KOLEKSI SEJARAH INDONESIA 1967(BERSAMBUNG)

KOLEKSI SEJARAH INDONESIA

1967

OLEH

Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

EDISI PRIBADI TERBATAS

KHUSUS UNTUK KOLEKTOR  DAN HISTORIAN SENIOR

Copyright @ 2013

INI ADALAH CUPLIKAN DAN CONTOH BUKU KOLEKSI SEJARAH INDONESIA HASIL PENELITIAN Dr  IWAN , HANYA DITAMPILKAN SEBAGIAN INFO DAN ILUSTRASI TAK LENGKAP.

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March,12th.1967
March 12 Assembly (MPR), chaired by Gen. Nasution, receives a committee report on Sukarno’s role in the September 30, 1965 events. The Assembly takes all power away from Sukarno, and names Suharto acting president.

March 12, 1967
Suharto became Acting President
one year after the socalled ” Supersemar” letter

Sumber sukarnoyears

Oktober 1967

Dalam Operasi Saber inilah  peristiwa “Mangkok Merah” terjadi pada bulan Oktober-November 1967. Peristiwa Mangkok Merah sendiri dipicu oleh terjadinya penculikan dan kekerasan  yang dialami Temenggung Dayak di Sanggau Ledo. TNI kemudian mempropagandakan bahwa kekerasan itu dilakukan oleh  GTK alias Paraku-PGRS. Propaganda ini diperkuat lagi dengan penemuan sembilan mayat oleh Resimen Para Komando Angkatan Darat (RPKAD), yang kemudian mereka  sebut sebagai mayat tokoh-tokoh Dayak.

Tak pelak, temuan RPKAD ini membuat marah banyak warga Dayak. Ditambah lagi, Harian milik TNI,  Angkatan Bersenjata (AB),  segera ‘mengipas-ngipas’ orang Dayak agar membalas kematian para pemuka adat mereka.

Kekerasan  horizontal pun dimulai. Warga Dayak terprovokasi untuk turut  bersama TNI melakukan perburuan terhadap anggota Paraku-PGRS.  Namun, gerakan penumpasan oleh orang Dayak ini ternyata tidak hanya menyasar anggota Paraku-PGRS saja, tetapi juga warga etnis Tionghoa secara umum! Wilayah Kalimantan Barat pun segera tenggelam dalam ‘lautan’ kekerasan  berdarah bernuansa rasialis.

Sebenarnya, kekerasan rasialis yang dilakukan warga Dayak ini tidaklah murni inisiatif mereka mengingat harmoni diantara etnis Dayak dan Tionghoa di Kalimantan Barat telah terbangun selama ratusan tahun. Rusaknya hubungan yang harmonis ini terjadi dikarenakan strategi penumpasan Paraku-PGRS yang digunakan militer  Indonesia adalah dengan cara ‘pengeringan kolam’.

Menurut Indonesianis asal Amerika Serikat (AS), Herbert Feith, pengertian dari istilah ini adalah : mengeringkan ‘kolam berarti  menghabisi masyarakat Tionghoa, agar ‘ikan’  atau yang dalam kasus ini diasosiasikan kepada pihak gerilyawan Paraku-PGRS  bisa  mudah terlihat  dan dengan begitu juga mudah  untuk ditumpas. Dan warga Dayak tak lebih Sebagai operator dari implementasi strategi militer tersebut.

Gerakan Warga Dayak yang disokong TNI sebagai upaya melakukan “pengeringan kolam” terhadap warga Tionghoa inilah yang kemudian dikenal sebagai  peristiwa Mangkok Merah.

 Istilah Mangkok Merah diambil dari terminologi adat suku Dayak, dimana terjadi mobilisasi besar-besaran warga suatu klan untuk membalas rasa malu atau penderitaan dari anggota klannya yang disebabkan oleh ulah warga dari klan lain.

 Mobilisasi ini menggunakan alat peraga sebuah mangkuk yang bagian dalamnya diolesi getah jaranang berwarna merah sebagai simbolisasi dari  “ pertumpahan darah “ yang akan dilakukan sebagai bentuk balas dendam tersebut.

Jadi, tampak militer dengan lihai memanfaatkan adat istiadat suku Dayak demi mengobarkan konflik rasialis.

Hasil dari  peristiwa ‘Mangkuk Merah’ ini adalah terbunuhnya ribuan orang Tionghoa Kalimantan Barat. Far Eastern Economic Review (FEER)  terbitan bulan Juni 1978 menyatakan peristiwa tersebut menelan korban jiwa 3.000 orang Tionghoa, terutama mereka yang tinggal di pedalaman Kalimantan Barat. Akibatnya, banyak warga Tionghoa pedalaman pindah  ke daerah  perkotaan seperti Pontianak dan Singkawang. Bahkan, adapula  warga Tionghoa yang lari ke Kalimantan Utara. .

Peristiwa Mangkok Merah pun menjadi bagian dari catatan kelam riwayat pembantaian massal dan penindasan terhadap golongan kiri dan etnis Tionghoa diawal Orde Baru.

Sejarah telah menunjukkan, bahwasanya dibutuhkan banyak tumbal manusia bagi tegaknya sebuah rezim kaki-tangan imperialis. Peristiwa ini juga merefleksikan sebuah tragedi kemanusiaan yang  lahir sebagai  buah dari ‘perkawinan’ antara  imperialisme dan rasialisme.

Hiski Darmayana, kader Gerakan Mahasiswa Nasional Indonesia (GMNI) dan alumnus FISIP Universitas Padjajaran (Unpad

Sumber Artikel: http://www.berdikarionline.com/gotong-royong/20130120/peristiwa-mangkok-merah-ketika-imperialisme-mengawini-rasialisme.html#ixzz2gXBCqMPU
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@berdikarionline on Twitter | berdikarionlinedotcom on Facebook

 

Dalam operasi gelombang kedua (Operasi Sapu Bersih II) kesatuan-kesatuan

tempur Kodam XII/Tanjungpura telah diperkuat dengan RPKAD, Siliwangi,

Kopasgat AURI, dan KKO. Operasi Sapu Bersih II menghasilkan lebih memuaskan,

dibanding dengan operasi-operasi sebelumnya. Operasi Sapu bersih II ini ternyata

54 Ibid., hlm. 235. Hierarki dalam pelaksanaan Dwikora adalah (1) KOTI (Komando Tertinggi)

 

dipimpin Presiden Soekarno; (2) KOGA (Komando Siaga) yang berganti nama menjadi KOLAGA(Komando Mandala Siaga) sebagai komandan gabungan angkatan-angkatan; (3) Kopur (KomandoTempur) dan Kodam (Komando Daerah Militer) sebagai pelaksanan dan supporting unit..

55 Ibid., hlm. 243.

56 Ibid., hlm. 244.

57 Soemadi, op. cit., hlm. 87.

58 SEMDAM XII/Tanjungpura, op. cit., hlm. 256.

59 Soemadi, op. cit., hlm. 87.

 

1967

 

60 SEMDAM XII/Tanjungpura, op. cit., hlm.258.

memakan waktu kurang lebih dua (2) tahun yaitu Agustus 1967 hingga Februari

1969.61 Operasi-operasi militer yang dilakukan ternyata belum mampu

melumpuhkan semua kekuatan PGRS/PARAKU. Dalam perjalanan selanjutnya

pihak militer menggandeng suku Dayak untuk melumpuhkan kekuatan PGRS/

PARAKU.

Pada tanggal 14 Oktober 1967 terjadi peristiwa yang membantu Tentara

Indonesia dalam menumpas PGRS/PARAKU. Gerakan pembasmian terhadap

PGRS/PARAKU dikenal dengan sebutan “Demonstrasi Suku Dayak”. Gerakan ini

kemudian menyebar luas menjadi luapan emosi etnis Dayak, hingga upacara

“mangkok merah”62 pun diadakan. Gerakan Suku Dayak ini kemudian menjadi

sentimen rasial dengan mengidentikkan etnis Tionghoa sebagai anggota

PGRS/PARAKU. Masyarakat dari etnis Tionghoa tanpa pandang “bulu” menjadi

korban dari gerakan demonstrasi.63

Gerakan ini mengakibatkan pengungsian besar-besaran yang dilakukan oleh

etnis Tionghoa menuju ke Kota Pontianak.64 Pengungsian ini tidak saja menimbulkan

masalah di kota-kota penampungan dan derita psikis yang dialami keluarga korban

pembantaian oleh etnis Dayak tersebut. Namun juga, sirkulasi perdagangan di

daerah pedalaman Kalimantan Barat menjadi lumpuh. Setelah gerakan Suku Dayak

terhadap PGRS/PARAKU, maka kegiatan-kegiatan PGRS/PARAKU mulai

menurun intensitasnya. Tekanan-tekanan Pasukan Indonesia menyebabkan

PGRS/PARAKU semakin terjepit. Putusnya jalur logistik dengan mengungsinya

ribuan orang Tionghoa menyebabkan banyak anggota PGRS/PARAKU yang

menyerahkan diri.

Dilihat dari sudut ekonomi dan sosial akibat yang dapat dirasakan adalah

sebagai berikut: (1) Putusnya aliran perdagangan yang semula dilakukan oleh

pedagang-pedagang Tionghoa, maka muncul problema bagaimana mengalirkan lalu

lintas perdagangan dari dan ke pedalaman; (2) Kebun dan ladang yang ditinggalkan

pemiliknya menjadi terlantar yang berakibat turunnya produksi beberapa jenis

komoditi Kalimantan Barat; (3) Arus pengungsi yang mengalir ke kota-kota

merupakan beban yang harus ditanggung pemerintah dan masyarakat.65

F. Penutup

Terbentuknya Pasukan Gerilya Rakyat Serawak/Pasukan Rakyat Kalimantan

Utara (PGRS/PARAKU) merupakan kristalisasi dari gerakan kelompok-kelompok

yang menentang pembentukan Federasi Malaysia. Pihak yang secara langsung

dirugikan atas pembentukan Federasi Malaysia melakukan perlawanan, yang

61 Soemadi, op. cit., hlm. 87.

62 Upacara adat yang merupakan ajakan (solidaritas) perang, berupa sesajen yang diletakkan di

mangkok dan diedarkan dari kampung ke kampung. Bagi kampung/orang yang menerimanya

wajib mengirimkan perwakilannya untuk berperang. Bagi masyarakat umum Mangkok Merah juga

dapat dijadikan ukuran bahwa konflik/perang yang terjadi merupakan perang besar, yang

membutuhkan solidaritas lintas sub-suku Dayak.

63 SEMDAM XII/Tanjungpura, op. cit., hlm.270.

64 Dalam Tandjungpura Berdjuang, idem, hlm. 277, disebutkan 50.000 orang Tionghoa mengungsi

dan 250 orang tewas dalam peristiwa tersebut. Menurut Tyhie Dju Khian atau Petrus yang

diperolehnya dari badan dunia yang menangani pengungsi saat kejadian, ada 3.000 orang

meninggal dan 70.000 mengungsi, lihat Muhlis Suhaeri, “The Lost Generation (10)”, Borneo

Tribune, Selasa, 19 Februari 2008, tulisan dikutip dari blog pribadi penulis dengan alamat

http://muhlissuhaeri.blogspot.com

65 SEMDAM XII/Tanjungpura, op. cit., hlm.280..

ditandai dengan terbentuknya Negara Nasional Kalimantan Utara (NNKU) dan

kemudian PGRS/PARAKU. Sedangkan di luar negeri, Indonesia dan Filipina

sebagai penentang utama Federasi Malaysia kemudian mendukung gerakan anti

Malaysia, yang berarti mendukung NNKU dan PGRS/PARAKU.

Sikap Pemerintah Indonesia pada Orde Lama yang menentang pembentukan

Federasi Malaysia menyebabkan keluarnya kebijakan-kebijakan pemerintah yang

mendukung PGRS/PARAKU. PGRS/PARAKU berhasil bertahan dan terus

melakukan perlawanan terhadap Federasi Malaysia karena dukungan yang

diberikan Pemerintah RI, bahkan PGRS/PARAKU berhasil mendapat suntikan

tenaga dengan bekerja sama dengan PKI dan terbantu dengan pengerahan para

sukarelawan oleh Pemerintah Indonesia.

Sikap Pemerintah Orde Baru sangat bertolak-belakang dengan Orde Lama.

Dengan ditandatanganinya Jakarta Accord, maka konflik antara Indonesia-Malaysia

berakhir. Namun, PGRS/PARAKU tidak mengakui persetujuan tersebut dan tetap

menolak pembentukan Federasi Malaysia. Akibatnya Pemerintah Orde Baru

menumpas PGRS/PARAKU. Operasi-operasi penumpasan yang dilakukan Tentara

Indonesia, seperti Operasi Sapu Bersih dan Operasi Tertib berhasil melumpuhkan

sebagian kekuatan PGRS/PARAKU. Puncaknya ketika terjadi gerakan Suku Dayak,

yang pada awalnya ditujukan untuk menumpas PGRS/PARAKU, namun meluas

menjadi kerusuhan rasial terhadap etnis Tionghoa.

Daftar Pustaka

Baskara T. Waradaya. 2007. Cold War Shadow: United States Policy Toward Indonesia

1953-1963, Yogyakarta: Galang Press.

Departemen Penerangan RI. 1964. Gelora Konfrontasi Menggajang Malaysia. Jakarta:

Departemen Penerangan.

Hidayat Mukmin. 1991. TNI Dalam Politik Luar Negeri: Studi Kasus Penyelesaian

Konfrontasi Indonesia-Malaysia. Jakarta: Pustaka Sinar Harapan.

La Ode, M.D. 1997. Tiga Muka Etnis Cina–Indonesia Fenomena di Kalimantan Barat.

Yogyakarta: Biograf Publishing.

Moedjanto, G. 1988. Indonesia Abad ke-20. Yogyakarta: Kanisius.

Muhlis Suhaeri, 2008. “The Lost Generation (1)”. Borneo Tribune. Minggu. 10 Februari

2008.

____________, 2008. “The Lost Generation (10)”. Borneo Tribune. Selasa. 19 Februari

2008.

Ongkili, James P. 1985. Nation-Building in Malaysia 1946-1974. Singapura: Oxford

University Press.

Pembayun Sulistyorini. 2004. “Pemberontakan PGRS/PARAKU di Kalimantan

Barat”. Jurnal Sejarah dan Budaya Kalimantan, edisi 03/2004. Pontianak: Balai

Kajian Sejarah dan Nilai Tradisional. Halaman 39.

Ricklef, M.C. 2005. Sejarah Indonesia Modern 1200-2004. Jakarta: Serambi.

SEMDAM XII/Tanjungpura. 1970. Tandjungpura Berdjuang, Pontinak: Kodam XII

Tanjungpura.

Soemadi. 1974. Peranan Kalimantan Barat Dalam Menghadapi Subversi Komunis Asia

Tenggara. Pontianak: Yayasan Tanjungpura.

__________________. Amanat Komando Presiden/Panglima Tertinggi/ Pemimpin

Besar Revolusi Indonesia Pada Appel Besar Sukarelawan Pengganjangan

Malaysia di Depan Istana Merdeka, Djakarta, 3 Mei 1964.

Wawancara langsung dengan L.H. Kadir, pada hari Minggu, 20 Juni 2008 pukul

17.00 Wib lokasi di kediaman L.H. Kadir, jalan M.T. Haryono No. 40 Pontianak,

Kalimantan Barat.

Muhlis Suhaeri. “The Lost Generation”. http://muhlissuhaeri.blogspot.com

 

Seragam PARAKU (Eksponen Komunis Cina)

 

Seragam PARAKU

KOLEKSI SEJARAH INDONESIA 1968(BERSAMBUNG)

KOLEKSI SEJARAH INDONESIA

1968

OLEH

Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

EDISI PRIBADI TERBATAS

KHUSUS UNTUK KOLEKTOR  DAN HISTORIAN SENIOR

Copyright @ 2013

INI ADALAH CUPLIKAN DAN CONTOH BUKU KOLEKSI SEJARAH INDONESIA HASIL PENELITIAN Dr  IWAN , HANYA DITAMPILKAN SEBAGIAN INFO DAN ILUSTRASI TAK LENGKAP.

BUKU YANG LENGKAP TERSEDIA BAGI YANG BERMINAT HUBUNGGI LIWAT KOMENTAR(COMMENT) DI WEB BLOG INI

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Forbidden to copy without written permission by the author

21 Maret 1968

Pertengahan Maret BK menyatakan ingin pulang ke Bogor. Padahal Oei Hong Kian akan memasang tambalan emas pada gigi BK. Diantara dua sahabat itu berjanji akan bertemu untuk terakhir kalinya 21 Maret 1968.

 

Ternyata antara tanggal 21-30 Maret 1968 ada Sidang Umum MPRS, Oei Hong Kian diberitahu pihak berwajib bahwa BK tidak bisa datang pada tanggal itu.

 

Ternyata pada hari-hari berikut pun BK tidak datang. Padahal tanggal 30 Maret Oei Hong Kian harus berangkat. Terpaksa pemasangan tambalan emas pada gigi BK dipercayakan kepada rekannya sejawat.

 

Dan sejak itu Oei Hong Kian tidak pernah lagi bertemu dengan BK, yang tersisa adalah cedera mata dari BK yang senatisa mengingatkan drg. Oei Hong Kian bahwa dia pernah menjalin persahabat dengan BK disaat kekuasaan tak lagi di tangan BK. Dan mungkin Oei Hong Kian hanya bagian dari segelintir orang yang berani menjalin persahabatan dengan BK disaat Putera Sang Fajar akan menjelang runtuh

(penasukarno)

 

 

 

END OF THE HISTORIC SUKARNO ERA

   

1930
On Trial by the Dutch Government for his nationalist activities
Convicted-Imprisoned-Exiled until Japanese inasion

 


17 August 1945
Proclamation of Independence

 

 
1945 August
Interviewed by the Foreign Press

 


1948
2nd Dutch Police Action
Exiled to Bangka

 

 
1949 December
Alhamdulillah – We are Free

 

President Republic of Indonesia

 

 

18 April 1955
Opening speech at the Asia-Africa Conference
“Let a new Asia and Africa be born”

 


A Famous Orator

 


October 1965
Funeral procession of the victims of the Gestapu affair

 


Mourning the victims

 


Visiting the graves

 
 
 

 

11 March 1966 
Supersemar document mystery – Transfer of Power???

 

July 1966
Addressing cabinet session

 


17 August 1966
Leaving the ceremony after his last Independence Day speech

 


October 1966
Ambassador Green – GeneralSuharto

 
 
 
 

Indonesia 1965
A power move with far-reaching implications
by Clinton Fernandes; October 16, 2005


On September 1, 1965, the US State Department prepared a Special National Intelligence Estimate for Indonesia.
Written by the
Central Intelligence Agency and the intelligence organisations of the Departments of State and Defence and the National Security Agency, it assessed the prospects for, and strategic implications of, a communist takeover
in Indonesia.

It assessed that the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) was “by far the best organised and most dynamic entity in Indonesia”.

1

Only a few months later, the PKI would cease to exist.
Its destruction, according to former US ambassador Marshall Green,
“was a momentous event in world affairs, and I don’t think that the press and the public
has ever seen it that way”

2

This article will discuss aspects of that event

3

Indonesia after independence

Indonesian independence was proclaimed on August 17, 1945. There followed a four-year guerrilla war to defeat Dutch attempts to recolonise the territory. The Dutch conceded defeat in 1949, and Indonesia’s political independence was assured. The newly independent state assigned a high priority to the education of its population, establishing schools
and literacy programs at a rapid rate. It was quite successful in its efforts: in 1950, basic literacy was estimated at
about 10 per cent of the population and only 230 Indonesians had received tertiary education. Ten years later, almost
every village had a school and basic literacy was nearly 80 per cent. Tertiary education had also shot up dramatically.

Formal schooling was only one aspect of the new, post-independence culture. The public began to participate in politics to a much greater extent. Centuries of colonisation had stifled popular involvement in the social, political and cultural spheres. Such involvement had grown fitfully in the final decades of the independence struggle, although colonial repression remained a significant constraining factor. With political independence, however, a more participatory culture took shape. The social and cultural spheres were occupied by numerous organisations such as credit unions, chess clubs, prayer groups, housewives’ associations, cultural groups, worker and peasant unions, youth groups and student bodies. These diverse organisations were associated with certain political parties. The combination of political party and associated organisations came to be known as cultural streams or ‘aliran’. The years after independence brought the growth of several such aliran, which were an everyday affair ie more than simply a machine for generating votes in the lead-up to an election campaign. Many Indonesian citizens saw these aliran as constituting their primary identity. As a result, political life beame connected to the population’s social and cultural life.

Australian planners recognised that Indonesia had “a strong Communist Party with considerable prospects of increasing its popular appeal”.4 The Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) defended the interests of the poor and was rapidly increasing its support among landless peasants. The PKI was allied with the left wing of the Indonesian Nationalist Party (PNI). Under this allied leadership, an organised movement of workers and peasants campaigned for the redistribution of land in the countryside, the nationalisation of foreign companies and greater economic equality. It opposed the US war in Vietnam and supported national liberation movements around the world.

The PKI was no tool of China or the Soviet Union, however. According to a standard source on the subject, the PKI “had won widespread support not as a revolutionary party but as an organisation defending the interests of the poor within the existing system”. As the US’s Special National Intelligence Estimate put it, should the PKI come to power, its “foreign policy decisions . would stress Indonesian national interests above those of Peking, Moscow, or international communism in general”. It “would be sufficiently nationalistic to refuse to grant air or naval bases or missile sites to either Moscow or Peking”.6

The Australian government viewed the PKI’s growing support with alarm. Australian strategic planners shared this concern, warning that a communist victory “would be a considerable blow to Western prestige in South East Asia and would assist in the growth of Communist and neutralist sentiment throughout the area”.7 Subsequent analysis by US intelligence agreed, observing that in the longer term “Indonesia would provide a powerful example for the underdeveloped world and hence a credit to communism and a setback for Western prestige.”8

The reference to “neutralist sentiment” is instructive. As a leading anti-colonialist advocate and founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement, Indonesia wielded great influence in the Third World. Australian planners feared that other countries would join it in pursuing similar goals and choose their own path of economic and social development. By the mid-1950s, Indonesia’s non-alignment, coupled with the growing popularity of the PKI, was a matter of serious concern to Western policymakers. US President Eisenhower wondered out loud, ‘Why the hell did we ever urge the Dutch to get out of Indonesia?’9 The US, with Australian participation, tried to break up Indonesia by encouraging an outer islands rebellion on Sumatra and Sulawesi. The Indonesian military demonstrated its strength by crushing this rebellion. The US therefore realised the importance of cultivating the military, and began providing it with limited military aid in order to sustain anti-communist elements in the officer corps.

Until 1957 the PKI had been excluded from government, but it benefited from the system of so-called Guided Democracy. This system was proposed by President Sukarno, who argued that the indigenous Indonesian way of deciding important questions was to have extensive deliberation (musyawarah) designed to achieve a consensus (mufakat). Since this “democracy with guidance” operated at the village level, he argued that it should be the model for the nation. Guided Democracy would consist of a government based on the four main political parties plus a national council representing the parties and “functional groups” – workers, peasants, entrepreneurs, intellectuals, religious bodies, youth groups, women’s groups, and so on. Under presidential guidance, a national consensus could be formulated.

From 1957 onwards, Dutch-owned assets in Indonesia were occupied in a series of direct actions, and then nationalised as part of a campaign for the recovery of West Irian. The army took over the management of these plantations, mines and other estates. Military entrepreneurs began to play a strong role in the domestic economy. (In later years, it became customary to attribute the decline in the productivity of these assets to the influence of the PKI. In fact, however, they declined under military management.) The influence of the PKI continued to increase. Its members began to hold a range of bureaucratic and political posts. From 1957, several cities on Java had communist mayors and several provincial governors were close to the party. However, the PKI and the left wing of the PNI did not occupy any but the most symbolic positions in Cabinet. Control over the productive capacity of the economy rested in the hands of senior bureaucrats and military officers, who did not support Sukarno’s economic program. It was they – not Sukarno or the PKI – who implemented strategic economic decisions. As for Cabinet, it too disagreed with Sukarno in the economic sphere.

When John F. Kennedy became president of the United States, there was a tactical shift in US policy towards Indonesia. Kennedy and several of his key officials on the National Security Council believed that Eisenhower’s approach had been counter-productive, driving Indonesia even further away from US influence. They therefore used a more tolerant rhetoric toward the Non-Aligned Movement, and received Sukarno amiably in Washington in April 1961. The Dutch were persuaded to leave West Irian soon after.

Growth of the Indonesian Communist Party

Between 1960 and 1965, the PKI and its allied peasant organisations began to carry out a program of land seizures in order to make landlords comply with existing laws. These actions resulted in violent responses by landlords, and fights between security forces and peasants. Mass mobilisations began to increase very rapidly, with large protests in the main cities and a growing number of smaller protests in other towns and villages. The party also took up the cause of plantation and industrial workers in North Sumatra, and of Javanese migrants in North and South Sumatra. It supported Hindus against East Javanese orthodox Muslims who were members of the local elite, as well as opponents of Hindu priestly authority in Bali. All this grassroots activity contributed to a major increase in the membership of the PKI and the left wing of the PNI. By 1965, the PKI had three million members and was said to be the largest communist party in the world outside the Soviet Union and China. In addition to its vast membership, more than 15 million people had indirect connections to it through their membership of the peasant associations, labour unions and other affiliates.

The PKI was opposed by sections of the commercial and land-owning establishment, senior figures in the bureaucratic apparatus, and a number of right-wing intellectuals and students. This conservative alliance also had the support of a large number of smaller Islamic parties. Crucially, it was backed by the powerful – and increasingly apprehensive – Indonesian military. While there were important left-wing and populist forces within the army itself, the right wing was always stronger. Indeed the army had demonstrated its power and right-wing credentials in 1948 when it put down an uprising supported by the PKI in the Madiun region of Central Java. The divisions in Indonesian society were reflected in an increasingly tense situation inside the army as well. In subsequent years, particularly from 1962-65, there were sharp internal struggles between left-wing populists and right-wing forces within the army.

In late 1963, US policy became more aggressive. Lyndon Johnson had succeeded Kennedy as president, and his “personal antipathy toward Sukarno, along with several important bureaucratic changes . combined to introduce a far less forgiving stance toward Indonesian actions in the Far East Bureau of the State Department and on McGeorge Bundy’s National Security Council (NSC) staff'”.10 This policy shift coincided with regional friction as Indonesia challenged Britain’s role in the creation of Malaysia. In March next year, after an American magazine called for the US to end all aid unless Indonesian attacks on Malaysia were halted, Sukarno said in a speech in Jakarta that he would tell any country that tried to attach strings to its foreign assistance, “You can go to hell with your aid.” This remark (made in English) was widely reported in the US. All US aid came to an end, except for “military assistance” intended for the Indonesian army.

Western intelligence analysts turned their attention to Sukarno, describing him as an “intuitive politician” and a “mass leader of extraordinary skill”. State Department analysts believed that Sukarno operated according to “opportunistic, play-it-by-ear policies rather than by a long-range fixed plan”. The CIA concluded that his “Marxist inclination”‘ were “largely emotionally based”. It characterised his relationship with the Communists as one of “mutual exploitation”. Sukarno needed the PKI because he lacked a mass political organisation of his own; the PKI needed Sukarno for protection against the army. As for the army, Sukarno used it to counterbalance the PKI, and the army saw Sukarno as the best person to hold the far-flung and diverse parts of Indonesia together.11

Strengthening the Indonesian military

It became clear to US policymakers that the Indonesian army’s hand would have to be strengthened. US ambassador to Malaysia James Bell, who had had considerable previous Indonesian experience, suggested reassuring the army that the West would not interfere if it moved against the PKI: “If we can give them this kind of shot in the arm they might have more inclination to act.”12 McGeorge Bundy, National Security Advisor to President Johnson, sent Bell’s memo to Chester Cooper, his senior assistant on the Far East. He wrote, “Cooper: It makes sense to me. Can we do it? MG.B.” US ambassador to Indonesia Howard Jones argued against Bell, warning that such an approach “would rebound as [an] unwarranted attempt [to] interfere internally”. Cooper therefore wrote back to Bundy, attaching his note to the cables from Bell and Jones: “Mac – You asked my views on the coming from Malaya (attached). I have brooded and have checked around and agree with Jones. Chet.”13

Ambassador Jones approached a friendly Indonesian diplomat, asking what would happen if Sukarno were “suddenly removed from the scene”. The diplomat predicted a polarisation of the country around Defence Minister Nasution and D.N. Aidit, the head of the PKI. He said that General Nasution was “the strongest man in the country” who had the loyalty of the officer corps. Jones visited Nasution three days later, asking him “whether some military leaders welcomed the disintegration of the economy on the theory that the PKI would make a bid for power and the military could then crack down on the PKI”. Nasution “avoided like the plague any discussion of a possible military takeover, even though this hovered in the air throughout the talk, and at no time did he pick up obvious hints of US support in time of crisis”. But Nasution had obviously talked it over with his fellow generals, for they met two weeks later. This time Nasution assured the ambassador that the military was “strongly pro-US and anti-PKI”. He said the PKI was probably unprepared to make a bid for power, but if it did, “Madiun would be mild compared with an army crackdown today.”14. The US kept encouraging the Indonesian military to increase the pressure on Sukarno. The 303 Committee of the National Security Council approved a CIA-State Department political action program aimed at portraying the PKI “as an increasingly ambitious, dangerous opponent of Sukarno and legitimate nationalism and instrument of Chinese neo-imperialism”.15 Western policymakers knew that it would be folly to take on Sukarno directly because of his tremendous popularity.

In April 1965, President Johnson dispatched his special envoy Ellsworth Bunker to Indonesia. Bunker reported back that relations with Indonesia were unlikely to improve. He confirmed that Sukarno “is still the symbol for Indonesian unity and independence, believes in himself and his destiny, and is able and shrewd. There is little question of his continued hold on the loyalty of the Indonesian people, who in large measure look to him for leadership, trust his leadership, and are willing to follow him. No force in this country can attack him nor is there evidence that any significant group would want to do so.”16 As for the PKI, Bunker argued that its strengths were “powerful organisation”, “brilliant manipulation of other political forces”, “dominance in the labour field”, and “virtual control of the national press and radio”. Its weaknesses were that: “The bulk of its strength is in Java, a handicap in a country where animosity against Javanese is strong in the outer islands; it has no paramilitary arm to challenge the army, although it is now making strong efforts to build one; and its freedom of action remains limited by the need to continue a subservient posture toward Sukarno.”17

Indonesia’s poor economic performance under military management was compounded by the fact that sales of rubber, its major export earner, were shrinking as a result of competition from synthetic alternatives. Indonesia was therefore deprived of an important source of foreign currency. Despite the economic problems, Bunker noted the country’s “resilience to economic adversity” because “over half the population live outside the monetised sector of the economy as self-sufficient farmers”.18 As for the Indonesian government, it “occupies a dominant position in basic industry, public utilities, internal transportation and communication”. Bunker warned that should the drift towards PKI dominance continue: “It is probable that private ownership will disappear and may be succeeded by some form of production-profit-sharing contract arrangements to be applied to all foreign investment.” In Bunker’s assessment: “The avowed Indonesian objective is ‘to stand on their own feet’ in developing their economy, free from foreign, especially Western, influence.”19

Bunker advised that the US should reduce its visibility “so that those opposed to the communists and extremists may be free to handle a confrontation, which they believe will come, without the incubus of being attacked as defenders of the neo-colonialists and imperialists”.20 He warned against any attempt to foment military rebellion along the lines of 1958 because “the ideal of national unity is an overriding obsession with practically all Indonesians, stronger by far than any real divisive regional feeling”.21

Accordingly, the US adopted a “low silhouette” policy; its official presence “shrank from over 400 in April to only 35 in August. But the CIA station maintained its staff of 12, including its full complement of eight clandestine operatives responsible for intelligence collection and, on occasion, covert action. Similarly, the top personnel in the Embassy’s political section and the military attaches remained.”22 Soon after, Marshall Green replaced Howard Jones as the new ambassador to Indonesia. He arrived in Jakarta on July 23, 1965.23 Green “had the complete trust of the State Department”, which “never moved a muscle without his advice”.24

The mutiny Tensions within a now thoroughly polarised Indonesian society continued to build, until they exploded into open conflict on the evening of September 30, 1965, when a small number of middle-ranking, left-wing army officers staged a mutiny. The mutineers killed six generals (Yani, Suprapto, Parman, Sutojo, Harjono and Panjaitan) and a lieutenant (Tendean). The circumstances of this mutiny have never been fully explained, but there are good reasons to believe that it was designed to prevent a coup by a right-wing Council of Generals. However, the mutineers – led by Lieutenant Colonel Untung, a left-wing commander in the Presidential Guard – failed to arrest key generals, including Major General Suharto. Strong evidence suggests that Suharto had been tipped off beforehand about the mutiny.

The mutiny did not appear to have planned in much detail – no serious measures were taken to seize choke points in the capital. The worker and peasant movements had been given no forewarning, and most of them were caught unawares. The PKI did not try to mobilise its massive party membership. According to a US clandestine source, the PKI central committee reacted only after hearing the mutineers’ radio broadcast. Sir Andrew Gilchrist, the British ambassador, also suspected that the PKI had not been kept in the loop, joining in only “because they feared that if the army crushed Untung it would crush them as well”.25 The Australian Joint Intelligence Committee noted that while individual communist groups clearly participated in the mutiny, “evidence of actual PKI involvement – that is, of prior planning by the Central Committee – is largely circumstantial”.26

The US appears to have been caught by surprise.27 One of its diplomats saw roadblocks and unusual military activity as he went to work on the morning of October 1, 1965. At first he assumed that Sukarno had died or become incapacitated. So did other US diplomats, who did not know much about Major-General Suharto. There was more than one Suharto in the senior ranks of the army, and at first they misidentified him. Similarly, the CIA’s research bureau knew little of Suharto or his politics; all it could say of him in the initial period was that he was “considered to be an anti-Communist”28 – not very illuminating, considering his profession and rank. US analysts later realised that five of the six generals killed had been trained in the US. Suharto himself had not trained in the US but thirteen of his top aides had.29 The crackdown

The Indonesian military moved swiftly and decisively. It arrested PKI members and took control of the media, using Radio Indonesia and the Antara news agency to encourage anti-PKI action. A major theme in its propaganda campaign was the murder of the six Indonesian generals. The military claimed that the generals were tortured and their genitals cut off by members of the PKI-affiliated women’s organisation Gerwani. Major-General Suharto said that “it was obvious for those of us who saw [the bodies] with our own eyes what savage tortures had been inflicted by the barbarous adventurers calling themselves ‘The September 30th Movement'”.30 Autopsies – ordered personally by Major-General Suharto – revealed that these stories were false, but the propaganda continued. (According to the autopsies, none of the victims’ eyes had been gouged out, and all their penises were intact.31) Sukarno and his foreign minister Subandrio tried to inform the public that the post mortem certificates had not mentioned any abnormalities, but the army was firmly in command of the media and these messages did not get through32.

Through the Antara news agency, the Indonesian military claimed that the PKI had drawn up lists of hundreds of government officials marked for execution if the mutineers had succeeded.33 Other stories claimed that members of PKI youth organisation Pemuda Rakyat had kidnapped two youths in Sumatra and tortured them for five days, removing eyes and cutting off hands and testicles, before killing them. It was also claimed that other Pemuda Rakyat members had tortured and murdered Muslims praying on the bank of a river.34 Other, extremely successful, propaganda stories alleged that PKI leader Aidit had encouraged Gerwani and Pemuda Rakyat members to take part in “delirious sexual orgies” for six months before the mutiny.35

Full-scale massacres of PKI members across the Indonesian archipelago occurred when special forces or parachute troops went into the regions. These soldiers participated in the killings, but more frequently used local militias to liquidate suspected PKI sympathisers. Local military units made it clear that they wanted to annihilate the PKI. They provided weapons, equipment, training and encouragement to youth organisations, eg the Muslim Ansor in Central and East Java. These groups usually went from village to village, grabbing PKI members and taking them away to be murdered. In some cases, entire villages were obliterated, but more typically the killers used hit lists and local informants to identify their victims. Particular attention was given to teachers and other village intellectuals. According to declassified British reports, many of the victims were the “merest rank and file” of the PKI, who were “often no more than bewildered peasants who give the wrong answer on a dark night to bloodthirsty hooligans bent on violence”.36 According to British historian Mark Curtis, an Australian diplomat learnt that: “Torture was the customary prelude to death and was in fact carried out in the army establishment next door to his own home. The nightly executions, carried out just outside Kupang, were open to the public provided those who attended took part in the executions. The Army was in complete control of these operations.”37

Robert Cribb, a leading scholar on these events, writes that the killings were “largely done with knives or swords, but some victims were beaten to death and some were shot. In some cases the victims were forced to dig their own shallow, mass graves in secluded places, or the bodies were dumped in rivers, or concealed in caves . The regions most seriously affected were Central and East Java, Bali and North Sumatra, where the [PKI] had been most active, but there were massacres in every part of the archipelago where communists could be found. A scholarly consensus has settled on a figure of 400,000-500,000 deaths.”38 Western support

Western policymakers and diplomats were keen to support the army, but there was a problem: Sukarno’s previous anti-imperialist rhetoric had resonated strongly with the Indonesian public. Any overt support would therefore serve only to expose the army as a tool of the West. Sukarno’s towering reputation presented a significant obstacle. A deft touch was required.

US ambassador Marshall Green understood that economic aid should not be offered because economic difficulties hurt the reputation of the civilian administration, not the army. His military contacts told him that there was an urgent need for food and clothing in Indonesia but it was more important to let Sukarno and Subandrio “stew in their own juice”.39

The information campaign in support of the killings was informed by similar principles. The Indonesian army secretly urged that foreign broadcasts not give the army “too much credit” or criticise Sukarno; rather, they should emphasise PKI atrocities and the party’s role in the mutiny.40 While Sukarno could not be directly attacked, an Indonesian general offered to send background information on foreign minister Subandrio, who was regarded as more vulnerable. Australian ambassador Keith Shann was told that Radio Australia should never suggest that the army was pro-Western or right-wing. Instead, credit should be given to other organisations, such as Muslim and youth groups.41

Radio Australia had an important role to play because of its overwhelming popularity with Indonesian listeners. It was said to be more popular than Radio Indonesia because its listeners included both the elite and students, who liked it because it played rock music, which had been officially banned.42 Australia’s Department of External Affairs (as it was then known) was aware that its high signal strength and massive listening audience meant that its Indonesian broadcasts were “a particularly important instrumentality in the present situation”. It was therefore told to “be on guard against giving information to the Indonesian people that would be withheld by the Army-controlled internal media”. The Australian ambassador worked to ensure that it gave “prominent coverage” to “reports of PKI involvement and Communist Chinese complicity” while playing down or not broadcasting “reports of divisions within the army specifically and armed services more generally”. Another senior official recommended that Radio Australia “not do anything which would be helpful to the PKI”; rather it “should highlight reports tending to discredit the PKI and show its involvement in the losing cause”.43

The US, Britain and Australia co-operated closely in the propaganda effort. Marshall Green urged Washington to “Spread the story of PKI’s guilt, treachery and brutality”, adding that this was “perhaps the most needed immediate assistance we can give army if we can find [a] way to do it without identifying it as [a] sole or largely US effort”.44 The British Foreign Office hoped to “encourage anti-Communist Indonesians to more vigorous action in the hope of crushing Communism in Indonesia altogether”. Britain would emphasise “PKI brutality in murdering Generals and families, Chinese interference, particularly arms shipments, PKI subverting Indonesia as the agents of foreign Communists”.45 British ambassador Sir Andrew Gilchrist wrote: “I have never concealed . my belief that a little shooting in Indonesia would be an essential preliminary to effective change.”46 Throughout this period, Western radio stations continued to recycle stories from Radio Jakarta or the army newspapers and broadcast them back to Indonesia. US Embassy officials established a back-channel link through the US army attache in Jakarta, who regularly met with an aide to General Nasution.

The US Embassy also compiled lists of PKI leaders and thousands of senior members and handed them over to the Indonesian military.47 While these kinds of lists were based entirely on previous reporting by the communist press, they proved invaluable to the military which seemed “to lack even the simplest overt information on PKI leadership at the time”.48 General Sukendro secretly approached the US Embassy, asking for assistance in the army’s operations against the PKI. Marshall Green advised the State Department that “we should do what we can as soon as we can, to meet request for medical supplies. Cost is not prohibitive and quantity is such that both finance and shipping could probably be handled covertly.”49 As for the army’s requests for small arms, Green said that he “would be leery about telling army we are in position to provide same, although we should act, not close our minds to this possibility. There is a chance that situation in central Java might take such a turn for the worse that we would wish to move quickly with packages of certain types of arms. Meanwhile, we could explore availability of small arms stocks, preferable of non-US origin, which could, if necessary, provide covert assistance to army for purchase of weapons.”50 Green also authorised the provision of 50 million rupiahs to the Kap-Gestapu movement, which was leading the crackdown. He advised the State Department that there was “no doubt whatsoever that Kap-Gestapu’s activity is fully consonant with and co-ordinated by the army. We have had substantial intelligence reporting to support this.”51 Overall, the US provided the Indonesian army with money, medicines, communications equipment, weapons and intelligence. It was satisfied with the return it received on this investment. As Marshall Green put it, the Embassy and the US government are “generally sympathetic with and admiring of what army [is] doing”.52 It would be necessary “to lay [the] foundation of understanding between us” in order to “make it easier for us to act effectively if at some future date army should want help from US”. There were potential problems that needed sorting out. “One such problem was [the] position [of] American oil companies.”53

On February 21, 1966, Sukarno tried to reshuffle his cabinet and sack General Nasution as Defence Minister. But with the public cowed in fear of the killings, his attempt to assert his authority failed. There were large demonstrations backed by the army, and on March 11, 1966, armed troops mounted a show of force outside the presidential palace. Sukarno capitulated and signed a letter of authority handing over executive power to General Suharto. The aftermath

In the wake of the massacres, Indonesia’s pre-eminent cultural and intellectual organisations – the Peoples’ Cultural Institute, the National Cultural Institute, and the Indonesian Scholars’ Association – were shut down, and many of their members were arrested or imprisoned. More than one and a half million Indonesians passed through a system of prisons and prison camps. The PKI was physically annihilated, and popular organisations associated with it were suppressed. The whole of Indonesian society was forcibly depoliticised. In village after village, local bureaucrats backed by the army imposed a control matrix of permits, rules and regulations. Citizens were required to obtain a “letter of clean circumstances” certifying that they and their extended families had not been associated with the left before 1965. Indonesian society became devoted to the prevention of any challenge to elite interests.

Control of the universities, newspapers, and cultural institutions was handed to conservative writers and intellectuals, who collaborated with the New Order’s program and did not oppose the jailing of their left-wing cultural rivals. Along with the violence, certain cultural values were strongly promoted – discussion of personal, religious and consumerist issues was encouraged, while discussion of politics was considered to be in bad taste. The conservative establishment also monopolised Indonesia’s external cultural relations.

Suharto would rule for more than 30 years until a popular uprising and a crisis-ridden economy forced his resignation on May 21, 1998.

Dr Clinton Fernandes is a historian and author of Reluctant Saviour: Australia, Indonesia and the independence of East Timor (Scribe, 2004). He is currently a Visiting Fellow at the Australian National University. These are his views.

 
 
 
 


THE LESSONS OF THE SEPTEMBER 30 AFFAIR

APPROVED FOR RELEASE 1994
CIA HISTORICAL REVIEW PROGRAM
2 JULY 96

CONFIDENTIAL
No Foreign Dissem

Perspective on Indonesia
Richard Cabot Howland

“Indonesia stands today with one foot in the national-democratic stage and one foot in the socialist. stage . . .
in order to consummate the revolution, there is only one road for the working class-rebuikan kekuasaan polilik!
Seize political power!”

Bung Karno,
May 1, 1965

He is dead now, but his mad rhetoric still echoes in the mind for those who were there. Speech after speech, Sukarno’s cadence set the rhythm for our work and our lives in that long summer of 1965. We battened down the Embassy hatches and waited, straining to fathom his purpose and predict his next move. One after another, faster and faster, the PKI’s enemies were over-run; the domino theory was being tested before our eyes. “All of history,” Emerson once wrote, “stands in the long shadow of one man.” So too did Indonesia by September 30 of that year . . . until the last domino refused to fall.

In retrospect, it is easy now to say that our initial interpretation of the “September 30 Movement”-the so-called PKI coup attempt of October 1, 1965–was correct. We knew from the start that it was not a coup in the classic sense. Our first reaction was that Sukarno was behind it all. We knew that he believed he stood on the stage of history, that he wanted his Indonesian revolution to become “the greatest of all revolutions, even a summing-up of all revolutions,” as he put it. For months he had tried to raise the curtain on the next act of his scenario for this “greatest of all revolutions,” an act which he called “entry into the Socialist stage”–the juncture at which collaboration with the bourgeois nationalists is abruptly terminated, the latter are removed from the stage in disgrace, and the drama moves inexorably toward its finale: the full-fledged Communist state.

Yet, when it happened, it came as a surprise. We expected something to break; Djakarta was unbearably tense, poised on the edge of crisis; but no one knew what form the next crisis would take. No one thought that Sukarno would go for the jugular-the Army-quite so soon. There was still plenty of time, plenty of other targets. Civilian anti- Communist elements had been isolated but not liquidated. We suspected that Sukarno and the PKI would link “entry into the socialist stage” with announcement of a Communist-dominated “Nasakom Cabinet” and the removal of civilian bourgeois nationalists- -the once-powerful Third Deputy Premier Chairul Saleh, the political gadfly Adam Malik, the leaders of the banned right-wing of the Nationalist Party, perhaps the fanatical Moslem students from the former Masjumi affiliate, the HMI. All had been under severe propaganda attack for some time and were rumored for imminent arrest. They were logically the next dominoes in the line.

Nobody hurries in Djakarta, especially to a showdown, but Sukarno chose this moment to break the rules of the game. Impelled by his ideological timetable, he must have believed that conditions were right for a dramatic move of historical consequence: a violent purge of the Army General Staff in preparation for establishment of a “People’s Army” based on an armed worker/peasant militia and controlled by a political commissar system under the PKI. He had pressed for both throughout the year, but the Army had objected, and on September 1 he warned Army Commander Yani publicly that “the revolution was about to leave him behind.” Had the move succeeded, a “Nasakom Cabinet” would have followed, then the arrest of other “counterrevolutionaries,” eventually the seizure of land and capital by the state and the collectivization of agriculture, all hallmarks of the “socialist stage” in Communist revolutionary theory.

Instead, insha’allah, everything went awry, as is often the case on Java, and the Movement failed. Sukarno and the PKI, not the bourgeois nationalists, left the stage in disgrace and the latter in control. From the confusion of those exciting days have emerged many myths, in particular a set of generalizations about the origins and outcome of the event, which gained credence within some U.S. Government circles and especially “outside the wall” of classification. Simply stated, these generalizations were that (1) Communist China instigated the “PKI coup attempt” in an effort to “make an end-run” around the U.S. “forward-line” in South Vietnam, but (2) our decision to commit American troops in that country, signifying our readiness to block the southward extension of Chinese Communist power, stiffened the backbones of the Indonesian officer corps, and (3) bought sufficient time for them to crush their own Communist threat in a “massacre” which took the lives of some 350,000 or more party members at no cost to the United States.

These generalizations were based on inadequate data-all data was inadequate in the early days of the affair. They make Asian politics sound like American football, and are suspect on that account alone. Yet they seemed logical in geo-political terms, especially at a time when Washington sought justification for the American stance in South Vietnam, and the Indonesians sought propaganda ammunition against Peking and the PKI. In Djakarta, however, we were particularly struck by the uniquely indigenous character of the events which led to the purge attempt and by the minimal influence on its outcome that could be ascribed to non-Indonesian factors. The geo-political generalizations about the incident, which I summarized above, clashed in our minds with a point that we felt was its strongest feature-that it was, from start to finish, a peculiarly and exclusively Indonesian phenomenon.

Half a decade has passed since the September 30 Movement collapsed, bringing down with it Sukarno’s bloated edifice of words. Personal and institutional memories are growing dimmer. The time may thus be appropriate for a new, “inside the wall” look at the three generalizations produced in the public mind by its dramatic and arcane circumstances, in
order to raise serious doubts about their validity before they come to conceal the real value of the Indonesian experience-the lessons of the September 30 affair.

Communist China
. . damned clever, these Chinese.” – – Unknown

In her study The Coup that Backfired, Mrs. Helen Hunter went a long way toward dispelling the myth of Chinese Communist involvement in the purge attempt. She concluded that while Peking had probably learned of the Sukarno/PKI plan, as indeed it must have through agent penetration of the Palace and the PKI, the Chinese did not instigate the plot
or participate in carrying it out. The same conclusion is implicit in an earlier article in Studies in Intelligence on the September 30 Movement by John T. Pizzicaro.

Like us, the Chinese knew something important was imminent. But I doubt whether they could truly have comprehended the nature of the plot and its implications. By mid-September, too many actors had become involved in the drama, each interpreting the script in light of his own self-interest. I doubt whether Sukarno, let alone the Chinese, knew the Generals were to be liquidated, or the Revolutionary Council named as the “source of all state power.” Even Sudisman, fifth-ranking leader of the PKI, subsequently stated under interrogation that the latter statement “was not part of the plan.” Sukarno was unaware of the involvement of Colonel Untung from his own Palace Guards’

Regiment, because he had dealt only with PKI Chairman Aidit, Air Force Commander Omar Dhani, and Army General Supardjo who was in charge of tactical operations for the Movement. The PKI’s “Special Bureau” chief Sjam Kamaruzaman, who planned the details, was actually proceeding under the incredible assumption that “if necessary, the President would be set aside.”

Thus the participants did not have a unified concept of the affair, and the lines of authority among them were blurred from the outset. It is no wonder that General Supardjo told Army interrogators afterwards that when he returned to Djakarta from his post in West Borneo on September 28, everything was in chaos and “there was no clear chain of command.” Whatever Sukarno’s original instructions–probably couched in typical Javanese ambiguity–the thing had gotten badly out of hand, and had assumed an internal dynamic which no single participant, let alone a foreign observer, could understand or control.

A more fundamental brand of skepticism on the myth of Chinese involvement would arise if relations between the Chinese leaders, Sukarno, and the PKI were examined. The Chinese had little real leverage over Sukarno, or Aidit and the party. The two leaders were not the obscure protagonists of a minority faction in some little-known, unimportant country. Both were prominent figures on the international scene, aware of their power. They were vain, hyper-sensitive, paranoid chauvinists to whom foreign leaders had long catered, not dictated. The PKI in turn was the largest Communist party outside the Communist World. A good measure of Indonesian hyper-nationalism and mistrust of foreign powers laced all its activities and plans.

Sukarno was no “dupe of the Communists,” Chinese or any other. He had towered over Indonesian political life for more than a generation, and claimed his own niche in the Marxist pantheon. In his speeches, he listed himself after Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin-but not Mao, who was still alive-as a prophet and “great leader of the revolution.” He asserted that with his formulation of “Marhaenism” in 1926, he had discovered the theorem that revolution in a colonial country had to base itself on a broad national front including the peasantry, not on the industrial proletariat alone. Sukarno claimed to have made this discovery before Mao had reached the same conclusion. Both Sukarno and Aidit believed they were still breaking new ideological ground in “adapting Marxism to Indonesian conditions,” and the party formally stated that “the teachings of Bung Karno are identical with the program of the PKI.”

Their approach must have seemed to be paying off from Peking’s point of view, and there was no reason for the Chinese to exert pressure on them for greater speed. The Indonesian revolutionary situation and Indonesian foreign policy were moving in a direction and at a pace which coincided with Chinese desires. At two junctures, Aidit even warned his colleagues that things were going too fast—a warning that later returned to haunt him when he failed to heed it himself.

In Indonesia, the “party of the Chinese” was Partindo, not the PKI. A tiny clot of left-wing extremists, the Partindo leaders drew their influence from their rapport with Sukarno and their interrelationship with the leaders of a powerful association of Indonesian citizens of Chinese descent called “Baperki.” Both organizations followed the PKI line- Partindo in fact was often out in front-and had friendly relations with the Chinese Communist Embassy. The latter also influenced a number of alien ethnic Chinese businessmen’s associations, which parroted the Sukarno/PKI slogans. Yet among all the participants in the September 30 affair no ethnic Chinese name appears, and the leaders of Partindo and Baperki were as confused as we were on the morning of October l, 1965.

The PKI in contrast had virtually no ethnic Chinese on its personnel roster. Not more than a dozen Chinese names could be found among some 2,000 PKI biographic information cards at the American Embassy. The average PKI member often shared the same ingrained suspicion and animosity toward the Chinese as his non-Communist countrymen. The fundamental theme of Aidit’s policy, and the main tool with which he had succeeded in rebuilding the party after the disastrous Moscow-induced Madiun revolt of 1948, was his effort to ensure that the PKI operated as a purely indigenous Indonesian institution. Recruiting efforts focused on ethnic Indonesians. Aidit and Sukarno were only too aware of the potential propaganda backlash that awaited any clearcut identification of the party with the Chinese, either domestically or abroad, in the Indonesian public mind. Aidit could scarcely have favored growing Chinese influence within his party, which might have aggravated factionalism and weakened the PKI before its adversaries. It might even have endangered his own position, since by “taking the parliamentary road” for thirteen years, Aidit had clearly been “following the Moscow line” in terms of the Sino-Soviet split.

For all these reasons, while the PKI made the fraternal and adulatory noises toward Peking and the Chinese revolution that one would expect from an Asian party, its leaders scarcely missed a suitable opportunity to express their independence of any Chinese influence.

It is out of the question for Sukarno or Aidit to have offered any outside power “a piece of the action” or requested help in the September 30 affair.

Vietnam
“Victory has a hundred fathers, but defeat is an orphan.” –John F. Kennedy

The tendency to blame everything bad that happens in the world on Peking or Moscow is matched by the tendency to credit ourselves for all the good things. Both tendencies have clearly been at work in some interpretations of the September 30 affair and its outcome. Some people believe that the Indonesian Army would have been inclined to compromise with Sukarno and the PKI if its leaders were not aware that US forces had tied down the Chinese in South Vietnam by bombing the north and sending in the Marines. In fact, the Army did compromise with Sukarno for almost two years, though not with the PKI.

What options would have been available to the Chinese if the US presence was absent from South Vietnam? They could not have launched an invasion of Java since they lacked transportation and logistical support. They could have mounted an air strike on Djakarta, refueling at Hanoi, but the outcome would have been disastrous. The main victims would have been the predominantly urban ethnic Chinese in Indonesia. As it was, Peking’s constant vituperation of the “rightwing forces,” and its incitement of the Indonesian Chinese to rebel against them only aggravated the latter’s troubles and reinforced Army propaganda that the PKI had been a Chinese tool. Whether the US stood firm in Vietnam or not, there was nothing that Peking could do-except take it on the chin in Indonesia as we had during the Sukarno years.

It has. been argued, however, that while in objective terms the Chinese were clearly powerless to affect the situation by physical means, in psychological terms China was viewed as a potential threat after the purge attempt because of its great size and historical meddling in the area. Thus, the US barrier in Vietnam was said to be a meaningful integer in Indonesian calculations.

I would question whether many Indonesians were troubled by China’s size. They believe Indonesia is the most important country in the world, and boast that the last time China invaded Java-in the thirteenth century-it was repulsed. In addition, I suspect that the whole effort to impute to Indonesian decision-makers any profound or strategic thoughts during those days of crisis is a great mistake.

Perhaps it would be useful in this connection to discuss in detail the turning-point in the events of October 1 itself-the juncture at which the keynote was sounded for the campaign against Sukarno and the eradication of the PK I- to determine whether thoughts of Vietnam or China were on anybody’s mind.

The moment of decision came shortly after noon at Kostrad Headquarters on Djakarta’s main square, where Suharto had assumed temporary command of the Army under standing contingency procedures. The two airborne “Raider” battalions that had deployed on the square earlier in the day in support of the purge attempt still surrounded Suharto and controlled key installations. Suharto was negotiating with their executive officers to get them to withdraw, and at the same time trying to size up the situation and find some reliable troops for himself. So far he had collected two platoons, plus ambiguous expressions of support from duty officers in the Navy and the national police.

Suharto was hurt and enraged at the clear probability that his close friend and patron, Army Commander Yani, had been murdered. N asution, the Armed Forces Chief of Staff and its leading “strategic thinker,” was in a nearby room. Best described later by a western diplomat as “a simple, ambitious coward,” Nasution was paralyzed with shock and grief from the attack on his home. Far from being an asset, to Suharto, Nasution had retreated at the crucial moment, as he had so many times before in crises when Sukarno was involved.

At this point, an emissary from Sukarno arrived. It was one of his adjutants, Marine Corps Lieutenant Colonel Bambang Widjanarko, who accompanied Sukarno when he drove out to join the anti-Army forces at Halim Air Force Base that morning. Widjanarko announced that he brought an order from the “great leader of the revolution” and was taken to Suharto. He told the Kostrad commander that Sukarno ordered him to turn over temporary command of the Army to MajorGeneral Pranoto Reksosamudra. Pranoto was believed to be a PKI sympathizer, and Suharto knew him well. He had replaced Suharto in 1959 as Central Java Army Commander after an incident involving Suharto’s family which had tarnished the latter’s reputation.

Sukarno’s choice of Pranoto to replace Suharto was a clear mistake. His use of a junior officer from an anti-Army service to carry the word made it, a major blunder. The final touch came when Widjanarko belligerently demanded, according to those present, that Suharto “release” several key Generals and allow them to proceed to Halim for consulation with Sukarno. Suharto was already aware that several top Generals had been killed and others were missing. He went into a rage.

Speaking Javanese, he ordered Widjanarko to inform Sukarno that he was retaining temporary command of the Army until Yani’s fate was known, that “no more Generals would go to Halim,” and that Sukarno himself should leave the Air Base as soon as possible because he was preparing to attack it.

The impact and implications of that final clause may be difficult to sense for those who did not endure the long years of deference and propaganda adulation paid to Sukarno by all sectors of the population, including the Army. In effect, Suharto had challenged the power of a latter-day Javanese god-king. But the impact was not lost on Sukarno, who complied, probably unnerved by this singular act of defiance from a hitherto complacent, apolitical, obedient soldier. A test of wills had occurred, and Suharto had won. The news spread rapidly among the political and military elite, and Suharto was able to establish himself as the leader of the anti-PKI forces while the leftists remained in disarray “with no clear chain of command,” as Supardjo subsequently noted. The Rubicon in contemporary Indonesian history had been crossed, and thereafter the tide of events moved irrevocably against Sukarno and the PKI.

What had provoked Suharto to throw down the gauntlet’? lie acted in rage, fear, and desperation. He felt keenly humiliated that Sukarno had sent a junior officer to order him about like a servant. He was incensed at the thought of surrendering his command for a second time to a hated subordinate, and feared that Pranoto’s appointment meant his own name was on the PKI’s liquidation list. He acted in the belief that he was serving the best interests of the Army, of his military comrades, and of Indonesia itself in standing up to Sukarno whatever the latter’s power. All these motivations are reasonable to impute to a tense, puzzled, parochial but able field officer who felt that he alone had to hold the situation together in a crisis endangering the foundations of the state and his own future.

But he certainly did not act from a strategic or geo-political vision of the implications of the U.S. presence in South Vietnam in terms of the Chinese colossus to the north. It was a tactical situation; Yani was dead, Nasution had copped out, Suharto was senior officer present and commanding, and only he could take charge. That he did so without thought of the consequences explains much about him and his later success. Suharto merits our gratitude, not claims of a share in his victory because of our stance in Vietnam, for that moment alone.

The Massacre of the PKI
“We feared the great Communist chiefs: they had magic powers which prevented them from dying. No matter how much we beat them they did not die. We had to inscribe the letters ‘PKI’ on their skulls to prevent their hair from growing out again after we had scalped them. Some would not die even when we forced bamboo sticks into their eyes and mouths, or after we put out their eyes. Especially in the case of the great chiefs, we would put a live cat into their bellies; only then would they suffocate. ‘rhe cat, symbol of the tiger, caused them to lose their magic powers, and they died.”

-quoted by Philippe Gavi, in an article entitled “Indonesia Days of Slaughter,” in the Italian-language weekly theoretical organ of the Italian Communist Party, Rinascita (Rebirth), No. i, Rome, February 16, 1968, pp. 15 18.

Foreign estimates of the number of PKI members and sympathizers killed as a direct result of the reaction to the purge attempt have ranged from 350,000 at the low end to 1.5 million at the high. The Indonesian Government has never issued an official announcement on the subject. In a recent article in the British publication Government and Opposition entitled “Indonesia’s Search for a Political Format,” Donald Ilindley quotes the low-end figure in his text but adds the latter in a footnote. Ilindley is guessing, for no one really knows. IIis citation of both figures, an ostensible effort to attain scholarly balance, actually begs the question whether very many were killed at all. Like the “Cornell group” dissected by John T. Pizzicaro in his recent Studies in Intelligence article, Hindley is forced by the ideological compulsions of the academic “new left” to maintain the polemical attack on the New Order regime, although he personally considers it, as he once told me, “the best government Indonesia has had.”

Hindley’s upper-range figure of 1.5 million was probably acquired from Miss Ruth McVey, the “PEI’s biographer.” Ruth was not in Indonesia at the time of the purge attempt, and had access only to journalistic sources in the months that followed. Yet by the spring of 1966, she had surfaced the figure of 1.5 million Communist dead at a New York meeting of the “Youth against War and Fascism” organization. This astonishing performance by an otherwise able and objective scholar clearly demonstrates how emotions have fogged the whole issue. How could the characteristically disorganized Indonesians possibly construct an efficient murder apparatus on this vast scale in a few months, and systematically exterminate almost one-third the number of people that the Nazi regime killed in ten years?

Following the purge attempt, Djakarta seethed with rumors and stories of bloodshed and terror. The Embassy was aware that this issue would loom large for some time and from the beginning we attempted to develop hard intelligence to put the subject in perspective. A preliminary look at, the data showed, however, that even after the palpable boasts had been detected and discarded, what, remained was spotty and inconsistent. No firm information on alleged killing; of
Communists ever emerged from almost two-thirds of Indonesia’s provinces. In addition, areas where one might have expected massacres of epic proportions-diehard anti-Communist West Java, for instance-.were remarkably unstained with Communist blood. Yet in areas where the PKI had never won more than a modicum of popular support: in Atjeh, or the Madurese regions of East Java, the death tolls boggled the mind. One heard interminable lurid reports of mass killings in Bali, some 50,000 deaths or more, where the PKI had never succeeded in cracking the tightly-knit Balinese social structure or challenging the political domination of the Nationalist Party. Yet in the traditional PKI stronghold of Madiun, the seat of the 1948 rebellion which should have been the first target for liquidation teams, and where there were plenty of Moslems to do the job . . . all was calm. Not one PKI death was ever reported from Madiun to my knowledge. A curious pattern, and one that did not readily hang together.

It was thus not an easy task to determine an overall death-tollPart of the problem derived from the local cultural imperative which we called “deliberate misleading of the outsider,” but the Javanese call “etok-etok.” To a Westerner, a thing is either true or false, an event either happened or it did not. This emphasis on objective reality seems dogmatic to a Javanese, who is more sensitive to the demands made on truth by the social context and his own socio-political status. Javanese seek to avoid potential conflict and embarrassment, and govern their behavior and remarks accordingly. The result is that they believe it is better to tell an outsider what they think he wishes to hear rather than risk the unpredictable consequences of telling the truth. This generalization does not pertain to all social situations, but is the cultural model for what Javanese believe social intercourse should be.

In reviewing the documentary evidence of the so-called massacre, I felt it was obvious that considerable etok-etok was involved. The same was true as I inquired among my contacts in the military and elsewhere, seeking a viable nation-wide estimate of Communist deaths to report to the Department. I found an abundance of exciting, selfserving tales, told with averted eyes, as though the ghost of I). N. Aidit were lurking in the background. Rather than acting like members of a “conspiracy of silence,” most people were “protesting too much” of their ruthless anti-Communist zeal. But they could not produce hard data, lists, names and places, photographs, or any indication that some Indonesian government bureau had been tasked with tracking down and collating the stories in a systematic and objective manner. It was true that Sukarno had directed several of his Ministerial flunkies to survey Java in November, 1965 to obtain information for use in
Communists ever emerged from almost two-thirds of Indonesia’s provinces. In addition, areas where one might have expected massacres of epic proportions-diehard anti-Communist West Java, for instance-.were remarkably unstained with Communist blood. Yet in areas where the PKI had never won more than a modicum of popular support: in Atjeh, or the Madurese regions of East Java, the death tolls boggled the mind. One heard interminable lurid reports of mass killings in Bali, some 50,000 deaths or more, where the PKI had never succeeded in cracking the tightly-knit Balinese social structure or challenging the political domination of the Nationalist Party. Yet in the traditional PKI stronghold of Madiun, the seat of the 1948 rebellion which should have been the first target for liquidation teams, and where there were plenty of Moslems to do the job . . . all was calm. Not one PKI death was ever reported from Madiun to my knowledge. A curious pattern, and one that did not readily hang together.

It was thus not an easy task to determine an overall death-tollPart of the problem derived from the local cultural imperative which we called “deliberate misleading of the outsider,” but the Javanese call “etok-etok.” To a Westerner, a thing is either true or false, an event either happened or it did not. This emphasis on objective reality seems dogmatic to a Javanese, who is more sensitive to the demands made on truth by the social context and his own socio-political status. Javanese seek to avoid potential conflict and embarrassment, and govern their behavior and remarks accordingly. The result is that they believe it is better to tell an outsider what they think he wishes to hear rather than risk the unpredictable consequences of telling the truth. This generalization does not pertain to all social situations, but is the cultural model for what Javanese believe social intercourse should be.

In reviewing the documentary evidence of the so-called massacre, I felt it was obvious that considerable etok-etok was involved. The same was true as I inquired among my contacts in the military and elsewhere, seeking a viable nation-wide estimate of Communist deaths to report to the Department. I found an abundance of exciting, selfserving tales, told with averted eyes, as though the ghost of I). N. Aidit were lurking in the background. Rather than acting like members of a “conspiracy of silence,” most people were “protesting too much” of their ruthless anti-Communist zeal. But they could not produce hard data, lists, names and places, photographs, or any indication that some Indonesian government bureau had been tasked with tracking down and collating the stories in a systematic and objective manner. It was true that Sukarno had directed several of his Ministerial flunkies to survey Java in November, 1965 to obtain information for use in his effort to stymie the anti-Communist bandwagon. But their estimate of 87,000 stemmed directly from political considerations, and had to be rejected on those grounds.

Finally, a Lieutenant Colonel in the Army’s Supreme Operations Command’s “Social-Political Affairs Section” passed me some figures which he swore were accurate compilations from field reporting. The totals were 50,000 dead on Java; 6,000 dead on Bali; 3,000 in North Sumatra. I was skeptical of his methods but accepted his estimates, faute de mieux, and combining them with my own data produced a nation-wide total of 105,000 Communist dead. Admittedly a large figure, it was still a far cry from the claims of 350,000 to 1.5 million victims being bandied about, and at least had partially resulted from a systematic effort.

While the death toll appeared lower than generally believed, the net impact on PKI cohesion and capabilities remained the same. The climate of fear and suspicion that arose in the villages as a result of the widespread rumors of mass killing effectively impaired PKI courier communications, obstructed party meetings, and thus paralyzed lateral coordination and control. Concurrently, the Army seized the central PKI publications apparatus and captured a majority of the Central Committee membership within a few months, thus blocking dissemination of instructions from the top. The PKI’s two strongest features apart from identification with Sukarno, its organization and communications, were thus nullified, and its destruction as a cohesive political force was assured.

By April of 1966, conditions were settling down and the Army relaxed its restrictions on travel. At the first opportunity, another Embassy officer and I left on a trip through Java seeking first-hand intelligence information on a variety of subjects. Among other things, because of my conclusions mentioned above, I hoped to learn something about the alleged severe killing in East Java which had been described in news items filed by Mr. Stanley Karnow of the St. Louis Post-Despatch.

Karnow was an unusual correspondent among the many who came to Indonesia at that time. He actually visited the areas about which he wrote. He interviewed at length the Army Commander of the Kediri district of East Java, Colonel Willy Sudjono. The Colonel had filled his ears with gory details and astonishing death-tolls, including a remark that the Brantas River-which flows past Kediri town-had been “choked with 30,000 Communist bodies.” From a previous trip to Kediri, I remembered the Brantas as a broad, placid stream, its bed raised above the level of the surrounding countryside by years of diking and overflow, somewhat in the manner of the Ilwang Ilo of China. It occurred to me that 30,000 bodies floating down the Brantas would have jammed the gates of the numerous irrigation dams that span the river, causing a severe flood in Kediri town.

In any event, I was anxious to learn just what had happened in Kediri, a fascinating area of marked importance in Javanese history and politics for centuries. It was the seat of an early Hindu-Buddhist kingdom whose legendary ruler produced a set of prophecies which became a. central feature of the Javanese political mystique. Javanese believe that Kediri stands at the center of a peculiarly potent combination of necromantic and mystical geo-magnetic forces. The area in consequence has generated peasant-based millenarian movements for hundreds of years. Prince Diponegoro of Jogjakarta went to Kediri to meditate in a cave before he fomented a messianic revolt, against the Dutch in 182.1. Sukarno always played up his early boyhood in Blitar, near Kediri, and had requested to be interred there. Before the 1965 purge attempt, Kediri was a Sukarnoist/PKI stronghold, as one might expect where severe ethnic (Javanese vs. Madurese) and religious (reformist Moslem vs. animist) antagonisms intersected in a setting that contrasted large land-holdings with abysmal poverty. Here were all the contradictions which provided, for Sukarno and the PKI, the exploitable corridors of power.

In April, 1966, another Embassy officer and myself spent several days at the home of an American Baptist missionary docter and his wife in Kediri. The Baptist mission and hospital were established in Kediri just after the war. They were readily accepted by the nominal Moslem Javanese of the area, who probably saw the Baptists as just another mystical sect drawn to Kediri by its potent ethereal forces. There were eight American families, and many “national preachers”local converts who helped spread the gospel–at the Baptist establishment. They enjoyed excellent relations with local officials and had made many friends in the villages of the area. Every morning, Javanese from all social classes lined up in front of the hospital for medical treatment. Obviously the Baptists were well-attuned to the local environment.

From several days’ talks with the Baptist group and other local informants, an interesting picture of Colonel Willy Sudjono emerged. Ile had lost several relatives fighting on the Communist side at Madiun in 1948. He was also known as a staunch Sukarnoist and devout follower of the pro-Communist. East Java mystical sect leader, mBah 5uro. Before the purge attempt, he had not obstructed the Comnunist advance. The missionaries remarked that during the August 17,
1965 National Day celebrations, PKI organizations marched down Kediri’s main street for hours, some of them armed, while Willy Sudjono watched and smiled. Yet the missionaries did not believe he was a Communist himself. They had requested troops to protect the hospital against threatened PKI attacks on several occasions, and he had always complied. Sudjono’s family came to the hospital for medical treatment and health exams, as did many of the local officials of the area. Obviously there was more to his story than Karnow had learned.

The missionaries and their local contacts had heard many stories of mass killing in the surrounding area, including the tale of “30,000 bodies choking the Brantas River.” One night, according to a missionary wife, they heard the gamelans (traditional musical instruments) “pounding from darkness till dawn.” They presumed that killing was underway, and that the music was intended to cover the sound of screams. They were surprised that fanatical Moslems would choose to kill by gamelan music, a non-Moslem, Hindu-Javanese cultural manifestation. But the next morning, everything was calm. As the Baptists went through nearby villages, there was no sign of slaughter. In fact, although they preached and dispensed health care in the area throughout the period of the purge attempt and its aftermath, none ever saw a Communist body, in the Brantas or elsewhere. Whenever they asked village contacts about, the subject, they were always told that “there were no PKI members in this village and no killing here, but many dead at the next village down the road.” But at the next village, the answer was the same: “no PKI, no killing here.”

A press correspondent who spent a month on Bali searching for evidence of the mass killing for a feature story told me that he had gotten the same answer in village after village there. Moreover, he pointed out, neither he nor his colleagues had ever managed to photograph a Communist body. ‘ro this day, 1 myself have never seen even one photograph of a PKI corpse.

The missionaries’ story was confirmed by other local informants, who believed that most of the Communist leaders had fled to Surabaja after the failure of the purge attempt, while the peasant masses who had supported the party because of its identification with Sukarno simply melted away. What killing had occurred, they said, had been on a minor, ceremonial scale.

Thus, there must have been considerable elok-etok in the story Willy Sudjono told Stan Karnow. He had done nothing to slow down the PKI in his jurisdiction before the purge attempt. As a known Sukarnophile and mBah Suro devotee, the onus was on him afterwards to demonstrate. his loyalty to the Army. Ile must have welcomed the
chance to proclaim to Djakarta through an American journalist that his severity toward the party after the event had known no bounds. How many other local military commanders and district officials had been under the same pressures after the purge attempt? Virtually all of them were imbued with Sukarno’s “Nasakom” sloganry, including the policy of collaborating with the PKI. What better way to display their newly-discovered anti-Communist colors, without committing themselves to Suharto or Sukarno while the Djakarta power struggle was unresolved, than by inflating the numbers of PKI killed in their jurisdictions? How many opportunistic politicians sought to erase years of riding the PKI’s coat-tails by proclaiming responsibility for a few unverifiable Communist deaths? The IP-KI Party leader Lucas Kustarjo, for instance, though a long-time Sukarnophile, boasted everywhere that he ha6 told Sukarno personally that he killed “300 PKI leaders with his own hands.”

Like the politicians and military leaders, the average village citizen had shrewd motivations for concocting massacre tales. If a villager told the authorities that his Communist neighbor had escaped, he risked guilt by association, or at least faced the prospect of a harangue on the importance of “heightening vigilance against the PKI.” But if he told the authorities that his Communist neighbor had been killed by the “spontaneity of the masses,” he would receive a pat on the back-perhaps even his neighbor’s house or land. Who could check the story’.? The Army has never been able to keep track of its own personnel, let alone the civilians on over-populated Java.

As the reports of massacres moved up along the chain of command, they could easily have been embellished and magnified as successive layers of officialdom sought to display their own anti-Communist zeal. The natural tendency was to accept them at face value, especially among the Western correspondents who flocked to Djakarta in search of sensational copy for lurid feature articles to cable to the outside world. The result was the myth of the massacre. A good part of it must have been etok-etok by everyone concerned.

The Future
“We are independent now. Independence was not granted as a gift from our former colonisers. but we have won it the hard way at a great loss of lives on the part of all the Indonesian people for more than hundreds of years. We have a state philosophy and a Constitution which are not of foreign make but the products of our own inquiry into our own identity and our own history, formulated by Indonesian leaders and Indonesian philosophers. Our Armed Forces are not an inheritance, but have emerged from the midst of a fighting nation . . . all these things are not just the legacy of the days prior to our independence. We have done them ourselves.”

-President Suharto, on the eve of the 25th anniversary of Indonesian independence, on August 16, 1970.

No one will ever know the truth about the September 30 affair. By posing some questions about the myths that have evolved in the public mind in regard to the events that preceded and followed it, I hope at least to have signalled the danger of swallowing them whole. Whatever the popular misinterpretations of newsmen and scholars, “inside the wall”
we should not be misled by the need to practice our own form of etok-etok to justify the policies of the past.
Instead we should look to the real and valuable lessons which this watershed in contemporary Southeast Asian history has provided for the future.

To the strategic thinkers of the outside world, Southeast Asia, like the Balkans, has always looked like a power vacuum about to implode. Like the Javanese area of Kediri, one might almost say, Southeast Asia has loomed as a center of mystical forces, time and again attracting foreign powers to meddle in its murky affairs in the hope of gain-or occasionally in the hope of obtaining the gratitude of Southeast Asians themselves. But time and again the outsider has seen his efforts go unappreciated, his motives mistrusted, and his departure awaited with eager pride. Too often the reason has been the outsider’s inability to see things through Southeast Asian eyes.

Human and interstate relations in Southeast Asia do not occur under ideal laboratory conditions, and the course of events is seldom predictable at a distance by analysis of national interest and balance of power alone. The “strategic planners” who prefer to “focus on the big picture in Asia” to produce sweeping, unverifiable geo-political theories run the risk of overlooking some quirk of human behavior that can easily upset their most sophisticated calculations and ideas. In Indonesia in 1965, the last domino refused to fall, and the tenets of the domino theory proved irrelevant to a major historical change. The course of events turned instead on the personality of one man, as the massive door of a vault pivots on its tiny jewelled bearing. Without the example of Suharto’s courage in defying Sukarno, a thousand similar acts of decision would not have occurred elsewhere in the archipelago, and the whole “strategic situation” in Southeast Asia would not be the same. Suharto and his supporters were not concerned with the “big picture,” or with conditions in other countries of Asia. They had enough to do with their own “little picture,” and concentrated on the job to be done and the people involved. As a result, they won. The PKI was destroyed in the villages of Indonesia, Dot by the American “forward line” in Vietnam.

In Washington things tend to become unreal. Human beings are sometimes viewed as little more than names passing in the stream of paper. unrelated to their past and future. Far from the scene, we are often prone to see Asia impersonally as a cosmic chessboard, where the great powers can conduct their broader strategies without much regard for the pawns. But the pawns too are people, and the human factor is always the key, as it was on the morning of October 1, 196;5 in Indonesia. To be truly viable, all strategic theories based on sophisticated geo-political ideas must also take into account the prospect of those sudden, unexpected acts of human courage and decision which, precisely because they were not a part of preconceived plans, alter and illuminate political affairs.

The origins and outcome of the September 30 affair were the result of Indonesian actions alone. By the time the great powers realized what was underway, it was too late to help or hinder either side. Washington’ could only watch and wait, and hope that when the situation jelled, a new and more constructive relationship could be established with whatever regime survived. Then–but only then-could we offer to help, after the fever had broken and the patient was already on the road to recovery.

The Indonesians were acutely aware after the overthrow of Sukarno and the PKI that the road to recovery meant turning inward to repair the economic deterioration that had contributed significantly to Sukarno’s success in orchestrating the Communist march toward power. Indonesia rejected Sukarno’s mad schemes of leading the “third world” in a crusade of bluff and bluster against the “imperialist powers,” and focussed its attention on its own sad internal plight. Suharto blocked a reversion to unproductive political infighting, and placed the stress of government policy on combatting inflation and preparing the base for economic development. The first battle was won and the development effort shows great promise for the future, although severe challenges remain.

In the wake of the September 30 affair and its aftermath, the lesson of the Indonesian experience began to make itself felt. It was at the heart of the American “low profile” approach to Indonesian efforts to bring their runaway inflation under control. Although advice from the International Monetary Fund and assistance from foreign donors were important, the essential decisions were made by Indonesian economists and implemented because of Suharto’s resolve. American involvement was kept, to a miminum. The low-profile approach also led to our “handsoff” attitude when the Indonesians were attempting to round up expatriate Sarawak Chinese dissidents in West Borneo in 1967, and to
quell an embryonic PKI insurgency effort in East Java the following year. In the first case, Indonesians and Malaysians combined their efforts; in East Java, only a few weeks were needed for the Indonesians to handle the job themselves. In both cases, American involvement would have lent credence to Communist propaganda, and impaired indigenous resolve.

In the larger context, the Vietnamization idea and the “Guam Doctrine” can be seen as efforts to employ the lessons of the September 30 affair in structuring an appropriate American posture for the region as a whole.

Comparisons of what happened in South Vietnam and Indonesia after the critical year of 1965 make it clear that American power can only complement and augment indigenous resolve-the quality that the Indonesians call “national resiliency,” which can be generated through local leadership and enhanced through regional cooperation, but not created or replaced by vast infusions of men and money from abroad. The human factor is always the key.

Very few now believe that the “soft states” of Southeast Asia can manage to survive as independent national entities without massive American help in view of the geo-political menace of Communist China to the north. Yet who among us would have believed-on that hot morning of October 1, 1965, as we drove toward the Embassy between the endless red banners and lurid anti-Western posters along both sides of the main highway into Djakarta, to face yet another day of systematic humiliation by the minions of Sukarno and the PKI that actions and events were already underway which would reverse the course of years of Indonesian history in a matter of days? The Indonesians looked into the abyss, recoiled, and learned their lessons well. Their task and ours is to use those lessons equally well in the future.

 
 

Western Covert Intervention in Indonesia, October 1965 – March 1966

What was less easily resolved and which remains a mystery to this day, is whether Untung was acting on behalf of other forces. There has been a welter of conflicting theories as to who was behind the coup attempt.22 Some on the right have blamed the PKI, Red China, the pro-communist Indonesian Foreign Minister Subandrio or even Sukarno. Others, such as Scott, have constructed an elaborate conspiracy theory that the coup attempt was an army provocation, led by Suharto, to give a pretext for a crack-down on the communists.

There is insufficient space here to assess all the conflicting theories of the coup’s origins but looking at American, British and Australian primary sources it is apparent that despite their interest in covert action and propaganda, the Western powers were surprised by the coup attempt. In the first few days of October American, Australian and British diplomats in Jakarta were shocked and confused and had trouble in finding out what was going on.23 There is no evidence that the coup attempt was a Western-backed army provocation. Indeed, on 1 October the American Deputy Director of Central Intelligence, Richard Helms, told George Ball at the State Department that the CIA ‘had had absolutely nothing to do with it’.24 The immediate suspicion of Western officials was of a possible connection to the PKI.25

Yet evidence for PKI involvement in the coup was not clear-cut. Communist transport and communications unions helped Untung on 1 October by cutting communications in and out of Jakarta and the next day a communist newspaper endorsed the action he had taken. The coup attempt was centred on the Halim air force base and made use of communist cadres being given military training there. But the PKI did not try to mobilize its massive party membership behind the coup and an American ‘clandestine source’ reported that the PKI central committee only decided to give Untung military support after hearing his radio broadcast on 1 October.26 After the coup had failed the PKI denied any involvement and claimed it had been an internal army matter, with junior officers attacking senior officers.

Faced with this conflicting evidence, privately Western policymakers were uncertain how far the PKI was responsible for the abortive coup. US State Department officials believed that the PKI had not planned or engineered the coup attempt.27 Instead they thought that Untung, without consulting the party, might have put into effect a communist contingency plan to seize power on the death of Sukarno. Certainly there had been a flurry of reports in August-September that the president was seriously ill and these could have sparked Untung into action. Once the coup was underway the PKI felt it had no choice but to get on board. Sir Andrew Gilchrist, the British Ambassador in Jakarta, suspected that the communists only became aware of Untung’s plan at a late stage and joined in because they feared that if the army crushed Untung it would crush them as well.28 The Australian Joint Intelligence Committee noted that while individual communist groups clearly participated in the coup, ‘evidence of actual PKI involvement – that is of prior planning by the Central Committee – is largely circumstantial’.29 By contrast, Marshall Green, the US Ambassador to Indonesia, was convinced that party chairman Aidit and other top PKI leaders ‘were almost certainly in on planning’ the coup although he conceded that the ‘PKI decision to participate seems to have been hurried one’.30

If Western policymakers were unsure about the role of the communists the Indonesian army appeared to have no doubts and it pressed Sukarno for strong action against the PKI. However, the president tried to protect the PKI and he refused to ban the party. He promised a peaceful political settlement and called for national unity, warning that division would only benefit the Nekolim. Reportedly at a cabinet meeting on 6 October Sukarno and Subandrio blamed the coup attempt on the CIA and alleged that the CIA’s aim was to spread confusion before an American and British invasion of Indonesia.31 The army, though, was not diverted by Sukarno’s appeals for unity and it began to move against the PKI. It arrested communist cadres and encouraged anti-PKI demonstrations in Jakarta. It also tried to mobilize public opinion by taking control of the mass media.32 The army closed down the communist press while ensuring the continued publication of military newspapers such as Angkatan Bersendjada, Berita Yudha and the English language Jakarta Daily Mail. It took control over Radio Indonesia and the Antara news agency, which was the main supplier of news carried by Indonesian radio stations and newspapers. Through these outlets the army attacked the PKI and linked it to Untung’s coup attempt. On 4 October an editorial in Angkatan Bersendjada lambasted the PKI as ‘devils’ who were ‘injecting poison into the Indonesian nation and the revolution’.33 Two days later the paper claimed the coup attempt was masterminded by the PKI and called on the government to declare the party illegal.34 One prominent theme in this propaganda campaign was the murder of the six Indonesian generals. The army-controlled media alleged that members of the PKI youth organization, Pemuda Rakjat, and the communist women’s group, Gerwani, had brutally tortured the generals before killing them.35 For example, on 10 October Berita Yudha reported that the generals’ eyes had been gouged out. These claims were untrue. Although the generals’ bodies had partially decomposed after being dumped in a well by the rebels, autopsies showed they had not been tortured or mutilated after death.36 Nonetheless this story became a central feature of the army’s propaganda campaign and a founding myth for the later Suharto regime.

In mid-October Suharto seems to have given approval for army units to deal with the PKI and the army rounded up and killed party members throughout the country. It also armed nationalist and Muslim groups, such as the Ansor Muslim youth organization, and encouraged them to eliminate the communists. The result was a wave of mass killings, spreading across Java, Sumatra, Sulawesi and into Bali by December and then onto Timor, Flores and Lombok. News of the slaughter slowly reached Western diplomats in Jakarta, who had only limited information on what was happening outside the capital. On 9 November an Australian teacher returning from central Java reported ‘All manner of atrocities, stakes through heads, eye gouging, live burials being freely committed by both sides’.37 On 14 November an American missionary told her embassy of the massacre of 3,400 PKI activists by Ansor at Kediri, in East Java.38 An Indonesian source informed the British air attaché that PKI men and women were being executed in very large numbers.39 Often they were given knives and told to kill themselves. If they refused they were shot in the back. An American observer in Bali reported ‘many headless bodies encountered on roads’ and a traveller in Sumatra saw Muslim youth group members stop a bus, drag out numerous communist passengers and hack them to death.40 In February 1966 a visiting Australian diplomat learnt that 250 PKI members had been killed in the town of Kupang in Timor.41 He was told by the chief of the Public Works Department in Kupang that torture was the customary prelude to death and was in fact carried out in the army establishment next door to his own home. The nightly executions, carried out just outside Kupang, were open to the public provided those who attended took part in the executions. The Army was in complete control of these operations.

Precisely how many were killed in the massacres is not known and may never be known. Estimates varied widely.42 In January 1966 Colonel Stamboul, an army liaison officer, confided to the British military attaches that the army had no exact idea of the death toll but he estimated 500,000. Others in the army put the figure far higher. Major-General Adjie, the fiercely anti-communist commander of the Siliwangi division in West Java, told the Australian military attaché that nearly two million were killed. Short of hard evidence Western governments were cautious on the scale of the bloodletting. In April 1966 the State Department thought that around 300,000 had died.43 Even so, the violence from October 1965 to January 1966 would still rank as one of the largest mass killings of the twentieth century.

The army-controlled media in Indonesia did not report the massacres. Instead the media stoked up hatred of the communists by portraying them as sadistic murderers, intent on killing their opponents. It alleged that the coup attempt and the murder of the generals had been only the start of the communists’ plans for a reign of terror. Antara reported at the beginning of November that a list had been found in Garut of the names of hundreds of government officials the PKI had planned to kill if the coup had been a success.44 In December the news agency ran a story that Aidit had offered party activists in Java 25 million rupiahs if they murdered more than 1,000 people on a PKI black-list.45

Communist atrocity stories were also a prominent feature in the media.46 In November Antara claimed that Pemuda Rakjat members in Sumatra had kidnapped two youths and tortured them for five days, removing eyes and cutting off hands and testicles, before killing them. Another Pemuda Rakjat gang in Sumatra was alleged to have attacked Muslims praying on the bank of a river and again tortured and murdered them. The moral depravity of the communists was emphasized in other ways: Antara reported on 8 December that Aidit had encouraged the Gerwani and Pemuda Rakjat killers of the generals to take part in ‘delirious sexual orgies’ for six months before the coup.47 In December the Jakarta Daily Mail denounced the communists as ‘mentally and morally perverted creatures who consider slander, abduction, mutilation and murder their way of life’.48 The paper declared that there was no place for the PKI in God-fearing Indonesia and called on people to ‘Cast out this spawn of hell root and branch’. Such demonization of the PKI could only have fuelled the pogrom against the party. This is certainly what Sukarno feared. The Indonesian president tried to protect the communists from the massacres – he constantly called for calm and national unity, condemned the killings and threatened to punish by death those who used force against the PKI.49 He also repeatedly warned the press not to incite the public with inflammatory articles and irresponsible reporting.50 Sukarno and Subandrio both denied stories that the communists had tortured and mutilated the six generals during the coup.51 They pointed out that the general’s death certificates had not mentioned any ‘abnormalities’.

These efforts were in vain though. The army retained control of most of the media and it ensured that Sukarno’s message did not get through to the Indonesian public. Newspapers and Antara frequently failed to publish the text of speeches by the president.52 Other papers, such as the Jakarta Daily Mail, carried commentaries which distorted Sukarno’s remarks, to make them appear to add up to a case for destroying the PKI.53 Sukarno was powerless in the face of the massacres. During the period of repression the West gave covert support to the army. The Western powers had been greatly heartened by the events in Indonesia after 1 October. A real chance had appeared to smash the PKI and perhaps remove Sukarno, and the West was anxious that the army leaders fully seized the opportunity. As both the Australian and American embassies put it in telegrams on 5 October, it was ‘now or never’ for the army.54 The key question was how the West could best encourage and help Suharto and Nasution. Any overt support was likely to be counterproductive as Sukarno and Subandrio would immediately denounce Nekolim interference in Indonesia. The West would therefore have to be circumspect in its approach. For Green the priority was to smear the PKI’s image through propaganda. On 5 October the ambassador had urged Washington to ‘Spread the story of PKI’s guilt, treachery and brutality’, adding that this was ‘perhaps the most needed immediate assistance we can give army if we can find way to do it without identifying it as sole or largely US effort’.55 The State Department agreed. It had already begun a VOA and information programme connecting the PKI to the coup attempt.56 Green appeared satisfied with the results. He cabled Washington on 7 November ‘that VOA doing good job’.57 There are also indications that the CIA carried out covert anti-PKI propaganda after the coup.58

The Australians were also active in this field. After 1 October the Department of External Affairs gave daily guidance to Radio Australia over its broadcasts to Indonesia.59 The Department stressed that Radio Australia should not give information to the Indonesian people that the army-controlled internal media would withhold, such as disavowals by the PKI of responsibility for the coup. Instead the station should highlight reports discrediting the PKI and showing its involvement in the Untung coup attempt. The station seems to have faithfully followed these guidelines, for Keith Shann, the Australian Ambassador in Jakarta, was pleased with Radio Australia’s output, describing it as ‘generally good’.60

For their part the Malaysians tried to blame the putsch on the communists and inflame popular feeling in Indonesia. For example, on 13 October a news commentator on Radio Malaysia read out an editorial from the Beirut newspaper Lissan Al-Hal which claimed that, ‘without the slightest shade of doubt’, the coup was contrived by the PKI.61 He recalled the murder of Naustion’s daughter and ‘the mutilated bodies of the six Muslim generals. who [were] dismembered, cut to small bits and thrown in a well’. Whipping up feelings further, the newsreader said ‘Such atrocities against Muslims cannot but make the blood boil in every Muslim heart . they open every Muslim eye to the dirty work which no communist lackey would hesitate to do whenever the master dictates’. The British were working on similar lines. The Foreign Office hoped to ‘encourage anti-Communist Indonesians to more vigorous action in the hope of crushing Communism in Indonesia altogether’ .62 The Information Research Department would stimulate broadcasts to Indonesia by the BBC, Radio Malaysia, Radio Australia and VOA. It would also try to disseminate propaganda through newspapers read in Indonesia such as the Straits Times. The same anti-PKI message was to be spread by more clandestine outlets, such as a ‘black transmitter’ (presumably Radio Free Indonesia) and ‘IRD’s regular newsletter’, which seems to have been ‘black’ propaganda prepared in Singapore by the Information Research Department’s South East Asia Monitoring Unit.63 Suggested propaganda themes included ‘PKI brutality in murdering Generals and families, Chinese interference, particularly arms shipments, PKI subverting Indonesia as the agents of foreign Communists’.64 On 9 October the Foreign Office reported that it was mounting some ‘short term unattributable ploys designed to keep the Indonesian pot boiling’.65

British propaganda efforts were strengthened by the arrival in November of Norman Reddaway as Political Warfare Coordinator in Singapore. Reddaway received news on the situation in Indonesia from the embassy in Jakarta and from intelligence sources, which seem to have included signals intelligence, as Britain had broken the Indonesian ciphers.66 He would then supply information that suited British purposes to news agencies, newspapers and radio via contacts in Singapore, Kuala Lumpur and Hong Kong. This news would be carried out into the world’s media and return to Indonesia, allowing Britain to influence Indonesian opinion. The reports were designed to damage the communists. A draft Foreign Office brief in late November explained that Britain had been ‘blackening the PKI’s reputation within Indonesia and outside, by feeding into the ordinary publicity media news from Indonesia that associates the PKI and the Chinese with Untung’s treachery plus corresponding covert activity’. Thus, despite some private doubts over communist responsibility for the coup attempt, all four Western powers used the media to pin the blame on the PKI and discredit the party in Indonesia. This propaganda offensive supported the army’s own activities, as the stories on VOA, Radio Malaysia, Radio Australia and the BBC and in the press confirmed the stories in the army-controlled media. The synergy between the two publicity campaigns was not accidental. The British and Americans recycled reports from Radio Jakarta or the army newspapers by broadcasting them back to Indonesia.67 For example, on 5 November the Jakarta Daily Mail claimed that on the day of the coup 100 women from Gerwani had tortured one of the generals by using razor blades and knives to slash his genitals before he was shot.68 In December an Information Research Department official noted that this atrocity story would be included in the South East Asia Monitoring Unit’s propaganda output.69 Furthermore the Indonesian army actively advised the Western powers on the themes they should or should not use in their propaganda. On 2-3 November Indonesian Brigadier-General Sukendro had secret talks in Bangkok with Dato Ghazali Shafie, the Permanent Secretary at the Malaysian Ministry of External Affairs.70 Sukendro said that Radio Malaysia should not give the army ‘too much credit’ or criticize Sukarno but should emphasize PKI atrocities and the party’s role in the coup. Sukendro also asked for help in ‘the character and political assassination’ of Subandrio and offered to send background information on the Foreign Minister which could be used by the Malaysians. On 5 November an Indonesian military contact also approached the Americans and warned them against broadcasts that implied approval of army actions.71 An officer in the army information section told Shann that Radio Australia should never suggest that the army was pro-Western or rightist and should mention other organizations, such as Muslim and youth groups, opposing the PKI.72

As well as using propaganda against the PKI the Western powers helped the army in other ways. The Americans set up a back-channel link to the army leaders through Colonel Willis Ethel, the US Army Attaché in Jakarta, who regularly met with an aide to Naustion. Through this channel the Americans reassured the Indonesian army about British activities and intentions, for although these two groups shared a common interest in the removal of the communists, because of the Confrontation the army was suspicious of Britain.

The mistrust could reach ludicrous levels. In mid-October Nasution’s aide quizzed Ethel about reports of British arms shipments to the PKI and asked whether the coup could have been a plot by Britain and communist China.73 To Washington these bizarre ideas showed the ‘somewhat naïve international view ‘ of the army leaders, but they genuinely seemed to suspect a conspiracy between London and Beijing.74 Ethel had to assure them that Britain had not colluded with the Chinese and the PKI.75

Ethel also gave a broader assurance that Britain would not escalate the Confrontation while the army was dealing with the communists. With the approval of London, on 14 October Ethel told Nasution’s aide that the British did not intend to start any offensive military action.76 In early November the British and Australians reinforced this message.77 Counsellor James Murray promised General Mokoginta, the Commander of Indonesian Armed Forces in Sumatra, that Britain had no intention of stepping up the Confrontation while the army was engaged with the PKI. Gilchrist and Shann said the same thing to Helmi, an Under-Secretary at the Indonesian Ministry of Foreign Affairs who was close to the army. Shann declared that the army ‘would be completely safe in using their forces for whatever purpose they saw fit’.78 The Indonesian army could suppress the communists without worrying about British and Australian operations in the Confrontation. In addition, the Americans secretly gave the army material aid. At the end of October Sukendro asked the US for medical supplies, communications equipment, rice and small arms to support the army’s campaign against the PKI.79 Washington was willing to help but it knew that there were major political risks involved. If American aid was exposed Sukarno and Subandrio would have proof of Nekolim interference in Indonesian internal affairs and this would seriously embarrass both the United States and the army. So the Americans moved carefully. On 12 November the State Department informed the British and Australians that the US had agreed to send $100,000-worth of medical supplies to the Indonesian army via covert channels.80 The 303 Committee also agreed on 19 November to give the army leaders a secure communications system, to maintain contact with each other and with ‘U.S. elements’.81 In interviews in 1981-82 Sukendro confirmed that the US had secretly supplied medicines, radios and small arms through the Bangkok CIA station.82 Money may have been provided as well – in December Green recommended a ‘black bag’ operation giving 50 million rupiahs to Adam Malik, a key figure in KAP-Gestapu, an army-inspired action group that organized anti-PKI demonstrations.83

Finally, the US supplied the army with intelligence.84 The American embassy in Jakarta had compiled lists of names of the PKI leadership and senior cadres and, according to Green, this information was superior to anything held by the Indonesian army. After the coup attempt embassy officials passed on to the army lists of names of known PKI leaders. The army could use this information to round up key communists and dismantle the party structure.

The actions taken by the army in suppressing the communists did seem to trouble the consciences of some of the Western ambassadors in Jakarta. In a telegram to Canberra on 19 December Shann wrote that ‘In many cases the massacre of entire families because one member spoke to the Communists, has occurred. Some of the methods adopted are unspeakable . [It has been] a blood-bath of savage intensity, remarkably unpublicised and locally regarded with a ghoulish cynicism’.85 Gilchrist asked Reddaway in February 1966 ‘What have we to hope from the [Indonesian] generals? 400,000 people murdered, far more than total casualties in Vietnam+nobody cares. “They were communists.” Were they? And are communists not human beings?’86

Yet the massacre of thousands of communists did not affect Western policy.

The logic of the Cold War meant that the army was fulfilling the Western interest by eliminating the PKI and removing the danger of Indonesia falling to communism. The army was also the only means to dispose of Sukarno and end the Confrontation. Therefore, despite distaste for the army’s methods, the West still wanted to support it. The main problem for this policy was not ethical concerns but the fear that overt aid could embarrass the army in its power struggle with Sukaro and Subandrio. On 1-2 December 1965 American, Australian, British and New Zealand officials held secret Quadripartite talks to coordinate policy towards Indonesia.87 The mass killings were not even mentioned. Instead the officials discussed the difficulties in helping the army while Sukarno and Subandrio remained in power. The West still had to take care not to make the army appear to be Nekolim stooges and for this reason it was agreed at the meeting that ‘except for some cautious propaganda (on lines already agreed) we should take no initiative at this moment to help the Generals’.

There was another reason why the West would not offer greater aid, especially economic aid: the army did not seem to want it. In November Sukendro had raised the possibility of the US and Malaysia giving rice, which was in short supply in some areas in Indonesia.88 But by the middle of December the army leaders seemed to have abandoned this idea. On 13 December Malik told Green that there was an urgent need for food and clothing in Indonesia but Suharto and Nasution wanted to let Sukarno and Subandrio ‘stew in their own juice’.89 Economic mismanagement hurt the civilian government, not the army, and if the situation worsened Sukarno and Subandrio would be blamed. Malik advised the US not to give aid yet.

Malik’s prediction about the effects of economic distress soon came true. To try and rescue the floundering economy in mid-December Sukarno’s government devalued the rupiah by an order of 1,000 and then quadrupled fuel prices in early January.90 These harsh fiscal measures provoked mass student protests. An Indonesian Student Action Front, composed mainly of Muslim and nationalist students, organized demonstrations. They linked economic discontent to political protest, demanding not just a reduction in prices but also the removal of left-wing ministers, such as Subandrio, and the formal banning of the PKI. The army gave covert assistance to the students, transporting them to demonstrations and protecting them. The army leaders saw the student protests as a way to undermine Sukarno’s rule and ease him and Subandrio from office.

In their campaign the army and students again received propaganda support from the West. Reddaway reported on 11 February that: We have . stepped up our efforts. The Malaysian black radio is taking our tapes, material written by us in Djakarta is appearing in Middle East Muslim newspapers and being repeated by Radio Malaysia so that Indonesians hear it. The newsletter undoubtedly continues to get through and be read. We pick up anti-Subandrio propaganda circulated within Indonesia and get it published world-wide via news agencies in Hong Kong.91

On 21 February Sukarno tried to reassert his authority by reshuffling his cabinet and sacking Nasution as Defence Minister. But this move backfired. It triggered off even larger student demonstrations, again abetted by the army, and on 11 March troops mounted a show of force outside Sukarno’s palace. Under this pressure Sukarno yielded and he signed a letter of authority handing over executive power to Suharto. Although Sukarno remained nominally in charge real power was now in the hands of the army. The Western allies were delighted with the army’s seizure of power. An American official explained to President Johnson on 12 March that:

It is hard to overestimate the potential significance of the army’s apparent victory over Sukarno (even though the latter remains as a figurehead). Indonesia has more people – and probably more resources – than all of mainland Southeast Asia. It was well on the way to becoming another expansionist Communist state, which would have critically menaced the rear of the whole Western position in mainland Southeast Asia. Now, though the unforeseen can always happen, this trend has been sharply reversed.92

The pro-communist trend had indeed been reversed. During the remainder of 1966 and 1967 Suharto moved methodically to undo all of Sukarno’s policies. He banned the PKI, detained Subandrio, ended Confrontation with Malaysia, rejoined the United Nations and froze relations with communist China. Sukarno was stripped of his remaining powers and died in obscurity.

Indonesia was saved for the West.

The question remains of how far the Western powers were responsible for this outcome. Did Western covert intervention in Indonesia cause the destruction of the PKI and the removal of Sukarno? The origins of the coup attempt in October 1965 remain obscure but on the evidence from currently available American, Australian and British archives it does not seem to have been a Western-inspired or -supported plot. Certainly the West gave covert support to the army after the coup but it appears, as Brands argues, that the indigenous actors were the key to events in Indonesia from October 1965 to March 1966. It was the army that chose to crush the communists and topple Sukarno’s government. While the attitude of the West may have encouraged the army to move against the PKI it probably did not need much encouragement. Nasution, for example, whose daughter had been murdered in the coup, had reasons enough of his own. The United States did help the army by providing radios, medicine, small arms and lists of names and by giving assurances that Britain would not escalate the Confrontation, but this support was not essential to the army’s success.

Western propaganda may have been of more importance in bringing down Sukarno’s regime and in inciting the massacre of the communists. The documentary sources do, for example, corroborate a lot of Lashmar and Oliver’s revelations about British covert propaganda operations in 1965-66. The influence of the West on the anti-communist Terror should not be exaggerated though. The killings were not just political acts in the Cold War, they were also a complex sociological phenomenon and the perpetrators had a wide variety of local motives.93 The PKI had supported land reform in rural areas and this had created bitter resentment between peasant party members and small landlords. Muslims and, in Bali, Hindus were driven by religious fervour to slaughter the atheist communists. The killings sometimes had racial overtones, such as attacks on ethnic Chinese in North Sumatra. In the frenzy of violence people saw a chance to satisfy personal vendettas. Other factors than propaganda drove civilians to murder suspected communists. The killings were not just a reaction to Western propaganda – they were the culmination of years of built up tension and hatred.

It can also be questioned how large the audience for Western propaganda actually was. Australian officials believed that the only about 60 per cent of the adult Indonesian population was literate and the number of newspaper readers was thought to be just 500,000.94 Radio was a more important source of news but the number of listeners was still limited. Radio Indonesia estimated in 1963 that there were 3.5 million radio sets in the country with an effective listenership of 17 million, but this might have been an underestimate, as one radio set could be listened to by a large number in a small village which had no other sources of information.

Of the foreign radio stations Radio Australia was generally agreed to be the most popular, indeed an army officer told the Australians in September 1965 that Radio Australia was more popular than Radio Indonesia.95 It was listened to by the elite – Nasution was said to be a regular listener – and by students, who liked it because it played rock music, which had been officially banned in Indonesia. The BBC Indonesian service had far fewer listeners and was dismissed in an Information Research Department report in June 1965 as being ‘probably only of marginal value’.96 Voice of America suffered from having a weak signal and was difficult to hear.97 Green complained to Washington on 19 October 1965 about the ‘appalling inadequacy of VOA signal to Indonesia’ and called for emergency measures to give a clear reception.98 Radio Malaysia was audible, but in the opinion of Gilchrist it was not trusted by Indonesians and therefore had no great influence.99 The audiences of the West’s covert propaganda outlets are impossible to gauge, but judging by the relatively few newspaper readers and radio listeners in Indonesia, Western propaganda may have only been able to reach and affect a limited number of people.

Nevertheless, there are signs that Western propaganda may have had an impact. The Indonesian government seemed to notice the propaganda campaign and feel threatened by it. In a speech in January 1966 Sukarno declared those unhappy with his leadership should say so openly and ‘not carry out campaigns of secret slander inspired by Nekolim to bring about his downfall’ .100 In February an editorial in the Indonesian Herald newspaper, which acted as the mouthpiece for Subandrio’s Foreign Ministry, warned of a ‘Necolim psywar’ being used to ‘subdue our revolution’.101

On the other side, British officials believed that their propaganda had been effective. Gilchrist wrote in April 1966 that military and political propaganda pressure on Indonesia ‘has had no small effect in breaking up the Soekarno regime’.102 Reportedly, Sir John Grandy, the British Commander in Chief in the Far East, thought Reddaway’s propaganda work ‘made an outstanding contribution to the campaign against the Indonesians’.103

The explanations ordinary Indonesians gave for the massacres also appeared to show the influence of propaganda. Western journalists travelling in Java and Bali in the spring and summer of 1966 observed that people repeatedly justified the killings as self-defence. Seymour Topping wrote in the New York Times that ‘Many Indonesians say bluntly “It was them or us”‘.104 He heard rumours in the towns of the PKI digging mass graves prior to the coup and PKI files naming high-ranking army officers, local officials and religious leaders that were to be executed. Stanley Karnow reported in the Washington Post that ‘Everywhere . people sought to justify the destruction of the Communists with the same phrase “If we hadn’t done it to them they would have done it to us”‘.105 He believed this pervasive attitude was largely due to the ‘the brutal fashion in which the Communists murdered [the] six army generals’. Dennis Warner, quoted an Indonesian in The Sydney Morning Herald as saying ‘I think the murder of the generals and Nasution’s daughter had such an impact on us all, especially when we learnt what was in store for the rest of us, that no one had any sympathy for the PKI’.106

Clearly, some of the themes of the propaganda campaign are present here but there is a difficulty in separating out the effects of internal army propaganda from Western propaganda, as both were conveying the same message. It is likely that Western propaganda played a secondary, supporting role. The news coming from abroad would have confirmed the stories Indonesians were hearing at home – that the PKI had masterminded the coup, that communist women tortured and murdered the six generals, that the communists had planned to massacre their enemies. Western propaganda helped build up the picture of the communists as menacing, bloodthirsty killers that needed to be eradicated. The impact of this campaign was to dehumanize the communists and make it easier to murder them. As one Indonesian civilian, who executed 18 communists, put it to a journalist in 1966 ‘I did not kill people. I killed wild animals’.107 To this extent Western covert intervention may have encouraged the massacres in Indonesia in the winter of 1965-66.

Notes

1. Scott, ‘The United States and the Overthrow of Sukarno’
2, Scott, ‘The United States and the Overthrow of Sukarno’, 239
3. Brands, ‘The Limits of Manipulation’
4. Brands, ‘The Limits of Manipulation’, 787.
5. Lashmar and Oliver, Britain’s Secret Propaganda War, 1-10.
6. Lashmar and Oliver, Britain’s Secret Propaganda War, 1.
7. Lashmar and Oliver allege that in 1962 the British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan and the American President John Kennedy secretly agreed to ‘liquidate’ Sukarno. This allegation was recently repeated in Blum, Killing Hope. The original basis for this claim is a partially declassified CIA document, Declassified Documents Referencing Service (DDRS), British Library of Political and Economic Science, 1975, Item 240A, CIA Report CS-3/522,563, 17 September 1962. In this document the writer does claim that Macmillan and Kennedy had agreed to liquidate Sukarno. However, although the document has been partially sanitized, it is fairly clear that it is a report from an Indonesian diplomat or intelligence officer which had been obtained by the CIA (the writer tells a Pakistani diplomat that Pakistan should leave the Western bloc and become neutralist; he interchangeably refers to Indonesia and ‘we’ buying parachutes from Pakistan). Furthermore the writer’s claim about the Kennedy-Macmillan plot is, by his own admission, based on ‘impressions I have received in conversations with Western diplomats’ and not on hard evidence. The document might illustrate Indonesian fears about Western intentions but it offers no proof of an Anglo-American plot in 1962 to liquidate Sukarno.
8. The National Archives (TNA) (Public Records Office) CAB 148/19 OPD(65)25, 26 January 1965; National Intelligence Memorandum NIE 54/55-65, 1 July 1965, FRUS, Indonesia 1964-68, vol. 26, 270-71.
9. Easter, ‘British and Malaysian Covert Support’.
10. Easter, ‘British Intelligence and Propaganda’.
11. TNA FO 1101/1, Minute ‘War of nerves Indonesia’, not dated.
12. Easter, ‘British Intelligence and Propaganda’ , 93-4.
13. TNA FO 371/187587, Minute Stanley to Edmonds, 17 June 1966; TNA FO 371/181530, Telegram 2645 Commonwealth Relations Office (CRO) to Kuala Lumpur, 19 October 1965.
14. TNA DEFE 28/144, Minute Drew to PS/Minister, 19 December 1963; TNA FO 953/2140, Telegram 2380 Kuala Lumpur to CRO, 25 October 1963.
15. Political Action Paper, 19 November 1964; Memorandum for 303 Committee, 23 February 1965, FRUS, ‘Indonesia’, 181-84; 234-37.
16. Memorandum for 303 Committee, 23 February 1965, FRUS, ‘Indonesia’, 234-7.
17. TNA FO 371/180337, Despatch 10342/65 Stewart to Peck, 26 April 1965.
18. Report from Ambassador Ellsworth Bunker to President Johnson, not dated, FRUS, ‘Indonesia’, 256.
19. National Archives of Australia (NAA) A1838/555/1/9/1 Part 1, ‘Overseas broadcasts to Indonesia. Discussions with United States’ officials’, Canberra 3-4 August 1965, not dated; Bunnell, ‘American “Low Posture” Policy towards Indonesia’.
20. NAA A1838/555/1/9/1 Part 1, Telegram 2122 Washington to Department of External Affairs (DEA), 22 June 1965.
21. NAA A1838/555/1/9/1 Part 1, ‘Overseas Broadcasts to Indonesia. Discussions with United States’ Officials’, Canberra 3-4 August 1965, not dated.
22. For an examination of the different theories see Crouch, The Army and Politics in Indonesia, 97-134, and Elson, Suharto, 110-18.
23. DDRS, Retrospective Collection, Item 605D, Telegram 800 Jakarta to Washington, 1 October 1965; NAA A6364/4 JA 1965/07, Telegram 1149, Jakarta to Canberra, 1 October 1965; TNA FO 371/180317, Gilchrist to Foreign Office (FO), 3 October 1965.
24. FRUS, ‘Indonesia’, 301 footnote.
25. TNA FO 371/180317, Telegram Guidance 398 CRO to Kuala Lumpur, 4 October 1965; NAA A1838/3034/2/18/8 Part 1, Telegram 3445 Washington to DEA, 4 October 1965.
26. DDRS, Retrospective Collection, Item 29C, CIA Office of Central Intelligence, OCI No 2342/65, 28 October 1965.
27. NAA A1838/3034/2/1/8 Part 1, Telegram 3445 Washington to DEA, 4 October 1965; Telegram 3442 Washington to DEA, 4 October 1965.
28. TNA FO 371/180320, Despatch DH1015/2/5 Gilchrist to Stewart, 19 October 1965.
29. NAA A1838/3034/2/1/8 Part 7, Note ‘Indonesia, PKI Responsibility for the Attempted Coup’, 9 December 1965.
30. Telegram 1184 Jakarta to State Dept, 26 October 1965, FRUS, ‘Indonesia’, 335-7.
31. DDRS Retrospective Collection, Item 28E, Telegram CIA/OCI 12980 Jakarta to Washington, 6 October 1965; Retrospective Collection, Item 29A, Telegram CIA/OCI 13185 Jakarta to Washington, 8 October 1965.
32. NAA A1838/3034/2/1/8 Part 1, Telegram 1156 Shann to DEA, 2 October 1965; NAA A1838/3034/2/1/8 Part 2, UPI report 274, 11 October 1965; NAA A6364/JA1965/015 Political Savingram 52, Jakarta to DEA, 15 October 1965; TNA FO 371/180317, Telegram 2083 Gilchrist to FO, 8 October 1965.
33. NAA A1838/3034/2/1/8 Part 1, Telegram 1169 Jakarta to DEA, 5 October 1965.
34. TNA FO 371/180317, Telegram 2061 Gilchrist to FO, 6 October 1965.
35. Anderson, ‘How did the Generals Die?’
36. Anderson, ‘How did the Generals Die?’. Simons, Indonesia: The Long Oppression, 173-4.
37. NAA A1838/3034/2/1/8 Part 5, Record of a conversation with Marietta Smith, 9 November 1965.
38. DDRS Retrospective Collection, Item 615C, Telegram 171 Surabaya to Jakarta, 14 November 1965.
39. TNA FO 371/180325, Letter by Charney, 24 November 1965.
40. Lyndon Johnson National Security Files (NSF), Kings College, London, Reel 8 634-6, Telegram 1814 Jakarta to State Dept, 21 December 1965; Sydney Morning Herald, 30 December 1965.
41. NAA A1838/3034/2/1/8 Part 11, Despatch Starey to DEA, 25 February 1966.
42. NAA A1838/3034/1 Part 2, Visit to Indonesian Military Establishments 20-27 June 1966 by Warner, 30 June 1966. TNA FO 371/186027, Despatch 1011/66 Jakarta to FO, 13 January 1966.
43. NAA A1838/3034/2/1/8 Part 13 Memo No 601/66 Birch to DEA, 19 April 1966.
44. TNA FO 371/180322, Telegram 2426 Jakarta to FO, 3 November 1965.
45. NAA A1838/3034/2/1/8 Part 8, UPI report 284, 18 December 1965.
46. TNA FO 371/180323, Cambridge to Tonkin, 9 November 1965; Telegram 2528 Gilchrist to FO, 13 November 1965.
47. NAA A1838/3034/2/1/8 Part 7, UPI report 264, 8 December 1965; UPI report 265, 8 December 1965.
48. TNA FO 371/180325, Jakarta Daily Mail, 11 December 1965.
49. NAA A1209/1965/6674 Part 1, Telegram 1278 Jakarta to DEA, 22 October 1965; Telegram 1294 Jakarta to DEA, 26 October 1965; NAA A1838/3034/2/1/8 Part 8, UPI report 10, 17 December 1965.
50. NAA A1838/3034/2/1/8 Part 5, UPI report 96, 10 November 1965; NAA A6364/JA1965/015, Savingram 59, Jakarta to DEA, 25 November 1965.
51. NAA A1838/3006/4/9 Part 30, Interview Subandrio and Hastings, 15 December 1965; NAA A6364/JA1965/015, Savingram 62 Jakarta to DEA, 17 December 1965.
52. DDRS Retrospective Collection, Item 611C, Telegram 1195 Jakarta to State Dept, 25 October 1965; NAA A1838/3034/2/1 Part 48, Macdonnell to Ottawa, 18 November 1965.
53. NAA A6364/JA1965/015, Savingram 64 Jakarta to DEA, 23 December 1965.
54. DDRS Retrospective Collection, Item 28C, Telegram CIA/OCI 12848 Jakarta to Washington, 5 October 1965; NAA A1838/3034/2/1/8 Part 1, Telegram 1172, Shann to DEA, 5 October 1965.
55. Telegram 868 Green to State Dept, 5 October 1965, FRUS, ‘Indonesia’” 307-8.
56. Telegram 400 State Dept to Jakarta, 6 October 1965, FRUS, ‘Indonesia’, 308-10.
57. DDRS Retrospective Collection, Item 613A, Telegram 1353 Jakarta to State Dept, 7 November 1965.
58. McGehee, Deadly Deceits , 57-8.
59. NAA A1838/3034/2/1/8 Part 3, Minute Hay to Minister, 18 October 1965.
60. NAA A1838/3034/2/1/8 Part 3, Minute Hay to Minister, 18 October 1965; Najjarine and Cottle, ‘The Department of External Affairs’
61. TNA FO 371/180320, Radio Malaysia 2140 hours News Commentary, 13 October 1965.
62. TNA DEFE 25/170, Telegram 1863 FO to Singapore, 8 October 1965.
63. TNA FO 371/187587, Adams to de la Mare, attached diagram, 2 June 1966.
64. TNA FO 371/181455, Telegram 2679 CRO to Canberra, 13 October 1965.
65. TNA FO 371/181530, Telegram 1460 Stanley to Reddaway, 9 October 1965.
66. Easter, ‘British Intelligence and Propaganda’ , 85; TNA FO1101/5, Minute Reddaway to Tovey, 30 October 1965.
67. TNA FO 371/181455, Minute Stanley to Cable, 7 October 1965; Telegram 2679 CRO to Canberra, 13 October 1965.
68. TNA FO 371/180324, Despatch DH 1015/311 Jakarta to FO, 22 November 1965.
69. TNA FO 371/180324, Minute by Weilland, 22 December 1965.
70. TNA FO 371/181457, Record of meeting between Ghazali and Sukendro on 2-3 November 1965, 10 November 1965.
71. Lyndon Johnson NSF, Reel 8, 338-9, Telegram 1357 Jakarta to Washington, 5 November 1965.
72. NAA A6364/JA1965/10, Telegram 1340 Shann to Canberra, 5 November 1965.
73. DDRS Retrospective Collection, Item 610B, Telegram 497 State Dept to Jakarta, 21 October 1965; Johnson NSF, Reel 8, 251-2, Telegram 1139 Jakarta to State Dept, 22 October 1965.
74. Intelligence Memorandum OCI No 2942/65, 18 November 1965, FRUS, ‘Indonesia’, 372.
75. DDRS Retrospective Collection, Item 611D, Telegram 526 State Dept to Jakarta, 26 October 1965; Johnson NSF Reel 8, 288-289, Telegram 1201, Jakarta to State Dept, 26 October 1965.
76. Telegram unnumbered, Jakarta to State Dept, 10 October 1965; Telegram 1006 Jakarta to State Dept, 14 October 1965, FRUS, ‘Indonesia’, 317-18; 321-2.
77. TNA FO 371/181457, Record of Conversation with General Mokoginta by James Murray, 9 November 1965; Telegram 2509 Gilchrist to FO, 12 November 1965.
78. NAA A6364/JA1965/10, Telegram 1383 Shann to DEA, 12 November 1965.
79. Telegram 1288 Jakarta to State Dept, 1 November 1965, FRUS, ‘Indonesia’, 345-7.
80. Telegram 749 State Dept to Bangkok, 4 November 1965; Telegram 951 Bangkok to State Dept, 11 November 1965, FRUS, ‘Indonesia’, 357-8; 364-6.
81. Memorandum for 303 Committee, 17 November 1965, FRUS, ‘Indonesia’, 368-71.
82. Bunnell, ‘American “Low Posture” Policy towards Indonesia’, 59, footnote. On the supply of radios see also a letter from the journalist Kathy Kadane to the Editor, New York Review of Books, 10 April 1997.
83. Telegram 1628 Jakarta to State Dept, 2 December 1965, FRUS, ‘Indonesia’, 379-80.
84. Editorial Note, FRUS, ‘Indonesia’, 386-7; Article by Kathy Kadane in San Francisco Examiner, 20 May 1990.
85. NAA A6364/JA1965/10, Telegram 1503 Jakarta to DEA, 19 December 1965.
86. TNA FO 1101/30, Gilchrist to Reddaway, 9 February 1966.
87. NAA A1209/1968/9055, Memorandum by Eastman for DEA, 9 December 1966.
88. TNA FO 371/181457, Record of meeting Ghazali and Sukendro on 2-3 November 1965, 10 November 1965; Telegram 1288 Jakarta to State Dept, 1 November 1965, FRUS, ‘Indonesia’, 345-7.
89. NAA A1838 3034/2/1/8 Part 8, Telegram 8 Washington to DEA, 4 January 1966; Memorandum of conversation, 14 February 1966, FRUS, ‘Indonesia’, 399-401.
90. NAA A1838 3034/2/1/8 Part 7, UPI report 284, 14 December 1965. NAA A1838 3034/2/1/8 Part 8, UPI report 230, 4 January 1966.
91. TNA FO 1101/23, Minute by Reddaway, 11 February 1966. Reddaway’s comments suggest that the editorial in Lissan Al-Hal broadcast by Radio Malaysia on 13 October 1965 may have been British-inspired.
92. Memorandum Komer to Johnson, 12 March 1966, FRUS, ‘Indonesia’, 419.
93. Cribb, The Indonesian Killings 1965-1966
94. NAA A1838/3034/1 Part 2, ‘Head of Mission Meeting, Bangkok, December 1965, Indonesia’, not dated. NAA A1838/570/5/1/4 Part 1, Upton to DEA, not dated.
95. NAA A1838/555/1/9 Part 2, Conversation Sofjan and Jackson, 21 September 1965; NAA A1838/555/1/9/1 Part 1, Memorandum ‘Radio Australia Indonesian Audience’, by Barnett, not dated; TNA FO1101/1, Gilchrist to Reddaway, 11 August 1965.
96. TNA FO1101/1, Report by Drinkall, 3 June 1965. Audience figures were assessed by the number of letters the station received from Indonesian listeners. While Radio Australia received 16,000 letters a month, the BBC Indonesia service received 4,000 letters a year. NAA A1838 555/1/9 Part 2, Memorandum ‘Australian information policy towards Indonesia’, not dated; TNA FO1101/11, Reddaway to Commander in Chief, 3 March 1966.
97. NAA A1838/555/1/9/1 Part 1, Telegram 2069 Washington to DEA, 17 June 1965.
98. DDRS Retrospective Collection, Item 609G, Telegram 1086 Jakarta to State Dept, 19 October 1965.
99. TNA FO1101/1, Gilchrist to Reddaway, 11 August 1965.
100. NAA A1838/3034/2/1/8 Part 9, Savingram 3 Jakarta to DEA, 19 January 1965.
101. TNA FO1101/23, Indonesian Herald, 3 February 1966.
102. TNA FO 371/186044, Despatch 5 Gilchrist to Stewart, 12 April 1966.
103. TNA FO 1101/32, Telegram 205 POLAD Singapore to Bangkok, 26 September 1966.
104. New York Times, 24 August 1966.
105. Washington Post, 16 April 1966.
106. Sydney Morning Herald, 15 June 1966.
107. The Australian, 22 April 1966.

References
Anderson B. How Did the Generals Die?, Indonesia, 43 (1987) 109-34.
Brands H.W. The Limits of Manipulation: How the United States didn’t Topple Sukarno, Journal of American History, 76(3) (1989) 785-808.
Blum William Killing Hope: US Military and CIA Interventions since World War 2. London: Zed Books (2003).
Bunnell F. American “Low Posture” Policy towards Indonesia in the Months
Leading Up to the 1965 Coup, Indonesia, 50 (1990) 29-60.
Cribb R. The Indonesian Killings 1965-1966: Studies from Java and Bali.
Clayton: Centre of Southeast Asian Studies, Monash University (1991).
Crouch Harold The Army and Politics in Indonesia. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press (1978).
Easter David, British and Malaysian Covert Support for Rebel Movements in Indonesia during the “Confrontation”, 1963-66, The Clandestine Cold War in Asia 1945-65, R. Aldrich, G. Rawnsley and M. Rawnsley. London: Frank Cass (2000) 195-208.
British Intelligence and Propaganda during the “Confrontation”1963-66, Intelligence and National Security, 16(2) (2001) 83-102.
Elson R. Suharto: A Political Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (2001).
Lashmar Paul and Oliver James. Britain’s Secret Propaganda War. Stroud: Sutton Publishing (1998).
McGehee R. Deadly Deceits: My 25 Years in the CIA. New York: Sheridan Square Press (1983).
Najjarine K. and D. Cottle. The Department of External Affairs, the ABC and Reporting of the Indonesian Crisis 1965-1969, Australian Journal of Politics and History, 49(1) (2003) 48-60.
Scott Paul The United States and the Overthrow of Sukarno, 1965-67, Pacific Affairs, 58(2) (1985) 239-64.
Simons G. Indonesia: The Long Oppression. Basingstoke: Macmillan (2000).
TNA FO, 371/181457, Minute Stanley to Peck, 25 November 1965.
US Senate Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS). Indonesia 1964-68, vol. 26. Washington: United States

Government Printing Office (2001).

 
 

KISI INFO Indonesia 1970(bersambung)

KOLEKSI SEJARAH INDONESIA

1970

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Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

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APRIL 1970

 

SURAT TERBUKA NY. RATNA SARI DEWI SOEKARNO KEPADA SOEHARTO (TERJEMAHAN BEBAS DARI VRIJ NEDERLAND)

Tuan Presiden Suharto

Bersama ini saya ingin mengingatkan Tuan terhadap segala sesuatu yang nampaknya oleh Tuan akan dilupakan. Hal hal yang akan dikemukakan ini saya anggap sebagai kewajiban bagi saya untuk menjelaskannya secara benar karena saya justru mengikuti peristiwa-peristiwa di In­donesia itu dari dekat.

Barangkali sementara orang akan berpendapat akan lebih baik kalau saya diam seribu bahasa seperti Sphinks (arca batu di Mesir) daiam hal ini. Akan tetapi karena saya tanggung jawab maka saya harus melakukan hal ini biar membawa resiko betapapun besrnya terhadap diri saya. Inipun karena makin lama di seluruh dunia maupun di Indonesia sendiri banyak tersebar cerita-cerita palsu yang disebarkan tentang peristiwa-peristiwa di Indonesia itu sehingga membeberkan keadaan yang sebenarnya itu merupakan kewajiban saya.

Karena itulah saya kirimkan surat terbuka ini kepada Tuan dalam kedudukan saya sebagai warga negara Indonesia. Selain itu surat terbuka yang saya kirimkan kepada tuan ini termasuk segala isinya adalah sepenuhnya tanggung jawab saya dan tidak ada sangkut pautnya dengan Soekarno, Presiden Republik Indonesia yang terdahulu.

Sebenarnya agaknya sudah terlambat untuk mempersoalkan kembali tentang para Perwira yang telah dinyatakan sebagai “kontra revolusi” atau pemberontak pemberontak terhadap Negara dimana mereka telah sama dihukum mati.

Selama ini saya selalu berpendirian tidak sependapat dengan adanya dalil bahwa ” yang berkuasa itu selalu benar” (power can do no wrong). Sikap inipun sama sewaktu Presiden Soekarno berkuasa Saya berpendapat bahwa seorang Kepala Negara itu mesti dikerumuni oleh orang orang yang mendukungnya. Begitu juga halnya dengan Tuan bahwa di sekeliling Tuan itu banyak orang-orang berkerumun yang pada umumnya tidak berani membuka mulutnya berpura-pura taat dan tunduk bahkan ada yang menjilat yang pada hakekatnya mereka bertujuan untuk mendapatkan kesempatan berkuasa lebih banyak Karena itulah apa yang sebenarnya terjadi di sekitar Tuan sulit akan terungkap.

Pertama-tama dalam surat terbuka saya ini saya ingin mengemukakan apa yang disebut “proses” dimana banyak orang telah dibunuh karena dituduh melakukan kejahatan terhadap Negara. “proses” ini yang sebenamya terjadi di luar norma-norma Hukum dan Keadilan lebih tepat untuk disebut “teror dan kekerasan”

Dan mereka orang-orang yang tidak puas dan tidak mau bicara sewaktu kekuasaan Soekarno maka setelah situasi berubah lalu bersikap tidak bertanggung jawab dan turut serta melakukan pembunuhan dan teror. Dalam hal ini Tuan telah membiarkahnya. Andai kata nanti pada suatu ketika kedudukan Tuan diganti oleh orang lain sudah tentu akan terjadi hal yang sama dimana pembantu-pembantu Tuan yang penting sipil maupun militer termasuk mungkin Tuan sendiri akan mendapat perlakuan yang sama di mana mereka dituduh dan dituntut dengan hukuman mati dengan berbagai dalih misal “karena melakukan korupsi”

Dalam hubungan ini saya ingin bertanya kepada Tuan : “Mengapa Tuan membiarkan dan memberi kesempatan semua itu berlalu yang dapat menjadi contoh (preseden) jelek bagi suatu Negara yang masih muda dan rakyatnya sedang berkembang yaitu Indonesia ?”

Bukan maksud saya untuk mencela kebijaksanaan politik yang Tuan lakukan. Akan tetapi perhatian tertumpah kepada mereka yang dibunuh dan diteror dengan memakai dalih “pembersihan terhadap golongan merah” sejak peristiwa G 30 S itu terjadi. Padahal kebanyakan dari mereka itu hanyalah pengikut-pengikut Soekarno yang tidak tahu menahu tentang peristiwa G 30 S.

Bahkan saya memperoleh berita bahwa tidak kurang dari 800.000 Rakyat Indonesia yang telah terbunuh diantaranya trdapat kaum wanita dan anak-anak karena hanya sebagai simpatisan PKI.

Harian”London Times” membuat berita pada Januari 1966 sebagai berikut “Bahkan sejak pecahnya peristiwa G 30 S itu dalam 3 bulan telah ratusan ribu kaum komunis yang dibunuh jumlah mana menurut para diplomat barat angka tersebut masih terlalu rendah.

Sementara itu menurut sementara pengusaha-pengusaha dan turis-turis dari Eropa yang pulang dari Indonesia mengatakan bahwa pembunuhan dan teror itu begitu hebatnya sehingga mereka melihat sementara di sungai-sungai penuh dengan hanyutnya mayat- mayat tanpa kepala dan sementara anak-anak di desa-desa katanya bermain sepak bola dengan kepala-kepala manusia yang terbunuh. Pokoknya dalam tempo 3 bulan sesudah peristiwa G 30 S itu situasi di Indonesia dicekam dengan ketakutan dan ketegangan dimana banyak darah mengalir yang belum pernah terjadi dalam sejarah bangsa Indonesia.

Seorang wartawan dari “Washington Post” memberitakan dari Jakarta bahwa di Jawa Timur saja telah terbunuh 250.000 orang, demikian menurut sumber dari golongan Islam. Lebih lanjut “Washington Post” memberitakan bahwa puncak pembunuhan dan teror itu pada bulan November 1965. Kepala-kepala manusia telah dijadikan hiasan (decorasi) pada suatu jembatan. Di tempat lain orang melihat bahwa mayat-mayat tanpa kepala dihanyutkan di sungai-sungai di atas rakit dalam deretan yang panjang. Sungai bengawan Solo yang indah permai ketika itu penuh dengan mayat-mayat sehingga di sementara tempat kadang-kadang airnya tidak terlihat tertutup oleh mayat-mayat itu. Sungai-sungai itu airnya menjadi merah karena darah Rakyat.Pokoknya ketika itu Indonesia seperti neraka demikian tulis Washington Post.

Sementara itu harian Inggris “Economist” memperkirakan bahwa korban yang jatuh karena pembunuhan dan teror itu mencapai 1.000.000 orang.

Saya ingin bertanya kepada Tuan: mengapa pertumpahan darah itu sampai terjadi atas mereka yang belum tentu berdosa? Dan mengapa masyarakat dunia diam seribu bahasa ? Padahal dipihak lain kalau seorang manusia terbunuh di sepanjang tembok Berlin saja, maka seluruh dunia Barat

ramai dan geger. Tapi mengapa dunia Barat itu diam dimana 800.000 Bangsa Asia (Indonesia) telah dibunuh dan diteror dengan darah dingin, bahkanan dalam situasi Dunia sedang damai??

Saya tahu pasti bahwa diantara yang terbunuh itu ada orang komunis. Tapi apa artinya kemerdekaan dan hak azasi manusia kalau Tuan membenarkan pembunuhan besar-besaran itu sekedar karena mereka melakukan gerakan di bawah tan ah yang tidak diketahui oleh Pemerintah Tuan ?

Sebenamya Tuan akan lebih bijaksana kalau Tuan mengambil langkah-langkah pencegahan terjadinya pembunuhan besar-besaran itu sebelunm PK.I dinyatakan dilarang oleh undang-undang.

Akan tetapi Tuan ternyata tidak berbuat demikian dan hal ini dianggap sebagai pelanggaran terhadap hal-hal azasi manusia dan Tuan tidak mendapatkan respek. Lepas dari ideologi apa yang sudah terjadi itu merupakan “kejahatan nasional”
Tuan Suharto.

Meskipun Tuan akan menolak dengan berbagai dalih untuk bertindak dan mencegah terhadap “kejahtan nasional” yang telah berlangsung itu – dimana telah ratusan ribu orang tak berdaya telah dibantai- bagaimanapun saya juga bersikap tidak membenarkan bahkan mengutuk peristiwa itu. Bukankah telah menjadi kenyataan bahwa pemerintah Orde Baru yang Tuan pimpin memakai slogan demi “penumpasan terhadap PKI”? Ataukah Tuan amat kuatir kalau kekuasaan Soekarno bangkit kembali beserta pendukung- pendukungnya karena Tuan tahu pasti bahwa lebih dari 50 % Rakyat Indonesia itu masih setia pada Soekano? Hal ini pasti Tuan tidak lupa bukan ? Ataukah barangkali Tuan berpendapat bahwa peristiwa G 30 S itu sudah lampau dan harus dilupakan? Bagi saya hal itu bukan soal. Akan tetapi yang menjadi masalah: masih terlalu banyak hal-hal dan pertanyaan-pertanyaan yang tidak terjawab dan bahkan sengaja disembunyikan walaupun begitu saya masih merasa beruntung dan bangga bahwa saya dalam peristiwa 1965 itu tahu dari dekat dan mendapat pelajaran yang bermanfaat. Bahwa fakta-fakta yang benar dalam sejarah itu kadang-kadang memang diputar balikkan oleh karena mereka yang berkuasa dengan maksud untuk kepentingan atau keuntungan tujuan politknya. Begitu juga dengan berita-berita dalam pers (koran-koran) telah dibuat demikian rupa oleh penguasa sebagai suatu Propaganda untuk kepentingan politik pemerintah.

Sebagai misal yang paling mudah kita ambil contoh peristiwa G 30 S. Peristiwa ini sebenamya trjadi pada tanggal l Oktober 1965 dinihari yang didukung oleh dewan revolusi dengan dipimpin oleh salah seorang perwira penanggung jawab pengawal istana Presiden Soekarno yaitu Letnan Kolonel Untung. Pengumuman dewan revolusi itu berbunyi sebagai berikut:

“Sekelompok (grup) Jenderal merencanakan untuk mengambil oper kekuasaan (coup) dari Pemerintah Presiden Soekarno dan beliau akan dibunuh. Mereka membentuk dewan Jenderal dengan tujuan untuk membentuk kekuasaan Militer. Rencana coup tersebut akan dilakukan pada HUT ABRI tanggal 5 Oktober 1965 yang akan datang. Untuk mencegah itu maka dewan revolusi mendahului mengambil langkah dengan menangkap 6 Jenderal diantaranya Jenderal A Yani,

Dalam hal ini Tuan temyata telah meyakinkan orang banyak (menfitnah) dengan melancarkan berita bahwa G 30 S itu dilakukan oleh PKI. Hal ini jelas tidak benar. Bukankah yang melakukan gerakan ini adalah orang-orang militer? Dan saya meragukan kalau mereka yang melakukan gerakan itu orang komunis.

Saya ingin bertanya kepada Tuan lalu siapakali yang berbuat menyebarkan isyu sehingga timbul situasi dimana masa dibakar dan digerakkan. dengan menuduh G 30 S itu didalangi oleh PKI ?

Menteri Pertahanan sendiri yaitu Jenderal Nasution sebagai salah seorang anggauta Dewan Jenderal yang menunrt rencana seharusnya juga ditangkap oleh gerakan G 30 S telah berkata pada upacara penguburan 6 Jenderal yang terbunuh itu pada HUT ABRI tanggai 5 Oktber 1965 sebagai berikut:

“Sampai hari ini pun HUT ABRI kita masih tetap penuh khitmat dan kebanggaan meskipun ditandai oleh peristiwa yang merupakan noda bagi kita ABRI. Yaitu bahwa telah terjadi suatu fitnah dan pengkhianatan serta kekejaman atas perwira-perwira tinggi kita. Walaupun bagitu saudara saudara kita yang menjadi korban itu adalah tetap merupakan pahlawan-pahlawan di hati kita Bangsa Indonesia. Yang pada akhirnya nanti kebenaran pasti akan menang meskipun kita telah diftnah oleh pengkhianat-pengkhinat int. Hal mana pada waktunya nanti kita akan memperhitungkannya.”

Dalam pidato Jenderal Nasution itu sama sekali tidak nampak ada kesan bahwa terbunuhnya 6 Jenderal itu telah didukung apalagi dilakukan oleh PKI. Bahkan sebaliknya dari kalimat-kalimat yg diucapkan oleh Jenderal Nasution itu jelas, bahwa peristiwa G 30S itu adalah akibat pertentangan yg ada di kalangan ABRI sendiri.

Tuan Suharto – dapatkah saya bertanya kepada Tuan, siapakan yang dimaksud dengan kata-kata Nasution “fitnah dan pengkhianat pengkhianat” itu dan apakah yang dimaksud dengan kalimat “kita akan memperhitungkan mereka”.

Sebenarnya yang penting diperhitungkan dalam peristiwa itu adaiah: siapa dan apa tujuan dari 50 orang “yang bersegam seperti pengawal Presiden Soekarno” itu. Dan ketika mereka menyerbu rumah dan kediaman Jenderal Nasution dengan senjata lengkap diketahui jelas oleh beliau bahwa mereka itu (penyerbu) adalah mereka yang dikenal sebagai orang-orang yang anti komunis. Justru karena mereka tidak kenal Jenderal itulah maka mereka menyangka Letnan Tendean sebagai Komandan Jaga dikira Jenderal Nasution dan terus menembaknya.

Dari fakta ini jelas menurut penilaian saya bahwa andaikata para penyerbu itu benar-benar pengawal Presidcn Soekarno pasti mereka akan tahu dan kenal betul pada Jenderal Nasution. Jadi tidak masuk akal pula kalau para penyerbu itu adalah orang-orang komunis yang mendapat tugas khusus tidak akan kenal pada Jenderal Nasution sehingga terjadi kegagalan itu.

Apakah Tuan tahu – bahwa banyak orang di Indonesia ini telah membicarakan bahwa timbul tanda tanya yang besar yang penuh prasangka kepada Tuan.

Yalah: mengapa Tuan sebagai komandan tertinggi pada Kostrad justru malah tidak diserbu untuk dibnnuh dengan dalih katanya”karena mereka (penyerbu) tidak tahu alamat Tuan”? Dan yang menarik perhatian lagi – justru Tuanlah yang pada tanggal l Oktober 1965 pada dinihari sudah memainkan peranan dan ambil oper pimpinan ABRI dengan memberikan perintah-perintah sehingga dengan mudah sekali Tuan telah bisa menguasai dan menumpas Dewan Revolusi dalam waktu yang singkat.

Setelah Presiden Soekarno kehilangan Jenderal A. Yani maka beliau terus mengangkat Tuan sebagai Menteri Hankam, sekaligus sebagai Pangab ABRI. Ini terjadi pada tanggai 14 Oktober 1965 dimana Presiden Soekarno pada pengangkatan Tuan itu telah berpesan sebagai berikut:

“Adalah mendesak sekali agar keamanan dan ketertibann harus segera dipulihkan agar terciptanya keadaan, dimana emosi dari golongan kiri maupun golongan kanan dapat ditenangkan dan dikendalikan, sehingga peristiwa G 30 S itu dapat diselesaikan sambil kita mempelajari segala sesuatunya yang berkaitan dengan peristiwa tersebut. Kejadian itu tidak akan menenangkan saya

sebelum segala sesuatunya jelas siapa yg bertanggung jawab entah dari pihak manapun, entah merah, hijau ataupun kuning”

Dengan demikian menjadi jelas bahwa Tuan memikul tugas yang diberikan olch Presiden Soekarno untuk menghimpun segala data sekitar peristiwa G 30 S itu dan seharusnya Tuan segera memulai dengan penyelidikan dan pengusutan yang harus dilaporkan pada Presiden Soekarno. Akan tetapi Tuan ternyata tidak mentaati perintah-perintah itu bahkan Tuan telah memberikan tafsiran sendiri dan berkata:: “Sekarang saya sudah memperoleh kepercayaan dari Presiden Soekarno. Dan saya akan terus menumpas sisa-sisa kekuatan dari peristiwa tersebut ” Pernyataan Tuan jelas mempunyai arti tersendiri.

Sebenarnya Presiden Soekarno mengharapkan dan mempercayakan pada Tuan agar Tuan tetap setia dan loyal untuk melaksanakan perintah-perintahnya. Dengan tujuan selanjutnya akan diambil tindakan-tindakan hukum oleh Presiden Soekarno terhadap siapa yang bersalah tanpa pandang bulu – apakah PKI atau pihak Militer. Akan tetapi Tuan ternyata tidak memberikan laporan apa- apa pada Presiden Soekarno. Bahkan Tuan telah menggerakkan ABRI tanpa persetujuan Presiden bersama-sama dengan beberapa Jenderal antara lain Sarwo Edhie. Dan sejak inilah dimulai pengejaran dan pembunuhan terhadap mereka yang belum tentu bersalah yaitu kaum komunis. Yang kemudian telah terkenal luas di seluruh negeri bahwa TNI di bawah pimpinan Tuan telah melakukan penganiayaan, pembakaran, perarnpokan dan pembunuhan terhadap orang PKI. TNI telah melakukan teror yang berselubung di bawah pimpinan Tuan Rakyat yang hidup tenang dihasut/dibangkitkan untuk membenci dan mengamuk dengan dalih karena adanya kejadian terbunuhnya para Jenderal tersebut. Rakyat telah dihasut untuk anti PKI yang dikaitkan dengan negeri Cina yang dituduh memberikan dukungan terhadap G 30 S tersebut. Dan rakyat telah dibikin rupa sehingga tidak percaya bahwa “Dewan Revolusi” itu ada.

Selanjutnya Presiden Soekarno dipaksakan untuk menyatakan PKI dilarang dan di luar hukum karena dianggap partai itu terlibat pada G 30 S. Selama setahun lamanya mahasiswa-mahasiswa dan kelompok-kelompok yang tidak puas diorganisasi untuk melakukan demonstrasi-demonstrasi terhadap Soekarno dengan tuntutan-tuntutan termaksud. Akan tetapi Presiden Soekarno menolak untuk membubarkan PKI sebab tidak ada data-data dan bukti-bukti yang menyakinkan yang sudah dilaporkan pada Presiden.

Yang menarik perhatain ialah, bahwa “pemimpin-pemimpin” demonstrasi tersebut yang katanya adalah “mahasiswa-mahasiswa” kenyataannya umumya kebanyakan lebih dari 30 tahun dan bahkan pengikut-pengikutnya demonstrasi iru memakai pakaian seragam para troops (tentara payung) yang masih baru-baru. Sehingga perlu dipertanyakan apakah benar mereka itu mahasiswa-mahasiswa betul ? Dan dari mana dana (keuangan) yang didapat untuk mengorganisasi demonstrasi-demnstrasi itu? Dan mengapa ternyata sekarang, bahwa mereka yang menjadi pemimpin-pemirnpin” demonstrasi itu kini menempati kedudukan-kedudukan penting dalam Pemerintahan Tuan ?

Semua kekacauan dan tidak tenang yang nampaknya dibikin (artificial) telah berlangsung se-lama satu tahun. Sementara itu telah dilancarkan Propaganda secara luas bahwa segala kesulitan dan keburukan diberbagai bidang itu ditimpakan pada PKI? Dan hal ini sampai hari inipun masih berlangsung walaupun peristiwa G 30 S itu telah 4 tahun berlalu.

Akan tetapi tentang hal ini sebenarnya dapat dimengerti sebab dalam politik yang berkuasa itu harus membuat Rakyat yang tidak tahu apa-apa itu sedemikian rupa sehingga rakyat merasa tidak tenteram dan aman dengan menimpakan kesalahan dan ancaman itu pada PKI. yang kemudian

diarahkan bahwa penguasa (pemerintah) itu adalah satu-satunya pelindung rakyat yang sebenarnya.

Kalau demikian halnya maka jelas bahwa Tuan telah mengabaikan perintah dan peringatan Presiden Soekarno pada sidang kabinet tanggal 2 Januari 1966 di Bogor yang meminta kepada Tuan agar situasi yang tidak menentu itu harus segera diakhiri dan dipulihkan sehingga rasa kesatuan dan persatuan bangsa lIndonesia dapat tercipta kembali. Bukan saling membunuh diantara sebangsa dan setanah air. Apabila pembunuhan besar-besaran itu berlangsung terus menerus maka perjuangan kita selama ini akan sia-sia, karena dalam hai ini Tuan ternyata telah menempuh jalan sendiri.

Saya tidak akan mengatakan bahwa G 30 S itu baik. Tapi saya tidak akan menyalahkan siapa-pun dan belum memberikan penilaian terhadap peristiwa itu.

Andaikata sebagai orang komunis atau simpatisan. maka yang pertama-tama menjadi pertanyaan dan yang tidak masuk akal apa perlunya dan apa keuntungannya PKI itu melibatkan diri dalam G 30 S itu. Padahal PKI itu merupakan partai yang besar? Selain itu kalau memang benar PKI itu adalah pengacau? Mengapa TNI tidak mengetahui atau mencegah bahkan yang membakar Markas CG PKI itu dibiarkan untuk selanjutnya diselidiki kalau-kalau bisa diperoleh data yang penting? Dan kalau benar PK1 itu terlibat apakah tidak lebih baik kalau para pemimpinnya yang bertanggung jawab diadili di depan umum untuk diketahui oleh seluruh Rakyat Indonesia? Dan mengapa Tentara yang menangkap DN Aidit itu justru telah membunuhnya dengan diam-diam baru kemudian melapor pada Presiden Soekarno. Dan apa pula sebabnya ketua I dan wakil ketua II PKI. yaitu Sdr. Nyoto dan Lukman juga diperlakukan yang sama dengan cara dibunuh dengan diam-diam dan tanpa proses hukum?

Kata orang bahwa NU itu mempunyai anggota sebanyak 6 juta. Tapi mengapa orang-orang di kalangan partai tersebut terlaiu takut kepada PKI. yang jumlah angggotanya lebih kecil hanya 3 juta orang ? Memang terlalu banyak soal-soal dan pertanyaan- pertanyaan yang tidak bisa terjawab bahkan sengaja ditutup disembunyikan.

Komunisme yang begitu Tuan takutkan itu sebenarnya akan tidak berdaya. apabila kesengsaraan dapat ditiadakan. Hakekat ideologi PKI di bawah pimpinan DN Aidit sebenarnya berdasarkan Pancasila (Soekarnoisme). Dan PKI telah memainkan peranan yang penting dalam kebangkitan dan kebangunan Bangsa Indonesia serta berjuang untuk sosialisme Indonesia.

Juga Nasution pimpinan MPRS. telah menyalahkan PKI karena telah melakukan aksi-aksi di bidang ekonomi. Dia juga menyalahkan PKI bahwa sebab terjadinya inflasi dewasa ini karena adanya hutang pada luar negeri sebanyak $ 2.5 milyard dan diantaranya berupa pembelian sen-jata-senjata seharga $ l milyard pada Uni Sovyet. Yang aneh dalam hal ini justru hutang-hutang pada Uni Sovyet ini bukankah Jenderal Nasution sendiri yang menandatangani kontrak-kontraknya ? Bahkan dia sendiri sudah 2 kali berkunjung ke Moskow. Apakah dengan begitu ucapan Jenderal Nasution itu dapat dipertanggung jawabkan ?

Tuan Suharto.

Saya ingin mengajukan banyak data-data yang Tuan sendiri berharap akan menjadikan data-dala itu sebagai bukti terlibatnya PKI. Tapi mengapa Tuan tidak membuka penyelidikan untuk menghimpun sesungguhnya ? Sudah tentu bukan data-data yang bersifat sepihak. Saya kira seluruh Negri dan rakyat Indonesia berhak untuk tahu dan mengerti yang sebenarnya. Sekali biar seluruh rakyat tahu juga bagaimana pendapat Tuan tentang peristiwa tersebut. Hal ini penting sekali karena telah diisukan bahwa bukan hanya PKI yang terlibat tapi juga Presiden Soekarno yang ikut dituduh merestui ” dewan revolusi.”

Selain itu juga dikatakan bahwa beberapa ribu orang PKI sebelum peristiwa G 30 S itu telah dipersiapkan dengan mengadakan latihan militer di daerah lapangan udara Halim. Dimana Presiden Soekarno pada tengah malam ketika peristiwa itu terjadi juga diamankan disitu. Dengan adanya berita-berita itu orang pada bertanya bagaimana hal ini bisa terjadi adnya suatu latihan militer yang diikuti oleh ribuan orang dapat dilakukan secara sembunyi-sembunyi ? Dan apa perlunya Presiden Soekarno itu mencari perlindungan di tempat yang tidak menguntungkan baginya?

Kenyataan berita-berita lain yang saya peroleh dari lapangan udara Halim adalah bahwa : peristiwa G 30 S itu adaiah cetusan dari suatu konflik dalam angkatan Darat. Oleh karena itu mereka menggunakan dalih”pribadi Soekarno itu dibawa kesana karena saya sebagai istri merasa khawatir akan keselamatan suami saya. Sampai di Halim saya malah jadi bingung karena ketika saya tanyakan pada sementara orang tenyata tak seorang pun yang tahu apa yang telah terjadi. Bahkan ketika itu kita tidak tahu bahwa Jenderal A.Yani telah terbunuh. Pokoknya ketika itu kita tidak tahu siapa kawan dan siapa lawan. Hampir semuanya dalam kebingungan dan tidak tahu apa yang akan diperbuat. Tidak seorang pun tahu apa yang telah terjadi dan apa yang akan terjadi berikutnya.

Dalam mengenang peristiwa G 30 S itu kembali saya kira persoalannya akan lain andaikata Jenderal A.Yani masih hidup. Presiden Soekarno sendiri sangat sedih bagaimana sampai terjadi dia jadi korban dan bagaimana tempat tinggalnya sampai diketahui.

Selain hal diatas dengan ini saya ingin mengajukan pertanyaan yang penting kepada Tuan yang kiranya Tuan perlu perhatikan.Yalah tentang adanya ” dewan jenderal” yang Tuan telah tentang keras tidak mengetahuinya. Orang hanya tahu bahwa Jenderal A. Yani dan jenderal-jenderal lain yang terbunuh itu yang hanya mengetahui tentang persoalan “dewan jenderal1′ tersebut.

Akan tetapi 2 minggu sebelum peristiwa tersebut Presiden Soekarno bertanya kepada Jenderal A. Yani: bagaimna sebenamya duduk persoalan dewan jenderal tersebut. Yang dijawab oleh Jenderal A. Yani dengan tegas: Bapak Presiden serahkan kepada saya saja segala hal yang bersangkutan dengan anak buah saya tersebut” (maksudnya D.D.)

Dari dialog tersebut bagi saya timbul pertanyaan yang besar: bagaimana bisa terjadi Jenderal A. Yani itu ikut terbunuh? (jelas karena justru ada kontradiksi dalam ABRI sendiri=penyalin).
Jadi andai kata Tuan benar-benar obyektif maka pasti Tuan akan yakin bahwa Soekarno itu benar-benar tidak terlibat dan tidak tahu apa-apa tentang G 30 S tersebut.

Tuan Suharto.

Dengan mengetahui tentang hal-hal di atas maka lalu timbul pertanyaan saya: apakah kiranya jawaban Tuan ada seluruh rakyat Indonesia yang menduga bahwa dengan adanya tindakan cepat dari Tuan untuk membentuk kekuasaan “orde baru” dalam situasi yang kacau balau itu bukankah justru sebenarnya Tuanlah yang mempunyai semua rencana dan melaksanakan rencana “dewan jenderal”

Bukti-bukti kemudian menunjukkan bahwa dalam situasi yang kacau di Indonesia itu, Tuan telah membangun tentara yang berorientasi ke kanan, bergandengan tangan dengan sementara mahasiswa-mahasiswa (yang tidak puas) yang kemudian didorong dan bekerja sama dengan pimpinan-pimpinan partai islam serta politisi yang kanan untuk menghancurkan PKI. Yang selanjutnya terjadilah pembunuhan dan pertumpahan darah yang terencana. Bagaimana hal ini sampai terjadi bahwa sikap ABRI malah lebih dekat dengan Pentagon (markas Besar Departemen Pertahanan Amerika Serikat) dimana hampir semua kegiatan militer didunia dikendalikan dari sana? Apakah dalam situasi demikian itu orang bisa mengharapkan lain kecuali PKI itu menjadi hancur beranakan karenanya dan hubungan dengan RRC dengan sendirinya putus.

Presiden Soekarno telah berulang kali mengatakan bahwa tidak benar untuk hanya menyalahkan PKI. Beliau berkata: “Kita jangan melemparkan semua kesalahan itu kepada PKI saja. Tapi persoalannya terletak pada hal-hal lain.”

Saya sangat menghargai akan sikap Bung Karno yang begitu tegas itu meskipun beliau harus mengorbankan nasibnya sendiri. Beliau telah menolak untuk tunduk pada tekanan pihak ABRI untuk menyatakan PKI itu dilarang dan di luar hukum. Ideenya meskipun telah mengalami tekanan yang berat dari pihak ABRI. Andaikata Bung Karno itu tidak bersikap teguh sedemikian rupa, barangkali situasi dan posisi beliau tidak akan seburuk seperti sekarang, apalagi kalau beliau melakukan langkah-langkah kompromis. Tapi beliau tidak demikian dan tetap berpegang teguh pada kebenaran dan keadilan.

Adam Malik, Menteri Luar Negri Republik Indonesia pada tahun 1966 telah berbicara di depan mahasiswa-mahasiswa di Tokyo dengan penuh kebohongan dan kebodohan. la menerangkan bahwa Soekarnolah yang bertanggung jawab atas terjadinya pembunuhan massal terhadap kaum komunis di Indonesia itu. Andaikata Soekarno tepat pada waktunya menentukan sikapnya terhadap PKI maka pembunuhan massal itu dapat dihindari.

Dengan pidatonya Adam Malik itu maka orang-orang yang tidak tahu tentang apa sebenarnya yang telah terjadi di Indonesia itu akan menanggapinya dengan benar. Sementara itu Bung Karno masih terus secara terbuka berbicara dan menjelaskan duduk persoalan yang sebenarnya tentang PKI itu. Hal ini pun telah ditafsirkan oleh sementara mereka itu, bahwa Presiden Soekarno telah merestui tindakan-tindakan lebih lanjut dari PKI yang ternyata kemudian berakibat terjadinya pembunuhan yang lebih kejam.

Seperti kata pepatah Latin”Cui Bono” yang artinya: yang penting bukan siapa yang benar akan tetapi siapa yang memperoleh keuntungan. Bukankah kemudian ternyata terbukti, bahwa Amerika Serikatlah yang memperoleh keuntungan dengan peristiwa G 30 S itu. Kini terbukti bahwa Jakarta telah dibanjiri oleh Investor-Investor asing (penanam modal) yaitu Amerika Serikat. Tentang inipun tidak menjadi soal andaikan dengan kegiatan-kegiatan ekonomi itu Indonesia dan rakyatnya yang pertama-tama memperoleh keuntungan. Bung Karno sejak semula sebenarnya selalu menolak untuk dibuatkan patung untuk dirinya. Baru setelah 22 tahun kemudian beliau mengabdi kepada Revolusi Indonesia dengan enggan beliau baru menerima untuk dituliskan autobiografinya (riwayat hidupnya).

Akan tetapi bagi Tuan Suharto sendiri segera setelah tidak lama memegang kekuasaan telah dibuatkan buku riwayat hidup Tuan dengan memakai judul “The Smiling General” (Jenderal yang suka senyum). Selain itu Tuan telah mengabadikan potret Tuan pada uang kertas Republik Indonesia yang sudah tentu agar Tuan cepat dikenal. Semua itu tentunya dengan advis (pertimbangan) para pembantu yang mengelilingi Tuan.

Tetapi sebaliknya – Tuan sama sekali telah meniadakan foto-foto Bung Karno pada kedutaan-kedutaan di Luar Negeri yang mempunyai kebiasaan memancangkan foto tokoh-tokoh dari bangsa di Dunia. Dalam hal ini tidak satu gambar Presiden Soekarno nampak

Tuan Suharto.

Tuan yang pernah mengkritik tentang kediktatoran Presiden Soekarno dan bahkan Tuan telah berjanji akan memulihkan demokrasi di Indonesia, ternyata sekarang Tuan telah berbuat melebih apa yang diperbuat oleh bung Kanio. Langkah pertama yang seharusnya Tuan lakukan untuk men demokratisir keadaan/ situasi antara lain tentang pemilihan Presiden. Temyata tentang halin inipun oleh Tuan selalu ditunda-tunda. Selain itu Tuan telah melarang untuk mencantumkan nama Bung Karno dalam buku-buku sejarah Indonesia yang harus diterbitkan. Sementara itu Tuan telah menahan Bung Karno dengan dalih untuk melindungi keselamatannya yang hakekatnya Tuan telah mengisolir beliau dari dunia luar. Tindakan Tuan yang tidak benar dan tidak adil inilah yang menyebabkan Bung Karno itu menjadi sakit. Beliau tidak mendapat perawatan sebagaimana mestinya. Dokter-dokter yang disediakan hanya proforma saja. Malah dokter gigi yang sangat diperlukan oleh beliau Tuan tidak berikannya. Bahkan pernah ada orang yang mengingatkannya agar Bung Karno itu jangan selalu diberi obat-obat injeksi sebab ada kemungkinan obat-obat in justru membahayakan kesehatannya.

Disamping itu saya juga berharap mudah-mudahan makanan yang dibuat dan dikirm oleh Putra/Putri Bung Soekarno itu benar-benar akan sampai ke tangan beliau selama beliau dalam isolas dalam tahanan benar-benar dalam keadaan sangat berat dalam hidupnya. Bahkan hak-hak ke manusiannya yang paling azasipun beliau tidak memperolehnya. Satu-satunya kesempatan yang diberikan kepada beliau selama beliau untuk meninggalkan isolasinya ialah ketika menghadir-perkawinan salah satu putrinya. Untuk itu mobil Bung Karno dikawal dengan ketat dengan kendaraan panser dan tidak boleh didekati oleh siapapun. Ketika beliau berdiri dan mendekati putrinya yang sedang menjadi temanten guna memberikan ciuman selamat dari seorang ayah pada anaknya inipun teiah dicegah oleh Polisi Militer yang mengawalnya dan beliau didorong secara kasar sehingga terjatuh duduk di atas sofa. Selain itu wajah beliau ditutupi dan dihalang-halangi agar tidak dapat diambil fotonya.

Andaikata saya yang mendapat perlakuan demikian mungkin pasti jiwa saya akan terpukul keras. Akan tetapi karena Bung Soekarno itu mempunyai jiwa yang besar dan mentalnya kuat perlakuan demikian itu dianggapnya sebagai pengorbanan yang harus dideritanya. Saya benar-benar sangat khawatir bahwa mungkin perlakuan alat-alat kekuasaan Tuan kepada Bung Karno itu kalau sedang sendirian lebih kasar karena di depan umurn pun alat-alat kekuasaan Tuan itu sampai berani berbuat demikian terhadap beliau. Tuan dapat saja menghancurkan jasmani Bung Karno tetapi Tuan tak akan pernah berhasil menghancurkan semangat dan jiwanya dalam membela keadilan dan kebenaran Jiwa dan semangat Bung Karno itu tak akan pernah mati!

Bung Karno telah berjasa membebaskan Indonesia dari penjajahan Belanda yang 350 tahun lamanya. Setelalh 13 tahun di penjara dan dibuang pemerintah Belanda dan memimpin perjuangan bersenjata untuk kemerdekaan Indonesia selama tahun 1945 sampai tahun 1949. Bung Karno itu pasti tahu apa yang harus diperbuat untuk mengisi kemerdekaan negerinya.

Tanpa kepemimpinan Bung Soekarno Tuan pasti tidak akan punya kedudukan sebagai Presiden seperti sekarang ini. Bung Soekarno itu telah meletakkan Undang-undang dasar yang demokratis untuk Indonesia dan telah mendirikan “Lingua Franca”.

Dibidang seni dan budaya beliau adalah promotor. Beliaulah orangnya yang telah meletakkan dasar untuk pembangunan Bangsa Indonesia. Apakah dengan jasa-jasanya itu tidakkah pantas beliau mendapatkan imbalan?!.

Andaikan Bung Soekarno tahu bahwa akan terjadi suatu pengkhianatan yang berakibat pembunuhan antar sesama Bangsa seperti peristiwa G 30 S itu pasti beliau tidak akan menyetujuinya

Dan sayapun tidak akan tinggal diam apabila sampai suami saya terlibat dalam tindakan kekerasan itu. Didepan mata saya Bung Karno itu sangat terpuji dengan sifat-sifatnya yang luhur! Saya sangat yakin bahwa kalau ada seseorang yang berbuat dengan cara sadar dan sistematis membunuh sesama manusia maka perbuatan itu adalah yang paling keji dan tak beradab. Saya kenal pepatah Jepang yang berbunyi “mencekek seseorang dengan kain sutra: Sehubungan dengan inilah Tuan Suharto. Tuan telah memperkenankan Bung Karno itu diperlakukan sedemikian rupa tersiksa baik lahir maupun batinnya.

Selama ini saya belum pernah mengeluarkan suara atau pernyataan apa-apa karena saya sadar bahwa Tuan sedang menghadapi persoalan-persoalan yang cukup gawat. Tapi kali ini saya harus berbicara secara terbuka kepada Tuan karena: pertama-pertama untuk menjaga keselarnatan dan nama baik Presiden Soekarno.

Ketika Presiden Soekarno menyerahkan wewenangnya kepada Tuan sebagai pejabat Presiden pada tanggal 7 Märet 1967 telah diberikan 3 syarat oleh beliau kepada Tuan. Salah satu diantaranya yalah: bahwa Tuan harus menjaga keselamatan keluarga Presiden Soekarno. Ternyata Tuan tidak memperhatikan permintaan beliau itu.

Sewaktu Tuan diwawancarai oleh wartawan Jepang tentang banyaknya korupsi di Indonesia dewasa ini. Tuan telah memberikan keterangan sebagai berikut: “Tentang masalah korupsi itu saya kira selamanya akan ada. Dan soal korupsi ini sebenarnya adalah sisa-sisa dari pemerintah Soekarno dulu. Sementara ini akan tetap demikian karena memang sedemikian sejak semula”

Kalau ucapan Tuan itu benar maka ucapan Tuan itu seakan-akan ucapan seorang yang üdak bertanggung jawab. Sikap Tuan itu adalah licik dan tidak jantan karena Tuan ternyata berlindung dibelakang nama Soekarno tentang apa yang sekarang terjadi. Ketika Tuan berbicara demikian didepan wartawan itu maka habislah segala rasa hormat saya pada Tuan sampai yang terakhirpun!

Memang selama masih disebut manusia biasanya siapa yang menang akan selalu menganggap dirinya benar dan sebaliknya mereka yang kalah pasti segala sesuatunya akan ditimpakan kepadanya

Apabila Tuan memang bersedia dan benar-benar mau menyelidiki serta memberantas korupsi sebagai seorang warga negara Indonesia saya sepenuhnya bersedia untuk menjadi saksi dan hadir pada setiap sidang-sidang pengadilan yang dilakukan secara terbuka. Sudah tentu pelaksanaanya harus sesuai dengan norma-norma dan hukum yang berlaku dan tidak ditutup-tutup serta tidak boleh (…?? Sambungan kalimat tidak jelas, oleh penyebar, Enje)

Bung Karno adalah Pahlawan Revolusi Indonesia. Dengan kerendahan hati ingin saya katakan bahwa beliau memang belum tentu bisa menjadi pemimpin diwaktu damai. Akan tetapi saya kira andaikata Bung Karno itu sewaktu menjadi mahasiswa sempat belajar di luar negeri beliau pasti akan lebih banyak mengenal masalah-masalah ekonomi yang akan melengkapi kepemimpinanya. Saya katakan demikian karena mungkin “Nasionalisasi” perusahaan – perusahaan asing di Indonesia yang telah dilakukanya itu sebagai suatu kekhilafan.

Selain itu Bung Karno itu sebenarnya tak pernah mengalami dan berada dalam kehidupan keluarga yang stabil. (Sebagai seorang pejuang pasti tidak mungkin ! penyalin). Andaikata beliau lebih lama mengenal kehidupan rumah-tangga yang harmonis seperti halnya kebanyakan orang mungkin beliau ini akan menjadi Presiden yang lebih baik dalam suatu pemerintahan yang terpimpin dan sosiaiis dinegeri ini. Sayangnya tidak memungkinkan sehingga beliau itu lebih cenderung pada sifat-sifat seorang kaisar. Dan beliau jadi korban dari kekuasaan yang dikuasainya sendirian secara-penuh.

Saya dapat mengatakan demikian kepada Tuan karena saya memang menganggap dan menghomati Soekarno itu sebagai orang besar. Akan tetapi kiranya Tuan tahu, bahwa saya tidak selalu menyetujui setiap pendapatnya.

Sebagai misal terhadap Pancasila yang beliau gali dan ciptakan itu, menunrt pendapat saya adalah sepenuhnya terlalu idealistis. Meskipun idealisme itu perlu akan tetapi dalam abad ke 21 ini tidak sepenuhnya idealisme itu dapat dilaksanakan dalam praktek.

Indonesia sebenarnya belum matang untuk dibawa pada sistem demokrasi ala barat. Oleh karena itulah maka Bung Karno memberikan konsep pemikiran: “Demokrasi Terpirnpin”. Lebih-lebih karena Rakyat Indonesia kebanyakan masih banyak yang buta humf dan taraf pendidikan maupun kemampuan ekonominya tidak sama. Dalam hal ini saya sependapat dengan Bung Karno.

Akan tetapi dipihak lain beliau itu telah meletakan dasar politik yang terlalu tinggi dan terlalu ideal. Karena itu dapatlah dimengerti kalau beliau mendapat kritik yang begitu keras terutama dengan cita-citanya untuk mengadakan perbaikan atas nasib seluruh rakyat Indonesia secara rnasal dan serentak. Beliau sebetulnya harus lebih realistis dengan ide-idenya itu. Pada saat-saat beliau mempunyai posisi yang cukup kuat sebagai penguasa tertinggi mestinya bliau akan mendapatkan dukungan dari pembantu-pembantunya atas ide-idenya tersebut. Akan tetapi kebanyakan dari Rakyat Indonesia itu hanya mengharapkan perubahan-perubahn dalam kebutuhan hidup sehari-harinya. Rakyat hanya menginginkan pemenuhan material yang nyata dan mereka sudah mulai jenuh dengan idealisme yang sering dipidatokan. Bung Karno itu mengemukakan bahwa dunia ini dikuasai oleh 2 blok kekuasaan adi kuasa. Dan ide beliau ingin membentuk kekuatan ke 3 sebagai imbangan. Dalam perjuangan mewujudkan cita-cita ini Indonesia dapat mempengaruhi dan menggerakkan dunia ke 3 seperti negara- negar di Asia, Afrika dan Amerika Latin. Ini berarti bahwa Indonesia sekaligus harus bisa berdikari disegala bidang. Demikian yang dicita-citakan oleh Bung Karno.

Kalau kemerdekan penuh dapat diberikan kepada semua negeri dan bangsa-bangsa yang terjajah. Akan sikap politik Indonesia yang mengisolasi diri itu menyebabkan Indonesia menarik diri dari keanggotaan P.B.B, dari Bank Dunia tidak ikut dalam Olympiade di Tokyo. Hal ini terjadi dalam rangka ketegangan dan perjuangan pembebasan Irian Barat dan konfrontasi dengan Malaysia.

Bung Karno berpendapat bahwa P.B.B telah bersikap tidak adil terhadap anggota-anggotanya. Indonesia yang belum pernah mendapat pinjaman dari Bank Dunia (Yang dikuasai oleh Amerika Serikat) telah menolak bantuan itu, kalau memakai syarat-syarat politik. Sebelum olympiade Tokyo dimulai Indonesia telah dituduh mempolitisir olah-raga seluruh bangsa-bangsa Asia-Afrika di Jakarta (Ganefo). Karena Indonesia lalu ditolak untuk ikut dalam Olympiade Tokyo itu. Dalam hal ini Bung Karno menolak tuduhan tersebut kerena ternyata pertandingan-pertandingan Olympiade selama inipun juga tidak mengikut sertakan semua negeri khususnya negara-negara komunis.

Tuan Suharto.

Apabila Tuan juga mencoba memikirkan tentang hari depan Indonesia pada hari-hari yang gawat itu tuan pun akan pasti mempunyai pendapat-pendapat lain mengenai ide-ide Bung Karno itu, yang mempunyai akibat tantangan angin taufan. Saya sendiripun ikut prihatin dengan hati yang berdebar-debar memperhatikan bahwa diplomasi Indonesia itu makin hari makin bergeser kekiri.

Memang tak ada orang yang sempurna! Begitu juga dengan diri Bung Karno menurut saya apa yang dikerjakan oleh beliau itu sama sekali tidak terselip untuk keuntungan diri sendiri tetapi sepenuhnya segala sesuatunya itu diabdikan pada Indonesia dan rakyatnya satu-satunya yang dicintainya dan hendak diabdinya. Dalam perjalanan hidupnya Bung Karno itu selalu berusaha untuk mencegah dan menghindari ada pertentangan dalam negeri yang bisa berakibat adanya korban-korban.

Dibanding dengan sikap Tuan dan pembantu-pembantu Tuan ternyata jauh berbeda dimana Tuan atau pembantu-pembantu Tuan telah memerintah Indonesia dengan perampokan dan pertum-pahan darah. Tuan dan pembantu-pembantu Tuan kelak akan dituntut dengan tuduhan telah melaksanakan pembunuhan yang disengaja terhadap ratusan ribu orang PKI yang tidak bersalah, dengan dalih “penumpasan PKI sampai ke akar-akarnya”

Siapa dapat percaya bahwa Tuan percaya kepada Tuhan ? Dalam hal ini Indonesia seharusnya tidak memerlukan Presiden dimana tangannya penuh berlumuran darah.

Tuan Suharto.

Bung Karno itu saya tahu benar-benar sangat mencintai Indonesia dengan Rakyatnya. Sebagai bukti bahwa meskipun ada lawannya yang berkali-kali hendak menteror beliau beliau pun masih mau memberikan pengampunan kalau yang bersangkutan itu mau mengakui kesalahannya. Dibanding dengan Bung Karno maka dibalik senyuman Tuan itu, Tuan mempunyai hati yang kejam. Tuan telah membiarkan ratusan ribu orang orang PKI dibantai. Kalau saya boleh bertanya : apakah Tuan tidak mampu dan tidak berkuasa untuk mencegah dan melindungi mereka agar tidak terjadi pertumpahan darah?

Mungkin Tuan kelupaan bahwa ketika peristiwa tahun 1965 itu berlangsung Bung Karno tidak juga Tuan suruh bunuh pula. Tuan pasti mudah amat untuk mempersalahkan dan menuduh PKI itu bersalah sehingga terjadinya tragedi tersebut. Kalau Tuan mau berbuat demikian maka pasti rakyat banyak yang menjadi pengagum dan menganut Bung Karno itu akan tetap hidup tenang. Tidak seperti sekarang dimana mereka tidak dapat berbuat apa-apa sementara mereka tidak tahu bagai-mana nasib pemimpinnya.

Semestinya Tuan tidak perlu memperlakukan Bung Karno itu sedemikian rupa, yang rnungkin karena perasaan kerdil Tuan. Sebenarnya Tuan akan lebih terhormat apabila Bung Karno itu sebagai Pemimpin Besar Revolusi dapat meninggal secara wajar bukan karena tersiksa dalam tahanan. Adalah suatu kerugian besar sekali bagi Indonesia bahwa Bung Karno itu telah mendapat perilakuan yang tidak wajar seperti itu setelah beliau mengabdi selama hidupnya untuk Negara Indo­nesia dan bangsanya.

Pada akhir surat terbuka ini saya akan tutup surat ini dengan mengenang kembali akan kecintaan dan kemesraan saya terhadap Bung Karno dengan seruan!!!

Paris tgl 16-4-1970
Tertanda
Ratna Sari Dewi Soekarno

Sumber

(Vrij Nederland)

1970

Rehabilitasi

Sedikit kebahagiaan terpercik dari Sri Kusdiantinah dengan dapat meneruskan pendidikan dan mampu menghidupi kebetuhan keluarga. Bertambah lengkap lagi ketika suaminya Kolonel Bambang Soepeno dibebaskan dari penjara. Sang suami yang sebelumnya dinyatakan sebagai terpidana mati, ternyata dibebaskan dan mendapat rehabilitasi. “Itu pun setelah mendekam lima tahun di penjara,” katanya.

1971

 

Namun untuk kesekian kali, sial bagi Supeno. Yani yang berada di belakangnya malah terbunuh dalam Gestok 1965. Ia yang praktis bukan lagi perwira yang diperhitungkan, juga ikut digulung oleh penguasa militer baru, Mayjen Soeharto.

Tak jelas apa pasal yang dituduhkan padanya. Lima tahun lamanya Supeno hidup dibui, sampai akhirnya dibebaskan pada tahun 1971 dan namanya direhablitasi kembali.

Sebetulnya, ini rehabilitasi omong kosong, karena toh ia tak mendapat ganti rugi apalagi kembali ke jabatan lama.

Apalagi pembebasan itu tak berarti banyak. Jiwa dan fisik Supeno sudah terampas sejak di dalam penjara. Di rumahnya, Supeno hidup sakit-sakitan. Tiga tahun kemudian, ia meninggal dunia.(1974)

Belakangan, mungkin tersadarkan perannya sebagai pencipta doktrin Sapta Marga yang diagungkan tentara Orba, pemerintah akhirnya memberikan pangkat anumerta brigjen untuk Supeno. Ya, Supeno meraih bintang di pundaknya pada saat ia tak lagi punya nyawa.

Supeno benar-benar seperti Bambang Ekalaya, burung yang bisa terbang tinggi tapi tak pernah bisa mencapai langit karena selalu saja terhalang oleh awan.

——

*) Soal jabatan terakhirnya Wakasad ini sebetulnya masih memerlukan data pembanding mengingat pegangannya hanya pengakuan istrinya, Ny Sri Kusdiantinah yang mungkin saja awam istilah atau jabatan militer

(http://anusapati.blogdetik.com/2008/08/22/bambang-supeno/)

 

Padatahun 1974 saya menemukan pada lapak dikawan Menteng buku bekas yang sudah dimakan rayap dan diepannya ada tangda tanggan bambang supeno tahun 1950, inilah salah satu koleksi terkait almarhum Brigjrn anumerta bambang supeno

Koleksi tanda tanggan Kol Bambang Supeno dihalaman depan buku Rusland (Rusia) Epos van  eed en strid dalam bahasa belanda  miliknya  tanggal 13 Desember 1950

(Dr Iwan)

 

Laki-Laki yang Menikahiku, Terpidana Mati

 

Sejak sang suami dijebloskan ke penjara, kehidupan keluarga Kusdiantinah benar-benar “pincang”. Bisa dibayangkan, dari kehidupan yang berkecukupan tiba-tiba harus kehilangan semuanya, termasuk kepala keluarga yang semestinya bertanggung jawab terhadap masa depan anak-anaknya.

Jadi, meski Mas Bambang (Bambang Soepeno, terpidana mati) meninggalkan banyak materi, toh kalau setiap hari diambil terus-terusan, ya akhirnya habis.

Maka, mulailah saya berpikir untuk merintis usaha, untuk memenuhi kebutuhan keluarga. Lalu aku mulai berimajinasi, usaha apa yang harus saya lalukan,” papar Ny Kus, panggilan akrab Sri Kusdiantinah.

Dalam hati kecil saya, aku harus bertanggung jawab terhadap masa depan anak-anak. Aku harus menjadi pengganti kepala keluarga. Aku harus membuka mata, dan memandang sekeliling, usaha apa yang mesti kulakukan.

Meski diriku anak wali kota, namun jiwa mandiri sudah tumbuh sejak kanak-kanak. “Pengalaman adalah guru yang baik. Ini saya peroleh ketika romo (ayah, Red) dipindahkan ke Kalimantan sebagai bupati Sintang. Aku pilih tinggal di Madiun, ikut paman yang menjadi bupati di kota ini.

Sejak hidup mandiri itulah berbagai pengalaman unik kudapatkan. Hubungan jarak yang jauh antara Kalimantan dan Madiun, dan kiriman wesel yang sering terlambat dari orang tua, membuat diri saya semakin matang.

Kendati, aku ditampung di rumah sanak famili, tapi kehidupanku tak terlalu bergantung pada orang yang saya tumpangi. Karenanya, aku memberanikan diri minta izin kepada sang paman untuk bekerja. “Wah! celaka sekali, ternyata pamanku malah merestui. Padahal, waktu itu yang ada dalam benak, aku berharap paman melarangku, paman menahanku supaya tidak bekerja. Umurku sendiri waktu itu baru 16 tahun, masih senang-senangnya bermain,” kisah Ny Kus.

Sebenarnya, dalam lubuk hatiku, saya berharap agar dengan permohonan untuk bekerja tersebut membuat sang paman mengkasihani dan melarangku. Karena sebagai bupati Madiun “dalam benak Sri Kusdiantinah- tentulah malu apabila ada keluarga menumpang masih juga bekerja mencari uang sendiri. Apalagi waktu itu sebagai bupati yang merupakan orang nomor satu, tentu dia akan merasa sungkan bila tahu ada anggota keluarga yang menumpang padanya bekerja mencari uang sendiri. Tapi ternyata sang paman justru senang dan merestui. “Saya dianggapnya memiliki pemikiran yang dewasa, walaupun dari segi usia masih terhitung kecil,” ceritanya.

Konsekuen dengan permintaan sendiri, mau tidak mau Sri Kusdiantinah muda memberanikan diri untuk bekerja. Berbekal kemampuan bahasa Belanda, langkah pertama yang dia lakukan adalah melamar bekerja di RRI Madiun.

 Langkahnya sebagai penyiar wanita, serta kemampuan bahasa Belanda yang sangat memadai, membuat dirinya langsung diterima bekerja sebagai penyiar. “Walaupun ketika pertama datang untuk wawancara saya menangis dan lari, tetapi saya bisa diterima bekerja di RRI. Mungkin pengaruh paman ada juga….rada-rada KKN juga sih,” ungkap Sri yang masih menampakkan guratan-guratan kecantikan di usia tua ini.

Penterjemah Buku

Dari situ kemudian jiwa kemandirian Sri Kusdiantinah terasah. Masa muda mampu menghasilkan uang sendiri, membuatnya tidak terlalu kaget ketika mendapati dirinya menanggung beban tiga anak, dan tidak berpenghasilan sama sekali.

Dengan berbekal pengalaman, Ny Kus mulai berpikir usaha apa yang dapat dia lakukan. “Walaupun kalau mengingat saya yang perempuan dengan suami di penjara, tentu tidak begitu saja cepat bisa kerja tho,” ujar wanita berdarah biru ini.

 

Tetapi kepercayaan Ny Kus yang begitu besar terhadap kekuasaan Tuhan membuat dirinya pasrah tentang apa yang akan menimpa diri dan keluarganya. Akhirnya terbukti, Tuhan memang menunjukkan jalan kehidupan itu. Tidak tanggung-tanggung jalan yang diberikan Tuhan kepadanya, malah berlipat-lipat, jauh dari perkiraannya. “Pokoknya saya yakin kalau Tuhan itu tak pernah tidur, buktinya keluargaku yang hampir jatuh diberikannya pemecahan yang tidak terduga.

 

Bermula dari perjumpaan yang tidak terduga dengan suhu sastra Indonesia, Sutan Takdir Alisyahbana, membuka jalan baginya untuk menggeluti dunia yang lain sama sekali. Dari beliau Sri Kusdiantinah memperoleh pekerjaan baru sebagai penterjemah buku-buku berbahasa asing ke dalam bahasa Indonesia.

Karya-karya Kahlil Gibran dan Alvin Toffler adalah buku pertama yang dialihbahasakan olehnya, kemudian menyusul ratusan buku-buku lain. “Dari situlah kemudian saya berpikir, mengalihbahasakan buku ternyata memberikan penghasilan yang cukup untuk dapat menghidupi keluarga,” kata perempuan yang sampai sekarang masih meneruskan profesi penterjemah buku ini.

Lewat pak Takdir inilah kemudian membukakan cakrawala baru bagi Sri Kusdiantinah, selain jadi penterjemah, Ny Kus juga diterima menjadi mahasiswi di Universitas Nasional. “Ini suatu berkah yang tak terhingga nilainya, di mana waktu itu untuk memasuki universitas negeri tidak ada tempat untuk saya.

Jangankan saya, Mas Guruh saja tidak dapat diterima masuk ke UI, dan Mbak Mega bahkan di-DO dari IPB. Itu kan semua karena anggapan keterlibatan dengan PKI dari rezim Orde Baru,” cerita Ny Kus sedikit geram.

1974

Kebahagiaan yang dialami keluarga ini tidak berumur panjang. Setelah tiga tahun berkumpul kembali dengan sang suami, serta anak-anak, pada tahun 1974 sang suami meninggal dunia karena sakit yang dideritanya semenjak dari dalam penjara.

Walaupun kemudian suaminya memperoleh kenaikan pangkat anumerta sebagai Brigadir Jenderal, tetapi itu tidak cukup mengobati luka batin yang dialami Kusdiantinah. “Yaa….namanya suami, bebas dari penjara dan dinyatakan tidak bersalah, tetapi begitu keluar sebentar kemudian dipanggil yang kuasa. Sopo sing kuat atine…loro…. ati iki lo sing loro (siapa yang kuat hatinya sakit…..hati ini yang sakit, Red),” ujarnya sambil menekan-nekan dadanya.

Sakit hati yang dialami Sri Kusdiantinah berbuntut panjang. Derita batin kembali menderanya, hingga membuat semangat hidupnya oleng. Kalau semula hidupnya menyala seperti kobaran api dengan kembalinya sang suami, lalu psikologinya melorot drastis.

Hari-hari yang dilewati Ny Kus terasa hambar, dan melelahkan. Kuliahnya yang hampir selesai, dibiarkan tebengkalai. Pekerjaan menterjemahkan buku rasanya mau ditinggalkan begitu saja.

 Bahkan perhatian terhadap anak-anaknya yang mulai beranjak dewasa, sedikit berkurang. “Pokoknya saat itu merupakan hari-hari paling berat yang pernah saya alami,” kenangnya dengan tatapan mata berbinar.

Bagaimana tidak, Ny Kus yang semula begitu tegar menghadapi berbagai persoalan hidup, semenjak kematian sang suami sontak kehilangan gairah kehidupan. Semua yang pernah dikerjakan begitu saja ditinggalkan.

Hari-harinya dihabiskan untuk merenungi perjalanan hidup yang rasanya tidak pernah berpihak kepadanya. Segala nasihat dari orang-orang terdekatnya diabaikan. “Saya yang memang keras kepala, dan menjadi lebih kepala batu lagi. Semua nasihat dari anak, sahabat, dan orang tua masuk telinga kiri keluar telinga kanan. Semua nasihat aku cuekin,” paparnya.

Begitulah saking kerasnya dia berpikir sampai badannya kurus tak terurus. Segala urusan yang dia hadapi semuanya dia limpahkan kepada orang lain. Sedangkan dirinya sendiri tenggelam dalam lamunan, seolah-olah dirinya menyesali telah terlahir ke dunia ini.

1975

Sampai suatu saat, ketika di rumahnya diadakan peringatan atas wafatnya Brigjen Bambang Soepeno, di antara handai taulan yang hadir terdapat seorang famili jauh yang sedang menunggu pelaksanaan hukuman mati. “Waktu itu kebetulan dia sedang mendapat cuti tahunan dari LP-nya,” kisahnya.

Orang tersebut adalah Mr. Soebandrio, mantan wakil perdana menteri pada zaman pemerintahan Bung Karno yang dituduh terlibat dengan G30S/PKI, dan mendapat vonis hukuman mati. Dalam menunggu pelaksanaan hukuman itulah kemudian hukumannya berubah menjadi penjara seumur hidup. “Dirinya banyak menasihati saya, membangkitkan semangat saya yang memudar, dan mengingatkan saya akan nasib masa depan anak-anak, yang semuanya tergantung pada kehadiran saya sebagai satu-satunya orang tua tempat mereka berlindung,” katanya berapi-api.

Dari nasihat yang diberikan oleh Mr. Soebandrio itulah kemudian timbul semangat baru dalam diriku. Ternyata, masih banyak orang yang membutuhkan belaian kasih sayangku, yakni anak-anak. Masih ada anak-anak yang mengharapkan perlindunganku. “Menariknya, semangat itu terpompa dari nasihat orang yang tinggal menunggu dieksekusi. Terus terang saya sangat kagum atas semangat hidup yang dimiliki Pak Ban,” tandas Ny Kus mengenang masa lalunya.

Rupanya dari kekaguman itu menularkan semangat hidup baru bagi Sri Kusdiantinah — berkembang menjadi hubungan yang sangat dekat satu sama lain. Di satu sisi Sri membutuhkan orang yang dapat diajak berbicara, sedangkan di sisi lain Mr. Soebandrio merasa bertanggung jawab atas kelangsungan masa depan anak-anak Bambang Soepeno. “Dia itu sangat sayang terhadap anak-anak saya. Mungkin karena dia merasa sebagai paman yang harus melindungi keponakan-ponakannya itu ya,” imbuhnya.

1980

Entah siapa yang memulai kemudian hubungan mereka berdua(Subandrio and Ny Bambang Supeno) berkembang menjadi sangat serius. Sehingga keduanya memutuskan untuk menikah. Pernikahan terjadi pada saat Idul Fitri di tahun 1980. “Pernikahan dilakukan dengan sembunyi-sembunyi, takut ketahuan pemerintah. Walaupun semua anak-anak dan keluarga saya menyetujui, tetapi berita perkawinan saya dengan Pak Ban tidak sampai bocor keluar. Karena sehari setelah menikah dengan saya, Pak Ban juga terus masuk ke bui lagi,” ceritanya panjang lebar.

 

Tetapi waktu itu saya yakin, saya dapat hidup bahagia dengan Pak Ban walaupun dirinya terpidana mati. Terbukti kan setelah itu dia mendapat amnesti dan bebas dari penjara sewaktu peringatan 50 tahun Indonesia merdeka. Semenjak itu kehidupan kami mulai ditata kembali. Saya masih terus menjadi penterjemah dan sekaligus dosen di Unas dan Pak Ban meneruskan kegiatannya menulis buku autobiografinya,” kata Sri Kusdiantinah bersemangat, serta mengakhiri pembicaraan.

(sumber : marsoedioetomo)

 

 

The Chinese Imperial ceramic Artwork Found In Indonesia ( continiu)

THE ART MOTIF OF CHINA IMPERIAL CERAMIC FOUND IN INDONESIA

PART ONE

INTRODUCTION AND PREFACE

 Photo: Bigger Wanli Kraak Porcelain 70 cm with Dragon fish and eight treasure  emblem symbol

 

By

Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-Rom Edition

Special For Senior Reseacher And Collectors

Copyright @ 2013

THIS THE SAMPLE OF Dr Iwan Limited E-Book In CD-Rom with unedited non complete info illustration, the complete CD-Rom exist but only for premium member please subscribe via comment with your email address and private information same as  your ID-Card

sORRY FOR THE UNEDITED ARTICLES BELOW,I DID  TO PROTEC T AGAINST THE COPY WITHOUT PERMISSSION

 

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HASIL PENELITIAN MOTIF SENI KERAMIK KERAJAAN TIONGKOK YANG DI TEMUI DI INDONESIA

OLEH 

Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

DIPERSEMBAHKAN KEPADA ISTERI LILY WIDJAYA, DAN PUTERA ALBERT DAN ANTO SERTA ISTERINYA,JUGA UNTUK PARA CUCU CESSA,CELINE DAN ANTONI

Semoga mereka memahami makna Karya Seni Kerajaan Tiongkok yang ditemukan di Indonesia dari penelitian yang didilaksanakan selama  empat  puluh tahun  dari tahun 1973 sampai 2013

 

THE STUDY RESULTS MOTIF CERAMIC ART OF THE KINGDOM OF CHINA IN MEET IN INDONESIA
BY
Dr Iwan Suwandy, MHA


DEDICATED TO MY WIFE LILY AND SONS ALBERT AND ANTON WITH THEIR WIFE GRACE AND ALICE , ALSO FOR THE GRANDSON CESSA, CELINE AND ANTONI

 May They understand the meaning of the Chinese Empire Artwork are found in Indonesia of research  which have been done for forty years from 1973 to 2013

TABLE OF CONTENT

TABLE OF CONTENT
INTRODUCTION
SUMMARY

THE AUTHOR PROFILE
PART I.PREFACE
1.1. Background
1.2. Purpose
1.3. Research Methods
1.4. chronological Research
PART II. BIBLIOGRAPHY STUDIES
PART III. RESULTS
3.1. RELIGIOUS MOTIVES
3.1.1. motif Taoism
3.1.2. Buddhist motifs
3.1.3. Holy Mother Kwan Im motive

3.1.4. Holy Ancetors Figure

3.1.5 Geometric Motif

3.2. CALLIGRAPHY ART MOTIF
3.2.1.  Chinese Characters Calligraphy
3.2.2. Arabic Islamic Charaters Caligraphy

3.3.MOTIF  TRADITIONAL
3.3.1.Motif Fauna
3.3.2. Flora motifs
3.3.3. Landscape motif

3.3.4 Other Good Fortune Motif


PART IV. CONCLUSIONS AND FINAL

 

DAFTAR ISI

DAFTAR ISI

KATA PENGANTAR

SUMMARY

Profil Penulis

BAB I.PENDAHULUAN

                        1.1. Latar Belakang

                        1.2. Tujuan

                        1.3. Metode  Penelitian

1.4. Kronologis Penelitian

BAB II.         STUDI KEPUSTAKAAN

BAB  III. HASIL PENELITIAN

                        3.1. MOTIF RELIGIUS

                        3.1.1. Motif Taoisme

                        3.1.2. Motif Budha

                        3.1.3. Motif Bunda Suci Kwan Im

                        1.1.4 Notif Geometrik

3.2. MOTIF SENI KALIGRAFI

3.2.1. Motif Seni Kaligrafi aksara Cina

3.2.2. Motif Kaligrafi aksara arab islam

3.3.MOTIF TRADITIONAL

3.3.1.Motif Fauna

3.3.2. Motif Flora     

3.3.3. Motif Pemandangan

3.3.4 Motif  Keberuntungan Lainnya

BAB  IV. KESIMPULAN DAN PENUTUP

KEPUSTAKAAN

INTRODUCTION – KATA PENGANTAR

INTRODUCTION
After doing research for a period of forty years from 2013 until a 11973 has now finally found the meaning of the Chinese empire ceramic motifs that are found in Indonesia.

Advances in technology have helped the author in the reconstruction of ceramic artifacts were collected from areas in Indonesia for forty years.

At first it did not know the author of any of the royal art of Chinese ceramics derived from the author’s grandfather homeland and ethnic Chinese Indonesian ancestors, thanks  various parties, library research, internet exploration, and the computerized technology with gigabytes of memory and  internet comunication , digital photos and scanning which is the relief of the entire family as well as some references lead authors solved the mystery of the meaning of the Chinese empire ceramic motif  c exported to Indonesia.
  This study can be completed with the help of a few friends like Man Datuk about ceramic art and the help of friends in a collection of ceramic collections in West Sumatra, Riau, Jambi, Palembang, West Kalimantan, Makassar, Banten and Jakarta whose name can not be mentioned one by one, for that I say thank you thousands.
In particular thanks also to Mrs. Sumirah Adyatman of Adam Malik Ceramics Museum ‘s curator who has been giving out to me  motivation to conduct this research with info from her  written books  and also DR Mac Kinnon archaeologist who worked at the National Archaeological Research Center in 1985 giving out my instructions and pep to implement this study.
Jakarta 2013
Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA
 

Original info

Setelah melakukan penelitian selama kurun waktu empat puluh tahun  dari tahun 11973 ampai 2013 akhirnya saat ini telah ditemukan makna dari motif keramik kerajaan Tiongkok yang ditemukan di Indonesia.

Kemajuan teknologi sangat membantu penulis dalam rekonstruksi artifak keramik yang dikumpulkan dari nernagai daerah di Indonesia selama empat puluh tahun.

Pada awalnya penulis tidak mengatahui apapun tentang seni keramik kerajaan Tiongkok yang berasal dari tanah air kakek penulis dan para  leluhur etnis Tionghoa Indonesia,berkat bantuan berbagai pihak,studi kepustakaan,internet eksplorasi,dan adanya teknologi komputerisasi dengan memori gigabyte serta  komukasi internet, foto digital dan scaning yang merupakan  bantuan dari seluruh keluarga

serta beberapa  referensi menyebabkan penulis berhasil memecahkan misteri makna dari motif sebi keramik kerajaan Tiongkok yang diekspor ke Indonesia.

 Penelitian ini dapat diselesaikan  berkat bantuan dari beberapa teman seperti Man Datuk mengenai  seni keramik dan bantuan teman-teman dalam pengumpulan koleksi keramik di Sumatera Barat, Riau,Jambi,Palembang, Kalimantan Barat, Makasar , Banten dan Jakarta yang namanya tidak dapat disebutkan satu persatu , untuk itu saya ucapkan ribuan terima kasih.

Khususnya terima kasih juga kepada Ibu Sumirah Adyatman kurator Museum Keramik Adam Malik yang telah memberikan motivasi kepada saya umtuk melakukan  penelitian ini dengan ifo dari  buku yang ditulinya dan juga  DR Mac Kinnon arkeolog  yang bekerja pada pusat penelitian Arkeologi Nasional yang tahun 1985 memeberikan saya petunjuk dan menambah semangat untuk melaksanakan penelitian ini.

Jakarta 2013

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA 

The Author Profile

.I starting stamps collection during 1955 very young boy. look my vintage photo with mother Diana lanny and father Djohan Oetama at Bukittingi West Sumatra 1955, my father passed away in 1985 and my mother just passed away in june 2011 at  91 years old.

b.Between 1960-1963, during study at Don Bosco high school I had started collected beside stamps all type of informations collections due to my Teacher Frater Servaas told me that I must collected the Informations due to the develping the satellite which made the globalizations which the growing of world cmmunications will became fast and no border between the nations countries, who have the Information he will became the leader and the King in communications, thank you Frater Servaas your info which made me could built the very best informations communications uniquecollection blog in the world.
Look at in memoriam Frater Servaas with my teacher at Frater middle school in memrian Frater Eric at my House during my Sister Erlita 17th years birthday in 1963.


also look my profile with my loving teacher who still alive and stay at Padang city west sumatra Pak Sofjanto at my house in the same time of the photo above


c.Between 1973-1983 many interesting history which related with the stamp and postal history and also with my life :
1. In 1972 I have graduated Medical Doctor(MD)

2.as the temporary assitenst at Pulmonology (Lung Disease) department in Medical faculty

3.In 1973 join the medical officer of Indonesia National Police


4.in September 1973 I was merried with Lily W.


5. in 1974 my first son Albert our photographer was born in November 1974, and later in January 1977 born my second son Anton our Editor .
a. Albert at Solok city west Sumatra 1978

b.Anton at Solok city 1978


6. Between 1975 until 1989 I have travelled around Indonesia myself or officially and I have found many uniquecollections that time.

7.In 1985 I have made a postal communications, I have send the aerogram to all Postal services in the capital city of all oin the world, 90 % send to me back the official cover,this could be done by the helping of Padang postmaster Ahmadsyah Soewil, his father collections I had bought in 1980.
The vintage photo of Soewil St.marajo ,during the chief of Painan West Sumatra Post office
look his photos

During Dai Nippon occupation he still at Painan and during Indonesia Independence war he was the Finance officer of Padang office and later in 1950-1959 the chief of TelukBayur Harbour west Sumatra post office, seme of the rare West sumatra during Dai Nippon occupation and Indonesia Inedependence war were his collectins,thankyou Family Soewil for that rare collections(complete infrmatins source Dai nippon occupatin sumatra under Malaya Singapore or Syonato Dai Nippon military Administrations and Indonesia Independence war collections.

8. Before between 1979-1985 I have joint the postal circuit club and I have found many covers from all over the world especially Latin America.This circuit as the help of my friend Frans,now he was in Bogor.

9.In 1990 I was graduate my Master Hospital Administration.


10.Between 1990-1994
I was n the duty at West Borneo and visit Sarwak,and i have fund some rare Sarawak stamps, revenue there and in Pontianak I have found rare sarawak coins

11.Between 1995 until 2000
I am seeking the postally used cover from the countries I havenot found especailly the new freedom countries.
All the postal stamps and covers I will arranged in the very exciting and unique collections, I will starting with Asia Countries, and later Africa, Australia, America and Euro.
This special collections were built dedicated to my Sons,especially the histrical fact from my vintage books collections as the rememberance what their father collected and I hope they will keep this beautiful and histric collections until put in speciale site in the CyberMuseum.
I hope all the collectors all over the world will help me to complete the collections, frm Asia I donnot have the cover from Bhutan,Mongol, Tibet, and SAfghanistan.but the stamps I have complete from that countries except my thematic bridge on the river kwai from Myanmar and Thailand.
12. In the years of 2000, I was retired from my job
this is my official profile just before retired.


13, Between 2000-2008
I am travelling around Asia,and starting to arranged my travelling unque collections.
14. December,25th 2008
I built the uniquecollection.wordpress.com Blog with articles :
(1). The Unique books collections
(2). The Unique Stamps collectins
(3). The rare Coins collections
(4). The rare ceramic collections
(5.) The Unique label collectins
(6.) The Travelling Unque collections (now changed as the Adventures of Dr iwan S.
(7). The Tionghoa Unique Collections
(8.) The Asia Unique Collections
(9.) The Africa Unique collections
(10). The Padang minangkabau CyberMuseum

15. In 2010

I built another web :

(1) hhtp://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com

(2)hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

In this web the collectors will look the amizing collections:

(1) The Vietnam War 1965-1975, and another Vietnam Historic collections like Vienam during Indochina, Vienam Diem War 1955-1963,etc

(2) The Dai Nippon War 1942-1945, five part in homeland,pasific war,in Korea,in China, in south East Asia including Indonesia.

(3) The Indonesia Independence War  1945,1946,1947,1948,1949 and 1950.

(4) The Uniquecollections from all over the world.

(5) The Icon Cybermuseum, including Bung Karno,Bung Hatta,Sultan Hemangkubuwono, and also from foreign countries Iran,Iraq Sadam huseun ,Palestina jerusalam,turkey,afghanistan, libya Moamer Khadafi, Suriah , etc

(6) The Rare Ceramic Collections found In Indonesia, like China Imperial Tang,Yuan,Ming and Qing; also euro ceramic from delf,dutch maastrict ,etc

(7) and many other collections

AT LEAST AFTER THE ALL OF MY COLLECTIONS ENTER THE CYBERMUSEUM AND OTHER WEB BLOG, I WILL ASKING TO GET  THE MURI CERTIFICATE.(INDONESIAN RECORD MUSEUM)

8. I also built a amizing collections due to my premium member prefered, like The Indonesia Revenue Collections from 19th to 20th century, the mysteri of the Indonesian vienna Printing Stamps, the China  Gold Coins, The Rare Chian imperial ceramic design foun in Indonesia, The Tionghoa (Indonesia Chinese Overseas collection), Penguasa Wanta di dunia(Women in Leaders) etc.

5. At Least thankyou verymuch to all the collectors who have visit my blog and support me, my last prestation in June 2011 (26 years from the first starting to built the e-antique or uniquecollections info in internet) :

(1) hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum : visit 60.000, the highest per day 3200.

(2)hhtp://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com:visit 21.000,the highest per day 200.

(3)hhtp://www.uniquecollection.wordpress.com, visit 40.000,the highest per day 210.

Jakarta June 2011

Greatings from teh founder

Dr Iwan Suwandy

the end @copyright XDr Iwan suwandy 2011

I WRITE THIS MEMORABLE STORY WITH RELATED UNIQUECOLLECTIONS ILLUSTRATIONS AS MY HONOR TO MY LOVING FAMILY , ALL MY FRIEND AND MY TEACHERS.BECAUSE WITHOUT YOU I AM NOTHING AT ALL,AND YOU ARE ALWAYS IN MY HEART FOREVER.

THE SAMPLE OF EXHIBTION IN Driwancybermuseum

SELAMAT DATANG DI RUANG PAMERAN KHUSUS

SHOWCASE :

RUANG PAMERAN :

PAMERAN KOLEKSI KERAMIK LANGKA DINASTI MING AKHIR YANG DITEMUI DI INDONESIA

Showcase :

The Rare Late Ming Ceramic Which Foun At Indonesia Exhibition

(Dr Iwan Private Collections)

Frame one:Southern Ming Dynasty

 
 
History of China

History of China

 
 
 
 
 
  *wan li imperial mark and dragon five clow cup below.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
   
   
     
     
 
 
 
 
 
   
 

The Southern Ming Dynasty (Chinese: 南明; pinyin: Nán Míng) refers to the Ming loyalist regimes that existed in Southern China from 1644 to 1662 following the collapse of the Ming Dynasty and the capture of Beijing first by rebel armies led by Li Zicheng, and then by the forces of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty.

On April 24, 1644, Li Zicheng’s rebel soldiers, of the recently proclaimed Great Shun dynasty, breached the walls of Beijing. The Chongzhen Emperor committed suicide the next day to avoid humiliation at their hands. Remnants of the Ming imperial family and some court ministers then sought refuge in the southern part of China and regrouped around Nanjing, the Ming auxiliary capital, south of the Yangzi River. Four different power groups had eventuated:

  • Shun Dynasty led by Li Zicheng, with its power base north of the Huai river, which had been under controlled of the Ming Dynasty.
  • Zhang Xianzhong had established the Great West (Ch:大西) regime controlling Sichuanprovince.
  • Manchu-founded Qing Dynastyhad control of the north-east area beyond Shanhai Pass, at the same times much of the Mongol tribes.
  • The remnants of Ming Dynasty could only survive south of the Huai river.

PART I.PREFACE
1.1. Background

aChinese .Ethnic has been STAYED AS RESIDENCES AFTER  visited Indonesia since the early centuries AD and to this day, and in 2000 was recognized by the Government of the Republic of Indonesia as one of the indigenous ethnic Indonesian and has been accepted by all other ethnic Natives.


b.Especially for the new generation and the generations yet to accept the existence of ethnic Chinese in Indonesia, mostly caused by not understanding the religious and traditions brought from their ancestral homeland of China.


c.Many Research had made by the  archaeological   National Agency of Indonesia and Indonesian  sinology Faculty and historian siciences , but until now there is no specific information on the meaning of a meaning of art motifs derived from Chinese empire halted from the beginning until the last Qing dynasty, while art objects are still owned by the family of the ethnic Chinese in Indonesia as well as still-artihak artifacts found at several sites both on land and from the shipwreck.
d.Many artifacts of art objects were sold out of the country well by both private and government owners although some are still kept in the museum of the Government-Owned and private Museum.

e.Many  art collectors owner does not understand the meaning and significance of art motif fuck what purpose and grace which earned its owner luck, the same thing at first experienced by the researcher. This led to many collectors cheated by the traders to produce counterfeit artwork.
f.The problem  encountered is to date the archeological and historical research and literary scholars sinology not interested in doing research on this aspect is very important so that there is no complete information
g.For  unravel the mystery of the meaning and significance of a good luck blessing motif of royal Chinese art in particular those found in Indonesia have held a depressing specialized research.

1.2. PURPOSE
a.Uncover the  mystery of  a sense  and Lucky Fengsui  meaning  of  royal Chinese art ‘s motifs
b.After know  the meaning Chinese  royal art motif is expected that all ethnic in Indonesian  and the nations of the world can communicate with o Chinese  Indonesian ethnic  well and smoothly

c. By understanding the meaning of the art of Chinese ethnic cultures in Indonesia, especially from the aspect of art can be prevented onset of the negative effect so coexistence is achieved peaceful ,  this will made coexistence with happy and of course in accordance with the meaning of chinese calligraphy most often found in art “Shou “which means Life with Happines, healthy , long life and a lot of luck always can be achieved

1.3. Research Methods
a. Collecting References  related  to this research
The literature that studies

 b.Understanding the kinds and types of Chinese ethnicity artwork is an original not a copy.
c. Collecting  artifacts with art motifs from Chinese empire that is still owned by collectors and non collectors ancestry ethnic Chinese Indonesian, as well as personal artifacts encountered by the farmers and fishermen of the sea on land.
d.Analisis royal art Chinese artifacts found in Indonesia in the last 40 years from 1973 to 2013 in accordance with its type ie religious motifs, traditional motifs, calligraphy motif, motifs of flora, fauna motifs, moti scenery and other motifs.
E, Assessing the conclusion of the study and compile them in an electronic book in Cd-Rom, Part of the information published in the web blog in hopes no sponsors who are interested to publish the results of this study

Original info

BAB I.PENDAHULUAN

1.1.           Latar Belakang

a.Ethnis Cina telah berdiam dan mengunjungi Indonesia sejak awal abad Masehi dan sampai saat ini, dan tahun 2000 telah diakui oleh Pemerintah Republik Indonesia sebagai salah satu etnis pribumi Indonesia dan telah diterima oleh seluruh etnis Pribumi lainnya.

b.Khususnya bagi generasi baru dan generasi yang belum dapat menerima keberadaan etnis Tionghoa  di Indonesia umumnya  disebabkan oleh karena tidak memahami   religious  dan tradisi yang dibawa dari tanah airTiongkok  oleh  leluhur mereka .

c.Telah banyak dilakukan penelitian oleh Badan arkeologis Nasional Indonesia dan Fakultas sastra Indonesia jurusan sinology serta jurusan sejarah, tetapi sampai saat ini belum ada suatu informasi khusus terhadap makna arti motif benda seni yang berasal dari kerajaan Tiongkok muali dari awal sampai Dinasti  terakhir Qing , sedangkan benda-benda seni tersebut masih dimiliki oleh keluarga etnis Tionghoa di Indonesia serta masih ditemukan artifak-artihak pada beberapa situs baik di darat maupun dari kapal karam.

d.Sayang banyak artifak benda seni tersebut dijual keluar negeri baik oleh pemiliknya baik pribadi maupun pemerintah kendatipun sebagian masih disimpan dalam museum Milik Pemerintah  dan Museum Pribadi .

e.Kebanyak para kolektor  pemilik benda seni tersebut tidak memahami makna arti motif seni dan apan tujuan serta berkah keberuntungan apa yang diperoleh pemiliknya ,hal yang sama pada mulanya dialami oleh peneliti. Hal ini menyebabkan banyak kolektor ditipu oleh para pedagang dengan memproduksi  benda seni tiruan .

f.Permasalahan yang ditemui adalah sampai saat ini para peneliti arkeologis dan sejarah serta ilmuwan sastra sinology belum tertarik melakukan penelitian dari aspek yang sangat penting ini sehingga tidak ada informasi  yang lengkap

g.Untuk mengungkap misteri makna arti dan berkah keberuntungan dari motif benda seni dari kerajaan tiongkok khususnya yang ditemukan di Indonesia  perlu adakan sutu penelitian khusus.

1.2. Tujuan

a.Mengungkap misteri makna arti dan kberuntungan motif benda seni kerajaan Tiongkok

b.Setelah memahi makna motif benda seni kerajaan Tiongkok diharapkan  agar seluruh etnis Bangsa Indonesia serta bangsa di dunia lainnya dapat berkomunikasi dengan etnis Tionghoa Indonesia dengan baik dan lancer

c. Dengan memahami makna arti seni kebudayaan etnis tionghoa Indonesia khususnya dari aspek benda seni dapat dicegah timbulnya efek negative  dalam hidup berdampingan sehingga dicapai hidup berdampingan dengan damai , bahagia serta tentunya sesuai dengan arti kaligrafi Tionghoa yang paling sering ditemukan pada benda seni “Shou” yang berarti senantiasa dicapai hidup berbahagia, sehat , panjang umur dan banyak rejeki  .

1.3. Metode  Penelitian

a. Mengumpulkan kepustaakaaan yang berhubungan dengan penelitian

b.Melakukan studi Kepustakaan agar memaami jenis dan tipe benda seni ethnis Tionghoa tersebut yang original bukan tiruan.

c.Mengumpulkan artifak benda seni dengan motif seni dari kerajaan Tiongkok yang masih dimiliki kolektor dan  kelurga non kolektor etnis Tionghoa Indonesia, serta artifak yang ditemui secara pribadi oleh para petani  didarat dan nelayan dari laut.

d.Analisis artifak benda seni kerajaan Tiongkok yang ditemukan di Indonesia dalam kurun waktu 40 tahun dari tahun 1973 sampai 2013 sesuai dengan jenisnya yaitu Motif Religius, motif tradisional, motif kaligrafi, motif flora,motif fauna ,moti pemandangan serta motif lainnya.

E, Mengkaji kesimpulan hasil penelitian dan menyusunnya dalam sebuah buku elektronik dalam Cd-Rom ,sebagaian informasi dipublikasikan dalam web blog dengan harapan ada sponsor yang berminat untuk menerbitkan buku hasil penelitian ini.

1.4. chronological Research

KRONOLOGIS PENELITIAN

1973

By the time the police on duty at e KOMRES Solok Helath Clinic , each week holiday to the in-laws house in Padang Panjang to go to church and then to Bukittinggi and it was here for the first time the author met with Datuk Man who gave information about his collection of Chinese ceramics.

For the first time  in Solok the  author purchase  porcelain plate  with Chinese calligraphy meaning unknown in good condition, now known means that shou longevity meaning many lucky , this plate from the Late Qing Dynasty stacked burner technique so there are footprints on the tiles middle of the plate, known as hoof plate, the plate is not rare at that time but it’s been difficult to obtain in large size and good condition at this time, currently in the collection of the author there are two plates du measure see the illustration below.
This plate gives motivation to the author to learn Chinese calligraphy characters, and very lucky to find in the city of Padang in 1973 published a book in shanghai China 194o in English with a clear picture of Chinese character either ancient alphabet (old character), and the old characters (vintage ) at that time.

Based on studies with the lguifance of imited edition book  (only 1000 edition) the author begin to understand the meaning of calligraphy on ceramics and art objects of the Kingdom of China were found.
Please read and enjoyed the chapter tersediri calligraphy motif

Original info

Pada saat bertugas di esehatan POLisi KOMRES Solok, setiap minggu libur ke rumah mertua di Padang Panjang untuk ke gereja dan setelah itu ke Bukittinggi dan disinilah buat pertama kali penulis bertemu dengan Man Datuk yang memberikan informasi tentang koleksi keramik dari Tiongkok.

Buat pertama kali di Solok penulis membeli piring porselein dengan kaligrafi Tiongkok yang tidak diketahui maknanya dalam kondisi yang bagus, sekarang sudah diketahui artinya yaitu shou arti panjang umur banyak reseki

,Piring ini dari Dinasti Qing Akhir dengan teknik pembakar ditumpuk sehingga ada bekas kaki keramik di bagian tengah piring yang dikenal dengan piring tapak kuda,piring ini tidak langka saat itu tetapi saat ini sudah sulit memperolehnya dalam ukuran besar dan kondisi bagus saat ini, saat ini dalam koleksi penulis ada dua piring dengan du ukuran lihat ilustrasi dibawah ini.

Piring ini memberikan motivasi kepada penulis untuk mempelajari aksara kaligrafi Tiongkok, dan sangat beruntung menemukan di Kota Padang tahun 1973 sebuah buku terbitan shanghai Tiongkok tahun 194o dalam bahasa inggris dengan gambaran aksara Tiongkok yang jelas baik aksara kuno(old character) , dan aksara lama(vintage ) saat itu .

Berdasarkan studi dengan petunjuk buku edisi terbatas tersebut (hanya 1000 edisi) penulsi mulai memahami makna kaligrafi pada keramik dan benda seni dari Kerajaan Tiongkok yang ditemukan.

Silahkan dibaca dan dinikmati dalam bab tersediri motif Kaligrafi.

1979

I saw a copy of the ceramic and the help of my sister Elina Widyono current American Citizens In Los Angeles I can buy ceramic sebuak book titled USA for 40 dollars
The Pottery And Porcelain Volume I, By William E.Cox, revise Edition, New York, 1979
This book describes the complete kinds and types of ceramics from the Kingdom of China, Korea,
Japan and Europe.
With the help of this book the author began to assemble a collection of West Sumatra, but most of the period of Late Qing dynasty, and there are several of the Ming Dynasty.
The book is unfortunately not fully colored, mostly black and white illustrasinya so sylit ceramic motifs for identification and also in the form of sketches just so Juka brand (mark)
Begin the author began to understand the meaning of a ceramic motif but very limited.
Nulailah Penulsi nergerak for collection to North Sumatra (Medan), and Aceh * Lhoseumawe). Jakarta, West Java, Central Java, Jpgya, Java Timur.tetapi not obtain ceramics of high artistic
value.

Original info

Saya melihat sebuah fotokopi buku keramik  dan atas bantuan kakak saya Elina Widyono yang saat ini Warga Negara Amerika Di Los Angeles saya dapat membeli sebuak buku keramik seharga  40 dolar USA berjudul

The Pottery And Porcelain Volume I,  By William E.Cox,Revise Edition, New York,1979

Buku ini menjelaskan dengan lengkap jenis dan tipe keramik dari Kerajaan Tiongkok, Korea ,Jepang dan Eropah.

Dengan bantuan buku ini penulis mulai mengumpulkan koleksi dari sumatera Barat, tetapi kebanyak dari masa dinasti Qing Akhir, dan ada beberap dari dinasti Ming.

Buku ini sayang tidak berwarna seluruhnya, sebagian besar hitam putih illustrasinya sehingga sylit untuk identifikasi serta motif keramik juga dalam bentuk lukisan sketsa saja begitu juka mereknya(mark)

Mulailah penulis mulai memahami makna dari motif keramik tetapi sangat terbatas.

Nulailah Penulsi nergerak mencari koleksi ke Sumatera Utara(Medan),dan Aceh*Lhoseumawe).Jakarta,Jawa Barat,Jawa tengah,Jpgya,Jawa Timur.tetapi tidak memeroleh keramik yang bernilai seni tinggi.

1985

This year I change their car Toyota Corona sedan with hardtop Lancruiser 1500 CC 3500 CC 4000 Jeep Bj so that it can move that way ugly desolations
Landcruser Toyota Jeep Hardtop This leads me to explore the island of Sumatra, Java, Bali and start up kie I found a lot of collections.

At this year I met with Dr. Mac Kinnon arkologis National Archaeological Center visiting my Antique Gallery in the city of Padang,

and explained that the findings artifact shards of pottery bowl from the Ming Dynasty Xuante that I get in my town Rengat Riau is a type of imperial ceramics with dragon motif five finger specifically for the king and his companions,

 this is one of the Imperial tile that I found in Riau, can be seen in my article entitled the Chinese ceramic Imperial Kingdom of the examples found in Indonesia in 2013 was my show on my web Blog
Hhtp :/ / http://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com
And CF-ROM contains complete information available.

At the same time say find artifacts of the celadon plate with deer motif and grass script writing, and according to Dr. Mac Kinnon is also a very rare imperial dishes;

Also found there The Rare Ming Cheng Hua red and blue Chrysanthenum Imperial Saucer with mark

This year I went to Medan and continue to Lhos Seumawe and find one another imperial ceramic jug Yuhuncuphing are molded with dragon handle and bird motifs on the body of the queen of phoenix Hong  bird emblem pitc

After having quite a lot of my collection to make colored photograph with a camera and arranged by type and ceramic type according literatut there but not by the motive because when it has not been found relevant literature. Take a look at some of the photos below

Original info

Pada tahun ini saya menganti mobil sedan Toyota Corona 1500 CC dengan Hardtop Lancruiser Bj 4000 3500 cc Jeep sehingga dapat bergerak kedaerah yang jalannya jelek

Jeep Landcruser Toyota Hardtop ini membawa saya menjelajahi pulau Sumatera ,Jawa sampai kie Bali dan mulailah saya menemukan banyak koleksi.

Pada Tahun ini saya bertemu dengan Dr Mac kinnon arkologis Pusat Arkeologis Nasional yang berkunjung ke Galeri Antique saya di Kota Padang , dan menjelaskan bahwa temuan artifak pecahan keramik  Mangkuk dari Dinasti Ming Xuante yang saya peroleh di kota Rengat Riau  adalah tipe keramik imperial dengan motif Naga jari lima khusus dibuat untuk para raja dan sahabatnya, inilah salah satu  keramik Imperial yang saya temukan di Riau, dapat dilihat dalam tulisan saya berjudul Keramik Imperial Kerajaan Tiongkok Yang ditemukan di Indonesia yang contohnya sudah saya tampilkan tahun 2013 di Web Blog saya

Hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

Dan CF-ROM berisi info lengkap tersedia.

Pada saat yang sama say menemukan artifak piring besar Seladon dengan motif rusa dan tulisan grass script ,dan menurut Dr Mac Kinnon ini juga piring imperial yang sangat langka; juga disini saya temukan pirin saus dengan motif bunga chrysant biru dan bungannya merah dalam glasir dengan merek Cheng Hua.

Pada tahun ini saya Ke Medan dan terus ke Lhos Seumawe dan menemukan salah satu keramik imperial lainnya yaitu Kendi Yuhuncuphing moulded dengan handle Naga dan motif burung Hong lambang ratu di badan kendi

Setelah memiliki cukup banyak koleksi saya membuat foto  bewarna dengan kamera dan menyusunnya berdasar jenis dan tipe keramik sesuai literatut yang ada  tetapi belum berdasarkan motif karena saat itu belum ditemukan literature terkait. Lihatlah beberapa foto tersebut dibawah ini.

1990-1994

At the time on My duty in Pontianak West Kalimantan I found the artifacts in the instructions Ketapang Police friend who had served there, and I found the yuan dynasty blue and white bowl with floral kingdom chrysanthenum type

Original info

Pada saat saya bertugas di Pontianak Kalimantan Barat saya menemukan artifak di Ketapang atas petunjuk teman Polisi yang pernah bertugas disana,dan saya menemukan mangkuk dinasti yuan biru putih dengan motif bunga chrysanthenum tipe kerajaan.

1995

This year I found a book written by Lilian To Feng Shui luck that explains the meaning of the symbol chinese fortune. Most of my illustrations of a copy of the image artifacts and arranging it directly from the book info, but still possessed many apparently incomplete collection of every motif present in the book by Lilian To.
Results of data collection with photo illustrations and sketches from my copy of the artifacts collected in a file.Silahkan see the results of the data collection until the year 19995.

Original info

Pada tahun ini saya menemukan buku keberuntungan Fengsui karangan Lilian To yang menerangkan arti keberuntungan dari symbol cina. Sebagian ilustrasi saya gambar dari fotokopi dari artifak secara langsung dan menyusunnya sesuai dari info buku tersebut, tetapi masih banyak ternyata koleksi yang dimiliki belum lengkap dari setiap motif yang ada dalam buku karangan Lilian To tersebut.

Hasil pengumpulan data dengan ilustrasi foto dan gambar sketsa dari fotokopi artifak tersebut saya kumpulkan dalam sebuah file.Silahkan melihat hasil pengumpulan data sampai tahun 19995 ini.

1996

Napier to this year when I found the artifact jar with blue and white floral motif chrysanthenum

.Mohameddan Blue Imperial Jar

Found Makassar south celebes

1.first step.

restored

Saat ke Makasar tahun ini saya menemukan artifak jar biru putih dengan motif bunga chrysanthenum.

2002-2003

After retirement years should be entitled 2000.saya enough time to explore.
When he returned to West Kalimantan in particular to Ketapang, I found some red in glazed and  blue and white ceramic type yuan empire (imperial)
 

I have read about the New world record for Ming vase
from China Daily newspaper Updated: 2006-05-31 05:52 HONG KONG: about A rare underglaze copper-red Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) vase sold for HK$78.52 million (US$10.13 million) in Hong Kong yesterday, setting a world auction record for Ming porcelain.  Theow Tow, Deputy Chairman of Christie’s Asia and the Americas International Director of Chinese works of Arts, looks at an early Ming underglaze copper-red vase after it was sold for a world record of US$10,122,558 for any Ming porcelain during an auction in Hong Kong May 30, 2006. [Reuters]
“He’s bought the vase at the right price, making a world record,” said Edward Dolman, chief executive officer of Christie’s International, referring to buyer Steve Wynn, chairman of Macao-based Wynn Resorts.

The pear-shaped vase, decorated with a peony scroll, is the only copper-red vase of the early Ming Dynasty still in perfect condition to be offered at auction in more than 15 years, said Christie’s Hong Kong office.

The vase was originally inherited by a Scottish couple who used it as a lamp and did not realize its value until they saw a similar example in a museum.

Ceramics with underglaze copper-red decoration are very rare, owing to their complicated production process.

I also found semipor celain red in glazed in boken near 80% per shape vase, so0meonje said to me that this is from anamaese,please comment

Compare with the ming hung wu red in glazed

 B.Mohamadan Blue Imperial YuhunchupingVase

 (1)Type One

(2)type two

restored

Original info

Setelah pensiun tahun 2000.saya menpunyai cukup waktu untuk melakukan eksplorasi.

Saat kembali ke Ke Kalimantan Barat khususnya Ketapang, saya menemukan beberapa keramik yuan biru putih tipe kerajaan(imperial)

2005

found several artifacts ceramic Jakrta Ming Wanli imperial type, he comes from the Banten Lama

The Very Rare Middle Ming  Imperial Ceramic

1). Ming Cheng Hua Phoenix Bigger Plate 

restored.

Compared with same pattern ceramic look in the next page

3).Ming Chenghua

 Human Figure Imperial Bowl

(1)type one

 base imperial mint mark

 Inner

Restored

2) type two

base

Inner

restured

4).The Ming Cheng Hua Blue Imperial Chrysnathenum Bottle Vase

restored

This year I found a lot of books ceramics auction, and also a very good book that Chinese Symbolism and Art Moty essay CAS Williams, also a book about a stunning motifs and motifs in ceramics Chinese Taoism.

Original Info

Saya emnemukan di Jakrta beberapa artifak keramik Ming Wanli tipe imperial,katanya berasal dari Banten Lama

Pada tahun ini saya menemukan banyak buku lelangan keramik,dan juga satu buku yang sangat bagus  yaitu Chinese Symbolism and Art Moty karangan  Williams C.A.S, Juga buku tentang motif pemandang pada keramik Tiongkok dan motif TAOISM.

2006-2012

I find more Chinese royal art collection in Jakarta and also other collections of historical artifacts, most of the collection on display in the gallery began Driwancybermuseum Home Office and Gallery and put in my web blog in 25 years anniversary of Driwancybermuseum look below

Original info

Saya menemukan lebih banyak koleksi benda seni kerajaan Tiongkok di Jakarta dan juga koleksi benda artifak sejarah lainnya, sebagian koleksi mulai di pajang dalam galeri Driwancybermuseum Home office and Galery dan menampilkannya diweb blog saya dalam rangka  peringatan 25 tahun

Driwancybermuseum.silahkan melihat tampilan tersebut dibawah ini

PREFACE

After 30 years built the Unique Collections,  in  July,15th.1985  I am starting to go international with my Antique Collections ,the  born’s name of Unique Collections after change name several time. In this day I built an Antique Collections shop in my house  at 16 Bundo Kandung street  Padang West Sumatra after my new House ,three stairs were finished, I live at the second and third floor, and at the base was my shop.

Almost five years this Antiqie shop with my communications with many international Phillatelic Collectors from Dutch, and in this year Mr P.R. Bulterman the Indonesia Dai Nippon  Postal stationer history expert and he also written the the Dutch East indie postmark”s boook, The Indonesia Dai Nippon postal stationery History, and  latest The Republic Indonesia Revolutionary Postal stationery History’s book.

He bough some rare postal stationery History from sumatra from me lika Lampong Hinomaru ovpt postally used cover, West Sumatra Cross postalstatinery Cover,and The Bencoolen Dai nippon Regional Dav id Star on Kreisler wilhemina stamps.

 At the end of 1985 ,the Indonesia Phillatelist Karel bought from me the Dai Nippon Occupation Sumatra  and Indonesia Indeopendent War Postal History in ten bigger Album includding the Revenue History from Dai nippon occupation and Indonesia Independent War Sumatra.

I have sold many my collections in other to preparing for study Master of Hospital Administrations degree and bring my wife and my Children Albert and Anton studies in Jakarta, for that I need fund, after that bigger transactions, I have enough m oney to move to Jakarta,boug house,and  all the family studied in Jakarta my master degree in 1989-1990,my wife D3 degree 1989-1993,and after that Si degree in 1998-1999 and Master degree 2007-2008, my Son Albert S1 degree 1994-1998, and Anton si degree 1995-1999.and postgraduaete cour after they works. My House at Padang were sold in 1991,and became thepart of  Ambacang  hotel which broken during bigger earthquacked in 2009.

The rare Unique Collections which the name before change as the antique  C ollections in July,15t.1985 still in my collections until now and during my master degree study in 1989 until now I starting to built more Unique collections which I add in Internet with the site’s name  uniiqueinfonet.com in July,15th in 1999  but not succeed,  aftre that in 2000 I am retire from mo Officiasl workd and my new cretions as the teac her in S1 and D3 health scicece University until 2005.

In July,15th 2005 I am starting the new creations with the name uniquecollections until now, I starting to write The Investation’s value of Unique Collections,later I change to How Estimate The Uniquecollections investation value, The Sarawak Unique Collections, and The Vietnam War. THe new blog starting in Fberuary,9th 2009 with the site name uniequecolooctions.wordpress.com, but very slow but growth, and when I begun the full time created this blog from December 2009 until June 2010 I have written 350 uniquecollections article based on my collections.

In June 2010, due to the old blog full and have trouble to add the inmformation due to the site was in my editor,my son name and password which made I cannot enter my own blog, because My family gave me the new computers, that is why I staring the new blog with my name and own  e.mail and password, the new blog name iwansuwandy.wordpress.com , and everything ok about operations and the capicity of thew computer and site very bigger now which made me could created e-book with more ilustrations, I have all info in my computer’s  memory thousand gigabyte,before only three gIgabyte I have used 2,8 Gigabytes.

During Silver Birthday of Uniquecollection in July,15th 2010, I will made a show of my best uniquecollections e-book  as UHI-uniquecollection Heritage Informations, free of charge, beside that I have wrtitten PUI-premium Uniquecolletions Informations. whic all collectors can read and looked free the sample of that premium e-book free of charge.

I want to than very much to all my friend who ever help me to built this amizing and interestin uniquecollctions blog iwansuwandy.wordpress.com  and I want to apologized to wordpress,, Gmail, facebook and Google for the modern internet and information digital communications which made the uniquecolelction’s blog growth very fast, and Facebook made many communicatios with the collectors from all over the world my two  FBblog group. .

Jakarta,July,15th 2010

Dr IWAN S, the founder of uniquecollection’sblog iwansuwandy.wordpress.com.

CHAPTER ONE THE BEST ARTICLE OF UNIQUE COLLECTIONS

1. THE VIETNAM WAR DURING INDOCHINA COLLECTIONS

2. STUDI KEPUSTAKAAN NILAI INVESTASI KOLEKSI UNIK

3.THE SARAWAK REVENUE HISTORY

4. THE SIMGAPORE SHIP MAIL

CHAPTER TWO THE BEST UNIQUECOLLECTION’S E-BOOK

1. THE E-BOOK THE INFESTATION VALUE OF UNIQUECOLLETIONS

THE INVESTATION VALUE OF UNIQUE COLLECTIONS-Studi Kepustakaan Nilai Investasi Koleksi Unik

UCM-uniquecollection Cyber Museum

iwansuwandy.wordpress.com @copy right Dr Iwan S.2010,

I just write a limited edition book in Indonesian language STUDI KEPUSTAKAAN KOLEKSI UNIK  or The Literature Study of uniquecollection Investation Value.If the collectors want to have this complete bvooks with best illustrations please registered your name as fast as you can. Before in my old Blog I have put some and not sistematically information about this topic,but many Collector and trader had tag this story without my permission. Now the best limited book just isuued privately  in e.book ,if thecollectors want to have the complete e-book,pleasie registered via comment.(Dr Iwan s Note)

PROMOTIONAL SAMPLE OF THE BOOK.FORBIDDEN TO COPY @COPYRIGHT Dr iwan S. 2010.

STUDI KEPUSTAKAAN NILAI INVESTASI KOLEKSI UNIK

@COPYRIGHT Dr Iwan S 2010.

To look the full illustration info please click

 http://iwansuwandy.wordpress.com/2010/08/10/studi-kepustakaan-nilai-investasi-koleksi-unik/

 

S T U D I    K E P U S T A K A A N NILAI INVESTASI KOLEKSI UNIK

kartu pos ultah I kemerdekaan RI yang  langka

OLEH

Dr  I W A N   S

Publikasi Pribadi terbatas 100 expl. Khusus Untuk Kolektor

BAB I PENDAHULUAN

1.Kajian tentang  koleksi  yang memiliki nilai investasi (unik dan langka) sehingga ”layak koleksi” adalah sesuatu hal yang menarik pada saat ini, terutama sejak terjadinya krisis Global pasar saham pada akhirtahun 2008 dimana keyakinan para investor terhadap pasar modal(saham) mulai menurun dan mulai melirik ”Investasi dibarang Koleksi”*1)

2. Nilai investasi suatu koleksi ditentukan bukan hanya oleh kelangkaan atau umur yang tua  tetapi juga oleh kualitas dan keindahan untuk kesenangan pribadi dan pameran   *2)

3.Keindahan koleksi tergantung pada mata konsumen dan kondisi koleksi  seperti nilai investasinya  adalah suatu hal subjektif

4.Istilah Koleksi Unik berasal dari bahasa Inggeris Unique Collection sering diartikan secara keliru sehingga koleksi unik diidentikkan dengan koleksi dengan nilai investasi tinggi dan akhrnya jadi tumpukan lumpur

5.Koleksi unik ada juga yang menyebut”Rare”, ”Limited Edition” atau “Curio”,”Antique”*3)

6. Kolektor dan investor koleksi unik selalu menemui kesulitan dalam memilih koleksi yang layak dikumpul, sering kecewa saat menjual koleksinya karena dinilai sangat rendah tidakseperti yang diperkirakannya.Sehubungan dengan hal tersebut diatas perlu dilakukan kajian  berupa studi kepustakaan, sudi perbandingan perkembangan nilai koleksi deri katalogus dan hasil lelangan dalam suatu kurun waktu tertentu guna dapat menjawab  beberapa hal yang selalu menjadikan pertanyaanbagi para kolektor dan investor koleksi unik :

a.      Jenis koleksi yang layak dijadikan investasi

Prangko Hindia Belanda yang paling langka dan layak dikoleksi

b.      Bagaimana membuktikan hipotesis dibawah ini:

1)     Koleksi unik tidak selalu memiliki nilai investasi

 

Prangko Masa perang kemerdekaan RI di Sumatera  yang paling langka hanya  dua biji ditemukan,salah satunya ada dimuseum prangko Den Haag Negeri belanda kepunyaan kolektor terkenal Ricardo dan yang ini milik pribadi Dr iwan S, tetapi walaupun unik dan langka belum tentu nilai inventasinya tinggi, isteri saya berkomentar prangko jelek tak menarik siapa yang tertarik, tetapi bila dilihat Bulterman pakar filateli belanda langsung berteriak wow sambil pegang kepala,sangat menarik,hanya ada dua didunia,mau jual , jawab saya tidak karena sepantasnya prangko ini dipajang di mueum prangko Indonesia atau disandingkan dengan koleksi Ricardo di Museum den Haag, tetapi saat saya tawarkan kepada pakar filateli lainnya dari Negeri Belanda, saya katakan,prangko ini ingin saya sumbangkan ke musuem den Haag dengan syarat nama saya dicantumkan dan saya diundang ke negeri Belanda saat penyerahan piagam tanda terima sumbangan prangko langka ini, Ia jawab boleh saya akan beri tahu,tetapi sudah lima tahun tidak ada jawaban,bagaimana ,benarkan hipotesis saya langka tapi tak menarik dan tak selalu memiliki nilai investasi tinggi.

2)     Koleksi unik selalu memiliki informasi yang dibutuh orang-orang tertentu.

peta butut ini tidak menarik, tetapi memiliki informasi yang anda pasti ingin tahu, Subang anda tahu dan Kalijati mungkin tidak, tempat tersebut sangat bersejarah, kalijati adalah lapangan terbang yang dijatikan tempat perundingan penyerahan kekuasaan dari Militer Hiundia Belanda Kepada Panglima pasukan pendarata Dai Nippon di Jawa Let.jen. Hitoshi Immamoto, nah lu, baru koleksi ini bernilai histori karena ada informasi yang dibutukan rakyat Indonesia dan tentunya Belanda, dan selanjutnya anda pasti ingin tahu bagaimanakah profil Jendral Immamura ,untuk memenuhi penasaran anda lihat foto yang bersangkutan dibawah ini

Stelah melihat profil jen.Hitoshi Immamura,anda tambah penasaran , ia berunding dengan siapa,-silahkan baca Pendudukan Jepang di Jawa 1942 atau The Dai Nippon Military Administration Java atau Dai Nippon Gunseikanbu Jawa.(waah,memang penasaran membuat orang haus informasi-Dr iwan s)

Nilai investasi  koleksi dapat diketahui dari market  perdagangan barang antik yang akhir-akhir ini menjadi tidak diketahui  akibat resesi sehingga banyak “dealer”(pedagang-peyalur) dan “auctioner”(pelelang)  yakin  situasi jelek ini akan berakhir. Benda-benda koleksi berkembang jenisnya dan harga  bersaing selalu ditemukan  dan kadang-kadang suprising  suatu jenis benda dengan cepat berubah statusnya menjadi barang koleksi *4)

 

Medali Mao ini dulu siapa yang mau koleksi, tetapi saat ini diburu kolektor China, karena ekonomi negaranya meroket dan rakyatnya mulai makmur, maka komeradnya yang paling dicintai khususnya yang langka masa revolusi kebudayaan di beli dengan harga sangat tinggi, malah tiruannya yang banyak diproduksi tahun 1978 saat mao baru meninggal dunia saat ini masih dibeli di China untuk kenang-kenangan oleh turis karena yang asli harganya selangit.

Pakar filatelis almarhum V.esbensen pernah menulis surat kepada saya, apa yang anda kumpulkan benda filateli masa pendudukan jepang dan perang kemerdekaan RI di sumatra,suatu wkatu akan menjadi investasi yang sangat tinggi nilainya apabila negara anda tambah makmur ekonominya,ternyata benar saat Jepang booming ekonominya tahun 1985, pendudukan jepang diborong semua orang jepang denga harga selangit, tapi saat ini para kolektor jepang sudah tua danbanyak meninggal seperti mr Aoki pasarannya jadi sepi lagi,untung saya sudah jual saat lagi booming, sampai sat ini koleksi saya dari China masih utuh danmuali booming,mungkin saya harus egera melepasnya, bagaimana, menakjubkan bukan.

Minat investasi perangko yang sempat memudar mulai berbinar *5) setelah berbagai pasar modal mengalami krisis.

Para pedagang koleksi uang (numismatik) akan kecipratan duit apabila uang lama bergambar seseorang tokoh meninggal dunia. *6)

Tentang hal ini , ada pengalaman saya ,suatu waktu saya menemui setumpuk duit lama gambar bung Karno pecahan Rp.25 alias uang prit jigo yang sangat banyak beredar,dalam kondisi yang masih mulus sulit didapat, anda tahu bagaimana harganya meroket mulai sepuluh ribu rupiah, kemudian naik dua puluh lima ribu rupiah tahu 1990 dan akhirnya tahun 2000 meroket jadi seratus ribu rupiah,tapi karena resesi ekonomi jatuh lagi tinggal 75 ribu rupiah,untuk saat paling tinngi sudha saya lepas seluruhnya kecuali yang nomor serinya urus dan cantik masih sya koleksi karena prospeknya bagus terutama nomor seri satu atau dua huruf,belum tahu belajar dong, baca buku, penasaran pean buku ini sebelum habis disikat orang lain,informasi adalah guru kita untuk menjadi kolektor yang sukses(Dr iwan S)

Penulis artikel berjudul “Sang Kolektor” kagum  kepada kolektor  yang kecintaannya  terhadap koleksi menjelma  menjadi  pengetahuan bagi orang banyak, tetapi ia  prihatin terhadap kerakusan dan kesrakahan mereka *7)

Koleksi yang memiliki nilai investasi tinggi tidak selalu likuid susah dijual dengan nilai pasar, pedagang punya prinsip Beli semurah-murahnya dan jual setinggi-tingginya. Kendatipun demikian ada juga koleksi yang liquid antara lain Jam tangan Antik *8)

Kekayaan warisan budaya suatu etnis merupakan refleksi suatu kultur, salah satunya adalah peralatan dan meubeler etnis tionghoa “cuiho” yang dimanfaatkan saat menikah *9)(termasuk alat musik,meja sembahyang dan pakaian serta Ranjang Pengantin berikut pernak-perniknya-pen)

Setiap orang memiliki idola dan heronya masin-masing sehingga berminat menyimpan barang cetak,foto dan kartu dengan gambar sang idola yang dikenal sebagai “trade card”*10)

Sang Idola tempo dulu da masa kini dibidang oleh raga menjadi incaran para kolektor seperti spot card sepak bola*11) dan Basket Ball NBA*12)

Istilah Unusual Coins( koin yang tidak biasa)  “ sometimes confusing” (beberapa waktu  membingungkan) dengan  istilah kreasi   “ the cormercial marketplace”(Tempat terbuka dikota yang gunakan  sebagai lokasi pasa), sering  merupakan “deceptive realm of numinmatic  emission  “ ( penerbitan matauang  tipuan ). Kendatipun demikian Unusual Coins ada juga yang diterbitkan sebagai mata uang lokal atau token *12)

 

Koin perk ini tahun1975-1980 dijual toko mas dengan menibang berat peraknya sekitar 45 gr,dijual per gram rp 500 sama dengan satu US $ ,jadi harganya sekitar 45 US$, anda tahu berapa harganya sekarang, karena sangat langkadan edisinya sangat terbatas koin perak belanda raja willem I ini nilainya sama dengan sebuah mobil toyota avanza,kalu tak percaya coba cari bila dapat pasti ada yang mau tukar dengan mobilnya,tapi jangan yang butut.

Membahas Koleksi Unik tidak akan habis-habisnya sehingga dalam karya tulis ini dibatasi mengenai Koleksi Unik Pribadi saja tidak meliputi Koleksi Unik Warisan Bangsa atau National (National Heritage Collection*13)

Kolektor dan investor koleksi unik didunia sangat banyak  seperti Koleksi perangko  Raja Inggeris orang tuanya Ratu Elisabeth II Inggeris, Bekas Raja Mesir yang koleksi luar biasa saat ia turun tahta dilelang dengan harga yang cukup tinggi saat itu sehingga dijulukilah kolesi perangko sebagai “The King of collection and the collection of the King” seiiring dengan berkembangnya komunikasi pos pada akhir abad ke XX pihak pos menerbitkan perangko dalam julah yang sangat tinggi sampai 20-100 juta eksp. Serta gerakan propaganda negara komunis liwat perangko yang membagi-bagikan perangko yang telah distempel pos investasi dikoleksi perangko menurun sehingga saat inin hanya yang perangko unik yang langka saja yang masih jadi incaran kolekstor dan investor spesialistis *14)

Kolektor dan Investor lokal di Indonsia cukup banyak akhir tahun 2008 timbul kasus Arca Kuno di Solo dan melibatkna kolektor yang tidak mengaku sebagai investor , dibebaskan oleh pengadilan Negeri  ,dan saat ini jaks a naik banding ( jangan koleksi koleksi unik warisan budaya nasional yang dilindungi secar hukum,-pen).

Beberapa kolektor yang dikenal penulis dibahas dalam karya tulis tersendiri antara lain kolektor Postal History Pendudukan Jepang dan revolusi kemerdekaan NRI 1942-49 Mr Ricardo mantan direktur BUMN Jacobson van den Berg –Batavia  yang saat ini milik  Museum Fiateli den Haag Negeri Belanda,

 Koleksi Keramik Mantan pimpin IOC Mr Average Brundage  , Koleksi Samurai Jepang Mr Baud –Srilangka, Kolektor Bungkus Rokok Butet Kertajaya,Koleksi Lukisan Afandi Bp Sumarican dan lainnya.Keberhasilan beberapa Kolektor Koleksi Perangko Unik yang mampu membeli rumah,Kolektor meubel antik membangun toko antik di Jakarta, Kolektor lukisan yang memvisualisai Indonesia dari negeri Belanda dan lainnya*14)

Hasil kjian mengenai Jenis, Nilai Investasi koleksi unik serta pembahasannya serta illustrasi koleksi unik pribadi kolektor Jakarta secara sederhana pada bab berikutnya, untukkolektor senior dan spesialistik dapat menhubunggi penulis guna dapat berdiskusi dan memperoleh karyatulis khusus pribadi dengan perjanjian.

Setelah membaca buku sederhana ini , pembaca yang memahami bahasa Indonesia diharapkan memberikan koreksi dan masukan informasi temuam koleksi unik baru sehinga selanjutnya dapat diterbitkan buku yang lebih lengkap dalamdua bahasa Indonesia dan Inggeris pada tahun 2010  .

2PUI   .E-BOOK  KISAH PERTUALANGAN Dr IWAN S

3.UHI  -KOLEKSI MOBIL TOYOTA

to look the full info please click

 https://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/2011/02/16/koleksi-mobil-toyota-astraat-driwan-toyota-cybermuseum/

KISAH PERTUALANGAN Dr IWAN

*C01

Disusun oleh

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

to look the full illustration of

Driwan Adventures collections please click

 http://uniquecollection.wordpress.com/2011/04/18/kisah-pertualangan-dr-iwan-ke-saigondriwan-adventure-to-ho-chi-minh-city/

*C002

Berdasarkan perjalanan pribadi di Indonesia dan kawasan Asia Timur

Dengan Koleksi Unik yang ditemui saat perjalaan tersebut

EDISI PRIBADI TERBATAS KHUSUS

UNTUK KOLEKTOR BUKU DAN BENDA UNIK

JAKARTA @HAKCIPTA Dr IWAN S 2010

*c001 gambar kartu undian berhadiah ditemui di Hanzhou Guillin Tiongkaok selatan 2009.

*C002 profile Dr IWAN saat pernikahan 1973.kta temannya ia berwaja lugu (innocent face)

KATA PENGANTAR

SETELAH BERLAJAR MENULIS KISAH – KISAH PERJALANAN PRIBADI SAYA DI INDONESIA DAN ASIA TIMUR DALAM BLOG INTERNET SAYA YANG LAMA uniquecollection.wordpress.com  BAIK DLAM BAHASA INDONESIA MAUPUN INGGRIS, BANYAK TEMAN-TEMAN KOLEKOTR TERMASUK BERBAGAI PIHAK MEMANFAATKAN INFORMASI INI GUNA KEPENTINGAN PROMOSI BISNISNYA DENGAN ATAU TANPA IZIN PEMILIK HAK CIPTA YANG DPAT DIPANTAI DLAM TAG, MAKA SAYA MEMBERANIKAN DIRI MENERBIT BUKU ELEKTRONIK INI SEBAGAI PROMOSI DI BLOK INTERNET YANG BARU KARENA YANG LAMA SUDAH PENUH iwansuwandy.wordpress.com.

IDE PENULISAN BUKU INI ADALAH BUKU BILIEVE OR NOT(PERCAYA ATAU TIDAK) DAN BUKU KARYA DEFOE KISAH PERTUALANGAN TOM SAWYER, SEMULA BUKU INI DIBERI NAMA KISAH PERJALAN Dr IWAN S DAN KOLEKSI UNIK YANG DITEMUI, TETAPI BEBERAPA PEMBACA MENYEBUTNYA SEBAGAI KISAH PERTUALANGAN DR IWAN S KE ASIA TIMUR UNTUK MEMPEROLEH KOLEKSI UNIK,  dan ada yang menambah komentar sesuai bidang bisnisnya seperti baik dijadikan contoh untuk generasi muda dan ini kisah pertualangan pertama kolektor, KIsah Perjalanan yang dapat dijadikancontoh untuk perjalanan tour anda,dan sebagiannya.

SELURUH KISAH PERTUALANGAN YANG MERUPAKAN ARTIKEL NON PROFESSIONAL PERCOBAAN YANG SUDAH DIMUAT DALAM BLOG INTERNET  SAYA YANG LAMA SEBANYA 349 ITEM  DAN BARU E-BOOK 51 ITEM,  AKAN SAYA KOMPILASI DENGAN KISAH PERTUALANGAN SAYA YANG LAINNYA MENJADI SUATU BUKU YANG AMAT MENARIK DAN DILENGKAPI DENGAN ILLUSTRASI FOTO DAN KOLEKSI UNIK YANG SAYA TEMUI SAAT PERTUALANGAN TERSEBUT.

SAYA SADAR BAHWA MASIH BANYAK KEKELIRUAN DAN KEKURANGAN INFORMASI DALAM BUKU INI,OLEH KARENA ITU KOREKSI DAN SARAN SANGAT SAYA BUTUHKAN DAN HARGAI DEMI UNTUK PERBAIKAN DALAM EDISI BERIKUTNYA.BUKU INI AKAN DIEDIT OLEH TENAGA PROFESIONAL DAN DENGAN ILLUSTRASI PHOT OLEH PHOTOGRAPER YANG PROFESIONAL,DALAM CONTOH MASIH MENGUNAKAN PHOTO PRIBADI SAYA YAMG KURANG RPOFESIONAL.

TERIMA KASIH KEPADA BERBAGAI PIHAK BAIK DALAM NEGERI DAN LUAR NEGERI YANG TELAH MEMBANTU SAYA SEHINGGA BUKU INI DAPAT DIRAMPUNGKAN SESUAI RENCANA KHUSUS PARA SPONSOR DAN DOA RESTU DARI TEMAN-TEMAN.

 

BUKU ELEKTRONIK INI SAYA TULIS KHUSUS UNTUK ISTERI TERCINTA LILY DAN ANAK-ANAK SAYA ALBERT DAN ANTON SERTA ISTERI ALICE DAN GREECE SERTA CUCU-CUCU SAYA SESA,CELINE DAN ANTONY, INILAH KENANG-KENANGAN DARI SAYA PRIBADI.

TERIMA KASIH JUGA KEPADA PARA KOLEKTOR DAN PENERBIT YANG TELAH MENSPONSORI TERBITNYA BUKU ELEKTRONIK INI, SEMOGA SEMANGAT JUANG SAYA DALAM PERTUALANGAN INI DAPAT DIJADIKAN PEMICU SEMANGAT KAUM MUDA GENERASI MENDATANG.

JAKARTA,JULY 2010

*c003

Dr IWAN SUWANDY,MHA

*c003 foto profil Dr Iwan dengan koleksi mobil toyota Soluna tahun 2000.

Look The illustration Of Driwancybermuseum home office

click

https://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/2010/09/08/driwancybermuseum-25-years-uniquecollection-anniversary/

Posted on June 12, 2011

please click below to look the illustrations

Driwan Cybermuseum Home Office and Galery in 2011

https://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/category/dr-iwan-masterpiene-uniquecollections/

SELAMAT DATANG DI PINTU MASUK HOMEOFFICE

ANDA MEMASUKI RUANG TAMU
 DAN RUANG RAPAT.

SILAHKAN MELIHAT RUANGAN KANTOR ELEKTRONIK INTRENET KOMPUTERISASI HOME OFFICE 

RUANGAN PERPUSTAKAAN

RUANGAN DAPUR BERSIH
KAMAR REST ROOM

SELANJUTNYA AND DIPERSILAHKAN MELIHAT MUSEUM MINI KOLEKSI Dr IWAN S PRIBADI, MULAI TANGGA MASUK YANG ARTISTIK DENGAN PELINDUNG CHILLIN DAN KERAMIK CHILLIN DINASTI MING

KOLEKSI MUSEUM MINI PERTAMA ADALAH PATUNG ETHNIS INDONESIA

LEMARI

DAN KURSI ANTIK


TEMPAT TIDUR ANTIK

 RUANGAN STUDI KOLEKSI

KOLEKSI LUKISAN delapan Dewa

 eight  immortal

 

GUCI ANTIK

KERAMIK ANTIK,ANTARA LAIN DIDALM LEMARI ES BEKAS  teridiri dari ceret dan mangkuk kecil yang mungih dan indah

Serta LAMPU-LAMPU ANTIK  yang sangat langka,indah dan menarik.

Selesai Hak Cipta @Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

THE FOUNDER

Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM

SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

 

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

 Please click below to look the full illustrations info

 https://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/2011/06/12/the-introduction-of-the-driwancybermuseum-web-blogs-founder/

Driwancybermuseum Blog A.Driwancybermuseum homeoffice openhouse

Cybermuseum open house”

Hallo Collector
THe founder and All of UCN uniquecollections cybernews staff send the greatings and Happy Chinese New Year “Gong Hi Fat Choi” .
During this happy seasons, UCM uniquecollection cybermuseum and UCN home office open house , all of our best friend collectors were invited to joint the celebration ceremony of the opening of the home office and small museum .

All the collectors from allover the world Please look at the illustration of the new restored UCM-UCN home office and small musuem: 

 The front of the homeoffice with Qillin staircase or tangga Killin as the protection of uniquecollection cybermuseum homeoffice, constist two Qillin stone statue,two Qillin wooden carving, three artifact Qillin late Ming ceramic , design by Dr Iwan S. built by Mr burhanuddin , the idea from Ming emperor palace forbidden city Beijing @copyright Dr Iwan S.2010 (ill. caption “Qillin decoration”)

2

The vintage Writing desk and cupboard (ill Vintage writingcase), in the cupboard the collector will see the albums of vintage document histories.

3. TheLibrary of uniquecollections literatures (ill.library)

4. The Meeting room

5. The Working room

6. The Small Museum consist :

Ceramic Collection


(1) The Ancient ceramic Collections in two vintage showcase( ill ceramic collection 1

And

 2)

Ceramic Collections 2

(2) The dragon boat style Museum with the uniquecollections show : ceramic,stamps and revenue,martavan,woodencarving,statue,metal collections, cins,ancien smoking Pipes, vintage Labels, vintage paintings (ill Small museum)


(3) special close up illustration of VOC ship multicolour tiles-(ill VOC Gauda tiles),

VOC Tile&Token

VOC Fort tiles(ill.VOC Delft tiles), Wayang Berber Paintings (ill Wayang berber 1945).

Ancient Wayang Petruk 

Ancient wayang Semra

(4) The founder show the very rare handpainted pictures with calligraphy ancient wayang book (ill. Ancietn Wayang Petruk and ill. ancient wayang Semar)

Postal History and Document History collections in antique cupbo

Ngoc San Hanoi tile

After look of the UCM-UCN home office with small musuem illustrations we hope all the collectors will more closed with the best uniquecollection blog of the world and always click this blog to found anykind of uniquecollections information, if you didn’t found the informations please asked as collector choice via comment lika Fake Coins, the value of Rare stamps, the Indochine coins,stamps and papermoney informations etc.If our visitor near 1 million , uniquecollections blog will develop the uniquecollectins club all over the world, please the collectors of all over the world asking the copyright permission with special regulations via comment and editor will contact you to issued the written permission and regulations. every members will send the UCN and the UCM showed with regular one year or life member operational postal & scanning cost to send that information stright install via the members sms adress.the complete best color illustrations. This only the recent proposal, please comment and suggestions.

UCM-uniquecollections Cybermuseum have announced that this night will show ” The Qing Imperial Collections’consist The Qing imperial Paintings, ceramics , meubeluers, and other kind unique Qing imperial collections , this show sponsored by anonim Chinese Beijing collectors.

Dr Iwan Announcement’s Note

ALL OF THE ILLUSTRATION FROM THE CERAMIC FOUND BELOW WILL UPLOAD AT THE’ PART III RESUT OF STUDIES

WHIC THE SAMPLE HAVE UPLOAD AFTER THIS ARTICLES

SOME WILL SEEN WHEN YOU CLICK  THE ADRESS WHICH PUT AT THE BELOW OF INFORMATIONS

SORRY TO MUCH ILLUSTRATIONS TO PUT IN ONE ARTICLE

TO LOOK THE COMPLETE INFO AND ILLSUTRATIONS YOU CAN GET FROM

Driwan CD-ROM

or you asked via comment but you must subscribed to be the Premium member  via comment with upload your email adress and then upload your ID card scan this is only for protections agains internet heckers

one info only cheap administartion fee only 20 % from the ineternational fee

Thanks Very muck

To visit Driwancybermuseum blog

Sincerely

Dr Iwan suwandy , MHA

I WRITE THIS MEMORABLE STORY WITH RELATED UNIQUECOLLECTIONS ILLUSTRATIONS AS MY HONOR TO MY LOVING FAMILY , ALL MY FRIEND AND MY TEACHERS.BECAUSE WITHOUT YOU I AM NOTHING AT ALL,AND YOU ARE ALWAYS IN MY HEART FOREVER.

THE SAMPLE OF EXHIBTION IN Driwancybermuseum

SELAMAT DATANG DI RUANG PAMERAN KHUSUS

SHOWCASE :

RUANG PAMERAN :SHOW ROOM

RARE MOTIF OF YUAN CERAMIC COLLECTION

The Rare Yuan Cock Ceramic”

March 29, 2010 by uniquecollection 

Yuan Cock Mhammedan blue

Rare Yuan cock cup 

Rare Yuan Cock ceramic
THE RARE YUAN COCK DECORATION CERAMIC
@cOPYRIGHT Dr Iwan s.2010

1.INTRO
(1)Starting from this day all the UCN special show with put in UCM SPECIAL SHOW TODAY like IRC-Indonesia Rare Coins,RCD-Rare Ceramic Decoration, UBC-Unique Book Collection written by the famous writers, Indonesia Independence war today, Dai Nippon occupation Java or other area today and other type short show. (2)This day special show RCD-Rare ceramic Decoration.

The Rare Yuan Ccck Ceramic Decoration was one of the rare Yuan Animal decoration, before have installed the other rare Yuan animal decorations Snake, and after this Bigger fish and Deer , this animal common during Ming and Qing dinasty.
The Yuan cock ceramic frmthe bigger cup.

2. THE CHINESE ETHNIC HISTORY OF THE COCK
(1). The cck is the chief emnodiment of the element Yang,which represents the warmth and life of the universe. It is supposed to have the power of changing itself into uman form, to inflict good or evil upon mankind.
(2). The cock have a crown in his head, a mark of his literary spirit and he also have spurs on his feet, a token of his warlike disposition.
(3), The Cock is courageoud, for he fights and benevolent , always clucking for the hens when he scratches up a grain and faithful, for he never lses hours.
(4) The picture of a red cock is often pasted on the wall of a house in belief that the bird is a protection against fire.
(5). As aGhsts disappear at sunrise, the cock is supposed to drive them away by his crowing.
(6). Hence a white cock is sometimes placed n the coffin in funeral processions to clear the road of demons.
(7). The Chinese say that one of the three spirits of the dead comes into the cock at the time of the meeting the corpse, and that the spirit is thus allure back to the residence of the family. Some explain the used of a purely white cock to the exclusion of any other coloured cock on such occasions, by saying that White cock is a divine or spiritual fowl.
(8) Cock-fighting was practised in China some five hunderd years ago (In Bali still a traditions until now, althoug agains the law if t be a gambling and the Police will arrest them especially at the islamic area.

3. The Chinese Lucky Fengsui of the Cock
(1.) No doubt, however, its white colour is emblematical of purity of heart.It was the customof the bride and bridegroom to eat white sugar cocks at the wedding ceremony. A white cock is said to be aprotection against beneful astral influences and to be the only capable guide of transient spirit.
(2)The Sins of the offerer are said to be transferred t the entrails of the Cock, and these are exposed upon the hused-top, to be carried away by birds of the airs,
(3) A cock and a hen standing amid artificial rck-work in a garden of peonies is common pictorial design symbolizing the pleausures of a country life.
(4) A Cock on the roof of a house is regarder as a bad omen, and it very unlucky if it thunders while a hen is sitting on eggs.
(5) The embroidery Cock design were used on the Judge wear,the cock on the rock looking the sunrise were the emblem of the Emperor power and authorities.
(6) The lucky days of the cock is the Saturday, if someone have their wedding in this day, will made the harmonis and wealthy merriage, but if the buried ceremony on this day will made their rank up in People society.

@Copyright Dr Iwan S.2010

tootl look the illustration please click the blue caption below 

March 19, 2010  

Very rare Yuan Snake

Rare Yuan Snake 

emblem of medicine

Supranatural Power

Emblem of Evil

Yuan Snake ceramic

Hallo collectors, thankyou for clic RCD
RCD-Rare Ceramic Decoration
The newstyle UCM -uniquecollection Cyber Museum
Show @copyright Dr Iwan S

THE VERY RARE YUAN SNAKE CERAMIC

I.Introduction
(1)The Very rare Yuan Snake ceramic decoration in glaze on the Yuan Dinasty Bigger Bowl with very rare Mohammedan Blue color , only one ever found in west Borneo Indonesia, this only one artifact from thousand UCM Yuan artifact collections and never seen the Ceramic auction at all over the world(.Dr Iwan S.)

(2) This informations compile from UCM Rare Artifact Ceramic collections and many vintage ethnic Tionghoa and China art cultural book by Dr Iwan S.

II THE HISTORY OF SNAKE ART AND CULTURAL
1 Snake as the Supranatural power
(1)The written symbol representing the snake is compounded of the form from Chung,reprile or worm, and To ,humpbacked, which is derived from the figure of a cobra rising on its tail with dilated neck and darting toungue, but the China ceramic never with the Cobra snake decorations, but in India more often used the Cobra for show also in Indonesia with unpoison snake (ular sanca), also in Thailand they used snake for sexual showed .
The Snake is one of the symbolic creatures corresponding to the sixth of tweleve Terrestrial Branches, and is the emblem of evil, cunning and sycophancy.

2. Snake have the supernatural powers
The Snake is regarded with the feeling of awe and veneration owing to its supposed supernatural powers and its kinship with the benevolent dragon.that is why unpoison Snakes are offered for sale as food in China,and also in Indonesia.

3. The Demons and Fairies transform into Snakes.
The Chinese believe that elfs,demons and fairies often transformed themselves into snakes. The Buddihst monks occasionally harbour snake around their temples.

4. The Poison Snake have the power to cure
The Poison snake have the power to cure, that is why the Snake used as the Emblem of Medical sciencies(with stick and wing, meaning the snake were beaten by the eagle and the stick as the emblem of the cure powers ) by the Father of Medicine Aeculapius, the Aphothecry aslo used as the Emblem of Medicine sciencies(with cup).but in Chine the Snake didnot used as the emblem of medicine or medical practise. but my Brother ever the Chinese Snake medicine to cure his stomach bleeding patient at medan to Singapore hospital and succeed, the snake poison medicine to used for anticoagulant and made the circulation more good to protect against the effect of Vena Cava stopping circulation by the cirrhosis Hepatis which made Esophagus Varices with vena dilated and broken with many bleeding. The cure succees, their motto poison beat poisons.(Hallo Dr Edhie medan, thankyou for your medical reporting to Dr iwan S, are youn have another patient with the poisoning medicine therapy, please contact and report via comment)
The Chinese have various herbal remedies for snake-bite, and the masked head of the reptil is sometimes applied to wound .
The Medicine science have motto that The Medicine were the control Poison, that is why the using must by the Physician recipes and if the using up that the medical dosis, will became poison, the driug abuse or poisoning lethal dosis will send you to hell or hea-ven .Many Poison used for kill in the political situation ,ancient the Empress dowger ,read The Qing postal history in this blog , and the latest murdered of Indonesian activis against the Indonesian Violent and lost people, by Arsenic poisoning still cann’t detected the criminals who done the poisoning.

5.The Snake in Holy Bijbel
The First man Adam and Ave have eating the forbidden fruit by the snake, that is why the snake were the evil creature and God punished the snake , that must moving without legs and to be the evil creatures.

6. The Snake as the emblem of Criminals
The snake were the emblem of Criminals and evil that is why many snake tattouge made by the criminal because they think Snake will scaring their victim which made them gave what the criminals want.

7. The history of White Snake
The man who fallen in loved with the white Snake lady Hsu Han-wen or Hsu Hsien, after sexual intercourse , they have a child. Whe he now his wife was a snake, he asked the Buddhist Monk to seperate , but the white snake was killed during she want to have his husband back, The teacher Hsu had fighting with the white Snake lady and kill her and bring the White snake children to the temple until became the yun man , and this legend will related with Pai-she as the mother of the femous monk Hsuan-tsang in the journey to the west. A bandit criminals sinking the Chen father ship and kidnapp his Mother . The mother didnot want to makelove with the bandit (Ciao) , the Water dragn ancestor. The youngman(White snake son) met his mother and help to kill the bandit and his father body(Chen) was keeping by Shui-hsien(The Water Goddest) and he body life again by the sailors goddest Ma Tsu, and the Quan yin Buddha Goddest was ancestor from the Sailors Goddest.

III. THE LUCKY FENGSUI OF SNAKE
1. Very unlucky to kill the snake
The Chinese believed that very unlucky to kill the snake which made its democili below the floor of ones house and they purchase a snake thathas been captured, and liberate it, it considered a good deed that will not go underrewarded. They also believed that elfs,demons and fairies often transform them-selves into snakes. The Buddhist monk occasionally harbour snakes around their temples.

2. Why Snake important in the Chinese Zodiac
(1) The Chinese believed snakes keep the jewell in his head and the snake meat will cure the diseases, the skin of snake with white dot used to cure leprosy. reumatic and hemiplegia.
(2) Many Chinese scaring to Snake , but the snake have two power control :
(a) The black snake control the North area because all the disaters and criminals came from the North. If the Chinese General who believe on the Snake power attacked his enemy in the North and he soldiers at South, he will moved to the North and attack the enemy from North not straight from South.I he didn’t attacked from North will be the losser. The snake ancestor will became the Human.
(c) The Snake important because he have the power against the Criminals and he were very clever and hard fighting (cerdik & Gigih) and this best power belong to the human who born in the Snake years.

@Copyright Dr Iwan S.2010.

The Rare Yuan Fish Ceramic”

March 31, 2010

Bigger Celodon plate found West Sumatra

Rare Yuan Fish bigger plate

Yuan Fish found West Sumatra

Yuan Fish found West Java

RCD : THE RARE YUAN FISH CERAMIC COLLECTIONS
RCD-Rare Ceramic Decorations
@Copyright Dr Iwan S.2010

A. The Chinese Ethnic History of Fish
1.Fish forms an important part in the domestic economy of the Chinese. Together with rice ir constitutes the principal staple of their daily food, and fisihing has for this reason formed a prominent occupation of the people from the most ancient times. The commonest kind of fish that serve as food in China are the carp,perch,plaice, whitevfish, blue fish, mullet,pmfret, Sciaenidae fish, rock trout,sabbard fish etc. for more info read the vintage book The Ningpo Fishere,in the New China Review,1919,vol IV,pp 385.
2.From the aesthetic point of view Fish are also much appreciated by the Chinese. Many beautiful and fantastic varietes of fish are reared in ponds and jars, this ornamental species having been introduced into Europe toward the end of the 17th century.
Carp and Perch are frequently depitched on Chinese Porcelain. (look at the Rare Carps fish on Yuan celadon bigger Plate)
3. Yhe legendary Emperor Fu Hsi (2953-2838 BC) is said t have given his name, which means literally HIdden Victims, on account of the fact that he made different kinds ofnets and taught his people how to snare animals and secure the products of the se.
4. Fish Symbol of Wealth
The fish is symbolically employed as the emblem of WEalth r abundance, on account of the similary in the pronouncation of the word Yu,fish and yu,superfluity, and also because the fish are extremely plentiful in Chinese water.
5. Fish symbol of regeration
owing to its reproductive power it is a symbol of regenations.
6. Fish Symbol of harmony and connubial bliss
As Fish is happy in its own element of sphere, so fish has has come t be the emblem f harmny and connubial bliss.

7.A pair of fish is emblematic of the joys of union
A brace of fish is presented amongst other articles as a betrothal gift to the family of the bride-elect on accunt of its auspiciuos significantce; as fish are reputed to swim in pairs, so a pair of fish is emblematic of the joys of union, especially of a sexual nature.

8.Fish is also one of the Charm to avert devil and symbol of Buddha fully emancipated.
it is also one of the Charms to avert evil, and is included among the auspicious sign on the footprints of Buddha. The fish signifies freedom form all restraints. as in water a fish move easily in any direction, so in the buddha-state the fully-emancipated knows no restraint or obstruction.

9. The Carp fish as the symbol of perseverance
The carp,with its scaly armour, which is regarded as a symbol of martial attributes, is admires becausu fish struggles against the current, and it has therefore became the emblem of perseverance.

10. The Fish transformed into dragons
The sturgeon of the Yellow river are said to make an ascent of the stream in the third moon of each year, when these which succeed inpassing above the rapids hence this fish is a symbol of Lung-men becme transformed int dragons; hence this fish is a symbol of literary eminence passing examinations with the distinction.
If the Fish have 300 scales, it will transfrmed to Dragon or be get the dragon, nly the turtle can prtect it.
(I have the bigger plate with decrations fish transfrmed to dragon, and will installed at The Rare Ming Imperail Dragn five clown ceramic)

11. The Fish legend of Po Ku TU
According to the Po KU Tu, fish are compared to a king’s subject, and the art of angling to that fo ruling. Thus an unskilled angler will catch the fish,or will a tactless prince win over his peple. on account of various legend that letters have been fund in the bellies of carps etc, the fish is also emblem of epistolary correspondence.

12 The Chinese phillosophy of Fish and catching fish.
If you a fish to someone, he will eat fish only one day, but if you teach them how to get the fish, they will eat fish everydays.
this mean donnot give a materia t smeone because he will used that material or money only until off, but if you teach them how to mede or get the material or Money they will find every days.

B. The Chinese Lucky Fengsui of Fish

1. In the Chinese bigger party, Fish must exist as the foods, but if at that area didnt have fish, the Fish must be the decorations.because a pair of fish is the emblem of joy union. The fish als gave wealthy fengsui, that is why carps in china was called Lei-Yu ,the prnuncatins like ‘Have the property of wealthy’.

2. In the Temple Fish statue put on the roof in order to prtect the temple from burning.

3. In the House better to have the Fish statue because, the fish will gave the owner the Wealth or much money .

4. The Fish especially the red gold arawana fish in aquarium will gave the owner healthy long life and wealthy.

5. The Chinese Newyear card with The Carp leaping the gate in order to transforme as the dragon, this is the emblem of the god day.

6.The Carps had associated with the Art and science ancetors because that ancetors always rides the Fish-dragon, that is why the Chinese always want to be the scientist because the Schlar have the highest rank, honorable and will be the famous human.(this is the Confusius phillosophies, that is why many Chinese always studies along his live )
@Copyright Dr Iwan S.2010

RARE MOTIF OF MING IMPERIAL CERAMIC COLLECTIONS

The Rare Ming Imperial Chrysanthemum Ceramic”

April 4, 2010

Ming Imperial Chrysanthenum 

Original Ming mark

Ming tsuante mark

Original Ming Imperial

THE RARE MING IMPERIAL CHRYSANTHENUM CERAMIC

@copyright Dr Iwan S.2010

1. THE CHINESE ETHNIC HISTORY OF CHRYSANTHEMUM
(1). The Chrysanthemum Indica or China Aster, is much cultivated il all parts of the country and is gretaly esteemed for the variety and richness of its colouring.
(2). There are innumerable varietes of the Chrysanthemum in China,of which at least thrirty-five are said to be indigeneous in Honan. Four distimct treatises have been written on the cultivation of this composite flower.(PRC had issued the serial Chrysanthemun flower on their special commemorative stamps)
(3). The Dried fragnant flowers are said to be tonic, sedative and cosmetic.They re principally used as a wash for sore eyes. The tincture is said to be useful in debility. the ashed of the flower are said to be insecticide. The flower istaken in the form of powder to recover the drunkard. .
(4).A kind of tea is made from the dried petals which are sometimes soaked in wine.
(5) The 9th moon is known as the Chrysanthemum Month, when it is customary to make a special point of going out and feasting the eyes upon the beautiful blossoms, after which a refestion of crabs and samshu is consumed. In Beijing, chrysanthenum cuttings of different kinds are grafted on a sturdy, wild variety, which grows in profusion on the city wall, thus producing a grotesque plant with bloosoms of many colours.
(6) Since the republican ere it has been employed as a decorative motif on collars, badges, buckles,sword-hilts etc. used by the Army, in contra-diction to the sheaves of rice, which are similary employed in the Naval uniforms. It was regard as the national flower. (the same during Yuan dinasty, that is why many yuan ceramic with this flower decorative also in ming dinasty, but the imperial chrysanthenum decoration were special type, please the biologist collectors help to tell us the spesies of the Imperial chrysanthemum from the illustrations via comment)

Yuam chrysanthenum

2.THE CHINESE LUCKY FENGSUI OF CHRYSANTEMUM
(1) The flower is an emblem of mid-autumn and symbol of joviality.
(2) The Chrysanthemum is generally associated with a life of case, and retirement from public office. The poet Tao Chien 365-427 AD is spite of poverty refused to occupy an official post, but preferred to devote his life topoetry, music, wine and chrysanthemum growing.
(3) Chrysanthemum are given very charming and refined names. The yellow button, similar to wild form, is called Heaven full of star. the White quill,Goose-feathers Tube’, the yellow quit’Carrot-threads’. The large ragged mauve ‘Drunk with wine made from Peaches of the Immortals.
The big single white with yellow center ‘ Jade Sauceer Gold cup’, the varietes with very fine petals’ Pine Needles’ or ‘Dragon’s beard’
REd ground and white dots’ Maple leaves and Reed flower’. White striked with red’ Snow on the Ground rouge’; The idea suggested being either that of a young girl admiring the snow or journey of the lovely Wang chao-chien to the snowy wasted of Central Asia.
(The ethnic chinese always look the flora and fauna nature related to lucky fengsui and the made the exciting poem which gave the sensitive emotion for joy and longlife -the art of ethnic chinese homeand still didnot disappear in ethnic Tionghoa Indonesia, tehy alway prefered their wedding day at the 9 Month of the Year circa September and october, I and allmy son also merried in that month ,and we are always happy in the family, do you belief or not, please proof to your family wadding day-DR iwan S)
@copyright Dr Iwan S.2010
 

The Ming Xui Xing ceramic

The design like monkey, but Mr NH KOH tell me that this the god of Literature Ming Kui Xing, this collection found in West Java.

Kui Xing

Rubbing of Kui Xing stele (with the ao turtle and a ladle) at Stele Forest Museum in Xi’an.

Kui Xing (Chinese: 魁星; pinyin: kuí xīng; Wade–Giles: K’uei Hsing), originally called 奎星 (also kuí xīng), also known as 大魁夫子 “Great Master Kui” or 大魁星君 “Great Kui the Star Prince”, is a character in Chinese mythology, the god of examinations, and an associate or servant of the god of literature, Wen Chang.

The name ‘Kui Xing’ literally means “Chief Star(s)”, and anciently referred to the ‘spoon’ of the Big Dipper. The Chun Qiu Yun Dou Shu defines the ‘Kui Xing’ as “The four stars in the first section of the dipper”. The ‘handle’ was referred to as the shao, or ladle/spoon. Kui Xing’s original name, 奎星, is the original name of the star in the Big Dipper located furthest from the ‘handle’ – Dubhe.

Contents

 Folk Beliefs

Folk Beliefs

Kui Xing, holding a ladle and standing on an ao (depicted as a fish), on Xiao Family Temple in Xinwupu, Yangxin County, Hubei

In Daoist tradition, Kui Xing is said to have been “bent and hunchbacked, as if he were an actual calligraphy character”, and came to be viewed as a saint of human fortune, particularly with regard to imperial examinations. Late Ming Dynasty scholar Gu Yan-Wu, often referred to as Gu Ting-Lin, wrote of Kui Xing in his Record of Historical Knowledge: “The date of the beginning of modern people’s veneration of Kui Xing is unknown. Since Kui () was taken to be the master of composition, therefore the people established shrines to venerate him. Being unable to sculpt an image of the star (), his name was thus changed to [the homophonous character] . Again being unable to directly construct an image of , the character was split into its constituent radicals [ Gui – Ghost/Spirit and Dou – Ladle/Gourd] and illustrated as such.” Gu’s statement suggests the name change was a creative measure designed to facilitate Kui Xing’s veneration.

As his form developed, people depicted Kui Xing’s right foot standing on a character (ao), a giant turtle, in reference to a traditional saying, 獨佔鰲頭, “to stand lonely on the ao’s head”, meaning coming in first in examinations[1]), his left foot support a ladle, a writing brush in his hand, and his body full of vigor and life. Stylized calligraphy of Confucian adages often compose his torso.

Artists have also depicted the ao on which Kui Xing stands as a giant fish (see the image of a temple in Xinwupu, Hubei), or as a realistic-looking turtle (e.g., the statue near Bijiacheng – the “Brush-rest wall” – in Changde, Hu

KUI-XING

Also known as K’UEI-HSING, KURI-HSING

One of WEN-CHANG‘s servants, he’s the starry-eyed God of Official Documents and Paperwork.

KUI-XING was once a mortal in the academic world — a highly-talented student but also extremely ugly. In fact he was a typical nerd. But after having fallen off a cliff, he was rescued from certain death by a dragon and given the job of Literary Affairs Minister.

Now he stands next to WEN-CHANG in the night sky, and oversees official paperwork, publications and Post-It notes. No memo is small enough to escape his scrutiny. We presume by now he is also the God of Fax Machines and Email.

KUI-XING is often depicted standing on the head of a turtle waving a Chinese brush in the air. Never having received a communication from Heaven,

please compare with  Mr NH KOH collections below

compare with

(a) Christy collections

 

MING Dynasty, 1368-1644 (China)

Title : A FIGURE OF KUI XING

Date :

 

Category : Sculptures

Medium :
: Lacquered and gold painted bronze

 
 
 

 

MING Dynasty,A FIGURE OF KUI XING,Christie’s,London

 

 
   

 

     
 

(b)kui xing ceramic , Lady Lever art Galery Collections

Accession no: LL 61
Object type: Ceramic
Name: Figure of K’uei Hsing (Kui Xing)
Materials: Porcelain with overglaze enamel decoration in famille verte style
Place made: Jingdezhen, China
Date made: Qing Dynasty, Kangxi (1662-1722 AD)
Measurements: H. 32 cm

Description: K’uei Hsing (Kui Xing) is a character in Chinese mythology, the god of examinations, and an associate or servant of the god of literature, Wen Chang.
Standing on a fish-dragon’s head, he holds up a writing brush in his right hand. He is said to have been an historical figure, a poor but brilliant student called Zhong Kui who passed the imperial examinations with high honours. However, because he was ugly, he was not allowed to enter government service. In despair, he drowned himself but was carried by a fish-dragon up to heaven where he became a star (‘Xing’ in Chinese) of the Great Bear constellation (known in China as the Palace of Literary Genius).

Provenance
Bought from Frank Partridge, 29 July 1915, gifted to the Lady Lever Art Gallery, 1922. Partridge to A. J. H. Howard, 9 August, 1915, Partridge Papers.

Literature
R. L. Hobson, Chinese Porcelain and Wedgwood Pottery with Other Works of Ceramic Art, London: B. T. Batsford, Ltd., 1928, No. 340.

(c)NH KOH collectiona “Kuixing”

The demon-faced like figure in the below picture is the God of Literature/Examiniation, Kui Xing.  He is usually depicted holding in one hand a brush and the other, a cake of ink.  He is widely worshipped by those who are seeking office or success in public examination.

Kuixing

The demon-faced like figure in the below picture is the God of Literature/Examiniation, Kui Xing.  He is usually depicted holding in one hand a brush and the other, a cake of ink.  He is widely worshipped by those who are seeking office or success in public examination.

In below figurine, he is depicted with one foot on the head of  a big turtle.  This is related to the auspicious message on imperial examination success: du zhan ao tou (独占螯), literally  it can be translated as (du zhan) standing alone, (ao tou) on the head of the turtle.

In ancient China, the top 3 candidates in the metroplitan examination are given an audience with the emperor.   During the audience, the top candidate would stand alone on one of the steps leading to the throne.  On that step is curved a turtle-like creature.  That is how the phrase “du zhan ao tou” originated.

Scicence goddest ancestors motif 

The Rare Ming Monkey   Ceramic

Ming Monkey Figurine( the god monkey-Sun Go Kong)

The Magic Ring

I. THE CHINESE ETHNIC HISTORY OF MONKEY

1.The skin of the golden brown monkey or Rhinopethicusbroxellane of Szechuan and kansu is much valued by the Chinese and it is asid at one time only members of the Imperial family were entitle to wear it (couling,Encyclopedia Sinica,Monkeys)

 

2. The Monkey is one of the symbolic aninal correspondent with the ninth of the Tweleve Terretrial Branches, and though worshipped to some extent by the Buddhists, is commonly regarded as the emblem of ugliness and trickery.

 

3. The monkey was first worshipped in return for some supposed services rendered the individual who went to India, by special command of an Emperor of thereligion-so some affirm. This Emperor deified the monkey or at least he conferred the august tittle of ‘The Great Sage equal to Heaven’ upon that quaduped, The birthday of ‘His Excellency, The holy King’, is believed to occur on the twenty-third of the second Chinese Month, when His Majesty is pecially worshipped by men from all classes of society.

 

4. The Monkey is believed to have the general control of hobgoblins, Witches , elves etc. It is also supposed to be able to bestow health (Dr Iwan S. birth at the last day of Monkey Years, that is why his parent said him the tail of monkey, and also became the physiciann and master of Healt & Hospital Administration), protection , and sucess on mankind, if not directly, indirectly, by keeping away maliciuos spirits or goblin. Chinese People often imagine that sickness , or want of sucess in study or trade, is caused by witches and hobgoblins. Hence the sick, or the unsuccesful, worship the monkey in order to obtain its kind offices in driving away or preventing the evil influences of various imaginary spirits or powers(Doolittle;social life Of chinese p.228) 

5 In Tionghoa ethnic history, the Monkey very known as the Sun Go Kong 

. or now in China Sun wu-Kang , the Monkey Ancetors with the Magic ring ar0und his forhead

that will smaller and made the head’s pain if he made the wrong sexual act , also he have the power to duplicated himself by pull his armpit’s hair.
In the Chinesehomeland and Tionghoa etnic folklore story THE TRAVELLING TO WEST , the Monkey was the emblem of Human’s Cleverness(kecerdasan) and the power of human pshycollogic brains powers (akal budi) , and the name- the King of all Monkeys have given to someone who have many strategic actions(tipu muslihat) , also during this travelling the Monkey very clever in medical therapy (as therapist)
( everybody have ever seen the movie or video of the famous Sun go Kong or Dewa Kera, but until this time UCM only found one Sun Go Kong -the Ming sancai Monkey figurine, and this is the first report and never seen in the International auctions,this Figurine very rare and very high investation value because the chinese belief that he have the power to control all the creator which made the sickness and unsuceesfull,you will always healthy and sucess if collect this rare Monkey figurine, that is why in my senior age I am alway healthy and succeed,don’t you believed?
please if the collectors have the same Ming Monkey figurine please contact via comment with your opinion-Dr Iwan S)

6. Sun go kong or Sun Wu-Kong (wu and go ast the same meaning and character but different dialeg Fukian an Kek), was borned from a magic stone and after have the magic power and trined by the monk Tao P’u ti Tsu-shih , he have the magic stick Yu which could made the the Dragon king became afraid. he became the king of Monkey and command all the animal all over the world . But Sun Go-kong didnot sastified, he asked the air’s queen (Ratu langit) to be the as same with her and he still the the Queen Long Life Peer fruit, but he was kninapped ,but the monkey cannot destroyed by the Queen and the flame of eight diagram Lao Tzu., The Buddhist Queen Quan-yin have traped the Monkey in the below of the Mointain to wait the Hsuan Tsang monk which travel to India in order to get the Buddhish Books . The instersting story about how the Monkey ancetors , with The Pig ancetors and the Mountain monk help the Hsuan Tang monk travel to India and found the Buddhist Books, The travel to the West was the original history during The Tang dinasty which the emperor order the Monk travelto India to get the Budddiht books, this book were written during the Ming dinasty (please read the Ancient Travel Unique collection and the Book Unique Collec-tions ) The story based on the India Hindu Ramayana story about the clever and magic power of The King of Money Hamonan in Rama-Shinta history.
The history of the magic Yu stick were original during the third emperor of last emperor Tayu of Hsia dinasty , this emperor Nefrit was the first man who used the stick to estimate the water level of fload and control that fload, and the Water Ancetor was the Monkey which could control the water animal which caused the fload before the devil had tied at the mountain but i could free itself and made fload .The traditional Chinese yu dancing were in actions during the anti Fload ceremony.

II. THE CHINESE ETHNIC LUCKY FENGZUI OF MNKEY

1. The Monkey is the emblem of long life and Healthyness

2. The Monkey Could control the evil and women whictcraft that is why the Monkey have believed will bring the healthyness, protections against diseases and pull out the criminal factors against humankind.

3. The relation bertween the Monkey and the Yu emperor and the Dewa Guntur had told how important the Monkey in China or Tionghoa tradition, they honored to the Sun Go-kong , that is why the Chinese artcraft didnot painting the Holy Monkey figure in ceramic , and very difficult to found the Sun Wu-kon figurine small statue during dinasty Ming, because the Brown gold Monkey only used by the Ming Imperial court or as the given the Indonesia’s King or the Tionghoa Commander in Chief . please the sinolog help me with more informations via comment, also if the collectors who found the Ming Monkey Figurine please report via comment.

2cpyright Dr Iwan S.2010

The Rare Ming Buffalo Ceramic “

March 24, 2010 by uniquecollection

 

Rare Ming Buffalo

Rare Ming Buffalo

Rare Ming Ox 

Rare Ox figurine

THE RARE MING BUFFALO CERAMIC COLLECTIONS
UCM-uniquecollection.wordpress.com CyberMuseum
Welome to RCD-Rare Ceramic Decoration
@copyright Dr Iwan S.2010

  1. I.           THE TIONGHOA ETHNIC WATER BUFFALO HISTORY
    1. The Bos Bubalus or Water Buffalo which serve so well at theplough and the Mill.
    2. The milk of Common Cow is sweeter than that of the Buffalo, thhough the latter is richer in cream.
    3. A large bronze image of a water buffalo is to be seen n the bank of the Summer Palace lake at Beijing, being placed there in the belief that the sacred and powerful animal will repress the evil spirits that disturb the lake, rivers and seas.
    4. The chinese may be didn’t eat water buffalo because they honored the Buffalo which plough the sands and Buddhist frmIndia also didn’t eat Buffalo meat.
    5. During archeolgist excavation the Buffalos bones only found at te area after 1400 AD , may be this animal came frm westren because there fund the Ancient Bones .The Tartar used the Buffalo horn that came from the Middle east.

11. THE TIONGHOA ETHNIC OX HISTORY

1.The Ox (Sapi) is the emblem of Spring and Agriculture

2. The ox is the second of symbolical animals corresponding to the Tweleve Terrestrial Branches.

3. It has a rich variety of name in the Chinese language, and a special designatin in each year of growth, up to the seventh year.

4.The character of ox was said that the four dots of the presnt symbol for fish being supposed to reprsent the four leg of the Ox.

5. The creature is said to be deaf in its ears (that is why in the school alway said you are Ox to the stupid student) , but t hear with its nose.
The flesh of the Mule (eaten cow meat or beef) is sold for food, but , out of respect for the Jellow Ox (holy ox-look at the OX figurine) . Beef is not musch eaten, and its consumptin by Buddhist and Mohameddan, but Hindus prohibited for religious reasons. .

6. The meeting of the spring is farmers holiday which occur at the Slar perid knwn as Li Chun falling abut the 5th February, and it is then that the ceremnial ploughing and the beating f the spring x tkes place. this ceremonial first done during Dinasty Chou after beaten shang Dinasty 1122 BC , the buffalo had stop at 900 steps and Chiang Tzu-ya said that dinasty Chou will exist 900 years and that reeally happened.

7. The so called Spring Ox is made of clay and is beaten with sticks to stimulate the revival of spring. The detail f clur bth of ox and driver are carefully worked ut every year accrding t the astrlogical and geomatic omens. Its head and back were white, its abdomen and feet were green,it horns,leg,ears and tail were yellow.

8. Niu Mang or Mang Shen , a youth whose function is to beat the ox with a willw branch. He wore a green cat with a white belt. If the x is Jellow, the peple say that the year will be a fruitful ne, and a bumper harvest is expected. If it is red and calamity will be rife and if white mourning will be very plentiful.

III. THE TIONGHOA ETHNIC FENGZUI OF MALE BUFFALO

1. The Male Buffalo as the emblem of spring time and farmers, which related with the future weater situations.

2. Male Buffalo was the Animal Zodiac number two. The male Buffalo under the Venus and didn’t bring Feng zui.(That is why very rare painting in Ming ceramic).

3. If someone built his huse starting at Friday-the buffalo day, will made the brother fighting each other and the Buried and wedding in this day will not found wealthy and the family will gne away.

4. The Male Buffalo was associated with Lao Tze ,who also ride male buffalo when seeking the long life.

( The Ming Male Buffalo bigger Plate and Ox figurine , very rare only have one artifact of each animal , please the collectors have the Ming buffalo ceramic or figurien like the illustratins please reprt via comment)

@COPYRIGHT DR IWAN S.2010

tio look the full illustration

please clcik the blue caption below

March 28, 2010

 

Ming crocodile-dragon ceramic

Ming Dog-dragon

Ming Crocodile-dragon

Ming Dinosaurus ceramic

Chaoyongsaurus

Guan Long dinosaurus

Giganforator dinosaurus

Dilong dinousarus

Liaoceratops dinosaurus 

Yin Long dinosaurus

Ming Crocodile -Dragon

Tail Chaoyangsaurus

original Chaoyongsaurus

Ming Dog-Dragon

THE RARE MING CROCODILE-DRAGON DINSAURUS CERAMIC
RCD-Rare ceramic Decoration
@Copyright Dr iwan S.2010

I. THE CHINESE LEGEND OF CROCDILE-DRAGON
1. Crocdile was Amphibian.He will appear with during rainning seasns and then hibernation until the ther years.
It have the figure like dragon , and they belief the dragon as the dragon that incarnation to the dragon.
2, during Tang dinasty, the crocodile were lived at Chao-chou , and it been led ut by Han Yun and ther official with the magic power,
3. The Yantze crocodile were painted with Dragon on a Copper cup during Shang dinasty, The Crocdile frm these area have the profile near like dragon.
4. The crcdile-dragon near same with the flying dinsaurus , like their fossil, just found in china . Chinese charter for crcdule was To and related with dragon chiao.

II. THE CHINESE LUCKY FENGSUI OF CROCODILE
1. Crocodile-lung realted with the world dragon , have cntrol by Jupiter.
2. If someone who built the building at the Crocdile-dragn day (Thursday) will found honor and wealthy, and who merried in this day wil have the children with lng life.but frbidden to gon at burried-ceremony in this day because they will alway sad.
3. The suspect criminalman will take atthe front of crocodile, and the crocodile only swallow the criminal ne only. (Believe or not,depend on you)

III. THE CMPERATIVE STUDY
1. Dr Iwan S collection
(1) Ming Crocodile Dragon dinosaurus ceramic (brussh washer0
(2) Ming Dog Dragon dinosaurus (brussh washer)
(3) Ming Humanlike dinosaurus. (Cup)

2. XU Xing Dinosaurus (Chinese)
(1) Giganfrator
(2) Guan Long saurus
(3) Chaoyongsaurus
(3) Dilong Sauraus
(4) Liaoceratops
(5) yin Lng saurus.

Illustration will installed at night
@Copyright Dr iwan S.2010

The veryrare Ming Tiger Ceramic”

March 18, 2010 by

 

Tiger antidevils power

Tiger Power to cure

King of the wild beast

very rare Ming Tiger

;

THE VERY RARE MING TIGER CERAMIC
The only one ever found and seen in Indonesia and
never report or seen at the world rare ceramic auction.
@copyright Dr Iwan S 2010.

THE HISTORTY OF CULTURAL ART OF TIGER
(Compile from many Vintage book by Dr Iwan S.)

1. Tiger were very common in ancient times, and are still to be found circa 1974 Quantung ,Quan-shi .Fuk-ien .Qiangshi and Manchuria. The largest runs to 12 feet in length (no info today).

2. The Tigers stripes written in China as the radical Hu, and the tiger form with the legs like human being erect written in Vhina as the form of man Jen.
The Tigers strip also meant as the written on the whole body with brown gold color like chinese wriiten the emperor or Wang.

3.The Tiger illustration in China only on the ancien Copper Broonze statue, and some ancient legend pictures of The Chief Tao monk Chang tao-ling ride the tiger. Chang Tao Ling was the 8th chief
of Tao monk circa in the year 200 BC as the member of the first Han emperor government below Chan Liang, and after Chang become emperor.
Chang Liang have long life 123 years, because he drink the water of persist Lifes and the chinese people believed that Chang Tao -Ling have the power to send to earth the City goddest and to control the Neraka (hell) guard.The monk used amulet wit his written name to scarring the devila. Every year in the 5th day of the 5th Month(May.5th) there were the special celebrities for him in other to destroy Devil and and protect the people life.

4. Beside Chang Tao-ling, Hsuan Tan Wealthy Goddest
Tsai Shen- the chief of five Wealthy Goddest, he ride the Tiger or he himself image as the tiger.that is why in the 5th day chinese Imlek newyear all the window and doors were open to let Tsai Shen come in the House with her Wealthy blessing, until this day the Indonesia Tioghoa etnic had done that ceromonial in 12.00 PM in the night, especially when there ware rainning days more wealthy Fengsui will come in.

5.The Tiger in china was called the King of the wild beasts, and its real or imaginery qualities afford them matter for more metaphors than any other wild anima. It is taken as the emblem of magisterial dignityvand sternness, as the model for the courage and fierceness which skould characterize a soldier, and its presence or roar is synonymous with denger and terror. Its present scarceness had tended to magnify his prowess, until it has by degrees become invested with so many savage attributes tha nothing can exceed it (My friend had told me that when he hunting the tiger in Sumatra with the Younger man, when he heard the Tiger roar in the night and filled very scarring that his urination on his trousers-Dr Iwan S.)
In the days of Marco Polo, the multitude of tigers in the nothern parts of the empire rendered travelling alone dangerous, the sam situation in Sumatra, I have never travelled in the night around the Tigers area with the special Tiger Road Plague around Lahat-tebing Tinggi-Lubuk Linggau South Sumatra area beside the traditional Robbery Bajing Loncat or the leaping dog in that road that is why many car stopped and rest at Lahat or LubukLinggau.

6. The history of White Tiger
The White Tiger or Pai Hu, is the name given to the Westren quadrant of the Uranosphere and metaphorically to the West in general. The title o White Tiger was bestowe on the canonized Yin Chen-hsiu , a general of the last emperor of the Yin dynasty. His image may be seen at the door of Taoist temples.

II.THE ETHNIC TIONGHOA FENGSUI OF THE TIGER
(compile from many vintage book by Dr iwan S)

1. The God of anti Demon Teror and Military Powers
If the dragon or Chinese Dinosaurus is chief of aquatic creatures, the Tigers were lord of all land animal. These two share the position of prime important in the mtsterious pseudo-science called Feng Shui. The tiger is figure on many of the most ancient bronze ,often with a ring in its mouth. It frequently appears in a groteque form which native archeologist designate a Quadruped.The tiger symbolies military proweres (in Indonesia the symbol WEst Java Military Forces SiliwangI-Dr iwan S). It is an object of special terror to demons , is therefore painted on walls to scare malignant spirits away from the neighbourhood of houses and temples. The Shoes of small children are often embroidered with tiger head for the same reason

2. The God of Wealth
The Tiger sometimes represented as the God of Wealth and tiger goddest also to be found, chiefly in Hanoi, manchuria and also in Indonesia, where this animals are most plentyful.

3. The military Tiger-skin immitation dressed as the symbols of the powers (In Indonesia the national Police Academy and also The Military Academy used this dress at their Drumband Marching. They adnavnced to battled shouting loundly, in the hope thatvtheir cries would strike terror into the enemy as if they were the actual roats of Tiger.

3. The Tigers in Chinese astrology
(1)According to the astrologers, the star (ursa major) gave birth by matamorphosis to the first beast of this kind. He is the greatest of four-footed creatures, representing tthe masculine principle of nature, and is the lord of all wild animal. He is also called the King of Beasts , and the character King or Wang is believed to be traceable upon his brow. He is seven feet in lenght,because seven is the number appertaining to Yang, the masculine principle, and for the same reason his gestation endures for seven months.
(2)Due to Feng-Shui, all over the Galaxi including world divided on four direction,four stars and four creature who control that area :
(a) The east area controlled by the Blue dragon
(b) The west area controlled by the White tiger
(c) The South area controlled by the red phoenix
(d) The North area controlled by the black turtle
The white tiger have three lucky or Feng-sui :
(a) Brave,powers and passion.
(b) Against the criminal teror,swallow devils.and the tigers strip pointed the combination of yin and Yang that defense from the bad powers.
(c)Against and push out three criminas of flame,thief and devils.
(3) The man who born in the Tiger year, very lucky because he can merried fast with the women who merried in the Pig, dog, horse, mouse and cock years, but he cannot merried the women who born in the Monkey,snake, or cow years.
Very unlucky for the women who born in the Tigers years because she will swalow her husband and she will difficult to merried, only with the same or more powers man who born in the Tiger or Dragon years only.
4. The Tiger as the charm against sickness
Tiger lives to the age of one thousand years. When five hundred years old, his colour change to white. His claws are powerful talisman (many native Indonesian used Tigers clawn as amulet-Dr Iwan S.).and ashes prepared from his skin worn about the person act as a charm against sickness.
( I didn’t know why not many Tiger figur painted in the Plate,Cup of Vase ceramic, also no Chinese Tiger coins exist but on tiles more exist , I only have one Ming Tiger ceramic from Thousand of the artifacts , may be the Chinese archeologist will tell us via comment-Dr Iwan S.)
@Copyright Dr Iwan S.2010

The Rare Ming Mouse Ceramic”

March 25, 2010

Rare Mouse Decoration

Ming Mouse Decoration

THE RARE MING MOUSE DECORATION CERAMIC
UCM-uniquecollection.wordpress.com CyberMuseum
@copyright Dr Iwan S.2010

I. The Ethnic History of Mouse

1. The China charcater of mouse
The China character of mouse have showed ancient calligraphy of Mouse with head,mostage, leg and tail.
( The rare Ming mouse decoration ceramic , only the unsual
head decoration like animation clown, eyes, ear and mostage
this is the only one ever seen and report, never seen at international auctions, if the collectors ahve the same decoration please report via comment-Dr Iwan S.)

2. The Chinese Ethnic legend of Mouse
Mouse were the Yin animal , in the Chinese legend the mouse hae belief can live until 300 years, and when It became 100 years the color have changing into white. When the country occupied by the enemies , the white mouse will show itself.

3. The Chinese Ethnic symbols of Mouse
The symbol of mouse were the symbol of fear , but also the symbol of cleverness(Kecerdikan) and the symbol of wealtyness due to hardwork (Same ass the Charater of Mouse)

4. The Chinese Etnic zodiac of Mouse
Mouse was the first animal from twelve Zodiac creations and have told that the mouse had betrayed the Cat , that was why the Cat didnot exist in the Chinese Ethnic Zodiac.

II. The Ethnic lucky Fengsui of Mouse

1. Use By Chinese Ethnic Fortune Teller
The Mouse could be used by the Chinese ethnic fortune teller to know what will happened in the Chinese Mouse year and also what will Happened at the area abouth the distance of 1.000 mil

2.The wedding day of Mouse
The 19th days of the first Month is the Mouse wedding day, this day is celebrated by the Etnich Chinese to asked the The King of Mouse for changed the destroyed of their family to the people who didnot payed attention to their religious.

3. The Bigger Fatty Mouse will bring the wealthyness
If a Bigger Fatty mouse enter the home, the ethnic Chinese willnot kill or threw that fatty mouse, becasue they belief the Bigger Fatty mouse will bring the lucky of wealthyness.

4. Mouse were the animal have made Fear especially the Pes diseases, but also as the honor animal because the fatty mouse was the lucky symbol of wealthyness.

5. The legend of a Mouse disaster day
The mouse have belief in the Chinese ethnic legend had related with the Sun , that is why this day didnt luckyday for built the House , if still done will made disasters of the family who lived in that house and they will seperate bed because they cannot sleep well .

6. The legend of the mouse lucky fengsui
(1) The Guard of North Mo Li-shou have bring the creators which near same profile with White Mouse in the native bigger beg, and the Mount Ancetors Erh Lang or Yang Chien killed him and took the unique white Mouse Creators to be his beloved animal.
(2) There were the invitation sent to the tweleve zodiac Animal, but the mouse made fool to Cat, the invitation of the cat have recieved lately after the choose of the name of animal Zodiac over, that was why had need one name to change with Cat, and when first meeting was the Pig , the cat change with Pig Zodiac and The Mouse still as the first Chinese zodiac , if the cat arrive on time, The Cat will be in Chinese Zodiac and The Mouse will out of the Chinese Zodiac. Who had keep the cat invitation, you have known the clever White Mouse.
(Why the Cat decoration very rare in Chinese Ceramic decoration and became one of RCD-Rare ceramic Decoration in China tradition ? please read carefully the history and legend above, and we will understand by in the world Walt Disney very success with his Mickey Mouse , the lucky,humor and clever mouse, but in Japan the native Nippon people more preferred Cat with their very famous humor creators Hallo Kitty that belief as the symbol of wealthyness, and every weving hand will pussed the money into the owner of the lucky Cat, that different in China that is why no cat in China Zodiac, but in Sarawak Cat were the very lucky animal that is why their capital called Kuching with her excellent Cat or Kuching musuem , please read more information with click Sarwak Unique Collections and later will installed The Hello Kitty Handkerchief Unique Collection. Dr Iwan S.)

@copyright Dr Iwan S. 2010 

PAMERAN KOLEKSI KERAMIK LANGKA DINASTI MING AKHIR YANG DITEMUI DI INDONESIA

to look the full illustration plese click below

 https://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/2010/10/18/pameran-koleksi-dinasti-qing/

 

Showcase :

The Rare Late Ming Ceramic Which Foun At Indonesia Exhibition

*wan li imperial mark and dragon five clow cup below.

Cow motif

Rat mouse motif

Deer motif

Horse Motif

The Earliest Indonesian Music Record Collections

1. I have starting build the MUSIC RECORD LABEL collections  since study in hish school at Padang city West Sumatra in 1960.

2. Until this day in 2011 , I cannot found the complete informations about the Indonesian’s  Earliest Record Label History, that is why I have made reasech about this topic in order to give the young generations about the development of music gramophone technology in the world since found by Mr Thomas Alfa Edison and when first arrived in Indonesia during The Dutch East colionial Era.

3. I will show my collections with information from that very rare and amizing historic collections, very lucky I had found vintage book of gramophone and also many info fram google explorations,especially from wikipedia ,for that info thanks very much.

4. Before I had done The exhibtion which divide into two parts, first before World War WWIIand second after the WW II until 1960. all during Indonesia under Dutch east Indie Colonial time. and now lets look at the earliest  Indonesia independence era 1945-1960

5.The earliest  Record label whic found   in early  20 Th Century produced by Addison inc with very thick plate almost 4 times then now circa 1 cm,then became half centimer and latest 0,2 cm more thin,please look the comperative picture below:

 

First the mechanic gramophone look the promotion picture of His Mater Voice company  java gamelan salendro Romo Dokto  ka 2 Srjowoengoe &Soetinah  Wayang Orang Saritomo  bybelow:

and later electric gramophone, still used gramophone needle look the needle promotion label below :

6.In Indonesia during Colonial time , the record label  sold by the chinese marchant still the same until thee arliest Indonesia Independt era 1945-1960,many at Pasar Baru Market and Prinsen Park(now Candra naya)  Batavia (Jakarta) please look the trader mark below :

7a. Before Indonesian Independent during Dutch East Indie(Ned.Indie) colonial-masa penjajahan  hindia Belanda the earliest Indonesian record(rekaman piring hitam) had found by dr Iwan were the His master Voice Javanese Gamelan Salendro Romo Dokto 1 looh ill above  and Amber anom ka 1 sing by Ardjowoengoe & Martedarmo Wayang orang satitomo  and BK Record,look the picture below

 

and the singer was Mis Riboeet with Tionghoa etnic song and arabic ehnic song,more info look at my collections in the frame one.

7b.I had found Some Indonesia Album record era 1945-1960 ,look below

1)Irama record made in India with song Djali Djali

THE VINTAGE CHINESE OPERA MUSIC RECORD (COVER)

The Chinese Export Record label to Indonesia

Fujian Amoy Opera Record

The Vintage  China Music record found in Indonesia

TEOCHEW OPERA FROM SOUTHERN CHINA

Zhou Xuan (周璇) – The flower on my chest (襟上一朵花)

 

His Master Voice record

EAGLE MARK (SOUCHOU-ZHpeople and star record(?)

Columbia record

OUCHOU SERENADE)

UNIDENTIFIED COLUMBIA RECORD(PLEASE NATIVE COLLECTORS HELP TO TRANSLATE AND  GIVE MORE INFO)

 

Tsin Ting Kiang Hung 33 rpm 10″ Record Pathe CPA 169 

Miss Yao lee info 

Indonesia’s recording studios have increasingly diversified out of the template established by the country’s two largest recording companies, P.N. Lokananta (the national recording company of Indonesia) and Hidup Baru.

In contrast to the 1950s and 1960s, many studios today are no longer owned solely by producers, the Indonesia record before lokanata, produced by Irama Records and made in India studio processing above , like MCG record by dutch Leow cooperations

also in Indonesia (Irama indonesian music co ltd) look below compare with above :

1) Irama Record

Irama record beside peroduced legendary music and singers record, also produced the children basic school’s Songs by Kutilang (the singer bird)orchestra lead by sudidharma 

with very amizing decorations look below

Kutilang orchestra lead by sudidharma, had also played the national song Satu Nusa Satu Bangsa (one land one nation),the information from google ekploration in indonesian language ;

The other earliest Indonesian records company :

2) Puspa Nada

3)Bali Record Music Cooperation

4) Mesra Record Inc

5)Gedung Musik Nusantara Record Inc

 6) Serimpi Music record Inc

7)Lokananta which not only music and po song also the Javanese Wayang ketoprak like Djaka Tingkir look below:

The Christian Songs

, and aslo the special album were made by lokanata record for the present to the 10 years memorable  Bandung asia Africa conference at Djakarta  in 1965

.(More type still in reasrech)

8)Indah Record like lokananta also produced Java Wayang Song Ketoprak mataram ,look below

 

The Indonesia Legend singer Diah Iskandar  Record.(Koleksi Piring Hitam Penyanyi Legendaris Indonesia Diah Iskandar 

Silver red promo Irama Record productions Introduced (Memperkenalkan) Diah Iskandar with orkes Tjanda Kirana dbp Iskandar(father of Diah)

Side one:Kisah Mimpi(iskandar) and Surat Undangan(Julius Fioole)

Side two:To Night is My Night and Crazy

Foreign Music Record found In Indonesia

The Malaysia legend singer  

Salmah Ismael Music Record

THE WINSTON CHURCHILL AND MARTIN LUTHER KING JR SOUND RECORD

SANTANA WHITE LABEL RECORD

LED ZEPELLIN II WHITE LABEL RECORD

PRINCE AKIHITO(NOW EMPEROR) AND PRINCE MICHIKO(NOE MEPRESS) WEDDING MUSIC COLUMBIA RECORD

Xavier Gugat

ABOVE ELTON JOHN CANDLE LIGHT, BELOW THE BITCH IS BACK, AFTER THAT WHITE LABEL RECORD COMP-ANY,ELTON JONG SING WHITE LADY WHITE POWDER ETC.

ORIGINAL SOUNDTRACT OF MOTION PICTURE

THE MICHAEL JACKSON WHITE LABEL RECORD : BAD

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum Emblem

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

)

1.In February.27th 2011 morning 7.30 am west Indonesia Time, during I walking out of Yacobus Church Kelapa Gading North Jakarta Indonesia to my car parking lot beyond the tree, God have send me one very amizing beautiful iron red fruit from the  tree which I donnot know it ‘s name, and  I bring to my cybermuseum home office ,put on my antique pure white stempcup ceramic , made to art photos by my digital camera Olympus, one still original and one was making corrections of the background by digital painting restorarion

2. then I have deciding that this art photography became the logo of my blog “Driwan Cybermuseum.

3.The red and white colour were the same of Indonesian flag colour,the flag of my homeland countries and theiron red and pure white were my favorite colour of my ceramic collections, the background sandtone colour was my favorite colour of my cybermuseum homeoffice.The  Iron red fruit was send to me by the holygod which give my the mercy and lucky in the future.

3.I hove all the collectors from all over the world to honor my logo copyright,please donnot copy.

Jakarta, February.27th 2011

The founder of Cybermuseum Blog

Dr Iwan Suwandy

 The Original Picture Of Driwancybermuseum Logo1.The Original Photo at Driwancybermuseum

private home office

2.The Original Art photography of Driwancybermuseum’s logo(after digital restoration)

2013

This year I wrote about the imperial ceramics and china that I find other related ceramics from the auction and book ceramics, for details please refer to the CR-ROM

The Chinese imperial Ceramic

Found in Indonesia

Created By

Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

Pricate Limited E-Book In CD-ROM Edition

Special For Senior Collectors

Copyright @ 2013

*Ming Imperial Dragon Fish Bowl

The Digital Restoration Of Rare Artifact Imperial Ceramic Which Found In Indonesia Exhibitio

Introduction

Due to save the Human Ceramic Art Heritage.  I have collected some very rare ARTIFACT of CHINESE IMPERIAL CREMAMIC WHICH GIVEN BY THE CHINESE EMPEROR TO THE INDONESIAN KING -SULTAN, many of this my private collections had found during my advantured around Indonesia from Sumatra,Java,Borneo and Celebes. Not many artifact collectors in Indonesia during 1970-1990, but now became popular because the original fine chinese Imperial wares very expensive now , one piece more that 1.000.000 US$ ,and many fake, that is why collectors starting to collect the original rare chinese imperial artifact but very difficult to find.

I have some private original very rae imperial cermanic artifacts collections which show in this exhibtions and to know the complete wares , I have restored by digital technology with same color and pattern, and  I have saved the human heritage.

Please the collectors and press honor my copyright, please donnot copy without my permisssion in all type of technology.

Greatings from the founder of Cybermuseum blog

Dr Iwan Suwandy

PS. look at the very rare imperial Yuan,Ming and Qing figurine,plate , ewer , bottle and Breast spout Kendi (restored from artifact) 

Original info

Pada tahun ini saya menulis tentang keramik imperial china yang saya temukan dan keramik lain yang terkait dari lelangan dan buku keramik, untuk lengkapnya silahkan lihat pada CR-ROM

I am also Revised and restored Driwancybermuseum Home Office and Museum gallery please look the illustrasion below

Selain itu saya merevisi Driwancybermuseum Homeoffice And Museum Galery silahkan melihat ilustrasi dibawah ini

The end part One

Copyright Driwan Suwandy @2913

The Chinese Imperial Artwork Found In Indonesia (Continiu)

 

 

THE ART MOTIF OF CHINA IMPERIAL CERAMIC FOUND IN INDONESIA

PART TWO

 LITERATURES  STUDIES

 Photo: Bigger Wanli Kraak Porcelain 70 cm with Dragon fish and eight treasure  emblem symbol

 

By

Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-Rom Edition

Special For Senior Reseacher And Collectors

Copyright @ 2013

THIS THE SAMPLE OF Dr Iwan Limited E-Book In CD-Rom with unedited non complete info illustration, the complete CD-Rom exist but only for premium member please subscribe via comment with your email address and private information same as  your ID-Card

 

Driwancybermuseum Homeoffic 

2.1.

Scan2

 

 Photo: calender plate with Fu Luk Sau  symbols longevity  one of the three star king gogggest collection Dr Iwan

The  Book Of POTTERY AND PORCELEIN

Revised Edition

By

Warren E.Cox

New York, 1979

From this  literature found some informations of   design motifs Empire Chinese ceramic art in the world that can be comparable to those found in Indonesia

Dari Literatur ini ditemukan beberapa informasi bentuk design motif karya seni ceramic Kerajaan Tiongkok didunia yang dapat dijadikan pembanding dengan yang ditemukan di Indonesia.

 Photo: Guardian Plate Mo Li Ching  easr king of heaven motif collection Driwan

2.1.1

Ancient human figure motif, motive fauna  crane –horse and flora motif tree

Motif figure manusia kuno, motif fauna burung bangau  serta kuda dan motif flora pohon

Han China  tomb figure (page 73 and 74)

2.1.2.

Han Fauna (plate 21 Page  82)

Han Dog

Han Duck

 Han horse

 

2.1.3 

Tang Dinastypage 108

Motif fauna

Tang Horse

2.1.4.

Sung Three Colour Chrysanthenum and Lotus  Flower page 29

Motif flora flower chrysanthenum

2.1.5

Yuan Vase ear elephant (cover)

Motif Fauna elephant

2.1.7

 Photo: Bigger Wanli Kraak Porcelain 70 cm with Dragon fish and eight treasure  emblem symbol

Ming Imperial five clown dragon (front)

Motif fauna Imperial Dragon five clown

2.1.8

 

Qing Qx Blood red In glazed vase (page 532)

 

2.1.9

 

Imperial yellow ground figure of Shau Lao

(page  566 vol II)

Motif Figur Longlife  Shaou(one of three Star God)

 

2.1.10

Motif Calligraphy China Ceramic Mark

Mark Of Chinese Ware page

2.2.

 

The Eastren Phillosophy Of Time And Chamge

TAO

By

Philip Rowson and Lazlo Legeza,thames and Hudson,London 1973

2.3.

2.2.1  The Natural World

Carved jade moutain withnthreestar gods  of longevity 32

Celadon plte motif the flow of  vital energy(chi)

Landscape garden with  pools and udalating  rock tang dynasty

Hill jar Han dynast1

2.2.2. The Moving Spirit

2.2.3. Cycles Of Change

2.2.4. Heaven and Earth

2.2.5 Ritual

2.2.6 Themystical Power Of Calligraphy

2.2.7.Secret Practices

2.2.8.The Realm Of The Immortal

2.3.

 

CHINESE SYMBOLISM AND ART MOTIFS

BY

C.A.S. WILLIAMS

Beijing, 1st October,1932

From This Literatur found information the meaning  and design of   Symbolic Chinese Empire Artwork Motif  In china 1923 which arranged  from a to Z which be the base info to seek which one  found in Indonesia by Dr Iwan the researcher from 1973 to 2013

2.3.1                              

Sacrificial ploughing 3

Alarm staff 5                      

Amida cuddha 6

Amusement

Toy pedlar 8

Dice playing card 9

Elephant checker,Chinese cheess 10

Kite-flying 11dragon boat festival 13

Ananda 15

Chinese Coin

Confucius 85

2.3.2 Costume

Sacrificial 88

Dancing 89

Ancient warrior 90

Official first grade  92

Tzu – chisempress dowager93

 Modern men 95 and 96

 Modern women 97                                      

Crane 101

2.3.3.Diaper Pattern

121

122

123

2.3.4 Door Gods

129

130

 

 

 

2.3.5. Dragon

134

135

Drama  Huang Ho Lou 148

2.3.6.

Eight Immortal(Delapan Dewa)

     Chung li-chuan

and

Chang Kuo-lo 152

Lu tung-pin

and

Tsao kuo-chiu 154

Li tieh kuai

and

Han hsiang-tzu 155

LanTsai-ho

and

Ho Hsien-ku 156                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  

2.37.

Eight Lohan

Pintulopolotoshe pindola the bharadvaya, kanokafatsho, pintaouluolosuishih,                  nantimindolochingyu nandimitra

Page 161

 Pa-no-ka,vakula or nakula

  Tamolopoto,tamra bhadra.  Kalika or kala,  fashenaputo or vajayputra

Page 162                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

2.3.8.

eight ordinary symbols  158

dragon,golden coin,lozenge,mirror,stone chime,book

rhinoceros horn and artemesia

 

2.3.9. eight Budish Symbols 159

Jar

Conch-shell

Umbrella

Canopy

Lotus

Wheel of the laq

Fish

Mystic knot

2.3.10 Elephant

2.3.11 Five Poison 188

2.3.12 Four Heaven Kings 196

 Mo-li ching guardian of the east

 Mo-li hai   west

Mo-li hung south

Mo-li shou north                                         

2.3.13. Fu –His 203

2.3.14  chu jung God Of Fire 207

God of literature 209 kuei wang tin chung

God of longevity   canopus  209                      

2.3.15 God Of The Kitchen 210

2.3.16   Kuan Yu God Of War

2.3.17Tsai Tsen Yai The God Of Wealth 213

2.3.18 The Money Tree 214

2.3.19 Chinese Fans(Kipas)177

2.3.20 The Eight Horses Of Mu Wang 225

2.3.21. Hsi-wang Wu Royal Lady Of The West  227

2.3.22 Kuan Yin 243

2.3.23 Lamais

Lama priest 247

Insignia and Weapon Of Lama 248 and 249

2.3.24 Laocius 251

Mansjuri 265

Monkey ok

2.3.25  Musical Instrumen 284

2.3.26 Na Cha 293

2.3.27 OX(Water Buffalo) ok

2.3.28  Phoenix ok

2.3.29 Plant Of Long Laife

Taosist philosopher who discover

The  Sacred Fungus Of Immotarlity 329

2.3.30 Bpdishawa Pu Hsien 335

2.3.31 Queen Of Heaven337

2.3.32 Conventional Scroll 3444

2.3.33  Chinese Seals(346 and 347)

 

2.3.34

The Emperor Of Shun(358)

2.3.35 Snake (ok)

2.3.36

Three Chinese star Gods(366)

2.3.37.

Tao Mo,the Mother Of Yhe Bushei(370)

2.3.37

 The Poet Su Tong Po(377)

2.3.38

Swastika

2.3.38

Old Chinese Sword9383)

2.3.39 Tai Chi

2.3.40 The Great Yu the emperor of Hsia(386)

2.3.41 The Three Pure One OF the Taoist Trinity(393 and 395)

2.3.42 TOAD Liu Hai(402)

2.3.43

 Mara The Tempter, The Arch Fiend Of The BUddihst(417)

2.3.44  

Water

The  Chinese lord of Rain (420)

The spirit of the yellow river(422)

2.3.45 Wheel Of Law(424 ,426)

2.3.46 Willow

2.3.47 Written Character

The evolution of Chinese charater (442)

2.3.48 Yama

The Soul of the dead  arranged before  Yama (452)

2.3.49 Yin and Yang

2.3.50

Torture of the Budish Helll (455)

2.3.51

 

2.4.

The Story Of Chinese Landscape Design

By

Prof Pao The Han

Translarted by

Carl Shen.AIA

Youth Cultural enterprise,1992

From this information we  found the  landscape found in China and will compare with the artwork landscape motif which found in Indonesia

 

2.4..1. The View Of Landscape Designing Of Ancient China From Shang Dinasty To The Han Dinasty

Han dynasty tomb  page 26

2.4.,2 Fairy Tales Ands The Art Of Chinese Landscape Designing

Han  Page  28

The godess of Lao River Jin dinasty page 36

Tang dynasty landscape page 40

Sung dynasty  landscape page 42

Yuam dynasty landscape page 46

2.4.3 Taoism and The Art Of Chinese Landscape Designing

Sung dynasty Hrermit under willow tree page 60

Tang page 64

The Hsiao Chie Garden Ming landscape page 66

2.4.4 The Loyang Era

Singing bird landscape six dynasty page 80

Deer in the wood in the fall five dynasty landscape page  82

Emperor Tsuang Sung visit the Shu area page  92

2.4.5 The Tang Era

The Lingering Tang dynasty garden page  116

2.4.6 The King-Nan Era

Mountain Peak By Hsia Kwei Sung dynasty page  136

2.4.7 The Birth Of The Theory Of Landscape Designing

Decorated Landscape late ming plate page 168

2.4.8  The Qing Era

Two Bird by Pa Da  Shan Ren Qing dynasty page 170

Multi Storied Lo and Ko  in the landscape by Chiao Bin Chen page 214

2.5.

 Studies Report Of Arkeologist Situs Excavations In Indonesia

From this Literature we found information about history of trading artwork especially ceramic from from china to Indonesia, and also Information about type and motif of the Chinese empirae artwork which foun In the Situs in Indonesia.

 

 

 

 

 

2.5.1

BANTEN Before Islamic Era

Archelogist Stusies  At Banten Girang  932-1526

Indonesian National Archeologist Center with Ecole Francaise the extreme-Orient. Jakarta,1996

1)  Ditch That cleared things 57

Parit Yang dibersihkan hal 57


2) In the case of trench 58

Parit Dalam hal 58
3) Table 64 Findings Based on the time it

Tabel Temuan Berdasarkan waktu hal  64

 


4) The table can not be identified by the time it 65

Tabel Tidak dapat diidentifikasi menurut waktu hal  65


5) Table Excavasi Ceramic Import by time (centuries) 141-142 case

Tabel Excavasi Keramik Impor menurut waktu (abad) hal 141-142

 (motif) p 142-143


7) Comparison Table findings Banten Girang Site With Other Sites In Indonesia 145

Tabel Perbandingan temuan Situs Banten Girang Dengan Situs Lainnya Di Indonesia hal  145

 

 

 
6) Table Grouping findings based on Origin and Corak

Tabel Pengelompokan temuan berdasarkan  Asal dan Corak(motif) hal  142-143


8) Taoism Head Figurine Statue Qingbai 14 th AD (p. 163) and body image 91 image Qingbai 14th AD 92 images

Figurine Taoisme Head Statue Qingbai 14 th AD (hal 163) gambar 91 dan tubuh   Qingbai gambar  14th AD  gambar 92

2.5.2

HASIL PENELITIAN TEMUAN KERAMIK SITUS BANTEN LAMA  1976-1981

BY

m.Th.Naniek Arkeologist

Pusat Penewlitian Arkeologis nasional

Jakarta ,1983

1)

History of Trade Ceramics in Banten Lama (p. 387)

Sejarah Perdagangan Keramik di Banten Lama (hal 387)

 

 

 

 

2)

Similarities And Differences Ceramic Table findings (p. 392)

Tabel Persamaan Dan Perbedaan Keramik Temuan (hal 392)

3)

Origin and era ceramic table Findings (case 393)

Tabel asal dan zaman keramik Temuan (hal  393)

4)

Summary Research  on ceramic banten Lama 1976-1981 (hal 398)

2.6

FENG SHUI GOOD FORTUNE SYMBOLS

BY

LILIAN TOO

(Kula Lumpur Malaysia, 1999)

2.6.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

MOTIF SYMBOL OF WEALTH AND SUCCESS


1). COINS CHINA
2) Vase
3) Beetle
4) Fish
5) dragon with phoenix
6) Chillin
7) dragon turtle
8) pumpkins

(MOTIF )SIMBOL KEKAYAAN DAN SUKSES

1).KOIN CINA

2) Vase

3)Kodok

4)Ikan

5)naga dengan burung phoenix

6)Chillin

7)kura-kura naga

8)buah labu

2.6.2

(Motif) longevity Symbol
1) God of Longevity LAU
2) Birds Stork
3) Pine Tree
4) Peaches
5) bamboo tree
6) Deer
7) Tortoise
8) Eight god (god of immortality or eight immortal)
(1) Chung Li Chuan with fan symbol, god of longevity and provide energy that never stops (end)
(2) Chang Kuo-Lao Changdengan symbols give descendants banbu tube (prevents sterile)
(3) Pin Dong Lu (Lu Tung Pin) with a sword and a thermos fly symbol popped disease
(4) Guo Chiu Tsao (Tsao kuo-chiu) with the symbol for music bestows blessings to those who seek power
(5) Lie Tieh Guai (Li Tieh Kuai) with the symbol of bottle gourd, most berkausa of Delan gods bestowed wisdom
(6) Xian Tzu Han (Han Hsing-tzu) with flutes, restoring energy
(7) Tsai Ho Lan (Lan Tsai-ho) to deliver flowers clad blessing for the girls
(8) Ku Hsien Ho (Ko-Ku Tsien) with lotus symbol, bestowing good luck in the family and marriage

9) herb of immortality Ling zhi
10) Queen of the West Hsi Mu-wang
11) Shou Longevity Calligraphy
12) Three Star Gods Fuk-Luk-Sau

 

(Motif) Simbol umur panjang

1)      Dewa Umur Panjang LAU

2)      Burung Bangau

3)      Pohon Pinus

4)      Buah Persik

5)      Pohon bamboo

6)      Rusa

7)      Kura-kura

8)      Delapan dewa (dewa keabadian  or eight immortal)

(1) Chung Li Chuan dengan  simbol kipas, Dewa umur panjang dan memberikan energi yang tidak pernah berhenti(putus)

(2)Chang Kuo-Lao Changdengan  simbol  tabung banbu memberikan keturunan(mencegah mandul)

(3)Dong Pin Lu(Lu Tung Pin) dengan symbol pedang dan termos terbang menyembulkan penyakit

(4)Guo Chiu Tsao(Tsao kuo-chiu) dengan symbol alat music  menganugerahkan berkah bagi mereka yang mencari kekuasaan

(5)Tieh Guai Lie (Li Tieh Kuai) dengan symbol labu botol ,paling berkausa dari delan dewa menganugerahkan kearifan

(6)Hsian Tzu Han(Han  Hsing-tzu)  dengan seruling , memulihkan energy

(7)Tsai Ho Lan (Lan Tsai-ho)dengan Kerajang bunga mengantarkan berkah bagi gadis-gadis

(8)Hsien Ku Ho(Ko Tsien-Ku) dengan symbol lotus, menganugerahkan  keberuntungan dalam keluarga dan pernikahan

 

9)      Ramuan keabadian Ling zhi

10)   Ratu Barat Hsi-wang Mu

11)   Kaligrafi Umur Panjang Shou

12)   Dewa Bintang Tiga Fuk-Luk-Sau

 

 

2.6.3

Motif Symbol Love and marriage
1) Mandarin Duck
2) Geese
3) calligraphy double happiness (Double Happiness)
4) Peony Flower Tan Mou
5) butterfly
6) Lute
7) Birds Magpie
8) Paper Lantern
9) God marriages Chieh Lin

 

Motif Simbol Cinta Kasih dan perkawinan

1)Bebek Mandarin

2)Angsa

3)kaligrafi kebahagian ganda(double Happiness)

4)Bunga Peoni  Mou Tan

5)kupu-kupu

6)Kecapi

7)Burung Magpie

8)Lampion Kertas

9)Dewa pernikahan Chieh Lin

2.6.4

FRUIT AND FLOWER  GOOD FORTUNR LUCKY SYMBOL
1) Flowers Fruit Plum facilitate LUCK Good Fortune
2) Chrysanthemum flower (Chrysanthenum) SYMBOL BEAUTY
3) Lotus symbol of perfection and progress indefinitely
4) Orchid Flower epitome of perfection
5) citrus fruit brings many blessings

BUAH DAN BUNGA LAMBANG KEBERUNTUNGAN

1)Bunga Buah Plum MEMUDAHKAN KEBERUNTUNGAN

2)bunga Krisan(Chrysanthenum) LAMBANG KECANTIKAN

3)Bunga Teratai lambing kesempurnaan dan kemajuan tanpa batas

4)Bunga Anggrek lambang kesempurnaan

5)  jeruk berbuah banyak  membawa berkah

2.6.5

MOTIF PROTECTION SYMBOL
1) Kuang Kong or Kuan Ti
2) white tiger
3) a pair of dogs or lions chillin
4) God of Doors
5) Four Heavenly Kings North (Mo Li Shou), West) Mo Li Hai), the East (Mo Ling Ching) and the South (Mo Li Hung)
6) digit (number) Lo Shu
7) dragon turtle
8) Pat Kua Mirror (an antidote to the poison dart)
9) anti Sandalwood Fan negative energy
10) singing bowl

MOTIF SIMBOL PERLINTUNGAN

1)Kuang Kong  atau Kuan Ti

2)Harimau putih

3) sepasang anjing atau singa chillin

4)Dewa Pintu

5)Empat Raja Langit Utara(Mo Li Shou),Barat)Mo Li Hai),Timur (Mo Ling Ching)dan Selatan(Mo Li Hung)

6) angka(nomor) Lo Shu

7) kura-kura naga

8)Cermin Pat Kua(penangkal panah beracun)

9)Kipas Kayu cendana  anti energy negative

10)Mangkuk bernyanyi

2.6.6

EIGHT GOOD FORTUNE LUCKY SYMBOLS
1) mystic knot without unjung
(symbol beginning without end.  Buddhism cycle of birth and rebirth – reincarnation)
2) Skin snails and clams (shell conched) symbol of luck on the way
3) Two Fish symbol of wealth
4) Lotus symbol of purity of intention and mind
5) Canopy mighty symbol perlidunagn
6) Flower vase symbols to increase the happiness and goodness
7) Wheel symbol of true wisdom and knowledge
8) vessel for the ashes of religious symbols

 

 

 

DELAPAN SIMBUL KEBERUNTUNGAN

1)simpul mistis tanpa unjung

(lambang permulaan tanpa akhir. kepErcayan agama budha lingkaran kelahiran dan kelahiran kembali – reinkarnasi)

2)Kulit Siput dan kerang(conched shell) symbol keberuntungan dalam perjalanan

3)Dua Ikan symbol kekayaan

4)Lotus simbol kemurnian niat dan pikiran

5)Kanopi symbol perlidunagn yang perkasa

6)Vas bunga simbol  untuk meningkatkan kebahagiaan dan kebaikan

7)Roda symbol kearifan sejati dan pengetahuan

8) bejana untuk abu jenazah symbol religious

 

2.6.7

MOTIF ELEVEN CHINESE ZODIAC SYMBOLS
1) Mice(Rat)
2) Buffalo
3) Tiger
4) Rabbit
5) Dragon
6) Snake
7) Horse
8) Goat
8) Monkey
9) Chicken
10) Dogs
11) Pigs

MOTIF SEBELAS SIMBOL ZODIAK CINA

1)Tikus

2)Kerbau

3)Harimau

4)Kelinci

5)Naga

6)Ular

7)Kuda

8)Kambing

8)Monyet

9)Ayam

10)Anjing

11) Babi

 

2.6.8

GOD OF GOOD FORTUNE LUCKY
1) God of Wealth Tai Yeh sen
2) God of Wealth Hokkien Tua Pekkong
3) Three Star Gods Fu-Luk-Sau (God of Longevity)
4) Laughing Buddha (Buddha Wealth  and Happiness)

DEWA KEBERUNTUNGAN

1)Dewa Kekayaan Tai sen Yeh

2)Dewa Kekayaan Hokkien Tua Pekkong

3)Dewa Tiga Bintang Fu-Luk-Sau(Dewa Panjang Umur)

4)Buddha Tertawa(Buddha kekatyaan dan Kebahagiaan)

 

 

2.6.8

 

“Jingdezhen,

“The porcelain centre of the world.”

A short description of the developments, transport and production

of ancient Chinese porcelain

(not Upload,the info can read at the next part III)

2.4

The Report Of Indonesian Sea  Shipwrec Traesures

Not Upload,the studies result can read at the  next Part III) 

The Report Of Chinese South Sea  Shipwrec Traesures

(Not Upload,the studies result can read at the  next Part III) 

The Report Of International Shipwrec Traesures

(Not Upload,the studies result can read at the  next Part III) 

The End Of Part II

please look the next part Three Result Of Studies

The Chinese Imperial Ceramic Artwork Found In Indonesia ( Continiu )

THE ART MOTIF OF CHINA IMPERIAL CERAMIC FOUND IN INDONESIA

PART THREE

PART III. STUDIES RESULTS

 

By

Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

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THIS THE SAMPLE OF Dr Iwan Limited E-Book In CD-Rom with unedited non complete info illustration, the complete CD-Rom exist but only for premium member please subscribe via comment with your email address and private information same as  your ID-Card

 

Driwancybermuseum Homeoffic 

PART III.

RESULTS

Based on a literature study in chapter Two can be found  Information as follows

Berdasarkan hasil studi literature dalam bab Dua dapat ditemukan informasi sebagai berikut

a.The Chinese Royal Kingdom art collection in Indonesia by  researchers which collected from 1973 to 2013 (forty years) in Sumatra,Java.Kalmantan and South Celebes and Ambon as follows

koleksi benda seni kerajaan Tiongkok di Indonesia oleh peneliti yang dikumpulkan dari tahun 1973 sampai 2013 (empat puluh Tahun) di Sumatra,Jawa,Kalimantan,Sulawesi selatan dan Ambon sebagai berikut

  

3.1 HISTORY BACKGROUND

LATAR BELAKANG SEJARAH 

 

.The Background history  of ceramic trade and royal art objects from China to Indonesia have started in the early centuries AD at the end of the Han Dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty by the merchants of the kingdom of China, the Middle East, and very crowded in the Tang dynasty, Sung, Ming reduced initial in the mid Ming Ming and crowded again at the end of the transitional period and reduced to the Qing Ming and Qing dynasties crowded again at the end.

This information is obtained from te research, discovery of ceramic art and Chinese empire at several sites in Indonesia by the National Arkelologis Center and a review of the findings of a shipwreck in Southeast Asia as some footage below

 

. Latar belakang sejarah perdagangan  keramik dan benda seni dari kerajaan Tiongkok ke Indonesia sudah dimulai pada awal abad masehi pada dinasti Han akhir sampai akhir dinasti Qing oleh pedagang-pedagang dari kerajaan Tiongkok,Timur Tengah, dan sangat ramai pada dinasti Tang, Sung, awal Ming berkurang pada Ming pertengahan dan ramai lagi pada Ming akhir dan berkurang pada masa peralihan Ming ke Qing serta ramai lagi pada dinasti Qing Akhir.

Informasi ini diperoleh dari penelitian te,muan benda seni dan keramik kerajaan Tiongkok di beberapa situs di Indonesia oleh Pusat Arkelologis Nasional dan hasil kajian  temuan kapal karam di di Asia Tengara  seperti beberapa cuplikan dibawah ini

 

3.1.1

Report of research findings on Sirus Indonesia by Indonesian National Archaeology Center

Laporan Hasil penelitian Temuan di Sirus Indonesia oleh Pusat Arkeologi Nasioanl Indonesia

(1)      The Report Of Situs Banten Girang

Laporan Situan Banten Girang

(2)    The Report Of Situs Banten Lama Laporan Situs banten Lama

 

This report not upload

(3)     The Report Of Indonesian Shipwreck treasure Finding 

(a)    Yurnaldi(2012)

The  ceramic Of Cargo from shipswreck ,  almost always found in relatively large quantities.

Bambang Budi Utomo of the Center Arkenas who edited the book Shipwrecks Century 10 in North Java Sea, Cirebon said the shipwreck  that the artifact has been removed from commercial ships, most of his wares, even nearly 90 percent in the form of ceramics.

The rest is pottery and glass items
Porcelain and stoneware very Clearly not locally made​​. So far as the items have been found at various sites in Indonesia, and are known from various countries,

 such as China, Southeast Asia (Thailand, Vietnam, and Cambodia), the Middle East, Japan, and Europe (such as the Netherlands and Germany).


According Widiati, researcher and expert of ancient ceramics, Ceramic frequently found in Indonesia comes from China (2-20 century AD), Thailand (Century 13-18 CE), Vietnam (century-8-18 M), Europe (17 century AD -20), Japan (17-20 century CE), and the Middle East (7-14 century AD).


On the findings of ceramics in the waters north of Cirebon, based on the identification and Typology of the ceramic objects, a 10th-century ceramics from the AD Five Dynasties period.


Of course, through the identification of these tiles, there are many additional bits of the data to compose a past history of Indonesian culture.
(Kompas, Thursday, May 20, 2010)


Muatan Dari kapal-kapal tenggelam, hampir selalu keramik ditemukan dalam jumlah relatif besar.

Bambang Budi Utomo dari Puslitbang Arkenas yang menjadi editor buku Kapal Karam Abad ke-10 di Laut Jawa Utara Cirebon mengatakan, kapal tenggelam yang artefaknya telah diangkat berasal dari kapal niaga, barang dagangannya sebagian besar, bahkan hampir 90 persen berupa keramik. Selebihnya adalah tembikar dan barang-barang kaca

Porselin dan bahan batuan sangat jelas bukan buatan lokal.

Selama ini barang-barang seperti itu telah ditemukan di berbagai situs di Indonesia, dan diketahui berasal dari berbagai negara, seperti Tiongkok, Asia Tenggara (Thailand, Vietnam, dan Kamboja), Timur Tengah, Jepang, dan Eropa (seperti Belanda dan Jerman).

Menurut Widiati, peneliti dan ahli keramik kuno, Keramik yang sering ditemukan di Indonesia berasal dari China (abad ke-2–20 Masehi), Thailand (abad ke-13–18 M), Vietnam (abad ke-8–18 M), Eropa (abad ke-17–20 M), Jepang (abad ke-17–20 M), dan Timur Tengah (abad ke-7–14 M).

Tentang temuan keramik di perairan utara Cirebon, berdasarkan identifikasi dan tipologi benda-benda keramik itu, merupakan keramik abad ke-10 Masehi dari masa Dinasti Lima.

Sudah tentu, melalui hasil identifikasi keramik ini, ada sedikit-banyaknya tambahan data untuk merangkai sejarah kebudayaan masa lampau Indonesia.

(Kompas, Kamis, 20 Mei 2010) 

(b)     Shipwreck Ceribon

 

 

Described, in May 2004 the Chinese fishermen Indramayu find ceramics, such as jars, strands of gold, silver, agate, roomates Reaches Hundreds of species roomates According to research is a relic of the Ming Dynasty Chinese or fifth dynasty, 10th century
Indonesian government through the national committee appointment and utilization of valuable objects that sink a boatload of origin (Pannas BMKT) will conduct the auction results on the sinking ship that 10th century in northern waters of Cirebon
However, in terms of age, Rini estimates kono objects is not older than a discovery in waters Similar Karangsong, Indramayu In 2004, the the firm is a relic of the Ming Dynasty around the 10th century

 

Dijelaskan, pada Mei 2004 nelayan Indramayu menemukan keramik Tiongkok, berupa guci, untaian emas, perak, batu akik, yang jenisnya mencapai ratusan yang menurut hasil penelitian merupakan peninggalan Dinasti Ming atau dinasti kelima Cina, abad ke 10

Pemerintah Indonesia melalui panitia nasional pengangkatan dan pemanfaatan benda berharga asal muatan kapal yang tenggelam (Pannas BMKT) akan melakukan pelelangan hasil temuan kapal yang tenggelam pada abad ke-10 di perairan utara Cirebon

Namun, dari sisi usia, Rini memperkirakan benda-benda kono ini tidak lebih tua dari penemuan serupa di perairan Karangsong, Indramayu Pada tahun 2004 yang dipastikan merupakan peninggalan Dinasti Ming sekitar abad ke-10.

Gambar 7: Form atribut ukuran (sumber & modifikasi: Irdiansyah, 2011).

Gambar 8: Form atribut bentuk (sumber & modifikasi: Irdiansyah, 2011).

© Krawang Shipwreck report

Database Systems for Data Recording Archaeology: A Recommendation Based Database Systems Shipwrecks findings Falkirk

Sistem Basis Data untuk Perekaman Data Arkeologi: Suatu Rekomendasi Berdasarkan Sistem Basis Data Temuan-temuan Kapal Karam Karawang

22 April 2012

iaaipusat PIA 2011 BMKT, Irdiansyah Tinggalkan Komentar

Irdiansyah
Arkeolog, Karyawan Swasta
/

One category of findings that can be explained Shipwreck Falkirk sequence and category attributes is closed (closed). In the handling of these findings Shipwreck Karawang, closed category (closed) is defined as the diameter of the hole all the artifacts it is smaller than the diameter of the largest part of his body, and does not have a neck and / or beak.

Attributes recorded in the measurement process is the size and shape (in this system form later called). The forms are designed in such a way that the filler can run the measurement process easily and efficiently.


When the closed category (Figure 6) is clicked (click) it will display the form (form) fields that are used to find corresponding barcode measured artifacts and start timing measurements. The information entered is the barcodes, the name of filler, and the date (automatically recorded when the name charger included).

Furthermore, after the “ok” button is clicked will show up forms for measurement. Ranging from high (height), the largest diameter (body broadest diameter), the diameter of the hole (top opening diameter), high foot (bottom rim height), the diameter of the foot (bottom diameter), thick frame leg (bottom rim width), median diameter foot (bottom center diameter), up to the foot diameter (inside bottom rim diameter

Salah satu kategori temuan Karawang Shipwreck yang dapat dijelaskan urutan dan atributnya adalah kategori closed (tertutup). Pada penanganan temuan Karawang Shipwreck ini, kategori closed (tertutup) didefinisikan sebagai seluruh artefak yang diameter lubang atasnya lebih kecil dari diameter terbesar bagian badannya, serta tidak memiliki leher dan/atau cucuk. Atribut yang direkam pada proses pengukuran ini adalah ukuran dan bentuk (dalam sistem ini kemudian disebut form). Form-form itu dirancang sedemikan rupa agar pengisinya dapat menjalankan proses pengukuran dengan mudah dan efisien.

Ketika tombol kategori closed (gambar 6) diklik (click) maka akan muncul form (formulir) isian yang berfungsi untuk mencari barcode sesuai artefak yang diukur dan memulai penghitungan waktu pengukuran. Informasi yang dimasukkan adalah barcode, nama pengisi, dan tanggal (terekam secara otomatis ketika nama pengisi dimasukkan).

Selanjutnya setelah tombol “ok” diklik akan muncul form-form untuk pengukuran. Mulai dari tinggi (height), diameter terbesar (body broadest diameter), diameter lubang atas (top opening diameter), tinggi kaki (bottom rim height), diameter kaki (bottom diameter), tebal bingkai kaki (bottom rim width), diameter tengah kaki (bottom centre diameter), hingga diameter dalam kaki (inside bottom rim diameter)

(d)

Pameran “Jejak-jejak  KAPAL Karam”

Koleksi-koleksi yang berasal dari kapal karam (Foto: Djulianto Susantio)

 

EXHIBITION “SHIPWRECK  TRAILS”
History of the archipelago as real-fact is the history of the sea. Since the beginning of residential archipelago by the Austronesian language speakers, the sea has played a role in the event of a large-scale migration of the ancestors of Formosa (Taiwan) to the various regions in Southeast Asia, around 6,500 BC. The role of the ocean can not dinafikkan anyway when the archipelago became a haven of spice on Trade Ages, the 16th century until the mid-20th century AD, which then led to colonialism.
Thus, most of the territorial waters of the archipelago is also a historic site. In essence saved a lot of historical evidence. Traces of shipwreck. Remains, historical remains such as sunken ships, with cargo, when they first crossed the Indonesian waters. According to the documentation, there are around 400 points shipwreck in Indonesian waters. This is possible because of the archipelago, except indeed the spice-producing areas of high quality, also the crossing area that connects the western hemisphere and the eastern.
Objects cargo ship sank (BMKT), which comes from the past, obviously very important for the history of the archipelago disclosure. At least can give an overview of the various aspects of social life, political, economic, or cultural contiguity contiguity-that occurred in the past. And for that, of course, should be preserved for its utilization for the benefit of mankind

Pameran “Jejak-jejak  KAPAL Karam”

Sejarah Nusantara senyata-nyatanya adalah sejarah tentang laut. Sejak awal penghunian Nusantara oleh para penutur Bahasa Austronesia, laut telah memainkan peranannya ketika terjadi migrasi besar-besaran para leluhur tersebut dari Formosa (Taiwan) ke berbagai wilayah di Asia Tenggara, sekitar 6.500 SM. Peran laut tak dapat dinafikkan pula ketika Nusantara menjadi surga rempah-rempah pada Abad Perdagangan, abad ke-16 sampai pertengahan abad ke-20 Masehi, yang lantas bermuara pada kolonialisme.

Maka, sebagian wilayah perairan Nusantara adalah juga situs bersejarah. Di dasarnya banyak sekali tersimpan bukti-bukti sejarah. Jejak-jejak karam. Tinggalan-tinggalan historis berupa kapal-kapal yang karam, bersama muatannya, saat mereka dulu melintasi wilayah perairan Indonesia. Menurut pendataan, ada sekitar 400-an titik-titik kapal karam di perairan Indonesia. Ini sangat dimungkinkan karena Nusantara, selain memang wilayah penghasil rempah-rempah berkualitas tinggi, juga merupakan wilayah perlintasan yang menghubungkan belahan bumi bagian barat dan timur.

Benda-benda muatan kapal tenggelam (BMKT), yang berasal dari masa lalu, jelas sangat penting artinya bagi pengungkapan sejarah Nusantara. Paling tidak dapat memberikan berbagai gambaran tentang aspek-aspek kehidupan sosial, politik, ekonomi, atau persentuhan-persentuhan budaya yang terjadi di masa lalu. Dan untuk itu, tentu saja, harus dilestarikan demi pemanfaatannya bagi kepentingan umat manusia


THE HISTORY OF INDONESIAN MARITIME

Centuries ago, before the colonization of the peoples of Europe, the waters of the archipelago has been an important commercial shipping lines from around the world.

Some important port in the archipelago that already exist such as Pasai in Aceh, Palembang Chinese City, Banten, Batavia (now Jakarta), Semarang, Demak, Jepara, Makassar, Gowa, Tallo, Sangihe, Talaud, Seram, and Ternate.

 Foreign trade with the archipelago initially suspected to

 

trade in spices from the Moluccas by Arab and Indian traders. Transport early this archipelago spice trade through sea route to India, and then passed through a land trade routes to the Middle East, and ended up in Europe.

 

When the Roman Emperor Vespasion prohibit the export of gold from Rome in the first century,

 

Indian traders also turned to the archipelago-particularly Sumatra and Java as an alternative to gold imports.

In addition to Indian and Arab traders, Malay traders also have played an important role in the pilot boat to the east (China, Japan) and to the west (India, Middle East and Africa).

 

Since the 9th century the Chinese also contributed to the growth of sea trade through the export of ceramics.
Therefore from various records and historical documents from the 7th century until the 19th AD, hundreds or even thousands of ships alleged to have suffered shipwreck or drowning in the archipelago.

 

Ships were derived from Chinese merchant ships (of various dynasties), ship kingdoms in the archipelago, ships Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC), Dutch, Portuguese, Spanish, English, and Japanese.

Cause of the sinking ships, among others, by storms and bad weather, navigational knowledge geographic cruise ship hit a reef less so, or for other reasons such as being the target and battle pirates.
Number of lost ships and sunken over the centuries in the waters of the archipelago does not count.

In 2001 National Geographic has reported seven ancient ship that sank in the western part of the archipelago waters (Strait of Malacca) in the XVII-XX centuries AD. Such vessels are Diana (UK),

Tek Sing 

Treasure from Tek Sing

The Tek Sing (True Star) set sail from China, bound for Java, in 1822. She was heavily laden with Chinese porcelain, 1,600 passengers (mostly living outside on deck) and 200 crew. After 24 days she struck a reef, and quickly sank, taking more lives than even the Titanic disaster 90 years later. In 1999, salvage diver Captain Mike Hatcher found the wreck and recovered her porcelain cargo – the largest ever discovery of its kind, and in remarkably good condition

read more info (not upload)

and

 

// // photo

Chinese Ceramics From the Shipwreck Turiang 14th Century

Turiang (China),

Nassau

nd Geldermalsen (Netherlands),

€ 24 millions. Discovery, in Indonesia, of the Dutch VOC vessel wreck ‘Geldermalsen’ sunk in 1752.

Salvage of a cargo made of 160,000 pieces of porcelain and 127 stamped Chinese gold ingots 

Don Duarte de Guerra (Portuguese),

Archaeologists work to uncover shipwreck remains in Portimão

related Information(not upload)

and

Ashigara (Japan).

archeologists

Shipwreck off coast of Japan (via CNN)

Marine archeologists say that the ancient wreckage of a ship discovered in the seabed off the coast of Nagasaki, Japan, belongs to the ancient “lost fleet” of ships belonging to China’s 13th century Mongol ruler Kublai Khan, CNN reports.

Explorers found the 20-meter-long shipwreck by using ultra-sound equipment some 25 meters off the coast of Nagasaki. The team of researchers buried the ultra-sound sensors about a meter deep in the sandy earth beneath the sea. Archeologists believe the ship dates back to 1281, and was part of a 4,400-vessel fleet that China’s Mongol rulers during the Yuan Dynasty had employed as an invasion force.

The discovery of the ship’s well preserved and mostly intact 12-meter-long keel “could go a long way to helping researchers identify all the characteristics of the 20-meter warship,” CNN reported, citing the head of the research team that made the discovery.

“This discovery was of major importance for our research,” Yoshifumi Ikeda, of Okinawa’s University of the Ryukyus, said at a recent press conference in Nagasaki, according to the CNN report. “We are planning to expand search efforts and find further information that can help us restore the whole ship.”

According to Japanese legend, two typhoons–known as the Kamikaze–that occurred seven years apart in the 13th century twice saved Japan from Mongol invasion by “destroy[ing] two separate Mongol invasions fleets so large they were not eclipsed until the D-Day landings of World War II,” CNN reported. China was not so spared, however, and was ruled by the Mongol Yuan Dynasty from 1271-1368.

“According to a contemporary account cited in the book Khubilai Khan’s Lost fleet: In Search of a Legendary Armada,” by maritime archaeologist James P. Delgado, the typhoon’s destruction of the over 4,000-vessel Yuan Dynasty invasion fleet created such a vast quantity of material wreckage “that ‘a person could walk across from one point of land to another on a mass of wreckage,’” CNN reported.

The wooden-planked ship, originally believed to have been painted light gray, is among “more than 4,000 artifacts, including ceramic shards, bricks used for ballast, cannonballs and stone anchors [that] have been found in the vicinity of the wreck, linking it to the Yuan Dynasty invasion fleet,” CNN reported


Chinese sailing ship that has sailed the waters of Asia-including the archipelago for centuries-even many that are not reported back. Moreover, since 1650, from about 800 Portuguese ships that sailed from Lisbon, nearly 150 ships were never heard from again. Disappeared without a trace.


Between the years 1600 to 1800, the EIC informed has lost more than 7,000 ships. Generally the ship sank to the bottom of the sea declared carried away with its cargo.

relted info

Shipwrecks and the East India Company’s ‘Immaterial’ Material Culture(illustration not upload)

As the fate of both the Valentine and the Abergavenny attests, shipwreck was a frequent occurrence in the history of the EIC in the Georgian era.

Of the 980 EIC voyages between 1747-88, and discounting those ships which were to remain abroad, less than 94% returned home: 39 were wrecked or ‘lost’, 7 were burnt and 12 were captured.

By far the worst year was 1779/80 when six ships were captured and two were lost out of 26 which sailed. It was for this reason that ships were owned by a number of investors, and it seems Raymond had a group of associates who worked together in partnership. Cargos from shipwrecked vessels provide historians with a ghostly counterfoil to pristine collections of Asian luxuries assembled in many surviving stately homes in Britain, offering a unique, ‘immaterial’ perspective on the Company’s domestic material culture.

Diver Richard Keen preparing to dive near Guernsey. Image courtesy of Georgina Green.

When divers investigated the wreck of the Griffin East Indiaman, which sank in 1761 on her way home from China, they estimated she carried 125,800 pieces of chinaware.Fragments such as the Griffin’s porcelain shards have rarely featured in analyses of the Company’s material legacies, but they offer historians a wealth of material for understanding the EIC’s contribution to consumer culture. As they remind us, the Asian items displayed in stately homes and country houses today are only a fraction of what arrived in England in the eighteenth century. Indeed, much of the cargo brought home from India and China was of short term value and use. Tea, spices, fabrics – were all for immediate consumption and almost all are lost to us now. As an example, the cargo carried home from India in 1739 by Captain Charles Raymond on his second voyage of the Wager included cotton materials (callico, seersuckers, chints, ginghams etc) valued at approximately £85,030; raw silk at £9,780; redwood at £112 (this was dunnage: it was packed between cargo to prevent movement and keep it dry); salt petre at £1770; turmerick at £125; and cowries at £1,875. The total value of the cargo was nearly £100,000 which in present day terms would be around £10m. Unlike Raymond’s porcelain plate, books and artwork, these imports have left relatively few traces in domestic interiors. Recovering their histories requires us to step outside the home, and outside the archive, diving instead (quite literally) into the waters in which East Indiamen sailed to trade with Asia.

Nearly 200 years after the Valentine was wrecked, a young Guernsey diver, Richard Keen (see image above), decided to try and find the wreck. Richard was born and brought up in an old farmhouse in Guernsey (Channel Isles) where his father grew roses. It was expected he would join his father when he left school, but his life changed when he tried out the new sport of scuba diving while in his mid-teens. On leaving school he took up a career diving for shellfish. While looking for scallops he found many objects on the sea bed and his enquiring mind led him to an interest in marine archaeology.

Richard has discovered over 30 wrecks on the rocks and reefs in Guernsey waters, some by accident and others while un-snagging crab pots and trawl nets. He started to research these wrecks, and others which had been recorded in old newspapers and diaries but had never been located. His most important archaeological find was that of a Roman wreck, known as ‘Asterix’ which he discovered in the harbour mouth at St Peter Port in 1982.

Some years before this Richard came across a map in the Priaulx Library at St. Peter Port which houses some of the island’s archives. This is dated 1816 and shows a rock off the island of Brecqhou (close to Sark) with the words ‘Le Neste upon which the Valentine Indiaman was wrecked in 1779′. He became fascinated by the idea of finding the wreck but the very high rise and fall of the tide and strong currents, with many rocks in the area, make this a hazardous place in which to dive. However, Richard dived and successfully located the site in 1974. Others attempted to dive on the wreck the following year but their attempt was aborted. Eventually some pieces of lead, red dyewood, agate and pottery were retrieved and were declared to the Receiver of Wrecks.

On 9 January 1976 Richard gave a lecture to everyone interested in the wreck and as a result the ‘Valentines Excavation Group 1976’ was established to undertake a coordinated survey of the wreck site, near a rock called ‘Le Neste’ off the western tip of Brecqhou (to view the 1976 report click here). Dives were made on ten days, starting on 10 April with the last on 12 December. The seabed in the area comprises a mass of rocky gullies with gravel in the bottom, and with kelp growing on the rocks. Work on the site was only possible during neap tides and then only close to slack water, due to the strong currents. However the depth of the remains at diving time is between 10 to 18 metres, so the divers did not have any problems with decompression.

The main cargo of the vessel was salt petre which was much in demand for the manufacture of gun powder, a substance which would have dissolved in the sea. Another significant part of the cargo was red dyewood which was dunnage as well as being of value for dyeing. Large logs of dyewood were found as this is extremely hard wood. The timbers of the ship decomposed long ago although some canons remain to mark the site where the Valentine foundered. One interesting find was a broken anchor (which had been mentioned in the captain’s journal) with a cannon strapped to it. This illustrates the desperate attempts made by the crew to save their ship in 1779.

Richard Keen with richly coloured red dyewood (to left). Even after being in the sea for two-hundred years the red colour is vibrant when the wood is cut and it can still be used to dye fabric.

Since 1976 other dives have been held and a number of local people have retrieved items from the wreck site. Shards of blue and white Chinese porcelain are often found. It was made in China, loaded in Canton and either brought directly to England or taken to India by one of the many EIC ‘country ships’ used by the Company to transport their cargo in Asian waters. Porcelain was often packed in boxes with loose tea or pepper for padding, and best use of space. The Valentine had only visited India on her last voyage, but her cargo consisted of a range of Chinese porcelain from best quality items for the aristocratic tea party to thicker items for general use.

The finer shards illustrated right from a good quality (sugar?) bowl, decorated inside. The blue and white china was a popular design in England.

Many small pieces of agate were discovered (shown left), mostly orange or rust in colour. They were cut and roughly shaped square or rectangular in India to be made into signet rings and broaches in England. Agate is an extremely hard stone and it is remarkable that these pieces were smoothed and bevelled by India craftsmen without modern technology. Their loading was not noted in the captain’s journal so it is likely they were private trade.

Other items retrieved illustrate life on board ship: metal handles from furniture or travelling luggage (shown right), and ground glass stoppers for decanters or medical jars (shown right). They may have been for items used on the voyage – although there was a significant quantity found, which may suggest they were also part of the private trade.

Broken bottles were also found. They may have been loaded in Madeira and would have contained fortified or non-fortified wine. Madeira wine was collected on the outward journey and some of it was required for EIC staff in India. Apparently, the voyage improved the quality, if it wasn’t drunk by officers and passengers before they got back to England! As already stated, quantities of redwood have also been salvaged. Even after being in the sea for 200 years the red colour is vibrant when the wood is cut, and it can still be used to dye fabric.

While in 1808 and 1809, the EIC lost 10 ships that sailed with a cargo valued at over one million sterling. Dutch VOC has also lost 105 ships that sailed between 1602 and 1794. Bad period was between the years 1725-1749, when the VOC ship lost 44 on the way home from the east. 

SEJARAH MARITIM INDONESIA

Berabad-abad lampau, sebelum terjadi kolonialisasi bangsa-bangsa Eropa, perairan Nusantara sudah merupakan jalur penting pelayaran niaga dari berbagai belahan dunia. Beberapa pelabuhan penting di Nusantara yang sudah ada antara lain Pasai Aceh, Kota Cina Palembang, Banten, Batavia (Jakarta sekarang), Semarang, Demak, Jepara, Makassar, Gowa, Tallo, Sangihe, Talaud, Seram, serta Ternate. Perdagangan luar negeri Nusantara mulanya ditengarai dengan adanya perdagangan rempah-rempah asal Maluku oleh pedagang Arab dan India. Transportasi awal perdagangan rempah Nusantara ini melalui rute laut ke India, kemudian melewati darat melalui rute perdagangan ke Timur Tengah, dan berakhir di Eropa.

Ketika Roman Emperor Vespasion melarang ekspor emas dari Roma pada sekitar abad pertama, pedagang India pun beralih ke Nusantara –terutama Sumatera dan Jawa– sebagai alternatif impor emas. Selain pedagang India dan Arab, pedagang Melayu pun telah memainkan peran penting dalam rintisan rute kapal ke arah timur (Cina, Jepang) dan ke barat (India, Timur Tengah dan Afrika). Sejak abad ke-9 bangsa Cina juga memberi kontribusi pertumbuhan perdagangan laut melalui ekspor keramik.

Oleh karena itu dari berbagai catatan dan dokumen sejarah sejak abad ke-7 sampai ke-19 Masehi, ratusan bahkan ribuan kapal diduga telah mengalami karam atau tenggelam di Nusantara. Kapal-kapal tersebut berasal dari kapal dagang Cina (dari berbagai dinasti), kapal kerajaan-kerajaan di Nusantara, kapal-kapal Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC), Belanda, Portugis, Spanyol, Inggris, serta Jepang. Penyebab kapal-kapal tersebut karam antara lain oleh badai dan cuaca buruk, pengetahuan navigasi geografis pelayaran yang kurang sehingga kapal menabrak karang, atau sebab lain seperti menjadi sasaran perompak dan peperangan.

Jumlah kapal hilang dan karam selama berabad-abad di perairan Nusantara memang tidak terhitung. Pada tahun 2001 National Geographic pernah melaporkan tujuh kapal kuno yang karam di perairan Nusantara bagian barat (Selat Malaka) pada abad XVII-XX Masehi. Kapal-kapal tersebut adalah Diana (Inggris), Tek Sing dan Turiang (Cina), Nassai dan Geldermalsen (Belanda), Don Duarte de Guerra (Portugis), dan Ashigara (Jepang).

Kapal layar Cina yang telah mengarungi perairan Asia –termasuk Nusantara– selama berabad-abad pun dilaporkan banyak yang tidak kembali. Selain itu, sejak tahun 1650, dari sekitar 800 kapal Portugis yang berlayar dari Lisabon, hampir 150 kapal tidak pernah terdengar lagi kabarnya. Hilang tanpa jejak.

Antara tahun 1600 sampai 1800, EIC menginformasikan telah kehilangan lebih dari 7.000 kapalnya. Umumnya kapal tersebut dinyatakan karam ke dasar laut terbawa bersama muatannya. Sementara pada tahun 1808 dan 1809, EIC kehilangan 10 kapal yang berlayar dengan muatan senilai satu juta sterling lebih. VOC Belanda juga telah kehilangan 105 kapal yang berlayar antara tahun 1602 dan 1794. Periode yang buruk adalah antara tahun 1725-1749, ketika VOC kehilangan 44 kapalnya dalam perjalanan pulang dari timur.

THE CULTURE  OF INDONESIAN UNDER WATER MARITIME

Exploration of the Sea and Fisheries Department (now Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries) has an inventory of shipwrecks or sunken ships before World War II. There are at least 463 locations for the period between 1508 until 1878. Generally, the shipwreck was a merchant ship VOC, Portuguese ships, American ships, boats France, Britain, Germany, Belgium, and Asia (China, Japan, the archipelago). Of the 463 new locations 43 locations that have been successfully surveyed. However, only 10 locations payload object has been lifted.

There are about 300,000 objects lifted from the seabed and is now stored in special warehouses Objects Cargo Ship Sink (BMKT) in Cullinan, Bogor.
The ten points that have been raised generally valuable objects from the waters of Java and Sumatra.

Appointment of objects in Java waters is on the site Blanakan, Subang regency, 1998; Karangsong, Cirebon (2004); Karawang, West Java, (2008); China Coral Island,

Thousand Islands, Jakarta, as well as in Jepara, Central Java, in 2008 . In the waters of Sumatra, the longest performed at Crocodile Island, Riau Islands, in 1998. In addition, Diamond Island, in the Strait of Gelasa, Bangka Belitung; Gulf Sumpat in Tanjung Pinang, and Coral Heliputan in Riau Islands, in 2006.

Objects similar findings Heliputan Reef site was also found in the waters of the Thousand Islands, Bangka Belitung, Cirebon, and West Kalimantan.

Lodging Thousand Islands found 11,000 objects made of various metals, such as gold, silver, bronze, and pewter. The findings probably derived from the 10th century AD. From the identification of the majority of the hull, the ship was made in Indonesia which sailed from Capital Sriwijaya, Palembang, to Central Java or East Java.
Mid-2008 in the village Punjulharjo, Apex, Central Java, some residents found relatively intact ancient boat, about 1 km from the beach.

The boat measures 4 m wide and 15.60 m long. Professor Pierre-Yves Manguin, maritime archaeologist from France, who invited Yogyakarta Archaeological Center to examine

the boat said the boat Apex dating back to

the Ancient Mataram Kingdom transitional Srivijaya, the period between the years 670-780 AD.

Tambuktu boat building technology using pegs or spot beam reinforced with rope fibers. On the boat found objects such as shells, pieces of sticks, and the head of the statue of Chinese women dress Java. The boat is a boat suspected of inter-island trade.

Warga Berdatangan Melihat Proses Evakuasi
In 2008, an ancient boat found in Bengawan Solo, precisely in the Village Banjarsari, District Trucuk, Bojonegoro, East Java.

In 2010 an ancient boat found another three who also predicted hundreds of years old, at the bottom of the river which is located in the Village District Panjunan Kalitidu and in District Malo.

Early identification stating a boat length up to 30 m with a width of 4 m. The boat is longer than the findings of an ancient boat in 2006 in the village of Padang, District Malo, which is known from Thailand made in 1312.


PENINGGALAN SEJARAH-BUDAYA BAWAH AIR

Departemen Eksplorasi Laut dan Perikanan (kini Departemen Kelautan dan Perikanan) telah menginventarisasi kapal karam atau kapal tenggelam sebelum Perang Dunia II. Setidaknya terdapat di 463 lokasi untuk periode antara tahun 1508 sampai 1878. Umumnya kapal karam tersebut adalah kapal dagang VOC, kapal Portugis, kapal Amerika, kapal Prancis, Inggris, Jerman, Belgia, dan Asia (Cina, Jepang, Nusantara). Dari 463 lokasi itu baru 43 lokasi yang telah berhasil disurvei. Namun, hanya 10 lokasi yang benda muatannya telah diangkat. Ada sekitar 300.000 benda yang terangkat dari dasar laut dan kini tersimpan di gudang khusus Benda Muatan Kapal Tenggelam (BMKT) di Cileungsi, Bogor.

Kesepuluh titik yang telah diangkat benda berharganya umumnya dari perairan Jawa dan Sumatera. Pengangkatan benda di perairan Jawa adalah di situs Blanakan, Kabupaten Subang, tahun 1998; Karangsong, Cirebon (2004); Karawang, Jabar, (2008); Pulau Karang Cina, Kepulauan Seribu, Jakarta; serta di Kabupaten Jepara, Jawa Tengah, pada 2008. Di perairan Sumatera, yang terlama dilakukan di Pulau Buaya, Kepulauan Riau, pada 1998. Selain itu, di Pulau Intan, di Selat Gelasa, Bangka Belitung; Teluk Sumpat di Tanjung Pinang; dan Karang Heliputan di Kepulauan Riau, tahun 2006.

Benda temuan serupa situs Karang Heliputan juga ditemukan di perairan Kepulauan Seribu, Bangka Belitung, Cirebon, dan Kalimantan Barat. Khusus di Kepulauan Seribu ditemukan 11.000 benda terbuat dari aneka logam, seperti emas, perak, perunggu, dan timah. Temuan-temuan itu diduga berasal dari abad ke-10 Masehi. Dari identifikasi sebagian badan kapal, kapal itu buatan Indonesia yang berlayar dari Ibu Kota Sriwijaya, Palembang, menuju Jawa Tengah atau Jawa Timur.

Medio 2008 di Desa Punjulharjo, Rembang, Jawa Tengah, sejumlah warga menemukan perahu kuno yang relatif utuh, sekitar 1 km dari pantai. Perahu itu berukuran lebar 4 m dan panjang 15,60 m. Profesor Pierre-Yves Manguin, arkeolog maritim asal Perancis, yang diundang Balai Arkeologi Yogyakarta untuk meneliti perahu tersebut menyatakan, perahu Rembang berasal dari zaman peralihan Kerajaan Mataram Kuno ke Sriwijaya, periode antara tahun 670-780 Masehi. Teknologi pembuatan perahu menggunakan tambuktu atau balok tempat pasak yang diperkuat dengan ikatan tali ijuk. Di perahu itu ditemukan benda seperti tempurung kelapa, potongan tongkat, dan kepala arca perempuan Cina berdandan Jawa. Diduga perahu itu merupakan perahu dagang antar pulau.

Pada tahun 2008, sebuah perahu kuno ditemukan di Bengawan Solo, tepatnya di Desa Banjarsari, Kecamatan Trucuk, Bojonegoro, Jawa Timur. Tahun 2010 ditemukan lagi tiga perahu kuno yang juga diperkirakan berusia ratusan tahun, di dasar sungai yang terletak di Desa Panjunan Kecamatan Kalitidu dan di Kecamatan Malo. Identifikasi awal menyatakan panjang perahu mencapai 30 m dengan lebar 4 m. Perahu tersebut lebih panjang dibandingkan dengan temuan perahu kuno pada 2006 di Desa Padang, Kecamatan Malo, yang diketahui asal Thailand buatan tahun 1312

The Chinese Imperial Ceramic Artwork Found In Indonesia ( continiu )

 

THE ART MOTIF OF CHINA IMPERIAL CERAMIC FOUND IN INDONESIA

PART THREE

PART III. STUDIES RESULTS

 

By

Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

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PART III.  

3.1.2

Report of  Shipwrecks Finding in South East Asia 

Laporan Temuan Kapal Karam di Asia tenggara

A short description of the developments, transport and production of ancient Chinese porcelain

(Sten Sjostrand)

This text is part of the Wanli shipwreck catalogue: “The Wanli Shipwreck and its Ceramic Cargo”

Early Production:Jingdezhen, the ‘city of all day thunder and lightning,’ is located in the northeastern part of Jiangxi province and is known as the porcelain centre of the world.  Some historians believe that ceramics production may have started there in the Han dynasty (206 BC.–AD. 220) with kilns spread along the Chang River, south and southeast of the town.

The town was then called

Xinping Town or Changnan

for its location to the south (nan) of the Chang River.  Pottery clay was in ample supply all around the town. 

More specifically,

 

the Gaoling mountain,

40 kilometers to the northeast, is one of the few areas in China which provided pure kaolin, one of the essential ingredients for porcelain. 

Other nearby areas such as

Nankang,

Sanbaopeng,

Dongliu

 

and Liujiawan

provided the other ingredient; the so-called ‘China stone.’

 

Another important material was fuel for the kilns. Pine wood was found in abundance around the town. 

 

 

The Chang River

provided transport for raw material to the kilns as well as for later shipping of the finished products. 

In summary, the ample clay resources, fuel supply, convenient transportation and eventual imperial favors provided the necessary catalyst for potters from other places in China to join in the commercial pottery production in the town.

Other texts say that pottery was being made

 

at Jingdezhen by A.D. 557

and that it had grown into an industry

 

by Tang dynasty (A.D. 618-906). 

Old texts mention the Tao kilns, which are said to be named after the Tao family who founded the kilns and who made high-fired pottery already then known to be translucent and often referred to as ‘artificial jade’.In support of this industry, Guangzhou in southern China became a thriving seaport that by the Tang dynasty was home to a large Arab community with its own mosques and trading houses.

 

 

By the reign of emperor Jingde (1004-1007) of the Song dynasty (960-1280), the court decreed that existing private kilns fire quality wares for imperial use and that the pieces should be marked with ‘Made in the Jingde period’ on the base. 
 
The town (zhen) was thereafter known as Jingdezhen and the earlier name of Changnan was gradually forgotten. 
 
This decree did not result in the creation of new kilns but merely appointed established private kilns to add imperial wares to their production. 
 
The kilns were thus producing high quality wares for the imperial court at the same time as producing common dinner sets for the domestic markets at the same time.

Tributary pottery for the court, like the thin-walled ‘thin as paper’ or qingbai wares, were made at the Hutian kilns in the northern Song dynasty.

 

By 1278 production at the Hutian kilns

was overseen by a government official from the ‘Porcelain Office’ who also overlooked the imperial production

at the Luomaqiao kilns and those on the Zhushan hill.

  Hutian had a great impact on other Jingdezhen kilns which began producing similar quality wares.  At this time, it appears certain that imperial wares were not fired in a kiln specially created for that purpose. 

Instead, after receiving production requirements from the court, Jingdezhen would summon all the best ceramists together to design, choose and fire the best ware possible.  (It is likely that this communal corroboration between the different potteries and kilns lasted until at least the 15th century and beyond, when private kilns are known to have assisted official kilns with imperial orders.)

During the Song dynasty high-fired ceramics were immensely popular and developed to perfection.

  Lot

Sung yueh colour motif dragon ear vase

Thousands of pieces were exported annually to the Middle East, India and Southeast Asia.  Despite this successful trade, the Song court was forced to exploit every means in order to pay ‘peace money’ to the Mongol invaders and to maintain its own administration and military.

  Aware of the threats from the invaders and its own diminishing empire and lack of finances, the court decided to increase its revenue by increasing foreign trade.  One of these measures was to establish Superintendents of Shipping offices and sponsoring of overseas trade. 

In combination with active sponsorship, this trade would greatly benefit the Chinese economy and spur the industrialization of the potteries at Jingdezhen. 

These late Song dynasty Superintendents offices were thus established at Guangzhou in the south,

 

hangzhou now,Driwan ever visit this beautiful city

Hangzhou in Zhekiang province

 

 Kaiyuan temple pagoda  in Quanzhou,Driwan wvwe visit this pagoda at his grandfather homeland

and Quangzhou in Fujian province

 

South Sung Celadon Plate with  insiced chrysanthenum flower motif

 

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Although large quantities of Chinese pottery were exported to Southeast Asia, India and the Middle East from the 9th century, it was the Yuan dynasty (1280-1368) under the rule of Kublai Khan that significantly expanded maritime trade. 
 
During the Mongol invasion of northern China it would appear that Cizhou potters from present-day Cixian of Handan municipally,
 

Human motif and dragon motif yuan cizhou vase

 
Hebei province migrated to the south and assisted in the technical and decorative achievements of porcelain making in Jingdezhen.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The technique of painting with iron black oxides before glazing, so long practiced elsewhere in China, may have given birth to the first cobalt decorated wares of Jingdezhen, although underglaze cobalt decorated wares from the Gongxian kiln in Henan are known from Tang times. 
 
This politically motivated transfer of technology resulted in the best known ceramics of all time – blue and white porcelain.  It also had a fundamental effect on Jingdezhen production, China’s trade and eventually on the whole world, although its full impact would not be seen until the fourteenth century. 

During the Yuan dynasty the Chinese potters introduced new forms and painted the earliest known untraditional Chinese motifs on high quality porcelain for foreign dignitaries. 

 

Yuan Dinasty high quality Vase wuth human figure motif vase

Porcelain that was customized to suit the needs of the Middle East included large plates with Islamic motifs. 

 

Yuan dynasti ceramic  with islamic motif

Shards from such plates, excavated from the original Yuan dynasty official kilns, are not imperial in form although the body and glaze are clearly of imperial quality.  This type of early export ware was reportedly not made before 1328, and the ware was not made after 1352. 

 

 

 

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The earlier date is based on excavations at the kiln sites where the painted pattern was not seen before this date.  The later date marks the future Hongwu emperor’s conquest of the area and the subsequent cessation of production.  Professor Liu Xinyuan who excavated the kilns re-affirmed that shards from such large plates, excavated from these kilns are not Chinese but more suited for the Islamic markets.

The official kilns did however seem to have flourished during these times.  In the early Ming dynasty another 20 kilns in Jingdezhen were recognized for their quality wares and commissioned to produce ‘imperial porcelain’ exclusively for the court.  These kilns were set up next to an ‘imperial depot’ in 1425 which was to assemble, store and arrange transport to Beijing and the imperial palace.

While production for overseas markets was reduced, private kilns in Jingdezhen made blue and white porcelain for the huge domestic market.  Work for the official kilns was increased in 1433 when the Ming court ordered 443,500 pieces of porcelain for the imperial household. 

To fill this order, the number of official kilns was increased to 58.  In addition to the added production capacity, which probably came from up-grading previously private kilns, privately owned kilns assisted with the production of standardized wares.  Official kilns continued to make the finer wares. 

The 1433 order, as with most other imperial orders, was overseen by eunuch commissioners appointed by the court. Imperial orders in 1529 were limited to 2,570 pieces, but they gradually increased to 174,700 pieces in 1577.  

Private kilns that assisted with imperial production are thought to have been allowed to sell off rejected imperial pieces provided none bore the emperor’s reign mark.

The ‘flesh and bones’ of porcelain were two components mixed in different proportions depending of the type of ware desired.  The first of the ingredients is kaolin, a pure white clay formed by the decomposition of aluminum silicates, in particular decomposed feldspar. 

Yuan qingbei dragonphonix ewer found in Aceh and west borneo

Kaolin remains white when fired, but its low plasticity makes it difficult to pot. The clay is quarried in open mines and washed in a series of ponds where the finer particles are separated from heavier impurities. 

Only the upper supernatant fluid was allowed into a second and a third pond before the clay was dried and made into bricks. The word kaolin derives from the Gaoling (‘High Ridge’) hill 40 kilometers northeast of Jingdezhen where the clay was first found.

 

The ‘bones’ in porcelain is China stone (petuntse), a granitic grayish white stone which still retains much unaltered feldspar, quartz and sericite. 

After being pulverized by water driven pestles, the powder from the stone is also washed in successive ponds and then dried into bricks.  This material, by itself, can be fired only to about 1,150˚ Centigrade and is off-white in color.  The kaolin-petuntse mixture, however, is white and plastic and when used with for blue and white wares, is fired at 1,250-1,330˚ Centigrade.

Both materials were quarried in mines outside Jingdezhen by specialized mills and transported by river boats to the potteries. 

It is believed that very few expert suppliers of kaolin and China stone were in operation during the Ming dynasty, although a Qing dynasty treatise on porcelain of 1815 indicates that there were 28 rapids, each of them with water-driven pestles, east of Jingdezhen. 

After the pots were trimmed and allowed to dry, skilled artisans would decorate them. Outlines, for instance, could be drawn in darker cobalt mixture before other decorators used different shades of blue to fill in the design.

After the painted decoration was applied, the foot-ring was carved and circular rings were painted onto the base while the pot was still on the wheel.  Other craftsmen would then apply reign marks or an inscription within the rings. 

Some pieces of porcelain from The Wanli Shipwreck included the circular outlines on the base but no markings within them. These must have by-passed the decorator who was supposedly meant to fill them. Yet other kraak plates by-passed the artisans supposed to paint the fill in the main decorations.

After their decoration, the pots were glazed with a thin layer of specially prepared slurry containing fern ash.  This glaze mixture was delivered to the kilns in Jingdezhen as a liquid by specially lined river boats. 

When the pots were glazed and dried, the painted decoration disappeared under the whitish slurry, but reappeared after firing as crystal blue below transparent glaze.

 

Chinese tradition claims that the earliest cobalt at Jingdezhen was imported from Persia. This ore was rich in iron.  Later cobalt oxide, high in manganese, mined in China was utilized, sometimes in varying mixtures with imported cobalt.

 

The wanli Kraak Porcelain plate with the bird on rock longevity symbol motif

Once the pots were decorated and glazed, most private workshops sent them to kilns that specialized in firing ceramics.  The pots were carried on wooden planks added in layers to a ladder-like structure.  The early matiyao kilns were commonly built on the slope of hills in an area that was not necessarily suited to workshops.  From the 16th century, egg-shaped kilns (zhen yao) or mantou type kilns become more popular as they and the later ‘beehive’ kilns could be constructed on flat ground 

During the 13th century many other kilns were spread out over a large area southeast of the town.  The author visited the excavation of an early Song dynasty kiln 40 kilometers west of the Chang River in August 2005.

These remotely located kilns do however appear to have moved closer to the city center by the Yuan dynasty, possibly in connection with increased overseas trade.  It is reported in the Yuan-dynasty Notes of Ceramics by Jiang Qi that “All together there were over three hundred kilns in Jingdezhen.”  Wares made in these kilns were white, clean and flawless.  When sold in other provinces in China, people called them ‘jades’.

By the time the Mongols had established the Yuan dynasty (1280-1368), trade flourished. The seaports established by the Song court became even more successful under Mongol rule.   Marco Polo (1275-1292) wrote that Quanzhou harbor was the greatest port in the world and also mentioned the ceramics trade:

At the kiln, the pieces of pottery were placed in saggars, specially-made circular boxes, to ensure they received uniform temperature and to protect them from air currents and debris that might fall from the kiln ceiling.  The arrangement of the saggars in the kiln took into account the heat requirements for the different types of ware.  Observers in the 18th century report that it took about eight days to reach the required temperature.

  A kiln master determined the temperature by observing the color of the saggars.  When they reached silver-red, the fire was stopped.  Even though three to four days was allowed for initial cooling, the saggars as well as the kiln interior were still very hot when special workmen covered in wet cloth removed them.  The difficulties in determining kiln temperature and related risks are described in Pere’ d’Entrecolles letter of 1712:

“……the whole oven-full is hardly ever successful.  Sometimes it is quite lost, and when they open the furnace they find the porcelain pieces and the                 cases (saggars) are reduced to a mass as hard as rock…. For one workman who gets rich  there are hundred others who ruin themselves, though          they still try their fortunes further in the hope that they may save enough to become shopkeepers”.

A word of caution is in place here.  When referring to ‘kilns’ it is perhaps common to assume a place where the pots were made, decorated, glazed and fired.

  This may not be true for the export production as there were relatively few ‘kilns’ but many small potteries scattered all over the town.  It is therefore possible that future archaeology will discover actual kilns, specialized in firing the ware, while other places may yield evidences of porcelain production. 

These separate production segments are probably confirmed by Tang Ying, alias Jun Gong, who was decreed to supervise porcelain production in Jingdezhen during the early 18th century. His detailed description of all phases of production includes a statement about making the saggars:

…In the whole district of Jingdezhen there are only three or four workmen reputed clever at this special handiwork.”

Individual owners separated the fired wares into different quality groups and priced the export ware accordingly. 

 

 ArtsofAsiaVol40-3p71.jpg

high quality late ming plate with bird motif plate

FFirst class wares had the brightest color and no kiln defects such as warping; pieces with lower density color became second class. 

Read more late Ming Porcelain (not upload)

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Overview of Folk Kiln (Minyao) Ming Blue and White (not upload)

Low quality late ming people kil ware with chillin gyardian motif plate

The remainder was sold on the domestic market.  Ceramics intended for overseas markets were packed in straw bundles and sent to the river for onward transport.  The domestic ware was not packed in straw but tied up in bundles of 30-40 pieces before being distributed.

When the volume of porcelain for export increased during the 17th century, many additional kilns appeared in and around Jingdezhen. 

There is estimated to have been no less than a thousand kilns at the peak of this period.  Most of the kilns were distributed along the eastern side of the Chang River, only a few were located on its western bank. Most private kilns were located along the Taoyang Shisan Li (‘thirteen mile’) road that ran north to south through the old city zone. 

The official kilns were located at or near Zhushan hill in the old city center.

Continued developments at Jingdezhen during the early Qing dynasty resulted in the finest porcelains ever made – those from the Kangxi (1662-1722) reign. Blue and white porcelains of that time were perfectly potted, fired to perfection, and decorated in sapphire blue against a bright white ground.

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Kangxi transitional porcelain(not upload)

 

 

high quality Kangxi transitional porcelain plate

 

Thus, from the Ming dynasty we see superior quality porcelain wares made by specially appointed workshops for the exclusive use of the court. 

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Ming High Quality Ware(not upload ) 

At the same time private kilns produce porcelain for the huge domestic and an ever increasing export market.

  We see private kilns assisting official workshops with large orders, and official potters and decorators joining the export industry when court orders diminished.  This degree of adaptability and outsourcing is unparalleled at any other production place at the time.

read more info

Overview of Folk Kiln (Minyao) Ming Blue and White

 (not Upload)

The Portuguese buyers:

 

In time, yet another political situation benefited Jingdezhen.

 

  In Europe the Portuguese made technical advances that led to the development of a merchant fleet. 

And their goal was to purchase spices directly from Southeast Asia rather than via Muslim middlemen in the Middle East and other agents in Italy. 

As a result of this desire for spices, they found Chinese porcelain first in India and then, after their settlement in Melaka was established in 1511, in China. 

The first pieces of Jingdezhen ware brought back to Portugal by ship were acquired in India and presented to

 Manuel I.jpg

King Manuel I

 

by Vasco da Gama.

Meanwhile, some of the early Portuguese ‘trade’ in Asia consisted of looting of Arab, Chinese and Indian merchant ships. 

This approach was not appreciated by the Chinese court which prohibited contact with the newcomers. 

Nevertheless, the Portuguese managed to order porcelain from Fujian middlemen, and eventually they were forwarding drawings to Jingdezhen for specially designed pieces.  The special orders included a blue and white ewer bearing the Portuguese armillary sphere, the emblem of King Manuel I (1495-1521), and various shapes decorated with other coats-of-arms.  While the designs were sometimes painted upside-down or misinterpreted in other ways, they show how willing the Chinese potters were to please new customers.

 

Ewer.
One of the earliest examples of Chinese porcelain made for a Portuguese patron. It presents the typical white and blue Ming decoration, featuring the armillary sphere, the emblem of King Manuel I.

The taste for Chinese porcelain in Portugal and elsewhere in Europe slowly gained popularity during the later part of the 16th century when the Portuguese royalty gifted other European nobilities with this exclusive commodity which they alone could acquire at source.  Here it is important to note that Chinese celadon, an important export in earlier times, rarely entered the trade with Europeans.  Blue and white porcelain had already become more fashionable than celadon in the 15th century, and the Portuguese arrived at the beginning of the 16th century.

 

Portuguese praise for Chinese blue and white porcelain can be seen in a letter by

 Bartolomé d e los Mártires

Frei Bartolomeu dos Martires

who, during a dinner with

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pope Pius lV in 1563,

 

compared porcelain to silver tableware:

Large volumes of blue and white porcelain were exported to Southeast Asia during 1328-1352. 

Whether the Chinese chronicler Wang Ta-yuan’s reports, made during many years of visiting Southeast Asian countries, refer to qingpai as we know it today or blue and white porcelain, the David vases of 1351 confirm that Chinese blue and white porcelain production was well developed by the middle of the 14th century.

Shapes like cups and bowls were first thrown on the wheel.

After drying, back on the wheel, the leather hard pot was trimmed while careful measurements were taken to check overall diameter, height, thickness and foot-ring details.

  Upright forms were made in different sections that were luted together by adding clay slurry to the join surfaces. Plates were first thrown on the wheel before pressed to exact size in moulds. 

These moulds could sometimes have ridges, striations or other impressed designs.  An 18th century traveler to Jingdezhen reported, somewhat inaccurately, that these plates were so exact that they did not vary more than a hairbreadth in size.  Although this may be true in the 18th century, very few plates in the Wanli 17th century cargo had the same overall or foot-ring diameter.

Transition to blue and white porcelain:

Jingdezhen porcelain manufacturing:

When the Hongwu emperor, first ruler of the Ming dynasty (1368-1644),  prohibited the building of ocean going vessels and private overseas trade in 1371, it had a detrimental effect on export production at Jingdezhen. 

 

With the exception of increased trade in the time of the fabled Zheng He’s treasure ship voyages,

Read more about Zheng He

An Oriental armada(not upload)

very few ceramics were officially exported from China between the third quarter of the 14th and the late 15th century. There was however substantial smuggling despite the ‘Ming ban.’

One text states that when “not a single board was allowed to put out to sea, some renowned families at coastal areas built naval [narrow and fast ships] vessels without permission.  They sailed away to do business in many foreign countries every year.”

The quality of the Jingdezhen porcelain does however fall into two distinct basic groups.

 

high quality Ming  Hsuande Ceramic found in Indonrsi

One was made strictly for the imperial court and the other for the domestic and export markets.  Because imperial ware was made to strict specifications, personal artistic expression by the decorators was not only minimized but simply not allowed.  As a consequence of strict quality control, imperial porcelain may tend to appear artistically lifeless but is famous for its technical qualities.  Private kilns, on the other hand, made whatever form and decorative styles were in fashion and acceptable to foreign buyers.  On these wares individual decorators display their own styles of painting based on personal interpretation of traditional motifs, making them lively, innovative and individual.

 

It is unfortunate that export wares have been described as ‘provincial’ or even ‘unrefined,’ which suggest the pots were made in a different area than Jingdezhen and that private potteries were unable to produce quality ware. 

The truth is that the two categories of ware satisfied specific markets.  The private potters and decorators, as enterprising then as now, simply adapted a flexible market strategy for niche markets.  If freely sketched motifs and thick bodied ceramics mean they are ‘unrefined’, they certainly are not ‘provincial’ in any way.

“In Portugal we have a kind of tableware which, being made of clay, may be compared advantageously to silver both in its elegance and its cleanliness, and I would counsel all princes to use it in preference to any other service and to banish silver from their tables.

In Portugal we call it porcelain. It comes from India and is made in China. The clay is so fine and transparent that the whites outshine crystal and alabaster, and the pieces which are decorated in blue dumbfound the eyes, seeming a combination of alabaster and sapphires.

They are not concerned about their fragility since they are quite cheap. They may be esteemed by the greatest princes for their delight and curiosity, and this is why we have them in Portugal.

“The most beautiful vessels and plates of porcelain, large and small, that one can describe are made in  great quantity…more beautiful than can be found in any other city.  And on all sides they are much valued, for none of them are made in another place but in this city and from there they are carried to many places throughout the world.  And there is plenty there and the great sale, so great that for one Vientiane goat you would actually have three bowls so beautiful that none would know how to devise then better”.

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PORTUGAL in PORCELAIN from CHINA   500 YEARS OF TRADE(not Upload)

This situation was also witnessed by the Arab traveler Ebn-e-Batuteh (1304-1378)

 

by the Arab traveler Ibn Batuta (1304-1378) who reportedly saw over a hundred big ships and innumerable smaller ships in Quangzhou harbor.

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Ibn Batuta 1307-1377  – Morocco(not upload)

who reportedly saw over a hundred big ships and innumerable smaller ships in Quangzhou harbor.

 Photo: A mosaic of Marco Polo

Centuries after Marco Polo praised Chinese ‘porcelain’ and remarked on the large volume of export,

 

 

Father Matteo Ricci, writing about China in the period of his residency there (1582-1610), noted:

“The finest specimens of porcelain are made from clay found in the province of Jiangxi, and these are shipped not only to every part of China but even to the remotest corners of Europe where they are highly prized by those who appreciate elegance at their banquets rather than pompous display. This porcelain too, will bear the heat of hot foods without cracking and, what is more to be wondered at; if it is broken and sewed with brass wire it will hold liquids without any leakage.”

It is difficult to ascertain the volume of Jingdezhen porcelain intended for the European market in the later part of the 16th century due to lack of records.

  However, in the early 17th century

 

when the Portuguese carrack Santa Catarina

was captured by the Dutch there were more than thirty last (sixty tones) or about 100.000 pieces of porcelain in her holds.  When later auctioned in Holland it started a Dutch craze for Chinese porcelain.  Its fame spread to the rest of Europe by the second half of the century.

The Dutch buyers:

Export production at Jingdezhen witnessed yet another boost when the Dutch arrived in China in the early 17th century.  With the Portuguese well established in Macao, the doorstep to China,

the Dutch had repeated disputes with the Portuguese and the Chinese administration.  Misbehaving, as the Portuguese did before them, the Dutch were forced to trade along the Chinese coast and from various illegal settlements with primarily Fujian merchants.  The difficulties the Dutch had in establishing direct trade with the Jingdezhen potteries is reflected in a letter by Kr. Kohn, an officer of the Dutch VOC company in 1616: 

“These porcelains sold to us were produced in an inland kiln which was very far away, and those porcelain need to be ordered and paid in advance.”

From their various illegal bases on China’s coast, on Taiwan, and at later establishment in Japan, the Dutch had to wait a full year for their deliveries.  Yet, despite the distance and with unprecedented trust in the Chinese middlemen, the Dutch alone already in 1608 ordered more than 108,000 pieces of porcelain, a number that grew to 355,800 pieces in 1644, for the European market alone.

 

 

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Dutch colonial rule of Taiwan(not upload)

 

the Chinese export vase  with floral and human figure motif

Read more

Chinese Export Porcelain(not uplaod)

Following the sale of the porcelain cargo from Santa Catarina, it has been estimated that between at 1604 and 1657, more than three million porcelain pieces were shipped to Europe by the Dutch alone. Adding the even higher volume of porcelain for Southeast Asian markets, the total production at Jingdezhen was staggering.

 

 

Nouveau_Dessin_OpenDocument 

A Chinese Blue And White Porcelain Dutch Market Armorial Charger, Qing Dynasty, Kangxi Period (1662-1722)

The Dutch, as the Portuguese before them, relied on standard types of ware with standard decorations but often complained about the quality. 

In 1618 the Dutch officers of the VOC company in Surat complained about a Portuguese advantage:

“Your Honour forwards to us of the other kinds should be just right and good, because it will be judged for these qualities, as the Portuguese carry hither extra-ordinary fine and exquisite wares, so much so that our fine is coarse when compared with theirs.”

It was not only better quality the Portuguese managed to secure for themselves.  Marked porcelain pieces were not only popular in Europe but also in Southeast Asia and India. 

Another letter from a VOC official on the Coromandel Coast, dated 1610, complains about the lack of marked pieces delivered by the Chinese:

“It should be seen to that all these afore-noted kinds of porcelain have under the bottom a blue seal, for about this they are very particular.”

In the late Wanli (1573-1620) period imperial orders for Jingdezhen had dwindled and normal deliveries to Beijing become risky. 

At the same time some of the official kilns, were razed during peasant revolts and eventually closed in 1608.

With continued economic troubles and lack of imperial orders worsened by the approaching Manchus, the remaining kilns closed and did not re-open until a few years into the Qing dynasty. 

During this ‘transitional’ period (circa 1620-1663), some private kilns managed to stay in production for an ever increasing export market.  Unemployed potters and decorators from the official kilns joined the private kilns and were instrumental in improving production.  ‘Transitional’ wares from the 17th century are characterized by fine naturalistic motifs that are painted in brilliant blue cobalt and covered by a clear smooth glaze.

 

 TWO CHINESE BLUE AND WHITE PORCELAIN WARES,

 

Transitional cup and stempcup with natural landscape motif with brillian colour blue and smooth glaze

From about 1634 onwards, Chinese junk captains took orders from the Dutch for porcelain in special shapes for which models of European objects were provided.

There were also special patterns including ‘Dutch flower-and-leaf work’. 

 Chinese blue and white moulded teabowl and saucer,

 

Qing Dutch flower-and-leaf work’plate and cup

Some designs were initially incorporated into typical kraak panels, a practice that shows how the Jingdezhen decorators adopted new motifs to please their buyers.

 

 

VOC  emblem Kraak style Plate

read more

Kraak porcelain is a type of Chinese export porcelain produced mainly from the Wanli reign (1573–1620) until around 1640. It was among the first Chinese export ware to arrive in Europe in mass quantities, and was frequently featured in Dutch still life paintings of foreign luxuries, as in the one by Jan Davidsz de Heem at right.

(not upload)

Until late 1630s the supply of porcelain from Jingdezhen was relatively steady, but in the early 1640s there were reports of war in Jingdezhen and high mortality rates among the potters.  Production did however continue, and in large quantities, but supply remained uncertain until about 1657 when the Dutch ordered much of their porcelain in Japan.

 read more

 Japanese Arita porcelain for VOC

Japanese Arita VOC emblem plate

The Dutch East India Company, The Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, VOC (1602-1798)-Not Upload

All Jingdezhen ceramics began their long journeys on the Chang River loaded

 Chang River banks in Jingdezhen. Photo: © Jan-Erik Nilsson, 1992

 

on small river boats.

 

 

 

The first transit point was at

 

 

Lake Poyang

where the cargo was transferred to larger boats that proceeded through the lake into

 1837 Antique engraving: VIEW of HANGZHOU, CHINA, Yangtze River, Zhejiang. 176 years old copper engraving

the Yangtze River

and downstream to

 

Nanjing.

  From there some of the boats followed

 

 
Loading zoom

the Grand Canal

and its associated waterways north to reach

 

vintage summer palace at beijing
 
 

Beijing

Driwan visit Summer Palace in 2008

also forvidden city,great wall,and xianmen(gulangyu island)

Gu lang yu island Xianmen 

The Greeat wall China 

Forbidden city Beijing 

a hazardous journey of about 1,900 kilometers. 

Other boats went south on the Grand Canal to reach

 photo

Hangzhou,

Driwan Visit  Naning, Hangzgou,Guillin and canton south china in 2009

 Nanning of Jiangsi autonom province by

 

Bus and Train ,  in 2008 visit

Xianmen city

 

at Sin Hua Book store near my Hotel where I found Chinese coin catalogue

 

Native market like in Indonesia

 

 Xianmen with beautiful Gulangyu island, by bus to

 my grandpa homeland

 

 Chiangzhou city to find more info and look

 

 

 the amazing tallest pagoda Kai yuan Quanzhou fujian

old village where my grandpa was born , from Xiamen by flight to

 Beijing by China Airlines to look

 

olympic games station,

With my wife Lily

 

 

 

south china Guangzou(canton),Hangzou to Guillin to look the amazing dancer on the river,

3.THE SHI BA SUI WATERFALL AT HEZOU
The common waterfall was decorated with Handmade lake, beautiful and clean road to the waterfall which made the exciting landscape . the clever decrated area must be copy by many countries like Indonesia where more exciting waterfall still in the riginalsituations the same with another place , if the landscape were ddecrated like the picture below , I think will be more beautiful an interesting area.

4.THE TEMPLE OF DRAGON’S MOTHER AT WUZHOU
The temple of the mother of China Emperors Prince Crown was from Wu Zhou, in this temple there were the Statue of the China Empires Prince Crown during the ancient Emprire Before Christ, at the top of the hill beside the Yuanyang River was the Dragons Mother statue. Dragon was the symbols of the China Emperor, I think She was a concubine and his son became the crwn prince because the Empress didnot have the sons (the same as the Empress Dwager Xi Cie). Look at the paintings and the monument below (the Mother and crown prince will illustrated at the unique collections from WuZhou.

5.YUE XIU PARK GUANZHOU
This beautiful and exciting park sitatuated at YueXiu Hill in the Guan Zhou (before Canton), consist seven hill, three builded Lake and The Goat Statue of Guan Zhou city emblem ,look at that city emblem photo illustrations below.

.at guangzhou night market I found many achina numismatic collection with colour illustration which help me much to open the mystery of chinese cast coin script and code of reign

canton at night

a journey of 1,000 kilometers. 

Other rivers and waterways coupled with some overland transport allowed porcelain cargoes to reach such seaports as

 ZHANGZHOU - SEPTEMBER 27: Hakka people settle in Tulou building on September 27 2010, in Zhangzhou, China. The Hakka people arrived from Central China to settle in Zhangzhou after centuries of war. - stock photo

Zhangzhou,

 

Kiyuan temple at Quanzhou

Quanzhou

Dr Iwan Grandpa Homeland

and

 Western old buildings preserved in Fuzhou city

Fuzhou in Fujian province,

 

Wenzhou in the Zhejiang province

 

 

and Changzhou in northern Guangdong province. 

The most cumbersome but most frequently used route in the 17th and 18th centuries ran from Jingdezhen to

 

Guangzhou (Canton) in southern China. 

This route began in Lake Poyang and proceeded up the Gan River to Nanchang.  Re-loaded onto smaller river boats, the porcelain cargo would then continue upstream to Ganzhou (122 meters above sea level).  Continuing on smaller rivers, the cargo boats eventually reached the southern border of Jiangxi province.

  Here the porcelain had to be hand carried over 

 
 
 
 
 
 
How Amizing pictures, Dr iwan in 2008 ever visit this area when back from Nanning to hanoi via the freedom Pass border ,now there were best road there but we must claimbed by foot,but Driwan by electric golf car
 

the Meiling Pass,

a stretch of some 30 kilometers that reached about 275 meters above sea level.  After the Meiling Pass, the goods was again re-loaded onto small boats that navigated the winding narrow upper reaches of

 

 

the Bei Jiang River

before reaching Guangzhou after a cumbersome, time-consuming journey of about 1,400 kilometers.

River transport was without doubt long and cumbersome.  Crews rowed long distances against the current and often used poles to push the heavily loaded boats though shallows and rocky streams.  In addition to this work and responsibility, whether they started upstream or downstream, they had to return to their original place of loading before repeating the journey.

 

With hundreds of thousands of pieces of porcelain transported during most years of the 17th century and many more in the 18th century, the transport of porcelain was another large industry in itself.  With large numbers of small boats navigating sometimes small and winding rivers, coming and going, the rivers were both crowded and dangerous, not least for the fragile cargo.

 

From coastal ports in Zhejiang, Fujian and Guangdong, Ming and Qing dynasty porcelain reached Chinese merchants and shippers who supplied the Spanish in the Philippines, the Portuguese in Guangzhou and Macao, and the Dutch in Taiwan and later Japan.  In the early 17th century, when the Fujian people depended in fishing and cargo transport, they were prohibited from building large double-masted ships for fear they might supply the unpopular Dutch in Japan.   A special permit, which was often falsified by corrupt officials, was required for smaller ships before they could set sail to foreign countries.  Following the fall of the Ming dynasty, this situation reversed.  In the late 17th century Fujian ports exported more ceramics than Guangdong.  Although Macao and Guangdong saw more ships departing, the Fujian ships were larger.   This changed again in the 18th century when almost all porcelain cargo was handled by Hong merchants in Guangzhou, who supplied European ‘factories’ established on the shores of Guangzhou.

 

Newly discovered private kilns

While many kiln wasters has been found from the earlier production outside Jingdezhen town, increasingly more kilns from the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties are now being discovered in Jingdezhen.  Most of these are private kilns from the Ming and Qing dynasties.

 

A number of such export kilns has been investigated by Professor Cao Jianwen and Ms. Luo Yifei from the Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute.  These investigations include the Liujia Xianong kiln (2003) and Lianhualing kiln (2005), both situated within the old city zone, Miesilong kiln (2004), and the large Guanyinge kiln complex (2001) which is located north of the old city zone as well as the Dongfeng Cichang (2002-2003) and Xin Hua Cichang kilns just east of the old city zone.  These kiln sites provide a wide variety of blue and white kraak ware, thin walled bowls, large diameter bowls ranging from very high quality to medium and low quality.  The Lianhualing kiln provided a few shards with a Dutch tulip motif, and Guanyinge and the Liujia Xianong site provided medium sized plates with double deer motifs in the medallion.