INDONESIA INDEPENDENT REVOLUTION AND WAR HISTORY COLLECTION INTRO

THE INDONESIAN INDEPENDENCE REVOLUTION AND WAR HISTORY COLLECTION

PART

INTRODUCTION

BY

DR IWANSUWANDY,MHA

LIMITED E-BOOK IN CD ROM EDITION

SPECIAL FOR SENIOR COLLECTORS ONLY

COPYRIGHT @DR IWAN 2014

INTRODUCTION

Saya adalah putra kelahiran kota Padang Sumatra Barat tahun 1945 bulan pebruari,beberapa bulan sebelum proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia.

Tidak terasa hapir 70 tahun yang lalu, dalam rangka memperinagati hari ulang tahun proklamasi Kemerdeaan Indonesia ke 70, saya tealah mempersiapkan sebuah  buku elektronik dalam CD Rom yang akan saya tampilkan pada agustus 2015 yang akan datang.

Saya mengumpulkan prangko sejak berumur 10 tahun tahun 1955, dan pada tahun 1957 saya banyak menemukan postal history Indonesia dari kantor-kantor pemerintah yang lokasi dekat rumah sata dari tempat sampah sedang dibakar.

Sungguh sangat beruntung koleksi tersebut tidak saya lepaskan dari sampul atau dokumennya,mulanya karena malas saja dan saat ini yang postally used on cover dan document sudah sangat langka.

Pada tahun 1980 saat saya mengunjungi kota Bandung, saya mampir di took prangko Go-Go shop di jalan Braga saat keluarga saya berbelanja di area tersebut.

Di Toko ini saya menemukan sebuah buku lelangan prangko dari Vic Esbensen Canada,dan saya diberi izin untuk memfoto kopinya,kemudia saya menghubungi Vic esbensen,dari dari dia saya diberikan buku katalogus  postal history proklamasi kemerdekaan Indonesia yang sampai saat ini masih ada pada saya,dan berdasarkan katalogus yang langka tersebut mulailah saya berburu koleksi.

Tahun 1982 saya sempat membeli suatu koleksi postal history dan juga dokumen milik

 Suwil St Bandaro,almarhum Bendahara kantor Pos Padang masa Revolusi dari Isteri dan anak-anaknya dengan menukarnya dengan sebuah rumah real estate di Tabing Padang.

Tahun 1985. P.R.Bulterman pemilik dan penerbit  katalogus belanda Indonesia,dan buku DEI Postmark kerumah saya di kota Padang,ia sangat terkejut melihat koleksi saya, dan membeli beberapa koleksi postal stationer pendudukan Jepang untuk bahan katalogus yang di buatnya,tetapi saya larang nama saya dicantumkan,karena saya sebagai Perwira Polri mersa perlu hat-hati karena dsaat tersebut dokumen sejarah Indonesia dilarang untuk disimpan.say hanya jual pendudukan jepang ssja.

Tahun 1986 saya menjual beberapa koleksi revolusi saya kepa Karel dengan syarat tidak dimual kelur negeri, tetapi ternyata kemudian dijual juga  liwat Tangera Auction TAM dan Belanda, untuk ko9leksi dokumen asli bekas milik Suwawil Dr Bandaro masih ada sampai sekarang.

Koleksi saya jual karena membutuhkan biaya

untuk membeli rumah di Kelapa Gading Jakarta

dan biaya sekolah saya, isteri dan kedua anak saya serta membeli mobil pada tahun 1989.

Pada tahun 1995 saat pameran filateli hari kemerdekaan Indonesia 1950 sebenarnya saya sudah mempersiapkan untuk memamerkan koleksi dan membuat pertunjukan tetapi oleh karena berbagai hal terpaksa di Tunda.

Setah pak Harto turun tahun 1998,koleksi filateli mengaklami kemunduran yang luar biasa, baru tahun 2008 koleksi filatemi terutama postal history jadi hebat lagi, selamay koleksi filateli sepi saya sempat membeli koleksi postal historu revolusi ke,erdekaan Indonesia dari pulau jawa,dan kemudian membuat buku elektronil dam CD-Rom yang saya upload tahun 1945 saja di web blog saya.

Saya hanya jual satu CD-ROM saja yaitu ke Pad Tono R.Putranto semarang, dan saya tidak mau jual kepada pedagang karena banyak ditemukan koleksi Asli tetapi palsu(fake) terutama dari kota Medan,mereka marah kepada saya karena pernah saya memberikan komentar di facebook.

Tahun 2014,ternyata Pak Tono dan dua orang lagi memperoleh medali Mas dari Philakorea 2014,termasuk koleksi revolusi milik pak Agus,yang memiliki 5 prangko militer Surakarta.

 

Bagi yang ingin memiliki CD-ROM ini,harap memnghubungi saya liwat emaikl

iwansuwandy@gmail.com

dan khusu bagi yang membeli CD-ROM edisi terbatas ini hanya 100 buah, nanti akan mendapat undangan gratis untuk menyaksikan pertunjukan yang saya laksanakan bulan agustu 2016.

Terima kasih atas segala bantuan yang saya rtelah terima khususnya almarhum Vic Esbensen,Ramkema,P>R>Bulterman,Pak Untung, Suwito, Harri siregar,Herry dan Pak Tono dan masih banyak lagi yang namanya tidak dapat saya tulis disini.

Jakarta Agustus 2014

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Senior Superintendant®

Kombespol Purnawirawan

 

 

English version

INTRODUCTION

I was born in the city of Padang in West Sumatra month of February 1945, several months before the proclamation of Indonesian independence.

Nothing feels hapir 70 years ago, in order memperinagati birthday proclamation Kemerdeaan Indonesia to 70, I tealah prepare an electronic book on CD Rom which I will show at the upcoming August 2015.

Collecting stamps since I was 10 years old in 1955, and in 1957 I found many Indonesian postal history of government offices that location near the sata from trash being burned.

It is very fortunate that collection I did not remove it from the cover or the document, initially just being lazy and this time the postally used on covers and a document has been extremely rare.

In 1980 when I visited the city of Bandung, I stopped at the shop stamp Go-Go shop at the Braga family when I was shopping in the area.

In this shop I found a book of stamps auction Vic Esbensen Canada, and I was given permission to photograph his coffee, later I contacted Vic esbensen, from of him I was given a book catalogs the proclamation of Indonesian independence postal history that is still available to me, and based on the catalog of the rare collections began my hunt.

In 1982 I had bought a collection of postal history and also documents belonging Suwil Dr. Bandaro, late Treasurer of the Revolution Padang Post office of his wife and children by exchanging with a home real estate in Tabing Padang.

1985 PRBulterman owner and publisher catalogs Dutch Indonesia, and book DEI PostMark my house in the city of Padang, he was surprised to see my collection, and bought some postal stationary collection for the Japanese occupation of the catalog material is in him, but I forbid my name listed , because I am a police officer need a hat Mersa careful because it documents the history of Indonesia dsaat forbidden to sell only disimpan.say ssja Japanese occupation.

In 1986, I sold some of my collection kepa Karel revolution on condition dimual kelur country, but it was later sold also through Tangera TAM Auction and Dutch, for ko9leksi original documents used to belong Suwawil Dr. Bandaro still there today.

Selling my collection because it cost money to buy a house in Kelapa Gading Jakarta and school fees both wife and my son and bought a car in 1989.

In 1995 when the Indonesian independence day philately exhibition in 1950 in fact I’ve been preparing to showcase a collection and make the show but because of various things forced on Pause.

Setah Pak Harto down in 1998, a collection of philatelic mengaklami tremendous setback, the new 2008 collection of postal history filatemi especially so powerful, quiet selamay philatelic collection I had bought a collection of postal historu revolution, erdekaan Indonesia on the island of Java, and then make a book elektronil dam CD-Rom which I uploaded in 1945 alone in my web blog.

I only sell one CD-ROM course is to Pad Tono R.Putranto Semarang, and I do not want to sell to traders because many found a collection of original but fake (fake) primarily from the city of Medan, they are angry with me because I never leave a comment on facebook .

In 2014, it turns out Mr. Tono and the other two medal Mas from Philakorea 2014, including the collection belongs pack revolution Agus, who has 5 military stamps Surakarta.

 

For those who want to have a CD-ROM, please memnghubungi me through emaikl

iwansuwandy@gmail.com

and khusu for those who buy the limited edition CD-ROM is only 100 pieces, later will receive a free invitation to watch the show that I carried out in agustu 2016.

 

Thank you for all the help I received, especially the late Vic  Esbensen, Ramkema, P. R. Bulterman, Mr. Untung, Suwito, Harri Siregar, Herrera and Mr. Tono and many more whose names I can not write here.

Jakarta in August 2014

Dr Iwan Suwandy, MHA

senior Superintendant®

Retired Kombespol

Note

For foreign collectors please aks helping from Indonesian collectors if you want to by the CD-Rom because difficult and high cost to send the CD abroad.

Taiwan History Collections

Republic Of China(Taiwan)

Prehistoric settlement

Main article: Prehistory of Taiwan
History of Taiwan is located in Taiwan

Zuozhen
Zuozhen
Changbin
Changbin
Eluanbi
Eluanbi
Dapenkeng
Dapenkeng
Magnify-clip.png

Taiwan, with early sites, and the 130 km-wide (81 mi) Taiwan Strait

In the Late Pleistocene, sea levels were about 140 m lower than in the present day, exposing the floor of the shallow Taiwan Strait as a land bridge that was crossed by mainland fauna.[4] The oldest evidence of human presence on Taiwan consists of three cranial fragments and a molar tooth found at Chouqu and Gangzilin, in Zuozhen District, Tainan. These are estimated to be between 20,000 and 30,000 years old.[1][5] The oldest artifacts are chipped-pebble tools of a Paleolithic culture found in four caves in Changbin, Taitung, dated 15,000 to 5,000 years ago, and similar to contemporary sites in Fujian. The same culture is found at sites at Eluanbi on the southern tip of Taiwan, persisting until 5,000 years ago.[2][6] At the beginning of the Holocene 10,000 years ago, sea levels rose, forming the Taiwan Strait and cutting off the island from the Asian mainland.[4]

Around 3,000 BC, the Neolithic Dapenkeng culture (named after a site in Taibei county) abruptly appeared and quickly spread around the coast of the island. Their sites are characterized by corded-ware pottery, polished stone adzes and slate points. The inhabitants cultivated rice and millet, but were also heavily reliant on marine shells and fish. Most scholars believe this culture is not derived from the Changbinian, but was brought across the Strait by the ancestors of today’s Taiwanese aborigines, speaking early Austronesian languages.[3][7] Some of these people later migrated from Taiwan to the islands of Southeast Asia and thence throughout the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Malayo-Polynesian languages are now spoken across a huge area from Madagascar to Hawaii, Easter Island and New Zealand, but form only one branch of the Austronesian family, the rest of whose branches are found only on Taiwan.[8][9][10][11]

The Dapenkeng culture was succeeded by a variety of cultures throughout the island, including the Tahu and Yingpu cultures. Iron appeared at the beginning of the current era in such cultures as the Niaosung Culture.[12] The earliest metal artifacts were trade goods, but by around 400 AD wrought iron was being produced locally using bloomeries, a technology possibly introduced from the Philippines.[13]

Early Chinese histories refer to visits to eastern islands that some historians identify with Taiwan. Troops of the Three Kingdoms state of Wu are recorded as visiting an island known as Yizhou (夷洲) in the 3rd century. The Book of Sui relates that Emperor Yang of the Sui dynasty sent three expeditions to a place called Liuqiu early in the 6th century. Later the name Liuqiu (Japanese: Ryukyu) referred to the island chain to the northeast of Taiwan, but some scholars believe it may have referred to Taiwan in the Sui period. Neither of these names has been definitively matched to the main island of Taiwan.[14]

Dutch and Spanish rule

Main articles: Dutch Formosa and Spanish Formosa

Taiwan in the 17th century, showing Dutch (magenta) and Spanish (green) possessions, and the Kingdom of Middag (orange)

Portuguese sailors, passing Taiwan in 1544, first jotted in a ship’s log the name of the island Ilha Formosa, meaning “Beautiful Island”. In 1582 the survivors of a Portuguese shipwreck spent ten weeks battling malaria and aborigines before returning to Macau on a raft.[15]

Dutch traders in search of an Asian base first arrived on the island in 1623 to use the island as a base for Dutch commerce with Japan and the coastal areas of China. The Dutch East India Company (VOC) built Fort Zeelandia on the coastal islet of Tayowan (off modern Tainan). The Spanish established a settlement at Santissima Trinidad, building Fort San Salvador on the northwest coast of Taiwan near Keelung in 1626 which they occupied until 1642 when they were driven out by a joint Dutch–Aborigine invasion force.[16][17] They also built a fort in Tamsui (1628) but had already abandoned it by 1638.

The Dutch built a second administrative castle on the main island of Taiwan in 1633 and set out to earnestly turn Taiwan into a Dutch colony.[8] The first order of business was to punish villages that had violently opposed the Dutch and unite the aborigines in allegiance with the VOC. The first punitive expedition was against the villages of Baccloan and Mattauw, north of Saccam near Tayowan. The Mattauw campaign had been easier than expected and the tribe submitted after having their village razed by fire. The campaign also served as a threat to other villages from Tirossen (modern Chiayi) to Lonkjiaow (Hengchun). The 1636 punitive attack on Lamay Island in response to the killing of the shipwrecked crews of the Beverwijck and the Golden Lion ended ten years later with the entire aboriginal population of 1100 removed from the island including 327 Lamayans killed in a cave, having been trapped there by the Dutch and suffocated in the fumes and smoke pumped into the cave by the Dutch and their allied aborigines from Saccam, Soulang and Pangsoya.[18] The men were forced into slavery in Batavia (Java) and the women and children became servants and wives for the Dutch officers. The events on Lamay changed the course of Dutch rule to work closer with allied aborigines, though there remained plans to depopulate the outlying islands.[19]

After ejecting the Spanish from Fort Santo Domingo in northern Taiwan in 1642, the Dutch erected Fort Anthonio on the site, which still stands (now part of the Fort Santo Domingo museum complex). They then sought to establish control of the western plains between the new possessions and their base at Tayouan. After a brief but destructive campaign in 1645, Pieter Boon was able to subdue the tribes in this area, including the Kingdom of Middag.[20][21]

The VOC administered the island and its predominantly aboriginal population until 1662, setting up a tax system, schools to teach romanized script of aboriginal languages and evangelizing.[22][18] Although its control was mainly limited to the western plain of the island, the Dutch systems were adopted by succeeding occupiers.[23] The first influx of migrants from coastal Fujian came during the Dutch period, in which merchants and traders from the mainland Chinese coast sought to purchase hunting licenses from the Dutch or hide out in aboriginal villages to escape the Qing authorities. Most of the immigrants were young single males who were discouraged from staying on the island often referred to by Han as “The Gate of Hell” for its reputation in taking the lives of sailors and explorers.[24]

Fort Zeelandia built in Tainan

The Dutch originally sought to use their castle Zeelandia at Tayowan as a trading base between Japan and China, but soon realized the potential of the huge deer populations that roamed in herds of thousands along the alluvial plains of Taiwan’s western regions.[25] Deer were in high demand by the Japanese who were willing to pay top dollar for use of the hides in samurai armor. Other parts of the deer were sold to Han traders for meat and medical use. The Dutch paid aborigines for the deer brought to them and tried to manage the deer stocks to keep up with demand. The Dutch also employed Han to farm sugarcane and rice for export, some of these rice and sugarcane products reached as far as the markets of Persia. Unfortunately the deer the aborigines had relied on for their livelihoods began to disappear forcing the aborigines to adopt new means of survival.

Kingdom of Tungning

Statue of Koxinga in Tainan

Main article: Kingdom of Tungning

Manchu forces broke through Shanhai Pass in 1644 and rapidly overwhelmed the Ming dynasty. In 1661, a naval fleet led by the Ming loyalist Koxinga, arrived in Taiwan to oust the Dutch from Zeelandia and establish a pro-Ming base in Taiwan.[26]

Koxinga was born to Zheng Zhilong, a Chinese merchant and pirate, and Tagawa Matsu, a Japanese woman, in 1624 in Hirado, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. He was raised there until seven and moved to Quanzhou, in the Fujian province of China. In a family made wealthy from shipping and piracy, Koxinga inherited his father’s trade networks, which stretched from Nagasaki to Macao. Following the Manchu advance on Fujian, Koxinga retreated from his stronghold in Amoy (Xiamen) and besieged Taiwan in the hope of establishing a strategic base to marshal his troops to retake his base at Amoy. In 1662, following a nine-month siege, Koxinga captured the Dutch fortress Zeelandia and Taiwan became his base (see Kingdom of Tungning).[27] Concurrently the last Ming pretender had been captured and killed by General Wu Sangui, extinguishing any hope Koxinga may have had of re-establishing the Ming Empire. He died four months thereafter in a fit of madness after learning of the cruel killings of his father and brother at the hands of the Manchus. Other accounts are more straightforward, attributing Koxinga’s death to a case of malaria.[28][29]

Qing dynasty rule

In 1683, following a naval engagement with Admiral Shi Lang, one of Koxinga’s father’s trusted friends, Koxinga’s grandson Zheng Keshuang surrendered to the Qing dynasty.

There has been much confusion about Taiwan’s association with the rumored “Island of Dogs,” “Island of Women,” etc., which were thought, by Han literati, to lie beyond the seas. Taiwan was officially regarded by the Kangxi Emperor as “a ball of mud beyond the pale of civilization” and did not appear on any map of the imperial domain until 1683.[30] The act of presenting a map to the emperor was equal to presenting the lands of the empire. It took several more years before the Qing court would recognize Taiwan as part of the Qing realm. Prior to the Qing dynasty, China was conceived as a land bound by mountains, rivers and seas. The idea of an island as a part of China was unfathomable to the Han prior to the Qing frontier expansion effort of the 17th Century.[31]

Despite the expense of the military and diplomatic campaign that brought Taiwan into the imperial realm, the general sentiment in Beijing was ambivalent. The point of the campaign had been to destroy the Zheng-family regime, not to conquer the island.[citation needed] The Kangxi Emperor expressed the sentiment that Taiwan was “the size of a pellet; taking it is no gain; not taking it is no loss” (彈丸之地。得之無所加,不得無所損). His ministers counseled that the island was “a ball of mud beyond the sea, adding nothing to the breadth of China” (海外泥丸,不足為中國加廣), and advocated removing all the Chinese to mainland China and abandoning the island. It was only the campaigning of admiral Shi Lang and other supporters that convinced the emperor not to abandon Taiwan.[unreliable source?][32] Koxinga’s followers were forced to depart from Taiwan to the more unpleasant parts of Qing controlled land.[citation needed] By 1682 there were only 7000 Chinese left on Taiwan as they had intermarried with aboriginal women and had property in Taiwan. The Koxinga reign had continued the tax systems of the Dutch, established schools and religious temples.

1896 map of Formosa, revised by Rev. William Campbell

From 1683, the Qing dynasty ruled Taiwan as a prefecture and in 1875 divided the island into two prefectures, north and south. In 1885, the island was made into a separate Chinese province.

The Qing authorities tried to limit immigration to Taiwan and barred families from traveling to Taiwan to ensure the immigrants would return to their families and ancestral graves. Illegal immigration continued, but many of the men had few prospects in war weary Fujian and thus married locally, resulting in the idiom “Tangshan (Chinese) grandfather no Tangshan grandmother” (有唐山公無唐山媽). The Qing tried to protect aboriginal land claims, but also sought to turn them into tax paying subjects. Chinese and tax paying aborigines were barred from entering the wilderness which covered most of the island for the fear of raising the ire of the non taxpaying, highland aborigines and inciting rebellion. A border was constructed along the western plain, built using pits and mounds of earth, called “earth cows”, to discourage illegal land reclamation.

From 1683 to around 1760, the Qing government limited immigration to Taiwan. Such restriction was relaxed following the 1760s and by 1811 there were more than two million Chinese immigrants on Taiwan. In 1875 the Taipei government (台北府) was established, under the jurisdiction of Fujian province. Also, there had been various conflicts between Chinese immigrants. Most conflicts were between Han from Fujian and Han from Guangdong, between people from different areas of Fujian, between Han and Hakka settlers, or simply between people of different surnames engaged in clan feuds. Because of the strong provincial loyalties held by these immigrants, the Qing government felt Taiwan was somewhat difficult to govern. Taiwan was also plagued by foreign invasions. In 1840 Keelung was invaded by the British in the Opium War, and in 1884 the French invaded as part of the Sino-French War. Because of these incursions, the Qing government began constructing a series of coastal defenses and on 12 October 1885 Taiwan was made a province, with Liu Mingchuan serving as the first governor. He divided Taiwan into eleven counties and tried to improve relations with the aborigines. He also developed a railway from Taipei to Hsinchu, established a mine in Keelung, and built an arsenal to improve Taiwan’s defensive capability against foreigners.

Following a shipwreck of a Ryūkyūan vessel on the southeastern tip of Taiwan in winter of 1871, in which the heads of 54 crew members were taken by the aboriginal Taiwanese Paiwan people in Mutan village (牡丹社), the Japanese sought to use this incident as a pretext to have the Qing formally acknowledge Japanese sovereignty over the Ryukyu islands as a Japanese prefecture[citation needed] and to test reactions to potential expansion into Taiwan. According to records from Japanese documents, Mao Changxi (毛昶熙) and Dong Xun (董恂), the Qing ministers at Zongli Yamen (總理衙門) who handled the complaints from Japanese envoy Yanagihara Sakimitsu (柳原前光) replied first that they had heard only of a massacre of Ryūkyūans, not of Japanese, and quickly noted that Ryūkyū was under Chinese suzerainty, therefore this issue was not Japan’s business. In addition, the governor-general of the Qing province Fujian had rescued the survivors of the massacre and returned them safely to Ryūkyū. The Qing authorities explained that there were two kinds of aborigines on Taiwan: those governed by the Qing, and those unnaturalized “raw barbarians … beyond the reach of Qing government and customs.” They indirectly hinted that foreigners traveling in those areas settled by indigenous people must exercise caution. After the Yanagihara-Yamen interview, the Japanese took their explanation to mean that the Qing government had not opposed Japan’s claims to sovereignty over the Ryūkyū Islands, disclaimed any jurisdiction over Aboriginal Taiwanese, and had indeed consented to Japan’s expedition to Taiwan.[33] The Qing dynasty made it clear to the Japanese that Taiwan was definitely within Qing jurisdiction, even though part of that island’s aboriginal population was not yet under the influence of Chinese culture. The Qing also pointed to similar cases all over the world where an aboriginal population within a national boundary was not completely subjugated by the dominant culture of that country.

The Japanese nevertheless launched an expedition to Mutan village with a force of 3600 soldiers in 1874. The number of casualties for the Paiwan was about 30, and that for the Japanese was 543; 12 Japanese soldiers were killed in battle and 531 by disease. Eventually, the Japanese withdrew just before the Qing dynasty sent 3 divisions of forces (9000 soldiers) to reinforce Taiwan. This incident caused the Qing to re-think the importance of Taiwan in their maritime defense strategy and greater importance was placed on gaining control over the wilderness regions.

On the eve of the Sino-Japanese War about 45 percent of the island was administered under direct Qing administration while the remaining was lightly populated by Aborigines.[34] In a population of around 2.5 million, about 2.3 million were Han Chinese and the remaining two hundred thousand were classified as members of various indigenous tribes.

As part of the settlement for losing the Sino-Japanese War, the Qing empire ceded the island of Taiwan and Penghu to Japan on 17 April 1895, according to the terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki. The loss of Taiwan would become a rallying point for the Chinese nationalist movement in the years that followed.[35]

Republic of Formosa

Main article: Republic of Formosa

Flag of the Republic of Formosa

When the news of the treaty’s contents reached Taiwan, a number of notables from central Taiwan led by Chiu Feng-chia (丘逢甲) decided to resist the transfer of Taiwan to Japanese rule. On 23 May, in Taipei, these men declared independence, proclaiming the establishment of a free and democratic Republic of Formosa. T’ang Ching-sung (唐景崧), the Qing governor-general of Taiwan, was prevailed upon to become the republic’s first President, and his old friend Liu Yung-fu (劉永福), the retired Black Flag Army commander who had become a national hero in China for his victories against the French in northern Vietnam a decade earlier, was invited to serve as Grand General of the Army. [[Qiu Fengjia |Chiu Feng-chia]] was appointed Grand Commander of Militia, with the power to raise local militia units throughout the island to resist the Japanese. On the Chinese mainland Chang Chih-tung (張之洞), the powerful governor-general of Liangkiang, tacitly supported the Formosan resistance movement, and the Republicans also appointed Ch’en Chi-t’ung (陳季同), a disgraced Chinese diplomat who understood European ways of thinking, as the Republic’s foreign minister. His job would be to sell the Republic abroad.[36] Thus the five month old republic ceased to exist.

Japanese rule

A 1912 map of Japan with Taiwan, which was part of the Empire of Japan from 1895 to 1945.

Japan had sought to claim sovereignty over Taiwan (known to them as Takasago Koku) since 1592, when Toyotomi Hideyoshi undertook a policy of overseas expansion and extending Japanese influence southward,[37] to the west, was invaded and an attempt to invade Taiwan and subsequent invasion attempts were to be unsuccessful due mainly to disease and attacks by aborigines on the island. In 1609, the Tokugawa shogunate sent Harunobu Arima on an exploratory mission of the island.[38] An attempted invasion in 1616, led by Murayama Tōan, failed when the fleet was dispersed by a typhoon and the only ship to reach the island was repelled.[39] In the Mudan Incident of 1871, an Okinawan ship was wrecked on the southern tip of Taiwan and 54 crewmen were beheaded by Paiwan aborigines. After the Qing government refused compensation stating that the aboriginals were not under its control, Japan launched a punitive expedition to the area in 1874, withdrawing after the Qing promised to pay an indemnity.[40][41][42][43]

It took until the defeat of the Chinese navy during the First Sino-Japanese War in 1894–95 for Japan to finally realize possession of Taiwan and the shifting of Asian dominance from China to Japan. The Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed on 17 April 1895, ceding Taiwan and Penghu to Japan, which would rule the island for 50 years until its defeat in World War II.

Soldiers of the 1874 expedition in Taiwan

After receiving sovereignty of Taiwan, the Japanese feared military resistance from both Taiwanese and Aborigines who followed the establishment by the local elite of the short-lived Republic of Formosa. Taiwan’s elite hoped that by declaring themselves a republic the world would not stand by and allow a sovereign state to be invaded by the Japanese, thereby allying with the Qing. The plan quickly turned to chaos as standard Green troops and ethnic Yue soldiers took to looting and pillage. Given the choice between chaos at the hands of Chinese or submission to the Japanese, the Taipei elite sent Koo Hsien-jung to Keelung to invite the advancing Japanese forces to proceed to Taipei and restore order.[44]

Map of the island in 1901, with the red line marking the approximate limit of Japanese control

Armed resistance was sporadic, yet at times fierce, but was largely crushed by 1902, although relatively minor rebellions occurred in subsequent years, including the Ta-pa-ni incident of 1915 in Tainan county.[45] Nonviolent means of resistance began to take place of armed rebellions and the most prominent organization was the Taiwanese Cultural Association (台灣文化協會), founded in 1921. Taiwanese resistance was caused by several different factors (e.g., the Taishō Democracy). Some were goaded by Chinese nationalism, while others contained nascent Taiwanese self-determination.[35] Rebellions were often caused by a combination of the effects of unequal colonial policies on local elites and extant millenarian beliefs of the local Taiwanese and plains Aborigines. Aboriginal resistance to the heavy-handed Japanese policies of acculturation and pacification lasted up until the early 1930s.[45] The last major Aboriginal rebellion, the Musha Uprising (Wushe Uprising) in late 1930 by the Atayal people angry over their treatment while laboring in the burdensome job of camphor extraction, launched the last headhunting party in which over 150 Japanese officials were killed and beheaded during the opening ceremonies of a school. The uprising, led by Mona Rudao, was crushed by 2,000-3,000 Japanese troops and Aboriginal auxiliaries with the help of poison gas.[46]

Japanese colonization of the island fell under three stages. It began with an oppressive period of crackdown and paternalistic rule, then a dōka (同化) period of aims to treat all people (races) alike proclaimed by Taiwanese Nationalists who were inspired by the Self-Determination of Nations (民族自決) proposed by Woodrow Wilson after World War I, and finally, during World War II, a period of kōminka (皇民化), a policy which aimed to turn Taiwanese into loyal subjects of the Japanese emperor.

Reaction to Japanese rule among the Taiwanese populace differed. Some felt that the safety of personal life and property was of utmost importance and went along with the Japanese colonial authorities. The second group of Taiwanese were eager to become imperial subjects, believing that such action would lead to equal status with Japanese nationals. The third group was influenced by Taiwan independence and tried to get rid of the Japanese colonials to establish a native Taiwanese rule. The fourth group on the other hand were influenced by Chinese nationalism and fought for the return of Taiwan to Chinese rule. From 1897 onwards the latter group staged many rebellions, the most famous one being led by Luo Fuxing (羅福星), who was arrested and executed along with two hundred of his comrades in 1913. Luo himself was a member of the Tongmenghui, an organization founded by Sun Yat-sen and was the precursor to the Kuomintang.[47]

Bank of Taiwan established in 1897 headquartered in Taihoku (Taipei).

Initial infrastructural development took place quickly. The Bank of Taiwan was established in 1899 to encourage Japanese private sectors, including Mitsubishi and the Mitsui Group, to invest in Taiwan. In 1900, the third Taiwan Governor-General passed a budget which initiated the building of Taiwan’s railroad system from Kirun (Keelung) to Takao (Kaohsiung). By 1905 the island had electric power supplied by water power in Sun-Moon Lake, and in subsequent years Taiwan was considered the second-most developed region of East Asia (after Japan). By 1905, Taiwan was financially self-sufficient and had been weaned off of subsidies from Japan’s central government.

Under the governor Shimpei Goto‘s rule, many major public works projects were completed. The Taiwan rail system connecting the south and the north and the modernizations of Kirun (Keelung) and Takao (Kaohsiung) ports were completed to facilitate transport and shipping of raw material and agricultural products.[48] Exports increased by fourfold. 55% of agricultural land was covered by dam-supported irrigation systems. Food production had increased fourfold and sugar cane production had increased 15-fold between 1895 to 1925 and Taiwan became a major foodbasket serving Japan’s industrial economy. The health care system was widely established and infectious diseases were almost completely eradicated. The average lifespan for a Taiwanese resident would become 60 years by 1945.[49]

Kagi Shrine, one of many Shinto shrines built in Taiwan.

In October 1935, the Governor-General of Taiwan held an “Exposition to Commemorate the 40th Anniversary of the Beginning of Administration in Taiwan,” which served as a showcase for the achievements of Taiwan’s modernization process under Japanese rule. This attracted worldwide attention, including the Republic of China’s KMT regime which sent the Japanese-educated Chen Yi to attend the affair. He expressed his admiration about the efficiency of Japanese government in developing Taiwan, and commented on how lucky the Taiwanese were to live under such effective administration. Somewhat ironically, Chen Yi would later become the ROC’s first Chief Executive of Taiwan, who would be infamous for the corruption that occurred under his watch.

The later period of Japanese rule saw a local elite educated and organized. During the 1930s several home rule groups were created at a time when others around the world sought to end colonialism. In 1935, the Taiwanese elected their first group of local legislators. By March 1945, the Japanese legislative branch hastily modified election laws to allow Taiwanese representation in the Japanese Diet.

The Takasago Volunteers were a unit of the Japanese Army recruited from Taiwanese aboriginal tribes.

As Japan embarked on full-scale war in China in 1937, it expanded Taiwan’s industrial capacity to manufacture war material. By 1939, industrial production had exceeded agricultural production in Taiwan. At the same time, the “kominka” imperialization project was put under way to instill the “Japanese Spirit” in Taiwanese residents, and ensure the Taiwanese would remain loyal subjects of the Japanese Emperor ready to make sacrifices during wartime. Measures including Japanese-language education, the option of adopting Japanese names, and the worship of Japanese religion were instituted. In 1943, 94% of the children received 6-year compulsory education. From 1937 to 1945, 126,750 Taiwanese joined and served in the military of the Japanese Empire, while a further 80,433 were conscripted between 1942 to 1945. Of the sum total, 30,304, or 15%, died in Japan’s war in Asia.

The Imperial Japanese Navy operated heavily out of Taiwan. The “South Strike Group” was based out of the Taihoku Imperial University (now National Taiwan University) in Taiwan. Many of the Japanese forces participating in the Aerial Battle of Taiwan-Okinawa were based in Taiwan. Important Japanese military bases and industrial centers throughout Taiwan, like Takao (now Kaohsiung), were targets of heavy American bombing.

In 1942, after the United States entered the war against Japan and on the side of China, the Chinese government under the KMT renounced all treaties signed with Japan before that date and made Taiwan’s return to China (as with Manchuria) one of the wartime objectives. In the Cairo Declaration of 1943, the Allied Powers declared the return of Taiwan (including the Pescadores) to the Republic of China as one of several Allied demands. In 1945, Japan unconditionally surrendered with signing of the instrument of surrender and ended its rule in Taiwan as the territory was put under the administrative control of the Republic of China government in 1945 by the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration.[50] Per the provisions in Article 2 of San Francisco Peace Treaty, the Japanese formally renounced the territorial sovereignty of Taiwan and Penghu islands, and the treaty was signed in 1951 and came into force in 1952. As of the moment when the San Francisco Peace Treaty came into force, the political status of Taiwan and Penghu Islands were still uncertain.[50] The Republic of China and Japan signed the Treaty of Taipei on April 28, 1952 and the treaty came into force on August 5.[51] Writing in the American Journal of International Law, professors Jonathan I. Charney and J. R. V. Prescott argued that “none of the post–World War II peace treaties explicitly ceded sovereignty over the covered territories to any specific state or government.”[52]

source wiki

in 1945

 

 

1948

 

Republic of China rule

UNDER MARTIAL LAW[EDIT]

Non-Kuomintang politician Wu San-lian (2L) celebrated his landslide victory (65.5%) in the first Taipei city mayoral election in January 1951.

Beside President Chiang Kai-shek, the U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower waved to crowds during his visit to Taipei in June 1960.

The Cairo Conference from 22 to 26 November 1943 in Cairo, Egypt was held to address the Allied position against Japan during World War II, and to make decisions about postwar Asia. One of the three main clauses of the Cairo Declaration was that “all the territories Japan has stolen from the Chinese, such as Manchuria, Formosa, and The Pescadores, shall be restored to the Republic of China”. However, many challenged that the document was merely a statement of intent or non-binding declaration, for possible reference used for those who would draft the post-war peace treaty and that as a press release it was without force of law to transfer sovereignty from Taiwan to the Republic of China. Additional rationale to support this claim is that the Act of Surrender, and SCAP General Order no. 1, authorised the surrender of Japanese forces, not Japanese territories.[53]

The Republic of China established Taiwan Provincial Government in September 1945[54] and proclaimed on October 25, 1945 as “Taiwan Retrocession Day.” This is the day in which the Japanese troops surrendered. The validity of the proclamation is subject to some debate, with some supporters of Taiwan independence arguing that it is invalid, and that the date only marks the beginning of military occupation that persists to the present.[55][56] During the immediate postwar period, the Kuomintang (KMT) administration on Taiwan was repressive and extremely corrupt compared with the previous Japanese rule, leading to local discontent. Anti-mainlander violence flared on February 28, 1947, prompted by an incident in which a cigarette seller was injured and a passerby was indiscriminately shot dead by Nationalist authorities.[57] During the ensuing crackdown by the KMT administration in what became known as the 228 Incident, tens of thousands of people were killed, and the incident became a taboo topic of discussion for the entire martial law era.

From the 1930s onward a civil war was underway in mainland China between Chiang Kai-shek‘s ROC government and the Communist Party of China led by Mao Zedong. When the civil war ended in 1949, 2 million refugees, predominantly from the Nationalist government, military, and business community, fled to Taiwan. On October 1, 1949 the People’s Republic of China (P.R.C.) was founded in mainland China by the victorious communists; several months before, Chiang Kai-shek had established a provisional ROC capital in Taipei and moved his government there from Nanjing. Under Nationalist rule, the mainlanders dominated the government and civil services.[58]

source wiki

the complete info exist in e-book in CD-ROM

if you want that CD-ROM

please send your nama,adress and no tilpon also upload your ID copy

this for secuerit against internet hijeck

the DR price US 1000(hundred dollaras) including sending cost

sen to Dr Iwan email iswansuwandy@gmail.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

the end @copyright 2014

Taiwan History Collections Introduction

Introduction

I have just visit Taiwan, but they still sude nama Republic OF Chian forbidden by  by the PRC, and donnot use Formoza.

Taiwan now very best and dicipline country with the high building,,many museum, best veteran hospital and stamp museum.

The very best was

 

Yehliu

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Panoramic view of the park

Yeliu is a geological curiosity.

Yeliu (Chinese: 野柳; pinyin: Yěliǔ) is a cape in the town of Wanli, New Taipei, Taiwan.

The cape, known by geologists as the Yeliu Promontory, forms part of the Daliao Miocene Formation. It stretches approximately 1,700 metres into the ocean and was formed as geological forces pushed Datun Mountain (大屯山) out of the sea.[1]

A distinctive feature of the cape is the hoodoo stones that dot its surface. These shapes can be viewed at the Yehliu Geopark operated by the North Coast and Guanyinshan National Scenic Area administration. A number of rock formations have been given imaginative names based on their shapes. The best known is the “Queen’s Head” (女王頭), an iconic image in Taiwan and an unofficial emblem for the town of Wanli. Other formations include the “Fairy Shoe,” the “Beehive,” the “Ginger Rocks” and the “Sea Candles.”

Features

The National imperial ceramic museum

and Chiang khai Sek Memorial Hall,

Tai Pei Stamps muesum

 

Postage stamps and postal history of Taiwan

A 1945 stamp of Taiwan.

This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of Taiwan, otherwise known as Formosa, and currently governed by the Republic of China.

The Republic of China comprises the islands of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu, and other minor islands, which are located off the east coast of mainland China. Neighboring states include the People’s Republic of China to the west, Japan to the north-east, and the Philippines to the south.

First stamps[edit]

In 1886 Taiwan was upgraded from a prefecture to a full province of China. A postal service was organised by the Governor, Liu Mingchuan, and postage stamps were issued the same year.[1]

Republic of Formosa[edit]

A stamp of the Republic of Formosa

In 1895 China ceded Taiwan to Japan. The Taiwanese reacted by establishing the short-lived Republic of Formosa, which issued its own stamps.

Japanese rule[edit]

Under Japanese rule, Taiwanese mail was handled as part of the Japanese postal system. After the surrender of Japan in August 1945, the postal system continued to operate locally, and on 21 October 1945, it issued 3-sen and 5-sen stamps, the design consisting of a large numeral and the imperial chrysanthemum. Despite the official transfer of Taiwan to China on 25 October, on the 31st a 10-sen stamp of the same design was issued. (An additional five values were printed but never issued.)

Republic of China Taiwanese issues[edit]

The locally-printed stamps, both issued and unissued, were immediately overprinted with “Chinese Republic” and “Province Taiwan” and went on sale 4 November. Two Japanese stamps, the 5-yen and 10-yen values of the 1937 pictorial series, were also overprinted, serving as the high values.

Throughout 1946, stocks of Chinese stamps were overprinted with new values in sen and “for use in Taiwan only”. This was followed by an issue in March 1947 marking Chang Kai-shek‘s 60th birthday; four small characters in the background say “for Taiwan only”. Subsequent stamp issues followed the same pattern through 1948.

 

The nama of Tai Pei measn Tai great Pei Nort,

The taiwan geology archelogy park

 

Yehliu

From Wikipedia,

Panoramic view of the park

Yeliu is a geological curiosity.

Yeliu (Chinese: 野柳; pinyin: Yěliǔ) is a cape in the town of Wanli, New Taipei, Taiwan.

The cape, known by geologists as the Yeliu Promontory, forms part of the Daliao Miocene Formation. It stretches approximately 1,700 metres into the ocean and was formed as geological forces pushed Datun Mountain (大屯山) out of the sea.[1]

A distinctive feature of the cape is the hoodoo stones that dot its surface. These shapes can be viewed at the Yehliu Geopark operated by the North Coast and Guanyinshan National Scenic Area administration. A number of rock formations have been given imaginative names based on their shapes. The best known is the “Queen’s Head” (女王頭), an iconic image in Taiwan and an unofficial emblem for the town of Wanli. Other formations include the “Fairy Shoe,” the “Beehive,” the “Ginger Rocks” and the “Sea Candles.”

Features

Lantern Festival

From Wikipedia,
Lantern Festival (Chinese)
ChiangKaiShek-MemorialHall-LanternFestival.jpg

Lantern Festival at night in Taipei
Official name Shangyuan Festival (上元节, 上元節)
Also called Yuanxiao Festival (元宵节, 元宵節)
Observed by Chinese
Type Cultural
Significance Marks the end of lunar New Year
Observances flying of paper lanterns
Date 15th day of the 1st month (lunisolar year)
2013 date February 24
2014 date February 14
2015 date March 5
Related to Chinese

The Lantern Festival is a festival celebrated on the fifteenth day of the first month in the lunisolar year in the lunar calendar marking the last day of the lunar New Year celebration.[1] It’s usually in February or March in the Gregorian calendar. As early as the Western Han Dynasty (206 BC-AD 25), it had become a festival with great significance.[2] During the Lantern Festival, children go out at night to temples carrying paper lanterns and solve riddles on the lanterns (simplified Chinese: 猜灯谜; traditional Chinese: 猜燈謎; pinyin: cāidēngmí; Jyutping: caai1dang1mai4).[3][4]

In ancient times, the lanterns were fairly simple, and only the emperor and noblemen had large ornate ones .[5] In modern times, lanterns have been embellished with many complex designs.[4] For example, lanterns are now often made in the shape of animals. The lanterns can symbolize the people letting go of their past selves and getting new ones,[6] which they will let go of the next year. The lanterns are almost always red to symbolize good fortune [7]

In Hong Kong, it is commercialized as the Chinese equivalent of Valentine’s Day. It is not to be confused with the Mid-Autumn Festival; which is sometimes also known as the “Lantern Festival” in locations such as Singapore and

History

Chinese lanterns in the night sky of Lijiang, Yunnan

Lantern Festival
Traditional Chinese 元宵節
Simplified Chinese 元宵节
Alternative Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 上元節
Simplified Chinese 上元节
Second alternative Chinese name
Chinese 十五暝
Literal meaning fifteenth night

The first month of the lunisolar calendar is called the yuan month, and in olden times night was called xiao in Mandarin. Therefore, the day is called Yuan Xiao (元宵) Festival in China. The fifteenth day is the first full moon of that lunisolar year. According to Taoist tradition, the fifteenth day of the first lunar month, Shàngyuán, corresponds to the “Official of Heaven,” who enjoys bright and joyful objects, so there should be thousands of colorful lanterns hung out for people to appreciate. At this time, people will try to solve puzzles on lanterns, eat glutinous rice balls named after the festival, yuanxiao (also known as tangyuan (simplified Chinese: 汤圆; traditional Chinese: 湯圓; pinyin: tāngyuán) and enjoy a family reunion.[4]

Origin legends

There are many different beliefs about the origin of the Lantern Festival. However, one likely origin is the celebration of “the declining darkness of winter” and community’s ability to “move about at night with human-made light,” namely, lanterns. During the Han Dynasty, the festival was connected to Ti Yin, the deity of the North Star.[1]

Red lanterns, often seen during the festivities in China

One legend tells us that it was a time to worship Taiyi, the God of Heaven in ancient times. The belief was that the God of Heaven controlled the destiny of the human world. He had sixteen dragons at his beck and call and he decided when to inflict drought, storms, famine or pestilence upon human beings. Beginning with Qinshihuang, the first emperor of China, who named China, all the emperors ordered splendid ceremonies each year. The emperor would ask Taiyi to bring favorable weather and good health to him and his people .[10][11]

Wudi of the Han Dynasty directed special attention to this event. In 104 BCE, he proclaimed it to be one of the most important celebrations and the ceremony would last throughout the night.

Another legend associates the Lantern Festival with Taoism. Tianguan is the Taoist god responsible for good fortune. His birthday falls on the fifteenth day of the first lunar month. It is said that Tianguan likes all types of entertainment, so followers prepare various kinds of activities during which they pray for good fortune .[12]

Another legend associates the Lantern Festival with an ancient warrior name Lan Moon, who led a rebellion against the tyrannical king in ancient China. He was killed in the storming of the city and the successful rebels commemorated the festival in his name .[12]

Yet another common legend dealing with the origins of the Lantern Festival speaks of a beautiful crane that flew down to earth from heaven. After it landed on earth it was hunted and killed by some villagers. This angered the Jade Emperor in heaven because the crane was his favorite. So, he planned a storm of fire to destroy the village on the fifteenth lunar day. The Jade Emperor’s daughter warned the inhabitants of her father’s plan to destroy their village. The village was in turmoil because nobody knew how they could escape their imminent destruction. However, a wise man from another village suggested that every family should hang red lanterns around their houses, set up bonfires on the streets, and explode firecrackers on the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth lunar days. This would give the village the appearance of being on fire to the Jade Emperor. On the fifteenth lunar day, troops sent down from heaven whose mission was to destroy the village saw that the village was already ablaze, and returned to heaven to report to the Jade Emperor. Satisfied, the Jade Emperor decided not to burn down the village. From that day on, people celebrate the anniversary on the fifteenth lunar day every year by carrying lanterns on the streets and exploding firecrackers and fireworks .[citation needed]

Another legend about the origins of Lantern Festival involves a maid named Yuan-Xiao. In the Han Dynasty, Dongfang Shuo was a favorite adviser of the emperor. One winter day, he went to the garden and heard a little girl crying and getting ready to jump into a well to commit suicide. Dongfang stopped her and asked why. She said she was Yuan-Xiao, a maid in the emperor’s palace and that she never had a chance to see her family since she started working there. If she could not have the chance to show her filial piety in this life, she would rather die. Dongfang promised to find a way to reunite her with her family. Dongfang left the palace and set up a fortune-telling stall on the street. Due to his reputation, many people asked for their fortunes to be told but everyone got the same prediction – a calamitous fire on the fifteenth lunar day. The rumor spread quickly .[12]

Everyone was worried about the future and asked Dongfang for help. Dongfang said that on the thirteenth lunar day, the God of Fire would send a fairy in red riding a black horse to burn down the city. When people saw the fairy they should ask for her mercy. On that day, Yuan-Xiao pretended to be the red fairy. When people asked for her help, she said that she had a copy of a decree from the God of Fire that should be taken to the emperor. After she left, people went to the palace to show the emperor the decree which stated that the capital city would burn down on the fifteenth. The emperor asked Dongfang for advice. Dongfang said that the God of Fire liked to eat tangyuan (sweet dumplings). Yuan-Xiao should cook tangyuan on the fifteenth lunar day and the emperor should order every house to prepare tangyuan to worship the God of Fire at the same time. Also, every house in the city should hang red lantern and explode fire crackers. Lastly, everyone in the palace and people outside the city should carry their lanterns on the street to watch the lantern decorations and fireworks. The Jade Emperor would be deceived and everyone would avoid the disastrous fire.[citation needed]

The emperor happily followed the plan. Lanterns were everywhere in the capital city on the night of the fifteenth lunar day. People were walking on the street. Fire crackers kept making lots of noise. It looked like the entire city was on fire. Yuan-Xiao’s parents went into the palace to watch the lantern decorations and were reunited with their daughter. The emperor decreed that people should do the same thing every year. Since Yuan-Xiao cooked the best tangyuan, people called the day Yuan-Xiao Festival.

Finding lovE

In the early days, young people were chaperoned in the streets in hopes of finding love. Matchmakers acted busily in hopes of pairing couples. The brightest lanterns were symbolic of good luck and hope. As time has passed, the festival no longer has such implications in most of China, but it is still commercialized as the Chinese equivalent of Valentine’s Day in Hong Kong.[9]

Yuanxiao[edit]

Main article: Tangyuan (food)

Eaten during the Lantern Festival, tangyuan ‘湯圓’ is a glutinous rice ball typically filled with sweet red bean paste, sesame paste, or peanut butter.[3] The Chinese people believe the round shape of the balls, and the bowls in which they are served symbolize family togetherness, and that eating tangyuan may bring the family happiness and good luck in the new year.[4][8]

6th century and afterwards

Lanterns in Qinhuai Lantern Fair

Until the Sui Dynasty in the sixth century, Emperor Yangdi invited envoys from other countries to China to see the colorful lighted lanterns and enjoy the gala performances.[13]

By the beginning of the Tang Dynasty in the seventh century, the lantern displays would last three days. The emperor also lifted the curfew, allowing the people to enjoy the festive lanterns day and night. It is not difficult to find Chinese poems which describe this happy scene.[13]

In the Song Dynasty, the festival was celebrated for five days and the activities began to spread to many of the big cities in China. Colorful glass and even jade were used to make lanterns, with figures from folk tales painted on the lanterns.[citation needed]

However, the largest Lantern Festival celebration took place in the early part of the 15th century. The festivities continued for ten days. Emperor Chengzu had the downtown area set aside as a center for displaying the lanterns. Even today, there is a place in Beijing called Dengshikou. In Chinese, deng means lantern and shi is market. The area became a market where lanterns were sold during the day. In the evening, the local people would go there to see the beautiful lighted lanterns on display.[citation needed]

Today, the displaying of lanterns is still a major event on the fifteenth day of the first lunar month throughout China. Chengdu in southwest China’s Sichuan Province, for example, holds a lantern fair each year in Culture Park. During the Lantern Festival, the park is a virtual ocean of lanterns. Many new designs attract large numbers of visitors. The most eye-catching lantern is the Dragon Pole. This is a lantern in the shape of a golden dragon, spiraling up a 38-meter-high pole, spewing fireworks from its mouth. Cities such as Hangzhou and Shanghai have adopted electric and neon lanterns, which can often be seen beside their traditional paper or wooden counterparts. Another popular activity at this festival is guessing lantern riddles (which became part of the festival during the Tang Dynasty).[citation needed] These often contain messages of good fortune, family reunion, abundant harvest, prosperity and love.[citation needed] Just like the pumpkin carved into jack-o’-lantern for Halloween in the western world, Asian parents sometime teach their children to carve empty the inner tubing of Oriental radish /mooli/ daikon into a Cai-Tou-Lantern (simplified Chinese: 营菜头灯; traditional Chinese: 營菜頭燈; pinyin: yíng cai tóu dēng) for the Festival.[citation needed]

Tai Chung city

other citywas Tai Chung,chung mean center.

 Tai Pei highest building

Tai Chung veteran hospital.Dr Iwan was chech his health there

Tai Chung

 

To know more about Taiwan, I will write the history

sincerely

DR Iwan Suwandy,MHA

THE GUIDANCE TO SEEK INFO

HALLO MY FRIEND FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD

WELCOME TO DRIWANCYBERMUSEUM WEB BLOG

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The Comic History Collections part one Detective Comic

The Comic history

Collections

 

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Prive Limited E-BOOK in CD-ROM Edition

Special for Premium Member

Copyright@2012

 

 

March 1937

The first detetctive Comic no 1 in March 1937

the detective comic no 40 june 1937 Batman

1938

The detective comic no 21 in 19281939

The Detective Comic no 27 the Batman in  1939

Synopsis for “The Case of the Chemical Syndicate”

Commissioner Gordon learns that a chemical industrialist named Lambert has just been murdered. It appears as if Lambert’s son is guilty of the crime, but he confesses only to finding his father’s body. Bruce Wayne is present at the crime scene and decides to investigate as the Batman.

Exploring Lambert’s contacts, he discovers the names of his old business partners, Steven Crane, Paul Rogers and Alfred Stryker. Shortly thereafter, Steven Crane is found dead in his home. Paul Rogers learns of the murder and seeks out the last surviving business partner, Alfred Stryker. But Stryker reveals himself to be behind the crimes and kidnaps Rogers. He wants total control over their business interests.

Batman swoops down inside of Stryker’s chemical factory and rescues Rogers. Stryker tries to attack him but Batman beats him back, toppling the criminal into a vat of acid

 

April 194

The Detective Comic no 33 in nopember  1939

0

 

Detective comic no 38 The Robin in 1940

1941

The detective comic no 41 in 1941

AND WILL SEEN THE INFO LIKE THIS AND CLICK TO VIEW

OR YOU WANT TO FIND THE INDONESIAN STAMP OR REVEBNUE  POSTAL HISTORY

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The Dai Nippon War In Indonesia

Book Three

The dai Nippon Occupation Eastren Area of Indonesia

 

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy.MHA

Private Limited E-book In CD-rom Edition

Special for Sebior Collectors

Copyright @ 2012

While in Tokyo

 Major-General Kawaguchi

was informed that the enemy strength in British Borneo was estimated at approximately 1,000 regular soldiers (mostly Indians) and 2,500 native volunteers, with a probable further

5,600 Dutch soldiers in Dutch Borneo.

 Intelligence sources reported that the entire island was covered with dense jungle with only a few poor roads near the river mouths. The only means of transportation was possible by water. Information in regard to weather and terrain was very scant and not very reliable and there was only one small scale map of the island available.

 

Immediately upon his return to

Canton

 from Tokyo, the Detachment commander proceeded to

 

Sanya,

Hainan Island,

to attend a conference with the Commander-in-Chief of the Southern Expeditionary Fleet and the Direct Escort Fleet commander in order to reach an agreement on co-operative measures in the event of war.

 

 

It was decided that the first Japanese landings would be made at aerawk in

Miri

and

Serian

in order to capture vital oilfields and airfields in these towns. Part of the force would remain in this area to reestablish Miri oilfield while the main body would advance and capture the Kuching airfield. All units of the Kawaguchi Detachment had to receive special training in landing under cover of darkness and in jungle fighting, and naturally they also had to change their equipment and would have to be given special survival and field sanitation training.

On 20 November 1941,

 The Kawaguchi’s Brigade was activated in Tokyo (Japan), and placed under

 the direct command of the Southern Army.

It was commanded by

Major-General Kiyotake Kawaguchi

 

 and it was composed mainly of

 the following Japanese units stationed at Canton, southern China, which had been previously

 under the command of the Japanese  18th Infantry Division:

Order of Battle for Japanese forces
Sarawak, December 1941
Major-General Kiyotake Kawaguchi(commander) 
35thInfantry Brigade Headquarters 
124th Infantry Regiment
one platoon of the 12th Engineer Regiment
a unit from the 18th Division Signal Unit
a unit from the 18th Division Medical Unit
4th Field Hospital, 18th Division
a unit from the 11th Water Supply and Purification Unit

In addition, the following units from Japan and Manchuria were to be used to reinforce the Detachment:

33rd Field AA Battalion
one company of the 26th Independent Engineer Regiment
(minus two platoons)
2nd Independent Engineer Company
80th Independent Radio Platoon
37th Fixed Radio Unit
a unit from the Oil Drilling Section of the 21st Field Ordnance Depot
1st Field Well Drilling Company
2nd Field Well Drilling Company
3rd Field Well Drilling Company
4th Field Well Drilling Company
48th Anchorage Headquarters
118th Land Duty Company

 

 
 

Top of Form

(Satoru Nibo) Satoshi Nibo. 05 5 (1916) Taisho,

 

born as the eldest son of eight siblings in a village Naoki Ijuin Gujo Hioki, Kagoshima Prefecture. July 13 (1938) Showa, commissioned second lieutenant. August

Indonesia Independence Revolution and War Book and CD-ROM

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THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

THE FOUNDER

Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM

SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

INDONESIA INDEPENDENCE REVOLUTION & WAR 1945-1950

Based On Dr Iwan Postal And Document Collection

                   

                          

                              CREATED BY Dr IWAN S

                                  

Limited edition 100 expls

        Private Publication Special for Collectors member

                                     Jakarta,2012                                                                                   

@copyright Dr Iwan S ,201hhtp://http://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

 

INDONESIA INDEPENDENCE REVOLUTION AND WAR WAR 1945-1950

Edisi Terbatas 100 eksp

Publikasi Pribadi Khusus untuk Kolektor postal Histori

Penulis : Dr Iwan S

Editor  : Anton J.S.

Penyunting : Lily W.

Photographer : Albert SDO & INDRA SANUSI

NAMA PEMILIK: Dr Iwan S

NO. PERCOBAAN 001

@Copyright Dr Iwan S 2011

 

Private Limited E-book Special For Collectors.

Copyright @ Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

Hhtp://http://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

PS.THE common economic 100 CDand lux complte special  CD_ROM  only ten CDexist now,please suncribed via comment.

INTRODUCTION

PREFACE-PENGANTAR

1.The Situation of Indonesia Indepennce Revolution and war  1945-195o, manywritten by local and overseas writers , butbased onfactual informationfrom a collectionof documentsandpersonalitemshave not beenmanypoststhatwere writtenbyauthors fromIndonesiaby using theIndonesian language andBritain, this is becausenot manypeopleIndonesia, which hasdocumentsandobjectsthat heading, generallyin Indonesia  were burnedoutor destroyedwhendisplaced,and atthe endbrokenfrom floods. Generally whentheresult ofthe politicalsituationduringthe Indonesian Independence Revolution and War  1945-195oin generalpeopleare veryafraid tokeeppersonalrecordsrelated towarthat couldbecomeevidence oftheirinvolvementaskolaburator Dutch Nica or republic  soldiersandtroopsfighter  willaccusetheyspy from each side in their area   with the consequentadverse to the document or collections owner.

  Situasi revolusi dan Perang Kemerdeaan Indonesia  1945-1950,sudah banyak ditulis oleh  penulis dalam dan luar luar negeri, tetapi yang berdasarkan informasi factual dari koleksi dokumen and benda pos pribadi belum banyak yang ditulis oleh pengarang dari Indonesia dengan mengunakan bahasa Indonesia dan bahasa Ingris, hal ini karena tidak banyak bangsa Indonesia yang memiliki dokumen-dokumen and benda pos tersebut ,umumnya  habis dibakar atau musnah saat mengungsi ,dan paling akhir rusak akibat banjir. Umumnya saat tersebut akibat situasi politis saat perang  kemerdekaan Indonesia  1945-1950 ,pada umumnya rakyat Indonesia sangat takut menyimpan arsip pribadi terkait perang tersebut  yang dapat menjadi bukti mereka terlibat sebagai kolaburator tentara  Belanda Nica atau  dan pasukan Repoeblik Indonesia , Tentara Belanda Nica atau Tentara repoeblik Indonesia   akan menuduh mereka mata-mata   dengan akibat yang  merugikan sipemilik.

2.One of a rare republic Indonesia Sumatra   postalcard   one year Indonesian Independence have found by the writers at  Bukittinggi in 1985, and this rare collections had gave the motivation to write the special book for Indonesian,Japan and Dutch  postal history collectors and another collectors from all over the world. Please look that cover illustration below.

Salah satu koleksi langka kartu pos pos Sumatra peringatan satu tahun merdeka  yang ditemui oleh penulis di Bukittinggi tahun 1985 , dan koleksi langka ini  memberikan motivasi untuk menulis suatu buku khusus untuk kolektor phillatelis di Indonesia,Jepang dan Belanda  serta kolektor  lainnya.dari seluruh dunia.

3.After Indonesian Independence revolution and war finish and Indonesia became  the unity Republic Indonesia in 1950 , many stamp and postal history collectors Collected     the collection as the factual fact of history, one of the Dutch biggest collector Mr Vrijdag  asking Mr V.Esbensen to made the catalogue of his very amazing collections.and some of my collection also be the based ,mr V.Esbensen told me what you are doing will be the great collections if your country became development country.    In 1985, Mr PR Bulterman     from dutch visit me in Padang,when he look at my collections he told me how amazing that collections, he want to bought because some of the collectionnhe never seen before , but I did not want to sell to him, but in 1988 I sold several collections To Mr Karel from Jakarta Indonesia because  I need fund to move and study to Jakarta,  but the illustration of collections I still have,and after that in 1994 I am starting to collect again until now, the biggest colletion will be the based on this book including postal history stamp and revenue, numismatic ,document and picture collections       

 

  Setelah Kemerdekaan Indonesia revolusi dan perang selesai dan Indonesia menjadi kesatuan Republik Indonesia pada tahun 1950, banyak cap pos dan kolektor sejarah Dikumpulkan koleksi sebagai kenyataan faktual sejarah, salah satu yang terbesar kolektor Mr Belanda Vrijdag meminta Mr V. Esbensen untuk dibuat katalog dari collections.and nya sangat menakjubkan beberapa koleksi saya juga berdasarkan, mr V. Esbensen mengatakan kepada saya apa yang Anda lakukan akan menjadi koleksi besar jika negara anda menjadi negara pembangunan.Pada tahun 1985, Bapak PR Bulterman dari belanda mengunjungi saya di Padang, ketika ia melihat koleksi saya dia mengatakan saya bagaimana menakjubkan yang koleksi, dia ingin membeli karena beberapa collectionnhe tidak pernah terlihat sebelumnya, tetapi saya tidak ingin menjual kepadanya, namun pada tahun 1988 saya menjual beberapa koleksi untuk Bapak Karel dari Jakarta Indonesia karena saya membutuhkan dana untuk bergerak dan studi ke Jakarta, namun ilustrasi koleksi saya masih punya, dan setelah itu pada tahun 1994 saya mulai mengumpulkan lagi sampai sekarang, colletion terbesar akan didasarkan pada buku ini termasuk sejarah perangko pos dan pendapatan, numismatik, dokumen dan koleksi gambar        .                               

    

4.In 2009 I am starting to write a simple story and add in my internet blog with the same name with historic  chronolic ,many comment and asked me to edit this simple story with more interesting style and illustrated with more professional photography..

Tahun 2009 penulis memulai suatu tulisan sederhana sebagai pecobaan, di tampilkan dalam suatu blog internet dengan nama yang sama dengan penampilan kronologis historis, banyak tanggapan dan saran agar penulis mengedit dan menyusun tulisan yang lebih sederhan dengan gaya ,cerita yang lebih menarik dilengkapi illustrasi koleksi yang tehnik fotografi yang canggih.

5.The professional writing starting in June 2010 until august  2012 ,with more professional proposal help by the professional team editor,layout and photography, as the firs issue in Private productions limited 100 expl in CR-Rom.

Penulisan dimulai bulan Juni 2011 sampai Augustus 2012  dengan rencana yang lebih matang dibantu oleh suatu tim editor,layout dan,photography ,sebagai penerbitan pertama secara pribadi akan di terbitkan edisi terbatas  100 eksemplar dalam CR-ROM

6.I know that this book have many lack of information and written technologically , that is why I need more comment and corrections to made this book more complete and more best performance in the future.

Penulis menyadari buku ini masih banyak kekurangan dan kekeliruan sehingga diharapkan koreksi ,saran dan tambahan informasi agar dapat disempurnakan.

8.Thanks very much to all my friends for their comment that made this book created as the proposal on time, and will lauching in order to celebrate  the67th Indonesia Indepedence day August 17thth 2012 may be  at International Phillatelic Exhibition Indonesia 20122  at June 2012 , I am sorry I cannot listed the name of my friends here.without then this book cannot write in good and interesting, also takns very much to my collectors who visit my three internet Web Blog site

hhtp://www. unqiecollections.wordpress.com ,  hhtp://http://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com.  hhtp://http://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

 

IF YOU WANT TO GET THE COMPLETE cd-rom,SPECIAL FOR  INDONESIAN COLLECTORS ONLY,

OLEASE SEND YOUR KOPI Ktp WITH COMPLETE ADRRESS AND NO TELPON TO DR IWAN EMAIL

iq=WANSUWANDY@GMAIL.COM

AFTER YOU SEND  rP.500.000)(LIMA RATUS RIBU RUPIAH) LIWAT atm bca KEPADA dR iWAN,cd AKAN DIKRIM KERUMAH ANDA LIWAT tITITPAN kILAT,BIAYA SUDAH TERMASUK ONGKOS KIRIM.

 

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The Chinese

History Collections

1835-1914

Lady Niuhuru (1837-1881). She was the daughter of Niuhuru Muyangga and his concubine Lady Giyang. She was "Imperial Concubine Zhen" (1852), "Noble Consort Zhen" (1852), and Empress of China (1852-1861) as the wife of The Xianfeng Emperor (Yizhu). After her husband's death she was given the title "Empress Mother Empress Dowager Ci'an". She was given the posthumous title "Empress Xiao Zhen Xian". She had no children.

Cixi - Dowager Empress of China - also known as T'zu-hsi

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,mHA

Copyeight @ 2014

 

1835

Cixi was born in the winter of 1835. According to the information listed on a red sheet (File No. 1247) within “Miscellaneous Pieces of the Palace” (a Qing dynasty documentation package retrieved from the First Historical Archives of China), Cixi was the daughter of Huizheng, an ordinary official from the Manchu Yehenara clan. Palace archives also show that Huizheng was a member of the Bordered Blue Banner of the Eight Banners, and was working in Beijing during the year of Cixi’s birth, indicating that Cixi was born in Beijing. Also, the file recorded the location of Cixi’s childhood home, which was Firewood Alley of West Sipailou, Beijing (Chinese: 西四牌楼劈柴胡同).

1836

Chinese Empire, 1836 (July 4th) early folded entire from London to Canton, from a London firm “W. I. Hall & Co.” to “Wetmore & Co” in Canton, with oblong framed British company in China firm chop alongside, VF piece of early Chinese trading history, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 19,000

 

 

1851

In 1851, Cixi participated in the selection for consorts to the new Xianfeng Emperor alongside sixty other candidates. Cixi was one of the few candidates chosen to stay. She was placed in the 6th rank of consorts, and styled “Noble Lady Lan” (Chinese: 贵人). Among the other chosen candidates were Noble Lady Li of Tatala clan (later Consort Li), Concubine Yun of Wugiya clan, and Concubine Zhen of Niuhuru clan (later Xianfeng’s empress consort).

1854

Lady Niuhuru (1837-1881). She was the daughter of Niuhuru Muyangga and his concubine Lady Giyang. She was "Imperial Concubine Zhen" (1852), "Noble Consort Zhen" (1852), and Empress of China (1852-1861) as the wife of The Xianfeng Emperor (Yizhu). After her husband's death she was given the title "Empress Mother Empress Dowager Ci'an". She was given the posthumous title "Empress Xiao Zhen Xian". She had no children.

In 1854, Cixi was elevated to the 5th rank of consorts and given a title, styled “Imperial Concubine Yi” (Chinese: ). In 1855, Cixi became pregnant.

1856

On 27 April 1856, she gave birth to Zaichun, the Xianfeng Emperor’s only surviving son. Soon afterward, she was elevated to the 4th rank of consorts, styled “Consort Yi” (Chinese: 懿妃).[2] In 1857, when her son reached his first birthday, Cixi was elevated to the 3rd rank consorts, and styled “Noble Consort Yi” (Chinese: 贵妃). This rank placed her second only to the Empresswithin Xianfeng’s harem.

Unlike many other women in the imperial harem, Cixi was known for her ability to read and write Chinese. This granted her ample opportunities to help the ailing emperor in daily state governing. On various occasions, the Xianfeng Emperor had Cixi read palace memorials for him, and leave instructions on the memorials according to his will. As a result, Cixi became well-informed about state affairs, and learned the art of state governing from the ailing emperor.[3]

 

(Empress Dowager Tzu-hsi; Chinese: 慈禧太后; pinyin: Cíxǐ Tàihòu; Wade–Giles: Tz’u2-hsi3 T’ai4-hou4; Mandarin pronunciation: [tsʰǐɕì tʰâɪ̯ xɤ̂ʊ̯]; Manchu: Tsysi taiheo; 29 November 1835 – 15 November 1908), of the ManchuYehenara clan, was a powerful and charismatic woman who unofficially but effectively controlled the Manchu Qing dynasty in China for 47 years, from 1861 to her death in 1908.

Selected as an imperial concubine for

《咸丰皇帝朝服像》.jpg

 

the Xianfeng Emperor

 in her adolescence, she gave birth to a son, in 1856.

1860

In September 1860, British and French troops attacked Peking (Beijing) during the closing stages of the Second Opium War,

1856

 

Second Opium War 1856-1880

 

 

and by the following month had burned the Emperor’s exquisite Old Summer Palace to the ground. The attack, under the command of Lord Elgin, was mounted in retaliation for the arrest on 18 September of British diplomatic envoy Harry Parkes and the torture and execution of a number of western hostages. The Xianfeng Emperor and his entourage, including Cixi, fled Beijing for the safety of Rehe in Manchuria.[4] On hearing the news of the destruction of the Old Summer Palace, the Xianfeng Emperor (who was already showing signs of dementia) fell into a depression, turned heavily to alcohol and drugs, and became seriously ill.[5]

 

 

 

1861

File:《璇闱日永图》.jpg

empress dowager Ci’an

On 22 August 1861 the Xianfeng Emperor died at Rehe Palace in the city of Rehe (now Chengde, Hebei). Before his death, he summoned eight of his most prestigious ministers, headed by Sushun, Zaiyuan, and Duanhua, and named them the “Eight Regent Ministers” to direct and support the future Emperor. His heir, the son of Noble Consort Yi (future Empress Dowager Cixi), was only five years old. It is commonly assumed that on his deathbed, the Xianfeng Emperor summoned his Empress and Noble Consort Yi, and gave each of them a stamp. He hoped that when his son ascended the throne, his Empress and Noble Consort Yi would cooperate in harmony and, together, help the young emperor to grow and mature also meant as a check on the power of the eight regents however there is no evidence for this and it is unlikely he would ever have intended for the women to have any political power. It is possible that the seal allegedly given as a symbol for the child was really a present for noble consort yi (Cixi ) herself as informal seals numbered in the thousands and weren’t political items but objects of art commissioned for pleasure by emperors to stamp on things like paintings or given as presents to the concubines.[6] Upon the death of the Xianfeng Emperor, his Empress Consort, aged 25, was elevated to the title Empress Dowager Ci’an(popularly known as the East Empress Dowager because she lived in the Eastern Zhong-Cui Palace), and Noble Consort Yi, aged 27, was elevated to the title Empress Dowager Cixi (popularly known as the West Empress Dowager because she lived inside the Western Chuxiu Palace).

By the time of the Xianfeng Emperor’s death,

Empress Dowager Cixi had become a shrewd strategist. In Jehol, while waiting for an astrologically favorable time to transport the coffin back to Beijing, Cixi conspired with powerful court officials and imperial relatives to seize power.

 Cixi’s position as the lower-ranked Empress Dowager had no political power attached. In addition, her son the young emperor was not a political force himself.

As a result, it became necessary for her to ally herself with other powerful figures. the late emperor’s principal wife, the Empress Dowager Ci’an, Cixi suggested that they become co-reigning Empress Dowagers, with powers exceeding the Eight Regent Ministers, the two had long been close friends since Cixi first came to the harem .[7]

Tensions grew among the Eight Regent Ministers, headed by Sushun, and the two Empresses Dowager.

The ministers did not appreciate Cixi’s interference in political affairs, and the frequent confrontations left the Empress Dowager Ci’an frustrated.

 Ci’an often refused to come to court audiences, leaving Empress Dowager Cixi to deal with the ministers alone.

Secretly, Empress Dowager Cixi began gathering the support of talented ministers, soldiers, and others who were ostracized by the Eight Regent Ministers for personal or political reasons.

Among them was Prince Gong, who had great ambitions and was at that time excluded from the power circle, and the Prince Chun, the sixth and seventh sons of the Daoguang Emperor, respectively. While she aligned herself with these Princes, a memorial came fromShandong asking for Cixi to “listen to politics behind the curtains”, i.e., asking Cixi to become the ruler. The same petition also asked Prince Gong to enter the political arena as a principal “aide to the Emperor.”

When the Emperor’s funeral procession left for Beijing, Cixi took advantage of her alliances with Princes Gong and Chun.

She and the boy Emperor returned to the capital before the rest of the party, along with Zaiyuan and Duanhua, two of the principal regents, while Sushun was left to accompany the deceased Emperor’s procession. Cixi’s early return to Beijing meant that she had more time to plan with Prince Gong, and ensure that the power base of the Eight Regent Ministers was divided between Sushun and his allies, Zaiyuan and Duanhua.

History was re-written and the Regents were dismissed for having carried out incompetent negotiations with the “barbarians” which had caused Xianfeng Emperor to flee to Jehol “greatly against his will,” among other charges.[7]

To display her high moral standards, Cixi executed only three of the eight regent ministers.

Prince Gong had suggested that Sushun and others be executed by the most painful method, known as slow slicing, but Dowager Cixi declined the suggestion and ordered that Sushun be beheaded, while the other two also marked for execution, Zaiyuan and Duanhua, were given white silks to allow them to commit suicide.

 In addition, Cixi refused outright the idea of executing the family members of the ministers, as would be done in accordance with Imperial tradition of an alleged usurper. Ironically, Qing Imperial tradition also dictated that women and princes were never to engage in politics. In breaking with tradition, Cixi became the only Qing Dynasty Empress to rule from “behind the curtains” (垂簾聽政).

This palace coup is known as the “Xinyou Palace Coup” (Chinese: 辛酉政變) in China after the name of the year 1861 in the Sexagenary cycle.

 

The Empress  Dowager Cixi

 

 

With Xianfeng’s death in 1861 the young boy became the Tongzhi Emperor and she became Empress Dowager. Cixi ousted a group of regents appointed by the late emperor and assumed regency, which she shared with the Empress Dowager Ci’an. Cixi then consolidated control over the dynasty when, at the death of the Tongzhi Emperor, contrary to the dynastic rules of succession, she installed her nephew as the Guangxu Emperor in 1875. Although she refused to adopt Western models of government, she supported technological and military reforms and the Self-Strengthening Movement. Cixi rejected the Hundred Days’ Reforms of 1898 as impractical and detrimental to dynastic power and placed the Guangxu Emperor under house arrest for supporting reformers. After the Boxer Rebellion and the invasion of Allied armies, external and internal pressures led Cixi to effect institutional changes of just the sort she had resisted and to appoint reform-minded officials. The dynasty collapsed in late 1911, three years after her death, and the Republican Era was inaugurated 1 January 1912.

Historians both in China and abroad have generally portrayed her as a despot and villain responsible for the fall of the dynasty, while others have suggested that her opponents among the reformers succeeded in making her a scapegoat for problems beyond her control, that she stepped in to prevent disorder, that she was no more ruthless than other rulers, and that she was even an effective if reluctant reformer in the last years of her life.[1]

In November 1861,

 a few days following the coup, Cixi was quick to reward Yixin,

the Prince Gong, for his help.

 He was made head of the General Affairs Office and the Internal Affairs Office, and his daughter was made a Gurun Princess, a title usually bestowed only on the Empress’s first-born daughter.

Yixin’s allowance also increased twofold. However, Cixi avoided giving Yixin the absolute political power that princes such as Dorgon exercised during the Shunzhi Emperor‘s reign. As one of the first acts from behind the curtains, Cixi (nominally along with Ci’an) issued two important Imperial Edicts on behalf of the Emperor.

The first stated that the two Empresses Dowager were to be the sole decision makers “without interference,” and the second changed the boy Emperor’s era name from Qixiang (祺祥; “Auspicious”) to Tongzhi (同治; “collective stable”).

However, despite being the sole decision makers, both Ci’an and Cixi were forced to rely on the Grand Council and a complex series of procedures in order to deal with affairs of state. When state documents came in, they were to be first forwarded to the dowager empresses, and then referred back to the prince adviser and the Grand Council. Having discussed the matters, the prince and his colleagues would seek the instruction of the dowager empresses at audiences and imperial orders would be drawn up accordingly, with drafts having to be approved by the dowagers before edicts were issued.[8]

It also seems that their most important role during the regency was merely to apply their seals to edicts, a merely mechanical role in a complex bureaucracy.[9]

 

Cixi’s entrance as the absolute power figure in China came at a time of internal chaos and foreign challenges. The effects of the Second Opium War were still hovering over the country, as the Taiping Rebellion continued its seemingly unstoppable advance through China’s south, eating up the Qing Empire bit by bit. Internally, both the national bureaucracy and regional authorities were infested with corruption. 1861 happened to be the year of official examinations, whereby officials of all levels presented their political reports from the previous three years. Cixi decided that the time was ripe for a bureaucratic overhaul, where she personally sought audience with all officials above the level of provincial governor, who had to report to her personally. Cixi took on part of the role usually given to the Bureaucratic Affairs Department (吏部). Cixi also executed two prominent officials to serve as examples as a more immediate solution: Qingying, a militaryshilang who had tried to bribe his way out of demotion, and He Guiqing, then Viceroy of Liangjiang, who fled Changzhou in the wake of an incoming Taiping army as opposed to trying to defend the city.

Another significant challenge Cixi faced was the increasingly decrepit state of the country’s Manchu elite. Since the beginning of the dynasty most major positions at court had been held by Manchus, and Emperors had generally shown contempt for powerful Han Chinese. Cixi, again in a reversal of Imperial tradition, entrusted the country’s most powerful military unit against the Taiping army into the hands of a Han Chinese, Zeng Guofan. Additionally, in the next three years, Cixi appointed Han Chinese officials to become governors of all southern Chinese provinces, raising alarm bells in an administration traditionally fond of Manchu dominance

 

Elle était très mal perçue par les Han car elle était Mandchoue. A l’école, on m’a enseigné (et donc pas qu’a moi) qu’elle était une mauvaise impératrice et qu’elle était en partie responsable du désastre qui frappa la chine alors. De plus elle a fuie la capitale, abandonnant le peuple …bref elle n’était vraiment pas bien vu à l’époque et jusqu’à il a peu. Depuis deux ou trois ans les chaines chinoises diffusent des reportages qui réabilitent un peu son image, mais bon ce n’est pas la souveraine la plus populaire de la chine ancienne, loin de là.

 Welcome scene painted on a panel of the Long Corridor

Summer palace painting

 

The Qing Imperial paintings occupies an important position among the court painters. With its original , somewhat poetic theme and fine, precise grushwork it ranks among the best Chinese figure paintings. An aptitute fr figure paintings from an early age, and this is borne out by varius anecdote.


The Qing Empress had her Hall repaired and was so proud of the newly whitewashed walls that when Her Majesty out she order a serving kasim boy to make sure that no one touched and dirtied them. But after the the fall of china imperial, some off the imperial painting in dirty and almost off because no one tooke care that very rare imperial paintings.before all became broken and faded , I think better I install the imperial painting in my blog and my be the native Chinese Painting collector will help me to write the more best narations .


The Qing Empress eager to paint something on the wall, sent the by off to have a meal and took advantage of his abscence to her majesty aske the court painter to stack up some tables and stand on them to paint a portrait of Confucius. When the servant boy came back and saw the snow-white wall covered with a painting he burst into tears for fear of his Majesty’s eager. But the Qing emperor ‘s father in Law on his return was so struck by the lifelike figure of Confucius that he went down on his knees to worship it, thingking Confucius had descended to protect the Royal house.


The legend story about how the Qing imperial painter copied the earlier imperial artist’s works. Having heard that there were stone inscriptions of the potraits oth the seventy-two diciples of Confucius by Li Kung Lin on the walls of the Hangchow Prefectural Collage, The imperial painter sailed dwn the river Chientang to Hangchow with the necessary equipment and before long returned with a set of carefully made rubbings. For ten days he stayed at home behind closed doors to study LiKung lin technique, and when he showed his copies of potraits and the original rubbings to his friends they praised the close likeness he had acchieved.

 But he still was not satisfied. he worked for ten more days and this time when he showed the results to his friends he was delighted to be told that they further from the originals, for instead of merely making faithful copies he had displayed originality, freely interpreting Li Kung Lin’s manner and improving his own style. This had been the purposed f his study. The cnturs of his figures are graceful yet dignbified, vivid and strong with a suureness of touch that makes every strke seeminevitable. The lines of the drapery not only suggest the texture of the material but the way it cling to the figure. Pleats,seams,curves and fld are painted simply and precisely, while the pstures and gestures are brilliantly executed,corresponding closely to the speed and force of each figure’s movement, with a natural grace and harmny between the contour
lines and the folds of the garment.


The soul of figure painting lies in characterization, and the technique of line-drawing might be called the mainstay of characterization. For a painting like the court ladies is made entirely of lines, quite unlike Chinese paintings of the “boneless” type in which artist generally make sketches without any outline and the apply colour washed. If all the lines here were removed these would be no painting left, and this is te most important feaurure of Qing Imperial painting.


To give each line such accuracy that it is a generalized expression or ordinary movements means understanding the general rules governing gestures and movements and depicting them with a minimum of fine lines. This can only be achieved by long and hard practice and not by talent alone.The Qing Imperial painter’s line drawing technique show that he was both gifted and painstaking. He neither disobeyed the rules of plastic art to make a parade of his versatility not stopped to thoughtless, naturalistic sketching. His brushwork is charcaterized by simplicity,dignity and natural grace, yet careful thought obviously went into each line, for we cannt find a single careless strke and the whole work shows his mastery of technique.
Many of the Qing Imperial painters themes are inspired by the plataeu of mountains , landscaped and palace hall , they shows originality in their composition and brushwork.
One of the Qing Imperial painter hearing that there was a “Love-seed Court’ with a tree bearing the red seeds, he paid a special visit to it but he saw only green leaves but no red seeds. He write a poem :

summer palac jade ship at aummer palace lake

Red seeds grow in the south
How many shots have they put frt this spring?
Pick them inplenty,friend
For these are seeds of love!

The theme of Qing Imperial Painting illustrations :

1. The Mountain landscape : six paintings

2. The Palace hall : three paintings

3. The Bird : two paintings

4. The Court ladies : three paintings

 

5. The Human figures :three paintings including Confucius.

6. Pagoda : one paintings

@copyright Dr Iwan s 2010

This the original painting forbidden to Copy. Illustrations provenance dr Iwan bought from the Qing Imperial family by my Grandpa which he bring to Sumatra as the souvenier, this timeforbidden to take photos in summer palace because the painting became more vade and broken, please save our heritage special for the Chinese overseas collectors please this picture became your refrences,I will put in my collaboration with Zheng he Museum Penang.

The Qing Imperial Ceramic”

 

Imperial Spitting Vase

Imperial Head-pillow

Imperial Rice Bowl & soup Bowl

Imperial Chopestick holder

Imperial Stoneware figurine

Imperial Stempcup

Empress coverbox

Empress coverbox

Imperial cover box

Empress yellow Tea Cup

Imperial Meiping Vase

 

Imperial stoneware Tea Pot

Imperial red Vase

The Qing imperial vase

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Qing Postmark History

I.INTODUCTIONS
After 36 years research fromthe first time found the Qing Dynasty postmark collections in 1974 , very difficult to found the special catalogue about this type collections.
After the google had the special tools to explored allin informations in the Internet , I found enough information to start to report my reasearch.

During Qing Dynasty, before joined UPU , all the latter send abroad must added the stamps from the country which had joined UPU, because the local stamps didn’t accepted.

After the first local port stamps first issue at Shangai in 1863, the first Local Post Shanghai Postmark were issued and follow by the other Local Port Postmark like Amoy,Foochow, Chinkiang etc.

The first Qing Imperial postmark were the Pa Kua,special chinese characters used five strip, and by cutting one or more line will made the special meaning, every city used this pa kua postmark with meaning the initial of the city.In 2007 I have found the first Pa kua postmark on Japan coil dragon stamps 1 c many Indonesian collectors didn.t want to collect this stamp because they think this postmark was blob and bad.
Pa means five, Kua means line,

In 1896, the Qing emperor issued a special decree giving official recgnation to the European postal syatem and the Ancient I Chan and Manchu Postal system were ended.Many European have their postoffice in China with their own postmark, the first postmaek found was the German pstal Office at Kiatschou. (read the complete history “The Qing Imperial Postal History” in this blog.)

After joined UPU, the Qing postal system issued the internationalpostmark . round bigger like dollar coin, and this postmark called Qing Dollar Post mark, after that many types of postmark like double ring and Belingual postmark were issued.

The last dynasty (emperor Puyi) have issued the special Temple of heaven stamps. Every year the Qing emperor prayed at this temple, and also issued the bilingual Date(BLD) postmark like Foochow, tengyoe ,Peking, Chungking. in 1909-1910, the last year of Qing Dynasty postal service , and after that ROC postal service begun with their own postmark Shanghai Lunar date and official government postage paid stationer postcard of Statistical departement.

This reaseach report, was the first time with chronologic historic postmark , because many auctioner couldn’t gave the exact informations, they only said good Qing Postmark , some writers like Wikipedia have given the best narration f the Postmark , also some e-bay canada auction with the complete informations but many without the exact information, because too difficult to read the chinese characters.
I hope after read and look the illustrations, many collectors begin to understand the Qing Postmark, but stillmany informations need please the specialist collecter comment.
Dr Iwan s. the founder of uniquecolection.wordpress.com Blog.
@ copyright Dr Iwan S 2010.

1867

  •  

 

Manchu mariée Pékin, Penchilie Province, China [1867] John Thomson

 

 

 

·         CHINE 1880

Par Dona Rodrigue dans CHINE 1860 le 29 Novembre 2011 à 00:43

 

 

 

·         Femme Manchu de 1869 Pekin

Par Dona Rodrigue dans CHINE 1860 le 28 Novembre 2011 à 23:55

 

Exemple de Coiffure sur une province tartre ou Manchu Femme, Frontview, Pékin, Petchili, Chine [1869] John Thomson. photographe.

Intitulé: (vue de face) Exemple de Coiffure sur une femme tartare ou mandchous, qui porte une longue robe à manches longues matelassé.Le cheveu est enroulé autour d’une bande plate de bois.Pékin, Petchili Province, China [1869] J Thomson  des travaux de réparation étendue aux manches et au visage, le fond était tout simplement dépouillé, des ajustements dans le contraste et la tonalité.

Voici un autre classique de John Thomson (quoique avec restauration étendue), retrouvée dans la collection fantastique Wellcome de son travail.Thomson a continué de fasciner les gens, après un siècle, son travail a récemment retourné en Chine, où de nombreux Chinois pour la première fois sont de voir l’essence de leurs ancêtres à travers son art éternel.Wellcome Collection de Thomson peut être trouvé ici:

library.wellcome.ac.uk/node267.html

Cette fille fait apparu dans plusieurs des tableaux de Thomson.Il était évident qu’il a passé quelque temps à photographier une équipe de modèles Manchu tant dans leur entoure naturelles et en face d’une toile de fond portable.Essentiellement mon soupçon personnelle est que son processus a été remarquablement similaire à une séance photo des temps modernes.Bien sûr, il n’a pas eu flashs électroniques ou de films numériques, mais avait plutôt de regarder sous un drap noir à l’envers inversé l’image sur une plaque de verre mat DIM.Photographie en ces jours était véritablement une entreprise monumentale.

Comme un historien amateur, je sais que la retouche est un tabou flagrante.Cependant, en tant que photographe et artiste regardant une belle fille, j’ai trouvé l’envie de nettoyer l’image trop grande pour résister.J’ai commencé tout simplement désireux d’enlever la tache grosse de son front, et avant que je le savais, j’étais déjà reconstruire ses manches, LOL …

L’image originale non retouchée peut être vu ici:

www.flickr.com/photos/ralphrepo_photolog/3974179434/

Imaginez que, étant captivé et séduit par une femme qui est sans doute mort depuis plus d’un siècle.Je suppose que certains de beauté est en effet hors du temps.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1850

Taiping Rebellion 1850-1911

 


1859

Opium War In 1859

 1875

File:Emperor Guangxu.jpg

11th Qing Emperor of ChinaReign25 February 1875 – 14 November 1908
(33 years, 263 days)PredecessorTongzhi EmperorSuccessorXuantong EmperorRegentEmpress Dowager Ci’an
(1875-1881)
Empress Dowager Cixi
(1875-1908) SpouseEmpress Xiaodingjing
Consort Jin
Consort ZhenFull nameChinese: Aixin Jueluo Zaitian (愛新覺羅·載湉)
Manchu: Aisin-Gioro hala i Dzai Tiyan
Mongolian: Altan-Gioro Sai TiyanEra name and datesChinese: Guangxu (光緒)
Manchu: Badarangga Doro
Mongolian: Badaragultu Törü: 6 February 1875 – 21 January 1909Posthumous nameEmperor Tongtian Chongyun Dazhong Zhizheng Jingwen Weiwu Renxiao Ruizhi Duanjian Kuanqin Jing
(同天崇運大中至正經文緯武仁孝睿智端儉寬勤景皇帝)

 

(1800-1915)

Large dragon 1878

1886

Shanghai, 1886, Small Dragon, 40cash on 100cash yellow, red surcharge varieties (Scott 117 vars. Chan LS 117a, 117ci), a lovely mint pair of these eye-catching varieties, o.g., Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 1,000 – 1,200.

Shanghai, 1886-88, Small Dragon, 40cash on 100cash yellow, red surcharge varieties (Scott 117 vars. Chan LS117a & ci), two lovely used examples showing surcharge inverted and reading from top left to bottom right varieties, Very Fine, scarce pair, each unpriced used.
Estimate HK$ 1,200 – 1,500.

1888

 

 

 

Qing court the internal political struggle, the senior likes and dislikes, and other reasons, after 1888

Empress Xi Ci Stamp

 

CHINESE IMPERIAL POSTAL SEALED

Chinese Empire, 1888, Small Dragon, 1ca bright green, perf 11½ (Scott 13. Chan 19), margin block of 4, o.g., very lightly hinged at top, never hinged at bottom, beautiful front & back, a choice block, Very FineRealized HK$ 2,600

 

 

1890

the Northern Fleet funding substantially reduced, to naval equipment update in 1890 was forced to completely terminate. For the Navy and technology are advancing by leaps and bounds, Japan by two naval expansion in the case of the rapid rise.

 

In 1892,

Robert Hart suggested to Tsungli Yamen to establish a national post office again,

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shanghai Local Post Card

1893

Shanghai, 1893, Double Dragons, 5¢ carmine pink, left half with inverted surcharge (Chan LS141a), with watermarked paper, Type I with Shanghai double circle postmark in blue, Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 800 – 1,200.

 

1894

Chinese Empire, 1894, Empress Dowager 60th Birthday, 1st Printing, 1 ca value color proof on very thin cigarette paper (Scott 16 var.), without gum as issued, complete margins all around, fresh, Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 800 – 1,200.

Chinese Empire, 1894, Empress Dowager 60th Birthday, 1st Printing, 1 ca orange red, imperf horizontally (Scott 16 var.), vertical pair, used with complete Shanghai seal chop in dark blue; some overall aged toning, stamp Very Fine, rare item. Realized HK$ 6,500

Chinese Empire, 1894, Empress Dowager 60th Birthday 1st Printing, mint group (Scott 16-20,22. Chan 22-26, 28), comprising 1ca(3), 2ca(3), 3ca(3), 4 ca(2), 5ca and 9ca, most with o.g., 12 values, a clean group, generally F.-V.F.
Estimate HK$ 2,500 – 3,000. Realized HK$ 6,500

Chinese Empire, 1894, Empress Dowager 60th Birthday 1st Printing (Scott 16-18, 20-24. Chan 22-24, 26-30), group of 11 values, comprised 1ca, 2ca, 3ca (2), 5ca, 6ca, 9ca (2), 12ca, 24 ca(2), majority very fine, odd faults on couple of values as expected, F-VF.
Estimate HK$ 4,000 – 4,500. Realized HK$ 9,000

Chinese Empire, 1894, Empress Dowager 60th Birthday, 1st Printing,1ca-24ca complete (Scott 16-26. Chan 22-33), neat cancels, very clean, F.-V.FRealized HK$ 10,000

 

 

 

 

To the outbreak of the Sino in 1894,

the original Northern Fleet warships, regardless of speed, rate of fire, are behind Japan. While the Empress Dowager Cixi morbid extravagance and waste, to include the Navy’s military spending, including state financial burden of non-constructive

The summer of early 1894,

Japan provoke Sino aimed at aggression against the DPRK and China. September 17, 1894, the main force of the Northern Navy and the main force of the Japanese combined fleet encountered in the waters Yalu River, the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese Navy’s first decisive naval battle known as the Yellow Sea Dadonggou.

The picture shows a Japanese war ship “Atlantis pill” shot to the naval battle scene, near the Japanese combined fleet warships, the virtual shadow of the ship in the distant smoke is the Jigong the Northern Fleet to Japan’s combined fleet

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

The beginning of the Battle of Yalu River,

the intention of the Northern Navy cross team cut off at multiple points, disrupting the formation of the Japanese columns, however, the Northern Navy Gejian ship age old, and the speed of the fire completely overwhelmed by the Japanese failed to achieve the established tactical objectives, and ultimatelyinto was the siege of the Japanese. Has suffered serious injuries of the Northern Navy “Zhiyuan” ship under the command of Captain Deng Shichang Japanese ship launched a suicide assault, the intent in order to reverse the situation, and ultimately fall short unfortunately, was sunk by the Japanese. Deng Shichang fell into the meaning of not only students, refused to rescue, Daohai was martyred.

Battle of Yalu River ended with the defeat of the Northern Navy, Northern Navy was sunk by a number of large ships, but failed to sink a Japanese ship, the loss of ship equipment too heavy, the loss of the Yellow Sea naval supremacy. The Japanese army has launched the Battle of Port Arthur and Weihai, an attempt to annihilate the Northern Navy cleared the final obstacles to landing Bohai Bay. In February 1895, experienced a bitter struggle, the downfall of the Northern Navy ammunition aid must in Weihai. The picture shows before the destruction of the Northern Navy after the Japanese torpedo hit the stranded flagship be far “to avoid falling into the scene after the rival blew.

Carved in the of Weihai land fall, Northern Naval Commander Ding Yu to organize all of the Marines through the Gulf backs against the wall on the shore of the Japanese launched a counterattack final Marines advantage of the Japanese oppression to Longmiao mouth Beach, annihilated.Ding Yu suicide. The picture shows the post-war Japanese army shot near in Longmiao mouth killed in the Northern officers and men of the Marine Corps remains.

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

(5) 1890
The Local Port shinaghai stamps double dragon were issued.

(6) 1893
The Local port stamps were issued from several port : Chefoo, Hankou(Hankow) and Chongqing(Chungqing),

(7) 1894

(a)The Local port stamps were issued from several port :Fuzhou(Foochow) , Zhenjiang(Chinkiang), Wuhu, Yichang(Ichang) and Tianjin(Tientsin).

(b) The French Post Office in Chine issued Chine surharge France stamps .(many types surcharge at many area also issued ,like Mongtse ,Yunnan Fu,Hoi-Hao , Canton,Pac Hoi,Tchong King and Kuong Tcheuo)

(8) 1895
The Local port stamps were issued from Amoy(xianmen) .

and later in 1895

made a 4 chapter, 44 articles of Postal Guide for the modern postal service. In 1896 Robert Hart succeeded in founding the Imperial Post Office and appointed the Inspector General of Posts. Money came from Customs Funds. The innumerable rules, regulations and problems that had to be overcome were legion. He paid attention to every possible matter from opening a new department to the design of a postage stamp.

 

1895

Amoy, 1895, First Issue, 2¢ blue, Type 1 (Scott 3. Chan LA3), block of 4, o.g., fresh mint, Very Fine, scarce block.
Estimate HK$ 1,000 – 1,200.

 

 

 

Chefoo, 1895 (20 July) US – Chefoo combination piece, franked by 5¢ US Grant issue (Scott 270) tied to piece along with Chefoo 1¢ Pagoda by “Chefoo 20 JUL 95 Local Post” cds and 5¢ Grant additionally cancelled by duplex “1” and partial “Postal Agency Jul 31 Shanghai;” nice combination, F-VF.
Estimate HK$ 800 – 1,000.

Chinkiang, Postage Due, 1895, Overprinted on ½¢ wide spaced (Scott J9, var. Chan LCHD8 & 8di), horizontal 4 stamps used on piece, second stamp showing “U” in “”DUE”” inserted by hand variety, Very Fine, scarce.
Estimate HK$ 800 – 1,200.

Chinkiang, Postage Due, 1895, 15¢ carmine, black over red overprint, both inverted (Scott J12cd. Chan LCHO24b), horizontal pair, o.g.; fresh, bright pair which is sensibly reinforced, right stamp tiny, pinpoint thin speck, otherwise F.-V.F., striking variety, scarce.
Estimate HK$ 2,500 – 3,500.

 

Hankow, Postage Dues, 1895, Type III complete (Chan LHD11-13), o.g.; 10¢ carmine with shallow thin spot, otherwise F.-V.F., scarce set.
Estimate HK$ 4,000 – 5,000. Realized HK$ 7,500

February 17, 1895,

the Japanese Navy with the landing in the island of Liu, Ji-Canton C, the town of medium remaining 10 ship for the Japanese army captured the northern fleet was wiped out. Subsequently, the Qing government sent Li plenipotentiary to Japan to peace, and the “Sino-Japanese Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed on April 17, the Sino-end. The destruction of the Northern Navy also marks the failure of the Westernization Movement, the Qing Empire’s international standing has plummeted, and once again become the object of the powers creeping. The picture shows the Japanese occupation of the Northern Navy Liugongdao Navy hall

  • 战舰军港尽失,拨银数千万两打造的北洋海军成为众矢之的。而清廷内部的门户派系斗争,更让海军衙门在战争结束之前就被撤销。1895428日,光绪帝颁布上谕将大批海军军官革职查办。三个月后,北洋海军各级职务从建制上被正式取消。从1874讨论南北洋海防,到1895年北洋海军覆灭,前后历时21年。图为北洋海军覆灭后,幸存官兵被集中至威海遣散。

battleship naval port lose dial Silver number of 10.002 million to build the Northern Navy become common knowledge. The Qing government portal within the factional fighting, leaving the Navy Yamen before the end of the war has been revoked. April 28, 1895, the Guangxu Emperor issued the Edict of a large number of naval officers dismissed and punished. Three months later, the Northern Navy positions at all levels from the establishment was officially canceled. Yang Hai Phong to discuss North-South from 1874 to 1895 collapse of the Northern Navy, and it took 21 years. The picture shows after the destruction of the Northern Navy, the surviving officers and men were concentrated to Weihai severance.

Tong Bingxue

Tong Bingxue, a 37 years old Chinese media professional; a keen collector, a well-known old photograph collector in Beijing; the founder and owner of “China Photography Museum Online” and “China Old Photo” websites. In 2003, he started the collection and research of medals and China photographs for each Expo.

Bonding to Expo

During the early 2003, Tong run into an original photograph of China in the 1876 Philadelphia Expo. Just to learn about the photograph, he started his search. Later, he found out, China actually had always been a part of the Expo history. Ever since the first 1851 Expo in London, China almost attended every major expo there was. Only none of those historical records was never gathered or filed. As a result, people’s reorganization of the expo was automatically limited a handful events such as the 1915 Panama expo. So, Tong started to collect the materials and evidence of the Chinese presentation in the expo history, such as photographs, etching and other items.

Devoted to The Collection

“Through so many years, what I did was a study of the expo rather than a merely collection.” Talking about the collecting experience, Tong has learnt and felt a lot.

“Due to the fact that there was no actual expo museum, no one ever thought about or conducted the research of expo items and collectables, thus there is no existing publishing to refer to. My research contains quite a lot of gathering, investigating and comparing. The evidence that bonds China and the expo is even less and looser; also what I was able to retrieve was all before 1904 and unofficial, I had to rely on the English record more than the local government records, and that cost me too much time.”

 

Not only time consuming, his collection was also rather expensive. “In auctions, those items are not very often to run into, even if I did, they usually cost a lot. This one time, I was trying to acquire a medal of ‘New Invention and New Technology’. I asked a friend in Germany to keep an eye for me, and it took him two years to find one in a local auction. At the end I had to get it, I wasn’t even thinking how much it would cost me.”

 

 

True value Revealed

With his full heart on the collection, he had no other attention to spear, and as the 2010 Shanghai expo getting closer, his collections true value started to reveal.

Finally in May 2009, the “Expo Medals & China Expo Images” exhibition opened in Shanghai, and many more are able to share his passion about the expo. In his mind, the event nowadays is more about the display of advanced culture and concepts; it fits more to mankind’s true value of developing. Although many awards set for the exhibitors are long gone, but by the learning of expo and the way these awards changes, would surely help people to understand the current expo. As a glance back on the history, and flip through the medals, surely will brought us the will to discover the developing of our unique civilization.

Tong Bingxue’s Sites

China Photography Museum Online: www.chinaoldphoto.com
Tong Bingxue’s blog: http://tongbingxue.blshe.com/

 

Tong Bingxue’s Collection

 

The Original Photo of Jade Tower (翠玉宝塔) in Paris Expo 1937

 

A Panorama of China pavillion in Panama Expo 1915

 

The original stereo photo of China industry model in 1904

 

 

The Exterior View of China Pavillion in Paris Expo 1889

 

The Estampe Featuring A Chinese Writer in Expo 1878

 

The Interior View of China Pavillion in Paris Expo 1878

 

The Estampe of a Night Show in Chinese Theatre in Paris Expo 1867

 

China Pavillion in the First World Expo Ever in London in 1851

 

The Estampe of Sir. Xi Sheng (希生) (the third one from the right)  from Guangdong, London Expo 1851

 

 

The Front of the Souvenir Badge of Sir Xi Sheng (希生), Showed in the Openning Ceremony of the First World’s Fair in London

 

The Front Side of “New Invention and New Technology” Medal in London Expo 1851

 

The Back Side of “New Invention and New Technology” Medal in London Expo 1851

 

Travel Notes of the Panama Pacific International Exposition

 

 

The Table Shield of “Holy Mother Statue” in St Louis Expo 1904

 

 

The Official Invitation for the Reception to Celebrate Empress Dowager Cixi’s 70th Birthday, St Louis Expo 1904

 

The Chinese Pavilion Pass at St Louis Expo 1904, It Was the First Ticket Ever in China’s World Expo History

 

The First Photo of Qing Authorities Taken in World Expo, St Louis Expo 1904

 

The estampe of China pavillion in Paris Expo 1900

 

The First Photograph of China in World Expo History, London 1851

 

Fine China Utensil in the Openning Ceremony of London Expo 1851

 

The Chinese Pavillion in London Expo 1851

 

 

W. B. Thornhill,Shanghai, 1895 first edition published by Stanley Gibbons, with notes and publishers’ prices, Extremely Fine.
Estimate HK$ 800 – 1,200. Realized HK$ 2,600

 

 

(9) 1896

(a) The Local Port stamps were issued from Nanjing(Nanking)

(b) The Qing Emperor issued a special decree giving official recognation to the “European” postals system (knowns as Foreign uniform in China ) and bringing to an end the old I cHan and Minchu Postal service .
This postal system was for many years operated by the Chinese Maritime Custom.

1896

Chinkiang, Official, 1896, 15¢ carmine, inverted overprint variety (Scott O8a. Chan LCHO8var), o.g., never hinged, pristine mint, F.-V.F., scarce.
Estimate HK$ 1,000 – 1,200

Hankow, Postage Due, 1896, 2¢ violet on buff, Type II (Scott J6 + var. Chan LHD6 + 6a), a lovely vertical strip of 3, top stamp showing large top of left character variety, fresh, Very Fine, scarce multiple.
Estimate HK$ 1,200 – 1,600.

Hankow, Postage Due, 1896, 2¢ violet on buff, Type II (Scott J6 var. Chan LHD6a), an attractive example, showing large top of left character variety, used, Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 1,000 – 1,400.

1897

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large Figure ½¢ on Empress Dowager 2nd Printing 3ca orange, wide spacing, imperf horizontally (Scott 47c. Chan 56eii), vertical strip of 3, o.g., lightly hinged, fresh, F.-V.F.
Estimate HK$ 34,000 – 40,000.

May,5th.1897

 


Off Cover Used surcharge Cixi birthday 1 cent block four CDS custom Hankow Mai 3 1897

Chinese Empire, 1897, Empress Dowager 60th Birthday, 2nd Printing, 4ca pale rose (Scott 19n. Chan 25S), o.g., fresh and F.-V.F., scarce.
Estimate HK$ 2,400 – 3,000.

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large Figure 1¢ on Empress Dowager 1st Printing 1ca vermilion, wide spacing (Scott 39. Chan 48), o.g., F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 1,100

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large Figure Surcharges on Empress Dowager, 2nd Printing, Wide Spacing, mint group (Scott 47//55, 73-74. Chan 56//64, 82-83), plus re-engraved set, comprised ½¢(2), 1¢(2), 2¢(2), 4¢, 5¢, 8¢, 10¢ and 30¢, re-engraved ½¢ missing corner and 2¢(2), total 14 values, majority clean and fresh overall condition, o.g., F.-V.F.
Estimate HK$ 6,000 – 7,000. Realized HK$ 11,000

Chinese Empire, 1897, Small Figure Surcharges on Empress Dowager, mint group (Scott 28//36), comprising ½¢(4), including pair shifted perfs, 1¢, 2¢, 4¢, 5¢, 8¢(2) one with “8” shifted to right, 10¢ on 6¢, 10¢ on 9¢ and 10¢ on 12¢, o.g. on all values, one 8¢ bottom straight edge, clean group, 13 values, F.-V.F.
Estimate HK$ 5,000 – 6,000. Realized HK$ 9,000

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large Figure Surcharges on Empress Dowager, 2nd Printing, Wide Spacing (Scott 47-51, 53-55), 8 values without 8¢ on 6ca, but with extra values, comprising ½¢(2), 1¢, 2¢, 4¢, 5¢, 10¢ on 9ca(2), 10¢/12ca and 30¢/24ca, total 11 values.
Estimate HK$ 2,500 – 3,000. Realized HK$ 5,000

 

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large Figure Surcharges on Empress Dowager, 2nd Printing, Narrow Spacing, mint & used group (Scott 65//71, 73. Chan 74-79, 83), comprised mint ½¢(2), 1¢(2), 2¢, 4¢, 10¢ and used ½¢, 1¢(3), 2¢(2), 10¢ on 9ca, 10¢ on 12ca, minor varieties noted, plus ½¢ on 3ca, total 17 values, generally F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 4,500

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Small Figure Surcharges on Empress Dowager, used selection (Scott 28//36), comprised of ½¢(3), 1¢(2), 2¢(2), 4¢, 5¢(4) including pair, 8¢(3), 10¢ on 6ca, 10¢ on 9ca used on piece, 10¢ on 12ca with nearly complete “Tangku” cds in blue, overall F-VF, some faults expected, 18 values.
Estimate HK$ 2,800 – 3,500. Realized HK$ 7,500

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large Figure 30¢ on Empress Dowager 2nd Printing 24ca dark red, 2mm spacing (Scott 55a. Chan 64d), o.g., F.-V.FRealized HK$ 18,000

Surcharge Revenue

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 2¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 80. Chan 88), o.g., small hinge remnant, clean, F.-V.FRealized HK$ 5,000

 

 

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 1¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 78. Chan 87), o.g., fresh, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 3,400

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 1¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 78. Chan 87), o.g., hinge remnant; perfs trimmed close at top, otherwise F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 3,000

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 1¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 78), block of 4, part o.g., F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 26,000

 

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 1¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 78. Chan 87), 3 examples, one mint and two used copies, the former has small gum thinned spot, used fine, all with surcharges shifted to the right, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 6,500

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 2¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 80. Chan 88), used, fresh, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 2,200

 

 

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Small 2¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 79. Chan 84), o.g., clean, exceptionally well centered, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 8,000

Chinese Empire, 1897, Small 2¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 79. Chan 84), surcharge slightly shifted to left; small thin top left corner, Fair exampleRealized HK$ 6,000

Chinese Empire, 1897, Small 2¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 79. Chan 84), used, well centered, Very FineRealized HK$ 6,500

 

 

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Small 2¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 79. Chan 84), neat large part Customs postmark, good color and centering, Very FineRealized HK$ 19,000

good value as shown by the large surcharge type

 

1897 Red Revenue 4c small type surcharge $US16,000

1897 Red Revenue 4c large type surcharge $US150

 

 

 

 

Please do NOT ask members in general threads like this if items shown are for sale.
Many members show items of interest which they value greatly as part of their collection, not becuase they want to sell them. It is not appropriate to ask that question here and may cause embarrassment to members.

The separate Sales Forum is used by members specifically to list the items they wish to sell, so keep checking there if there is anything anyone is selling that you may wish to buy.
Also, if you are looking for a specific stamp or stamps, you can always start a thread in the Wanted Forum, giving details of what you want and how much you are willing to pay. (Gavin)

Dr Iwan notes, I have ever seen the small overprint from Mr Untung Rahardjo in Jkarata, and I didinot know that the smallest low price, I am lucky I didsinot buy the small overprint from him because I asked him almost 1000 US dollar,be careful to buy this stamps,you must learn the inforemations in this CD-ROM)

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 4¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 82. Chan 89), o.g., hinge remnant, clean, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 11,000

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 4¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 82. Chan 89), has o.g. but used example, neat part Shanghai Dollar chop cancel, good color and superb centering, exceptional beauty, Very FineRealized HK$ 4,000

Chinese Empire, 1897, Small $1 on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 84. Chan 86), regummed, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 38,000

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large $1 on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 84. Chan 90), position 14, surcharge shifted downward, o.g., good color, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 40,000

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large $1 on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 84. Chan 90), used, clean, F-VF, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 22,000

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large $1 on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 84. Chan 90), position 7, used with complete strike of Swatow Pakua cancel, good color and centering, Extremely FineRealized

  • The Opium Wars
  • Boxer Uprising was a proto-nationalist movement by the “Righteous Harmony Society”
  • Qing Government ignored or even enciouraged Boxer rebels, at the same time Qing Dynasty supported
  • Western Forces
  • to crush the revolt

 

1900

Kick On The Butt. Chinese imperial punisment in 1900

 

 

 

·

 

 

 1905

 

The early Qing emperors adopted the bureaucratic structures and institutions from the preceding Ming dynasty but split rule between Han Chinese and Manchus, with some positions also given to Mongols.[54] Like previous dynasties, the Qing recruited officials via the imperial examination system, until the system was abolished in 1905. The Qing divided the positions into civil and military positions, each having nine grades or ranks, each subdivided into a and b categories. Civil appointments ranged from attendant to the emperor or a Grand Secretary in the Forbidden City (highest) to being a prefectural tax collector, deputy jail warden, deputy police commissioner or tax examiner. Military appointments ranged from being a field marshal or chamberlain of the imperial bodyguard to a third class sergeant, corporal or a first or second class private.[55]

 

 

 

 

 

The formal structure of the Qing government

centered on the Emperor as the absolute ruler, who presided over six Boards (Ministries[c]), each headed by two presidents[d] and assisted by four vice presidents.[e] In contrast to the Ming system, however, Qing ethnic policy dictated that appointments were split between Manchu noblemen and Han officials who had passed the highest levels of the state examinations. The Grand Secretariat,[f] which had been an important policy-making body under the Ming, lost its importance during the Qing and evolved into an imperial chancery. The institutions which had been inherited from the Ming formed the core of the Qing “Outer Court,” which handled routine matters and was located in the southern part of the Forbidden City.

In order not to let the routine administration take over the running of the empire, the Qing emperors made sure that all important matters were decided in the “Inner Court,” which was dominated by the imperial family and Manchu nobility and which was located in the northern part of the Forbidden City. The core institution of the inner court was the Grand Council.[g] It emerged in the 1720s under the reign of the Yongzheng Emperor as a body charged with handling Qing military campaigns against the Mongols, but it soon took over other military and administrative duties and served to centralize authority under the crown.[56] The Grand Councillors[h] served as a sort of privy council to the emperor.

The Six Ministries and their respective areas of responsibilities were as follows:

2000-cash banknote from 1859

  • Board of Civil Appointments[i]

The personnel administration of all civil officials – including evaluation, promotion, and dismissal. It was also in charge of the “honours list”.

  • Board of Finance[j]

The literal translation of the Chinese word hu () is “household”. For much of Qing history, the government’s main source of revenue came from taxation on landownership supplemented by official monopolies on salt, which was an essential household item, and tea. Thus, in the predominantly agrarian Qing dynasty, the “household” was the basis of imperial finance. The department was charged with revenue collection and the financial management of the government.

  • Board of Rites[k]

This board was responsible for all matters concerning court protocol. It organized the periodic worship of ancestors and various gods by the emperor, managed relations with tributary nations, and oversaw the nationwide civil examination system.

  • Board of War[l]

Unlike its Ming predecessor, which had full control over all military matters, the Qing Board of War had very limited powers. First, the Eight Banners were under the direct control of the emperor and hereditary Manchu and Mongol princes, leaving the ministry only with authority over the Green Standard Army. Furthermore, the ministry’s functions were purely administrative campaigns and troop movements were monitored and directed by the emperor, first through the Manchu ruling council, and later through the Grand Council.

  • Board of Punishments[m]

The Board of Punishments handled all legal matters, including the supervision of various law courts and prisons. The Qing legal frameworkwas relatively weak compared to modern day legal systems, as there was no separation of executive and legislative branches of government. The legal system could be inconsistent, and, at times, arbitrary, because the emperor ruled by decree and had final say on all judicial outcomes. Emperors could (and did) overturn judgements of lower courts from time to time. Fairness of treatment was also an issue under the apartheid system practised by the Manchu government over the Han Chinese majority. To counter these inadequacies and keep the population in line, the Qing government maintained a very harsh penal code towards the Han populace, but it was no more severe than previous Chinese dynasties.

A postage stamp from Yantai(Chefoo) in the Qing dynasty

  • Board of Works[n]

The Board of Works handled all governmental building projects, including palaces, temples and the repairs of waterways and flood canals. It was also in charge of minting coinage.

From the early Qing, the central government was characterized by a system of dual appointments by which each position in the central government had a Manchu and a Han Chinese assigned to it. The Han Chinese appointee was required to do the substantive work and the Manchu to ensure Han loyalty to Qing rule.[57] The distinction between Han Chinese and Manchus extended to their court costumes. During theQianlong Emperor‘s reign, for example, members of his family were distinguished by garments with a small circular emblem on the back, whereas Han officials wore clothing with a square emblem.

In addition to the six boards, there was a Lifan Yuan unique to the Qing government. This institution was established to supervise the administration of Tibet and the Mongol lands. As the empire expanded, it took over administrative responsibility of all minority ethnic groups living in and around the empire, including early contacts with Russia — then seen as a tribute nation. The office had the status of a full ministry and was headed by officials of equal rank. However, appointees were at first restricted only to candidates of Manchu and Mongol ethnicity, until later open to Han Chinese as well.

Even though the Board of Rites and Lifan Yuan performed some duties of a foreign office, they fell short of developing into a professional foreign service. It was not until 1861 — a year after losing the Second Opium War to the Anglo-French coalition — that the Qing government bowed to foreign pressure and created a proper foreign affairs office known as the Zongli Yamen. The office was originally intended to be temporary and was staffed by officials seconded from the Grand Council. However, as dealings with foreigners became increasingly complicated and frequent, the office grew in size and importance, aided by revenue from customs duties which came under its direct jurisdiction.

There was also another government institution called Imperial Household Department which was unique to the Qing dynasty. It was established before the fall of the Ming, but it became mature only after 1661, following the death of the Shunzhi Emperor and the accession of his son, the Kangxi Emperor.[58] The department’s original purpose was to manage the internal affairs of the imperial family and the activities of the inner palace (in which tasks it largely replaced eunuchs), but it also played an important role in Qing relations with Tibet and Mongolia, engaged in trading activities (jade, ginseng, salt, furs, etc.), managed textile factories in the Jiangnan region, and even published books.[59]Relations with the Salt Superintendents and salt merchants, such as those at Yangzhou, were particularly lucrative, especially since they were direct, and did not go through absorptive layers of bureaucracy. The department was manned by booi,[o] or “bondservants,” from the Upper Three Banners.[60] By the 19th century, it managed the activities of at least 56 subagencies.[58][61]

Source

Wiki

1907

 

·         CHINE 1907

Par Dona Rodrigue dans CHINE ANNEES 1900 le 29 Novembre 2011 à 00:01

 

 

 

 

Suivre le flux RSS des articles de cette rubrique

 

Hankow, 1897 P.P.C. “Pour Prendre Congé” overprint issue complete (Chan LH26-30), full o.g., fresh mint, F.-V.F., scarce set.
Estimate HK$ 2,000 – 3,000. Realized HK$ 18,000

 

Hankow, Postage Due, 1895, 20¢ blue on buff, Type III (Scott J13. Chan LHD13), used, full margins, fresh, Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 1,000 – 1,500.

China was not a U.P.U. member in the Ch’ing (Qing) Dynasty. When the Imperial Post Office started operation in 1897,

mail exchange with foreign countries had to rely on so called “Guest Posts” – alien postal organizations set up and operated in China by Western Powers.

In general, each of the foreign offices handled certain area of the world, and the I.P.O. also had preference for transmission. For instense, mail originated from Wenchow and north sent to Shanghai and forwarded to F.P.O., B.P.O. and I.J.P.O. Mail originated from Foochow and south sent through Hong Kong via H.K.P.O.

There were some exception, for example, mail for U.S. originated from Foochow sent to Shanghai I.J.P.O. instead of Hong Kong(126)

 

Japan print

London print

 

The Qing Postmark History

Pa kua Tientsin

Pa Kua Shanghai

Pa Kua Wuhu

Dollar date Wuhu

Dollar Date Canton

Dollar Date Amoy

Dollar Date Tientsin

Dollar Date Peking

Dollar Date Chinkiang

Dollar Date Kiukiang

Dollar Date Ichang

Shanghai official

Shanghai Local post

S.Custom airmail matter

Custom Shanghai

Peking 1901

BL Chefoo 1901

Local Yunnanfu

Local Kuling

Local Nanchang

Local Ningpo

BL Kiukiang

Local Kaomi

Local Kucheng 1911

Local Tibet

Chnagsitian Tumbstone

Japan CPO Shanghai 1897

DaiNippon military CPO

British PO Shanghai

Russian PO

Russian CPO

French CPO 1897

French PO Langson 1902

German CPO 1900

HS Foochow 1904

Local Changsa 1904

Bisect 1906

Qing Card DD1897

Qing Card 1900

Qing Card 1907

Qing Card 1910

Stationer card 1911

Postal Commisioner 1911

Lunar Date 1911

BLD Chungking 1909

BLD Peking 1910

BLDP Bilingual Date postmark

Belgian China P.O.

Local Postmark 1894

1897

January,1st.1897

The Imperial Post Office was planned to inaugurate on January 1st, 1897, and changing the currency used for postage unit from Candarin of Silver to Silver Dollar.

 

Due to some delay on schedule, the Imperial Post Office officially opened

 

on February 20th.1897

 

Initially, Customs issues were overprinted with the new currency until new stamps were issued later that year.

After the Customs Post transformed into Imperial Post, all the Local Post offices closed in 1897 except Shanghai LPO that was absorbed by the I.P.O. The rest of the postal setups still operated until later times.(126)

 

October 1897

The first regular issue – ICP Coiling Dragon – October 1 1897

Since the English inscription on this issue is Imperial Chinese Post, collectors called it as ICP Issue

According to The History of Chinese Postage Stamps Volume II (published December 2004), archives of Imperial Post Office verified that this set of definitives was designed by R. A. de Villard and engraved and printed in Japan by retired Italian artist and master engraver Edoardo Chiossone as a private contractor, and the process employed was typographic not lithographic as its old name suggested.

 

Used One cemt Coilling Dragon brown  postmark  Pa-Kua Beijing

(Dr Iwan collection)

Chinese Empire, 1897, Imperial Chinese Post, 50¢ blue green, color error (Scott 94b. Chan 100b), clean o.g., scarce shade,very well centered, VF, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 8,500

Chinese Empire, 1897, Imperial Chinese Post Coiling Dragon Series complete (Scott 86-97. Chan 92-103), with 8 additional shades, o.g., overall fresh, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 22,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Imperial Chinese Post Coiling Dragon Series complete (Scott 86-97. Chan 92-103), $2, $5 appear to be no gum, others with large part o.g., vivid bright colors throughout, good to well centered, F.-V.F. setRealized HK$ 18,000

Chinese Empire, 1897 (May 27) prepaid subscriber cover from Chungking to Philadelphia, front showing blue “Customs 27 May 97 Chungking” handstamp, with Japan 5s Koban tied by Shanghai 11 Jun 97 IJPO cds from China inland Mission corner card with “Hankow” crossed out and replaced by “Chungking”. Reverse shows brown Shanghai large dollar chop date 7 Jun97, Yokohama 17 Jun transit Vancouver JU 30 transit and Philadelphia Jul 7 receiver. Scarce combination of markings, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 8,500

Chinese Empire, 1897 (Jun 19) prepaid subscriber cover from Chungking to Philadelphia, a lovely cover, with front showing bold, black “Chungking 19 Jun 97 Customes” handstamp, and 5s Japanese Koban, tied by “Shanghai 8 Jul 97 IJPO” cds. Reverse shows a wonderful array of clear markings including brown Shanghai 7 Jul large dollar chop, Yokohama 12 Jul transit, S.F. transit and Philadelphia Aug 9 receiver. Excellent usage, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 13,000

Chinese Empire, 1897 (Jul 5) prepaid subscriber cover from Chungking to Philadelphia, showing on front a lovely strike in black of “Chungking 5 Jul 97 Customs” oval dater along with vertical pair of 5s Japanese Koban which is cancelled “Shanghai 23 July 97 IJPO” cds. Reverse offers a wonderful range of marking including a brown Shanghai 20 Jul 97 large dollar chop, Yokohama 29 Jul transit and Philadelphia Aug 17 receiver. Atrractive and F-VF, a choice coverRealized HK$ 22,000

Chinese Empire, 1897 (Jun 9) prepaid subscriber cover from Chungking to Philadelphia, front showing nice strike of “Chungking 9 Jun 97 Customs” oval handstamp, along with 5s Japanese Koban, which is cancelled by “Shanghai 21 Jun 97 IJPO” cds. Reverse shows lovely, brown Shanghai 20 Jul 97 large dollar chop, Yokohama 26 Jun transit, Tacoma, Wash. Jul 16 transit and Philadelphia July 21 receiver. Lovely usage, F.-V.FRealized HK$ 15,000

Chinese Empire, 1897 (July 11) cover front from Chinkiang to North Carolina, franked by 5s Japanese Victory issue, tied by clean, “Shanghai 19 Jul 97 IJPO” cds. Front shows at lower left a choice strike in brown of Chinkiang small Customs chop and missionary corner card. Very scarce combination, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 18,000

 

(10) 1898

(a)The Local provisional courier stamps from Wei Hai Wei Leased Area were Issued.

(b) German Post office in China issued surgharge China on German stamps.

(c) British Postoffice in China Issued postmark A 11-shanghai used on Hongkong stamps ( also issued postmark from another area like cds shanghai and other area)

.

CIP Coiling Dragon – January 1898Since the English inscription on this issue is Chinese Imperial Post, collectors called it as ICP Issue.Designed by R. A. de Villard. Engraved by Rapkin and his son (dragon), A. B. Hill (carp) and Joseph (wild goose) of Waterlow & Sons Limited, London. The printing methods used was Line-engraving (Recess printing), with and without watermark.

 

 

 

 

1898

Chinese Empire, 1898 (Apr 18) cover from Shanghai to Wellington, New Zealand, 10¢ rate with large 10 surcharge, franked with “Large Ten” Chinese character surcharge 10¢ on 30¢ QV (Scott 69a, Yang 54b), postmarked Shanghai cds, Ap/18/98, manuscript “Via Hong Kong Sorres Straits” and reverse Hong Kong “D” Ap/22/98 cds transit and Wellington/NZ 26 My 98 cds receiver alongside, “Large Ten” surcharge is rare, used on commercial cover possibly unique, rough opening, not affecting the attractiveness of this rare coverRealized HK$ 4,500

Chinese Empire, 1898 (Jan 4) prepaid subscriber cover from Chungking to Philadelphia, with front showing Chungking 4 Jan 98 large dollar chop along with two 5s Japanese Kobans, which are tied by “Shanghai 22 Jan IJPO” cds. Reverse shows black Shanghai 22 Jan 98 large dollar chop, Yokohama 27 Jan transit and SF Feb 18 1898 Paid All transit andvery light and indistinct Philadelphia receiver. This cover when compared with the other, surrounding covers from thsi missionary correspondence, shows the transition from the Chungking oval to the large dollar dater. F-VF, a lovely item. Realized HK$ 20,000

Chinese Empire, 1898, Chinese Imperial Post, 20¢, 30¢ and 50¢, Waterlow & Sons trial color proof in maroon (Scott 104-106 vars. Chan 110-112 vars.), block of 9, overprinted” Specimen” and security punched, without gum as issued, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 20,000

1898 (5 Oct)

 

 


1st Imperial Postal card Peking to Hungary.

Re-direct to Bosnia …. franked with Coil Dragon 1/2 x6.

Tied by Peking large dollar chop, via British PO in China.

Franked with Hong Kong QV 2c x2.

Tied by Shanghai cds.

 

 

 

 

(11) 1899

(a)The Local provisional courier LKT at Wei Hai wei were issued

(b) The first Russia Imperial Post office in China issued the KHTAH(Kitai) surchaged on Russia stamps were issued.

 

1899

Chinese imperial picture postcard sent from Tsung base Kiatsou  9n februaty,26th.1899

 

 

In mid-1899

a standard circular cancellation was introduced, having the town name in Chinese above and English below.

 

Underneath, the date is expressed in the Western calendar.

 

 

 

Early 20th Century

 

Puyi

 

Aixinjueluo Puyi (né à Pékin le 7 février1906 et mort dans la même ville le 17 octobre1967), connu sous le nom de Puyi (chinois traditionnel : 溥儀, chinois simplifié : , pinyin : Pǔyí), également orthographié Pou-yi ou P’ou-yi mais appelé également de son nom de règne Xuāntǒng, est le douzième et dernier empereur (末代皇帝) issu de la dynastie Qing, la dernière qui régna sur l’Empire chinois. Il est le fils de Zaifeng deuxième prince de Chun, deuxième fils de Yixuan premier prince de Chun, lui-même septième fils de l’empereur Daoguang. Il est né dans la trente-deuxième année du règne de l’empereur Guangxu.

Le dernier empereur (1908-1912)

Guangxu étant toujours sans enfant à 30 ans, sa tante Cixi, l’impératrice douairière de Chine et détentrice réelle du pouvoir, nomme par décret Puyi pour assurer sa succession. L’enfant a alors 2 ans et 10 mois.

Au lendemain de cette nomination, Guangxu décède, et, le surlendemain, c’est Cixi elle-même qui rend l’âme.

L’intronisation officielle de Puyi se déroule le 2 décembre 1908, son père assurant la régence.

À l’époque, la Chine connaît de nombreux désordres, et depuis longtemps la dynastie mandchoue est contestée (révolte des Taipings au siècle précédent, révolte des Boxers de 1899 à 1901, mouvements insurrectionnels du Guangdong et du Guangxi entre 1905 et 1911).

Le général Yuan Shikai, nommé pour mater les mouvements de révolte, et notamment le soulèvement de Wuchang du 10 octobre1911, se retourne contre le pouvoir en place et pousse le jeune empereur à abdiquer le 12 février1912, mettant fin à la dynastie Qing et à la période féodale.

Prisonnier dans la Cité interdite (1912-1924)

Malgré la proclamation de la République de Chine le 1er janvier 1912, donc quelques jours avant sa destitution de jure et selon les huit “Articles veillant au traitement favorable de l’Empereur après son abdication”, arrangement conclus entre la maison impériale Qing et le gouvernement républicain, il reçoit de ce dernier l’autorisation de conserver son titre et de demeurer – et même de fait est obligé de vivre – dans la Cité interdite. Lui et sa famille garderont l’usage de la « cour intérieure » (partie nord de la cité), tandis que la « cour extérieure » (partie sud) revenait aux autorités républicaines. En outre, il bénéficie d’une liste civile conséquente.

En 1917, un général conservateur partisan des Qing, le général Zhang Xun, profitant du désaccord du Président de la République et de son Premier ministre quant aux puissances à soutenir dans le conflit européen de la Grande Guerre, envoie ses troupes à Pékin, soit près de 5 000 hommes. Le 1erjuillet1917, il rétablit Puyi dans sa fonction d’empereur, ce qui suscite une réaction unanime des républicains et des seigneurs de guerre. Le 13 juillet suivant, Duan Qirui, le Premier ministre démis, pousse Puyi à abdiquer de nouveau.

1912

dministrative divisions

Main article: History of the administrative divisions of China before 1912 § Provinces and Protectorates under the Qing dynasty

Qing dynasty in 1833

Qing China reached its largest extent during the 18th century, when it ruled China proper (eighteen provinces) as well as the areas of present day Manchuria (Northeast China), Inner Mongolia, Outer Mongolia, Xinjiang and Tibet, at approximately 13 million km2 in size. There were originally 18 provinces, all of which in China proper, but later this number was increased to 22, with Manchuria and Xinjiang being divided or turned into provinces. Taiwan, originally part of Fujian province, became a province of its own in the 19th century, but was ceded to the Empire of Japan following the First Sino-Japanese War by the end of the century. In addition, many surrounding countries, such as Korea (Joseon dynasty), Vietnam and Nepal, weretributary states of China during much of this period. The Katoor dynasty of Afghanistan also paid tribute to the Qing dynasty of China until the mid-19th century.[62] During the Qing dynasty the Chinese claimed suzerainty over the Taghdumbash Pamirin the south west of Tashkurgan Tajik Autonomous County but permitted the Mir of Hunza to administer the region in return for a tribute. Until 1937 the inhabitants paid tribute to the Mir of Hunza, who exercised control over the pastures.[63] Khanate of Kokand were forced to submit as protectorate and pay tribute to the Qing dynasty in China between 1774 and 1798.

  1. Northern and southern circuits of Tian Shan (later became Xinjiang province) – including several small semi-autonomous khanates such as Kumul Khanate
  2. Outer Mongolia – KhalkhaKobdo leagueKöbsgölTannu Urianha
  3. Inner Mongolia – 6 leagues (Jirim, Josotu, Juu Uda, Shilingol, Ulaan Chab, Ihe Juu)
  4. Other Mongolian leagues – Alshaa khoshuu (League-level khoshuu), Ejine khoshuu, Ili khoshuu (in Xinjiang), Köke Nuur league; directly ruled areas: Dariganga (Special region designated as Emperor’s pasture), Guihua Tümed,ChakharHulunbuir
  5. Tibet (Ü-Tsang and western Kham, approximately the area of present-day Tibet Autonomous Region)
  6. Manchuria (Northeast China, later became provinces)
  1. Zhili
  2. Henan
  3. Shandong
  4. Shanxi
  5. Shaanxi
  6. Gansu
  7. Hubei
  8. Hunan
  9. Guangdong
  10. Guangxi
  11. Sichuan
  12. Yunnan
  13. Guizhou
  14. Jiangsu
  15. Jiangxi
  16. Zhejiang
  17. Fujian (incl. Taiwan until 1885)
  18. Anhui
 
  • Additional provinces in the late Qing dynasty
  1. Xinjiang
  2. Taiwan (until 1895)
  3. Fengtian, later renamed and known today as Liaoning
  4. Jilin
  5. Heilongjiang
   

Territorial administration[edit]

The Qing Empire in 1870.

The Qing organization of provinces was based on the fifteen administrative units set up by the Ming dynasty, later made into eighteen provinces by splitting for example, Huguang into Hubei and Hunan provinces. The provincial bureaucracy continued the Yuan and Ming practice of three parallel lines, civil, military, and censorate, or surveillance. Each province was administered by a governor (巡撫, xunfu) and a provincial military commander (提督, tidu). Below the province wereprefectures (, fu) operating under a prefect (知府, zhīfǔ), followed by subprefectures under a subprefect. The lowest unit was the county, overseen by a magistrate. The eighteen provinces are also known as “China proper”. The position of viceroyor governor-general (總督, zongdu) was the highest rank in the provincial administration. There were eight regional viceroys in China proper, each usually took charge of two or three provinces. The Viceroy of Zhili, who was responsible for the area surrounding the capital Beijing, is usually considered as the most honorable and powerful viceroy among the eight.

  1. Viceroy of Zhili – in charge of Zhili
  2. Viceroy of Shaan-Gan – in charge of Shaanxi and Gansu
  3. Viceroy of Liangjiang – in charge of JiangsuJiangxi, and Anhui
  4. Viceroy of Huguang – in charge of Hubei and Hunan
  5. Viceroy of Sichuan – in charge of Sichuan
  6. Viceroy of Min-Zhe – in charge of FujianTaiwan, and Zhejiang
  7. Viceroy of Liangguang – in charge of Guangdong and Guangxi
  8. Viceroy of Yun-Gui – in charge of Yunnan and Guizhou

By the mid-18th century, the Qing had successfully put outer regions such as Inner and Outer Mongolia, Tibet and Xinjiang under its control. Imperial commissioners and garrisons were sent to Mongolia and Tibet to oversee their affairs. These territories were also under supervision of a central government institution called Lifan Yuan. Qinghaiwas also put under direct control of the Qing court. Xinjiang, also known as Chinese Turkestan, was subdivided into the regions north and south of the Tian Shan mountains, also known today as Dzungaria and Tarim Basin respectively, but the post of Ili General was established in 1762 to exercise unified military and administrative jurisdiction over both regions. Likewise, Manchuria was also governed by military generals until its division into provinces, though some areas of Xinjiang and Manchuria were lost to the Russian Empire in the mid-19th century. Manchuria was originally separated from China proper by the Inner Willow Palisade, a ditch and embankment planted with willows intended to restrict the movement of the Han Chinese into Manchuria, as the area was off-limits to the Han Chinese until the Qing government started colonizing the area with them later on in the dynasty’s rule, especially since the 1860s.[64]

Qing China in 1892

With respect to these outer regions, the Qing maintained imperial control, with the emperor acting as Mongol khan, patron ofTibetan Buddhism and protector of Muslims. However, Qing policy changed with the establishment of Xinjiang province in 1884. During The Great Game era, taking advantage of the Dungan revolt in northwest China, Yaqub Beg invaded Xinjiang from Central Asia with support from the Russian Empire, and made himself the ruler of the kingdom of Kashgaria. The Qing court sent forces to defeat Yaqub Beg and Xinjiang was reconquered, and then the political system of China proper was formally applied onto Xinjiang. The Kumul Khanate, which was incorporated into the Qing empire as a vassal after helping Qing defeat the Zunghars in 1757, maintained its status after Xinjiang turned into a province through the end of the dynasty in the Xinhai Revolution up until 1930.[65] In early 20th century, Great Britain sent an expedition force to Tibet and forced Tibetans to sign a treaty. The Qing court responded by asserting Chinese sovereignty over Tibet,[66] resulting in the 1906 Anglo-Chinese Convention signed between Britain and China. The British agreed not to annex Tibetan territory or to interfere in the administration of Tibet, while China engaged not to permit any other foreign state to interfere with the territory or internal administration of Tibet.[67] Furthermore, similar to Xinjiang which was converted into a province earlier, the Qing government also turned Manchuria into three provinces in the early 20th century, officially known as the “Three Northeast Provinces“, and established the post of Viceroy of Three Northeast Provinces to oversee these provinces, making the total number of regional viceroys to nin

 

 

Dès 1919,

Puyi reçoit une éducation occidentale de son précepteur, un Écossais diplômé d’Oxford, Reginald Johnston(en), officier du bureau colonial britannique parlant le mandarin et féru d’histoire ainsi que de poésie chinoise. Johnston n’est pas vraiment un enseignant, mais exerce une grande influence sur Puyi. Sous sa conduite, ce dernier s’intéresse à tout ce qui vient d’Occident. Grâce à lui, il apprend l’anglais dès l’âge de 13 ans, au point de demander à Johnston de l’aider à lui trouver un nom anglais. Parmi la liste des noms de souverains britanniques que lui procure Johnston, Puyi choisit celui de Henry. C’est encouragé par l’éducation de Reginald Johnston que Puyi coupe sa natte, symbole du pouvoir mandchou (voir article sur les Taipings qui coupèrent leur natte en signe de protestation contre le pouvoir en place).

 

Le prince mondain (1924-1932)

En 1924, dans la tourmente qui entoure le renversement du Président de la République Cao Kun, les accords passés sont annulés. Puyi est expulsé de la Cité interdite, enceinte dont il n’était pas sorti depuis 15 ans, par les troupes de Feng Yuxiang. Il retourne dans le palais paternel.

Il tente, par le truchement de Reginald Johnston, de s’expatrier en Angleterre. Mais, pour ne pas froisser la Chine, les Britanniques lui refusent tout visa. Il se tourne alors vers l’Empire du Japon qui, en 1925, accepte de l’accueillir dans l’enclave de Tianjin. Il y mène une vie mondaine dans les milieux occidentaux des concessions.

 

Empereur du Mandchoukouo (1932-1945)

Les Japonais convoitent les richesses de la Mandchourie (fer et charbon, notamment), et à ce titre préservent Puyi, en qualité de représentant de la dynastie mandchoue qui avait encore ses fidèles.

En 1931, le Japon fait la conquête de ce territoire, et crée un état fantoche sous le nom de « Grand État mandchou (ou Mandchoukouo) de Chine ». Malgré les protestations du Guomindang auprès de la Société des Nations, et les déclarations de cette dernière qui considérait que le Mandchoukouo faisait partie intégrale de la Chine, les Japonais placent Puyi à sa tête en 1932, mais sans lui donner de pouvoirs réels.

 

Le Japon, soucieux de jeter des bases durables sur le sol chinois, met alors en place un vaste plan d’émigration vers le Mandchoukouo de populations japonaises et coréennes – la Corée ayant été annexée par le Japon en 1910 – le but étant de faire venir un million de personnes en 20 ans. Cet afflux de migrants se fait aux dépens des populations locales qui se voient dépossédées de leurs terres.

Fort occupé à combattre l’influence grandissante du Parti communiste chinois de Mao Tsé-toung, le Guomindang finit par signer un cessez-le-feu avec les Japonais en 1931.

En 1932, la Société des Nations module ses positions quant au problème mandchou en déclarant, que « […] le nouvel état créé est un protectorat plutôt qu’un véritable état indépendant », même si elle préconise l’adoption d’un plan d’intervention internationale pour la Mandchourie ; de ce fait, le Japon quitte la SDN le 27 mars 1933.

Puyi veut regagner son titre d’empereur ; c’est une quasi obsession. Aussi, en octobre 1933, quand le Japon en quête d’une image moins conquérante et d’une certaine légitimité lui fait la proposition de reprendre son titre impérial, il accepte, malgré les innombrables victimes de guerre chinoises et la spoliation des terres au bénéfice des immigrants nippons et coréens.

Le 1ermars1934, Puyi, sous le nom de « Kangdle », est sacré Empereur pour la troisième fois.

Puyi espère que cette intronisation n’est qu’une étape, et qu’une victoire du Japon en fera de nouveau l’Empereur de toute la Chine.

Toutefois, les exactions japonaises dans le pays, ainsi que l’influence de celle qui sera sa deuxième concubine, Tan Yuling, une Chinoise d’origine mandchoue, amène Puyi à s’affirmer devant ses « amis » japonais et à s’opposer à eux. Aussi, pour resserrer les liens entre l’Empereur et ses alliés, un mariage est-il célébré en 1938 entre l’un des frères de Puyi, Pujie, et la princesse Hiro Saga, parente de l’Empereur Hirohito. Au cas où Puyi viendrait à disparaître sans descendance, Pujie porterait le titre impérial. Mieux encore, un enfant mâle issu de ce mariage, donc de sang mêlé chinois et nippon, ferait un Empereur idéal pour le Mandchoukouo. Pujie et Hiro Saga ont bien un enfant, mais c’est une fille. Quant à Tan Yuling, elle décède en 1942, à l’âge de 22 ans. Puyi, qui lui portait une réelle affection, aura toujours un doute sur la cause de ce décès puisqu’elle était soignée par un médecin japonais.

Puyi et Hiroito

Le Guomindang s’alliant au Parti communiste chinois contre l’envahisseur nippon, Puyi n’a d’autre solution que continuer à appuyer les Japonais. Son sort est lié au leur, et à l’issue de la guerre, non pas celle qui oppose simplement deux pays d’Asie, mais celle qui embrase le monde entier.

Le 17 août 1945, deux jours après la capitulation du Japon, Puyi abdique pour la troisième fois.

Afin d’assurer sa sécurité, les Japonais l’invitent à s’envoler pour le Japon. L’avion atterrit à Shenyang et Puyi est arrêté par les Soviétiques. Très probablement a-t-il été livré aux Russes par ses protecteurs, bien que ce point n’ait jamais pu être élucidé.

Prisonnier des Soviétiques (1945-1950)

Le 19 août 1945, Puyi se retrouve en résidence surveillée à Tchita, dans le sud de la Sibérie, puis à Khabarovsk.

En août 1946, il est entendu comme témoin au Tribunal militaire international de Tokyo, dont le but est de juger les criminels de guerre en Asie. De témoin à accusé la distance est mince, mais Puyi sait se préserver. À l’issue de son audition, qui dure sept jours, le Guomindang demande son extradition vers la Chine, ce que refuse l’Union Soviétique qui soutient le Parti Communiste Chinois.

En Chine, le conflit qui oppose les nationalistes aux communistes tourne à l’avantage de ces derniers. Pressentant le pire, et craignant pour sa vie s’il devait retourner dans son pays, Puyi demande à Staline à rester définitivement en Union Soviétique, mais sa lettre demeure sans réponse.

La République populaire de Chine est proclamée à Pékin le 1eroctobre1949 par Mao Tsé-toung. Quelques mois plus tard, au début de 1950, Mao en voyage en URSS demande l’extradition vers la Chine de Puyi et des autres dignitaires mandchous exilés avec lui. Staline accepte.

La rééducation (1950-1959)

Puyi est transféré dans le « camp de rééducation pour criminels de guerre » de Fushun, sous le matricule 981. La guerre de Corée éclate en septembre 1950. Quelques mois après, et du fait de la proximité de Fushun avec la frontière sino-coréenne, Puyi est transféré dans un autre camp à l’intérieur du pays où il reste deux ans. En 1954, quelques mois après la fin du conflit coréen (27 juillet 1953), il retourne au camp de Fushun.

Une enquête est diligentée sur place en vue d’un procès éventuel. Accablé par les confessions de ses amis et de sa famille, Puyi est reconnu coupable de nombreux crimes contre le peuple chinois et le PCC, au premier chef figurant la conspiration avec le Japon.

Puyi rédige alors une confession dans laquelle il fait amende honorable, ce qui lui vaudra la clémence du « Grand Timonier » qui optera pour sa « rééducation » plutôt que pour son exécution.

Un peu plus tard, en septembre 1959, Mao Tsé-toung décrète l’amnistie de certains criminels de guerre, dont Puyi.

Un Chinois comme les autres (1959-1967)

Commence alors une nouvelle vie pour l’ancien empereur. Ainsi, pour le nouvel an de l’année 1960, Zhou Enlai le convoque et, comme le raconte le demi-frère cadet de Puyi, Puren, dans le film “Puyi. The Last Emperor of China” (cf infra), le premier ministre lui suggère d’écrire le livre de sa vie. Il lui trouve également un travail de jardinier au Jardin botanique de Pékin.

 

Quelque temps plus tard, c’est Mao Tsé-toung lui-même qui le reçoit, et qui lui conseille également de rédiger son histoire. De plus, il lui préconise de se remarier.

Ces conseils sont suivis. En avril 1962, Puyi épouse une infirmière, Li Shuxian, et la confession de Fushun sert de base au livre qui sort en 1964, sous le titre “La première moitié de ma vie”. Cet ouvrage est traduit dans de nombreuses langues. En France, il est édité par Flammarion sous le titre “J’étais empereur de Chine”. Il faudra attendre 2007 pour que paraisse la version intégrale, la précédente ayant été expurgée de 160 000 mots[réf. nécessaire].

Il devient ensuite bibliothécaire au sein de la Conférence consultative politique du peuple chinois, avec un salaire de 100 yuans par mois, avant de devenir lui-même membre de cette institution en 1964, et ce jusqu’à sa mort.

La Révolution culturelle vient troubler cette quiétude : ses revenus sont réduits, son mobilier en partie confisqué. Mais il évite l’humiliation publique comme la pratiquaient couramment les gardes rouges.

Peu après, ses médecins diagnostiquent un cancer des reins et de la vessie.

 

Puyi et Wan Rong, vers 1920.

 

Famille

    • L’Empereur a eu deux épouses :
      • Sa première épouse est Wan Rong (婉容) (1906 – 1946). Ils se marient en 1922, et elle porte le titre d’Impératrice. Capturée par les communistes, elle meurt empoisonnée à la prison de Yanji en 1946.
      • Sa seconde épouse est Li Shuxian (李淑賢) (1925 – 1997). Ils se marient en 1962.
    • Il a eu aussi trois concubines:
      • Sa première concubine est Wen Xiu (淑妃) (1909–1953), qui devient concubine impériale en 1922 jusqu’en 1931, date de son divorce.
      • Sa deuxième concubine est Tan Yuling (谭玉龄) (1920 – 1942), morte dans des conditions non élucidées.
      • Sa troisième concubine est Li Yuqin (李玉琴) (1928-2001) qui n’a que quinze ans à l’époque du mariage en 1943. Elle divorce en 1958.

Puyi s’est éteint sans laisser de descendance.

    • Il a eu aussi plusieurs frères dont deux ont joué un rôle dans l’histoire de la Chine :
      • Pujie (1907–1994)
      • Puren (1918 – ) (qui prendra plus tard le nom de Jin Youzhi).

 

 

Mariage de PUYI en 1922

 

 

 

 

1900

(1)1900

(a)The first CEF Chine Expedition Force sucharge on British India stamps were Issued.

(b) The Japanese Post Office in China issued surchage China in kanji character on Japan stamps.

2.20th Century

(1) 1900

January 1900

1900 (19 Jan) The China Gazette Newspaper Hankow to Switzerland, franked Coil Dragon 2c x2, tied by Hankow cds, via Shanghai franked with French PO in China 10c, tied by PO in Shanghai cds.

 

(a)postally used cover send from Tumbstone postmark changsitien post office on LCP stamp to destination shanghai bilingual date postmark jan.6.1900.

 

(b)In 1900, Cheng shih-liang led another uprising at Huichow. Dr Sun instructed Shih Chien-ju and Teng Yin-nan to provide supportive revolutionary activity in Canton. The uprising at Huichow failed. Shih Chien-ju then decided to assasinate Governur Te Shou. He dug a tunnel t the governr’s ffice from a house nearby and planted explosives. But Te Shou was not killed and Shih Chien-ju was arrest and put to death.

1900s Russian Railway Post card

 

(c)Joint Force of the eight great powers entering Beijing in August.1900 during the Boxer incident.
The Boxer uprising broke out in the nothern china ,perhaps fearing futher foreign intervention,Cixi threw in her supprt to then anti foteihn bands.The chinese military was unable to preventing the Allied army from marching on Beijing and seizing the forbidden city.
The Chinese military was under equipped and under funded partly because Cixi had earlier consumed precious funds to build a stone Boat of Purity in the old Summer palace.
The British Expeditionary Force Postal in Beijing issued their stamps surcharge C.E.F on india stamps with their own postmark.

 

 

 

 

1900’s Tientsin Colour PPC showing “Latest News”.

 

(d) The Japan Imperial Post Office in china issued the surcharge China in kanji char on Japan stamps with their own postmark.

1900’s Tientsin Colour PPC showing “Selling Fisches”.

 

Look at the front cover of the  postcard

Inside


1900s Tientsin Colour PPC showing “Crossing the River”.

(e) London coil dragon stamp 2 cent(2x) used Peking Postmark jul.1-1900 , RH Rober Hart postal used Cover.thirteen Hart covers reprt by Sam Chiu (2001), 11 cover recorded by Li Zha-ning, So few Hert cover this day.Hart had ordered hislatter papers and papers printed with initial R.H. (lok at illustration)

 

(f) Postally used cover with Wuchow Bilingual date postmark July14,1900.

 

(g) German post office in china postmark Tsingtau Kiaurshow cds Mar.24.1900 on bloch four china surcharga on german stamp 10 Pf.

October,29th.1900

1900 (29 Oct) PPC Shanghai to Germany, franked with Coil Dragon 1/2c, 1c & 2c (2), tied by Shanghai cds, additional franked with French PO in China 10c, tied by French PO in Shanghai cds, boxed No. 8 postal agency cancel under the French stamp

November 1900

1900 (3 Nov) Imperial 1st postal card sent to Germany, tied by Germany Military Exposition cancel, boxed blue cachet & Bromberg arrival cds

 

(2)1901

February,1901

 

As a vital communications link, the North China Railway was captured by Russian forces during operations against the Boxers. Control of the line was subsequently, in February 1901, assigned to the Chine Expeditionary Force (C.E.F.) and a British Railway Administration (B.R.A.) was set up to run it. By international agreement the line was to provide postal services for the other national contingents and also, to a lesser extent, for the civilian population. Travelling post offices were introduced, and on 20 April 1901, a late letter service for which an additional fee of 5c was charged.

The B.R.A. stamp (in use for only 30 days) on the cover above was used for the collection of the 5c late letter fee and was affixed to correspondence by a postal official at the railway station. The late fee was abolished on 20 May 1901 and the stamp withdrawn.

The C.E.F. stamps consisted of the 10 ordinary Indian definitives from 3 pies to 1 rupee current in 1900, with various portraits of Queen Victoria.

Ordinary C.E.F. stamps were used on mail transmitted by the railway, recognisable by the special railway cancellations incorporating a C.E.F. number with the words ‘SET NO.’ and ‘IN’ or ‘OUT’ to indicate the direction

( 126,Back O’Bourke,)

Feb 21 1901

 

Peking oval Bilingual Postmark Feb 21 1901 on JCP stamp 2 c and 10 c.

British Post Office Shanghai CDS feb. 21,1901

German PO in China 1901 Reichspost opt “China” set

 

Chinese Empire, 1901, BRA 5¢ on Chinese Imperial Post Coiling Dragon ½¢ chocolate, green surcharge (Scott 98 var. Chan BRA 1), with usual BRA postmark in blue; odd toning spots, otherwise F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 700

April,20th.1901

As a vital communications link, the North China Railway was captured by Russian forces during operations against the Boxers. Control of the line was subsequently, in February 1901, assigned to the Chine Expeditionary Force (C.E.F.) and a British Railway Administration (B.R.A.) was set up to run it. By international agreement the line was to provide postal services for the other national contingents and also, to a lesser extent, for the civilian population. Travelling post offices were introduced, and on 20 April 1901, a late letter service for which an additional fee of 5c was charged.

The B.R.A. stamp (in use for only 30 days) on the cover above was used for the collection of the 5c late letter fee and was affixed to correspondence by a postal official at the railway station. The late fee was abolished on 20 May 1901 and the stamp withdrawn.

The C.E.F. stamps consisted of the 10 ordinary Indian definitives from 3 pies to 1 rupee current in 1900, with various portraits of Queen Victoria.

Ordinary C.E.F. stamps were used on mail transmitted by the railway, recognisable by the special railway cancellations incorporating a C.E.F. number with the words ‘SET NO.’ and ‘IN’ or ‘OUT’ to indicate the direction.

 

June,9th.1901

Why China and Indochina be on this piece:


fragmen cover  with Indochina stamp and china stamps CDS Lung chow 9 jun 1901 and Langson(the border between Vietnam(north) and China south(Kiangshi) 1 jun 1901
If possible, please tell me where Lung Chow is?


‘Longzhou (龙州县; pinyin: LóngzhÅ
u Xiàn) is a county in the Guangxi province of China, near the border with Vietnam (location: 22 21′ N., 106 45′ E.). It is under the jurisdiction of the prefecture-level city Chongzuo.

Longzhou lies in a circular valley at the junction of the Xunjiang and Guijiang rivers.’

So this piece may have travelled across the border.

And by the bye, ‘Langson’ looks awfully like a Vietnamese version of the Chinese name. Perhaps a twin town: one on either side of the border?

 

Lạng SÆ¡n (Langson, è«’å±±) has nothing to do with Lung Chow/Longzhou (龍州 / 龙州). I’ve just checked, and Longzhou borders Vietnam’s province of Cao Bằng, not Lạng SÆ¡n.

My guess is that this must be a philatelic item. In 1901, Longzhou and Langson were under the same control of the French in Hanoi, travel from one place to another was therefore fairly easy.


There is something not right about these stamps and postmarks. The placement of one of the Chinese stamps (postmarked 8 June) overlaps the French Indochina stamp (postmarked 1 June). This makes sense. But the 1 June postmark overlaps onto the Chinese stamp postmarked 8 June.

This could only happen if both the Chinese and French Indochinese stamps were already on the cover when the French Indochinese stamp was postmarked. A week later the Chinese stamps were postmarked. Sounds like a philatelic usage to me

the Chinese cancel is 9 June, and the Vietnamese one 10 days later, 19 June.


In that case both the Chinese and French Indochina stamps would still have to have been on the cover before the Chinese stamp was postmarked 9 June because the Chinese stamp overlaps the French Indochina stamp. The French Indochina stamp was then postmarked 19 June with the postmark overlapping onto the China stamp.

An interesting problem.

 

 

July,16th.1901

 

Chefoo bilingual date post mark 16 jul 01 on LCP stamp.

 

August,16th.1901

Imperial 2nd postal card reply portion 1901 (16 Aug) Nanking to Germany, additional franked with Coil Dragon 5c x5, tied by Nanking cds, bottom with German ship cancel & arrival cds

Chinese Empire, 1901 (Nov 28) registered combination cover from Chunkiang? to Yokohama, Japan, a neat standard size envelope, franked with pair of 10¢ green coiling Dragon tied by bisected light cds with 10s Kiku Blue offices in China vertical pair alongside tied by dark blue Shanghai IJPO 16 Dec 01 dater. IJPO Shanghai registration label applied with straight Registered handstamp in purple. Large red “R” handstamp in Red alongside, docket 4198 in blue, red wax seals over flap on reverse. A clean neat colorful cover, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 6,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1901 (April 21) picture post card from Chefoo to Italy, franked on front by 4¢ Coiling Dragon tied by Chefoo 4/21 cds, while address side bears pair of 2¢ hong Kong Victoria’s tied by Shanghai Ap 26 01 British PO transit, Shanghai 25 April Chinese PO transit and Roma Jun 28 receiver. neat and Very Fine, nice usageRealized HK$ 1,800

German Offices in China, 1901 (Feb. 2)

 

oversized cover from Tsingtau to Germany, franked with 30 pf pair overprinted straight “China” issue, tied with Tseingtau standard German Offices cds alongside bearing small surcharge ½¢ on 3ca Dowager, Coiling Dragon issue ½¢, 1¢, 2¢, 4¢, 5¢, 10¢. 20¢, 30¢ and 50¢ lightly postmarked oval “Kiaochow” cancels, due to light cancellations all the stamps further cancelled by blue crayon diagonal strokes, also registered handstamp being crossed out, on reverse oval transit in black and German receiver alongside, a colorful cover with two punched holes on left edge of envelope NOT affecting stamps, a Fine cover. Realized HK$ 1,300

1902

(3)1902
Postally use cover with Franch Indochina Lang Son Tonkin CDS 10 SEp 02 on LCP 2 cent to arrival Hanoi Tonkin CDS on French Indochina stamps

 

Chinese Empire, 1902 (Dec 18) First Issue post card usage from Chungking to Philadelphia, 1¢ card uprated by 1¢ and 2¢ Coiling Dragons, all tied by Choice strikes of Kweiyang double-margin tombstone chops. Front additionally shows Chungking 18 Dec 02 cds, Shanghai bilingual 3 Jan 03 cds along with French PO Shang-Hai 3 JANU 03 cds, Nagasaki 6 Jan transit, Yokohama 8 Jan transit and Phila Jan 31 1903 arrivial. A spectacular card with wonderful eye-appeal, F-VF, a beauty! Realized HK$ 15,000

Chinese Empire, 1902, Chinese Imperial Post Coiling Dragon, 1901, ½¢, 1¢ and 2¢ in ultramarine, overprinted “Specimen” (Scott 110, 111, 112 vars.), a vertical strip of 3, unpunched (quite unusual), overprinted “Waterlow & Sons Ltd, Specimen”, without gum as issued, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 5,000

Chinese Empire, 1902, Chinese Imperial Post Coiling Dragon, 4¢, 5¢ and 10¢ in blue green, overprinted “Specimen” (Scott 113, 114, 116 vars.), a left margin vertical strip of 3, each stamp punched at bottom left, overprinted “Waterlow & Sons Ltd, Specimen”, without gum as issued, pristine, Very Fine and choiceRealized HK$ 4,500

 

Chinese Empire, 1902, Chinese Imperial Post Coiling Dragon, 4¢, 5¢ and 10¢ in orange brown, overprinted “Specimen” (Scott 113, 114, 115 vars.), a left margin vertical strip of 3, each stamp punched at top right, overprinted “Waterlow & Sons Ltd, Specimen”, without gum as issued, Very Fine, scarceRealized HK$ 3,800

Chinese Empire, 1902, Chinese Imperial Post Jumping Carp, 30¢ and 50¢ in violet, overprinted “Specimen” (Scott 117, 118, 119 vars.), a vertical strip of 3, each stamp punched at lower left, overprinted “Waterlow & Sons Ltd, Specimen”, without gum as issued, Very Fine and choice. Realized HK$ 2,400

 

 

 

1902-03 Flying Geese $1

 

 

Followed by the Boxer of the change and the Russo-Japanese War, the Qing government aware of the reconstruction of the Navy is still the only way.

1902 onwards,

a large number of former Northern naval officer to open recovery officer, and the establishment of the Naval Academy, from the talent to start rebuilding the Navy.

[ 转自

 

 

 

 

German Offices in China, 1902 (Oct. 2)

postcard from Tongku to Germany, German black & white photo postcard, on front franked with 5pf green with straight “China” overprint tied by Tongku/Deutsche post cds 2 Oct/02 with bilingual Tongku bisected postmark and Lwickau/German receiver 10/11/02 alongside on picture side, bearing ICP Coiling Dragon ½¢ brown pair, large 1¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue and 2¢ red Coiling Dragon, tied by bilingual bisected Tongku cds 2/Oct/02. 1¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue with surcharge shifted to the right, Very Fine, Royal Philatelic Society photo certificate.
Estimate HK$ 5,000 – 6,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

1903

January,10th.1903

1903 (10 Jan) post card Shanghai to Cuba, additional franked Coil Dragon 4c, tied by Shanghai cds, alongside with Shanghai French PO cancel, via USA San Francisco transit, with Cuba arrival cds

 

Chinese Empire, 1903 & 1906 uprated 1¢ postal card usages to Philadelphia, two 1¢ cards, comprised of Oct 1903 card, uprated by 1¢ & 2¢ marginal coiling Dragons tied by Shanghai cdss to Philadelphia, plus a lovely 1906 1¢ uprated card with lunar cancels and tombstone branch marking to US as well. Interesting pair, F-VFRealized HK$ 7,000

October 1903

Bisect stamps

October,22th.1903

A stamp cut into two parts, each part paying postage to the amount of half the face value of the complete stamp. This practice has been authorized to overcome a temporary shortage of certain denominations. The most famous bisect is the Foochow Bisect, popularly called 颶風票 – hurricane stamp or 颱風票 – typhoon stamp by collectors.

On October 22, 1903, because of the shortage of 1 cent stamps, the postmaster of Foochow ordered that the 2 cents red coiling dragon stamps to be bisected diagonally into two halves. Each half stamp was used as 1 cent and handstamped with a specially made boxed “Postage 1 Cent Paid” rubber stamp. This bisect was used from 22 to 24, three days only.

 

 

1904


The second and third CEF surharge on British India stamp were issued

British Military PO 1904 KEVII opt C.E.F

1904 Postage Due opt

 

 

 

 

Chinese Expulsion 1904

1904
Dr Sun with London Supporters in 1904 (photo).

After organizing the Tung meng Hui in Tokyo, dr Sun toured England,belgium,France and germany in the revolutionary cause.

 

In this year The Qing Imperial Post issued London print coilling dragon surcharge with Postage due and also issue london print 1st blue Postage Due stamp

 

June 1904

Chungking Lunar Date postmark on besect JPC stamp b 2 c with Chngking local stamp destination au.6.1904.

 

The late Qing Dynasty naval battleship “sea”, where “sea Sum”, “sea-chips”, “Hairong”

After the revolution, uprising, “sky” sank the ship ran aground in 1904.

“Hai Qi” ships in the Revolution occurs by cruiser team command Cheng Biguang led to the identity of the Qing Dynasty naval warships to visit, to participate in the review a naval ceremony of the coronation of George V, King of England. The picture shows the “Hai Qi” ship to visit during the moored New York, USA.

1905

(5)1905
(a) Returning to Japan in July of 1905, Dr sun was welcomed by Chinese student. He brought revolutinary organizations together in the Tung meng Hui.
(b)On July.20th.1905, student from 17 Chinese province studying in Japan organized the Tung Meng Hui (Society of Revolutionary Alliance).
Dr Sun addressed the Tokyo meeting on the importance of democratic revolution in China.
In the manifesto issued by the Tung meng hui revolutionaries occured the first mention of the Republic of China as the name for entity to succed the Qing Dynasty. These ideas were precursors of Dr Sun’s three principles of the People (Nationalism,Democracy and Social Welfare) , which provided the guidelines for estabilsment and development of the Republic of China(ROC).
(c)The Qing Imperial Post issued the 1st Express stamps.

 

The photo shows 1905 during the Russo-Japanese War, Port Arthur, the Japanese officer witnessed the Russian warships were sunk to the scene.

1906

(6)1906
In April 1906, the Changsa Post Office have permission for bisect LCP 2 cent cancelled Changsa Bilingual postmark 10 april 06(1906)

 

Naval Academy graduates to study in Japan is increasing year by year. In 1906,

17 graduates of the Jiangnan Naval Academy class of the fifth driving, 12 were sent to Japan. A lot of Navy trainees in Japan revolutionary ideas, and pave the way for the future defection.

The picture shows the Qing government and some officers of the Navy to receive the warship photo in Japan and shipyard officials.

(7)1907
(a)Chiang Kai-shek went to Japan in 1907 to continue his military studies.
(b) Shanglai Local postmark nov 19 o7 on green Shanghai postal stationar card 3rd issue ic.

1908

May 1908


. Shanghai postal stationer postcard 1 c , not clear post mark arrival Canton Bilingual date postmark21.5. 08

november,5th.1908


Transit Shnaghai Chine cds postmark 5.11-08
(b)In November,14th .1908 the emperor Guangxu was died, and the forensic reported the caused by Acute Arsenic pisoning.


In November ,15th,1908

Cixi having installed Puyi as the new emperor of he qing Dynasty.

 

 

 

 

 

1908 (15 Nov)

PPC Egypt Alexandria to China, franked with Pyramid, tied by Alexandria cds, via Suez, Shanghai, Tangku with transit cds, bottom with Chang Lang Cheng postal agency arrival cds.

During early periods, vessels sailing from England to China had to go around the Cape of Good Hope of Africa, and used to take as long as four to six months to get there. Since the completion of the construction of the Suez Canal and its opening in October of 1869, this Sino-England mail route via Suez cut transit time to 40 or 60 days

In November , 16th 1908

Empress dowager Cixi died in the hallof graceful Bird at the middle sea of Zhong nan hoi , her death came only one day after the death of the Guangzu emperor.

 

(c)The Belgian Post Office in China issued surcharge Chine of belgia stamp with their wn postmark

1908
Belgian Post Office in China issued surxharge Chine on Belgian stamps.

 

 

 

 

1909
The fourth CEF surharge on British India stamps were isssued

1906

Ta ching government bank 1906

$5,-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1907

Ta ching government bank 1907

one  dollar,

 

 

1908

Ta ching government bank 1908,

Five dollars

 

 

 

1909

Imperial ningpo bank

Five dollars

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1909

 

Chinese general bank of communication 1909

1 dollar

 

 

 

 

5 dollars

10 dollars

 

 

1909


Temple of Heaven stamp issued by Hsuan Tung

used with Chungking biligual date(BLD) postmsark 25 Nov 1909. and Chungking transit postmark 24 nov 9 and Hankow destination postmark 1 dec 09.

 

1909

Temple of Heaven stamp

(1909) Temple of Heaven – Hsuan Tung First Year Commemorative

The first and only Commemorative issue – Special Commemoration Stamps – September 8 1909 Designer and engraver unknown. Printed by Waterlow & Sons Limited, London. The printing methods used was Line-engraving (Recess printing), in two colors and unwatermarked.

 

 

 

there is a controversy on who actually designed and engraved the “Temple of Heaven”. Americans Lorenzo J. Hatch & William Grant have been credited by some for the work, but again it is debated by some.

 

In 1908,

the Imperial Chinese government sent a representative, Chen Chin Tao, to the United States, Great Britain, France and Germany to investigate stamp production styles and to determine which method was least susceptible to counterfeiting.

 

The Chinese government decided that United States’ manufacturing technique was most suitable for its purposes.

The Imperial government asked two Americans, Lorenzo J. Hatch and William A. Grant, to establish a Chinese Bureau of Engraving and Printing. Hatch was a renowned artist and engraver whose experience included more than 15 years at the United States Bureau of Engraving and Printing.

 

Hatch had also spent a number of years working at both the Western Banknote Company of Chicago and the International Bank Note Company. After overcoming some initial reluctance, Lorenzo Hatch signed a six-year contract with the Chinese government.

William A. Grant, an engraver and designer, was an expert in creating the lettering, script, vignettes, geometrical lathe work, scrolls and cycloid twirls that filled bank note and stamp backgrounds.

 

A particularly skilled engraver, Grant specialized in detail engraving which helped make bank notes and stamps difficult to counterfeit. Grant was in charge of the engraving room at the American Bank Note Company when he agreed to accompany Hatch to China.

Hatch and Grant established the Chinese Bureau of Engraving and Printing in 1909.

 

They were responsible for the design and production of all the early Chinese Republic issues. The production of the first stamps of the Chinese Bureau of Engraving and Printing was very much a collaborative effort.

 

While Lorenzo Hatch was primarily responsible for the design of the stamp and prepared most of the vignettes, William Grant applied his special skills to reducing the frame and scrollwork, as well doing the lettering and much of the actual engraving.

 

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1909, Temple of Heaven, mint & used group (Scott 131-133. Chan 137-139), comprising mint 2¢(3), 3¢(3), 7¢(4) with or without gum, used 2¢(4), 3¢ & 7¢, 16 values, generally F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 1,200

 

Chinese Empire, 1909 printed local addressed registered cover, franked with complete set “Temple of Heaven” issue, individual postmarked by Shanghai registered cancels, handstamped Registered/Shanghai #132, with similar Shanghai receiver “Index 1” on reverse, a fine cover used on second day of issue, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 6,500

Chinese Empire, 1909 cover from Fukien to England via Siberia, franked with 3¢ & 7¢ Temple of Heaven and 2¢ green & 4¢ brown coiling dragons tied by Fukien bilingual cds, on reverse various transit marks and Frome/England receiver Ja/15/10, minor imperfection, F-VF, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 7,500

Chinese Empire, 1909 (Sept 15) small cover from Peking to Germany, franked with 3¢ & 7¢ Temple of Heaven issue, tied by Peking bilingual bisected cds (15 Sept 09), VF and clean cover, Very FineRealized HK$ 2,400

 

French Indo-Chine 1908

Canton surcharge

This set alone costs 233 €, according to my Yvert

From left to right, they dipict: a Cambodian, an Annam (Central Vietnam at that time), a Muong (mountainous region of north Vietnam), a Laotian, and a Tonkin (currently northern Vietnam), all in traditional costumes.

Were they not overprinted – valid only in Indochina, the cost is 149 €, with the last 10 Fr stamp alone worth 100 €.

Compare these two:

 

 

1909

July .15th, 1909,

the Qing court set up to organize the Naval Affairs, by the carrier Xun Sa town of ice act as deputy to the organization of the Admiralty, the combined north and south, two ocean navy, change the set up cruiser team and the Yangtze River Fleet.

China for the first time a unified naval command structure and the Navy Command.

Contained a truly just appointed and announced an ambitious development of the Navy for seven years planning, plan a quick Tim made ​​eight first-class battleship, cruiser more than 20 ships, all kinds of soldiers round 10, the preparation of the first, second, third teamwater torpedo; the establishment of the ocean naval port and dock; the establishment of the naval College.

1909 to 1910, set out Xun Sa town ice has visited Europe and the United States, ordered the ships. The picture shows the contained truly, Sa the town of ice and his entourage visited the British navy, two left, front row, respectively Sa town ice contained Xun.

Although the Qing government to establish a naval command structure at all levels, but for the suspicion of the Han Chinese, the upper large number enabled the royal family, Banners, which agents Navy Marshal Zai Feng, Lord of the Admiralty contained truly do not understand naval operations, Sa town ice, althoughtechnical education, have to moderation by the royal family.

Mostly Navy grassroots officers origin Chuanzheng some there Liuyang experience, sense of lack of allegiance to the Qing court, and Banners dictatorship, a profound understanding of the upper corruption, widespread disappointment. These officers can be divided into two factions of Guangdong, Fujian, with each other intrigue, serious internal friction. The picture shows the ship “Horizon” custom-made in Britain

Boxer ordered before the “sea” cruiser Hai Qi “sky” Hai Chen and Hai, Hai “have arrived in the main the end of the Qing Navy. The naval powers had been involved in an arms race, one of the main battleship tonnage in the United Kingdom, equivalent to the sum of the entire tonnage of the Qing Dynasty cruiser team.

Aspects of naval port, Port Arthur, Weihai powers lease, coastal ports and more being carved up, the Qing court preparation in Xiangshan, Zhejiang, Xingang, but until Qing death also did not finish. After the cause of the picture shows the “sky” sister ship “Hai Qi” ship, the Chinese side received a photo of the ship officers in the ship, second row third from right human Sa town ice.

 

Of the 20th century,

to follow the example of Japan to become a big fashion in the late Qing Dynasty. The Navy purchased the ship and to study the focus turned to Japan. 1909, 14 ships in order fully to China total displacement of 5700 tons.

These warships, constitute the main later Yangtze River Fleet. The picture shows the custom-made in Japan, “Chu Qian warship instrument

 

 

 

1909,

1909 4th Express Delivery stamp

…. 3rd section

 

 

Sa town ice, has been appointed as the preparation for the Lord of the Admiralty and Navy admirals, the unification of the Bureaucracy, flag-style uniforms, orders the implementation of the first scientific management of China’s modern navy.

Same year in August 24 to September 24,

contained Xun, Sa town ice from Beijing toured the nine coastal (and the Yangtze River) province of Hai Phong, and inspected the naval school, shipyards, and participated in the Xiangshan provision of Hong Kong ceremony.

To the Revolution broke out in a total of 16 years and a half in October 1911, the Qing government purchased warships 39 with a displacement of 34,728 tons (all failed to China, excluding warships).

Domestic warship 24, a total of 10,564 tons displacement. Northern Navy seems to be to revive the prestige. The photo shows portraits of the Bodhisattva town ice.

 

 

 

 

 

November,19th.1909

Off cover used Temple of Heaven stamps CDS BLD Bilingual Date  Teng Yue 9.Nov.1909(Dr Iwan collections)

1910

1910 (Apr 10)

Chinese Empire, 1910 (Apr 10) picture postcard from Lungchow to England, franked on picture side CIP Coiling Dragon 1¢ and 3¢ Temple of Heaven, each tied by strike of Lungchow 14th Apr/10 bisected bilingual cds, on reverse similar Lungchow date & French style Lang-son/Tonkin 15 April/10 transit cds alongside, VF, accompanied with Experts & Consultants Ltd photo certificate #1870, scarce Lungchow usage. Realized HK$ 6,500

April,11th.1910

Peking Bilingual Date(BLD) postmark 11 Apr 10 on Temple of Heaven stamp 1 c and 4 cent.

China, Manchu Ladies Of The Palace Being Warned To Stop Smoking [c1910-1925]

 

 

In June of 1910

Chiang was initatited into the Tung meng hui and met Dr sun Yat-sen.

1910’s Cigarette advertising postcard, f.w CIP opt. “ROC” 1c. Tied by rare postal agent cancel.

1911
The Chinese General post office was formed

 

Due to the differences in currency between Tibet and other parts of China, especially the popularity of Indian Rupee in Tibetan commercial market, the I.P.O. finally decided to issue a set of postage stamps in Rupee values and restricted for use in Tibet. A set of 11 values of the CIP coiling dragon stamps were overprinted with Chinese. Issued in March 1911
1911 Cover …. sent Tibet locally, franked Coil Dragon opt Tibet 1/2c & 1c pair, tied by Yatung large dollar cancel, plus double ring arrival cancel

Tibet 1911 Coil Dragon otp

feb 4 1911

 

Postal Postage Paid statistical department inspectorate general stationer cover send with shanghai lunar dater postmark

March 27 1911

 

Postally used cover from Kucheng lunar postmark to Tiebet lunar postmark transit Tihua (urumtsi), Transit Peking lunar postmark and peking belingual postmark

 


On March 29,1911,

some of 170 revolutionaries attacked the Kwangtung-Kwangsi Governor’s office in Canton under command of Huang Hsing. they were determined to prevail or die. Although it failed because of lack of reinfrcemetns, the uprising roused the people against the Qing manchu.

 

(cThe March 29

uprising at canton was the 10th under Dr Sun yat-sen’s direct leadership.Although traumatic, it sent out shock waves that rocked qing manchu rule. the do-or-die spirit of these revolutionaries is enshrined in Chinese history.

The remains of 72 martyrs were entobed at Yellow Flower mound in Canton, this site became a shrine of the national Revolution. Eight-six revolutionaries are known to have been killed in the incident and they may have been more,this day later became the martyr Day and the next year as Youth day.

 

Shanghai Postal Commissioner postmark Apr 18 1911.


In September,1911.

the Wuchang revolutinaries rise up and overthrew the Qing dynasty.

 

 

October.10th,1911


The Tung Meng Hui provided leadership for eight uprisings against Qing Dynasty at Huangkang Chaochow ,Huichow,Chinlien,Chennankuan,Shangsu in Chienlien, Hokow in Yunnan,Yellow Flower Mound in Canton and Wuchang.

The last of these on Octber 10.1911

led the dwnfall of the Qing Dymasty and the birth of the ROC. The shot fired at Wuchnag brought an immediate response from Tung meng Hui members in Shanghai under the leadership of Chen Chi-mei. The successive victories of the revolutionaries quickly convinced the Qing Mancus that they could not loner prevail. and the downfall of the Qing dynasty came quickly.

 

In October 13 , 1911.

Chiang leading more than a hundred do-or-die commandos who attacked government office at hangchow and capture the Manchu Governor. Chiang had returned to Shanghai and joined Chen Chi-mai for nanking-Shnaghai-hanchow area. He then hurried to Hangcxhow to head the successful revolutionary attack of October 13.

 

Chinese General Post office were opened, with special postmark another administration pstmarklike registered, revenue etc.

 

 

 

Long flagship team’s defection of the Chinese Navy toward Xinhai
Since the Westernization Movement suffered bitterly from imperialist intrusion, the Qing government had invested heavily to create one of Asia’s largest naval. Accept the Western-style military training, equipped with world-class battleship of the “Dragon’s flagship team, becoming a scene in the late Qing. After the defeat of the Sino-‘s modern navy is not dead. 17 years after the Revolution of 1911, the Qing court this placed an army of recycled high hopes, but one after another uprising, switch to the revolutionary ranks, becoming the Qing dynasty’s ironic footnote.

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

The late Qing Dynasty two Opium Wars, the Qing government deeply Haiphong empty aimed at “self-defense” Westernization Movement, including the construction of the focus is to create a modern naval. Organize the beginning of the Chinese Navy as a teacher In the United Kingdom, a large number of advanced weapons and equipment purchased from the United Kingdom, Germany and other European countries. The picture shows the custom-made by the Qing government in the UK “mosquito boats. These gunboats steel wooden outsourcing, known as the “mosquito boats” can be used for coastal defense but does not have ocean-going capability.

 

 

As the most grassroots level officers and sailors of the Qing Dynasty Cantonese, Fujianese, and the Rebel officers and men students, the uprising of the Association, the main vessels, the the Qing residue around the vessels uprisings. The picture shows the Jiujiang Army civil affairs, Linsen convince the naval uprising.

 

 

Reconstruction of the navy of the Qing government, already in the Qing court has not yet collapsed when all the uprising become an important military power in the hands of revolutionaries. The picture shows the uprising sailors preparing to attack Nanjing.

 

The picture shows the Navy’s carrier-based Norden flying cannon to be demolished ashore to participate in the attack on Nanjing.

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

May 8, 1911,

the Qing government set up a royal cabinet, around the constitutionalists disappointed revolutionary activities has become more active.

October 10,

the Wuchang Uprising opened the curtain of the 1911 Revolution. Viceroy Rui Cheng parked in a hurry to escape Wuhan Jiang surface gunboat refuge.

On the 12th, the Qing court quickly set up a siege agencies, Army the Minister Yinchang unified command, rushed to the Wuhan repression.

The picture shows the Qing to the Revolutionary Armed Forces of the purposes of Fire Attack, Hankou Market flames

 

 

November,21th.1911

1911 (21 Nov) Cover Macau to Hong Kong,

 

franked Macau bisect stamp, tied by Macau cds, reverse with Lappa customs transit cds, Hong Kong arrival cancel

 

 

 

December 6th.1911 ,

the Revolutionary Armed Forces of the Navy General Command was established in Shanghai, acclaimed Cheng Biguang Navy chief, Huang Zhongying deputy commander, Tang Xiang Ming cruiser commander of the Qing court has to lift the load Xun Navy Minister from office by the Deputy Minister Tan Xuehengas the last Lord of the Admiralty, but neither the sea, nor the Navy.

Lapel with Jianghan view of the three towns, a huge ship role, and the Navy to help destroy the Qing court lie in Sa town ice rate. Sa town ice on the 13th since the Gao Temple rate “Chu” Chu Yu Chu and Qin, Chu Qian Jiang, Jian Wei gunboats and torpedo boats 6 set sail on the 15th to the Hankou middle of the river than the Army as early as two days notice consular corps, naval vessels in place, will open the shelling of the city. The picture shows the Wuhan Jiang surface of the Yangtze River Naval warships

Phase for a large number of revolution in the early uprising in the new army, the navy to join the revolution rarely. A ships range of sectors, a two-person rallying cry is difficult to control the ship; two treatment much better than the Army, leading to a naval officer in the politically more conservative; the focus of the work of the three revolutionaries are mainly concentrated in the new army and secret societies .

Therefore, for the rulers, the Navy is an important tool that they used to suppress the people to resist. Combined with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Water is weak, the Yangtze River Fleet to pose a major threat. The picture shows the primitive gun ship of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Jiujiang.

The Manchu three main cruiser and Hai “,” Hairong “,” sea Sum “has also been ordered to move into Wuhan Jiang surface assist in the fight. The three ship officers and men of the “naive” more sympathy for the revolution is the mainstream. Hoi Sum “ship officer Zhang Yi Bo contact the officers and men of the battleship, and are not aimed to make war, not venting is fired at the surface of the river. While other gunboats how ships of the original attribution of Hubei Province, the crew out of the incense of love do not want to force war. Above left: to raise the sea “; upper right:” sea Sum “; the following diagram: Hairong.

The commander in chief Sa town ice Mongolian Banners, but it is a career naval officer, but also teachers and students of friendship, and Li Yuan-hung arrangement came later did not actively attack the Revolutionary Armed Forces.

 

When receiving the letter of Li’s instigation, he also noncommittal, neither the response to the revolution, nor hard to combat. Navy and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of more than 3000 meters apart on the radio, each other shells are nothing but fall on the water, did not result in losses. Part of the naval officers and men have been germination of the idea of sympathy for the uprising, the Revolutionary Armed Forces continue to fight for the Navy. The picture shows the Revolutionary Armed Forces of the xiang next to the guard.

 

Tibet (Chinese Offices), 1911,

Surcharges, 3p – 1r (Scott 1-10. Chan T1-10), a scarce group short only the rare 2r on $2, o.g., F.-V.F Realized HK$ 6,500

Tibet (Chinese Offices), 1911,

 

 

Surcharges, 1r on $1 and 2r on $2 key values (Scott 10-11. Chan T10-11), o.g., both trace of hinge mark, clean smooth gum, choice examples, scarce this nice, Very Fine Realized HK$ 22,000

1912

1912 Coil Dragon Waterlow overprint “CHMK”

The revolution of 1911 resulted in overprints on the imperial stamps in 1912; at Foochow to indicate that the post office was effectively a neutral area available to both sides, and at Nanking and Shanghai reading “Republic of China”. An additional set of overprints were produced by Waterlow and Sons in London, and postmasters throughout the country made their own unofficial overprints using the same characters(126)

(6) 1912
The Republic of China (Koumintang) exsitance had already been firmly established .

(12) 1912
The founding Father Dr Sun Yat-sen leaves Shanghai station the morning of the Newyear’s day ,1912 for his Nanking swearing-in as the Republic of China’s provisional President.
Please collectors be patien, this informations still in prcess, the illustration will install one by on

 

Tibet, 1912, Local Issue,

1/6t – 1t, five values (Scott 1-5. Chan TL1-TL5), mint, without gum, huge to wide margins all around, good colors, Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 800 – 1,200.

 

Chinese Republic, Group of 6 examples all with specimen overprints, 1912-1923 (Scott 192-3, 240-1, 253 & 260), comprising President Yuan Shih-Kai 3¢ and 5¢ First Peking Junk Issue, 1½¢ and 13¢ and 2nd Peking Printing 4¢ and 15¢, the former two values without gum, others o.g., overall fresh and clean, 6 values. Realized HK$ 500

Chinese Republic, 1912, Foochow “Provisional Neutrality”, 3¢ slate green (Scott 134. Chan 140), group of 4 items, comprised of 2 mint and 2 used examples; one mint copy light crease, F.-V.F. or better, one stamp each signed Bloch and Livingston. Realized HK$ 4,000

Chinese Republic, 1912, Nanking “Provisional Neutrality”, 7¢ maroon (Scott 140. Chan 146), used, fresh, F.-V.F., signed Livingston. Realized HK$ 1,800

February 12, 1912,

the Qing emperor abdicated, China more than two thousand years of the autocratic monarchy to an end. The picture shows the Tang Xiang Ming led the main fleet is to go northward into the Bohai Bay, the the Qing final without a ship attack.

 

 

Found on the New York media, all ship officers and sailors back of the head, “Hai Qi, Qing Dynasty China is typical of the Okanagan pigtails is no longer intact. It turned out that as early as in the “Hai Qi” left Shanghai, as reported to the Qing court, the officers of the ship had been all cut off the braids. “Hai Qi” ship has also become only a whole crew of the ship in the Navy of the Manchu government to cut off the braids of warships.

The picture shows the “Hai Qi” ship soldiers cut off the braids to attend the welcoming ceremony held by the New York official

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

 

1912

As a fellow old friend of Sun Yat-sen, Cheng Biguang revolutionary message, after discussion, convened by the ship’s officers and men, and ordered the revolutionaries station starboard side, unwilling to stand portside, the results of the whole crew, together with the visit to the United States when the New York shipyard factorylong gift ship cat “station to starboard.

January 1, 1912,

far in the UK “Hai Qi ship held a changing of the guard ceremony, lowered the Qing Dynasty Huanglong flag, rising five-color flag of the Republic. “Hai Qi” ship in May 1912, after 30,850 sea miles voyage back to the port of departure to Shanghai at this time the land of China is no longer the imperial era.

 

Chinese Republic, 1912, Statistical Dept. “Republic” Overprints complete (Scott 146-160. Chan 152-166), full o.g., never hinged, good color, key values well centered, scarce, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 22,000

Chinese Republic, 1912, Statistical Dept. “Republic” Overprint, $1 red & pale rose, overprint inverted (Scott 158a. Chan 164b), cancelled Kuang-Tong, Kuan-Chow (Canton) June 17, 1st Year, clean and well centered, Very Fine, a major rarity, signed Livingston, ex Pedersen.
Estimate HK$ 140,000 – 160,000

One of 10 documented examples known and fourth copy referenced in”The Inverted Overprint Chung Hwa Min Kuo” by Henry Nyi, in “The China Clipper”, Volume 56, No. 6, pages 196-199

 

Chinese Republic, 1912, Waterlow & Sons “Republic” Overprint, $1 red & pale rose (Scott 175 & var. Chan 181, 181a), horizontal pair with right sheet margin, left stamp with “One” retouched, part original glazed gum, lightly hinged top margin, extremely fresh, F.-V.F., rare in pair.
Estimate HK$ 25,000 – 30,000.

 

Chinese Republic, 1912, Waterlow & Sons “Republic” Overprints complete (Scott 163-177. Chan 169-174), full o.g., several never hinged, clean, F.-V.FRealized HK$ 20,000

January,1st.1912

On January 1, 1912, Sun Yat-sen officially declared the establishment of the Republic of China and was inaugurated in Nanjing as the first Provisional President.

 

But power in Beijing already had passed to Yuan Shikai, who had effective control of the Beiyang Army, the most powerful military force in China at the time.

 

To prevent civil war and possible foreign intervention from undermining the infant republic, Sun agreed to Yuan’s demand that China be united under a Beijing government headed by Yuan.

 

February,5th.1912

 

1912 (5 FEB) Coil Dragon 3c opt “Provisional Neutrality”. On piece with “Foochow” cancel.

 

1912 Anhwei Hochow Local black opt

Coil Dragon 2c in block of 4. tied by Hochow cancel

 

On March. 10th,1912

 

in Beijing, Yuan Shikai was sworn in as the second Provisional President of the Republic of China.

 

A poster that commemorates the permanent President of the Republic of China Yuan Shikai and the provisional President of the Republic Sun Yat-sen.

The republic that Sun Yat-sen and his associates envisaged evolved slowly.

 

Although there were many political parties each vying for supremacy in the legislature, the revolutionists lacked an army, and the power of Yuan Shikai began to outstrip that of parliament. Yuan revised the constitution at will and became dictatorial.

 

May 1912

 

1912 (22 May)

 

Registered cover Swatow to Germany, franked Coil Dragon opt “CHMK” stamps x8, total postage 47c, tied by Swatow cds,

 

 

with German arrival cds

 

In August 1912,

 

the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party) was founded by Song Jiaoren, one of Sun’s associates

.

It was an amalgamation of small political groups, including Sun’s Tong menghui.

 

 

December 1912

1912 Commemoration the Revolution

 

Yuan Shih-kai should request a set of stamps featuring Sun Yat-sen with the inscription “In Commemoration of the Revolution” at the end of 1912.

 

Sun Yat-sen would lead a “second revolution” against Yuan Shih-kai within the year.

 

 

 

1912 Commemoration the Revolution

 

December,14th 1912

Commemoration the Revolution 1st Design Specimen Set

 

The first new designs of the Republic were two commemorative sets of 12 each,

the first set depicting Sun Yat-sen

.

 

 

 

 

 

and

second Yuan Shikai, both issued on 14 December, 1912

 

 

1912 Commemoration the Revolution 2nd Design Set

 

 

 

1st Design and 1st Commemorative of the new republic, President Yuan Shih-Kai December 14th 1912

 

2nd Design of the New Republic Dr. Sun Yat-sen December 14th 1912

The first issues of the new Chinese Republic ran into a few problems. The original design for the first commemorative issue of 1912 displayed a map of China bearing the inscription, “The Republic of China” in English and Chinese. After the design had been approved, the stamps printed and made ready for distribution, President Yuan Shih-kai ordered the stamps destroyed. The original issue depicting the map was burned, but some stamps survived the fire. Three partially burned stamps of the original map issue were part of Grant’s collection and are now in the US National Postal museum.

In their place, President Yuan Shih-kai demanded the creation of a commemorative design baring his portrait and the legend, “In Commemoration of the Republic.” The president also requested a second stamp design. That issue featured a portrait of Dr. Sun Yat-sen with the inscription, “In Commemoration of the Revolution.” Dr. Sun Yat-sen, considered the leader of the first Chinese Revolution, and the provisional President of China, had voluntarily yielded the office to his successor, Yuan Shih-kai.

 

Chinese Republic, 1912, Revolution Commemoratives nearly complete (Scott 178-187, 189), 11 values without $2 value, mint, plus a short set 1¢-$1 used, 21 values, all o.g. except 1¢ without gum, generally F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 4,000

Chinese Republic, 1912, Revolution Commemoratives complete (Scott 178-189. Chan 184-195), o.g., clean fresh appearance, F.-V. Realized HK$ 12,000

 

 

Chinese Republic, 1912, Revolution and Republic Commemoratives complete (Scott 178-201. Chan 184-207), o.g., clean, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 22,000

 

China Postage Dues 1912

“Provisional Neutrality” Overprints
Chan D17-D22

1913

In the national elections held in February 1913

 

for the new bicameral parliament, Song Jiao-ren campaigned against the Yuan Sin-kai administration, whose representation at the time was largely by the Republican Party, led by Liang Qichao.

 

Song Jiao-ren was an able campaigner and the Kuomintang won a majority of seats.

 

 

 

1912

One hundred cents

Ten dollars

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

China Postage Due 1913 complete set of eight

Overprinted “Specimen” in red

London Printing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 1913

1913 (24 Dec)

Yuan Shih-Kai colour postal card Jiansu to Shanghai

 

 

1914
The Republic of China Postal system formally became a party to the International Postal Convension(UPU)

 

British Military PO 1914-22 C.E.F. opt on KGV

 

 

 

 

1915

China related covers, composed of registered red band Coiling Dragon cover, 1915 censored India to Canton cover, US Consular Service cover from Tsinan to USA and PPC from Shanghai US Postal Agency to New York

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Post 1915

1921

Chinese Republic, 1921, Postal Service issue plus overprinted for use in Sinkiang complete, overprinted “Specimen” (Scott 243-246, Sink. 39-42), o.g., F.-V.FEstimate HK$ 3,000 – 3,500.

Chinese Republic, 1923, Constitution complete, overprinted “Specimen” (Scott 270-273. Chan 289-292), clean o.g., Post Office fresh, Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 2,000 – 2,500.

 

 

 

 

The eve of World War II Japanese occupation of China’s northeast,

the German occupation of Hungary and Czechoslovakia, and not much reaction to the international community, the major powers of that time is not for these to each other fell, and the West countries are looking to Hitler and Stalin’s rally. However, if this time, Germany and Japan, timely close hand, enjoy the vested interests, and the major powers in the world to form a strategic balance or form an interest group, and perhaps no World War II, many countries of the world’s history and fate must be rewritten.
Is likely the three northeastern provinces do lose, there is Taiwan and Taiwan, Japan and the Soviet Union may reach some kind of treaty to carve up the Northeast and North Korea, endless civil resistance will not change the basis of the occupied and assimilation with the extension of time slowly popular.

Moreover, the domestic Kuomintang-Communist but also the civil war, no matter who wins, I’m afraid that did not have the power to recover the Northeast, a long time to become the next “Sino-Russian Treaty, Russia is not occupied millions of square kilometers of territory in China. ? . . .

United States would not make great efforts and Japan against, the Cold War could be one, and anyone with who is anti-Japanese control in Northeast Asia, the United States control of the West Asia and the Americas, dominated the Middle East, Europe, Germany replaced Britain as the leader of the European, to become anti- Russia’s outpost. Running out of Time and the proxy war between the great powers will only be formed, each maintain their own sphere of inter

 

est, to form a triangular race for the situation. The majority of African and Latin countries, perhaps a subsidiary of the big countries or colonies, the imperialist countries to treat this issue is highly consistent.
Fortunately, history is not so simple, but the greed of the rulers of the reason the impossible idea of ​​who is the leader at all mutual destruction, completely failed to reach the balance of power between the major powers. Ever since, the power consumption between the great powers, developing countries may rise. Rather fight the country has been unable to control the situation, so they formed a modern military and interests of the alliance, NATO.

 

[Original]

are greedy angered disaster, rewrite World War II history of the wonderful comments
Since the 1918

is destined to Japan once again a war

, it should be said that Chiang Kai-shek or heavy commitment,

dual 12 Incident after the Chinese army began a large-scale training and consolidation, the Japanese fear China’s retaliation was to strike first.

The fuse of war in China is 918, the direct cause of a major shift of public opinion and government action in the 12 pairs of events after 77 Incident, only one will come sooner or later inevitable event.

As for the results of that war, Japan doomed to fail, too big to Japan’s fundamentally impossible to directly effective rule.

 

The Great Unification of the Chinese people is too heavy, even if Japan does not get involved, after the Chinese government to achieve the complete reunification reunification of the war is bound to initiate the Northeast. Floor living looking through the history books, as long as the Han Chinese is not the rule of a government under the rule of China appear a variety of of Nanzheng or Northern Expedition.

The Japanese can assimilation northeast, but to make the Northeast people say Japanese words, to get to three generations, the Chinese government enough time to unite the force. If Japan does not respond to the 37 years of behavior of large-scale anti-Japan, the Japanese economy is devastated after losing China’s vast market, and the cohesion of the anti-Japanese banner within 20 years will be able to train a sufficient and Japan the army of the war, the result is in Japanese Liangbai with injury, the Japanese lost the status of the world’s second power, which is that Japan will not be tolerated.

 

The following is a reference to three days to play a fish in the 13 floor speech:
China’s War of Resistance Against Japan from the nine hundred and eighteen, counting even if the Japanese expansion in China have never stopped the anti-Japanese
German invasion of the Czech Republic, Austria-Hungary to a war a bit different in the past 20 years, people have not forgotten when Austria-Hungary brilliant many people see the German annexation moved to tears in a dream to rebuild the glory of the former Austria-Hungary

Austria, Germany as part of, I still think so! Bismarck allow Austria split only because of the lack of strength means of compromise, Hitler merged Austria is correct, and the Austrians are also supported.


China’s War of Resistance Against Japan

from the nine hundred and eighteen, counting even if the Japanese expansion in China have never stopped the anti-Japanese
German invasion of the Czech Republic, Austria-Hungary to a war a bit different in the past 20 years, people have not forgotten when Austria-Hungary brilliant many people see the German annexation moved to tears in a dream to rebuild the glory of the former Austria-Hungary Said somewhat reluctantly.

 

Germany pre stations the upper hand, you have to know a lot of interest is being carved up. For example, in fact, Germany playing Poland and the cooperation of the Soviet Union. Our textbook does not mention nothing German ultimate goal of waging war is the Soviet Union, but the beginning does not terminate the action entirely in Asia, Japan ignore the strategic interests of the United States and Britain, the United States entered the war is also a matter of time, but because the U.S. blockade of Japan is also on the route a direct result of the war accelerated.
Not the case. Japan and Germany have their own special circumstances. Germany quickly gained the upper hand after the World War, but Hitler really want to end the war (“He won a large sum of money the gambler, the only thought is to get out of the tables” – Ciano), but Britain does not will allow this to win the money to leave the gaming tables (it really lost all), and Stalin launched an attack in the Romanian problem,

 

Hitler is the last straw. Japan in World War II strategic confusion, not a core strategy, mainly because of the armed forces of the Government opposition, contradiction between Navy and Army, as well as the complex relationships within the army, September 18 Incident, the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, Incident of August in this context, the emperor and the government and the Chinese that there is no need to full-scale war broke out, but the army of interest groups did not listen to their command. Italy just with the wrong person. This is not greedy, but helpless.
Time after the global financial crisis period, the transfer of domestic conflicts in countries like Japan and Germany as light occupation of several areas can not solve domestic contradictions, can only continue to fight to keep playing

Can there be so easy to stop, it is impossible to stop, like Japan, the war decision is not even the politicians, but by the military (or even junior officers) decided to sub-fascists in power aggression while in power The Cabinet also had to step down, the ruling by the soldiers to support the invasion of China. If the Nazis do not continue to expand, waiting for them can only be a step down, by an advocate of continued expansion of political parties in power. The development of history is its inevitability, not an individual can be determined.
People never know where to draw a weak country at that time the aggressor is so vulnerable, they have no reason not to invasion and occupation. Until the violation of the powerful interests was only intervention. But the arrow has been shot
Back head
World War II, Japan was the initiator of the war is also a defeated country, or a very small proportion of Japanese troops to surrender in the war, killed in action rate is relatively high, especially in Southeast Asia and mainland Japan islands contention, and some the Japanese army annihilated, few survive, even if the Japanese soldiers were injured, most of them choose to commit suicide, according to more, as well as Japan’s Kamikaze Mission Impossible, etc. will not surrender, the impression Japanese soldiers are very brave, not afraid of death! Is not the case, Japan is an imperial society, the Emperor is the God of the hearts of the Japanese, and allegiance to the emperor after the death of heaven, into the shrine has become immortal! These ideas from childhood to instill in the hearts of the Japanese control of the Japanese spirit, the spirit of that generation of Japanese soldiers have been such allegiance to the emperor, after death into God’s thinking is firmly under control, lie said that more has become truth, when Japanese soldiers did most of the fear of death, when Japanese soldiers, death is a glorious thing, in many wars, the Japanese soldiers were surrounded, in the case of exhaustion, in the Union Army a strong network of fire, often also organize an intensive group impact, it plainly is to look for dead, to die! Scrambling to die people go – the Shrine, imagines himself to be God! It can be said that the small Japanese army in World War II, is not afraid of death, but can only say that is not afraid of death, far from doing battle brave, is a group of “loyalty to the emperor’s death as God” thinking firmly to fool and control, almost no own thinking is training to become a killing machine, the metamorphosis of a small Japanese!

 


The eve of World War II Japanese occupation of China’s northeast,

the German occupation of Hungary and Czechoslovakia, and not much reaction to the international community, the major powers of that time is not for these to each other fell, and the West countries are looking to Hitler and Stalin’s rally. However, if this time, Germany and Japan, timely close hand, enjoy the vested interests, and the major powers in the world to form a strategic balance or form an interest group, and perhaps no World War II, many countries of the world’s history and fate must be rewritten.
Is likely the three northeastern provinces do lose, there is Taiwan and Taiwan, Japan and the Soviet Union may reach some kind of treaty to carve up the Northeast and North Korea, endless civil resistance will not change the basis of the occupied and assimilation with the extension of time slowly popular.

Moreover, the domestic Kuomintang-Communist but also the civil war, no matter who wins, I’m afraid that did not have the power to recover the Northeast, a long time to become the next “Sino-Russian Treaty, Russia is not occupied millions of square kilometers of territory in China. ? . . .

United States would not make great efforts and Japan against, the Cold War could be one, and anyone with who is anti-Japanese control in Northeast Asia, the United States control of the West Asia and the Americas, dominated the Middle East, Europe, Germany replaced Britain as the leader of the European, to become anti- Russia’s outpost. Running out of Time and the proxy war between the great powers will only be formed, each maintain their own sphere of inter

 

est, to form a triangular race for the situation. The majority of African and Latin countries, perhaps a subsidiary of the big countries or colonies, the imperialist countries to treat this issue is highly consistent.
Fortunately, history is not so simple, but the greed of the rulers of the reason the impossible idea of ​​who is the leader at all mutual destruction, completely failed to reach the balance of power between the major powers. Ever since, the power consumption between the great powers, developing countries may rise. Rather fight the country has been unable to control the situation, so they formed a modern military and interests of the alliance, NATO.

[Original]

are greedy angered disaster, rewrite World War II history of the wonderful comments
Since the 1918

is destined to Japan once again a war

, it should be said that Chiang Kai-shek or heavy commitment,

dual 12 Incident after the Chinese army began a large-scale training and consolidation, the Japanese fear China’s retaliation was to strike first.

The fuse of war in China is 918, the direct cause of a major shift of public opinion and government action in the 12 pairs of events after 77 Incident, only one will come sooner or later inevitable event.

As for the results of that war, Japan doomed to fail, too big to Japan’s fundamentally impossible to directly effective rule.

 

The Great Unification of the Chinese people is too heavy, even if Japan does not get involved, after the Chinese government to achieve the complete reunification reunification of the war is bound to initiate the Northeast. Floor living looking through the history books, as long as the Han Chinese is not the rule of a government under the rule of China appear a variety of of Nanzheng or Northern Expedition.

The Japanese can assimilation northeast, but to make the Northeast people say Japanese words, to get to three generations, the Chinese government enough time to unite the force. If Japan does not respond to the 37 years of behavior of large-scale anti-Japan, the Japanese economy is devastated after losing China’s vast market, and the cohesion of the anti-Japanese banner within 20 years will be able to train a sufficient and Japan the army of the war, the result is in Japanese Liangbai with injury, the Japanese lost the status of the world’s second power, which is that Japan will not be tolerated.

 

The following is a reference to three days to play a fish in the 13 floor speech:
China’s War of Resistance Against Japan from the nine hundred and eighteen, counting even if the Japanese expansion in China have never stopped the anti-Japanese
German invasion of the Czech Republic, Austria-Hungary to a war a bit different in the past 20 years, people have not forgotten when Austria-Hungary brilliant many people see the German annexation moved to tears in a dream to rebuild the glory of the former Austria-Hungary

Austria, Germany as part of, I still think so! Bismarck allow Austria split only because of the lack of strength means of compromise, Hitler merged Austria is correct, and the Austrians are also supported.


China’s War of Resistance Against Japan

from the nine hundred and eighteen, counting even if the Japanese expansion in China have never stopped the anti-Japanese
German invasion of the Czech Republic, Austria-Hungary to a war a bit different in the past 20 years, people have not forgotten when Austria-Hungary brilliant many people see the German annexation moved to tears in a dream to rebuild the glory of the former Austria-Hungary Said somewhat reluctantly.

 

Germany pre stations the upper hand, you have to know a lot of interest is being carved up. For example, in fact, Germany playing Poland and the cooperation of the Soviet Union. Our textbook does not mention nothing German ultimate goal of waging war is the Soviet Union, but the beginning does not terminate the action entirely in Asia, Japan ignore the strategic interests of the United States and Britain, the United States entered the war is also a matter of time, but because the U.S. blockade of Japan is also on the route a direct result of the war accelerated.
Not the case. Japan and Germany have their own special circumstances. Germany quickly gained the upper hand after the World War, but Hitler really want to end the war (“He won a large sum of money the gambler, the only thought is to get out of the tables” – Ciano), but Britain does not will allow this to win the money to leave the gaming tables (it really lost all), and Stalin launched an attack in the Romanian problem,

 

Hitler is the last straw. Japan in World War II strategic confusion, not a core strategy, mainly because of the armed forces of the Government opposition, contradiction between Navy and Army, as well as the complex relationships within the army, September 18 Incident, the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, Incident of August in this context, the emperor and the government and the Chinese that there is no need to full-scale war broke out, but the army of interest groups did not listen to their command. Italy just with the wrong person. This is not greedy, but helpless.
Time after the global financial crisis period, the transfer of domestic conflicts in countries like Japan and Germany as light occupation of several areas can not solve domestic contradictions, can only continue to fight to keep playing

Can there be so easy to stop, it is impossible to stop, like Japan, the war decision is not even the politicians, but by the military (or even junior officers) decided to sub-fascists in power aggression while in power The Cabinet also had to step down, the ruling by the soldiers to support the invasion of China. If the Nazis do not continue to expand, waiting for them can only be a step down, by an advocate of continued expansion of political parties in power. The development of history is its inevitability, not an individual can be determined.
People never know where to draw a weak country at that time the aggressor is so vulnerable, they have no reason not to invasion and occupation. Until the violation of the powerful interests was only intervention. But the arrow has been shot
Back head
World War II, Japan was the initiator of the war is also a defeated country, or a very small proportion of Japanese troops to surrender in the war, killed in action rate is relatively high, especially in Southeast Asia and mainland Japan islands contention, and some the Japanese army annihilated, few survive, even if the Japanese soldiers were injured, most of them choose to commit suicide, according to more, as well as Japan’s Kamikaze Mission Impossible, etc. will not surrender, the impression Japanese soldiers are very brave, not afraid of death! Is not the case, Japan is an imperial society, the Emperor is the God of the hearts of the Japanese, and allegiance to the emperor after the death of heaven, into the shrine has become immortal! These ideas from childhood to instill in the hearts of the Japanese control of the Japanese spirit, the spirit of that generation of Japanese soldiers have been such allegiance to the emperor, after death into God’s thinking is firmly under control, lie said that more has become truth, when Japanese soldiers did most of the fear of death, when Japanese soldiers, death is a glorious thing, in many wars, the Japanese soldiers were surrounded, in the case of exhaustion, in the Union Army a strong network of fire, often also organize an intensive group impact, it plainly is to look for dead, to die! Scrambling to die people go – the Shrine, imagines himself to be God! It can be said that the small Japanese army in World War II, is not afraid of death, but can only say that is not afraid of death, far from doing battle brave, is a group of “loyalty to the emperor’s death as God” thinking firmly to fool and control, almost no own thinking is training to become a killing machine, the metamorphosis of a small Japanese!

 

1923

the 1923 set “Temple of Heaven” released October 17th of that year with the Sinkiang overprint.

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. A Bullet For Chiang1 May 1926
    Canton
    Republic of China (Kuomintang)Chiang Kai-Shek walked down the corridor of the Kuomintang Headquarters. He was in a good mood today. He had recently outmanoeuvred Wang Jingwei into leaving China a month ago at the behest of the Kuomintang Central Committee, by claiming that the left-wing of the party had been conspiring with the communists. The Committee agreed that the left-wing of the party needed to take a step back. For the last month Chiang had built up his power and managed to negotiate with the Russians.
    He was on his way to a meeting to confirm the new deal which would reduce the role of the Communists in the party. His wife, Chen Jieru, was accompanying him and his personal bodyguards to the meeting as well. He looked over at her and smiled, he was truly fortunate to have her as his wife. Down the corridor he saw a young man with an armful of newspapers coming the opposite way. Chiang assumed he was just a low level party member running an errand for one of the Council members.
    As the man came closer to Chiang he swiftly pulled his hand out from under the papers and pointed a revolver towards him. The man shouted as he pulled up the gun “You robbed my cousin of everything, DIE!”
    One of Chiang’s bodyguards reacted instantly, jumping right at the assassin but didn’t get to him before he fired off a single round. The bodyguard wrestled him to the ground and knocked the gun away. He threw the man against the wall and one of the other bodyguards emptied all of his rounds into him. The first bodyguard turned his head around at the sound of Chen’s high pitched scream.
    Chiang’s body was lying on the ground surrounded by the rest of his bodyguards and his wife cradling the body. Blood was covering her clothes and pooling on the floor. The bodyguards all had grim looks on their faces, there would be hell to pay for failing to protect Chiang.Taken from “Sun Yat-Sen’s Heirs”, by Liao Yanshi, © 1988, Lotus Flower Publishing, Guangzhou, Republic of ChinaDespite Chiang’s rise to power after the attempted coup [1], there was one thing he hadn’t counted on and that was Xu Chu, a young cousin of the deposed general, Xu Chongzhi. Xu confronted Chiang and accused him of stealing his cousin’s army and executing two other generals that he had been allied with, right before shooting him directly in the head. Xu was killed by Chiang’s bodyguards and they had to lead a weeping Chen Jieru away from the scene. Chiang’s death left a power vacuum in the Kuomintang, since he had become the main military and political leader in the last few months and it would be difficult for the Kuomintang leaders to find someone else able to fill both roles.5-8 May 1926With the death of Chiang Kai-Shek, the Kuomintang (KMT) leadership is thrown into turmoil. Chiang had been the major military and political leader and had managed to sideline his major opponents who had been contending for leadership of the party, Wang Jingwei and Hu Hanmin, in the previous months.The remaining party leaders and KMT warlord allies meet in Canton to decide on who should be elected as head of the committee and who should command the National Revolutionary Army. The right-wing of the party dominates, since Wang and his allies were driven out by Chiang. A decision is reached after much debate, Hu Hanmin continues his role as premier of the party [2], but this is a role with little function, Li Zongren, military governor of Guangxi, is appointed as the new commander-in-chief of the army.Tan Yankai as Chairman of the National Government [3] has become the main leader of the KMT, but he has little influence with the army. He holds the political power but must rely on Li to command the soldiers. He gives Li orders to begin preparing the soldiers for a confrontation with the warlord armies. Tan also secretly contacts Wang Jingwei and advises him that returning soon to China could be in his best interests [4].From “Political Leaders of the Republic of China: Volume 2, 1925-1935”, By Roy Wu, © 1990 University of Hong Kong PressTan Yankai may have been the nominal head of the Kuomintang, but he had little support. The right-wing faction saw him as a puppet of Wang Jingwei, with no military influence at all. The left-wing faction thought that he should have supported Wang earlier in the year, but instead he had sat on the sidelines. Tan had to delicately balance the party needs and he reshuffled the positions to keep both factions happy as well as continue the now slightly unsettled alliance with the CCP, against which there was a growing resentment [5].In addition to this was the growing sentiment that the Kuomintang had to start opposing the northern warlords sooner rather than later, in order to gain international recognition and expand its base of control. Tan would have to ensure that the military had a capable commander for the upcoming Northern Expedition.

 

Kuomintang leadership as at 15 May 1926:

Chairman of the National Government- Tan Yankai
Chairman of the KMT Executive Committee- Zhang Jingjiang
Head of the Organisational Department-Chen Guofu
National Revolutionary Army Commander-in-Chief- Li Zongren
President of Whampoa Military Academy-Li Jishen

Taken from “Sun Yat-Sen’s Heirs”, By Liao Yanshi, © 1988, Lotus Flower Publishing-Guangzhou, Republic of China

Wang Jingwei returned to Guangzhou on the 30 May 1926 after hearing of the divisions in the Kuomintang leadership, following Chiang’s death. An added advantage for him now, was the fact that his friend Tan Yankai was the party chairman and Wang thought it would not be difficult to sway enough of the party to his side to become its new leader. Wang would find it a more difficult road than he anticipated however and the disagreements between left and right would emerge strongly during and after the Northern Expedition. This was further complicated by Wang’s dislike of the CCP and his attempts to sideline them. When the march north started, many of the communist members of the Kuomintang had already decided not to take part, which made it much more difficult in convincing the people in the north that they were being freed by a progressive force, as well as reducing the aid from the Soviet Union. Eventually the Soviet advisor, Borodin stepped in and insisted that the CCP fully cooperate in order to overthrow the warlords and remake China.
They grudgingly did so, as they still were friendly with some of the left-wing Kuomintang but there was now a deep suspicion amongst them that would contaminate the Northern Expedition and split the Kuomintang, despite the work that Sun Yat-Sen had done in building up a Kuomintang-CCP alliance.


Chiang Kai-Shek, posing for a picture one week before his assassination.


Tan Yankai, Kuomintang Chairman.


Kuomintang members after the party meeting on 15 May 1926.

[1] A coup instigated by Wang Jingwei and the leftists, known as the Zhongshan Warship Incident. Wang attempted to have Chiang kidnapped by the captain of the Zhongshan on his way to Whampoa. Chiang was warned by his wife and organised against the conspiracy, arresting several CCP-KMT members and forcing Wang out of the country. Chiang gained in power after this and was able to control more of the party, despite continuing the alliance with the CCP and the USSR.

[2] Hu was suspected in the assassination of Liao Zhongkai and arrested. In OTL he supported Chiang after the Ninghan Split.

[3] This position is theoretically the top one in the KMT. In OTL Chiang took over from Tan and became supreme military and political leader, while the premier and other political roles were reduced in importance.

[4] Tan was an ally of Wang, but went along with the other Kuomintang leaders in supporting Chiang after the Zhongshan Incident. Here with Chiang’s death Tan feels that Wang will be able to win back control of the party and also be able to control the military. He may be Chairman, but his support is not huge and he only obtained the position due to Wang leaving.

[5] The Zhongshan Incident and Chiang’s assassination has made the right-wing and moderate Kuomintang members become more concerned about the communists and they are beginning to see why Chiang wanted to be rid of them. The anti-communist faction is led by Li Jishen and Chen Guofu, and Wang Jingwei is distrustful and suspicious of them, despite being the leader of the left-wing of the party that is allied with them.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

 

2. To The North

Taken from “The Many Headed Dragon: Warlords in China”
By Rodger Stevens
© 1970, Bluewood Books
Philadelphia, USA

To better understand the situation in northern China at the start of 1926, it is necessary to provide a list of the factions of major warlords-
Zhang Zuolin-Fengtian Clique, controlling Manchuria and the north-east
Feng Yuxiang-Guominjun Clique, controlling a large area in the north-west
Wu Peifu-Zhili Clique, controlling the central plains
Sun Chuanfang,-Zhili Clique, controlling the east coast
Yan Xishan, Shanxi Clique, controlling Shanxi province

Beijing was under the control of Duan Qirui, his Anhui Clique had been mostly destroyed and his position as President was in name only [1]. True control was shared between Zhang and Feng, but disagreements between them had finally resulted in all out war and Zhang allied with Wu against Feng.

The Guominjun armies were hard pressed and were soon defeated and most of their soldiers fled, some of them passed through Shanxi, where troops attacked them for encroaching on their territory [2]. Duan was removed from office in April and Feng left China for the Soviet Union, though he would return in a few months. Zhang and Wu were now the most powerful leaders in the north but again disagreements on how to govern broke out. Wu wanted to return Cao Kun to the presidency while Zhang was a monarchist and distrusted the republican government. A weak series of governments ruled from the capital, but had little power and Zhang and Wu retained direct control over their own regions. A more important consequence of the war however, was the fact that Zhili had moved much of its army north, leaving its southern flank exposed to the ambitious Kuomintang government, which was preparing to launch its Northern Expedition.


Regions of warlord control.
Taken from “Great Moments in Chinese History” by Hsu Win-chin, Republic Press 1990

Li Zongren, speaking at Whampoa Military Academy before the Northern Expedition, 21 July 1926.

-“Students of Whampoa, soldiers of the National Army. I stand here before you as your commander, but also as your comrade. Our nation has been through turbulent times and continues to go through them. But with your courage and determination, along with the vision of a free, united China, left to us by President Sun Yat-Sen, we will prevail. The chaos in the north will be ended and we will restore China as it should be. As I take command of this expedition, I pledge to uphold the values that Sun and Chiang held. Values which will see us victorious over those who still follow the old ways and allow the new ways to usher in a strong China.”


Soldiers at Whampoa rallying for the Northern Expedition.


Li Zongren, Commander of the Kuomintang Army.

Taken from “Sun Yat-Sen’s Heirs”, By Liao Yanshi, © 1988, Lotus Flower Publishing-Guangzhou, Republic of China

On the 20 July 1926 the Northern Expedition began. This was the first true military test of the Republic’s National Revolutionary Army and its leadership. The training at Whampoa, Russian arms and advisors, the strong will and morale of the soldiers and the warm welcome they received from most of the common people as they marched north combined to be a deadly combination for the warlords. The first major battle was fought at Changsha in Hunan province, where General Tang Shengzhi was leading a rebellion against Wu Peifu. Tang had been supported by troops from the Guangxi Clique for some time and with the Northern Expedition his army become one of the eight that made up the NRA.

Ironically while the military was strong, in particular Li Zongren led a capable campaign against the northern warlords, politically the Kuomintang was struggling. Chiang’s death had left a power vacuum and three main contenders emerged to take the spotlight. Tan Yankai had no control over the left and right factions of the party and throughout the Northern Expedition he only kept his position as chairman because neither faction wanted to instigate political problems in the middle of the campaign [3].

Wang Jing-wei had managed to gather back much of the power and influence he once had and was slowly garnering support from most of the left and some of the middle ground in the party as well as having support from Tan, the current Chairman. His main problem was that despite his strong party influence, he had very little military power, though this would change by the end of the Northern Expedition. Hu Hanmin represented the moderate right-wing of the Kuomintang and despite his tarnishing by Chiang, he was the most popular man among the moderates. But his support base was small and he didn’t appeal to either of the extremes as a leader.
The final contender for leadership was Chen Lifu, while the other two had been close protégés of Sun Yat-Sen, Chen had come to the party later. However Chen had been close with Chiang Kai-Shek, had the backing of H. H. Kung, one of the richest men in China, and he and his elder brother, Chen Guofu, controlled a large number of interests via the growing secret police organisation they had begun to establish. He had support among the traditionalists, anti-communists and also from the underworld which controlled China’s opium trade [4]. Chen was the closest thing Chiang had to a successor, but he did not have the same military experience and thus his support from Whampoa and the NRA was mild. Whoever could garner the most support from the army generals was the one most likely to emerge as the leader of the Kuomintang.

[1] Duan had been placed as president as a figurehead, after the Second Zhili-Fengtian War and his small number soldiers only operated in Beijing.

[2] Yan Xishan tried to remain neutral, which meant that he attacked any forces in his territory, or risk being accused of aiding them.

[3] This is not exactly true. Political infighting began almost after the first battle had been fought. The CCP members started giving power to the poor peasants in areas that the KMT had conquered and staged worker’s uprisings. In addition the KMT left and right began contesting for power and Tan was simply left as Chairman until the each side decided to make their move.

[4] The opium trade in China provided large funds for the Nationalists, particularly via Big-Eared Du’s Green Gang in Shanghai.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

 

Trouble In Th 3. Clash Of Arms

Taken from “The Many Headed Dragon: Warlords in China”
By Rodger Stevens
© 1970, Bluewood Books
Philadelphia, USA

The Northern Expedition carried out by the Kuomintang government was an astounding success. Wu Peifu and Sun Chuanfang’s armies were beaten back by the much more modern and capably led armies of Li Zongren and Li Jishen. Everywhere the warlord armies were pushed back, the common people celebrated their liberation and welcomed the new republican soldiers. Much of this support of the Kuomintang by the common people can be attributed to the extreme taxation, poverty and famines that had plagued the warlord controlled regions, while the Kuomintang was seen as being a government for the people, aided by its ties to the CCP. An additional benefit of the victories, other than morale and support was the influx of new young men signing up to join the KMT army. Many wanted to be part of the great revolution which was finally overthrowing the warlords and bringing China into the modern world.

By the end of the first year both warlords in central China had been utterly defeated their soldiers either dead, exiled or having switched sides to the KMT. After taking the cities of Wuhan, Shanghai and Nanjing the KMT was now in control of a large part of China. There was only one other powerful warlord still to contend with, the Mukden Tiger, Zhang Zuolin-warlord of Manchuria, whose own Fengtian Army outnumbered the KMT forces. [1]


Zhang Zuolin, The Mukden Tiger.

Textbook and reading material for History 402: China’s Move Into The Modern World, University of Natal, taught by Professor Dineke Weers.
“Breath Of The Dragon: A Military History Of Modern China”
© 1999 By Jonathan Drake
Crescent History Publishing, Pretoria, South Africa

The Battle of Huaibei is a defining moment in modern Chinese history. It marked the end of the corrupt warlord era of the last two decades [2] and showed the world that the revolutionary Kuomintang had the military strength and support that they very well could indeed unify the people of China into a modern nation.

On the plains north of the city of Zhang had managed to gather all of his elite troops that had served with him for many years. Throughout March the Fengtian and other warlord forces made their way into the plains, travelling along the shores of Lake Taihu and heading south. The main Kuomintang force was stationed in and around Suzhou, but when Li first heard reports of Zhang’s gathering army he quickly organized his generals into action. Li’s meeting with his generals went on for several hours as they discussed the strategy they would need to hold back the far greater numbers of Zhang’s army.

A rundown of the numbers at first glance seems to overwhelmingly favour the warlords. Zhang had four army corps which made up the bulk of his most loyal soldiers from the north, each of which had 30,000 men. He had also managed to bring in the forces of several allies, namely Tang Yulin and Zhang Jingyao, who contributed another 50,000 men. And finally the remnants of the Central China warlord armies had been placed under the command of Xu Kun who was eager to avenge the series of defeats his commander, Sun had suffered near Nanchang. He had at least 20,000 men under his command. In addition to this the warlord forces had several other armies spread out between Peking and Nanking, which were in place in case of any of the other Nationalist forces tried to make any further moves north.

In contrast the Kuomintang only had an army of just over 100,000 men garrisoned at Suzhou and many of the units in this army had been battered and experienced casualties in the previous campaign, thus many of the actual units were under strength from their original numbers. However because of this, the men in this army had a great deal of experience and were likely the best fighting force in China at the time. In addition to this they were far better equipped than their foes. The NRA soldiers were almost all supplied with Hanyang 88 rifles, a very reliable copy of the German Gewehr 88 and had more modern artillery devices than the warlord armies. Much of the lack of equipment amongst the warlord troops can be contributed to the miserly nature of their leaders, which is described in detail in Bennett’s Money From A Stone: Greed of the Warlords and Hu’s Lords Of Ruin. While the pay of many warlord soldiers was substantial and they lived far more luxuriant lives compared to most civilians in warlord controlled areas, this was not reflected in the standard of their supplies and equipment, much of which had to be traded for or bought on the black market [3].

The final and, in my opinion, most important multiplier [4] was the army officers and commanders. While Zhang’s army had some decent commanders, including Xu Kun-perhaps one of China’s best military leaders at the time, as well as Zhang Zongchang and Li Jinglin, but on the whole it was lacking sorely in competent leadership. Even Zhang’s direct forces had generals that were very cautious and held back constantly during combat. The officers were even worse. The system of corrupt, kleptocratic rule that governed the warlord territories spilled over into the military, such that any man in a position above his fellow soldiers would abuse his power and privileges. Thus the soldiers were hardly likely to be keen to follow their officers, who were even less likely to inspire their men.

The NRA forces however had some of the best generals in China and several of them were present at Huaibei, Li Zongren-who had commanded his own separate forces and land before joining the KMT [5] and would go on to command the most successful Chinese army in the Second Sino-Japanese War. Bai Chongxi had two divisions under his command and some brilliant tacticians, namely, Chen Jitang, Zhang Fakui and Xue Yue. Also participating in the battle was Chen Cheng, a young soldier who would demonstrate his leadership qualities for the first time at Huaibei, taking command of his unit when the captain was killed and would go on to hand the Chinese Communists their final defeat at Harbin in 1945.


Details of the Battle of Huaibei from Interpedia.

[1] Without Chiang’s decision to implement a communist purge in April, the KMT forces have not been split and confused and been able to defeat Wu and Sun much quicker. In addition Li Zongren and Li Jishen have made better military decisions without Chiang’s pride interfering in operations. There are still some strong anti-communist forces in the KMT, though without total military control they have decided to wait until the Northern Expedition has been completed.

[2] Strictly speaking the warlord era had not been going on for two decades, and it certainly didn’t end with this battle. There still numerous warlords in the west and north who would remain independent for some time and others that would go on to work with the Kuomintang government.

[3] Many soldiers in fact provided their own weapons and equipment, as the relics they were given were susceptible to jamming or outright failure. This added to their own personal costs and meant that some units were well-equipped while others were very under-equipped. This isn’t to say this is the case with all of the warlord troops but a large number of them certainly.

[4] Force multiplier is not a phrase used in TTL, people simply use multiplier when talking about military combat factors.

[5] Li Zongren was the leader of the Guangxi Clique which in OTL was closely allied with Chiang until 1928 and turned against him in the Central Plains War, with Chiang gone the Guangxi remain a vital part of the NRA.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

4. The Decisive Battle

North of the city of Huaibei two armies stand ready to face each other in the battle which will decide the outcome of the Northern Expedition. On one side is Li Zongren, NRA Commander-in-Chief, Guangxi warlord and Kuomintang soldier, on the other is Zhang Zuolin, the lord of Manchuria, the Northern Tiger and self-proclaimed Grand Marshal of the Republic of China.

20 March 1927
East of Huaibei
Anhui Province, Republic of China

General Li Zongren, military commander of the National Revolutionary Army looked over his men as they prepared for the most difficult battle of the entire Northern Expedition. Despite being some of the best soldiers from Whampoa, they were sorely outnumbered by Zhang’s forces, most of the other sections of the army were still keeping order at Nanjing and Wuhan, the need to keep these important urban centres secure was a high priority and they could be attacked by any of the other warlords at any moment. So He Yingqin remained in Nanjing along with much of the Kuomintang leadership, while Li Jishen had three armies at Wuhan, and he was here facing off against all that the northern warlords could gather against him.

Despite the fierce morning sun, Li refrained from squinting his eyes. The warlord forces were no doubt going to arrive any minute and he hoped that his plan would work, if not Zhang’s troops would pour into central China and split the KMT-held territory that had taken so much blood and effort to win. The sudden sound of gunfire pulled him out of his thoughts, that would be Bai’s units engaging the arriving enemy forces. He told his generals to get ready, they would be making their move soon.


The battle begins.

Textbook and reading material for History 402: China’s Move Into The Modern World, University of Natal, taught by Professor Dineke Weers.
“Breath Of The Dragon: A Military History Of Modern China”
© 1999 By Jonathan Drake
Crescent History Publishing, Pretoria, South Africa

Li strategy may have been fairly simple, but it was also effective. The warlord forces were using their overwhelming numbers to simply attack the NRA head on and hope that they would force them into a surrender o retreat eventually. Li had rightly predicted that they would do this and devised a plan to deal with it. Li had placed the bulk of his units behind the mountains and hills northeast of Huaibei. Bai Chongxi would have his units displayed nearer to the city and present as a target for the warlord soldiers. When enough of the enemy had charged forward at Bai’s men, Li and his soldiers would outflank the warlord forces, driving into their sides. The plan also hinged on General Tang Yulin, a Fengtian commander in the warlord armies. Tang had met with Li several times in secret in the previous few weeks and was sympathetic to the Kuomintang cause. Li had managed to convince him to use this battle to turn on his hated allies and join the NRA.

As Li forces engaged the shocked warlord soldiers from the west, Tang had positioned his force where it could do the most damage to the surprised forces. Tang gave the order for his men to turn on their allies after Li’s soldiers had forced the warlord troops to retreat some distance and absolutely shattered their remaining morale. Most of the warlord commanders saw the deteriorating situation and gave orders for their men to retreat in order to preserve what they could of their own forces. This led to much confusion and an orderly retreat turned into a debacle with most of the warlord forces taking heavy casualties. In addition to this Zhang Zuolin was killed when his horse threw him off, scared by a nearby artillery strike and he cracked his skull on a rock on the ground. Some of the warlord commanders put up resistance over the next week or so, but they were easily dealt with, as they were isolated from each other and captured or killed. By the morning of 30 March, the NRA was completely victorious having driven the warlord army from the region completely and securing central China for the Kuomintang. News of the battle quickly spread and other warlords were standing down and pledging their loyalty to the Kuomintang. Huaibei represented the end of the Northern Expedition and the destruction of the remaining northern warlords, in fact even the new leader of what remained of Fengtian, Zhang Xueliang-the former leaders son, joined the Kuomintang in another six months, when they were recognised as the legitimate government of China internationally. China had overcome the second stage of revolution [1] and was well on its way to progressing into a modern nation. However there were several more internal bumps that would occur before the road begun to smooth.


General Tang Yulin, leading his officers to meet with General Li after the battle

[1] Drake considers the Xinhai Revolution the first stage and the Northern Expedition the second stage.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

5. Consolidation

Taken from “The Many Headed Dragon: Warlords in China”
By Rodger Stevens
© 1970, Bluewood Books
Philadelphia, USA

The end of the first part of the Northern Expedition brought the Kuomintang into the spotlight in China and their support surged. There were still some warlords in the north that retained power and even after Huaibei they managed to maintain their independence, despite the international recognition that the Wuhan based Kuomintang government received after January 1927. Ironically these warlords that remained after the Northern Expedition had only been minor leaders previously and while many of them were connected with the new government and recognised its rule, they still ruled their provinces with a great deal of independence, such as Long Yun, Sheng Shicai , Ma Hongkui, Feng Yuxiang and Yan Xishan [1].

The Kuomintang allowed these warlords to keep their rule of provinces, as the Northern Expedition had exhausted the Kuomintang armies and they needed time to recover and establish their rule. This meant focussing on governing rather than fighting warlords that were willing to accept the new order. In addition some of the former warlords who had joined the NRA still tired to retain a form of independence, in terms of keeping control of their armies, but the new leadership was happy to accept this provided that those armies continued to fight for them, especially considering the new problems that would soon come to pass with the CCP.


Several of the Kuomintang allied warlords, from left to right, Long Yun, Ma Hongkui, Feng Yuxiang

6 February 1928
Wuhan, Republic of China

 

 

Chen Duxiu and Zhou Enlai were addressing their comrades in a large meeting hall. The Chinese Communist Party had for a long time been allies and many of them members of the Kuomintang and they both expected that to continue despite the recent problems many of their members had faced with the military and the right-wing of the party. Though neither of them had met with Wang in the last week, which was troubling, he usually held joint meetings for the entire party and was constantly giving them assurances that the CCP were important members of the new government.

Zhou stepped out of the main room after he was finished speaking to go and relieve himself, he had had some huangjiu [2] to drink earlier and it had seemed to go right through him. As he was doing so, he heard Chen speaking from the hall. Then he heard the doors open and Chen stopped. He heard some loud voices after that and several shouts of outrage. He finished what he was doing, but waited before going back inside. He put his head against the wall to see if he could hear better. Just as he did so, the sound of gunfire cracked through the wall and he withdrew his head in horror. He didn’t what had happened, but whatever it was, wasn’t good. He fled out the side door and ran as fast as he could to check the other party building in the city.

Taken from “Sun Yat-Sen’s Heirs”, By Liao Yanshi, © 1988, Lotus Flower Publishing-Guangzhou, Republic of China

The goodwill that had existed between the KMT and CCP was quick to disintegrate in 1928. Despite Sun Yat-sen’s wish that all Chinese revolutionaries cooperated together there was a substantial amount of distrust from the KMT rightwing. This had been increased in the wake of Chiang Kai-Shek’s assassination and during the Northern Expedition. Chinese communists had instigated uprisings during the Northern Expedition in several cities as well as several peasant revolts, which brought some alarm to many of the KMT leaders as well as their new warlord allies.
However Wang Jingwei had been close to the communists for quite some time and showed every sign of continuing the cooperation with them, despite what his later actions and attitude towards communists would reveal.

Wang had included them in his new Wuhan based government and met with their top leaders, Chen Duxiu, Li Dazhao and Xiang Zhongfa. In the north and east, anti-communist actions were already being taken by several KMT and warlord province rulers, in Beiping [3], Shanghai, Nanjing and Hangzhou armed gangs sanctioned by the city rulers would go out and disrupt CCP and labour union meetings in an effort to keep them from organising.


Warlord soldiers having just raided a communist HQ

This situation could not continue forever, the communists were reaching a point of striking back while the right-wing KMT had practically declared war. On 18 January Wang had a meeting with several key KMT leaders as well as generals, Li Zongren and Li Jishen. During the meeting Wang was presented with evidence that the Comintern had plans to use the CCP to replace the left-wing KMT and take over the party. (This was in fact true, Stalin had given Mikhail Borodin secret orders to this effect but told him not to implement them until the time was right, they were leaked and eventually ended up in the hands of one of Chen Guofu’s agents, who presented them to Wang)
Wang agreed with the other leaders that it was time to end the alliance with the communists before the Comintern ordered them to take over the party.
Wang stopped meeting with the communists and started planning the actions required to remove them, a dangerous move since it could have tipped them off to his intentions, but they remained unaware right up until the February Purge began.

From ‘Bloody Politics: A History of Ideological Violence’, By Brad Miller, © 1989, HGO Publishing-Chicago, USA

The February Purge
Location: Republic of China, various cities
Perpetrators: Kuomintang Government and allied warlords

After the Northern Expedition carried out by the Kuomintang’s National Revolutionary Army had succeeded in ousting the former warlords and unified China, tensions between the left and right soon increased. The Communists had worked hand in hand with the Kuomintang since Sun Yat-Sen had decided that all the revolutionaries need to work together and many of them were party members, but since his death there had been a growing anti-communist faction. This was only exacerbated by the Zhongshan incident and Chiang Kai-Shek’s assassination, which despite contrary claims, was not perpetrated by a communist agent. This claim was likely used as a way to discredit the CCP and curb their increasing power. Wang Jingwei, one of Sun’s successors had newly made his way to the top of the party and was in the precarious position of balancing the various interests and factions, one of the larger factors to weigh in on his decision to turn on the communists was due to many of the prominent NRA generals being very anti-communist and Wang needed their support to maintain his position. The first act of which became the February Purge happened on the 6 February 1928. Several communist leaders were holding a large party meeting in downtown Wuhan when soldiers stormed into the building and started making arrests. Anyone who tried to resist was shot down and in fact the soldiers had orders that made it clear, any small action could be interpreted as ‘resisting’. Among the first few killed was Chen Duxiu, one of the founders of the CCP. In addition Xiong Zhongfa was arrested at the house he was living in and hundreds of other communists were rounded up and taken into custody or in many cases executed on the spot. This was soon repeated in most of the other major cities in China and the CCP was dealt a hefty blow to its influence in the urban areas. Their response came quickly though and organised peasant rebellions broke out in March against KMT rule, led by important communists who had escaped the purge in the cities-Li Dazhao, Li Lisan, Zhou Enlai, Bo Gu, Fang Zhimin, and Mao Zedong. The Chinese Civil War had begun.


Rounding up communist prisoners in Wuhan

[1] Just as they did in OTL.

[2] Chinese yellow wine or liquor.

[3] Northern Peace-Beijing was renamed to this after OTL Northern Expedition as well.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

6. Party Splinters

March 1928
The Chinese Civil War between the Nationalists and Communists has begun. The February purge has decimated the CCP in the cities and led to the execution of many prominent communist leaders. The communist response was to organise large peasant uprisings against the government. Throughout the countryside in the provinces of Guangdong, Hunan, and Jiangxi large armies of peasants and workers mobilised and staged uprisings. A major battle is taking place in the cities of Fuzhou and Nanchang, the new Chinese Red Army commanded by He Long and Bo Gu has almost taken the city form the few remaining government forces. Meanwhile a much larger NRA force, commanded by Li Jishen is moving south in an attempt to retake the provincial capital.

6 May 1928
Hunan Province
Republic of China (recognised)
Hunan Soviet (proclaimed)

Mao Zedong was one of the last to retreat from the battlefield, as commander of his forces he felt responsible for them and refused to abandon his position until his comrades had escaped as well. Once the Kuomintang army had engaged his forces it was clear who was going to win, the enemy had overwhelmed them with sheer numbers.
Mao turned and spoke to his fellow communist and military commander, Lin Biao.
“We held out as long as we could, but they were too strong for us comrade” he said shaking his head.
“It isn’t over” replied Lin “This fight is just beginning, our army is intact and we can still fight these traitors.” And he gestured his hand at the advancing NRA force.
Mao nodded “You’re right. But from now we have to be smarter in how we fight, engaging the government forces in direct battle cannot work any longer. We have to conserve our forces, attack them when they are weak and lest expected. Spread the party message throughout the countryside until the peasants and workers outnumber the government soldiers and we can beat them back.”
Lin nodded in approval “Guerrilla warfare. Where are we heading for now?”
“Further west” replied Mao “we can avoid the Kuomintang in the mountains and regroup there.”
“Will the others be able to join us?” [1]
“I hope so. Last I heard Nanchang had fallen to Li Jishen and that rabid dog of a general has started slaughtering as many of our comrades as he can get his hands on, He’s forces were scattered. Bo Gu and Zhu De are still fighting but there are far too many for them to defeat. If they can make it here, we can consolidate forces and change our tactics. Ah, good, we had best be going.”
The last of Mao’s soldiers had retreated from the battlefield and Mao and Lin began leading them away on their horses.

 

 



Communist general Mao Zedong in 1928

Taken from “Our Struggle”, By Deng Xiaoping © 1979, Editorial Atlantida. Buenos Aires, People’s Republic of Argentina
Note-This Book is banned in the Republic of China

I wasn’t with Mao and Lin after their first losses, but they talked about it a lot during the Great March. It was then that the first developed the idea of turning the war into a protracted guerrilla struggle rather than large scale revolution. I barely escaped Nanchang with my life, fleeing in disguise as I had in Nanjing. After the failure in Nanchang, we were desperate, the Kuomintang armies were closing in and half of the Second Front Army had been killed or captured. There was little choice, we had to follow Mao to his hideout in the mountains [2]. So we marched west and found ourselves in the mountains soon to join the other forces making their way there. Once we had recovered things didn’t seem so bad, we still had a sizeable army and support among many of the peasants, but the government forces seemed to be everywhere. Then we received word that Zhang Guotao had returned and started his own uprising in Sichuan and Guizhou, and had declared the part of the province he ruled over as the Chinese Soviet State. We bided our time and waited for the right moment to sneak through the gaps between the enemy forces.


The flag of the Chinese Soviet State


CCP leaders gathering in Guiyang

Taken from “The Battle For China:1927-1945”, By Eric Warren © 1999, Blackwoods Books, London, UK
The initial seizures of Nanchang and Jiangxi province were relatively easy for the communist forces. There regions did not have large garrisons of NRA soldiers and many in the region had communist sympathies, in fact the party had spent a great deal of time appealing to the peasants and focussed on increasing their numbers. In addition to this many of the best communist military leaders, men who had lead forces in the Northern Expedition, took command of the communist soldiers and proved their worth. But eventually they ran out of time. Wang Jingwei had made his decision to rid himself of them and he stuck by it, indeed he may have had little choice, siding with the communists meant that he could align himself with the right wing of the Kuomintang, which included the ever growing secret police force led by the Chen brothers, the money and connections of several rich families and last, but not least connections to China’s underworld, which brought in a substantial amount of money from the growing opium epidemic [3].

In addition to this Wang badly needed some strong military allies and he choose generals that had given the best performance in the Northern Expedition, Li Zongren, Li Jishen, Bai Chongxi and He Yingqin. These men commanded some of the best and brightest from Whampoa, many of whom would go on to receive German military training and serve as the strong backbone of the NRA in the future. Wang needed these men firmly on his side and they had a large amount antipathy for the communists, so the communists had to go. But despite the quick campaigns to dismantle the communist holdings in the south and the brief uprisings in Shandong and Anhui, they were far from easy to eradicate completely. In fact several independent minded warlord allies, refused to attack them for fear of taking losses, since the only real power they could command came from the size of their armies. This gave the communists a reprieve and they were consolidated in the west, mostly in Sichuan under Zhang Guotao, recently returned from the Soviet Union and now the most senior member of the CCP after the recent purges and executions. But not all of the communists joined Zhang in his Chinese Soviet State, Mao Zedong had decided the war needed to be turned into a guerrilla struggle that would slowly wear away at the nationalists, so he only briefly stopped in Sichuan to resupply and conduct raids on the nearby nationalist armies. Before the end of the year he would have taken his men north on the Great March. The bulk of the communist forces under Zhang would not be easy to break for the nationalists, but the hammer came down in the spring of 1929. Four armies of the NRA were converging on the region with every intention of sealing off any escape and wiping them out completely.

[1] Lin is referring to the other Red Army forces further east. The make-up of these forces are the Second Front Red Army and the Third Front Red Army. The First Front Red Army was based further north, under the command of Li Dazhao and Ye Ting and has been mostly wiped out by the NRA.

[2] The idea of going to Hunan suggested by He Long is taken more seriously TTL since Mao’s army is already there and the Kuomintang already has an extremely large force in Guangdong.

[3] At this point is still fairly limited in China, but Warren is writing with the benefit of hindsight and as per OTL the opium trade will increase significantly via the Green Gang’s connection to the Kuomintang.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

. Two Red Eggs In The Basket

Taken from “The Battle For China:1927-1945”, By Eric Warren © 1999, Blackwoods Books, London, UK

Despite the fierce resistance put up by the communists in Sichuan they eventually lost out to the inevitable. Li Jishen was in command of the four armies converging on them and he had no intention of allowing them to escape. He made sure that he spread enough troops along the western and northern routes to attempt to stop the communist forces from retreating. However this didn’t stop all of them completely. Enough communists through themselves into the fight at Luzhou that Li was forced to recall some of his units to help him in the battle. This was in fact a strategy that Zhang Guotao had decided on in order to allow a large portion of the communists to escape north, closer to the Soviet Union. Mao Zedong had in fact already taken his forces north near to the mountainous region of Yan’an and Zhang had hoped to join him there. While this strategy did work for a time and allowed many communists to escape the region it was almost for nought. When most of the major battles in Sichuan had finished by 12 January 1929, Li Jishen was already directing troops to pursue the retreating communists. Continued harassment of their force and ambushes by the warlord troops of Ma Hongkui reduced the 100,000 strong force down to about 15,000. By the time Zhang and his remaining men arrived in Yan’an, Mao had already departed further north towards Manchuria, where he would set up his base of resistance which would endure for almost a decade.

With little hope left Zhang decided that defeat was inevitable and he allowed his men to go wherever they wished while he went into exile to Soviet-controlled Mongolia. Most of his men scattered into the countryside, and the Kuomintang declared a victory, but many of them would resurge years later in command of communist guerrilla bands which would cause numerous headaches to the government. In addition to this another group of communists had managed to link up with the southern army of Bo Gu and Zhu De. This group included Zhang Wentian who pushed for a move south towards Tibet where they could lie low and continue the struggle as Mao was now doing in the north. For now there remained two large groupings of communists in China, both in fairly secure areas which were difficult for large forces to reach them. Wang Jingwei had every intention of finishing them off, but had been convinced that they were finished as a fighting force and he had other concerns on his mind, like the reorganising of the Kuomintang armies and the first invasions of one of the greatest threats to the Republic.


A portrayal of the Nationalist victory over the communists at Luzhou


Communist soldiers crossing the Yangtze River to head south to Tibet

Taken from “Our Struggle”, By Deng Xiaoping © 1979, Editorial Atlantida. Buenos Aires, People’s Republic of Argentina
Note-This Book is banned in the Republic of China

They were black days in early 1929, more and more of our comrades were being captured every day, but Mao was like a steady rock of morale that kept us going. We headed further north until we reached the wild, untamed lands of Manchuria. The territory may have been under the control of the Young Warlord [1], but his control was limited to the major cities. Holed up in the Xing’an region, Mao set to work rebuilding and retraining us as effective guerrillas. It would prove invaluable, for Manchuria was about to be invaded, giving us an opportunity to train in warfare and also gain many more recruits to our cause. We also received word that Zhang had managed to hold up in the Tibet region and he was clamouring to be the rightful ruler of the CCP. Mao would make him eat those words in the years to come. Zhang had nothing on his brilliant leadership in battle, or his effectiveness at galvanising troops. I was placed in charge of some the new recruits in May of 1929 and the first thing I had to do was give them a proper revolutionary attitude. Many of them had joined up, simply because they didn’t like their warlord overlords, but they knew nothing about the worker’s cause. The first batch was sitting on some rocks awaiting me one morning and I could tell I would have my work cut out for me.

14 July 1929
Sichuan Province
Republic of China

Sweat trickled down Li Jishen’s forehead. The summer sun was scorching him, but he didn’t bother moving towards his tent. He waited and watched as the horseman rode towards his command headquarters. As he got closer, Li could see an official government banner on the horse’s side, it was likely a messenger from Wuhan.
The man pulled his horse up towards Li and his officers, stopped and climbed off.
“General sir, a message from President Wang.” [2]
He handed the envelope to Li who thanked him and bid him goodbye. Li opened it and began reading, his face developed a slight frown.
“General?” asked General Chen Mingshu, his second-in-command “what is it?”
Li sighed and said ‘We’ve being ordered to proceed immediately to Wuhan. The president has called meeting of all generals and subordinates.”
“But we haven’t finished chasing down these communist dogs!”said Chen.
“Yes” agreed Li “but Feng ahs been testing his authority against Wang for some time now and my guess is Wang has finally decided to implement changes to the armed forces that I recommended to him months ago, Feng will be satisfied, but in the long run I suspect it will curb his independent streak and make him a more useful part of the government. There’s not much more the rest of these traitors can do anyway. They’re leaderless, divided and finished. Tell the others to make ready to move out.”


General Li Jishen, who destroyed the communist forces in the Sichuan Campaign of 1929.

[1] Zhang Xueliang

[2] After the Northern Expedition, the Nationalist government was reorganised in a similar way as OTL, with the Executive Yuan, thought there are differences. The title of premier does not exist, the Yuan being headed by the president, while there is the administrative role is the Chairman, which shares many of the duties as OTL premier.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

8. Fast Times At Whampoa Military Academy

18 April 1995
Los Angeles
USA

Moving to Los Angeles may have been the best move that John Lau [1] had ever made. Despite the lack of radiation around southern China and Hong Kong, the British colony had been flooded to the brim with refugees fleeing the chaotic mainland. The last year had seen some semblance of order restored to the still-liveable parts of China, but the government was only surviving by the skin of its teeth. So the people still left the country in droves, seeking a better life in places like Hong Kong, South Japan, Vietnam, even Korea, which had taken some damage [2] from the nuclear exchange between the old Chinese government and the former USSSR, but had managed to secure plenty of aid from Europe and the US.

John had tried his hand at acting in Hong Kong, but the growth of the film industry had been killed off by the flood of refugees and people having far greater concerns than investing in films. So he had come to America, where things seemed heavenly in comparison. And after a few minor roles in some films and one big role last year, he had managed to land the main character in a large scale historical film. Granted it was about Chinese history, which no doubt helped him, but there was no end of actors in LA and enough of them were Asian that he still had to compete for the role. And here he was now, ready and dressed in costume to begin filming in what he hoped would lead to fame and fortune.

“Ready John?” asked Daniel Spielberg [3], the director. Having him as director only made the film even more important for John. Spielberg had won several Academy Awards for his past films and his last historical film Three Days Of Blood [4], had received Best Film. He was one of the biggest names in Hollywood and John was excited to be working with him.
John nodded and stood up from his seat and made his way towards the set. It was a replica of Whampoa Military Academy as it looked in the 1920’s.
John heard the phrase “Action” and stood up to the podium to re-enact the famous speech Li had made at Whampoa shortly before the Northern Expedition.
He put a stern look on his face, hoping to capture Li’s military training and spoke to the extras that were standing below him as the cameras rolled.

From the LA Entertainment News-October 1995 Issue
Review of ‘Raising Flags: The True Story Of General Li Zongren’
By John Mabell
Despite broaching a controversial subject, Spielberg has managed to pull off what this critic considers another Oscar winning film. While any historical film will be biased in certain ways, Spielberg has managed to maintain an incredible amount of historical accuracy, while also balancing the need for plenty of action and drama. Hong Kong native John Lau has certainly come a long way since starting out in Hollywood and word is that he will be in the running for Best Actor for numerous awards.

As for the film itself, it gives us a brief view of Li’s early life and rise to power in south China, before becoming the Republic’s key military figure, then there is plenty of action detailing the battles that made up the Chinese Civil War and the Chinese part of World War II. Interspersed with this is Li’s struggle amongst the various government factions during the and after the war and his eventual rise to president in the chaotic aftermath of the assassination of President Wang in 1947. More action follows in the with the brief Sino-Soviet Border War and the spin-off conflicts in Korea, Japan and Vietnam as Li takes control of his country in more turbulent times.

The pacing of the film does at times feel slow, but this is more than made up for in the large scale battle sequences and tense dramatic moments between the various historical figures. The length provides enough slow and fast paced material to flesh out into a 2 hour and 45 minute epic that is certainly worth waiting in line at the box office for.


A film poster for Raising Flags, starring John Lau as Li Zongren.

Discussion at on http://www.althist.org
Thread started by LI-2
Topic: Could anyone else have done as good a job as Li Zongren as commander of the Kuomintang Army?

Jackhigh: This is a tough question. Do you mean as commander of the army or do you mean could someone else have done an army job and also gone on to become an impressive leader? For the latter I would say no.

LI-2: No, only could someone have stepped into place and commanded the NRA during the Chinese Civil War and Japanese invasion as well as Li did.

Blackguard: I suspect Li Jishen or He Yingqin would have been decent commanders but Li Zongren had more experience in politics and his position in both the army and the government was pretty crucial during the Clique Crisis, he managed to persuade President Wang to allow the warlords to maintain regional control and independent armies while some of them were on the verge of outright rebellion, a war between them at this time would have been devastating and could have allowed the communists to regroup and gain more ground. Not to mention the state of the Chinese armies when it came to the war with Japan.

Agoraphobiaaa: I reckon if Li had died during the late 1920s somewhere then Zhang Fakui would have been made commander of the army. He was very close to Wang Jingwei and his ‘Iron Army’ 4th corps was the one that had inflicted the final defeat on Zhang Zuolin. This gave him a very large status amongst the other generals. Its fortunate he shared similar aims to Li Zongren (anti-communism, regional independence) otherwise he may have tried to take power form him, but as it was he was content to follow Li, though they had some disagreements during the Clique Crisis. Zhang led some capable campaigns against the Japanese as well, in Nanjing, and Wuhan.

Democratic Bob: No Li Zongren in command equals Warlord Civil War in 1928.

LI-2: Seems like there are some candidates, but there is something else I should mention Li Zongren came up with the strategy of prolonged resistance that was very effective against the Japanese, would anyone else have thought this up? Otherwise the IJA could have made it much further into central China, perhaps even forcing the KMT to surrender.

Jackhigh: Doubtful. For Japan to conquer China would require far more men than they actually had, at worst it would allow more men to be used in the Pacific and delay the US victory perhaps, but the end result is the same. On Li Zongren, apparently Zhang Xueliang’s decision to fight the Japanese in Manchuria, came after he had a heated phone conversation with Li and Wang Jingwei, without Li would he have still fought them, or would he have kept to his orders and let them march into Manchuria?

(8)1917
Italia Post Office in China issued surharge Pechino and Tientsin on Italia stamps.

(9) 1919
US Post office in China issue surchaged Shanghai China stamps

Something a little different. For some time after Outer Mongolia was established, China refused to recognise it, and required Chinese stamps on mail coming across the border. This example was sent from Ulan Bator to Zhangjiakou (Kalgan) in Inner Mongolia:

 

 

 

 

1931

Chinese Republic, 1931-37, Dr. Sun Yat-sen London Print, single & double circle Types I & II (Scott 290-306. Chan 305//328), mint complete set & extra values, Type I extra 1¢ value and Type II 2¢(3), 4¢, 5¢(3), 15¢ dark green, 15¢ scarlet (2), 20¢, 25¢, $1(3), $2(2), $5(2) including narrow & wide type varieties, 27 values, o.g., lightly hinged or never hinged, clean, fresh, F.-V.F. group. Realized HK$ 1,100

a Coiling Dragon cover franked with strip of 5 2¢ green one missing, a red band cover franked with 11 1¢ Martyrs including a block of 10 and a pair of 5¢ SYS, and a forwarded gold yuan red band.
Estimate HK$ 2,000 – 3,000.

1925

End OF Qing dynasty in 1925

The end @ Copyright 2012

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