaan Indonesia.

Hal-hal jang mengenai pemindahan kekoeasaan d.l.l., diselenggarakan dengan tjara saksama dan dalam tempo jang sesingkat-singkatnja.

Djakarta, hari 17 boelan 8 tahoen 05Atas nama bangsa Indonesia,

Soekarno/Hatta.

 

English translation

An English translation published by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs as of October 1948 included the entire speech as read by Sukarno. It incorporated remarks made immediately prior to and after the actual proclamation. George McTurnan Kahin, a historian on Indonesia, believed that they were omitted from publication in Indonesia either due to Japanese control of media outlets or fear of provoking a harsh Japanese response.[4]

PROCLAMATION

WE THE PEOPLE OF INDONESIA HEREBY DECLARE THE INDEPENDENCE OF
INDONESIA. MATTERS WHICH CONCERN THE TRANSFER OF POWER AND
OTHER THINGS WILL BE EXECUTED BY CAREFUL MEANS AND IN THE
SHORTEST POSSIBLE TIME.

DJAKARTA, 17 AUGUST 1945

IN THE NAME OF THE PEOPLE OF INDONESIA

SOEKARNO—HATTA

THE CHRONOLOGIC HISTORIC COLLECTIONS

  1. Hatta Version

SATURDAY, AUGUST. 17th. 1945

a)Proclamation Preparationed

1) Hatta’s version

(1) vintage version  (ibid,Hatta.1951)

At midnight(r early morning 17th August 1945-auth) , after the meeting with Sumobutjo where the Japanese have been the caretaker under the allied, there were the meeting with all the members of Independence prepatory Committee, the  delegation of Youngmen and people .

 

In the meeting  depend on the youngmen suggestion have the” round”(all said yes-auth) conclusion that the Indonesia Independent proclamation only sign by Sukarno-Hatta under the name of Indonesia’s nation.(Hatta didn’t told where and how the Independence declaration was produced, may be for the security. The detailed were told later in 1984 –auth.)

(2)later version (ibid,Yusni,1984)

I phoned Bung karno to fetch me to go to Maeda’s and the  Gunseikan at 10.00 PM (August 16th 1945). First we went to Maeda’s house, amd, accompanied by Maeda too, we went to the House of the Sumobucho (where the Gunsereikan, the hignest Dai Nippon military ‘s chief in Java, who know ? please give us information? –auth

The Sumobucho did not allow the holding of meetings any longer.(HE SAID)”‘WHAT CAN WE DO ?We have surrendered to the Allies and now we are just tools of the Allies. The Allies instructed us to guard the status quo, no changes are to be made anymore.”

We also left the house of the Sumobucho  and returned to Maeda’s house. At the beginning we were five people gather there. We agreed then to write the text of the proclamation. Etc read above!LOOK AT THE PHOTO OF BUNG KARNO AND BUNG HATTA IN BUNG KARNO HOUSE JUST BEFORE PROCLAMATIONS *ill.017

 

Later on, just before the meeting broke up, I asked for food of my before-dawn meal from Maeda. Before I went home in Soekarno’s car, we agreed to meet again at 10.00 a.m. that morning at Pegangsaan Timur , Soekarno,s house , to hold the ceremony of reading the text of the proclamation.

(This was the new information after 43 years independend  in 1984,that only five people in the meeting, and what about the member of Prepatory Committee as told in 1951 ?Hatta din’t mentioned in 1984?-who  have the factual collection about this, please momment- auth)

(3) Other version

Many version depend on the writers, (I haven’t written in this blocked, if someone need please tell us in the comment, and we will write in special topic-auth)

2)Proclamation ceremony

(1)vintage Hatta version

17 Agustus 1945 , 10.00 o,clock (Indonesia time )

 

the text of Indonesian Independence was proclaimed  to all the people (in the front of Sukarno house,East  Pengasaan street, the house was burned and now become the Pola Buildings and in the the locations was build Proclamation Sukarno-Hatta statue, the lattest locations was moved from the first location –look at the pictured postcard.(MANY MYSTERIOUS GUEST DURING BUNG KARNO READ THE TEXT WITH BUNG HATTA BESIDE HIM, because later many of that mysterious guest behind Bung Hatta were disapeared with black coloue, also the guest behind Bung Karno only Bu Fatmawati Sukarno dan Larief were said, who know the other mysterious gueast plese give info,look carefully the  mysterious guest from the three version  picture from the same photos below:

 

 

 

and compare with the Proclamation statue,the Bung Hatta Position not like  the really during proclamation,he look Bung Karno , look carefully  below:

Hatta didn’t mantioned who read the Text of proclamation Sukarno or another people in  vintage and later version, also in another version by Moerdijanto(1952) “ Ir Sukarno and Drs Moh Hatta , on behalf of Indonesia nation, proclaimed Independence of all Indonesia. After read the proclamation text etc…”  ? please comment and show us your factual collection related to this historic moment, one information  have found , please read (2)- auth)

(2)Merdeka magazine’s version (17 Feb.1946)

The Narasion left of the Proclamation photo( the photo was cutted and the two ladies beside Fatmawati and two men with PETA uniform didn.t seen and not got quality repro.uth) :Your excellency, PJM(Paduka Yang Mulia),Presiden Ir. Soekarno , between  M.Hatta and Colonel Abdul Latief Hendradiningrat (wrong , because that moment he haven’t choose as President snd Abdul latief ex PETA ,didn’t rank Colonel-auth), Proclaimed on Behalf of all peoples(Indonesia) Indonesia Independence.

(3)Vintage  Proclamations day ‘s collections

(a) Document history collection

(1)Until this day I haven’t found the original document related with the text of Indonesia  Independence Proclamations , only Repro photos of Proclamations ceremony  and the Sukarno handwritten ‘s concept WITHOUT SIGN in Merdeka Magazine (feb.1946)

(2) I have seen before a Java character newspaper date August,17th,2605. without the informations of Proclamation and only the information of the Indonesia Independence preparation Committee. ( if someone have the original document/photos  about the cremony and  the text of Indonesia Independence Proclamation please contact us-auth)

(3) The original photo’s repro of  Indonesia Independence proclamations ,  Sukarno in Complete  White dress with “Kopiah”Cap, was holding bigger paper, not small Independece proclamation’s text, biside him at the left Hatta in white complete Dress and he put his hand back , without “Kopiah”Cap and at the right Abdoel latief Hendraningrat with PETA uniform, was holding Samurai.

 

 

 

They were standing in the front of the House and the vintage  loudspeaker was used.

In the back of repro photo,Violet  Handstamped “Foto Departemen Penerangan,Sumber”Foto Deppen” harus disebutkan jika foto dipakai untuk publikasi apapun. Kode negatip:”(the Photo of Indonesia “Penerangan”Departemen, source “Foto Deppen” must said if the photo was used for publication. Negative Code:

), Biside the stamped, three pen’s handwritten : 3 , R 83-4442 and  ½ Hal. In the biggest photo  we could seen Fatmawati (Sukarno wife, Hatta alone stilln’t married, and ten people , (Who were them ? please comment, because in small photo in another magazine Fatmawati didn’t seen and only five people with civil dress  behind sayuti Melik and  added three men with PETA uniform in the back of Hatta-auth) (page).(D)

 

in the front of Sukarno House, we can see Hatta  without cap and Soekarno with cap in the right side, and  Abdoel latief Hendradiningrat with PETA uniform and  two youngmen with civil dress (? Who) one  holding  the flag at left, and the other one in the center to pull the string to up the flag , also we can see Fatmawati(Sukarno’s wife who had made the flag)  from behind  Fatmawati with kebaya ,selen-dang on hair and  long stripdesign ‘s wear , and, beside her,  two another women with kebaya dress withoutt selendang on their hairs (who ?), and the leftside were seen  one  civillian’s youngmen (who ?).( who know the persons in the photo, please comment)

(5) The Situation before Independence proclamation ceremony at Pegangsaan Timur (D.Bassa,Merdeka Magazine,Jakarta, 17 February 1946)

In looked at the situation during Independence proclamation at East Pegangsaan , and at that memorable time, the writer was in the center of thousand youngmens.

Long before the ceremony, the sukarno’s house were different than anotther day, everybody who passed in the front of me that time with the meaning of that will be opened the new page of history.

In the front (beranda) and in the center o the house were exist many peoples , included envoys from other indonesian island ( outside Java-auth)  , the member of Independence Preparation Commitee, the other day(16 August)  they haved meeting to choose President and Vice-president Republic of Indonesia( The writer wrong , he didn’t know that the meetinh had cancelled because Sukarno-Hatta bring out to Rengasdengklok by Sukarni and Wikana-auth)

I couldn’t caculated how many youngmen and “Pelopor” guard(Barisan) which still came at this day. (Hatta later’s  information,” There were also rumours that it was(The Independence proclamation-auth) going to be read at Ikada Stadium (now was change to Market).

Therefore, may people went to Ikada, so that only about 100 people were present at the ceremony at Pegangsaan Timur; not many, but it was quite solemn, although it was short and concise.Ibid Yusni,1984,p-129)

Bung Karno and Bung Hatta Had came from the place (“Somewhere”? I think Sukarno stayed in that house because the Independence  Proclamation in the varanda at front of his house-auth) with Their Ex guard from PETA (? WHO) and the Independent Proclamation will fastly done (soon). My Heart Became “quiet” (easy) and “steady” (peace), although before feeled ‘sanctions’ (doubtness), The Independence will annouced “soon”.

The preparations of ceremony were done, the ceremony command’s(R.A.Abdoel Latif Hendraningrat)  words that asked all the participants : Famous men, youngmen and gilrs, the member of “Pelopor” (Barisan Pelopor) etc, to stand with “teratur” and must look atPresident and vice-president (the writers  haved written this article sixt month later, that is way he used the rank that time-aut)

 

the ceremony with “Tertib” as still heared in my ear when write this article. He have said :”The People of Independence State must know how to honoured their “Leaders” (the writers used word President and vice prisident, he made the wrong statement again, that time Sukarno-Hatta only the National leaders-auth )

Everybody have done like the Young Opsir’s said . “The Indonesian Leaders Sukarno Hatta” in the front of the youngmen,students and Pelopor which stood in the bigger  “perkarangan” outside of the house were under the undrawned word’s feelling ( tak dapat dilukiskan dengan kata-kata), but deep in my heart I had feeled “Inocent (Kesoetjian) and happiness(kebahagiaan)”

After 55 years,this day,august.18th.2011, someone in Metro television  Jakarta told that he ,name Ilyas Karim still alive now) had “mengibarkan” the Red and white flag during Indonesia Independence Proclamation look the illustration below,a young man with short trouser in the center of the picture beside Abdul Latief Hendranigrat  (with PETA army dress and samurai  sword),also one young man hold the flag still donnot know who,why the man told now? very difficilut to confirmDr Iwan note.

This is the rare picture I have just found,we can see many people in the front of flag pole.who is the women with jilbab who pick the flag an 12 women behind her ,who?and at theother side many young people.who? still more research need,please the family tell me.

(6)Situation during Independence’s Proclamation ceremony (ibid,Basa.D,1946)

The text of Indonesia Independence Proclamation was readed by Dr Moewardi, the  Ceremonial,s Chief, and after that readed together ( by all the participants included Sukarna and Hatta, many years everybody have wrong that Sukarno had read the text, because in 1950 The Radio of Republic  Indonesia (RRI) have produced the record Indonesia National Song”Indonesia Raya” arranged by Indonesian National Police’s band command by in memoriam  R.Sudjasmin with the sound of Sukarno who read the proclamarion text, I have that record. Every morning the RRI have played this record as the started’s song before the beginning of the program -auth)

  1. Soewirjo on the behalf of Jakarta city ‘s people, also gave “sambutan”’s word , “We, Indonesian People have choosed our  way to confrontated the difficult situation of this time, that we have dicided as the best and right moment  to proclaimed our  Independence at this day.(Later  he became the first Mayor of Jakarta-auth)

The Ceremonial’s participant have more attantioned when Hatta have came in the front of Microphone  and told about the meaning of Indonesia Independence text.

Soekarno have made the ceremonial’s participant into the  melanchollied’s felling(terharu),  when he said :” After many centuries all of  the people of Indonesia had fighted (became to be reality-auth)  , the duty and loaded (beban)  as the people of Independence’s state have became more heavy.

Sukarno said :”All the people,  at long time  in their heart have the believed  that  the Independence of any nation must be found by the power of their own nation.Sukarno also said “The enemy willn’t declined the “Red-White” Indonesia national’s flag before stepped up the dead-bodies of 70 millions Indonesia People bodies. We only like to see the Red-white flag inclined but not declined . Lets we guarded and  took care the flag still “berkibar”,fleed, until the end of the century  ”

The ceremony were closed with “Soempah Kesetiaan” The loyalty’s of the people and sung the Indonesia  national’s Song “Indonesia Raja” ( the tradition now that the National Song only Sing with or without Band during the inclination of the Flag ,

Only two photos exist taken By Frans mendur until nowFrom the front

 

And from the backside of Flag Pole(this photo not many published,may be someone in the picture had the political problem?

Photographer Frans Mendur (also Frans Mendoer)

The writer have said the Song have sung at the end of ceremony after the inclination of the flag,I think that true , because if we look at the historic’s photo by Mendur ‘s brother every bodie’s mouth especially Sukarno and Hatta still closed not sung/open , if   some one have another information please comment-auth.)

The Bung Karno Introduction Said in Indonesia language :

Gentlemen All.I . has, anda-saudara brothers present here to witness an all-important event in our history.
Decades of our nation to independence Indonesia has stragulle our homeland. Rqatus hundreds and even years!
Wave action we are to achieve our independence there were ups and downs, but our souls remain to toward ideals.
Also in   Japan, era,  our efforts to achieve national independence did not halt. in the Japanese era, it seems we rely on them, but in essence we are still preparing its own power, we still believe in the own power .Sekarang it is time we really take the fate of the nation’s homeland dn fate in our own hands.
Only a nation that dared to take fate in own hands, will stand with the strong DAPT.
So, last night we had menadakan deliberations with leaders of the people of Indonesia Indonesia legendary eluruh. Deliberative ity seiiya one word opinion, that now comes the time to declare independence.
Brothers with this, we declare our unanimity embroidery iyu.Dengarlah proclamation.

PROCLAMATION
We the people of Indonesia hereby declare the independence of Indonesia.
The things about the transfer of power and others carried out by carefully and within shortest possible time.

Jakarta, August 17, 1945
Indonesia on behalf of the Nation
Soekarno-Hatta
Brief, only two sentences, not to 30 kata.Kata-simple words carefully chosen, neutral, unemotional, not incite, a notification that does not offend siapapun.Ditujukan to our own people and to all dunia.Bahwa, starting today, Indonesia merdeka.Pemindahan the takeover of power and not from anyone. Organized by regularly and not careful maksunya semerawutan.Dalam tempo shortest = brevity means that before any data or come back to destroy the independence kita.Disusul with words that also cover a brief and quiet, but clear.
So brothers and saudar. We have now been merdeka.Tidak merdeka.Kita now there’s one more ties that bind our land and our nation is currently preparing kita.Mulai State kita.Negara Merdeka.Negara Indonesia.Merdeka Republic, eternal, and immutable . God bless Insyaalah independence (derived from the set of Regulations-Regulations Invitation RI, 1989 Jakrta.penusun and publisher of the New Ichtiar PT-van Hoeve)
After That Latif Hendranigrat with Uniform Map hoist (up) the Red and white flags with honor (honor to). The Indonesian national anthem sing together without derigent spontanously (conductor0.
The simple ceremony without protocoler, Hundreds attended only by people, with ordinary Their shirts, without honor troops (Honouraly), without music corps, without a radio journalist and becaus ethat time without reception of Ramadan month (fasting, Feast) bodies every proud and many cries
. No Dai nippon Kempeitai attack, although the Bull Movement (Barisan bull) Had already exist to protect the command by Dr. Muwardi and Sudiro with Youngman militants included the Medicla Doctoral student in the command of Piet Mamahit and Suraryo whic send from Their headquaters (Headquarters) at Prapatan 10 street

Original info:

” Saudara-saudara sekalian.Saya telah ,inda saudara-saudar hadir disini untuk menyaksikan suatu peristiwa maha penting dalah sejarah kita.

Berpuluh-puluh tahun kita bangsa indonesia telah bejuang untuk kemerdekaan tanah air kita. Bahkan beratus-rqatus tahun !

Gelombang aksi kita untuk mencapai kemerdekaan kita itu ada naik dan turunnya,tetapi jiwa kita tetap menujuu ke arah cita-cita.

Juga didalm zanman Jepang , usaha kita untuk mencapai kemerdekaan nasional tidak berhenti-henti. di dalam zaman Jepang itu,tampaknya saja kita menyandarkan diri kepada mereka, tetapi pada hakekatnya tetap kita menyusun tenaga sendiri, tetap kita percaya kepada kekuatan sendiri.Sekarang tibalah saatnya kita benar-benar mengambil nasib bangsa dn nasib tanah air didalam tangan kita sendiri.

Hanya bangsa yang berani mengambil nasib dalam tangan sendiri, akan dapt berdiri dengan kuatnya.

Maka,kami tadi malam telah menadakan musyawarah dengan pemuka-pemuka rakyat Indonesia daris eluruh Indonesia .Permusyawaratan ity seiiya sekata berpendapat,bahwa sekaranglah datang saatnya untuk menyatakan kemerdekaan itu.

Saudara-saudara dengan ini,kami menyatakan kebulatan tekat iyu.Dengarlah proklamasi kami.

 

 

 

PROKLAMASI

Kami bangsa Indonesia dengan ini menyatakan kemerdekaan Indonesia.

Hal-hal yang mengenai pemindahan kekuasaan dan lain-lain diselenggarakan dengan cara seksama dan dalam tempo sesingkat-singkatnya.

Jakarta,17 Agustus 1945

Atan nama Bangsa Indonesia

Soekarno -Hatta

Singkat,hanya dua kalimat,tidak sampai 30 kata.Kata-kata sederhana dipilih dengan cermat,netral,tidak emosional,tidak menghasut,suatu pemberitahuan yang tidak menyinggung siapapun.Ditujukan kepada bangsa sendiri dan kepada seluruh dunia.Bahwa,mulai saat ini,Indonesia bangsa merdeka.Pemindahan kekuasaan dan bukan pengambilalihan kekuasaan dari siapapun. Diselenggarakan dengan cara seksama maksunya teratur dan bukan semerawutan.Dalam tempo yang sesingkat=singkatnya artinya sebelum siapapun data atau datang kembali untuk meniadakan kemerdekaan kita.Disusul dengan kata-kata penutup yang juga singkat dan tenang,tapi jelas.

Demikianlah saudara-saudar .Kita sekarang telah merdeka.Kita sekarang telah merdeka.Tidak ada satu ikatan lagi yang mengikat tanah air kita dan bangsa kita.Mulai saat ini kita menyusun Negara kita.Negara Merdeka.Negara Republik Indonesia.Merdeka,kekal,dan abadi. Insyaalah Tuhan memberkahi kemerdekaan itu(diturunkan dari himpunan Peraturan Perundangan-Undangan RI ,1989 Jakrta.penusun dan penerbit PT Ichtiar Baru-van Hoeve)

After that Latief Hendranigrat with Peta Uniform mengerek(up) the Red and white flag with penghormatan (honour to ) .The Indonesian national anthem sing spontanously together without derigent(conductor0

.

The ceremony simple without protocoler, dihadiri only by hundreds people,

with their ordinary shirt,without pasukan kehormatan(Honouraly ),

Why rthis photo was cutting?and the women with head cup disappeared who is she?

without music corps,without radio journalist and without reception becaus ethat time Ramadhan month(puasa,feast) every bodies proud and many cries.No Dai nippon Kempetai attack ,although the Banteng Movement(Barisan banteng) Had already exist to protect command by Dr Muwardi and Sudiro with youngman militan included the Medicla Doctor student  in the command of Piet Mamahit and Suraryo whic send from their headquaters(Markas) at Prapatan 10 street

Proklamasi: Sukarno pada mikrofon pada tanggal 17 Agustus, 1945.

Proclamation: Sukarno at the microphone on August 17, 1945

 

AFTER PROCLAMATION CEREMONY

After the proclamation of independence 17/8-1945, the youth Jakarta moves to spread the news of the proclamation. Not only the villages in Jakarta, but the various corners of the country. “Better dead than colonized again,” the expression of the people to maintain independence. The situation 63 years ago got hotter when NICA troops allied with the free ride back to Indonesia.
All villages in Jakarta was established fortifications of barbed wire and bamboo spears. So if there are soldiers who entered the village NICA then heard a voice of command: Siaaap. Because of that era is also called the ‘time ready’.

Considering the event has been going 63 years, and have rarely experienced it, let us remind you again how the atrocity NICA soldiers during the revolution. They opened fire on people who look suspicious. To that end, President Sukarno announced so people do not leave the house after eight o’clock. Records in the National Archives of just eight thousand people have been killed between September and December 1945.
Youths in the village of Kwitang aged 12 -18 years, participated as a student army even if it means carrying bamboo spears.
Many of them breathed her last the bullet NICA. At that time the mother-village kampong setting up soup kitchens for the fighters. Unknown in terms of corruption until they are willing to defend the homeland menymbangkan possessions they have.
Among the most feared fighters Dutch Betawi KH Nur Ali was from Bekasi. Until the Dutch courage to give a great gift for anyone who can catch it live or die. Betawi hero, Imam Syafi’ie collect the thugs Pasar Senen be a scary force the Netherlands. They operate in various neighborhoods in Jakarta

a) VINTAGE VERSION(ibid Hatta,1951)

The youngmen, Student, the Communication official and the writer”wartawan”  of Japanese Domei  announced the text of Indonesian Independence proclamations to all Indonesia.

b) Later Version (ibid Yusni,1984)

Among those present at that midnight meeting were also people from the Japanese news agency Domei in Jakarta. They succeeded in sending the news abroad that very same morning. The outside world was soon informed about this important event.

When they broadcast the news, the announcer’s booth was locked from the inside, to prevent the possibility of disturbance from the Japanese guard.

 

c)Samsi Jacobalis version(2000):

The Student ‘s attampt to sedn the new about proclamtion abroad trough Dai nippon Doemi radio not succeded. Suyono Martosewoyo which alway stayed at Dr Abdulrahman Saleh house , now that at that house there were the illegal radio broadcast  and with the permission of the owner that radio broadcast , Bung Karno and Bung Hatta were invited to Medical doctor Faculty Campus at Salemba street  for repeat the reading of Indonesian Independent Proclamatiomn  snf speaking(oration) through that illegal radio broadcasting, the instrument were bring to Physiology Laboratorium,where the attampt radio broadcasting had been trail by the student.Also exist Dr Abdulrachman Saleh,Mr Subarjo,Dr Buntaran,Mr Iwan Kusumasumatri,Wangsawijaya Bung hatta secretary,Suyono Martosewoyo .

Other Version

Many version have written, but all of the informations without   the factual documents ( that is way willn’t list in this infomation sheets , the factual documens and photos still needed, please comment-auth)

THE POSTAL HISTORY

During Indonesia Independence

Proclamation day

AUGUST,17th,1945

During Indonesian Independence day Dai Nippon still had power at Postal office ,given by the British allied Forces until they came to Indonesia,

To proved thi situation ,until this day Dr Iwan only have two postally history collections:’

 

 

 

Off cover Fai Nippon Sumatra definitive stamps CDS Padang  20,8,15*Augusy,17th.1945)

Money Order Frament  DEI stamp CDS Malang 17.8.5(August,17tgh.1945)

At the time of the Proclamation of Independence of Indonesia voiced, Sudirman was in Kroja

The Dutch article about Indonesian Independent in 2012

Source

http://www.sukarnoyears.com/421dutchleaders.htm

Indonesian independence (1945)


At the end of the Second World War, Sukarno’s Partai Nasional Indonesia (PNI) declares independence.

The Dutch government is initially unable to accept the loss of the colony. It launches military campaigns, which are condemned by the United Nations, supported by the US. Four years later, sovereignty is transferred to Indonesia.

The end of the Second World War brought a period of immediate decolonisation.

On 17 August 1945

Sukarno proclaimed the Republic of Indonesia. Sukarno was a civil engineer who had been active in politics from an early age. In 1927 he had set up a political party – the Partai Nasional Indonesia (PNI) –

to campaign for independence. Between 1929 and 1932 he was a political prisoner, and in 1933 he was again imprisoned by the Dutch authorities until finally liberated by the Japanese in 1942. During the occupation, he collaborated with the Japanese, who exploited nationalist feelings in the country for their own ends.

In the Netherlands

, there was a general expectation that the pre-war colonial status of Indonesia would be restored following the end of hostilities, despite the fact that Queen Wilhelmina had made a radio broadcast in 1942 promising to organise a post-war government conference to arrange Indonesian independence.

The Dutch underestimated the strength of Indonesian nationalist feeling and this was one of the factors which eventually prevented a gradual transition.

Another was the Dutch view that colonial rule should be restored before talks on independence could begin.

However, Britain (which had liberated Indonesia) was unwilling to cooperate in this aim unless the representatives of the Republic were consulted. This was tantamount to a recognition of the Republic of Indonesia.

In 1946, a conference was held in the Netherlands between representatives of the Republic and the Dutch government, but it proved impossible to reach agreement.

In the same year, the Dutch parliament approved the Linggadjati Agreement, which provided for the eventual establishment of a Dutch-Indonesian Union consisting of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and the United States of Indonesia, headed by the Dutch Queen. Public opinion in the Netherlands and virtually all the political parties in the country were fiercely opposed to Indonesian self-rule

Informasi tentang Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia  dan sejarah perang kemerdekaan inndonesia akan dilengkapi dari buku Detik Dan Peristiwa 17 agustus 1945 -17 agustus 1950  terbitan Kementerian Penerangan Rep Indonesia januari 1950 sumbangan klise foto dari Kraton dan Nasional Djogjakarta .

Pada halaman depan tertulis

Kepada Mr Sanoesi dan roeslan Abdoelgani  Menteri dan sekretaris jendra kementerian Penerangan Republik Indonesia yang sejak tanggal  21 januari 1950 telah meletakan Jabatannya untuk memangku jabatan baru di republic Indonesia serikat

(,koleksi dr Iwan ditemukan di Solo pada kunnungan terakhir awal November 2012)

Information about Indonesia Independence war of independence and the history of the book will be equipped inndonesia Seconds And Events August 17, 1945 -17 August 1950 issue of the Ministry of Information Rep. Indonesia January 1950 photogravure donation from the National Palace and Djokjakarta.
On the front page of the written
To Mr. and Ruslan Sanoesi Abdoelgani Jendra Minister and secretary ministry of Information of the Republic of Indonesia on 21 January 1950 had put His post to assume the new Indonesian republic union
(, collection of Dr. Iwan found in Solo on last kunnungan early November 2012)

Informasi akan diberi catatan kaki  KEMPEN 1950

 

Information will be footnoted
Kempen 1950

Dalam buku KEMPEN 1950 tentang proklamasi Berisi teks proklamasi dan bilustrasi Gedung bersejarah di pegangsaan timur (rumah Bung Karno saat itu) dimana proklamasi dibacakan.

17 agustus 1945

Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia oleh Ir Sukarno dan drs Moh Hatta atas nama Bangsa Indonesia, disaksikan Panitia kemerdekaan Indonesia, yang terdiri dari wakil-wakil dari seluruh Kepualauan Indonesia.

In 1950 on the proclamation Kempen book contains the text of the proclamation and bilustrasi Pegangsaan historic building in the east (the Bung Karno time) where the proclamation was read.
August 17, 1945
Proclamation of Indonesian Independence by Ir Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta drs on behalf of the Indonesian nation, Indonesia’s independence witnessed Committee, consisting of representatives from all over Indonesia Kepualauan

August,18th.1945

Presiden dan Alat-alat Negara ditetapkan. Panitia persiapan kemerdekaan Indonesia mengambil Keputusuan.

  1. Mengesahkan Undang_Undang Dasar Negrara Republik Indonesia
  2. Ir Sukarno dipilih sebagai Presiden dan drs Moh Hatta sebagai Wakil Presiden
  3. Pekerjaan Presiden untuk sementara waktu dibantu oleh sebuah “Komite Nasional”.

Maklumak Pemerintah Kepada Rakyat Indonesia tentang Penyelengaraan Negraya republic Indonesia Merdeka, dan menganjurkan rakyat tinggal tentram, tenag dan siap sedia dan memegang tegus disiplin.(kempen 1950)

August 18 Piagam Jakarta (Jakarta Charter) mentioning Islam among the Pancasila principles is dropped from the preamble to the new constitution.

August 18 New Republic consists of 8 provinces: Sumatra, Borneo, West Java, Central Java, East Java, Sulawesi, Maluku, and Sunda Kecil.

 

 

August, 18th.1945


President and Country Tools set. Indonesia Independence preparation Committee take Keputusuan.
a.Mengesahkan Undang_Undang Basic Negrara Republic of Indonesia
b.Ir elected President Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta drs as Vice President
c.Pekerjaan President for the time being helped by a “National Committee”.
Maklumak Government of Indonesia to the People of Free Indonesia Organizing Negraya republic, and encourage people to stay peaceful, tenag and poised and held tightly disciplined. (Kempen 1950)

August 18th.1945

PPKI moves to form an interim government with Sukarno as President and Hatta as Vice-President.August 18Piagam Jakarta (Jakarta Charter) mentioning Islam among the Pancasila principles is dropped from the preamble to the new constitution.

New Republic consists of 8 provinces: Sumatra, Borneo, West Java, Central Java, East Java, Sulawesi, Maluku, and Sunda Kecil.August 22Japanese announce their surrender publicly in Jakarta.Japanese forces disarm and disband Peta and Heiho. Many members of these groups have not yet heard of independence.

 

. The rare dai nippon Postal card, used with add Dai Nippon Java stamp  send from CDS Djatinegara  18.8.45 to Magelang

Ini koleksi kartupos milter jepang yang digunakan dengan prangko pendudukan jepang di  jawa dikirim dari

Djatinegara

ke magelang stempelpos 18 agustus 1945

.ternyata satu hari setelah proklamasi kemerdekaan kantor pos jatinegara masih dikuasai Dai Nippon

On August 18, 1945.

Japan dissolve Map and stripped of their weapons, then they are sent home to their respective homelands.

 

 

Pada  tanggal 18 Agustus 1945. Jepang membubarkan Peta dan senjata mereka dilucuti, selanjutnya mereka disuruh pulang ke kampung halaman masing-masing

Pagi, 18 Agustus 1945, Kota Rotterdam dikejutkan oleh berita Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia, di Radio Hilversum. Berita itu memberikan kekuatan sugestif bagi kesembuhannya

(sumitro)

. August 18th.1945

 

In addition, the leaders of Manchukuo from Pu Yi et al sensation new love of the Emperor of Manchukuo lost the backing of Japan has collapsed virtually abdicated on August 18 is also in order to 逃命 to Japan by Soviet troops had invaded the was taken into custody.

Selain itu, para pemimpin Manchukuo dari Pu Yi cinta et al sensasi baru dari Kaisar Manchukuo kehilangan dukungan dari Jepang telah runtuh hampir turun tahta pada 18 Agustus ini juga dalam rangka 逃命 ke Jepang oleh pasukan Soviet telah menyerbu ditahan .

 

Agustus,19th.1945

Ingkang Sinuwun Kanjeng Sultan Hamengku Buwono Senopati Ing Ngalaga Abdurrahman Sayidin Panatagama Kalifatullah ingkang kaping IX ing Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat,

pada kedudukannya dengan kepercayaan bahwa Sri Paduka Kanjeng Sultan akan mencurahkan segala pikiran,tenaga,jiwa dan raga untuk keselamatan daerah Yogyakarta sebagai bagian Republik Indonesia.

Jakarta 19 Agustus 1945
Jogja berdiri dibelakang Negara Indonesia,… bahkan ketika Belanda masuk lagi ke Indonesia… dan terpaksa Republik ini harus memindahkan Ibukotanya dari Jakarta ke Jogjakarta…. Sultan Hamengku Buwono IX tidak segan-segan membantu …!!! Segala gaji pemerintahan, penyiapan gedung untuk menjalankan roda pemerintahan… dikeluarkan dari ‘kocek pribadi’ Kanjeng Sultan …!!!

Peti-peti duit emas dan gulden… dikeluarkan oleh Kanjeng Sultan… dan Bung Hatta mengetahui sekitar 5 Juta Gulden telah dikeluarkan Kanjeng Sultan …. dan ia pernah menanyakan apakah perlu diganti… ???

Sampai akhir hayatnya…

Kanjeng Sultan HB IX…

tidak pernah menjawab… seolah mengerti betul akan “sepi ing pamrih rame ing gawe” …!!! Ntaaagh apa jadinya,… jika saat itu Kanjeng Sultan HB IX tidak fully support untuk Ibu Pertiwi ini …. ???

Ada kisah menarik tentang Kanjeng Sultan HB IX setelah pasca Indonesia merdeka… seorang wanita tua pedagang beras sudah biasa ‘nebeng’ jika ada kendaraan yang lewat …!!! Ketika asyik menunggu… kemudian ada Jeep Willys yang lewat… si wanita tua itu menyuruh sang supir… untuk menaikkan karung-karung berasnya… !!!

Setelah itu, wanita tua itu nebeng… dan sampai ditempat yang dituju… meminta lagi sang supir untuk menurunkan karung berasnya … !!!

Sang supir kembali menurunkan karung-karung beras permintaan wanita tua itu… !!! Kemudian setelah seluruh karung beras diturunkan… wanita tua itu memberikan duit Rp. 1,- namun supir itu menolak… dan langsung melanjutkan perjalanan …!!! Wanita tua itu

 

Sukarno addressed the youth of Jakarta on Ikada field (now part of Merdeka Square)

on 19 August 1945 to inform them on Indonesia’s proclamation of independence

Pada tanggal 19 Agustus 1945 anggota-anggota polisi di markas Tokubetsu Keisatsu Tai Semarang menurunkan bendera Hinomaru dan menggantinya dengan Sang Saka Merah Putih secara lancar dan tertib.

Panitia Kemerdekaan Menetapkan adanya  12 kementerian dan pembagian daerah Republik Indonesia dengan 8 Provinsi.(kempen 1950)

 

 

August,20th.1945

BKR (Badan Keamanan Rakyat “ dibentuk dengan kewajiban menjaga terjadinya Keamanan  dan Ketentraman Umum(kempen 1950)

After the announcement of the formation of BKR, Soedirman trying to gather them back and gather strength People’s Security Agency (BKR). Together with Mr. Resident Banyumas. Iskaq Tjokroadisurjo and several other figures, Soedirman a coup d’etat from the hands of Japan peacefully. Japanese Army Battalion Commander Major Yuda pretty much handed weapons. Therefore BKR Banyumas an entity that has a complete weapon

Setelah pengumuman pembentukan BKR, Soedirman berusaha mengumpulkan mereka kembali dan menghimpun kekuatan Badan Keamanan Rakyat (BKR). Bersama Residen Banyumas Mr. Iskaq Tjokroadisurjo dan beberapa tokoh lainnya, Soedirman melakukan perebutan kekuasaan dari tangan Jepang secara damai. Komandan Batalyon Tentara Jepang Mayor Yuda menyerahkan senjata cukup banyak. Karena itu BKR Banyumas merupakan kesatuan yang memiliki senjata terlengkap

The postally used Dai Nippon Shiokuio Haikyu Humiai private  card send from

CDS Semarang 20.8.05  to Bajoeran with dai Nippon Java stamp.Dai Nippon still had power at Semarang Post office

(during dai Nippon occupation,all Dai Nippon office must paid postal cost if send letter,except the military post and the postal office,different with Dutch and NRI free _Bebas Bea _Free Post)

 

The letter about Coconut Oil distribution.special for the “pegawai negeri”Civil employee. Price f 0,04 per liter from Syokoku Haikyu Kumia(dai Nippon basic need office like now BULOG- national logistic organization)

Note in the letter: attation! When You came please bring this Postcard

 

 

August ,20th.1945

CDS Solok 2o-.8.18(18 august 1945) added Dai Nippon Sumatra definitive stamps 4 cent,the rateup from 31;2 cen to 7 ½ cent

with Dai Nippon Censor no1 ,the Dai Nippon Ybuin kyoku  office Bukittinggi

 

 

August,20th.1945

Fragment Dai Nippon Podtcrad 3 ½ cent send from Bukittinggi to ?(unread address)

with bukittinggi Dai Nippon  postal sencored no 1,

and added port had paid(ryokin kanno)  to upgrade the rate to 7 ½ cent

 

 

 

The rare money order fragment

send to Serang Banten Java

CDS SERANG  hand written date 20.8.05 ,and  the date on the  money order 05, this the history fact that Srang Post Office under republic Indonesia power because they didn’ot used dai Nippon character postal cancel

August,21th.1945

Beberapa hari setelah peristiwa pengibaran bendera  di semarang tanggal 19 agustus 1945 , para anggota markas kepolisian Surabaya mengadakan pertemuan yang dipimpin oleh IP.1 M. Jassin dan PIK.1 Soetardjo yang menghasilkan keputusan bahwa para anggota kepolisian bersedia untuk mempertahankan kemerdekaan Indonesia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AUGUST,21th,1945

Lintasan Kelahiran POLRI di Sumatera Barat

Birth trajectory Police in West Sumatra

Police were three friends who like to survive in the city of Padang facing the Allies / Dutch struggle for independence period of 1945-1946. Police Commissioner Johny Anwar, Inspector Pol. Amir Mahmud, Pemb. Inspector Pol. Boer Tamar (Photo: Collection / documentation Adrin Kahar)

August 17, 1945, from Jakarta Indonesia echoed the Declaration of Independence by Soekarno-Hatta on behalf of the people of Indonesia. People in West Sumatra is officially not yet able to receive clear information about independent, even though that time Indonesia has the atmosphere of “Dawn of Independence” as it has announced the establishment Investigation Agency Efforts Preparation of Independence (Dokuritsu Zyumbi Chosa Kai) in Jakarta (May 28, 1945 ). The atmosphere at that time still showed the Japanese military government rule, the prisoners of war are released. Units Gyu-gun and Heiho (paramilitary troops and the People’s Voluntary Army Japan) consisting of the sons of Indonesia has been disbanded and the weapons collected by the Japanese. The offices of civil administration and police continue running as usual but the leadership held by the Japanese have been uncertain.

In the town of Padang and surrounding areas in those days there were several police units, such as: West Sumatra Police Residency (Nishi Kaiganshu Keimubu), City Police Padang (Padang Si Keisatususho), Outer City Police Padang (Padang Si-gai Keisat susho) and Forces A Special Police (Tokubetsu Keisat sutai). Padang City Police Office is located in the center of town (now: Police face portion of Padang, Jl. Moh. Yamin). Padang Outer City Police Office on Jl. Teak (now: Police Police Hospital complex Sumatra) and Tokubetsu-tai-based complex in Belantung Catholic Seminary (now: Jos Soedarso complex, Jl. Sudirman).

All police units are under the leadership of the Japanese people, except the Outer City Police Padang Indonesia have led people (Keishi Kaharuddin Dt. Rangkayo tongue).

On August 21, 1945,

four police officers at the rank of Keishi (Police Commissioner) in West Sumatra, called by Keimubucho (Chief Constable of West Sumatra) and was told that the Greater East Asia War was stopped. Prompted by the Japanese police chief so that all the police weapons were collected. Demand-cho Keimubu it can not be accepted by police officers, instead they demand that the Japanese side immediately hand over the leadership offices to the Indonesian Police. Four Indonesian police officers are: Raden Soelaiman, Ahmadin Dt. Berbangso, Kaharuddin Dt. Rangkayo tongue and Soelaiman Effendi.                                                                                                                                                    on 21 August 1945

It may be noted, that before the flag-raising event in the middle of the city of Padang, has been first hoisted at the headquarters of the Red White BPPI (Balai Pemuda Indonesia Illumination) jl. Mudik market on 21 August 1945

The certificate of the children iisued by dai Nippon Surakarta kooti jimmu kyoku(bagian pencatatan Jiwa)

 

August 22 Japanese announce their surrender publicly in Jakarta.

Japanese forces disarm and disband Peta and Heiho. Many members of these groups have not yet heard of independence.

August,22th.1945

National Committee Formed
A popular movement was founded to serve his revolution, called PNI (Indonesian National Party) –
(Kempen 1950
)

originalinfo

Komite Nasional Dibentuk

Suatu gerakan rakyat didirikan untuk dijadikan motornya revolusi,dinamakan P.N.I (Partai Nasional Indonesia) –

(Kempen 1950)

August,23th.1945

The People’s Safety Agency (BKR), which was formed on August 23, 1945 set up his headquarters in Jalan Cilacap No. 5 for the residency of Jakarta, four days after its formation. Moefreini Moe’min, a former battalion syodancho of Jakarta I was appointed as chairman. A number of officers engaged in it is Singgih, Daan Yahya Kemal Idris, Daan Mogot, Islam Salim, Jopie Bolang, Oetardjo, Sadikin (Cikampek Regiment), Darsono (Cikampek Regiment), and others.

Badan Keselamatan Rakyat (BKR), yang dibentuk pada 23 Agustus 1945 mendirikan markasnya di Jalan Cilacap No 5 untuk Karesidenan Jakarta, empat hari setelah pembentukannya. Moefreini Moe’min, sebuah batalion syodancho mantan Jakarta saya ditunjuk sebagai ketua. Sejumlah petugas yang terlibat di dalamnya adalah Singgih, Daan Yahya Kemal Idris, Daan Mogot, Islam Salim, Jopie Bolang, Oetardjo, Sadikin (Resimen Cikampek), Darsono (Resimen Cikampek), dan lain-lain.

Tjideng Camp Gate, 1945

This picture appears on the front cover of the book, Tjideng Reunion. It shows the Tjideng camp gate shortly

after the war was declared over ( August 23, 1945)

when the first curious visitors from Batavia came to see what lay behind the mysterious Bamboo wall from where so many dead emerged.

The author and his mother may well be among the crowd of curious internees looking out onto the much changed outside world.

Source

http://www.boudewynvanoort.com/tag/indonesia/

August,23th.1945

Sertifikat miskin dan tidak bekerja diterbitkan

Kantor Kelurahan Grogol pemerintah Dai Nippon(Grogol suntyo)

The rare  Dai Nippon Grogolsuntyo (lurah grogol Jakarta era dai nippon ) ‘s Poor certificate and did not had worked(workless)

 

August 23 .1945 .

BKR (Badan Keamanan Rakyat), first Indonesian military force, begins organizing from former Peta and Heiho members.

Dutch forces land at Sabang in Aceh.

On August 24, 1945,


between the UK government and the Kingdom of the Netherlands reached an agreement known as the Civil Affairs Agreement.

Under the agreement stated that the commander of the British occupation forces in Indonesia will hold the power on behalf of the Dutch government.

 

 

Pada tanggal 24 Agustus 1945,

 

antara pemerintah Kerajaan Inggris dan Kerajaan Belanda tercapai suatu persetujuan yang terkenal dengan nama civil Affairs Agreement.

 

Dalam persetujuan ini disebutkan bahwa panglima tentara pendudukan Inggris di Indonesia akan memegang kekuasaan atas nama pemerintah Belanda.

 

 

In carrying out matters pertaining to civil government, its implementation was organized by NICA is under the command of English.

The authority later in life will be returned to the Netherlands.

Britain and the Netherlands to build a plan to enter various strategic cities in the newly independent Indonesia.

One of the UK cities that will be visited by “smuggling” Dutch NICA is Medan.

 

Dalam melaksanakan hal-hal yang berkenaan dengan pemerintah sipil, pelaksanaannya diselenggarakan oleh NICA dibawah tanggungjawab komando Inggris.

 

Kekuasaan itu kelak di kemudian hari akan dikembalikan kepada Belanda.

 

Inggris dan Belanda membangun rencana untuk memasuki berbagai kota strategis di Indonesia yang baru saja merdeka.

 

Salah satu kota yang akan didatangi Inggris dengan “menyelundupkan” NICA Belanda adalah Medan.

 

On August 24, 1945,


between the United Kingdom and the Netherlands reached an agreement known as the Civil Affairs Agreement.

Under the agreement stated that the captain of the British occupation of Indonesia shall hold the power on behalf of the Dutch government.

In carrying out the things pertaining to the civilian government, organized by the NICA implementation under British command responsibility.Power later in life will be returned to the Netherlands.Britain and the Netherlands to build a plan to enter various strategic town in the newly independent Indonesia.One of the cities that will be visited Britain with “smuggling” is a Medan Dutch NICA

August,24th.1945

on August 21, four Keishi (the police commissioner at the Residency) in Padang, namely Datuk Ahmadin Berbangso, Datuk Kaharudin Rangkayo Bases, R. Suleiman, and Suleiman Effendi after hearing the proclamation has been echoed immediately ordered his men to take up arms in order not to be abused by the Japanese.
Meanwhile, police in the capital Jakarta in the later states joined officially to the republic

original info

pada tanggal 21 Agustus empat keishi (komisaris polisi di tingkat Karesidenan) di Padang, yaitu Ahmadin Datuk Berbangso, Kaharudin Datuk Rangkayo Basa, R. Suleiman, dan Sulaiman Effendi setelah mendengar kabar proklamasi telah dikumandangkan langsung memerintahkan anak buahnya untuk mengambil senjata agar tidak disalahgunakan oleh pihak Jepang.

Sedangkan Polisi di ibukota Jakarta lebih belakangan dalam menyatakan bergabung secara resmi kepada republic

The Dai Nippon revenue 15 cent  at Grabag on complete received Money (kwitansi)document for paying Tobacco 933 kg f 1866

 

 

 

August,27th.1945

Only weapons with bamboo spears capitalize the people of Indonesia in Jakarta ready to sacrifice lives to defend the newly proclaimed independence of Bung Karno and Bung Hatta.

In the picture looks troops BKR (Rows of People’s Security) with bamboo spears on the shoulders of the middle line which is specifically formed on August 27, 1945 in order to face the troops NICA (Netherlands) who came to colonize Indonesia hitchhike back to the Allies (Britain).

Original info

Senjata hanya dengan bambu runcing memanfaatkan rakyat Indonesia di Jakarta siap mengorbankan nyawa untuk mempertahankan kemerdekaan yang baru diproklamirkan Bung Karno dan Bung Hatta.

 


Dalam gambar tampak pasukan BKR (Barisan Keamanan Rakyat) dengan bambu runcing di pundak garis tengah yang secara khusus dibentuk pada tanggal 27 Agustus 1945 di untuk menghadapi pasukan NICA (Netherlands) yang datang untuk menjajah Indonesia membonceng kembali ke sekutu (Inggris).

 

on 23-8-1945

The NRI flag –rising in the Outer City Police Station Jalan Jati Padang on 23-8-1945

 

 

 

August ,23th.1945

 

Sukarno delivers first radio address to the nation.August 23BKR (Badan Keamanan Rakyat), first Indonesian military force, begins organizing from former Peta and Heiho members. Some former Peta batallions join as entire units, having been told to disband only a few days before.Dutch forces land at Sabang in Aceh.

Original info

pada 23-8-1945


Bendera NRI dinaikan  di kantor Polisi Padang luar kota Kota Polisi  Jalan Jati Padang pada 23-8-1945(sekarang ruamh sakit bhayangkara Polda Sumbar Padang)

Agustus, 23th.1945

Sukarno gave the first radio address to the 23 BKR nation.August (People’s Security Agency), the first Indonesian military forces, ranging from former Peta and set Heiho members. Several battalions of soldiers joined former map as a whole unit, have been told to disperse only a few days before.Dutch ground troops in Sabang in Aceh.

Originalinfo
Sukarno memberikan pidato radio pertama ke 23
BKR nation.August (Badan Keamanan Rakyat), pertama kekuatan militer Indonesia, mulai dari mengatur Tentara Peta mantan dan anggota Heiho. Beberapa batalyon Tentara Peta mantan bergabung sebagai unit keseluruhan, telah diberitahu untuk membubarkan hanya beberapa hari before.Dutch tanah pasukan di Sabang di Aceh.

 

But on August 23, 1945
changes the Internment 4th & 9th Battalion Tjimahi in a refugee camp. Japan surrendered on August 15, told the internees. From one day to the Japanese guards no longer, but Allied troops, the RAPWI, and Red Cross people.
They have food and clothing for themselves, and messages about loved ones elsewhere in the world. The drawing in a kind of ink or watercolor, is undated, describes the meager food supply of the camp.
But everything breathes the atmosphere of ‘shortly thereafter': Hotel Tjimahi as it no longer has since 23 August 1945.

Tapi pada 23 Agustus 1945
perubahan Internment 4th & 9 Batalyon Tjimahi di sebuah kamp pengungsi. Jepang menyerah pada 15 Agustus, mengatakan kepada interniran. Dari satu hari ke penjaga Jepang tidak lagi, tetapi pasukan Sekutu, RAPWI, dan orang-orang Palang Merah.
Mereka memiliki makanan dan pakaian untuk diri mereka sendiri, dan pesan tentang orang yang dicintai di tempat lain di dunia. Gambar dalam semacam tinta atau cat air, yang bertanggal, menggambarkan suplai makanan sedikit dari kamp.
Tapi semuanya bernafas suasana ‘lama kemudian': Tjimahi Hotel karena tidak lagi memiliki sejak 23 Agustus 1945.

Original info
Maar op 23 augustus 1945

verandert het Interneringskamp 4de & 9de Bataljon Tjimahi in een opvangkamp. Japan is op 15 augustus gecapituleerd, horen de geïnterneerden. Van de ene dag op de andere geen Japanse bewakers meer, maar Geallieerde militairen, de RAPWI, en Rode Kruis mensen.

Ze hebben voedsel bij zich en kleding, en berichten over dierbaren elders in de wereldoorlog. De tekening in een soort inkt of waterverf, is ongedateerd, beschrijft de karige voedselvoorziening van het kamp.

Maar alles ademt de sfeer uit van ‘vlak daarna': Hotel Tjimahi zoals het niet meer is sinds 23e augustus 1945.

 

Or P. Meulenbroek have been back in Hotel Tjimahi mentions are not history. But he remains for some time in Bandung.
The RAPWI gave him in December 1945


permission to travel “given his role in the Borromeo hospital in Bandung”.
There he is right after the Japanese capitulation appointed as Head of the Kitchen. He is also the chef of Bandung Society and militia-cook-corporal in the Royal Navy, quite a lot of work for someone who three years camp behind him. (P.Molenbroek)

 

Atau P. Meulenbroek telah kembali di Hotel Tjimahi menyebutkan tidak sejarah. Tapi dia tetap untuk beberapa waktu di Bandung.

 

RAPWI memberinya pada bulan Desember 1945

 

permission to travel “given his role in the Borromeo hospital in Bandung”.
There he was right after the Japanese capitulation was appointed as head of the kitchen. She also cooks Bandung Society and militia-cook corporal in the Royal Navy, quite a lot of work for someone who is three years in the camp behind him. (P.Molen


izin untuk bepergian “diberikan perannya di rumah sakit Borromeo di Bandung”.
Ada dia benar setelah kapitulasi Jepang ditunjuk sebagai Kepala dapur. Dia juga koki
Masyarakat Bandung  dan kopral milisi-masak di Royal Navy, cukup banyak pekerjaan untuk seseorang yang tiga tahun dalam kamp di belakangnya. (P.Molenbroek)

 

 

Original info


Of P. Meulenbroek nog terug geweest is in Hotel Tjimahi, vermeldt zijn geschiedenis niet. Wel blijft hij nog een tijd in Bandoeng.

De RAPWI verleent hem in december 1945

toestemming te reizen “gezien zijn functie in het Borromeus hospitaal in Bandoeng”.

Daar is hij direct na de Japanse capitulatie aangesteld als Hoofd van de Keuken. Hij is ook chefkok van de Bandoengse Sociëteit en militie-korporaal-kok bij de Koninklijke Marine, nogal veel werk voor iemand die drie jaar kamp achter de rug heeft. (P.Molenbroek)

 

 

August,27th.1945

 

Sementara di tempat lain pada tanggal 27 Agustus 1945

 

rakyat Medan baru mendengar berita proklamasi yang dibawa oleh Mr. Teuku Moh Hassan sebagai Gubernur Sumatera.

 

Mengggapi berita proklamasi para pemuda dibawah pimpinan Achmad Tahir membentuk barisan Pemuda Indonesia.

 

Meanwhile, elsewhere on the August 27, 1945

 

people heard the proclamation of a new field brought by Mr. Teuku Mohammad Hassan as Governor of Sumatra. Mengggapi news of the proclamation of the youth under the leadership of Ahmad was born into line Indonesian Youth.

 

Other version

 

Medan Map in 1945

 

Independence News just got in Medan on August 27, 1945.

This is due to the difficulty of communication and the censorship of the Japanese army.

The news brought by Mr. Teuku M. Hassan who was appointed Governor of Sumatra.

He was commissioned by the government to uphold the sovereignty of the Republic of Indonesia in Sumatra Indonesia by establishing a National Committee in the region.

 

Original info

 

Berita Proklamasi Kemerdekaan baru sampai di Medan pada tanggal 27 Agustus 1945.

 

Hal ini disebabkan sulitnya komunikasi dan adanya sensor dari tentara Jepang.

 

Berita tersebut dibawa oleh Mr. Teuku M. Hassan yang diangkat menjadi Gubernur Sumatra.

 

Ia ditugaskan oleh pemerintah untuk menegakkan kedaulatan Republik Indonesia di Sumatera dengan membentuk Komite Nasional Indonesia di wilayah itu.

 

 

 

On August 28, 1945 night,

held more talks between the Indonesian side (Ahmadin, Kaharuddin and Soelaiman Effendi) with the Japanese (Keimubu / Police and Honbu / Government) in the way of the Rose (the former British Consulate building, next to the hotel Estuary now).

 

The conclusion that can be pointed out Japan that the Japanese would not surrender to government offices and the police to Indonesia without any provision granted by the Supreme Allied leaders in Singapore.

Before the meeting ended the Indonesian side also gave a statement: “Tomorrow we will fly the flag red and white, do not deter the Japanese side.”

 

Towards 22 o’clock hour,

three police officers were leaving the place of negotiation and the way Rose was escorted by Kenpeitai (Japanese Military Police).

Arriving at the intersection of five end Kampong Java, appear motherly (Police Inspector) Bachtaruddin of Tokubetsutai with some young leaders in Padang has been waiting to find out the results of negotiations with the Japanese.

On that night

Bachtaruddin given the task with the help of the youth mobilize the masses to be present to enliven the red and white flag raising will be done in the Office of Police on the morning of August 29, 1945.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Top of Form

Pada 28 Agustus 1945 malam,


mengadakan pembicaraan lebih lanjut antara pihak Indonesia (Ahmadin, Kaharuddin dan Soelaiman Effendi) dengan Jepang (Keimubu / Polisi dan Honbu / Pemerintahan) di jalan Mawar (gedung Konsulat mantan Inggris, sebelah Muara hotel sekarang).

Kesimpulan yang dapat menunjukkan Jepang bahwa Jepang tidak akan menyerah kepada kantor-kantor pemerintah dan polisi ke Indonesia tanpa ketentuan yang diberikan oleh para pemimpin Sekutu Agung di Singapura.
Sebelum pertemuan berakhir pihak Indonesia juga memberikan sebuah pernyataan: “Besok kita akan mengibarkan bendera merah putih, tidak menghalangi pihak Jepang.”

Menjelang jam 22 siang,
tiga perwira polisi meninggalkan tempat negosiasi dan cara Rose dikawal oleh Kenpeitai (Polisi Militer Jepang).
Sesampainya di persimpangan lima ujung Kampong Jawa, muncul keibuan (Inspektur Polisi) Bachtaruddin dari Tokubetsutai dengan beberapa pemimpin muda di Padang telah menunggu untuk mengetahui hasil negosiasi dengan Jepang.

Pada malam itu
Bachtaruddin diberi tugas dengan bantuan pemuda memobilisasi massa untuk hadir meramaikan pengibaran bendera merah putih akan dilakukan di Kantor Polisi pada pagi hari 29 Agustus 1945.

 

 

On August 28

 

Thereafter, the advance troops of the U.S. Army arrived at the airfield Atsugi as the first of occupation forces in Japan by the Allied Powers, on August 30 after the General Headquarters of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (GHQ / SCAP also arrived at the same base of the United States Army General Douglas MacArthur will be hitting the commander of the occupation of Japan by the Allies as commander of the total), also arrived, such as military occupation forces in Japan and Australia followed the British Army.

 


Pada 28 Agustus

 

Setelah itu, pasukan muka dari Angkatan Darat AS tiba di lapangan terbang Atsugi sebagai yang pertama dari pasukan pendudukan di Jepang oleh Sekutu, pada tanggal 30 Agustus setelah Markas Umum Panglima Tertinggi untuk Sekutu (GHQ / SCAP juga tiba di dasar yang sama dari angkatan Darat Amerika Serikat Jenderal Douglas MacArthur akan memukul komandan pendudukan Jepang oleh Sekutu sebagai komandan dari total), juga tiba, seperti pasukan pendudukan militer di Jepang dan Australia mengikuti angkatan Darat Inggris.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

August, 25th 1945

 

The night of 29-8-1945,

starting at 19:00 there was a meeting of senior police officers held at the Office of Police Padang Besar.  Tonight it was agreed that national police structure and personnel of West Sumatra as follows:
1. Raden Soelaiman, as Chief Constable of West Sumatra, Padang and concurrently Chief of Police
2. Ahmadin Dt. Berbangso, as Deputy Chief Constable of West Sumatra;
3. Soelaiman Effendi, as the Head of Administration and concurrently Head of Strategy / Politics at the Office of Police of West Sumatra;
4. Kaharuddin Dt. Rangkayo tongues, as the inter-Area Police Officer Consolidation in West Sumatra.

 


To increase the cadre of middle-power in West Sumatra Police, recruited several youths graduate high school.
Police armed cadres of the first of Padang, which are:

Johny Anwar,

Amir Mahmud,

Syamsul Bahri, Syawaluddin, Moh. Anhar.

 

Original info:

Lintasan Kelahiran POLRI di Sumatera Barat

Listen

Read phonetically

 

Dictionary

 

Tiga sekawan POLRI

yang betah bertahan dalam kota Padang menghadapi tentara Sekutu/Belanda, perjuangan kemerdekaan periode 1945-1946. Komisaris Polisi Johny Anwar, Inspektur Pol. Amir Mahmud, Pemb. Inspektur Pol. Boer Tamar                                     (Foto: Koleksi/dokumentasi Adrin Kahar)

17 Agustus 1945, dari Jakarta dikumandangkan Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia oleh Soekarno-Hatta atas nama rakyat Indonesia. Rakyat di Sumatera Barat secara resmi belum dapat menerima informasi yang jelas tentang merdeka, sungguhpun masa itu Indonesia telah dalam suasana “Fajar Kemerdekaan” seperti yang telah diumumkan berdirinya Badan Penyelidik Usaha-usaha Persiapan Kemerdekaan (Dokuritsu Zyumbi Chosa Kai) di Jakarta (28 Mei 1945).

Suasana pada waktu itu memperlihatkan masih berkuasanya pemerintahan militer Jepang, para tawanan perangnya sudah dilepaskan. Kesatuan-kesatuan Gyu-gun dan Heiho (Lasykar Rakyat dan Tentara Sukarela Jepang) yang terdiri dari putera-putera Indonesia telah dibubarkan dan senjata-senjata dihimpun oleh pihak Jepang. Kantor-kantor pemerintahan sipil dan polisi tetap berjalan sebagaimana biasa tapi unsur pimpinan yang dipegang oleh Jepang sudah tidak menentu.

Dalam kota Padang dan sekitarnya pada masa itu terdapat beberapa unit kepolisian, seperti: Kepolisian Keresidenan Sumatera Barat (Nishi Kaiganshu Keimubu), Kantor Polisi Kota Padang (Padang Si Keisatususho), Kantor Polisi Padang Luar Kota (Padang Si-gai Keisat susho) dan Pasukan Istimewa Polisi (Tokubetsu Keisat sutai).

Kantor Polisi Kota Padang berlokasi di pusat kota (sekarang: bahagian muka Polres Padang, Jl. Moh. Yamin). Kantor Polisi Padang Luar Kota di Jl. Jati (sekarang: kompleks Rumah Sakit POLRI Polda Sumbar) dan Tokubetsu-tai bermarkas di kompleks Seminari Katolik di Belantung (sekarang: kompleks Yos Soedarso, Jl. Sudirman).

Semua unit-unit kepolisian tersebut dibawah pimpinan orang-orang Jepang, kecuali Polisi Padang Luar Kota mempunyai pimpinan orang Indonesia (Keishi Kaharuddin Dt. Rangkayo Basa).

Pada tanggal 21 Agustus 1945,

empat orang perwira polisi yang berpangkat Keishi (Komisaris Polisi) di Sumatera Barat dipanggil oleh Keimubucho (Kepala Polisi Sumatera Barat) dan diberi tahu bahwa Perang Asia Timur Raya telah berhenti. Diminta oleh Kepala Polisi Jepang itu supaya semua senjata-senjata polisi dikumpulkan. Permintaan Keimubu-cho itu tidak dapat diterima oleh perwira-perwira polisi tersebut, malah mereka menuntut supaya pihak Jepang segera menyerahkan pimpinan kantor-kantor Polisi kepada orang Indonesia. Empat perwira polisi Indonesia itu adalah: Raden Soelaiman, Ahmadin Dt. Berbangso, Kaharuddin Dt. Rangkayo Basa dan Soelaiman Effendi.

Pada tanggal 28 Agustus 1945 malam,

diadakan lagi perundingan antara pihak Indonesia (Ahmadin, Kaharuddin dan Soelaiman Effendi) dengan pihak Jepang (Keimubu/Kepolisian dan Honbu/Pemerintahan) di jalan Mawar (gedung bekas Konsulat Inggris, di sebelah hotel Muara sekarang). Kesimpulan yang dapat dikemukakan Jepang, bahwa pihak Jepang tidak akan menyerahkan kantor-kantor pemerintahan dan kepolisian kepada pihak Indonesia tanpa ada ketentuan yang diberikan oleh Pimpinan Tertinggi Tentara Sekutu di Singapura. Sebelum pertemuan diakhiri pihak Indonesia memberikan pernyataan pula: “Besok kami akan mengibarkan bendera merah putih, janganlah pihak Jepang menghalanginya”. Menjelang jam 22.00, tiga orang perwira polisi tersebut meninggalkan tempat berunding dan jalan Mawar dikawal oleh Kenpeitai (Polisi Tentara Jepang). Sesampai di persimpangan lima ujung Kampung Jawa, kelihatan Keibu (Inspektur Polisi) Bachtaruddin dari Tokubetsutai bersama beberapa orang pimpinan pemuda di Padang telah menunggu untuk mengetahui hasil perundingan dengan pihak Jepang.

 

Pada malam itu juga Bachtaruddin mendapat tugas dengan bantuan para pemuda-pemuda menge-rahkan massa rakyat untuk hadir meramaikan pengibaran bendera merah putih yang akan dilakukan di Kantor Besar Polisi pada esok pagi 29 Agustus 1945.

Kira-kira jam 07.00 pagi tanggal 29 Agustus 1945 di sepanjang jalan sebelah Utara lapangan Nanpo Hodo (sekarang: lapangan Imam Bonjol), dari samping kantor Pos, di muka kantor Polisi dan di muka kantor Syuchokan (sekarang: Balai Kota Padang) terlihat anggota masyarakat ramai, tua muda, pemuda-pemuda termasuk pelajar-pelajar berkelompok kelompok berkumpul ingin menyaksikan upacara pengibaran/penaikan bendera Merah Putih pada gedung-gedung pemerintah.

Dalam pada itu serdadu-serdadu Jepang bersenjata lengkap meng-adakan penjagaan-penjagaan di keliling keramaian rakyat, namun tidak ada terjadi insiden-insiden. Penggerekan bendera Merah Putih di muka Kantor Polisi Padang dilakukan oleh anggota Polisi sendiri, sedangkan penaikan bendera Merah Putih di gedung Syuchokan dilaksanakan oleh pemuda-pemuda dan yang di kantor Pos Padang bendera Merah Putih dinaikkan oleh pemuda PTT yang sebenarnya adalah juga pegawai pos, telegraf dan telepon di kota Padang. Dapat dicatat, bahwa sebelum terjadi peristiwa penaikan bendera Merah Putih di tengah kota Padang ini, telah lebih dahulu berkibar Merah Putih di markas BPPI (Balai Penerangan Pemuda Indonesia) jl. Pasar Mudik pada tanggal 21 Agustus 1945 dan di Kantor Polisi Padang Luar Kota Jalan Jati pada tanggal 23-8-1945.

Seselesainya upacara pengibaran bendera Merah Putih di muka Kantor Polisi Kota Padang, pada pagi 29-8-1945 itu juga peristiwa penting ini diberitakan dengan telepon kepada semua kantor Polisi Wilayah se Sumatera Barat, dijelaskan pula bahwa pimpinan kepolisian sudah berada di tangan orang Indonesia. Diinstruksikan kepada pejabat-pejabat polisi bangsa Indonesia yang tertinggi pangkatnya pada kantor Polisi Wilayah supaya mengambil alih pimpinan.

Malam tanggal 29-8-1945, dimulai jam 19.00 diadakan rapat para perwira senior polisi bertempat di Kantor Besar Polisi Kota Padang. Malam itu disepakati susunan dan personalia Polisi RI Sumatera Barat sebagai berikut:

  1. Raden Soelaiman, sebagai Kepala Polisi Sumatera Barat, merangkap Kepala Polisi Kota Padang
  2. Ahmadin Dt. Berbangso, sebagai Wakil Kepala Polisi Sumatera Barat;
  3. Soelaiman Effendi, sebagai Kepala Administrasi merangkap Kepala Siasat/Politik pada Kantor Besar Polisi Sumatera Barat;
  4. Kaharuddin Dt. Rangkayo Basa, sebagai Petugas Konsolidasi Kepolisian antar Wilayah di Sumatera Barat.

Untuk menambah tenaga kader menengah POLRI di Sumatera Barat, direkrut beberapa pemuda-pemuda tamatan sekolah menengah. Kader-kader POLRI angkatan pertama dari Padang ini, diantaranya adalah: Johny Anwar, Amir Mahmud, Syamsul Bahri, Syawaluddin, Moh. Anhar.

Dr iwan ever met KOMBES POL Johnny Anwar in 1963 during the winner of west sumatra lawn tennis Police open tournament at Padang,his daughter Windy anwar Dr iwan high school classmate at Don Bosco High School Padang.

August 29

The New Republic: The constitution that had been drafted by the PPKI preparatory committee, and announced on the 18th, is adopted (UUD 45). Sukarno is declared President, Hatta is declared Vice-President. PPKI (originally BPUPKI, founded under the Japanese occupation the previous March) is remade into KNIP (Central Indonesian National Committee). KNIP is the temporary governing body until elections can be held. The new government is installed on August 31.

The Patih (chief advisor) of Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX of Yogya dies, no successor chosen, Sultan takes charge of his own affairs, begins to institute reforms in Yogya

Tan Malaka reappears in Jakarta

August 29th.1945

The New Republic:The constitution that had been drafted by the PPKI preparatory committee, and announced on the 18th, is adopted (UUD 45). Sukarno is declared President, Hatta is declared Vice-President. PPKI (originally BPUPKI, founded under the Japanese occupation the previous March) is remade into KNIP (Central Indonesian National Committee). KNIP is the temporary governing body until elections can be held

Proklamasi: Sukarno at the microphone on August 17, 1945.The original constitution of 1945 is not very specific on many issues, and placed much power in the hands of the President.

In 1950 a more comprehensive constitution was adopted that gave the most power to the Assembly, but this constitution was dropped in favor of a return to the 1945 constitution under Sukarno’s orders in 1959.

In the opinion of the victorious Allied powers in 1945, Lord Mountbatten, the Allied supreme commander in southeast Asia, was in charge of Sumatra and Java. Australian forces were given responsibility for Kalimantan and

Agustus 29th.1945

The new Constitution of the Republic which has been prepared by the committee PPKI preparation, and announced on June 18, was adopted (Constitution 45). Declared President Sukarno, Hatta declared Vice-President. PPKI (originally BPUPKI, established under the Japanese occupation the previous March) is remade into KNIP (Central Indonesian National Committee). KNIP is a temporary body until elections can be held

 

 

 

Alpha

original info :


Konstitusi
 Republik yang baru yang telah disusun oleh panitia PPKI persiapan, dan mengumumkan pada tanggal 18, diadopsi (UUD 45). Sukarno dinyatakan Presiden, Hatta dinyatakan Wakil Presiden. PPKI (awalnya BPUPKI, didirikan di bawah pendudukan Jepang bulan Maret sebelumnya) adalah remade menjadi KNIP (Komite Nasional Indonesia Pusat). KNIP adalah badan sementara sampai pemilihan umum dapat diselenggarakan

.
The original constitution of 1945 is not very specific on many issues, and puts a lot of power in the hands of the President.

In the opinion of the victorious Allied powers in 1945, Lord Mountbatten, supreme Allied commander in Southeast Asia, is responsible for Sumatra and Java. Australian forces were given responsibility for the area east of Borneo and other Indonesian

Konstitusi asli 1945 adalah sangat tidak  spesifik pada banyak isu, dan menempatkan banyak kekuasaan di tangan Presiden.

original info

Menurut pendapat kekuatan Sekutu yang menang pada tahun 1945, Lord Mountbatten, Sekutu panglima tertinggi di Asia Tenggara, bertanggung jawab atas Sumatera dan Jawa. Pasukan Australia diberi tanggung jawab untuk Kalimantan dan area timur lainnya Indonesia

August,29th.1945

Theused Dai Nippon Postal  Choped Ryokin kanno(porto have paid) to increase the rate of postal stationer 31/2 cen to 7 cent. Sedn from CDS katakana dai Nippon Pa-Da-n(Padang) 20.8.29 or august,29th.45,

and the Dai Nippon official  Tiho hoin stamped change with English character  Account Office and dai Nippon character inside the chopped overprint by violet ink(the office were changed

Pengunaaan   stempel Pos Dai Nippon Ryokin Kanno (porto telah dibayar) untuk meningkatkan tingkat  biaya pos stasioner 31/2 menjadi sampai 7 persen cen.  dari CDS  ejanaan katakana Dai Nippon Pa-Da-n (Padang) 20.8.29 atau Agustus,, 29th.45 dan  stempel resmi kantor Dai Nippon Tiho Hoin  dirubah dengan bahasa Inggris  account office dan  huruf dai Nippon  dalam  lingkaran dalam stempel    ditutup  dengan tinta ungu (nama kantor diubah)

Provenance Dr Iwan 1985 found at Padang Panjang

At about 7:00 am on August 29, 1945

along the north field Nanpo Hodo (now: Imam Bonjol field), from the side post office, front office and front office Police Syuchokan (now: Padang City Hall) visible members of the public lively, young and old, youth groups, including groups of students gathered to watch the ceremony raising / raising the flag on government buildings.
In the meantime the Japanese soldiers armed to the teeth to hold a guard-guard at the crowd around people, but no incidents occurred.

Raids flag in front of Padang Police

conducted by members of the police themselves, while raising the flag on the building Syuchokan carried out by young men and a post office in Padang flag was raised by a young man who is actually also PTT postal workers, telegraph and telephone in the city of Padang.(the leader of PTT was Mr Mas Soedibjo)
After the  flag-raising ceremony in front of Padang City Police Office, on the morning of 29-8-1945 was also an important event is reported by telephone to all Police Regional Office of West Sumatra se, explained also that the leadership of the police was already in the hands of Indonesia.

 

Instructed the officials of the Indonesian police of the highest rank in the office of District Police to take over the leadership.


Pada sekitar 7:00 pagi tanggal 29 Agustus 1945
sepanjang lapangan utara Nanpo Hodo (sekarang: Imam Bonjol lapangan), dari kantor pos side, front office dan front office Polisi Syuchokan (sekarang:
balaikota Padang )

 

anggota terlihat dari hidup masyarakat, muda dan tua, kelompok pemuda, termasuk kelompok mahasiswa berkumpul untuk menyaksikan upacara menaikkan / mengibarkan bendera pada gedung-gedung pemerintah.

Sementara itu tentara Jepang bersenjata lengkap untuk mengadakan penjaga-penjaga di sekitar kerumunan orang, tapi tidak ada insiden terjadi.

 

Razia bendera di depan kantor Polisi Padang


dilakukan oleh anggota polisi sendiri, sementara mengibarkan bendera pada Syuchokan bangunan yang dilakukan oleh orang-orang muda dan sebuah kantor pos di Padang bendera dibesarkan oleh seorang pria muda yang sebenarnya juga PTT pos pekerja, telegraf dan telepon di kota Padang . (pemimpin PTT adalah Mas Mr Soedibjo)


Setelah upacara pengibaran bendera di depan Kantor Polisi Kota Padang, pada pagi hari 29-8-1945 juga merupakan peristiwa penting yang dilaporkan melalui telepon kepada seluruh Kantor Polda Sumatera Barat se, menjelaskan juga bahwa pimpinan polisi sudah berada di tangan Indonesia.

Menginstruksikan pejabat polisi Indonesia dari peringkat tertinggi di kantor Polres untuk mengambil alih kepemimpinan.

August,30th.1945

Daerah lainnya pada pada tanggal 30 Agustus 1945, pernyataan bergabung Polisi Indonesia  dengan NRI  dihasilkan setelah para pegawai polisi tersebut menyatakan bahwa mereka adalah pegawai Republik Indonesia dan tunduk kepada pimpinan nasional

The off cover,block four DEI 5 cent stamps used CDS Tegal 30.8.05(1945) dai Nippon still had power at Tegal Post Office

 

 

 

 

 

pada tanggal 30 Agustus

 

setelah Markas Umum Panglima Tertinggi untuk Sekutu (GHQ / SCAP juga tiba di dasar yang sama dari Angkatan Darat Amerika Serikat Jenderal Douglas MacArthur akan memukul komandan pendudukan Jepang oleh Sekutu sebagai komandan dari total), juga tiba, seperti pasukan pendudukan militer di Jepang dan Australia mengikuti Angkatan Darat Inggris

August,31th.1945

The new government installed in August 31.
The duke (advisor) of Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX of Yogya died.
His successor is selected, the Sultan took over responsibility for its own affairs, and began to institute reforms in Yogya
Tan Malaka reappears in Jakarta

Pemerintah baru dibentuk pada 31 Agustus.
The Patih (penasihat) dari Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX dari Yogya meninggal.
Penggantinya ada yang dipilih, Sultan mengambil alih tanggung jawab urusan sendiri, dan mulai lembaga reformasi di Yogya
Tan Malaka muncul kembali di Jakarta

BEFORE AND EARLIEST  ALLIED FORCES CAME IN SEPTEMBER 1945

Pada bulan September 1945 anggota- anggota teknik pesawat di Pangkalan Udara Andir Bandung mendapat berita, bahwa Lanud Cibeureum Tasikmalaya telah berhasil dikuasai oleh para pemuda dan rakyat Tasikmalaya.

Foto: Lanud Wiriadinata ,Cibeureum Tasikmalaya

 

Ini menjadi suatu kegembiraan dan kebanggan tersendiri bagi para insan dirgantara serta menimbulkan motivasi untuk segera memanfaatkan fasilitas yang ada. Berbekal kecintaan terhadap bendera negara yaitu merah-putih

(tasukmalaya web blog)

I hope after read this Informations they will bought the limited E-BOOK in CD-ROM

 

INDONESIA INDEPENDENT REVOLUTION AND WAR HISTORY COLLECTION INTRO

THE INDONESIAN INDEPENDENCE REVOLUTION AND WAR HISTORY COLLECTION

PART

INTRODUCTION

BY

DR IWANSUWANDY,MHA

LIMITED E-BOOK IN CD ROM EDITION

SPECIAL FOR SENIOR COLLECTORS ONLY

COPYRIGHT @DR IWAN 2014

INTRODUCTION

Saya adalah putra kelahiran kota Padang Sumatra Barat tahun 1945 bulan pebruari,beberapa bulan sebelum proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia.

Tidak terasa hapir 70 tahun yang lalu, dalam rangka memperinagati hari ulang tahun proklamasi Kemerdeaan Indonesia ke 70, saya tealah mempersiapkan sebuah  buku elektronik dalam CD Rom yang akan saya tampilkan pada agustus 2015 yang akan datang.

Saya mengumpulkan prangko sejak berumur 10 tahun tahun 1955, dan pada tahun 1957 saya banyak menemukan postal history Indonesia dari kantor-kantor pemerintah yang lokasi dekat rumah sata dari tempat sampah sedang dibakar.

Sungguh sangat beruntung koleksi tersebut tidak saya lepaskan dari sampul atau dokumennya,mulanya karena malas saja dan saat ini yang postally used on cover dan document sudah sangat langka.

Pada tahun 1980 saat saya mengunjungi kota Bandung, saya mampir di took prangko Go-Go shop di jalan Braga saat keluarga saya berbelanja di area tersebut.

Di Toko ini saya menemukan sebuah buku lelangan prangko dari Vic Esbensen Canada,dan saya diberi izin untuk memfoto kopinya,kemudia saya menghubungi Vic esbensen,dari dari dia saya diberikan buku katalogus  postal history proklamasi kemerdekaan Indonesia yang sampai saat ini masih ada pada saya,dan berdasarkan katalogus yang langka tersebut mulailah saya berburu koleksi.

Tahun 1982 saya sempat membeli suatu koleksi postal history dan juga dokumen milik

 Suwil St Bandaro,almarhum Bendahara kantor Pos Padang masa Revolusi dari Isteri dan anak-anaknya dengan menukarnya dengan sebuah rumah real estate di Tabing Padang.

Tahun 1985. P.R.Bulterman pemilik dan penerbit  katalogus belanda Indonesia,dan buku DEI Postmark kerumah saya di kota Padang,ia sangat terkejut melihat koleksi saya, dan membeli beberapa koleksi postal stationer pendudukan Jepang untuk bahan katalogus yang di buatnya,tetapi saya larang nama saya dicantumkan,karena saya sebagai Perwira Polri mersa perlu hat-hati karena dsaat tersebut dokumen sejarah Indonesia dilarang untuk disimpan.say hanya jual pendudukan jepang ssja.

Tahun 1986 saya menjual beberapa koleksi revolusi saya kepa Karel dengan syarat tidak dimual kelur negeri, tetapi ternyata kemudian dijual juga  liwat Tangera Auction TAM dan Belanda, untuk ko9leksi dokumen asli bekas milik Suwawil Dr Bandaro masih ada sampai sekarang.

Koleksi saya jual karena membutuhkan biaya

untuk membeli rumah di Kelapa Gading Jakarta

dan biaya sekolah saya, isteri dan kedua anak saya serta membeli mobil pada tahun 1989.

Pada tahun 1995 saat pameran filateli hari kemerdekaan Indonesia 1950 sebenarnya saya sudah mempersiapkan untuk memamerkan koleksi dan membuat pertunjukan tetapi oleh karena berbagai hal terpaksa di Tunda.

Setah pak Harto turun tahun 1998,koleksi filateli mengaklami kemunduran yang luar biasa, baru tahun 2008 koleksi filatemi terutama postal history jadi hebat lagi, selamay koleksi filateli sepi saya sempat membeli koleksi postal historu revolusi ke,erdekaan Indonesia dari pulau jawa,dan kemudian membuat buku elektronil dam CD-Rom yang saya upload tahun 1945 saja di web blog saya.

Saya hanya jual satu CD-ROM saja yaitu ke Pad Tono R.Putranto semarang, dan saya tidak mau jual kepada pedagang karena banyak ditemukan koleksi Asli tetapi palsu(fake) terutama dari kota Medan,mereka marah kepada saya karena pernah saya memberikan komentar di facebook.

Tahun 2014,ternyata Pak Tono dan dua orang lagi memperoleh medali Mas dari Philakorea 2014,termasuk koleksi revolusi milik pak Agus,yang memiliki 5 prangko militer Surakarta.

 

Bagi yang ingin memiliki CD-ROM ini,harap memnghubungi saya liwat emaikl

iwansuwandy@gmail.com

dan khusu bagi yang membeli CD-ROM edisi terbatas ini hanya 100 buah, nanti akan mendapat undangan gratis untuk menyaksikan pertunjukan yang saya laksanakan bulan agustu 2016.

Terima kasih atas segala bantuan yang saya rtelah terima khususnya almarhum Vic Esbensen,Ramkema,P>R>Bulterman,Pak Untung, Suwito, Harri siregar,Herry dan Pak Tono dan masih banyak lagi yang namanya tidak dapat saya tulis disini.

Jakarta Agustus 2014

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Senior Superintendant®

Kombespol Purnawirawan

 

 

English version

INTRODUCTION

I was born in the city of Padang in West Sumatra month of February 1945, several months before the proclamation of Indonesian independence.

Nothing feels hapir 70 years ago, in order memperinagati birthday proclamation Kemerdeaan Indonesia to 70, I tealah prepare an electronic book on CD Rom which I will show at the upcoming August 2015.

Collecting stamps since I was 10 years old in 1955, and in 1957 I found many Indonesian postal history of government offices that location near the sata from trash being burned.

It is very fortunate that collection I did not remove it from the cover or the document, initially just being lazy and this time the postally used on covers and a document has been extremely rare.

In 1980 when I visited the city of Bandung, I stopped at the shop stamp Go-Go shop at the Braga family when I was shopping in the area.

In this shop I found a book of stamps auction Vic Esbensen Canada, and I was given permission to photograph his coffee, later I contacted Vic esbensen, from of him I was given a book catalogs the proclamation of Indonesian independence postal history that is still available to me, and based on the catalog of the rare collections began my hunt.

In 1982 I had bought a collection of postal history and also documents belonging Suwil Dr. Bandaro, late Treasurer of the Revolution Padang Post office of his wife and children by exchanging with a home real estate in Tabing Padang.

1985 PRBulterman owner and publisher catalogs Dutch Indonesia, and book DEI PostMark my house in the city of Padang, he was surprised to see my collection, and bought some postal stationary collection for the Japanese occupation of the catalog material is in him, but I forbid my name listed , because I am a police officer need a hat Mersa careful because it documents the history of Indonesia dsaat forbidden to sell only disimpan.say ssja Japanese occupation.

In 1986, I sold some of my collection kepa Karel revolution on condition dimual kelur country, but it was later sold also through Tangera TAM Auction and Dutch, for ko9leksi original documents used to belong Suwawil Dr. Bandaro still there today.

Selling my collection because it cost money to buy a house in Kelapa Gading Jakarta and school fees both wife and my son and bought a car in 1989.

In 1995 when the Indonesian independence day philately exhibition in 1950 in fact I’ve been preparing to showcase a collection and make the show but because of various things forced on Pause.

Setah Pak Harto down in 1998, a collection of philatelic mengaklami tremendous setback, the new 2008 collection of postal history filatemi especially so powerful, quiet selamay philatelic collection I had bought a collection of postal historu revolution, erdekaan Indonesia on the island of Java, and then make a book elektronil dam CD-Rom which I uploaded in 1945 alone in my web blog.

I only sell one CD-ROM course is to Pad Tono R.Putranto Semarang, and I do not want to sell to traders because many found a collection of original but fake (fake) primarily from the city of Medan, they are angry with me because I never leave a comment on facebook .

In 2014, it turns out Mr. Tono and the other two medal Mas from Philakorea 2014, including the collection belongs pack revolution Agus, who has 5 military stamps Surakarta.

 

For those who want to have a CD-ROM, please memnghubungi me through emaikl

iwansuwandy@gmail.com

and khusu for those who buy the limited edition CD-ROM is only 100 pieces, later will receive a free invitation to watch the show that I carried out in agustu 2016.

 

Thank you for all the help I received, especially the late Vic  Esbensen, Ramkema, P. R. Bulterman, Mr. Untung, Suwito, Harri Siregar, Herrera and Mr. Tono and many more whose names I can not write here.

Jakarta in August 2014

Dr Iwan Suwandy, MHA

senior Superintendant®

Retired Kombespol

Note

For foreign collectors please aks helping from Indonesian collectors if you want to by the CD-Rom because difficult and high cost to send the CD abroad.

Taiwan History Collections

Republic Of China(Taiwan)

Prehistoric settlement

Main article: Prehistory of Taiwan
History of Taiwan is located in Taiwan

Zuozhen
Zuozhen
Changbin
Changbin
Eluanbi
Eluanbi
Dapenkeng
Dapenkeng
Magnify-clip.png

Taiwan, with early sites, and the 130 km-wide (81 mi) Taiwan Strait

In the Late Pleistocene, sea levels were about 140 m lower than in the present day, exposing the floor of the shallow Taiwan Strait as a land bridge that was crossed by mainland fauna.[4] The oldest evidence of human presence on Taiwan consists of three cranial fragments and a molar tooth found at Chouqu and Gangzilin, in Zuozhen District, Tainan. These are estimated to be between 20,000 and 30,000 years old.[1][5] The oldest artifacts are chipped-pebble tools of a Paleolithic culture found in four caves in Changbin, Taitung, dated 15,000 to 5,000 years ago, and similar to contemporary sites in Fujian. The same culture is found at sites at Eluanbi on the southern tip of Taiwan, persisting until 5,000 years ago.[2][6] At the beginning of the Holocene 10,000 years ago, sea levels rose, forming the Taiwan Strait and cutting off the island from the Asian mainland.[4]

Around 3,000 BC, the Neolithic Dapenkeng culture (named after a site in Taibei county) abruptly appeared and quickly spread around the coast of the island. Their sites are characterized by corded-ware pottery, polished stone adzes and slate points. The inhabitants cultivated rice and millet, but were also heavily reliant on marine shells and fish. Most scholars believe this culture is not derived from the Changbinian, but was brought across the Strait by the ancestors of today’s Taiwanese aborigines, speaking early Austronesian languages.[3][7] Some of these people later migrated from Taiwan to the islands of Southeast Asia and thence throughout the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Malayo-Polynesian languages are now spoken across a huge area from Madagascar to Hawaii, Easter Island and New Zealand, but form only one branch of the Austronesian family, the rest of whose branches are found only on Taiwan.[8][9][10][11]

The Dapenkeng culture was succeeded by a variety of cultures throughout the island, including the Tahu and Yingpu cultures. Iron appeared at the beginning of the current era in such cultures as the Niaosung Culture.[12] The earliest metal artifacts were trade goods, but by around 400 AD wrought iron was being produced locally using bloomeries, a technology possibly introduced from the Philippines.[13]

Early Chinese histories refer to visits to eastern islands that some historians identify with Taiwan. Troops of the Three Kingdoms state of Wu are recorded as visiting an island known as Yizhou (夷洲) in the 3rd century. The Book of Sui relates that Emperor Yang of the Sui dynasty sent three expeditions to a place called Liuqiu early in the 6th century. Later the name Liuqiu (Japanese: Ryukyu) referred to the island chain to the northeast of Taiwan, but some scholars believe it may have referred to Taiwan in the Sui period. Neither of these names has been definitively matched to the main island of Taiwan.[14]

Dutch and Spanish rule

Main articles: Dutch Formosa and Spanish Formosa

Taiwan in the 17th century, showing Dutch (magenta) and Spanish (green) possessions, and the Kingdom of Middag (orange)

Portuguese sailors, passing Taiwan in 1544, first jotted in a ship’s log the name of the island Ilha Formosa, meaning “Beautiful Island”. In 1582 the survivors of a Portuguese shipwreck spent ten weeks battling malaria and aborigines before returning to Macau on a raft.[15]

Dutch traders in search of an Asian base first arrived on the island in 1623 to use the island as a base for Dutch commerce with Japan and the coastal areas of China. The Dutch East India Company (VOC) built Fort Zeelandia on the coastal islet of Tayowan (off modern Tainan). The Spanish established a settlement at Santissima Trinidad, building Fort San Salvador on the northwest coast of Taiwan near Keelung in 1626 which they occupied until 1642 when they were driven out by a joint Dutch–Aborigine invasion force.[16][17] They also built a fort in Tamsui (1628) but had already abandoned it by 1638.

The Dutch built a second administrative castle on the main island of Taiwan in 1633 and set out to earnestly turn Taiwan into a Dutch colony.[8] The first order of business was to punish villages that had violently opposed the Dutch and unite the aborigines in allegiance with the VOC. The first punitive expedition was against the villages of Baccloan and Mattauw, north of Saccam near Tayowan. The Mattauw campaign had been easier than expected and the tribe submitted after having their village razed by fire. The campaign also served as a threat to other villages from Tirossen (modern Chiayi) to Lonkjiaow (Hengchun). The 1636 punitive attack on Lamay Island in response to the killing of the shipwrecked crews of the Beverwijck and the Golden Lion ended ten years later with the entire aboriginal population of 1100 removed from the island including 327 Lamayans killed in a cave, having been trapped there by the Dutch and suffocated in the fumes and smoke pumped into the cave by the Dutch and their allied aborigines from Saccam, Soulang and Pangsoya.[18] The men were forced into slavery in Batavia (Java) and the women and children became servants and wives for the Dutch officers. The events on Lamay changed the course of Dutch rule to work closer with allied aborigines, though there remained plans to depopulate the outlying islands.[19]

After ejecting the Spanish from Fort Santo Domingo in northern Taiwan in 1642, the Dutch erected Fort Anthonio on the site, which still stands (now part of the Fort Santo Domingo museum complex). They then sought to establish control of the western plains between the new possessions and their base at Tayouan. After a brief but destructive campaign in 1645, Pieter Boon was able to subdue the tribes in this area, including the Kingdom of Middag.[20][21]

The VOC administered the island and its predominantly aboriginal population until 1662, setting up a tax system, schools to teach romanized script of aboriginal languages and evangelizing.[22][18] Although its control was mainly limited to the western plain of the island, the Dutch systems were adopted by succeeding occupiers.[23] The first influx of migrants from coastal Fujian came during the Dutch period, in which merchants and traders from the mainland Chinese coast sought to purchase hunting licenses from the Dutch or hide out in aboriginal villages to escape the Qing authorities. Most of the immigrants were young single males who were discouraged from staying on the island often referred to by Han as “The Gate of Hell” for its reputation in taking the lives of sailors and explorers.[24]

Fort Zeelandia built in Tainan

The Dutch originally sought to use their castle Zeelandia at Tayowan as a trading base between Japan and China, but soon realized the potential of the huge deer populations that roamed in herds of thousands along the alluvial plains of Taiwan’s western regions.[25] Deer were in high demand by the Japanese who were willing to pay top dollar for use of the hides in samurai armor. Other parts of the deer were sold to Han traders for meat and medical use. The Dutch paid aborigines for the deer brought to them and tried to manage the deer stocks to keep up with demand. The Dutch also employed Han to farm sugarcane and rice for export, some of these rice and sugarcane products reached as far as the markets of Persia. Unfortunately the deer the aborigines had relied on for their livelihoods began to disappear forcing the aborigines to adopt new means of survival.

Kingdom of Tungning

Statue of Koxinga in Tainan

Main article: Kingdom of Tungning

Manchu forces broke through Shanhai Pass in 1644 and rapidly overwhelmed the Ming dynasty. In 1661, a naval fleet led by the Ming loyalist Koxinga, arrived in Taiwan to oust the Dutch from Zeelandia and establish a pro-Ming base in Taiwan.[26]

Koxinga was born to Zheng Zhilong, a Chinese merchant and pirate, and Tagawa Matsu, a Japanese woman, in 1624 in Hirado, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. He was raised there until seven and moved to Quanzhou, in the Fujian province of China. In a family made wealthy from shipping and piracy, Koxinga inherited his father’s trade networks, which stretched from Nagasaki to Macao. Following the Manchu advance on Fujian, Koxinga retreated from his stronghold in Amoy (Xiamen) and besieged Taiwan in the hope of establishing a strategic base to marshal his troops to retake his base at Amoy. In 1662, following a nine-month siege, Koxinga captured the Dutch fortress Zeelandia and Taiwan became his base (see Kingdom of Tungning).[27] Concurrently the last Ming pretender had been captured and killed by General Wu Sangui, extinguishing any hope Koxinga may have had of re-establishing the Ming Empire. He died four months thereafter in a fit of madness after learning of the cruel killings of his father and brother at the hands of the Manchus. Other accounts are more straightforward, attributing Koxinga’s death to a case of malaria.[28][29]

Qing dynasty rule

In 1683, following a naval engagement with Admiral Shi Lang, one of Koxinga’s father’s trusted friends, Koxinga’s grandson Zheng Keshuang surrendered to the Qing dynasty.

There has been much confusion about Taiwan’s association with the rumored “Island of Dogs,” “Island of Women,” etc., which were thought, by Han literati, to lie beyond the seas. Taiwan was officially regarded by the Kangxi Emperor as “a ball of mud beyond the pale of civilization” and did not appear on any map of the imperial domain until 1683.[30] The act of presenting a map to the emperor was equal to presenting the lands of the empire. It took several more years before the Qing court would recognize Taiwan as part of the Qing realm. Prior to the Qing dynasty, China was conceived as a land bound by mountains, rivers and seas. The idea of an island as a part of China was unfathomable to the Han prior to the Qing frontier expansion effort of the 17th Century.[31]

Despite the expense of the military and diplomatic campaign that brought Taiwan into the imperial realm, the general sentiment in Beijing was ambivalent. The point of the campaign had been to destroy the Zheng-family regime, not to conquer the island.[citation needed] The Kangxi Emperor expressed the sentiment that Taiwan was “the size of a pellet; taking it is no gain; not taking it is no loss” (彈丸之地。得之無所加,不得無所損). His ministers counseled that the island was “a ball of mud beyond the sea, adding nothing to the breadth of China” (海外泥丸,不足為中國加廣), and advocated removing all the Chinese to mainland China and abandoning the island. It was only the campaigning of admiral Shi Lang and other supporters that convinced the emperor not to abandon Taiwan.[unreliable source?][32] Koxinga’s followers were forced to depart from Taiwan to the more unpleasant parts of Qing controlled land.[citation needed] By 1682 there were only 7000 Chinese left on Taiwan as they had intermarried with aboriginal women and had property in Taiwan. The Koxinga reign had continued the tax systems of the Dutch, established schools and religious temples.

1896 map of Formosa, revised by Rev. William Campbell

From 1683, the Qing dynasty ruled Taiwan as a prefecture and in 1875 divided the island into two prefectures, north and south. In 1885, the island was made into a separate Chinese province.

The Qing authorities tried to limit immigration to Taiwan and barred families from traveling to Taiwan to ensure the immigrants would return to their families and ancestral graves. Illegal immigration continued, but many of the men had few prospects in war weary Fujian and thus married locally, resulting in the idiom “Tangshan (Chinese) grandfather no Tangshan grandmother” (有唐山公無唐山媽). The Qing tried to protect aboriginal land claims, but also sought to turn them into tax paying subjects. Chinese and tax paying aborigines were barred from entering the wilderness which covered most of the island for the fear of raising the ire of the non taxpaying, highland aborigines and inciting rebellion. A border was constructed along the western plain, built using pits and mounds of earth, called “earth cows”, to discourage illegal land reclamation.

From 1683 to around 1760, the Qing government limited immigration to Taiwan. Such restriction was relaxed following the 1760s and by 1811 there were more than two million Chinese immigrants on Taiwan. In 1875 the Taipei government (台北府) was established, under the jurisdiction of Fujian province. Also, there had been various conflicts between Chinese immigrants. Most conflicts were between Han from Fujian and Han from Guangdong, between people from different areas of Fujian, between Han and Hakka settlers, or simply between people of different surnames engaged in clan feuds. Because of the strong provincial loyalties held by these immigrants, the Qing government felt Taiwan was somewhat difficult to govern. Taiwan was also plagued by foreign invasions. In 1840 Keelung was invaded by the British in the Opium War, and in 1884 the French invaded as part of the Sino-French War. Because of these incursions, the Qing government began constructing a series of coastal defenses and on 12 October 1885 Taiwan was made a province, with Liu Mingchuan serving as the first governor. He divided Taiwan into eleven counties and tried to improve relations with the aborigines. He also developed a railway from Taipei to Hsinchu, established a mine in Keelung, and built an arsenal to improve Taiwan’s defensive capability against foreigners.

Following a shipwreck of a Ryūkyūan vessel on the southeastern tip of Taiwan in winter of 1871, in which the heads of 54 crew members were taken by the aboriginal Taiwanese Paiwan people in Mutan village (牡丹社), the Japanese sought to use this incident as a pretext to have the Qing formally acknowledge Japanese sovereignty over the Ryukyu islands as a Japanese prefecture[citation needed] and to test reactions to potential expansion into Taiwan. According to records from Japanese documents, Mao Changxi (毛昶熙) and Dong Xun (董恂), the Qing ministers at Zongli Yamen (總理衙門) who handled the complaints from Japanese envoy Yanagihara Sakimitsu (柳原前光) replied first that they had heard only of a massacre of Ryūkyūans, not of Japanese, and quickly noted that Ryūkyū was under Chinese suzerainty, therefore this issue was not Japan’s business. In addition, the governor-general of the Qing province Fujian had rescued the survivors of the massacre and returned them safely to Ryūkyū. The Qing authorities explained that there were two kinds of aborigines on Taiwan: those governed by the Qing, and those unnaturalized “raw barbarians … beyond the reach of Qing government and customs.” They indirectly hinted that foreigners traveling in those areas settled by indigenous people must exercise caution. After the Yanagihara-Yamen interview, the Japanese took their explanation to mean that the Qing government had not opposed Japan’s claims to sovereignty over the Ryūkyū Islands, disclaimed any jurisdiction over Aboriginal Taiwanese, and had indeed consented to Japan’s expedition to Taiwan.[33] The Qing dynasty made it clear to the Japanese that Taiwan was definitely within Qing jurisdiction, even though part of that island’s aboriginal population was not yet under the influence of Chinese culture. The Qing also pointed to similar cases all over the world where an aboriginal population within a national boundary was not completely subjugated by the dominant culture of that country.

The Japanese nevertheless launched an expedition to Mutan village with a force of 3600 soldiers in 1874. The number of casualties for the Paiwan was about 30, and that for the Japanese was 543; 12 Japanese soldiers were killed in battle and 531 by disease. Eventually, the Japanese withdrew just before the Qing dynasty sent 3 divisions of forces (9000 soldiers) to reinforce Taiwan. This incident caused the Qing to re-think the importance of Taiwan in their maritime defense strategy and greater importance was placed on gaining control over the wilderness regions.

On the eve of the Sino-Japanese War about 45 percent of the island was administered under direct Qing administration while the remaining was lightly populated by Aborigines.[34] In a population of around 2.5 million, about 2.3 million were Han Chinese and the remaining two hundred thousand were classified as members of various indigenous tribes.

As part of the settlement for losing the Sino-Japanese War, the Qing empire ceded the island of Taiwan and Penghu to Japan on 17 April 1895, according to the terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki. The loss of Taiwan would become a rallying point for the Chinese nationalist movement in the years that followed.[35]

Republic of Formosa

Main article: Republic of Formosa

Flag of the Republic of Formosa

When the news of the treaty’s contents reached Taiwan, a number of notables from central Taiwan led by Chiu Feng-chia (丘逢甲) decided to resist the transfer of Taiwan to Japanese rule. On 23 May, in Taipei, these men declared independence, proclaiming the establishment of a free and democratic Republic of Formosa. T’ang Ching-sung (唐景崧), the Qing governor-general of Taiwan, was prevailed upon to become the republic’s first President, and his old friend Liu Yung-fu (劉永福), the retired Black Flag Army commander who had become a national hero in China for his victories against the French in northern Vietnam a decade earlier, was invited to serve as Grand General of the Army. [[Qiu Fengjia |Chiu Feng-chia]] was appointed Grand Commander of Militia, with the power to raise local militia units throughout the island to resist the Japanese. On the Chinese mainland Chang Chih-tung (張之洞), the powerful governor-general of Liangkiang, tacitly supported the Formosan resistance movement, and the Republicans also appointed Ch’en Chi-t’ung (陳季同), a disgraced Chinese diplomat who understood European ways of thinking, as the Republic’s foreign minister. His job would be to sell the Republic abroad.[36] Thus the five month old republic ceased to exist.

Japanese rule

A 1912 map of Japan with Taiwan, which was part of the Empire of Japan from 1895 to 1945.

Japan had sought to claim sovereignty over Taiwan (known to them as Takasago Koku) since 1592, when Toyotomi Hideyoshi undertook a policy of overseas expansion and extending Japanese influence southward,[37] to the west, was invaded and an attempt to invade Taiwan and subsequent invasion attempts were to be unsuccessful due mainly to disease and attacks by aborigines on the island. In 1609, the Tokugawa shogunate sent Harunobu Arima on an exploratory mission of the island.[38] An attempted invasion in 1616, led by Murayama Tōan, failed when the fleet was dispersed by a typhoon and the only ship to reach the island was repelled.[39] In the Mudan Incident of 1871, an Okinawan ship was wrecked on the southern tip of Taiwan and 54 crewmen were beheaded by Paiwan aborigines. After the Qing government refused compensation stating that the aboriginals were not under its control, Japan launched a punitive expedition to the area in 1874, withdrawing after the Qing promised to pay an indemnity.[40][41][42][43]

It took until the defeat of the Chinese navy during the First Sino-Japanese War in 1894–95 for Japan to finally realize possession of Taiwan and the shifting of Asian dominance from China to Japan. The Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed on 17 April 1895, ceding Taiwan and Penghu to Japan, which would rule the island for 50 years until its defeat in World War II.

Soldiers of the 1874 expedition in Taiwan

After receiving sovereignty of Taiwan, the Japanese feared military resistance from both Taiwanese and Aborigines who followed the establishment by the local elite of the short-lived Republic of Formosa. Taiwan’s elite hoped that by declaring themselves a republic the world would not stand by and allow a sovereign state to be invaded by the Japanese, thereby allying with the Qing. The plan quickly turned to chaos as standard Green troops and ethnic Yue soldiers took to looting and pillage. Given the choice between chaos at the hands of Chinese or submission to the Japanese, the Taipei elite sent Koo Hsien-jung to Keelung to invite the advancing Japanese forces to proceed to Taipei and restore order.[44]

Map of the island in 1901, with the red line marking the approximate limit of Japanese control

Armed resistance was sporadic, yet at times fierce, but was largely crushed by 1902, although relatively minor rebellions occurred in subsequent years, including the Ta-pa-ni incident of 1915 in Tainan county.[45] Nonviolent means of resistance began to take place of armed rebellions and the most prominent organization was the Taiwanese Cultural Association (台灣文化協會), founded in 1921. Taiwanese resistance was caused by several different factors (e.g., the Taishō Democracy). Some were goaded by Chinese nationalism, while others contained nascent Taiwanese self-determination.[35] Rebellions were often caused by a combination of the effects of unequal colonial policies on local elites and extant millenarian beliefs of the local Taiwanese and plains Aborigines. Aboriginal resistance to the heavy-handed Japanese policies of acculturation and pacification lasted up until the early 1930s.[45] The last major Aboriginal rebellion, the Musha Uprising (Wushe Uprising) in late 1930 by the Atayal people angry over their treatment while laboring in the burdensome job of camphor extraction, launched the last headhunting party in which over 150 Japanese officials were killed and beheaded during the opening ceremonies of a school. The uprising, led by Mona Rudao, was crushed by 2,000-3,000 Japanese troops and Aboriginal auxiliaries with the help of poison gas.[46]

Japanese colonization of the island fell under three stages. It began with an oppressive period of crackdown and paternalistic rule, then a dōka (同化) period of aims to treat all people (races) alike proclaimed by Taiwanese Nationalists who were inspired by the Self-Determination of Nations (民族自決) proposed by Woodrow Wilson after World War I, and finally, during World War II, a period of kōminka (皇民化), a policy which aimed to turn Taiwanese into loyal subjects of the Japanese emperor.

Reaction to Japanese rule among the Taiwanese populace differed. Some felt that the safety of personal life and property was of utmost importance and went along with the Japanese colonial authorities. The second group of Taiwanese were eager to become imperial subjects, believing that such action would lead to equal status with Japanese nationals. The third group was influenced by Taiwan independence and tried to get rid of the Japanese colonials to establish a native Taiwanese rule. The fourth group on the other hand were influenced by Chinese nationalism and fought for the return of Taiwan to Chinese rule. From 1897 onwards the latter group staged many rebellions, the most famous one being led by Luo Fuxing (羅福星), who was arrested and executed along with two hundred of his comrades in 1913. Luo himself was a member of the Tongmenghui, an organization founded by Sun Yat-sen and was the precursor to the Kuomintang.[47]

Bank of Taiwan established in 1897 headquartered in Taihoku (Taipei).

Initial infrastructural development took place quickly. The Bank of Taiwan was established in 1899 to encourage Japanese private sectors, including Mitsubishi and the Mitsui Group, to invest in Taiwan. In 1900, the third Taiwan Governor-General passed a budget which initiated the building of Taiwan’s railroad system from Kirun (Keelung) to Takao (Kaohsiung). By 1905 the island had electric power supplied by water power in Sun-Moon Lake, and in subsequent years Taiwan was considered the second-most developed region of East Asia (after Japan). By 1905, Taiwan was financially self-sufficient and had been weaned off of subsidies from Japan’s central government.

Under the governor Shimpei Goto‘s rule, many major public works projects were completed. The Taiwan rail system connecting the south and the north and the modernizations of Kirun (Keelung) and Takao (Kaohsiung) ports were completed to facilitate transport and shipping of raw material and agricultural products.[48] Exports increased by fourfold. 55% of agricultural land was covered by dam-supported irrigation systems. Food production had increased fourfold and sugar cane production had increased 15-fold between 1895 to 1925 and Taiwan became a major foodbasket serving Japan’s industrial economy. The health care system was widely established and infectious diseases were almost completely eradicated. The average lifespan for a Taiwanese resident would become 60 years by 1945.[49]

Kagi Shrine, one of many Shinto shrines built in Taiwan.

In October 1935, the Governor-General of Taiwan held an “Exposition to Commemorate the 40th Anniversary of the Beginning of Administration in Taiwan,” which served as a showcase for the achievements of Taiwan’s modernization process under Japanese rule. This attracted worldwide attention, including the Republic of China’s KMT regime which sent the Japanese-educated Chen Yi to attend the affair. He expressed his admiration about the efficiency of Japanese government in developing Taiwan, and commented on how lucky the Taiwanese were to live under such effective administration. Somewhat ironically, Chen Yi would later become the ROC’s first Chief Executive of Taiwan, who would be infamous for the corruption that occurred under his watch.

The later period of Japanese rule saw a local elite educated and organized. During the 1930s several home rule groups were created at a time when others around the world sought to end colonialism. In 1935, the Taiwanese elected their first group of local legislators. By March 1945, the Japanese legislative branch hastily modified election laws to allow Taiwanese representation in the Japanese Diet.

The Takasago Volunteers were a unit of the Japanese Army recruited from Taiwanese aboriginal tribes.

As Japan embarked on full-scale war in China in 1937, it expanded Taiwan’s industrial capacity to manufacture war material. By 1939, industrial production had exceeded agricultural production in Taiwan. At the same time, the “kominka” imperialization project was put under way to instill the “Japanese Spirit” in Taiwanese residents, and ensure the Taiwanese would remain loyal subjects of the Japanese Emperor ready to make sacrifices during wartime. Measures including Japanese-language education, the option of adopting Japanese names, and the worship of Japanese religion were instituted. In 1943, 94% of the children received 6-year compulsory education. From 1937 to 1945, 126,750 Taiwanese joined and served in the military of the Japanese Empire, while a further 80,433 were conscripted between 1942 to 1945. Of the sum total, 30,304, or 15%, died in Japan’s war in Asia.

The Imperial Japanese Navy operated heavily out of Taiwan. The “South Strike Group” was based out of the Taihoku Imperial University (now National Taiwan University) in Taiwan. Many of the Japanese forces participating in the Aerial Battle of Taiwan-Okinawa were based in Taiwan. Important Japanese military bases and industrial centers throughout Taiwan, like Takao (now Kaohsiung), were targets of heavy American bombing.

In 1942, after the United States entered the war against Japan and on the side of China, the Chinese government under the KMT renounced all treaties signed with Japan before that date and made Taiwan’s return to China (as with Manchuria) one of the wartime objectives. In the Cairo Declaration of 1943, the Allied Powers declared the return of Taiwan (including the Pescadores) to the Republic of China as one of several Allied demands. In 1945, Japan unconditionally surrendered with signing of the instrument of surrender and ended its rule in Taiwan as the territory was put under the administrative control of the Republic of China government in 1945 by the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration.[50] Per the provisions in Article 2 of San Francisco Peace Treaty, the Japanese formally renounced the territorial sovereignty of Taiwan and Penghu islands, and the treaty was signed in 1951 and came into force in 1952. As of the moment when the San Francisco Peace Treaty came into force, the political status of Taiwan and Penghu Islands were still uncertain.[50] The Republic of China and Japan signed the Treaty of Taipei on April 28, 1952 and the treaty came into force on August 5.[51] Writing in the American Journal of International Law, professors Jonathan I. Charney and J. R. V. Prescott argued that “none of the post–World War II peace treaties explicitly ceded sovereignty over the covered territories to any specific state or government.”[52]

source wiki

in 1945

 

 

1948

 

Republic of China rule

UNDER MARTIAL LAW[EDIT]

Non-Kuomintang politician Wu San-lian (2L) celebrated his landslide victory (65.5%) in the first Taipei city mayoral election in January 1951.

Beside President Chiang Kai-shek, the U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower waved to crowds during his visit to Taipei in June 1960.

The Cairo Conference from 22 to 26 November 1943 in Cairo, Egypt was held to address the Allied position against Japan during World War II, and to make decisions about postwar Asia. One of the three main clauses of the Cairo Declaration was that “all the territories Japan has stolen from the Chinese, such as Manchuria, Formosa, and The Pescadores, shall be restored to the Republic of China”. However, many challenged that the document was merely a statement of intent or non-binding declaration, for possible reference used for those who would draft the post-war peace treaty and that as a press release it was without force of law to transfer sovereignty from Taiwan to the Republic of China. Additional rationale to support this claim is that the Act of Surrender, and SCAP General Order no. 1, authorised the surrender of Japanese forces, not Japanese territories.[53]

The Republic of China established Taiwan Provincial Government in September 1945[54] and proclaimed on October 25, 1945 as “Taiwan Retrocession Day.” This is the day in which the Japanese troops surrendered. The validity of the proclamation is subject to some debate, with some supporters of Taiwan independence arguing that it is invalid, and that the date only marks the beginning of military occupation that persists to the present.[55][56] During the immediate postwar period, the Kuomintang (KMT) administration on Taiwan was repressive and extremely corrupt compared with the previous Japanese rule, leading to local discontent. Anti-mainlander violence flared on February 28, 1947, prompted by an incident in which a cigarette seller was injured and a passerby was indiscriminately shot dead by Nationalist authorities.[57] During the ensuing crackdown by the KMT administration in what became known as the 228 Incident, tens of thousands of people were killed, and the incident became a taboo topic of discussion for the entire martial law era.

From the 1930s onward a civil war was underway in mainland China between Chiang Kai-shek‘s ROC government and the Communist Party of China led by Mao Zedong. When the civil war ended in 1949, 2 million refugees, predominantly from the Nationalist government, military, and business community, fled to Taiwan. On October 1, 1949 the People’s Republic of China (P.R.C.) was founded in mainland China by the victorious communists; several months before, Chiang Kai-shek had established a provisional ROC capital in Taipei and moved his government there from Nanjing. Under Nationalist rule, the mainlanders dominated the government and civil services.[58]

source wiki

the complete info exist in e-book in CD-ROM

if you want that CD-ROM

please send your nama,adress and no tilpon also upload your ID copy

this for secuerit against internet hijeck

the DR price US 1000(hundred dollaras) including sending cost

sen to Dr Iwan email iswansuwandy@gmail.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

the end @copyright 2014

Taiwan History Collections Introduction

Introduction

I have just visit Taiwan, but they still sude nama Republic OF Chian forbidden by  by the PRC, and donnot use Formoza.

Taiwan now very best and dicipline country with the high building,,many museum, best veteran hospital and stamp museum.

The very best was

 

Yehliu

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Panoramic view of the park

Yeliu is a geological curiosity.

Yeliu (Chinese: 野柳; pinyin: Yěliǔ) is a cape in the town of Wanli, New Taipei, Taiwan.

The cape, known by geologists as the Yeliu Promontory, forms part of the Daliao Miocene Formation. It stretches approximately 1,700 metres into the ocean and was formed as geological forces pushed Datun Mountain (大屯山) out of the sea.[1]

A distinctive feature of the cape is the hoodoo stones that dot its surface. These shapes can be viewed at the Yehliu Geopark operated by the North Coast and Guanyinshan National Scenic Area administration. A number of rock formations have been given imaginative names based on their shapes. The best known is the “Queen’s Head” (女王頭), an iconic image in Taiwan and an unofficial emblem for the town of Wanli. Other formations include the “Fairy Shoe,” the “Beehive,” the “Ginger Rocks” and the “Sea Candles.”

Features

The National imperial ceramic museum

and Chiang khai Sek Memorial Hall,

Tai Pei Stamps muesum

 

Postage stamps and postal history of Taiwan

A 1945 stamp of Taiwan.

This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of Taiwan, otherwise known as Formosa, and currently governed by the Republic of China.

The Republic of China comprises the islands of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu, and other minor islands, which are located off the east coast of mainland China. Neighboring states include the People’s Republic of China to the west, Japan to the north-east, and the Philippines to the south.

First stamps[edit]

In 1886 Taiwan was upgraded from a prefecture to a full province of China. A postal service was organised by the Governor, Liu Mingchuan, and postage stamps were issued the same year.[1]

Republic of Formosa[edit]

A stamp of the Republic of Formosa

In 1895 China ceded Taiwan to Japan. The Taiwanese reacted by establishing the short-lived Republic of Formosa, which issued its own stamps.

Japanese rule[edit]

Under Japanese rule, Taiwanese mail was handled as part of the Japanese postal system. After the surrender of Japan in August 1945, the postal system continued to operate locally, and on 21 October 1945, it issued 3-sen and 5-sen stamps, the design consisting of a large numeral and the imperial chrysanthemum. Despite the official transfer of Taiwan to China on 25 October, on the 31st a 10-sen stamp of the same design was issued. (An additional five values were printed but never issued.)

Republic of China Taiwanese issues[edit]

The locally-printed stamps, both issued and unissued, were immediately overprinted with “Chinese Republic” and “Province Taiwan” and went on sale 4 November. Two Japanese stamps, the 5-yen and 10-yen values of the 1937 pictorial series, were also overprinted, serving as the high values.

Throughout 1946, stocks of Chinese stamps were overprinted with new values in sen and “for use in Taiwan only”. This was followed by an issue in March 1947 marking Chang Kai-shek‘s 60th birthday; four small characters in the background say “for Taiwan only”. Subsequent stamp issues followed the same pattern through 1948.

 

The nama of Tai Pei measn Tai great Pei Nort,

The taiwan geology archelogy park

 

Yehliu

From Wikipedia,

Panoramic view of the park

Yeliu is a geological curiosity.

Yeliu (Chinese: 野柳; pinyin: Yěliǔ) is a cape in the town of Wanli, New Taipei, Taiwan.

The cape, known by geologists as the Yeliu Promontory, forms part of the Daliao Miocene Formation. It stretches approximately 1,700 metres into the ocean and was formed as geological forces pushed Datun Mountain (大屯山) out of the sea.[1]

A distinctive feature of the cape is the hoodoo stones that dot its surface. These shapes can be viewed at the Yehliu Geopark operated by the North Coast and Guanyinshan National Scenic Area administration. A number of rock formations have been given imaginative names based on their shapes. The best known is the “Queen’s Head” (女王頭), an iconic image in Taiwan and an unofficial emblem for the town of Wanli. Other formations include the “Fairy Shoe,” the “Beehive,” the “Ginger Rocks” and the “Sea Candles.”

Features

Lantern Festival

From Wikipedia,
Lantern Festival (Chinese)
ChiangKaiShek-MemorialHall-LanternFestival.jpg

Lantern Festival at night in Taipei
Official name Shangyuan Festival (上元节, 上元節)
Also called Yuanxiao Festival (元宵节, 元宵節)
Observed by Chinese
Type Cultural
Significance Marks the end of lunar New Year
Observances flying of paper lanterns
Date 15th day of the 1st month (lunisolar year)
2013 date February 24
2014 date February 14
2015 date March 5
Related to Chinese

The Lantern Festival is a festival celebrated on the fifteenth day of the first month in the lunisolar year in the lunar calendar marking the last day of the lunar New Year celebration.[1] It’s usually in February or March in the Gregorian calendar. As early as the Western Han Dynasty (206 BC-AD 25), it had become a festival with great significance.[2] During the Lantern Festival, children go out at night to temples carrying paper lanterns and solve riddles on the lanterns (simplified Chinese: 猜灯谜; traditional Chinese: 猜燈謎; pinyin: cāidēngmí; Jyutping: caai1dang1mai4).[3][4]

In ancient times, the lanterns were fairly simple, and only the emperor and noblemen had large ornate ones .[5] In modern times, lanterns have been embellished with many complex designs.[4] For example, lanterns are now often made in the shape of animals. The lanterns can symbolize the people letting go of their past selves and getting new ones,[6] which they will let go of the next year. The lanterns are almost always red to symbolize good fortune [7]

In Hong Kong, it is commercialized as the Chinese equivalent of Valentine’s Day. It is not to be confused with the Mid-Autumn Festival; which is sometimes also known as the “Lantern Festival” in locations such as Singapore and

History

Chinese lanterns in the night sky of Lijiang, Yunnan

Lantern Festival
Traditional Chinese 元宵節
Simplified Chinese 元宵节
Alternative Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 上元節
Simplified Chinese 上元节
Second alternative Chinese name
Chinese 十五暝
Literal meaning fifteenth night

The first month of the lunisolar calendar is called the yuan month, and in olden times night was called xiao in Mandarin. Therefore, the day is called Yuan Xiao (元宵) Festival in China. The fifteenth day is the first full moon of that lunisolar year. According to Taoist tradition, the fifteenth day of the first lunar month, Shàngyuán, corresponds to the “Official of Heaven,” who enjoys bright and joyful objects, so there should be thousands of colorful lanterns hung out for people to appreciate. At this time, people will try to solve puzzles on lanterns, eat glutinous rice balls named after the festival, yuanxiao (also known as tangyuan (simplified Chinese: 汤圆; traditional Chinese: 湯圓; pinyin: tāngyuán) and enjoy a family reunion.[4]

Origin legends

There are many different beliefs about the origin of the Lantern Festival. However, one likely origin is the celebration of “the declining darkness of winter” and community’s ability to “move about at night with human-made light,” namely, lanterns. During the Han Dynasty, the festival was connected to Ti Yin, the deity of the North Star.[1]

Red lanterns, often seen during the festivities in China

One legend tells us that it was a time to worship Taiyi, the God of Heaven in ancient times. The belief was that the God of Heaven controlled the destiny of the human world. He had sixteen dragons at his beck and call and he decided when to inflict drought, storms, famine or pestilence upon human beings. Beginning with Qinshihuang, the first emperor of China, who named China, all the emperors ordered splendid ceremonies each year. The emperor would ask Taiyi to bring favorable weather and good health to him and his people .[10][11]

Wudi of the Han Dynasty directed special attention to this event. In 104 BCE, he proclaimed it to be one of the most important celebrations and the ceremony would last throughout the night.

Another legend associates the Lantern Festival with Taoism. Tianguan is the Taoist god responsible for good fortune. His birthday falls on the fifteenth day of the first lunar month. It is said that Tianguan likes all types of entertainment, so followers prepare various kinds of activities during which they pray for good fortune .[12]

Another legend associates the Lantern Festival with an ancient warrior name Lan Moon, who led a rebellion against the tyrannical king in ancient China. He was killed in the storming of the city and the successful rebels commemorated the festival in his name .[12]

Yet another common legend dealing with the origins of the Lantern Festival speaks of a beautiful crane that flew down to earth from heaven. After it landed on earth it was hunted and killed by some villagers. This angered the Jade Emperor in heaven because the crane was his favorite. So, he planned a storm of fire to destroy the village on the fifteenth lunar day. The Jade Emperor’s daughter warned the inhabitants of her father’s plan to destroy their village. The village was in turmoil because nobody knew how they could escape their imminent destruction. However, a wise man from another village suggested that every family should hang red lanterns around their houses, set up bonfires on the streets, and explode firecrackers on the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth lunar days. This would give the village the appearance of being on fire to the Jade Emperor. On the fifteenth lunar day, troops sent down from heaven whose mission was to destroy the village saw that the village was already ablaze, and returned to heaven to report to the Jade Emperor. Satisfied, the Jade Emperor decided not to burn down the village. From that day on, people celebrate the anniversary on the fifteenth lunar day every year by carrying lanterns on the streets and exploding firecrackers and fireworks .[citation needed]

Another legend about the origins of Lantern Festival involves a maid named Yuan-Xiao. In the Han Dynasty, Dongfang Shuo was a favorite adviser of the emperor. One winter day, he went to the garden and heard a little girl crying and getting ready to jump into a well to commit suicide. Dongfang stopped her and asked why. She said she was Yuan-Xiao, a maid in the emperor’s palace and that she never had a chance to see her family since she started working there. If she could not have the chance to show her filial piety in this life, she would rather die. Dongfang promised to find a way to reunite her with her family. Dongfang left the palace and set up a fortune-telling stall on the street. Due to his reputation, many people asked for their fortunes to be told but everyone got the same prediction – a calamitous fire on the fifteenth lunar day. The rumor spread quickly .[12]

Everyone was worried about the future and asked Dongfang for help. Dongfang said that on the thirteenth lunar day, the God of Fire would send a fairy in red riding a black horse to burn down the city. When people saw the fairy they should ask for her mercy. On that day, Yuan-Xiao pretended to be the red fairy. When people asked for her help, she said that she had a copy of a decree from the God of Fire that should be taken to the emperor. After she left, people went to the palace to show the emperor the decree which stated that the capital city would burn down on the fifteenth. The emperor asked Dongfang for advice. Dongfang said that the God of Fire liked to eat tangyuan (sweet dumplings). Yuan-Xiao should cook tangyuan on the fifteenth lunar day and the emperor should order every house to prepare tangyuan to worship the God of Fire at the same time. Also, every house in the city should hang red lantern and explode fire crackers. Lastly, everyone in the palace and people outside the city should carry their lanterns on the street to watch the lantern decorations and fireworks. The Jade Emperor would be deceived and everyone would avoid the disastrous fire.[citation needed]

The emperor happily followed the plan. Lanterns were everywhere in the capital city on the night of the fifteenth lunar day. People were walking on the street. Fire crackers kept making lots of noise. It looked like the entire city was on fire. Yuan-Xiao’s parents went into the palace to watch the lantern decorations and were reunited with their daughter. The emperor decreed that people should do the same thing every year. Since Yuan-Xiao cooked the best tangyuan, people called the day Yuan-Xiao Festival.

Finding lovE

In the early days, young people were chaperoned in the streets in hopes of finding love. Matchmakers acted busily in hopes of pairing couples. The brightest lanterns were symbolic of good luck and hope. As time has passed, the festival no longer has such implications in most of China, but it is still commercialized as the Chinese equivalent of Valentine’s Day in Hong Kong.[9]

Yuanxiao[edit]

Main article: Tangyuan (food)

Eaten during the Lantern Festival, tangyuan ‘湯圓’ is a glutinous rice ball typically filled with sweet red bean paste, sesame paste, or peanut butter.[3] The Chinese people believe the round shape of the balls, and the bowls in which they are served symbolize family togetherness, and that eating tangyuan may bring the family happiness and good luck in the new year.[4][8]

6th century and afterwards

Lanterns in Qinhuai Lantern Fair

Until the Sui Dynasty in the sixth century, Emperor Yangdi invited envoys from other countries to China to see the colorful lighted lanterns and enjoy the gala performances.[13]

By the beginning of the Tang Dynasty in the seventh century, the lantern displays would last three days. The emperor also lifted the curfew, allowing the people to enjoy the festive lanterns day and night. It is not difficult to find Chinese poems which describe this happy scene.[13]

In the Song Dynasty, the festival was celebrated for five days and the activities began to spread to many of the big cities in China. Colorful glass and even jade were used to make lanterns, with figures from folk tales painted on the lanterns.[citation needed]

However, the largest Lantern Festival celebration took place in the early part of the 15th century. The festivities continued for ten days. Emperor Chengzu had the downtown area set aside as a center for displaying the lanterns. Even today, there is a place in Beijing called Dengshikou. In Chinese, deng means lantern and shi is market. The area became a market where lanterns were sold during the day. In the evening, the local people would go there to see the beautiful lighted lanterns on display.[citation needed]

Today, the displaying of lanterns is still a major event on the fifteenth day of the first lunar month throughout China. Chengdu in southwest China’s Sichuan Province, for example, holds a lantern fair each year in Culture Park. During the Lantern Festival, the park is a virtual ocean of lanterns. Many new designs attract large numbers of visitors. The most eye-catching lantern is the Dragon Pole. This is a lantern in the shape of a golden dragon, spiraling up a 38-meter-high pole, spewing fireworks from its mouth. Cities such as Hangzhou and Shanghai have adopted electric and neon lanterns, which can often be seen beside their traditional paper or wooden counterparts. Another popular activity at this festival is guessing lantern riddles (which became part of the festival during the Tang Dynasty).[citation needed] These often contain messages of good fortune, family reunion, abundant harvest, prosperity and love.[citation needed] Just like the pumpkin carved into jack-o’-lantern for Halloween in the western world, Asian parents sometime teach their children to carve empty the inner tubing of Oriental radish /mooli/ daikon into a Cai-Tou-Lantern (simplified Chinese: 营菜头灯; traditional Chinese: 營菜頭燈; pinyin: yíng cai tóu dēng) for the Festival.[citation needed]

Tai Chung city

other citywas Tai Chung,chung mean center.

 Tai Pei highest building

Tai Chung veteran hospital.Dr Iwan was chech his health there

Tai Chung

 

To know more about Taiwan, I will write the history

sincerely

DR Iwan Suwandy,MHA

THE GUIDANCE TO SEEK INFO

HALLO MY FRIEND FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD

WELCOME TO DRIWANCYBERMUSEUM WEB BLOG

TO SEEK THE INFO YOU NEED

PLEASE LOOK THE RIGHT HAND TOP  SEARCH

WRITE THE INFO YOU NEED

EAXAMPLE COMIC HISTORY COLLECTIONS

 

Title Author Categories Tags Stats Date
Select All Title Author Categories Tags Stats Date
Select The Comic History Collections part one Detective Comic

The Comic History Collections part one Detective Comic

driwancybermuseum comic history collections,Uncategorized More stats
2
2012/07/29
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2012/04/16
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The Comic History Collections part one Detective Comic

The Comic history

Collections

 

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Prive Limited E-BOOK in CD-ROM Edition

Special for Premium Member

Copyright@2012

 

 

March 1937

The first detetctive Comic no 1 in March 1937

the detective comic no 40 june 1937 Batman

1938

The detective comic no 21 in 19281939

The Detective Comic no 27 the Batman in  1939

Synopsis for “The Case of the Chemical Syndicate”

Commissioner Gordon learns that a chemical industrialist named Lambert has just been murdered. It appears as if Lambert’s son is guilty of the crime, but he confesses only to finding his father’s body. Bruce Wayne is present at the crime scene and decides to investigate as the Batman.

Exploring Lambert’s contacts, he discovers the names of his old business partners, Steven Crane, Paul Rogers and Alfred Stryker. Shortly thereafter, Steven Crane is found dead in his home. Paul Rogers learns of the murder and seeks out the last surviving business partner, Alfred Stryker. But Stryker reveals himself to be behind the crimes and kidnaps Rogers. He wants total control over their business interests.

Batman swoops down inside of Stryker’s chemical factory and rescues Rogers. Stryker tries to attack him but Batman beats him back, toppling the criminal into a vat of acid

 

April 194

The Detective Comic no 33 in nopember  1939

0

 

Detective comic no 38 The Robin in 1940

1941

The detective comic no 41 in 1941

AND WILL SEEN THE INFO LIKE THIS AND CLICK TO VIEW

OR YOU WANT TO FIND THE INDONESIAN STAMP OR REVEBNUE  POSTAL HISTORY

WRITE IN SERACH BOD

DAI NIPPON HISTORY

AND YOU WILL SEEN THIS

DAI NIPPON OCCUPATION iNDONESIA

THE CLICK VIEW

The Sample Of Driwan E=book IN CD-ROM:” Dai Nippon Occupation Eastren Indonesia Area 1942-1945″

This is is the sample Od Dr Iwan CD-rom without illustration and not edited, the complete Cd with illustration exist but only for premium member please subscribed via comment

The Dai Nippon War In Indonesia

Book Three

The dai Nippon Occupation Eastren Area of Indonesia

 

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy.MHA

Private Limited E-book In CD-rom Edition

Special for Sebior Collectors

Copyright @ 2012

While in Tokyo

 Major-General Kawaguchi

was informed that the enemy strength in British Borneo was estimated at approximately 1,000 regular soldiers (mostly Indians) and 2,500 native volunteers, with a probable further

5,600 Dutch soldiers in Dutch Borneo.

 Intelligence sources reported that the entire island was covered with dense jungle with only a few poor roads near the river mouths. The only means of transportation was possible by water. Information in regard to weather and terrain was very scant and not very reliable and there was only one small scale map of the island available.

 

Immediately upon his return to

Canton

 from Tokyo, the Detachment commander proceeded to

 

Sanya,

Hainan Island,

to attend a conference with the Commander-in-Chief of the Southern Expeditionary Fleet and the Direct Escort Fleet commander in order to reach an agreement on co-operative measures in the event of war.

 

 

It was decided that the first Japanese landings would be made at aerawk in

Miri

and

Serian

in order to capture vital oilfields and airfields in these towns. Part of the force would remain in this area to reestablish Miri oilfield while the main body would advance and capture the Kuching airfield. All units of the Kawaguchi Detachment had to receive special training in landing under cover of darkness and in jungle fighting, and naturally they also had to change their equipment and would have to be given special survival and field sanitation training.

On 20 November 1941,

 The Kawaguchi’s Brigade was activated in Tokyo (Japan), and placed under

 the direct command of the Southern Army.

It was commanded by

Major-General Kiyotake Kawaguchi

 

 and it was composed mainly of

 the following Japanese units stationed at Canton, southern China, which had been previously

 under the command of the Japanese  18th Infantry Division:

Order of Battle for Japanese forces
Sarawak, December 1941
Major-General Kiyotake Kawaguchi(commander) 
35thInfantry Brigade Headquarters 
124th Infantry Regiment
one platoon of the 12th Engineer Regiment
a unit from the 18th Division Signal Unit
a unit from the 18th Division Medical Unit
4th Field Hospital, 18th Division
a unit from the 11th Water Supply and Purification Unit

In addition, the following units from Japan and Manchuria were to be used to reinforce the Detachment:

33rd Field AA Battalion
one company of the 26th Independent Engineer Regiment
(minus two platoons)
2nd Independent Engineer Company
80th Independent Radio Platoon
37th Fixed Radio Unit
a unit from the Oil Drilling Section of the 21st Field Ordnance Depot
1st Field Well Drilling Company
2nd Field Well Drilling Company
3rd Field Well Drilling Company
4th Field Well Drilling Company
48th Anchorage Headquarters
118th Land Duty Company

 

 
 

Top of Form

(Satoru Nibo) Satoshi Nibo. 05 5 (1916) Taisho,

 

born as the eldest son of eight siblings in a village Naoki Ijuin Gujo Hioki, Kagoshima Prefecture. July 13 (1938) Showa, commissioned second lieutenant. August

Indonesia Independence Revolution and War Book and CD-ROM

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

THE FOUNDER

Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM

SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

INDONESIA INDEPENDENCE REVOLUTION & WAR 1945-1950

Based On Dr Iwan Postal And Document Collection

                   

                          

                              CREATED BY Dr IWAN S

                                  

Limited edition 100 expls

        Private Publication Special for Collectors member

                                     Jakarta,2012                                                                                   

@copyright Dr Iwan S ,201hhtp://http://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

 

INDONESIA INDEPENDENCE REVOLUTION AND WAR WAR 1945-1950

Edisi Terbatas 100 eksp

Publikasi Pribadi Khusus untuk Kolektor postal Histori

Penulis : Dr Iwan S

Editor  : Anton J.S.

Penyunting : Lily W.

Photographer : Albert SDO & INDRA SANUSI

NAMA PEMILIK: Dr Iwan S

NO. PERCOBAAN 001

@Copyright Dr Iwan S 2011

 

Private Limited E-book Special For Collectors.

Copyright @ Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

Hhtp://http://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

PS.THE common economic 100 CDand lux complte special  CD_ROM  only ten CDexist now,please suncribed via comment.

INTRODUCTION

PREFACE-PENGANTAR

1.The Situation of Indonesia Indepennce Revolution and war  1945-195o, manywritten by local and overseas writers , butbased onfactual informationfrom a collectionof documentsandpersonalitemshave not beenmanypoststhatwere writtenbyauthors fromIndonesiaby using theIndonesian language andBritain, this is becausenot manypeopleIndonesia, which hasdocumentsandobjectsthat heading, generallyin Indonesia  were burnedoutor destroyedwhendisplaced,and atthe endbrokenfrom floods. Generally whentheresult ofthe politicalsituationduringthe Indonesian Independence Revolution and War  1945-195oin generalpeopleare veryafraid tokeeppersonalrecordsrelated towarthat couldbecomeevidence oftheirinvolvementaskolaburator Dutch Nica or republic  soldiersandtroopsfighter  willaccusetheyspy from each side in their area   with the consequentadverse to the document or collections owner.

  Situasi revolusi dan Perang Kemerdeaan Indonesia  1945-1950,sudah banyak ditulis oleh  penulis dalam dan luar luar negeri, tetapi yang berdasarkan informasi factual dari koleksi dokumen and benda pos pribadi belum banyak yang ditulis oleh pengarang dari Indonesia dengan mengunakan bahasa Indonesia dan bahasa Ingris, hal ini karena tidak banyak bangsa Indonesia yang memiliki dokumen-dokumen and benda pos tersebut ,umumnya  habis dibakar atau musnah saat mengungsi ,dan paling akhir rusak akibat banjir. Umumnya saat tersebut akibat situasi politis saat perang  kemerdekaan Indonesia  1945-1950 ,pada umumnya rakyat Indonesia sangat takut menyimpan arsip pribadi terkait perang tersebut  yang dapat menjadi bukti mereka terlibat sebagai kolaburator tentara  Belanda Nica atau  dan pasukan Repoeblik Indonesia , Tentara Belanda Nica atau Tentara repoeblik Indonesia   akan menuduh mereka mata-mata   dengan akibat yang  merugikan sipemilik.

2.One of a rare republic Indonesia Sumatra   postalcard   one year Indonesian Independence have found by the writers at  Bukittinggi in 1985, and this rare collections had gave the motivation to write the special book for Indonesian,Japan and Dutch  postal history collectors and another collectors from all over the world. Please look that cover illustration below.

Salah satu koleksi langka kartu pos pos Sumatra peringatan satu tahun merdeka  yang ditemui oleh penulis di Bukittinggi tahun 1985 , dan koleksi langka ini  memberikan motivasi untuk menulis suatu buku khusus untuk kolektor phillatelis di Indonesia,Jepang dan Belanda  serta kolektor  lainnya.dari seluruh dunia.

3.After Indonesian Independence revolution and war finish and Indonesia became  the unity Republic Indonesia in 1950 , many stamp and postal history collectors Collected     the collection as the factual fact of history, one of the Dutch biggest collector Mr Vrijdag  asking Mr V.Esbensen to made the catalogue of his very amazing collections.and some of my collection also be the based ,mr V.Esbensen told me what you are doing will be the great collections if your country became development country.    In 1985, Mr PR Bulterman     from dutch visit me in Padang,when he look at my collections he told me how amazing that collections, he want to bought because some of the collectionnhe never seen before , but I did not want to sell to him, but in 1988 I sold several collections To Mr Karel from Jakarta Indonesia because  I need fund to move and study to Jakarta,  but the illustration of collections I still have,and after that in 1994 I am starting to collect again until now, the biggest colletion will be the based on this book including postal history stamp and revenue, numismatic ,document and picture collections       

 

  Setelah Kemerdekaan Indonesia revolusi dan perang selesai dan Indonesia menjadi kesatuan Republik Indonesia pada tahun 1950, banyak cap pos dan kolektor sejarah Dikumpulkan koleksi sebagai kenyataan faktual sejarah, salah satu yang terbesar kolektor Mr Belanda Vrijdag meminta Mr V. Esbensen untuk dibuat katalog dari collections.and nya sangat menakjubkan beberapa koleksi saya juga berdasarkan, mr V. Esbensen mengatakan kepada saya apa yang Anda lakukan akan menjadi koleksi besar jika negara anda menjadi negara pembangunan.Pada tahun 1985, Bapak PR Bulterman dari belanda mengunjungi saya di Padang, ketika ia melihat koleksi saya dia mengatakan saya bagaimana menakjubkan yang koleksi, dia ingin membeli karena beberapa collectionnhe tidak pernah terlihat sebelumnya, tetapi saya tidak ingin menjual kepadanya, namun pada tahun 1988 saya menjual beberapa koleksi untuk Bapak Karel dari Jakarta Indonesia karena saya membutuhkan dana untuk bergerak dan studi ke Jakarta, namun ilustrasi koleksi saya masih punya, dan setelah itu pada tahun 1994 saya mulai mengumpulkan lagi sampai sekarang, colletion terbesar akan didasarkan pada buku ini termasuk sejarah perangko pos dan pendapatan, numismatik, dokumen dan koleksi gambar        .                               

    

4.In 2009 I am starting to write a simple story and add in my internet blog with the same name with historic  chronolic ,many comment and asked me to edit this simple story with more interesting style and illustrated with more professional photography..

Tahun 2009 penulis memulai suatu tulisan sederhana sebagai pecobaan, di tampilkan dalam suatu blog internet dengan nama yang sama dengan penampilan kronologis historis, banyak tanggapan dan saran agar penulis mengedit dan menyusun tulisan yang lebih sederhan dengan gaya ,cerita yang lebih menarik dilengkapi illustrasi koleksi yang tehnik fotografi yang canggih.

5.The professional writing starting in June 2010 until august  2012 ,with more professional proposal help by the professional team editor,layout and photography, as the firs issue in Private productions limited 100 expl in CR-Rom.

Penulisan dimulai bulan Juni 2011 sampai Augustus 2012  dengan rencana yang lebih matang dibantu oleh suatu tim editor,layout dan,photography ,sebagai penerbitan pertama secara pribadi akan di terbitkan edisi terbatas  100 eksemplar dalam CR-ROM

6.I know that this book have many lack of information and written technologically , that is why I need more comment and corrections to made this book more complete and more best performance in the future.

Penulis menyadari buku ini masih banyak kekurangan dan kekeliruan sehingga diharapkan koreksi ,saran dan tambahan informasi agar dapat disempurnakan.

8.Thanks very much to all my friends for their comment that made this book created as the proposal on time, and will lauching in order to celebrate  the67th Indonesia Indepedence day August 17thth 2012 may be  at International Phillatelic Exhibition Indonesia 20122  at June 2012 , I am sorry I cannot listed the name of my friends here.without then this book cannot write in good and interesting, also takns very much to my collectors who visit my three internet Web Blog site

hhtp://www. unqiecollections.wordpress.com ,  hhtp://http://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com.  hhtp://http://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

 

IF YOU WANT TO GET THE COMPLETE cd-rom,SPECIAL FOR  INDONESIAN COLLECTORS ONLY,

OLEASE SEND YOUR KOPI Ktp WITH COMPLETE ADRRESS AND NO TELPON TO DR IWAN EMAIL

iq=WANSUWANDY@GMAIL.COM

AFTER YOU SEND  rP.500.000)(LIMA RATUS RIBU RUPIAH) LIWAT atm bca KEPADA dR iWAN,cd AKAN DIKRIM KERUMAH ANDA LIWAT tITITPAN kILAT,BIAYA SUDAH TERMASUK ONGKOS KIRIM.

 

THANKS FOR VISIT DR IWAN CYBERMUSUEUM WEB BLOG

studi banding soemitro dan soedirman dua tokoh masa lalu DENGAN Prabowo dan jokowi tokoh masa kini

STUDI BANDING DUA TOKOH MASA LALU YANG SUDAH MULAI DILUPAKAN DENGAN DUA TOKOH MASA KINI YANG LAGI TOP

DISUNTING OLE

Dr Iwan Uwandy<MHA

bUku Elektronik gratis  Bagi

SELURUH RAKYAT INDONESIA

BERDASARKAN ARTIKEL KARANGAN SELURUH RAKYAT INDONESIA

Dengan Bantuan Kemajuan Teknologi

GOOGLE EKSPLORASI

KATA PENGANTAR

Dipagi yang sejuk ini  sya terbangun karen lampu tiba-tiba padam gelap

tal dapat tidur tetapi segera hidup lagi terang dalam sekejap berubah situasi

BEGITU JUGALAH DENGAN DUA TOKOH MASA LALU YANG SUDAH MULAI DILUPAKAN DAN TERANG DUA TOKOH MASA KINI YANG LAGI POPULER TERANG BENDERANG

KEDUA TOKOH ITU ADA HUBUNGANNYA.

Supaya pembaca tidak bosan saya tidak mencantumkan nama pengarang artikel dan refrensi terkait,karena saya anggap ini karangan seluruh rakyat indonesia dan

di tujukkan kepada seluruh rakyat Indonesia

Saya buat dipagi buta agar mata jadi bisa tidur lagi dalam waktu secepat mungkin.

Ayo kita muali

INILAH HASIL STUDI BANDING PENDAPAT RAKYAT INDONESIA TENTANG DUA TOKOH MASA LALU DAN DUA TOKOH MASA KINI

Semoga ada gunanya demi untuk kemajuan Bangsa dan negara Yang Kita Cintai Ini

Jakarta 1 April 2014

KATA ORANG DULU BERBOHONG DI HARI  APRIL MOB INI TIDAK ADA DOSANYA,TETAPI INI BUKAN BOHONG,SAYA JADI INGAT DULU TEMAN SAYA MENGUNDANG PESTA DANSA DI APRIL MOB BANYAK MUDA MUDI TERKECOH KARENA PESTA TAK ADA

TETAPI APRIL MOB TAHUN INI ADALAH KEJADIAN SEBENARNYA

PESTA DEMMOKRASI DIMULAI

HASIL STUDI BANDING, UCAPAN TERIMA KASIH KEPADA PENCIP[TA GOOGLE,ANDA TELAH MEMBANTU SAYA DAN SELURUH RAKYAT INDONESIA

SIAPA ITU DUA TOKOH MASA LALU DAN MASA KINI ?

SOEMITRO

Sumitro Djojohadikusumo Suara Merdeka 2 Apr 1952 p1.jpg

Prof. Dr. Raden Mas Soemitro Djojohadikoesoemo (often spelt Sumitro Djojohadikusumo) (born in Kebumen, Central Java on May 29, 1917 and died in Jakarta on March 9, 2001) was one of Indonesia‘s most prominent economists. During his lifetime Sumitro held several prominent roles including the Dean of the Faculty of Economics at the University of Indonesia.

Soemitro’s children include the current Presidential candidate Prabowo Subianto and the Indonesian entrepreneur Hashim Djojohadikusumo. Bianti Djiwandono, his daughter is married to the former Governor of Bank Indonesia, Soedradjad Djiwandono. His son Prabowo was briefly married to Titiek Hediati, the daughter of former Indonesian president Suharto

Prabowo wapres.jpeg

Prabowo Subianto (born 17 October 1951) is an Indonesian businessman, politician and former Lieutenant General in the Indonesian National Armed Forces. In the Indonesian presidential election, 2009 he ran for the vice-presidency as part of Megawati Sukarnoputri‘s campaign for president.[1] In November 2011, Prabowo announced his intention to run for president in the next Indonesian presidential election, 2014.[2] Prabowo is the son of Sumitro Djojohadikusumo, an Indonesian economist, and is also the former husband of Siti Hediati “Titiek” Suharto, the late President Suharto‘s daughter

 

 

 

 

 

Biografi Jendral Besar Soedirman. Seluruh masyarakat Indonesia pasti mengenal salah satu pahlawan besar ini, namanya sangat terkenal di Indonesia diaalah Jendral Besar Soedirman menurut Ejaan Soewandi dibaca Sudirman, Jenderal besar Indonesia ini lahir di Bodas Karangjati, Rembang, Purbalingga, 24 Januari 1916. Jenderal Sudirman merupakan salah satu tokoh besar di antara sedikit orang lainnya yang pernah dilahirkan oleh suatu revolusi. Saat usianya masih 31 tahun ia sudah menjadi seorang jenderal. Meski menderita sakit paru-paru yang parah, ia tetap bergerilya melawan Belanda. Ia berlatar belakang seorang guru HIS Muhammadiyah di Cilacap dan giat di kepanduan Hizbul Wathan

Ketika pendudukan Jepang, ia masuk tentara Pembela Tanah Air (Peta) di Bogor yang begitu tamat pendidikan, langsung menjadi Komandan Batalyon di Kroya. Menjadi Panglima Divisi V/Banyumas sesudah TKR terbentuk, dan akhirnya terpilih menjadi Panglima Angkatan Perang Republik Indonesia (Panglima TNI). Ia merupakan Pahlawan Pembela Kemerdekaan yang tidak perduli pada keadaan dirinya sendiri demi mempertahankan Republik Indonesia yang dicintainya. Ia tercatat sebagai Panglima sekaligus Jenderal pertama dan termuda Republik ini.

Sudirman merupakan salah satu pejuang dan pemimpin teladan bangsa ini. Pribadinya teguh pada prinsip dan keyakinan, selalu mengedepankan kepentingan masyarakat banyak dan bangsa di atas kepentingan pribadinya. Ia selalu konsisten dan konsekuen dalam membela kepentingan tanah air, bangsa, dan negara. Hal ini boleh dilihat ketika Agresi Militer II Belanda. Ia yang dalam keadaan lemah karena sakit tetap bertekad ikut terjun bergerilya walaupun harus ditandu. Dalam keadaan sakit, ia memimpin dan memberi semangat pada prajuritnya untuk melakukan perlawanan terhadap Belanda. Itulah sebabnya kenapa ia disebutkan merupakan salah satu tokoh besar yang dilahirkan oleh revolusi negeri ini.

Sudirman yang dilahirkan di Bodas Karangjati, Purbalingga, 24 Januari 1916, ini memperoleh pendidikan formal dari Sekolah Taman Siswa, sebuah sekolah yang terkenal berjiwa nasional yang tinggi. Kemudian ia melanjut ke HIK (sekolah guru) Muhammadiyah, Solo tapi tidak sampai tamat. Sudirman muda yang terkenal disiplin dan giat di organisasi Pramuka Hizbul Wathan ini kemudian menjadi guru di sekolah HIS Muhammadiyah di Cilacap. Kedisiplinan, jiwa pendidik dan kepanduan itulah kemudian bekal pribadinya hingga bisa menjadi pemimpin tertinggi Angkatan Perang.

Sementara pendidikan militer diawalinya dengan mengikuti pendidikan tentara Pembela Tanah Air (Peta) di Bogor. Setelah selesai pendidikan, ia diangkat menjadi Komandan Batalyon di Kroya. Ketika itu, pria yang memiliki sikap tegas ini sering memprotes tindakan tentara Jepang yang berbuat sewenang-wenang dan bertindak kasar terhadap anak buahnya. Karena sikap tegasnya itu, suatu kali dirinya hampir saja dibunuh oleh tentara Jepang.

Setelah Indonesia merdeka, dalam suatu pertempuran dengan pasukan Jepang, ia berhasil merebut senjata pasukan Jepang di Banyumas. Itulah jasa pertamanya sebagai tentara pasca kemerdekaan Indonesia. Sesudah Tentara Keamanan Rakyat (TKR) terbentuk, ia kemudian diangkat menjadi Panglima Divisi V/Banyumas dengan pangkat Kolonel. Dan melalui Konferensi TKR tanggal 2

//
Nopember 1945, ia terpilih menjadi Panglima Besar TKR/Panglima Angkatan Perang Republik Indonesia. Selanjutnya pada tanggal 18 Desember 1945, pangkat Jenderal diberikan padanya lewat pelantikan Presiden. Jadi ia memperoleh pangkat Jenderal tidak melalui Akademi Militer atau pendidikan tinggi lainnya sebagaimana lazimnya, tapi karena prestasinya.Ketika pasukan sekutu datang ke Indonesia dengan alasan untuk melucuti tentara Jepang, ternyata tentara Belanda ikut dibonceng. Karenanya, TKR akhirnya terlibat pertempuran dengan tentara sekutu. Demikianlah pada Desember 1945, pasukan TKR yang dipimpin oleh Sudirman terlibat pertempuran melawan tentara Inggris di Ambarawa. Dan pada tanggal 12 Desember tahun yang sama, dilancarkanlah serangan serentak terhadap semua kedudukan Inggris. Pertempuran yang berkobar selama lima hari itu akhirnya memaksa pasukan Inggris mengundurkan diri ke Semarang.Pada saat pasukan Belanda kembali melakukan agresinya atau yang lebih dikenal dengan Agresi Militer II Belanda, Ibukota Negara RI berada di Yogyakarta sebab Kota Jakarta sebelumnya sudah dikuasai. Jenderal Sudirman yang saat itu berada di Yogyakarta sedang sakit. Keadaannya sangat lemah akibat paru-parunya yang hanya tingggal satu yang berfungsi.Dalam Agresi Militer II Belanda itu, Yogyakarta pun kemudian berhasil dikuasai Belanda. Bung Karno dan Bung Hatta serta beberapa anggota kabinet juga sudah ditawan. Melihat keadaan itu, walaupun Presiden Soekarno sebelumnya telah menganjurkannya untuk tetap tinggal dalam kota untuk melakukan perawatan. Namun anjuran itu tidak bisa dipenuhinya karena dorongan hatinya untuk melakukan perlawanan pada Belanda serta mengingat akan tanggungjawabnya sebagai pemimpin tentara.Maka dengan ditandu, ia berangkat memimpin pasukan untuk melakukan perang gerilya. Kurang lebih selama tujuh bulan ia berpindah-pindah dari hutan yang satu ke hutan yang lain, dari gunung ke gunung dalam keadaan sakit dan lemah sekali sementara obat juga hampir-hampir tidak ada. Tapi kepada pasukannya ia selalu memberi semangat dan petunjuk seakan dia sendiri tidak merasakan penyakitnya. Namun akhirnya ia harus pulang dari medan gerilya, ia tidak bisa lagi memimpin Angkatan Perang secara langsung, tapi pemikirannya selalu dibutuhkan.Sudirman yang pada masa pendudukan Jepang menjadi anggota Badan Pengurus Makanan Rakyat dan anggota Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Keresidenan Banyumas, ini pernah mendirikan koperasi untuk menolong rakyat dari bahaya kelaparan. Jenderal yang mempunyai jiwa sosial yang tinggi, ini akhirnya harus meninggal pada usia yang masih relatif muda, 34 tahun.

Pada tangal 29 Januari 1950, Panglima Besar ini meninggal dunia di Magelang dan dimakamkan di Taman Makam Pahlawan Semaki, Yogyakarta. Ia dinobatkan sebagai Pahlawan Pembela Kemerdekaan.

Berikut Ini Data Lengkap Tengtang Jendral Besar Soedirman
Nama:
Jenderal Sudirman
Lahir:
Bodas Karangjati, Purbalingga, 24 Januari 1916
Meninggal:
Magelang, 29 Januari 1950

Agama:
Islam
Pendidikan Fomal:
– Sekolah Taman Siswa
– HIK Muhammadiyah, Solo (tidak tamat)
Pendidikan Tentara:
Pembela Tanah Air (Peta) di Bogor
Pengalaman Pekerjaan:
Guru di HIS Muhammadiyah di Cilacap
Pengalaman Organisasi:
Kepanduan Hizbul Wathan
Jabatan di Militer:
– Panglima Besar TKR/TNI, dengan pangkat Jenderal
– Panglima Divisi V/Banyumas, dengan pangkat Kolonel
– Komandan Batalyon di Kroya
Tanda Penghormatan:
Pahlawan Pembela Kemerdekaan
Meniggal:
Magelang, 29 Januari 1950
Dimakamkan:
Taman Makam Pahlawan Semaki, Yogyakarta

Biografi Jokowi (Joko Widodo)

Jokowi adalah tokoh pemimpin terpuji Walikota Solo dan berperan memperomosikan Mobil ESEMKA. Ir. Joko Widodo (Jokowi) adalah walikota Kota Surakarta (Solo) untuk dua kali masa bhakti 2005-2015. Wakil walikotanya adalah F.X. Hadi Rudyatmo. Jokowi lahir di Surakarta pada 21 Juni 1961. Agama Jokowi adalah Islam. Pada 2012 Jokowi memenangkan Pilkada DKI Jakarta dan ditetapkan sebagi Gubernur DKI Jakarta. Banyak pihak optimis dengan kinerja Jokowi dan wakilnya Ahok untuk memperbaiki kota Jakarta yang semerawut.
Jokowi

Biografi Jokowi (Joko Widodo)

Jokowi meraih gelar insinyur dari Fakultas Kehutanan UGM pada tahun 1985. Ketika mencalonkan diri sebagai walikota Solo, banyak yang meragukan kemampuan pria yang berprofesi sebagai pedagang mebel rumah dan taman ini; bahkan hingga saat ia terpilih. Namun setahun setelah ia memimpin, banyak gebrakan progresif dilakukan olehnya. Ia banyak mengambil contoh pengembangan kota-kota di Eropa yang sering ia kunjungi dalam rangka perjalanan bisnisnya.

Di bawah kepemimpinannya, Solo mengalami perubahan yang pesat. Branding untuk kota Solo dilakukan dengan menyetujui moto “Solo: The Spirit of Java“. Langkah yang dilakukannya cukup progresif untuk ukuran kota-kota di Jawa: ia mampu merelokasi pedagang barang bekas di Taman Banjarsari hampir tanpa gejolak untuk merevitalisasi fungsi lahan hijau terbuka, memberi syarat pada investor untuk mau memikirkan kepentingan publik, melakukan komunikasi langsung rutin dan terbuka (disiarkan oleh televisi lokal) dengan masyarakat. Taman Balekambang, yang terlantar semenjak ditinggalkan oleh pengelolanya, dijadikannya taman. Jokowi juga tak segan menampik investor yang tidak setuju dengan prinsip kepemimpinannya. Sebagai tindak lanjut branding ia mengajukan Surakarta untuk menjadi anggota Organisasi Kota-kota Warisan Dunia dan diterima pada tahun 2006. Langkahnya berlanjut dengan keberhasilan Surakarta menjadi tuan rumah Konferensi organisasi tersebut pada bulan Oktober 2008 ini. Pada tahun 2007 Surakarta juga telah menjadi tuan rumah Festival Musik Dunia (FMD) yang diadakan di kompleks Benteng Vastenburg yang terancam digusur untuk dijadikan pusat bisnis dan perbelanjaan. FMD pada tahun 2008 diselenggarakan di komplek Istana Mangkunegaran.

Berkat prestasi tersebut, Jokowi terpilih menjadi salah satu dari “10 Tokoh 2008″ oleh Majalah Tempo.

Asal Nama Julukan Jokowi

“Jokowi itu pemberian nama dari buyer saya dari Prancis,” begitu kata Wali Kota Solo, Joko Widodo, saat ditanya dari mana muncul nama Jokowi. Kata dia, begitu banyak nama dengan nama depan Joko yang jadi eksportir mebel kayu. Pembeli dari luar bingung untuk membedakan, Joko yang ini apa Joko yang itu. Makanya, dia terus diberi nama khusus, ‘Jokowi’. Panggilan itu kemudian melekat sampai sekarang. Di kartu nama yang dia berikan tertulis, Jokowi, Wali Kota Solo. Belakangan dia mengecek, di Solo yang namanya persis Joko Widodo ada 16 orang.

Saat ini, Jokowi menjabat untuk periode kedua. Kemenangan mutlak diperoleh saat pemilihan wali kota tahun lalu. Nama Jokowi kini tidak hanya populer, tapi kepribadiannya juga disukai masyarakat. Setidaknya, ketika pergi ke pasar-pasar, para pedagang beramai-ramai memanggilnya, atau paling tidak berbisik pada orang sebelahnya, “Eh..itu Pak Joko.”

Bagaimana ceritanya sehingga dia bisa dicintai masyarakat Solo? Kebijakan apa saja yang telah membuat rakyatnya senang? Mengapa pula dia harus menginjak pegawainya? Berikut wawancara wartawan Republika, Ditto Pappilanda, dengan Jokowi dalam kebersamaannya sepanjang setengah hari di seputaran Solo.

Sikap apa yang Anda bawa dalam menjalankan karier sebagai birokrat?
Secara prinsip, saya hanya bekerja untuk rakyat. Hanya itu, simpel. Saya enggak berpikir macam-macam, wong enggak bisa apa-apa. Mau dinilai tidak baik, silakan, mau dinilai baik, ya silakan. Saya kan tugasnya hanya bekerja. Enggak ada kemauan macam-macam. Enggak punya target apa-apa. Bekerja. Begitu saja.

Bener, saya tidak muluk-muluk dan sebenarnya yang kita jalankan pun semua orang bisa ngerjain. Hanya, mau enggak. Punya niat enggak. Itu saja. Enggak usah tinggi-tinggi. Sederhana sekali.

Contoh, lima tahun yang lalu, pelayanan KTP kita di kecamatan semrawut. KTP bisa dua minggu, bisa tiga minggu selesai. Tidak ada waktu yang jelas. Bergantung pada yang meminta, seminggu bisa, dua minggu bisa. Tapi, dengan memperbaiki sistem, apa pun akan bisa berubah. Menyiapkan sistem, kemudian melaksanakan sistem itu, dan kalau ada yang enggak mau melaksanakan sistem, ya, saya injak.

Awalnya reaksi internal bagaimana?
Ya biasa, resistensi setahun di depan, tapi setelah itu, ya, biasa saja. Semuanya kalau sudah biasa, ya semuanya senang. Ya, kita mengerti itu masalah kue, ternyata ya juga bisa dilakukan.

Untuk mengubah sistem proses KTP itu, tiga lurah saya copot, satu camat saya copot. Saat itu, ketika rapat diikuti 51 lurah, ada tiga lurah yang kelihatan tidak niat. Enggak mungkin satu jam, pak, paling tiga hari, kata mereka. Besoknya lurah itu tidak menjabat. Kalau saya, gitu saja. Rapat lima camat lagi, ada satu camat, sulit pak, karena harus entri data. Wah ini sama, lah. Ya, sudah.

Nyatanya, setelah mereka hilang, sistemnya bisa jalan. Seluruh kecamatan sekarang sudah seperti bank. Tidak ada lagi sekat antara masyarakat dan pegawai, terbuka semua. Satu jam juga sudah jadi. Rupiah yang harus dibayar sesuai perda, Rp 5.000.

Anda juga punya pengalaman menarik dalam penanganan Pedagang Kaki Lima (PKL) yang kemudian banyak menjadi rujukan?
Iya. Sekarang banyak daerah-daerah ke sini, mau mengubah mindset. Oh ternyata penanganan (PKL) bisa tanpa berantem. Memang tidak mudah. Pengalaman kami waktu itu adalah memindahkan PKL di Kecamatan Banjarsari yang sudah dijadikan tempat jualan bahkan juga tempat tinggal selama lebih dari 20 tahun. Kawasan itu sebetulnya kawasan elite, tapi karena menjadi tempat dagang sekaligus tempat tinggal, yang terlihat adalah kekumuhan.

Lima tahun yang lalu, mereka saya undang makan di sini (ruang rapat rumah dinas wali kota). Saya ajak makan siang, saya ajak makan malam. Saya ajak bicara. Sampai 54 kali, saya ajak makan siang, makan malam, seperti ini. Tujuh bulan seperti ini. Akhirnya, mereka mau pindah. Enggak usah di-gebukin.

Mengapa butuh tujuh bulan, mengapa tidak di tiga bulan pertama?
Kita melihat-melihat angin, lah. Kalau Anda lihat, pertama kali mereka saya ajak ke sini, mereka semuanya langsung pasang spanduk. Pokoknya kalau dipindah, akan berjuang sampai titik darah penghabisan, nyiapin bambu runcing. Bahkan, ada yang mengancam membakar balai kota.

Situasi panas itu sampai pertemuan ke berapa?
Masih sampai pertemuan ke-30. Pertemuan 30-50 baru kita berbicara. Mereka butuh apa, mereka ingin apa, mereka khawatir mengenai apa. Dulu, mereka minta sembilan trayek angkot untuk menuju wilayah baru. Kita beri tiga angkutan umum. Jalannya yang sempit, kita perlebar.

Yang sulit itu, mereka meminta jaminan omzet di tempat yang baru sama seperti di tempat yang lama. Wah, bagaimana wali kota disuruh menjamin seperti itu. Jawaban saya, rezeki yang atur di atas, tapi nanti selama empat bulan akan saya iklankan di televisi lokal, di koran lokal, saya pasang spanduk di seluruh penjuru kota. Akhirnya, mereka mau pindah.

Pindahnya mereka saya siapkan 45 truk, saya tunggui dua hari, mereka pindah sendiri-sendiri. Pindahnya mereka dari tempat lama ke tempat baru saya kirab dengan prajurit keraton. Ini yang enggak ada di dunia mana pun. Mereka bawa tumpeng satu per satu sebagai simbol kemakmuran. Artinya, pindahnya senang. Tempat yang lama sudah jadi ruang terbuka hijau kembali.

Omzetnya di tempat yang baru?
Bisa empat kali. Bisa tanya ke sana, jangan tanya saya. Tapi, ya kira-kira ada yang sepuluh kali, ada yang empat kali. Rata-rata empat kali. Ada yang sebulan Rp 300 juta. Itu sudah bukan PKL lagi, geleng-geleng saya.

Bagaimana dengan PKL yang lain?
Setelah yang eks-PKL Banjarsari pindah, tidak sulit meyakinkan yang lain. Cukup pertemuan tiga sampai tujuh kali pertemuan selesai. Sampai saat ini, kita sudah pindahkan 23 titik PKL, tidak ada masalah.

Lha yang repot sekarang ini malah pedagang PKL itu minta direlokasi. Kita yang nggak punya duit. Sampai sekarang ini, masih 38 persen PKL yang belum direlokasi. Jadi, kalau masih melihat PKL di jalan atau trotoar, itu bagian dari 38 persen tadi.

Tampaknya, pemberdayaan pasar menjadi perhatian Anda?
Oiya. Kita sudah merenovasi 34 pasar dan membangun pasar yang baru di tujuh lokasi. Jika dikelola dengan baik, pasar ini mendatangkan pendapatan daerah yang besar.

Dulu, ketika saya masuk, pendapatan dari pasar hanya Rp 7,8 miliar, sekarang Rp 19,2 miliar. Hotel hanya Rp 10 miliar, restoran Rp 5 miliar, parkir Rp 1,8 miliar, advertising Rp 4 miliar. Hasil Rp 19,2 miliar itu hanya dari retribusi harian Rp 2.600. Pedagangnya banyak sekali, kok. Ini yang harus dilihat. Asal manajemennya bagus, enggak rugi kita bangun-bangun pasar. Masyarakat-pedagang terlayani, kita dapat income seperti itu.

Sementara kalau mal, enggak tahu saya, paling bayar IMB saja, kita mau tarik apa? Makanya, mal juga kita batasi. Begitu juga hypermarket kita batasi. Bahkan, minimarket juga saya stop izinnya. Rencananya dulu akan ada 60-80 yang buka, tapi tidak saya izinkan. Sekarang hanya ada belasan.

Tapi, sepertinya Pasar Klewer belum tersentuh ya, kondisinya masih kurang nyaman?
Klewer itu, waduh. Duitnya gede sekali. Kemarin, dihitung investor, Rp 400 miliar. Duit dari mana? Anggaran berapa puluh tahun, kita mau cari jurus apa belum ketemu. Anggaran belanja Solo Rp 780 miliar, tahun ini Rp 1,26 triliun. Tidak mampu kita. Pedagang di Klewer lebih banyak, 3.000-an pedagang, pasarnya juga besar sekali. Di situ, yang Solo banyak, Sukoharjo banyak, Sragen banyak, Jepara ada, Pekalongan ada, Tegal ada. Batik dari mana-mana. Tapi, saya yakin ada jurusnya, hanya belum ketemu aja.

Soal pendidikan, di beberapa daerah sudah banyak dilakukan pendidikan gratis, apakah di Solo juga begitu?
Kita beda. Di sini, kita menerbitkan kartu untuk siswa, ada platinum, gold, dan silver. Mereka yang paling miskin itu memperoleh kartu platinum. Mereka ini gratis semuanya, mulai dari uang pangkal sampai kebutuhan sekolah dan juga biaya operasional. Kemudian, yang gold itu mendapat fasilitas, tapi tak sebanyak platinum. Begitu juga yang silver, hanya dibayari pemkot untuk kebutuhan tertentu.

Itu juga yang diberlakukan untuk kesehatan?
Iya, ada kartu seperti itu, ada gold dan silver. Gold ini untuk mereka yang masuk golongan sangat miskin. Semua gratis, perawatan rawat inap, bahkan cuci darah pun untuk yang gold ini gratis.

Tampaknya, sekarang masyarakat sudah percaya pada Anda, padahal di awal terpilih, banyak yang sangsi?
Yah, satu tahun, lah. Namanya belum dikenal, saya kan bukan potongan wali kota, kurus, jelek. Saya juga enggak pernah muncul di Solo, apalagi bisnis saya 100 persen ekspor. Ada yang sangsi, ya biar saja, sampai sekarang enggak apa-apa. Mau sangsi, mau menilai jelek, terserah orang.

Dulu, apa niat awalnya jadi wali kota?
Enggak ada niat, kecelakaan. Ndak tahu itu. Dulu, pilkada pertama, kita dapat suara 37 persen, menang tipis. Wong saya bukan orang terkenal, kok. Yang lain terkenal semuanya kan, saya enggak. Tapi, kelihatannya masyarakat sudah malas dengan orang terkenal. Mau coba yang enggak terkenal. Coba-coba, jadi saya bilang kecelakaan tadi itu memang betul.

Hal apa yang paling mengesankan selama Anda menjadi wali kota?
Paling mengesankan? Paling mengesankan itu, kalau dulu, kan, wali kota mesti meresmikan hal yang gede-gede. Meresmikan mal terbesar besar misalnya. Tapi, sekarang, gapura, pos ronda, semuanya saya yang buka, kok. Pos ronda minta dibuka wali kota, gapura dibuka wali kota, ya gimana rakyat yang minta, buka aja. Ya, kadang-kadang lucu juga. Tapi kita nikmati.

Apa kesulitan yang paling pertama Anda temui saat menjabat sebagai wali kota?
Masalah aturan. Betul. Kita, kalau di usaha, mencari yang se-simpel mungkin, seefisien mungkin. Tapi, kita di pemerintahan enggak bisa, ada tahapan aturan. Meskipun anggaran ada, aturannya enggak terpenuhi, enggak bisa jalani. Harusnya, bisa kita kerjain dua minggu, harus menunggu dua tahun. Banyak aturan-aturan yang justru membelenggu kita sendiri, terlalu prosedural. Kita ini jadi negara prosedur.

Apa pertimbangannya saat Anda mencalonkan untuk kali kedua?
Sebetulnya, saya enggak mau. Mau balik lagi ke habitat tukang kayu. Saat itu, setiap hari datang berbondong-bondong berbagai kelompok yang mendorong saya maju lagi. Mereka katakan, ini suara rakyat. Saya berpikir, ini benar ndak, apa hanya rekayasa politik. Dua minggu saya cuti, pusing saya mikir itu. Saya pulang, okelah saya survei saja. Saya survei pertama, dapatnya 87 persen. Enggak percaya, saya survei lagi, dapatnya 87 persen lagi.

Setelah survei itu, saya melihat, benar-benar ada keinginan masyarakat. Jadi, yang datang ke saya itu benar. Dan ternyata memang saya dapat hampir 91 persen. Saya lihat ada harapan dan ekspektasi yang terlalu besar. Perhitungan saya 65-70 persen. Hitungan di atas kertas 65:35, atau 60:40, kira-kira.

Ada kekhwatiran tidak, ketika lepas jabatan, semua yang Anda bangun tetap terjaga?
Pertama ada blueprint, ada concept plan kota. Paling tidak, pemimpin baru nanti enggak usah pakai 100 persen, seenggaknya 70 persen. Jangan sampai, sudah SMP, kembali lagi ke TK. Saya punya kewajiban juga untuk menyiapkan dan memberi tahu apa yang harus dilakukan nantinya.

Biodata Joko Widodo

Nama : Joko Widodo
Tempat Tanggal Lahir: Surakarta, 21 Juni 1961
Agama : Islam
Pekerjaan : Pengusaha
Agama : Islam
Profil Facebook : jokowi
Akun twitter : jokowi_do2
Email: jokowi@indo.net.id
Alamat Kantor : Jl. Jend. Sudirman No. 2 Telp. 644644, 642020, Psw 400, Fax. 646303
Alamat Rumah Dinas : Rumah Dinas Loji Gandrung Jl. Slamet Riyadi No. 261 Telp. 712004
HP. 0817441111
Pendidikan:

  • SDN 111 Tirtoyoso Solo
  • SMPN 1 Solo
  • SMAN 6 Solo
  • Fakultas Kehutanan UGM Yogyakarta lulusan 1985

Karir:

  • Pendiri Koperasi Pengembangan Industri Kecil Solo (1990)
  • Ketua Bidang Pertambangan & Energi Kamar Dagang dan Industri Surakarta (1992-1996)
  • Ketua Asosiasi Permebelan dan Industri Kerajinan Indonesia Surakarta (2002-2007)

Penghargaan:

  • Joko Widodo terpilih menjadi salah satu dari “10 Tokoh 2008″
  • Menjadi walikota terbaik tahun 2009
  • Pak Joko Widodo jg meraih penghargaan Bung Hatta Award, atas kepemimpinan dan kinerja beliau selama membangun dan memimpin kota Solo.
  • Universitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta (UNS) Award

Selain itu, berkat kepemimpinan beliau (dan tentunya semua pihak yg membantu), kota Solo jg banyak meraih penghargaan, di antaranya

  • Kota Pro-Investasi dari Badan Penanaman Modal Daerah Jawa Tengah
  • Kota Layak Anak dari Kementerian Negara Pemberdayaan Perempuan
  • Wahana Nugraha dari Departemen Perhubungan
  • Sanitasi dan Penataan Permukiman Kumuh dari Departemen Pekerjaan Umum
  • Kota dengan Tata Ruang Terbaik ke-2 di Indonesiaa

FEUI berdiri pada tanggal 18 September 1950 dan saat ini terletak di Kampus UI Depok. Kelahiran fakultas ini bermula ketika Jurusan Sosial Ekonomi Fakultas Hukum Universitas Indonesia (FHUI) memisahkan diri dan memilih untuk berdiri secara independen dengan membentuk fakultas baru, yaitu Fakultas Ekonomi. Pada saat yang bersamaan mahasiswa Akademi Nasional yang juga mengkaji ilmu ekonomi bergabung dengan fakultas baru tersebut. Maka jadilah mereka sebagai mahasiswa angkatan pertama di FEUI.

Pada tahun-tahun awal kelahiran FEUI, Kegiatan perkuliahan berlangsung dengan kondisi darurat. Ketika itu, jumlah staf pengajar sangat terbatas, dan hanya ada satu pengajar yang berkebangsaan Indonesia di sana, yaitu Prof. MR. R. Soenario Kolopaking yang juga menjadi dekan pertama FEUI. Kegiatan perkuliahan diadakan di tiga tempat, yaitu Aula Perguruan Tinggi Ilmu Kepolisian di Jalan Tambak, Gedung Kesenian Pasar Baru dah Gedung Adhoc Stat (yang sekarang bappenas di jalan Diponegoro). Urusan administrasi pun harus ditangani oleh mahasiswa sendiri.

Pada tahun 1951, Prof. Soenario selaku Dekan FEUI menyatakan mengundurkan diri. Beberapa perwakilan mahasiswa angkatan pertama kemudian menemui Dr. Soemitro dan memintanya menjadi Dekan FEUI, dan ia menyetujuinya. Kesediaan Soemitro—walaupun saat itu belum menjadi guru besar—merupakan penyelesaian bagi masalah kepemimpinan FEUI. Pada masa kepemimpinan Dr. Soemitro ini, FEUI mengirimkan beberapa asisten peneliti untuk tugas belajar di berbagai universitas di Amerika Serikat dengan dukungan dana dari Ford Foundation. Selain itu, FEUI juga mendatangkan staf pengajar dari AS, dan dengan sendirinya mengurangi dominasi pengajar berkebangsaan Belanda di kampus. Jurusan yang ada di FEUI juga ditambah, dari yang awalnya hanya mempunyai satu jurusan (Ekonomi Perusahaan), dikembangkan menjadi tiga jurusan, yaitu Ekonomi Umum, Sosiologi Ekonomi, dan Ekonomi Perusahaan. Kegiatan FEUI pada periode ini mulai meluas ke bidang penelitian, yang dilakukan melalui Seminar Ekonomi Perusahaan dan Balai Penyelidikan Masyarakat. Selanjutnya Balai Penyelidikan Masyarakat berubah menjadi Lembaga Penyelidikan Ekonomi dan Masyarakat tahun 1953.

Pada tahun 1964, Prof. Widjojo Nitisastro ditunjuk sebagai Dekan FEUI. Belaiu adalah dekan pertama yang merupakan lulusan FEUI. Pada masa terjadi perubahan yang cukup banyak terutama dalam pembentukan institusi pendukung. Lembaga yang pertama dibentuk oleh Widjojo ini adalah Lembaga Demografi, tahun 1964. Tahun berikutnya menyusul pembentukan Laboratorium Statistik. Dalam bidang akademik, perubahan terjadi menyangkut awal tahun ajaran, dari bulan September menjadi Februari, namun hal ini terjadi lebih dikarenakan oleh krisis politik Indonesia.

Pada tahun-tahun berikutnya, FEUI berkembang dengan pesat. Pada masa kepemimpinan Prof. Ali Wardhana (1968-1978), Iluni FEUI dibentuk. Pada tahun 1982, sistem perkuliahan berubah dari sistem tingkat ke sistem SKS. Pada masa kepemimpinan Prof. Dr. Mohammad Arsjad Anwar (1988-1994), kampus FEUI di Salemba dipindahkan ke kampus UI Depok.

Hingga saat ini, FEUI telah dipimpin oleh 15 Dekan. Jabatan Dekan saat ini dipegang oleh Ari Kuncoro yang terpilih untuk masa jabatan 2013-2017

SUMITRO: SOEHARTO LEMAH TERHADAP ANAK-ANAKNYA

Perintahnya bukan hanya diculik, tapi mungkin lebih jauh lagi.

 

Ketika Letjen TNI Prabowo Subianto dipecat dari ABRI, banyak mata menatap ke arah Prof. Dr. Sumitro Djojohadikusumo—ayah Prabowo yang juga mantan Menteri Perdagangan dan Menristek pada pemerintahan Soeharto. Menjelang turunnya Soeharto dari kursi kepresidenan, Sumitro sempat melontarkan sejumlah kritik keras terhadap kepemimpinan presiden yang juga besannya itu. Lalu apa yang dirasakannya ketika Prabowo dipecat? Apa pula pandangannya tentang 32 tahun kekuasaan Soeharto? DeTAK beruntung berkesempatan mewawancarai guru besar ekonomi UI yang oleh sejumlah kalangan digelari sebagai “Ayatullah” ekonomi Indonesia itu. Berikut petikan wawancara yang dilakukan di rumah­nya hari Minggu (6/9/1998) sore lalu:

 

Menurut Anda, apa yang paling krusial dari keadaan sekarang ini?

Yang menamakan  diri  pemerintahan, agregate kenegaraan itu memer­lukan legitimasi. Sekarang yang ada baru legalitas. Saya mengadakan pembedaan antara legality (keabsahan hukum) dan legitimacy (pen­gakuan mandat rakyat—Red.). Legality bisa saja dibikin dan sekarang ini memang dibikin. Tapi legitimacy atau mandat dari rakyat itu belum.

 

Indikasinya?

Sekarang itu masyarakat kita, dunia lembaga formal, DPR/MPR, semua sedang resah terus. Begitu juga para politisi yang kurang puas, para profesional, para akademisinya ribut terus. Semua menghendaki reformasi, tapi apa reformasi yang dimaui, kurang jelas. Ini yang secepatnya harus diatasi.

 

Dengan situasi seperti ini, bagaimana cara memenangkan kepercayaan rakyat dan dunia luar?

Salah satunya lewat pemilu. Tapi pemilu yang pelaksanaannya den­gan undang-undang pemilihan yang sudah direformasi, yang sudah dijanjikan. Walau pasti tidak mungkin perfek, tapi itu kan legal for­mal sekaligus legitimasi yang diperlukan.

 

Tapi bagaimana bila ternyata ABRI masih bersikeras mendukung hanya Golkar?

Mungkin ABRI tidak melihat alternatif lain selain Golkar.

 

Apa tidak mungkin sikap ini merupakan kelanjutan budaya poli­tik selama tiga puluh tahun yang diwariskan Soeharto?

Memang budaya politik yang saya rasa tertanam selama 32 tahun, merupakan hambatan dari demokrasi tulen. Tentang hak rakyat dan kedaulatan rakyat, dalam benak, pikiran dan perasaan masyarakat sekarang ini masih pada pengertian siapa yang punya legalitas itu dominan. Pokoknya, seolah yang berkuasa selalu benar terus.

 

Kembali ke masalah Pak Harto. Dalam kaitan psiko-politik Pak Harto ditempatkan sebagai masih memainkan peran penting, menurut Anda?

Bahwasanya orang-orang masih melihat di belakang Habibie dan Wiranto ada bayangan Soeharto, itu juga psikologis sifatnya. Tapi saya nggak lihat itu. Saya rasa, saya kenal besan saya itu dengan baik, walaupun nggak tahu seluruhnya, tapi saya pernah bekerja dekat dengan dia.

 

Pandangan Anda terhadap Pak Harto yang sekarang banyak menerima hujatan?

Saya rasa masalahnya lain dulu lain sekarang. Pada awal bekerja de­ngan Pak Harto, waktu itu menurut saya dia baik dan hebat. Selama 10 tahun sebagai pembantu presiden, kita para teknokrat berhasil membangun, dan gawatnya ekonomi bisa diatasi. Karena kita bisa percaya dan bisa mengandalkan dia secara sepenuhnya. Masa itu dia benar-benar pegang janji dan kata-katanya. Begitu banyak kritik di luar negeri, dan untuk setiap kesalahan yang dilakukan oleh menteri­-menterinya, Pak Harto selalu bersikap, “Sudahlah saya tanggung jawab.” Hebatnya di situ.

 

Mitro - Bio Crop Outer copy

 

Sekarang ini bagaimana?

Sesudah itu memang ada perubahan. Seingat saya, 10 tahun terakhir ini yang paling kentara buat saya.

 

Permasalahan intinya apa?

Dua hal, terlalu lemah terhadap anak-anaknya dan pengaruh yang sangat merugikan masyarakat dan negara dari kelakuan anak-­anaknya. Dan selain itu Soeharto terlalu lama berkuasa, kombinasi dua itulah yang terbaca oleh saya.

 

Di satu sisi betul bahwa anak-anaknya juga turut menciptakan suasana yang tidak menguntungkan. Tapi apakah ada kemung­kinan bahwa sebetulnya the real Soeharto ya seperti itu. Seperti tuduhan rakus harta dan haus kekuasaan. Menurut Anda?

Haus kekuasaan mungkin. Tapi greedy material thing (rakus harta benda), arahnya menurut saya, pribadinya loh, itu tidak. Jadi dia ambil kekayaan supaya kekuasaan semakin kuat terkonsentrasi padanya. Seperti kasus yayasan-yayasan, semua itu untuk kekuasaan. Dia jadikan salah satu sumber dana menghimpun keku­atan untuk mempengaruhi orang lain. He needs money to buy power, lebih mengarah ke sana. Tapi memang… pengaruh anak-anaknya besar sekali.

 

Perhatian pada anak yang berlebihan ini, sebagai mantan menteri dan besan, adakah penjelasan rasional yang Anda bisa sampaikan?

Mungkin begini… Saya pernah membicarakan masalah ini dengan orang tua saya, ibu saya. Memang ada semacam beban kejiwaan masa lalu. Suatu waktu dalam satu acara keluarga, waktu saya berusa­ha memperkenalkan keluarga kami dan nanya perihal keluarga Pak Harto, tanpa saya duga dia berbicara dengan sangat intens mengenai masa lalu dirinya.

 

Tepatnya kapan kejadian itu?

Oh, itu saat saya melamar Titiek (untuk jadi isteri Prabowo—Red.). Yah, ini saya buka sekalian saja. Pak Harto bercerita bahwa sewaktu dia masih dalam kandungan, ibunya sudah mengasingkan  diri  dari dunia keduniaan. “Jadi sejak lahir saya sebenarnya enggak kenal ibu kandung saya. Jadi saya besar di desa. Saya jadi rebutan saat saya umur 10 tahun, antara keluarga yang mengasuh saya dengan bapak kandung saya. Kemudian saya dikompromikan ditaruh di Wonogiri, di keluarga mantri, bapaknya Sudwikatmono. Makanya Sudwikatmono lebih dari saudara kandung….” Begitu menurut ceritanya.

 

prabowo004

 

Makna dari peristiwa itu?

ltulah yang membuat dirinya berlebih terhadap anak-anaknya. Karena tidak mau anak-anaknya bernasib seperti masa kecilnya yang gelap keluarga dan kasih sayang orang tua aslinya. Makanya sekarang ia tebus dengan memberikan segalanya pada anak-­anaknya.

 

Artinya, dalam hal ini posisi anak di sini dengan posisi bangsa dan negara, menurut Anda, kira-kira kalau Pak Harto disuruh mengambil pilihan, dia akan memilih yang mana?

Nyatanya dia pilih anaknya. Kenapa? Saudara tadi bicara soal sindrom, saya rasa dia juga terbiasa merasakan ungkapan l‘Etat c’est moi, negara adalah saya. Itu ‘kan sindrom budaya keraton juga, tuh. Seperti Amangkurat VII, bukan Amangkurat I.

 

Anda sebagai besan pernah nggak menegur?

Mungkin saya satu-satunya. Dua kali tentang anaknya. Saya dengar bahwa Benny Moerdani juga pernah singgung itu, tapi dimarahi. Saya dengar dari Sudharmono.

Saya datang ke dia, nggak tahu persis kapan, mungkin kira-kira 6-7 tahun lalu, dua kali saya nanya di Cendana. Saya kan Ketua Umum IKPN (Ikatan Koperasi Pegawai Negeri), saya sampaikan bahwa putra-­putra Bapak sudah menjadi isu politik. Saya sengaja nggak mengritik, hanya menyampaikan fakta saja. Dia diam, tidak ada perubahan. Saya nggak tahu apa dia marah atau dia terima. Waktu saya pamit, di pintu dia bilang, “Iya Pak Mitro, saya menyadari anak-anak saya terkena isu politik.” Nah, saya kan lega.

 

Mengapa hasilnya tetap sama, tak ada perubahan berarti?

Wah, itu yang saya sulit mengerti…

 

Bagaimana Anda memposisikan Pak Harto sebagai seorang besan?

Ini hubungan yang sifatnya pribadi, jadi saya akan bicara secara umum saja. Saya kira tidak usahlah menilai hubungan pribadi dalam konteks pembicaraan ini.

Saya tidak pernah membantah bahwa saya mempunyai utang budi politik kepada Soeharto, sebab dialah yang memungkinkan saya kembali ke tanah air dari pengasingan. Dia sengaja mengirim Ali Moertopo untuk menemui saya dan meminta saya pulang. Akan tetapi utang budi saya yang paling utama dan lebih luas lagi ialah kepada rakyat dan masyarakat bangsa saya. Di kala kepentingan rak­yat dilanggar, dan ini terjadi beberapa kali dalam pengalaman saya, waktu itu juga saya harus berpihak pada kepentingan rakyat banyak.

 

Kalau Anda sendiri terhadap anak-anak Anda bagaimana?

Waktu Hashim (adik Prabowo) selesai sekolah, saya masih dalam kabinet. Ketika dia mengatakan mau bisnis di Indonesia, saya jawab, “Selama saya masih jadi menteri, Please… Not in Indonesia!” Makanya dia kerja di luar waktu itu.

November 1977, saya datang kepada Pak Harto, lalu saya katakan, “Nanti tahun 1978 saudara akan mempertimbangkan susunan kabi­net, saya jangan dimasukkan lagi, saya sudah mendekati 60 tahun…. Hashim itu mau berkarir di bidang bisnis, selama saya masih dalam pemerintahan nggak saya perkenankan….”

 

Jawaban Pak Harto?

You know what he said, yang mengejutkan dia bilang soal Hashim… “Kalau begitu Pak Mitro enggak adil terhadap anak-anak.” Nah, coba itu kan pandangan yang sangat berbeda. Sementara saya selalu anjurkan kepada anak-anak saya untuk tidak bergantung pada bantu­an dan kemampuan orang tua. Maklum etos itu telah saya tanamkan sejak saya jadi buron politik di zaman pemerintahan Bung Karno. Hidup di luar negeri itu harus mandiri. Kalau soal anak, Pak Harto memang sangat lemah dan di situlah kelemahannya yang mendasar.

 

Sebagai ayah, Anda sendiri bagaimana menghadapi kasus Prabowo ini?

Begini, saya mulai dengan dua hal dulu. Saya mengingatkan apa yang pernah saya bilang selalu sebagai prinsip dasar yang tak dapat ditawar-tawar lagi oleh setiap anggota keluarga: unequivocally, human dignity, dan social justice merupakan hal yang harus selalu dijunjung tinggi. Tanpa itu, mau jadi apa kita?!

Saya nggak bisa membayangkan menghadapi situasi sekarang. Itu pertama. Kedua, dengan situasi sekarang saya sekeluarga mendukung segenap langkah yang bertujuan menegakkan keadilan masyarakat, termasuk dalam kasus Prabowo.

Mengadili perwira dalam tata cara yang tidak fair dan tidak kesatria itu yang tidak saya setuju. Dalam kaitan human dignity dan human right, jangan atasan harus selalu benar…. Saya masih ingat tahun per­tama dia di Akabri, taruna di situ diajar untuk “kejam” sekali. Taruna kedua, ketiga, itu boleh apa saja terhadap juniornya. Di West Point nggak boleh begitu. Jadi darnpak dari budaya pendidikan seperti itu, saya rasa sekarang it is danger, apalagi seperti menghadapi Raja Jawa ini (Soeharto—Red.), jenderal-jenderal nggak berani.

 

prabowo 03

 

Kembali pada kasus Prabowo, bagaimana dia sebagai militer dalam pandangan Anda?

Dalam beberapa hal Bowo mungkin kompromi. Seperti saya kasih kasus di Timor Timur itu, nggak mungkin sama komando mem­bangkang atasannya. Tapi ada kasus dia ternyata membangkang. Karena tidak mau nurut perintah disuruh membunuh tawanan perang yang tak bersenjata. Saya mendukung langkah-langkah dia yang seperti itu, walau terkena sanksi tak apalah.

 

Termasuk yang sekarang?

Kasus Bowo khusus kali ini kok seakan-akan asas keadilan ini jadi kabur. Karena, pertama, Prabowo pada khususnya dan Kopassus pada umumnya, seolah yang paling bersalah dan satu-satunya yang diper­salahkan. Bahwa ada berbagai instansi dan kesatuan yang terlibat, mengapa harus ditutup-tutupi? Toh semua yang terjadi merupakan satu paket program, untuk menegakkan kekuasaan, status quo.

 

Jadi, dalam kasus Prabowo, Anda bukan tidak setuju untuk diusut tuntas?

Caranya itu, loh. Dan, ini kan juga diakui oleh bekas-bekas korban penculikan. Mereka tidak ingin hanya Kopassus. Dengan dibawa ke Kramat (wilayah komando Kodam V Jaya—Red.), jelas yang terlibat bukan hanya Kopassus. Tapi mengapa semua seolah-olah terpusat ke Bowo, semua kecaman ditujukan ke dia?! Apakah seorang Prabowo begitu berkuasa hingga bisa perintah sana-sini ke berbagai daerah dan institusi? Padahal, menurut seorang mantan Kasad, seperti ditulis DeTAK, kalau dalam ABRI ada oknum yang salah itu dua tingkat di atas kena, turut bertanggung jawab. Sebagai Danjen Kopassus kan dia punya dua atasan, KSAD dan Pangab waktu itu, mereka nggak mungkin nggak tahu, seharusnya mereka tahu!

 

Tapi ada juga kebiasaan yang mengatakan bahwa bisa saja mere­ka nggak tahu karena…

Maksud Saudara adanya Pangti? Yak, seperti yang dibenarkan oleh
Hasnan Habib, Pangti itu (Soeharto—Red.) punya kebiasaan untuk langsung kasih perintah ke bawahan tanpa menghiraukan tingkat-tingkat hierarki. Saya itu sebagai menteri kadang-kadang di-by pass (dipo­tong). Nah, itu kebiasaan Raja Jawa. Tapi bagi dia that’s right. Jadi tidak pernah ada keberanian mengungkap secara kesatria tentang KSAD, Pangab, dan Pangti. Kalau yang tiga ini dipertanyakan baru ada pengertian justice, keadilan, that’s about it.

 

Hal lain yang Anda anggap sebagai penyimpangan keadilan?

Intinya seperti tadi itu, tapi cara pemberitaan dari sementara kalang­an media dari dalam maupun luar negeri juga patut disesalkan, kare­na banyak berita cenderung mengandung hukuman. Seolah tidak ada asas praduga tak bersalah yang dipegang. Sudah cenderung meng­hakimi. Beberapa di antaranya tidak segan-segan membikin profil­-profil personality yang sudah menodai tabiat pribadinya.

 

prabowo007

 

Seperti apa misalnya?

Salah satu media menulis, Prabowo kemarin pergi umroh dan sekarang dia entah di mana… Padahal jelas dia ada di sini. Untung Gus Dur turut membantah isu tersebut. Kemarin, tanggal 1 September, kita merayakan ulang tahun istri saya. Bowo ada di sini dengan Titiek dan anaknya. Jadi apa maksud melancarkan pemberitaan yang menyudutkan itu? Ini kan sudah merusak citra pribadi dan nilai personality dia (Prabowo).

 

Mengapa tidak secara resmi dilakukan bantahan?

Saya enggak mau seakan-akan karena dia itu anak saya maka saya bela-­bela, kita hanya ingin melihat ada justice, keadilan. Harapan saya hanyalah adanya perlakuan dan tanggapan terhadap Prabowo secara adil dan lancar. Tapi mengapa asas keadilan seakan-akan jadi kabur?

Tentu saya enggak mau bilang bahwa dia itu seluruhnya benar, tapi semua salah pun saya tidak berani katakan.

 

Tapi kenapa dari keluarga Bapak seringkali tidak menggunakan hak jawab?

Karena, pertama, dalam proses ini kan Bowo terus-menerus diproses dalam DKP, kita tidak mau tambah mempersulit kedudukannya. Jangan sampai ada distorsi atas tragedi yang ada.

 

Dengan dipecatnya Bowo, bagaimana perasaan sebagai seorang ayah?

Sedih tentunya. Karena saya tahu Bowo… Dia itu kan hanya men­jalankan perintah. Sebagai militer, sulit saya untuk sepenuhnya menyalahkan dia. Kalau dia seorang sipil, jelas dia telah melanggar hak asasi manusia. Tapi kalau memang mau mengusut sesuatu, hen­daknya bersifat menyeluruh.

 

Maksud Anda?

Cari siapa dalang sesungguhnya di balik berbagai peristiwa. Mengapa tidak usut tuntas kasus Tanjung Priok, Kasus Lampung, dan lainnya?

 

Kalau bicara keadilan, artinya posisi Pangti pun harus diper­tanyakan?

Iya, dong. Asal-usulnya dari sana kok. Mengapa tidak usut tuntas kasus Tanjung Priok, Lampung, dan lainnya? Siapa yang paling bertanggung jawab? Saya katakan ini bukan dengan dasar dendam atau sentimen. Saya bukan pendendam. Dulu saya jadi buronnya Bung Karno, tapi hubungan saya dengan Bu Fatmawati sangat baik. Jadi semata-mata hal ini saya lakukan karena menegakkan keadilan sudah menjadi kebutuhan dan tuntutan masyarakat luas.

 

Bicara soal keadilan, dalam hal DKP yang harus menggunakan norma-norma militer dalam menegakkan kehormatan perwira, kesan Anda bagaimana?

Saya sendiri kurang tahu persis apa yang terjadi. Bowo juga enggak mau banyak omong selama proses ini. Tapi kadang-kadang kan ada kebocoran juga. Bukan dari Bowo saja, tapi ada lah yang lapor. Saya ‘kan dulu mengajar di mana-mana, di Seskoad, Seskogab, Lemhanas, dan masih banyak lagi.

 

Kenyataannya, proses belum selesai tapi hukuman sudah dijatuhkan, bagaimana Anda menanggapi hal ini?

Dari sudut legalitas kan segalanya sudah diserahkan pada Pangab. Apa ada kemungkinan proses pengusutan berkembang sampai ke tingkat yang lebih tinggi, jawabannya ya dan tidak. Saya merasa kemungkinan ada juga keseganan untuk meneruskan. Kalau toh dianggap secara legalitas final, secara morality sebenarnya belum final.

 

Khusus dalam kasus putra Anda, Prabowo?

Yah, kalau saudara mau bersikap kritis, coba bertanya; mengapa 9 (sembilan) aktivis yang diculik selamat semuanya, tapi yang 14 (empat belas) lainnya masih hilang sampai hari ini, apa ya mereka masih hidup?

 

Maksud Anda?

Karena yang sembilan orang itu, memang sepengetahuan Bowo dan dibebaskan dengan selamat atas kehendak Bowo pribadi.

 

Maksud katapribadi dalam kaitan ini?

Karena perintahnya tidak begitu.

 

Bagaimana perintah itu sebenarnya?

Perintahnya bukan hanya diculik, tapi mungkin lebih jauh lagi.

 

Dihabiskan maksudnya?

(Menjawab hanya dengan anggukkan kepala sambil menyimpan suatu perasaan yang terkesan sangat dalam).

 

Setahu Anda siapa yang memerintahkan Prabowo melakukan hal itu?

Siapa lagi kalau bukan seseorang yang sangat berkuasa?

 

*) Dimuat di Tabloid DETAK No. 09/I, 8-14 September 1998.

 

Kelebihan Prabowo sebagai Capres 2014

 

Beberapa pembaca menanyakan tentang penyebab Prabowo Subianto menduduki posisi teratas sebagai calon presiden paling disukai rakyat. Berbagai sebab saling terkait yang menyebabkan dukungan tinggi terhadap mantan Komandan Jenderal Kopassus pada masa Soeharto itu.

Pertama, Prabowo Subianto memiliki karakter sebabagi pemimpin. Buktinya beliau memimpin banyak organisasi selepas pensiun sebagai militer.

Kedua, Prabowo memiliki partai, Partai Gerindra. Dengan memiliki partai publik menjadi jelas akan arah pencalonannya. Prabowo berbeda dengan para tokoh lain yang tidak memiliki partai seperti Mahfud MD, Anies Baswedan, Dahlan Iskan.

Ketiga, Prabowo berasal dari suku Jawa. Mau tidak mau, suka tidak suka mayoritas penduduk tinggal di pulau Jawa. Faktor Jawa Prabowo menjadi nilai lebih.

Keempat, Prabowo beragama Islam. Meski primordialisme semakin terkikis, namun pada kenyataannya sebagian besar masyarakat masih sangat kental dengan semangat segergitas. Ini dibuktikan dengan beberapa pilgub yang dimenangkan justru oleh kelompok kader pengusung semangat segregitas-primordialis seperti PKS misalnya.

Kelima, Prabowo hanya membutuhkan kehormatan sebagai presiden. Prabowo sudah memiliki kekayaan yang didapatkan secara sah bukan karena korupsi seperti yang dilakukan oleh banyak partai.

Keenam, Prabowo adalah sosok nasionalis yang mampu menjaga tanah air, pulau dan perairan Indonesia dan akan membela sampai titik darah penghabisan. Prabowo pernah membuktikan dengan berbagai operasi di Papua, Timor Timur. Prabowo akan membebaskan Sipadan-Ligitan dari genggaman Malaysia.

Ketujuh, Prabowo laki-laki. Di Indonesia masyarakat Islam tradisional dan jumud dengan diwakili oleh Ustadz Wahabi selalu mendorong anti calon presiden perempuan. Contoh Megawati ditolak oleh MPR menjadi Presiden meskipun PDIP pemenang Pemilu 1999.

Melihat 7 kekuatan dan kelebihan Prabowo Subianto tersebut sudah selayaknya Prabowo memimpin dalam berbagai polling dan survey. Namun demikian musuh politik Prabowo seperti PKS – yang pada zaman Soeharto kelompok Islam dimarjinalisasikan – menjadikan Prabowo sebagai musuh. Prabowo selalu dituduh oleh kalangan kiri dan kelompok LSM kampung sebagai orang yang terlibat dalam kasus Operasi Mawar yang tidak pernah terbukti. Semakin besar dan tinggi elektabilitas Prabowo, semakin kencang tolakan dan upaya musuh yang tidak nasionalis menghadang Prabowo. Namun bukti elektabilitas tinggi Prabowo menunjukkan masyarakat sudah paham kampanye kotor terhadap Prabowo.

Selamat datang Presiden Prabowo.

Salam bahagia ala saya.

Ini Kelebihan dan Kelemahan Prabowo-Hatta

Kamis, 07 Februari 2013, 19:16 WIB

Komentar : 1
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Prabowo Subianto

REPUBLIKA.CO.ID, JAKARTA -– Ketua DPP Partai Demokrat, Sutan Bhatoegana, menilai Prabowo Subianto merupakan figur yang cukup menjanjikan diusung sebagai calon presiden (capres).

“Pak Prabowo saya kira cukup menjanjikan,” kata Sutan ketika dihubungi, Kamis (7/2). Sutan mengatakan, sebagai capres Prabowo memiliki sejumlah keunggulan.

Pertama, Prabowo memiliki karir kepemimpinan yang baik di bidang militer. Kedua, Prabowo pernah menempuh pendidikan di luar negeri. Hal ini tentu membuat Prabowo mampu menguasai bahasa asing yang dibutuhkan dalam misi-misi diplomasi Indonesia.

Ketiga, Prabowo figur yang matang secara finansial. Kondisi ini bisa memberikan harapan kepada masyarakat Prabowo tidak korupsi saat menjadi presiden. “Ini sisi positifnya,” ujar Sutan.

Terlepas dari segala kelebihannya, Prabowo juga memiliki sejumlah kekurangan. Sutan mengatakan, kekurangan utama Prabowo dan kasus HAM yang menjerat dirinya. Dia mengatakan kasus HAM yang menjerat Prabowo sampai saat ini belum tuntas. “Ini akan menjadi batu sandungan Prabowo,” katanya.

Selain itu, Prabowo juga memiliki kelemahan dalam mengelola kepemimpinan diri. Menurut Sutan sebelum memimpin negara, seorang pemimpin mesti bisa memimpin diri sendiri.

Dia menyatakan Prabowo sampai saat ini belum memiliki pendamping. Dia berharap Prabowo bisa segera melengkapi kekurangannya ini. “Supaya seorang laki-laki itu sukses kalau didampingi wanita yang kuat. Pemimpin harus bisa memimpin keluarga,” ujarnya.

Terkait nama Hatta Rajasa yang digadang-gadang bakal menjadi pasangan Prabowo di bursa Capres-Cawapres Pemilu 2014, Sutan juga punya pendapat. Figur Hatta menurutnya memili pengalaman yang baik di bidang organisasi. “Kekuatan Hatta dia punya pengalaman. Piawai memimpin organisasi,” katanya.

Sayang Hatta punya kelemahan elementer sebagai calon pemimpin. Hatta, imbuh Sutan, tidak berasal dari kalangan Jawa. Betapapun, mayoritas pemilih Indonesia berasal dari suku Jawa. “Meskipun tidak tertulis presiden bukan orang Jawa, rata-rata penduduk republik masih berasal dari Jawa,” ujarnya.

Prabowo, Bangunkan ‘Macan Tidur’

 

 

Plus minus Jokowi-JK dan Prabowo-Hatta menurut pengamat

Reporter : Mardani | Senin, 19 Mei 2014 11:09
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Plus minus Jokowi-JK dan Prabowo-Hatta menurut pengamat

Jokowi-Prabowo. ©2014 Merdeka.com

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Merdeka.com – Dua pasang capres cawapres bakal bertarung di Pilpres 2014. Pasangan JokowiJusuf Kalla (JK) hari ini bakal deklarasi dan mendaftar ke KPU.

Sementara, pasangan Prabowo SubiantoHatta Rajasa bakal deklarasi dan mendaftar ke KPU besok. Koordinator Peneliti Pusat Penelitian Politik Nasional Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia (LIPI), Irine Gayatri menilai, dua pasang capres cawapres itu memiliki kelebihan dan kekurangan masing-masing.

Pasangan Jokowi-JK menurutnya memiliki kelebihan dari sisi elektabilitas. Selain itu, Jokowi tidak memiliki jejak Orde Baru.

“Kebijakan-kebijakannya (Jokowi saat jadi wali kota dan gubernur) populis atau berkaitan dengan yang diinginkan rakyat,” kata Irine kepada merdeka.com, Senin (19/5).

Menurutnya, saat menjabat sebagai wali kota Solo, Jokowi berhasil merelokasi pedagang kecil tanpa menimbulkan konflik sedikitpun. Saat menjadi Gubernur DKI, Jokowi menyediakan berbagai fasilitas untuk rakyat kecil seperti Rusun dan Kampung Deret.

“Memang semuanya belum tuntas (kinerja Jokowi di DKI) tapi setidaknya sudah kelihatan hasilnya,” katanya.

Namun yang menjadi kelemahan pasangan ini, menurutnya, cawapres Jokowi yakni Jusuf Kalla (JK) sudah sangat senior dari sisi usia.

“Pak JK harus manut kepada Presiden jika nanti terpilih. Dia kan Wapres, jangan seperti dulu ambil langkah sendiri,” katanya.

Sementara, pasangan Prabowo-Hatta menurutnya juga memiliki kelebihan dari sisi popularitas. Sosok Prabowo memiliki popularitas yang tidak boleh disepelekan.

Selain itu, pasangan ini memiliki dukungan dari partai-partai Islam seperti PPP, PKS dan PAN yang dapat menarik massa Islam. Namun di sisi lain pasangan ini juga memiliki kelemahan. Salah satunya adalah nama Prabowo yang selama ini kerap dikait-kaitkan dengan kasus penculikan aktivis 1997-1998.

“Kalau Prabowo, saat dia masih jadi Kopassus ada kasus pelanggaran HAM yang belum tuntas dan itu warisan politik Orde Baru. Meski sudah belasan tahun masih membekas korban-korban masih menuntut keadilan,” katanya.

“Jadi ada problem pada Prabowo. Hatta dari sisi ekonomi kita bisa lihat dia yang pro modal,” katanya.

Semakin Terlihat Kelebihan Jokowi dan Tampak Kelemahan Prabowo

 

Agak mengherankan, kedua kubu pasti sangat serius menjaga citra dan pasti terus menerus berpikir untuk memperluas pengaruh dan menebarkan kesan positif, tetapi hasil yang diraih tidak selalu seperti yang diharapkan. Sampai sejauh ini, Jokowi lebih beruntung mendapat nilai plus, sedangkan Prabowo seperti semakin mendapat nilai minus.

Jokowi yang di waktu lalu dianggab tidak memiliki vivi misi, akhir-akhir ini mematahkan tuduhan itu karena selain telah memasukkan visi misinya ke KPU, juga dalam berbagai kesempatan sangat tangkas menjelaskan gagasan-gagasannya untuk membangun Indonesia dalam bidang ekonomi, pertanian, pendidikan, dll. Jokowi yang diragukan ke-Islam-annya, dengan mantap pula membuyarkan tuduhan itu dengan bukti-bukti bahwa dia sudah berkali-kali haji dan umrah, ayah-ibunya juga, dan saudara-daudarinya juga. Bahkan Pimpinan Muhammadyad Dr. Din Syamsuddin pun sudah “menguji” ke-Islaman-an Jokowi dan tidak meragukan. Dan hampir semua tudingan atau “black campaign” yang ditujukan kepada Jokowi selama ini, satu satu rontok dan tak bersambut dimanapun.

Sebaliknya, kelebihan Jokowi semakin terlihat dari hari ke hari. Walauapun Jokowi tidak orator ulung, tidak ahli retorika, tetapi bahasanya kalau berpidato sangat mudah dicerna dan menyegarkan, hal itu disempurnakan pula oleh bahasa tubuhnya memancarkan kesungguhan dan ketulusan. Dalam berbagai kesempatan dia berkeliling Indonesia, selalu dan selalu kelihatan bahasa kesederhanaan, kesungguhan, ketulusan, dan sama sekali tidak ada kepura-puraan pada dirinya. Kata-katanya yang simple dan tidak banyak “bumbu” mampu menyemburkan sedemikian besar pengharapan bagi rakyat yang mendengar. Tak mengherankan, kalau banyak orang terutama ibu-ibu kalau mendengar dia berbicara di TV hanyut dalam keharuan dan ada yang menitikkan air mata.

Perjuangan Jokowi meraih kursi Preside RI seperti sudah mendapat restu Tuhan Yang Maha Kuasa. Langkah dan ucapan Jokowi semakin hari semakin mantap dan mengena di hati banyak orang. Tak mengeherankan jika kemudian banyak pujian dan dukungan yang mengalir ke arahnya. Orang-orang dan kelompok-kelompok yang mendukungnya pun relatif tidak bermasalah, orang-orang yang berkarakter kuat, dan kalaupun ada yang terkait dengan masalah di masa lalu kemungkinan besar “sudah bertobat” karena tidak ada lagi yang mengungkitnya.

Yang menyejukkan akhir-akhir ini adalah sikap dan gaya Jusuf Kalla. Tadinya banyak yang berpikir negatif kalau cawapres Jokowi adalah Jusuf Kalla. Kalla dikhawatirkan akan dominan, akan ada matahari kembar dalam kepemimpinan nasional. Tetapi Jusuf Kalla menegaskan, “kalau terpilih nanti, saya akan benar-benar sebagai pembantu presiden, saya akan bekerja sesuai kehendak Presiden.” Dan Jokowi pun menegaskan, dirinya dan Jusuf Kalla akan membuat pembagian tugas (Jokowi tidak menyebut dirinya yang membuat pembagian tugas, tetapi dirinya dan Yusuf Kalla — itu menunjukkan jiwa besar dan kerendahan hatinya). Mudah-mudahan, Jokowi – Jusuf Kalla adalah duet pemimpin nasional yang efektif untuk membawa kemajuan yang signifikan bagi bangsa dan negara.

* * *

Capres Prabowo, sebenarnya sudah membentangkan visi dan misi yang jelas yang akan diusung kalau terpilih menjadi presiden. Bagus, sulit untuk dibilang jelek, walaupun tidak terlalu istimewa. Prabowo pun lancar menjelaskan visi misinya, dan gaya pidatonya berapi-api. Masalahnya adalah intonasi suara Prabowo kalau berpidato tidak enak didengar, bahasa tubuhnyapun tidak enak dilihat. Padahal dalam ilmu komunikasi, intonasi suara dan bahasa tubuh lebih kuat pengaruhnya dari materi pembicaraan. Ada kesan intonasi suara dan gerak tubuh dibuat-buat, bahkan berlebihan, dan mungkin itu hasil training.

Sama seperti Jokowi, Prabowo pun banyak diterpa isu, mendapat tudingan dan black campaign. Tetapi, jika tudingan terhadap Jokowi sudah banyak yang patah dan lewat, tudingan terhadap Prabowo masih kokoh, seperti soal isu pelanggaran HAM, berkarakter kasar, tidak mampu menjaga keharmonisan keluarga (bagaimana Prabowo menjaga keutuhan negara kalau menjaga keutuhan keluarga pun tidak becus?). Ada kesan, Prabowo suka banyak bicara, bicaranya meledak-ledak — itu semakin lama semakin tidak disukai banyak orang.  Penyebabnya: dari intonasi dan bahasa tubuh Prabowo tampak dia tidak sungguh-sungguh, tidak tulus, tidak rendah hati.  Entah kenapa, ya begitulah adanya.

Sejak awal Prabowo membuka pintu untuk terjadinya “tenda besar” sebagai pendukungnya, tenda besar itu bagi parpol, kelompok, dan individu. Memang terwujud juga tenda besar itu, parpol pendukung Prabowo lebih besar dari parpol pendukung Jokowi, dan banyak kelomppok dan individu yang sudah menyatakan dukungan terhadap prabowo.  Lalu, Prabowo pun selalu dengan senyum yang sumringah menyambut setiap kelompok dan individu yang datang untuk memberi dukungan.

Tapi di situ pulalah masalahnya, banyak kemudian kelompok dan orang yang bergabung dengan Prabowo membawa sekaligus masalah. PPP sudah sejak awal masuk membawa masalah (walaupun terakhir seperti reda), lalu SDA yang ngotot mendukung Prabowo ternyata menjadi tersangka korupsi. Rhoma Irama, yang tukang ngambek dan bermimpin jadi Capres itu bergabung dengan Prabowo meninggalkan PKB. Mahfud, yang ternyata tidak lebih baik dari Rhoma Irama pun bergabung dengan Prabowo bahkan menjadi pimpinan tim sukses Prabowo, padahal jelas-jelas Mahfud selama ini sangat ingin menjadi cawapres Jokowi. ARB, Ketua Umum Golkar, yang bertahun-tahun mengiklankan diri sebagai capres, yang berulangkali ngotot tidak mau dievaluasi pencapresannya, bergubung dengan Prabowo setelah ditolak Megawati. ARB adalah contoh manusia tidak berpendirian kuat, selalu menggunakan hitungan bisnis dalam bekerja, dan dia adalah orang yang pernah menciptakan masalah besar di Indonesia: Lapindo. Bergabung pula dengannya serombongan orang Golkar, istimewa: Akbar Tanjung, yang selama ini sangat dikenal sebagai “belut politik”. Kemudian ada lagi HT, mantan partner Wiranto sebagai bakal cawapres. Dia ada contoh paling ideal dari manusia yang tidak tahu diri, tidak tau dimana bimi dipijak dan langit dijinjing. Dia bergabung dengan Prabowo setelah pecah dengan Surya Paloh dan bubar dengan Wiranto. Dia memang kaya, tetapi pelit, dia hanya mengandalkan tv-tvnya dan asuransi.

Prabowo Subianto dan Hatta Rajasa menjadi “Prahara”, singkatan yang bagus tetapi bermakna tidak bagus. Sepertinya memang tidak bagus, karean Hatta yang dari Muhammadyah ini belum tentu mendapat dukungan dari Islam non-Muhammadya. Lagi pula, Hatta selama ini tak terlalu menarik jika diasumsikan sebagai capres maupun cawapres. Mungkin harapan Prabowo untuk menarik dukungan SBY atau Demokrat? SBY masih bingung dan mungkin akan bingung untuk memihak salah satu: Jokowi-Kalla atau Prahara? Mungkin benar kata pengamat, matanya melirik Jokowi tapi hatinya pada Prabowo?

Yang jelas, sampai pada hari ini, kelemahan Prabowo semakin tampak. Tidak tahu besok-besok ada perubahan.

TERIMA KASIH GOOGLE, DALAM SEKEJAP SAYA TELAH ,MENGUMPULKAN INFO HASIL STUDI BANDING DUA TOKOH MASA LALU SOEMITRO DAN SOEDIRMAN 

DAN

DUA TOKOH MASA KINI

PRABOOWO DAN JOKOWI

INI HASIL PIKIRAN SELURUHJ RAKYAT INDONESIA’

UNTUK SELURUH RAKYAT INDONESIA

TERAKHIR BAGAIMANA PENDAPAT OBAMA TENTANG MEREKA

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Obama, Prabowo, dan Jokowi

HILLARY Rodham Clinton berang. Menjawab pertanyaan wartawan dari kantor berita ABC News, dia menyangkal  tim suksesnya berada di belakang pemuatan foto Barack Obama yang diunggah oleh drudgereport.com. “Saya tidak tahu apa pun tentang [foto] itu,” kata Nyonya Clinton kepada Teddy Davis dan Jacqueline Klingebiel, wartawan ABC News yang mewawancarainya, 25 Februari 2008.

Foto yang ditanyakan oleh dua wartawan itu adalah foto Obama mengenakan baju tradisional Somalia lengkap dengan serbannya. Sebetulnya foto itu biasa saja, namun tersebar saat musim kampanye calon presiden dari Partai Demokrat, ketika Obama dan Hillary bersaing sengit mendapatkan tiket sebagai kandidat presiden dari partainya. Lewat foto itu, Obama seolah hendak digambarkan sebagai pemeluk Islam, agama yang sukses dikampanyekan oleh George W Bush sebagai agamanya para teroris, dan karena itu Obama harus ditolak sebagai calon presiden.

Dan ini yang menjadi biang persoalan: redaksi drudgereport mengaku mendapatkan foto Obama dari email yang dikirim oleh “staf Hillary.” Sebuah pernyataan yang niscaya habis-habisan disangkal oleh kubu Hillary. Mereka menyatakan, tidak pernah melihat email itu. “Kalau ada penyelidikan independen tentang foto itu, kami akan menyambutnya,” kata Howard Wolfson, juru bicara tim sukses Hillary.

Wolfson mungkin benar, tapi foto itu telah menjadi “persoalan” tersendiri. Sebagian publik Amerika termakan dengan isu agama Obama. Sebelum pemilihan di Texas dan Ohio, sebagian orang bahkan sudah beranggapan Obama beragama Islam atau dekat dengan orang-orang Islam. Banyak media di Amerika Serikat dan Inggris yang kemudian latah mengecam Hillary. Dia dan tim suksesnya dituduh telah melancarkan kampanye buruk untuk menjatuhkan pesaingnya. Kantor berita BBC menuding, kampanye semacam itu sudah dilakukan setahun sebelumnya, ketika kubu Hillary menyebut Obama bergama Islam.

Apa tanggapan Obama?

Dia sama sekali tidak membantah. Orang yang mengenakan serban seperti terlihat di foto yang disebarkan oleh drudgereport diakuinya adalah dirinya.

Foto itu diambil ketika dia melawat ke Kenya, negara asal dari ayah kandung Obama, dua tahun sebelum dia diusung sebagai salah satu kandidat presiden Partai Demokrat. Berpidato dalam sebuah kampanye, Obama menyatakan, siapa pun tahu, ketika berkunjung ke sebuah negara, seseorang tak bisa menolak untuk didaulat mengenakan baju yang dihadiahkan oleh penduduk negara itu. “Adalah menyedihkan, jika dugaan tentang [foto] itu benar berasal dari kubu Clinton; karena pada saat yang sama dia menekankan perlu memperbaiki hubungan yang lebih baik di seluruh dunia,” kata Obama.

Di musim semi enam tahun lalu itu, kampanye dan persaingan dari dua calon presiden Partai Demokrat memang berlangsung panas. Dua kubu saling memburukkan dan membusukkan. Sentimen ras dan agama disebarluaskan, dan Obama adalah sasaran yang paling rentan diserang karena kulit dan latar belakang keluarganya yang berasal dari Afrika. Dia dianggap tidak pantas memimpin Amerika.

Lalu setelah memenangkan pertarungan di partainya, dan terpilih menjadi presiden Amerika mengalahkan John McCain dari Partai Republik; latar belakang Obama terus dipersoalkan. Dia baru menjabat presiden selama enam bulan, tapi “Birthers”, sebuah kelompok kecil yang terdiri dari orang-orang yang percaya dengan teori konspirasi, melancarkan tuduhan: kewarganegaraan Obama diragukan dan sebab itu dianggap tidak bisa menjadi presiden Amerika.

Mereka tidak percaya dengan dokumen resmi Obama, dan menyatakan Obama sebetulnya lahir di Kenya atau Indonesia. Mereka juga tidak peduli dengan fakta bahwa andai pun benar Obama lahir di luar negeri, tapi salah satu orang tuanya adalah warga Amerika dan itu berarti Obama adalah tetap warga Amerika.

Semua tuduhan itu bisa saja dianggap sebagai kurang kerjaan, tapi Birther bukan gerakan remeh kendati mungkin tidak begitu popular di Amerika. Lou Dobbs, wartawan CNN, malah memperbesar kontroversi yang ditiupkan Birther dengan terus melemparkan pertanyaan tentang kewarganegaraan Obama. Pembawa acara radio beraliran kanan Rush Limbaugh mengulang-ulang topik kewarganegaraan Obama. Lalu kelompok konservatif yang sudah tidak senang dengan terpilihnya Obama sebagai presiden dengan senang hati menerima semua rumor yang menjelekkan Obama. Mereka seperti mendapatkan amunisi baru, setelah di masa kampanye gagal menuduh Obama sebagai pemakai narkoba, homo dan negro.

Tuduhan-tuduhan yang memburukkan dan membusukkan seseorang karena sentimen ras, agama, dan latar belakang keluarga seperti yang pernah terjadi pada masa kampanye calon presiden Amerika itu; juga berlangsung di Indonesia. Diulang-ulang dan bisa jauh lebih buruk. Dulu, istri Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono pernah diisukan beragama Kristen, ketika SBY untuk kali pertama maju ke Pemilihan Presiden 2004. Di musim kampanye 2009, telah disebarkan desas-desus bahwa Herawati, beragama Katolik. Herawati adalah istri Boediono calon wakil presiden dari calon presiden SBY.

Namanya juga isu, tentu saja tak terlalu jelas darimana asalnya gosip tentang agama Bu Hera, kecuali dari selebaran yang dibagi-bagikan di Asrama Haji, Medan. Saat itu Jusuf Kalla yang bertarung sebagai calon presiden berkampanye di sana. Lalu, seolah memang sudah menunggu, selebaran berisi isu agama Bu Hera diterkam oleh kubu SBY-Boediono. Dianggap sebagai kampanye super negatif. Rizal Mallarangeng, juru bicara tim kampanye SBY-Boediono tak hanya mengancam melaporkan kasus selebaran di Asrama Haji Medan ke Bawaslu, melainkan menuntut Kalla untuk meminta maaf. Kalla terbahak dan balik menuduh Rizal telah salah alamat, karena selebaran itu sama sekali tidak berhubungan dengan JK-Wiranto.

Kini, dua calon presiden, Prabowo Subianto dan Joko Widodo berikut keluarga dan masa lalu mereka tak luput dari sasaran kampanye busuk. Jokowi dianggap sebagai bukan muslim dan hajinya dinilai pencitraan; seolah menjadi nonmuslim adalah dosa. Agama ibunya Prabowo yang Kristen dibesar-besarkan. Anak lelakinya yang berkarir sebagai perancang mode diolok-olok dan direndahkan. Jokowi dituduh berbohong karena menutupi asal-usul keluarganya. Dianggap keturunan Cina, kendati seluruh keluarganya sudah membantah dan menjelaskan dengan terang. Kewarganegaraan Prabowo diungkit-ungkit padahal sudah sejak 1998 yang bersangkutan menyatakan menolak menjadi warga negara Jordania.

Benar, agama dan ras, seperti juga masa lalu, bisa menjadi sesuatu yang buruk sehingga menjadi bahan kampanye paling murah yang bisa dijual mahal. Ia bisa didaurulang untuk menuai simpati atau kebencian, menciptakan kebencian, atau rasa iba. Memalukan tentu saja, tapi kekuasaan seringkali diperoleh dengan cara-cara yang sungguh memuakkan dan tidak adil.

Di musim pemilu seperti sekarang, celakanya, sebagian media ikut menyulap meja redaksinya menjadi menjadi tungku api besar. Desas-desus dijadikan fakta dan fakta dijadikan prasangka. Sebagian lagi dengan terang-terangan memihak pada kepentingan para pemilik modal yang memilih berkubu dengan Jokowi atau Prabowo. Lalu, tim sukses dan para pendukung bertepuk tangan mengelu-elukan calon mereka masing-masing seolah manusia paling saleh.

Ya, ini memang musim pemilu; dan enam tahun lalu itu, meskipun dikampanyekan busuk dan direndahkan, Obama bukan saja terpilih sebagai calon presiden dari partainya tapi juga terpilih sebagai presiden Amerika.

demikianlah hasil studi banding berdasarkan karangan rakyat indonesia melalui eksplorasi google

silahkan anda pilih yang mana

jangan golput

rayakan hari demokrasi yang sangat membahagiakan selruh rakyat indonesia

sehingga dapat dibanggakan oleh seluruh dunia

semoga allah yang mahakuasa memberika redho dan rahmatnya kepada pemimpin bangsa indonesia mendatang

selamat pilpres 2014

prabowo atau jokowi

tr ?

TERSERAH ANDA

SAYA SENDIRI TIDAK MEMBACA PENDAPAT RAKYAT INDONESIA,PENDAPAT SAYA

RAHASIA LHO

NANTI AKAN SAYA TUSUK WAJAH PILIHAN SAYA

SALAM DARI DR IWAN SUWANDY,MHA’ PEBNEMU DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

KOLEKTOR PALING UNIK DI INDONESIA

 

 

pablo Picasso art collections

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Pablo Picasso, Chouette. Terre de faïence vase, 1968. Estimate: £6,000-8,000. Photo: Sotheby’s

source

http://heteromys3.rssing.com/chan-3271429/all_p190.html

LONDON.- Sotheby’s is to offer an exceptional selection of ceramics by Pablo Picasso in London on 7 May 2014. This follows Sotheby’s auction in March 2013 of Important Ceramics by Pablo Picasso from a Private Collection, in which all the ceramic lots sold. The comprehensive group of over 170 works represents an opportunity for collectors to acquire their own work of art by one of the 20th century’s most famous artists. The sale includes plates, vases, jugs, bowls and tiles designed by Picasso, depicting a range of classical and mythical forms alongside portraits of animals and people, as well as linocuts from this period. The individual pieces range in estimate from £400 to £60,000. 

Picasso constantly explored opportunities to break creative boundaries and challenge himself in innovative ways. A chance encounter with the owners of the renowned Madoura pottery in Vallauris in the south of France in 1946, when the artist was 64 years of age, was the starting point for his exploration of a whole new creative medium. Picasso remained enchanted by the freedom and expressive nature of ceramics throughout the last 25 years of his life. Working with the Ramié family during these years, Picasso found great satisfaction in working with clay. His freedom of thought and creative powers are clearly evident in these works, and the sense of playfulness for which he was so renowned.

The years Picasso spent in the region are understood to have been among the happiest of his life. At Madoura, he met his future wife and famed muse Jacqueline Roque, who was to remain his partner for over 20 years until his death in 1973. During his first year at the pottery, Picasso and his lover Françoise Gilot welcomed a son, Claude, who shared his name with the Patron Saint of Potters.

Since the Royal Academy’s flagship exhibition of Picasso’s ceramics in 1998 there has been a renewed appreciation for the artist’s experimentations with this art form. An exhibition currently on view in Sèvres until 19 May – Picasso, Ceramicist, and the Mediterranean – is the biggest ever dedicated to Picasso’s ceramics.

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Pablo Picasso (1881 – 1973), Quatre profils enlacés. Terre de faïence plate, a unique variant 1949. a unique variant with additional decoration by the artist on the underside, glazed and painted, with the Madoura and Empreinte Originale de Picasso stamps; diameter: 265mm 10½in. Estimate: £10,000-15,000. Photo: Sotheby’s

In 1949, Picasso produced six versions of ‘Four enlaced profiles’. The motif of the interlocking profiles dates to the mid-1920s, to a drawing by Picasso that was used as a design for a black and white mosaic floor at the Château de Clavary, near Grasse. In the ceramic version, the repeated profile is recognisably that of Françoise Gilot. Decorations painted directly on to the plate by Picasso make this unique variant particularly rare.

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Pablo Picasso (1881 – 1973), Taureau dans l’arène. Terre de faïence platter, 1948, from the edition of 450, inscribed ‘Edition Picasso’, glazed and painted, with the Madoura and d’Après Picasso stamps; width: 380mm 15in. Estimate: £4,000-6,000. Photo: Sotheby’s

Picasso repeatedly evoked the bullfight during the years following World War II when he was in the south of France. This platter depicts the bull standing proud in the centre, with spectators lining the ring. The bullfight had personal associations for Picasso; it symbolised Spain, the homeland that he decided not to return to after Franco had come to power in 1939. The profile of the standing bull is given dramatic emphasis with a delineated white contour and cloud-like white surround.

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Pablo Picasso (1881 – 1973), Gros oiseau corrida. Terre de faïence vase, 1953. numbered 7, from the edition of 25, partially glazed and painted, with the Madoura and d’Après Picasso stamps; height: 578mm 22 3/4 in. Estimate: £60,000-80,000. Photo: Sotheby’s

This large composite bird vase is decorated with bullfighting scenes on the oval body. When he was in Vallauris, Picasso attended bullfights in neighbouring towns. The confrontation between the mounted picador and the bull was a favourite motif, and Picasso enjoyed the company of the Spanish troupes of bullfighters who would take part in the corridas.

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Pablo Picasso (1881 – 1973), Profil de Jacqueline. Terre de faïence dish, 1956. from the edition of 100, with the Empreinte Originale de Picasso and Madoura stamps; diameter: 410mm 16in. Estimate: £8,000-12,000. Photo: Sotheby’s

Picasso met his second wife, Jacqueline Roque, when she was working in Madoura. The undecorated earthenware dish, in which Jacqueline’s head is seen in profile, her hair covered with a headscarf, was produced in both white and red earthenware versions.

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Pablo Picasso (1881 – 1973), Vallauris. Silver plate, 1967, after the 1956 ceramic design. numbered 7/20, inscribed‘Picasso‘, published by François and Pierre Hugo, 1967, Paris, with the original wooden presentation box; diameter: 415mm 16½in. Estimate: £20,000-30,000. Photo: Sotheby’s

After World War II, an annual summer exhibition took place in Vallauris, and Picasso began to produce posters for the event. In 1956, the design of the Vallauris exhibition poster was used on the commemorative ceramic dishes that he produced in the same year. Within an oval central image, a frontal view of a faun in the centre is flanked by profiles at either side. The faun’s horns protrude beyond the rim of the oval. The name of the town and the date were carved in reverse into the plaster, so that they would read correctly; though the final ‘s’ of Vallauris is reversed. Discussions with François Hugo and his son, Pierre, the renowned gold- and silversmiths, about an edition in silver began in 1956, and took a full ten years to develop, before being fully realised in 1967. During this time, Picasso chose to keep private the development of the silver plates.

This work is accompanied by a certificate of authenticity from Pierre Hugo.

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Pablo Picasso (1881 – 1973), Visage en forme de trèfle. Gold pendant, 1973. with the stamped signature and numbered 1/20 on the reverse, also stamped ‘Hugo’, with the goldsmith’s mark ‘FH’ and numbered ‘1683’ and ‘1621’, with the original fitted wooden case incised ‘Picasso‘; 43 by 52mm 1 3/4 by 2 1/8 in. Estimate: £7,000-10,000. Photo: Sotheby’s

Gold pieces by Picasso are rarely seen on the auction market. From an early edition that Picasso produced with François Hugo – who designed limited-edition jewellery interpretations for Picasso, Jean Cocteau, Max Ernst and Coco Chanel – this medallion is stamped with the ‘FH’ goldsmith’s mark and ‘Hugo’. The collaboration between Picasso and Hugo was important to both men, and their friendship endured until the end of Picasso’s life.

This work is accompanied by a certificate of authenticity from Pierre Hugo.

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Pablo Picasso (1881 – 1973), Vase aztèque aux quatre visages. Terre de faïence vase, 1957. numbered 37/50, inscribed‘Madoura’ and ‘Edition Picasso’, partially glazed and painted, with the Madoura and Edition Picasso stamps; height: 540mm 21in. Estimate: £25,000-35,000. Photo: Sotheby’s

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Pablo Picasso (1881 – 1973), Vase aztèque aux quatre visages. Terre de faïence vase, 1957. numbered 84/100, inscribed ‘Edition Picasso’ and ‘Madoura’, painted, with the Edition Picasso and Madoura stamps; height: 560mm 22in. Estimate: £35,000-40,000. Photo: Sotheby’s

Picasso’s Aztec vases look back to Pre-Columbian stirrup heads, with their round handles topping the design, and like his forebears, he saw the potential in transforming the vase into a head. Picasso decorated each side so that faces appear on all of them, with an eye shared between adjacent faces. The handle is painted to give the appearance of a braid of hair, and in this example, is shaped into a circular form above the front of the woman’s face – modelled on Jacqueline – which has a circular mark above her nose, like a Hindu caste mark.

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Pablo Picasso (1881 – 1973), Chouette. Terre de faïence vase, 1968. numbered 472/500, with the workshop numbering, incised ‘Edition Picasso‘ and ‘Madoura‘, partially glazed and painted, with the Madoura and Edition Picasso stamps; height: 297mm 11 3/4 in. Estimate: £6,000-8,000. Photo: Sotheby’s

Picasso came up with the idea of representing a bird (mostly owls) with composite pots of his own design. The open neck of the vase formed the head; an amphora, turned sideways, became the body; and a neck positioned at the end of the amphora formed the tail, with all the assembled components placed on another neck to create a stand. Picasso adopted and tamed an injured owl, when he was working in Antibes in the south of France in 1946, and named it Ubu, an assonant of the French word for owl, ‘hibou’