KERAMIK KERAJAAN TIONGKOK YANG DITEMUKAN DI INDONESIA(BAGIAN KE 2)

INI HANYA CUPLIKAN INFO TANPA ILUSTRASI LENGKAP

TEMUAN KERAMIK KERAJAAN TIONGKOK

DI INDONESIA

Bab Pengantar Kedua

*ill 1

Oleh

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Fotografer Albert Suwandy Djohan Oertama

Hasil Penelitian kepustakaan dan lapangan

Edisi Khusus Terbatas Buku Elektronik Dalam CD-Rom

Hanya Untuk Kalangan Terbatas

Hak Cipta @ Dr Iwan 2015

ill 1*Vase Kontraversial   Qing Kang-Hsi Chenghua dengan meniru seni lukis artistic Ming Cheng Hua   temuan Indonesia

* Illustrasi nomor 1

 

Pengantar Bagian Kedua

Setelah hampir lima puluh tahun mengumpulkan pecahan dan keramik dari berbagai Negara khususnya dari Tiongkok, terutama dari Kerajaan Tiongkok yang di temukan di seluruh Indonesia terutama sari era Dinas asti Yuan, Ming dan Qing di Sumatera , Jawa , Kalimantan ,Sulawesi dan Maluku.

 

 

Pada hari ini saya memberanikan diri memaparkan hasil penelitian penelitian studi perbandingan keindahan lukisan Pelukis keramik kerajaan Tiongkok dengan Lukisan Pelukis Dunia saat ini .

   Semoga hasil temuan ini dapat berguna bagi para kolektor di Indonesia dalam menyususn koleksinya sehingga terhindar dari koleksi barang baru atau Reproduksi yang sangat banyak beredar di Indonesia.

Pada beberapa tahun terakhir banyak ditemukan keramik kerajaan Tiongkok mulai dari dinasti Han,Tang,.Sung, Yuan,Ming dan Qing serta dinasti kecil lainnya diantara dinasti tersebut.

Temuan tersebut baik berupa pecahan yang dapat dijadikan dasar untuk perbandingan keaslian bagi temuan yang utuh.

Keindahan disain dan tehnik melukis para pelukis pabrik keramik dari Istana Kaisar Kerajaan Tiongkok akan dibandingkan dengan Keindahan disain dan tehnik Para Pelukis tingkat dunia teruta akliran impresionis yang aya ambil dari buku-buku lukisan lama edisi diatas lima puluh tahun dimana hak cipta berada ditangan pemilik koleksi dalam hal ini saya pribadi.

Memang menurut pakar Keramik Sumirah Adyatma ( maaf apabila ejaan namanya keliru) , pengarang dan Kurator Musuem Keramik Adam Malik (museum sudah tidak ada lagi) dan Buku Koleksi Keramik Adam Malik, manyatakan bahwa mustahil dapat memaparkan disain dan jenis motif keramik kerajaan Tiongkok khususnya keramik biru-putih yang jumlah dan jenisnya nya sangat banyak.sehingga ia hanya menampilkan koleksi berdasar era dan bentuk saja serta sebagian disain keramik monokrome saja.

Kendatipun demikian saya jelah berjuang selama kurun waktu lama untuk menyatakan tidak ada yang mustahil di dunia ini asal kita mau karena Jenis DNA saja sudah berhasil dibuatkan melalui projek bersama tingkat dunia Huamn Genome dan saya secara pribadi eorang diri akan berusaha memecahkan rekor yang tentunya akan dapat dikutip oleh Gueness record sebagai jenis dan disain yang paling banyak dimiliki seorang koklektor swasta di tingkat dunia.

Saya telah menyusun sebuah CD-Rom yangberisi jenis,type dan desain keramik Tiongkok asli yang pernah ditemukan d ndonesia dibandingkan dengan jenis distain dan tehnik lukisan artisitk tingkat dunia   miik saya prinadi.

Selamat membaca dan melihat koleksi yang saya pernah temukan di Inonesia.

Semoga para kolektor Indonesia jadi lebih semangat dan giat berburu kemaik antic yang dapat memberikan anda suatu kepuasan baik moril maupun materiel.

Tak Lupa saya ucapkan terima kasih kepada berbagai pihak yang telah banyak membantu saya, terutama Isteri saya Lily Widjaja yang telah menberikan dorongan moril dan materiel , Purtra saya Albert sang fotofrager dan Anton Jimmi Suwnadi .

Serta banyak lagi yang saya tidak dapat menyebut namanya satu persatu karena berbagai alasan ,juga kepada seluruh keluarga saya lainnya .

 

Buku ini tidak dijual kepada para pedagang karena akan menyebabkan mereka akan menaikan harga secara gila-gilaan seperti lukisan, dan kita para kolektor jadi tidak mampu memilikinya lagi serta hanya akan jadi impian saja.

Akhirnya terima kasih saya ucapkan kepada Bunda Maria,dan Tuhan Yang Maha Kuasa atas berkahnya saya mampu memiliki informasi yang amat penting dan langka ini.

 

CD-Rom ini agak mahal harganya disesuaikan denagn standar info saat ini satu informasi US$ 25,- ,walaupun demikian akan saya sesuaikan dengan situasi dengan kondisi di Indonesia, begitu juga jika pembaca ingin melihat museum kecil saya di Kelapa Gading Jakarta.

Jakarta Juni 2015

DR Iwan Suwandy,MHA

 

Cuplikan Pengantar Bagian Pertama

Setelah hampir lima puluh tahun mengumpulkan pecahan dan keramik utuh dari berbagai Negara khususnya dari Tiongkok , terutama Era Kerajaan Tiongkok yang di temukan di seluruh Indonesia terutama di Sumatera ,Jawa,Kalimantan ,Sulwesi dan Maluku.

 

Pada hari ini saya memberanikan diri menampilkan hasil penelitian tersebut, semoga hasil temuan ini dapat berguna bagi para kolektor di Indonesia dalam menyususn koleksinya sehingga terhindar dari koleksi barang baru atau Reproduksi yang sangat banyak beredar di Indonesia.

Pada beberapa tahun terakhir banyak ditemukan keramik Kerajaan Tiongkok mulai dari dinasti Han,Tang,.Sung, Yuan,Ming dan Qing serta dinasti kecil l diantara dinasti tersebut.

Temuan tersebut baik utuh atau pecahan yang dapat dijadikan dasar untuk perbandingan untukmenetukan keaslian keramik   yang utuh.

Saya telah menyusun sebuah CD-Rom yang berisi jenis,tipe dan desain keramik Tiongkok asli yang pernah ditemukan di Indonesia

dan dibandingkan dengan Kepustakaan yang ada terutama dari katalogus lelangan.

Besar harapan saya para pemegang Hak Cipta tidak keberatan informasi mereka ditampilkan dalam buku ini guna dapat membuka misteri Keramik Kerajaan Tiongkok yang sampai saat ini masih sering diperdebatkan oleh para pakar Keramik Antik di Dunia, Maaf saya belum diakui secara Internasinal kecuali oleh beberapa orang saja dari Idonesia.

Buku Kepustakkan yang saya jadikan dasar untuk perbandingan adalah sebagaoi berikut Later Ming Ceramic karanga Jenny Soaes, Buku keramik Kerajjan Tiongkok (Chinese Imperial veramik) karangan , Buku Lukisan Impressionis. .

Demikianlah jerih payah saya selama lebih kurang lima puluh tahun, semoga para pembaca menghormati Hak Cipta Saya, dan pesan khusus untuk seluruh keluarga saya peliharalah temuan yang langka ini walaupun sebagian besar dari dinasti Ming Awal ,Ming Wanli, serta dnasti Qing .

Buku ini akan dirilis saat pembukaan Museum Leluhur Indonesia WLS (WANLI & SONS)

Selamat membaca dan melihat koleksi yang saya pernah temukan di Inonesia, semoga para kolektor Indonesia jadi lebih semangat dan giat berburu keramik antik yang dapat memberikan anda suatu kepuasan baik moril maupun materiel.

Buku ditulis dalam bahasa Indonesia dan bahasa Inggris sesuai dengan jenis Info yang diperoleh atau sesuai aslinya tidak diterjemahkan agar tidak ada kekeliruan dn buku ini umumnya ditujukan bagi bangsa Indonesia, jika cukup banyak peminatnya akan diterjemahkan kedalam bahasa Inggris secaara keselurhannya.

Tak Lupa saya ucapkan terima kasih kepada berbagai pihak yang telah banyak membantu saya, mohon maaf saya tidak dapat menyebut namanya satu persatu karena berbagai alas an ,juga kepada seluruh keluarga saya.

Buku ini tidak dijual kepada para pedagang karena akan menyebabkan mereka akan menaikan harga secara gila-gilaan seperti lukisan, dan kita para kolektor jadi tidak mampu memilikinya lagi serta hanya akan jadi impian saja.

Sebenarnya saya telah memegang salahsatu lukisan asli karaya maestro pelukis dunia Vincent van Gohh ,tetapi karena tidak menjadari lukisan dirinya saat masih anak-anak yang aya temukan di Bukittinggi dengan namanya hanya tertera Vincent, maka luputlah koleksi tersebut dan katanya telah dibeli oleh bangsa asing dan tentunya sekarang ia sudah kaya raya dan koleksi itu telah ada di museum di Eropa, krena itu bila saya ada filling terhadpad keramik yag sangat indah, saat ini saya telah berani berspekulasi dan inilah temuannya.

Akhirnya terima kasih saya ucapkan kepada Bunda Maria,dan Tuhan Yang Maha Kuasa atas berkahnya saya mampu memiliki informasi yang amat penting dan langka ini..

Jakarta Mai 2015

DR Iwan Suwandy,MHA

 

 

 

DAFTAR KOLEKSI

Plate 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TAMPILAN KOLEKSI

DISAIN ORANG

 

 

 

DISAIN TRADISIONAL

 

 

DISAIN BINATANG

 

 

DISAIN BUNGA

 

 

 

DISAIN PEMANDANGAN

OLD ANCIENT TRANSPORTASI

 

KONTENPORER

 

 

CATATAN AKHIR PENGATAR BAGIAN KEDUA

KOLEKSI KERAMIK KERAJJAN TIONGKOK TEMUAN INDONESIA DIBANDINGKAN DENGAN KOLEKSI POSTER LUKISAN PELUKIS TINGKAT DUNIA DARI BUKU ANTIK

MILIK Dr Iwaan Suwnady,MHA

KOLEKSI INI HANYA SEBAGIAN SAJA, UNTUK DAPAT MELIHAT SELURUHNYA SILAHKAN MAMPIR D MUSEUM

LELUHUR TIONGHOA WLS(WANLI&SONS)

PONDOK GADING JAKARTA UTARA

TAMPILAN KOLEKSI INI SECARA ACAK TIDAK MENCERMINKAN PERINGKAT KEHEBATAN DAN KELANGKAAN KOLEKSI SELURUH KOLEKSI SANGAT LANGKA DAN ANGAT BERHARGA.

MARILAH KITA KENANG MEREKA PARA MAESTRO PELUKIS BAIK DARI ISTANA KAISAR TIONGKOM DAN MAUPUN PELUKIS MAESTRO TINGKAT DUNIA

MEREKA TELAH MEMPERSEMBAHKAN KARYA BESAR YANG SANGAT INDAH YANG MENCERMINKAN PENGARUH PENCIPTANYA JUNJUNGAN KITA TUHAN YANG MAHA ESA..

SEMOGA ANDA SEMU PUAS, DAN SEMOGA KOLEKSI INI DAPAT DILESTARIKAN SELAMA-LAMANYA. WALAUPUN MNGKIN ADA YANG SUDAH DIJUAL UNTUK KEPENTINGAN PEMBANGUNAN MUSEUM, TETAPI FOTONYA MASIH ADA DALAM BUKU INI.

Jakarta Juni 2015

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

 

KERAMIK KERAJAAN TIONGKPOK YANG DITEMUKAN DI INDONESIA

BAB PENGANTAR KETIGA

JENIS DAN TYPE ARTIFAK KAPAL KARAM

DISUNTING OLEH

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Berdasarkan Laporan Para Pakar Arkeologi

Khusus untuk Kolektor dan Peneliti Senior

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kata Pengantar

Untuk menutup bab Pengantar saya merasa perlu mencari informaasi tentang jenis dan type artifak Temuan Kapal Kram di Indonesia dan daerah lainnya yang berasal dari Kapal milik kerajaan Tiongkok. Info ini esuai dengan aslinya dengan huruf yang sangat halus dan kecil bagi yang mau membacanya dipersilahkan untuk membesarkannya pada computer anda karena info ini sangat bayak jika dibesarkan sangat sulit untuk ditampilkan.

Semoga setelah membaca info dari Bab Pengantar ini para kolektor keramik akan menjadi levih mengenal aspekl arkeologis dari keramik yang diekspor oleh Kerajaan Tiongkok masa lalu.

Mohon pemilik info berkenan infonya ditamplkan agar para kolektor menjadi paham bagaimana sebebanrnya situasi kapal karam tempo dulu yang berasal dari kerajaan Tiongkok.

Jakarta Mei 2015

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

 

Treasure from Java shipwreck being auctioned

Treasure from a 1000 year old shipwreck is being auctioned in Indonesia.

The auctioneers hope to realise $US80 million from the sale of items including porcelain vases from Chinese dynasties, gold jewellery and swords with Arabic inscriptions.

The treasure was discovered off the coast of Java. The BBC reports it is believed to be one of the biggest finds ever made in Asia.

The proceeds are to be shared between the government and the team that recovered the goods.

Source

.radionz.co.nz/news/world/50020/treasure-from-java-shipwreck-being-auctioned

 

 

Top of Form

North York Mirror

By Fannie Sunshine 

Artifacts from the earliest and most significant Arab shipwreck discovered will be on display during an exhibit at the Aga Khan Museum.

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The Lost Dhow: A Discovery From the Maritime Silk Route, will be held at the Wynford Drive museum Dec. 19 to April 26, marking its North American premiere.

Jointly organized by the Asian Civilisations Museum of Singapore, the Singapore Tourism Board, and the Aga Khan Museum, the exhibit of ninth-century Chinese artifacts offers a glimpse of rare Tang dynasty objects from the shipwreck found in Southeast Asia in 1998.

Found in shallow water off Belitung Island between Sumatra and Borneo in the western Java Sea by a fisherman diving for sea cucumbers, the dhow (the generic name of traditional sailing vessels with at least one mast used in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean regions) spent 1,200 years on the ocean floor before being discovered. The dhow was traced to the ninth century based on radiocarbon testing and age of the cargo.

It’s believed the dhow’s load of Chinese ceramics indicate its destination was likely the Middle East, but the fact it was found in the Java Sea raises questions about where exactly it was headed.

No human remains were found, but the dhow was filled with 57,500 Chinese ceramics, along with gold, silver and bronze objects. The exhibit is made up of 137 of those pieces.

“The aim of the museum is to make art of the Muslim civilization better known,” said Henry Kim, director and CEO of the Aga Khan Museum, during a media preview of the exhibit Wednesday, Dec. 10. “I believe the Lost Dhow will do just that.”

Highlights of the exhibition include:

  • A green-splashed ewer featuring a handle in the form of a lion with a dragon-head spout and ringhandled cups, among nearly 200 pieces of white ceramics decorated with splashes of bright green that were found with other higher-value items of cargo from the Belitung shipwreck. Chemical analysis of broken pieces from the wreck suggests they were produced at the Gongxian kilns in Henan Province, renowned for its undecorated white wares.
  • A white ware cup stand, among about 300 pieces of white-glazed wares made in northern China at the Xing and Ding kilns in Hebei Province. High-fired white wares approaching porcelain in translucency and hardness were an innovation of northern Chinese kilns during the Tang dynasty. Highly prized by Chinese aristocrats because of their perceived similarity to luxury silver dishes, these wares were also coveted in foreign markets, particularly in West Asia where they were imitated.
  • A gold cup, which is completely unique among the items recovered from the cargo. Gold acquired great value in Chinese culture during the Tang dynasty.

Other items on display include kilns, bowls, kettles, tweezers and a needle, gold bracelets, a grindstone and roller, silver boxes with lids, gold dishes, an incense burner, Chinese coins, and a mirror with mythical animals.

“Hundreds of shipwrecks are in the water in Asia,” said Alan Chong, director of Singapore’s Asian Civilisations Museum, who flew in for the preview. “They tell an interesting history of trade, but (information) is not all there. Was (the dhow) blown off route? What role did Southeast Asia play? This is what we in Singapore think of. My hope is people come away with a series of questions.”

John Vollmer, the exhibit’s guest curator, called the wreck a “journey gone awry.”

“There is a solid gold cup made in China and we don’t know why it’s there,” he said. “We don’t know how (merchants) communicated or how financing worked. Someone at port gave up hope and return on that investment. This is a window into the unknown.”

For more information, visit www.agakhanmuseum.org

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ARCHAEOLOGICAL REPORT

Archaeological Recovery

of the

JAVA SEA WRECK

PACIFIC SEA RESOURCES

THE JAVA SEA WRECK ARCHAEOLOGICAL REPORT TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 Introduction 1 1.1 Objectives 1 1.2 Locating the Wreck 1 1.3 Political Considerations 4

2.0 Historical Background 5

 

2.1 China’s Position in the Nan Hai Trade from 500 B.C. Through the Tang Dynasty (A.D. 906) 5 2.2 Trade Interaction During the Song Dynasty (A.D. 960-1260) 18 2.3 Trade Interaction During the Yuan Dynasty (A.D. 1260-1367) 23 2.4 Trade Commodities 27 2.5 Monetary System 30

3.0 Archaeological Program 34

 

3.1 Archaeological Objectives 34 3.2 Recovery Vessel and Diving System 36 3.3 Excavation Techniques 43 3.4 Photographic Procedures 46

3.5 Registration System 50

3.6 Ceramics and Artifact Handling Procedure 53

 

3.7 Conservation 56 4.0 Site Conditions 58 4.1 Site Description 58 4.2 Oceanographic and Meteorological Conditions 59 4.3 Environmental Monitoring and Marine Life 60 5.0 The Wrecking Process 64 6.0 Interpreting the Ship 67 6.1 Hull Structure 67 6.2 Stowage Pattern and Cargo Capacity 70

6.3 Wood Identification 71

 

6.4 Identifying the Ship 72 6.5 Dating the Ship 76

7.0 Artifacts 77 7.1 Iron 77 7.2 Ivory 80 7.3 Resin 81 7.4 Balance Weights and Bars 81 7.5 Figurines and Finials 83 7.6 Trays 85 7.7 Gongs 86 7.8 Copper Ingots 87 7.9 Miscellaneous Copper Alloy Artifacts 88 7.10 Glassware 89 7.11 Rocks 91 7.12 Sharpening Stones 92 7.13 Organic Finds 93 7.14 Tin Ingots 94 8.0 The Iron Industry and Trade 95

8.1 The History of Iron Production in Asia 95

8.2 Iron-Making Technology 97

8.3 Historical and Archaeological Parallels 99

8.4 Analysis of Iron from the Wreck 101

 

9.0 High-Fired Ceramics of Song Dynasty China: The Java Sea Cargo

 

in Context 103 9.1 Introduction 103

9.2 China’s Supremacy 103

9.3 Sources and Properties of Clay 104

9.4 Firing Temperatures 105

 

9.5 Glazes 105 9.6 High-Temperature Glazes 106 9.7 Glaze Color 106 9.8 The Java Sea Ceramics Cargo 107

10.0 Thirteenth-Century Potting Techniques: as Evidenced by the

 

Java Sea Cargo 110 10.1 Collecting and Preparing the Materials 110 10.2 Preparing the Glaze 110 10.3 Furnishing the Kiln 111 10.4 Making the Molds 111 10.5 The Potter’s Wheel 111 10.6 Finishing the Form 112 10.7 Decoration 112 10.8 Firing 112 10.9 Illustrating the Potting Process 11311.0 Ceramics Inventory 116 11.1 Painted Ware 116 11.2 Black-Glazed Ware 130 11.3 Molded White/Qingbai Ware 131 11.4 Qingbai Ware 137 11.5 Celadon and Olive-Glazed Ware 149 11.6 Decorated Green-Glazed Ware 153 11.7 Undecorated Green-Glazed Ware 160 11.8 Brown-Glazed Ware 165 11.9 Indian-Style Earthenware 172 11.10 Miscellaneous Ceramics 178 12.0 Conclusion 182 Bibliography 185 Appendices 191 A. Artifact Database 191 B. Selected Pages from Artifact Registration Report 198 C. Artifact Distribution Plan 203 D. Ceramics Distribution Plots 205 E. List of Marine Species 218 F. Soil Analysis Data 223 G. Wood Identification 231 H. C14 Dating of Resin 241 I. Tin Ingot Analysis 244 J. Iron Analysis 257 K. Project Personnel 261 L. Acknowledgments 265

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Objectives and Results

In March 1996 Pacific Sea Resources (PSR) learned of a shipwreck in the Java Sea. The wreck had a cargo of iron and thirteenth-century Song dynasty Chinese ceramics. It became known as the Java Sea Wreck. Through Indonesian partner PT Sulung Segarajaya, PSR was awarded a license to salvage the Java Sea Wreck in July 1996. During August a barge, tug, equipment and personnel were mobilized in Singapore. Departure was on 28 August, and after clearing in at Belitung the excavation vessel was anchored over the wreck site on 30 August 1996. Excavation took two months. On 29 October the anchors were retrieved and the barge and finds returned to Singapore, arriving there on 4 November. In a conservation laboratory in Singapore, the ceramics cargo was cleaned, desalinated, and then systematically shelved for cataloguing and study. This Archaeological Report details the historical background at the time of the loss, describes the archaeological methods that were used to excavate and document the wreck, and discusses the site, the ship, and the likely wrecking process. It presents the artifacts and ceramics in inventory form and goes on to study the context of the finds in time and place. The iron cargo, the most extensive ever discovered on a ship of this era, is discussed in terms of the history and technology of iron production in Asia. The ceramics present a wonderful cross section of export wares from southern China. Over half of the ceramics cargo consists of simple, utilitarian bowls and dishes, provincial ware for day-to-day use. At the other end of the spectrum are exquisitely molded qingbai (pale blue) ewers with dragon handles and rare Cizhou-type ewers and bowls, obviously meant for the elite. In between are dozens of varieties of fine bowls, dishes, vases, bottles, boxes, and jars, in all shades from white through green to blue. None of the ship’s structure has survived. However, from evidence gleaned from the iron concretions and fragments of wood, it seems that the ship was of Thai origin. The primary cargo of iron cauldrons and bars was loaded in holds the full length of the ship. Tens of thousands of ceramics from the kilns of southern China were stowed on top of the iron. The ship then made its way south along the coastal route, possibly stopping in Vietnam, Thailand, and Sumatra, where it traded for ivory, earthenware kendis, and aromatic resins. Having passed through the treacherous Banka Strait, it headed on towards eastern Java where the Majapahit empire was taking shape. But for reasons never to be discovered, it sank in the Java Sea, well short of its final destination.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.2 Locating the Wreck

The wreck lies in the northwest region of the Java Sea. There is no land in sight. There is no bottom trawling. And yet fishermen found the shipwreck and can return to it again and again. It is thought to have been first discovered in the late 1980s. It is most likely that birds gave away the position that had remained a secret for over seven hundred years. Birds feed on schools of fish that are attracted to the wreck. On an otherwise featureless sandy seabed, a wreck provides food and shelter for huge schools of fish and large individuals – a place for corals,

sponges, and oyster shells to thrive. Birds are always feeding on schools of fish, but most of the schools are pelagic and therefore move around. Fish over a wreck stay in more or less the same location. When fishermen observe birds feeding for a long time in one location, it is a very good sign that a wreck lies below.

 

 

The fishermen are usually more interested in fish than the wreck itself. They keep the position to themselves, as it provides a continuous supply of red snapper and grouper. Their ability to relocate the site is remarkable, considering the birds are only there on the rare occasions that the schools of fish come to the surface. In the case of the Java Sea Wreck the closest navigation marker is an offshore oil-production platform more than thirty miles away. By steaming for, say, four hours at 10° from the platform, they come to the area using only a watch and a rudimentary compass as instruments. Sometimes they go straight to it and confirm the location by catching reef fish where normally there would only be pelagic species. Otherwise, they drop a marker buoy and do a slow search using a lead bar on a rope. When the bar hits an iron hull, a ballast stone, or a piece of porcelain, they can feel it and confirm it by fresh marks in the lead. In no time they are anchored over the site, pulling snapper in one after the other. It is normally only a matter of time before a hook snags on the bottom and, when pulled free, comes to the surface with a lump of iron concretion or a ceramic shard. Many of the fishermen in the southern portion of the Java Sea live on a few islands in the Thousand Island Group just north of Jakarta. Several of them are also sea cucumber and aquarium fish divers and have small compressors rigged on their boats. These divers are also on the lookout for shipwrecks, which abound in the Indonesian archipelago. World War Two tin cargoes, Ming blue-and-white, and Song celadons are often recovered by these divers and disposed of very quietly. As soon as they heard that a ceramics shard had been fished up in the middle of the Java Sea, they headed for the site to salvage what they could. As there is no bottom trawling in the area, there must have been large numbers of intact ceramics on the wreck mound that could be easily recovered without any excavation equipment, such as airlifts. It is now known that much of the surface material was removed by fishermen. As an aside, some fishermen have admitted to using explosives on the site to catch fish before and after ceramics were recovered. The shock waves from the explosion kill the fish and just about every other living organism in the near vicinity. About a third of the dead fish float to the surface, where they are quickly snatched up. The other two-thirds sink to the bottom, where they are left or collected by fishermen with primitive diving equipment. Entire coral reef ecosystems are destroyed by this very short-sighted technique. The authorities are aware of the loss of national heritage caused by looting and dynamiting. Eventually, the navy got word of these activities and arrested the fishermen concerned. Aware that it was too risky to return to the site, the fishermen sold the position of the wreck to John Anderson, an American, who had been carrying out survey and salvage work in Indonesia for several years. Under contract to the Government, Anderson visited the location in a fishing boat in 1993 and recovered approximately 1,000 pieces during a preliminary investigation. The salvage company returned with a barge and excavation equipment in 1994 and in less than a month recovered an additional 7,000 ceramic items. The barge almost sank on the wreck and was towed back to Jakarta for major repairs. Shortly thereafter the company went into receivership for reasons unrelated to the shipwreck. In March 1996 Pacific Sea Resources carried out a brief survey of the wreck site, which suggested that a significant amount of hull structure and undisturbed cargo remained. Anderson then sold the rights to Pacific Sea Resources and a joint venture was established. Unfortunately, it was only after excavation was under way that Anderson informed Pacific Sea Resources that the wreck had been looted previously by enterprising local interests who had recovered at least 4,000 intact ceramic pieces, and that no hull structure remained.4

 

1.3 Political Considerations In order to carry out shipwreck excavation work in Indonesia, a salvage license must be awarded to a local company, by the national shipwreck committee, Panitia Nasional. Pacific Sea Resources formed the Indonesian company, PT Sulung Segarajaya, through Indonesian partners to apply for a license. With Pacific Sea Resources’ record of the successful archaeological excavation of the Manila galleon Nuestra Senora de la Concepcion in Saipan, Panitia Nasional readily accepted the application. Before the license could be awarded, however, approval had to be obtained from twenty-two Government departments. As soon

 

 

 

2.0 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND by Dr. John Miksic

2.1 China’s Position in the Nan Hai Trade from 500 B.C. through the

 

Tang Dynasty (A.D. 906)

2.1.1 Introduction In the year A.D. 100, a distant observer of the Earth would have seen humankind on the verge of an explosion of commercial activity. Between the Mediterranean, where the Roman Empire under the Caesars was at its height, and China, stable and prosperous under the Han Dynasty, the kingdoms of South Asia were encouraging foreign traders to come to their shores. Ivory and incense from India were used in Roman palaces. Traders from the Graeco-Roman regions established outposts along the southern coasts of India, where Roman coins and pottery have since been found. The British archaeologist Sir Mortimer Wheeler, who excavated several of these sites, concluded that “it is fair to envisage Indo-European commerce of the first century A.D. pretty closely in terms of that of the seventeenth century” (Wheeler, 1954: 125). The Romans established trading companies with powers and procedures similar to those of the Dutch and British factory systems used in Asia over a thousand years later. The Indians formed similar groups. The members of the Indian trading corporations were “related by a common interest in trade that had to pass through a particular center …[T]hese traders were given royal charters” (Kosambi, 1959: 282). Indian trading guilds, engaged in the wholesale commerce of luxury goods, and maintained diplomatic relations with rulers of regions where those goods originated. The Chinese, however, were not yet party to this communication. Indeed, the Chinese maintained an attitude of aloofness and official disinterest until much later, that is, until events during the early Song dynasty (960-1279) conspired to bring about a change in the policy toward trade. It was then that China finally integrated into the trading system of the Nanhai (the Chinese phrase designating the Indian Ocean and South China Sea). But the nature of China’s participation in this ancient and sophisticated maritime trade network was unique. In order to understand the factors which shaped the trade of the South China Sea in the thirteenth century, it is necessary to understand the traditional Chinese perspective on trade in general, and on maritime commerce in particular.

 

2.1.2 Trade in the Indian Ocean, A.D. 100

Two major Mediterranean sources enable us to construct an outline of the early maritime trade system of Asia. One is a Geography written by the Alexandrian Greek astronomer, Claudius Ptolemaeus (Ptolemy), around the year A.D. 100. The second is an anonymous work entitled Periplus Marae Erythraensis, “Sailor’s Guide to the Indian Ocean,” written around the same time. These texts describe the commercial institutions of the Indian Ocean and show that commercial practices along the trade routes there had already been standardized. The main commodities known to be shipped over these routes were high in value and low in bulk. They included such items as spices, various kinds of incense, gold and silver, special textiles including silk, and items that are now mainly considered oddities but commanded high prices in those days such items as rhinoceros horn and kingfisher feathers.6

There were two basic sectors in the trade network: those in the Indian Ocean, lands “above the wind,” and those in the South China Sea and Straits of Malacca, lands “below the wind.” The traffic along these routes was governed by the regimen of the seasonal winds or monsoons. It was not possible to sail from one end of the route, such as the Persian Gulf/Red Sea area, to the other end, in China, in one voyage. The normal practice was for Indian ships to sail within the Indian Ocean as far east as the Straits of Malacca. From there, the voyage to China was undertaken in Southeast Asian ships. According to the normal rhythm of the winds, ships would sail from China to the Straits of Malacca area in January and February

 

 

 

 

. The voyage from Southeast Asia to China could be undertaken between June and August. Sailors left India for the Straits between April and August with the southwest monsoon. It was technically possible to sail to India on the same wind, but most ships only departed from the Straits for India in December or in January. So just as the ships from China would be returning to Sumatra or Java with their cargoes of silks and metal, the other ships would be leaving those islands on their way to India. Merchants from the two legs of the network would not meet unless they remained in the Straits for nearly a year. Ships did not usually stay over, but traders could. They changed from ship to ship in relays. The third leg of the triangle involved what is now eastern Indonesia, the sources of some of the rarest spices, specifically cloves and nutmeg. The ships from the Moluccas and Sulawesi usually left between May or June and October, arriving in the Straits or north Java about two months later. Until the Song dynasty, shipping in the South China Sea was a monopoly held by Southeast Asians, of whom the people of what is now Indonesia formed the majority. The people of Java and Sumatra were the ancient sailors of the world par excellence. Their relatives settled the lands from Hawaii to Madagascar, off the west coast of Africa. Huge ships known as kolandiaphonta came from the eastern seas; these seem to have been non-Indian, and were almost certainly from Java or Sumatra. Indian ships by contrast seem to have been largely coastal vessels.

 

2.1.3 Emporia: The Treaty Ports The Graeco-Roman texts cited here use a precise word to designate an international trading port in the Indian Ocean: emporion, which of course has come down to us in modern English as emporium. The Periplus mentions 27 emporia in the Indian Ocean, divided into three classes: “designated,” “lawful,” and “authorized” (Miller, 1969: 19, Schoff, 1912: 51, n. 1; Warmington, 1928:53). The distinctions between these categories are unclear, but the general term means “a legal mart where foreign trade is allowed and taxed.” Ptolemy, describing the India seas and non-Roman but well-known territory, intends emporion to mean an authorized coastal mart in the Orient where non-Roman dues were levied by non-Roman authorities (Warmington, 1928: 107). Ships calling at other ports might be escorted away under armed guard. Emporia existed from the Red Sea to Southeast Asia. Graeco-Roman traders resided as far east as south India. Some Tamil kings even possessed bodyguards from “Yavana” (from “Ionia,” an old name for part of Greece). Rome exported glass and wine to India, and grain was shipped from the Roman colony of Egypt, but most of the spices and silks had to be purchased with gold and other metallic money. 7

As previously mentioned, Roman coins are found in many sites of this first period of large-scale Asian trade in India. It is interesting to note that Roman emperors as early as Vespasian, A.D. 78, complained that the trade in luxury goods was draining currency out of the empire. The same problem arose many centuries later, when the British, in order to finance their imports of tea and porcelain, forced the Chinese to accept opium in lieu of metals. A few Roman artifacts have even turned up in sites in Southeast Asia, especially at Oc-eo in southern Vietnam, apparently the major trading center in the South China Sea from the second through the fifth centuries. The Roman trading stations in south India survived at the most for about 200 years. Then they fade out of history, as the empire began its long, slow decline. Even after Rome fell, however, the name “Rum” continued to shine with a bright luster in Asia. The Byzantine Empire was also known by this name, and coins from fifth-century Byzantium are common discoveries at sites of this period in Sri Lanka (Wolters, 1967: 80). Europe forgot completely about its earlier involvement with Asia for a thousand years and sank back into the darkness of the Middle Ages, when all that remained of the early long-distance trade were a few legends of fabulous wealth in the distant East. The story has an interesting postscript. In 1410, a Byzantine-era copy of Ptolemy’s Geography was discovered in a library in Florence and was translated into Latin. This translation was studied at the Academy at Sagres established by Prince Henry the Navigator. The information it contained, although more than a thousand years old, provided a vital stimulus to the planning of the explorations of the south coast of Africa which culminated in the Portuguese discovery of the Cape of Good Hope and the route to India. This episode is one of the most intriguing examples of the use to which ancient classical literature was put upon its rediscovery during the Renaissance, and the clear connection between the beginnings of European commercial expansion into Asia (and accidentally into America) and the birth of European humanistic studies.

2.1.4 While Europe Slept

The period that concerns us here is that between the fall of Rome and the arrival in the Far East of their distant descendants, the Portuguese. During this thousand-year phase of development, only now attracting historians’ attention, the Asian maritime trade fared extremely well without European involvement or, indeed, awareness. Very few Asian records of this long interim survive, and those that do tend to be written in archaic or extinct languages and deal mainly with ritual and politics. The principal exception is Marco Polo, who traveled the entire length of the Asian maritime trade route during his return from Yuan-dynasty China to Italy in 1292-93. Polo’s descriptions of this world seemed so unbelievable to his contemporaries that for centuries his tales were thought to be imaginary. Only in the early twentieth century when archaeological discoveries begin to corroborate his reports did historians begin to take his account seriously. Although one author has recently challenged the current view that Polo was recounting a true story, the vast weight of evidence suggests that he was in fact attempting to do no more than record what he had actually seen and done.

 

The very earliest reports from the Graeco-Romans depict a system whose framework continued to exist right up to the twentieth century. This system was highly efficient, given the technology and communications of the time, in distributing goods over an enormous stretch of coastline. The main elements of the system included the designation of certain ports as open to foreign traders and others as closed, the Roman emporia. This characteristic was obviously

designed to ensure that the benefits of the trade would accrue to certain people, namely the rulers of the regions concerned. In traditional kingdoms the more distant parts of the realm could not be trusted to send the customs duties collected from foreign merchants to the central treasury.

 

Furthermore, the wealth accumulated by merchants could well be used to mount a challenge to the established ruling clique. For these reasons, the main ports where foreign trade was allowed were those most closely supervised by the principal ruler, who might reside inland, in the center of the more fertile agricultural zones of the kingdom. In the port zones, the foreign merchants usually had their own quarters. These would correspond to the foreign quarters of the treaty ports of nineteenth-century China. Within these quarters the foreign communities enjoyed more or less complete autonomy, as long as they did not interfere with the rest of the citizens of the kingdom. This arrangement suited both parties: the foreigners were allowed to follow their own customs and religion, and the local administration did not have to worry about trying to control motley groups of people with different languages and legal systems. The trading system itself is difficult to define, but in essence there seem to have been two separate sets of exchange practices for different categories of merchandise. The “rare and precious” items (in the stock Chinese phrase) were coveted by the wealthy as status symbols, and the rulers often limited access to them. Some were claimed as monopolies of the ruler himself; in other cases, he claimed a duty of up to 30%, and the rest of the luxury goods could only be sold to a designated group of buyers. The possession of such luxury goods obviously had political symbolism, and the rulers did all they could to control their distribution. This category of merchandise was usually not bought and sold in the usual fashion, by a process of haggling until a bargain was struck between buyer and seller. Instead, a customary or diplomatic procedure was used to negotiate a set of “equivalencies” between the items brought by the foreign merchants and those returned by the local inhabitants. The ideology of exchange was more of a generalized than a specific reciprocity, in anthropological terms. It was not seemly to perceive this kind of exchange as trade. In most instances the foreign items were presented to the local ruler in the guise of tribute or gifts, and the local ruler reciprocated by giving presents. The nature of the gifts returned by the rulers was, however, fixed by custom; a certain amount of foreign produce would elicit a specific quantity of “gifts.” Thus the appearance of trade (and the use of money) were avoided. The second category of exchange involved more utilitarian items. These are even less well documented than the luxury items, but stray references to the transport of bulk necessities such as rice and salt are found in the earliest sources. It seems that these found their way into markets where money was used. Many forms of currency were used in Asian markets, and coins in some areas were treated as just another form of metal which might be melted down and recast into other objects. In general, however, marketplaces in Asia were monetized at a very early period. Indonesian inscriptions show that weights and measures had become standardized between A.D. 850 and 900. These weights were heavily influenced by Indian units and linguistic terminology, but there were some indigenous elements in both units and names.

 

By the year 900, silver and gold coins were minted in multiple denominations in Java. It is worth noting that the Javanese coins look nothing like those made in India. The Javanese word wli (modern Indonesia beli, “buy”) first appears in an inscription dated 878. The word pirak, analogous to modern perak, “silver,” was a synonym for money. Indian influence in the form of the Sanskrit 9 word wyaya, modern Indonesian biaya, “expenses,” also was current in 878. It seems that in addition to precious metal, other currency in the form of iron bars was used until the early tenth century (Wicks, 254-259).

 

An integral figure in the organization of ancient trade was the official who acted as the intermediary between the foreign merchant communities and the local ruler. This official had different designations in each area, but his duties and privileges were remarkably similar in all times and places. In the Southeast Asian realm he was called the shahbandar (from Persian “Lord of the Harbor”). In modern parlance this term is used to translate the English “harbormaster,” but this gives only a pale reflection of his activities. In many cases he was chosen from the foreign community, and to ensure his loyalty he was frequently betrothed to a member of the local royalty. He supervised the collection of customs duties and the warehousing of the imported goods. He also acted as the manager for the local ruler’s own commercial activities; many Asian rulers themselves invested in ships and cargoes. They settled disputes between the foreign merchants and rulers, and could act on their own initiative to make treaties with foreigners. Such people obviously had numerous opportunities to enrich themselves

 

. A good description of the system is given by Tome Pires, one of the first Europeans with an intimate knowledge of its working. He resided in Malacca from 1512 to 1515 and describes the shahbandars there, of which there were four, each with jurisdiction over merchants from different areas: “They are the men who receive the captains of the junks…. These men present them to the Bemdara (the royal treasurer), allot them warehouses, dispatch their merchandise, provide them with lodging if they have documents, and give orders for the elephants…”(Cortesao, 1944: II, 265).

 

These characteristics of the early ports of trade in Asia were already in existence when the veil of history lifts during a short period around two thousand years ago. One can even trace their origins further back in time; the oldest documents on trade, from Mesopotamia, already indicate the existence over 4,000 years ago of officials in charge of long-distance trade, officially designated trading ports, tributary trade in luxury items, and foreign quarters. This is not to suggest that these traits owe their existence to Mesopotamian influence; rather they simply reflect a logical approach to the similarity of conditions prevailing in these different times and places.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.1.5 Early Chinese Trade The Chinese were not among the original members of the Indian Ocean trading network. When the Graeco-Romans first entered the Asian world, the Chinese were still largely confined to the Yellow River area of northern China. The main route to China at this time was still overland, via the Silk Route. For many centuries China’s northern frontier had been a zone of constant contention between the settled agrarian way of life and the nomadic adaptation of the steppes beyond. The nomads were always a military threat to the Chinese. One of the tactics that the Chinese used to counteract the nomads’ military superiority was to encourage exchanges of prestigious goods across the frontier. The Chinese produced numerous manufactured items that the nomads desired; by dangling exotic and rare commodities in front of the northern barbarians, it was sometimes possible to bribe them into maintaining peaceful relations. Domestically, the imperial dignity could be maintained by casting the gifts to the nomads in the form of a ruler-vassal relationship.

The nomad elite received imperial gifts in return for their tribute, recognition of political autonomy in their own territory, and permission to conduct limited private trade with the Chinese.

 

10 This gave the people of the steppes access to Chinese silk, tea, and porcelain. The Chinese obtained jade and, importantly for their military position, good horses. The earliest evidence for foreign trade between Chinese and non-Chinese groups dates from the fifth century B.C. It involved exchanges between the Han people living in Shandung and the people occupying what is now southern China, known as the Yüeh. The carriers of the trade were Yüeh people living around mouth of Yangzi. China south of the Yangzi became Sinicized only after the fall of the Han, when many people from the north migrated south. Between 500 and 221 B.C., the late Zhou Dynasty, demand increased among the (northern) Chinese for southern luxuries like ivory, pearls, tortoise shell, kingfisher feathers, rhinoceros horns, scented woods, and spices; “this demand may have been the strongest single motive for the southward expansion of Chinese political power” (Wang, 1958:

 

5). Qin Sihuang, the “first emperor,” was the first ruler to extend northern Chinese control to parts of the south coast, bordering on the South China Sea. At this time the entire south coast was still populated by Yüeh people. “The few prehistoric sites along the coast which have so far been examined merely suggest that the people were quite different from the Chinese and had a different cultural pattern” (Wang, 1958: 7). The Yüeh, unlike the northern Chinese, were expert sailors and already frequently traded with other regions. One kingdom, Nan Yüeh, with its capital near modern Guangzhou, was described in the first century B.C. by the contemporary author Su-ma Ch’ien as “the collecting-center of rhinoceros horns, elephant tusks, tortoise-shells, pearls, fruits and cloth (of hemp and other fibrous plants)” (Wang, 1958: 8). Lo Yüeh, another kingdom located in the Red River basin near modern Hanoi, was captured in 214 B.C., but not until Chinese troops had been defeated several times and reinforcements had been sent, consisting of “criminals, banished men, social parasites and merchants” (Wang, 1958: 10). This interesting set of associations for merchants shows the low esteem in which they were held. Who were these early merchants exiled to the southern colonies? No information exists. According to Confucianism, merchants were the lowest rung on the social totem pole. The documentation of Chinese economic history is therefore extremely poor. Because Confucian scholars monopolized the bureaucracy, owing to an education system predicating access to high office on memorization of the Confucian classics, Chinese history was written by officials who considered trade a degrading subject, not worthy of notice. However, indirect references, usually complaints from ministers, show that by 178 B.C. Chinese people were becoming interested in making profit from the luxury goods trade. A rising class of merchants encouraged powerful nobles to invest in trade in salt, metals, and luxury goods. Meanwhile ministers praised rulers who “despised gold and jade” and wanted the emperor to make everyone return to farming. The relationship between the governing elite of China and the mercantile classes has been marked by suspicion and hostility for over two thousand years. One of the main characteristics of Chinese history has been the tension between the culture of the north, the original center of Chinese culture, marked by militarism, austerity, isolationism, and centralized rule, and the culture of the originally non-Han Chinese south, marked by a spirit of free enterprise, commercialism, social mobility, and outward-lookingness. Four military commanderies were set up to administer the newly conquered territory, corresponding to the regions of Fuzhou, Nanhai (Guangzhou), Guilin, and Xiang (Hanoi). “Very little is known of these commanderies” (Wang, 1958: 10) other than that they had a governor and military staff. 11

 

The commandery of Nan-hai soon split off and became a “miniature empire,” Nan Yüeh, which ruled the coast from southern Fujian to Vietnam until 111 B.C., when the Han retook the area. In 196 B.C. the chief was made a feudal lord by the Han empire, and a regular trade with the Han developed, mainly based on the acquisition of iron in exchange for pearls, tortoise shell, ivory, and rhinoceros horn—commodities that were imported from the South Seas. Han Wudi, an energetic emperor who died in 87 B.C., allowed trade, but after his death the ministers had their way and trade was restricted. The court debate on the morality of trade is preserved in a collection of essays entitled “Discourses on Salt and Iron.” In 77 B.C. a Yüeh native who had become head of a commandery was executed for having earned more than one million cash in illegal trade. The “rare and precious objects” from beyond China played an important part in the legitimization of the ruling dynasty. As Chinese civilization developed, so did the search for more unusual and exotic items from abroad, until something resembling a cult of imported rarities evolved. The imperial court formulated a policy of sending missions abroad in search of rare and precious goods. This duty often was assigned to eunuchs. An early text refers to “chief interpreters attached to the Yellow Gate [eunuchs serving in the palace] who go to sea with the men who answer their appeal [for a crew] to buy bright pearls, pi-liu-li (opaque glass), rare stones and strange things, taking with them gold and various fine silks to offer in exchange…. The merchant ships of the barbarians are used to transfer them [the Chinese] to their destination” (Wang, 1958: 19-20).

 

These emissaries embarked from ports in western Guangdong, where few Chinese lived; they had already been active as centers for the pearl trade. The eunuchs may have been barbarians themselves. In the later Han Dynasty, in the second century, barbarians began sending their own seaborne missions to China. One supposedly from Daqin (Rome) came in the year 166, but was rejected by the Chinese as spurious. The envoys brought elephant tusks, rhinoceros horn, and tortoise shell as tribute; these were South Seas produce, not Roman. This record is, however, useful as the only account of what any missions brought to China at this time. The Han collapsed in 220 and was succeeded by a period known in general as the Three Kingdoms, celebrated in Chinese literature. One of these three kingdoms, Wu, held the southern coast; the other two, Wei and Shu, held the north and west. The Wei therefore had to deal with the Wu in order to obtain southern luxuries. In 236 the Wei sent envoys to Wu to obtain pearls, kingfisher feathers, and tortoise shell in exchange for horses. The Wu kept sending missions into the South Seas in search of these items. Two of these envoys, Kang Tai and Qu Ying, made a special mission to the South Seas in 245–250. They both wrote books, long lost, about their mission; some quotations from Kang Tai have been preserved in other texts. He mentioned Java/Sumatra, which he apparently visited, as well as Bangka, Belitung, and Borneo in all, ten places on the Malay Peninsula and in the Southeast Asian archipelago. During the Three Kingdoms period Chinese ships were apparently still incapable of sailing in the open sea; the emissaries traveled in foreign ships

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

. 2.1.6 The Tribute Missions

The kingdom of Wu was conquered by Qin, A.D. 280. More men were sent to sea to acquire the standard South Seas luxuries, and foreign tribute missions to China accelerated. In the short period of 284–287 Funan, Linyi (Champa), and twenty other countries came to present tribute. An image of the wealth which this commerce generated found its way into the literature of the 12

period. The Governor of Qing Zhou, on the route between south China and Loyang, the northern capital, was famous for flaunting his wealth, including coral trees, ivory, pearls, and scented woods. One account says that he had “powdered gharu-woods as fine as dust sprinkled over an ivory bed, and asked those that he specially loved to step on it” (Wang, 1958: 35).

 

Trade routes and tributary kingdoms of Southeast Asia in the fifth to seventh centuries A.D.

 

During the Wu and Qin dynasties, 226-405, China received missions from the following countries: Funan (7 missions), Champa (6), Daqin (the Eastern Roman Empire) (1), Sri Lanka (1), and Tangming(?) (1) (Wang, 1958: 120). Shortly thereafter, before the beginning of the next major historical phase, the famous Chinese Buddhist monk Faxien returned to China from India by sea rather than by the more common overland route. In 414 he called at Yeh-po-ti, a large trading port somewhere near the south end of the Straits of Malacca (quite possibly in northwest Java). From there he sailed directly to Guangzhou with over two hundred other people. During all his

Trade routes and tributary kingdoms of Southeast Asia in the fifth to seventh centuries A.D.13

years in India he saw no Chinese, nor were there any among the merchants on the ship taking him to China. This is the first record of a sailing connection between India and China; all indications are that Chinese merchants were not participants in this trade. The next period of important tributary activity occurred during the Southern Dynasties, 420–589, when a large mission visited China “to ensure safe and profitable trading for the foreign merchants and trading envoys” (Wang, 1958: 38). In all, 99 foreign tribute missions visited China between 420 and 589 (Wang, 1958: 51), a great increase over the previous period. The flow of tribute to China was not consistent, however; rather it came in spurts. The pattern of tribute exhibits two peaks, one during the years 420–460, the other in the period 502–540. The Southeast Asian countries active in this tributary trade include the following: Holodan, in Java, sent 6 between 430 and 440. Pohuang, Tulangbawang, southeast Sumatra: 7 between 445 and 464. Gantoli, probably south Sumatra, 455–564, 5. Poli (Bali?): 3, 470–524. Poli’s products were dominated by those obtained from the sea: tortoise shells, shell-fish, purple cowries, and corals. Panpan, somewhere on Malay Peninsula, 455–589, 12. Langkasuka, Malay Peninsula, 515–56, 3; Champa, 420–589, 25. There is a record of the types of commodities brought by this most active tributary. These include metals: gold, silver, and copper (there were said to be lots of gold and silver articles produced there); also tortoise shell, cowries, gharu wood, grass mats, cotton cloth, rhinoceros horn, and ivory. On the whole, this list represents the common items sought by the early Chinese nobility. Funan , 430–589, 17. Trade goods from Funan included some items for religious rituals like gharu wood (incense), ivory and sandalwood stupas and statues, and glass vessels used for temple rituals. The items meant for use by the nobility (as opposed to the temples) consisted of gold and silver articles, cowrie ornaments, scented woods, ivory, peacock feathers, tortoise shells, re-exports of items like gems, coral, opaque glass, cotton, and storax. Chinese “gifts” to these areas list only silk and brocade. Although the Southern Dynasties were an active period of communication with the South Seas, the records of this time still exhibit no references to Chinese ships going overseas. There are, however, rare pieces of evidence which enable us to read between the lines and to conclude that certain Chinese were exhibiting a “modern” attitude toward the benefits of engaging in foreign trade. In the 479–502 period, there is a reference to a certain Zhang Qing-zhen who “calculated carefully the silks and brocades which he used to trade with the ‘K’un-lun p’o'” (Wang, 1958: 60). The phrase “K’un-lun p’o” refers to the ships of the people who lived in the South Seas. Apparently there was a mercantile class in south China, but other than their bare existence, no other information regarding them survives.

Two other references are even more indirect, but betray something of the true nature of the trading activity and its importance for at least some sectors of Chinese society. In one reference to the Liu Sung Dynasty, one of the southern dynasties, the following note appears: “When the two Han dynasties had sent expeditions these [overland] routes had been found to be particularly difficult and merchandise, on which [China] depended, had come from Tongking; it had sailed on the waves of the sea…. Precious things come from the mountain and the sea by this way. There are articles such as rhinoceros’ horn and kingfisher feathers and rarities such as serpent pearls and asbestos; there are thousands of varieties, all of which the rulers eagerly coveted. 14

Therefore ships came in a continuous stream, and merchants and envoys jostled with each other” (in Wolters, 1967: 77). The history of the dynasty that succeeded the Liu Sung and ruled from 479 to 502 also refers to the active maritime trade of that time: “Of all the precious things in the world none are better than those of the southern barbarians. They are hidden in the mountains and in the seas. They are innumerable. Merchant ships arrive from afar and bring these things to the southern provinces. Thus it is that Tongking and Kuangtung are rich and well stocked. The goods are stored in the imperial treasury.” Very little information regarding the administration of the trade of this period survives. A mission from the Javanese kingdom of Holotan in 430 was partly intended to acquaint the Chinese emperor with the difficulties that the Javanese merchants sometimes experienced with corrupt port officials (Wolters, 1967: 165). This indicates that the collection of duties was not always properly supervised by the central government. The Southern Dynasties came to an end with the reunification of China by the Sui Dynasty in 581. The emperor in 605 moved his capital and ordered the provinces to deliver such southern luxuries as rhinoceros horns, elephant tusks, furs and feathers, to adorn his new court (Wang, 1958: 63). The short-lived Sui recorded the following missions: Champa (2); Dandan (2); Panpan (1), Red Earth Land (3), Cambodia (1), Jialoshi(?) (1) (Wang, 1958: 122). 2.1.7 Trade During the Tang Dynasty After the establishment of the Tang Dynasty in 618, the southern ocean trade expanded. In addition to luxuries for the court and goods of a religious nature, items used for medicinal purposes and condiments for food formed an increasing portion of the imports from the South Seas (if the sources are a true reflection of the situation). Yangzhou, at the junction of the Yangsi and the Grand Canal, became the main center of trade. A road built in 728 connected Guangzhou with Yangzhou. A source says that “the various countries from across the sea may now daily transport their merchandise, so that the wealth of tusks, hides, feathers and hairs, and that of fish, salt, clams and oysters can…meet the needs of the treasury and…satisfy the demands of the Qiang-Huai region” (Wang, 1958: 79). Through the eighth and into the early ninth century, trade continued to expand under the energetic Tang rulers. Guangzhou in particular benefited from this expansion. As a source from 841 says, “Guangzhou enjoyed the profits of the barbarian ships where all the valuable goods were gathered…. Of all those who served at Guangzhou, not one returned without being fully laden [with the wealth they acquired]” (Wang, 1958: 83). The missions which visited China more than once during the 278 years of the Tang Dynasty are as follows: Champa (26), Holing, Java (8), Sri Vijaya (6), Shih-tse (4), Cambodia (3), Qulomi (2), Jambi (2), Doholo (2), Kanqifo (India) (2), Mola (India) (2) (Wang, 1958: 122–123).

Even during the Tang, there are still no references to private Chinese traders voyaging overseas. The only descriptions we possess are the incidental references in court records, which tend to overlook commercial matters completely, and the record of another Buddhist monk-adventurer, Yijing. He voyaged from China to Srivijaya, south Sumatra, in 671, in a ship belonging to the ruler of Srivijaya. He remained in south Sumatra for 6 months, studying Sanskrit at a large monastery there; his experience was positive enough that he recommended it to other future 15

Buddhist travelers. He then took ship in another Srivijayan vessel and sailed to India via Malayu (Jambi) and Kedah. After residing in India for 18 years, Yij

Buddhist travelers. He then took ship in another Srivijayan vessel and sailed to India via Malayu (Jambi) and Kedah. After residing in India for 18 years, Yijing returned to Srivijaya, noting that in the interim it had absorbed both Malayu and Kedah. He intended to remain in Srivijaya for some time, but one day, while he was aboard a ship in the harbor in order to send a request to China for more paper and ink, the ship unexpectedly weighed anchor and sailed straight to China, leaving him no option but to go along and buy his own supplies. Nevertheless he so desired to spend more time in Sumatra that he returned there for some more years before finally returning for good to China in 695. Yijing’s account is useful because it mentions other Buddhists who made the pilgrimage to the Buddhist holy land, including a monk who sailed in a merchant vessel “heavily loaded with goods” from Guangzhou or Hanoi to Holing. The ship then went to Malayu, but after passing it sank in a storm because it was overloaded; the monk drowned. No doubt this incidental report represents the tip of the iceberg; voyaging between South Sumatra and China by Indonesian ships carrying a wide variety of goods from both Southeast Asia and the shores of the Indian Ocean was probably a common activity during the Tang period. The report of Yijing is of utmost importance to the study of early Tang maritime trade, because it is the only description of the sea routes used before 750. He describes direct voyages in Indonesian ships from Guangzhou to Palembang or (less often) Java. From there the standard ports of call were Malaya (Jambi) and Kedah. Return voyages followed the same route in reverse. In the late seventh or early eighth century, Srivijaya “sent several missions to the court to submit complaints about border officials seizing [their goods] and an edict was issued ordering [the officials at] Guangzhou to appease them [by making inquiries]” (Wang, 1958: 97, quoting the Tang shu). “This is the only mention in Tang records of any mission from the Nanhai successfully inducing the central government to act on behalf of the merchants at Canton. This is evidence that Srivijaya was the dominant trading power and had already earned the respect of the Chinese” (Wang, 1958: 98-99). Srivijayans were leaders of the foreign merchant community at Guangzhou until 742. In 684 the governor of Guangzhou was killed in manner which suggests that the murderer was an Indonesian distressed by officials’ misdeeds (Miller, 1969: 186). Some such incident may have been responsible for the remark of Tome Pires over 800 years later explaining why foreigners were not allowed to go to Guangzhou: “They say that the Chinese made this law about not being able to go to Canton for fear of the Javanese and Malays” (Cortesao, 1944: I, 122). In 714 we first learn of the existence of a Chinese official called the Superintendent of Shipping Trade (alternatively called Superintendent of Barbarian Shipping). This is the first sign that an official like the shahbandar of the Indian Ocean was appointed in China. The office was rather independent of the provincial authorities, being administered directly from the central government, and was dominated by eunuchs. A record from the early ninth century gives some indication of this official’s duties:

When [the la

When [the laden Nanhai ships] arrive, a report is sent to the Court and announcements are made in all the cities. The captains who command them [or chief merchants] are made to register with the Superintendent of the Shipping Trade their names and their cargo. [The Superintendent] collects the duties on the goods and sees that there are no [prohibited] precious and rare goods [of which the government had a monopoly]. There were some foreign merchants who were imprisoned for trying to deceive [him]” (Wang, 1958: 101). Another source says that 16

 

head of the office “dealt with the translation of languages, the offering of valuable gifts, and every year conducted the sending of tributes (either sending those due from the province itself or arranging for foreign tribute missions to go to the capital). After the last ship of the season arrived, 30% of the non-monopolized goods would be taken as duty, and the rest would be given back to the envoys to dispose of themselves (Hirth and Rockhill, 1911: 15). Provincial authorities continued to have some duties too in regard to the supervision of maritime trade. A governor of Lingnan in 820 was cited for halting smuggling: “

 

When the foreign ships arrive and are docking, they are charged a lowering-anchor-tax. There is an examination of the merchandise. Rhinoceros (horns) and pearls were so numerous that bribes were offered to the servants and retainers; the Governor stopped this” (Wang, 1958: 101). The same record says, “Far across the sea in the South, there were those who died in the countries there. The officials held their goods. And if their wives or their sons did not come within three months to claim them, these would be confiscated. The governor [stopping this practice] said ‘The sea journey back and forth is calculated in years; why fix the time in months? If anyone has proof, no matter whether he comes early or late, let him have all” (Wang, 1958: 101-102). In the ninth century another port of trade was opened to foreigners: Quanzhou (also called Zaitun, an indication of the large number of Muslim traders who frequented it). In the time of

 

 

 

 

 

 

the succeeding Song Dynasty (960–1279), similar practices apparently existed:Concerning foreign ships and merchants, the Superintendent examines the boats entering the harbour for ‘prohibited goods,’ takes into the godowns all the legal imports, collects the taxes due on these goods, buys on behalf of the government those goods of which it has the monopoly, and examines the boats leaving the harbour for ‘prohibited goods’. He further protects the foreign merchants while they are at the port. Concerning Chinese ships and merchants, the Superintendent examines the cargo of the ships when they leave for the Nanhai and when they return, and collects the taxes due on their goods. In 878 this period of prosperity came to an end. Guangzhou was pillaged during the Huang Zhao rebellion, foreign merchants were murdered, and all trade there ended for a century. Foreign merchants then established a rendezvous at a place known to the Arabs as Kalah (which appears in the Arabian Nights as a place visited by Sinbad). Archaeological sites at both Takuapa, on the west coast of South Thailand, and Laem Pho, on the east coast, contain abundant evidence of trade with the Near East and China at this time and may correspond to this toponym. Wang, (1958: 113) divides early maritime trade with China into three phases: Phase One: 200 B.C.–A.D. 300. Precious things desired by courts. Phase two: A.D. 300–600. Holy things. Phase three: A.D. 600–900. Drugs and spices.

 

The brief Five Dynasties period (907–959) saw little commercial activity. Only four missions to China are recorded: three from Janzheng and one from Srivijaya. The foundation of the Song 17

Dynasty in 960 ushered in a new and even more prosperous period of trade, when many more parties became involved, including for the first time Chinese merchants voyaging into the Nanhai.

 

2.1.8 Early Southeast Asian Ships The oldest known boat yet discovered in Southeast Asia has been carbon dated to A.D. 260–430 (Manguin, 1993: 236). It was discovered in Pontian, on the east coast of the Malay Peninsula. This date agrees with that estimated in 1926 by I.H.N. Evans based on ceramics found on the site with the boat, which are similar to those discovered at the contemporary port of Oc-eo in south Vietnam. The origin of the boat cannot be determined, but its lashed-lug design marks it as Southeast Asian rather than Chinese. It seems to have been a trading vessel, as its cargo suggests. The ship is estimated to have been about 12 meters long. Few other early boats have been discovered in Southeast Asia. One other, which has not been scientifically dated but which resembles the boat from Pontian, was discovered near Khuan Luk Pad, in south Thailand, a site of A.D. 1–500 that has been systematically looted because of the huge quantity of early trade beads discovered there.

Two important finds, although found in disturbed condition, were both made near Palembang, Sambirejo, carbon dated to A.D. 610–775; and Kolam Pinisi, Palembang, A.D. 434–631. The Sambirejo ship is estimated to have been 26 meters long. From a later period, probably the late Song, is a fragmentary vessel from Paya Pasir, near Kota Cina, northeast Sumatra. This too was a relatively large vessel like the Sambirejo ship. Finally, the only other important vessel of the pre-Ming period to be discovered and studied was found at Butuan, Mindanao, south Philippines, and dated to the period A.D. 1270–1410; its original length is estimated to have been 20 meters (Manguin, 1993). These ships can only be partially reconstru

These ships can only be partially reconstructed, so no detailed comparisons are possible. But some basic construction techniques can be discerned. One of the most important traits of these early Southeast Asian ships is that no iron was ever used in their construction. Instead their planks were lashed together with vegetable fibers. The use of outriggers would seem to have been another important early characteristic; large seagoing ships of this type are depicted on the Javanese monument of Borobudur, carved around 800. Dr. Manguin (1993: 264) does not think the largest ships would have used them. The use of quarter rudders such as these reliefs indicate is highly probable,

 

but some early Chinese ships may have used them too. A fourth-century Chinese text on medicinal plants refers to foreign ships called bo, analogous to the K’un-lun po of other writers. The word po would seem to be a transliteration of the Malay perahu, “boat.” These ships were over 50 meters long, carried four masts, and had a capacity of 600–700 people and about 600 tons of cargo (Li, 1979: 90). Chinese influence, such as the use of iron nails, seems to have become common in Southeast Asia in the fourteenth through the sixteenth centuries. The shipwreck at Bukit Jakas, Bintan Island, Riau, Indonesia, carbon dated to between 1400 and 1460, is an early example of the hybrid Chinese-Southeast Asian variants that became standard in the period after the Chinese began to participate as shippers in Southeast Asian maritime commerce. It is significant that this influence only appears after the end of the Song Dynasty; it is another strong piece of evidence supporting the inference that Chinese shippers did not participate in the trade until after the year 1000.18

 

2.2 Trade Interaction During the Song Dynasty (A.D. 960 – 1260)

 

2.2.1 Introduction

 

In 960 the Song Dynasty reunified China after a period of civil war, and commerce in the ports where foreign trade was allowed quickly recovered. A decade later the Department of Foreign Trade at Guangzhou was reorganized as commerce was expanding at a rapid pace. The Song helped to stimulate this recovery by sending four missions abroad in 987. These missions “consisted of eight court officials, who carried with them imperial edicts, gold, and cloth, to various barbarian countries in the South Seas to induce the import trade of aromatics, rhinoceros horns, pearls, and Baroos camphor (so-called after Barus, north Sumatra, source of the highest quality camphor)” (Ma, 1971: 33). The Northern Song opened new ports, equivalent to the “treaty ports” persisting into the nineteenth century. The first alternative port to Guangzhou was Quanzhou, in 1087. Other Offices of the Maritime Trade Superintendency (Shih-po Si) were located at Hangzhou and Ningbo. Later, Offices of the Maritime Trade Bureau (Shih-po Wu) were located at Suzhou, Wenzhou, and Jiang-yin Chun. Although little quantitative data exists to make a firm judgment, enough anecdotal information has been preserved to support the conclusion that “by the Song period, the scale of maritime trade had become so large that it may be deemed the first period of great oceanic trade in the history of the world” (Ma, 1971:

 

23).

 

 

Port cities of Song dynasty China.

It was still a criminal offense for individual Chinese to engage in direct trade with foreigners, however, and the system of hoarding all foreign incense and other luxury goods in government warehouses was still maintained. Thus for the period between 960 and 1126, known as the Northern Song, foreign commerce was continuing to expand, but still within the mold cast by the Confucianists a thousand years earlier. Merchants who induced foreigners to bring cargoes that yielded duties of over 50,000 strings of cash were offered official rank. In 1115 the Chinese government established a hotel at Quanzhou for foreigners, which cost the government 300 strings a year. In 1132 another hotel was founded at Guangzhou. A welfare service was set up for shipwrecked seamen, with an allowance of 50 cash and 2 pecks of rice a day. As early as the late Tang Dynasty, the government had begun to invest in maritime trade infrastructure by developing a harbor near Fuzhou. The Guangzhou harbor was dredged at government expense in the early eleventh century (Wheatley, 1959: 26-27).

 

 

 

2.2.2 The Song Government Trade Monopoly

Imports via maritime trade in the Northern Song still consisted of two main categories: the less expensive, consisting of textiles (mostly cotton), spices, and drugs, and the much more valuable: jewels, ivory, rhinoceros horn, ebony, amber, coral, aromatic products and perfumes. The sale of the luxury goods was still a government monopoly; only licensed dealers could buy them at government warehouses in Quanzhou, and to a lesser extent at Guangzhou, in fixed quantities and at fixed prices. Licensed goods were acquired by the government as import duty (all duties were paid in kind, not in cash) or through purchase by the superintendent of merchant shipping. For this purpose he was allocated about 100,000 strings of cash a year in the late eleventh century, and 300,000 strings in the early twelfth century. Interestingly, the capital for this activity was obtained by taxing priests’ diplomas. The returns on this investment were substantial; the Quanzhou office between 1128 and 1134 made a profit of 980,000 strings (Rockhill,1914: 421, n. 1.) The government attempted to enforce an imperial monopoly over the import and possession of eight items: tortoise shell, elephant tusk, rhinoceros horn, a special kind of steel used for weapons, skin of a lizard used for making drums, coral, agate, and frankincense (Ma, 1971: 37-38).

 

Nevertheless, indirect references suggest that the reality did not correspond very closely to the ideal which the laws sought to impose. Again, the records that were preserved obviously show a very inaccurate picture of what was actually going on. 2.2.3 The Currency Drain Already in 1074 an official named Chang Fang-p’ing mentioned seagoing junks that were leaving China on their return voyage with full cargoes of cash, so that “the currency was drained off like the waters of the sea into the wei-lu” [literally, rear gate] (Rockhill, 1914: 422). By the mid-twelfth century, illicit trade in expensive merchandise was so great that Chinese smugglers were paying for all goods with gold, silver, iron, and especially copper cash, and this drain was causing the Chinese government serious concern. By 1159 only one-tenth of the money intended to be coined was actually cast. This discrepancy was generally attributed by official accounts of the time to illegal foreign sea trade. 20

 

In 1194 the governor of a military district in Fujian refused to allow people under his jurisdiction to go abroad to trade with foreign people “whose many ships coming from abroad laden with aromatics, rhinoceros horns, ivory and king-fishers’ feathers were already draining all the copper cash out of the land.” Sumptuary laws were passed repeatedly (in 1107, 1157, 1201, and 1214) against use of kingfisher feathers and gold for ornaments, but to no avail. In 1248, a “Censor, Ch’en Ch’iu-lu, attributed the drain of cash out of China to the extravagance of its people in purchasing such luxuries as perfumes, ivory, and rhinoceros horns, and to the sea-trade generally” (Rockhill, 1914: 423). Thus sea trade was a double-edged sword; rather than providing additional resources for the state coffers, it seems to have had the opposite effect. This did not, however, prevent the rulers from dreaming that maritime trade might provide a solution to their serious financial problems. 2.2.4 The Southern Song Dynasty: Trade for Revenue The ancient strictures on foreign trade maintained by the Chinese government began to weaken when, in 1126, the Song rulers were defeated by the Khitan nomads. When the northern heartland of China was lost to the invaders, the Chinese court escaped and moved south, to Hangzhou.

 

The port of Quanzhou, the nearest to Hangzhou, eventually surpassed Guangzhou as the largest entrepot in China. Not only was the court now cut off from the overland route to the west, and conversely nearer to the centers of maritime trade with the South Seas; now the potential capacity of maritime commerce to augment the coffers of the kingdom—in order to defend the remnants of the Song lands against the northern invaders—became a matter of significant moment to the empire. Thus official trade expanded, partly by design, in order to secure additional revenue. The Emperor Gao-zong in 1137 issued an edict on the subject, stating,

 

“The profits from maritime commerce are very great. If properly managed, they can bring a million (strings of cash). Is this not better than taxing the people?” (Ma, 1971: 34). In fact Gao-zong’s projections were based on available statistics; in 1128 maritime trade had already yielded customs duties of 2 million strings of cash, which was 20% of the government’s entire revenue. With the establishment of the Southern Song Dynasty, there came a revolutionary development: for the first time in history, private Chinese were allowed, even encouraged, to go overseas to trade. The entire structure of the maritime trade system of the South Seas underwent fundamental changes as a result of this new policy

 

. Status as an official tribute-bearing country was no longer a prerequisite for conducting commercial relations with China. Trade was freed from its link to diplomacy. The tribute system which had regulated contacts between Southeast Asians and Chinese declined significantly in importance. Even the ostensibly aloof attitude of the nobility toward trade, behind which often lay a very different code of conduct, eroded significantly. “In the late Southern Song period, the relatives of the Song royal family were vying with private enterprises in Quanzhou…. They used their political status to toy with the maritime trade rules to earn much profit from maritime trade. Hence they were very unpopular with the merchant community” (Kwee, 1997: n 35).

The decline of the tribute system probably contributed significantly to political changes in the

 

South Seas. In particular, the advent of Chinese merchants and shippers in

Asian waters broke down barriers that had fostered the prosperity of a few centralized trading ports. The empire of Srivijaya, based in south Sumatra, had received a severe blow from the Cola invasion of 1025; the appearance of Chinese ships in Southeast Asian waters probably sounded the old thallasocracy’s death knell. The upsurge in Chinese shipping activity did not, of course, mean that Southeast Asian society suffered economically as a whole; in fact the converse is almost certainly true. Numerous new port sites, marked by abundant shards of Song ceramics, date from this time, suggesting that prosperity probably increased for the Southeast Asians as commerce grew. Moreover, the new wealth was probably more widely distributed. New ports gave traders direct access to Chinese merchants, bypassing the Srivijayan rulers who would have raked off most of the goods in dues and fees. The complexity of maritime trade in the early Southern Song is well indicated by an enormously varied inventory, dated 1141, which included 339 types of imports. The most important in terms of value as well as volume were still aromatics and drugs: frankincense, ambergris, liquid storax (a kind of resin), gardenia flowers, pucuk , myrrh, cloves, nutmeg, and sandalwood. These were not trivial commodities; they were commonly used for a wide range of purposes. In addition to their religious uses, various kinds of aromatics were needed in the household to perfume clothes and bathwater and serve as wall decorations and in the preparation of food. One of four imperial warehouses was used solely to store incense and aromatics. By late Song times, traders had to file official forms specifying destinations and needed guarantors “who assumed full responsibility in case the traders violated the trade laws.” Crew members of trading ships usually engaged in small-scale maritime trading. They were organized into 5-member units, and had some sort of “papers” issued for them (Kwee, 1997: 16). Some Chinese had probably been residing in Southeast Asia before 1126, but it is unlikely that any accurate accounting of them will ever be made. Since it was potentially a capital offense to disobey the laws against private overseas trade, those who flouted the law would try to ensure that their acts would not be recorded. One of the earliest pieces of evidence that Chinese were living overseas for long periods appears in 1150, when a Chinese and some “dark natives” were shipwrecked, apparently while trying to sneak back into China. The Chinese had lived in Indonesia for a long time and had an Indonesian wife (Hirth, 1917: 76). As might be expected from the clandestine nature of the early trade and the intensity of the smuggling practiced even after private trade was no longer an offense, little documentary information exists to illuminate the conditions under which early Chinese shipping was conducted. 2.2.5 Chinese Ships of the Song Dynasty Of the few details that can be adduced, one is that ship captains were given a qu-qi ,or “vermillion pass”, on which was written his name and that of his first mate, the number of passengers, and the size and type of his ship. Ships had about ten oars, each worked by four men, as well as sails. The sailors were armed against pirates, with bows and arrows. Ships had two anchors at the bows. There were no cabins; each passenger was allotted a certain amount of deck space. Zhu Yu of the Song period described merchant ships at Guangzhou:

 

22 The ships were several hundred feet long, and wide. Merchants divided space in the ships for stowing goods, each getting several square feet of floor space, while they slept above. Most of the goods were ceramic vessels, one placed within another according to size with little space between….” (Quoted in Li Zhiyan and Cheng Wen, 1989: 102). The main vessels towed behind them a small boat used when landing. In the early twelfth century the magnetic compass began to be used, but texts describe another method of navigation which made use of a hook on a long rope to bring up mud from the sea bottom, which captains used to smell and inspect to determine their position (Wang, 1958).

 

Maritime archaeology is just beginning to contribute new insights into the physical conditions of the early Chinese maritime trade activity. In May–July 1995, an expedition based on preliminary work in 1990 investigated a shipwreck just north of Fuzhou, in the Dinghai area. The majority of artifacts recovered (69%) were porcelains. There were also two concretions of iron. Remains of ship timbers still existed; more excavations are planned, which may shed much more light on the subject. A shipwreck at Ningbo, contemporaneous with Bai Jiao, has also been discovered. Another ship dating from the Song dynasty was found at Quanzhou and excavated in 1974. It had a deep v-shaped bottom, a true keel, and a stern rudder. The Quanzhou ship was 34.6 meters long, 9.82 meters wide, and displaced 374.4 tons, making it as large as any merchant vessel then known in the West

 

. 2.2.6 Southeast Asian Markets

As has been noted earlier, some Southeast Asian societies had already become accustomed to the use of currency before the end of the first millennium. Of these societies, the most comprehensive data indicating a highly monetized economy comes from Java. Taxes in Java were expressed as money, not as a proportion of the harvest as was still current practice in India, for example. Irrigated rice land, orchards, and houses were privately owned and could be sold, although rights to land not under continuous cultivation were still vested in the village as a corporate body. Most villages had periodic markets. Market officials are mentioned in the oldest Javanese inscriptions from the eighth century (Christie, 1992). The inscriptions also describe two levels of economic activity: one level was part-time (probably); activities in this category included dye-making, dyeing, weaving, some pottery making, sugar making, and bamboo mat making. These occupations were probably conducted as sidelines when the agricultural cycle or local resources made them feasible. The second level of activities concerned specialized traders and craftsmen, who could choose where to live for economic reasons; they were mobile. These people were termed masamwyawahara, “those who carry on commerce.” Some were middlemen somehow connected to an international network, dealing in imported produce, including tin and other metals, but they also sold rice. This suggests that there was a relatively large number of people who bought food on the market.

How did the long-distance maritime trade network interact with the local distribution system? Sadly, the Javanese sources are no more helpful in answering such questions than the Chinese. Once more we must turn to archaeology, and once more we find that very little data 23

has been collected. The only important class of Chinese artifact for which distributional data has been collected in Java is porcelain, and only one regional study has so far been conducted: in north-central Java. In a study conducted by a Dutch scholar in the 1940s, Song pottery was found at over 20 sites in Rembang, and in more than a hundred sites in the neighboring regencies of Semarang, Grobogan, Demak, Jepara, Pati, Kudus, and Blora. The distribution pattern seems to be correlated with settlement areas and transport routes. The data indicates that, by the eleventh century, pottery in the area of north-central Java surveyed by Orsoy de Flines (2,500 square kilometers) was distributed by some sort of integrated marketing system. The north-central pattern contrasts with the pattern so far detected in a haphazard fashion for the Tang dynasty ceramics found in south-central Java; most of the finds of Chinese porcelain there are associated with temple sites. There are, however, several different variables that might account for this, including different functions for the pottery, lesser importance attached to ceramics in the Tang, different geographical areas, and different settlement patterns, and so on. So much more information on the distribution of Chinese imports in Southeast Asian sites must be collected before the possible effects of changing Chinese involvement in maritime trade on the Southeast Asian society and economy can be observed and disentangled from other subsystems evolving at the same time. 2.3 Trade Interaction During the Yuan Dynasty (A.D. 1260-1367) 2.3.1 Introduction Although a fugitive Song court managed to survive for another 19 years, until 1279, for all practical purposes the Yuan Dynasty began in 1260, when the Mongols largely completed the conquest of China. If Chinese economic history can be said to be neglected, the economic history of the Yuan has been positively ignored. Only one English-language study has been devoted to the foreign trade of the Yuan, and that work, Schurmann’s Economic Structure of the Yuan Dynasty (1956), contains only one chapter on maritime trade. Yuan trade has also been largely neglected in Chinese-language sources. A 1955 study by Fang Hao is still the main work, though its conclusions are now outdated (Kwee, 1997). Chinese sources tend to conflate the Song and Yuan, so that details about the Yuan are often obscure or contradictory. Fang Hao, studying Sino-Western interaction in general, argued that foreign trade during the Yuan was stunted by monopolizing acts of the Yuan government, that big merchants were suppressed, but that nevertheless trade increased compared to the Song! Chen Gao-hua has suggested that Yuan foreign trade was conducted mainly by sea rather than overland (Kwee, 1997: 2, n. 3), a view that contradicts Reid’s generalization (1993:10). He makes the assertion, briefly treated, that the maritime trade reached a peak in Yuan; so does Schurmann, also without substantiation. Li Donghua (1984) argued that maritime trade in Quanzhou during the Yuan was more prosperous than in the Song, but, once again, offered no evidence (Kwee, 1997: 2, n. 4). However, anecdotes indicating the wealth of Quanzhou are plentiful. We know, for instance, that the son-in-law of the superintendent of trade at Quanzhou, who died in 1293, had 80 seagoing ships and 130 pikuls of pearls (Wheatley, 1959: 29).

Such indirect evidence does support the idea that the trade expansion characteristic of Song times continued to accelerate during the Yuan Dynasty. Moreover, Yuan sources show

clearer distinctions among various maritime territories. Such terms as East and West Seas (Dong-xi-yang), Bigger East Sea (Da-dong-yang), Little East Sea (Xiao-dong-yang), and Little West Sea (Xiao-xi-yang) first appeared. These are obvious signs of increasing Chinese familiarity with the maritime world. Other sources of indirect evidence must suffice to estimate the nature of the expansion of Yuan trade, no statistics having survived. Schurmann (1956: viii; cited in Kwee, 1997: 5-6, n. 13) observes that “not all the important economic institutions of the Yuan are covered [in the shi-huo-zhi section of the Yuan shih]…nothing on tenancy, private commerce, stores, pawnshops, and manufacturing. None of these institutions directly concerned the government, although they are important in the economic history of China; only those of direct interest to the government such as taxes, land survey, maritime grain transport, and monopoly taxes are treated.” One text, the Da-de-nan-hai-zhi, states that there were “many treasures” in the Yuan Dynasty, many times more than previous dynasties (Kwee, 1997: 3, n. 7). According to Chen Gao-hua (1991), there were more than 160 types of maritime goods in the Southern Song, but more than 220 types in the Yuan (Kwee, 1997: 4, n. 9). The number of foreign polities trading with China, as well as the variety of produce in China, increased during the Yuan. By way of interest, a rare instance of the use of maritime trade as a poetic theme occurs in the work of Sung Pen in the early fourteenth century. “The foreign ships have sailed away from their anchorage. Year after year they come as if the seas were always tranquil…In the sixth month when the south wind blows they come, and we greet them with wine and music. Is it not a joyful occasion?” (Wheatley, 1959:3). 2.3.2 Yuan Government Interests in Maritime Trade The Yuan established their first maritime trade office in 1277 at Quanzhou, the most prosperous port of the late Song. “Every year, an invitation was to be extended to foreign traders to trade in China” (Yuan shih, juan 94; Kwee, 1997). Three more were established shortly thereafter: at Ningpo (King-yuan), Shanghai, and Kanfu (near Hangchou, Polo’s Ganfu). By 1293 there were seven. “So much emphasis was placed on revenue from maritime trade that even monks, who were often granted privileges, were not exempted from taxes.” The Yuan, being Mongols, lacked the ancient Confucian prejudice against trade. Thus it is not surprising that they liberalized the system even further than the Song emperors had done. Official veneration of Ma-zu, Goddess of the Sea, increased. In 1278 “officials memorialized the throne’s calling attention to the importance of encouraging trade relations with the peoples of the south-eastern [or southern and eastern] islands, all of whom, the writers declared, were filled with the most loyal devotion to China” (Rockhill, 1914: 429). In 1279 an envoy was sent to Java. In 1282 an envoy from Java came to China with a shrine of gold as tribute.

The Yuan in 1284 actually instituted a policy of government investment in maritime trade. The prefects of Hangzhou and Quanzhou chose certain persons to go abroad to conduct trade, providing them with ships and capital. Net profit was distributed according to a formula of 70% for the government, 30% for the trader. Seagoers and families were exempted from corvée. This policy was resented by big merchants; its main objective seems not to have been to stimulate trade but to prevent a few large mercantile families from becoming dangerously powerful by making it possible for more small operators to compete with them. This new form of government involvement in maritime trade may reflect the traditional symbiotic relationship between the 25 ortogh and the Mongolians in their original homeland in the steppes. Ortogh (“partners” in Turkic) were commercial groups, consisting largely of central Asiatic Muslim merchants, who became a leading class under the Yuan; extensive government funds were loaned to them for commerce and usury (Kwee, 1997: n. 41). Under the Yuan government, more Muslim tombstones were erected in Quangzhou than during the Song. The government even went so far as to forbid the use of private capital in foreign trade (Rockhill, 1914: 425). However, “The efforts of the government to prevent private trading must have failed signally, for in 1303 we learn that the prohibition against private sea-trading was repealed…” (Rockhill, 1914). By then the Yuan government had instituted a maritime trade tax, in 1292 (Kwee, 1997: 15, n. 46), and by 1295 smuggling to avoid the tax and to export forbidden goods such as bronze coinage was so rampant that officials were sent out to sea to examine ships. In the late Yuan period the pendulum of official attitudes toward commerce swung back and forth. The offices of maritime trade were closed in 1294, but reopened later the same year; closed in 1303, reopened in 1308; closed in 1311, reopened in 1314; closed in 1320, reopened in 1322. The reasons for these closures are never given in the sources. Scholars have suggested that political reasons, such as the fear that rich merchants might turn against the state, were responsible, but it is also possible that these actions were meant to penalize private traders who violated trading laws. There are references to “22 rules of Yuan trade.” In an interesting theory, Chen Gao-hua has argued that the prohibitions may not have been all that significant, for there is evidence to suggest that foreign traders still came to Shanghai when the office of maritime trade there was closed. 2.3.3 The End of Tributary Trade In 1326 the Tai-ding emperor renounced tributary trade. “In 1329 the presenting for transmission to Court of expensive and useless objects, all of which had to be paid for at regulated prices and which were now held to be but a canker devouring the riches of the state was strictly forbidden.” The Yuan were more expansionist than the traditional Chinese empires had been. They fought numerous battles on the Southeast Asian mainland, with Vietnam, Champa, Cambodia, and Burma, often to attempt to force the Southeast Asians to accept a more formal degree of submission to their overlordship than the Chinese had ever required in the context of the “tributary trade.” In 1292 the emperor, Khublai Khan, decided to send a large expedition to Java to avenge a mutilation of his envoy. The naval expedition was placed under the governor of Fujian, using ships requisitioned from private traders, there being no formal Chinese navy. In 1293 the fleet sailed from Quanzhou, but the expedition became embroiled in a confused political situation in Java, was ultimately betrayed by an erstwhile Javanese ally, and sailed back the same year. Khublai Khan died in 1293, and relations with Java soon returned to normal; Javanese missions arrived at court in 1298 and again in 1300. 2.3.4 Chinese Trade in the Moluccas

One of the more interesting questions about Southeast Asian commerce in the Yuan period concerns the breadth of the area over which Chinese sailors actually ranged. One of the 26

prizes of the maritime trade—one which attracted such early explorers as Columbus—was access to the mace and cloves of the Spice Islands, the Moluccas. Some authors have argued that the Chinese actually reached the Moluccas as early as the Yuan Dynasty, while others have rejected this idea. The Yuan dynasty author Wang Dayuan (Rockhill, 1914: 259–60) and early Portuguese sources say that Chinese traders once visited Ternate and Tidore to buy cloves. Barros held that the Moluccans lived like savages until Chinese junks began to arrive to buy their cloves, providing in exchange the Chinese cash that became their major currency. Eventually “the Javanese also responded to their commerce, and the Chinese stopped coming” [Joao de Barros, Da Asia, 1563, Dec. 3, livro 1, 576–79]. Other Portuguese, Spanish, and Dutch sources report similar stories circulating among the Ternatans. Galvao, one of the earliest and most careful of these, concedes that the Ternatans differed as to whether the first junks arriving for cloves were Chinese, Malay, or Javanese. “Most of them incline towards the view that it was the Chinese, and that seems to be the truth” (Galvao, A Treatise on the Moluccas [c. 1544] in Reid, 1996, n. 20). But by the early fifteenth-century Ming period, there is no indication of direct Chinese sailing to the Moluccas. What happened? Reid (1996) suggests that Majapahit incorporated the Chinese sailors, by then largely resident in Southeast Asia and in the process of becoming absorbed into the local populations, into the Javanese shipping industry. “‘Chinese’ merchants may no longer have been reported as making the voyage between Java and Maluku because they ceased to be identified as such. The confusion of Ternatans as to whether the early traders were Chinese, Malays, or Javanese was probably justified.” This is plausible, but not completely convincing. The early fifteenth-century Ming voyages under Zheng He were Muslim-led, so it seems likely that some knowledge of this ancestry would have been communicated to them. It also creates the implication that the Javanese were less aware than Chinese of the routes to eastern Indonesia. Another possibility is that the early Ming prohibition against foreign trade severed the China-Moluccas connection. 2.3.5 Chinese Communities in Southeast Asia Our first written confirmation that some permanent communities of Chinese in Southeast Asia had formed comes from the author Wang Dayuan, a trader who spent a number of years in Southeast Asia in the late Yuan period. He mentions two such communities but does so in such an offhand manner as to suggest that they were so common that they did not deserve special attention. In one case, he reports that some Chinese from the Yuan dynasty fleet, on its way to attack Java, were shipwrecked, fell ill, and had been left behind on Goulan Shan (possibly the island of Gelam, off southwest Borneo). In his day, 40 years later, some men (or their descendants; “over 100”) “live mixed up with the native families” (Rockhill, 1914: 261). A second reference to overseas Chinese appears in the context of his description of the Longya men, at “Dragon’s Tooth Strait,” the western entrance to Keppel Harbor, Singapore. That location was known as a particularly dangerous pirate lair. From his account some Chinese lived there, although it would seem more likely that they were resident at Pancur, his name for the settlement on the Singapore River, about 8 kilometers away. By the early fifteenth century, several other communities existed in Sumatra and Java; it is likely that their roots go back at least to the end of the Yuan, for the installation of the Ming Dynasty in 1368 was accompanied by a total ban on Chinese emigration.27

2.4 Trade Commodities 2.4.1 Historical Sources There are few sources which contain usable information on China/Southeast Asia trade of this period, largely due to the official prejudice against commerce even during the relatively free atmosphere of the Song and Yuan Dynasty. The Ling Wai Dai Da, “Information on What is Beyond the Passes,” by Zhou Qufei (1178), has been lost but was quoted by later sources. The oldest well-preserved text was written by the harbormaster of Guangzhou, Zhao Rugua, Zhu Fan Zhi, “Records of Foreign Peoples,” in 1225. He did not leave China, but accumulated his information by interviewing sailors. The most interesting text is the Dao Yi Zhi Lue [DYZL], the “Description of the Barbarians of the Isles” written by Wang Dayuan, cognomen Huan-chang, a native of Nanchang in Jiangsi, in 1349. This is the first in-depth account of Southeast Asian trade written by an eyewitness. Another important Chinese reference work on Southeast Asian commerce was written by Ma Guan, entitled Ying-Yai Sheng-Lan [YYSL], “A Comprehensive Survey of the Shores of the Ocean,” probably written between 1425-1432, by an otherwise unknown Chinese Muslim who knew foreign languages and went as interpreter and recorder with the 1413 expedition of Zheng He. The Xing Cha Sheng Lan [ [XCSL] or “Description of the Starry Raft,” was written by Fei Xin in 1436; he made several voyages with Zheng He, in an unknown capacity. Before the Southern Song, aromatic woods and resins were the most sought-after Nanhai products. During the Southern Song and Yuan, demand expanded to include bulk commodities such as pepper and a wide range of other commodities listed in the texts referenced above. The lists cannot be taken as comprehensive, however. In Wang, for example, the equivalent of “et cetera” appears at the end of the lists of trade goods. Some ports, e.g., Hua-mien, associated with the Batak area of north Sumatra, are identified as stops for provisioning only, not as trading ports. Here the ships would purchase cattle, sheep, fowls, ducks, betel nuts, sugarcane, sirih leaves, and cotton. The shippers would barter iron bars, blue cotton cloth, coarse bowls, and Quzhoufu porcelain. The Chinese authors sometimes were mistaken about which products were local and which were re-exports. Zhao, for example, knew that Srivijaya was a great source of Arab products such as pearls, frankincense, rosewater, gardenia flowers, myrrh, aloes, asa-oetida, etc. (Hirth and Rockhill, 1911: 61). In other cases errors due to the inability to distinguish between exports and re-exports have crept in. 2.4.2 Commodities Traded Within Southeast Asia Following is a list of commodities traded between various ports in Southeast Asia as noted in the above-mentioned sources. Some are Chinese products, while others are goods carried by traders from outside the region. Glass beads Coral beads Cotton Taffetas Damask Chintz Silk Satin Patola cloth Brocades Muslin Gold Silver Mercury Borax Tin Betel nuts Cowrie shells Salt Spirits Lacquerware Musical instruments Wooden combs Pepper28 s Hides Ivory Tortoise shell Iron Laka wood Sapan wood Gharu wood Rosewood Sandal wood Calambac wood Cardamon Kingfishers’ feathers Dragon’s blood Gems Rattan Beeswax Ambergris Pearls Coconuts Nutmeg Cloves Mace Pandanus Mats

2.4.3 Commodities on the Java Sea Wreck

 

The two main commodities, iron and ceramics, are treated in Sections 8.0 and 9.0, respectively. 2.4.3.1 Ivory

Wild

Wild elephants were still found in south Fujian until A.D. 1050, and in Yunnan until A.D. 1388 (Arasaratnam, 1991). However, ivory was imported to China from at least as early as the tenth century as a major item of tributary trade. Northern Vietnam sent large quantities on nearly every mission. In the year 980, “100 tusks of ivory” were sent; in 1164, “30 pieces of ivory tusks”; and in 1177, “70 ivory tusks.” In 1173, 11 domestic elephants were sent to China as tribute. Champa (central Vietnam) sent 168 ivory tusks in 1155. The Srivijaya empire of southern Sumatra sent 87 tusks weighing 4,065 katis in 1156, and a further 60 tusks in 1178. Ivory was sent from as far as Africa via Arab traders. The Abbasid dynasty of Arabia sent “209 pieces of big ivory tusks” in 1131 (Wong, 1979). Ivory, according to Zhao, came from Annam, Red River, Cambodia, the east coast of the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and Java (the latter lies outside the elephant’s range and in reality must have re-exported ivory).

Sources of ivory and routes for the ivory trade during the Song dynasty.29

KERAMIK KERAJAAN TIONGKOK DIINDONESIA (bagian I)

INI ADALAH CONTOH DARI INFO YANG ADA DALAM MUSEUM LELUHUR INDONESIA WANLI DI JAKARTA MILIK KELUARGA SAYA, HANYA KOLEKTOR TERTENTU SAJA YANG AKAN SAYA IZINKAN UNTUK MELIHATNYA, UNTUK ITU HARAP HUBUNGGI SAYA LIWAT EMAIL

iwansuwandy@gmail.com

JANGAN LUPA UPLOAD KOPI KTP,ALAMAT RUMAH LENGKAP NOMOR TILPON DAN RIWAYAT PEKERJAAN  SINGKT , INI PENTING KARENA SAAT INI MAISH BANYAK PENIPUAN LIWAT INTERNET.

KHUSUS HANYA UNUTK KOLEKTOR BONAFIDE SAJA, DAN TIDAK UNTUK PEDAGANG KARENA AYA TAKUT NANTI DI COPY DAN DIBUAT REPRO KERAMIKNYA. SERTA cd-NYA.

SILAHKAN MELIHAT DAN MEMBACA BAIK-BAIK INFO YANG SAYA CUPLIK DIBAWAH INI

SEMOGA ANDA AKAN LEBIH MENGERTI TENTANG KOLEKSI YANG ANDA MILIKI DAN ANDA AKAN BISA MEMPEROLEH KEUNTUNGAN YANG SANGAT TIDAK DISANGKA-SANGKA, ANDA HARUS BEWRMIMPI DAN ANDA AKAN SUKSES BILA MIMPI TERSEBUT SUDAH TERWIJUD.

 

 

PIRAMID CINA

OLEH

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Copyright@2015

KATA PENGANTAR

Puji syukur kehadiran Tuhan Yang Mahakuasa atas RAHMAT dan RESTUNYA pada hari yang berbahagia ini saya telah menyelesiakan penulisan sebuah buku yang berjudul PIRAMID CINA.

Buku ini saya tulis untuk keluarga saya , dan Generasi Penerus Bangsa Indonesia khususnya dan Dunia umumnya.

Banyak terima kasih kepada berbagai pihak yang telah memberikan bantuan baik moril maupun materil termasuk anda para pembaca , dengan harapan hasil penjualan buku ini dapat membantu pengembangkan museum yang sudah ada.

Mohon maaf apabila ada kata-kata dan sikap serta pendapat saya yang keliru , maklum penulis bukan pengarang dan juga bukan ahli sejarah, tetapi hanya Sarjana Kedokteran Umum yang sudah tua .

Jakarta , Desember 2015

Dr Iwan Suwandy <MHA

PENDAHULUAN

Tentu pembaca akan heran dan malah pasti banyak akan marah dan protes atas pemakaian judul buku ini PIRAMID CINA , terutama dari Golongan orang Tionghoa seperti saya.

Saya tetap memilih judul ini dan saya juga sudah memperoleh persetujuan dari keluarga saya walaupun mulanya mereka juga protes.tetapi setelah saya jelaskan dengan lengkap barulah mereka merasa senang.

Saya ramalkan buku ini akan menjadi buku paling laris di Indonesia dan mungkin dengan harapan besar di seluruh dunia.

Sebenarnya ini adalah promosi pribadi saya dalam rangka mencari dana bagi Museum saya yang akan saya namakan Museum Leluhur Indonesia WANLI (Iwan dan Lily), Mengapa tidak ditunggu sampai lima puluh tahun ,alasanya terlalu lama dan saya takut akan ketinggalan zaman sebab tahun ini adalah tahun yang paling tepat yaitu dimana orang Tionghoa pasti ada dalam urutan orang terkaya di berbagai Negara di dunia ( saya terpaksa memakai nama ini karena sudah disahkan sbagai bangsa Indonesia Asli, walaupun ada yang mengatakan ia dilahirkan sebagai orang cina, sekali cina tetap cina, anda pasti sudah tahu siapa yang berkata seperti itu).

saya tidak menyembunikan identitas anda bisa baca sendiri di lampiran buku ini , saya hanya ingin agar perhatian anda terpusat kepada topik yang ditulis.

Ada seorang wartawan , yunior dari sekolah saya saat SMA dulu berkata bahwa saya menulis apa adanya dan mengalir begitu saja , maaf dia kurung paham apa topik yang saya tampilkan .

Dulu pernah saya menulis karang yang bersifat ilmiah , tetapi ada yang protes katanya ini artikel untuk umum bukan sebuah laporan penelitian , sebaliknya waktu saya membuat artikel dan buku tanpa catatan kaki dan referensi banyak yang protes katanya informasi anda tidak ada ctatan kakinya sehingga tidak ada manfaatnya.

Memang serba salah, supaya tidak ada protes lagi dengan ini saya menyatakan (kalau pak Harto Menyataken- nostalgia ni ye!!!, simpatisan??? Silahkan dijawab sendiri) bahwa buku ini saya tulis dari pikiran saya sendiri, dari koleksi aya sendiri yang umumnya berusia diatas lima puluh tahun, inilah rahasia keberhasilan saya .sombong ni ye !!!!!!!!

Apa rahasia keberhasilan tersebut , nanti akan saya ungkapkan diakhir buku ini dan Kesimpulan. Ha…hha….hee !!!!???

Mengapa dipilih nama PIRAMID CINA , banyak alasannya sehingga sulit diterangkan satu persatu , yang jelas agar gampang dan mudah diingat ? apakah memang di Cina ada piramid ? nanti akan kita buktikan dari hasil penelitian berdsarkan koleksi yang say miliki, yang jelas bentuknya seperti kerucut kecil diatas besr dibawah , kuat, stabil , antik , kuno , besar kecil tapi unik dan sulit ditemukan, soal harga tererah mau beri berapa , sungguh saya akan adalan lelangan karena edisi pertama buku ini akan diterbitkan sangat terbatas hanya sepuluh atau 10 saja.

Masih kurang paham , penasarn ???!!!! silahkan baca lebih lanjut , tidak sombong tetapi nyata oelksi barang antic saya sedemikian banyaknya sehingga saya tidak mampu   menghitung dan tidak tahu berapa jumlahnya..

Sedikit tentang PIRAMID CINA, saya pilih nama ini karena hampir seluruh bidang yang saya pelajari dan saya kumpulkan ada h8ubngannya dengan piramid cina, arti dapat disusun dari kecil sampai besar, baik jenis dan tipenya, misalnya mangkuk,guci, vase, botol disusun dari kecil sampai besar, kumpulkan prangko yang nominalnya dari paling tinggi sampai kecil baik dalam harga maupun nilai jualnya, saya tidak mau kumpukan info yang tidak ada gunanya, saya namakan koleksi ampah, arti pantasnya dibuang ke Tong sampah untuk diaur ulang bukan di usnahkan, biar masih tetap jadi duit,

Orang Tionghoa atau Cina pasti mengubungkan segalanya didunia ini dengan perimbangan atau seimbang katanya Yin dan Yang , panas dan dinggin, kaya-miskin harus seimbang, karena itu di Korea mereka memakai lambing tersebut, cina sendiri memakai lambing bintang karena mereka ingin merait segalanya setinggi dan sebanyak bintang dilangit, di buat bendera dengan satu bintang besar dan empat bintang kecil(kalau keliru harap dimaafkan, karena saya kurang perhatikan ,saya bangsa Indonesia saya hanya tahu Merah putih saja) bintang besar Tiongkok, lainnya bekas Negara yang dalam kekuaaannya Tibet,Monggol,Taiwan,Hongkong&Macau.

(mohon maaf kalau keliru).

 

 illustrasi tidak diupload !!!!

Siapa bila orang cina teliti, walaupun terkenal sangat pintar, teliti dan tentunya juga sangat pelit, orang cina ternyata maih juga dapat membuat kekeliruan Empat prangko cina yang salah cetak yang sempat beredar, sehingga harganya sangat mahal, maklum ada jutaan kolktornya, salah satu adalah prangko dengan peta Republik Cina, dinamakan China is red (cina merah) ternyata kelupaan memerahkan Taiwan, segera ditarik tetapi terlanjur sudah dijual kepada beberapa orang.

Yang lainnya nanti dikesimpulan akan saya beritahu.

 

KAIMPULAN

Apa rahasia keberhasilan tersebut , nanti akan saya ungkapkan diakhir buku ini dan Kesimpulan. Ha…hha….hee !!!!???

Katanya seperti orang gila yang pernah saya lihat di Bagian Ilmu Penyakit Jiwa pusat rujukan tertinggi di Indonesia bicara mengelantur crita berubah dengan menyambung kalimat akhir yang topiknya sangat beruabah-ubah , anak kucing itu bagus sekali, kucing belang belang beranak belang, orang Talu, saya terkenang dengan akmpung sya, rumah gadang nan sambilan ruang, pusaka bunda sejak dulunya, bila saya kenang , berlinang air mataku, kumakan pisang goring, goring telur pakai sambal, sambal lada enak sekali, kali besar, banjir-banjir, sialan kamu kira saya gila, hahaha?>>!!!.

Apakah memang saya seperti itu silahkan anda nilai sendiri. Tentunya tidak karena bila iya pasti anda gila juga karena mau membaca buku ini.

 

Profesi dan Titel saya Dokter umum dan pendidikan saya sampai S2 saja, mungkin dengan tulisan ini siapa tahu ada yang berkenan memberikan saya titel S3 HC atau lebih tinggi lagi , pangkat minus satu Brigjen ,sombong ne ye ???!!.

Siapa bila orang cina teliti, walaupun terkenal sangat pintar, teliti dan tentunya juga sangat pelit, orang cina ternyata maih juga dapat membuat kekeliruan Empat prangko cina yang salah cetak yang sempat beredar, sehingga harganya sangat mahal, maklum ada jutaan kolktornya, salah satu adalah prangko dengan peta Republik Cina, dinamakan China is red (cina merah)

ternyata kelupaan memerahkan Taiwan, segera ditarik tetapi terlanjur sudah dijual kepada beberapa orang.

Yang lainnya nanti dikesimpulan akan saya beritahu

Sekarang saya beritahu, yaitu prangko Dr Sun Yat sen (pendiri reprklik cina,founding father) terbalik dari framenya, Matahari terbit dibelakang istana (padahal matahari terbit lambing Jepang ,Negara yang tidak disenangi akibat pembantain di Nanking,

Prangko gambar Mao bersama Jendran Li Piao, saat diterbitkan Lin Pao dibenci Mao karena tidak sama pemnikirannya)

Prangko seri monyet warna merah dan monyet hitam, ditarik karena merah lambing Cina komunis dan lambing kaisar cina, jika dipadu dengan monyet anda bisa terka mengapa ditarik dari peredaran

 

Ternyata saat ini masih lebih banyak prangko salah cetak dari Tiongkok tetapi kurang terkenal walaupun demikian harganya juga sudah tinggi seklai, tidak sama dengan prangko Indonesia, jenis dan typenya sangat banyak kecuali zaman hindi belanda, wlapaun demikian saya tetap simpan suatu hari nanti bila Indonesia sudah termasuk sepuluh besar dunia pasti akan tinggi uga hargana, mau tahu, nanti saja ,rahasia ne ye ???!!!!

Lihat prangko slah cetak cina yang paling terkenal sat ini

Salah cetak Taiwan tidak merah

 

Dr Sun Yat Sen salah cetak terbalik

Posisi normal jadi ikut mahal karena diburu semua kolektor cina

Mao dan Lin Piao

 

Seri shio Monyet dengan latar belakang merah yang ditarik dari peredaran

Gamabr Dr Sun tergeser keluar frame

Gambar hilang sebagian ini terlipat saat pencetakan

Sumber Ilustrasi prangko ini terpaksa saya ambil dari google eksplorasi dari lelangan dunia.

Selesai

TEMUAN KERAMIK KERAJAAN TIONGKOK

DI INDONESIA

Bab Pengantar Pertama

*

Oleh

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Hasil Penelitian kepustakaan dan lapangan

Edisi Khusus Terbatas Buku Elektronik Dalam CD-Rom

Hanya Untuk Kalangan Terbatas

Hak Cipta @ Dr Iwan 2015

*Mangkuk Kontraversial Ming Chenghua yang direpro pada dinasti Qing temuan Indonesia.

 

Pengantar Bagian Pertama

Setelah hampir lima puluh tahung mengumpulkan pecahan dan keramik uthdari berbagai Negara khususnya dari Tiongkok, terutama dar Kerajaan Tiongkok yang di temukan di seluruh Indonesia terutama di Sumatera,Jawa,Kalimantan ,Sulwesi dan Maluku.

Pada hari ini saya memberanikan diri memaparkan hasil penelitian tersebut, semoga hasil temuan ini dapat berguna bagi para kolektor di Indonesia dalam menyususn koleksinya sehingga terhindar dari koleksi barang baru atau Reproduksi yang sangat banyak beredar di Indonesia.

Pada beberapa tahun terakhir banyak ditemukan keramik kerajaan Tiongkok mulai dari dinasti Han,Tang,.Sung, Yuan,Ming dan Qing serta dinasti kecil lainnya diantara dinasti tersebut.

Temuan tersebut baik berupa pecahan yang dapat dijadikan dasar untuk perbandingan keaslian bagi temuan yang utuh.

Saya telah menyusun sebuah CD-Rom yangberisi jenis,type dan desain keramik Tiongkok asli yang pernah ditemukan d ndonesia dibandingkan dengan literature yang ada terutama dari katalogus lelangan.

Dasar penyusunan buku ini saya ambil dari eksplorasi google

Sumber berita

https://iaaipusat.wordpress.com/2012/02/page/2/

Selamat membaca dan melihat koleksi yang saya pernah temukan di Inonesia.

Semoga para kolektor Indonesia jadi lebih semangat dan giat berburu kemaik antic yang dapat memberikan anda suatu kepuasan baik moril maupun materiel.

Tak Lupa saya ucapkan terima kasih kepada berbagai pihak yang telah banyak membantu saya, mohon maaf saya tidak dapat menyebut namanya satu persatu karena berbagai alas an ,juga kepada seluruh keluarga saya.

Buku ini tidak dijual kepada para pedagang karena akan menyebabkan mereka akan menaikan harga secara gila-gilaan seperti lukisan, dan kita para kolektor jadi tidak mampu memilikinya lagi serta hanya akan jadi impian saja. Akhirnya terima kasih saya ucapkan kepada Bunda Maria,dan Tuhan Yang Maha Kuasa atas berkahnya saya mampu memiliki informasi yang amat penting dan langka ini.

CD-Rom ini agak mahal harganya disesuaikan denagn standar info saat ini satu informs US$ 25,- ,walaupun demikian akan saya sesuaikan dengan situasi dengan kondisi di ndonesia, begitu juga jika pembaca ingin melihat museum kecil saya d Jkarta.

Jakarta May 2015

DR Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Pengantar Bagian Pertama

Setelah hampir lima puluh tahun mengumpulkan pecahan dan keramik utuh dari berbagai Negara khususnya dari Tiongkok , terutama Era Kerajaan Tiongkok yang di temukan di seluruh Indonesia terutama di Sumatera ,Jawa,Kalimantan ,Sulwesi dan Maluku.

Pada hari ini saya memberanikan diri menampilkan hasil penelitian tersebut, semoga hasil temuan ini dapat berguna bagi para kolektor di Indonesia dalam menyususn koleksinya sehingga terhindar dari koleksi barang baru atau Reproduksi yang sangat banyak beredar di Indonesia.

Pada beberapa tahun terakhir banyak ditemukan keramik Kerajaan Tiongkok mulai dari dinasti Han,Tang,.Sung, Yuan,Ming dan Qing serta dinasti kecil l diantara dinasti tersebut.

Temuan tersebut baik utuh atau pecahan yang dapat dijadikan dasar untuk perbandingan untukmenetukan keaslian keramik yang utuh.

Saya telah menyusun sebuah CD-Rom yang berisi jenis,tipe dan desain keramik Tiongkok asli yang pernah ditemukan di Indonesia dan dibandingkan dengan Kepustakaan yang ada terutama dari katalogus lelangan.

Dasar penyusunan buku ini saya ambil dari eksplorasi google sebagai Sumber Informasi salah satunya

https://iaaipusat.wordpress.com/2012/02/page/2/

Besar harapan saya para pemegang Hak Cipta tidak keberatan informasi mereka ditampilkan dalam buku ini guna dapat membuka misteri Keramik Kerajaan Tiongkok yang sampai saat ini masih sering diperdebatkan oleh para pakar Keramik Antik di Dunia, Maaf saya belum diakui secara Internasinal kecuali oleh beberapa orang saja dari Idonesia.

Karya Tylis ini dibagi dalam beberapa Buku yaitu

Penagantar teriri dari Kata Pengantar, Daftar Isi,keramik Kontraversil ,

karya tulis tentang Temuan Keramik Kapal Karam Di Indonesia . Kemudian Buku lain berisi   sejarah serta ilustrasi menarik dan info terkait dari setiap era mulai dinasti Han sampai Qing serta Bab Terakhir dari Buku ini meliputi era Republik Nasionalis Tiongkok dan Republik Rakyat Tiongkok .

Demikianlah jerih payah saya selama lebih kurang lima puluh tahun, semoga para pembaca menghormati Hak Cipta Saya, dan pesan khusus untuk seluruh keluarga saya peliharalah temuan yang langka ini walaupun sebagian besar dari dinasti Ming Awal ,Ming Wanli, serta dnasti Qing .

Sebagian koleksi boleh dijual termasuk pecahan (karena pecahan merupakan batu uji yang selama ini kurang diperhatikan, dan ini merupakan salah satu strategi dan taktik untuk berani membeli keramik utuh) dalam rangka membeli bangunan dan penyusun dekorasi museum Leluhur Indonesia WLS atau Iwan(Wan) Lily(Li) dan Sons=anak-anak (Misi) dengan Sasaran Akhir (Visi) agar seluruh generasi penerus kita akan tetap mengenang saya serta leluhur kita semua di Indonesia.

Museum ini boleh dibuka secara umum, hanya tamunya bersifat khusus yaitu kolektor serius dan bonafide dengan system perjanjian ,jumlah tamu terbatas maksimal dan minimal dua orang ditemankan langsung oleh saya atau putra saya atau isteri aya ditemani mantu saya dan tentunya cucu aya setelah mereka tamat seolah ,

Hindarilah para pedagang yang tentunya akan membajak koleksi tersebut serta menyebabkan kehebohan publik, saya tidak mau jadi Figur Masyarakat yang pasti akan mereprtkan kita semua serta aibat-akibat yang akan ditemukan seperti dapat dibaca dalam lampiran pengantar ini.

Buku ini akan dirilis saat pembukaan Museum Leluhur Indonesia WLS (WANLI & SONS)

Selamat membaca dan melihat koleksi yang saya pernah temukan di Inonesia, semoga para kolektor Indonesia jadi lebih semangat dan giat berburu keramik antik yang dapat memberikan anda suatu kepuasan baik moril maupun materiel.

Buku ditulis dalam bahasa Indonesia dan bahasa Inggris sesuai dengan jenis Info yang diperoleh atau sesuai aslinya tidak diterjemahkan agar tidak ada kekeliruan dn buku ini umumnya ditujukan bagi bangsa Indonesia, jika cukup banyak peminatnya akan diterjemahkan kedalam bahasa Inggris secaara keselurhannya.

Tak Lupa saya ucapkan terima kasih kepada berbagai pihak yang telah banyak membantu saya, mohon maaf saya tidak dapat menyebut namanya satu persatu karena berbagai alas an ,juga kepada seluruh keluarga saya.

Buku ini tidak dijual kepada para pedagang karena akan menyebabkan mereka akan menaikan harga secara gila-gilaan seperti lukisan, dan kita para kolektor jadi tidak mampu memilikinya lagi serta hanya akan jadi impian saja.

Akhirnya terima kasih saya ucapkan kepada Bunda Maria,dan Tuhan Yang Maha Kuasa atas berkahnya saya mampu memiliki informasi yang amat penting dan langka ini.

CD-Rom ini agak mahal harganya disesuaikan denagn standar info saat ini satu informs US$ 25,- ,walaupun demikian akan saya sesuaikan dengan situasi dengan kondisi di ndonesia, begitu juga jika pembaca ingin melihat museum kecil saya d Jakarta.

Jakarta Mai 2015

DR Iwan Suwandy,MHA

 

Koleksi kebangaan saya karena yang asli zat pewarna birunya bersal dari Sumatera kampong halaman saya ,walaupun koleksi saya dibuat oleh pabrik dengan merek kejaan Ming Cheng Hua pada Era Qing, saya memilikinya dalam jumlah yang cukup banyak baik bentu,jenis dan tipenya.Maaf jumlahnya tidak ditampilkan bisa bikin geger dan tentu aka nada pengaruhnya terhadap harga paaran internasional.

 

DAFTAR ISI

I, PENGANTAR BAGIAN PERTAMA DAN KEDUA

  1. THE TANG CERAMIC HISTORY COLLECTIONS

III. THE SUNG CERMAIC HISTORY COLLECTIONS

III. YUAN CERAMIC HISTORY COLLECTIONS

  1. THE MING CERAMIC HISTORY COLLECTIONS
  2. THE QING CERAMIC HITORY COLLECTIONS

 

 

 

Keramik Ming Cheng Hua Yang Kontraversil

Chenghua Chicken Cup

Source

taimantis.com/chinese/reason.html

For centuries now, scholars have written on the subject of the illustrious ‘Chicken Cup’ first produced during the reign of the Ming emperor Chenghua (1465-1487).

Almost every book covering the subject of Chinese porcelain mentions the rare cup.

It is reported that there are only fifteen known in existence, mostly in museums, and only three in private hands.

 

Made strictly for the Imperial household, it was said that the later Ming emperor, Wanli (1573-1620), was very fond of the cup.

It is also documented that a pair was known to fetch as much as the equivalent of $10000 US dollars during the end of the Ming reign.

Because of the popularity, copies were produced during various reigns of the later Qing dynasty with both the current reign mark and the apocryphal (or spurious) reign mark.

The latter proving problematic for centuries to the porcelain connoisseur.

It was a well know fact that there were corrupt official within the Imperial Palace, and just as well known that on occasion a piece was ‘smuggled’ out of the Imperial kiln, rather than be destroyed, should it have a minor flaw.

An alliance between the corrupt officials and the head of the kiln created an underground that channeled an occasional piece of Imperial bound porcelain to a non-imperial destination for a nice profit.

 

Though this practice has been documented by both scholars and historians, there has yet to be an authenticated example of a Chenghua chicken cup originating from this source.

This cup provides an excellent example.

 

 

Native versus Imported Cobalt

It’s very important to fully understand the properties of native Chinese cobalt, since it offers one of the best clues to determining authentic Chenghua porcelain. Here is a brief introduction to the subject.

Qing copies show the underglaze cobalt as a much deeper, brighter blue.

There are two varieties of this imported blue. One is known as Mohammedan (or Persian) Blue1, and the other known as Sumatran Blue2.

There is little to differentiate between both of theseimported pigments.

What is key, however, is that both were unavailable during the Chenghua reign, forcing the use of the paler native Chinese cobalt.

Microscopic examination of the properties of the native cobalt reveal a presence of manganese, giving a grayish green tone to areas of accumulation.

This property is not present on later Qing copies (fig 2) since the imported cobalt, being of superior quality and brightness, only required one even layer of application.

1 Mohammedan Blue – also called hui hui ch’ing.

2 Sumatran Blue – also called su-ma-li, su-ma-ni, or su-ni-p’o blue.

 

Flaws and discoloration

To begin with, copies of Imperial ware are made to perfection. Even a slight flaw would immediately flag it as not being of Imperial quality.

It would not be logical for a counterfeiter to produce a copy of the well known cup with any visible imperfection.

The example to the right shows the reign mark being darker in some areas, caused by a thicker application of cobalt.

In contrast, the other areas appear much lighter and pale.

Because of the pale (weak) native cobalt used during the reign, it was often applied generously in an attempt to create a richer, brighter blue.

The subsequent result produced the effect seen on both the mark and that of the exterior cobalt wash areas of this particular cup.

Though a slight imperfection, a definite sign of authenticity.

(Fig 1)

Original Reign Mark.

 

Decoration

Figure 2 shows an example of a later Qing copy. Noticeably different from the authentic Chenghua style is the use of more vibrant enamel coloring and bright blue underglaze.

This is definitely not the trademark of original Chenghua, specifically in the underglaze blue areas where the paler native cobalt was used.

 Another difference in the decoration is the double line border at the base of my cup, versus the single line on most cups pronounced authentic.

Counterfeiters conform to the normal, in this case the single line. A double line would not be used to deceive.

(fig 2)

Brighter colors of a Qing copy.

 

 

Measurements

The above image should be to scale, depending of course on your screen resolution and monitor settings. I made an exact model, then a cut-away to give you a more realistic view. Most original Chenghua chicken cups have the exact same shape and measurements.On the average, they are 8.3 centimeters in diameter, 3.25 centimeters in height. The lip has a slight flair (fig. 3).

 The bowl depth measures (from the lip) 2.5 centimeters down to a very thin2 mm bottom. Many of the Qing copies are lacking the flare to the lip.

 

The footrim is wedge shaped with the inner surface being more vertical to a depth of .5 centimeters.

The outer diameter of the footrim averages 4.25 centimeters, with the inner diameter averaging 3.8 centimeters.

 Many of the Qing copies have almost no discoloration to the exposed biscuit, as compared to the authentic (fig 4).

They also have a brighter white to the clay, versus the softer white (almost ivory) of the authentic.

Another property (or characteristic) is a slight grinding to the lip. There is some debate as to the purpose for this, but it appears to have been done during manufacture. Only a few specimens are known to exist.

This cup does not have that property.

The weight is 1.6 ounces (Avoir) which translates to 45.4 grams.

(fig 3)

(fig 4)

 

Physical Properties

History and documentation on the physical properties of the cup agrees to a thin, delicate body. This cup has that property, with the average potting being 2 to 2.5 mm. thick between the lip and the base. Looking down, one can visibly make out the placing of the reign mark through the body

 

. When holding it to the light (Fig 5), it appears almost transparent.

Microscopic examination of the inner surface reveals signs of wear to the cup. The wear is not manufactured.

I would be suspicious of any Chenghua chicken cup pronounced authentic that clearly displays the properties of Mohammedan or Sumatran blue, and does not have the very thin base and exact measurements.

(fig 5)

 

 

Though it’s my belief that the cup was possibly smuggled out for profit due to the quality of the mark, it is also possible to have surfaced under normal condition.

The image shown to the right (fig 6) is a supposedly authentic Chenghua chicken cup that was on display at the National Palace Museum in Taipei.

 

This mark is actually of lesser quality than that of the one in my collection, furthering my confidence to it’s authenticity.

(fig 6)

 

To sum it all up, I can’t put enough emphasis on the importance of the property of the cobalt itself in determining authenticity.  That’s why I devoted an entire page to it, viewable from my main page. Mohammedan Blue

 

The scholars, such as Hobson, Bushell, and Pope, dedicated their lives to the research and understanding of Chinese porcelain, passing their knowledge on to us.

They have (in my opinion) been totally ignored by the major auction houses when it comes to the famous chicken cup.

It’s documented in the Ming Annals, as well as by the scholars.

Hobson, on page 75 of his book “The Wares of the Ming Dynasty” explains how the imported varieties of cobalt (Mohammedan and Sumatran) had run out by the end of the reign of Xuande, stating:

[Quote]  “so that in the Chenghua period only the ordinary class of blue was used.”.

It was nearing the end of the reign of  Xuande when the last shipment of imported cobalt arrived. This was delivered by the envoys of Samatra in 1434, just prior to the Interregnam Period. Once this supply was exhausted, native cobalt, with its tell-tale sign of manganese, had to be used.

Over fifty (50) years passed with no supply of imported cobalt. It wasn’t until the last year of the reign of Chenghua that the next shipment of imported cobalt arrived.

If you do the math, it was too late to have any impact on the porcelain of the period.

 In fact, it’s doubtful the cup was even being produced in that last year. Only native cobalt was used during the reign of Chenghua.

This actually makes the authentic cup even rarer, since most pronounced authentic by the ‘experts’ display the vibrant blue tones only available after the reign of Chenghua.

These perfect and colorful specimens, though beautiful and also of value, are undoubtedly (in my opinion) from a later period.

 

KESIMPULAN

Temuan Dr Iwan Adalah buatan Dinasti Qing karena ada dua garis di Foot rim atau lingkaran kaki mangkuk , ekor ayam yang asli biru dan repro era qing warnya hitam ,warna lebih terang,dan jenisnya lebih banyak serta ditemukan bersama-sama dengan berbagai jenis vase dengan warna dan tahnik melukis yang sama serta jumlah yang ditemukan cukup banyak ,

syukur Dr Iwan bebanr-benar memperoleh rezeki sehingga mimpinya membuat museum akan segera dapat terealisir.

Lihat contoh koleksi Dr Iwan dibawah ini

 

Dua Garis pada lingkaran kaki mangkuk (double line on footrim), ekor ayam warnya hitam tebal   (yang asli warna hitam satu tebal dua halus atau hijau tiga tebal ) dan kepala serta badan ayam putih (yang asli waran merah) Justru yang repro baru persis sama dengan yang ali yang ada di museum Teipeh Lihat sekali lagi foto yang asli dihalaman berikut

Dinasti Qing

Type 1

Type 2

Dinasti Ming

 

 

Contoh keramik temuan bersama Mangkuk ini adalah beberapa mangkuk yang garisnya double dan lebih tebal serta warnanya lebih terang deari yang asli saya temukan pecahannya atau yang sudah disambung seadanya di Kalimantan Barat.

 

Duocai cup ini memang sangat penting karena dapat merupakan informasi yang sangat penting yntuk mengungkapkan misteri prdagangan keramik saat kaisar Ming Hsuan Te melakakuakn pembekuan (pelarangan) perdagangan keramik atau dikenal dengan dengan Ming Banned, erfta bagaimana sebenarnya perdagangan illegal terjadi baik saat masa dinasti Ming Pertengahan,Cheng HUa, Cheng Te dan Wan Li dengan Portugis.

Serta saat transisi Ming ke Qing dimana banyak ternjadi usaha para pedgang dan begitu juga engan usaha pedagang local Indonesia dan nternasuional memburu keramik ndah langka tersebut, anatara lain mengungkap misteri hilangnya kalap Flor de Mar ,kapal portugis yang tengelam di tembak VOC yang sampai saat ini belum ditemukan, dan hasil jarahan para bajak laut dan perdgangan gelap keramik yang sangat diminati para penguasa dunia saatitu, hypothesis saya mungkin keramik yang saya temukan di Jawa Barat ini adalah keramik milik pedgang local yang diembunyikan di pulau=pulau di kwasan pulau seribu

dan kemudin dijual belikan kepada pedagang Tionghoa yang kemuian menumpuknya di suatu tempat, umumnya dipendam dalam tanah saat perang dunia kedua, dan kemudian di temukan lagi oleh pmiliknya saat merekan mendirinkan rumah tau membeli rumah lama yang sudah hampir hancur, tanda=tanda khusus keramik kerajaan Qing yang membuat keramik kerajaan dengan style Ming Cheng Hua yang merupakan puncak kemampuan pabrik keramik Kerajaan Kaisar Tiongkok di Qing Te Chen telah dapat ditemukan dan diungkap,

dan tanda-tanda khusus baik bentuk foot rim dan tinggi kaki dasar mangkuk Ming Pertengahan yang umumnya masuk kedalam dan Qing yang tinggi seperti milik keramik Euro sertai gambair ayam dan warnya secara detail maka dapat dengan mudah dibedakan keaslian kedua type keramik tersebut, lihatlah beberapa gambaran keramik yang asli era Ming tengah dan Awal Qing tersebut yang tidak dapat dikatakan Reproduksi karena mereka mempunya cirri-ciri khusus baik tehnik lukisan maupun warnanya,

memang tak dapat dibantah bahwa Ming Tengah khususnya keramik khusus untuk Kaiat Hsuan Te , Cheng Hua, Cheng Te dan Wan Li andlah keramik yang paling tinggi mutunya didunia, tetapi Keramik era Kaisar Kang-Hi, Yungcheng dan Cheng Lung,Jiajing dan kaisar Qing Lainya juga tidak jauh berbeda dari kerami kasisar Ming hanya tergantung selera para pencinta keindahan seni keramik Tiogkok.

Info ini tidak jadi disebarluaskan oleh karena itu saya batalkan untuk di publikasikan di Web blog maupun CD-rom dan Buku.

Saya pesankan kepada anak-cucu saya serta generasi penerus saya dimasa mendatang, simpanlah koleksi ini dengan hati-hati dan setelah situasi sudah memungkinkan publikasikanlah info ini kepada khalayak ramai, sebagai kenangan-kengan kepada saya,.

Semoga informasi ini dapat memberikan penerangan tentang temuan yang sangat langka ini,

terima kasih Bunda Maria dan Tuhan Yesus atas anugerahmu,sesuai janjiku segera akan saya bangun juga museum Maria sebagai bagian dari museum Leluhur Indonesia WANLI (Iwan & Lily) yang mungkin akan segera terealisir.

( Catatan Dr Iwan )

Lihat sekali lagi ini yang asli Ming

 

Provenance Hongkong Auctions

Ternyata Merek asli dinasti Ming ada yang double line tetapi halus dan Qing lebih tebal dan warnanya lebih terang karena memakai zat pewarna lokal , mungkin hanya pada mangkuk ayam saja yang single line.

Lihatlah info merek keramik kerajaan Tiongkok

Source

Oriental ceramic

 

 

 

 

 

 

Untuk dapat lebih memahami karateristik Keramik Kerajaan Tiongkok

Lihat info dihalaman berikut ini.

 

 

Ini contoh keramik yang buatan Rakyat, biasanya dimiliki kolektor yunior, perlu diperhatikan agr nanti bila melihat yang benar-benar keramik hadiah kaiar Tiongkok kepada

Sultan dan raja di Indoneia.

Saya sarankan tak perlu membeli koleksi dibawah in kecuali dari diansti Han masih pantas dimiliki walaupun jelek tetapi sangay sulit ditemukan sehingga nilai ekonomisnya cukup tinggi

(Catatan Dr Iwan)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Seloanjutnya perlu melihat info dihalaman berikut agar lebih naik peringkat koleksinya

( Catatan Dr Iwan)

 

MARKS AND INSCRIPTIONS ON CHINESE PORCELAIN AND POTTERY

 

Below are various marks and inscriptions from Chinese pottery and porcelain that we have had in stock over the last few years. This is not a comprehensive list, it is purely based on pieces we have had. Unfortunately we are not able to acquire early Ming Imperial porcelain due to cost, so all those marks are lacking. However we have had many Imperial pieces and as you will see below there are many rare and interesting marks.

We have also included marks copying the marks of earlier reigns, so they can be contrasted against the original Imperial marks.

THIS IS A WORK IN PROGRESS AND HAS ONLY JUST STARTED….

1) SONG DYNASTY

2) MING DYNASTY :
Jiajing 1522-1566
Longqing 1567-1572
Wanli 1573-1620
Tianqi 1621-1627
Chongzhen 1628-1644

 

 

NORTHERN SONG. 960 – 1127. Probably c.1040 – 1050.

 

NORTHERN SONG. 960 – 1127.
Probably c.1040 – 1050.

A Rare Inscribed Northern Song Tile, Probably from the ‘Iron Pagoda’ of Youguosi, Kaifeng Henan Province. The Pottery Wall Tile Glazed in Amber and Green, Decorated with Buddha Surrounded by Bodhisattvas and Disciples.

The Side Inscribed in Raised Moulded Script. For a Very Similar but Double Tile Lacking the Inscription See : The British Museum Item OA 1992.2-6.1.

The British Museum Entry Further States “Some Pagodas in the Song Dynasty Were Made Entirely of Cast Iron. Pagodas Fully Covered with Brown-Glazed Potte

ry Tiles had a Similar Visual Effect and are Often Called Iron Pagodas” e our ‘Archive’ for more information, stock number 17462

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SOUTHERN SONG DYNASTY 1128 -1279. Inscribed While Eating

SOUTHERN SONG DYNASTY 1128 -1279.
Inscribed While Eating

 

 

 

 

 

 

A Contemporary Ink Inscription While Eating.

An Inscribed Song Stoneware Bowl with Incised and Combed Petal Decoration. The Inscription Which is Contemporary With the Bowl Reads ‘While Eating’.

This Unusual Inscription Probably Marks this Piece out as a Vessel Used in a Song Dynasty Restaurant.

Provenance :
Gerald Davison.Label to the side C.P. 133.

Literature :
The Handbook of Marks on Chinese Ceramics (Gerald Davison, Han-Shan Tang Books, 1994. ISBN 0-906610-20-6) Illustrated on Page 23 Item 21.

 

JIN DYNASTY 1115 – 1234 or YUAN DYNASTY 1279 – 1368.

JIN DYNASTY 1115 – 1234
or YUAN DYNASTY 1279 – 1368.

A Rare Jiexiu Ware Inscribed Porcelain Bowl from the Jiexiu Kilns in Shanxi Province. The Bowl has Panels Divided by Ribs. The Decoration is Constructed of Raised Lines and Includes Two Inscribed Tablets with Lotus Leaf Tops. The Rare Inscription reads “Porcelain Vessel“. Other Panels Show pairs of Duck, Phoenix and Flowers.

Published :
Chinese Ceramics in the Carl Kempe Collection (Bo Gyllensvard, Almqvist & Wiksell, 1964) Page 137 Plate 433. Drawing of the inscription Page 147.

See our ‘Archive’ or ‘Sold’ for more information, stock number 20375.

 

JIN DYNASTY 1115 – 1234 or YUAN DYNASTY 1279 – 1368.

 

JIN DYNASTY 1115 – 1234 or
YUAN DYNASTY 1279 – 1368.

A Fine Inscribed Jiexiu White Stoneware Bowl from the Jiexiu Kilns in Shanxi Province, Jin or Yuan Dynasty, 12th or 13th Century. As part of the decoration an inscription reading “zhen fu jia kang” meaning ‘veritable happiness and well-being for your family’ is included at an angle.

See our ‘Archive’ or ‘Sold’ for more information, stock number 19509

YUAN 1279 – 1368

YUAN 1279 – 1368

A Rare Yuan Blue and White Porcelain Stem Cup. Decorated with a Panel of Calligraphy. The Inscription would Seem to Bestow Good Wishes to the User. Exhibited at ; The Oriental Ceramic Society of Hong Kong’s Exhibition of Trade Ceramics, Item 89. Label to the Base and another to the Fitted Box. For a very Similar Inscribed Blue and White Yuan Stem Cup See : Chinese Blue and White Ceramics (S.T. Yeo & Jean Martin,Arts Orientalis,1978) Page 96, Illustrated Plate 2, Item 3.

See our ‘Archive’ or ‘Sold’ for more information, stock number 17615.

 

YUAN DYNASTY 1279 – 1368. None-Chinese Inscription.

YUAN DYNASTY 1279 – 1368.
None-Chinese Inscription.

An Unidentified None-Chinese Inscription from Yunnan Province.

An Unusual Yuan Pottery Jar and Cover from Yunnan Province. The Body Extensively Inscribed with a Non-Chinese Script.

The Inscribed Characters were Added When the Clay was Wet, Some of Which Extended to the Base.

A Large Area of the Body Has Fired to a Black Tone. The Cover is Undecorated. For Similar Yuan Pottery Examples See : Offering Vessels of Yunnan (Michael C. Teller IV, TK Asian Antiquities,2004) Pages 36 -37, Items 21-23. The Introduction of the Catalogue States that “A large number of jars have some calligraphy, both Chinese and as yet (an)unidentified script, which bears significant similarities to post 10th century Devanagari, a script used to write sacred Sanskrit texts. Approximately 1% of the jars, however, have script all over the vessel…”.

See our ‘Archive’ for more information, stock number 19093.

 

 

 

 

MING DYNASTY : JIAJING 1522-1666

MING DYNASTY :
JIAJING 1522-1666

Jiajing Six Character Mark and of the Period.

A Ming Imperial Yellow Porcelain Dish.

From the beginning of Jiajing’s reign, he was infatuated with young women and Taoist pursuits. He was known to be a cruel and self-aggrandizing emperor and he also chose to reside outside of the Forbidden city in Beijing so he could live in isolation while ignoring state affairs.

Jiajing employed incapable individuals such as Zhang Cong and Yan Gao, on whom he thoroughly relied to handle affairs of state.

He abandoned the practice of seeing his ministers altogether from 1539 onwards and for a period of almost 25 years refused to give official audiences, choosing instead to relay his wishes through eunuchs and officials. This eventually led to corruption at all levels of the Ming government. Jiajing’s ruthlessness also led to an internal plot by his concubines to assassinate him in 1542 by strangling him while he slept. The plot was ultimately foiled and all of the concubines involved were summarily executed.

See our ‘Archive’ for more information, stock number 16895

 

 

MING DYNASTY : JIAJING 1522-1566

MING DYNASTY :
JIAJING 1522-1566

Jiajing Six Character Mark and of the Period.

Jiajing 1522 – 1566, Large Ming Porcelain Bowl. The Bowl is Decorated with a Extensive Landscape With Three Scholars and their Attendants with Pavilions and Mountains. The Well of the Bowl is Decorated with ‘The Three Friends of Winter’ (Pine, Bamboo, and Prunus). The Base with a Jiajing Six Character mark and of the Period.

See our ‘Archive’ for more information, stock number 16905

 

 

 

MING DYNASTY : JIAJING 1522-1566.

MING DYNASTY :
JIAJING 1522-1566.

Jiajing Six Character Mark and of the Period.

A Ming Blue and White Porcelain Shallow Bowl. Decorated with Fish on the Cavetto, a Crane Between Two Egrets to the Well and Repeated ‘Shou’ Characters to the Everted Rim.
Provenance : Robert McPherson Antiques. The John Drew Collection.

See our ‘Archive’ for more information, stock number 18550

 

 

 

MING DYNASTY : JIAJING 1522-1566

MING DYNASTY :
JIAJING 1522-1566

Jiajing Six Character Mark and of the Period.

A Ming Blue and White Porcelain kiln Waster. This Base of a Bowl is Painted with a Male figure with a Deer.

See our ‘Archive’ for more information, stock number 29.

 

 

MING DYNASTY : JIAJING 1522-1566

MING DYNASTY :
JIAJING 1522-1566

Jiajing Six Character Mark and of the Period.

An Ming Imperial Yellow Porcelain Bowl.
For a Jiajing Imperial Yellow Bowl of the Same Size See : Christie’s New York, Fine Chinese Furniture, Ceramics and Works of Art, 20th September 2001. Lot 379.
For a Similar but Smaller Jiajing Imperial Yellow Bowl From the Cunliffe Collection See : Phillip’s, Bond Street, London, 13th June 2001. Lot 240.
Provenance : Robert McPherson Antiques. The John Drew Collection.

See our ‘Archive’ for more information, stock number 18546

MING DYNASTY : JIAJING 1522-1566

MING DYNASTY :
JIAJING 1522-1566

Jiajing Six Character Mark and of the Period.

A Ming Blue and White Porcelain Jar.
Provenance : Robert McPherson Antiques. The John Drew Collection.

See our ‘Archive’ for more information, stock number 18579.

 

 

 

 

APOCRYPHAL JIAJING MARKS AND LATER MARKS COPYING JIAJING.

APOCRYPHAL JIAJING MARKS
AND LATER MARKS COPYING JIAJING.

Apocryphal marks are frequently encountered on Chinese porcelain particularly on Kangxi Blue and White Porcelain, the mark of the Ming Emperor Chenghua who reigned from 1465 to 1487 being by far the most common, other Ming marks include Jiajing (1522-1566) and less frequently Wanli (1573-1620). These marks were not normally added to the piece to deceive, but more as a sign of reverence to earlier potters of the Ming dynasty (1368-1644). Occasionally they are used on pieces copying Ming Porcelain,

these objects were probably made for collectors who could not afford the Ming original. Tianqi (1621-1627) appears to be the earliest period for such an apocryphal mark.

Some Chongzhen and Shunzhi apocryphal marks copying Jiajing marks are very well draw, the calligraphy can be bold and confident, so occasionally these pieces are confused with genuine Jiajing mark and period porcelain.

The Base with a Apocryphal Jiajing Mark (1522-1566).

A Fine Transitional Porcelain Cup, Late Ming Dynasty (Chongzhen 1628-1644) or Very Early Qing Dynasty (Shunzhi 1644-1661) c.1640-1650. Decorated in a Rich Cobalt Blue with Two Dragons with Lotus Coming from their Mouths and Buddhist Emblems.

See our ‘Archive’ for more information, stock number 19042.

 

 

APOCRYPHAL JIAJING MARKS AND LATER MARKS COPYING JIAJING.

APOCRYPHAL JIAJING MARKS
AND LATER MARKS COPYING JIAJING

The Base with an Apocryphal Jiajing Six Character Mark.

A Shunzhi Porcelain Dish. Late Transitional Porcelain c.1650-1660. Thickly Potted of Shallow Form. Decorated in Blue and White with the ‘Eight Horses’ of Mu Wang within a Landscape. The Base with a Jiajing Six Character Mark.

See our ‘Archive’ for more information, stock number 18594.

 

APOCRYPHAL JIAJING MARKS AND LATER MARKS COPYING JIAJING.

APOCRYPHAL JIAJING MARKS
AND LATER MARKS COPYING JIAJING.

An Apocryphal Jiajing Mark, Kangxi Period 1662-1722.

A Fine Kangxi Porcelain Bowl. Decorated with Egrets Standing in Water Among Flowering Lotus Plants. The Base with a Jiajing Mark (Ming 1522-1566).

See our ‘Archive’ for more information, stock number 18705.

 

 

MING DYNASTY : LONGQING 1567 – 1572

MING DYNASTY :
LONGQING 1567 – 1572

Four Character Longqing Mark and of the Period 1567 – 1572.

Longqing mark and period porcelain is rare, the marks are not particularly well painted and they are normally rather small. They are nearly always a four character mark, they do not seem to have been copied except by modern fakers.

 

Longqing (March 4, 1537- July 5, 1572) was the 12th Emperor of China (Ming dynasty) and Reigned between 1567-1572. Born Zhu Zaihou, he was the Jiajing Emperor’s son. Realizing the depth of chaos his father’s long reign had caused, Longqing set about reforming the government and employing talented officials in the hope of mending the situation. He reinstigated trade with other empires in Europe, Africa and other parts of Asia and also reinforced border security, nominating several generals to patrol the borders by land and on sea. This included the fortification of seaports along the Zhejiang and Fujian coast to deter pirates, a constant nuisance during the Jiaqing emperor’s reign. Emperor Longqing died in 1572 after a short reign of only 6 years and was succeeded by his son. He is generally considered one of the more liberal and open-minded emperors of the Ming dynasty. Unfortunately, the country was still in decline due to corruption in the ruling class. The emperor Longqing was buried in Zhaoling.

 

 

 

 

A Rare Ming Porcelain Dish, Four Character Longqing Mark and of the Period. Decorated with Three ‘Chilong’ Dragons in Blue and White, the Center with ‘Anhua’ Decorated ‘Lingzhi’ Fungus.

Provenance :
Philip’s Bond Street, Chinese and Japanese Porcelain, 19th November 1999, Lot 6.
Robert McPherson Antiques.
The John Drew Collection.

A Longqing Dish of this Pattern was Exhibited in Germany See : Ming-Porzellane in Schwedischen Sammlungen (Berlin and Leipzig 1935) Collection of H.Lauritzen, Stockholm.

See our ‘Archive’ for more information, stock number 18597

 

 

MING DYNASTY : WANLI 1573 – 1620

MING DYNASTY :
WANLI 1573 – 1620

Wanli Six Character Mark with the Inclusion of ‘Beautiful Vessel for Jade Hall’ Wanli nian zhi Yu Tang Jia Qi.

A Rare Wanli Blue and White Porcelain Bowl. The Base with a Wanli Mark Incorporating Yu Tang Jia Qi(Beautiful Vessel for Jade Hall). This Thinly Potted Wanli Porcelain Bowl is of Circular Form with a Slightly Everted Rim and Curved Sides, it is Covered by a Pale Blue-Grey Tinged Glaze, the Interior Painted in Fine Bright Underglaze Cobalt Blue with a Double Circle Enclosing a Medallion of Flowering Branches of Peony,

the Underside Encircled Alternately by Roundels Enclosing Flowering Sprays and Fruiting Sprays Among Cloud Scrolls.

This rare mark, a standard Wanli six character mark with the inclusion of ‘Beautiful Vessel for Jade Hall’ Wanli nian zhi Yu Tang Jia Qi is very neatly painted unlike marks on none-imperial Wanli porcelain. The present example is almost certainly imperial, the addition of the hall mark within the Wanli reign mark might not denote that this bowl was made for a specific imperial hall.

Ming Wilson explains in ‘Rare Marks on Chinese Ceramics’ when discussing a Wanli bowl with a eight character mark that includes the characters meaning ‘for use in the Hall of Pure loyalty’ that the bowl was made for an official at court. The name ‘Hall of Pure loyalty’ was bestowed by Wanli on the high ranking official Zhang Juzheng (1525-1582). So it is quite possible the present example was also made for a high ranking official at the imperial court, however it is also possible the hall mark does indeed denote the place which the bowl was destined for.

 

 

 

Gerald Reitlinger (1900- 1978)
Regarding porcelain reign marks and dating (1881):
‘Everyone was now in such a muddle that there was a sort of gentleman’s agreement not to talk about it any more.’
From our ‘History’ section, see ;
CHINESE PORCELAIN
25 YEARS OF UNSCHOLARY COLLECTING:
An Entertainment and an Anthology of Scholars’ Taste.
by D.R Laurence MD, 2003

For a pair Wanli dishes with the mark discussed above see : Rare Marks on Chinese Ceramics, A Joint Exhibition from the Percival David Foundation of Chinese Art and the Victoria and Albert Museum (Ming Wilson, School of Oriental and African Studies in association with Victoria and Albert Museum. 1998. ISBN 0-7286-0290-3) pages 48 and 49 as well as the introduction.

 

See our ‘Archive’ for more information, stock number 20396

 

 

MING DYNASTY : WANLI 1609.

MING DYNASTY :
WANLI 1609.

This extensively inscribed Ming blue and white stele is dated to the thirty-sixth year of Wanli (1609) and the day equivalent to November 2nd. The inscriptions on the front and back show that Cheng Bozhong had passed the Imperial Examinations, he had a family, their names are also noted.

A Rare Dated Ming Blue and White Porcelain Stele. Dated to November 2nd 1609. Constructed of a Rectangular Porcelain Slab with a Flange that Inserts into a Brick Form Base. Ming blue and white porcelain stele are very rarely found outside museum collections.

Provenance :
The Museum of Art and Far Eastern Antiquities in Ulricehamn Sweden.

Published :
Chinese Ceramic Treasures, A Selection From Ulricehamn East Asian Museum, Including The Carl Kempe Collection (National Museum of Art and Far Eastern Antiquities in Ulrichenhamn, Sweden, 2002.ISBN 91-971367-4-3)Pages 250 and 251. Both sides illustrated in colour with a full translation into Swedish.

See our ‘Archive’ for more information, stock number 20396

 

 

 

MING DYNASTY : WANLI 1573 – 1620.

MING DYNASTY :
WANLI 1573 – 1620.

Wanli Six Character Mark and of the Period.

A Ming Porcelain Dish. Wanli Six Character Mark and of the Period. Decorated in Blue and White with a Medallion Comprising Four ‘Ruyi’ heads Around a Flower Head.

For a Wanli Mark and Period Dish of this Pattern and Size See : Sotheby’s London, Fine Chinese Ceramics and Works of Art, 11th June 1991. Lot 157.

 

Provenance :
Sotheby’s, Fine Chinese Ceramics, Bronzes and Works of Art, London 7th December 1993.
Robert McPherson Antiques.
The John Drew Collection.

 

See our ‘Archive’ for more information, stock number 18558

 

 

MING DYNASTY : WANLI 1573 – 1620

MING DYNASTY :
WANLI 1573 – 1620

Wanli Mark and of the Period.

A Small Imperial Ming Blue and White Porcelain Saucer Shape Dish. Six Character Wanli Mark and of the Period. Decorated in a Deep Cobalt Blue With a Plant With Three ‘Ruyi’ Shaped Ends and a Border of Fruiting Branches, The Reverse Decorated With Flowers.

See our ‘Archive’ for more information, stock number 17503

 

MING DYNASTY : WANLI 1573 – 1620

MING DYNASTY :
WANLI 1573 – 1620

Wanli Six Character Mark and of the Period.

A Saucer Dish, Ming Dynasty. The Base with a Six Character Wanli Mark and of the Period (1573-1620). Decorated with a Scholar in a Landscape Seated Under a Pine Tree with Two Attendants, One of whom is Offering a Book. To the Left Can be Seen Tops of Buildings with Clouds Around them. The Scholar is Seated Next to a Prunus Tree, with a Small Amount of Bamboo in the Foreground, While a large Pine Tree Shades Him. These Three Plants, Pine, Bamboo and Prunus, are Referred to as ‘The Three Friends of Winter’. The Base with a Six Character Wanli Mark and of the Period (1573-1620) to the Center, the Rim with Branches of Flowers and Fruit.

See our ‘Archive’ for more information, stock number 18909.

 

 

MING DYNASTY : WANLI 1573 – 1620

MING DYNASTY :
WANLI 1573 – 1620

Wanli Six Character Mark and of the Period.

A Small Ming Porcelain Bowl. Wanli Six Character Mark and of the Period. Finely Decorated with Buddhist ‘Treasures’. Painted in a Silvery Blue (Popular at the End of the 16th century).
For a Wanli Mark and Period Dish of this Pattern See ; Christie’s Hong Kong, The Christina Loke Balsara Collection of Fine Chinese Ceramics, 19th January 1988. Lot 258.
Provenance : Robert McPherson Antiques. The John Drew Collection.

See our ‘Archive’ for more information, stock number 18541

 

MING DYNASTY : WANLI 1573 – 1620.

MING DYNASTY :
WANLI 1573 – 1620.

Wanli Six Character Mark and of the Period.

A Fine Ming Blue and White Porcelain Dish. Wanli Six Character Mark and of the Period. Decorated with Kylin and a Tiger in a Landscape.
For a Wanli Mark and Period Dish of this Size and Pattern From the Riesco Collection that was Exhibited at the O.C.S. Exhibition of Chinese Blue and White Porcelain, 14th to 19th Centuries (1953, Catalogue Number 173) See : Sotheby’s Fine Chinese Ceramics, Bronzes and Works of Art, London, 11th December 1984. Lot 327.
Provenance : Robert McPherson Antiques. The John Drew Collection.

See our ‘Archive’ for more information, stock number 18531

 

 

MING DYNASTY : WANLI 1573 – 1620

MING DYNASTY :
WANLI 1573 – 1620

Rare Shaded Double-Gourd Mark, Wanli Period. An Unusual Ming Blue and White Porcelain Dish, Wanli c.1580. Decorated with a Mountainous Landscape to the Center and a Border of Water Birds (Probably Egrets) Among Lotus. The Base with a Rare Shaded Double-Gourd Mark.

See our ‘Archive’ for more information, stock number 20906

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MING DYNASTY : TIANQI 1621 – 1627

MING DYNASTY :
TIANQI 1621 – 1627

Tianqi Mark and of the Period (1621-1627) porcelain is unusual. It normally shows a poorly drawn four character mark which should in most, if not all circumstances, be seen as none imperial. Six character marks were also produced, a few could possibly be imperial but Tianqi’s reign is at the very end of the Ming dynasty when imperial patronage stopped. The potters of this period found new clients among the scholar classes as well as making fine pieces for export. The pieces illustrated here were made for the Japanese market.

A Tianqi Mark and Period (1621-1627) Ko-Sometsuke Dish Made for the Japanese Market. Painted in Blue and White with a Scholar Sitting Under a Willow Tree.

Provenance :
R & G McPherson Antiques.
The John Drew Collection of Chinese and Japanese ceramics.
Exhibited :
Ostasiatiska Museet. Ulst.1964. Nr 102.
Published :
Ming Blue and White from Swedish Collections by Jan Wirgin. (Östasiatiska museets utställningskatalog nr 1)

See our ‘Archive’ or ‘Sold’ for more information, stock number 20702.

 

 

 

 

 

 

MING DYNASTY : TIANQI 1621 – 1627

MING DYNASTY :
TIANQI 1621 – 1627

A Rare Tianqi Blue and White Porcelain Censer, the Base with a Six Character Tianqi (1621-1627) Mark and of the Period. Probably Made for the Tea Ceremony.
This rare late Ming Porcelain incense burner, known as a Koro in Japan, is part of a group of pieces made during the first half of the 17th century for use during the Japanese tea ceremony. It is a rare form and a Tianqi mark is very unusual on shaped vessels. This mark is one of the more unusual Ming Porcelain marks but when it is encountered, it is nearly always found on small serving dishes.

See our ‘Archive’ or ‘Sold’ for more information, stock number 19833.

 

MING DYNASTY : TIANQI 1621 – 1627

MING DYNASTY :
TIANQI 1621 – 1627

An Unusual Late Ming Wucai Dish. Tianqi Four Character Mark and of the Period.

See our ‘Archive’ or ‘Sold’ for more information, stock number 18603.

 

 

 

 

 

MING DYNASTY : TIANQI 1621 – 1627

MING DYNASTY :
TIANQI 1621 – 1627

A Rare Dated Ming Porcelain Dish. Sketchily Painted with Four Central Characters Reading ‘Tianqi Qinian’ ; Tianqi 7th Year (corresponding to 1628). For a Pair of Very Similar Ming Dishes Also Dated 1628 See : Christie’s London, Fine Chinese Ceramics and Works of Art, December 10th 1990. Lot 161. Provenance : Robert McPherson Antiques. The John Drew Collection.

See our ‘Archive’ or ‘Sold’ for more information, stock number 18535.

 

 

 

MING DYNASTY : CHONGZHEN 1628-1644

MING DYNASTY :
CHONGZHEN 1628-1644

Chongzhen mark and period porcelain is exceptionally rare. Occasionally inscribed pieces like the present example with a date corresponding to 1640 are found, these are never the less very rare too. These piece are none imperial and were normally dated as part of a dedication to a temple or other building. The inscriptions typically read made during the 12 year of the reign of Chongzhen for example.

A Rare Chongzhen (1628-1644) Porcelain Jar Dated 1640. Decorated with an Open Landscape Scroll, a Vase of Flowers and other Objects. Dated by Inscription to 1640.
Provenance : Christie’s London, Feb. 1979 Lot 52. A Private English Collection. R & G McPherson Antiques. The John Drew Collection. Illustrated in : The Hatcher Porcelain Cargo’s (Colin Sheaf and Richard Kilburn, Phaidon 1988).

See our ‘Archive’ or ‘Sold’ for more information, stock number 18632.

 

 

 

 

 

 

MING DYNASTY 1368 – 1644. OTHER MARKS. Inscribed ‘5th August Yu Tian Shun Shop 1st Try For Testing the Clay’.

MING DYNASTY 1368 – 1644.
OTHER MARKS.
Inscribed ‘5th August Yu Tian Shun Shop 1st Try For Testing the Clay’.

A Very Rare Inscribed Porcelain Kiln Waster, Probably Ming Dynasty (1368-1644).
Made for testing the quality of the clay this fragment is inscribed ‘5th August Yu Tian Shun Shop 1st Try For Testing the Clay’. This base appears to be inscribed in cobalt, but because the piece hasn’t been glazed it has remained a brownish black rather than firing blue. The footrim has not been cut, it has been left as a solid. This kiln waster probably comes from Jingdezhen, the Yu Tian Shun workshop would have been one of the very many workshops within Jingdezhen.

See our ‘Archive’ for more information, stock number 18045

 

 

MING DYNASTY 1368 – 1644. OTHER MARKS.

MING DYNASTY 1368 – 1644.
OTHER MARKS.

A Unusual Large Ming Dynasty Inscribed Pottery Ridge Tile c.1500-1640. Probably Shanxi Province. The Base of the Mounted Figure of a Warrior is Inscribed Under the Glaze “Ma Chiu”. This is Probably the Name of the Rider, a Historical Chinese Character.
Provenance : (According to the old label on the base of the fitted stand) Stuart Earl of Morey Viscount of Findhorn. The Label states that there were two such figures. We sold the other one many years ago.

See our ‘Archive’ or ‘Sold’ for more information, stock number 19065.

 

 

 

 

 

MING DYNASTY 1368 – 1644 AND EARLY QING. OTHER MARKS.

MING DYNASTY 1368 – 1644 AND EARLY QING.
OTHER MARKS.

“Fine Vessel for the Jade Hall” :
This four character mark found on some late Ming porcelain was very popular during the Shunzhi Period of 1644 – 1661. It frequently occurs on a group of thickly potted saucer shaped dishes of a type that was popular during Shunzhi`s reign. According to Michael Butler (Shunzhi Porcelain, Treasures from an Unknown Reign, Butler, Curtis and little, University of Washington Press,2002) Terese Tse Bartholomew in her book Myths and Rebuses in Chinese Art refers to “Jade Hall” as a wealthy establishment, and also an elegant name for the Hanlin Acadamy, an official bureau made up of scholars who had attained the highest degrees (politically relevant since the jinshi degree was reinstated by the new regime in 1646.

Komentar Dr Iwan

Ternyata penulis diatas tidak memiliki merek Ming awal yang hanya tertulis Ta Min Nien Hao saja seperti yang dokter iwan miliki pada sebuah dasar tempat nedak (tidak ditampilkan fotonya karena takut nanti dipalsukan), begitu juga Ming Hsuante, Dr Iwan punya yang hanya pecahan jadi hanya sebagian, dan Ming Cheng Hua hanya Cheng Hua Nien Hao saja (juga tidak ditampilkan takut nanti dipalsukan) Bila ingin melihat koleksi DR Iwan Yang paling langka terpaksa pembaca harus membayara tanda masuk dua juta rupiah dan biaya belajar sepuluh juta, yah mahal ,tetapi bila tidak nanti akan terbeli koleksi palsu bisa rugi ampai Jutaan Rupia

(Dr Iwan Comment in ndonesian only)

 

LAMPIRAN

Profil Dr Iwan dalam bahasa Inggris yang kacau balau

Agar anda tidak invgin merepro buku ini karena sudah baca dan beli, tentu akan anda simpan dan suruh orang lain baca atau anda buang di tempat sampah ??? terserah menurut anda , yang penting jangan dibuang di tempat berak nanti tersumbat.

Silahkan membaca dengan cermat dan jangan beri komentar.

Hak Cipta @ Dr Iwan 2015

 

 

TEMUAN KERAMIK CINA DI INDONESIA

TEMNUAN KERAMIK CINA DI INDONESIA

Iwan Suwandy's photo.

OLEH

Dr IWAN SUWANDY,mha

mohon maaf oleh karena berbagai alasan

CD-ROM NFO INI TERPAKSA SAYA TIDAK DAPT MENGUPLOAD SELURUHNYA,JIKA ANDA INGIN MELIHATNYA SILAHKAN MENGHUBUNGI SAYA MELALUI EMAIL

iwansuwandy@gmail.com

EDISI TERBATAS INI SEDANG DIBUAT AKAN SIAP DALAM LIMA BULAN LAGI KARENA SAYA AKAN MELAKUKAN PERJALANAN KELUARNEGRERI

Iwan Suwandy's photo.

CEPAT DIPESAN EDISI HANYA SEPULUH BUAH HARGA AGAK MAHAL TETAPI BILA AND A BONAFIDE PASTI

MASIH MAMPU MEMBELINYA

SALAM

Dr iwan suwandy,MHA

NB BEBERAPA CONTOH INFO DAPAT DIBACA DALAM WEB INI DENGAN MENCARI DARI SEARCH DISUDUT KANAN ATAS KETIK CHINESE CERAMIC

 

Original or Repro Imperial Cheng Hua Chicken design Cup

 

 Original or Repro Imperial Cheng Hua Chicken design Cup

 

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy, MHA

Dear Readres from all Over the world

Especially

The chinese Ming  Cheng Hua  Imperial ceramic Collectors

I have just found several the very rare ada very high price\

Ming Chneg Hua imperial Chicken Cup

During latest auction only two cup exist until now

I found severa same cup

My wife and son tell me that this cup not original or repro copy

To now the true  informations

I hope all senior ceramic collectors and expert from all over the world

please help me to confirmation because someone want to by and I am afraid to sell the

repro one.

Please send your anwers to me straight to my small museum

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Complex Pondok Gading Utama

Pegangsaan Indah Barat street Blog G 1 no 12

Pegangsan Dua Kelapa Gading

Jakarta Utara(14250)

Indonesia

Put your answer in the back of your ID Card Copy or name card

Choose the right Info below (A).(B) or (C)

ceramic original (A)  or repro(B)

amount  found two  type (A) or more than two type(B)

Qyanty found by Dr Iwan Two(A) more then ten(B) more than 20(C)

including one dollars banknote or the same from your own countries banknote out inside the envelope send register to Dr Iwan Adress above.

PUT THE ANSWER INSIDE THE ENVELOPE, PUT YOUR OWN ADRESS,SEND WITH SOUVENIER SHEET STAMPS

SEND REGISTER TO MY ADRESS ABOVE

rEAD CCAREFULLY THE INFO BELOW

IF YOU SEND THE TRUE ANWERS I WILL GIVE ONE PRICE ONLY 100 us$ STRAIGHT TO

YOUR  BANK SEND ME YOU BANK NUMBER WHEN i TELL YOU.

THIS  ONLY FOR SiX MONTH, UNTIK DESEMBER 2015.

NOT CORENSPONDENCE OR EMAIL COMMUNICATION ALL SEND BY POSTAL  WITH REGISTERED ENVELOPED WITH SOUVENER STAMPS IN COMPLETE COLLECTIONS TIED ON THE ENVELOPED

WITH CIRCULAIR DATE MARKED

thanks very muc for you attantion

sincerely

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

READ AND LOOK CAREFULLY THE INFORMATIONS BELOW

IF YOU STIL DONNOT UNDERSTAND

LOOK BY GOOGLE EXPLORATION : MING CHENG HUA CERAMIC

YOU WILL SEEN THE SAME INFO

Cup, Ming dynasty, Chenghua mark and period (1465–1487)
China
Porcelain painted in underglaze blue and overglaze enamels; D. 3 1/4 in. (8.3 cm)
Purchase, Mrs. Richard E. Linburn Gift, 1987 (1987.85)

It is possible that the patronage of the emperor’s favorite, Wan Gufei, was responsible for the promotion of several decorative techniques at the Jingdezhen kilns. Premier among these is the fabled Chenghua doucai (“contrasting colors” or “contending colors”), which is a combination of two ornamental processes. In doucai decoration, designs were completely outlined in cobalt blue on the unfired vessel, and a few areas of blue wash were painted in as well. After glazing and the usual high-temperature firing, the outlines were filled in with overglaze red, green, yellow, and aubergine enamels that were then fired at low temperatures. Doucai-style enameling was usually reserved for intimate objects of exquisite refinement, and the rare examples of Chenghua date are some of the most highly treasured of all Ming-dynasty porcelains

SOURCE INFO

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/1987.85

Ming Dynasty  –  Chenghua
Doucai Cup with Enamel Decoration
Six-character mark  and period – 1465 – 1487

MeasurementsWeight 1.6 oz. Avoir (45.4 grams) – Fine condition
Finely decorated on the exterior with two groups of cockerels parading in front of hens among chicks pecking at the ground. Decoration in colorful enamels within delicate cobalt blue outline. The two separate scenes are divided by finely shaded blue rock groupings among bamboo, peonies, and narcissus.

The reign mark inscribed in cobalt blue within a double square.

Most (if not all) Qing copies show the cockerels in different facing positions, with many ruffled tail feathers versus the traditional ‘three tail feathers’ on all known authenticated Chenghua chicken cups.

On April 8th, 2014, a Chenghua chicken cup set a record for the highest price paid at auction for any Chinese work of art, going for $36 million USD.

To date, there are only three known authentic Chenghua chicken cups in private hands.

Measurements
Weight 1.6 oz. Avoir (45.4 grams) – Fine condition
Finely decorated on the exterior with two groups of cockerels parading in front of hens among chicks pecking at the ground. Decoration in colorful enamels within delicate cobalt blue outline. The two separate scenes are divided by finely shaded blue rock groupings among bamboo, peonies, and narcissus.

 

The reign mark inscribed in cobalt blue within a double square.

Most (if not all) Qing copies show the cockerels in different facing positions, with many ruffled tail feathers versus the traditional ‘three tail feathers’ on all known authenticated Chenghua chicken cups.

On April 8th, 2014, a Chenghua chicken cup set a record for the highest price paid at auction for any Chinese work of art, going for $36 million USD.

To date, there are only three known authentic Chenghua chicken cups in private hands.

One of the rarest porcelains was made by Emperor Chenghua (r. 1465-1487) for his mother who loved small objects. Referred to as the “Chicken Cup”, this delicate object, part of the Forbidden City collection in Beijing, is one of only two such cups in existence today

Reserved for the emperor only, this throne was not made just for comfort, but was a symbol of the ruler’s imperial and authoritative power

Info source

google exploration

I hope who have this info give me permision because

this info were the world human haritage info

thanks very much

 

Dr Iwan Collections  

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KOLEKSI BUKU LANGKA YANG DITEMUKAN DI INDONESIA(SAMPLE CD PROMO)

The Rare Book Colwcctions Found In Indonesia

Created By

*

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Limited E-Book In CD-Rom Edition

Special For Senior Collectors And Scholars

Copyright @ 2015

*Engrave Orang Hutan  from Book Narrative of a Journey in the Interior of China, and of a Voyage to and from that Country, in the Years 1816 and 1817; Author: Abel F.L.S, Clarke
Year: 1818
,source google

Pendahuluan

Saya adalah sorang dokter yang menyenangi Sejarah, saya banyak belajar dari buku-buku sejarah ini, hal-hal yang baik saya jadikan dasar dalam menysusun strategi masa depan dan hal yang jelek saya hindari sesuai dengan pepatah Minangkabau Alam terkembang jadi Guru.

Setelah berumur tujuh puluh tahun, dan menyusun koleksi buku langka mulai tahun 1975, yaitu buku keramik karangan warren E.Cox, dibeli di Los Angeles oleh Kakak wanita saya Elina Widyono.

Lihat buku tersebut dan berapa harganya dari llelangan E-bay dihalaman berikut ini, dan buku ini jadi pegangan saya untuk menyusun koleksi saya sampai hari ini.

Rahasasia info ini sudah saatnya saya buka agar para kolektor dapat berpedoman dalam membeli koleksi,harap jangan di repro dan diberitahu pedagang nanti harganya jadi mahal.

 

 

Book of Pottery and Porcelain Warren E. Cox 2 volumes 1944 Hardcovers

From United States

Canada  $ 33.54

or Best Offer

+C $31.72 shipping

Baru saja tah8un ini saya menemukan Buku Sejarah Angatan Perang Amerika

Tiga Tahun yang lalu, saya memperoleh dan membeli dengan harga murah buku yang sangat langka

Narrative of a Journey in the Interior of China, and of a Voyage to and from that Country, in the Years 1816 and 1817;

containing an Account of the most interesting Transactions of Lord Amherst’s Embassy to the Court of Pekin, and Observations on the Countries which it visited.

Author: Abel F.L.S, Clarke
Year: 1818
Edition: First edition
Publisher: London; Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown
Category: Asia East & Central

Buku ini tanpa kulit dan ada dua illustrasi yang sudah dijual oleh pemiliknya yaitu dengan ilustrasi jung dan Kaisar Tiongkok, kendatipun demikian buku ini tentunya masih mahal karena edisi pertama, lihatlah beberapa ilustrasi yang masih ad, ilustrasi saya peroleh dari google eksplorasi,

Baik gambar di Indonesia saat pertama datang ke Banten dan jawa,keudian ke Tiongkok dan kembali lagi ke Inggris tanpa menemui Kaisar karena tidak segera menghadap akibat pakaian Dinasknya masih belum tiba.

Ilustrasi engrave sebelum tahun 1840 sangat langka dan saat ini masih ada tersisa sangat sedikit dan banyak yang sudah dimakan ngengat, ilustrasi milik saya masih mulus.

Nikmatilah ilustrasi dari Cd ini dalam Cd yang alsi,harga masih murah hanya lima ratus ribu rupiah,dapat dipesan liwat email saya iwansuwanddy@gmail.com

,dengan syarat berjanji tidak akan mereproduksi, dan mengupload kopi KTP dan alamat lengkapnya , ini penting untuk sekuriti terhadap penipuan liwat internet.

Untuk pembeli luar negeri belum di layani karena biaya kirim sangat mahal sampai satu juta rupiah.

Halaman depan

Peta Tiongkok

Gambar bunga cengkeh

Gambar Banten

Gambar air mancur di Banten

Gambar Ikan terbang

Gambar di Banten

Gambar di Banten

Gambar Jung Tiongkok

Gambar Orang Hutan

Gambar Banten

Gambar Kaisar Tiongkok

Gambar lainnya

 

  

Narrative of a Journey in the Interior of China, and of a Voyage to and from that Country, in the Years 1816 and 1817;containing an Account of the most interesting Transactions of Lord Amherst’s Embassy to the Court of Pekin, and Observations on the Countries which it visited.Author: Abel F.L.S, Clarke
Year: 1818
Edition: First edition
Publisher: London; Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown
Category: Asia East & Central
Price: € 2,100.-
Contempory blind tooled half calf over paper covered boards. The upper joint has cracked, but the board is still firmly attached by the cords. The spine divided in six tooled panels by five raised and gilt bands with gilt titles in the second compartment. The leather tooled and gilt ruled along the edges. Errata leaf bound right before the preface, pp. xvi, 420.Illustrated with 7 (of 8) hand coloured aquatint plates (*), 10 (of 11) black & white plates of which 8 aquatints as well, 4 maps of which 3 folding and 30 woodcuts in the text. The plates missing are the often lacking b/w botanical plate plus the plate entitled “View of the Landing place at Pulo Leat”. There, however, are no traces of removed plates, so that most likely they never were bound in.(*) The missing hand coloured aquatint plate is supplied from another copy and has been loosely inserted; so actually all eight plates are present. However, the greater part of the margins of this plate has been trimmed, so that this single sheet is much smaller than the paper of the other seven plates (please see picture #18).Abel’s voyage on the Alceste left Spithead on February 8, 1816 and first led him to Madeira. From there they sailed to Table Bay, South Africa, then onwards to Java, from there to China and then back to England via South Africa once more. On their return journey the ship was wrecked, but all passengers were rescued and they continued their voyage aboard the Termate. Abel’s rich collections, unfortunately, except for a small botanical collection which he had handed over to R. Brown before, got lost.

The upper compartment of the spine bears, in gilt, the crest of arms of the clan of Maconochie of Meadowbank, while on the inner frontboard there is the armorial bookplate of the clan of Maclean of Ardgour. So the book was passed on from one noble Scottish family to another, though we do not know how. If you have any information, then please let us know.

Lust 496, Abbey Travel 537, Mendelssohn I, p. 2 (the latter two both for the 2nd edition of 1819).

·

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Saya harapkan informasi dari buku elektronik ini dapat diajdikan pedoman bagi seluruh kolektor dan para mahasiswa.senior.

Selanjutnya harap maaaf bila info ini belum diedit dan tanpa ilustrasi lengkap, karena mencegah usaha para plagiat untuk merepronya.

Salam dari Jakarta Indonesia

Jakarta , Februrari, 2015

 

DR Iwan suwandy,MHA

DAFTAR BUKU Langka

Yang ditemukan Dr Iwan Di indonesia

 

De Zeike Reizieger, or Rambles in Java and the Straits in 1852 by a Bengal Civilian

De Zeike Reizieger, or Rambles in Java and the Straits in 1852 by a Bengal Civilian

 

Authors: Edwards, William, d. 1890, Kinloch, C. W. (Charles Walter), d. 1893, supposed author

Publisher London : Simpkin, Marshall

Date 1853

 

Rambles in Java and the Straits Settlement Paperback – Dec 1987

by Charles Walter Kinloch (Author)

Travel in South-East Asia may seem to be wild and exotic – but it is certainly not the path less travelled. This classic book was first published in 1853 by ‘Bengal Civilian’ (Charles Walter Himloch) as De Zieke Reiziger (‘The Invalid Traveller’), and is an account of the author and his wife’s travels from Penang, to Singapore, and on to Java in 1852 – a time before guidebooks, travel agencies and package tours.

And while the times may have changed, the adventure and everyday frustrations are still the same. The pair travel for medical reasons, to recover from an unspecified ailment. Their travels are not really that different from today, except that there is no guidebook, and travel is often horse powered instead of petrol.

But the extended delays, at-times perilous sea journeys, even the ease of passage requiring letters of recommendation (i.e. knowing some who can smooth your journey) are all too common today.

Many observations captured in the book are still (perhaps arguably) relevant today. For example: “The community of Singapore … is a community of merchants, whose whole time and thoughts are absorbed in money making…”, and “Dutch cooking … is disgusting”, the standard of accommodation often questionable, and travel between town on Java often taking longs periods of time.

What does stand this book apart are the observations of Java at the time when it was a Dutch colony. The author clearly has disdain for the Dutch, their cleanliness, dress sense, and cuisine, but if the reader can see through this, the book becomes a simple observation of life in Java at a time when it was emerging from an exotic unknown to the country it is today.

New from £40.49

 

 

A Banned Author & That anHonor to Him — Original Printed Wrappers

Heine, Heinrich.  Vermischte Schriften. Hamburg: Hoffmann & Campe, 1854. Small 8vo. (18.5 cm; 7.25″). 3 vols. I: [2] ff., 322 pp. II: xviii, 317, [1] pp. III: [2] ff., 310 pp., [1] f.
$250.00

Among the books that the Nazis burned that infamous night in 1933 in Berlin’s Opernplatz were works by Heinrich Heine, both because he was a Jew who converted to Christianity and because of his friendship with Marx and the liberal ideas and ideals contained in his writings.

 

The contents of these three volumes were written over the course of many years including during the last years of Heine’s life when he was confined to his bed in Paris, the city he made his home beginning in 1831, after leaving Germany.

 

 Vermischte Schriften (“Miscellaneous Writings”), in three volumes, is precisely “miscellaneous” in its contents: Vol. I is composed of “Gestaendnisse” (“Confessions,” an autobiographical work), “Die Goetter im Exil” (“The Gods in Exile,” a prose essay), “Die Goettin Diana” (“The Goddess Diana,” a ballet scenario, from 1846), “Ludwig Marcus: Denkworte” (“Ludwig Marcus: Recollections,” a prose essay), and “Gedichte. 1853 und 1854″ (“Poems. 1854 and 1854″). Vols. II and III contain his collected journalism about France (i.e, “Lutezia”), his observations on French politics, government, and intellectual life from 1831 to 1848. These were originally written for the Cotta family’s newspaper the Allgemeine Zeitung.

First edition of all volumes.

 

Uncut and unopened, in original printed wrappers, variously darkened and a little chipped; text with some discoloration and foxing, again “variously,” due to the quality of the paper. Over all a rather nice set that has not suffered at the hands of either binder or reader.  (33286)

 

Destination Chunking

by Han Suyin

3.9 of 5 stars 3.90  ·   rating details  ·  30 ratings  ·  reviews

Han Suyin means The Chinese Gamble. Written during the Sino~Japanese war by a twenty five year old Author, employed as a qualified midwife in the American Christian hospital in Chengtu, the capital town of the Sichuan province. It was written with aid of another person (an unnamed American missionary, employed as a woman doctor in the same Chengtu hospital). The brutal and bloody events of the Sino~Japanese war providing a realistic and impressive background to this personal story. The author’s novelized memoir of living in wartime China. ‘Han Suyin’ is the pen name of Peking-born Eurasian Dr. Elisabeth Comber. She is an author of several books on modern China, novels set in East Asia, and autobiographical works, as well as a physician

 

Destination Chunking Paperback – January, 1973

by Han Suyin (Author)

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Product Details

  • Paperback:256 pages
  • Publisher:Triad Books (January 1973)
  • Language:English
  • ISBN-10:0586038604
  • ISBN-13:978-0586038604
  • Product Dimensions: 9 x 4.4 x 0.6 inches
  • Shipping Weight:8 ounces
  • Average Customer Review:Be the first to review this item
  • Amazon Best Sellers Rank:#1,259,057 in Books (See Top 100 in Books)

 

 

Han Suyin

Author profile

 

born

in Xinyang, Henan Province, China

September 12, 1917

 

died

November 02, 2012

gender

female

 

genre

Literature & FictionBiographies & MemoirsHistory

About this author

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Han Suyin (Pinyin: Hán Sùyīn) is the pen name of Elizabeth Comber, born Rosalie Elisabeth Kuanghu Chow (Pinyin: Zhōu Guānghú). She is a Chinese-born Eurasian
author of several books on modern China, novels set in East Asia, and autobiographical works, as well as a physician. She currently resides in Lausanne and has written in English and French.

 

Renowned Chinese-born writer Han Suyin, whose autobiographical novel was turned into the popular American film Love Is a Many-Splendored Thing, has died in Lausanne, Switzerland, Chinese and Swiss media said on Sunday. She was 95.

Han, the author of about 40 books on modern China, died on Friday, Xinhua reported, citing her family.

The frail-looking and charismatic Han was branded both as a “Chinese revolutionary” in the West and “bourgeois” in communist China, with her work, often based on her own life straddling the two worlds.

Novels and essays by the thrice-married Han, as well as her meetings with Indira Gandhi, Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai, earned her a worldwide reputation.

The writer’s biggest work was a five-volume autobiography, while other writings included biographies of Mao and Zhou, and a study on Tibet.

She had been one of the few foreigners to be able to visit communist China in the early years of the regime. In a 1968 interview with France’s Le Figaronewspaper, she said Mao was “the greatest man China has known”.

Born Matilda Rosalie Elizabeth Chow in Henan province on September 12, 1917, Han was the daughter of a Chinese railway engineer and his Belgian wife. She studied medicine in China before continuing her studies in Belgium in the 1930s and later in London.

She later changed her name to Rosalie Elizabeth Comber and chose Han Suyin as a pen name. “Suyin” means ordinary voice in Chinese.

She was criticised for supporting Mao’s Great Leap Forward in the 1950s and the later Cultural Revolution.

Han’s work as a nurse in China during the war against the Japanese occupation in 1938 stoked her patriotic feelings.

She qualified as a doctor in London in 1948, meantime having a disappointing marriage with her first husband, Dang Baoyang, an anti-communist engineer.

He was killed during China’s civil war, after which Han abandoned medicine and started writing, in Chinese, English and French.

She wrote A Many-Splendored Thing in Hong Kong based on her romance with British war correspondent Ian Morrison, who was killed in the Korean War in 1950.

The book was adapted for the silver screen in 1955.

She married a British anti-espionage specialist, Leon Comber, and worked as a doctor in Malaysia and Singapore, during which time she grew increasingly sympathetic with communism.

She returned to China in 1956, when she was greeted with great fanfare by then premier Zhou.

Having divorced Comber, she later married a third time, to Indian engineer named Vincent Ruthnaswany, with whom she had lived in Lausanne.

Han frequently returned to China and in 1984 wrote a historical novel set in China and Switzerland, The Enchantress.

Funeral services for Han are planned for Thursday in Lausanne, the Swiss news agency ATS reported.

The Thought of Chairman Mao and the Chinese People
(Han Suyin; From a speech recorded in London, c. 1972)

Introduction | Lecture One  | Special Collections

Note: Due to issues regarding the quality of the source audio, a few words and phrases were unintelligible to the transcriber and are noted as “indistinct” in the proceeding transcription. Emphasis is noted with italics based upon the speaker’s inflection.

Dr. Han Suyin, 1972

(Audio recording joined in progress)[1]…people of China has everybody agitating the “Little Red Book” and everybody shouting the same slogans and some who like China bravely say, “Well, this is the way it ought to be” but in themselves, they still have a few misgivings. And others, of course, frankly criticize. I can say that this picture is not altogether correct. It is quite true –and I think that this is a philosophical truth which we must agree on – that there has been no great movement in the world, no other really great movement that has changed the world that has not had basic philosophy as its foundation. If we go back in the history of humanity, we find that many such books looked upon as religious books did provoke great movements and these great movements – they changed the world. And so we must agree that unless there are basic principles; basic philosophical principles; basic political principles which animate the mass of people–ideas; new ideas which come to them and which open their minds to a new way of looking at things–we shall not have anything new. And therefore, waiving the Little Red Book may be symbol which you dislike, but it was a symbol of learning a new philosophy. It is not only what is written in the Little Red Book that I am speaking of but it is the whole of the philosophy that Mao Zedong made accessible not a small elite but to one quarter of humanity. And this philosophy, this way of looking, has transformed one quarter of humanity who only a few years ago–even ten years ago–was still thinking in medieval terms on the intellectual way, was still thinking in a way which was destructive to their own best interests. It has transformed a great many of them.

I would like to elaborate a little on this. I do not look upon what Mao Zedong has written by trying to give it any name. You can call it Marxism-Leninism; I am not a Marxist. I look at it from a scientific view now. And from a scientific point of view, I can say that I personally feel that what he has written and what the Chinese people are learning is rigorously a  scientific way of thinking; the dialectical way of thinking and analysis.

Now, you will say, “How can this help? How can this make for better crops? How can this make for factories? How can this make for a better life?” Well it does and I’ll tell you why: It’s because it is much closer to reality. It is reality. And when you know what reality is; when you are not living in a dream world; when you cope with reality as it is, then you become scientific-minded. Then you understand the principles by which you can really produce results.

I had not seen it before. And in these three years, I have seen it. I have seen peasants who really now begin to understand the scientific way of growing things–not superstition. Not thinking that if they do some mumbo jumbo then the crops will be better, but really analyzing the soil and the rain and the sun and looking upon it in a dialectic way. That means from both sides–seeing its effects; seeing its cause to effect and not only that, but also how its effects can transform itself and again transform themselves so that the primary or original shape has now become another. And when you have peasants doing this kind of analytical thinking, they have made a great leap into the future. They have become scientists. They now understand not only what they have been doing but they cancreate.  And it is a tremendous creativity of a whole people released which is so exhilarating. And that is why I also sound as if I were a bit idealistic because I myself–being always on the lookout for something new–I have found this tremendously stimulating. I have found it so stimulating that you can spend hours in a commune talking with peasants and find them grasping these ideas and manipulating abstract concepts in such a way that, really, they are shaping something new. And they are now applying all this not only to their daily living, to coping with the earth with the crops and so on, but also as a preparation for themselves for the future. Now this what was so interesting to me; this is the main thing that I think the Cultural Revolution has done.

Chairman Mao during his rural inspection tour in Henan (Honan) Province in 1958.

And the other, the second most important thing that it has done besides this opening of the mind–this emancipation and true liberation of the mind–the second thing that it has done is a moral–a moral standard of values. Now we all accept that there should be a standard of morality but sometimes we feel that morality is very boring and annoying. And sometimes we feel that freedom resides in the throwing away of all that is called the shackles but when we do that, do we really have freedoms? And what does “freedom” mean?

In China, what has come now is the realization that self indulgence is not freedom; that putting “me” first all the time is not freedom. But that true freedom and the ways of freedom reside in unselfishness and serving others–what is called “serving the people.” And this also has become something genuine. Right up to now, I tell you, right up to now I did not feel it inside and now I feel it. All the years I did not feel it–now I feel it. Now it has become almost a habit. To think of others first before thinking of oneself not for everybody but for quite a few people–quite a few people– and this also is very entrancing because it becomes a habit. And when it becomes a habit of the mind—when it becomes so easy and so simple and so natural—to really love your neighbor more than yourself, then you have a new society, but not before.

You cannot make this society upon edicts. You cannot make it by giving orders. It must come from each person and this is also what I have found this year which I had not realized before. There is a way now that when you walk about—and I have been in the interior provinces like Sichuan (Szechwan) and Guizhou (Kweichow) and Xinjiang (Sinkiang )—places that are not visited; places that are far out and when there, you see it. When there you see the countryside alive with this new spirit, then you really feel that something has been done. When you find that housewives really now get together and organize little factories and do something about it, and that’s…generally, they have not they have not done this for any gain for themselves but because they feel they have to serve their community. Because they feel they have to serve the people.[2] Then you are somewhere. And this happens on a large scale; a little everywhere. Again, I am not saying that everybody thinks the same way. I am quite sure that there are still a lot of selfish people in China. I’m quite sure of it. But there are quite enough people around now who have grasped this; for whom it has become a second way of life and when that it is infinitely more rewarding than in which the one they only sought for private gain in a way that really now I feel the revolution can be carried forward in order to truly create socialism as itshould be and not the kind of thing that we have seen in certain countries, which was a bureaucratic elite imposed upon people.

Now you have been told about the achievements by many other people. I would only like to concentrate on what I have seen in a certain province. Near Ruijin in Jiangxi (Chiang-hsi) Province, I have seen and crossed thirteen bridges over fairly wide rivers. Thirteen bridges, large bridges, built by the peasants’ commune themselves without costing any cent to anybody, built to serve the people.

Members of a brigade in charge of women’s and public health work. (“Picture from “Inside a People’s Commune,” 1974.

I have seen small factories in the communes. Small factories run by women. Small factories run by young people. Small factories run young girls. And I asked them, I said, “How did you start?”  And they said, “Well, I don’t know…Two or three of us got the idea, then we talked to others, then we all got together, then we did it.” And I say, “But how? Did you ask any money from the government?” “Oh, no! Oh, we would never think of doing that! Oh, no; we did it ourselves. We started using …Well, somebody brought maybe a pair of scissors and somebody else brought the bench and a third on brought this and we put it all together and then we went to a neighboring factory and we asked them to lend us two workers who knew something and (they) asked (us), ‘What would you like us to do?’ and (we) said, ‘Well, we would like to make this or that’ and so we started. And now it’s doing well.”

I visited such a factory of housewives near…in Zhangshu (Chang-shu). They had started with seven housewives who had, between them, been told by their husbands to stay at home (laughter from the audience) because their husbands made enough money. Their husbands were steelworkers or cadres. And their husbands said, “I want my wife at home. I want her to be at home and cook my mean when I’m back.” And you know, these women—young—they were around about between 25 to 35, they thought to themselves, “Well that is not a good way of serving the people, so they got together. And they put their money together. They had, altogether seven of them, they had ¥50 Yuan, which is $25, which is £10. They had £10 and with that, they bought two benches and about seven large scissors because some of them had gone to a neighboring factory and they had said, “We want to do something,” and the neighboring factory had laughed— “Ha ha” —and they said, “Well, you can make those thin strips of metal to wrap bales with…To tie up bales with.” So they had started with that and they did that for a few months and they did it so well that after a few months, they had made a bit more money. They now had, I think, about $200. And, with that, they bought a machine and they made more. And with that, they were able to buy another machine and they said, “Let’s diversify.” So, they went back to the factory and they said, “We’re ready to do some more,” so the factory gave them other spare pieces other spare pieces to do. And, little by little like this, they have now built a factory of 143 people making $10 million a year. This $10 million they give to the State. They…pay themselves $35 a month. They make $10 million making small, spare parts of all kinds for several factories around. This is one example – and there are so many more; there are masses of examples like that – of people doing things in the factories, in the communes, everywhere. This would not be true if there was not this new spirit; the spirit of initiative, the spirit of serving the people.

When I told this story in America, somebody said, when I got to the $10 million bit somebody said, “My, my! That’s a real capitalist enterprise!” (laughter from the audience) I said, “Yes, it is! Accept for one little difference – very small difference: They did not keep the money for themselves. They gave it to the State.” Apart from taking a little bit to buy some more machines because they are now going to do something more – I think now they are building spare parts for tractors – apart from that, drawing a plan for that and giving it to the State, all the rest went to the State and they were very happy that way. And when I interviewed them and I asked them, I said, “But aren’t you going to raise your salaries?” they looked at me and they said, “But what for? We have everything we need!” There is no point in accumulating a lot of money. You wouldn’t know what to do with it, anyway.

Now for the bad things because, of course, there are bad things. One should not only talk of the good things, because if one does, one is not at all impartial. Are there still selfish people in China? Yes, there are! Of course there are! There are constantly selfish people doing selfish things as there are anywhere else. But the way of dealing with them is quite different. The way of dealing with them in China is for everybody who is around them, not to immediately insult them and no punishment, but to try to show them and to educate them; to try to show them that really, they’re not doing themselves or anybody else any good by what they do. And I remember one terribly moving story I was told by a cadre who said: “Well, I had a friend who had a very beautiful watch and this friend also had a very weak heart. And this friend said to me, ‘When I die’ – he was a bit pessimistic about himself because he’s still not dead  –  (laughter from the audience) but he said, ‘When I die, I’ll give you my watch.’” And he said, “One evening my friend laid there and he was very ill and I had to come look after him. And I looked at his watch and I looked at him. And suddenly the thought crossed my mind: Now if he dies, I’ll get that watch.” (laughter from the audience) And he said, “For a moment, I said…Well I won’t call the doctor and I’ll get the watch.” And then he said, “I went and called the doctor.” And he said, “I feel ashamed of myself for having had these terrible thoughts.” But he was able to speak of it; he was able to face it. His face it. And his friend is well and alive and wanted to give him the watch. He said, “Take the watch since you like it so much” and he said, “No, I won’t take it. And they are better friends than before. But he was able to face himself; he was able to see that he also had these terrible thoughts.

Chairman Mao relaxing at Jinggangshan (Chingkangshan), 1965.

And you see, with the dialectical method applied to everybody nobody expects other people to be ideal. Nobody expects other people not to have defects. There is a good and bad side to everybody so they can accept themselves as they are and so that their good side can try to change the bad side. And that is the way philosophy also acts in your personal life. It is the same in marriage. Marriage is not “…and they married and were happy ever after.” You know that. (laughter from the audience) Marriage should be, “…and they married and they worked hard at their marriage ever after” because you have to work hard at a marriage to make it go. But if you get married with the kind of idea that is sometimes spread here, that the other person must be as you think they must be, otherwise there’s something wrong with them, you’re not going to get anywhere much with your marriage. But if, like the Chinese, you don’t expect them to be necessarily ideal but neither do you expect them to be absolute demons, then you sit down and you talk problems over.

And this is where I was most moved. It was in the dialectical method [of] Mao Zedong Thought dealing with the family problems. There are family classes in Mao Zedong Thought.  What does that mean? That means that in a family, old and young, and may I remind you that in China the family is not destroyed; that most grandparents live with their children and grandchildren—families sit together and they talk over things. They read Mao Zedong and then they try to make democracy work in the family. How does democracy work in the family? In China before, there was a great deal of the paternal —of the father having a lot of rights, and talking and telling everybody what to do. And this has now disappeared, or is disappearing. Not everybody, of course. We must remember that probably there still are a few men throwing their weight around. But otherwise, in these family conclaves, you have the children speaking up and that is the way that children can speak to their parents. And you have parents speaking and giving their point of view. And so when in America, they ask me whether there is a generation gap in China, I said, “You mean don’t talk to each other.”  I said, “In China, a young man who does not talk to his parents is not considered to be truly revolutionary. If he is truly a revolutionary, he must be good at talking with older people and persuading them; at changing their ideas.” I think that in the families today, there is because and precisely because there is a new way of looking at things; there is a great deal more of family feelings then there ever was.  There is a great deal more of understanding and of health in the family.

And this consolidates, of course, social life too. It makes for a better society; a more harmonious one. Not that there are no difficulties, but these difficulties can be debated openly and today in China you will find that there are two slogans that constantly recur besides the one of fighting selfishness, of serving the people . There are two others that constantly recur and one is that you must investigate every situation; you must not make up your mind hastily. You must investigate and study. And the second one is that you must debate and talk and persuade and educate and not rush off to make hasty judgments. But you must debate and educate.

Now I think that in this type of society, of course, there will be people coming to it who will find that is singularly lacks luster. I mean [indistinct] there are no clubs and so on. And they say, “What do people do with themselves?” Well, I can assure you that people have a very good time. They have a very good time because they truly feel that they are doing something worthwhile. Because every small thing — whether you are sweeping the floor or whether you are baking a cake or whether you are working a machine or whether you are building a bridge or whether you are flying planting corn – has a meaning beyond the meaning of the act. It is full of the value of doing something for the collective good; for the people and for the revolution. It is a way of advancing. And after all, what is the meaning of life than to find a meaning to everything normal, everything small?  Not to rush of to do something outstanding, heroic [indistinct] or something that you think will be outside of the ordinary, but to be able to live fully, your life every day in the knowledge that what you are doing is really serving others; doing good for others; not only for yourself but forothers —and the others first.

I think that there is this feeling, a greater reward than in any other. A greater reward than in amassing money and a much greater reward indeed than in just imprisoning the self in self. And so I have thought that there was a meaning to freedom. Huey Newton, the Black Panther who went to China this year said in America on television that the only place where he had felt free is China. Perhaps he was exaggerating a bit. I won’t argue about that. But what he meant was that he felt there that the kind of pressures that he felt in his own society were not there. And it is a great pressure indeed when you are confined, cribbed and caged within your own little self and you’re always only thinking of that. It is a much greater freedom to be thinking in much greater terms of everybody else.

And now in China, it is not only China that they are thinking about, but the whole world. As Mao Zedong said and has repeated again and again, “China’s contribution to the world has been too little so far. We must give more.” And in this giving, it is already felt throughout the world. China gives $750 million in aid, $250 million more than the USSR—this is fromThe New York Times; and The New York Times adds: “And whereas other countries exact strict businesslike terms, most of China’s aid is without interest—long-term—and is designed towards the recipients’ advantage.” And so, you see, this can even be recognized by a newspaper which, after all, is not really distinctly, shall I say, to the left. (laughter from the audience) And this kind of giving is only the beginning of what China can do and will do, for I believe that you will see in the years to come that a new spirit will emanate from China and that more and more people from the world will recognize this spirit and this spirit is based upon what Mao Zedong has said and repeated again and again: “Serve the people.” Not only the people of one color or one nation, but the people of the world; those who work and those who toil.

And now this is what I have found, at last, in China this year. I have never spoken like this because I was not quite sure. This year, I am sure I have seen it. And because I have seen it, I have been made very happy. I have been very happy and now, to finish, some people will say, “Yes, but won’t this change? Will China stay like that or will she too change?” Nobody can guarantee the future. That is why we must always be vigilant. And the Chinese themselves will tell you that the question is not settled. Therefore, there must be many, many people who are imbued with this spirit, for it is not in edicts and laws and a small elite that you can impose these things. It must be done by the masses; by all the masses together; by the people who work and toil: the peasants, the soldiers, the workers who must understand this. They are the guarantee; the people, and the people alone, are the force that moves history. I did not understand that before and now I know it. It is true—it is true, it is in their hands and it is where they all manifest themselves. And if the peoples of the world also learn this lesson—that what they call “democracy” is truly that: taking the responsibility upon yourself of serving  the people of the world, then only will there be a changed world. Thank you very much. (Applause)    

 

Literature – autograph – Han Suyin The Mountain is Young 1958. Signed by Han Suyin in both Chinese and European characters to inside cover. Book is good condition

Guide Price: £100.00 – £200.00

This product went to auction on 22nd May 2014

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Beatles Illustrated Lyrics Book Dell by Alan Aldridge First Edition 1972
    • IDR126,455.70
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  • Did we say the most famous day in Beatles history? Make that the most famous day in of ALL OF ROCK ‘N’ ROLL HISTORY. The revolution was televised, and more than 73 million people (a full 40% of the U.S. population) tuned in for the Fab Four’s first performance on American soil. No one living had ever seen a global cultural phenomenon quite like Beatlemania before—and it has never been eclipsed since. In retrospect, John, Paul, George and Ringo’s Ed Sullivanappearance was bigger than Elvis’ hip gyrations. Bigger than Dylan plugging in at Newport. Bigger than Michael Jackson’s moonwalk. Maybe even bigger than Neil Armstrong’s moonwalk!
  • After all the fainting, swooning and screaming had subsided in Ed Sullivan’s studio, the triumphant Fab Four hopped into their limo and hightailed it back to the Plaza Hotel. George stayed behind to nurse his cold, while John, Paul and Ringo (plus John’s wife Cynthia) set out to paint the Big Apple red. First stop: Drinks at the Playboy Club. Then off to the legendary Peppermint Lounge—ground zero for the Twist dance craze. Documentary filmmakers Albert and David Maysles memorably captured Ringo in a feverish dance-floor courtship with Peppermint girl Geri Miller. Off to the side, John, Cynthia and Paul shot the breeze with cocktails and cigarettes. (Actual footage can be viewed here: youtube.com/watch?v=DNJmP1cJdKA.) The party finally broke up in the wee hours…or so it seemed.
  • According to a 1964 interview with Geri Miller (posted on the “Truth About the Beatles’ Girls” blog site), “[Ringo] asked what I was doing later and could he see me. I flipped. Of course, I answered, the only thing is, I don’t get off work until 4 A.M. I knew Ringo didn’t want to stay in the Lounge and wait for me because the place was crawling with photographers, and I knew he didn’t want to go back to his hotel with the rest of the group. ‘I’ve got it,’ I announced, ‘why don’t you wait for me at my apartment. I live right around the corner. I have a hi-fi and dozens of albums. You can listen to all of our popular recording artists until I get there.’ Ringo liked the idea. I gave him the key to my apartment and directions…When I got to my door I heard the TV and…rang the bell and shoeless Ringo answered…I made him breakfast and we talked and talked…By now it was close to 7 A.M…I walked him to the door and kissed him goodnight. ‘Just a minute,’ I called out as he waited for the elevator. I ran into the hallway and gave him a Peppermint Lounge souvenir key-chain and told him to ‘use it and think of me.’ I watched him put his keys on the chain and slip them into his pocket.”
  • Ringo and Geri weren’t the only ones to exchange a Peppermint Lounge memento that historic night. Just several hours earlier, the drummer and his two mop-topped bandmates had autographed this very postcard for their Peppermint waitress—with George later adding his signature once he was on the mend. The waitress folded the postcard in quarters, resulting in a horizontal and vertical fold that thankfully do not visually distract from the exquisitely bold, clear signatures. Better yet, because the card happened to have been folded inward rather than outward, the related surface creasing appears to almost exclusively affect the picture side (rather adding to the charming vintage appeal, we must say) and remains quite subtle on the signature side. Lastly, to the far right of the signatures, a 1/4″ vertical strip appears to have been excised from the edge.
  • Foremost Beatles autograph expert Frank Caiazzo’s LOA, dated 6/6/07, reads in part, “A waitress at the club, who was serving the band all night, obtained their signatures on this picture postcard, which measures 5″ x 3.5″. John, Paul and Ringo have signed very nicely in blue ballpoint. This card also contains the first name pencil signature of George Harrison, which was later obtained by Beatles staff and then returned to the waitress at the club, as she was initially disappointed that she did not get to get his autograph. There are very few [complete Beatles autograph] sets in existence which were signed on this, the most important day in Beatles history.” Encapsulated and Graded NM-MT 8 by PSA/DNA.
  • Also included is a (desirable in its own right) CBS original press photo from the iconic Dezo Hoffman “collarless suit” photo session. Considered the most emblematic images of that transformative time, this 7″ x 9″ example represents the perfect complement not only to the Peppermint postcard, but also to the Beatles signed Hoffman photo offered as the adjacent lot in this auction. An official CBS archiving label on the reverse is dated 6/30/64 and describes a re-airing of the Ed Sullivan Showepisode on July 12th. There is also a date-stamping from 7/15/1964, and two from December—along with several more usages ranging from 1970 through 1983. Typical creasing and crazing throughout, as is often seen on period published photos. Encapsulated as Type I by PSA/DNA.
  • Click above for larger image.
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Minimum Bid: $4,000
Final Bid(Includes Buyers Premium): $7,768
Estimate: $8000 – $10000
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H.Colijn, J.B.Van Heutsz, Nederlands Indie, 1932

Complete set met het fraaie bandontwerp van Chris Lebeau

  1. Colijn – Neerlands Indië. Land en Volk-geschiedenis en Bestuur, Bedrijf en Samenleving – 2 delen – 1911/1912 – Amsterdam, Elsevier, 1911/1912 – 378 + 394 pp. Fraai gedecoreerde linnen banden naar ontwerp van Chris Lebeau.Deel 1: Met 326 afbeeldingen, prenten, kaarten en tekeningen,
    een gekleurde kaart en 3 gekleurde platen.Deel 2: Met 265 afbeeldingen, prenten, kaarten en tekeningen,
    benevens 3 gekleurde platen.Dit werk verscheen onder de leiding van H. Colijn en voorts enkele
    deskundigen. Met een voorwoord van J.B. van Heutsz, oud gouverneur
    van Nederlandsch-Indië.

    Conditie: Op snee lichte foxing (bruine vlekjes). Voorts zijn beide delen in een uitstekende staat.

    (totaal 2)

In de catalogus

Voor meer informatie over dit kavel zie onderstaande Catawiki catalogus item(s):

Neerlands Indië

 

Neerlands Indië

 

 

David Pickell;Between The Tides;periplus;2002

Between the Tides: A Fascinating Journey Among the Kamoro of New Guinea

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Overview

 

Photographer Kal Muller was exploring one of the most remote places on earth: Irian Jaya, the Indonesian half of the island of New Guinea and home to the Kamoro people, whose culture, it was widely believed, was extinct.

By happenstance Muller stumbled upon an initiation ceremony and uncovered a thriving, traditional way of life. With longtime collaborator David Pickell and two Kamoro friends-Aloysius Akiniyau, a guide, and Apollo Takati, a schoolteacher-Muller set out to rediscover the Kamoro people. Traveling …

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Zev Pressman and Paul Lamle; Better Photography ;New Yor;1949

Not exist in internet

Alec Pearlman; Rollei Manual; London;1953

THE ROLLEI MANUAL – ALEC PEARLMAN – 1ST EDITION! – RARE!

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US $150.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P.R.Bulterman:Poststemples Nederands-Indie;Deventer;1981

Indonesië; P.R. Bulterman – Poststempels Nederlands-Indië 1864-1950 — 1981

Euro 50.-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Johan Jakop Meyer; Das Weib Im Altindischen Epos:Leipzig;1915

das weib im altindischen von meyer

für die Suche nach folgenden Begriffen:

 

  • Autor: meyer

 

  • Titel: das & weib & im & altindischen

 

2 Titel wurden gefunden.   Suche verfeinern   Neue Suche
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Nr. 1 Meyer, Johann JakobDas Weib im altindischen Epos. Ein Beitrag zur indischen und zur vergleichenden Kulturgeschichte[nach diesem Titel suchen]Leipzig Verlag von Wilhelm Heims 1915,

Johann Jakob Meyer (1870-1939) Indologe, Professor an der Universität Chicago, Übersetzer altindischen und finnischen Litereratur , Lyriker. 440 Seiten, leicht berieben, auf Titel Besitzvermerk Dr. W. Pieth ( Direktor der Bibliothek in Lübeck) , Seiten 199-202 lose und kleiner Einriss, zufiedenstellender Gesamtzustand. Erstausgabe Halbleinen gr. 8 ° Buch; Erstausgabe

Zufriedenstellend

[Schlagwörter: Indien Indologie Literatur Lyrik]

Hardcover, Erstausgabe

Artikel-Nr.: 004210

 

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Nr. 2 Meyer, Johann Jakob:Das Weib im altindischen Epos. Ein Beitrag zur indischen und zur vergleichenden Kulturgeschichte.[nach diesem Titel suchen]Leipzig, Wilhelm Heims, 1915.

XVIII, 440 Seiten. Neuerer Halbleinenband mit Rückentitel.

*Johann Jakob Meyer (1870-1939) war Indologe. “Die Geltung und Stellung der Frau im Gangeslande jener Tage, ihre Freuden und ihre Schmerzen und was sonst mit dem Weibe verknüpft ist, soll vor den Augen des Lesers entstehen” (Vorwort). – Sauberes Exemplar.

[Schlagwörter: Indien Indologie Literatur Lyrik]

Artikel-Nr.: 110200

 

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 Source

zvab.com/buch-suchen/tite

 

 Masih banyak lagi buku langka koleksi Dr Iwan seperti dibawah ini,lengkapnay silahkan pesan Cd-Rom segera karena edsinya sangat terbatas hanya sepuluh buku elektronik dalam Cd-ROM

 

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Protected: PROMOSI CD-ROM :” UPAYA PENANGULANGAN EFEK KELIANAN DIABETES MELITTUS TYPE 2 TERHADAP GINJAL”

This content is password protected. To view it please enter your password below:

PROMOSI CD DR IWAN ; KOLEKSI SEJARAH INDONESIA AWAL ABAD KE DUA PULUH”(BERSAMBUNG)

INI CONTOH CD TANPA ILLUSTRASI

UNTUK cd- LENGKAP ILUSTRASI DAPT DIPESN LIWAT EMAIL

iwansuwandy@gmail.com

harga satu CD lima ratus ribu rupiah

JANGAN LUPA UPLOAD KOPI ktp DAN LAMAT LENGKAP AGAR DAPAT DIKIRIM LIWAT tiki DENGAN SELAMAT SAMPAI DIRUMAHNYA

Koleksi Sejarah Indonesia

Awal Abad ke Dua Puluh

Bagian kedua

1915-1927

Oleh

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Edisi Terbatasaa Buku Elektronik Dalam CDS-Rom

Khusus Untuk Kolektor Senior Indonesia

Hak Cipta @ Dr Iwan 2014

 

1915

1916

Jendral sudirman lahir di Purbalngga 24 januari 1916, masa muda beliau sangat aktif dikegiatan Pramuka

Sumber

creatorzbangsa.forums

Terlahir dari pasangan rakyat biasa di Purbalingga, Hindia Belanda, Soedirman diadopsi oleh pamannya yang seorang priyayi.

Sumber

Wiki

1916

Setelah keluarganya pindah ke Cilacap pada tahun 1916, Soedirman tumbuh menjadi seorang siswa rajin; ia sangat aktif dalam kegiatan ekstrakurikuler, termasuk mengikuti program kepanduan yang dijalankan oleh organisasi Islam Muhammadiyah.

Saat di sekolah menengah, Soedirman mulai menunjukkan kemampuannya dalam memimpin dan berorganisasi, dan dihormati oleh masyarakat karena ketaatannya pada Islam.

Sumber

wiki

1916

Pompstation, vermoedelijk van de Perlak Petroleum Maatschappij te Perlak in Oost-Atjeh in 1916

1918

In 1918  Swart in the rank of lieutenant general retired.

 

On August 12, 1918

appointed vice-president of the Council of the Indies to 1922. He received his military operations for the Military Order of William 2nd class .. Pm

 

 

 

The end of atjeh war,the meeting between Panglima Polim and

general van Heutz.also the Kapitan Cina aceh exist too

 

1916

 

ARIE SMIT (b. The Netherlands 1916)
Bali hill country
signed and dated ‘arie smit/’96’ (lower left), signed, dated and titled (on reverse)
oil on canvas
22 x 30 in. (56 x 76 cm.)
A certificate of authenticity from Neka Museum, dated 12 May 1998, accompanies this painting.

Literature

Agus Dermawan T. Bali Bravo – Lexicon of 200 Years of Traditional Balinese Painting, Panitia Bali Bangkit, 2006 (illustrated in colour p.32).

 

 

.

 

 

 

 

 

Smit, Arie. (b. Netherlands, 1916). Two white figures carrying baskets on their heads, walking toward a pink temple. Oil and acrylic on canvas Signed l.r., “Arie Smit “96”. In gilt frame. 9 1/2″ x 13 3/4″. Frame: 15″ x 19 1/2″. Property of a private collector.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1917

The Bali hindu’s cremation ceremony in 1917(at the corner of street the cremations will turn around in order to made the satan go away, dr Iwan ever seen the cremation ceremony once a year in 1980)

 

 

 

 

 

 

The bone were dig from the tomb, and later were burned (four Pictures)

 

and the bali people were wainting for cremations in 1915

Dr Iwan look the same tradition ceremony at Bli

In 1978,his foto of tht one hundreds year once ceremony still

Keep until now

1916

The condition is created, not separated because Suwardi Suryaningrat (Ki Hajar Dewantara) initiate the Hindia Poetra magazine publishing by Indische Vereeniging begin 1916. Hindia Poetra had a slogan “Ma’moerlah Tanah Hindia! Kekallah Anak-Rakjatnya!” Contains information for students regarding the origin of ground water conditions in the archipelago, do not miss also inserted a critique of Dutch colonial attitude. 

In the Indische Vereeniging, the movement is no longer the son of Minangkabau insulated by regional ties. Because Indische  Vereeniging contain activists from diverse backgrounds from the region. Moreover, Indische name-though still problematic, already reflect the unity of the region, namely the group of islands in the archipelago that is politically bound by the system of Dutch colonialism. From there they all came from. 

 

 

1917

1917

Trial Bay (Jul 31) POW free Envelope (Emery PSPE.4) with enclosed letter on official generic Concentration Camps notepaper, Col Holman handstamp (CA.230) and violet ‘PASSED BY/CENSOR S.D.’ both on face. The type-written letter to a friend in New York thanks him for magazines, complains about how slow the mail is and finishes by saying that sound pessimism is better than optomisim. Very rare.

Dutch Indies NVPH 141 A MNH

1917 -18 – Nooduitgifte met overdruk in zwart  

 – 141A  lijntanding 11×11,5

Prachtige postfrisse (MNH) zegel + fotocertificaat Muis – zeer schaars!!!!

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 750,00+++

 

 

 

 

1918

Upacara pembukaan Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat hindia belanda di Batavia 18 Mai 1918

Anggota Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Hindia belanda 1928

  1. Birnie (Dutch), Kan Hok Hoei (Chinese), R. Sastro Widjono and M.N. Dwidjo Sewojo (Javanese).

 

 

1918

Batavia (Jakarta) water supply in 1918

1918

WalterSpies

Dalam menciptakan citra idyll Bali, pengaruh pelukis Jerman, fotografer dan musisi Walter Spies (1895-1942), yang dibuang oleh Belanda dari rumah angkatnya, masih terlihat dan nyata hari ini ..

Sebagai seorang pemuda, Walter Spies pindah dalam masyarakat yang tinggi; avant garde budaya pra-perang Moskow, kemudian di Berlin dan Dresden, Jerman, di mana ia pindah pada tahun 1918.

 

 

The Northern bali women in 1915

 

 

 

1918

 

1919

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1919

Ketika Perang dunia Pertama selesai maka Vice Consult Belanda di Jeddah yang bernama Van der Plaas nucul sebagai orang yang murqh hati dan penolong dari 162 orang Mukmin Indonesia yang sedang terlantar itu, sehingga mereka dapat kembali ketananh airnya, dimana mereka dengan segera mendapat surat keputusan (besluit) dari Bupata didaerah mereka masing-masing untuk menjadi Kiai.

Dalam tahun 1919

 suasana politik di Indonesia sedang hangat, berbuhungan dengan gerakan Politik yang mengingginkan Kemerdekaan Indonesia.Dianatara pengerak Politik yang besar pengaruhnya ialah Serikat Islam  dibawah pimpinan H.O.S Tjokroaminoto dalam Volsraad(Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Hindia Belanda)

(kempen 1955)

1920

Tetapi kemudian sejarah mengatakan kemunduran Api Perjuangan  Kemerdekaan .Disamping itu Tindakan Pemerintah dalam tahun  kemudiannya yang menetang gerakan Kebangsaan dan Kemerdekaan itu, seperti TBTO(tolak Bala Tawil Umur) ,Serikat Hejo, oragnisasi ini tidak berakar didalam masyarakat, karena sangat insidentil sebagai reaksi dan sangat lokal, yaitu hanya didaerah Garut saja.

Yang ternyata lebih tajam , ialah tusukan dari dalam Serikat Islam sendiri sehinggamenjadi pecah belah dan kurang potensinya.Setelah itu jumlah Kiai yang patuh dan setia kepada yang berwajib dan yang pasif semakin banyak dari sebaliknya.

(kempen 1855)

Pada tahun 1920 Sarekat Islam merah bergabung dengan ISDV dan membentuk Partai Komunis Indonesia (PKI). Partai ini diketuai oleh Semaun dan wakilnya Darsono. Akan tetapi beberapa tokoh bangsa Belanda yang tidak menyetujui pembentukan PKI akhirnya memisahkan diri dan kemudian membentuk Indische Social Demokratische Party (ISDP) dengan F. Bahler sebagai ketuanya.

 

Hubungan PKI dengan pemerintah kolonial Belanda semakin renggang bahkan semakin memburuk. Hal ini sebagai akibat timbulnya pemogokan-pemogokan yang mengarah kepada masalah timbulnya konflik antara pemerintah kolonial Belanda dengan PKI.

Source

http://www.kumpulansejarah.com/2013/06/sejarah-awal-berdiri-partai-komunis.html

 

1920

The first of Bandung’s university, the Technische Hogeschool (TH) was established on July 3, 1920. Now known as the Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), TH’s alumni include independence leader and first president Soekarno.

Prior to 1920s,

Balinese traditional paintings were restricted to what is now known as

the Kamasan or Wayang style.

It is a visual narrative of Hindu-Javanese epics:

the Ramayana and Mahabharata,

as well as a number of indigenous stories, such as

the Panji narrative.

These two-dimensional drawings are traditionally drawn on cloth or bark paper (Ulantaga paper) with natural dyes.

The coloring is limited to available natural dyes: red, ochre, black, etc.

 

 

 

1920

 

 

Drinks at the inauguration of a new bridge. For this occasion, senior military guests at the military police of Blangkedjerèn. The marks on the collar of the policemen are “blood fingers” called

Borrel bij de inwijding van een nieuwe brug. Voor deze gelegenheid zijn hoge militairen te gast bij de marechaussees van Blangkedjerèn. De kentekenen op de kraag van de marechaussees worden ‘bloedvingers’ genoemd.

 

 

1920

 

 

 

 

 

1920

In the 1920s, with the arrival of many western artists, Bali became an artist enclave (as Tahiti was for Paul Gauguin) for avant-garde artists such as Walter Spies (German), Rudolf Bonnet (Dutch), Adrien-Jean Le Mayeur (Belgian), Arie Smit (Dutch) and Donald Friend (Australian) in more recent years.

Most of these western artists had very little influence on the Balinese until the post-World War Two period, although some accounts over-emphasise the western presence at the expense of recognising Balinese creativity.

 

 

 

The Balinese group meeting in 1920

 

 

The bali hindu temple in 1920

The Bali Antique Keris .ring,box and other bracelet jewellary collections in 1920

 

 

 

 

 

The bali women take water 1920

 

The Bali wooden statue artwork in 1920

 

Euro man with native Balinese wife in 1920

Bali market 1920

 Bali 1920

BALI 1920

 

Lontar figurine, palm leaf image of Dewi Sri (cili), approx. 1920–1950. Leaves of the lontar palm, beads. Collection, Tropenmuseum, Amsterdam (the Netherlands), 3555-103

 

1920

 

The Native Patasiwa ceram dance in 1920

1920

 

 

 

Chinese Immigrant At Batavia

bring their  homeland banknote

and the family still keep as remembrance until 1998.

Due to high devaluation during president Suharto down,

they sold this history collectons

and some found by Dr Iwan In Jakarta

 

 

 

 

 

 

1921

Ibu Siti Oetari

Ibu Siti Oetari merupakan istri dari Presiden Indonesia pertama Soekarno. Soekarno menikahi Oetari usianya belum genap 20 tahun. Siti Oetari sendiri waktu itu berumur 16 tahun. Soekarno menikahi Oetari pada tahun 1921 di Surabaya. Sewaktu itu Soekarno menumpang di rumah HOS Tjokroaminoto ketika sedang menempuh pendidikan di sekolah lanjutan atas.

 

Beberapa saat sesudah menikah, Bung Karno meninggalkan Surabaya, pindah ke Bandung untuk melanjutkan pendidikan di perguruan tinggi di THS (sekarang ITB). Soekarno kemudian menceraikan Oetari.

1920-1921
Hatta  treasurer of Jong Sumatranen Bond in Jakarta and take care of magazines Jong Sumatra (1920-1921)
 

 

1920

Selepas lulus HBS tahun 1920, Bung Karno pindah ke Bandung dan melanjut ke THS (Technische Hoogeschool atau sekolah Tekhnik Tinggi yang sekarang menjadi ITB).

Sumber

indonesiaku.esc-creation

 

 

 

 

1921

Hatta began to settle in the Netherlands since September 1921. He immediately joined the Indian Union (Indische Vereeniging). At that time, the climate movement has been available in the Indische Vereeniging.

 

 

 

1921

Komentar Pemilik koleksi Ir Tono D.Putranto(2015)

Top of Form

Cover ini menggelitik saya karena tidak tersedia data penerbangan pada tanggal tersebut, meski sudah bertanya dan riset ke berbagai literatur yang tersedia, belum medapatkan titik terang. Sudah menjadi pembicaraan di beberapa grup diskusi dan akhirnya mendapat jawaban dari De Vliegende Hollander, klub aerofilatelis Belanda yang didirikan sejak tahun 1936 sebagai berikut :
“I received some more information about your 1921 cover.
Before the trial flights started, round flights were made above Weltevreden.  During one of these occasions this cover was carried. The cover is not yet mentioned in our catalogue, but we plan to do so for the next issue in a few years.”
Satu lagi temuan benfil yang akan memperkaya katalog Netherlands Indies aerofilateli terlengkap di masa mendatang. Trial flight dilakukan pada tanggal 20 April 1921 dengan rute Batavia-Semarang-Soerabaja dan kembali tanggal 22 April 1921. (data ini sudah tercatat)
Bottom of Form

 

1921

 

Yhe Vintage Bali statue Visnu riding Garuda(eagle) in 1921

 

Nusa Penida temple 1921

 

 

 

 

1921

Kubu Tribe

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dutch Indies NVPH 142-48 MNH

1921 – 22 Hulpuitgifte met overdruk in blauw en rood

Prachtige postfrisse (MNH) serie

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 150,00+++

Dutch Indies NVPH Safe 1-7 hinged

1921 – Brandkastzegels met allegorische voorstelling

Prachtige ongebruikte complete (MLH) serie

Cat. waarde (value) € 300,00

Top of Form

€ 145,00

Bottom of Form

 

1920

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1921

 

Dr Roland Tumbelaka

pada tahoen 1921 mendjadi direktur dari Roemah Sakit Ingatan di Lawang, Malang, di Djawa Timoer. Sesoedah praktek partikoelir selama 3 tahoen, maka beliau diangkat sebagai Direktoer Tabib Rumah Sakit Ingatan di Magelang. Djabatan terseboet dipegang oleh Dr. Tumbelaka selama 3 tahoen,

 

 

 

1923

 

MAJALAJ BALAI PUSTKA

TJARIJOS TANAH PAREDEN DIJENG

DALAM BAHASA BELANDA 1923

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

COURTECY

 

26

 

 

 

 

 

 

1928-1929

Dr Roland Tumbelaka

dan selandjoetnya dalam tahun 1928 berangkat ke Eropah oentoek beberapa boelan lamanja. Sesoedah berdiam disana, maka pada tanggal 1 Djanoeari 1929 beliau diangkat sebagai Inspektoer Oeroesan Penjakit Ingatan dan pada tanggal 30 April 1938 beliau atas permintaannja sendiri dilepaskan dari djabatannja dengan hormat dan terima kasih atas segala oesaha jang telah diberikan kepada Negeri dan diberikan pensioen. Sri Ratoe menganoegerahkan beliau dengan mengangkat beliau sebagai officier in de orde van Oranje Nassan. Sesoedah itu Dr. Tumbelaka berdiam pula di negeri Belanda dimana beliau menerima djabatan direktoer dari jajasan ,,Biomenddal” di Luusduinen,

 

 

 

 

 

1921

 

 

Hospital street Pajakumbuh west sumatra

 

1922

That relationship with Neratja newspapers continues despite Hatta was in Rotterdam, he was trusted as a correspondent. At one point in mid 1922, there is an incident which appalling Europe, Turkey is seen as a kingdom that is crumbling (the sick man of Europe) routed the Greek army who championed by Britain.

Series of the events Hatta monitored it then he wrote to become a series of posts for Neratja in Batavia. The Serial of Hatta writing attracted an audience of readers, even many newspapers in the country, citing the writings of Hatta. 

Hatta began his movement’s career in the Indische Vereeniging in 1922, again, as Treasurer. The appointment took place on February 19, 1922, when the turnover of management Indische Vereeniging. Chairman of the old dr. Soetomo replaced by Hermen Kartawisastra. The momentum of succession when it has significance for them in the future, because that’s when they decided to change the name of Indische Vereeniging into Indonesische Vereeniging and it goes replace the name of the Netherlands Indies to Indonesia. A selection of name-ridden nation politically charged. In the same forum, a member of Indonesische Vereeniging said that from now, we began to build Indonesia and negate the Netherlands Indies or Indie. 
In 1927, Hatta joined the League Against Imperialism and Colonialism in the Netherlands, and here he was friendly with the nationalists of India, Jawaharlal Nehru.
 

Hatta’s activity within the organization caused him arrested the Dutch government. Finally, Hatta released, after the famous defense of speech: Indonesia Free. 

 

(1922-1925)

Hatta  being a member Indonesische Vereniging (when studying in the Netherlands) which later turned into Perhimpoenan Indonesia, and became Editorial Board for magazine of independent Indonesia (1922-1925) 

1922

 

 

Pada tahun 1922

lulus Marie  lulus dari  Sekolah Kedokteran, pelatihan berlangsung pada waktu itu 10 tahun.

 

Setelah lulus nya, Marie dimasukkan ke dalam pusat perhatian dan menghujani Anda dengan hadiah, yang kinerja yang luar biasa, tapi juga posisi soliter ditekankan.

 

Dia bergabung dengan pemerintah dan mulai bekerja di rumah sakit besar (CBZ) di Weltevreden (pinggiran kota Batavia).

 

Dia mengkhususkan diri dalam bidang kebidanan. Dalam iklan yang pernikahannya diumumkan ia menyebut dirinya obstetri asisten di Weltevreden. The Museum Boerhaave memiliki beberapa foto ia mengambil keluar dari rumah sakit wanita, ini adalah beberapa hari sebelum pernikahannya dibuat.

 

Di balik salah satu gambar menulis N.J.A.F. Boerma, kebidanan sejak tahun 1920 dosen di Sekolah Kedokteran dan sebagai seorang dokter perempuan di CBZ, “untuk menghormati Ibu Marie Thomas, yang sayangnya meninggalkan kami.”

 

Acara Jaarbeurs atau Annual Trade Fair (Bursa dagang tahunan) di Bandung, tahun 1924

 
Pengunjung pada acara Jaarbeurs atau Annual Trade Fair (Bursa Dagang Tahunan) di Bandung, tahun 1924
(Sumber : http://commons.wikimedia.org/)

 

 
Para wanita yang berpose disalah satu stand (tenda) pada acara Jaarbeurs atau Annual Trade Fair (Bursa Dagang Tahunan) di Bandung, tahun 1924
(Sumber : http://commons.wikimedia.org/)

 

 
Gubernur Jendral Hindia Belanda Dirk Fock, mengunjungi  acara Jaarbeurs atau Annual Trade Fair (Bursa Dagang Tahunan) di Bandung, tahun 1924 (1)
(Sumber : http://commons.wikimedia.org/)

 

 
Gubernur Jendral Hindia Belanda Dirk Fock (tengah), mengunjungi  acara Jaarbeurs atau Annual Trade Fair (Bursa Dagang Tahunan) di Bandung, tahun 1924 (2)
(Sumber : http://commons.wikimedia.org/)

 

 
Display “Pohon Teh”, pada stand milik salah satu perusahaan perkebunan teh di acara Jaarbeurs Bandung, tahun 1924
(Sumber : http://commons.wikimedia.org/)

 

 
Salah satu View di acara Jaarbeurs Bandung, tahun 1924
(Sumber : http://commons.wikimedia.org/)

Sumber

 

http://sejarahdalamkamera.blogspot.com/2014/09/acara-jaarbeurs-atau-annual-trade-fair.html

 

 

HASIL EKSPLORASI GOOGLE BRONBEEK

Jongh, Karel de

www.veteranennaardermeer.nl600 × 432Search by image

1924 Loewoek 1924-1926 K de Jongh

  1. – Lachende theevelden. Hoezo lachende theevelden?

www.harryknipschild.nl336 × 500Search by image

De maanden juni en juli van 1924 waren een hoogtepunt voor de belanghebbenden in de thee van Nederlands-Indië. Tijdens de vijfde Nederlands-Indische

 

Java Post | Verhalen over Nederlands-Indië | Pagina 22

javapost.nl640 × 468Search by image

“Zigt op het buitengoed Bronbeek”

 

Luchtschroef

luchtschroef.blogspot.com816 × 1008Search by image

In 1924 werd voor Engelbert van Bevervoorde een monument opgericht in Bandoeng. Na de soevereiniteitsoverdracht aan Indonesië is dit borstbeeld naar .

 

  1. Berenschot, Gerardus Johannes

www.veteranennaardermeer.nl700 × 522Search by image

COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Begrafenis van generaal Berenschot op het Pandoe-kerkhof te Bandung TMnr 10001588

 

Nederlands-Indië in WO II

 

www.bevrijdingintercultureel.nl400 × 311Search by image

Bestuur Indische Vereeniging 1924. Moh. Hatta (staand 2e v.l.), Pamontjak (zit. 1e v.r.) (Bron: H. Poeze e.a. p.178)

  1. Dutch East Indies – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

en.wikipedia.org700 × 529Search by image

Dutch, Eurasian and Javanese professors of law at the opening of the Rechts Hogeschool in 1924.

 

  1. 29 juni: ECI goes Indisch | Indisch4ever

indisch4ever.nu421 × 351Search by image

Zoals deze plaatjes uit het stripboek de Terugkeer…notabene onder verantwoordelijkheid van het Indisch Herinneringscentrum Bronbeek uitgegeven

Indisch4ever | Indisch nieuws, Indische kwesties, | Pagina 4

indisch4ever.nu222 × 300Search by image

Dit is Georges Eduard Gerard Hardeman, zoon van Anna Sophia von Stietz (kleurenfoto boven). Hij was geboren te Buitenzorg in 1924.

  1. Indisch4ever | Indisch nieuws, Indische kwesties, | Pagina 123

indisch4ever.nu400 × 300Search by image

quote mail : Hier zijn de foto’s van de Pasar Malam op Bronbeek vandaag op 29-08-2010. Ondanks het slechte weer was het druk in de tenten en vooral bij het

 

Nieuwsbrief Bronbeek

Geplaatst op 31 augustus 2010 door Indisch4ever

Lees de Nieuwsbrief museum Bronbeek – augustus 2010

* Het verhaal van Indi op volle toeren
* Nieuw Cultureel programma
* Sawah Belanda ingeplant
* Open Monumentendag op Bronbeek
* Nederlands-Indi en het KNIL herleefden in Bathmen
* Onthulling panelen met namen bij monument vrouwenkampen
Website
 Bronbeek Museum

Source

ndisch4ever.

 

1925-1934

 

antara tahun 1925 Moh Hatta  ditangkap dan dibuang ke Digoel tahun 1934. Sudjadi merupakan teman dekatnya.
Ini mungkin perjalanan panjang dialektika pikiranmu yang terus optimis dengan perubahan.

Sebagai pembaca marx yang baik kau percaya pada dialektika dan perubahan, sehingga kau terus optimis dari negeri yang terpisah ribuan kilometer. Walau tak semuanya berjalan mulus.

Mungkin ini Hatta yang pertama ketika usulmu agar para intelektual di tanah air mendirikan ‘ Syarikat Rakyat Nasional Indonesia ‘ ternyata tidak mendapat sambutan dari kalangan Algemeene Studieclub ( Kelompok Studi Umum ) yang berdiri di Bandung 29 November 1925 atas prakarsa Sukarno, Anwari, Iskaq dan Tjipto Mangunkusumo.
Kau menginginkan sebuah partai radikal, non koperasi, yang berhaluan kebangsaan yang dapat menggerakan massa untuk cita cita kemerdekaan. Sebuah partai sebagai pendidik massa. Sementara Sukarno, kelak sahabatmu juga, seorang pendorong agitasi masa, yang berbeda dengan sikapmu untuk membentuk kader kader terdidik dalam organisasi. Kelak mereka malah mendirikan PNI
.

Hatta memang seorang demokratis sejati. Sesungguhpun partai yang kau cita citakan tidak tercermin dalam PNI, namun kau menerima sebagai kenyataan yang perlu didukung. Kau sadar, jauh dari dari Indonesia. Berbeda dengan Soekarno yang secara psikologi lebih memahami keadaan sehari hari di Indonesia.
Walau berbeda kebijakan dengan pemimpin PNI.

 Hatta tetap menjadi garda terdepan yang membela pergerakan nasional mereka di negeri Belanda.

 

Perkembangan pergerakan nasional di tanah air membuat Hatta  semakin kecewa justru PNI dibubarkan setelah appel Sukarno dan kawan kawan ditolak pengadilan tinggi.

 

Hatta  masih mengimpikan menjadi anggota PNI bila kembali ke Tanah Air. Kini hanya jeritan dalam suratmu,
“ PNI ditikam dengan keris sendiri dan dikuburkan selagi jiwanya masih teguh. Hati siapa yang tak luka melihat partainya dibubarkan, sebelum hak dipertahankan sampai sehabis habis daya upaya ? “

 

Kritikmu menuai kecaman dari dalam negeri. Yamin bahkan mengatakan bahwa Hatta,de eeuwige student – mahasiswa abadi itu – sebaiknya pulang saja dan berjuang di tanah air, daripada hanya mengkritik dari jauh.
Bagimu, konsistensi perjuangan yang selalu kau pegang. Berjuang adalah berkurban.

 Ini tetap diperlihatkan setelah kau pulang. Kau selalu menganjurkan jangan jadi pemimpin bila takut berkurban.
Sedikitpun kau tak gentar meneruskan PNI baru sekaligus menerbitkan harian ‘ 
Daulat Ra’yat “.

 

Nama ini benar benar mencerminkan pahammu tentang demokrasi. Bahwa bukan pemimpin yang menentukan segala galanya, melainkan rakyat.

 

 

Sumber

 

.imanbrotoseno

 

 

 

 

1925

MISS RIBOET ODEON DARDANELLA ,JASIDI SONG, BEKA RECORD

 

 

 

 

Iklan Dardanella.(Dardanella operate label promotion)

Two biggest native Indonesian operates were deveoloped in 1925 and 1926 were Miss Riboet Orion and Dardanella (Dua perkumpulan besar sandiwara berdiri pada 1925 dan 1926, Miss Riboet Orion dan Dardanella).

Keduanya merajai dunia sandiwara kala itu. Mereka dikenal terutama karena pemain-pemainnya yang piawai berperan di atas panggung, cerita-ceritanya yang realis, dan punya seorang pemimpin kharismatik.

Kedua perkumpulan ini dikenal sebagai pembenih sandiwara modern Indonesia. Mereka merombak beberapa tradisi yang telah lazim pada masa stambul, bangsawan, dan opera, seperti: membuat pembagian episode yang lebih ringkas dari stambul, menghapuskan adegan perkenalan para tokoh sebelum bermain, menghilangkan selingan nyanyian atau tarian di tengah adegan, menghapus kebiasaan memainkan sebuah lakon hanya dalam satu malam pertunjukan, dan objek cerita sudah mulai berupa cerita-cerita asli, bukan dari hikayat-hikayat lama atau cerita-cerita yang diambil dari film-film terkenal (Oemarjati, 1971: 30-31). Rombongan sandiwara ini juga mulai menggunakan naskah untuk diperankan di atas pentas, menggunakan panggung pementasan, serta mulai mengenal peran seseorang yang mirip sutradara (pada masa itu lazim disebut programma meester, peran ini dimainkan oleh pemimpin perkumpulan).

The Orion Operete Inc founder at Batavia(now jakarta) by Tio Tek Djiwn yunior, the primadona is Niss Riboet (later Married wir Mr Tio) and Mr Tio also played the swords,specialized as the robery of the women in the opera of Juanita veza written by Antoinette de Vega, after that this opretee becaem famous ad Miss Riboet Orion(Perkumpulan sandiwara Orion berdiri di Batavia pada 1925. Rombongan sandiwara ini didirikan serta dipimpin oleh Tio Tek Djien Junior. Tio merupakan seorang terpelajar pertama yang menekuni secara serius kesenian sandiwara modern. Dia lulusan sekolah dagang Batavia. Primadona mereka adalah Miss Riboet. Selain sebagai istri Tio, Riboet juga terkenal dengan permainan pedangnya. Ia sangat menonjol ketika memerankan seorang perampok perempuan dalam lakon Juanita de Vega karya Antoinette de Zerna. Selanjutnya perkumpulan ini terkenal dengan nama Miss Riboet Orion (Sumardjo, 2004: 115).

This Operete becaem more famous after came in The Journalist Njoo Cheong Seng and his wife Fifi Young ,during this time tje operate created a  imaginative story, then Nyo became the Tios best man which had the duty the story ,his succes with Saijah, R,soemiati,and Singapore at night(Perkumpulan ini semakin mengibarkan bendera ketenarannya setelah masuk seorang wartawan bernama Njoo Cheong Seng dan istrinya Fifi Young. Setelah masuknya Njoo Cheong Seng dan Fifi Young, perkumpulan ini meninggalkan cerita-cerita khayalan yang pada masa stambul dan bangsawan lazim untuk dibawakan ke panggung (Pane, 1953: 9). Kemudian Njoo Cheong Seng menjadi tangan kanan Tio Tek Djien dan bertugas sebagai penulis lakon pada perkumpulan ini dan menghasilkan cerita-cerita, seperti Saidjah, R.A. Soemiatie, Barisan Tengkorak, dan Singapore After Midnight.)

Pertunjukan Dardanella

Di tengah kepopuleran Miss Riboet Orion, berdiri perkumpulan sandiwara Dardanella di Sidoarjo pada 21 Juni 1926. Sebagaimana Miss Riboet Orion, Dardanella juga telah melakukan perubahan besar pada dunia sandiwara.

Dardanella founded by A.Piedro ,the russian man with name Willy Kilimanof. In 1929 starting show at Batavia based on the storyfrom best film like Robinhood,the amsk of Zorro,three musketters, the Black pirates, the Thieve of Baghdad,Sheik of Arabia,the graaf of Monte Cristo,vero, and the rose pf Yesterday. But at the second show Dardanella shown the Indonesia native story like Annie van Mendoet,Lily van tjikampek,the Rose of Tjikemabng based on the Indonesian Stories (Dardanella didirikan oleh A. Piedro, seorang Rusia yang bernama asli Willy Klimanoff (Ramadhan KH, 1984: 5. Pada 1929, untuk pertamakalinya Dardanella mengadakan pertunjukan di Batavia. Mulanya lakon-lakon yang dimainkan adalah cerita-cerita berdasarkan film-film yang sedang ramai dibicarakan orang, seperti Robin Hood, The Mask of Zorro, The Three Musketeers, The Black Pirates, The Thief of Baghdad, Roses of Yesterday, The Sheik of Arabia, Vera, dan Graaf de Monte Christo (Ramadhan KH, 1984: 74). Namun pada kunjungan keduanya di Batavia, mereka menghadirkan cerita mengenai kehidupan di Indonesia, seperti Annie van Mendoet, Lilie van Tjikampek, dan De Roos van Tjikembang. Cerita-cerita ini disebut dengan Indische Roman, yaitu cerita-cerita yang mengambil inspirasinya dari kehidupan Indonesia, dikarang dalam bahasa Belanda (Brahim, 1968: 116).

At the same time ,a journalis Andjar asmara also join the Dardanella and he bacame the Bes man of Peidro lika njo , he writthe the story Dr Samsi, Haida,Tjang,perantaian 88 dan Si bongkok like the huncthman of Notredam, Dardanella had the big five actors, Tan Tjeng Bok,Miss Dja, Mis Riboet II, Ferry Kock and Astaman (Pada tahun yang sama, seorang wartawan dari majalah Doenia Film, bernama Andjar Asmara, ikut masuk ke dalam perkumpulan ini, dan meninggalkan pekerjaannya sebagai wartawan di majalah tersebut. Seperti halnya Njoo Cheong Seng di Miss Riboet Orion, Andjar kemudian juga menjadi tangan kanan Piedro, dan bertugas sebagai penulis naskah perkumpulan. Andjar Asmara menulis beberapa naskah, seperti Dr. Samsi, Si Bongkok, Haida, Tjang, dan Perantaian 99 (Tzu You dalam Sin Po, 1939: 12). Dardanella juga terkenal dengan pemain-pemainnya yang piawai memegang peranan dalam setiap pertunjukan. Para pemain ini terkenal dengan sebutan The Big Five. Anggota Perkumpulan Dardanella yang disebut The Big Five yaitu, Ferry Kock, Miss Dja, Tan Tjeng Bok, Riboet II, dan Astaman (Tzu You dalam Sin Po, 1939: 11-12).

The rivalrity between Miss Riboet Oreon and dardanella at Bavaia begun in 1931, starting about the name of Miss Riboet which Mr Tio sue to the court and win,   dardanela must used the name Miss riboet II  (Persaingan untuk meraih perhatian publik antara Miss Riboet Orion dengan Dardanella terjadi di Batavia pada tahun 1931. Sebenarnya persaingan Miss Riboet Orion dengan Dardanella sudah mulai terlihat ketika dua perkumpulan ini memperebutkan “pengakuan nama” dari salah satu pemainnya, yaitu Riboet. Dalam dua perkumpulan ini ada satu pemain yang namanya sama. Ketika itu Dardanella yang sedang bermain di Surabaya, didatangi dan dituntut oleh Tio Tek Djien, pemimpin Miss Riboet Orion, karena Dardanella mempergunakan nama Riboet juga untuk seorang pemainnya. Tio berkata kepada Piedro, “Kami tidak senang Tuan mempergunakan nama yang sama, nama Riboet juga untuk pemain Tuan…kami menyampaikan gugatan, Miss Riboet hanya ada satu dan dia sekarang sedang bermain di Batavia”. Akhir dari perseteruan ini adalah mengalahnya Piedro kepada Tio dan merubah nama Riboet yang ada di Dardanella menjadi Riboet II (Ramadhan KH, 1982: 72).

Memang lazim terjadi persaingan antarperkumpulan sandiwara, terutama di kota besar seperti Batavia. Sebelum persaingan dengan Dardanella, Miss Riboet Orion juga pernah bersaingan dengan Dahlia Opera, pimpinan Tengkoe Katan dari Medan, persaingan ini berakhir dengan kemenangan pihak Orion (Tzu You dalam Sin Po, 1939: 11). Wujud dari persaingan antara Miss Riboet Orion dan Dardanella ini adalah pecahnya perang reklame. Dardanella memajukan Dr. Samsi sebagai lakon andalan mereka, sedangkan Miss Riboet Orion dengan Gagak Solo. Dalam persaingan ini, Dardanella mengandalkan A. Piedro, Andjar Asmara, dan Tan Tjeng Bok, sedangkan Miss Riboet Orion mengandalkan Tio Tek Djien, Njoo Cheong Seng, dan A. Boellaard van Tuijl, sebagai pemimpinnya (Tzu You dalam Sin Po, 1939: 12). Kedua wartawan dalam perkumpulan-perkumpulan itu bekerja dan memutar otak untuk membuat reklame propaganda yang, sedapat-dapatnya, memengaruhi pikiran publik.

At least Miss Riboet Orion off in 1934 and gave the authority to Dardanella , and their writer Njoo Cheong Seng and fifi Young moved to dardanella(Akhirnya Miss Riboet Orion harus menyerah kepada Dardanella. Riwayat Perkumpulan Sandiwara Miss Riboet Orion berakhir pada 1934, ketika penulis naskah mereka Njoo Cheong Seng dan Fifi Young, pindah ke Dardanella.)

Then dardanella became famous with the new actors like Ratna asmara, Bachtiar Effendy,Fify young and an american from guam Henry L Duarte (Dardanella menjadi semakin besar dengan hadirnya anggota-anggota baru seperti Ratna Asmara, Bachtiar Effendi, Fifi Young, dan Henry L. Duarte (seorang Amerika yang dilahirkan di Guam). Dalam Dardanella juga berkumpul tiga penulis lakon ternama, seperti A. Piedro, Andjar Asmara, dan Njoo Cheong Seng, di samping itu, perkumpulan ini diperkuat oleh permainan luar biasa dari bintang-bintang panggungnya seperti Miss Dja, Ferry Kock, Tan Tjeng Bok, Astaman, dan Riboet II.)

In 1935, Dardanella madse the tour to Siam,Burma. Ceylon,India,tibet ,the tour was called The Orient’s Tour with native dancer like wayang golek, Pencak Minangkabau,wayang golek,bali jagger, papua dancer and Ambon song (Pada 1935, Piedro memutuskan untuk mengadakan perjalanan ke Siam, Burma, Sri Lanka, India, dan Tibet, untuk memperkenalkan pertunjukan-pertunjukan mereka. Perjalanan ini disebut Tour d’Orient. Dalam perjalanan itu tidak dipentaskan sandiwara, melainkan tari-tarian Indonesia seperti Serimpi, Bedoyo, Golek, Jangger, Durga, Penca Minangkabau, Keroncong, Penca Sunda, Nyanyian Ambon, dan tari-tarian Papua (Tzu You dalam Sin Po, 1939: 13).

Tour de Orient qwere the last tour of Dardanella before the world war two, then dismish(Tour d’Orient adalah perjalanan terakhir Dardanella. Setelah perjalanan itu Dardanella pecah. Dan kisah dua raksasa sandiwara ini pun berakhir…)

I have the tax fee of Padang city gouverment about the dardanella and Dwi Dja tours, during japanese occupation 1943-1844, I think the Japanesi Millitary occupation gouverment, used this show for political campaign(Dr iwan S)

 

 

(b)versi dua (from david ,Haji Maji web blog)

MISS RIBOET (INDONESIA)

Miss Riboet was the first huge star of recording in Indonesia and the Malay peninsula.  She was the lead actress of the Orion theatrical company, a tooneeltroupe which was founded in 1925 in Batavia (Jakarta). In fact, she was so popular that by the time recording engineer Max Birkhahan made this recording in 1926 she already had her own series of “Miss Riboet Records.”

The label declares this a “Stamboel” recording, a western influenced genre of song that evolved out of the Indonesian theater known as ”komedie stamboel.”
Komedie stamboel was a form of musical theater that started in the city of Surabaya in 1891 and quickly became a craze throughout Indonesia. At first, it featured plays of arabesque fantasy (Stamboel = Istanbul), mainly tales from the Arabian Nights, with Ali Baba being a favorite standard. The plays were sung and included musical numbers as in a western musical, using mostly western instruments. They were also influenced by Parsi theater. There is an 
excellent book by Matthew Isaac Cohen that gives an extremely detailed account of the origin of Komedie Stamboel.

But by the mid-20s, when Miss Riboet began recording, komedie stamboel had already given way to the Malay theatrical form called bangsawan, and eventually tooneel, a more realistic form.
Apparently komedie stamboel had developed a somewhat unsavory reputation that led in part to it’s demise, some troupe leaders were accused of doubling as pimps for the actresses!
The music was often labeled as “Stamboel” on record, regardless of whether it was a stamboel, fox trot, tango, krontjong or traditional piece, such as this Javanese poetical form called 
Pangkoer Pelaoet .

*

Two major theatrical association founded in 1925 and 1926, Miss Riboet Orion and the Dardanelles. Both dominated the theatrical world at that time. They are known primarily for the players who expertly plays on stage, his stories are realist, and have a charismatic leader.

Both clubs are known as pembenih revue Indonesia. They break down some of the traditions that have been prevalent in the opera, nobility, and operas, such as: making a more compact distribution of episodes of the opera, to abolish the introduction scene of the characters before the play, eliminating the distraction singing or dancing in the middle of the scene, removing a habit to play a play only in a single night performances, and objects of the story has begun to form the original stories, instead of the old saga-saga or stories taken from famous movies (Oemarjati, 1971: 30-31). Theatrical troupe has also started using a script to starring on stage, using the stage performances, as well as getting to know someone who is similar to the role of director (at that time commonly called Programma Meester, this role is played by the leaders of associations).

Orion standing repertory in Batavia in 1925. Theatrical troupe was founded and is led by Tio Tek Djien Junior. Tio is the first scholar to pursue a serious art revue. He graduated from trade school in Batavia. They are the belle of Miss Riboet. Aside from being a wife of Tio, Riboet also famous for its game sword. He was very prominent when playing a female burglar in the play Juanita de Vega’s Antoinette de Zerna. Furthermore, this association known by the name of Miss Riboet Orion (Sumardjo, 2004: 115).

Society is increasingly raising the flag of his fame after entering a journalist named Njoo Cheong Seng and his wife Fifi Young. After the entry of Njoo Cheong Seng and Fifi Young, the association left the fantasy stories are at the opera and nobles brought to the stage common to (Pane, 1953: 9). Then Njoo Cheong Seng became Tio Tek Djien right hand and served as a scriptwriter on this association and produce stories, such as Saidjah, RA Soemiatie, Rows of skulls, and the Singapore After Midnight.

Amid the popularity of Miss Riboet Orion, standing repertory Dardanelles in Sidoarjo on June 21, 1926. As Miss Riboet Orion, the Dardanelles has also made major changes in the theatrical world. Dardanelles was founded by A. Piedro, a Russian whose real name is Willy Klimanoff (Ramadhan KH, 1984: 58). In 1929, for the first time performing in Batavia Dardanelles. At first play-act plays are stories based on movies that are busy talking people, like Robin Hood, The Mask of Zorro, The Three Musketeers, The Black Pirates, The Thief of Baghdad, Roses of Yesterday, The Sheik of Arabia , Vera, and Graaf de Monte Christo (Ramadhan KH, 1984: 74). But on his second visit in Batavia, they present a story about life in Indonesia, such as Annie van Mendoet, Lilie Tjikampek van, and De Roos van Tjikembang. These stories are called Indische Roman, namely the stories that take inspiration from the life of Indonesia, was composed in Dutch (Brahim, 1968: 116).

That same year, a journalist from the magazine Film Doenia, named Andjar Asmara, go in this society, and left his job as a journalist in the magazine. Like Miss Njoo Cheong Seng Riboet Orion, Andjar then also become Piedro right hand, and served as a script writer associations. Andjar Asmara write some scripts, such as Dr. Samsi, The Hunchback, Haida, Tjang, and Perantaian 99 (You in Sin Tzu Po, 1939: 12). Dardanelles is also famous for the players who expertly plays a role in each show. These players are known as the Big Five. Association members Dardanelles called The Big Five namely, Ferry Kock, Miss Dja, Tan Tjeng Bok, Riboet II, and Astaman (You in Sin Tzu Po, 1939: 11-12).

Competition to gain public attention between Miss Riboet Orion with the Dardanelles occurred in Batavia in 1931. Actual competition with the Dardanelles Miss Riboet Orion is starting to look when the two clubs are fighting over “name recognition” of one of his players, namely Riboet. In this group there are two players whose name is the same one. When the Dardanelles that was playing in Surabaya, approached and demanded by Tio Tek Djien, leader of the Miss Riboet Orion, because of the Dardanelles Riboet also use the name for a player. Tio said to Piedro, “We’re not happy sir use the same name, a name also for the players Riboet sir … we deliver the lawsuit, Miss Riboet there’s only one and he is now being played at Batavia”. The end of this feud is mengalahnya Piedro to Tio and Riboet rename that is in the Dardanelles into Riboet II (Ramadhan KH, 1982: 72).

It is not uncommon antarperkumpulan theatrical competition, especially in big cities such as Batavia. Before the competition with the Dardanelles, Miss Riboet Orion has also been competing with Dahlia Opera, led Tengkoe Katan from Medan, the competition ended with the victory of the Orion (You in Sin Tzu Po, 1939: 11). Existence of competition between Miss Riboet Orion and the Dardanelles is the outbreak of war billboard. Dr. Dardanelles advance. Samsi as their flagship play, while Miss Riboet Orion with Crow Solo. In this competition, relying Dardanelles A. Piedro, Andjar Asmara, and Tan Tjeng Bok, while Miss Riboet Orion rely Tio Tek Djien, Njoo Seng Cheong, and A. Boellaard van Tuijl, as its leader (You in Sin Tzu Po, 1939: 12). The two journalists in associations that work and rack my brain to make propaganda billboards that, wherever possible, influence the public mind.

Finally Miss Riboet Orion should be surrendered to the Dardanelles. Theatre Historical Society Miss Riboet Orion ended in 1934, when the script writers they Njoo Cheong Seng and Fifi Young, moved into the Dardanelles.

Dardanelles became greater with the presence of new members like Ratna Asmara, Bachtiar Effendi, Fifi Young, and Henry L. Duarte (an American who was born in Guam). In the Dardanelles also assembled three renowned scriptwriter, such as A. Piedro, Andjar Asmara, and Njoo Seng Cheong, in addition, the association is reinforced by the outstanding play of the stars of the stage as Miss Dja, Ferry Kock, Tan Tjeng Bok, Astaman, and Riboet II.

In 1935, Piedro decided to journey to Siam, Burma, Sri Lanka, India, and Tibet, to introduce their performances. This trip is called the Tour d’Orient. In the course of the play was not staged, but dances like Serimpi Indonesia, Bedoyo, Golek, Jangger, Durga, Disabled Minangkabau, Keroncong, Disabled Sunda, Ambon song, and dance of Papua (You in Sin Tzu Po, 1939: 13) .

Tour d’Orient is the last trip Dardanelles. After the trip was broken Dardanelles. And the story of two giants of this farce came to an end …

  1. b) Miss Riboet theater’s Oreon (1925)
  2. c) It is easy to guess the excitement Caused by the upcoming event in theAndyet, life went on as usual: Miss Riboet – a popular actress and singer backthen – performing on stage garnering applause and favorable reviews in the island’s journals, cigarette advertisements and beauty cream, the automobile andthe new man – The Sportsman – coaxed out of the tennis and golf worlds by TheWorld of fashion … putting Singapore on the movie map with his filmBring’em Back Alive. Not to mention Wheeler and Woolsey, a pair of British comedians, who, in Their Day, were the resource persons more popular than Laurel and Hardy. Much excitement was Caused whenthe much-loved Charlie Chaplin and his brother arrived in Singapore in 1932 on Their Way to the Dutch Indies. Certainly, the Hollywood connection is created the image of ‘Cesspool of the East’ for Singapore. Singapore was the object of Fascination for movie-makers, writers, travelers, the real Kings and Queens or theones populating the screens of the newest art.c) on 25 November 1950 Indonesia with a group of stars including Fifi Young (film performer Zoebaida) and Miss Riboet Rawit. comes in singapore. (new info from Mr. Azmosa Singapore That one of the Dardanelles Singer and comedian still stayed at singapore until now, her name or Momo Momo Latiff Makarim still alive and age 88 years old, please read mr Azoma comment in Indonesian Languguae:

Regards, Mr Iwan.

I’m from Singapore and was very impressed with the collection of Mr. Iwan, particularly about the history of art as a collection of Miss Riboet Orion and the Dardanelles. Both these sets are quite popular in Singapore and Malaya in the 1930s. One expert on collection of the Dardanelles had been living in Singapore and became a famous artist in sisni since 194oan. He is Momo Latiff derived from Batavia, and is now 88 years old.

Momo Latif has become one of the Balinese dancers Dancers in a collection of the Dardanelles. After the Dardanelles berpecah in the mid-1930s, he has entered a collection of nobles who headed by Raden Sudiro. On the one offering held in Melaka, Raden has told Momo bahawa Syarikat Shaw Brothers films in Singapore want to take Momo as a heroine in a film titled Mask Shaitan published in 1939. Momo then have merakamkan vote in 1941 along with the singing lagu2 HMV Sakura Flower, the Banyan Tree and the island of Bali.

Azmosa
Singapore-thanks Mr. Iwan S. azoma from dr)

The Short Story of Mis Riboet Husband (HUSBAND TALE MISS RIBOET) IOP TEK HONG

Tion was the Mr. Richman, he Had the record label and shop produnctions (IOP TEK HONG Sumai RIBOET MISS IS a wealthy merchant, he has a firm sale gramohone and black plate.)

That he produced an ad beside yhe batavia Postcard Pictures, look below some sample illustration (Besides, he also produces a picture postcard town of batavia, look at some of the collection of Tio Tek Hong and illustration of Majallah Kiekies Landen van Java folk and below);

Uitgave : Tio Tek Hong, Weltevreden (Batavia). No. 1045

Topeng is a style or genre of masked dance and theatre, with music : West Java. We see here a Betawi (Batavia, now Jakarta) group. A search for the expression will turn up wikipedia and other sources; this is pretty good : Henry Spiller, “Topeng Betawi: The Sounds of Bodies Moving”.   Asian Theatre Journal 16:2 (1999) : 260-267   (accessed 28 January 09)

.

 

Uitgave : Tio Tek Hong, Weltevreden (Batavia). No. 1046

Woman may be same as in preceding Topeng card.

photo, no source information. Another view of Molenvliet Canal, Batavia here; more can be found by searching in the Dutch Atlas of Mutual Heritage(AMH).

 

Uitgave : Tio Tek Hong, Weltevreden, “Special Depot of Java postcards.” No. 1114. Obverse bears message to a Mr. C. Inouye, c/o Mitsui Bussan, Osaka, Japan. Postage stamp (and cancellation date) missing.

 

 

Miss Riboet and her arabic song Jasidi

Chassidic Song (jasidi), with video recorded at the Western Wall in Jerusalem, and … 5:27 Add to Added to queue In Jerusalem song  Arabic by badermansour.

 

Lagu Jasidi berasal dari Arab dan seirng dinyanyikan brthubungan dengan dinding barat dari Jerusalem,salah satunyayang terkenal oleh penyanyi Bader mansour, berdasarkan fakta piringan hitam diatas,ternyata Miss riboet telah menyanyikan lagu yang populer saat itu.

Miss Riboet and her Tionghoa ethnic song Djihong(no info about this song)

Who have the Miss Riboet music record with Kroncong stamboel song please comment and add the info via comment,thanks you very much.

I have just found information about Mr Riboet Orion Kroncong song produced by BEKA record from Google exploration :

BEKA RECORD
B 15652, Miss Riboet, Krontjong Dardanella, 1940-an
B 15761, Herlaut, Beka Krontjong, 1940-an
27850, De Indie Krontjong, 1940-an

Please help me with more info,thanks verymuch

Sumber

Driwancybermuseum

 

 

Marie Thomas, wanita Indonesia pertama yg lulus dari Sekolah Dokter Jawa (thn 1922)

#sejarahIndonesia http://twitgoo.com/1yl69v

 

 

 

 

 

http://forum.viva.co.id/sejarah/103102-mengenal-beberapa-srikandi-indonesia.html

 

Dr. Anna Warouw
Anna Warouw Wanita Indonesia kedua yang menjadi dokter

Source: http://bode-talumewo.blogspot.com/2008/12/galeri-foto-para-wanita-minahasa.html

In 1922
Marie graduated graduated from the Medical School, the training takes place at the time was 10 years.

After his graduation, Marie inserted into the center of attention and showered with gifts, a superb performance, but also the position of solitary emphasized.

He joined the government and went to work at a large hospital (CBZ) in Weltevreden (Batavia suburbs).

She specializes in the field of obstetrics. In the ad that announced his marriage he calls her obstetric assistant at Weltevreden. The Museum Boerhaave has some photos he took her out of the hospital, this was made a few days before her wedding.

Behind one write image N.J.A.F. Boerma, obstetrics since 1920 lecturer at the School of Medicine and as a woman doctor in CBZ, “in honor of Mother Marie Thomas, who sadly left us.”

 

 

 

 

1922

VH B 22 a Weltevreden Ned. Indie – Den Haag 1922

Prijs: €50,00

Bottom of Form

Aangetekend Weltevreden – Den Haag 31.10.1928

Stempel : Weltevreden Gondangdia ( S.v.L. 40 pnt. )

Propellerstempel Den Haag

 

 

Dutch Indies NVPH 149-59 hinged

1922 – Opdruk 3e Ned. Indië Jaarbeurs Bandoeng

Prachtige ongebruikte (hinged) complete serie

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 275,00

 

 

Dutch Indies NVPH 149-59 MNH

1922 – Opdruk 3e Ned. Indië Jaarbeurs Bandoeng

Prachtige postfrisse (MNH) complete serie met fotocertificaat C Muis – schaars!!

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 1000,00++

Dutch Indies NVPH 149-59 used

1922 – Opdruk 3e Ned. Indië Jaarbeurs Bandoeng

Prachtige gebruikte (used) complete serie

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 325,00

1908

 

Pasca pemberlakuan Politik Etis, banyak kaum terdidik yg mulai punya sense kebangsaan & kepedulian thd penderitaan rakyat. Pada 1908 berdiri Boedi Oetomo, sebuah org. priyayi yg didirikan sbg upaya angkat mutu pendidikan.

 

Pada 1911

 berdiri Sarekat Dagang Islam yg kmd berubah mjd Sarekat Islam (1923), dan mjd PSII pada 1929. Inilah cikal bakal partai-2 Islam, hingga saat ini.

 

1913

Di Indonesia juga berdiri Partai Komunis, yg diawali pendirian ISDV pd 1913,

1920

yg kemudian berubah mjd Partai Komunis Hindia pada 1920.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1920

WalterSpies

Pada tahun 1920, dengan kedatangan banyak seniman Barat, Bali menjadi kantong artis (seperti Tahiti adalah untuk Paul Gauguin) untuk avant-garde artis seperti Walter Spies (Jerman), Rudolf Bonnet (Belanda), Adrien-Jean Le Mayeur (Belgia), Arie Smit (Belanda) dan Donald Friend (Australia) dalam beberapa tahun terakhir.

Sebagian besar seniman Barat memiliki sedikit pengaruh pada Bali sampai dua periode pasca-Perang Dunia, meskipun beberapa account terlalu menekankan kehadiran Barat dengan mengorbankan mengakui kreativitas Bali

Rudolf Bonnet

 

 

 

 

 

1922

 

The Ambon bay with swimming pool in 1922

 

//

The Chinese street at Ambon in 1922

 

 

 

 

 

1923

Dutch Indies NVPH 160-66 D hinged

1923 – Jubileumzegels – Tanding D 11,5

Prachtige schaarse ongebruikte (hinged) serie

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 210,00

Dutch Indies NVPH 160-66 MNH

1923 – Jubileumzegels

Prachtige schaarse postfrisse (MNH) serie

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH 500,00+

 

 

 

Dutch Indies NVPH 160-66 used

1923 – Jubileumzegels

Prachtige schaarse gebruikte (used) serie

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 225,00

1923

 

Princess Pakubuwono X Gusti Nurul

 

1923-1932: Lieutenant-General His Highness Sampeyan Dalam ingkang Sinuhun ingkang Minula saha ingkang Wijaksana Kanjeng Susuhanan Prabhu Sri Pakubuwono X Senapati ing Alaga Ngah ‘Abdu’l-Rahman Saiyid ud-din Panatagama, Susuhanan of Surakarta

1932-1939: Lieutenant-General His Princely Highness Sampeyan Dalam ingkang Sinuhun ingkang Minula saha ingkang Wijaksana Kanjeng Susuhanan Prabhu Sri Pakubuwono X Senapati ing Alaga Ngah ‘Abdu’l-Rahman Saiyid ud-din Panatagama, Susuhanan of Surakarta

Sumbr wiki

1920

Solo, Paku Buwono X and the Ratu Mas, 1920

 

Difference hairstyle

Near same with 1900 picture of princess

 

or

Ratu kedaton garwa utama Sultan Hemangkubowono V

or

Princess Gusti Nurul of PB X

Hairstyle not same

 

 

Tempo Doeloe #44 – Princess Gusti Nurul

Sorry for the poor quality, this card is probably used for making a bigger portrait. My guess is that this card is from the Yogyakarta area but I’m not sure. The date is unknown and the written text at the back side is hard to read but could be: R.A. Siti Suhardijah…

Update: thanks to Widy or Dee the mystery is solved, it’s princess Gusti Nurul…🙂

———————————————————————- ————————————————————

“The beautiful Princess Nurul (1921-present) was unique for her days. She kept our traditional values but yet she was also very modern and rebellious. She rode horses, played tennis and swam. Yet she was also the best dancer in the palace. So much so that in 1936 Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands requested the young Princess to dance at the wedding of Princess Juliana and Prince Bernard. Of everything that she was known of, she was famously known as the princess who turned down marriage proposals from the country’s most powerful men. A princess who stayed single in her 30s… well, in her days that was unheard of. Romantic? I think more than anything else, she was strong willed. Very.”

Compare with the picture of the imperial ceramic below sam or not?

 

 

 

 

1921

Soeharto, Presiden ke-2 Republik Indonesia, lahir di Dusun Kemusuk, Desa Argomulyo, Kecamatan Sedayu, Bantul, Yogyakarta, 8 Juni 1921.

Orangtua : Kertosoediro (Alm) dan Sukirah (Alm)
Istri : Siti Hartinah (Alm)

Anak :

Siti Hardijanti Hastuti
Sigit Harjojudanto
Bambang Trihatmodjo
Siti Hediati Harijadi
Hutomo Mandala Putra
Siti Hutami Endang Adiningsih

 

Sumber

Uniqpost

 

 

1923

WalterSpies

 

Namun dengan 1923 ia tidak lagi merasa di rumah dengan semua dekadensi Eropa.  Dalam jurnalnya dia menulis: “Saya kemudian memutuskan untuk hanya pergi ke suatu tempat, di mana saja, yang jauh dari dan setelah melakukan perjalanan yang menantang dan tangguh sebagai pelaut di kapal kargo aku tiba di Jawa di mana saya memutuskan untuk melompat dari kapal.”

Ia kemudian ke Yogya dan bertugas sebagai konduktor orkes eropa dari Sultan Jogya

.1923
The Wayang beber painting -colour engraved
The picture of Wayang Beber painted on canvas made from cloth scroll plate.

On 31 January 1923,

Mrs Goei Ing Hong for the first time mentions the name of her

daughter and in a the plain and simple hand-written Java_Malay she informs them ‘Die

sini saia en Kiem Lan ada baik’.

Mrs Goei was a very active person socially. She was involved in many cultural

activities and became a highly respected social figure in Chinese life in Central Java and

beyond. For all her work she was awarded “Ridder in the Orde van Oranje_Nassau” and

received very prestigious Chinese decorations. In developing these activities she more

than once invited the royal couple from Yogya to be the guest of honour, to which they

generally agreed. But moreover her house at Plampitan 9 in Semarang was also a

regular meeting place for members of the Be_Kwee_Oei family with the Mangkunegoro,

Ratu Timur and his secretary Raden Mas Sajojo Soerjohadikoesomo. In addition it was

a place for rest and leisure of the Mangkunegoro. On his trips to and from Batavia and

other parts of West- and Central Java, whenever he would pass Semarang, he would

most of the time stay in the Goei-Be house in Plampitan, where Soen Nio and her

Java’s Capitan Cina and Javanese royal families daughter Kiem Lan would render him all kinds of services.

 

Because of Soen Nio’s extensive network in Semarang and Shanghai business

circles, she was often asked to act as an intermediary when the Mangkunegoro wanted

some more expensive goods, like a new car.

 

 

1923

Perjuangannya Moh Hatta  bersama ‘ Perhimpunan Indonesia ‘ di negeri Belanda. Kau memang seorang yang gemar membaca. Dari oase ilmu pengetahuan yang kerap dilahap, melahirkan tulisan dan pemikiran tentang bangsanya. Tulisannya  yang menggegerkan berjudul “ Indonesia di tengah tengah revolusi Asia “ di muat dalam buku peringatan 15 tahun berdirinya Perhimpunan Indonesia pada tahun 1923.(sumber imanbrotoseno)

1923

Awalnya tempat pembuangan tokoh-tokoh Indonesia pada zaman Belanda ini terdapat di Luar Negeri, bebarapa tokoh-tokoh Indonesia telah dibuang dan diasingkan di Luar Indonesia, tokoh Indonesia yang terakhir dibuang di Luar Negeri adalah Semaun dan Darsono (dua orang ini adalah pemimpin pemogokan kaum buruh pada tahun 1923).[6]

1924

“Bagi kita, orang Islam, tak ada sosialisme atau rupa-rupa “isme” lain-lainnya, yang lebih baik, lebih elok dan lebih mulia, melainkan sosialisme yang berdasar Islam itulah saja” (HOS Tjokroaminoto)

Tahun 1924 di Mataram,  HOS Tjokroaminoto seorang pendiri dan sekaligus ketua Sarekat Islam (SI) menulis buku “Islam dan Sosialisme”.

Buku tersebut ditulis oleh Tjokro, di samping karena pada waktu itu tengah terjadi pemilihan-pemilihan ideologi bangsa, juga lantaran pada waktu itu paham ideologi yang digagas para tokoh dunia sedang digandrungi oleh kalangan pelajar Indonesia, di antaranya sosialisme, Islamisme, kapitalisme dan liberalisme.

Buku Tjokroaminoto ini diterbitkan kembali oleh penerbit TriDe tahun 2003, yang meskipun merupakan pikiran lama, tetapi menjadi penting bagi generasi muda sekarang untuk memberikan inspirasi bagi pemikiran-pemikiran kedepan, pemikiran-pemikiran mendasar, untuk membangun fondasi kokoh bagi kemajuan Indonesia.

 Memuat tentang pemahaman arti sosialisme, sosialisme dalam Islam, sosialisme Nabi Muhammad serta sahabat-sahabat nabi yang berjiwa sosialis dan komparasi-komparasi sosialisme ala Barat dengan sosialisme ala Islam.

Diantara bab yang menarik untuk di bahas adalah “Sosialisme Dalam Islam” Bab I hal 24 – 41 (Penerbit TriDe). Berikut ini petikan dari Sosialisme dalam Islam :

Dasarnya Sosialisme Islam
“Kaanannasu ummatan wahidatan”

Peri-kemanusiaan adalah menjadi satu persatuan”, begitulah pengajaran di dalam Qur’an yang suci itu, yang menjadi pokoknya sosialisme. Kalau segenap peri-kemanusiaan kita anggap menjadi satu persatuan, tak boleh tidak wajiblah kita berusaha akan mencapai keselamatan bagi mereka semuanya.

Ada lagi satu sabda Allah di dalam Al Qur’an memerintahkan kepada kita, bahwa kita “harus membikin perdamaian (keselamatan) diantara kita”. Lebih jauh di dalam al Qur’an ada dinyatakan, bahwa “kita ini telah dijadikan dari seorang-orang laki-laki dan seorang-orang perempuan” dan “bahwa Tuhan telah memisah-misahkan kita menjadi golongan-golongan dan suku-suku, agar supaya kita mengetahui satu sama lain”.

Nabi kita Muhammad s.a.w. telah bersabda, bahwa “Tuhan telah menghilangkan kecongkakan dan kesombongan di atas asal turunan yang tinggi. Seorang Arab tidak mempunyai ketinggian atau kebesaran yang melebihi seorang asing, melainkan barang apa yang telah yakin bagi dia karena takut dan baktinya kepada Tuhan”. Bersabda pula Nabi kita s.a.w. bahwa “Allah itu hanyalah satu saja, dan asalnya sekalian manusia itu hanyalah satu, mereka ampunnya agama hanyalah satu juga”.

Berasalan sabda Tuhan dan sabda Nabi yang saya tirukan ini, maka nyatalah, bahwa sekalian anak Adam itu ialah anggotanya satu badan yang beraturan (organich lichaam), karena mereka itu telah dijadikan dari pada satu asal. Apabila salah satu anggotanya mendapat sakit, maka kesakitannya itu menjadikan rusak teraturnya segenap badan (organisme).

Barang apa yang telah saya uraikan ini, adalah saya pandang menjadi pokoknya sosialisme yang sejati, yaitu sosialisme cara Islam (bukan sosialisme cara Barat).

Akan menunjukkan, bahwa agama Islam itu sungguh-sungguh menuju perdamaian dan keselamatan, maka di dalam bab ini baiklah saya uraikan maknanya perkataan “Islam”. Adapun makna ini adalah empat rupa:

  1. Islam –menurut pokok kata “Aslama” –maknanya: menurut kepada Allah dan kepada utusannya dan kepada pemerintahan yang dijadikan dari pada umat Islam. (“Ya ayyuhalladzina amanu athi’ulloha wa’athi urrosula waulilamri minkum”)
  2. Islam –menurut pokok kata “Salima” –maknanya: selamat. Tegasnya: apabila orang dengan sungguh-sungguh menjalankan perintah-perintah agama Islam, maka tak boleh tidak ia akan mendapat keselamatan di dunia dan keselamatan di akhirat,
  3. karena orang Islam itu harus bertabi’at selamat, begitulah menurut hadist sabda Nabi kita yang suci Mohammad s.a.w.: “Afdhalul mukminina islaman man salimal muslimuna min lisanihi wayadihi”, artinya: orang mukmin yang teranggap utama dalam pada menjalankan agama Islam, ialah mereka yang mempunyai tabi’at selamat yang menyelamatkan sekalian orang Islam, karena dari pada bicaranya dan tangannya.
  4. Islam, menurut pokok-kata “Salmi” –maknanya: rukun. Tegasnya: orang yang menjalankan agama Islam haruslah rukun. (An aqimuddina wala tatafarraq fiha”, artinya: Hendaklah (kamu) mendirikan agama (Islam) dan janganlah (kamu) sama berselisihan.
  5. Islam, menurut pokok-kata “Sulami”– maknanya: tangga, ialah tangga atau tingkat-tingkat untuk mencapai keluruhan dunia dan keluruhan akhirat. Jikalau orang Islam dengan sungguh-usngguh menjalankakn agamanya, maka tak boleh tidak mereka akan mencapai derajat yang tinggi sebagai yang telah di jalankan oleh khulafaurrasyidin.

Dasarnya Perintah-perintah Agama yang Bersifat Sosialistich

Dalam pada mengarangkan perintah-perintah yang berhubungan dengan jalannya ibadah, maka Nabi kita Muhammad s.a.w., ialah pengubah terbesar tentanghal-ikhwal pergaulan hidup manusia bersama (sociale Hervormer) yang terkenal oleh dunia, tiadalah melupakan asas-asas demokrasi tentang persamaan dan persaudaraan dan juga asas-asas sosialisme.

Menurut perintah-perintah agama yang telah ditetapkan oleh Nabi kita, maka sekalian orang Islam, kaya dan miskin, dari rupa-rupa bangsa dan warna kulit, pada tiap-tiap hari Jum’at haruslah datang berkumpul di dalam masjid dan menjalankan shalat dengan tidak mengadakan perbedaan sedikitpun juga tentang tempat dan derajat, di bawah pimpinannya tiap-tiap orang yang dipilih di dalam perkumpulan itu. Dua kali dalam tiap-tiap tahun sekalian penduduknya satu kota atau tempat, datanglah berkumpul akan menjalankan shalat dan berjabatan tangan serta berangkul-rangkulan satu sama lain dengan rasa persaudaraannya. Dan akhirnya tiap-tiap orang Islam diwajibkan satu kali di dalam hidupnya akan mengunjungi Mekah pada waktu yang telah ditentukan, bersama dengan berpuluhdan beratus ribu saaudaranya Islam.

Di dalam kumpulan besar ini, beribuan mereka yang datang dari tempat yang dekat tempat yang jauh sama bertemuan disatu tempat pusat, semuanya sama berpakaian satu rupa yang sangat sederhana, buka kepala dan kaki telanjang, orang-orang yang tertinggi dan terendah derajatnya dari rupa-rupa negeri dan tempat, rupa-rupa pula bangsa dan warna kulitnya; kumpulan besar yang kejadian pada tiap-tiap tahun ini adalah satu pertunjukan sosialme cara Islam dan ialah contoh besar dari pada “persamaan” dan “persaudaraan”. Di dalam kumpulan ini tidak menampak perbedaan sedikitpun juga diantara seorang raja dengan hambanya. Hal inilah bukan saja menanam tetapi juga melakukan (mempraktekkan) perasaan, bahwa segala manusia itu termasuk bilangannya satu persatuan dan diwajibkan kepada mereka itu akan berlaku satu sama lain dengan persamaan yang sempurna sebagai anggota-anggotanya satu persaudaraan.

Kumpulan besar yang kejadian pada tiap-tiap tahun ini bukan saja menunjukkan persamaan harga dan persamaan derajat diantara orang dengan orang, tetapi juga menunjukkan persatuan maksud dan tujuan pada jalannya segenap peri-kemanusiaan. Berpuluh ribu orang laki-laki dan perempuan, tua dan muda, datang di lautan pasir itu dengan segala kemudaratan di dalam perjalannya, hanyalah dengan satu maksud yaitu akan menunjukkan kehormatan dan kepujiannya kepada satu Allah, yang meskipun mereka bisa mendapatkan dimana-mana tempat dan pada tiap-tiap saat, tetapi kecintaan mereka kepada Allah itu diperumumkan di dalam satu kumpulan bersama-sama sebagai Tuhan mereka bersama, ialah Tuhan yang mencinta mereka semuanya –Rabbil ‘alamin. Cita-cita yang terlahir di dalam kumpulan besar ini ialah guna menunjukkan pada waktu yang bersama akan keadaan lahir yang membuktikan persaudaraan bersama dan rasa cinta-mencinta di dalam batin, agar supaya di dalam rohnya tiap-tiap orang Islam tertanamlah cita-cita bersal dari satu Tuhan dan cita-cita persaudaraan diantara manusia dengan manusia.

Sosialisme di dalam Islam bukan saja diajarkan sebagai teori, tetapi dilakukan (dipraktikkan) juga sebagai wajib.

Kedermawanan Cara Islam

Nabi kita menyuruh kita berlaku dermawan dengan asas-asas yang bersifat sosialis. Sedang Quran berulang-ulang menyatakan, bahwa memberi sedekah itu bukannya bersifat kebajikan, tetapi bersifat satu wajib yang keras dan tidak boleh dilalaikannya. Kecuali yang lain-lainnya, maka tentang pemberian sedekah itu Allah ta’ala ada bersabda di dalam Quran beginilah maksudnya:

“Kamu tidak pernah akan dapat mencapai keadilan, kecuali apabila kamu telah memberikan daripada apa yang kamu cintai; dan Tuhan mengetahui apa yang kamu berikan itu”.

Di satu tempat yang lain, Allah ta’ala bersabda di dalam Quran begini maksudnya:
“Barang siapa memberi sedekah dari pada kekayannya, guna membuat lebih suci dirinya. Dan tidak supaya kebajikannya akan diberi upahan. Tetapi barang siapa memberikan kekayannya untuk keperluan perkaranya dia punya Tuhan, yaitu Tuhan yang Maha luhur. Dan kemudiannya tidak boleh tidak dia akan bersenang dengan dia punya upahan”.

Masih ada lagi lain-lain perintah Tuhan yang mewajibkan kita memberi sedekah dari pada kekayaan kita. Satu dua sabda Nabi kita, yang menunjukkan sifat sosialis yang terkandung di dalam aturan pemberian sedekah, adalah seperti yang berikut:

“Sekalian makhluk Tuhan adalah Tuhan ampunnya keluarga dan ialah yang sangat berbakti (percaya) kepada Tuhan yaitu barang siapa berusaha berbuat sebanyak-banyaknya kebajikan kepada makhluk Tuhan”.

“Memberi sedekah adalah satu wajib bagi kamu. Sedekah hendaklah diberikan oleh orang kaya diberikan kepada orang miskin”.

“Siapakah yang sangat dikasihi oleh Tuhan? Yaitu barang siapa mendatangkan sebesar-besarnya kebaikan bagi makhluk Tuhan”.

Sepanjang pengetahuan saya, maka hanyalah Nabi kita itu saja pemberi wet yang telah menetapkan ukuran besar-kecilnya kedermawanan yang berupa sedekah. Sepanjang kemauan Islam maka sedekah ada dua macamnya, yaitu sedekah yang bergantung dari kemauannya pemberi, dan sedekah yang diwajibkan, ialah zakat namanya. Menurut perintah Tuhan di dalam Al Qur’an maka zakat haruslah diberikan kepada delapan golongan manusia: 1. Orang-orang fakir; 2. Orang-orang miskin; 3. ‘Amil, yaitu orang-orang yang diserahi pekerjaan mengumpulkan dan membagi zakat; 4. Mu’amalah kulubuhum (mereka yang hatinya harus dilembekkan akan menurut kepada agama Islam), yakni orang-orang yang meskipun sudah masuk agama Islam, tetapi kerajinannya kepada agama masih lembek, atau orang-orang ternama yang boleh melakukan pengaruh di atas masuknya lain-lain orang kepada agama Islam; 5. Buat membeli lepas orang-orang budak belian. 6. Orang-orang berhutang yang tidak berkuasa membayar hutang itu, yakni hutang untuk keperluan ke-islaman; 7. Orang-orang yang melakukan perbuatan untuk memajukan agama Tuhan dan 8. Orang-orang bepergian, yang tidak akan dapat menyampaikan maksud perginya kalau tidak dengan pertolongannya sesama orang Islam.

Adapun besarnya zakat adalah ditentukan sekian, sehingga apabila segenap peri-kemanusiaan menurut hukum Islam tentang zakat, ditambah pula dengan kedermawanan yang lain-lainnya sebagai yang dikehendaki oleh Islam, maka di dunia kita akan datanglah peri-keadaan sosialisme, peri-keadaan sama rata sama rasa, ialah peri-keadaan selamat.

Maksudnya melakukan perintah tentang kedermawanan di dalam wet Islam, ternyata ada tiga rupa, yang mana masing-masing sama mempunyai dasar sosialis.

  1. Akan membangun rasa ridha mengorbankan diri dan rasa melebihkan keperluan umum dari pada keperluan diri sendiri. “Lebih baik mati sendiri, tetapi janganlah membiarkan lain orang mati karena kelaparan”, –inilah rupanya yang telah menjadi pokoknya cita-cita.
  2. Akan membahagi kekayaan sama-rata di dalam dunia Islam. Dengan lantaran menjadikan peberian zakat sebagai salah satu rukun Islam, adalah dikehendaki; supaya umpamanya ada orang mendapat tinggalan warisan harta-benda yang besar, orang-orang yang miskin dan kekurangan akan mendapat bahagian dari pada kekayaan itu.
  3. Akan menuntun persaan orang, supaya tidak anggap kemiskinan itu satu kehinaan, supaya orang anggap kemiskinan itu ada lebih baik dari pada kejahatan. Sekalian orang suci dalam Islam sukalah menjadi miskin, sedang kita punya Nabi yang mulia itu sendiri telah berkata: “Kemiskinan itu menjadikan besar hati saya”. (Al Fakir fakhri).

Dasar sosialistik yang tersebut ketiga ini perlu sekali ditanamkan dalam hati orang dalam pergaulan hidup bersama antara bangsa Arab pada zaman dulu, karena banyaklah diantara mereka yang congkak di atas asal-turunan dan peri-keadaan yang asal dari nenek moyangnya, tetapi lebih perlu pula sekarang ini ditanamkan dalam hatinya orang-orang bangsawan dan hartawan dalam pergaulan hidup bersama pada zaman sekarang.

Persaudaraan Islam

Islam adalah sebenar-benarnya satu agama yang bersifat demokratis dan telah menetapkan beberapa banyak hukum yang bersifat demokratis bagi orang-orang yang memluk dia. Islam menentukan persaudaraan yang harus dilakukan benar-benar diantara orang-orang Islam di negeri yang mana pun juga, baik yang berkulit merah ataupun berkulit kuning, berkulit putih atau hitam, yang kaya atau yang miskin. Persaudaraan Islam sangatlah elok dan indah sifatnya. Ia dapat menghilangkan permusuhan yang asal dari turun-turunan yang sudah berabad lamanya; orang asing dijadikannya sahabat karib dan persahabatannya itu lebih kuat dari pada perhubungan saudara yang asal dari darah.

Persaudaraan Islam sampai pada tingkat yang tinggi sekali, yaitu terbukti: sepeninggalnya Nabi Muhammad s.a.w. pimpinan Republik Arab tidak diberikan kepada kaluarganya yang terdekat dan tercinta, tetapi diberikan kepada salah seorang sahabtnya. Isalm telah menghapuskan perbdaan karena bangsa dan karena kulit sampai begitu luasnya, sehingga beberapa orang Abyssine yang “hitam kulitnya” telah menjadi pemimpin yang sangat terhotmat diantara orang-orang Islam, sedang tiga orang anggota yang sangat ternama dari pada pergaulan hidup Islam bersama –yaitu Hasan, Bilal dan Suhail masing-masing berasal dari Basrah, Habash, (Abyssine) dan Rum (Tuki di Azie) –ketiganya ini berbeda-beda juga warna kulitnya. Islam membunh perbedaan karena kaste dan karena klas begitu sempurna, sehingga orang-orang budak belian telah dijadikan komandan dari bala-tentara Islam memerintah di atas orang-orang dari asal turunan yang tinggi dan tinggi pula derajatnya. Perkawinan antara budak belian dengan orang merdeka yang ternama dirayakan dengan seharusnya, dan anak-anak yang terlahir dari pada mereka dihormat satu rupa juga sebagai anak-anak turunan bangsawan.

Hingga pada dewasa ini di tanah Arab adalah berlaku persamaan yang sempurna antara orang dengan orang, dan seorang penuntutn unta, seorang saudagar kaya dan seorang yang mempunyai tanah, makan dan minum dan hidup bersama-sama dengan tidak ada perbedaannya. Bahkan di Hindia, di dalam negeri Islam Bopal, orang-orang budak makan di meja bersama-sama dengan tuannya. Meskipun Nabi kta s.a.w. pada zamannya tidak atau tidak bisa menghapuskan aturan budak belian—(kaum miskin, kaum proletar, dalam abad ke 20 ini pun nasibnya tidak lebih baik dan tidak lebih menyenangkan dari pada nasibnya orang-orang budak belian di negeri Islam), tetapi Nabi kita, ialah Pengubah dunia yang terbesar, telah membeli tusukan yang terkeras kepada aturan budak belian, yaitu dengan lantaran derajatnya budak belian disamakannya dengan derajatnya orang merdeka. Diperintahkan oleh Nabi kita, supaya orang-orang budak belian diberi makanan satu rupa yang dimakan oleh tuannya, diberi pakaian satu rupa yang dipakai oleh tuannya. Orang merdeka diperkenankan berkawin sama budak belian, dan orang-orang bnudak belian mendapat persamaan hak dan persamaan perikeadaan dalam hukum dengan orang-orang merdeka.

Di Hindustan adalah beberapa raja pada dulu-kala yang asal turunan dari orang-orang budak belian. Diantara yang lain-lainnya, maka raja Kutubuddin yang ketika masih anak-anak menjadi budak belian, telah memerintahkan negeri yang amat besar dengan segala kebijaksanaan. Beberapa orang dari pada raja-raja yang tersebut itu, ialah pemimpin yagn sangat bijaknya dan mashur karena tinggi pelajarannya.

Menara Kutub Minar di kota Delhi (Hindustan), yang didirikan oleh raja yang pertama-tama asal budak belian di Hindustan pada permulaan abad yang ke 13, sekarang ini masih berdiri sebagai protes terhadap kepada pengarang-pengarang bangsa Eropa yang dengan buta-tulinya senantiasa membusuk-busukkan aturan budak belian Muslim.

 Kutub Minar itulah satu tanda peringatan yang gagah menunjukkan betapa besar jasanya Islam kepada orang-orang budak Islam.

Islam dan Anasir-anasir Sosialisme

Menurut pendapatan saya di dalam faham sosialisme adalah tiga anasir, yaitu: kemerdekaan (virjheid-liberty), persamaan (gelijkheid-equality) dan persaudaraan (broederschap-fraternity). Ketiganya anasir ini adalah dimasukkan sebanyak-banyaknya di dalam peraturan-peraturan Islam dan di dalam perikatan hidup bersama yang telah dijadikan oleh Nabi kita yang suci Muhammad s.a.w.

  1. Kemerdekaan
    Tiap-tiap orang Islam tidak harus takut kepada siapa atau apa pun juga, melainkan diwajibkan takut kepada Allah saja. “Lahaula wala kuwwata illa billah” (Tidak ada pertolongan dan kekuatan, melainkan dari pada Allah belaka). “Iyyaka na’budu wa iyyaka nasta’in” (Hanyalah Tuhan saja yang kita sembah dan hanyalah Tuhan sendiri yang kita mintai pertolongan).

Beberapa orang Arab, yang tidak biasa tinggal berumah yang tetap, belum pernah melihat rumah batu, yang dulu dengan pakaiannya yang buruk dikirmkan menghadap raja-raja Persi dan Roma yang berkuasa, meskipun raja-raja ini mempertunjukkan kekuasaan dan kebesarannya, orang-orang Arab tadi tiadalah menundukkan badannya dan kelihatan tidak bertakut sedikit pun juga di mukanya raja-raja tadi.

Sesungguhnya di dunia ini tidak ada barang sesuatu yang menakutkan mereka. Mereka merasa tidak menanggung jawab kepada apa pun juga, melainkan kepada mereka ampunya persaan batin sendiri, kepad mereka ampunya Allah yang Maha Kuasa, Maha Besar dan Maha Tinggi. Mereka itu merdekalah seperti hawa dan merasakan seluas-luasnya kemerdekaan yang orang dapat memikirkannya.
Quran yang suci menyatakan:

“Kemurahan, yang Tuhan akan mengaruniakan sebanyak-banyak kepada manusia, tiadalah dapat dicegahkan oleh siapa pun juga; barang apa yang Tuhan mempertegahkan, tiadalah dapat dikaruniakan kepada manusia kalau tidak dengan perantaraan Tuhan, dan Dialah yang kuasa dan berpengetahuan.” (Surah XXXV).

  1. Persamaan
    Tentang “persamaan” maka orang-orang Muslimin dalam zaman dulu bukan saja semua anggap dirinya sama, tetapi mereka semua anggap menjadi satu. Diantara orang-orang Muslimin tidak ada sesuatu perbedaan yang mana pun juga macamnya.

Dalam pergaulan hidup bersama diantara mereka tidak ada perbedaan derajat dan tidak ada pula sebab-sebab yang boleh menimbulkan perbedaan klas. Tentang hal ini Khalifah Sayidina Umar r.a. adalah sangat kerasnya.

 Salah satu suratnya menceritakan satu perkara yang menunjukkan asas-asasnya dengan seterang-terangnya. Kecuali yang lain-lainnya maka ia telah menulis kepada Abu Ubaidah, yang salinannya kurang lebih begini:

…Begitulah bicara saya disebabkan oleh Jabalah Ibn Ayhim dari suku bangsa Gassan, yang datang pad kita dengan sanak saudaranya dan kepala dari suku bangsanya, yang saya terima dan saya jamu dengan sepatutnya.

 

 Di muka saya mereka menyatakan pengakuan memeluk agama yang benar, sayapun bermuka-cita bahwa “Allah telah menguatkan agama yang hak dan bertambah banyak orang yang memeluknya, lantaran mereka itu datang masuk dan mengetahui apa yang ada di dalam rahasia.

 

Kita bersama pergi ziarah ke Mekkah, dan Jabalah pergi mengelilingi ka’bah tujuh kali. Ketika ia pergi keliling, maka kejadianlah ada seorang laki-laki dari suku bangsa Fizarah menginjak dia punya vest hingga jatuh dari pundaknya. Jabalah membelukkan diri sambil berkata: “Celakalah kamu! Kamu telah menelanjangkan belakangku di dalam ka’bah yang suci”.

 

 Si penginjak bersumpah, bahwa ia berbuat yang demikian itu tidak dengan sengaja. Tetapi lalu dipukul oleh Jabalah, dipecahkan hidungnya dan dicabut empat giginya yang sebelah muka.

 

Si miskin yang teraniaya segeralah datang pada saya dan mengadukan keberatannya sambil meminta pertolongan saya. Maka saya perintahkan membawa Jabalah di muka saya, dan saya tanya apakah yang menyebabkan padanya telah memukul saudaranya Islam dengan cara yang demikian ini, mencabut gigi dan memecahkan hidungnya. Ia pun menjawab, bahwa orang tadi telah menginjak vest dan menelanjangkan belakangnya, dengan ditambah perkataan: kalau tidak mengingat hormat yang ia harus tunjukkan kepada ka’bah yang suci, niscaya orang itu telah dibunuh olehnya.

 

 Saya pun menjawab, bahwa ia telah melahirkan pengakuan yang terang memberatkan dirinya sendiri; dan apabila orang yang menanggung kerugian itu tidak memberi ampun padanya, saya mesti menuntut perkara padanya selaku pembalasan. Ia menjawab, bahwa ia raja dan orang yang lainnya itu orang tani”.

 

Saya menyatakan padanya, bahwa hal itu tidak dapat diperdulikan, mereka keduanya adalah orang Islam dan oleh karenanya mereka bersamaanlah adanya. Sesudahnya itu ia minta, supaya dia punya hukuman dipertangguhkan sampai keesokan harinya. Saya menanya kepada orang yang mendapat kerugian, apakah ia suka menunggu selama itu; iapun melahirkan mufakatnya. Tetapi pada waktu malam Jabalah dan teman-temannya sama melarikan dirinya”.

Gibbon, seorang pengarang riwayat bangsa Inggris yang terkenal namanya (meninggalkan dunia dalam tahun 1794) telah berkata yang salinannya kurang lebih begini:

“Tetapi berjuta orang Afrika dan Asia yang sama berganti agama (memeluk agama Islam-pen) dan sama menguatkan tali ikatannya orang-orang Arab yang percaya (beragama Islam.—pen);

 

 mereka telah menyatakan kepercayaannya kepada satu Allah dan kepada utusan Allah, itulah niscaya dari sebab tertarik oleh barang yang indah, tetapi dari sebab dipaksanya.

 

Dengan lantaran mengulangi ucapan satu kalimat dan kehilangan sepotong daging, maka orang hamba rakyat atau budak belian, orang hukuman atau penjahat, dalam sekejap mata berdirilah menjadi sahabat yang merdeka dan bersamaan derajatnya yang mengikat dipecahkan, sumpah tidak berkawin dihapuskan oleh pelajaran yang sesuai dengan keadaan ‘alam,

kekuatan-kekuatan batin yang tidur di dalam gedung terungku menjadi bangunlah karena mendengar terompetnya orang-orang Arab, dan di dalam mengumpulkan dunia jadi satu, tiap-tiap anggotanya satu pergaulan hidup bersama yang baru itu naiklah sampai kepada muka yang dijadikan oleh ‘alam menurut dia punya kekuatan dan keberanian”.

 

(Tidak dirintangi oleh wet-wet yang memperbedakan bangsa, klas atau warna kulit, seperti yang lumrahnya ada di dalam pergaulan hidup bersama yang bersifat kapitalistik ini. –pen).

Persamaan yang ‘adil serupa itu telah menyebabkan segenap umat Islam menjadi satu badan, satu nyawa. Cita-cita persamaan yang dinyatakan oleh Nabi Muhammad s.a.w. adalah seperti berikut:

“Segala orang Islam adalah sebagai satu orang. Apabila seorang-orang merasa sakit dikepalanya, seluruh badannya merasa sakit juga, dan kalau matanya sakit, segenap badannya pun merasa sakit juga”. “Segala orang Islam adalah sebagai satu bina-bina, beberapa bahagian menguatkan bahagian yang lain-lainnya, dengan laku yang demikian itu juga yang satu menguatkan yang lainnya”.

Orang Islam tidak memperkenankan juga orang-orang yang tidak Islam membuat perbedaan antara orang dengan orang. Apabila mereka menerima utusan-utusannya raja Kristen, dan ketika utusan itu menurut ‘adat kebiasaannya sendiri berjongkok di mukanya kepala-kepala Muslimin, maka kepala-kepala ini tidak meluluskan utusan tadi berjongkok, sebab mereka itu sama-sama makhluk Tuhan belaka.

c.Persaudaraan
Persaudaraan diantara orang-orang Islam satu sama lain adalah sangat bagusnya. Rasa cinta diantara mereka itu seperti rasa cinta diantara saudara yang sebenar-benarnya. Di dalam Quran ada sabda Tuhan, menyatakan bahwa Tuhan sendiri menaroh kecintaan dan rasa persaudaraan di dalam hatinya tiap-tiap orang Islam akan mencintai dan merasa bersaudara kepada sesama saudara Islam. “Dan Tuhan menaruh kecintaan di dalam hati mereka itu. Meskipun kamu (Muhammad) telah memberikan segala apa yang ada di dalam dunia, tiadalah kamu akan dapat menjadikan kecintaan di dalam hati mereka. Tetapi Tuhan telah menjadikan kecintaan diantara mereka itu”, begitulah sabda Tuhan di dalam Al Quran.

Adalah pula satu dua ayat di dalam Quran, yang maksudnya harus saya buka disini, seperti yang berikut:

“Peganglah kokoh tali Tuhan yang mengikat semuanya, janganlah menimbulkan percerai-beraian, dan ingatlah akan kemurahan Tuhan kepada kamu, ketika Tuhan menaruh kecintaan di dalam hatimu pada kalanya kamu bermusuhan satu sama lain, dan sekarang kamu menjadi saudara karena karunia Tuhan”.

Sabda Nabi kita tentang persaudaraan:

“Orang-orang Islam adalah saudara di dalam agama dan tidak boleh tindas-menindas satu sama lain, juga tidak boleh melalaikan tolong-menolong satu sama lain, juga tidak boleh hina menghina satu sama lain”.

“Barang siapa tidak bercinta kepada makhluk Tuhan dan kepada anak-anaknya sendiri, Tuhan tidak akan mencintai dia”.

“Tidak seorang mempunyai kepercayaan yang sempurna, sebelum ia mengharapkan bagi saudaranya barang apa yang dia mengharap bagi dirinya sendiri”.

Cita-cita persaudaraan yang disiarkan oleh Nabi kita muhammad s.a.w. adlah bagitu luasnya, sehingga Nabi kita telah minta kepada orang-orang yang mengikuti dia, hendaklah mereka berlaku di atas dia sebagai saudaranya sendiri.

Kekuatannya persaan sama-sama dan persaudaraan Islam adalah begitu besar, sehingga Faridduin Attar, seorang Sufi Islam besar, pada suatu waktu telah melahirkan pengharapannya begini: “Mudah-mudahanlah kesusahan sekalian orang ditarohkan di dalam hatiku, agar supaya sekalian mereka itu terhindar dari kesusahannya”.
Dengan sebenarnyalah Tuan M. A. Hamid Snow boleh berkata dengan suka citanya, kira-kira seperti berikut:

“Satu warnanya Islam yang nyata, ialah satu pelajaran yang menyatakan halnya persaudaraan dan Persamaan. Pada pintunya Islam, segala apa saja adalah terhindar dari pada bau-bau yang menunjukkan klas atau kecongkakan dalam pergaulan hidup bersama. “

Dengan sebenar-benarnyalah persaudaraan di dalam Islam adalah sesempurna-sempurnanya persaudaraan, baik didunia maupun persaudaraan di akherat.

Referensi : “Islam & Sosialisme”, HOS Tjokroaminoto, Penerbit TriDe, Yogyakarta, 2003

1924

Chinese temple at Makassar in 1924

In 1924,

the colonial government again decided to open a new tertiary-level educational facility, the Rechts Hogeschool (RHS), to train civilian officers and servants.

1924 Het bezoek van de Paku Buwono de Xde aan het complex. Even terzijde, maar BOVEN de Paku staat een Hollandse dame in de “deur” opening. Het verwondert me, dat dit toegestaan werd. Het verwondert me ook, dat deze dame de enige Europese is in het gezelschap. Of zou zij horen bij de fotograaf? Foto: Collectie tropenmuseum.

1924

Major der Chinezn semarang Oei Tiong Ham  buried Ceremony

ship

Cerita 4 seri ini mengingat kebaikan dan jiwa sosial Majoor Oei Tiong Ham,mungkin ditulis pada saat Majoor Oei Tiong Ham tsb meninggal.

 

   
  Orang kaya dari Semarang (2)  

 

 

 

…………………………………………………………

 

 

 


for everyone

 

 

B

Prev

 

 

Ada photo ttg penguburan Majoor Oei Tiong Ham di atas, menarik photo di Bagian ke 2 tsb :

Tampak kereta mewah tp sebelumnya ada keterangan jenasah dipindahkan dari “praoe” (perahu ? .. apa sebelumnya Istana Oei Tiong Ham yang lain di Simongan tsb harus lewat kali Semarang (Banjir kanal Barat sekarang)) ke “vrathtauto” (mobil).

read more info

Beberapa hari lalu aku baca buku Oei Hui Lan tulisan dari dua bersaudara Agnes – Danovar. Bukunya gak tebel dan based on true story. Very recommended reading and I finished it in a day 🙂

 

 

Oei Hui Lan adalah putri kesayangan raja gula dari Semarang Oei Tiong Ham, yang juga orang paling kaya se Asia Tenggara skitar jaman sebelum kemerdekaan. Sebagai putri konglomerat pada masa itu, dia bisa mendapatkan apa saja yang dia mau. Rumahnya di Semarang besar berhektar-hektar, seperti istana, dan punya taman yang besar, bahkan kebun binatang sendiri dalam tamannya. Oei Hui Lan adalah putri kedua dari istri pertama Oei Tiong Ham. Karena istri pertamanya tidak bisa memberikan anak lelaki, maka Oei Tiong Ham mengawini beberapa wanita lain. Sepanjang hidupnya ia memiliki sekitar 8 istri dan 42 anak (bisa lebih). Tapi Oei Hui Lan ini paling disayang oleh ayahnya, tidak ada keinginannya yang tidak dipenuhi. Bahkan saking sayangnya, kelak Oei Tiong Ham ini ‘hanya’ mewariskan 12 juta dollar untuk istri pertama, 1 juta dollar untuk putri pertama (kakak Oei Hui Lan), dan 15 juta dollar untuk Oei Hui Lan. Pada masa itu warisan sebesar itu tentu sangat sangat luar biasa.

Oei Hui Lan ini kemudian menikah dengan diplomat China Wellington Koo. Walaupun suaminya tidak kaya raya, namun status dan kedudukannya membuat Oei Hui Lan jadi sangat terkenal. Dia bertemu dengan berbagai orang yang punya kedudukan, seperti Ratu Inggris dan Putri Alice dari Monaco. Bahkan ia menjalin persahabatan dengan banyak orang-orang penting di dunia. Semasa hidupnya Oei Hui Lan banyak berpindah tempat tinggal, dari Semarang – London – Paris – Washington –  Beijing mengikuti dinas suaminya. Dan setiap dia pindah dia selalu memugar tempat tinggal dinasnya menjadi istana yang indah. Bahkan di beberapa tempat seperti Beijing, dia membeli istana sendiri!

 

 

foto penampakan Bernic Castle dari brosurnya, rumah Oei Tiong Ham sekarang.. 🙂

 

source

https://nyonyakecil.wordpress.com/page/6/

1925

Close up

 

 

Japanese flower pot decoration

Administrator office of Bandar Bedjamboe Rubber Estate in Tebingtinggi Deli in 1925

 

Foto onder anno 1925 (Bron Tropenmuseum):  toen mijn moeder daar vlakbij werkzaam was en haar lunch nuttigde bij Toko Oen in de tijden, dat zij op het grote postkantoor werkte. Best wel een vreemde gewaarwording. Mijn ma destijds wel eens kijkend naar deze kerk, niet vermoedend, dat haar zoon een tig-aantal jaren later hetzelfde zou doen. Tja, het kan vreemd verkeren in een mensenleven…..

 

 

 

1926

Tengku Otteman

menikah dengan Raja Amnah putrid Raja Chulan Dihilir Negeri Perak (Malaya)

Foto pernikahan Tengku Otteman

February, 9th 1925

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The  public at Sultan Deli Amaloedin Sni Perkasa alam  Sjah II palace during the Crownprince Deli Otteman wedding ceremony

Publiek buiten het paleis van de sultan van Deli, Amaloeddin Sani Perkasa Alam Sjah II, tijdens diens kroning te Medan

 

1925

Kapitan Cina Bogor

  Tan Hong Yoe     1925-1934
         

 

1925

Tennis club Tanjungbalalaiasahan in 1925

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Perusahaan Film Pekalongan dan ‘Juffrouw Lawaai’

nederlandsindie.com — De Indische Courant memberitakan bahwa rencana seorang warga di Pekalongan untuk mendirikan perusahaan film akhirnya menjadi kenyataan.

 

 

Perusahaan ini dinamai Asiatic Film Limited dan studionya dibangun di atas persil keluarga Touw di kawasan Boegisan, Pekalongan, yang memiliki lahan sangat luas dan cocok untuk tujuan yang diinginkan.

Diangkat sebagai Direktur adalah Touw Kiat Tjiang, sedangkan komisarisnya tuan Tan Poen Hoey, Oei Khing Liem, Go Kam Tjioe dan Liem Poen Hwat.

Untuk peralatan yang diperlukan telah dipesan dari Amerika. Diharapkan pengiriman peralatan itu akan dapat diterima dalam waktu 5 sampai 6 bulan.

Sementara menunggu peralatan tiba dan selesai pembangunan studio film, mereka tidak tinggal diam berpangku tangan, melainkan langsung memulai produksi sebuah film berbahasa Melayu.

Film produksi Asiatic Film Limited ini selanjutnya akan diproses disalah satu studio film di Batavia.

Sebelumnya pada 1925 di Pekalongan juga telah didirikan grup tonil (teater) oleh  Tio Tik Dien (1895-1965) dengan nama Miss Riboets Orion Toneelgezelschap. Dalam lidah lokal nama ini biasa disebut secara singkat Miss Riboet.

Miss Riboets Orion mempunyai artis top yang juga memakai nama beken Miss Riboet alias ‘Juffrouw Lawaai’ (1900-1965). Dia adalah istri Tio Tik Dien. Berkat penampilan dan bakat seni peran Miss Riboet, grup ini memetik sukses besar tidak hanya di Jawa dan Sumatera tetapi juga sampai ke Singapura dan kota-kota lainnya di Semenanjung Malaka. (Sumber:  De Indische Courant, Sabtu 8 September 1941, Blimbing.nl)

Spurce

http://www.nederlandsindie.com/perusahaan-film-pekalongan-dan-juffrouw-lawaai/

 

 

 

1925
Siapa yang mengira dari sebuah brosur yang ditulis Tan Malaka tahun 1925, Naar de Republiek Indonesie ( Menuju Republik Indonesia ), Kau semakin terpengaruh dengan ide ide kemerdekaan negerimu. Dalam brosur itu Tan Malaka meramalkan kemungkinan pecahnya perang pasific, yang akan memberikan kesempatan Indonesia melepaskan penjajahan Belanda.

Sumber

Imanbrotoseno

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1925

Rumah sakit Tambang Batu Bara Ombilin Swahluto sumatera Barat tahin 1925

Ruang Dokter

Poliklinik

Ruang Perawatan dari rumah Sakit Tambang Batubara  Ombilin Sawahlunto Sumatera barat

Raung Operasi RS Ombilin Sawahlunto tahun 1925

Ombilin coalmine hospital medical record filling cabinet just during cleaning

Coalmine ombilin hospital medical record folder

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dr J.K.W.kherer office

Ombilin coalmine Hospital in sawahloento 1925

 

 

 

 

 

 

1925

 

Ombilin coal mine sawahloento in 1925

 

1925-1930
Hatta became Chairman of the Indonesian Youth in the Netherlands (1925-1930)
 

 

 

 

 

1926

Kapitan cina bogor

  Tjan Soen Hay     1926-1934

 

 

1926

Government official(Bestuur) Medan 1926

V.l.n.r.: controleur van de onderafdeling Beneden-Deli M.J. Ruychaver, onbekende, assistent-resident J.J.F. Pino, antiquair Ratenburg, controleur van Simaloengoen en de Karolanden P.S.J. Albly, onbekende, gouverneur van Sumatra’s Oostkust C.J. van Kempen, controleur van de Karolanden M. Brouwer, assistent-resident van Deli en Serdang R.J. Koppenol, controleur S. Bouman, assistent-resident van Asahan P. Scheffer, gezaghebber van Serdang M. Wijzenbeek, assistent-resident van Langkat W.F.G. van de Graaff, gewestelijk secretaris J.J. Bosch

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Wijzenbeek, M., Scheffer, P., Ruychaver, M.J., Ratenburg, […], Pino, J.J.F., Koppenol, R.J., Kempen, C.J. van, Graaff, W.F.G. van de, Brouwer, M., Bouman, S., Bosch, J.J., Albly, P.S.J.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1926–1931:

Andries Cornelis Dirk de Graeff

1926

Kapten L. Th.Becking  ini dikenal sukses memadamkan pemberontakan komuni di Banten pada November 1926.[8]

 

25 Mei 1926

Ia berhasil meraih gelar “Ir” pada 25 Mei 1926.

Sumber

indonesiaku.esc-creation

 

 

 

1926

Ombilin coalmine hospital’s nurse at inhospital room  in 1926

 

 

1927

Tientsin bank

10 yuan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1927

 

Kamp konsentrasi Boven Digoel didirikan oleh Kapten L. Th. Becking pada awal tahun 1927.[7][8] 

Bouven Digul sebenarnya tidak dirancang sebagai sebuah kamp konsentrasi karena tidak ada penyiksaan atau pembunuhan terhadap tawanan di tempat itu.[4] Pemerintahan kolonial hanya membiarkan tawanan sampai mati, gila atau menjadi hancur.[4] Dengan adanya pembangunan kamp Bouven Digul ini maka pengasingan di Luar Negeri dihentikan.[6] Pembangunan Penjara Bouven Digul ini dibangun untuk pengasingan orang-orang yang dianggap terlibat ataupun bersimpati dalam pemberontakan pada tahun19261927, tanpa melalui keputusan pengadilan.[6] Pemberontakan pada masa itu tercatat dalam sejarah menjadi pemberontakan Nasional pertama di Indonesia karena 2 alasan.[6] Pertama, berbagai pemberontakan terjadi di Kariseidenan-karisidenan di Jawa, Sumatera, Kalimantan, Sulawesi dan Maluku yang digerakkan oleh tokoh-tokoh dari berbagai aliran politik dan pemeluk agama.[6]

 Kedua, Sebelumnya tidak pernah terjadi pemberontakan besar di wilayah yang demikian luas tanpa membedakan suku maupun agama, walaupun tanpa koordinasi Nasional, dengan Partai Komunis Indonesia sebagai ujung tombak dan menjadi pemula dalam pemberontakan itu.[6] Pemberontakan ini bermuara di Digul Hulu atau Bouven Digul.[6] 

Gubernur Jendral de Graef berhadap dengan mengirimkan para pemberontak ke kamp Bouven Digul itu mereka tidak akan mengulangi kelakuannya lagi pada masa selanjutnya.[4] 

Sebenarnya kompleks penjara ini dibangun oleh Belanda secara bertahap-tahap dan merintis administrasi secara kuat, agar para tawanan sulit untuk melarikan diri, kemudian ketika penjara ini sudah jadi,

Sumber wiki

 

 

Kemudian karena di Bouven Digul diperkuat administrasinya oleh Belanda sehingga dibangunlah pengasingan oleh kekuasaan militer pada saat itu.[6]

(wiki)

4 Juli 1927

Kemudian, beliau merumuskan ajaran Marhaenisme dan mendirikan PNI (Partai Nasional lndonesia) pada 4 Juli 1927, dengan tujuan Indonesia Merdeka.

Sumber

indonesiaku.esc-creation

 

In 1927,

STOVIA’s status was changed to that of a full tertiary-level institution and its name was changed to Geneeskundige Hogeschool (GHS).

The first Chinese women medical doctor from this faculty was dr Tan sing Nio.look her private  practice medical record in 1942

vintage physician private practice Medical record (1942)

 

Native Indonesian Chineseoverseas physician  Betsy Thoeng  sing Nio private practise medical record pasien with diarrhea in 1942 at jakarta (during Japanese Occupation java)

The GHS occupied the same main building and used the same teaching hospital as the current Faculty of Medicine of University of Indonesia.

Medical faculty University of Indonesia stmaped on Medicine Vintage Book.

(Geneeskunde means Medicine/kedokteran) This is the first report of Medical faculty Indonesia University.(alumni pertama Fakultas kedoteran UI tempo doeloe mempergunakan buku literatiur ini)

 

Postal History cover Indonesian Biggest hospital “CBZ-centrale Burgerlijk Ziekenhuis -Batavia -C” stamped, now RSCM-Rumah sakit Cipto Mangunkusumo , the bigest Teaching Hospital in Indonesia, until now everybody in jakarta stilcalled CBZ hospital although they don’t understand the meaning of Hospital and indonesia still called Hospital as Sicken House (Rumah sakit) translate from Dutch Ziekenhuis.

1927

Serdadu KNIL tahun 1927

Sumber wiki

1927

Vergadering te Medan onder leiding van gouverneur C.J. van Kempen in medan

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Scheffer, P., Ruychaver, M.J., Kempen, C.J. van, Graaff, W.F.G. van de, Beck, W.J

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9.1927
The Ciung wanara , the legend among sundanese people have showed at elite and oriental Bioscop (Majestic) Bandung. The story of Manaroh or Ciung Wanara or Prabu Suratana or Prabu Jaya Prakasrsa who went to feast(bertapa) and the Kingdom lead by the menistry Lutung Kasarung.(comedian Wayang)

1927

 

Kapitan cina Batavia mayor rank Khouw Kim Ann diangkat kembali 1927-1942).

in 1927,

due collapse of the Java sugar trade, was forced to liquidate (Cornelissen 1999).

Be Kwat Koen ___ the second son of Be Ik Sam, was born in Purworedjo on 1

December 1863.

 

He entered the wide-ranging Tan_Be family business at a young age

and travelled extensively to Singapore, China, and probably Japan. Like many other

men of the Be clan he was appointed in various administrative functions and besides

Capitan Cina of Semarang, ultimately became Major-titulair of Surakarta. At the young

age of seventeen, in 1880, he married The Siang Ling (1865_1934).

 

Be Kwat Koen and his wife The Siang Ling were very well-known and highly

respected figures in Java’s Chinese society of the 1920s and 1930s.

 

Part of this was due to their personal misfortune. The Siang Ling gave birth to 13 children (seven daughters and six sons) of which all the sons and one daughter died at a very young age.

 

Peoplefelt pity on them and suspected that this misfortune was caused by some spell or by

some misconduct of one of them in a previous life. But six of their daughters grew up

well and married into other wealthy peranakan families of the time.

 

According to manyinformants the Be daughters were very beautiful and very much wanted by the youngmales of other elite families of the time. Be Kwat Koen and his wife closely oversaw the

possible marriage candidates of their daughters making sure that they came from

respectable, wealthy and influential families, whose work and labour reflected the ’

modernising spirit’ of the 1920s.

 

Being a highly modern person himself, combining thebest of traditional Chinese value and educational systems with the modern Westernspirit of technology and rational economics, Be Kwat Koen only gave his blessings whenhe was sure that the prospective bride had the right ‘modern’ attitude towards theeconomy and social life and was well equipped to function well in both traditionalJavanese society and the Western-educated administrative bureaucracy of the colony.

 

1927

Makam Souw sangat sederhana. Ketika ditemukan, makamnya dipenuhi semak belukar. Berbeda sekali dengan makam Khouw Oen Giok di Taman Pemakaman Umum (TPU) Petamburan.

Khouw adalah seorang kaya pemilik bank di Batavia. Makam mewah (mausoleum) Khouw sudah ada di Petamburan sejak 1927, terbuat dari marmer hitam Italia. Biaya membuat kuburan mewah itu 200.000 gulden.

Koran Sin Po pernah menyatakan, mausoleum tersebut mengalahkan makam Rockefeller, miliarder Amerika.

Di kalangan orang Tionghoa, makam umumnya menunjukkan status sosial seseorang. Makin kaya seseorang, makin mewah makamnya.

Menghormati leluhur betul-betul diperhatikan. Apalagi jenazah perlu disemayamkan selama beberapa hari, menunggu keluarga dan kerabatnya hingga lengkap. Namun ketika itu banyak orang tua mengeluarkan testamen untuk anak-anaknya, yang pada pokoknya penghematan dalam hal penguburan.

Pemerintah Hindia Belanda ternyata tidak menyukai pemborosan dalam hal kematian. Mereka memandangnya sebagai suatu kemewahan yang tidak perlu, hanya mementingkan pameran kekayaan.

Maka pemerintah mengeluarkan peraturan yang mengenakan pajak untuk penguburan orang Tionghoa yang dilakukan secara mewah. Dengan catatan pajak atas penguburan mewah tidak berlaku bagi opsir-opsir Tionghoa dan isterinya. Dampak dari peraturan itu adalah penghematan mulai dilakukan, bahkan biaya penguburan bisa ditekan hingga cuma memerlukan 10.000 gulden.

Penguburan seorang elit Tionghoa menjadi besar karena hadirnya beberapa wakil pemerintah dan kepala pemerintahan setempat. Seperti halnya pada masa sekarang, dulu juga para panitia penguburan harus membersihkan jalur yang akan dilalui kereta para pejabat. (Djulianto Susantio, pemerhati sejarah dan budaya

 

 

In 1927,

STOVIA’s status was changed to that of a full tertiary-level institution and its name was changed to Geneeskundige Hogeschool (GHS).

The first Chinese women medical doctor from this faculty was dr Tan sing Nio.look her private  practice medical record in 1942

vintage physician private practice Medical record (1942)

 

Native Indonesian Chineseoverseas physician  Tan sing Nio private practise medical record pasien with diarrhea in 1942 at jakarta (during Japanese Occupation java)

 

 

The GHS occupied the same main building and used the same teaching hospital as the current Faculty of Medicine of University of Indonesia.

Medical faculty University of Indonesia stmaped on Medicine Vintage Book.

(Geneeskunde means Medicine/kedokteran) This is the first report of Medical faculty Indonesia University.(alumni pertama Fakultas kedoteran UI tempo doeloe mempergunakan buku literatiur ini)

 

Postal History cover Indonesian Biggest hospital “CBZ-centrale Burgerlijk Ziekenhuis -Batavia -C” stamped, now RSCM-Rumah sakit Cipto Mangunkusumo , the bigest Teaching Hospital in Indonesia, until now everybody in jakarta stilcalled CBZ hospital although they don’t understand the meaning of Hospital and indonesia still called Hospital as Sicken House (Rumah sakit) translate from Dutch Ziekenhuis.

 

 

The Chung Hwa Congress of 1927

December 1, 2013 at 5:43am

 

 

 

Contributed by the late mr. Liem Hoo Soei and translated by Lina Sidarto

 

The Chung Hwa congress took place in Semarang on April 17 and 18, 1927, at the initiative of former members of the Chung Hwa Hui, the Chinese students’ association in the Netherlands. The congress discussed proposals on current affairs, and the possibility of setting up an organization which would protect the interest of the Chinese community in the Netherlands East Indies.

The following photo shows the preparatory commission (chairman: Yap Hong Tjoen) and the welcoming commission  (chairman: Oei Tjong Hauw) at the assembly table.

 

 

From left to right:Thio Thiam Tjong, The Sien Tjo, Teng Sioe Hie , Kan Hok Hoei, Oei Tjong Hauw, Yap Hong Tjoen, Han Tiauw Tjong, Be Tiat Tjong, Liem Tjiauw Liat en Tan Tek Peng .

 

The congress was well attended, as the following picture shows: the assembly hall filled with some 200 participants, including many women.

 

 

On the front left the Dutch delegation is seen, including  representatives of the Education Department (Mr. Jonkman) and the Office for Chinese Matters (mr. Bruineman).

There were intense deliberations about the following proposals:

  1. The wish to take part in a representative body.
  2. The significance of Siang Hwee (the Chinese trade association).
  3. Chinese primary education.

The congress was concluded with the acceptance of a motion in which the preparatory committee was asked to form an association “to promote ideas which would lead to the betterment of the Chinese society in the spiritual, social, political, and financial fronts.”

On April 17, participants came together for dinner at Du Pavillion:

 

 

Chung Hwa Hui, the Chinese association of the Netherlands East Indies, was set up in April 1928 with goals including “to look after the interest of all Chinese residing in the Netherlands East Indies by means of all lawful resources.”

The photos in this report were shot by Saito, a famous Japanese photographer in Semarang at the time.

Additional information:

Chung Hwa Congress 17 – 18 April, 1927: Proposals and Stenographic reports in the Royal Dutch Library, no 1142 E 72, en KITLV m ww 763

De Locomotief daily, April 19, 1927. “The Chung Hwa Congress in Semarang.” Royal Dutch Library microfiche.

 

Liem Hoo Soei, February 2013

CHAPTER 7

THE FINAL YEARS OF THE CHINESE COUNCIL OF BATAVIA

 

 

In 1927

Soekarno managed to bring the divergent factions of the

nationalist movement together into a single federation, the Permoefakatan Perhimpoenan-Perhimpoenan Politik Kebangsaan Indonesia (PPPKI, or Federation of Political Associations of theIndonesian Nation). Although it was a very loose organisation and a weak alliance of urban middleclasspoliticians, Islamic leaders, and leftist front men of the urban and rural proletariat, it was the

first time that all participating modern organisations explicitly subscribed to the view that Indonesiashould gain independence from the Dutch.856

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1927-1928

Hatta ditahan dan dipenjara di den Haag  ,Belanda (dari 23  september  1927-22 Maret 1928) karena menulis di majalah Indonesia merdeka

 

 

Foto hatta dan teman-teamn di ngeri belanda

Hatta. Pembelaanmu ‘ Indonesie Vri “ – Indonesia Merdeka,didepan pengadilan Den Haag tahun 1927 telah menggemparkan mata dan hati kaum terjajah. Menjadi bahan bacaan yang digemari kalangan pergerakan di Indonesia.
Kau menyebutkan bahwa ini bagaikan kewajaran perlawanan rakyat terjajah terhadap pihak penjajah sebagaimana yang pernah dilakukan Belanda terhadap Spanyol yang menguasai selama 80 tahun.

Gelegar suara cap pemerikaan dokumen mengagetkan. Butuh 3 hari buat barang barang bawaanmu dari Belanda yang terdiri dari buku buku dan bacaan dalam 16 peti besi, masing masing berukuran setengah meter kubik. Semua bisa lolos kecuali majalah ‘ Indonesia Merdeka ‘.
Namun kau sudah memikirkan sebelumnya. Beberapa eksemplar majalah ini sudah dititipkan kepada kawan kawanmu yang bekerja sebagai tukang mesin di kapal .

 Sumber

imanbrotoseno

1927-1931
Hatta  as representatives of Indonesia in the movement of the League Against Imperialism and Colonialism, based in Berlin (1927-1931)
 

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