Category Archives: Vatican Cybermuseum

The mistery Of Vatican:”THE BEATAFICATION POPE JOHN PAUL II ALIVE NOW”(Siaran langsung Upacara Beatanifikasi Bapa Suci Johanoe Paulus di roma)

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :

The Mistery Of Inside St.Peter Church Vatican

THE BEATAFICATION OF POPE JOHN PAUL II  BY POPE BENEDICTUS AT PIAZA SAINT PETER ALIVE NOW( Siaran langsung upacara  Beatafikasi almarhum Bapak suci Johanus Paulus langsung dari piaza santu petrus Vatican Roma) 

Frame One : Introductions

 Until this day not manny Catholic peoples  know and seen the mistery inside Vatican like Beatafication one step before beacame Saint of Pope John Paul II ,Let read the information and look at alive ceremony from Roma Jakarta ,May 1st.2011

Dr Iwan suwandy

Frame Two:

1.The Ceremony at piaza Sain Peter Vatican Roma information

Sunday 1st May
at 9:00
Preparation to the Ceremony
Saint Peter’s Square

at 10:00
Beatification of the Servant of God Pope John Paul II and Regina Caeli
Saint Peter’s Square

Monday 2
at 10:30
Thanksgiving Mass for the Beatification of the Servant of God John Paul II presided over by Card. Tarcisio Bertone
Saint Peter’s Square

2.Beatafication Information

The beatification ceremony of Pope John Paul II, which will take place in Rome on May 1, 2011, is expected to attract more number of tourists than London’s Royal Wedding happening on April 29, according to a leading hotel comparison site.

(Photo: REUTERS/Chris Helgren)
Worshippers are seen at Saint Peter’s square in Vatican City on April 2, 2005, the day Pope John Paul II died. His beatification ceremony will happen in Rome on May 1, 2011.
    

   

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Rome is experiencing higher demand over the last weekend of April, Trivago figures have revealed.

About 60 percent of London’s hotels that have online booking facility through hotel booking sites have still rooms available, while reservations can be made now only in 30 percent of the Rome hotels online, the site said.

Also, Rome hotel rooms are soaring in terms of tariff, indicating the popularity of the beatification ceremony of the Polish born pope.

While an overnight stay in a London hotel around the wedding of Prince William and Kate Middleton will cost about $310, staying in Rome during the beatification will cost around $370 a night, the hotel comparison site said.

 

The late Pope John Paul II was moved a major step closer to sainthood in the Roman Catholic Church early this year, when his successor, Pope Benedict approved a decree attributing a miracle to him. The move meant that John Paul, who died in 2005 after heading the Roman Catholic Church for nearly 27 years, will be beatified. Beatification is the last step before sainthood and such a ceremony draws Catholics from all over the world

Pope John Paul II gives his blessing to late father Marcial Maciel, founder of Christ's Legionaries, during a special audience the pontiff granted to about four thousand participants of the Regnum Christi movement, at the Vatican on Nov. 30, 2004. (AP Photo/ Plinio Lepri) This April 10, 2003 file photo shows Pope John Paul II as a white dove is released in honor of his repeated calls for peace by Roman youths, in St. Peter's Square at the Vatican. (AP Photo/Massimo Sambucetti, file)

Pope John Paul II to be beatified in may ,1st.2011

 

 
CTV News Channel: Jacalyn Duffin, historian
A medical historian explains how the Catholic Church views the role of miracles in the process of canonizing a candidate for sainthood.
CTV News Channel: Megan Williams in Rome
A correspondent says there is major urge and support to make Pope John Paul II a saint, as he was one of the most popular popes ever. She says an investigation into his miracle is being conducted.
 

CTV News Video

CTV National News: Jill Macyshon with the details
The Vatican has announced it believes Pope Jean Paul II is responsible for at least one miracle. This will allow the church to proceed with plans to make the former pontiff a saint.
CTV News Channel: Jacalyn Duffin, historian
A medical historian explains how the Catholic Church views the role of miracles in the process of canonizing a candidate for sainthood.
CTV News Channel: Megan Williams in Rome
A correspondent says there is major urge and support to make Pope John Paul II a saint, as he was one of the most popular popes ever. She says an investigation into his miracle is being conducted.
 
 

Photos

Pope John Paul II gives his blessing to late father Marcial Maciel, founder of Christ's Legionaries, during a special audience the pontiff granted to about four thousand participants of the Regnum Christi movement, at the Vatican on Nov. 30, 2004. (AP Photo/ Plinio Lepri)
Pope John Paul II gives his blessing to late father Marcial Maciel, founder of Christ’s Legionaries, during a special audience the pontiff granted to about four thousand participants of the Regnum Christi movement, at the Vatican on Nov. 30, 2004. (AP Photo/ Plinio Lepri)

 CTV.ca News Staff

Date: Fri. Jan. 14 2011 10:54 AM ET

Pope Benedict XVI has approved a miracle attributed to his predecessor, nudging John Paul II one step closer to sainthood.

In a decree Friday, the Pope confirmed that a French nun Sister Marie Simon-Pierre’s recovery from Parkinson’s disease was indeed miraculous, thanks to the intercession of John Paul.

When she went public with her story, the nun said she had been suffering the degenerative disease for four years when she prayed to John Paul II in June of 2005.

John Paul, who also suffered Parkinson’s, was 84 years old when he died two months earlier.

All the symptoms disappeared overnight, Sister Marie Simon-Pierre told reporters in 2007, explaining that she never took another treatment again.

“My life has completely changed — it was like a second birth for me,” she said.

The conclusion her cure had no other scientific explanation — approved by a Vatican-appointed panel of doctors, theologians, cardinals and bishops this week — paves the way for Pope John Paul II to be beatified in the spring.

Beatification is the third of four steps on the path to sainthood. Once complete, he will be anointed with the title “Blessed,” and his tomb will be moved from the crypt at St. Peter’s Basilica, reportedly to the nave in the Chapel of St. Sebastian.

Answering the swell of public opinion in the wake of the Polish pontiff’s death in 2005, Benedict decided to skip the five years that typically separate someone’s death and the start of their ascendancy to sainthood.

“This is a hugely popular figure in the Roman Catholic Church, even when he was alive he was one of the most popular popes ever,” Vatican correspondent Megan Williams told CTV News Channel Friday, explaining that Pope Benedict was simply heeding the will of the faithful.

The only other person to achieve beatification so quickly was Mother Theresa.

While John Paul II enjoyed the unwavering support of Catholics during his years as pope, the discovery of thousands of sexual abuse cases that were covered-up during his papacy have caused some to question his apparent fast-track toward sainthood.

Nevertheless, hundreds of thousands of faithful are expected to be in Rome on May 1, when Pope Benedict XVI himself will preside over the beatification ceremony. After that, a second miracle is needed for the canonization to be complete, though the Pope can also opt to waive that requirement.

Because the second miracle must occur after beatification, there’s no saying exactly how long it might take before John Paul can take the last step to sainthood.

“In this case I think it’s going to be sooner than later, because there’s such a popular push to have Pope John Paul II become a saint,” Williams said in an interview from Rome. “So there’s going to be a lot of people looking for miracles to put before the Vatican.”

Benedict put John Paul on the fast track to possible sainthood just weeks after he died in 2005, responding to the chants of “Santo Subito!” or “Sainthood immediately!” that erupted during his funeral.

His nearly 27 years in the Vatican made John Paul II the third longest-serving pope in history. He also went down in the record books as the most-travelled pontiff, with visits to more than 120 countries.

Frame Three:

The Beatafication of Pope John Paul alive now at the Piazza Saint Peter Vatican Rome

(1)The  Beata John Paul

(2)The announcement of Beata John Paul by Pope Bennedictus

(3) The  many audince ,especially from Italy,Poland,Canada and other countries

(4)  the audience situation at the piazza saint Peter

 (5)The banner

(6)The honor to Pope Joh Paul Tomb by Pope Bennedictis, Cardinal, and also orthodox Christian Archbischop.

FRAME THREE :

THE BIOGRAPHY OF BEATA POPE JOHN PAUL II

Pope John Paul II

 

 

Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II on 12 August 1993 in Denver (Colorado)
John Paul II in 1993
Papacy began 16 October 1978
Papacy ended 2 April 2005 (&000000000000002600000026 years, &0000000000000168000000168 days)
Predecessor John Paul I
Successor Benedict XVI
Orders
Ordination 1 November 1946
by Adam Stefan Sapieha
Consecration 28 September 1958
by Eugeniusz Baziak
Created Cardinal 26 June 1967
Personal details
Birth name Karol Józef Wojtyła
Born 18 May 1920(1920-05-18)
Wadowice, Poland
Died 2 April 2005(2005-04-02) (aged 84)
Apostolic Palace, Vatican City
Nationality Polish
Signature {{{signature_alt}}}
Sainthood
Feast day 22 October
Beatified 1 May 2011
Saint Peter’s Square, Vatican City
Beatified by Pope Benedict XVI
Other Popes named John Paul

The Blessed Pope John Paul II[1] (Latin: Ioannes Paulus PP. II, Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan Paweł II), born Karol Józef Wojtyła /ˈkarɔl ˈjuzɛf vɔiˈtɨwa/ (18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005), reigned as Pope of the Catholic Church and Sovereign of The Holy See from 16 October 1978 until his death on 2 April 2005, at &000000000000008400000084 years and &0000000000000319000000319 days of age. His was the second-longest documented pontificate, which lasted &000000000000002600000026 years and &0000000000000168000000168 days; only Pope Pius IX (1846–1878) who served 31 years, has reigned longer. Pope John Paul II is the only Slavic or Polish pope to date, and was the first non-Italian Pope since Dutch Pope Adrian VI (1522–1523).[2]

John Paul II has been acclaimed as one of the most influential leaders of the 20th century.[3] It is widely held that he was instrumental in ending communism in his native Poland and eventually all of Europe.[2][3][4][5][6][7][8] Conversely, he denounced the excesses of capitalism.[9][10] John Paul II is widely said to have significantly improved the Catholic Church’s relations with Judaism,[2][8][11] Islam,[12][13] the Eastern Orthodox Church,[2] and the Anglican Communion.[2][14] Though criticised by progressives[2][8][15] for upholding the Church’s teachings against artificial contraception and the ordination of women, he was also criticized by traditionalists for his support of the Church’s Second Vatican Council and its reform of the Liturgy as well as his ecumenical efforts.[2][16][17] Since his death, he has been criticized for failing to act on accusations of sexual child abuse by priests, including those against founder of Legion of Christ Marcial Maciel.</ref>[18]
He was one of the most-travelled world leaders in history, visiting 129 countries during his pontificate.[6] He spoke Italian, French, German, English, Spanish, Portuguese, Ukrainian, Russian, Croatian, Esperanto, Ancient Greek and Latin as well as his native Polish.[19] As part of his special emphasis on the universal call to holiness, he beatified 1,340 people and canonised 483 saints,[20][21][22] more than the combined tally of his predecessors during the last five centuries.[22][23][24][25][26][27] On 19 December 2009, John Paul II was proclaimed venerable by his successor Pope Benedict XVI[28][29][30][31] and was beatified on 1 May 2011.[32]

 Biography

Early life

Emilia and Karol Wojtyla Sr. wedding portrait

Karol Józef Wojtyła (Anglicised: Charles Joseph Wojtyla) was born in the Polish town of Wadowice[2][16][33] and was the youngest of three children of Karol Wojtyła, an ethnic Pole,[34] and Emilia Kaczorowska, who was of Lithuanian ancestry.[33][34] His mother died on 13 April 1929,[35] when he was eight years old.[36] Karol’s elder sister, Olga, had died in infancy before his birth; thus, he grew close to his brother Edmund, who was 14 years his senior, and whom he nicknamed Mundek. However, Edmund’s work as a physician led to his death from scarlet fever, profoundly affecting Karol.[34][36]

As a youth, Wojtyła was an athlete and often played football as a goalkeeper.[37][38] His formative years were influenced by numerous contacts with the vibrant and prospering Jewish community of Wadowice. School football games were often organised between teams of Jews and Catholics, and Wojtyła would voluntarily offer himself as a substitute goalkeeper on the Jewish side if they were short of players.[34][37]

In mid-1938, Karol Wojtyła and his father left Wadowice and moved to Kraków, where he enrolled at the Jagiellonian University. While studying such topics as philology and various languages at the University, he worked as a volunteer librarian and was required to participate in compulsory military training in the Academic Legion, but he refused to fire a weapon. He also performed with various theatrical groups and worked as a playwright.[39] During this time, his talent for language blossomed and he learned as many as 12 foreign languages, nine of which he later used extensively as Pope.[16]

In 1939, Nazi German occupation forces closed the Jagiellonian University after the invasion of Poland.[16] All able-bodied males were required to work, and, from 1940 to 1944, Wojtyła variously worked as a messenger for a restaurant, a manual labourer in a limestone quarry and for the Solvay chemical factory to avoid being deported to Germany.[33][39] His father, a non-commissioned officer in the Polish Army, died of a heart attack in 1941, leaving Karol the sole surviving member of his immediate family.[34][35][40] “I was not at my mother’s death, I was not at my brother’s death, I was not at my father’s death,” he said, reflecting on these times of his life, nearly forty years later, “At twenty, I had already lost all the people I loved.”[40]

He later stated that he began thinking seriously about the priesthood after his father’s death, and that his vocation gradually became ‘an inner fact of unquestionable and absolute clarity.’[41] In October 1942, increasingly aware of his calling to the priesthood, he knocked on the door of the Archbishop’s Palace in Kraków, and declared that he wanted to study for the priesthood.[41] Soon after, he began courses in the clandestine underground seminary run by the Archbishop of Kraków, Adam Stefan Cardinal Sapieha.

On 29 February 1944, Wojtyła was knocked down by a German truck. Unexpectedly, the German Wehrmacht officers tended to him and sent him to a hospital. He spent two weeks there recovering from a severe concussion and a shoulder injury. This accident and his survival seemed to Wojtyła a confirmation of his priestly vocation. On 6 August 1944, ‘Black Sunday’,[42] the Gestapo rounded up young men in Kraków to avoid an uprising similar[42] to the previous uprising in Warsaw.[43][44] Wojtyła escaped by hiding in the basement of his uncle’s home at 10 Tyniecka Street, while German troops searched upstairs.[41][43][44] More than eight thousand men and boys were taken into custody that day, but he escaped to the Archbishop’s Palace,[41][42][43] where he remained in hiding until after the Germans left.[34][41][45]

On the night of 17 January 1945, the Germans fled the city, and the students reclaimed the ruined seminary. Wojtyła and another seminarian volunteered for the unenviable task of clearing away piles of frozen excrement from the lavatories.[46] That month, Wojtyła personally aided a 14-year-old Jewish refugee girl named Edith Zierer[47] who had run away from a Nazi labour camp in Częstochowa.[47] After her collapse on a railway platform, Wojtyła carried her to a train and accompanied her safely to Kraków. Zierer credits Wojtyła with saving her life that day.[48][49][50] B’nai B’rith and other authorities have said that Wojtyla helped protect many other Polish Jews from the Nazis.

Priesthood

Karol Wojtyła as a priest in Niegowić, Poland, 1948

On completion of his studies at the seminary in Kraków, Karol Wojtyła was ordained as a priest on All Saints’ Day, 1 November 1946,[35] by the Archbishop of Kraków, Cardinal Sapieha.[33][51][52] He was then sent to study theology in Rome, at the Pontifical International Athenaeum Angelicum,[51][52] where he earned a licentiate and later a doctorate in sacred theology.[16] This doctorate, the first of two, was based on the Latin dissertation The Doctrine of Faith According to Saint John of the Cross.

He returned to Poland in the summer of 1948 with his first pastoral assignment in the village of Niegowić, fifteen miles from Kraków. Arriving at Niegowić during harvest time, his first action was to kneel down and kiss the ground.[53] This gesture, adapted from French saint Jean Marie Baptiste Vianney,[53] would become one of his ‘trademarks’ during his Papacy.

In March 1949, he was transferred to the parish of Saint Florian in Kraków. He taught ethics at the Jagiellonian University and subsequently at the Catholic University of Lublin. While teaching, Wojtyła gathered a group of about 20 young people, who began to call themselves Rodzinka, the “little family”. They met for prayer, philosophical discussion, and helping the blind and sick. The group eventually grew to approximately 200 participants, and their activities expanded to include annual skiing and kayaking trips.[20]

In 1954, he earned a second doctorate, in philosophy,[54] evaluating the feasibility of a Catholic ethic based on the ethical system of phenomenologist Max Scheler. However, the Communist authorities’ intervention prevented his receiving the degree until 1957.[52]

During this period, Wojtyła wrote a series of articles in Kraków’s Catholic newspaper Tygodnik Powszechny (“Universal Weekly“) dealing with contemporary church issues.[55] He also focused on creating original literary work during his first dozen years as a priest. War, life under Communism, and his pastoral responsibilities all fed his poetry and plays. However, he published his work under two pseudonyms – Andrzej Jawień and Stanisław Andrzej Gruda[39][55][56] – to distinguish his literary from his religious writings (which were published under his own name) and also so that his literary works would be considered on their own merits.[39][55][56] In 1960, Wojtyła published the influential theological book Love and Responsibility, a defence of the traditional Church teachings on marriage from a new philosophical standpoint.[39][57]

[edit] Bishop and cardinal

Visit to the Church of the Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Cracow. Carmelite on the Sand – early June 1967, shortly before being appointed cardinal

On 4 July 1958,[52] while Wojtyła was on a kayaking vacation in the lakes region of northern Poland, Pope Pius XII appointed him to the position of auxiliary bishop of Kraków. He was then summoned to Warsaw, to meet the Primate of Poland, Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński, who informed him of the appointment.[58][59] He agreed to serve as auxiliary to Archbishop Eugeniusz Baziak, and he was ordained to the Episcopate (using the title, Bishop of Ombi) on 28 September 1958.[52] At the age of 38, he became the youngest bishop in Poland. Baziak died in June 1962 and on 16 July, Karol Wojtyła was selected as Vicar Capitular, or temporary administrator, of the Archdiocese until an Archbishop could be appointed.[16][33]

Beginning in October 1962, Bishop Wojtyła took part in the Second Vatican Council (1962–1965),[2][16][33][52] where he made contributions to two of the most historic and influential products of the council, the Decree on Religious Freedom (in Latin, Dignitatis Humanae) and the Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World (Gaudium et Spes).[52]

Bishop Wojtyła also participated in all the assemblies of the Synod of Bishops.[16][33] On 13 January 1964, Pope Paul VI appointed him Archbishop of Kraków.[60] On 26 June 1967, Paul VI announced Archbishop Wojtyła’s promotion to the Sacred College of Cardinals.[2][52][60] He was named Cardinal-Priest of the titulus of San Cesareo in Palatio.[61]

In 1967, he was instrumental in formulating the encyclical Humanae Vitae, which deals with the same issues that forbid abortion and artificial birth control.[2][8][52][62] According to a contemporary witness, Cardinal Wojtyla in 1970 was against the distribution and reading in the Cracow diocese a pastoral letter that the Polish Episcopate was preparing for the 50th anniversary of the Polish-Soviet War.[63]

[edit] Election to the Papacy

Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II with the Marian Cross. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion

Dear brothers and sisters, we are saddened at the death of our beloved Pope John Paul I, and so the cardinals have called for a new bishop of Rome. They called him from a faraway land – far and yet always close because of our communion in faith and Christian traditions. I was afraid to accept that responsibility, yet I do so in a spirit of obedience to the Lord and total faithfulness to Mary, our most Holy Mother. I am speaking to you in your – no, our Italian language. If I make a mistake, please ‘kirrect’ [sic] me…[5][64]
Papal styles of
Pope John Paul II
John paul 2 coa.svg
Reference style His Holiness
Spoken style Your Holiness
Religious style Holy Father
Posthumous style Blessed

In August 1978, following the death of Pope Paul VI, Cardinal Wojtyła voted in the Papal conclave that elected Pope John Paul I, who at 65 was considered young by papal standards. John Paul I died after only 33 days as Pope, thereby precipitating another conclave.[33][52][65]

The second conclave of 1978 commenced on 14 October, ten days after the funeral of Pope John Paul I. It was divided between two strong candidates for the papacy: Giuseppe Cardinal Siri, the conservative Archbishop of Genoa, and the liberal Archbishop of Florence, Giovanni Cardinal Benelli, a close associate of John Paul I.[66]

Supporters of Benelli were confident that he would be elected, and in early ballots, Benelli came within nine votes of election.[66] However, the scale of opposition to both men meant that neither was likely to receive the votes needed for election, and Franz Cardinal König, Archbishop of Vienna, individually suggested to his fellow electors a compromise candidate: the Polish Cardinal, Karol Józef Wojtyła.[66] Wojtyła ultimately won the election on the eighth ballot on the second day with, according to the Italian press, 99 votes from the 111 participating electors. He subsequently chose the name John Paul II[52][66] in honour of his immediate predecessor, and the traditional white smoke informed the crowd gathered in St. Peter’s Square that a pope had been chosen.[65] He accepted his election with these words: ‘With obedience in faith to Christ, my Lord, and with trust in the Mother of Christ and the Church, in spite of great difficulties, I accept.’[64][67] When the new pontiff appeared on the balcony, he broke tradition by addressing the gathered crowd:[64]

Wojtyła became the 264th Pope according to the chronological list of popes and the first non-Italian Pope in 455 years.[68] At only 58 years of age, he was the youngest pope elected since Pope Pius IX in 1846, who was 54.[52] Like his immediate predecessor, Pope John Paul II dispensed with the traditional Papal coronation and instead received ecclesiastical investiture with the simplified Papal inauguration on 22 October 1978. During his inauguration, when the cardinals were to kneel before him to take their vows and kiss his ring, he stood up as the Polish prelate Stefan Cardinal Wyszyński knelt down, stopped him from kissing the ring, and hugged him.[69]

[edit] Life’s work

[edit] Teachings

The future starts today, not tomorrow.
Pope John Paul II[70]

Pope John Paul II in Saint Peter’s Square (1985)

As pope, one of John Paul II’s most important roles was to teach people about Christianity. He wrote 14 papal encyclicals and taught about “The Theology of the Body”.

In his At the beginning of the third millennium (Novo Millennio Ineunte), he emphasised the importance of “starting afresh from Christ“: “No, we shall not be saved by a formula but by a Person.”

In The Splendour of the Truth (Veritatis Splendor), he emphasised the dependence of man on God and His Law (“Without the Creator, the creature disappears”) and the “dependence of freedom on the truth”. He warned that man “giving himself over to relativism and skepticism, goes off in search of an illusory freedom apart from truth itself”.

In Fides et Ratio (On the Relationship between Faith and Reason) John Paul promoted a renewed interest in philosophy and an autonomous pursuit for truth in theological matters. Drawing on many different sources (such as Thomism), he described the mutually supporting relationship between faith and reason, and emphasised that theologians should focus on that relationship.

John Paul II also wrote extensively about workers and the social doctrine of the Church, which he discussed in three encyclicals. Through his encyclicals and many Apostolic Letters and Exhortations, John Paul also talked about the dignity of women and the importance of the family for the future of humanity.[8]

Other encyclicals include The Gospel of Life (Evangelium Vitae) and Ut Unum Sint (That They May Be One). Despite critics who accused him of inflexibility, he explicitly re-asserted Catholic moral teachings against murder, euthanasia and abortion that have been in place for well over a thousand years.[8]

As the family goes, so goes the nation and so goes the whole world in which we live.
Pope John Paul II[70]

[edit] Pastoral trips

Pope John Paul II’s visit to the Polish Parliament on 11 June 1999

Former US President George W. Bush and Laura Bush visit Pope John Paul II at Castel Gandolfo on 23 July 2001

During his pontificate, Pope John Paul II made trips to 129 countries,[6] and logged more than 1.1 million km (725,000 miles). He consistently attracted large crowds on his travels, some amongst the largest ever assembled in human history like the Manila World Youth Day, which gathered around 5 million people.[71] Some have suggested that it may have been the largest Christian gathering ever, although this is not certain.[72]

Two of John Paul II’s earliest official visits were to Mexico in January 1979 and Poland in June 1979, where ecstatic crowds constantly surrounded him.[73] This first trip to Poland uplifted the whole nation’s spirit and sparked the formation of the Solidarity movement in 1980, which brought freedom and human rights to his troubled country.[8] On later trips to Poland, he gave tacit support to the organization.[8] Successive trips reinforced this message and Poland began the process that would finally defeat the domination of the Soviet Union in Eastern Europe in 1989.[3][4][5][6][7][73]

While some of his trips (such as to the United States and the Holy Land) were to places previously visited by Pope Paul VI, John Paul II became the first pope to visit the White House during his October 1979 U.S. trip, where he was greeted warmly by then-President Jimmy Carter. He also travelled to countries that no pope had ever visited before. He was the first pope to visit Mexico in January 1979,[74] before his initial trip to Poland as Pope, as well as to Ireland later that year.[75][76] He was the first reigning pope to travel to the United Kingdom, in 1982,[77] where he met Queen Elizabeth II, the Supreme Governor of the Church of England.[77] He travelled to Haiti in 1983, where he spoke in Creole to thousands of impoverished Catholics gathered to greet him at the airport. His message, “things must change in Haiti”, referring to the disparity between the wealthy and the poor, was met with thunderous applause.[78] In 2000, he was the first modern pope to visit Egypt,[79] where he met with the Coptic pope, Pope Shenouda III[79] and the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria.[79][80] He was the first Catholic pope to visit and pray in an Islamic mosque, in Damascus, Syria in 2001. He visited the Umayyad Mosque, a former Christian church where John the Baptist is believed to be interred,[12] where he made a speech calling for Muslims, Christians and Jews to work together.[12][13]

On 15 January 1995, during the X World Youth Day, he offered Mass to an estimated crowd of between five and seven million in Luneta Park,[71] Manila, Philippines, which was considered to be the largest single gathering in Christian history.[71] In March 2000, while visiting Jerusalem, John Paul became the first pope in history to visit and pray at the Western Wall.[81][82] In September 2001, amidst post-11 September concerns, he travelled to Kazakhstan, with an audience largely consisting of Muslims, and to Armenia, to participate in the celebration of the 1,700 years of Christianity in that nation.[83]

Today, for the first time in history, a Bishop of Rome sets foot on English soil. This fair land, once a distant outpost of the pagan world, has become, through the preaching of the Gospel, a beloved and gifted portion of Christ’s vineyard.
Pope John Paul II (1982)[70]
  Pope John Paul II’s World Travels:[84]

  • 1979

1. January 25–February 1
Dominican Republic and Mexico
2. June 2–10
Poland
3. September 29–October 7
Ireland and United States
4. November 28–30
Turkey

  • 1980

5. May 2–12
Zaire, Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Ghana, Republic of Upper Volta and Ivory Coast
6. May 30–June 2
France
7. June 30–July 12
Brazil
8. November 15–19
West Germany

  • 1981

9. February 16–27
Philippines, Guam, and Japan

  • 1982

10. February 12–19
Nigeria, Benin, Gabon, and Equatorial Guinea
11. May 12–15
Portugal (including Fátima)
12. May 28–June 2
Great Britain
13. June 10–13
Argentina
14. June 15
Switzerland
15. August 29
San Marino
16. October 31–November 9
Spain

  • 1983

17. March 2–10
Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama, El Salvador, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras and Haiti
18. June 16–23
Poland
19. August 14–15
Lourdes in France
20. September 10–13
Austria

  • 1984

21. May 2–12
South Korea, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Thailand
22. June 12–17
Switzerland
23. September 9–20
Canada
24. October 10–12
Spain, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico

  • 1985

25. January 26–February 6
Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago
26. May 11–21
Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg
27. August 8–19
Togo, Ivory Coast, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Zaire, Kenya, Morocco
28. September 8
Liechtenstein

  • 1986

29. February 1–February 10
India
30. July 1–8
Colombia, St. Lucia
31. October 4–7
France
32. November 19–December 1
Australia, New Zealand, Bangladesh, Fiji, Singapore, Seychelles

  • 1987

33. March 31–April 13
Uruguay, Chile, Argentina
34. April 30–May 4
West Germany
35. June 8–14
Poland
36. September 10–20
United States and Canada

  • 1988

37. May 7–18
Uruguay, Bolivia, Peru, Paraguay
38. June 23–27
Austria
39. September 10–19
Zimbabwe, Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland, Mozambique, detour through South Africa
40. October 8–11
France

  • 1989

41. April 28–May 6
Madagascar, Réunion, Zambia, and Malawi
42. June 1–10
Norway, Iceland, Finland, Denmark, Sweden
43. August 19–21
Spain
44. October 6–16
South Korea, Indonesia, East Timor, Mauritius

  • 1990

45. January 25–February 1
Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Burkina Faso, Chad
46. April 21–22
Czechoslovakia
47. May 6–13
Mexico, Curaçao
48. May 25–27
Malta
49. September 1–10
Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Ivory Coast

  • 1991

50. May 10–13
Portugal
51. June 1–9
Poland
52. August 13–20
Poland, Hungary
53. October 12–21
Brazil

  • 1992

54. February 19–26
Senegal, Gambia, Guinea
55. June 4–10
Angola, São Tomé and Príncipe
56. October 9–14
Dominican Republic

  • 1993

57. February 3–10
Benin, Uganda, Sudan
58. April 25
Albania
59. June 12–17
Spain
60. August 9–16
Jamaica, Mexico, United States
61. September 4–10
Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia

  • 1994

62. September 10–11
Croatia

  • 1995

63. January 12–21
Philippines, Australia, Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka
64. May 20–22
Czech Republic, Poland
65. June 3–4
Belgium
66. June 30
Slovakia
67. September 14–20
Cameroon, Kenya, South Africa
68. October 4–8
United States

  • 1996

69. February 5–12
Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Venezuela
70. April 14
Tunisia
71. May 17–19
Slovenia
72. June 21–23
Germany
73. September 6–7
Hungary
74. September 19–22
France

  • 1997

75. April 12–13
Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
76. April 25–27
Czech Republic
77. May 10–11
Lebanon
78. May 31–June 10
Poland
79. August 21–24
France
80. October 2–5
Brazil

  • 1998

81. January 21–25
Cuba
82. March 21–23
Nigeria
83. June 19–21
Austria
84. October 2–4
Croatia

  • 1999

85. January 22–25
Mexico City in Mexico
January 26–27
St. Louis, Missouri
86. May 7–9
Romania
87. June 5–17
Poland
88. September 19
Slovenia
89. November 5–9
New Delhi, India, and Tbilisi in Georgia

  • 2000

90. Feb. 24–26
Egypt
91. March 20–26
Jordan, Israel and Palestinian Autonomous Territories
92. May 12–13
Fátima in Portugal

  • 2001

93.(a) May 4–5
Athens in Greece
93.(b) May 5–6
Syria
93.(c) May 8–9
Malta
94. June 23–27
Ukraine
95. September 22–27
Armenia and Kazakhstan

  • 2002

96. May 22–26
Azerbaijan and Bulgaria
97. July 23–August 1
Canada, Guatemala, and Mexico
98. August 16–19
Poland

  • 2003

99. May 3–4
Spain
100. June 5–9
Croatia
101. June 22
Bosnia and Herzegovina
102.September 11-14
Slovakia

  • 2004

103. June 5-6
Switzerland
104. August 14-15
Lourdes in France

 

Map indicating countries Pope John Paul II visited.

[edit] Youth

World Youth Day is a popular Catholic faith themed international youth event initiated by Pope John Paul II

John Paul II had a special relationship with Catholic youth and is known by some as The Pope for Youth.[85][86] Before he was pontiff, he used to camp and mountain hike with the youth. He still went mountain hiking when he was pope.[85] He was concerned with the education of future priests and made many early visits to Roman seminaries, including to the Venerable English College in 1979.[33] He established World Youth Day in 1984 with the intention of bringing young Catholics from all parts of the world together to celebrate the faith.[33][85][86] These weeklong meetings of youth occur every two or three years, attracting hundreds of thousands of young people, who go there to sing, party, have a good time and deepen their faith.[33][86] The 19 World Youth Days celebrated during his pontificate brought together millions of young people from all over the world. During this time, his care for the family was expressed in the World Meetings of Families, which he initiated in 1994.[33]

Young people are threatened… by the evil use of advertising techniques that stimulate the natural inclination to avoid hard work by promising the immediate satisfaction of every desire.
Pope John Paul II[70]

[edit] Relations with other religious groups

Monument to Pope John Paul II in Rome

Pope John Paul II travelled extensively and met with believers from many divergent faiths. He constantly attempted to find common ground, both doctrinal and dogmatic. At the World Day of Prayer for Peace, held in Assisi on 27 October 1986, more than 120 representatives of different religions and Christian denominations spent a day together with fasting and praying.[87]

[edit] Anglicanism

Pope John Paul II had good relations with the Church of England, referred to by his predecessor Pope Paul VI, as “our beloved Sister Church”.[88] He preached in Canterbury Cathedral during his visit to Great Britain,[77] and received the Archbishop of Canterbury with friendship and courtesy.[77] However, John Paul II was disappointed by the Church of England’s decision to offer the Sacrament of Holy Orders to women and saw it as a step in the opposite direction from unity between the Anglican Communion and the Catholic Church.[88]

In 1980 John Paul II issued a Pastoral Provision allowing married former Episcopal priests to become Catholic priests, and for the acceptance of former Episcopal Church parishes into the Catholic Church. He also allowed the creation of the Anglican Use form of the Latin Rite, which incorporates the Anglican Book of Common Prayer. John Paul II’s historic ecumenical effort with the Anglican Communion was realised with the establishment of Our Lady of the Atonement Catholic Church (Anglican Use), in cooperation with Archbishop Patrick Flores of San Antonio, TX in the United States.[89]

[edit] Lutheranism

In his apostolic pilgrimage to Norway, Iceland, Finland, Denmark and Sweden 1-10 June 1989, John Paul II became the first pope to visit countries with Lutheran majority churches. In addition to celebrating Mass with Catholic believers, he participated in ecumenical services at places that used to be Catholic shrines before the Lutheran reformation in the 16th century: in Norway’s Nidaros Cathedral, near St. Olav’s Church at Iceland’ Thingvellir, in Finland’s Turku Cathedral, in Denmark’s Roskilde Cathedral and in Sweden’s Uppsala Cathedral.

On 31 October 1999 (the 482nd anniversary of Reformation Day, the posting of the 95 Theses), representatives of the Vatican and the Lutheran World Federation signed a Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification, as a gesture of unity.

[edit] Judaism

Relations between Catholicism and Judaism improved during the pontificate of John Paul II.[8][82] He spoke frequently about the Church’s relationship with Jews.[8]

As a child, Karol Wojtyła had played sports with his many Jewish neighbours.[37][90] In 1979, he became the first Pope to visit the German Auschwitz concentration camp in Poland, where many of his compatriots (mostly Polish Jews) had perished during the Nazi occupation/World War II. In 1998 he issued “We Remember: A Reflection on the Shoah” which outlined his thinking on the Holocaust.[91] He also became the first pope known to have made an official papal visit to a synagogue,[92] when he visited the Great Synagogue of Rome on 13 April 1986.[11][93][94]

In 1994, John Paul II established formal diplomatic relations between the Holy See and the State of Israel, acknowledging its centrality in Jewish life and faith.[11][95] In honour of this event, Pope John Paul II hosted ‘The Papal Concert to Commemorate the Holocaust’. This concert, which was conceived and conducted by American Maestro Gilbert Levine, was attended by the Chief Rabbi of Rome, the President of Italy, and survivors of the Holocaust from around the world.[96][97]

In March 2000, John Paul II visited Yad Vashem, the national Holocaust memorial in Israel, and later made history by touching one of the holiest sites in Judaism, the Western Wall in Jerusalem,[82] placing a letter inside it (in which he prayed for forgiveness for the actions against Jews).[11][81][82][98] In part of his address he said: “I assure the Jewish people the Catholic Church … is deeply saddened by the hatred, acts of persecution and displays of anti-Semitism directed against the Jews by Christians at any time and in any place”, he added that there were “no words strong enough to deplore the terrible tragedy of the Holocaust”.[81][82] Israeli cabinet minister Rabbi Michael Melchior, who hosted the Pope’s visit, said he was “very moved” by the Pope’s gesture.[81][82]

It was beyond history, beyond memory.
Rabbi Michael Melchior (26 March 2000)[81]
We are deeply saddened by the behaviour of those who in the course of history have caused these children of yours to suffer, and asking your forgiveness we wish to commit ourselves to genuine brotherhood with the people of the Covenant.
Pope John Paul II (12 March 2000) from a note left by the Pope at the Western Wall in Jerusalem[98][99]

In October 2003, the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) issued a statement congratulating John Paul II on entering the 25th year of his papacy.[95] In January 2005, John Paul II became the first Pope in history known to receive a priestly blessing from a rabbi, when Rabbis Benjamin Blech, Barry Dov Schwartz, and Jack Bemporad visited the Pontiff at Clementine Hall in the Apostolic Palace.[100]

Immediately after the pope’s death, the ADL issued a statement that Pope John Paul II had revolutionised Catholic-Jewish relations, saying that “more change for the better took place in his 27 year Papacy than in the nearly 2,000 years before.”[101] In another statement issued by the Australia, Israel & Jewish Affairs Council, Director Dr Colin Rubenstein said, “The Pope will be remembered for his inspiring spiritual leadership in the cause of freedom and humanity. He achieved far more in terms of transforming relations with both the Jewish people and the State of Israel than any other figure in the history of the Catholic Church”.[11]

With Judaism, therefore, we have a relationship which we do not have with any other religion. You are our dearly beloved brothers, and in a certain way, it could be said that you are our elder brothers.
Pope John Paul II (13 April 1986)[70]

[edit] Eastern Orthodox Church

In May 1999, John Paul II visited Romania on the invitation from Patriarch Teoctist Arăpaşu of the Romanian Orthodox Church. This was the first time a Pope had visited a predominantly Eastern Orthodox country since the Great Schism in 1054.[102] On his arrival, the Patriarch and the President of Romania, Emil Constantinescu, greeted the Pope.[102] The Patriarch stated, “The second millennium of Christian history began with a painful wounding of the unity of the Church; the end of this millennium has seen a real commitment to restoring Christian unity.”[102]

John Paul II visited another heavily Orthodox area, Ukraine on 23–27 June 2001 at the invitation of the President of Ukraine and bishops of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church.[103] The Pope spoke to leaders of the All-Ukrainian Council of Churches and Religious Organisations, pleading for “open, tolerant and honest dialogue”.[103] About 200 thousand people attended the liturgies celebrated by the Pope in Kiev, and the liturgy in Lviv gathered nearly one and a half million faithful.[103] John Paul II stated that an end to the Great Schism was one of his fondest wishes.[103] Healing divisions between the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches regarding Latin and Byzantine traditions was clearly of great personal interest. For many years, John Paul II sought to facilitate dialogue and unity stating as early as 1988 in Euntes in mundum that “Europe has two lungs, it will never breathe easily until it uses both of them”.

During his 2001 travels, John Paul II became the first Pope to visit Greece in 1291 years.[104][105] In Athens, the Pope met with Archbishop Christodoulos, the head of the Greek Orthodox Church.[104] After a private 30 minute meeting, the two spoke publicly. Christodoulos read a list of “13 offences” of the Roman Catholic Church against the Eastern Orthodox Church since the Great Schism,[104] including the pillaging of Constantinople by crusaders in 1204, and bemoaned the lack of apology from the Roman Catholic Church, saying “Until now, there has not been heard a single request for pardon” for the “maniacal crusaders of the 13th century.”[104]

The Pope responded by saying “For the occasions past and present, when sons and daughters of the Catholic Church have sinned by action or omission against their Orthodox brothers and sisters, may the Lord grant us forgiveness,” to which Christodoulos immediately applauded. John Paul II also said that the sacking of Constantinople was a source of “profound regret” for Catholics.[104] Later John Paul and Christodoulos met on a spot where Saint Paul had once preached to Athenian Christians. They issued a ‘common declaration’, saying “We shall do everything in our power, so that the Christian roots of Europe and its Christian soul may be preserved. … We condemn all recourse to violence, proselytism and fanaticism, in the name of religion”.[104] The two leaders then said the Lord’s Prayer together, breaking an Orthodox taboo against praying with Catholics.[104]

The Pope had also said throughout his pontificate that one of his greatest dreams was to visit Russia, but this never occurred. He attempted to solve the problems that had arisen over centuries between the Catholic and Russian Orthodox churches, such as giving back the icon of Our Lady of Kazan in August 2004.

The Dalai Lama met with Pope John Paul II eight times.

[edit] Buddhism

Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama visited Pope John Paul II eight times, more than any other single dignitary. The Pope and the Dalai Lama often shared similar views and understood similar plights, both coming from peoples affected by communism and both being heads of major religious bodies.[106][107]

[edit] Islam

Pope John Paul II made considerable efforts to improve relations between Catholicism and Islam.[108]

On 6 May 2001, Pope John Paul II became the first Catholic pope to enter and pray in an Islamic mosque. Respectfully removing his shoes, he entered the Umayyad Mosque, a former Byzantine era Christian church dedicated to John the Baptist (who is believed to be interred there) in Damascus, Syria, and gave a speech including the statement: “For all the times that Muslims and Christians have offended one another, we need to seek forgiveness from the Almighty and to offer each other forgiveness.”[12][13] He kissed the Qur’an in Syria,[109][110][111] an act which made him popular amongst Muslims but which disturbed many Catholics.[110]

In 2004, Pope John Paul II hosted the “Papal Concert of Reconciliation,” which brought together leaders of Islam with leaders of the Jewish community and of the Catholic Church at the Vatican for a concert by the Kraków Philharmonic Choir from Poland, the London Philharmonic Choir from the United Kingdom, the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra from the United States, and the Ankara State Polyphonic Choir of Turkey.[112][113][114][115] The event was conceived and conducted by Sir Gilbert Levine, KCSG and was broadcast throughout the world.[112][113][114][115]

John Paul II oversaw the publication of the Catechism of the Catholic Church which makes a special provision for Muslims; therein, it is written, “The plan of salvation also includes those who acknowledge the Creator, in the first place amongst whom are the Muslims; these profess to hold the faith of Abraham, and together with us they adore the one, merciful God, mankind’s judge on the last day.”[116]

[edit] Role in the fall of Communism

Russian President Vladimir Putin meeting Pope John Paul II

John Paul II has been credited with being instrumental in bringing down communism in Eastern Europe,[3][4][5][6][7][8][117] by being the spiritual inspiration behind its downfall, and a catalyst for “a peaceful revolution” in Poland. Lech Wałęsa, the founder of ‘Solidarity’, credited John Paul II with giving Poles the courage to rise up.[8] According to Wałęsa, “Before his pontificate, the world was divided into blocs. Nobody knew how to get rid of communism. In Warsaw, in 1979, he simply said: ‘Do not be afraid’, and later prayed: ‘Let your Spirit descend and change the image of the land… this land’.”[117][118]

President Ronald Reagan‘s correspondence with the pope reveals “a continuous scurrying to shore up Vatican support for U.S. policies. Perhaps most surprisingly, the papers show that, as late as 1984, the pope did not believe the Communist Polish government could be changed.”[119]

In December 1989, John Paul II met with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev at the Vatican and each expressed his respect and admiration for the other. Gorbachev once said ‘The collapse of the Iron Curtain would have been impossible without John Paul II’.[3][5] On John Paul’s passing, Mikhail Gorbachev said: “Pope John Paul II’s devotion to his followers is a remarkable example to all of us.”[7][117][120]

US President George W. Bush presents the Medal of Freedom to Pope John Paul II, in June 2004

In February 2004, Pope John Paul II was nominated for a Nobel Peace Prize honouring his life’s work in opposing Communist oppression and helping to reshape the world.[121]

President George W. Bush presented the Presidential Medal of Freedom, America’s highest civilian honour, to Pope John Paul II during a ceremony at the Vatican 4 June 2004.[122] The president read the citation that accompanied the medal, which recognised “this son of Poland” whose “principled stand for peace and freedom has inspired millions and helped to topple communism and tyranny.”[122] After receiving the award, John Paul II said, “May the desire for freedom, peace, a more humane world symbolised by this medal inspire men and women of goodwill in every time and place.”[122]

Warsaw, Moscow, Budapest, Berlin, Prague, Sofia and Bucharest have become stages in a long pilgrimage toward liberty. It is admirable that in these events, entire peoples spoke out — women, young people, men, overcoming fears, their irrepressible thirst for liberty speeded up developments, made walls tumble down and opened gates.
Pope John Paul II (1989)[4]

[edit] Assassination attempts

As he entered St. Peter’s Square to address an audience on 13 May 1981, John Paul II was shot and critically wounded by Mehmet Ali Ağca,[6][16][123] a trained expert Turkish gunman who was a member of the militant fascist group Grey Wolves.[124] The assassin used a Browning 9mm semi-automatic pistol,[125] striking him in the abdomen and perforating his colon and small intestine multiple times.[5] John Paul II was rushed into the Vatican complex and then to the Gemelli Hospital. En route to the hospital, he lost consciousness. Even though the bullets missed his mesenteric artery and abdominal aorta, he lost nearly three-quarters of his blood. He underwent five hours of surgery to treat his massive blood loss and abdominal wounds.[126] Surgeons performed a colostomy, temporarily rerouting the upper part of the large intestine to let the damaged lower part heal.[126] When he briefly gained consciousness before being operated on, he instructed the doctors not to remove his Brown Scapular during the operation.[127][128] The pope stated that Our Lady of Fátima helped keep him alive throughout his ordeal.[6][123][129]

Could I forget that the event [Ali Ağca’s assassination attempt] in St. Peter’s Square took place on the day and at the hour when the first appearance of the Mother of Christ to the poor little peasants has been remembered for over sixty years at Fátima, Portugal? For in everything that happened to me on that very day, I felt that extraordinary motherly protection and care, which turned out to be stronger than the deadly bullet.
—Pope John Paul II -Memory & Identity, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2005, p.184

Ağca was caught and restrained by a nun and other bystanders until police arrived. He was sentenced to life imprisonment. Two days after Christmas in 1983, John Paul II visited the prison where his would-be assassin was being held. The two spoke privately for 20 minutes.[6][123] John Paul II said, “What we talked about will have to remain a secret between him and me. I spoke to him as a brother whom I have pardoned and who has my complete trust.″

On 2 March 2006, an Italian parliamentary commission, the Mitrokhin Commission, set up by Silvio Berlusconi and headed by Forza Italia senator Paolo Guzzanti, concluded that the Soviet Union was behind the attempt on John Paul II’s life,[124][130] in retaliation for the pope’s support of Solidarity, the Catholic, pro-democratic Polish workers’ movement, a theory which had already been supported by Michael Ledeen and the United States Central Intelligence Agency at the time.[124][130] The Italian report stated that certain Communist Bulgarian security departments were utilised to prevent the Soviet Union’s role from being uncovered.[130] The report stated Soviet military intelligence (Glavnoje Razvedyvatel’noje Upravlenije)—and not the KGB—was responsible.[130] Russian Foreign Intelligence Service spokesman Boris Labusov called the accusation ‘absurd’.[130] Although the Pope declared during a May 2002 visit to Bulgaria that the country’s Soviet bloc-era leadership had nothing to do with the assassination attempt,[124][130] his secretary, Cardinal Stanisław Dziwisz, alleged in his book A Life with Karol, that the pope was convinced privately that the former Soviet Union was behind the assassination attempt.[131] Bulgaria and Russia disputed the Italian commission’s conclusions, pointing out that the Pope denied the Bulgarian connection.[130]

A second assassination attempt took place on 12 May 1982, just a day before the anniversary of the first attempt on his life, in Fátima, Portugal when a man tried to stab John Paul II with a bayonet.[132][133][134] He was stopped by security guards, although Stanisław Cardinal Dziwisz later claimed that John Paul II had been injured during the attempt but managed to hide a non-life threatening wound.[132][133][134] The assailant, a traditionalist Spanish priest named Juan María Fernández y Krohn,[132] was ordained as a priest by Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre of the Society of Saint Pius X and was opposed to the changes caused by the Second Vatican Council, calling the pope an agent of Communist Moscow and of the Marxist Eastern Bloc.[135] Fernández y Krohn subsequently left the Roman Catholic priesthood and served three years of a six-year sentence.[133][134][135] The ‘ex-priest’ was treated for mental illness and then expelled from Portugal, going on to become a solicitor in Belgium.[135] He was arrested again in July 2000 after climbing over a security barricade at the Royal Palace of Brussels, accusing the visiting Spanish King Juan Carlos of murdering his older brother Alfonso in 1956.[133][134][136]

Pope John Paul II was also one of the targets of the Al-Qaeda-funded Operation Bojinka during a visit to the Philippines in 1995. The first plan was to kill Pope John Paul II when he visited the Philippines during the World Youth Day 1995 celebrations. On 15 January 1995, a suicide bomber would dress up as a priest, while John Paul II passed in his motorcade on his way to the San Carlos Seminary in Makati City. The assassin planned to get close to the Pope, and detonate the bomb. The planned assassination of the Pope was intended to divert attention from the next phase of the operation. However, a chemical fire inadvertently started by the would-be assassins alerted police to their whereabouts, and they were arrested nearly a week before the Pope’s visit.[137]

[edit] Social and political stances

John Paul II was considered a conservative on doctrine and issues relating to reproduction and the ordination of women.[138]

While the Pope was visiting the United States of America he said, “All human life, from the moments of conception and through all subsequent stages, is sacred.”[139]

A series of 129 lectures given by John Paul during his Wednesday audiences in Rome between September 1979 and November 1984 were later compiled and published as a single work entitled Theology of the Body, an extended meditation on human sexuality. He also extended it to condemnation of abortion, euthanasia and virtually all uses of capital punishment,[140] calling them all a part of the “culture of death” that is pervasive in the modern world. He campaigned for world debt forgiveness and social justice.[8][138]

He made his first visit as Pope to Ireland in late 1979. He spoke to a crowd of 250,000 gathered for Mass at Drogheda. Mindful of the Troubles, the pontiff said:

On my knees, I beg of you to turn away from the paths of violence and to return to the path of peace… Those who resort to violence always claim that only violence brings about change. You must know there is a political, peaceful way to justice.
Pope John Paul II[141]

[edit] Liberation theology

In 1984 and 1986, through the voice of Cardinal Ratzinger, leader of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, John Paul II officially condemned aspects of Liberation theology, which has many followers in South America. Óscar Romero‘s attempt, during his visit to Europe, to obtain a Vatican condemnation of El Salvador‘s regime, denounced for violations of human rights and its support of death squads, was a failure. In his travel to Managua, Nicaragua in 1983, John Paul II harshly condemned what he dubbed the “popular Church”[142] (i.e. “ecclesial base communities” (CEBs) supported by the CELAM), and the Nicaraguan clergy’s tendencies to support the leftist Sandinistas, reminding the clergy of their duties of obedience to the Holy See.[142]

[edit] Jubilee 2000 campaign

Pope John Paul II’s image on Vatican euro coins

Saint Peter’s basilica and Pope John Paul II’s image on plate in Jubilee-Year 2000

In 2000, he publicly endorsed the Jubilee 2000 campaign on African debt relief fronted by Irish rock stars Bob Geldof and Bono.

[edit] Iraq war

In 2003, John Paul II also became a prominent critic of the 2003 US-led invasion of Iraq.[8] In his 2003 State of the World address, the Pope declared his opposition to the invasion by stating, “No to war! War is not always inevitable. It is always a defeat for humanity.”[143] He sent former Apostolic Pro-Nuncio to the United States Pío Cardinal Laghi to talk with American President George W. Bush to express opposition to the war. John Paul II said that it was up to the United Nations to solve the international conflict through diplomacy and that a unilateral aggression is a crime against peace and a violation of international law.

Wars generally do not resolve the problems for which they are fought and therefore… prove ultimately futile.
Pope John Paul II[70]

[edit] Evolution

See also: Evolution and the Roman Catholic Church and Scientific theories and the interpretation of Genesis.

On 22 October 1996, in a speech to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences plenary session at the Vatican, Pope John Paul II declared the evolutionary theories of Charles Darwin as factual, and wholly compatible with the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church.[144][145][146][147]

Although accepting the theory of evolution, John Paul II made one major exception – the human soul. “If the human body has its origin in living material which pre-exists it, the spiritual soul is immediately created by God”.[144][146][147]

[edit] Views on sexuality

While taking a traditional position on sexuality, defending the Church’s moral opposition to marriage for same-sex couples, the pope asserted that persons with homosexual inclinations possess the same inherent dignity and rights as everybody else. In his last book, Memory and Identity, he referred to the “pressures” on the European Parliament to permit “homosexual ‘marriage'”. In the book, as quoted by Reuters, he wrote: “It is legitimate and necessary to ask oneself if this is not perhaps part of a new ideology of evil, perhaps more insidious and hidden, which attempts to pit human rights against the family and against man.”[8]

The Pope also reaffirmed the Church’s existing teaching on gender in relation to transsexuals, as the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, which he supervised, made clear that transsexuals could not serve in church positions.[8][138]

A 1997 study determined that 3% of the pope’s statements were about the issue of sexual morality.[148]

[edit] Health

The ailing Pope John Paul II riding in the Popemobile on 22 September 2004

When he became pope in 1978, John Paul II was already an avid sportsman. At the time, the 58-year old was extremely healthy and active, jogging in the Vatican gardens, weight training, swimming, and hiking in the mountains. He was also fond of football. The media contrasted the new Pope’s athleticism and trim figure to the poor health of John Paul I and Paul VI, the portliness of John XXIII and the constant claims of ailments of Pius XII. The only modern pope with a fitness regimen had been Pope Pius XI (1922–1939) who was an avid mountaineer.[149][150] An Irish Independent article in the 1980s labelled John Paul II the keep-fit pope.

John Paul II fully recovered from the first failed assassination attempt, and sported an impressive physical condition throughout the 1980s. In November 1993, he slipped on a piece of newly installed carpet and fell down several steps, breaking his right shoulder.[151] Four months later he fell over in his bath, breaking his femur, resulting in a visit to the Gemelli hospital for a hip replacement.[152] He rarely walked in public after this, and began experiencing slurred speech and difficulty in hearing. The frail pontiff was suspected of having Parkinson’s disease, although it was only revealed in 2001 by Italian orthopaedic surgeon, Dr. Gianfranco Fineschi.[153][154] The Vatican administration eventually confirmed it in 2003, after keeping it secret for 12 years.[155]

In February 2005, the pontiff was again taken to the Gemelli hospital with inflammation and spasm of the larynx, the result of influenza.[156] He was readmitted a few days after release because of difficulty breathing. A tracheotomy was performed, which improved the Pope’s breathing but limited his speaking abilities, to his visible frustration. The Vatican confirmed he was near death in March 2005, a few days before he died.[157]

[edit] Death and funeral

(l-r): Then-U.S. President George W. Bush, First Lady Laura Bush, former Presidents Bush and Clinton, and Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, pay their respects to John Paul II lying in state at St. Peter’s Basilica, 6 April 2005.

Crowd assembling for John Paul II’s funeral mass on 8 April 2005.

On 31 March 2005 following a urinary tract infection,[158] Pope John Paul II developed septic shock, a widespread form of infection with a very high fever and profoundly low blood pressure, but was not taken to the hospital. Instead, he was offered medical monitoring by a team of consultants at his private residence. This was taken as an indication that the pope and those close to him believed that he was nearing death; it would have been in accordance with his wishes to die in the Vatican.[159] Later that day, Vatican sources announced that John Paul II had been given the Anointing of the Sick by his friend and secretary Stanisław Dziwisz. During the final days of the Pope’s life, the lights were kept burning through the night where he lay in the Papal apartment on the top floor of the Apostolic Palace. Tens of thousands of people assembled and held vigil in St. Peter’s Square and the surrounding streets for two days. Upon hearing of this, the dying pope was said to have stated: “I have searched for you, and now you have come to me, and I thank you.”[160]

On Saturday 2 April 2005, at about 15:30 CEST, John Paul II spoke his final words, “pozwólcie mi odejść do domu Ojca”, (“Let me depart to the house of the Father”), to his aides, and fell into a coma about four hours later.[160][161] The mass of the vigil of the Second Sunday of Easter commemorating the canonisation of Saint Maria Faustina on 30 April 2000,[162] had just been celebrated at his bedside, presided over by Stanisław Dziwisz and two Polish associates. Also present at the bedside was a cardinal from Ukraine who served as a priest with John Paul in Poland, along with Polish nuns of the Congregation of the Sisters Servants of the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus, who ran the papal household. He died in his private apartment, at 21:37 CEST[155][161][163] (19:37 UTC) of heart failure from profound hypotension and complete circulatory collapse from septic shock, 46 days short of his 85th birthday. John Paul had no close family by the time he died, and his feelings are reflected in his words, as written in 2000, at the end of his Last Will and Testament:[164]

As the end of my earthly life approaches, I return with my memory to its beginning, to my parents, my brother and the sister (whom I never knew because she died before my birth), to the Parish of Wadowice where I was baptised, to that city I love, to my peers, friends from elementary school, high school and the university, up to the time of the occupation when I was a worker, then in the Parish in Niegowic, to St Florian’s in Kraków, to the pastoral ministry of academics, to the milieu of… to all milieux… to Kraków and to Rome… to the people who were entrusted to me in a special way by the Lord.[164]

A view from within the congregation at the Requiem Mass, 8 April 2005

The death of the pontiff set in motion rituals and traditions dating back to medieval times. The Rite of Visitation took place from 4 April to 7 April at St. Peter’s Basilica. The Testament of Pope John Paul II published on 7 April[165] revealed that the pontiff contemplated being buried in his native Poland but left the final decision to The College of Cardinals, which in passing, preferred burial beneath St. Peter’s Basilica, honouring the pontiff’s request to be placed “in bare earth”. The Mass of Requiem on 8 April was said to have set world records both for attendance and number of heads of state present at a funeral.[166][167][168][169] (See: List of Dignitaries). It was the single largest gathering of heads of state in history, surpassing the funerals of Winston Churchill (1965) and Josip Broz Tito (1980). Four kings, five queens, at least 70 presidents and prime ministers, and more than 14 leaders of other religions attended alongside the faithful.[167] It is also likely to have been the largest single pilgrimage of Christianity in history, with numbers estimated in excess of four million mourners gathering in Rome.[166][168][169][170] Between 250,000 and 300,000 watched the event from within the Vatican walls.[169] The Dean of the College of Cardinals, Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, who would become the next pope, conducted the ceremony. John Paul II was interred in the grottoes under the basilica, the Tomb of the Popes. He was lowered into a tomb created in the same alcove previously occupied by the remains of Pope John XXIII. The alcove had been empty since Pope John’s remains had been moved into the main body of the basilica after his beatification.

Wikinews has related news: Pope John Paul II dies

[edit] Posthumous recognition

[edit] Title “the Great”

Statue of John Paul II in Częstochowa, southern Poland

Statue of Pope John Paul II (1984) carved by local First Nations at Martyrs’ Shrine, Midland, Ontario

Since the death of John Paul II, a number of clergy at the Vatican and laymen throughout the world[5][166][171] have been referring to the late pontiff as “John Paul the Great”—only the fourth pope to be so acclaimed, and the first since the first millennium.[5][171][172][173] Scholars of Canon Law say that there is no official process for declaring a pope “Great”; the title simply establishes itself through popular and continued usage,[166][174][175] as is also the case with celebrated secular leaders (for example, Alexander III of Macedon became popularly known as Alexander the Great). The three popes who today commonly are known as “Great” are Leo I, who reigned from 440–461 and persuaded Attila the Hun to withdraw from Rome; Gregory I, 590–604, after whom the Gregorian Chant is named; and Pope Nicholas I, 858–867.[171]

His successor, Pope Benedict XVI, referred to him as “the great Pope John Paul II” in his first address[176] from the loggia of St. Peter’s Church, and he referred to Pope John Paul II as “the Great” in his published written homily for the Mass of Repose.[177]

Since giving his homily at the funeral of Pope John Paul, Pope Benedict XVI has continued to refer to John Paul II as “the Great.” At the 20th World Youth Day in Germany 2005, Pope Benedict XVI, speaking in Polish, John Paul’s native language, said, “As the Great Pope John Paul II would say: keep the flame of faith alive in your lives and your people.” In May 2006, Pope Benedict XVI visited John Paul’s native Poland. During that visit, he repeatedly made references to “the great John Paul” and “my great predecessor”.[178]

In addition to the Vatican calling him “the great,” numerous newspapers have also done so. For example, the Italian newspaper Corriere della Sera called him “the Greatest” and the South African Catholic newspaper, The Southern Cross, has called him “John Paul II The Great”.[179]

Some schools in the United States, such as John Paul the Great Catholic University and John Paul the Great Catholic High School, have recently been named for John Paul II using this title.

[edit] Beatification

Statue of John Paul II at Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception in Denver, Colorado, where he held mass in 1993.

Monument to Pope John Paul II in Poznań

Inspired by calls of “Santo Subito!” (“Saint Immediately!”) from the crowds gathered during the funeral,[22][166][23][180][181][182] Benedict XVI began the beatification process for his predecessor, bypassing the normal restriction that five years must pass after a person’s death before the beatification process can begin.[23][180][183][184] In an audience with Pope Benedict XVI, Camillo Ruini, Vicar General of the Diocese of Rome and the one responsible for promoting the cause for canonisation of any person who dies within that diocese, cited “exceptional circumstances” which suggested that the waiting period could be waived.[33][166][185][186] This decision was announced on 13 May 2005, the Feast of Our Lady of Fátima and the 24th anniversary of the assassination attempt on John Paul II at St. Peter’s Square.[187]

In early 2006, it was reported that the Vatican was investigating a possible miracle associated with John Paul II. Sister Marie Simon-Pierre, a French nun and a member of the Congregation of Little Sisters of Catholic Maternity Wards, confined to her bed by Parkinson’s Disease,[180][188] was reported to have experienced a “complete and lasting cure after members of her community prayed for the intercession of Pope John Paul II”.[22][166][180][189][190][191] As of May 2008[update], Sister Marie-Simon-Pierre, then 46,[22][180] was working again at a maternity hospital run by her order.[184][188][192][193]

“I was sick and now I am cured,” she told reporter Gerry Shaw. “I am cured, but it is up to the church to say whether it was a miracle or not.”[188][192]

On 28 May 2006, Pope Benedict XVI said Mass before an estimated 900,000 people in John Paul II’s native Poland. During his homily, he encouraged prayers for the early canonisation of John Paul II and stated that he hoped canonisation would happen “in the near future.”[188][194]

In January 2007, Stanisław Cardinal Dziwisz of Kraków, his former secretary, announced that the key interviewing phase of the beatification process, in Italy and Poland, was nearing completion.[166][188][195] In February 2007, relics of Pope John Paul II—pieces of white papal cassocks he used to wear—were being freely distributed with prayer cards for the cause, a typical pious practice after a saintly Catholic’s death.[196][197]

On 8 March 2007, the Vicariate of Rome announced that the diocesan phase of John Paul’s cause for beatification was at an end. Following a ceremony on 2 April 2007 — the second anniversary of the Pontiff’s death — the cause proceeded to the scrutiny of the committee of lay, clerical, and episcopal members of the Vatican’s Congregation for the Causes of Saints, who will conduct an investigation of their own.[23][188][195]

On the fourth anniversary of Pope John Paul’s death, 2 April 2009, Cardinal Dziwisz, told reporters of a presumed miracle that had recently occurred at the former pope’s tomb in St. Peter’s Basilica.[192][198][199][200][201][202][203] A nine year-old Polish boy from Gdańsk, who was suffering from kidney cancer and was completely unable to walk, had been visiting the tomb with his parents. On leaving St. Peter’s Basilica, the boy told them, “I want to walk,” and began walking normally.[192][198][199][200][201][202][203]

On 16 November 2009, a panel of reviewers at the Congregation for the Causes of Saints voted unanimously that Pope John Paul II had lived a life of virtue.[204][205] On 19 December 2009, Pope Benedict XVI signed the first of two decrees needed for beatification and proclaimed John Paul II “Venerable”, in recognition that he lived a heroic, virtuous life.[204][205] The second vote and the second signed decree recognise the authenticity of his first miracle (the case of Sister Marie Simon-Pierre, the French nun who was cured of Parkinson’s Disease). Once the second decree is signed, the positio (the report on the cause, with documentation about his life and his writings and with information on the cause) is regarded as being complete.[205] He can then be beatified.[204][205] Some speculated that he would be beatified sometime during (or soon after) the month of the 32nd anniversary of his 1978 election, in October 2010. As Monsignor Oder noted, this course would have been possible if the second decree were signed in time by Benedict XVI, stating that a posthumous miracle directly attributable to his intercession has occurred, completing the positio.

The Vatican announced on 14 January 2011 that Pope Benedict XVI had confirmed the miracle involving Sister Marie Simon-Pierre and that John Paul II was to be beatified on May 1, the Feast of Divine Mercy. May 1 is also commemorated in former communist countries, such as Poland, and some Western European countries as May Day, and Pope John Paul II was well-known, among many other things, for his crucial contributions to Eastern European Communism’s relatively peaceful demise, as attested by former Soviet President Gorbachev upon the pontiff’s death.[32]

According to the Vatican, Pope John Paul II’s remains (which will not be exhumed and exposed) will be moved from the grotto beneath St. Peter’s Basilica, where he is presently buried, to a marble stone monument in Pier Paolo Cristofari’s Chapel of St. Sebastian, which is where Blessed Pope Innocent XI is currently buried. Blessed Pope Innocent’s remains will likely be moved. This more prominent location, next to the Chapel of the Pieta, the Chapel of the Blessed Sacrament and statues of Popes Pius XI and Pius XII, will increase the number of pilgrims capable of viewing his memorial.

According to a caption of a photograph appearing on the Catholic News Service (CNS) homepage on Monday, April 4, 2011 (credited to CNS/Agencia Gazeta via Reuters), to commemmorate the late Pope’s beatification, the Polish mint is making new gold 1,000 Polish zloty coins (equivalent to US$354), with his image as Pope on them.

It will be a great joy for us when he is officially beatified, but as far as we are concerned he is already a Saint.
Stanisław Cardinal Dziwisz, Archbishop of Kraków[193]

On 29 April 2011, Pope John Paul II’s coffin was exhumed ahead of his beatification as tens of thousands of people began arriving in Rome for one of the biggest events since his funeral in 2005.[206]

On the same day “Non abbiate paura” (“Have no fear”), the official song dedicated to John Paul II featuring original images and words of the Pope was released. The song, authored by Giorgio Mantovan and Francesco Fiumanò, was performed by Italian singer Matteo Setti and is the only musical piece for which the Vatican has given permission to use Karol Wojtyla’s voice. [207]

The Servant of God John Paul II was declared Blessed on May 1 by Pope Benedict XVI during a Mass at St. Peter’s Square.

[edit] Criticism

John Paul II was criticised for his support of the Opus Dei prelature and the 2002 canonisation of its founder, Josemaría Escrivá, whom he called “the saint of ordinary life.”[138][208][209] Other movements and religious organisations of the Church went decidedly under his wing (Legion of Christ, the Neocatechumenal Way, Schoenstatt, the charismatic movement) and he was accused repeatedly of waving a soft hand on them, especially in the case of Rev. Marcial Maciel, founder of the Legion of Christ.[138][210]

John Paul II’s defence of traditional moral teachings of the Catholic Church regarding gender roles, sexuality, euthanasia, artificial contraception and abortion came under attack. Some feminists, as well as Catholic theologians such as John Wijngaards criticised his traditional positions on the roles of women, which included rejecting women priests.[211]

Many gay rights activists and others criticised him for maintaining the Church’s unbroken opposition to homosexual behaviour and same-sex marriage.[138] In 2007, TIME magazine reported that the manner of John Paul II’s death might have contravened his own position on using medical means to prolong life.[212]

In addition to all the criticism from those demanding modernisation, traditionalist Catholics sometimes denounced him from the right, demanding a return to the Tridentine Mass[213] and repudiation of the reforms instituted after the Second Vatican Council, such as the use of the vernacular language in the formerly Latin Roman Rite Mass, ecumenism, and the principle of religious liberty. He was also accused by these critics for allowing and appointing liberal bishops in their sees and thus silently promoting Modernism, which was firmly condemned as the “synthesis of all heresies” by his predecessor Pope St. Pius X.[138]

John Paul’s defence of the Catholic Church’s moral teaching against the use of artificial birth control, was harshly criticised by doctors and AIDS activists, who said that it led to countless deaths and millions of AIDS orphans.[214] Critics have also claimed that large families are caused by lack of contraception and exacerbate Third World poverty and problems such as street children in South America.[138] The Catholic Agency for Overseas Development published a paper stating, “Any strategy that enables a person to move from a higher-risk towards the lower end of the continuum, [we] believe, is a valid risk reduction strategy.”[215]

[edit] Apologies

John Paul II apologised to Jews, Galileo, women, victims of the Inquisition, Muslims killed by the Crusaders, and almost everyone who had suffered at the hands of the Catholic Church through the years.[8][216] Even before he became the Pope, he was a prominent editor and supporter of initiatives like the Letter of Reconciliation of the Polish Bishops to the German Bishops from 1965. As Pope, he officially made public apologies for over 100 of these wrongdoings, including:

An excuse is worse and more terrible than a lie, for an excuse is a lie guarded.
Pope John Paul II[70]

[edit] Honours and namesakes

Part of a series of articles on
Social Teachings
of the Popes
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Pope Leo XIII
Rerum NovarumPope Pius XI
Quadragesimo AnnoPope Pius XII
Social teachingsPope John XXIII
Mater et Magistra
Pacem in TerrisVatican II
Dignitatis Humanae
Gaudium et SpesPope Paul VI
Populorum progressioPope John Paul II
Centesimus Annus
Laborem Exercens
Sollicitudo Rei SocialisPope Benedict XVI
Caritas in VeritateGeneral
Social Teachings of the Popes
Catholic social teaching
Subsidiarity
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Pope Benedict XVI is shown a map of Ioannes Paulus II Peninsula in Antarctica.

Several national and municipal public projects were named in honour of the Pope: the Roma Termini station, was dedicated to Pope John Paul II by a vote of the City Council, the first municipal public object in Rome bearing the name of a non Italian. International airports named after him are John Paul II International Airport Kraków-Balice — one of the principal airports of Poland — and the João Paulo II Airport in the Azores. The Juan Pablo II Bridge is located in Chile, while John Paul II Square in Bulgaria denotes the Pope’s visit to Sofia in 2002. In Tegucigalpa, the capital city of Honduras is a popular boulevard called “Juan Pablo II”. It was named like that after the visit of the pope to Tegucigalpa Estádio João Paulo II (John Paul II Stadium) is a football (soccer) stadium in Moji-Mirim in Brazil. Parvis Notre-Dame – Place Jean-Paul II is a centrepiece of one of Paris’ neighbourhoods. On Sunday 10 December 2006, the city of Ploërmel, Morbihan, western France, unveiled an 8.75 m (28.71 ft) tall statue of John Paul II, it was a gift by Russo-Georgian sculptor Zurab Tsereteli. Pope John Paul II Park is a feature of Boston, Massachusetts[217] while Pope John Paul II Drive serves residents of Chicago, Illinois.[218]

In the Philippines, the Parish of Jesus, the Way the Truth and the Life in Parañaque City (near SM Mall of Asia) is also called the John Paul II International Youth Centre. When the Vatican’s Secretary for Relations with States, Archbishop Jean Louis Tauran went to the country, he was greeted by the youth from all the Suffragan Dioceses of the Archdiocese of Manila there. In Pasig Catholic College, one of the main exit gates for High School Students is named “Pope John Paul II Gate”. This gate immediately leads to the Bishop’s estate and The Immaculate Conception Cathedral. In Bacolod City, a tower was dedicated to him at the Reclamation area near SM City Bacolod and was named The Pope John Paul II Tower. It is the city’s highest structure.

Of international interest, Ioannes Paulus II Peninsula on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands was named in honour of the Pope. The Antarctic landmark recognises his contribution to world peace and understanding among people.

Freedom consists not in doing what we like, but in having the right to do what we ought.
Pope John Paul II[70]

[edit] Media

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

The Mistery Of Inside Vatican including Secret Archive,St.peter Tomb and Beatafication Pope John Paul (Mengungkap Misteri Didalam Vatican)

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :

The Mistery Of Inside St.Peter Church Vatican

( Mengungkap Koleksi dalam Gereja Santu Petrus Tempat Kediaman Dan Kantor Bapa Suci Paus di Roma Termasuk proses Beatafikasi satu langkah jadi santu dari almarhum Bapak suci Johanus Paulus) 

Frame One : Introductions

 Until this day not manny Catholic peoples  know and seen the mistery inside Vatican like :

A.Beatafication one step before beacame Saint of :

1.Pope John Paul.

(1)The Program

Sunday 1st May
at 9:00
Preparation to the Ceremony
Saint Peter’s Square

at 10:00
Beatification of the Servant of God Pope John Paul II and Regina Caeli
Saint Peter’s Square

Monday 2
at 10:30

Thanksgiving Mass for the Beatification of the Servant of God John Paul II presided over by Card. Tarcisio Bertone
Saint Peter’s Square

(2)Beatafication Information

The beatification ceremony of Pope John Paul II, which will take place in Rome on May 1, 2011, is expected to attract more number of tourists than London’s Royal Wedding happening on April 29, according to a leading hotel comparison site.

(Photo: REUTERS/Chris Helgren)
Worshippers are seen at Saint Peter’s square in Vatican City on April 2, 2005, the day Pope John Paul II died. His beatification ceremony will happen in Rome on May 1, 2011.
 
 
         

   

Get latest destination features, Adventure, and luxury travel tips & deals Sample

Rome is experiencing higher demand over the last weekend of April, Trivago figures have revealed.

About 60 percent of London’s hotels that have online booking facility through hotel booking sites have still rooms available, while reservations can be made now only in 30 percent of the Rome hotels online, the site said.

Also, Rome hotel rooms are soaring in terms of tariff, indicating the popularity of the beatification ceremony of the Polish born pope.

While an overnight stay in a London hotel around the wedding of Prince William and Kate Middleton will cost about $310, staying in Rome during the beatification will cost around $370 a night, the hotel comparison site said.

 

The late Pope John Paul II was moved a major step closer to sainthood in the Roman Catholic Church early this year, when his successor, Pope Benedict approved a decree attributing a miracle to him. The move meant that John Paul, who died in 2005 after heading the Roman Catholic Church for nearly 27 years, will be beatified. Beatification is the last step before sainthood and such a ceremony draws Catholics from all over the worl

Pope John Paul II gives his blessing to late father Marcial Maciel, founder of Christ's Legionaries, during a special audience the pontiff granted to about four thousand participants of the Regnum Christi movement, at the Vatican on Nov. 30, 2004. (AP Photo/ Plinio Lepri) This April 10, 2003 file photo shows Pope John Paul II as a white dove is released in honor of his repeated calls for peace by Roman youths, in St. Peter's Square at the Vatican. (AP Photo/Massimo Sambucetti, file)

Pope John Paul II to be beatified in may ,1st.2011

 

 
CTV News Channel: Jacalyn Duffin, historian
A medical historian explains how the Catholic Church views the role of miracles in the process of canonizing a candidate for sainthood.
CTV News Channel: Megan Williams in Rome
A correspondent says there is major urge and support to make Pope John Paul II a saint, as he was one of the most popular popes ever. She says an investigation into his miracle is being conducted.
 

CTV News Video

CTV National News: Jill Macyshon with the details
The Vatican has announced it believes Pope Jean Paul II is responsible for at least one miracle. This will allow the church to proceed with plans to make the former pontiff a saint.
CTV News Channel: Jacalyn Duffin, historian
A medical historian explains how the Catholic Church views the role of miracles in the process of canonizing a candidate for sainthood.
CTV News Channel: Megan Williams in Rome
A correspondent says there is major urge and support to make Pope John Paul II a saint, as he was one of the most popular popes ever. She says an investigation into his miracle is being conducted.
 
 

Photos

Pope John Paul II gives his blessing to late father Marcial Maciel, founder of Christ's Legionaries, during a special audience the pontiff granted to about four thousand participants of the Regnum Christi movement, at the Vatican on Nov. 30, 2004. (AP Photo/ Plinio Lepri)
Pope John Paul II gives his blessing to late father Marcial Maciel, founder of Christ’s Legionaries, during a special audience the pontiff granted to about four thousand participants of the Regnum Christi movement, at the Vatican on Nov. 30, 2004. (AP Photo/ Plinio Lepri)

 

CTV.ca News Staff

Date: Fri. Jan. 14 2011 10:54 AM ET

Pope Benedict XVI has approved a miracle attributed to his predecessor, nudging John Paul II one step closer to sainthood.

In a decree Friday, the Pope confirmed that a French nun Sister Marie Simon-Pierre’s recovery from Parkinson’s disease was indeed miraculous, thanks to the intercession of John Paul.

When she went public with her story, the nun said she had been suffering the degenerative disease for four years when she prayed to John Paul II in June of 2005.

John Paul, who also suffered Parkinson’s, was 84 years old when he died two months earlier.

All the symptoms disappeared overnight, Sister Marie Simon-Pierre told reporters in 2007, explaining that she never took another treatment again.

“My life has completely changed — it was like a second birth for me,” she said.

The conclusion her cure had no other scientific explanation — approved by a Vatican-appointed panel of doctors, theologians, cardinals and bishops this week — paves the way for Pope John Paul II to be beatified in the spring.

Beatification is the third of four steps on the path to sainthood. Once complete, he will be anointed with the title “Blessed,” and his tomb will be moved from the crypt at St. Peter’s Basilica, reportedly to the nave in the Chapel of St. Sebastian.

Answering the swell of public opinion in the wake of the Polish pontiff’s death in 2005, Benedict decided to skip the five years that typically separate someone’s death and the start of their ascendancy to sainthood.

“This is a hugely popular figure in the Roman Catholic Church, even when he was alive he was one of the most popular popes ever,” Vatican correspondent Megan Williams told CTV News Channel Friday, explaining that Pope Benedict was simply heeding the will of the faithful.

The only other person to achieve beatification so quickly was Mother Theresa.

While John Paul II enjoyed the unwavering support of Catholics during his years as pope, the discovery of thousands of sexual abuse cases that were covered-up during his papacy have caused some to question his apparent fast-track toward sainthood.

Nevertheless, hundreds of thousands of faithful are expected to be in Rome on May 1, when Pope Benedict XVI himself will preside over the beatification ceremony. After that, a second miracle is needed for the canonization to be complete, though the Pope can also opt to waive that requirement.

Because the second miracle must occur after beatification, there’s no saying exactly how long it might take before John Paul can take the last step to sainthood.

“In this case I think it’s going to be sooner than later, because there’s such a popular push to have Pope John Paul II become a saint,” Williams said in an interview from Rome. “So there’s going to be a lot of people looking for miracles to put before the Vatican.”

Benedict put John Paul on the fast track to possible sainthood just weeks after he died in 2005, responding to the chants of “Santo Subito!” or “Sainthood immediately!” that erupted during his funeral.

His nearly 27 years in the Vatican made John Paul II the third longest-serving pope in history. He also went down in the record books as the most-travelled pontiff, with visits to more than 120 countries.

The Beatafication of Pope John Paul alive now at the Piazza Saint Peter Vatican Rome(complete illustration look at the special exhibtion,The beatafication of Pope John Paul in this web.)

(1)The picture of Beata John Paul

(2)The announcement of Beata John Paul by Pope Bennedictus

(3) The  many audince ,especially from Italy,Poland,Canada and other countries

(4)  the audience situation at the piazza saint Peter

 (5)The banner

(6)The honor to Pope Joh Paul Tomb by Pope Bennedictis, Cardinal, and also orthodox Christian Archbischop.

2.The Only one Saint from Asia, Saint Andreas Kim Tae Gon.

Kim Taegon, Andrew

 
 
 

 

Saint Andrew Kim Taegon

Saint Andrew Kim Tae-gon

Born August 21 1821(1821-08-21)
Died September 16 1846 (aged 25)
Venerated in Catholic Church
Beatified 1925
Canonized 6 May 1984by Pope John Paul II
Major shrine Chŏltusan (Martyr’s Mound), Seoul, South Korea
Feast 20 September (Roman calendar)
Patronage Korean Clergy

Saint Andrew Kim Tae-gon is known as Korea‘s first Roman Catholic priest. Born into a family of Christian converts at a time of unprecedented governmental opposition to Christianity (Christian teachings threatened the hierarchical system of Confucianism and ancestor worship), Kim and his family led lives of deprivation and hardship. Although there were repeated efforts made by the Korean monarchy (who feared European colonization of Korea through Christianity), to uproot the religion of the barbarian foreigners from 1794 to 1866, converts to Christianity continued to increase.

Even though Kim’s family members and eventually Kim himself would suffer persecution, torture and eventual martyrdom under the repressive Korean monarchy, as it desperately tried to preserve itself and Korea’s Confucian culture by eradicating Christianity; the sacrifice of these early Korean Christians became the foundation for the Christian Church in Korea to flourish today. Andrew Kim Taegon is revered today for his sacrifice and dedication in bringing Christianity to Korea

The TV show related to Saint Andrew Kim Tae Gon

 

 

 

 

 

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Sancte Andrew Kim Taegon, Ora pro nobis
 
Glory to God/Sep. 20 Patron Sts. Andrew Kim Taegon, Paul Chong Hasang & Companions
Glory to God/Sep. 20 Patron Sts. Andrew Kim Taegon, Paul Chong Hasang & Companions
In my nothingness lower than the dust,all praise be to the Most Holy Trinity in One God! In Nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti. Amen. Glory to God in the highest through His Divine Mercy! His Good, Most Pleasing, and Perfect Will! Hosanna in the highest! All Praise be to Jesus Christ! His Passion, Death and Resurrection! O Blessed Mother Mary, Full of Grace! The Immaculate Concepcion! Sts. Andrew Taegon, Paul Hasang And Companions, Martyrs! Please pray for us, sinners! O God, have mercy on us! In Nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti. Amen. Thank You, O Most Holy Trinity in One God through our Blessed Mother Mary, all the Holy Angels, Blessed, Saints in Heaven and all souls in Purgatory!
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Sep 20 - Homily: The Seed and the Sower
Sep 20 – Homily: The Seed and the Sower
Today Fr. Angelo preaches on the parable of the Seed and the Sower and the need to open our hearts to the Word of God and relates this to today’s Saints, Andrew Kim Taegon, Paul Chong Hasang and companion martyrs as perfect examples of this openness. Ave Maria! +++
WAITING FOR NORIYUSHI - credits
WAITING FOR NORIYUSHI – credits
  • Order: Reorder
  • Duration: 5:24
  • Published: 29 Dec 2009
  • Uploaded: 22 Mar 2011
  • Author: dobidobz
“Waiting For Noriyushi” -Herminia Sison A class play performed last February 16, 2008 for the Annual Play Fest during the English Month Performed and prepared by the class of 4 – St. Andrew Kim Taegon Xavier University High School CASTS Cloty Valerio as Rosenda Charlotte Cabrera as Amada Philip Guibao as Felipe Khrizelle Maagad as Lita Michael Villar as Tony Roselle Rodriguez as Sister Matilde Myko Espinosa as Noriyushi Marichelle Goyeneche as Yayang Regin Padla as Yoyong Sheba Arancon as Lola Sencia PRODUCTION STAFF Production Head: Coreine Valledor, Michael Tabor Finance Manager: Sheba Arancon Artistic Director: Sofia Ness Bautista, Irene Bernal Technical Director: Donna Borja, Miguel Fernandez Set Designer: Krystel Tecson, Dominique Fabillar Stage Manager: Camille Echavez, Golda Murillo Props Manager: Michael Fortunado, Demie Pagute, Mark Uy Costume and Make-Up: Karen Go, Antonette Pizarro, Jubel Lagbas, Rodimer Lomoya Publicity Manager: Regin Padla, Paolo Faderogao Lights Design: Karl Dandasan Sounds Design: Allen Paller, Carl Mulat * Credit Songs used: Enrique Iglesias ~ Hero Semisonic ~ Closing Time Other sounds used: Pachelbel’s Canon Full House ~ Love at the gate Diana Ross ~ If we hold on together Sad Piano and more ..
Jeoldusan Martyrs Shrine
Jeoldusan Martyrs Shrine
  • Order: Reorder
  • Duration: 8:25
  • Published: 02 Oct 2008
  • Uploaded: 22 Aug 2010
  • Author: calivinguy
A Catholic-funded shrine to all the thousands who were killed in the 1800s, as a pawn in a political coup against France. Featuring music by Caedmon’s Call, Casting Crowns and Jeremy Camp.
WAITING FOR NORIYUSHI - 1/4
WAITING FOR NORIYUSHI – 1/4
  • Order: Reorder
  • Duration: 8:00
  • Published: 29 Dec 2009
  • Uploaded: 31 Dec 2009
  • Author: dobidobz
“Waiting For Noriyushi” – part 1/4 A class play performed last February 16, 2008 for the Annual Play Fest during the English Month Performed and prepared by the class of 4 – St. Andrew Kim Taegon Xavier University High School
kumpil
kumpil
  • Order: Reorder
  • Duration: 1:07
  • Published: 07 May 2007
  • Uploaded: 19 Aug 2010
  • Author: vinzloiz
confirmation rites at the parish of santo cristo and saint andrew kim tae-gon, lolomboy, bocaue, bulacan last may 5, 2007 presided by his excellency the most reverend jose f. oliveros, dd, bishop of the catholic diocese of malolos
09/20/10 Responsorial Psalm
09/20/10 Responsorial Psalm
  • Order: Reorder
  • Duration: 1:04
  • Published: 20 Sep 2010
  • Uploaded: 20 Sep 2010
  • Author: RCDOL
Lucas Flores reads the Responsorial Psalm for today, the Memorial of Saint Andrew Kim Taegŏn, priest and martyr, and Saint Paul Chŏng Hasang, martyr, and their companions, martyrs, from the Guadalupe Chapel in the Catholic Center.
09/20/10 First Reading
09/20/10 First Reading
  • Order: Reorder
  • Duration: 1:16
  • Published: 20 Sep 2010
  • Uploaded: 20 Sep 2010
  • Author: RCDOL
Lucas Flores reads the First Reading for today, the Memorial of Saint Andrew Kim Taegŏn, priest and martyr, and Saint Paul Chŏng Hasang, martyr, and their companions, martyrs, from the Guadalupe Chapel in the Catholic Center.
09/20/10 Gospel
09/20/10 Gospel
  • Order: Reorder
  • Duration: 0:49
  • Published: 20 Sep 2010
  • Uploaded: 20 Sep 2010
  • Author: RCDOL
Lucas Flores reads the Gospel for today, the Memorial of Saint Andrew Kim Taegŏn, priest and martyr, and Saint Paul Chŏng Hasang, martyr, and their companions, martyrs, from the Guadalupe Chapel in the Catholic Center.
김대건 kim dae gun Waitara
김대건 kim dae gun Waitara
  • Order: Reorder
  • Duration: 4:42
  • Published: 21 Jul 2008
  • Uploaded: 18 Mar 2011
  • Author: haeiny7
Waitara sunday school
Homily 09-17-2010 - Fr. Frank Pavone - The Sacred Stigmata of St. Francis of Asisi.flv
Homily 09-17-2010 – Fr. Frank Pavone – The Sacred Stigmata of St. Francis of Asisi.flv
  • Order: Reorder
  • Duration: 22:29
  • Published: 17 Sep 2010
  • Uploaded: 12 Dec 2010
  • Author: EWTN
EWTN Global Catholic Television Network: Homily – Fr. Frank Pavone – The Sacred Stigmata of St. Francis of Asisi
The Korean Martyrs (September 20)
The Korean Martyrs (September 20)

 

September 20 is the feast day of the Korean Martyrs. This prayer is for Korea.

 

 

B.Another Mistery like:

 

1.)The Saint Pater Square  with many peoples waiting to see the pope at the window which gave them mercy.

2.) The Inside the Saint Pater Church to join the ceremony during Natal or Pasque,and some look at television the procession ceremony during the Pope pass away and the choose of the new pope also His coronations.

3.)The inside of the pope office only seen at TV during the visiting of The president ,King or Queen and  other the leader of Nations.

2.Are you aver seen the other part of Inside Vatican like  :

1) the detail of the painting of Saint Peter Church by Michael angelo

( I had exhibited at my blog before,look at the Rome’s art Collections)

2)The detail of the entrance to The Pope Office alos inside the office.

3)The detail of The way to the Pope office ,the Vatican Museum and secret Collections at the base of vatican building(Catacombe)

4)The collections Of Vatican Museum

 5)The Secret Collections in the base of Vatican (Catacombe)

 6) The Bones which found there in the grown which state belonging to the First Pope Saint Pater .

3.The Pope Bennedictus have gave permission to the Vatican Journalist and radio reporter to look at that mistery places ,let’s we went together with her to open that mistery.

Jakarta May 2011

Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

 

Frame Three : The Beatafication and Saint Ceremony.

1.Pope Joun Paul Beatafication 2011 2.Saint Andreas Kim Tae Gon Information

Frame Four: The Inside Of Vatican

1. the detail of the painting of Saint Peter Church by Michael angelo( I had showed at my blog ,look at the Rome’s art Collections)

2.The detail of outside from early in the morning to night

the statue on the roof

 

and the entrance of St Peter church

 

and to The Pope Office also inside the office.

 

3.The detail of The way to the Pope office ,the Vatican Museum and secret Collections at the base of vatican building(Catacombe)

4.The Ceremony during President Obama Visit Vatican City.

5.The collections Of Vatican Museum

 Frame Four: The Secret Collections Inside Vatican

 1.The Secret Collections in the base of Vatican (Catacombe)

 2. The Collection of Other Religious

1)The Chinnest Quan Yin

2)the african Goddest woodden statue

 

3.The Bones which found there in the grown which state belonging to the First Pope Saint Pater .

 

 

 Frame Five:

The Special Fasiclity In Vatican

1. The Vatican Star Loope Bosca (Teropong Bintang)

1) The chief

 

2) The Loope

3)Several Star pictures

2. The Secret Archive Museum

(1)the chief of museum

(2) The Secret Archive library

(2a)Museum reading room

 

 

 (3) The secret picture of Popu Pius XII which never published until He Pass Away.

(4)secret archive of a civil who work at Vatican

Frame Six:

The Pope Bennedictus Visit Spain

Frame Seven: 

The History Of Vatican City .

 

 
 

Vatican City

 

 

Vatican City State

Stato della Città del Vaticano[1]
Flag Coat of arms
AnthemInno e Marcia Pontificale”  (Italian)
“Pontifical Anthem and March”
Location of  Vatican City  (green)on the European continent  (dark grey)  —  [Legend]
Location of  Vatican City  (green)on the European continent  (dark grey)  —  [Legend]
Capital Vatican City[2]
41°54′N 12°27′E / 41.9°N 12.45°E / 41.9; 12.45
Official language(s) Italian[3]
Ethnic groups  Italians, Swiss (Swiss Guards), other[4]
Government Ecclesiastical,[5]
sacerdotal-monarchical[6]
 –  Sovereign Pope Benedict XVI
 –  President of the Government Giovanni Lajolo
Independence from the Kingdom of Italy 
 –  Lateran Treaty 11 February 1929 
Area
 –  Total 0.44 km2 (235th)
0.17 sq mi 
Population
 –  July 2010 estimate 829[7] (223rd)
 –  Density 1877/km2 (6th)
4,859/sq mi
Currency Euro (€)[8][9] (EUR)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 –  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Drives on the right[note 1]
Internet TLD .va
Calling code +379[10]

Vatican City (Listeni /ˈvætɪkən ˈsɪti/) or Vatican City State,[11] in Italian officially Stato della Città del Vaticano (pronounced [ˈstaːto della tʃitˈta del vatiˈkaːno]),[12] which translates as “State of the Vatican City”, is a landlocked sovereign city-state whose territory consists of a walled enclave within the city of Rome, Italy. It has an area of approximately 44 hectares (110 acres), and a population of just over 800.[5][13]

Vatican City was established in 1929 by the Lateran Treaty, signed by Cardinal Secretary of State Pietro Gasparri, on behalf of the Holy See and by Prime Minister Benito Mussolini on behalf of the Kingdom of Italy. Vatican City State is distinct from the Holy See, which dates back to early Christianity and is the main episcopal see of 1.2 billion Latin and Eastern Catholic adherents around the globe. Ordinances of Vatican City are published in Italian; official documents of the Holy See are issued mainly in Latin. The two entities even have distinct passports: the Holy See, not being a country, only issues diplomatic and service passports; Vatican City State issues normal passports. Very few passports are issued by either authority.

The Lateran Treaty in 1929, which brought the city-state into existence, spoke of it as a new creation (Preamble and Article III), not as a vestige of the much larger Papal States (756-1870) that had previously encompassed much of central Italy. Most of this territory was absorbed into the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, and the final portion, namely the city of Rome with Lazio, ten years later, in 1870.

Vatican City is an ecclesiastical[5] or sacerdotal-monarchical[6] state, ruled by the Bishop of Rome—the Pope. The highest state functionaries are all Catholic clergymen of various national origins. It is the sovereign territory of the Holy See (Sancta Sedes) and the location of the Pope’s residence, referred to as the Apostolic Palace.

The Popes have generally resided in the area that in 1929 became Vatican City since the return from Avignon in 1377, but have also at times resided in the Quirinal Palace in Rome and elsewhere. Previously, they resided in the Lateran Palace on the Caelian Hill on the far side of Rome from the Vatican. Emperor Constantine gave this site to Pope Miltiades in 313. The signing of the agreements that established the new state took place in the latter building, giving rise to the name of Lateran Pacts, by which they are known.

Contents

 Geography

A panorama of the country from atop St. Peter’s Basilica

The Vatican climate is the same as Rome’s; a temperate, Mediterranean climate with mild, rainy winters from September to mid-May and hot, dry summers from May to August. There are some local features, principally mists and dews, caused by the anomalous bulk of St Peter’s Basilica, the elevation, the fountains and the size of the large paved square.

The Vatican City is the world’s smallest state, being only a few acres.

In July 2007, the Vatican agreed to become the first carbon neutral state. They plan to accomplish this by offsetting carbon dioxide emissions with the creation of a Vatican Climate Forest in Hungary.[14]

Territory

Territory of Vatican City according to the Lateran Treaty

The name “Vatican” predates Christianity and comes from the Latin Mons Vaticanus, meaning Vatican Mount.[15] The territory of Vatican City is part of the Mons Vaticanus, and of the adjacent former Vatican Fields. It is in this territory that St. Peter’s Basilica, the Apostolic Palace, the Sistine Chapel, and museums were built, along with various other buildings. The area was part of the Roman rione of Borgo until 1929. Being separated from the city, on the west bank of the Tiber river, the area was an outcrop of the city that was protected by being included within the walls of Leo IV (847–55), and later expanded by the current fortification walls, built under Paul III (1534–49), Pius IV (1559–65) and Urban VIII (1623–44).

When the Lateran Treaty of 1929 that gave the state its present form was being prepared, the boundaries of the proposed territory were influenced by the fact that much of it was all but enclosed by this loop. For some tracts of the frontier, there was no wall, but the line of certain buildings supplied part of the boundary, and for a small part of the frontier a modern wall was constructed.

The territory includes St. Peter’s Square, distinguished from the territory of Italy only by a white line along the limit of the square, where it touches Piazza Pio XII. St. Peter’s Square is reached through the Via della Conciliazione which runs from close to the Tiber River to St. Peter’s. This grand approach was constructed by Benito Mussolini after the conclusion of the Lateran Treaty.

According to the Lateran Treaty, certain properties of the Holy See that are located in Italian territory, most notably Castel Gandolfo and the major basilicas, enjoy extraterritorial status similar to that of foreign embassies.[16][17] These properties, scattered all over Rome and Italy, house essential offices and institutions necessary to the character and mission of the Holy See.[17] Castel Gandolfo and the named basilicas are patrolled internally by police agents of Vatican City State and not by Italian police. St. Peter’s Square is ordinarily policed jointly by both.[16]

St. Peter’s Square, the basilica and obelisk, from Piazza Pio XII

 

Gardens

Part of the Vatican Gardens

Within the territory of Vatican City are the Vatican Gardens (Italian: Giardini Vaticani),[18] which account for more than half of this territory. The gardens, established during the Renaissance and Baroque era, are decorated with fountains and sculptures.

The gardens cover approximately 23 hectares (57 acres) which is most of the Vatican Hill. The highest point is 60 metres (200 ft) above mean sea level. Stone walls bound the area in the North, South and West.

The gardens date back to medieval times when orchards and vineyards extended to the north of the Papal Apostolic Palace.[19] In 1279 Pope Nicholas III (Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, 1277–1280) moved his residence back to the Vatican from the Lateran Palace and enclosed this area with walls.[20] He planted an orchard (pomerium), a lawn (pratellum) and a garden (viridarium).[20]

 History

Vatican City*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

View of St. Peter's Square from the top of Michelangelo's dome.

State Party Holy See
Type Cultural
Criteria i, ii, iv, vi
Reference 286
Region** Europe
Inscription history
Inscription 1984  (8th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
** Region as classified by UNESCO.

 Predecessor states

 
 

In this originally uninhabited area (the ager vaticanus) on the opposite side of the Tiber from the city of Rome, Agrippina the Elder (14 BC – 18 October AD 33) drained the hill and environs and built her gardens in the early 1st century AD. Emperor Caligula (31 August AD 12 – 24 January AD 41; r. 37–41) started construction of a circus (AD 40) that was later completed by Nero, the Circus Gaii et Neronis,[21] usually called, simply, the Circus of Nero. In AD 69, the Year of the Four Emperors, when the northern army that brought Aulus Vitellius to power arrived in Rome, “a large proportion camped in the unhealthy districts of the Vatican, which resulted in many deaths among the common soldiery; and the Tiber being close by, the inability of the Gauls and Germans to bear the heat and the consequent greed with which they drank from the stream weakened their bodies, which were already an easy prey to disease”.[22]

The Vatican obelisk was originally taken by Caligula from Heliopolis, Egypt to decorate the spina of his circus and is thus its last visible remnant. This area became the site of martyrdom of many Christians after the Great Fire of Rome in AD 64. Ancient tradition holds that it was in this circus that Saint Peter was crucified upside-down.

Opposite the circus was a cemetery separated by the Via Cornelia. Funeral monuments and mausoleums and small tombs as well as altars to pagan gods of all kinds of polytheistic religions were constructed lasting until before the construction of the Constantinian Basilica of St. Peter’s in the first half of the 4th century. Remains of this ancient necropolis were brought to light sporadically during renovations by various popes throughout the centuries increasing in frequency during the Renaissance until it was systematically excavated by orders of Pope Pius XII from 1939 to 1941.

In 326, the first church, the Constantinian basilica, was built over the site that early Roman Catholic apologists (from the first century on) as well as noted Italian archaeologists argue was the tomb of Saint Peter, buried in a common cemetery on the spot. From then on the area started to become more populated, but mostly only by dwelling houses connected with the activity of St. Peter’s. A palace was constructed near the site of the basilica as early as the 5th century during the pontificate of Pope Symmachus (reigned 498–514).[23]

Popes in their secular role gradually came to govern neighbouring regions and, through the Papal States, ruled a large portion of the Italian peninsula for more than a thousand years until the mid 19th century, when all of the territory of the Papal States was seized by the newly created Kingdom of Italy. For much of this time the Vatican was not the habitual residence of the Popes, but rather the Lateran Palace, and in recent centuries, the Quirinal Palace, while the residence from 1309–77 was at Avignon in France.

Italian unification

Main article: Roman Question

In 1870, the Pope’s holdings were left in an uncertain situation when Rome itself was annexed by the Piedmont-led forces which had united the rest of Italy, after a nominal resistance by the papal forces. Between 1861 and 1929 the status of the Pope was referred to as the “Roman Question“. The successive Popes were undisturbed in their palace, and certain prerogatives recognized by the Law of Guarantees, including the right to send and receive ambassadors. But the Popes did not recognise the Italian king’s right to rule in Rome, and they refused to leave the Vatican compound until the dispute was resolved in 1929. Other states continued to maintain international recognition of the Holy See as a sovereign entity.

In practice Italy made no attempt to interfere with the Holy See within the Vatican walls. However, they confiscated church property in many other places, including, perhaps most notably, the Quirinal Palace, formerly the pope’s official residence. Pope Pius IX (1846–78), the last ruler of the Papal States, claimed that after Rome was annexed he was a “Prisoner in the Vatican“.

 Lateran treaties

Main article: Lateran Treaty

This situation was resolved on 11 February 1929 between the Holy See and the Kingdom of Italy. The treaty was signed by Benito Mussolini on behalf of King Victor Emmanuel III and by Cardinal Secretary of State Pietro Gasparri for Pope Pius XI. The Lateran Treaty and the Concordat established the independent State of the Vatican City and granted Roman Catholicism special status in Italy.

World War II

 Recent history

In 1984, a new concordat between the Holy See and Italy modified certain provisions of the earlier treaty, including the position of Roman Catholicism as the Italian state religion.

 Head of state

Main article: Pope

Vatican City

The Pope is ex officio head of state[24] of Vatican City, functions dependent on his primordial function as bishop of the diocese of Rome. The term Holy See refers not to the Vatican state but to the Pope’s spiritual and pastoral governance, largely exercised through the Roman Curia.[25] His official title with regard to Vatican City is Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City.

His principal subordinate government official for Vatican City is the President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State, who since 1952 exercises the functions previously belonging to the Governor of Vatican City. Since 2001, the President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State also has the title of President of the Governorate of the State of Vatican City.

The Pope resides in the Papal Apartments of the Papal Palace overlooking off Saint Peter’s Square. It is here he carries out his business and meets foreign representatives.

The current Pope is Benedict XVI, born Joseph Alois Ratzinger in Bavaria, Germany. Italian Cardinal Giovanni Lajolo serves as President of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City. He was appointed by Pope Benedict XVI on 11 September 2006.

 Government

 
 
 
State of Vatican City

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Vatican City State


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The politics of Vatican City takes place in an absolute elective monarchy, in which the head of the Roman Catholic Church takes power. The Pope exercises principal legislative, executive, and judicial power over the State of Vatican City (an entity distinct from the Holy See), which is a rare case of a non-hereditary monarchy.[26]

Vatican City is currently the only widely recognised independent state that has not become a member of the United Nations. The Holy See, which is distinct from Vatican City State, has permanent observer status with all the rights of a full member except for a vote in the UN General Assembly.

Political system

View of the dome of Saint Peter’s Basilica from Borgo Santo Spirito.

The government of Vatican City has a unique structure. The Pope is the sovereign of the state. Legislative authority is vested in the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State, a body of cardinals appointed by the Pope for five-year periods. Executive power is in the hands of the President of that commission, assisted by the General Secretary and Deputy General Secretary. The state’s foreign relations are entrusted to the Holy See‘s Secretariat of State and diplomatic service. Nevertheless, the pope has full and absolute executive, legislative and judicial power over Vatican City. He is currently the only absolute monarch in Europe.

There are specific departments that deal with health, security, telecommunications, etc.[27]

The Cardinal Camerlengo presides over the Apostolic Camera to which is entrusted the administration of the property and the protection of the temporal rights of the Holy See during a papal vacancy. Those of the Vatican State remain under the control of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City. Acting with three other cardinals chosen by lot every three days, one from each order of cardinals (cardinal bishop, cardinal priest, and cardinal deacon), he in a sense performs during that period the functions of head of state. All the decisions these four cardinals take must be approved by the College of Cardinals as a whole.

The nobility that was closely associated with the Holy See at the time of the Papal States continued to be associated with the Papal Court after the loss of these territories, generally with merely nominal duties (see Papal Master of the Horse, Prefecture of the Pontifical Household, Hereditary officers of the Roman Curia, Black Nobility). They also formed the ceremonial Noble Guard. In the first decades of the existence of the Vatican City State, executive functions were entrusted to some of them, including that of Delegate for the State of Vatican City (now denominated President of the Commission for Vatican City). But with the motu proprio Pontificalis Domus of 28 March 1968,[28] Pope Paul VI abolished the honorary positions that had continued to exist until then, such as Quartermaster General and Master of the Horse.[29]

The State of the Vatican City, created in 1929 by the Lateran Pacts, provides the Holy See with a temporal jurisdiction and independence within a small territory. It is distinct from the Holy See. The state can thus be deemed a significant but not essential instrument of the Holy See. The Holy See itself has existed continuously as a juridical entity since Roman Imperial times and has been internationally recognised as a powerful and independent sovereign entity since late antiquity to the present, without interruption even at times when it was deprived of territory (e.g. 1870 to 1929). The Holy See has the oldest active continuous diplomatic service in the world, dating back to at least AD 325 with its legation to the Council of Nicea.[30] Ambassadors are accredited to the Holy See, never to the Vatican City State.

Military and police

Though, like various European powers, earlier Popes recruited Swiss mercenaries as part of an army, the Pontifical Swiss Guard was founded by Pope Julius II on 22 January 1506 as the personal bodyguard of the Pope and continues to fulfil that function. It is listed in the Annuario Pontificio under “Holy See”, not under “State of Vatican City”. At the end of 2005, the Guard had 134 members. Recruitment is arranged by a special agreement between the Holy See and Switzerland. All recruits must be Catholic, unmarried males with Swiss citizenship who have completed their basic training with the Swiss Army with certificates of good conduct, be between the ages of 19 and 30, and be at least 175 cm (68.90 in) in height. Members are armed with small arms and the traditional halberd (also called the Swiss voulge), and trained in bodyguarding tactics.

Swiss Guards in their traditional uniform

Palace of the Governorate of Vatican City State

The Palatine Guard and the Noble Guard were disbanded by Pope Paul VI in 1970.[31] While the first body was founded as a militia at the service of the Papal States, its functions within the Vatican State, like those of the Noble Guard, were merely ceremonial.

The Corpo della Gendarmeria acts as a police force. Its full name is Corpo della Gendarmeria dello Stato della Città del Vaticano (which means “Gendarmerie Corps of the Vatican City State”), although it is sometimes referred to as the Vigilanza, as a shortening of an earlier name. The Gendarmeria is responsible for public order, law enforcement, crowd and traffic control, and criminal investigations in Vatican City.[31]

The military defence of the Vatican City is provided by Italy and its armed forces, given the fact that Vatican City is an enclave within the Italian Republic. Vatican City has no armed force of its own, the Swiss Guard being a corps responsible for the security of the Pope. (See: Military of Vatican City)

 Administration

Legislative functions are delegated to the unicameral Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State, led by the President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State. Its seven members are cardinals appointed by the Pope for terms of five years. Acts of the commission must be approved by the pope, through the Holy See‘s Secretariat of State, and before taking effect must be published in a special appendix of the Acta Apostolicae Sedis. Most of the content of this appendix consists of routine executive decrees, such as approval for a new set of postage stamps.

Executive authority is delegated to the Governorate of Vatican City. The Governorate consists of the President of the Pontifical Commission—using the title “President of the Governorate of Vatican City”—a General Secretary, and a Vice General Secretary, each appointed by the pope for five year terms. Important actions of the Governorate must be confirmed by the Pontifical Commission and by the Pope through the Secretariat of State.

The Governorate oversees the central governmental functions through several departments and offices. The directors and officials of these offices are appointed by the pope for five year terms. These organs concentrate on material questions concerning the state’s territory, including local security, records, transportation, and finances. The Governorate oversees a modern security and police corps, the Corpo della Gendarmeria dello Stato della Città del Vaticano.

Judicial functions are delegated to a supreme court, an appeals court, a tribunal, and a trial judge. In all cases, the pope may choose at any time to exercise supreme legislative, executive, or judicial functions in the state.

The Country code prefix is SCV, and the only postal code is 00120 — altogether SCV-00120.[32]

 Foreign relations

Vatican City State is a recognised national territory under international law, but it is the Holy See that conducts diplomatic relations on its behalf, in addition to the Holy See’s own diplomacy, entering into international agreements in its regard. The Vatican City State thus has no diplomatic service of its own. Because of space limitations, Vatican City is one of the few countries in the world that is unable to host embassies.

Foreign embassies to the Holy See are located in the city of Rome; only during the Second World War were the staff of some embassies accredited to the Holy See given what hospitality was possible within the narrow confines of Vatican City—embassies such as that of the United Kingdom while Rome was held by the Axis Powers and Germany’s when the Allies controlled Rome.

The size of Vatican City is thus unrelated to the large global reach exercised by the Holy See as an entity quite distinct from the state.[33]

However, Vatican City State itself participates in some international organizations whose functions relate to the state as a geographical entity, distinct from the non-territorial legal persona of the Holy See.

These organizations are much less numerous than those in which the Holy See participates either as a member or with observer status.

They include the following seven, in each of which Vatican City State holds membership:[34][35]

It also participates in:[34]

Economy

The reverse of the Vatican 1 coin produced in 2006 depicting the current pope, Benedict XVI.

The Vatican City State budget[36] includes the Vatican museums and post office and is supported financially by the sale of stamps, coins, medals, and tourist mementos; by fees for admission to museums; and by publications sales. Moreover, an annual collection taken up in dioceses and direct donations go to a non-budgetary fund known as Peter’s Pence, which is used directly by the Pope for charity, disaster relief, and aid to churches in developing nations. The incomes and living standards of lay workers are comparable to those of counterparts who work in the city of Rome.[37] Other industries include printing, the production of mosaics and the manufacture of staff uniforms.

The Vatican also conducts worldwide financial activities, having its own bank, Istituto per le Opere di Religione (also known as the Vatican Bank, and with the acronym IOR). This bank has an ATM with instructions in Latin, possibly the only such ATM in the world.[38]

Vatican City issues its own coins. It has used the euro as its currency since 1 January 1999, owing to a special agreement with the European Union (council decision 1999/98/CE). Euro coins and notes were introduced in 1 January 2002—the Vatican does not issue euro banknotes. Issuance of euro-denominated coins is strictly limited by treaty, though somewhat more than usual is allowed in a year in which there is a change in the papacy.[39] Because of their rarity, Vatican euro coins are highly sought by collectors.[40] Until the adoption of the Euro, Vatican coinage and stamps were denominated in their own Vatican lira currency, which was on par with the Italian lira.

The Vatican City State, which employs nearly 2000 people, ran a deficit in 2008 of over 15 million euros, but in 2007 had a surplus of 6.7 million euros.[41]

Demographics

Population and languages

Almost all of Vatican City’s 826 (2009 est.)[42] citizens either live inside the Vatican’s walls or serve in the Holy See’s diplomatic service in embassies (called “nunciatures“; a papal ambassador is a “nuncio”) around the world. The Vatican citizenry consists almost entirely of two groups: clergy, most of whom work in the service of the Holy See, and a very few as officials of the state; and the Swiss Guard. Most of the 3,000 lay workers who comprise the majority of the Vatican workforce reside outside the Vatican and are citizens of Italy, while a few are citizens of other nations. As a result, all of the City’s actual citizens are Catholic as are all the places of worship.

Vatican City has no set official language. Unlike the Holy See, which most often uses Latin for the authoritative version of its official documents, Vatican City uses Italian in its legislation and official communications.[43] Italian is also the everyday language used by most of those who work in the state. In the Swiss Guard, German is the language used for giving commands, but the individual guards take their oath of loyalty in their own languages, German, French, Romansh or Italian. Vatican City’s official website languages are Italian, English, French, German, and Spanish. (This site should not be confused with that of the Holy See, which uses all these languages, along with Portuguese, with Latin since 9 May 2008 and Chinese since 18 March 2009.)

Citizenship

Pre-March 2011

Unlike citizenship of other states, which is based either on jus sanguinis (birth from a citizen, even outside the state’s territory) or on jus soli (birth within the territory of the state), citizenship of Vatican City is granted jus officii, namely on the grounds of appointment to work in a certain capacity in the service of the Holy See. It usually ceases upon cessation of the appointment. Citizenship is extended also to the spouse, parents and descendants of a citizen, provided they are living with the person who is a citizen.[44][45]

Anyone who on loss of Vatican citizenship possesses no other citizenship, as judged by Italian law, automatically becomes an Italian citizen.[16]

As of 31 December 2005, there were, apart from the Pope himself, 557 people with Vatican citizenship, while there were 246 residents in the state who did not have its citizenship.

Of the 557 citizens, 74% were clergy:

  • 58 cardinals, resident in Rome, mostly outside the Vatican;
  • 293 clergy, members of the Holy See’s diplomatic missions, resident in other countries, and forming well over half the total of the citizens;
  • 62 other clergy, working but not necessarily living in the Vatican.

The 101 members of the Papal Swiss Guard constituted 18% of the total, and there were only 43 other lay persons with Vatican citizenship.[46]

Post-February 2011

On 22 February 2011, Pope Benedict XVI promulgated a new “Law concerning citizenship, residency and access” to Vatican City, which became effective on 1 March. It replaced the 1929 “Law concerning citizenship and residence”.[47] There are 16 articles in the new law, whereas the old law had 33 articles.[48] Vatican citizenship now has four categories: (1) the pope, (2) cardinals residing in Vatican City, (3) active members of the Holy See’s diplomatic corps, and (4) other directors of Vatican offices and services.[48] The new law created a new status, that of official Vatican “residents”, i.e., people who live in Vatican City but are not citizens.[48] As of March 1, 2011, the Vatican had 572 citizens, but only 220 of them were living in Vatican City.[48] The other 352 citizens were apostolic nuncios and diplomatic staff.[48] The 220 citizens living in Vatican City were among more than 800 people living in the Vatican.[48]

360-degree view from the dome of St. Peter’s Basilica, looking over the Vatican’s Saint Peter’s Square (center) and out into Rome, showing most of Vatican City

Culture

the complete collections look at hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com serach the rome art collections.

Michelangelo’s Pietà is one of the Vatican’s best known artworks.

Vatican City is home to some of the most famous art in the world. St. Peter’s Basilica, whose successive architects include Bramante, Michelangelo, Giacomo della Porta, Maderno and Bernini is a renowned work of Renaissance architecture. The Sistine Chapel is famous for its frescos, which include works by Perugino, Domenico Ghirlandaio and Botticelli as well as the ceiling and Last Judgement by Michelangelo. Artists who decorated the interiors of the Vatican include Raphael and Fra Angelico.

The Vatican Library and the collections of the Vatican Museums are of the highest historical, scientific and cultural importance. In 1984, the Vatican was added by UNESCO to the List of World Heritage Sites; it is the only one to consist of an entire state.[49] Furthermore, it is the only site to date registered with the UNESCO as a centre containing monuments in the “International Register of Cultural Property under Special Protection” according to the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict.[49]

Infrastructure

The stamp vending machine of the Vatican Postal Service.

Transport

Vatican City has a reasonably well developed transport network considering its size (consisting mostly of a plaza and walkways). As a country that is 1.05 kilometres (0.6 mi) long and 0.85 kilometres (0.5 mi) wide,[50] it has a small transportation system with no airports or highways. There is one heliport and a standard gauge railway connected to Italy’s network at Rome’s Saint Peter’s station by an 852 metres (932 yd) long spur, only 300 metres (328 yd) of which is within Vatican territory.[51]

Pope John XXIII was the first Pope to make use of this railway, and Pope John Paul II used it as well, albeit very rarely. The railway is mainly used to transport freight.[51] As Vatican City has no airports (it is one of the few independent states in the world without one, except for the aforementioned heliport), it is served by the airports that serve the city of Rome, within which the Vatican is located, namely: Leonardo da Vinci-Fiumicino Airport and to a lesser extent, Ciampino Airport, which both serve as the departure gateway for the Pope’s international visits.[51]

 Communications

The City is served by an independent, modern telephone system,[52] the Vatican Pharmacy, and post office. The postal system was founded on 11 February 1929, and two days later became operational. On 1 August, the state started to release its own postal stamps, under the authority of the Philatelic and Numismatic Office of the Vatican City State.[53] The City’s postal service is sometimes recognised as “the best in the world”[54] and mail has been noted to get to its target before the postal service in Rome.(look at at hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com search vatican histoic collections)[54]

The Vatican also controls its own Internet TLD, which is registered as (.va). Broadband service is widely provided within Vatican City. Vatican City has also been given a radio ITU prefix, HV, and this is sometimes used by amateur radio operators.

Vatican Radio, which was organised by Guglielmo Marconi, broadcasts on short-wave, medium-wave and FM frequencies and on the Internet.[55] Its main transmission antennae are located in Italian territory. Television services are provided through another entity, the Vatican Television Center.[56]

L’Osservatore Romano is the multilingual semi-official newspaper of the Holy See. It is published by a private corporation under the direction of Roman Catholic laymen but reports on official information. However, the official texts of documents are in the Acta Apostolicae Sedis, the official gazette of the Holy See, which has an appendix for documents of the Vatican City State.

Vatican Radio, the Vatican Television Center, and L’Osservatore Romano are organs not of the Vatican State but of the Holy See, and are listed as such in the Annuario Pontificio, which places them in the section “Institutions linked with the Holy See”, ahead of the sections on the Holy See’s diplomatic service abroad and the Diplomatic Corps accredited to the Holy See, after which is placed the section on the State of Vatican City.

 Crime

Main article: Crime in Vatican City

In accordance with Article 22 of the 1929 Lateran Treaty between the Holy See and Italy, the Italian government, when requested by the Holy See, handles the prosecution and detention of criminal suspects, at the expense of the Vatican.[16] Capital punishment was envisaged in the legislation adopted in 1929 on the basis of Italian law, but the Vatican state never exercised it and abolished it in 1969.

See also

 

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Footnotes

  1. ^ Visitors and tourists are not permitted to drive inside the Vatican without specific permission, which is normally granted only to those who have business with some office in the Vatican.

 

 Citations

  1. ^ Treaty between the Holy See and Italy, article 26.
  2. ^ Vatican City is a city-state
  3. ^ In accordance with paragraph 2 of the Legge sulle fonti del diritto of 7 June 1929, all laws and regulations of the state are published in the Italian-language Supplemento per le leggi e disposizioni dello Stato della Città del Vaticano attached to the Acta Apostolicae Sedis. The text of the first seven items published in that supplement is given here. While the state itself uses only Italian, many other languages are used by institutions situated within the state, such as the Holy See, the Pontifical Swiss Guard, and the Pontifical Academy of Sciences. The Holy See uses Latin as an official language and French as a diplomatic language; in addition, its Secretariat of State uses English, German, Italian, Polish, Portuguese and Spanish. The Swiss Guard, in which commands on parade are given in German, also uses French and Italian in all its official ceremonies. The semi-official Holy See newspaper L’Osservatore Romano uses English, French, German, Italian, Malayalam, Polish, Portuguese and Spanish. Vatican Radio uses 40 languages, including Albanian, Amharic, Arabic, Armenian, Byelorussian, Bulgarian, Chinese, Croatian, Czech, Esperanto, English, Filipino, French, German, Hindi, Hungarian, Italian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Malayalam, Polish, Portuguese, Rumanian, Russian, Slovak, Slovenian, Somali, Spanish, Swahili, Tamil, Tigrigna, Ukrainian, and Vietnamese.
  4. ^ “CIA – The World Factbook – Holy See (Vatican City)”. Cia.gov. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/vt.html. Retrieved 10 October 2009. 
  5. ^ a b c “Holy See (Vatican City)”. CIA—The World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/vt.html. Retrieved 22 February 2007. 
  6. ^ a b “catholic-pages.com”. catholic-pages.com. http://www.catholic-pages.com/vatican/vatican_city.asp. Retrieved 15 October 2010. 
  7. ^ Holy See (Vatican City), The World Factbook, CIA. Retrieved 1 July 2010.
  8. ^ Since 1 January 2002. www.vatican.va Holy See Press office — General Information. Retrieved 23 October 2009.
  9. ^ Before 2002, the Vatican lira (on par with the Italian lira)
  10. ^ ITU-T assigned code 379 to Vatican City. However, Vatican City is included in the Italian telephone numbering plan and uses the Italian country code 39, followed by 06 (for Rome) and 698.
  11. ^ “Homepage of Vatican City State”. Vaticanstate.va. http://www.vaticanstate.va/EN/homepage.htm. Retrieved 15 October 2010. 
  12. ^ “Stato della Città del Vaticano” is the name used in the state’s founding document, the Treaty between the Holy See and Italy, article 26.
  13. ^ “Vatican City State”. Vatican City Government. http://www.vaticanstate.va/EN/homepage.htm. Retrieved 28 November 2007. 
  14. ^ “The Vatican to go carbon neutral”. United Press International. 13 July 2007. http://www.physorg.com/news103554442.html. Retrieved 12 September 2009. 
  15. ^ “Vatican (search)”. Online Dictionary. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Vatican. Retrieved 28 November 2007. 
  16. ^ a b c d Treaty between the Holy See and ItalyPDF
  17. ^ a b Excerpt of extraterritorial jurisdictionas per the Lateran Treaty of 1929:
    Article 13
    Italy recognizes the full ownership of the Holy See over the patriarchal Basilicas of St. John Lateran, Sta. Maria Maggiore, and St. Paul, with their annexed buildings.
    The State transfers to the Holy See the free management and administration of the said Basilica of St. Paul and its dependent Monastery, also paying over to the Holy See all monies representing the sums set aside annually for that church in the budget of the Ministry of Education.
    It is also understood that the Holy See shall remain the absolute owner of the edifice of S. Callisto, adjoining Sta. Maria in Trastevere.
    Article 14
    Italy recognizes the full ownership by the Holy See of the Papal Palace of Castel Gandolfo, together with all endowments, appurtenances, and dependencies thereof, which are now already in the possession of the Holy See, and Italy also undertakes to hand over, within six months after the coming into force of the present Treaty, the Villa Barberini in Castel Gandolfo, together with all endowments, appurtenances, and dependencies thereof.
    In order to round off the property situated on the northern side of the Janiculum Hill, belonging to the Sacred Congregation of Propaganda Fide and to other ecclesiastical institutions, which property faces the Vatican Palaces, the State undertakes to transfer to the Holy See or other bodies appointed by it for such purpose, all real estate belonging to the State or to third parties existing in that area. The properties belonging to the said Congregation and to other institutions and those to be transferred being marked on the annexed map.
    Finally, Italy shall transfer to the Holy See, as its full and absolute property, the Convent buildings in Rome attached to the Basilica of the Twelve Holy Apostles and to the churches of San Andrea della Valle and S. Carlo ai Catinari, with all annexes and dependencies thereof, and shall hand them over within one year after the entry into force of the present Treaty, free of all occupants.
    Article 15
    The property indicated in Article 13 hereof and in paragraphs (1) and (2) of Article 14, as well as the Palaces of the Dataria, of the Cancelleria, of the Sacred Congregation of Propaganda Fide in the Piazza di Spagna of the S. Offizio with its annexes, and those of the Convertendi (now the Congregation of the Eastern Church) in Piazza Scossacavalli, the Vicariato, and all other edifices in which the Holy See shall subsequently desire to establish other offices and departments although such edifices form part of the territory belonging to the Italian State, shall enjoy the immunity granted by International Law to the headquarters of the diplomatic agents of foreign States. Similar immunity shall also apply with regard to any other churches (even if situated outside Rome) during such time as, without such churches being open to the public, the Supreme Pontiff shall take part in religious ceremonies celebrated therein.
    Article 16

    Saint Apollinaris Building (Palazzo sant’Apollinare)

    The property mentioned in the three preceding Articles, as also that used as headquarters of the following Papal institutions—the Gregorian University, the Biblical, Oriental, and Archaeological Institutes, the Russian Seminary, the Lombard College, the two Palaces of St. Apollinaris and the Home of the Retreat of the Clergy dedicated to St. John and St. Paul—shall never be subject to charges or to expropriation for reasons of public utility, save by previous agreement with the Holy See, and shall be exempt from any contribution or tax, whether ordinary or extraordinary and payable to the State or to any other body.
    It shall be permissible for the Holy See to deal with all buildings above mentioned or referred to in the three preceding Articles as it may deem fit, without obtaining the authorisation or consent of the Italian governmental, provincial, or communal authority, which authorities may in this regard rely entirely on the high artistic traditions of the Roman Catholic Church.
  18. ^ “Map of Vatican City”. http://www.saintpetersbasilica.org. http://www.saintpetersbasilica.org/vaticancity-map.htm. Retrieved 11 October 2009. 
  19. ^ “Al Pellegrino Cattolico: The Vatican Gardens. © 2008 Al Pellegrino Cattolico s.r.l. Via di Porta Angelica 81\83 (S.Pietro) I- 00193 Roma, Italy. http://www.pellegrinocattolico.com/ctv/gardens.htm. Retrieved 21 November 2008. 
  20. ^ a b “Official Vatican City State Website: A Visit to the Vatican Gardens. © 2007-08 Uffici di Presidenza S.C.V.. http://www.vaticanstate.va/EN/Monuments/The_Vatican_Gardens/. Retrieved 21 November 2008. 
  21. ^ Lanciani, Rodolfo (1892). Pagan and Christian Rome Houghton, Mifflin.
  22. ^ Tacitus, The Histories, II, 93, translation by Clifford H. Moore (The Loeb Classical Library, first printed 1925)
  23. ^ Columbia Encyclopedia[dead link], Sixth Edition, 2001-2005
  24. ^ One of the titles of the Pope listed in the Annuario Pontificio is “Sovereign of Vatican City State” (page 23* in recent editions).
  25. ^ Code of Canon Law, canon 361 and Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, canon 48
  26. ^ “Vatican City (Politics, government, and taxation)”. Nations Encyclopedia. http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/economies/Europe/Vatican-City-POLITICS-GOVERNMENT-AND-TAXATION.html. Retrieved 28 November 2007. 
  27. ^ “Vatican City”. Catholic-Pages.com. http://www.catholic-pages.com/vatican/vatican_city.asp. Retrieved 4 March 2007. 
  28. ^ Pontificalis Domus, 3
  29. ^ The site Hereditary Officers of the Papal Court continues to present these functions and titles as still in use, several decades after their abolition.
  30. ^ Vatican Diplomacy, Catholic-Pages.com, retrieved 15 Mar. 2007
  31. ^ a b “Vatican City Today”. Vatican City Government. http://www.vaticanstate.va/EN/State_and_Government/History/Vatican_City_today.htm. Retrieved 28 November 2007. 
  32. ^ “International postal code: SCV-00120.” www.vatican.va Holy See Press office — General Information. Retrieved 23 October 2009.
  33. ^ The Holy See and Diplomacy, Foreign and Commonwealth Office
  34. ^ a b Vatican City State: Participation in International Organizations
  35. ^ See also appendix at end of Bilateral Relations of the Holy See
  36. ^ This is distinct from the budget of the Holy See, which is supported financially by a variety of sources, including investments, real estate income, and donations from Catholic individuals, dioceses, and institutions; these help fund the Roman Curia (Vatican bureaucracy), diplomatic missions, and media outlets.
  37. ^ “Holy See (Vatican City): Economy”. CIA – The World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/vt.html. Retrieved 10 October 2010. 
  38. ^ Seán P. O’Malley (28 September 2006). “A Glimpse Inside the Vatican & Msgr. Robert Deeley’s Guest Post”. http://www.cardinalseansblog.org/?p=232. Retrieved 30 January 2008. 
  39. ^ “Agreements on monetary relations (Monaco, San Marino, the Vatican and Andorra)”. Activities of the European Union: Summaries of legislation. http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/economic_and_monetary_affairs/institutional_and_economic_framework/l25040_en.htm. Retrieved 23 February 2007. 
  40. ^ “Benedict Vatican euros set for release”. Catholic News. 21 April 2006. http://www.cathnews.com/news/604/100.php. Retrieved 23 February 2007. [dead link]
  41. ^ Christian Telegraph: Holy See’s budget shortfall shrinks in 2008. Note that the report quoted deals mainly with the revenues and expenses of the Holy See and mentions only briefly the finances of Vatican City.
  42. ^ “CIA – The World Factbook – Holy See (Vatican City)”. Cia.gov. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/vt.html. Retrieved 28 March 2010. 
  43. ^ The Vatican City State appendix to the Acta Apostolicae Sedis is entirely in Italian.
  44. ^ United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (7 June 1992). “Law on Citizenship and Residence, 7 June 1992″. Unhcr.org. http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/category,LEGAL,,LEGISLATION,VAT,3ae6b52f10,0.html. Retrieved 15 October 2010. 
  45. ^ “Cittadinanza vaticana”. Vatican.va. 31 December 2001. http://www.vatican.va/news_services/press/documentazione/documents/sp_ss_scv/informazione_generale/cittadinanza_it.html. Retrieved 15 October 2010. 
  46. ^ “Vatican citizenship”. Holy See Press Office. http://www.vatican.va/news_services/press/documentazione/documents/sp_ss_scv/informazione_generale/cittadini-vaticani_en.html. Retrieved 3 December 2006. 
  47. ^ “Law on Citizenship, Residency and Access to the Vatican”. VIS – Vatican Information Service. March 1, 2011. http://visnews-en.blogspot.com/2011/03/law-on-citizenship-residency-and-access.html. Retrieved 1 March 2011. 
  48. ^ a b c d e f “Law Now Allows for Vatican Residents: 1929 Code Replaced”. ZENIT. Innovative Media, Inc.. March 2, 2011. http://www.zenit.org/article-31900?l=english. Retrieved 2 March 2011. 
  49. ^ a b “Vatican City – UNESCO World Heritage Centre”. whc.unesco.org. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/286. Retrieved 10 October 2009. 
  50. ^ “Holy See – State of the Vatican City”. Vatican Papal Conclave. http://www.vatican.va/news_services/press/documentazione/documents/sp_ss_scv/informazione_generale/sp_ss_scv_info-generale_en.html. Retrieved 28 November 2007. 
  51. ^ a b c Vatican City State Railway “Railways of the World”. Sinfin.net. http://www.sinfin.net/railways/world/vatican/vaticanrail.html#Origini Vatican City State Railway. Retrieved 8 August 2006. 
  52. ^ On call 24/7: Vatican phone system directs thousands of call each day, 24 July 2006.
  53. ^ “The Early Definitives”. Vatican Philatelic Society. Archived from the original on 11 December 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071211191109/http://www.vaticanphilately.org/vc.htm. Retrieved 28 November 2007. 
  54. ^ a b Baker, Al (27 June 2004). “Hail Marys Not Needed: Vatican Mail Will Deliver”. New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=950CEFDE1738F934A15755C0A9629C8B63&n=Top/News/World/Countries%20and%20Territories/Vatican%20City. Retrieved 28 November 2007. 
  55. ^ “Vatican Radio – Index”. Vatican.va. 2 September 2005. http://www.vatican.va/news_services/radio/index.htm. Retrieved 6 May 2009. 
  56. ^ “Vatican Television Center – Index”. Vatican.va. http://www.vatican.va/news_services/television/index.htm. Retrieved 6 May 2009.

the end @W copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011