The Chinese Imperial ceramic Artwork Found In Indonesia ( continiu)




 Photo: Bigger Wanli Kraak Porcelain 70 cm with Dragon fish and eight treasure  emblem symbol



Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

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Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA


Semoga mereka memahami makna Karya Seni Kerajaan Tiongkok yang ditemukan di Indonesia dari penelitian yang didilaksanakan selama  empat  puluh tahun  dari tahun 1973 sampai 2013


Dr Iwan Suwandy, MHA


 May They understand the meaning of the Chinese Empire Artwork are found in Indonesia of research  which have been done for forty years from 1973 to 2013



1.1. Background
1.2. Purpose
1.3. Research Methods
1.4. chronological Research
3.1.1. motif Taoism
3.1.2. Buddhist motifs
3.1.3. Holy Mother Kwan Im motive

3.1.4. Holy Ancetors Figure

3.1.5 Geometric Motif

3.2.1.  Chinese Characters Calligraphy
3.2.2. Arabic Islamic Charaters Caligraphy

3.3.1.Motif Fauna
3.3.2. Flora motifs
3.3.3. Landscape motif

3.3.4 Other Good Fortune Motif







Profil Penulis


                        1.1. Latar Belakang

                        1.2. Tujuan

                        1.3. Metode  Penelitian

1.4. Kronologis Penelitian



                        3.1. MOTIF RELIGIUS

                        3.1.1. Motif Taoisme

                        3.1.2. Motif Budha

                        3.1.3. Motif Bunda Suci Kwan Im

                        1.1.4 Notif Geometrik


3.2.1. Motif Seni Kaligrafi aksara Cina

3.2.2. Motif Kaligrafi aksara arab islam


3.3.1.Motif Fauna

3.3.2. Motif Flora     

3.3.3. Motif Pemandangan

3.3.4 Motif  Keberuntungan Lainnya




After doing research for a period of forty years from 2013 until a 11973 has now finally found the meaning of the Chinese empire ceramic motifs that are found in Indonesia.

Advances in technology have helped the author in the reconstruction of ceramic artifacts were collected from areas in Indonesia for forty years.

At first it did not know the author of any of the royal art of Chinese ceramics derived from the author’s grandfather homeland and ethnic Chinese Indonesian ancestors, thanks  various parties, library research, internet exploration, and the computerized technology with gigabytes of memory and  internet comunication , digital photos and scanning which is the relief of the entire family as well as some references lead authors solved the mystery of the meaning of the Chinese empire ceramic motif  c exported to Indonesia.
  This study can be completed with the help of a few friends like Man Datuk about ceramic art and the help of friends in a collection of ceramic collections in West Sumatra, Riau, Jambi, Palembang, West Kalimantan, Makassar, Banten and Jakarta whose name can not be mentioned one by one, for that I say thank you thousands.
In particular thanks also to Mrs. Sumirah Adyatman of Adam Malik Ceramics Museum ‘s curator who has been giving out to me  motivation to conduct this research with info from her  written books  and also DR Mac Kinnon archaeologist who worked at the National Archaeological Research Center in 1985 giving out my instructions and pep to implement this study.
Jakarta 2013
Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

Original info

Setelah melakukan penelitian selama kurun waktu empat puluh tahun  dari tahun 11973 ampai 2013 akhirnya saat ini telah ditemukan makna dari motif keramik kerajaan Tiongkok yang ditemukan di Indonesia.

Kemajuan teknologi sangat membantu penulis dalam rekonstruksi artifak keramik yang dikumpulkan dari nernagai daerah di Indonesia selama empat puluh tahun.

Pada awalnya penulis tidak mengatahui apapun tentang seni keramik kerajaan Tiongkok yang berasal dari tanah air kakek penulis dan para  leluhur etnis Tionghoa Indonesia,berkat bantuan berbagai pihak,studi kepustakaan,internet eksplorasi,dan adanya teknologi komputerisasi dengan memori gigabyte serta  komukasi internet, foto digital dan scaning yang merupakan  bantuan dari seluruh keluarga

serta beberapa  referensi menyebabkan penulis berhasil memecahkan misteri makna dari motif sebi keramik kerajaan Tiongkok yang diekspor ke Indonesia.

 Penelitian ini dapat diselesaikan  berkat bantuan dari beberapa teman seperti Man Datuk mengenai  seni keramik dan bantuan teman-teman dalam pengumpulan koleksi keramik di Sumatera Barat, Riau,Jambi,Palembang, Kalimantan Barat, Makasar , Banten dan Jakarta yang namanya tidak dapat disebutkan satu persatu , untuk itu saya ucapkan ribuan terima kasih.

Khususnya terima kasih juga kepada Ibu Sumirah Adyatman kurator Museum Keramik Adam Malik yang telah memberikan motivasi kepada saya umtuk melakukan  penelitian ini dengan ifo dari  buku yang ditulinya dan juga  DR Mac Kinnon arkeolog  yang bekerja pada pusat penelitian Arkeologi Nasional yang tahun 1985 memeberikan saya petunjuk dan menambah semangat untuk melaksanakan penelitian ini.

Jakarta 2013

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA 

The Author Profile

.I starting stamps collection during 1955 very young boy. look my vintage photo with mother Diana lanny and father Djohan Oetama at Bukittingi West Sumatra 1955, my father passed away in 1985 and my mother just passed away in june 2011 at  91 years old.

b.Between 1960-1963, during study at Don Bosco high school I had started collected beside stamps all type of informations collections due to my Teacher Frater Servaas told me that I must collected the Informations due to the develping the satellite which made the globalizations which the growing of world cmmunications will became fast and no border between the nations countries, who have the Information he will became the leader and the King in communications, thank you Frater Servaas your info which made me could built the very best informations communications uniquecollection blog in the world.
Look at in memoriam Frater Servaas with my teacher at Frater middle school in memrian Frater Eric at my House during my Sister Erlita 17th years birthday in 1963.

also look my profile with my loving teacher who still alive and stay at Padang city west sumatra Pak Sofjanto at my house in the same time of the photo above

c.Between 1973-1983 many interesting history which related with the stamp and postal history and also with my life :
1. In 1972 I have graduated Medical Doctor(MD) the temporary assitenst at Pulmonology (Lung Disease) department in Medical faculty

3.In 1973 join the medical officer of Indonesia National Police September 1973 I was merried with Lily W.

5. in 1974 my first son Albert our photographer was born in November 1974, and later in January 1977 born my second son Anton our Editor .
a. Albert at Solok city west Sumatra 1978

b.Anton at Solok city 1978

6. Between 1975 until 1989 I have travelled around Indonesia myself or officially and I have found many uniquecollections that time.

7.In 1985 I have made a postal communications, I have send the aerogram to all Postal services in the capital city of all oin the world, 90 % send to me back the official cover,this could be done by the helping of Padang postmaster Ahmadsyah Soewil, his father collections I had bought in 1980.
The vintage photo of Soewil St.marajo ,during the chief of Painan West Sumatra Post office
look his photos

During Dai Nippon occupation he still at Painan and during Indonesia Independence war he was the Finance officer of Padang office and later in 1950-1959 the chief of TelukBayur Harbour west Sumatra post office, seme of the rare West sumatra during Dai Nippon occupation and Indonesia Inedependence war were his collectins,thankyou Family Soewil for that rare collections(complete infrmatins source Dai nippon occupatin sumatra under Malaya Singapore or Syonato Dai Nippon military Administrations and Indonesia Independence war collections.

8. Before between 1979-1985 I have joint the postal circuit club and I have found many covers from all over the world especially Latin America.This circuit as the help of my friend Frans,now he was in Bogor.

9.In 1990 I was graduate my Master Hospital Administration.

10.Between 1990-1994
I was n the duty at West Borneo and visit Sarwak,and i have fund some rare Sarawak stamps, revenue there and in Pontianak I have found rare sarawak coins

11.Between 1995 until 2000
I am seeking the postally used cover from the countries I havenot found especailly the new freedom countries.
All the postal stamps and covers I will arranged in the very exciting and unique collections, I will starting with Asia Countries, and later Africa, Australia, America and Euro.
This special collections were built dedicated to my Sons,especially the histrical fact from my vintage books collections as the rememberance what their father collected and I hope they will keep this beautiful and histric collections until put in speciale site in the CyberMuseum.
I hope all the collectors all over the world will help me to complete the collections, frm Asia I donnot have the cover from Bhutan,Mongol, Tibet, and SAfghanistan.but the stamps I have complete from that countries except my thematic bridge on the river kwai from Myanmar and Thailand.
12. In the years of 2000, I was retired from my job
this is my official profile just before retired.

13, Between 2000-2008
I am travelling around Asia,and starting to arranged my travelling unque collections.
14. December,25th 2008
I built the Blog with articles :
(1). The Unique books collections
(2). The Unique Stamps collectins
(3). The rare Coins collections
(4). The rare ceramic collections
(5.) The Unique label collectins
(6.) The Travelling Unque collections (now changed as the Adventures of Dr iwan S.
(7). The Tionghoa Unique Collections
(8.) The Asia Unique Collections
(9.) The Africa Unique collections
(10). The Padang minangkabau CyberMuseum

15. In 2010

I built another web :

(1) hhtp://


In this web the collectors will look the amizing collections:

(1) The Vietnam War 1965-1975, and another Vietnam Historic collections like Vienam during Indochina, Vienam Diem War 1955-1963,etc

(2) The Dai Nippon War 1942-1945, five part in homeland,pasific war,in Korea,in China, in south East Asia including Indonesia.

(3) The Indonesia Independence War  1945,1946,1947,1948,1949 and 1950.

(4) The Uniquecollections from all over the world.

(5) The Icon Cybermuseum, including Bung Karno,Bung Hatta,Sultan Hemangkubuwono, and also from foreign countries Iran,Iraq Sadam huseun ,Palestina jerusalam,turkey,afghanistan, libya Moamer Khadafi, Suriah , etc

(6) The Rare Ceramic Collections found In Indonesia, like China Imperial Tang,Yuan,Ming and Qing; also euro ceramic from delf,dutch maastrict ,etc

(7) and many other collections


8. I also built a amizing collections due to my premium member prefered, like The Indonesia Revenue Collections from 19th to 20th century, the mysteri of the Indonesian vienna Printing Stamps, the China  Gold Coins, The Rare Chian imperial ceramic design foun in Indonesia, The Tionghoa (Indonesia Chinese Overseas collection), Penguasa Wanta di dunia(Women in Leaders) etc.

5. At Least thankyou verymuch to all the collectors who have visit my blog and support me, my last prestation in June 2011 (26 years from the first starting to built the e-antique or uniquecollections info in internet) :

(1) hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum : visit 60.000, the highest per day 3200.

(2)hhtp:// 21.000,the highest per day 200.

(3)hhtp://, visit 40.000,the highest per day 210.

Jakarta June 2011

Greatings from teh founder

Dr Iwan Suwandy

the end @copyright XDr Iwan suwandy 2011







Showcase :

The Rare Late Ming Ceramic Which Foun At Indonesia Exhibition

(Dr Iwan Private Collections)

Frame one:Southern Ming Dynasty

History of China

History of China

  *wan li imperial mark and dragon five clow cup below.

The Southern Ming Dynasty (Chinese: 南明; pinyin: Nán Míng) refers to the Ming loyalist regimes that existed in Southern China from 1644 to 1662 following the collapse of the Ming Dynasty and the capture of Beijing first by rebel armies led by Li Zicheng, and then by the forces of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty.

On April 24, 1644, Li Zicheng’s rebel soldiers, of the recently proclaimed Great Shun dynasty, breached the walls of Beijing. The Chongzhen Emperor committed suicide the next day to avoid humiliation at their hands. Remnants of the Ming imperial family and some court ministers then sought refuge in the southern part of China and regrouped around Nanjing, the Ming auxiliary capital, south of the Yangzi River. Four different power groups had eventuated:

  • Shun Dynasty led by Li Zicheng, with its power base north of the Huai river, which had been under controlled of the Ming Dynasty.
  • Zhang Xianzhong had established the Great West (Ch:大西) regime controlling Sichuanprovince.
  • Manchu-founded Qing Dynastyhad control of the north-east area beyond Shanhai Pass, at the same times much of the Mongol tribes.
  • The remnants of Ming Dynasty could only survive south of the Huai river.

1.1. Background

aChinese .Ethnic has been STAYED AS RESIDENCES AFTER  visited Indonesia since the early centuries AD and to this day, and in 2000 was recognized by the Government of the Republic of Indonesia as one of the indigenous ethnic Indonesian and has been accepted by all other ethnic Natives.

b.Especially for the new generation and the generations yet to accept the existence of ethnic Chinese in Indonesia, mostly caused by not understanding the religious and traditions brought from their ancestral homeland of China.

c.Many Research had made by the  archaeological   National Agency of Indonesia and Indonesian  sinology Faculty and historian siciences , but until now there is no specific information on the meaning of a meaning of art motifs derived from Chinese empire halted from the beginning until the last Qing dynasty, while art objects are still owned by the family of the ethnic Chinese in Indonesia as well as still-artihak artifacts found at several sites both on land and from the shipwreck.
d.Many artifacts of art objects were sold out of the country well by both private and government owners although some are still kept in the museum of the Government-Owned and private Museum.

e.Many  art collectors owner does not understand the meaning and significance of art motif fuck what purpose and grace which earned its owner luck, the same thing at first experienced by the researcher. This led to many collectors cheated by the traders to produce counterfeit artwork.
f.The problem  encountered is to date the archeological and historical research and literary scholars sinology not interested in doing research on this aspect is very important so that there is no complete information
g.For  unravel the mystery of the meaning and significance of a good luck blessing motif of royal Chinese art in particular those found in Indonesia have held a depressing specialized research.

a.Uncover the  mystery of  a sense  and Lucky Fengsui  meaning  of  royal Chinese art ‘s motifs
b.After know  the meaning Chinese  royal art motif is expected that all ethnic in Indonesian  and the nations of the world can communicate with o Chinese  Indonesian ethnic  well and smoothly

c. By understanding the meaning of the art of Chinese ethnic cultures in Indonesia, especially from the aspect of art can be prevented onset of the negative effect so coexistence is achieved peaceful ,  this will made coexistence with happy and of course in accordance with the meaning of chinese calligraphy most often found in art “Shou “which means Life with Happines, healthy , long life and a lot of luck always can be achieved

1.3. Research Methods
a. Collecting References  related  to this research
The literature that studies

 b.Understanding the kinds and types of Chinese ethnicity artwork is an original not a copy.
c. Collecting  artifacts with art motifs from Chinese empire that is still owned by collectors and non collectors ancestry ethnic Chinese Indonesian, as well as personal artifacts encountered by the farmers and fishermen of the sea on land.
d.Analisis royal art Chinese artifacts found in Indonesia in the last 40 years from 1973 to 2013 in accordance with its type ie religious motifs, traditional motifs, calligraphy motif, motifs of flora, fauna motifs, moti scenery and other motifs.
E, Assessing the conclusion of the study and compile them in an electronic book in Cd-Rom, Part of the information published in the web blog in hopes no sponsors who are interested to publish the results of this study

Original info


1.1.           Latar Belakang

a.Ethnis Cina telah berdiam dan mengunjungi Indonesia sejak awal abad Masehi dan sampai saat ini, dan tahun 2000 telah diakui oleh Pemerintah Republik Indonesia sebagai salah satu etnis pribumi Indonesia dan telah diterima oleh seluruh etnis Pribumi lainnya.

b.Khususnya bagi generasi baru dan generasi yang belum dapat menerima keberadaan etnis Tionghoa  di Indonesia umumnya  disebabkan oleh karena tidak memahami   religious  dan tradisi yang dibawa dari tanah airTiongkok  oleh  leluhur mereka .

c.Telah banyak dilakukan penelitian oleh Badan arkeologis Nasional Indonesia dan Fakultas sastra Indonesia jurusan sinology serta jurusan sejarah, tetapi sampai saat ini belum ada suatu informasi khusus terhadap makna arti motif benda seni yang berasal dari kerajaan Tiongkok muali dari awal sampai Dinasti  terakhir Qing , sedangkan benda-benda seni tersebut masih dimiliki oleh keluarga etnis Tionghoa di Indonesia serta masih ditemukan artifak-artihak pada beberapa situs baik di darat maupun dari kapal karam.

d.Sayang banyak artifak benda seni tersebut dijual keluar negeri baik oleh pemiliknya baik pribadi maupun pemerintah kendatipun sebagian masih disimpan dalam museum Milik Pemerintah  dan Museum Pribadi .

e.Kebanyak para kolektor  pemilik benda seni tersebut tidak memahami makna arti motif seni dan apan tujuan serta berkah keberuntungan apa yang diperoleh pemiliknya ,hal yang sama pada mulanya dialami oleh peneliti. Hal ini menyebabkan banyak kolektor ditipu oleh para pedagang dengan memproduksi  benda seni tiruan .

f.Permasalahan yang ditemui adalah sampai saat ini para peneliti arkeologis dan sejarah serta ilmuwan sastra sinology belum tertarik melakukan penelitian dari aspek yang sangat penting ini sehingga tidak ada informasi  yang lengkap

g.Untuk mengungkap misteri makna arti dan berkah keberuntungan dari motif benda seni dari kerajaan tiongkok khususnya yang ditemukan di Indonesia  perlu adakan sutu penelitian khusus.

1.2. Tujuan

a.Mengungkap misteri makna arti dan kberuntungan motif benda seni kerajaan Tiongkok

b.Setelah memahi makna motif benda seni kerajaan Tiongkok diharapkan  agar seluruh etnis Bangsa Indonesia serta bangsa di dunia lainnya dapat berkomunikasi dengan etnis Tionghoa Indonesia dengan baik dan lancer

c. Dengan memahami makna arti seni kebudayaan etnis tionghoa Indonesia khususnya dari aspek benda seni dapat dicegah timbulnya efek negative  dalam hidup berdampingan sehingga dicapai hidup berdampingan dengan damai , bahagia serta tentunya sesuai dengan arti kaligrafi Tionghoa yang paling sering ditemukan pada benda seni “Shou” yang berarti senantiasa dicapai hidup berbahagia, sehat , panjang umur dan banyak rejeki  .

1.3. Metode  Penelitian

a. Mengumpulkan kepustaakaaan yang berhubungan dengan penelitian

b.Melakukan studi Kepustakaan agar memaami jenis dan tipe benda seni ethnis Tionghoa tersebut yang original bukan tiruan.

c.Mengumpulkan artifak benda seni dengan motif seni dari kerajaan Tiongkok yang masih dimiliki kolektor dan  kelurga non kolektor etnis Tionghoa Indonesia, serta artifak yang ditemui secara pribadi oleh para petani  didarat dan nelayan dari laut.

d.Analisis artifak benda seni kerajaan Tiongkok yang ditemukan di Indonesia dalam kurun waktu 40 tahun dari tahun 1973 sampai 2013 sesuai dengan jenisnya yaitu Motif Religius, motif tradisional, motif kaligrafi, motif flora,motif fauna ,moti pemandangan serta motif lainnya.

E, Mengkaji kesimpulan hasil penelitian dan menyusunnya dalam sebuah buku elektronik dalam Cd-Rom ,sebagaian informasi dipublikasikan dalam web blog dengan harapan ada sponsor yang berminat untuk menerbitkan buku hasil penelitian ini.

1.4. chronological Research



By the time the police on duty at e KOMRES Solok Helath Clinic , each week holiday to the in-laws house in Padang Panjang to go to church and then to Bukittinggi and it was here for the first time the author met with Datuk Man who gave information about his collection of Chinese ceramics.

For the first time  in Solok the  author purchase  porcelain plate  with Chinese calligraphy meaning unknown in good condition, now known means that shou longevity meaning many lucky , this plate from the Late Qing Dynasty stacked burner technique so there are footprints on the tiles middle of the plate, known as hoof plate, the plate is not rare at that time but it’s been difficult to obtain in large size and good condition at this time, currently in the collection of the author there are two plates du measure see the illustration below.
This plate gives motivation to the author to learn Chinese calligraphy characters, and very lucky to find in the city of Padang in 1973 published a book in shanghai China 194o in English with a clear picture of Chinese character either ancient alphabet (old character), and the old characters (vintage ) at that time.

Based on studies with the lguifance of imited edition book  (only 1000 edition) the author begin to understand the meaning of calligraphy on ceramics and art objects of the Kingdom of China were found.
Please read and enjoyed the chapter tersediri calligraphy motif

Original info

Pada saat bertugas di esehatan POLisi KOMRES Solok, setiap minggu libur ke rumah mertua di Padang Panjang untuk ke gereja dan setelah itu ke Bukittinggi dan disinilah buat pertama kali penulis bertemu dengan Man Datuk yang memberikan informasi tentang koleksi keramik dari Tiongkok.

Buat pertama kali di Solok penulis membeli piring porselein dengan kaligrafi Tiongkok yang tidak diketahui maknanya dalam kondisi yang bagus, sekarang sudah diketahui artinya yaitu shou arti panjang umur banyak reseki

,Piring ini dari Dinasti Qing Akhir dengan teknik pembakar ditumpuk sehingga ada bekas kaki keramik di bagian tengah piring yang dikenal dengan piring tapak kuda,piring ini tidak langka saat itu tetapi saat ini sudah sulit memperolehnya dalam ukuran besar dan kondisi bagus saat ini, saat ini dalam koleksi penulis ada dua piring dengan du ukuran lihat ilustrasi dibawah ini.

Piring ini memberikan motivasi kepada penulis untuk mempelajari aksara kaligrafi Tiongkok, dan sangat beruntung menemukan di Kota Padang tahun 1973 sebuah buku terbitan shanghai Tiongkok tahun 194o dalam bahasa inggris dengan gambaran aksara Tiongkok yang jelas baik aksara kuno(old character) , dan aksara lama(vintage ) saat itu .

Berdasarkan studi dengan petunjuk buku edisi terbatas tersebut (hanya 1000 edisi) penulsi mulai memahami makna kaligrafi pada keramik dan benda seni dari Kerajaan Tiongkok yang ditemukan.

Silahkan dibaca dan dinikmati dalam bab tersediri motif Kaligrafi.


I saw a copy of the ceramic and the help of my sister Elina Widyono current American Citizens In Los Angeles I can buy ceramic sebuak book titled USA for 40 dollars
The Pottery And Porcelain Volume I, By William E.Cox, revise Edition, New York, 1979
This book describes the complete kinds and types of ceramics from the Kingdom of China, Korea,
Japan and Europe.
With the help of this book the author began to assemble a collection of West Sumatra, but most of the period of Late Qing dynasty, and there are several of the Ming Dynasty.
The book is unfortunately not fully colored, mostly black and white illustrasinya so sylit ceramic motifs for identification and also in the form of sketches just so Juka brand (mark)
Begin the author began to understand the meaning of a ceramic motif but very limited.
Nulailah Penulsi nergerak for collection to North Sumatra (Medan), and Aceh * Lhoseumawe). Jakarta, West Java, Central Java, Jpgya, Java Timur.tetapi not obtain ceramics of high artistic

Original info

Saya melihat sebuah fotokopi buku keramik  dan atas bantuan kakak saya Elina Widyono yang saat ini Warga Negara Amerika Di Los Angeles saya dapat membeli sebuak buku keramik seharga  40 dolar USA berjudul

The Pottery And Porcelain Volume I,  By William E.Cox,Revise Edition, New York,1979

Buku ini menjelaskan dengan lengkap jenis dan tipe keramik dari Kerajaan Tiongkok, Korea ,Jepang dan Eropah.

Dengan bantuan buku ini penulis mulai mengumpulkan koleksi dari sumatera Barat, tetapi kebanyak dari masa dinasti Qing Akhir, dan ada beberap dari dinasti Ming.

Buku ini sayang tidak berwarna seluruhnya, sebagian besar hitam putih illustrasinya sehingga sylit untuk identifikasi serta motif keramik juga dalam bentuk lukisan sketsa saja begitu juka mereknya(mark)

Mulailah penulis mulai memahami makna dari motif keramik tetapi sangat terbatas.

Nulailah Penulsi nergerak mencari koleksi ke Sumatera Utara(Medan),dan Aceh*Lhoseumawe).Jakarta,Jawa Barat,Jawa tengah,Jpgya,Jawa Timur.tetapi tidak memeroleh keramik yang bernilai seni tinggi.


This year I change their car Toyota Corona sedan with hardtop Lancruiser 1500 CC 3500 CC 4000 Jeep Bj so that it can move that way ugly desolations
Landcruser Toyota Jeep Hardtop This leads me to explore the island of Sumatra, Java, Bali and start up kie I found a lot of collections.

At this year I met with Dr. Mac Kinnon arkologis National Archaeological Center visiting my Antique Gallery in the city of Padang,

and explained that the findings artifact shards of pottery bowl from the Ming Dynasty Xuante that I get in my town Rengat Riau is a type of imperial ceramics with dragon motif five finger specifically for the king and his companions,

 this is one of the Imperial tile that I found in Riau, can be seen in my article entitled the Chinese ceramic Imperial Kingdom of the examples found in Indonesia in 2013 was my show on my web Blog
Hhtp :/ /
And CF-ROM contains complete information available.

At the same time say find artifacts of the celadon plate with deer motif and grass script writing, and according to Dr. Mac Kinnon is also a very rare imperial dishes;

Also found there The Rare Ming Cheng Hua red and blue Chrysanthenum Imperial Saucer with mark

This year I went to Medan and continue to Lhos Seumawe and find one another imperial ceramic jug Yuhuncuphing are molded with dragon handle and bird motifs on the body of the queen of phoenix Hong  bird emblem pitc

After having quite a lot of my collection to make colored photograph with a camera and arranged by type and ceramic type according literatut there but not by the motive because when it has not been found relevant literature. Take a look at some of the photos below

Original info

Pada tahun ini saya menganti mobil sedan Toyota Corona 1500 CC dengan Hardtop Lancruiser Bj 4000 3500 cc Jeep sehingga dapat bergerak kedaerah yang jalannya jelek

Jeep Landcruser Toyota Hardtop ini membawa saya menjelajahi pulau Sumatera ,Jawa sampai kie Bali dan mulailah saya menemukan banyak koleksi.

Pada Tahun ini saya bertemu dengan Dr Mac kinnon arkologis Pusat Arkeologis Nasional yang berkunjung ke Galeri Antique saya di Kota Padang , dan menjelaskan bahwa temuan artifak pecahan keramik  Mangkuk dari Dinasti Ming Xuante yang saya peroleh di kota Rengat Riau  adalah tipe keramik imperial dengan motif Naga jari lima khusus dibuat untuk para raja dan sahabatnya, inilah salah satu  keramik Imperial yang saya temukan di Riau, dapat dilihat dalam tulisan saya berjudul Keramik Imperial Kerajaan Tiongkok Yang ditemukan di Indonesia yang contohnya sudah saya tampilkan tahun 2013 di Web Blog saya


Dan CF-ROM berisi info lengkap tersedia.

Pada saat yang sama say menemukan artifak piring besar Seladon dengan motif rusa dan tulisan grass script ,dan menurut Dr Mac Kinnon ini juga piring imperial yang sangat langka; juga disini saya temukan pirin saus dengan motif bunga chrysant biru dan bungannya merah dalam glasir dengan merek Cheng Hua.

Pada tahun ini saya Ke Medan dan terus ke Lhos Seumawe dan menemukan salah satu keramik imperial lainnya yaitu Kendi Yuhuncuphing moulded dengan handle Naga dan motif burung Hong lambang ratu di badan kendi

Setelah memiliki cukup banyak koleksi saya membuat foto  bewarna dengan kamera dan menyusunnya berdasar jenis dan tipe keramik sesuai literatut yang ada  tetapi belum berdasarkan motif karena saat itu belum ditemukan literature terkait. Lihatlah beberapa foto tersebut dibawah ini.


At the time on My duty in Pontianak West Kalimantan I found the artifacts in the instructions Ketapang Police friend who had served there, and I found the yuan dynasty blue and white bowl with floral kingdom chrysanthenum type

Original info

Pada saat saya bertugas di Pontianak Kalimantan Barat saya menemukan artifak di Ketapang atas petunjuk teman Polisi yang pernah bertugas disana,dan saya menemukan mangkuk dinasti yuan biru putih dengan motif bunga chrysanthenum tipe kerajaan.


This year I found a book written by Lilian To Feng Shui luck that explains the meaning of the symbol chinese fortune. Most of my illustrations of a copy of the image artifacts and arranging it directly from the book info, but still possessed many apparently incomplete collection of every motif present in the book by Lilian To.
Results of data collection with photo illustrations and sketches from my copy of the artifacts collected in a file.Silahkan see the results of the data collection until the year 19995.

Original info

Pada tahun ini saya menemukan buku keberuntungan Fengsui karangan Lilian To yang menerangkan arti keberuntungan dari symbol cina. Sebagian ilustrasi saya gambar dari fotokopi dari artifak secara langsung dan menyusunnya sesuai dari info buku tersebut, tetapi masih banyak ternyata koleksi yang dimiliki belum lengkap dari setiap motif yang ada dalam buku karangan Lilian To tersebut.

Hasil pengumpulan data dengan ilustrasi foto dan gambar sketsa dari fotokopi artifak tersebut saya kumpulkan dalam sebuah file.Silahkan melihat hasil pengumpulan data sampai tahun 19995 ini.


Napier to this year when I found the artifact jar with blue and white floral motif chrysanthenum

.Mohameddan Blue Imperial Jar

Found Makassar south celebes

1.first step.


Saat ke Makasar tahun ini saya menemukan artifak jar biru putih dengan motif bunga chrysanthenum.


After retirement years should be entitled 2000.saya enough time to explore.
When he returned to West Kalimantan in particular to Ketapang, I found some red in glazed and  blue and white ceramic type yuan empire (imperial)

I have read about the New world record for Ming vase
from China Daily newspaper Updated: 2006-05-31 05:52 HONG KONG: about A rare underglaze copper-red Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) vase sold for HK$78.52 million (US$10.13 million) in Hong Kong yesterday, setting a world auction record for Ming porcelain.  Theow Tow, Deputy Chairman of Christie’s Asia and the Americas International Director of Chinese works of Arts, looks at an early Ming underglaze copper-red vase after it was sold for a world record of US$10,122,558 for any Ming porcelain during an auction in Hong Kong May 30, 2006. [Reuters]
“He’s bought the vase at the right price, making a world record,” said Edward Dolman, chief executive officer of Christie’s International, referring to buyer Steve Wynn, chairman of Macao-based Wynn Resorts.

The pear-shaped vase, decorated with a peony scroll, is the only copper-red vase of the early Ming Dynasty still in perfect condition to be offered at auction in more than 15 years, said Christie’s Hong Kong office.

The vase was originally inherited by a Scottish couple who used it as a lamp and did not realize its value until they saw a similar example in a museum.

Ceramics with underglaze copper-red decoration are very rare, owing to their complicated production process.

I also found semipor celain red in glazed in boken near 80% per shape vase, so0meonje said to me that this is from anamaese,please comment

Compare with the ming hung wu red in glazed

 B.Mohamadan Blue Imperial YuhunchupingVase

 (1)Type One

(2)type two


Original info

Setelah pensiun tahun 2000.saya menpunyai cukup waktu untuk melakukan eksplorasi.

Saat kembali ke Ke Kalimantan Barat khususnya Ketapang, saya menemukan beberapa keramik yuan biru putih tipe kerajaan(imperial)


found several artifacts ceramic Jakrta Ming Wanli imperial type, he comes from the Banten Lama

The Very Rare Middle Ming  Imperial Ceramic

1). Ming Cheng Hua Phoenix Bigger Plate 


Compared with same pattern ceramic look in the next page

3).Ming Chenghua

 Human Figure Imperial Bowl

(1)type one

 base imperial mint mark



2) type two




4).The Ming Cheng Hua Blue Imperial Chrysnathenum Bottle Vase


This year I found a lot of books ceramics auction, and also a very good book that Chinese Symbolism and Art Moty essay CAS Williams, also a book about a stunning motifs and motifs in ceramics Chinese Taoism.

Original Info

Saya emnemukan di Jakrta beberapa artifak keramik Ming Wanli tipe imperial,katanya berasal dari Banten Lama

Pada tahun ini saya menemukan banyak buku lelangan keramik,dan juga satu buku yang sangat bagus  yaitu Chinese Symbolism and Art Moty karangan  Williams C.A.S, Juga buku tentang motif pemandang pada keramik Tiongkok dan motif TAOISM.


I find more Chinese royal art collection in Jakarta and also other collections of historical artifacts, most of the collection on display in the gallery began Driwancybermuseum Home Office and Gallery and put in my web blog in 25 years anniversary of Driwancybermuseum look below

Original info

Saya menemukan lebih banyak koleksi benda seni kerajaan Tiongkok di Jakarta dan juga koleksi benda artifak sejarah lainnya, sebagian koleksi mulai di pajang dalam galeri Driwancybermuseum Home office and Galery dan menampilkannya diweb blog saya dalam rangka  peringatan 25 tahun

Driwancybermuseum.silahkan melihat tampilan tersebut dibawah ini


After 30 years built the Unique Collections,  in  July,15th.1985  I am starting to go international with my Antique Collections ,the  born’s name of Unique Collections after change name several time. In this day I built an Antique Collections shop in my house  at 16 Bundo Kandung street  Padang West Sumatra after my new House ,three stairs were finished, I live at the second and third floor, and at the base was my shop.

Almost five years this Antiqie shop with my communications with many international Phillatelic Collectors from Dutch, and in this year Mr P.R. Bulterman the Indonesia Dai Nippon  Postal stationer history expert and he also written the the Dutch East indie postmark”s boook, The Indonesia Dai Nippon postal stationery History, and  latest The Republic Indonesia Revolutionary Postal stationery History’s book.

He bough some rare postal stationery History from sumatra from me lika Lampong Hinomaru ovpt postally used cover, West Sumatra Cross postalstatinery Cover,and The Bencoolen Dai nippon Regional Dav id Star on Kreisler wilhemina stamps.

 At the end of 1985 ,the Indonesia Phillatelist Karel bought from me the Dai Nippon Occupation Sumatra  and Indonesia Indeopendent War Postal History in ten bigger Album includding the Revenue History from Dai nippon occupation and Indonesia Independent War Sumatra.

I have sold many my collections in other to preparing for study Master of Hospital Administrations degree and bring my wife and my Children Albert and Anton studies in Jakarta, for that I need fund, after that bigger transactions, I have enough m oney to move to Jakarta,boug house,and  all the family studied in Jakarta my master degree in 1989-1990,my wife D3 degree 1989-1993,and after that Si degree in 1998-1999 and Master degree 2007-2008, my Son Albert S1 degree 1994-1998, and Anton si degree 1995-1999.and postgraduaete cour after they works. My House at Padang were sold in 1991,and became thepart of  Ambacang  hotel which broken during bigger earthquacked in 2009.

The rare Unique Collections which the name before change as the antique  C ollections in July,15t.1985 still in my collections until now and during my master degree study in 1989 until now I starting to built more Unique collections which I add in Internet with the site’s name in July,15th in 1999  but not succeed,  aftre that in 2000 I am retire from mo Officiasl workd and my new cretions as the teac her in S1 and D3 health scicece University until 2005.

In July,15th 2005 I am starting the new creations with the name uniquecollections until now, I starting to write The Investation’s value of Unique Collections,later I change to How Estimate The Uniquecollections investation value, The Sarawak Unique Collections, and The Vietnam War. THe new blog starting in Fberuary,9th 2009 with the site name, but very slow but growth, and when I begun the full time created this blog from December 2009 until June 2010 I have written 350 uniquecollections article based on my collections.

In June 2010, due to the old blog full and have trouble to add the inmformation due to the site was in my editor,my son name and password which made I cannot enter my own blog, because My family gave me the new computers, that is why I staring the new blog with my name and own  e.mail and password, the new blog name , and everything ok about operations and the capicity of thew computer and site very bigger now which made me could created e-book with more ilustrations, I have all info in my computer’s  memory thousand gigabyte,before only three gIgabyte I have used 2,8 Gigabytes.

During Silver Birthday of Uniquecollection in July,15th 2010, I will made a show of my best uniquecollections e-book  as UHI-uniquecollection Heritage Informations, free of charge, beside that I have wrtitten PUI-premium Uniquecolletions Informations. whic all collectors can read and looked free the sample of that premium e-book free of charge.

I want to than very much to all my friend who ever help me to built this amizing and interestin uniquecollctions blog  and I want to apologized to wordpress,, Gmail, facebook and Google for the modern internet and information digital communications which made the uniquecolelction’s blog growth very fast, and Facebook made many communicatios with the collectors from all over the world my two  FBblog group. .

Jakarta,July,15th 2010

Dr IWAN S, the founder of uniquecollection’sblog








THE INVESTATION VALUE OF UNIQUE COLLECTIONS-Studi Kepustakaan Nilai Investasi Koleksi Unik

UCM-uniquecollection Cyber Museum @copy right Dr Iwan S.2010,

I just write a limited edition book in Indonesian language STUDI KEPUSTAKAAN KOLEKSI UNIK  or The Literature Study of uniquecollection Investation Value.If the collectors want to have this complete bvooks with best illustrations please registered your name as fast as you can. Before in my old Blog I have put some and not sistematically information about this topic,but many Collector and trader had tag this story without my permission. Now the best limited book just isuued privately  in ,if thecollectors want to have the complete e-book,pleasie registered via comment.(Dr Iwan s Note)



@COPYRIGHT Dr Iwan S 2010.

To look the full illustration info please click



kartu pos ultah I kemerdekaan RI yang  langka


Dr  I W A N   S

Publikasi Pribadi terbatas 100 expl. Khusus Untuk Kolektor


1.Kajian tentang  koleksi  yang memiliki nilai investasi (unik dan langka) sehingga ”layak koleksi” adalah sesuatu hal yang menarik pada saat ini, terutama sejak terjadinya krisis Global pasar saham pada akhirtahun 2008 dimana keyakinan para investor terhadap pasar modal(saham) mulai menurun dan mulai melirik ”Investasi dibarang Koleksi”*1)

2. Nilai investasi suatu koleksi ditentukan bukan hanya oleh kelangkaan atau umur yang tua  tetapi juga oleh kualitas dan keindahan untuk kesenangan pribadi dan pameran   *2)

3.Keindahan koleksi tergantung pada mata konsumen dan kondisi koleksi  seperti nilai investasinya  adalah suatu hal subjektif

4.Istilah Koleksi Unik berasal dari bahasa Inggeris Unique Collection sering diartikan secara keliru sehingga koleksi unik diidentikkan dengan koleksi dengan nilai investasi tinggi dan akhrnya jadi tumpukan lumpur

5.Koleksi unik ada juga yang menyebut”Rare”, ”Limited Edition” atau “Curio”,”Antique”*3)

6. Kolektor dan investor koleksi unik selalu menemui kesulitan dalam memilih koleksi yang layak dikumpul, sering kecewa saat menjual koleksinya karena dinilai sangat rendah tidakseperti yang diperkirakannya.Sehubungan dengan hal tersebut diatas perlu dilakukan kajian  berupa studi kepustakaan, sudi perbandingan perkembangan nilai koleksi deri katalogus dan hasil lelangan dalam suatu kurun waktu tertentu guna dapat menjawab  beberapa hal yang selalu menjadikan pertanyaanbagi para kolektor dan investor koleksi unik :

a.      Jenis koleksi yang layak dijadikan investasi

Prangko Hindia Belanda yang paling langka dan layak dikoleksi

b.      Bagaimana membuktikan hipotesis dibawah ini:

1)     Koleksi unik tidak selalu memiliki nilai investasi


Prangko Masa perang kemerdekaan RI di Sumatera  yang paling langka hanya  dua biji ditemukan,salah satunya ada dimuseum prangko Den Haag Negeri belanda kepunyaan kolektor terkenal Ricardo dan yang ini milik pribadi Dr iwan S, tetapi walaupun unik dan langka belum tentu nilai inventasinya tinggi, isteri saya berkomentar prangko jelek tak menarik siapa yang tertarik, tetapi bila dilihat Bulterman pakar filateli belanda langsung berteriak wow sambil pegang kepala,sangat menarik,hanya ada dua didunia,mau jual , jawab saya tidak karena sepantasnya prangko ini dipajang di mueum prangko Indonesia atau disandingkan dengan koleksi Ricardo di Museum den Haag, tetapi saat saya tawarkan kepada pakar filateli lainnya dari Negeri Belanda, saya katakan,prangko ini ingin saya sumbangkan ke musuem den Haag dengan syarat nama saya dicantumkan dan saya diundang ke negeri Belanda saat penyerahan piagam tanda terima sumbangan prangko langka ini, Ia jawab boleh saya akan beri tahu,tetapi sudah lima tahun tidak ada jawaban,bagaimana ,benarkan hipotesis saya langka tapi tak menarik dan tak selalu memiliki nilai investasi tinggi.

2)     Koleksi unik selalu memiliki informasi yang dibutuh orang-orang tertentu.

peta butut ini tidak menarik, tetapi memiliki informasi yang anda pasti ingin tahu, Subang anda tahu dan Kalijati mungkin tidak, tempat tersebut sangat bersejarah, kalijati adalah lapangan terbang yang dijatikan tempat perundingan penyerahan kekuasaan dari Militer Hiundia Belanda Kepada Panglima pasukan pendarata Dai Nippon di Jawa Let.jen. Hitoshi Immamoto, nah lu, baru koleksi ini bernilai histori karena ada informasi yang dibutukan rakyat Indonesia dan tentunya Belanda, dan selanjutnya anda pasti ingin tahu bagaimanakah profil Jendral Immamura ,untuk memenuhi penasaran anda lihat foto yang bersangkutan dibawah ini

Stelah melihat profil jen.Hitoshi Immamura,anda tambah penasaran , ia berunding dengan siapa,-silahkan baca Pendudukan Jepang di Jawa 1942 atau The Dai Nippon Military Administration Java atau Dai Nippon Gunseikanbu Jawa.(waah,memang penasaran membuat orang haus informasi-Dr iwan s)

Nilai investasi  koleksi dapat diketahui dari market  perdagangan barang antik yang akhir-akhir ini menjadi tidak diketahui  akibat resesi sehingga banyak “dealer”(pedagang-peyalur) dan “auctioner”(pelelang)  yakin  situasi jelek ini akan berakhir. Benda-benda koleksi berkembang jenisnya dan harga  bersaing selalu ditemukan  dan kadang-kadang suprising  suatu jenis benda dengan cepat berubah statusnya menjadi barang koleksi *4)


Medali Mao ini dulu siapa yang mau koleksi, tetapi saat ini diburu kolektor China, karena ekonomi negaranya meroket dan rakyatnya mulai makmur, maka komeradnya yang paling dicintai khususnya yang langka masa revolusi kebudayaan di beli dengan harga sangat tinggi, malah tiruannya yang banyak diproduksi tahun 1978 saat mao baru meninggal dunia saat ini masih dibeli di China untuk kenang-kenangan oleh turis karena yang asli harganya selangit.

Pakar filatelis almarhum V.esbensen pernah menulis surat kepada saya, apa yang anda kumpulkan benda filateli masa pendudukan jepang dan perang kemerdekaan RI di sumatra,suatu wkatu akan menjadi investasi yang sangat tinggi nilainya apabila negara anda tambah makmur ekonominya,ternyata benar saat Jepang booming ekonominya tahun 1985, pendudukan jepang diborong semua orang jepang denga harga selangit, tapi saat ini para kolektor jepang sudah tua danbanyak meninggal seperti mr Aoki pasarannya jadi sepi lagi,untung saya sudah jual saat lagi booming, sampai sat ini koleksi saya dari China masih utuh danmuali booming,mungkin saya harus egera melepasnya, bagaimana, menakjubkan bukan.

Minat investasi perangko yang sempat memudar mulai berbinar *5) setelah berbagai pasar modal mengalami krisis.

Para pedagang koleksi uang (numismatik) akan kecipratan duit apabila uang lama bergambar seseorang tokoh meninggal dunia. *6)

Tentang hal ini , ada pengalaman saya ,suatu waktu saya menemui setumpuk duit lama gambar bung Karno pecahan Rp.25 alias uang prit jigo yang sangat banyak beredar,dalam kondisi yang masih mulus sulit didapat, anda tahu bagaimana harganya meroket mulai sepuluh ribu rupiah, kemudian naik dua puluh lima ribu rupiah tahu 1990 dan akhirnya tahun 2000 meroket jadi seratus ribu rupiah,tapi karena resesi ekonomi jatuh lagi tinggal 75 ribu rupiah,untuk saat paling tinngi sudha saya lepas seluruhnya kecuali yang nomor serinya urus dan cantik masih sya koleksi karena prospeknya bagus terutama nomor seri satu atau dua huruf,belum tahu belajar dong, baca buku, penasaran pean buku ini sebelum habis disikat orang lain,informasi adalah guru kita untuk menjadi kolektor yang sukses(Dr iwan S)

Penulis artikel berjudul “Sang Kolektor” kagum  kepada kolektor  yang kecintaannya  terhadap koleksi menjelma  menjadi  pengetahuan bagi orang banyak, tetapi ia  prihatin terhadap kerakusan dan kesrakahan mereka *7)

Koleksi yang memiliki nilai investasi tinggi tidak selalu likuid susah dijual dengan nilai pasar, pedagang punya prinsip Beli semurah-murahnya dan jual setinggi-tingginya. Kendatipun demikian ada juga koleksi yang liquid antara lain Jam tangan Antik *8)

Kekayaan warisan budaya suatu etnis merupakan refleksi suatu kultur, salah satunya adalah peralatan dan meubeler etnis tionghoa “cuiho” yang dimanfaatkan saat menikah *9)(termasuk alat musik,meja sembahyang dan pakaian serta Ranjang Pengantin berikut pernak-perniknya-pen)

Setiap orang memiliki idola dan heronya masin-masing sehingga berminat menyimpan barang cetak,foto dan kartu dengan gambar sang idola yang dikenal sebagai “trade card”*10)

Sang Idola tempo dulu da masa kini dibidang oleh raga menjadi incaran para kolektor seperti spot card sepak bola*11) dan Basket Ball NBA*12)

Istilah Unusual Coins( koin yang tidak biasa)  “ sometimes confusing” (beberapa waktu  membingungkan) dengan  istilah kreasi   “ the cormercial marketplace”(Tempat terbuka dikota yang gunakan  sebagai lokasi pasa), sering  merupakan “deceptive realm of numinmatic  emission  “ ( penerbitan matauang  tipuan ). Kendatipun demikian Unusual Coins ada juga yang diterbitkan sebagai mata uang lokal atau token *12)


Koin perk ini tahun1975-1980 dijual toko mas dengan menibang berat peraknya sekitar 45 gr,dijual per gram rp 500 sama dengan satu US $ ,jadi harganya sekitar 45 US$, anda tahu berapa harganya sekarang, karena sangat langkadan edisinya sangat terbatas koin perak belanda raja willem I ini nilainya sama dengan sebuah mobil toyota avanza,kalu tak percaya coba cari bila dapat pasti ada yang mau tukar dengan mobilnya,tapi jangan yang butut.

Membahas Koleksi Unik tidak akan habis-habisnya sehingga dalam karya tulis ini dibatasi mengenai Koleksi Unik Pribadi saja tidak meliputi Koleksi Unik Warisan Bangsa atau National (National Heritage Collection*13)

Kolektor dan investor koleksi unik didunia sangat banyak  seperti Koleksi perangko  Raja Inggeris orang tuanya Ratu Elisabeth II Inggeris, Bekas Raja Mesir yang koleksi luar biasa saat ia turun tahta dilelang dengan harga yang cukup tinggi saat itu sehingga dijulukilah kolesi perangko sebagai “The King of collection and the collection of the King” seiiring dengan berkembangnya komunikasi pos pada akhir abad ke XX pihak pos menerbitkan perangko dalam julah yang sangat tinggi sampai 20-100 juta eksp. Serta gerakan propaganda negara komunis liwat perangko yang membagi-bagikan perangko yang telah distempel pos investasi dikoleksi perangko menurun sehingga saat inin hanya yang perangko unik yang langka saja yang masih jadi incaran kolekstor dan investor spesialistis *14)

Kolektor dan Investor lokal di Indonsia cukup banyak akhir tahun 2008 timbul kasus Arca Kuno di Solo dan melibatkna kolektor yang tidak mengaku sebagai investor , dibebaskan oleh pengadilan Negeri  ,dan saat ini jaks a naik banding ( jangan koleksi koleksi unik warisan budaya nasional yang dilindungi secar hukum,-pen).

Beberapa kolektor yang dikenal penulis dibahas dalam karya tulis tersendiri antara lain kolektor Postal History Pendudukan Jepang dan revolusi kemerdekaan NRI 1942-49 Mr Ricardo mantan direktur BUMN Jacobson van den Berg –Batavia  yang saat ini milik  Museum Fiateli den Haag Negeri Belanda,

 Koleksi Keramik Mantan pimpin IOC Mr Average Brundage  , Koleksi Samurai Jepang Mr Baud –Srilangka, Kolektor Bungkus Rokok Butet Kertajaya,Koleksi Lukisan Afandi Bp Sumarican dan lainnya.Keberhasilan beberapa Kolektor Koleksi Perangko Unik yang mampu membeli rumah,Kolektor meubel antik membangun toko antik di Jakarta, Kolektor lukisan yang memvisualisai Indonesia dari negeri Belanda dan lainnya*14)

Hasil kjian mengenai Jenis, Nilai Investasi koleksi unik serta pembahasannya serta illustrasi koleksi unik pribadi kolektor Jakarta secara sederhana pada bab berikutnya, untukkolektor senior dan spesialistik dapat menhubunggi penulis guna dapat berdiskusi dan memperoleh karyatulis khusus pribadi dengan perjanjian.

Setelah membaca buku sederhana ini , pembaca yang memahami bahasa Indonesia diharapkan memberikan koreksi dan masukan informasi temuam koleksi unik baru sehinga selanjutnya dapat diterbitkan buku yang lebih lengkap dalamdua bahasa Indonesia dan Inggeris pada tahun 2010  .



to look the full info please click



Disusun oleh

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

to look the full illustration of

Driwan Adventures collections please click


Berdasarkan perjalanan pribadi di Indonesia dan kawasan Asia Timur

Dengan Koleksi Unik yang ditemui saat perjalaan tersebut




*c001 gambar kartu undian berhadiah ditemui di Hanzhou Guillin Tiongkaok selatan 2009.

*C002 profile Dr IWAN saat pernikahan 1973.kta temannya ia berwaja lugu (innocent face)



IDE PENULISAN BUKU INI ADALAH BUKU BILIEVE OR NOT(PERCAYA ATAU TIDAK) DAN BUKU KARYA DEFOE KISAH PERTUALANGAN TOM SAWYER, SEMULA BUKU INI DIBERI NAMA KISAH PERJALAN Dr IWAN S DAN KOLEKSI UNIK YANG DITEMUI, TETAPI BEBERAPA PEMBACA MENYEBUTNYA SEBAGAI KISAH PERTUALANGAN DR IWAN S KE ASIA TIMUR UNTUK MEMPEROLEH KOLEKSI UNIK,  dan ada yang menambah komentar sesuai bidang bisnisnya seperti baik dijadikan contoh untuk generasi muda dan ini kisah pertualangan pertama kolektor, KIsah Perjalanan yang dapat dijadikancontoh untuk perjalanan tour anda,dan sebagiannya.










*c003 foto profil Dr Iwan dengan koleksi mobil toyota Soluna tahun 2000.

Look The illustration Of Driwancybermuseum home office


Posted on June 12, 2011

please click below to look the illustrations

Driwan Cybermuseum Home Office and Galery in 2011













 eight  immortal



KERAMIK ANTIK,ANTARA LAIN DIDALM LEMARI ES BEKAS  teridiri dari ceret dan mangkuk kecil yang mungih dan indah

Serta LAMPU-LAMPU ANTIK  yang sangat langka,indah dan menarik.

Selesai Hak Cipta @Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011 











The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum


(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

 Please click below to look the full illustrations info

Driwancybermuseum Blog A.Driwancybermuseum homeoffice openhouse

Cybermuseum open house”

Hallo Collector
THe founder and All of UCN uniquecollections cybernews staff send the greatings and Happy Chinese New Year “Gong Hi Fat Choi” .
During this happy seasons, UCM uniquecollection cybermuseum and UCN home office open house , all of our best friend collectors were invited to joint the celebration ceremony of the opening of the home office and small museum .

All the collectors from allover the world Please look at the illustration of the new restored UCM-UCN home office and small musuem: 

 The front of the homeoffice with Qillin staircase or tangga Killin as the protection of uniquecollection cybermuseum homeoffice, constist two Qillin stone statue,two Qillin wooden carving, three artifact Qillin late Ming ceramic , design by Dr Iwan S. built by Mr burhanuddin , the idea from Ming emperor palace forbidden city Beijing @copyright Dr Iwan S.2010 (ill. caption “Qillin decoration”)


The vintage Writing desk and cupboard (ill Vintage writingcase), in the cupboard the collector will see the albums of vintage document histories.

3. TheLibrary of uniquecollections literatures (ill.library)

4. The Meeting room

5. The Working room

6. The Small Museum consist :

Ceramic Collection

(1) The Ancient ceramic Collections in two vintage showcase( ill ceramic collection 1



Ceramic Collections 2

(2) The dragon boat style Museum with the uniquecollections show : ceramic,stamps and revenue,martavan,woodencarving,statue,metal collections, cins,ancien smoking Pipes, vintage Labels, vintage paintings (ill Small museum)

(3) special close up illustration of VOC ship multicolour tiles-(ill VOC Gauda tiles),

VOC Tile&Token

VOC Fort tiles(ill.VOC Delft tiles), Wayang Berber Paintings (ill Wayang berber 1945).

Ancient Wayang Petruk 

Ancient wayang Semra

(4) The founder show the very rare handpainted pictures with calligraphy ancient wayang book (ill. Ancietn Wayang Petruk and ill. ancient wayang Semar)

Postal History and Document History collections in antique cupbo

Ngoc San Hanoi tile

After look of the UCM-UCN home office with small musuem illustrations we hope all the collectors will more closed with the best uniquecollection blog of the world and always click this blog to found anykind of uniquecollections information, if you didn’t found the informations please asked as collector choice via comment lika Fake Coins, the value of Rare stamps, the Indochine coins,stamps and papermoney informations etc.If our visitor near 1 million , uniquecollections blog will develop the uniquecollectins club all over the world, please the collectors of all over the world asking the copyright permission with special regulations via comment and editor will contact you to issued the written permission and regulations. every members will send the UCN and the UCM showed with regular one year or life member operational postal & scanning cost to send that information stright install via the members sms adress.the complete best color illustrations. This only the recent proposal, please comment and suggestions.

UCM-uniquecollections Cybermuseum have announced that this night will show ” The Qing Imperial Collections’consist The Qing imperial Paintings, ceramics , meubeluers, and other kind unique Qing imperial collections , this show sponsored by anonim Chinese Beijing collectors.

Dr Iwan Announcement’s Note






Driwan CD-ROM

or you asked via comment but you must subscribed to be the Premium member  via comment with upload your email adress and then upload your ID card scan this is only for protections agains internet heckers

one info only cheap administartion fee only 20 % from the ineternational fee

Thanks Very muck

To visit Driwancybermuseum blog


Dr Iwan suwandy , MHA







The Rare Yuan Cock Ceramic”

March 29, 2010 by uniquecollection 

Yuan Cock Mhammedan blue

Rare Yuan cock cup 

Rare Yuan Cock ceramic
@cOPYRIGHT Dr Iwan s.2010

(1)Starting from this day all the UCN special show with put in UCM SPECIAL SHOW TODAY like IRC-Indonesia Rare Coins,RCD-Rare Ceramic Decoration, UBC-Unique Book Collection written by the famous writers, Indonesia Independence war today, Dai Nippon occupation Java or other area today and other type short show. (2)This day special show RCD-Rare ceramic Decoration.

The Rare Yuan Ccck Ceramic Decoration was one of the rare Yuan Animal decoration, before have installed the other rare Yuan animal decorations Snake, and after this Bigger fish and Deer , this animal common during Ming and Qing dinasty.
The Yuan cock ceramic frmthe bigger cup.

(1). The cck is the chief emnodiment of the element Yang,which represents the warmth and life of the universe. It is supposed to have the power of changing itself into uman form, to inflict good or evil upon mankind.
(2). The cock have a crown in his head, a mark of his literary spirit and he also have spurs on his feet, a token of his warlike disposition.
(3), The Cock is courageoud, for he fights and benevolent , always clucking for the hens when he scratches up a grain and faithful, for he never lses hours.
(4) The picture of a red cock is often pasted on the wall of a house in belief that the bird is a protection against fire.
(5). As aGhsts disappear at sunrise, the cock is supposed to drive them away by his crowing.
(6). Hence a white cock is sometimes placed n the coffin in funeral processions to clear the road of demons.
(7). The Chinese say that one of the three spirits of the dead comes into the cock at the time of the meeting the corpse, and that the spirit is thus allure back to the residence of the family. Some explain the used of a purely white cock to the exclusion of any other coloured cock on such occasions, by saying that White cock is a divine or spiritual fowl.
(8) Cock-fighting was practised in China some five hunderd years ago (In Bali still a traditions until now, althoug agains the law if t be a gambling and the Police will arrest them especially at the islamic area.

3. The Chinese Lucky Fengsui of the Cock
(1.) No doubt, however, its white colour is emblematical of purity of heart.It was the customof the bride and bridegroom to eat white sugar cocks at the wedding ceremony. A white cock is said to be aprotection against beneful astral influences and to be the only capable guide of transient spirit.
(2)The Sins of the offerer are said to be transferred t the entrails of the Cock, and these are exposed upon the hused-top, to be carried away by birds of the airs,
(3) A cock and a hen standing amid artificial rck-work in a garden of peonies is common pictorial design symbolizing the pleausures of a country life.
(4) A Cock on the roof of a house is regarder as a bad omen, and it very unlucky if it thunders while a hen is sitting on eggs.
(5) The embroidery Cock design were used on the Judge wear,the cock on the rock looking the sunrise were the emblem of the Emperor power and authorities.
(6) The lucky days of the cock is the Saturday, if someone have their wedding in this day, will made the harmonis and wealthy merriage, but if the buried ceremony on this day will made their rank up in People society.

@Copyright Dr Iwan S.2010

tootl look the illustration please click the blue caption below 

March 19, 2010  

Very rare Yuan Snake

Rare Yuan Snake 

emblem of medicine

Supranatural Power

Emblem of Evil

Yuan Snake ceramic

Hallo collectors, thankyou for clic RCD
RCD-Rare Ceramic Decoration
The newstyle UCM -uniquecollection Cyber Museum
Show @copyright Dr Iwan S


(1)The Very rare Yuan Snake ceramic decoration in glaze on the Yuan Dinasty Bigger Bowl with very rare Mohammedan Blue color , only one ever found in west Borneo Indonesia, this only one artifact from thousand UCM Yuan artifact collections and never seen the Ceramic auction at all over the world(.Dr Iwan S.)

(2) This informations compile from UCM Rare Artifact Ceramic collections and many vintage ethnic Tionghoa and China art cultural book by Dr Iwan S.

1 Snake as the Supranatural power
(1)The written symbol representing the snake is compounded of the form from Chung,reprile or worm, and To ,humpbacked, which is derived from the figure of a cobra rising on its tail with dilated neck and darting toungue, but the China ceramic never with the Cobra snake decorations, but in India more often used the Cobra for show also in Indonesia with unpoison snake (ular sanca), also in Thailand they used snake for sexual showed .
The Snake is one of the symbolic creatures corresponding to the sixth of tweleve Terrestrial Branches, and is the emblem of evil, cunning and sycophancy.

2. Snake have the supernatural powers
The Snake is regarded with the feeling of awe and veneration owing to its supposed supernatural powers and its kinship with the benevolent dragon.that is why unpoison Snakes are offered for sale as food in China,and also in Indonesia.

3. The Demons and Fairies transform into Snakes.
The Chinese believe that elfs,demons and fairies often transformed themselves into snakes. The Buddihst monks occasionally harbour snake around their temples.

4. The Poison Snake have the power to cure
The Poison snake have the power to cure, that is why the Snake used as the Emblem of Medical sciencies(with stick and wing, meaning the snake were beaten by the eagle and the stick as the emblem of the cure powers ) by the Father of Medicine Aeculapius, the Aphothecry aslo used as the Emblem of Medicine sciencies(with cup).but in Chine the Snake didnot used as the emblem of medicine or medical practise. but my Brother ever the Chinese Snake medicine to cure his stomach bleeding patient at medan to Singapore hospital and succeed, the snake poison medicine to used for anticoagulant and made the circulation more good to protect against the effect of Vena Cava stopping circulation by the cirrhosis Hepatis which made Esophagus Varices with vena dilated and broken with many bleeding. The cure succees, their motto poison beat poisons.(Hallo Dr Edhie medan, thankyou for your medical reporting to Dr iwan S, are youn have another patient with the poisoning medicine therapy, please contact and report via comment)
The Chinese have various herbal remedies for snake-bite, and the masked head of the reptil is sometimes applied to wound .
The Medicine science have motto that The Medicine were the control Poison, that is why the using must by the Physician recipes and if the using up that the medical dosis, will became poison, the driug abuse or poisoning lethal dosis will send you to hell or hea-ven .Many Poison used for kill in the political situation ,ancient the Empress dowger ,read The Qing postal history in this blog , and the latest murdered of Indonesian activis against the Indonesian Violent and lost people, by Arsenic poisoning still cann’t detected the criminals who done the poisoning.

5.The Snake in Holy Bijbel
The First man Adam and Ave have eating the forbidden fruit by the snake, that is why the snake were the evil creature and God punished the snake , that must moving without legs and to be the evil creatures.

6. The Snake as the emblem of Criminals
The snake were the emblem of Criminals and evil that is why many snake tattouge made by the criminal because they think Snake will scaring their victim which made them gave what the criminals want.

7. The history of White Snake
The man who fallen in loved with the white Snake lady Hsu Han-wen or Hsu Hsien, after sexual intercourse , they have a child. Whe he now his wife was a snake, he asked the Buddhist Monk to seperate , but the white snake was killed during she want to have his husband back, The teacher Hsu had fighting with the white Snake lady and kill her and bring the White snake children to the temple until became the yun man , and this legend will related with Pai-she as the mother of the femous monk Hsuan-tsang in the journey to the west. A bandit criminals sinking the Chen father ship and kidnapp his Mother . The mother didnot want to makelove with the bandit (Ciao) , the Water dragn ancestor. The youngman(White snake son) met his mother and help to kill the bandit and his father body(Chen) was keeping by Shui-hsien(The Water Goddest) and he body life again by the sailors goddest Ma Tsu, and the Quan yin Buddha Goddest was ancestor from the Sailors Goddest.

1. Very unlucky to kill the snake
The Chinese believed that very unlucky to kill the snake which made its democili below the floor of ones house and they purchase a snake thathas been captured, and liberate it, it considered a good deed that will not go underrewarded. They also believed that elfs,demons and fairies often transform them-selves into snakes. The Buddhist monk occasionally harbour snakes around their temples.

2. Why Snake important in the Chinese Zodiac
(1) The Chinese believed snakes keep the jewell in his head and the snake meat will cure the diseases, the skin of snake with white dot used to cure leprosy. reumatic and hemiplegia.
(2) Many Chinese scaring to Snake , but the snake have two power control :
(a) The black snake control the North area because all the disaters and criminals came from the North. If the Chinese General who believe on the Snake power attacked his enemy in the North and he soldiers at South, he will moved to the North and attack the enemy from North not straight from South.I he didn’t attacked from North will be the losser. The snake ancestor will became the Human.
(c) The Snake important because he have the power against the Criminals and he were very clever and hard fighting (cerdik & Gigih) and this best power belong to the human who born in the Snake years.

@Copyright Dr Iwan S.2010.

The Rare Yuan Fish Ceramic”

March 31, 2010

Bigger Celodon plate found West Sumatra

Rare Yuan Fish bigger plate

Yuan Fish found West Sumatra

Yuan Fish found West Java

RCD-Rare Ceramic Decorations
@Copyright Dr Iwan S.2010

A. The Chinese Ethnic History of Fish
1.Fish forms an important part in the domestic economy of the Chinese. Together with rice ir constitutes the principal staple of their daily food, and fisihing has for this reason formed a prominent occupation of the people from the most ancient times. The commonest kind of fish that serve as food in China are the carp,perch,plaice, whitevfish, blue fish, mullet,pmfret, Sciaenidae fish, rock trout,sabbard fish etc. for more info read the vintage book The Ningpo Fishere,in the New China Review,1919,vol IV,pp 385.
2.From the aesthetic point of view Fish are also much appreciated by the Chinese. Many beautiful and fantastic varietes of fish are reared in ponds and jars, this ornamental species having been introduced into Europe toward the end of the 17th century.
Carp and Perch are frequently depitched on Chinese Porcelain. (look at the Rare Carps fish on Yuan celadon bigger Plate)
3. Yhe legendary Emperor Fu Hsi (2953-2838 BC) is said t have given his name, which means literally HIdden Victims, on account of the fact that he made different kinds ofnets and taught his people how to snare animals and secure the products of the se.
4. Fish Symbol of Wealth
The fish is symbolically employed as the emblem of WEalth r abundance, on account of the similary in the pronouncation of the word Yu,fish and yu,superfluity, and also because the fish are extremely plentiful in Chinese water.
5. Fish symbol of regeration
owing to its reproductive power it is a symbol of regenations.
6. Fish Symbol of harmony and connubial bliss
As Fish is happy in its own element of sphere, so fish has has come t be the emblem f harmny and connubial bliss.

7.A pair of fish is emblematic of the joys of union
A brace of fish is presented amongst other articles as a betrothal gift to the family of the bride-elect on accunt of its auspiciuos significantce; as fish are reputed to swim in pairs, so a pair of fish is emblematic of the joys of union, especially of a sexual nature.

8.Fish is also one of the Charm to avert devil and symbol of Buddha fully emancipated.
it is also one of the Charms to avert evil, and is included among the auspicious sign on the footprints of Buddha. The fish signifies freedom form all restraints. as in water a fish move easily in any direction, so in the buddha-state the fully-emancipated knows no restraint or obstruction.

9. The Carp fish as the symbol of perseverance
The carp,with its scaly armour, which is regarded as a symbol of martial attributes, is admires becausu fish struggles against the current, and it has therefore became the emblem of perseverance.

10. The Fish transformed into dragons
The sturgeon of the Yellow river are said to make an ascent of the stream in the third moon of each year, when these which succeed inpassing above the rapids hence this fish is a symbol of Lung-men becme transformed int dragons; hence this fish is a symbol of literary eminence passing examinations with the distinction.
If the Fish have 300 scales, it will transfrmed to Dragon or be get the dragon, nly the turtle can prtect it.
(I have the bigger plate with decrations fish transfrmed to dragon, and will installed at The Rare Ming Imperail Dragn five clown ceramic)

11. The Fish legend of Po Ku TU
According to the Po KU Tu, fish are compared to a king’s subject, and the art of angling to that fo ruling. Thus an unskilled angler will catch the fish,or will a tactless prince win over his peple. on account of various legend that letters have been fund in the bellies of carps etc, the fish is also emblem of epistolary correspondence.

12 The Chinese phillosophy of Fish and catching fish.
If you a fish to someone, he will eat fish only one day, but if you teach them how to get the fish, they will eat fish everydays.
this mean donnot give a materia t smeone because he will used that material or money only until off, but if you teach them how to mede or get the material or Money they will find every days.

B. The Chinese Lucky Fengsui of Fish

1. In the Chinese bigger party, Fish must exist as the foods, but if at that area didnt have fish, the Fish must be the decorations.because a pair of fish is the emblem of joy union. The fish als gave wealthy fengsui, that is why carps in china was called Lei-Yu ,the prnuncatins like ‘Have the property of wealthy’.

2. In the Temple Fish statue put on the roof in order to prtect the temple from burning.

3. In the House better to have the Fish statue because, the fish will gave the owner the Wealth or much money .

4. The Fish especially the red gold arawana fish in aquarium will gave the owner healthy long life and wealthy.

5. The Chinese Newyear card with The Carp leaping the gate in order to transforme as the dragon, this is the emblem of the god day.

6.The Carps had associated with the Art and science ancetors because that ancetors always rides the Fish-dragon, that is why the Chinese always want to be the scientist because the Schlar have the highest rank, honorable and will be the famous human.(this is the Confusius phillosophies, that is why many Chinese always studies along his live )
@Copyright Dr Iwan S.2010


The Rare Ming Imperial Chrysanthemum Ceramic”

April 4, 2010

Ming Imperial Chrysanthenum 

Original Ming mark

Ming tsuante mark

Original Ming Imperial


@copyright Dr Iwan S.2010

(1). The Chrysanthemum Indica or China Aster, is much cultivated il all parts of the country and is gretaly esteemed for the variety and richness of its colouring.
(2). There are innumerable varietes of the Chrysanthemum in China,of which at least thrirty-five are said to be indigeneous in Honan. Four distimct treatises have been written on the cultivation of this composite flower.(PRC had issued the serial Chrysanthemun flower on their special commemorative stamps)
(3). The Dried fragnant flowers are said to be tonic, sedative and cosmetic.They re principally used as a wash for sore eyes. The tincture is said to be useful in debility. the ashed of the flower are said to be insecticide. The flower istaken in the form of powder to recover the drunkard. .
(4).A kind of tea is made from the dried petals which are sometimes soaked in wine.
(5) The 9th moon is known as the Chrysanthemum Month, when it is customary to make a special point of going out and feasting the eyes upon the beautiful blossoms, after which a refestion of crabs and samshu is consumed. In Beijing, chrysanthenum cuttings of different kinds are grafted on a sturdy, wild variety, which grows in profusion on the city wall, thus producing a grotesque plant with bloosoms of many colours.
(6) Since the republican ere it has been employed as a decorative motif on collars, badges, buckles,sword-hilts etc. used by the Army, in contra-diction to the sheaves of rice, which are similary employed in the Naval uniforms. It was regard as the national flower. (the same during Yuan dinasty, that is why many yuan ceramic with this flower decorative also in ming dinasty, but the imperial chrysanthenum decoration were special type, please the biologist collectors help to tell us the spesies of the Imperial chrysanthemum from the illustrations via comment)

Yuam chrysanthenum

(1) The flower is an emblem of mid-autumn and symbol of joviality.
(2) The Chrysanthemum is generally associated with a life of case, and retirement from public office. The poet Tao Chien 365-427 AD is spite of poverty refused to occupy an official post, but preferred to devote his life topoetry, music, wine and chrysanthemum growing.
(3) Chrysanthemum are given very charming and refined names. The yellow button, similar to wild form, is called Heaven full of star. the White quill,Goose-feathers Tube’, the yellow quit’Carrot-threads’. The large ragged mauve ‘Drunk with wine made from Peaches of the Immortals.
The big single white with yellow center ‘ Jade Sauceer Gold cup’, the varietes with very fine petals’ Pine Needles’ or ‘Dragon’s beard’
REd ground and white dots’ Maple leaves and Reed flower’. White striked with red’ Snow on the Ground rouge’; The idea suggested being either that of a young girl admiring the snow or journey of the lovely Wang chao-chien to the snowy wasted of Central Asia.
(The ethnic chinese always look the flora and fauna nature related to lucky fengsui and the made the exciting poem which gave the sensitive emotion for joy and longlife -the art of ethnic chinese homeand still didnot disappear in ethnic Tionghoa Indonesia, tehy alway prefered their wedding day at the 9 Month of the Year circa September and october, I and allmy son also merried in that month ,and we are always happy in the family, do you belief or not, please proof to your family wadding day-DR iwan S)
@copyright Dr Iwan S.2010

The Ming Xui Xing ceramic

The design like monkey, but Mr NH KOH tell me that this the god of Literature Ming Kui Xing, this collection found in West Java.

Kui Xing

Rubbing of Kui Xing stele (with the ao turtle and a ladle) at Stele Forest Museum in Xi’an.

Kui Xing (Chinese: 魁星; pinyin: kuí xīng; Wade–Giles: K’uei Hsing), originally called 奎星 (also kuí xīng), also known as 大魁夫子 “Great Master Kui” or 大魁星君 “Great Kui the Star Prince”, is a character in Chinese mythology, the god of examinations, and an associate or servant of the god of literature, Wen Chang.

The name ‘Kui Xing’ literally means “Chief Star(s)”, and anciently referred to the ‘spoon’ of the Big Dipper. The Chun Qiu Yun Dou Shu defines the ‘Kui Xing’ as “The four stars in the first section of the dipper”. The ‘handle’ was referred to as the shao, or ladle/spoon. Kui Xing’s original name, 奎星, is the original name of the star in the Big Dipper located furthest from the ‘handle’ – Dubhe.


 Folk Beliefs

Folk Beliefs

Kui Xing, holding a ladle and standing on an ao (depicted as a fish), on Xiao Family Temple in Xinwupu, Yangxin County, Hubei

In Daoist tradition, Kui Xing is said to have been “bent and hunchbacked, as if he were an actual calligraphy character”, and came to be viewed as a saint of human fortune, particularly with regard to imperial examinations. Late Ming Dynasty scholar Gu Yan-Wu, often referred to as Gu Ting-Lin, wrote of Kui Xing in his Record of Historical Knowledge: “The date of the beginning of modern people’s veneration of Kui Xing is unknown. Since Kui () was taken to be the master of composition, therefore the people established shrines to venerate him. Being unable to sculpt an image of the star (), his name was thus changed to [the homophonous character] . Again being unable to directly construct an image of , the character was split into its constituent radicals [ Gui – Ghost/Spirit and Dou – Ladle/Gourd] and illustrated as such.” Gu’s statement suggests the name change was a creative measure designed to facilitate Kui Xing’s veneration.

As his form developed, people depicted Kui Xing’s right foot standing on a character (ao), a giant turtle, in reference to a traditional saying, 獨佔鰲頭, “to stand lonely on the ao’s head”, meaning coming in first in examinations[1]), his left foot support a ladle, a writing brush in his hand, and his body full of vigor and life. Stylized calligraphy of Confucian adages often compose his torso.

Artists have also depicted the ao on which Kui Xing stands as a giant fish (see the image of a temple in Xinwupu, Hubei), or as a realistic-looking turtle (e.g., the statue near Bijiacheng – the “Brush-rest wall” – in Changde, Hu



One of WEN-CHANG‘s servants, he’s the starry-eyed God of Official Documents and Paperwork.

KUI-XING was once a mortal in the academic world — a highly-talented student but also extremely ugly. In fact he was a typical nerd. But after having fallen off a cliff, he was rescued from certain death by a dragon and given the job of Literary Affairs Minister.

Now he stands next to WEN-CHANG in the night sky, and oversees official paperwork, publications and Post-It notes. No memo is small enough to escape his scrutiny. We presume by now he is also the God of Fax Machines and Email.

KUI-XING is often depicted standing on the head of a turtle waving a Chinese brush in the air. Never having received a communication from Heaven,

please compare with  Mr NH KOH collections below

compare with

(a) Christy collections


MING Dynasty, 1368-1644 (China)


Date :


Category : Sculptures

Medium :
: Lacquered and gold painted bronze



MING Dynasty,A FIGURE OF KUI XING,Christie’s,London





(b)kui xing ceramic , Lady Lever art Galery Collections

Accession no: LL 61
Object type: Ceramic
Name: Figure of K’uei Hsing (Kui Xing)
Materials: Porcelain with overglaze enamel decoration in famille verte style
Place made: Jingdezhen, China
Date made: Qing Dynasty, Kangxi (1662-1722 AD)
Measurements: H. 32 cm

Description: K’uei Hsing (Kui Xing) is a character in Chinese mythology, the god of examinations, and an associate or servant of the god of literature, Wen Chang.
Standing on a fish-dragon’s head, he holds up a writing brush in his right hand. He is said to have been an historical figure, a poor but brilliant student called Zhong Kui who passed the imperial examinations with high honours. However, because he was ugly, he was not allowed to enter government service. In despair, he drowned himself but was carried by a fish-dragon up to heaven where he became a star (‘Xing’ in Chinese) of the Great Bear constellation (known in China as the Palace of Literary Genius).

Bought from Frank Partridge, 29 July 1915, gifted to the Lady Lever Art Gallery, 1922. Partridge to A. J. H. Howard, 9 August, 1915, Partridge Papers.

R. L. Hobson, Chinese Porcelain and Wedgwood Pottery with Other Works of Ceramic Art, London: B. T. Batsford, Ltd., 1928, No. 340.

(c)NH KOH collectiona “Kuixing”

The demon-faced like figure in the below picture is the God of Literature/Examiniation, Kui Xing.  He is usually depicted holding in one hand a brush and the other, a cake of ink.  He is widely worshipped by those who are seeking office or success in public examination.


The demon-faced like figure in the below picture is the God of Literature/Examiniation, Kui Xing.  He is usually depicted holding in one hand a brush and the other, a cake of ink.  He is widely worshipped by those who are seeking office or success in public examination.

In below figurine, he is depicted with one foot on the head of  a big turtle.  This is related to the auspicious message on imperial examination success: du zhan ao tou (独占螯), literally  it can be translated as (du zhan) standing alone, (ao tou) on the head of the turtle.

In ancient China, the top 3 candidates in the metroplitan examination are given an audience with the emperor.   During the audience, the top candidate would stand alone on one of the steps leading to the throne.  On that step is curved a turtle-like creature.  That is how the phrase “du zhan ao tou” originated.

Scicence goddest ancestors motif 

The Rare Ming Monkey   Ceramic

Ming Monkey Figurine( the god monkey-Sun Go Kong)

The Magic Ring


1.The skin of the golden brown monkey or Rhinopethicusbroxellane of Szechuan and kansu is much valued by the Chinese and it is asid at one time only members of the Imperial family were entitle to wear it (couling,Encyclopedia Sinica,Monkeys)


2. The Monkey is one of the symbolic aninal correspondent with the ninth of the Tweleve Terretrial Branches, and though worshipped to some extent by the Buddhists, is commonly regarded as the emblem of ugliness and trickery.


3. The monkey was first worshipped in return for some supposed services rendered the individual who went to India, by special command of an Emperor of thereligion-so some affirm. This Emperor deified the monkey or at least he conferred the august tittle of ‘The Great Sage equal to Heaven’ upon that quaduped, The birthday of ‘His Excellency, The holy King’, is believed to occur on the twenty-third of the second Chinese Month, when His Majesty is pecially worshipped by men from all classes of society.


4. The Monkey is believed to have the general control of hobgoblins, Witches , elves etc. It is also supposed to be able to bestow health (Dr Iwan S. birth at the last day of Monkey Years, that is why his parent said him the tail of monkey, and also became the physiciann and master of Healt & Hospital Administration), protection , and sucess on mankind, if not directly, indirectly, by keeping away maliciuos spirits or goblin. Chinese People often imagine that sickness , or want of sucess in study or trade, is caused by witches and hobgoblins. Hence the sick, or the unsuccesful, worship the monkey in order to obtain its kind offices in driving away or preventing the evil influences of various imaginary spirits or powers(Doolittle;social life Of chinese p.228) 

5 In Tionghoa ethnic history, the Monkey very known as the Sun Go Kong 

. or now in China Sun wu-Kang , the Monkey Ancetors with the Magic ring ar0und his forhead

that will smaller and made the head’s pain if he made the wrong sexual act , also he have the power to duplicated himself by pull his armpit’s hair.
In the Chinesehomeland and Tionghoa etnic folklore story THE TRAVELLING TO WEST , the Monkey was the emblem of Human’s Cleverness(kecerdasan) and the power of human pshycollogic brains powers (akal budi) , and the name- the King of all Monkeys have given to someone who have many strategic actions(tipu muslihat) , also during this travelling the Monkey very clever in medical therapy (as therapist)
( everybody have ever seen the movie or video of the famous Sun go Kong or Dewa Kera, but until this time UCM only found one Sun Go Kong -the Ming sancai Monkey figurine, and this is the first report and never seen in the International auctions,this Figurine very rare and very high investation value because the chinese belief that he have the power to control all the creator which made the sickness and unsuceesfull,you will always healthy and sucess if collect this rare Monkey figurine, that is why in my senior age I am alway healthy and succeed,don’t you believed?
please if the collectors have the same Ming Monkey figurine please contact via comment with your opinion-Dr Iwan S)

6. Sun go kong or Sun Wu-Kong (wu and go ast the same meaning and character but different dialeg Fukian an Kek), was borned from a magic stone and after have the magic power and trined by the monk Tao P’u ti Tsu-shih , he have the magic stick Yu which could made the the Dragon king became afraid. he became the king of Monkey and command all the animal all over the world . But Sun Go-kong didnot sastified, he asked the air’s queen (Ratu langit) to be the as same with her and he still the the Queen Long Life Peer fruit, but he was kninapped ,but the monkey cannot destroyed by the Queen and the flame of eight diagram Lao Tzu., The Buddhist Queen Quan-yin have traped the Monkey in the below of the Mointain to wait the Hsuan Tsang monk which travel to India in order to get the Buddhish Books . The instersting story about how the Monkey ancetors , with The Pig ancetors and the Mountain monk help the Hsuan Tang monk travel to India and found the Buddhist Books, The travel to the West was the original history during The Tang dinasty which the emperor order the Monk travelto India to get the Budddiht books, this book were written during the Ming dinasty (please read the Ancient Travel Unique collection and the Book Unique Collec-tions ) The story based on the India Hindu Ramayana story about the clever and magic power of The King of Money Hamonan in Rama-Shinta history.
The history of the magic Yu stick were original during the third emperor of last emperor Tayu of Hsia dinasty , this emperor Nefrit was the first man who used the stick to estimate the water level of fload and control that fload, and the Water Ancetor was the Monkey which could control the water animal which caused the fload before the devil had tied at the mountain but i could free itself and made fload .The traditional Chinese yu dancing were in actions during the anti Fload ceremony.


1. The Monkey is the emblem of long life and Healthyness

2. The Monkey Could control the evil and women whictcraft that is why the Monkey have believed will bring the healthyness, protections against diseases and pull out the criminal factors against humankind.

3. The relation bertween the Monkey and the Yu emperor and the Dewa Guntur had told how important the Monkey in China or Tionghoa tradition, they honored to the Sun Go-kong , that is why the Chinese artcraft didnot painting the Holy Monkey figure in ceramic , and very difficult to found the Sun Wu-kon figurine small statue during dinasty Ming, because the Brown gold Monkey only used by the Ming Imperial court or as the given the Indonesia’s King or the Tionghoa Commander in Chief . please the sinolog help me with more informations via comment, also if the collectors who found the Ming Monkey Figurine please report via comment.

2cpyright Dr Iwan S.2010

The Rare Ming Buffalo Ceramic “

March 24, 2010 by uniquecollection


Rare Ming Buffalo

Rare Ming Buffalo

Rare Ming Ox 

Rare Ox figurine

Welome to RCD-Rare Ceramic Decoration
@copyright Dr Iwan S.2010

    1. The Bos Bubalus or Water Buffalo which serve so well at theplough and the Mill.
    2. The milk of Common Cow is sweeter than that of the Buffalo, thhough the latter is richer in cream.
    3. A large bronze image of a water buffalo is to be seen n the bank of the Summer Palace lake at Beijing, being placed there in the belief that the sacred and powerful animal will repress the evil spirits that disturb the lake, rivers and seas.
    4. The chinese may be didn’t eat water buffalo because they honored the Buffalo which plough the sands and Buddhist frmIndia also didn’t eat Buffalo meat.
    5. During archeolgist excavation the Buffalos bones only found at te area after 1400 AD , may be this animal came frm westren because there fund the Ancient Bones .The Tartar used the Buffalo horn that came from the Middle east.


1.The Ox (Sapi) is the emblem of Spring and Agriculture

2. The ox is the second of symbolical animals corresponding to the Tweleve Terrestrial Branches.

3. It has a rich variety of name in the Chinese language, and a special designatin in each year of growth, up to the seventh year.

4.The character of ox was said that the four dots of the presnt symbol for fish being supposed to reprsent the four leg of the Ox.

5. The creature is said to be deaf in its ears (that is why in the school alway said you are Ox to the stupid student) , but t hear with its nose.
The flesh of the Mule (eaten cow meat or beef) is sold for food, but , out of respect for the Jellow Ox (holy ox-look at the OX figurine) . Beef is not musch eaten, and its consumptin by Buddhist and Mohameddan, but Hindus prohibited for religious reasons. .

6. The meeting of the spring is farmers holiday which occur at the Slar perid knwn as Li Chun falling abut the 5th February, and it is then that the ceremnial ploughing and the beating f the spring x tkes place. this ceremonial first done during Dinasty Chou after beaten shang Dinasty 1122 BC , the buffalo had stop at 900 steps and Chiang Tzu-ya said that dinasty Chou will exist 900 years and that reeally happened.

7. The so called Spring Ox is made of clay and is beaten with sticks to stimulate the revival of spring. The detail f clur bth of ox and driver are carefully worked ut every year accrding t the astrlogical and geomatic omens. Its head and back were white, its abdomen and feet were green,it horns,leg,ears and tail were yellow.

8. Niu Mang or Mang Shen , a youth whose function is to beat the ox with a willw branch. He wore a green cat with a white belt. If the x is Jellow, the peple say that the year will be a fruitful ne, and a bumper harvest is expected. If it is red and calamity will be rife and if white mourning will be very plentiful.


1. The Male Buffalo as the emblem of spring time and farmers, which related with the future weater situations.

2. Male Buffalo was the Animal Zodiac number two. The male Buffalo under the Venus and didn’t bring Feng zui.(That is why very rare painting in Ming ceramic).

3. If someone built his huse starting at Friday-the buffalo day, will made the brother fighting each other and the Buried and wedding in this day will not found wealthy and the family will gne away.

4. The Male Buffalo was associated with Lao Tze ,who also ride male buffalo when seeking the long life.

( The Ming Male Buffalo bigger Plate and Ox figurine , very rare only have one artifact of each animal , please the collectors have the Ming buffalo ceramic or figurien like the illustratins please reprt via comment)


tio look the full illustration

please clcik the blue caption below

March 28, 2010


Ming crocodile-dragon ceramic

Ming Dog-dragon

Ming Crocodile-dragon

Ming Dinosaurus ceramic


Guan Long dinosaurus

Giganforator dinosaurus

Dilong dinousarus

Liaoceratops dinosaurus 

Yin Long dinosaurus

Ming Crocodile -Dragon

Tail Chaoyangsaurus

original Chaoyongsaurus

Ming Dog-Dragon

RCD-Rare ceramic Decoration
@Copyright Dr iwan S.2010

1. Crocdile was Amphibian.He will appear with during rainning seasns and then hibernation until the ther years.
It have the figure like dragon , and they belief the dragon as the dragon that incarnation to the dragon.
2, during Tang dinasty, the crocodile were lived at Chao-chou , and it been led ut by Han Yun and ther official with the magic power,
3. The Yantze crocodile were painted with Dragon on a Copper cup during Shang dinasty, The Crocdile frm these area have the profile near like dragon.
4. The crcdile-dragon near same with the flying dinsaurus , like their fossil, just found in china . Chinese charter for crcdule was To and related with dragon chiao.

1. Crocodile-lung realted with the world dragon , have cntrol by Jupiter.
2. If someone who built the building at the Crocdile-dragn day (Thursday) will found honor and wealthy, and who merried in this day wil have the children with lng life.but frbidden to gon at burried-ceremony in this day because they will alway sad.
3. The suspect criminalman will take atthe front of crocodile, and the crocodile only swallow the criminal ne only. (Believe or not,depend on you)

1. Dr Iwan S collection
(1) Ming Crocodile Dragon dinosaurus ceramic (brussh washer0
(2) Ming Dog Dragon dinosaurus (brussh washer)
(3) Ming Humanlike dinosaurus. (Cup)

2. XU Xing Dinosaurus (Chinese)
(1) Giganfrator
(2) Guan Long saurus
(3) Chaoyongsaurus
(3) Dilong Sauraus
(4) Liaoceratops
(5) yin Lng saurus.

Illustration will installed at night
@Copyright Dr iwan S.2010

The veryrare Ming Tiger Ceramic”

March 18, 2010 by


Tiger antidevils power

Tiger Power to cure

King of the wild beast

very rare Ming Tiger


The only one ever found and seen in Indonesia and
never report or seen at the world rare ceramic auction.
@copyright Dr Iwan S 2010.

(Compile from many Vintage book by Dr Iwan S.)

1. Tiger were very common in ancient times, and are still to be found circa 1974 Quantung ,Quan-shi .Fuk-ien .Qiangshi and Manchuria. The largest runs to 12 feet in length (no info today).

2. The Tigers stripes written in China as the radical Hu, and the tiger form with the legs like human being erect written in Vhina as the form of man Jen.
The Tigers strip also meant as the written on the whole body with brown gold color like chinese wriiten the emperor or Wang.

3.The Tiger illustration in China only on the ancien Copper Broonze statue, and some ancient legend pictures of The Chief Tao monk Chang tao-ling ride the tiger. Chang Tao Ling was the 8th chief
of Tao monk circa in the year 200 BC as the member of the first Han emperor government below Chan Liang, and after Chang become emperor.
Chang Liang have long life 123 years, because he drink the water of persist Lifes and the chinese people believed that Chang Tao -Ling have the power to send to earth the City goddest and to control the Neraka (hell) guard.The monk used amulet wit his written name to scarring the devila. Every year in the 5th day of the 5th Month(May.5th) there were the special celebrities for him in other to destroy Devil and and protect the people life.

4. Beside Chang Tao-ling, Hsuan Tan Wealthy Goddest
Tsai Shen- the chief of five Wealthy Goddest, he ride the Tiger or he himself image as the tiger.that is why in the 5th day chinese Imlek newyear all the window and doors were open to let Tsai Shen come in the House with her Wealthy blessing, until this day the Indonesia Tioghoa etnic had done that ceromonial in 12.00 PM in the night, especially when there ware rainning days more wealthy Fengsui will come in.

5.The Tiger in china was called the King of the wild beasts, and its real or imaginery qualities afford them matter for more metaphors than any other wild anima. It is taken as the emblem of magisterial dignityvand sternness, as the model for the courage and fierceness which skould characterize a soldier, and its presence or roar is synonymous with denger and terror. Its present scarceness had tended to magnify his prowess, until it has by degrees become invested with so many savage attributes tha nothing can exceed it (My friend had told me that when he hunting the tiger in Sumatra with the Younger man, when he heard the Tiger roar in the night and filled very scarring that his urination on his trousers-Dr Iwan S.)
In the days of Marco Polo, the multitude of tigers in the nothern parts of the empire rendered travelling alone dangerous, the sam situation in Sumatra, I have never travelled in the night around the Tigers area with the special Tiger Road Plague around Lahat-tebing Tinggi-Lubuk Linggau South Sumatra area beside the traditional Robbery Bajing Loncat or the leaping dog in that road that is why many car stopped and rest at Lahat or LubukLinggau.

6. The history of White Tiger
The White Tiger or Pai Hu, is the name given to the Westren quadrant of the Uranosphere and metaphorically to the West in general. The title o White Tiger was bestowe on the canonized Yin Chen-hsiu , a general of the last emperor of the Yin dynasty. His image may be seen at the door of Taoist temples.

(compile from many vintage book by Dr iwan S)

1. The God of anti Demon Teror and Military Powers
If the dragon or Chinese Dinosaurus is chief of aquatic creatures, the Tigers were lord of all land animal. These two share the position of prime important in the mtsterious pseudo-science called Feng Shui. The tiger is figure on many of the most ancient bronze ,often with a ring in its mouth. It frequently appears in a groteque form which native archeologist designate a Quadruped.The tiger symbolies military proweres (in Indonesia the symbol WEst Java Military Forces SiliwangI-Dr iwan S). It is an object of special terror to demons , is therefore painted on walls to scare malignant spirits away from the neighbourhood of houses and temples. The Shoes of small children are often embroidered with tiger head for the same reason

2. The God of Wealth
The Tiger sometimes represented as the God of Wealth and tiger goddest also to be found, chiefly in Hanoi, manchuria and also in Indonesia, where this animals are most plentyful.

3. The military Tiger-skin immitation dressed as the symbols of the powers (In Indonesia the national Police Academy and also The Military Academy used this dress at their Drumband Marching. They adnavnced to battled shouting loundly, in the hope thatvtheir cries would strike terror into the enemy as if they were the actual roats of Tiger.

3. The Tigers in Chinese astrology
(1)According to the astrologers, the star (ursa major) gave birth by matamorphosis to the first beast of this kind. He is the greatest of four-footed creatures, representing tthe masculine principle of nature, and is the lord of all wild animal. He is also called the King of Beasts , and the character King or Wang is believed to be traceable upon his brow. He is seven feet in lenght,because seven is the number appertaining to Yang, the masculine principle, and for the same reason his gestation endures for seven months.
(2)Due to Feng-Shui, all over the Galaxi including world divided on four direction,four stars and four creature who control that area :
(a) The east area controlled by the Blue dragon
(b) The west area controlled by the White tiger
(c) The South area controlled by the red phoenix
(d) The North area controlled by the black turtle
The white tiger have three lucky or Feng-sui :
(a) Brave,powers and passion.
(b) Against the criminal teror,swallow devils.and the tigers strip pointed the combination of yin and Yang that defense from the bad powers.
(c)Against and push out three criminas of flame,thief and devils.
(3) The man who born in the Tiger year, very lucky because he can merried fast with the women who merried in the Pig, dog, horse, mouse and cock years, but he cannot merried the women who born in the Monkey,snake, or cow years.
Very unlucky for the women who born in the Tigers years because she will swalow her husband and she will difficult to merried, only with the same or more powers man who born in the Tiger or Dragon years only.
4. The Tiger as the charm against sickness
Tiger lives to the age of one thousand years. When five hundred years old, his colour change to white. His claws are powerful talisman (many native Indonesian used Tigers clawn as amulet-Dr Iwan S.).and ashes prepared from his skin worn about the person act as a charm against sickness.
( I didn’t know why not many Tiger figur painted in the Plate,Cup of Vase ceramic, also no Chinese Tiger coins exist but on tiles more exist , I only have one Ming Tiger ceramic from Thousand of the artifacts , may be the Chinese archeologist will tell us via comment-Dr Iwan S.)
@Copyright Dr Iwan S.2010

The Rare Ming Mouse Ceramic”

March 25, 2010

Rare Mouse Decoration

Ming Mouse Decoration

@copyright Dr Iwan S.2010

I. The Ethnic History of Mouse

1. The China charcater of mouse
The China character of mouse have showed ancient calligraphy of Mouse with head,mostage, leg and tail.
( The rare Ming mouse decoration ceramic , only the unsual
head decoration like animation clown, eyes, ear and mostage
this is the only one ever seen and report, never seen at international auctions, if the collectors ahve the same decoration please report via comment-Dr Iwan S.)

2. The Chinese Ethnic legend of Mouse
Mouse were the Yin animal , in the Chinese legend the mouse hae belief can live until 300 years, and when It became 100 years the color have changing into white. When the country occupied by the enemies , the white mouse will show itself.

3. The Chinese Ethnic symbols of Mouse
The symbol of mouse were the symbol of fear , but also the symbol of cleverness(Kecerdikan) and the symbol of wealtyness due to hardwork (Same ass the Charater of Mouse)

4. The Chinese Etnic zodiac of Mouse
Mouse was the first animal from twelve Zodiac creations and have told that the mouse had betrayed the Cat , that was why the Cat didnot exist in the Chinese Ethnic Zodiac.

II. The Ethnic lucky Fengsui of Mouse

1. Use By Chinese Ethnic Fortune Teller
The Mouse could be used by the Chinese ethnic fortune teller to know what will happened in the Chinese Mouse year and also what will Happened at the area abouth the distance of 1.000 mil

2.The wedding day of Mouse
The 19th days of the first Month is the Mouse wedding day, this day is celebrated by the Etnich Chinese to asked the The King of Mouse for changed the destroyed of their family to the people who didnot payed attention to their religious.

3. The Bigger Fatty Mouse will bring the wealthyness
If a Bigger Fatty mouse enter the home, the ethnic Chinese willnot kill or threw that fatty mouse, becasue they belief the Bigger Fatty mouse will bring the lucky of wealthyness.

4. Mouse were the animal have made Fear especially the Pes diseases, but also as the honor animal because the fatty mouse was the lucky symbol of wealthyness.

5. The legend of a Mouse disaster day
The mouse have belief in the Chinese ethnic legend had related with the Sun , that is why this day didnt luckyday for built the House , if still done will made disasters of the family who lived in that house and they will seperate bed because they cannot sleep well .

6. The legend of the mouse lucky fengsui
(1) The Guard of North Mo Li-shou have bring the creators which near same profile with White Mouse in the native bigger beg, and the Mount Ancetors Erh Lang or Yang Chien killed him and took the unique white Mouse Creators to be his beloved animal.
(2) There were the invitation sent to the tweleve zodiac Animal, but the mouse made fool to Cat, the invitation of the cat have recieved lately after the choose of the name of animal Zodiac over, that was why had need one name to change with Cat, and when first meeting was the Pig , the cat change with Pig Zodiac and The Mouse still as the first Chinese zodiac , if the cat arrive on time, The Cat will be in Chinese Zodiac and The Mouse will out of the Chinese Zodiac. Who had keep the cat invitation, you have known the clever White Mouse.
(Why the Cat decoration very rare in Chinese Ceramic decoration and became one of RCD-Rare ceramic Decoration in China tradition ? please read carefully the history and legend above, and we will understand by in the world Walt Disney very success with his Mickey Mouse , the lucky,humor and clever mouse, but in Japan the native Nippon people more preferred Cat with their very famous humor creators Hallo Kitty that belief as the symbol of wealthyness, and every weving hand will pussed the money into the owner of the lucky Cat, that different in China that is why no cat in China Zodiac, but in Sarawak Cat were the very lucky animal that is why their capital called Kuching with her excellent Cat or Kuching musuem , please read more information with click Sarwak Unique Collections and later will installed The Hello Kitty Handkerchief Unique Collection. Dr Iwan S.)

@copyright Dr Iwan S. 2010 


to look the full illustration plese click below


Showcase :

The Rare Late Ming Ceramic Which Foun At Indonesia Exhibition

*wan li imperial mark and dragon five clow cup below.

Cow motif

Rat mouse motif

Deer motif

Horse Motif

The Earliest Indonesian Music Record Collections

1. I have starting build the MUSIC RECORD LABEL collections  since study in hish school at Padang city West Sumatra in 1960.

2. Until this day in 2011 , I cannot found the complete informations about the Indonesian’s  Earliest Record Label History, that is why I have made reasech about this topic in order to give the young generations about the development of music gramophone technology in the world since found by Mr Thomas Alfa Edison and when first arrived in Indonesia during The Dutch East colionial Era.

3. I will show my collections with information from that very rare and amizing historic collections, very lucky I had found vintage book of gramophone and also many info fram google explorations,especially from wikipedia ,for that info thanks very much.

4. Before I had done The exhibtion which divide into two parts, first before World War WWIIand second after the WW II until 1960. all during Indonesia under Dutch east Indie Colonial time. and now lets look at the earliest  Indonesia independence era 1945-1960

5.The earliest  Record label whic found   in early  20 Th Century produced by Addison inc with very thick plate almost 4 times then now circa 1 cm,then became half centimer and latest 0,2 cm more thin,please look the comperative picture below:


First the mechanic gramophone look the promotion picture of His Mater Voice company  java gamelan salendro Romo Dokto  ka 2 Srjowoengoe &Soetinah  Wayang Orang Saritomo  bybelow:

and later electric gramophone, still used gramophone needle look the needle promotion label below :

6.In Indonesia during Colonial time , the record label  sold by the chinese marchant still the same until thee arliest Indonesia Independt era 1945-1960,many at Pasar Baru Market and Prinsen Park(now Candra naya)  Batavia (Jakarta) please look the trader mark below :

7a. Before Indonesian Independent during Dutch East Indie(Ned.Indie) colonial-masa penjajahan  hindia Belanda the earliest Indonesian record(rekaman piring hitam) had found by dr Iwan were the His master Voice Javanese Gamelan Salendro Romo Dokto 1 looh ill above  and Amber anom ka 1 sing by Ardjowoengoe & Martedarmo Wayang orang satitomo  and BK Record,look the picture below


and the singer was Mis Riboeet with Tionghoa etnic song and arabic ehnic song,more info look at my collections in the frame one.

7b.I had found Some Indonesia Album record era 1945-1960 ,look below

1)Irama record made in India with song Djali Djali


The Chinese Export Record label to Indonesia

Fujian Amoy Opera Record

The Vintage  China Music record found in Indonesia


Zhou Xuan (周璇) – The flower on my chest (襟上一朵花)


His Master Voice record

EAGLE MARK (SOUCHOU-ZHpeople and star record(?)

Columbia record




Tsin Ting Kiang Hung 33 rpm 10″ Record Pathe CPA 169 

Miss Yao lee info 

Indonesia’s recording studios have increasingly diversified out of the template established by the country’s two largest recording companies, P.N. Lokananta (the national recording company of Indonesia) and Hidup Baru.

In contrast to the 1950s and 1960s, many studios today are no longer owned solely by producers, the Indonesia record before lokanata, produced by Irama Records and made in India studio processing above , like MCG record by dutch Leow cooperations

also in Indonesia (Irama indonesian music co ltd) look below compare with above :

1) Irama Record

Irama record beside peroduced legendary music and singers record, also produced the children basic school’s Songs by Kutilang (the singer bird)orchestra lead by sudidharma 

with very amizing decorations look below

Kutilang orchestra lead by sudidharma, had also played the national song Satu Nusa Satu Bangsa (one land one nation),the information from google ekploration in indonesian language ;

The other earliest Indonesian records company :

2) Puspa Nada

3)Bali Record Music Cooperation

4) Mesra Record Inc

5)Gedung Musik Nusantara Record Inc

 6) Serimpi Music record Inc

7)Lokananta which not only music and po song also the Javanese Wayang ketoprak like Djaka Tingkir look below:

The Christian Songs

, and aslo the special album were made by lokanata record for the present to the 10 years memorable  Bandung asia Africa conference at Djakarta  in 1965

.(More type still in reasrech)

8)Indah Record like lokananta also produced Java Wayang Song Ketoprak mataram ,look below


The Indonesia Legend singer Diah Iskandar  Record.(Koleksi Piring Hitam Penyanyi Legendaris Indonesia Diah Iskandar 

Silver red promo Irama Record productions Introduced (Memperkenalkan) Diah Iskandar with orkes Tjanda Kirana dbp Iskandar(father of Diah)

Side one:Kisah Mimpi(iskandar) and Surat Undangan(Julius Fioole)

Side two:To Night is My Night and Crazy

Foreign Music Record found In Indonesia

The Malaysia legend singer  

Salmah Ismael Music Record





Xavier Gugat




The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum Emblem

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)


1.In February.27th 2011 morning 7.30 am west Indonesia Time, during I walking out of Yacobus Church Kelapa Gading North Jakarta Indonesia to my car parking lot beyond the tree, God have send me one very amizing beautiful iron red fruit from the  tree which I donnot know it ‘s name, and  I bring to my cybermuseum home office ,put on my antique pure white stempcup ceramic , made to art photos by my digital camera Olympus, one still original and one was making corrections of the background by digital painting restorarion

2. then I have deciding that this art photography became the logo of my blog “Driwan Cybermuseum.

3.The red and white colour were the same of Indonesian flag colour,the flag of my homeland countries and theiron red and pure white were my favorite colour of my ceramic collections, the background sandtone colour was my favorite colour of my cybermuseum homeoffice.The  Iron red fruit was send to me by the holygod which give my the mercy and lucky in the future.

3.I hove all the collectors from all over the world to honor my logo copyright,please donnot copy.

Jakarta, February.27th 2011

The founder of Cybermuseum Blog

Dr Iwan Suwandy

 The Original Picture Of Driwancybermuseum Logo1.The Original Photo at Driwancybermuseum

private home office

2.The Original Art photography of Driwancybermuseum’s logo(after digital restoration)


This year I wrote about the imperial ceramics and china that I find other related ceramics from the auction and book ceramics, for details please refer to the CR-ROM

The Chinese imperial Ceramic

Found in Indonesia

Created By


Pricate Limited E-Book In CD-ROM Edition

Special For Senior Collectors

Copyright @ 2013

*Ming Imperial Dragon Fish Bowl

The Digital Restoration Of Rare Artifact Imperial Ceramic Which Found In Indonesia Exhibitio


Due to save the Human Ceramic Art Heritage.  I have collected some very rare ARTIFACT of CHINESE IMPERIAL CREMAMIC WHICH GIVEN BY THE CHINESE EMPEROR TO THE INDONESIAN KING -SULTAN, many of this my private collections had found during my advantured around Indonesia from Sumatra,Java,Borneo and Celebes. Not many artifact collectors in Indonesia during 1970-1990, but now became popular because the original fine chinese Imperial wares very expensive now , one piece more that 1.000.000 US$ ,and many fake, that is why collectors starting to collect the original rare chinese imperial artifact but very difficult to find.

I have some private original very rae imperial cermanic artifacts collections which show in this exhibtions and to know the complete wares , I have restored by digital technology with same color and pattern, and  I have saved the human heritage.

Please the collectors and press honor my copyright, please donnot copy without my permisssion in all type of technology.

Greatings from the founder of Cybermuseum blog

Dr Iwan Suwandy

PS. look at the very rare imperial Yuan,Ming and Qing figurine,plate , ewer , bottle and Breast spout Kendi (restored from artifact) 

Original info

Pada tahun ini saya menulis tentang keramik imperial china yang saya temukan dan keramik lain yang terkait dari lelangan dan buku keramik, untuk lengkapnya silahkan lihat pada CR-ROM

I am also Revised and restored Driwancybermuseum Home Office and Museum gallery please look the illustrasion below

Selain itu saya merevisi Driwancybermuseum Homeoffice And Museum Galery silahkan melihat ilustrasi dibawah ini

The end part One

Copyright Driwan Suwandy @2913

The Chinese Imperial Artwork Found In Indonesia (Continiu)






 Photo: Bigger Wanli Kraak Porcelain 70 cm with Dragon fish and eight treasure  emblem symbol



Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-Rom Edition

Special For Senior Reseacher And Collectors

Copyright @ 2013

THIS THE SAMPLE OF Dr Iwan Limited E-Book In CD-Rom with unedited non complete info illustration, the complete CD-Rom exist but only for premium member please subscribe via comment with your email address and private information same as  your ID-Card


Driwancybermuseum Homeoffic 




 Photo: calender plate with Fu Luk Sau  symbols longevity  one of the three star king gogggest collection Dr Iwan


Revised Edition


Warren E.Cox

New York, 1979

From this  literature found some informations of   design motifs Empire Chinese ceramic art in the world that can be comparable to those found in Indonesia

Dari Literatur ini ditemukan beberapa informasi bentuk design motif karya seni ceramic Kerajaan Tiongkok didunia yang dapat dijadikan pembanding dengan yang ditemukan di Indonesia.

 Photo: Guardian Plate Mo Li Ching  easr king of heaven motif collection Driwan


Ancient human figure motif, motive fauna  crane –horse and flora motif tree

Motif figure manusia kuno, motif fauna burung bangau  serta kuda dan motif flora pohon

Han China  tomb figure (page 73 and 74)


Han Fauna (plate 21 Page  82)

Han Dog

Han Duck

 Han horse



Tang Dinastypage 108

Motif fauna

Tang Horse


Sung Three Colour Chrysanthenum and Lotus  Flower page 29

Motif flora flower chrysanthenum


Yuan Vase ear elephant (cover)

Motif Fauna elephant


 Photo: Bigger Wanli Kraak Porcelain 70 cm with Dragon fish and eight treasure  emblem symbol

Ming Imperial five clown dragon (front)

Motif fauna Imperial Dragon five clown



Qing Qx Blood red In glazed vase (page 532)




Imperial yellow ground figure of Shau Lao

(page  566 vol II)

Motif Figur Longlife  Shaou(one of three Star God)



Motif Calligraphy China Ceramic Mark

Mark Of Chinese Ware page



The Eastren Phillosophy Of Time And Chamge



Philip Rowson and Lazlo Legeza,thames and Hudson,London 1973


2.2.1  The Natural World

Carved jade moutain withnthreestar gods  of longevity 32

Celadon plte motif the flow of  vital energy(chi)

Landscape garden with  pools and udalating  rock tang dynasty

Hill jar Han dynast1

2.2.2. The Moving Spirit

2.2.3. Cycles Of Change

2.2.4. Heaven and Earth

2.2.5 Ritual

2.2.6 Themystical Power Of Calligraphy

2.2.7.Secret Practices

2.2.8.The Realm Of The Immortal






Beijing, 1st October,1932

From This Literatur found information the meaning  and design of   Symbolic Chinese Empire Artwork Motif  In china 1923 which arranged  from a to Z which be the base info to seek which one  found in Indonesia by Dr Iwan the researcher from 1973 to 2013


Sacrificial ploughing 3

Alarm staff 5                      

Amida cuddha 6


Toy pedlar 8

Dice playing card 9

Elephant checker,Chinese cheess 10

Kite-flying 11dragon boat festival 13

Ananda 15

Chinese Coin

Confucius 85

2.3.2 Costume

Sacrificial 88

Dancing 89

Ancient warrior 90

Official first grade  92

Tzu – chisempress dowager93

 Modern men 95 and 96

 Modern women 97                                      

Crane 101

2.3.3.Diaper Pattern




2.3.4 Door Gods






2.3.5. Dragon



Drama  Huang Ho Lou 148


Eight Immortal(Delapan Dewa)

     Chung li-chuan


Chang Kuo-lo 152

Lu tung-pin


Tsao kuo-chiu 154

Li tieh kuai


Han hsiang-tzu 155



Ho Hsien-ku 156                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  


Eight Lohan

Pintulopolotoshe pindola the bharadvaya, kanokafatsho, pintaouluolosuishih,                  nantimindolochingyu nandimitra

Page 161

 Pa-no-ka,vakula or nakula

  Tamolopoto,tamra bhadra.  Kalika or kala,  fashenaputo or vajayputra

Page 162                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           


eight ordinary symbols  158

dragon,golden coin,lozenge,mirror,stone chime,book

rhinoceros horn and artemesia


2.3.9. eight Budish Symbols 159






Wheel of the laq


Mystic knot

2.3.10 Elephant

2.3.11 Five Poison 188

2.3.12 Four Heaven Kings 196

 Mo-li ching guardian of the east

 Mo-li hai   west

Mo-li hung south

Mo-li shou north                                         

2.3.13. Fu –His 203

2.3.14  chu jung God Of Fire 207

God of literature 209 kuei wang tin chung

God of longevity   canopus  209                      

2.3.15 God Of The Kitchen 210

2.3.16   Kuan Yu God Of War

2.3.17Tsai Tsen Yai The God Of Wealth 213

2.3.18 The Money Tree 214

2.3.19 Chinese Fans(Kipas)177

2.3.20 The Eight Horses Of Mu Wang 225

2.3.21. Hsi-wang Wu Royal Lady Of The West  227

2.3.22 Kuan Yin 243

2.3.23 Lamais

Lama priest 247

Insignia and Weapon Of Lama 248 and 249

2.3.24 Laocius 251

Mansjuri 265

Monkey ok

2.3.25  Musical Instrumen 284

2.3.26 Na Cha 293

2.3.27 OX(Water Buffalo) ok

2.3.28  Phoenix ok

2.3.29 Plant Of Long Laife

Taosist philosopher who discover

The  Sacred Fungus Of Immotarlity 329

2.3.30 Bpdishawa Pu Hsien 335

2.3.31 Queen Of Heaven337

2.3.32 Conventional Scroll 3444

2.3.33  Chinese Seals(346 and 347)



The Emperor Of Shun(358)

2.3.35 Snake (ok)


Three Chinese star Gods(366)


Tao Mo,the Mother Of Yhe Bushei(370)


 The Poet Su Tong Po(377)




Old Chinese Sword9383)

2.3.39 Tai Chi

2.3.40 The Great Yu the emperor of Hsia(386)

2.3.41 The Three Pure One OF the Taoist Trinity(393 and 395)

2.3.42 TOAD Liu Hai(402)


 Mara The Tempter, The Arch Fiend Of The BUddihst(417)



The  Chinese lord of Rain (420)

The spirit of the yellow river(422)

2.3.45 Wheel Of Law(424 ,426)

2.3.46 Willow

2.3.47 Written Character

The evolution of Chinese charater (442)

2.3.48 Yama

The Soul of the dead  arranged before  Yama (452)

2.3.49 Yin and Yang


Torture of the Budish Helll (455)




The Story Of Chinese Landscape Design


Prof Pao The Han

Translarted by

Carl Shen.AIA

Youth Cultural enterprise,1992

From this information we  found the  landscape found in China and will compare with the artwork landscape motif which found in Indonesia


2.4..1. The View Of Landscape Designing Of Ancient China From Shang Dinasty To The Han Dinasty

Han dynasty tomb  page 26

2.4.,2 Fairy Tales Ands The Art Of Chinese Landscape Designing

Han  Page  28

The godess of Lao River Jin dinasty page 36

Tang dynasty landscape page 40

Sung dynasty  landscape page 42

Yuam dynasty landscape page 46

2.4.3 Taoism and The Art Of Chinese Landscape Designing

Sung dynasty Hrermit under willow tree page 60

Tang page 64

The Hsiao Chie Garden Ming landscape page 66

2.4.4 The Loyang Era

Singing bird landscape six dynasty page 80

Deer in the wood in the fall five dynasty landscape page  82

Emperor Tsuang Sung visit the Shu area page  92

2.4.5 The Tang Era

The Lingering Tang dynasty garden page  116

2.4.6 The King-Nan Era

Mountain Peak By Hsia Kwei Sung dynasty page  136

2.4.7 The Birth Of The Theory Of Landscape Designing

Decorated Landscape late ming plate page 168

2.4.8  The Qing Era

Two Bird by Pa Da  Shan Ren Qing dynasty page 170

Multi Storied Lo and Ko  in the landscape by Chiao Bin Chen page 214


 Studies Report Of Arkeologist Situs Excavations In Indonesia

From this Literature we found information about history of trading artwork especially ceramic from from china to Indonesia, and also Information about type and motif of the Chinese empirae artwork which foun In the Situs in Indonesia.







BANTEN Before Islamic Era

Archelogist Stusies  At Banten Girang  932-1526

Indonesian National Archeologist Center with Ecole Francaise the extreme-Orient. Jakarta,1996

1)  Ditch That cleared things 57

Parit Yang dibersihkan hal 57

2) In the case of trench 58

Parit Dalam hal 58
3) Table 64 Findings Based on the time it

Tabel Temuan Berdasarkan waktu hal  64


4) The table can not be identified by the time it 65

Tabel Tidak dapat diidentifikasi menurut waktu hal  65

5) Table Excavasi Ceramic Import by time (centuries) 141-142 case

Tabel Excavasi Keramik Impor menurut waktu (abad) hal 141-142

 (motif) p 142-143

7) Comparison Table findings Banten Girang Site With Other Sites In Indonesia 145

Tabel Perbandingan temuan Situs Banten Girang Dengan Situs Lainnya Di Indonesia hal  145



6) Table Grouping findings based on Origin and Corak

Tabel Pengelompokan temuan berdasarkan  Asal dan Corak(motif) hal  142-143

8) Taoism Head Figurine Statue Qingbai 14 th AD (p. 163) and body image 91 image Qingbai 14th AD 92 images

Figurine Taoisme Head Statue Qingbai 14 th AD (hal 163) gambar 91 dan tubuh   Qingbai gambar  14th AD  gambar 92




m.Th.Naniek Arkeologist

Pusat Penewlitian Arkeologis nasional

Jakarta ,1983


History of Trade Ceramics in Banten Lama (p. 387)

Sejarah Perdagangan Keramik di Banten Lama (hal 387)






Similarities And Differences Ceramic Table findings (p. 392)

Tabel Persamaan Dan Perbedaan Keramik Temuan (hal 392)


Origin and era ceramic table Findings (case 393)

Tabel asal dan zaman keramik Temuan (hal  393)


Summary Research  on ceramic banten Lama 1976-1981 (hal 398)





(Kula Lumpur Malaysia, 1999)









2) Vase
3) Beetle
4) Fish
5) dragon with phoenix
6) Chillin
7) dragon turtle
8) pumpkins



2) Vase



5)naga dengan burung phoenix


7)kura-kura naga

8)buah labu


(Motif) longevity Symbol
1) God of Longevity LAU
2) Birds Stork
3) Pine Tree
4) Peaches
5) bamboo tree
6) Deer
7) Tortoise
8) Eight god (god of immortality or eight immortal)
(1) Chung Li Chuan with fan symbol, god of longevity and provide energy that never stops (end)
(2) Chang Kuo-Lao Changdengan symbols give descendants banbu tube (prevents sterile)
(3) Pin Dong Lu (Lu Tung Pin) with a sword and a thermos fly symbol popped disease
(4) Guo Chiu Tsao (Tsao kuo-chiu) with the symbol for music bestows blessings to those who seek power
(5) Lie Tieh Guai (Li Tieh Kuai) with the symbol of bottle gourd, most berkausa of Delan gods bestowed wisdom
(6) Xian Tzu Han (Han Hsing-tzu) with flutes, restoring energy
(7) Tsai Ho Lan (Lan Tsai-ho) to deliver flowers clad blessing for the girls
(8) Ku Hsien Ho (Ko-Ku Tsien) with lotus symbol, bestowing good luck in the family and marriage

9) herb of immortality Ling zhi
10) Queen of the West Hsi Mu-wang
11) Shou Longevity Calligraphy
12) Three Star Gods Fuk-Luk-Sau


(Motif) Simbol umur panjang

1)      Dewa Umur Panjang LAU

2)      Burung Bangau

3)      Pohon Pinus

4)      Buah Persik

5)      Pohon bamboo

6)      Rusa

7)      Kura-kura

8)      Delapan dewa (dewa keabadian  or eight immortal)

(1) Chung Li Chuan dengan  simbol kipas, Dewa umur panjang dan memberikan energi yang tidak pernah berhenti(putus)

(2)Chang Kuo-Lao Changdengan  simbol  tabung banbu memberikan keturunan(mencegah mandul)

(3)Dong Pin Lu(Lu Tung Pin) dengan symbol pedang dan termos terbang menyembulkan penyakit

(4)Guo Chiu Tsao(Tsao kuo-chiu) dengan symbol alat music  menganugerahkan berkah bagi mereka yang mencari kekuasaan

(5)Tieh Guai Lie (Li Tieh Kuai) dengan symbol labu botol ,paling berkausa dari delan dewa menganugerahkan kearifan

(6)Hsian Tzu Han(Han  Hsing-tzu)  dengan seruling , memulihkan energy

(7)Tsai Ho Lan (Lan Tsai-ho)dengan Kerajang bunga mengantarkan berkah bagi gadis-gadis

(8)Hsien Ku Ho(Ko Tsien-Ku) dengan symbol lotus, menganugerahkan  keberuntungan dalam keluarga dan pernikahan


9)      Ramuan keabadian Ling zhi

10)   Ratu Barat Hsi-wang Mu

11)   Kaligrafi Umur Panjang Shou

12)   Dewa Bintang Tiga Fuk-Luk-Sau




Motif Symbol Love and marriage
1) Mandarin Duck
2) Geese
3) calligraphy double happiness (Double Happiness)
4) Peony Flower Tan Mou
5) butterfly
6) Lute
7) Birds Magpie
8) Paper Lantern
9) God marriages Chieh Lin


Motif Simbol Cinta Kasih dan perkawinan

1)Bebek Mandarin


3)kaligrafi kebahagian ganda(double Happiness)

4)Bunga Peoni  Mou Tan



7)Burung Magpie

8)Lampion Kertas

9)Dewa pernikahan Chieh Lin


1) Flowers Fruit Plum facilitate LUCK Good Fortune
2) Chrysanthemum flower (Chrysanthenum) SYMBOL BEAUTY
3) Lotus symbol of perfection and progress indefinitely
4) Orchid Flower epitome of perfection
5) citrus fruit brings many blessings



2)bunga Krisan(Chrysanthenum) LAMBANG KECANTIKAN

3)Bunga Teratai lambing kesempurnaan dan kemajuan tanpa batas

4)Bunga Anggrek lambang kesempurnaan

5)  jeruk berbuah banyak  membawa berkah


1) Kuang Kong or Kuan Ti
2) white tiger
3) a pair of dogs or lions chillin
4) God of Doors
5) Four Heavenly Kings North (Mo Li Shou), West) Mo Li Hai), the East (Mo Ling Ching) and the South (Mo Li Hung)
6) digit (number) Lo Shu
7) dragon turtle
8) Pat Kua Mirror (an antidote to the poison dart)
9) anti Sandalwood Fan negative energy
10) singing bowl


1)Kuang Kong  atau Kuan Ti

2)Harimau putih

3) sepasang anjing atau singa chillin

4)Dewa Pintu

5)Empat Raja Langit Utara(Mo Li Shou),Barat)Mo Li Hai),Timur (Mo Ling Ching)dan Selatan(Mo Li Hung)

6) angka(nomor) Lo Shu

7) kura-kura naga

8)Cermin Pat Kua(penangkal panah beracun)

9)Kipas Kayu cendana  anti energy negative

10)Mangkuk bernyanyi


1) mystic knot without unjung
(symbol beginning without end.  Buddhism cycle of birth and rebirth – reincarnation)
2) Skin snails and clams (shell conched) symbol of luck on the way
3) Two Fish symbol of wealth
4) Lotus symbol of purity of intention and mind
5) Canopy mighty symbol perlidunagn
6) Flower vase symbols to increase the happiness and goodness
7) Wheel symbol of true wisdom and knowledge
8) vessel for the ashes of religious symbols





1)simpul mistis tanpa unjung

(lambang permulaan tanpa akhir. kepErcayan agama budha lingkaran kelahiran dan kelahiran kembali – reinkarnasi)

2)Kulit Siput dan kerang(conched shell) symbol keberuntungan dalam perjalanan

3)Dua Ikan symbol kekayaan

4)Lotus simbol kemurnian niat dan pikiran

5)Kanopi symbol perlidunagn yang perkasa

6)Vas bunga simbol  untuk meningkatkan kebahagiaan dan kebaikan

7)Roda symbol kearifan sejati dan pengetahuan

8) bejana untuk abu jenazah symbol religious



1) Mice(Rat)
2) Buffalo
3) Tiger
4) Rabbit
5) Dragon
6) Snake
7) Horse
8) Goat
8) Monkey
9) Chicken
10) Dogs
11) Pigs













11) Babi



1) God of Wealth Tai Yeh sen
2) God of Wealth Hokkien Tua Pekkong
3) Three Star Gods Fu-Luk-Sau (God of Longevity)
4) Laughing Buddha (Buddha Wealth  and Happiness)


1)Dewa Kekayaan Tai sen Yeh

2)Dewa Kekayaan Hokkien Tua Pekkong

3)Dewa Tiga Bintang Fu-Luk-Sau(Dewa Panjang Umur)

4)Buddha Tertawa(Buddha kekatyaan dan Kebahagiaan)






“The porcelain centre of the world.”

A short description of the developments, transport and production

of ancient Chinese porcelain

(not Upload,the info can read at the next part III)


The Report Of Indonesian Sea  Shipwrec Traesures

Not Upload,the studies result can read at the  next Part III) 

The Report Of Chinese South Sea  Shipwrec Traesures

(Not Upload,the studies result can read at the  next Part III) 

The Report Of International Shipwrec Traesures

(Not Upload,the studies result can read at the  next Part III) 

The End Of Part II

please look the next part Three Result Of Studies

The Chinese Imperial Ceramic Artwork Found In Indonesia ( Continiu )






Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-Rom Edition

Special For Senior Reseacher And Collectors

Copyright @ 2013

THIS THE SAMPLE OF Dr Iwan Limited E-Book In CD-Rom with unedited non complete info illustration, the complete CD-Rom exist but only for premium member please subscribe via comment with your email address and private information same as  your ID-Card


Driwancybermuseum Homeoffic 



Based on a literature study in chapter Two can be found  Information as follows

Berdasarkan hasil studi literature dalam bab Dua dapat ditemukan informasi sebagai berikut

a.The Chinese Royal Kingdom art collection in Indonesia by  researchers which collected from 1973 to 2013 (forty years) in Sumatra,Java.Kalmantan and South Celebes and Ambon as follows

koleksi benda seni kerajaan Tiongkok di Indonesia oleh peneliti yang dikumpulkan dari tahun 1973 sampai 2013 (empat puluh Tahun) di Sumatra,Jawa,Kalimantan,Sulawesi selatan dan Ambon sebagai berikut





.The Background history  of ceramic trade and royal art objects from China to Indonesia have started in the early centuries AD at the end of the Han Dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty by the merchants of the kingdom of China, the Middle East, and very crowded in the Tang dynasty, Sung, Ming reduced initial in the mid Ming Ming and crowded again at the end of the transitional period and reduced to the Qing Ming and Qing dynasties crowded again at the end.

This information is obtained from te research, discovery of ceramic art and Chinese empire at several sites in Indonesia by the National Arkelologis Center and a review of the findings of a shipwreck in Southeast Asia as some footage below


. Latar belakang sejarah perdagangan  keramik dan benda seni dari kerajaan Tiongkok ke Indonesia sudah dimulai pada awal abad masehi pada dinasti Han akhir sampai akhir dinasti Qing oleh pedagang-pedagang dari kerajaan Tiongkok,Timur Tengah, dan sangat ramai pada dinasti Tang, Sung, awal Ming berkurang pada Ming pertengahan dan ramai lagi pada Ming akhir dan berkurang pada masa peralihan Ming ke Qing serta ramai lagi pada dinasti Qing Akhir.

Informasi ini diperoleh dari penelitian te,muan benda seni dan keramik kerajaan Tiongkok di beberapa situs di Indonesia oleh Pusat Arkelologis Nasional dan hasil kajian  temuan kapal karam di di Asia Tengara  seperti beberapa cuplikan dibawah ini



Report of research findings on Sirus Indonesia by Indonesian National Archaeology Center

Laporan Hasil penelitian Temuan di Sirus Indonesia oleh Pusat Arkeologi Nasioanl Indonesia

(1)      The Report Of Situs Banten Girang

Laporan Situan Banten Girang

(2)    The Report Of Situs Banten Lama Laporan Situs banten Lama


This report not upload

(3)     The Report Of Indonesian Shipwreck treasure Finding 

(a)    Yurnaldi(2012)

The  ceramic Of Cargo from shipswreck ,  almost always found in relatively large quantities.

Bambang Budi Utomo of the Center Arkenas who edited the book Shipwrecks Century 10 in North Java Sea, Cirebon said the shipwreck  that the artifact has been removed from commercial ships, most of his wares, even nearly 90 percent in the form of ceramics.

The rest is pottery and glass items
Porcelain and stoneware very Clearly not locally made​​. So far as the items have been found at various sites in Indonesia, and are known from various countries,

 such as China, Southeast Asia (Thailand, Vietnam, and Cambodia), the Middle East, Japan, and Europe (such as the Netherlands and Germany).

According Widiati, researcher and expert of ancient ceramics, Ceramic frequently found in Indonesia comes from China (2-20 century AD), Thailand (Century 13-18 CE), Vietnam (century-8-18 M), Europe (17 century AD -20), Japan (17-20 century CE), and the Middle East (7-14 century AD).

On the findings of ceramics in the waters north of Cirebon, based on the identification and Typology of the ceramic objects, a 10th-century ceramics from the AD Five Dynasties period.

Of course, through the identification of these tiles, there are many additional bits of the data to compose a past history of Indonesian culture.
(Kompas, Thursday, May 20, 2010)

Muatan Dari kapal-kapal tenggelam, hampir selalu keramik ditemukan dalam jumlah relatif besar.

Bambang Budi Utomo dari Puslitbang Arkenas yang menjadi editor buku Kapal Karam Abad ke-10 di Laut Jawa Utara Cirebon mengatakan, kapal tenggelam yang artefaknya telah diangkat berasal dari kapal niaga, barang dagangannya sebagian besar, bahkan hampir 90 persen berupa keramik. Selebihnya adalah tembikar dan barang-barang kaca

Porselin dan bahan batuan sangat jelas bukan buatan lokal.

Selama ini barang-barang seperti itu telah ditemukan di berbagai situs di Indonesia, dan diketahui berasal dari berbagai negara, seperti Tiongkok, Asia Tenggara (Thailand, Vietnam, dan Kamboja), Timur Tengah, Jepang, dan Eropa (seperti Belanda dan Jerman).

Menurut Widiati, peneliti dan ahli keramik kuno, Keramik yang sering ditemukan di Indonesia berasal dari China (abad ke-2–20 Masehi), Thailand (abad ke-13–18 M), Vietnam (abad ke-8–18 M), Eropa (abad ke-17–20 M), Jepang (abad ke-17–20 M), dan Timur Tengah (abad ke-7–14 M).

Tentang temuan keramik di perairan utara Cirebon, berdasarkan identifikasi dan tipologi benda-benda keramik itu, merupakan keramik abad ke-10 Masehi dari masa Dinasti Lima.

Sudah tentu, melalui hasil identifikasi keramik ini, ada sedikit-banyaknya tambahan data untuk merangkai sejarah kebudayaan masa lampau Indonesia.

(Kompas, Kamis, 20 Mei 2010) 

(b)     Shipwreck Ceribon



Described, in May 2004 the Chinese fishermen Indramayu find ceramics, such as jars, strands of gold, silver, agate, roomates Reaches Hundreds of species roomates According to research is a relic of the Ming Dynasty Chinese or fifth dynasty, 10th century
Indonesian government through the national committee appointment and utilization of valuable objects that sink a boatload of origin (Pannas BMKT) will conduct the auction results on the sinking ship that 10th century in northern waters of Cirebon
However, in terms of age, Rini estimates kono objects is not older than a discovery in waters Similar Karangsong, Indramayu In 2004, the the firm is a relic of the Ming Dynasty around the 10th century


Dijelaskan, pada Mei 2004 nelayan Indramayu menemukan keramik Tiongkok, berupa guci, untaian emas, perak, batu akik, yang jenisnya mencapai ratusan yang menurut hasil penelitian merupakan peninggalan Dinasti Ming atau dinasti kelima Cina, abad ke 10

Pemerintah Indonesia melalui panitia nasional pengangkatan dan pemanfaatan benda berharga asal muatan kapal yang tenggelam (Pannas BMKT) akan melakukan pelelangan hasil temuan kapal yang tenggelam pada abad ke-10 di perairan utara Cirebon

Namun, dari sisi usia, Rini memperkirakan benda-benda kono ini tidak lebih tua dari penemuan serupa di perairan Karangsong, Indramayu Pada tahun 2004 yang dipastikan merupakan peninggalan Dinasti Ming sekitar abad ke-10.

Gambar 7: Form atribut ukuran (sumber & modifikasi: Irdiansyah, 2011).

Gambar 8: Form atribut bentuk (sumber & modifikasi: Irdiansyah, 2011).

© Krawang Shipwreck report

Database Systems for Data Recording Archaeology: A Recommendation Based Database Systems Shipwrecks findings Falkirk

Sistem Basis Data untuk Perekaman Data Arkeologi: Suatu Rekomendasi Berdasarkan Sistem Basis Data Temuan-temuan Kapal Karam Karawang

22 April 2012

iaaipusat PIA 2011 BMKT, Irdiansyah Tinggalkan Komentar

Arkeolog, Karyawan Swasta

One category of findings that can be explained Shipwreck Falkirk sequence and category attributes is closed (closed). In the handling of these findings Shipwreck Karawang, closed category (closed) is defined as the diameter of the hole all the artifacts it is smaller than the diameter of the largest part of his body, and does not have a neck and / or beak.

Attributes recorded in the measurement process is the size and shape (in this system form later called). The forms are designed in such a way that the filler can run the measurement process easily and efficiently.

When the closed category (Figure 6) is clicked (click) it will display the form (form) fields that are used to find corresponding barcode measured artifacts and start timing measurements. The information entered is the barcodes, the name of filler, and the date (automatically recorded when the name charger included).

Furthermore, after the “ok” button is clicked will show up forms for measurement. Ranging from high (height), the largest diameter (body broadest diameter), the diameter of the hole (top opening diameter), high foot (bottom rim height), the diameter of the foot (bottom diameter), thick frame leg (bottom rim width), median diameter foot (bottom center diameter), up to the foot diameter (inside bottom rim diameter

Salah satu kategori temuan Karawang Shipwreck yang dapat dijelaskan urutan dan atributnya adalah kategori closed (tertutup). Pada penanganan temuan Karawang Shipwreck ini, kategori closed (tertutup) didefinisikan sebagai seluruh artefak yang diameter lubang atasnya lebih kecil dari diameter terbesar bagian badannya, serta tidak memiliki leher dan/atau cucuk. Atribut yang direkam pada proses pengukuran ini adalah ukuran dan bentuk (dalam sistem ini kemudian disebut form). Form-form itu dirancang sedemikan rupa agar pengisinya dapat menjalankan proses pengukuran dengan mudah dan efisien.

Ketika tombol kategori closed (gambar 6) diklik (click) maka akan muncul form (formulir) isian yang berfungsi untuk mencari barcode sesuai artefak yang diukur dan memulai penghitungan waktu pengukuran. Informasi yang dimasukkan adalah barcode, nama pengisi, dan tanggal (terekam secara otomatis ketika nama pengisi dimasukkan).

Selanjutnya setelah tombol “ok” diklik akan muncul form-form untuk pengukuran. Mulai dari tinggi (height), diameter terbesar (body broadest diameter), diameter lubang atas (top opening diameter), tinggi kaki (bottom rim height), diameter kaki (bottom diameter), tebal bingkai kaki (bottom rim width), diameter tengah kaki (bottom centre diameter), hingga diameter dalam kaki (inside bottom rim diameter)


Pameran “Jejak-jejak  KAPAL Karam”

Koleksi-koleksi yang berasal dari kapal karam (Foto: Djulianto Susantio)


History of the archipelago as real-fact is the history of the sea. Since the beginning of residential archipelago by the Austronesian language speakers, the sea has played a role in the event of a large-scale migration of the ancestors of Formosa (Taiwan) to the various regions in Southeast Asia, around 6,500 BC. The role of the ocean can not dinafikkan anyway when the archipelago became a haven of spice on Trade Ages, the 16th century until the mid-20th century AD, which then led to colonialism.
Thus, most of the territorial waters of the archipelago is also a historic site. In essence saved a lot of historical evidence. Traces of shipwreck. Remains, historical remains such as sunken ships, with cargo, when they first crossed the Indonesian waters. According to the documentation, there are around 400 points shipwreck in Indonesian waters. This is possible because of the archipelago, except indeed the spice-producing areas of high quality, also the crossing area that connects the western hemisphere and the eastern.
Objects cargo ship sank (BMKT), which comes from the past, obviously very important for the history of the archipelago disclosure. At least can give an overview of the various aspects of social life, political, economic, or cultural contiguity contiguity-that occurred in the past. And for that, of course, should be preserved for its utilization for the benefit of mankind

Pameran “Jejak-jejak  KAPAL Karam”

Sejarah Nusantara senyata-nyatanya adalah sejarah tentang laut. Sejak awal penghunian Nusantara oleh para penutur Bahasa Austronesia, laut telah memainkan peranannya ketika terjadi migrasi besar-besaran para leluhur tersebut dari Formosa (Taiwan) ke berbagai wilayah di Asia Tenggara, sekitar 6.500 SM. Peran laut tak dapat dinafikkan pula ketika Nusantara menjadi surga rempah-rempah pada Abad Perdagangan, abad ke-16 sampai pertengahan abad ke-20 Masehi, yang lantas bermuara pada kolonialisme.

Maka, sebagian wilayah perairan Nusantara adalah juga situs bersejarah. Di dasarnya banyak sekali tersimpan bukti-bukti sejarah. Jejak-jejak karam. Tinggalan-tinggalan historis berupa kapal-kapal yang karam, bersama muatannya, saat mereka dulu melintasi wilayah perairan Indonesia. Menurut pendataan, ada sekitar 400-an titik-titik kapal karam di perairan Indonesia. Ini sangat dimungkinkan karena Nusantara, selain memang wilayah penghasil rempah-rempah berkualitas tinggi, juga merupakan wilayah perlintasan yang menghubungkan belahan bumi bagian barat dan timur.

Benda-benda muatan kapal tenggelam (BMKT), yang berasal dari masa lalu, jelas sangat penting artinya bagi pengungkapan sejarah Nusantara. Paling tidak dapat memberikan berbagai gambaran tentang aspek-aspek kehidupan sosial, politik, ekonomi, atau persentuhan-persentuhan budaya yang terjadi di masa lalu. Dan untuk itu, tentu saja, harus dilestarikan demi pemanfaatannya bagi kepentingan umat manusia


Centuries ago, before the colonization of the peoples of Europe, the waters of the archipelago has been an important commercial shipping lines from around the world.

Some important port in the archipelago that already exist such as Pasai in Aceh, Palembang Chinese City, Banten, Batavia (now Jakarta), Semarang, Demak, Jepara, Makassar, Gowa, Tallo, Sangihe, Talaud, Seram, and Ternate.

 Foreign trade with the archipelago initially suspected to


trade in spices from the Moluccas by Arab and Indian traders. Transport early this archipelago spice trade through sea route to India, and then passed through a land trade routes to the Middle East, and ended up in Europe.


When the Roman Emperor Vespasion prohibit the export of gold from Rome in the first century,


Indian traders also turned to the archipelago-particularly Sumatra and Java as an alternative to gold imports.

In addition to Indian and Arab traders, Malay traders also have played an important role in the pilot boat to the east (China, Japan) and to the west (India, Middle East and Africa).


Since the 9th century the Chinese also contributed to the growth of sea trade through the export of ceramics.
Therefore from various records and historical documents from the 7th century until the 19th AD, hundreds or even thousands of ships alleged to have suffered shipwreck or drowning in the archipelago.


Ships were derived from Chinese merchant ships (of various dynasties), ship kingdoms in the archipelago, ships Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC), Dutch, Portuguese, Spanish, English, and Japanese.

Cause of the sinking ships, among others, by storms and bad weather, navigational knowledge geographic cruise ship hit a reef less so, or for other reasons such as being the target and battle pirates.
Number of lost ships and sunken over the centuries in the waters of the archipelago does not count.

In 2001 National Geographic has reported seven ancient ship that sank in the western part of the archipelago waters (Strait of Malacca) in the XVII-XX centuries AD. Such vessels are Diana (UK),

Tek Sing 

Treasure from Tek Sing

The Tek Sing (True Star) set sail from China, bound for Java, in 1822. She was heavily laden with Chinese porcelain, 1,600 passengers (mostly living outside on deck) and 200 crew. After 24 days she struck a reef, and quickly sank, taking more lives than even the Titanic disaster 90 years later. In 1999, salvage diver Captain Mike Hatcher found the wreck and recovered her porcelain cargo – the largest ever discovery of its kind, and in remarkably good condition

read more info (not upload)



// // photo

Chinese Ceramics From the Shipwreck Turiang 14th Century

Turiang (China),


nd Geldermalsen (Netherlands),

€ 24 millions. Discovery, in Indonesia, of the Dutch VOC vessel wreck ‘Geldermalsen’ sunk in 1752.

Salvage of a cargo made of 160,000 pieces of porcelain and 127 stamped Chinese gold ingots 

Don Duarte de Guerra (Portuguese),

Archaeologists work to uncover shipwreck remains in Portimão

related Information(not upload)


Ashigara (Japan).


Shipwreck off coast of Japan (via CNN)

Marine archeologists say that the ancient wreckage of a ship discovered in the seabed off the coast of Nagasaki, Japan, belongs to the ancient “lost fleet” of ships belonging to China’s 13th century Mongol ruler Kublai Khan, CNN reports.

Explorers found the 20-meter-long shipwreck by using ultra-sound equipment some 25 meters off the coast of Nagasaki. The team of researchers buried the ultra-sound sensors about a meter deep in the sandy earth beneath the sea. Archeologists believe the ship dates back to 1281, and was part of a 4,400-vessel fleet that China’s Mongol rulers during the Yuan Dynasty had employed as an invasion force.

The discovery of the ship’s well preserved and mostly intact 12-meter-long keel “could go a long way to helping researchers identify all the characteristics of the 20-meter warship,” CNN reported, citing the head of the research team that made the discovery.

“This discovery was of major importance for our research,” Yoshifumi Ikeda, of Okinawa’s University of the Ryukyus, said at a recent press conference in Nagasaki, according to the CNN report. “We are planning to expand search efforts and find further information that can help us restore the whole ship.”

According to Japanese legend, two typhoons–known as the Kamikaze–that occurred seven years apart in the 13th century twice saved Japan from Mongol invasion by “destroy[ing] two separate Mongol invasions fleets so large they were not eclipsed until the D-Day landings of World War II,” CNN reported. China was not so spared, however, and was ruled by the Mongol Yuan Dynasty from 1271-1368.

“According to a contemporary account cited in the book Khubilai Khan’s Lost fleet: In Search of a Legendary Armada,” by maritime archaeologist James P. Delgado, the typhoon’s destruction of the over 4,000-vessel Yuan Dynasty invasion fleet created such a vast quantity of material wreckage “that ‘a person could walk across from one point of land to another on a mass of wreckage,’” CNN reported.

The wooden-planked ship, originally believed to have been painted light gray, is among “more than 4,000 artifacts, including ceramic shards, bricks used for ballast, cannonballs and stone anchors [that] have been found in the vicinity of the wreck, linking it to the Yuan Dynasty invasion fleet,” CNN reported

Chinese sailing ship that has sailed the waters of Asia-including the archipelago for centuries-even many that are not reported back. Moreover, since 1650, from about 800 Portuguese ships that sailed from Lisbon, nearly 150 ships were never heard from again. Disappeared without a trace.

Between the years 1600 to 1800, the EIC informed has lost more than 7,000 ships. Generally the ship sank to the bottom of the sea declared carried away with its cargo.

relted info

Shipwrecks and the East India Company’s ‘Immaterial’ Material Culture(illustration not upload)

As the fate of both the Valentine and the Abergavenny attests, shipwreck was a frequent occurrence in the history of the EIC in the Georgian era.

Of the 980 EIC voyages between 1747-88, and discounting those ships which were to remain abroad, less than 94% returned home: 39 were wrecked or ‘lost’, 7 were burnt and 12 were captured.

By far the worst year was 1779/80 when six ships were captured and two were lost out of 26 which sailed. It was for this reason that ships were owned by a number of investors, and it seems Raymond had a group of associates who worked together in partnership. Cargos from shipwrecked vessels provide historians with a ghostly counterfoil to pristine collections of Asian luxuries assembled in many surviving stately homes in Britain, offering a unique, ‘immaterial’ perspective on the Company’s domestic material culture.

Diver Richard Keen preparing to dive near Guernsey. Image courtesy of Georgina Green.

When divers investigated the wreck of the Griffin East Indiaman, which sank in 1761 on her way home from China, they estimated she carried 125,800 pieces of chinaware.Fragments such as the Griffin’s porcelain shards have rarely featured in analyses of the Company’s material legacies, but they offer historians a wealth of material for understanding the EIC’s contribution to consumer culture. As they remind us, the Asian items displayed in stately homes and country houses today are only a fraction of what arrived in England in the eighteenth century. Indeed, much of the cargo brought home from India and China was of short term value and use. Tea, spices, fabrics – were all for immediate consumption and almost all are lost to us now. As an example, the cargo carried home from India in 1739 by Captain Charles Raymond on his second voyage of the Wager included cotton materials (callico, seersuckers, chints, ginghams etc) valued at approximately £85,030; raw silk at £9,780; redwood at £112 (this was dunnage: it was packed between cargo to prevent movement and keep it dry); salt petre at £1770; turmerick at £125; and cowries at £1,875. The total value of the cargo was nearly £100,000 which in present day terms would be around £10m. Unlike Raymond’s porcelain plate, books and artwork, these imports have left relatively few traces in domestic interiors. Recovering their histories requires us to step outside the home, and outside the archive, diving instead (quite literally) into the waters in which East Indiamen sailed to trade with Asia.

Nearly 200 years after the Valentine was wrecked, a young Guernsey diver, Richard Keen (see image above), decided to try and find the wreck. Richard was born and brought up in an old farmhouse in Guernsey (Channel Isles) where his father grew roses. It was expected he would join his father when he left school, but his life changed when he tried out the new sport of scuba diving while in his mid-teens. On leaving school he took up a career diving for shellfish. While looking for scallops he found many objects on the sea bed and his enquiring mind led him to an interest in marine archaeology.

Richard has discovered over 30 wrecks on the rocks and reefs in Guernsey waters, some by accident and others while un-snagging crab pots and trawl nets. He started to research these wrecks, and others which had been recorded in old newspapers and diaries but had never been located. His most important archaeological find was that of a Roman wreck, known as ‘Asterix’ which he discovered in the harbour mouth at St Peter Port in 1982.

Some years before this Richard came across a map in the Priaulx Library at St. Peter Port which houses some of the island’s archives. This is dated 1816 and shows a rock off the island of Brecqhou (close to Sark) with the words ‘Le Neste upon which the Valentine Indiaman was wrecked in 1779′. He became fascinated by the idea of finding the wreck but the very high rise and fall of the tide and strong currents, with many rocks in the area, make this a hazardous place in which to dive. However, Richard dived and successfully located the site in 1974. Others attempted to dive on the wreck the following year but their attempt was aborted. Eventually some pieces of lead, red dyewood, agate and pottery were retrieved and were declared to the Receiver of Wrecks.

On 9 January 1976 Richard gave a lecture to everyone interested in the wreck and as a result the ‘Valentines Excavation Group 1976’ was established to undertake a coordinated survey of the wreck site, near a rock called ‘Le Neste’ off the western tip of Brecqhou (to view the 1976 report click here). Dives were made on ten days, starting on 10 April with the last on 12 December. The seabed in the area comprises a mass of rocky gullies with gravel in the bottom, and with kelp growing on the rocks. Work on the site was only possible during neap tides and then only close to slack water, due to the strong currents. However the depth of the remains at diving time is between 10 to 18 metres, so the divers did not have any problems with decompression.

The main cargo of the vessel was salt petre which was much in demand for the manufacture of gun powder, a substance which would have dissolved in the sea. Another significant part of the cargo was red dyewood which was dunnage as well as being of value for dyeing. Large logs of dyewood were found as this is extremely hard wood. The timbers of the ship decomposed long ago although some canons remain to mark the site where the Valentine foundered. One interesting find was a broken anchor (which had been mentioned in the captain’s journal) with a cannon strapped to it. This illustrates the desperate attempts made by the crew to save their ship in 1779.

Richard Keen with richly coloured red dyewood (to left). Even after being in the sea for two-hundred years the red colour is vibrant when the wood is cut and it can still be used to dye fabric.

Since 1976 other dives have been held and a number of local people have retrieved items from the wreck site. Shards of blue and white Chinese porcelain are often found. It was made in China, loaded in Canton and either brought directly to England or taken to India by one of the many EIC ‘country ships’ used by the Company to transport their cargo in Asian waters. Porcelain was often packed in boxes with loose tea or pepper for padding, and best use of space. The Valentine had only visited India on her last voyage, but her cargo consisted of a range of Chinese porcelain from best quality items for the aristocratic tea party to thicker items for general use.

The finer shards illustrated right from a good quality (sugar?) bowl, decorated inside. The blue and white china was a popular design in England.

Many small pieces of agate were discovered (shown left), mostly orange or rust in colour. They were cut and roughly shaped square or rectangular in India to be made into signet rings and broaches in England. Agate is an extremely hard stone and it is remarkable that these pieces were smoothed and bevelled by India craftsmen without modern technology. Their loading was not noted in the captain’s journal so it is likely they were private trade.

Other items retrieved illustrate life on board ship: metal handles from furniture or travelling luggage (shown right), and ground glass stoppers for decanters or medical jars (shown right). They may have been for items used on the voyage – although there was a significant quantity found, which may suggest they were also part of the private trade.

Broken bottles were also found. They may have been loaded in Madeira and would have contained fortified or non-fortified wine. Madeira wine was collected on the outward journey and some of it was required for EIC staff in India. Apparently, the voyage improved the quality, if it wasn’t drunk by officers and passengers before they got back to England! As already stated, quantities of redwood have also been salvaged. Even after being in the sea for 200 years the red colour is vibrant when the wood is cut, and it can still be used to dye fabric.

While in 1808 and 1809, the EIC lost 10 ships that sailed with a cargo valued at over one million sterling. Dutch VOC has also lost 105 ships that sailed between 1602 and 1794. Bad period was between the years 1725-1749, when the VOC ship lost 44 on the way home from the east. 


Berabad-abad lampau, sebelum terjadi kolonialisasi bangsa-bangsa Eropa, perairan Nusantara sudah merupakan jalur penting pelayaran niaga dari berbagai belahan dunia. Beberapa pelabuhan penting di Nusantara yang sudah ada antara lain Pasai Aceh, Kota Cina Palembang, Banten, Batavia (Jakarta sekarang), Semarang, Demak, Jepara, Makassar, Gowa, Tallo, Sangihe, Talaud, Seram, serta Ternate. Perdagangan luar negeri Nusantara mulanya ditengarai dengan adanya perdagangan rempah-rempah asal Maluku oleh pedagang Arab dan India. Transportasi awal perdagangan rempah Nusantara ini melalui rute laut ke India, kemudian melewati darat melalui rute perdagangan ke Timur Tengah, dan berakhir di Eropa.

Ketika Roman Emperor Vespasion melarang ekspor emas dari Roma pada sekitar abad pertama, pedagang India pun beralih ke Nusantara –terutama Sumatera dan Jawa– sebagai alternatif impor emas. Selain pedagang India dan Arab, pedagang Melayu pun telah memainkan peran penting dalam rintisan rute kapal ke arah timur (Cina, Jepang) dan ke barat (India, Timur Tengah dan Afrika). Sejak abad ke-9 bangsa Cina juga memberi kontribusi pertumbuhan perdagangan laut melalui ekspor keramik.

Oleh karena itu dari berbagai catatan dan dokumen sejarah sejak abad ke-7 sampai ke-19 Masehi, ratusan bahkan ribuan kapal diduga telah mengalami karam atau tenggelam di Nusantara. Kapal-kapal tersebut berasal dari kapal dagang Cina (dari berbagai dinasti), kapal kerajaan-kerajaan di Nusantara, kapal-kapal Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC), Belanda, Portugis, Spanyol, Inggris, serta Jepang. Penyebab kapal-kapal tersebut karam antara lain oleh badai dan cuaca buruk, pengetahuan navigasi geografis pelayaran yang kurang sehingga kapal menabrak karang, atau sebab lain seperti menjadi sasaran perompak dan peperangan.

Jumlah kapal hilang dan karam selama berabad-abad di perairan Nusantara memang tidak terhitung. Pada tahun 2001 National Geographic pernah melaporkan tujuh kapal kuno yang karam di perairan Nusantara bagian barat (Selat Malaka) pada abad XVII-XX Masehi. Kapal-kapal tersebut adalah Diana (Inggris), Tek Sing dan Turiang (Cina), Nassai dan Geldermalsen (Belanda), Don Duarte de Guerra (Portugis), dan Ashigara (Jepang).

Kapal layar Cina yang telah mengarungi perairan Asia –termasuk Nusantara– selama berabad-abad pun dilaporkan banyak yang tidak kembali. Selain itu, sejak tahun 1650, dari sekitar 800 kapal Portugis yang berlayar dari Lisabon, hampir 150 kapal tidak pernah terdengar lagi kabarnya. Hilang tanpa jejak.

Antara tahun 1600 sampai 1800, EIC menginformasikan telah kehilangan lebih dari 7.000 kapalnya. Umumnya kapal tersebut dinyatakan karam ke dasar laut terbawa bersama muatannya. Sementara pada tahun 1808 dan 1809, EIC kehilangan 10 kapal yang berlayar dengan muatan senilai satu juta sterling lebih. VOC Belanda juga telah kehilangan 105 kapal yang berlayar antara tahun 1602 dan 1794. Periode yang buruk adalah antara tahun 1725-1749, ketika VOC kehilangan 44 kapalnya dalam perjalanan pulang dari timur.


Exploration of the Sea and Fisheries Department (now Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries) has an inventory of shipwrecks or sunken ships before World War II. There are at least 463 locations for the period between 1508 until 1878. Generally, the shipwreck was a merchant ship VOC, Portuguese ships, American ships, boats France, Britain, Germany, Belgium, and Asia (China, Japan, the archipelago). Of the 463 new locations 43 locations that have been successfully surveyed. However, only 10 locations payload object has been lifted.

There are about 300,000 objects lifted from the seabed and is now stored in special warehouses Objects Cargo Ship Sink (BMKT) in Cullinan, Bogor.
The ten points that have been raised generally valuable objects from the waters of Java and Sumatra.

Appointment of objects in Java waters is on the site Blanakan, Subang regency, 1998; Karangsong, Cirebon (2004); Karawang, West Java, (2008); China Coral Island,

Thousand Islands, Jakarta, as well as in Jepara, Central Java, in 2008 . In the waters of Sumatra, the longest performed at Crocodile Island, Riau Islands, in 1998. In addition, Diamond Island, in the Strait of Gelasa, Bangka Belitung; Gulf Sumpat in Tanjung Pinang, and Coral Heliputan in Riau Islands, in 2006.

Objects similar findings Heliputan Reef site was also found in the waters of the Thousand Islands, Bangka Belitung, Cirebon, and West Kalimantan.

Lodging Thousand Islands found 11,000 objects made of various metals, such as gold, silver, bronze, and pewter. The findings probably derived from the 10th century AD. From the identification of the majority of the hull, the ship was made in Indonesia which sailed from Capital Sriwijaya, Palembang, to Central Java or East Java.
Mid-2008 in the village Punjulharjo, Apex, Central Java, some residents found relatively intact ancient boat, about 1 km from the beach.

The boat measures 4 m wide and 15.60 m long. Professor Pierre-Yves Manguin, maritime archaeologist from France, who invited Yogyakarta Archaeological Center to examine

the boat said the boat Apex dating back to

the Ancient Mataram Kingdom transitional Srivijaya, the period between the years 670-780 AD.

Tambuktu boat building technology using pegs or spot beam reinforced with rope fibers. On the boat found objects such as shells, pieces of sticks, and the head of the statue of Chinese women dress Java. The boat is a boat suspected of inter-island trade.

Warga Berdatangan Melihat Proses Evakuasi
In 2008, an ancient boat found in Bengawan Solo, precisely in the Village Banjarsari, District Trucuk, Bojonegoro, East Java.

In 2010 an ancient boat found another three who also predicted hundreds of years old, at the bottom of the river which is located in the Village District Panjunan Kalitidu and in District Malo.

Early identification stating a boat length up to 30 m with a width of 4 m. The boat is longer than the findings of an ancient boat in 2006 in the village of Padang, District Malo, which is known from Thailand made in 1312.


Departemen Eksplorasi Laut dan Perikanan (kini Departemen Kelautan dan Perikanan) telah menginventarisasi kapal karam atau kapal tenggelam sebelum Perang Dunia II. Setidaknya terdapat di 463 lokasi untuk periode antara tahun 1508 sampai 1878. Umumnya kapal karam tersebut adalah kapal dagang VOC, kapal Portugis, kapal Amerika, kapal Prancis, Inggris, Jerman, Belgia, dan Asia (Cina, Jepang, Nusantara). Dari 463 lokasi itu baru 43 lokasi yang telah berhasil disurvei. Namun, hanya 10 lokasi yang benda muatannya telah diangkat. Ada sekitar 300.000 benda yang terangkat dari dasar laut dan kini tersimpan di gudang khusus Benda Muatan Kapal Tenggelam (BMKT) di Cileungsi, Bogor.

Kesepuluh titik yang telah diangkat benda berharganya umumnya dari perairan Jawa dan Sumatera. Pengangkatan benda di perairan Jawa adalah di situs Blanakan, Kabupaten Subang, tahun 1998; Karangsong, Cirebon (2004); Karawang, Jabar, (2008); Pulau Karang Cina, Kepulauan Seribu, Jakarta; serta di Kabupaten Jepara, Jawa Tengah, pada 2008. Di perairan Sumatera, yang terlama dilakukan di Pulau Buaya, Kepulauan Riau, pada 1998. Selain itu, di Pulau Intan, di Selat Gelasa, Bangka Belitung; Teluk Sumpat di Tanjung Pinang; dan Karang Heliputan di Kepulauan Riau, tahun 2006.

Benda temuan serupa situs Karang Heliputan juga ditemukan di perairan Kepulauan Seribu, Bangka Belitung, Cirebon, dan Kalimantan Barat. Khusus di Kepulauan Seribu ditemukan 11.000 benda terbuat dari aneka logam, seperti emas, perak, perunggu, dan timah. Temuan-temuan itu diduga berasal dari abad ke-10 Masehi. Dari identifikasi sebagian badan kapal, kapal itu buatan Indonesia yang berlayar dari Ibu Kota Sriwijaya, Palembang, menuju Jawa Tengah atau Jawa Timur.

Medio 2008 di Desa Punjulharjo, Rembang, Jawa Tengah, sejumlah warga menemukan perahu kuno yang relatif utuh, sekitar 1 km dari pantai. Perahu itu berukuran lebar 4 m dan panjang 15,60 m. Profesor Pierre-Yves Manguin, arkeolog maritim asal Perancis, yang diundang Balai Arkeologi Yogyakarta untuk meneliti perahu tersebut menyatakan, perahu Rembang berasal dari zaman peralihan Kerajaan Mataram Kuno ke Sriwijaya, periode antara tahun 670-780 Masehi. Teknologi pembuatan perahu menggunakan tambuktu atau balok tempat pasak yang diperkuat dengan ikatan tali ijuk. Di perahu itu ditemukan benda seperti tempurung kelapa, potongan tongkat, dan kepala arca perempuan Cina berdandan Jawa. Diduga perahu itu merupakan perahu dagang antar pulau.

Pada tahun 2008, sebuah perahu kuno ditemukan di Bengawan Solo, tepatnya di Desa Banjarsari, Kecamatan Trucuk, Bojonegoro, Jawa Timur. Tahun 2010 ditemukan lagi tiga perahu kuno yang juga diperkirakan berusia ratusan tahun, di dasar sungai yang terletak di Desa Panjunan Kecamatan Kalitidu dan di Kecamatan Malo. Identifikasi awal menyatakan panjang perahu mencapai 30 m dengan lebar 4 m. Perahu tersebut lebih panjang dibandingkan dengan temuan perahu kuno pada 2006 di Desa Padang, Kecamatan Malo, yang diketahui asal Thailand buatan tahun 1312

The Chinese Imperial Ceramic Artwork Found In Indonesia ( continiu )







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Report of  Shipwrecks Finding in South East Asia 

Laporan Temuan Kapal Karam di Asia tenggara

A short description of the developments, transport and production of ancient Chinese porcelain

(Sten Sjostrand)

This text is part of the Wanli shipwreck catalogue: “The Wanli Shipwreck and its Ceramic Cargo”

Early Production:Jingdezhen, the ‘city of all day thunder and lightning,’ is located in the northeastern part of Jiangxi province and is known as the porcelain centre of the world.  Some historians believe that ceramics production may have started there in the Han dynasty (206 BC.–AD. 220) with kilns spread along the Chang River, south and southeast of the town.

The town was then called

Xinping Town or Changnan

for its location to the south (nan) of the Chang River.  Pottery clay was in ample supply all around the town. 

More specifically,


the Gaoling mountain,

40 kilometers to the northeast, is one of the few areas in China which provided pure kaolin, one of the essential ingredients for porcelain. 

Other nearby areas such as





and Liujiawan

provided the other ingredient; the so-called ‘China stone.’


Another important material was fuel for the kilns. Pine wood was found in abundance around the town. 



The Chang River

provided transport for raw material to the kilns as well as for later shipping of the finished products. 

In summary, the ample clay resources, fuel supply, convenient transportation and eventual imperial favors provided the necessary catalyst for potters from other places in China to join in the commercial pottery production in the town.

Other texts say that pottery was being made


at Jingdezhen by A.D. 557

and that it had grown into an industry


by Tang dynasty (A.D. 618-906). 

Old texts mention the Tao kilns, which are said to be named after the Tao family who founded the kilns and who made high-fired pottery already then known to be translucent and often referred to as ‘artificial jade’.In support of this industry, Guangzhou in southern China became a thriving seaport that by the Tang dynasty was home to a large Arab community with its own mosques and trading houses.



By the reign of emperor Jingde (1004-1007) of the Song dynasty (960-1280), the court decreed that existing private kilns fire quality wares for imperial use and that the pieces should be marked with ‘Made in the Jingde period’ on the base. 
The town (zhen) was thereafter known as Jingdezhen and the earlier name of Changnan was gradually forgotten. 
This decree did not result in the creation of new kilns but merely appointed established private kilns to add imperial wares to their production. 
The kilns were thus producing high quality wares for the imperial court at the same time as producing common dinner sets for the domestic markets at the same time.

Tributary pottery for the court, like the thin-walled ‘thin as paper’ or qingbai wares, were made at the Hutian kilns in the northern Song dynasty.


By 1278 production at the Hutian kilns

was overseen by a government official from the ‘Porcelain Office’ who also overlooked the imperial production

at the Luomaqiao kilns and those on the Zhushan hill.

  Hutian had a great impact on other Jingdezhen kilns which began producing similar quality wares.  At this time, it appears certain that imperial wares were not fired in a kiln specially created for that purpose. 

Instead, after receiving production requirements from the court, Jingdezhen would summon all the best ceramists together to design, choose and fire the best ware possible.  (It is likely that this communal corroboration between the different potteries and kilns lasted until at least the 15th century and beyond, when private kilns are known to have assisted official kilns with imperial orders.)

During the Song dynasty high-fired ceramics were immensely popular and developed to perfection.


Sung yueh colour motif dragon ear vase

Thousands of pieces were exported annually to the Middle East, India and Southeast Asia.  Despite this successful trade, the Song court was forced to exploit every means in order to pay ‘peace money’ to the Mongol invaders and to maintain its own administration and military.

  Aware of the threats from the invaders and its own diminishing empire and lack of finances, the court decided to increase its revenue by increasing foreign trade.  One of these measures was to establish Superintendents of Shipping offices and sponsoring of overseas trade. 

In combination with active sponsorship, this trade would greatly benefit the Chinese economy and spur the industrialization of the potteries at Jingdezhen. 

These late Song dynasty Superintendents offices were thus established at Guangzhou in the south,


hangzhou now,Driwan ever visit this beautiful city

Hangzhou in Zhekiang province


 Kaiyuan temple pagoda  in Quanzhou,Driwan wvwe visit this pagoda at his grandfather homeland

and Quangzhou in Fujian province


South Sung Celadon Plate with  insiced chrysanthenum flower motif


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Although large quantities of Chinese pottery were exported to Southeast Asia, India and the Middle East from the 9th century, it was the Yuan dynasty (1280-1368) under the rule of Kublai Khan that significantly expanded maritime trade. 
During the Mongol invasion of northern China it would appear that Cizhou potters from present-day Cixian of Handan municipally,

Human motif and dragon motif yuan cizhou vase

Hebei province migrated to the south and assisted in the technical and decorative achievements of porcelain making in Jingdezhen.







The technique of painting with iron black oxides before glazing, so long practiced elsewhere in China, may have given birth to the first cobalt decorated wares of Jingdezhen, although underglaze cobalt decorated wares from the Gongxian kiln in Henan are known from Tang times. 
This politically motivated transfer of technology resulted in the best known ceramics of all time – blue and white porcelain.  It also had a fundamental effect on Jingdezhen production, China’s trade and eventually on the whole world, although its full impact would not be seen until the fourteenth century. 

During the Yuan dynasty the Chinese potters introduced new forms and painted the earliest known untraditional Chinese motifs on high quality porcelain for foreign dignitaries. 


Yuan Dinasty high quality Vase wuth human figure motif vase

Porcelain that was customized to suit the needs of the Middle East included large plates with Islamic motifs. 


Yuan dynasti ceramic  with islamic motif

Shards from such plates, excavated from the original Yuan dynasty official kilns, are not imperial in form although the body and glaze are clearly of imperial quality.  This type of early export ware was reportedly not made before 1328, and the ware was not made after 1352. 




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The earlier date is based on excavations at the kiln sites where the painted pattern was not seen before this date.  The later date marks the future Hongwu emperor’s conquest of the area and the subsequent cessation of production.  Professor Liu Xinyuan who excavated the kilns re-affirmed that shards from such large plates, excavated from these kilns are not Chinese but more suited for the Islamic markets.

The official kilns did however seem to have flourished during these times.  In the early Ming dynasty another 20 kilns in Jingdezhen were recognized for their quality wares and commissioned to produce ‘imperial porcelain’ exclusively for the court.  These kilns were set up next to an ‘imperial depot’ in 1425 which was to assemble, store and arrange transport to Beijing and the imperial palace.

While production for overseas markets was reduced, private kilns in Jingdezhen made blue and white porcelain for the huge domestic market.  Work for the official kilns was increased in 1433 when the Ming court ordered 443,500 pieces of porcelain for the imperial household. 

To fill this order, the number of official kilns was increased to 58.  In addition to the added production capacity, which probably came from up-grading previously private kilns, privately owned kilns assisted with the production of standardized wares.  Official kilns continued to make the finer wares. 

The 1433 order, as with most other imperial orders, was overseen by eunuch commissioners appointed by the court. Imperial orders in 1529 were limited to 2,570 pieces, but they gradually increased to 174,700 pieces in 1577.  

Private kilns that assisted with imperial production are thought to have been allowed to sell off rejected imperial pieces provided none bore the emperor’s reign mark.

The ‘flesh and bones’ of porcelain were two components mixed in different proportions depending of the type of ware desired.  The first of the ingredients is kaolin, a pure white clay formed by the decomposition of aluminum silicates, in particular decomposed feldspar. 

Yuan qingbei dragonphonix ewer found in Aceh and west borneo

Kaolin remains white when fired, but its low plasticity makes it difficult to pot. The clay is quarried in open mines and washed in a series of ponds where the finer particles are separated from heavier impurities. 

Only the upper supernatant fluid was allowed into a second and a third pond before the clay was dried and made into bricks. The word kaolin derives from the Gaoling (‘High Ridge’) hill 40 kilometers northeast of Jingdezhen where the clay was first found.


The ‘bones’ in porcelain is China stone (petuntse), a granitic grayish white stone which still retains much unaltered feldspar, quartz and sericite. 

After being pulverized by water driven pestles, the powder from the stone is also washed in successive ponds and then dried into bricks.  This material, by itself, can be fired only to about 1,150˚ Centigrade and is off-white in color.  The kaolin-petuntse mixture, however, is white and plastic and when used with for blue and white wares, is fired at 1,250-1,330˚ Centigrade.

Both materials were quarried in mines outside Jingdezhen by specialized mills and transported by river boats to the potteries. 

It is believed that very few expert suppliers of kaolin and China stone were in operation during the Ming dynasty, although a Qing dynasty treatise on porcelain of 1815 indicates that there were 28 rapids, each of them with water-driven pestles, east of Jingdezhen. 

After the pots were trimmed and allowed to dry, skilled artisans would decorate them. Outlines, for instance, could be drawn in darker cobalt mixture before other decorators used different shades of blue to fill in the design.

After the painted decoration was applied, the foot-ring was carved and circular rings were painted onto the base while the pot was still on the wheel.  Other craftsmen would then apply reign marks or an inscription within the rings. 

Some pieces of porcelain from The Wanli Shipwreck included the circular outlines on the base but no markings within them. These must have by-passed the decorator who was supposedly meant to fill them. Yet other kraak plates by-passed the artisans supposed to paint the fill in the main decorations.

After their decoration, the pots were glazed with a thin layer of specially prepared slurry containing fern ash.  This glaze mixture was delivered to the kilns in Jingdezhen as a liquid by specially lined river boats. 

When the pots were glazed and dried, the painted decoration disappeared under the whitish slurry, but reappeared after firing as crystal blue below transparent glaze.


Chinese tradition claims that the earliest cobalt at Jingdezhen was imported from Persia. This ore was rich in iron.  Later cobalt oxide, high in manganese, mined in China was utilized, sometimes in varying mixtures with imported cobalt.


The wanli Kraak Porcelain plate with the bird on rock longevity symbol motif

Once the pots were decorated and glazed, most private workshops sent them to kilns that specialized in firing ceramics.  The pots were carried on wooden planks added in layers to a ladder-like structure.  The early matiyao kilns were commonly built on the slope of hills in an area that was not necessarily suited to workshops.  From the 16th century, egg-shaped kilns (zhen yao) or mantou type kilns become more popular as they and the later ‘beehive’ kilns could be constructed on flat ground 

During the 13th century many other kilns were spread out over a large area southeast of the town.  The author visited the excavation of an early Song dynasty kiln 40 kilometers west of the Chang River in August 2005.

These remotely located kilns do however appear to have moved closer to the city center by the Yuan dynasty, possibly in connection with increased overseas trade.  It is reported in the Yuan-dynasty Notes of Ceramics by Jiang Qi that “All together there were over three hundred kilns in Jingdezhen.”  Wares made in these kilns were white, clean and flawless.  When sold in other provinces in China, people called them ‘jades’.

By the time the Mongols had established the Yuan dynasty (1280-1368), trade flourished. The seaports established by the Song court became even more successful under Mongol rule.   Marco Polo (1275-1292) wrote that Quanzhou harbor was the greatest port in the world and also mentioned the ceramics trade:

At the kiln, the pieces of pottery were placed in saggars, specially-made circular boxes, to ensure they received uniform temperature and to protect them from air currents and debris that might fall from the kiln ceiling.  The arrangement of the saggars in the kiln took into account the heat requirements for the different types of ware.  Observers in the 18th century report that it took about eight days to reach the required temperature.

  A kiln master determined the temperature by observing the color of the saggars.  When they reached silver-red, the fire was stopped.  Even though three to four days was allowed for initial cooling, the saggars as well as the kiln interior were still very hot when special workmen covered in wet cloth removed them.  The difficulties in determining kiln temperature and related risks are described in Pere’ d’Entrecolles letter of 1712:

“……the whole oven-full is hardly ever successful.  Sometimes it is quite lost, and when they open the furnace they find the porcelain pieces and the                 cases (saggars) are reduced to a mass as hard as rock…. For one workman who gets rich  there are hundred others who ruin themselves, though          they still try their fortunes further in the hope that they may save enough to become shopkeepers”.

A word of caution is in place here.  When referring to ‘kilns’ it is perhaps common to assume a place where the pots were made, decorated, glazed and fired.

  This may not be true for the export production as there were relatively few ‘kilns’ but many small potteries scattered all over the town.  It is therefore possible that future archaeology will discover actual kilns, specialized in firing the ware, while other places may yield evidences of porcelain production. 

These separate production segments are probably confirmed by Tang Ying, alias Jun Gong, who was decreed to supervise porcelain production in Jingdezhen during the early 18th century. His detailed description of all phases of production includes a statement about making the saggars:

…In the whole district of Jingdezhen there are only three or four workmen reputed clever at this special handiwork.”

Individual owners separated the fired wares into different quality groups and priced the export ware accordingly. 



high quality late ming plate with bird motif plate

FFirst class wares had the brightest color and no kiln defects such as warping; pieces with lower density color became second class. 

Read more late Ming Porcelain (not upload)

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Overview of Folk Kiln (Minyao) Ming Blue and White (not upload)

Low quality late ming people kil ware with chillin gyardian motif plate

The remainder was sold on the domestic market.  Ceramics intended for overseas markets were packed in straw bundles and sent to the river for onward transport.  The domestic ware was not packed in straw but tied up in bundles of 30-40 pieces before being distributed.

When the volume of porcelain for export increased during the 17th century, many additional kilns appeared in and around Jingdezhen. 

There is estimated to have been no less than a thousand kilns at the peak of this period.  Most of the kilns were distributed along the eastern side of the Chang River, only a few were located on its western bank. Most private kilns were located along the Taoyang Shisan Li (‘thirteen mile’) road that ran north to south through the old city zone. 

The official kilns were located at or near Zhushan hill in the old city center.

Continued developments at Jingdezhen during the early Qing dynasty resulted in the finest porcelains ever made – those from the Kangxi (1662-1722) reign. Blue and white porcelains of that time were perfectly potted, fired to perfection, and decorated in sapphire blue against a bright white ground.

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Kangxi transitional porcelain(not upload)



high quality Kangxi transitional porcelain plate


Thus, from the Ming dynasty we see superior quality porcelain wares made by specially appointed workshops for the exclusive use of the court. 

Read More

Ming High Quality Ware(not upload ) 

At the same time private kilns produce porcelain for the huge domestic and an ever increasing export market.

  We see private kilns assisting official workshops with large orders, and official potters and decorators joining the export industry when court orders diminished.  This degree of adaptability and outsourcing is unparalleled at any other production place at the time.

read more info

Overview of Folk Kiln (Minyao) Ming Blue and White

 (not Upload)

The Portuguese buyers:


In time, yet another political situation benefited Jingdezhen.


  In Europe the Portuguese made technical advances that led to the development of a merchant fleet. 

And their goal was to purchase spices directly from Southeast Asia rather than via Muslim middlemen in the Middle East and other agents in Italy. 

As a result of this desire for spices, they found Chinese porcelain first in India and then, after their settlement in Melaka was established in 1511, in China. 

The first pieces of Jingdezhen ware brought back to Portugal by ship were acquired in India and presented to

 Manuel I.jpg

King Manuel I


by Vasco da Gama.

Meanwhile, some of the early Portuguese ‘trade’ in Asia consisted of looting of Arab, Chinese and Indian merchant ships. 

This approach was not appreciated by the Chinese court which prohibited contact with the newcomers. 

Nevertheless, the Portuguese managed to order porcelain from Fujian middlemen, and eventually they were forwarding drawings to Jingdezhen for specially designed pieces.  The special orders included a blue and white ewer bearing the Portuguese armillary sphere, the emblem of King Manuel I (1495-1521), and various shapes decorated with other coats-of-arms.  While the designs were sometimes painted upside-down or misinterpreted in other ways, they show how willing the Chinese potters were to please new customers.


One of the earliest examples of Chinese porcelain made for a Portuguese patron. It presents the typical white and blue Ming decoration, featuring the armillary sphere, the emblem of King Manuel I.

The taste for Chinese porcelain in Portugal and elsewhere in Europe slowly gained popularity during the later part of the 16th century when the Portuguese royalty gifted other European nobilities with this exclusive commodity which they alone could acquire at source.  Here it is important to note that Chinese celadon, an important export in earlier times, rarely entered the trade with Europeans.  Blue and white porcelain had already become more fashionable than celadon in the 15th century, and the Portuguese arrived at the beginning of the 16th century.


Portuguese praise for Chinese blue and white porcelain can be seen in a letter by

 Bartolomé d e los Mártires

Frei Bartolomeu dos Martires

who, during a dinner with








Pope Pius lV in 1563,


compared porcelain to silver tableware:

Large volumes of blue and white porcelain were exported to Southeast Asia during 1328-1352. 

Whether the Chinese chronicler Wang Ta-yuan’s reports, made during many years of visiting Southeast Asian countries, refer to qingpai as we know it today or blue and white porcelain, the David vases of 1351 confirm that Chinese blue and white porcelain production was well developed by the middle of the 14th century.

Shapes like cups and bowls were first thrown on the wheel.

After drying, back on the wheel, the leather hard pot was trimmed while careful measurements were taken to check overall diameter, height, thickness and foot-ring details.

  Upright forms were made in different sections that were luted together by adding clay slurry to the join surfaces. Plates were first thrown on the wheel before pressed to exact size in moulds. 

These moulds could sometimes have ridges, striations or other impressed designs.  An 18th century traveler to Jingdezhen reported, somewhat inaccurately, that these plates were so exact that they did not vary more than a hairbreadth in size.  Although this may be true in the 18th century, very few plates in the Wanli 17th century cargo had the same overall or foot-ring diameter.

Transition to blue and white porcelain:

Jingdezhen porcelain manufacturing:

When the Hongwu emperor, first ruler of the Ming dynasty (1368-1644),  prohibited the building of ocean going vessels and private overseas trade in 1371, it had a detrimental effect on export production at Jingdezhen. 


With the exception of increased trade in the time of the fabled Zheng He’s treasure ship voyages,

Read more about Zheng He

An Oriental armada(not upload)

very few ceramics were officially exported from China between the third quarter of the 14th and the late 15th century. There was however substantial smuggling despite the ‘Ming ban.’

One text states that when “not a single board was allowed to put out to sea, some renowned families at coastal areas built naval [narrow and fast ships] vessels without permission.  They sailed away to do business in many foreign countries every year.”

The quality of the Jingdezhen porcelain does however fall into two distinct basic groups.


high quality Ming  Hsuande Ceramic found in Indonrsi

One was made strictly for the imperial court and the other for the domestic and export markets.  Because imperial ware was made to strict specifications, personal artistic expression by the decorators was not only minimized but simply not allowed.  As a consequence of strict quality control, imperial porcelain may tend to appear artistically lifeless but is famous for its technical qualities.  Private kilns, on the other hand, made whatever form and decorative styles were in fashion and acceptable to foreign buyers.  On these wares individual decorators display their own styles of painting based on personal interpretation of traditional motifs, making them lively, innovative and individual.


It is unfortunate that export wares have been described as ‘provincial’ or even ‘unrefined,’ which suggest the pots were made in a different area than Jingdezhen and that private potteries were unable to produce quality ware. 

The truth is that the two categories of ware satisfied specific markets.  The private potters and decorators, as enterprising then as now, simply adapted a flexible market strategy for niche markets.  If freely sketched motifs and thick bodied ceramics mean they are ‘unrefined’, they certainly are not ‘provincial’ in any way.

“In Portugal we have a kind of tableware which, being made of clay, may be compared advantageously to silver both in its elegance and its cleanliness, and I would counsel all princes to use it in preference to any other service and to banish silver from their tables.

In Portugal we call it porcelain. It comes from India and is made in China. The clay is so fine and transparent that the whites outshine crystal and alabaster, and the pieces which are decorated in blue dumbfound the eyes, seeming a combination of alabaster and sapphires.

They are not concerned about their fragility since they are quite cheap. They may be esteemed by the greatest princes for their delight and curiosity, and this is why we have them in Portugal.

“The most beautiful vessels and plates of porcelain, large and small, that one can describe are made in  great quantity…more beautiful than can be found in any other city.  And on all sides they are much valued, for none of them are made in another place but in this city and from there they are carried to many places throughout the world.  And there is plenty there and the great sale, so great that for one Vientiane goat you would actually have three bowls so beautiful that none would know how to devise then better”.

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This situation was also witnessed by the Arab traveler Ebn-e-Batuteh (1304-1378)


by the Arab traveler Ibn Batuta (1304-1378) who reportedly saw over a hundred big ships and innumerable smaller ships in Quangzhou harbor.

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Ibn Batuta 1307-1377  – Morocco(not upload)

who reportedly saw over a hundred big ships and innumerable smaller ships in Quangzhou harbor.

 Photo: A mosaic of Marco Polo

Centuries after Marco Polo praised Chinese ‘porcelain’ and remarked on the large volume of export,



Father Matteo Ricci, writing about China in the period of his residency there (1582-1610), noted:

“The finest specimens of porcelain are made from clay found in the province of Jiangxi, and these are shipped not only to every part of China but even to the remotest corners of Europe where they are highly prized by those who appreciate elegance at their banquets rather than pompous display. This porcelain too, will bear the heat of hot foods without cracking and, what is more to be wondered at; if it is broken and sewed with brass wire it will hold liquids without any leakage.”

It is difficult to ascertain the volume of Jingdezhen porcelain intended for the European market in the later part of the 16th century due to lack of records.

  However, in the early 17th century


when the Portuguese carrack Santa Catarina

was captured by the Dutch there were more than thirty last (sixty tones) or about 100.000 pieces of porcelain in her holds.  When later auctioned in Holland it started a Dutch craze for Chinese porcelain.  Its fame spread to the rest of Europe by the second half of the century.

The Dutch buyers:

Export production at Jingdezhen witnessed yet another boost when the Dutch arrived in China in the early 17th century.  With the Portuguese well established in Macao, the doorstep to China,

the Dutch had repeated disputes with the Portuguese and the Chinese administration.  Misbehaving, as the Portuguese did before them, the Dutch were forced to trade along the Chinese coast and from various illegal settlements with primarily Fujian merchants.  The difficulties the Dutch had in establishing direct trade with the Jingdezhen potteries is reflected in a letter by Kr. Kohn, an officer of the Dutch VOC company in 1616: 

“These porcelains sold to us were produced in an inland kiln which was very far away, and those porcelain need to be ordered and paid in advance.”

From their various illegal bases on China’s coast, on Taiwan, and at later establishment in Japan, the Dutch had to wait a full year for their deliveries.  Yet, despite the distance and with unprecedented trust in the Chinese middlemen, the Dutch alone already in 1608 ordered more than 108,000 pieces of porcelain, a number that grew to 355,800 pieces in 1644, for the European market alone.



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Dutch colonial rule of Taiwan(not upload)


the Chinese export vase  with floral and human figure motif

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Chinese Export Porcelain(not uplaod)

Following the sale of the porcelain cargo from Santa Catarina, it has been estimated that between at 1604 and 1657, more than three million porcelain pieces were shipped to Europe by the Dutch alone. Adding the even higher volume of porcelain for Southeast Asian markets, the total production at Jingdezhen was staggering.




A Chinese Blue And White Porcelain Dutch Market Armorial Charger, Qing Dynasty, Kangxi Period (1662-1722)

The Dutch, as the Portuguese before them, relied on standard types of ware with standard decorations but often complained about the quality. 

In 1618 the Dutch officers of the VOC company in Surat complained about a Portuguese advantage:

“Your Honour forwards to us of the other kinds should be just right and good, because it will be judged for these qualities, as the Portuguese carry hither extra-ordinary fine and exquisite wares, so much so that our fine is coarse when compared with theirs.”

It was not only better quality the Portuguese managed to secure for themselves.  Marked porcelain pieces were not only popular in Europe but also in Southeast Asia and India. 

Another letter from a VOC official on the Coromandel Coast, dated 1610, complains about the lack of marked pieces delivered by the Chinese:

“It should be seen to that all these afore-noted kinds of porcelain have under the bottom a blue seal, for about this they are very particular.”

In the late Wanli (1573-1620) period imperial orders for Jingdezhen had dwindled and normal deliveries to Beijing become risky. 

At the same time some of the official kilns, were razed during peasant revolts and eventually closed in 1608.

With continued economic troubles and lack of imperial orders worsened by the approaching Manchus, the remaining kilns closed and did not re-open until a few years into the Qing dynasty. 

During this ‘transitional’ period (circa 1620-1663), some private kilns managed to stay in production for an ever increasing export market.  Unemployed potters and decorators from the official kilns joined the private kilns and were instrumental in improving production.  ‘Transitional’ wares from the 17th century are characterized by fine naturalistic motifs that are painted in brilliant blue cobalt and covered by a clear smooth glaze.




Transitional cup and stempcup with natural landscape motif with brillian colour blue and smooth glaze

From about 1634 onwards, Chinese junk captains took orders from the Dutch for porcelain in special shapes for which models of European objects were provided.

There were also special patterns including ‘Dutch flower-and-leaf work’. 

 Chinese blue and white moulded teabowl and saucer,


Qing Dutch flower-and-leaf work’plate and cup

Some designs were initially incorporated into typical kraak panels, a practice that shows how the Jingdezhen decorators adopted new motifs to please their buyers.



VOC  emblem Kraak style Plate

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Kraak porcelain is a type of Chinese export porcelain produced mainly from the Wanli reign (1573–1620) until around 1640. It was among the first Chinese export ware to arrive in Europe in mass quantities, and was frequently featured in Dutch still life paintings of foreign luxuries, as in the one by Jan Davidsz de Heem at right.

(not upload)

Until late 1630s the supply of porcelain from Jingdezhen was relatively steady, but in the early 1640s there were reports of war in Jingdezhen and high mortality rates among the potters.  Production did however continue, and in large quantities, but supply remained uncertain until about 1657 when the Dutch ordered much of their porcelain in Japan.

 read more

 Japanese Arita porcelain for VOC

Japanese Arita VOC emblem plate

The Dutch East India Company, The Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, VOC (1602-1798)-Not Upload

All Jingdezhen ceramics began their long journeys on the Chang River loaded

 Chang River banks in Jingdezhen. Photo: © Jan-Erik Nilsson, 1992


on small river boats.




The first transit point was at



Lake Poyang

where the cargo was transferred to larger boats that proceeded through the lake into

 1837 Antique engraving: VIEW of HANGZHOU, CHINA, Yangtze River, Zhejiang. 176 years old copper engraving

the Yangtze River

and downstream to



  From there some of the boats followed


Loading zoom

the Grand Canal

and its associated waterways north to reach


vintage summer palace at beijing


Driwan visit Summer Palace in 2008

also forvidden city,great wall,and xianmen(gulangyu island)

Gu lang yu island Xianmen 

The Greeat wall China 

Forbidden city Beijing 

a hazardous journey of about 1,900 kilometers. 

Other boats went south on the Grand Canal to reach



Driwan Visit  Naning, Hangzgou,Guillin and canton south china in 2009

 Nanning of Jiangsi autonom province by


Bus and Train ,  in 2008 visit

Xianmen city


at Sin Hua Book store near my Hotel where I found Chinese coin catalogue


Native market like in Indonesia


 Xianmen with beautiful Gulangyu island, by bus to

 my grandpa homeland


 Chiangzhou city to find more info and look



 the amazing tallest pagoda Kai yuan Quanzhou fujian

old village where my grandpa was born , from Xiamen by flight to

 Beijing by China Airlines to look


olympic games station,

With my wife Lily




south china Guangzou(canton),Hangzou to Guillin to look the amazing dancer on the river,

The common waterfall was decorated with Handmade lake, beautiful and clean road to the waterfall which made the exciting landscape . the clever decrated area must be copy by many countries like Indonesia where more exciting waterfall still in the riginalsituations the same with another place , if the landscape were ddecrated like the picture below , I think will be more beautiful an interesting area.

The temple of the mother of China Emperors Prince Crown was from Wu Zhou, in this temple there were the Statue of the China Empires Prince Crown during the ancient Emprire Before Christ, at the top of the hill beside the Yuanyang River was the Dragons Mother statue. Dragon was the symbols of the China Emperor, I think She was a concubine and his son became the crwn prince because the Empress didnot have the sons (the same as the Empress Dwager Xi Cie). Look at the paintings and the monument below (the Mother and crown prince will illustrated at the unique collections from WuZhou.

This beautiful and exciting park sitatuated at YueXiu Hill in the Guan Zhou (before Canton), consist seven hill, three builded Lake and The Goat Statue of Guan Zhou city emblem ,look at that city emblem photo illustrations below.

.at guangzhou night market I found many achina numismatic collection with colour illustration which help me much to open the mystery of chinese cast coin script and code of reign

canton at night

a journey of 1,000 kilometers. 

Other rivers and waterways coupled with some overland transport allowed porcelain cargoes to reach such seaports as

 ZHANGZHOU - SEPTEMBER 27: Hakka people settle in Tulou building on September 27 2010, in Zhangzhou, China. The Hakka people arrived from Central China to settle in Zhangzhou after centuries of war. - stock photo



Kiyuan temple at Quanzhou


Dr Iwan Grandpa Homeland


 Western old buildings preserved in Fuzhou city

Fuzhou in Fujian province,


Wenzhou in the Zhejiang province



and Changzhou in northern Guangdong province. 

The most cumbersome but most frequently used route in the 17th and 18th centuries ran from Jingdezhen to


Guangzhou (Canton) in southern China. 

This route began in Lake Poyang and proceeded up the Gan River to Nanchang.  Re-loaded onto smaller river boats, the porcelain cargo would then continue upstream to Ganzhou (122 meters above sea level).  Continuing on smaller rivers, the cargo boats eventually reached the southern border of Jiangxi province.

  Here the porcelain had to be hand carried over 

How Amizing pictures, Dr iwan in 2008 ever visit this area when back from Nanning to hanoi via the freedom Pass border ,now there were best road there but we must claimbed by foot,but Driwan by electric golf car

the Meiling Pass,

a stretch of some 30 kilometers that reached about 275 meters above sea level.  After the Meiling Pass, the goods was again re-loaded onto small boats that navigated the winding narrow upper reaches of



the Bei Jiang River

before reaching Guangzhou after a cumbersome, time-consuming journey of about 1,400 kilometers.

River transport was without doubt long and cumbersome.  Crews rowed long distances against the current and often used poles to push the heavily loaded boats though shallows and rocky streams.  In addition to this work and responsibility, whether they started upstream or downstream, they had to return to their original place of loading before repeating the journey.


With hundreds of thousands of pieces of porcelain transported during most years of the 17th century and many more in the 18th century, the transport of porcelain was another large industry in itself.  With large numbers of small boats navigating sometimes small and winding rivers, coming and going, the rivers were both crowded and dangerous, not least for the fragile cargo.


From coastal ports in Zhejiang, Fujian and Guangdong, Ming and Qing dynasty porcelain reached Chinese merchants and shippers who supplied the Spanish in the Philippines, the Portuguese in Guangzhou and Macao, and the Dutch in Taiwan and later Japan.  In the early 17th century, when the Fujian people depended in fishing and cargo transport, they were prohibited from building large double-masted ships for fear they might supply the unpopular Dutch in Japan.   A special permit, which was often falsified by corrupt officials, was required for smaller ships before they could set sail to foreign countries.  Following the fall of the Ming dynasty, this situation reversed.  In the late 17th century Fujian ports exported more ceramics than Guangdong.  Although Macao and Guangdong saw more ships departing, the Fujian ships were larger.   This changed again in the 18th century when almost all porcelain cargo was handled by Hong merchants in Guangzhou, who supplied European ‘factories’ established on the shores of Guangzhou.


Newly discovered private kilns

While many kiln wasters has been found from the earlier production outside Jingdezhen town, increasingly more kilns from the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties are now being discovered in Jingdezhen.  Most of these are private kilns from the Ming and Qing dynasties.


A number of such export kilns has been investigated by Professor Cao Jianwen and Ms. Luo Yifei from the Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute.  These investigations include the Liujia Xianong kiln (2003) and Lianhualing kiln (2005), both situated within the old city zone, Miesilong kiln (2004), and the large Guanyinge kiln complex (2001) which is located north of the old city zone as well as the Dongfeng Cichang (2002-2003) and Xin Hua Cichang kilns just east of the old city zone.  These kiln sites provide a wide variety of blue and white kraak ware, thin walled bowls, large diameter bowls ranging from very high quality to medium and low quality.  The Lianhualing kiln provided a few shards with a Dutch tulip motif, and Guanyinge and the Liujia Xianong site provided medium sized plates with double deer motifs in the medallion.

The Chinese Imperial Ceramic Artwork Found In Indonesia ( Continiu )






Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-Rom Edition

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THIS THE SAMPLE OF Dr Iwan Limited E-Book In CD-Rom with unedited non complete info illustration, the complete CD-Rom exist but only for premium member please subscribe via comment with your email address and private information same as  your ID-Card


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(1) Sten Sjostrand added by driwan studies info

The relative ease of transportation on


the Chang River

and its tributaries was a key circumstance in the successful development of


the porcelain industry in Jingdezhen. 

Look The jingdechen now please click

One Ming official,

Miu Zongzhou,

wrote that

Kilns are arranged along the rivers and boats and ships which carry porcelain come and go everyday”. (31)  


Despite Jingdezhen’s location in the remote corner of Jiangxi province,

these boats and ships managed to transport huge volumes of ceramics to domestic markets as far away as Beijing as well as to different seaports for shipping overseas.


Directly related to The Wanli shipwreck cargo


are porcelain shards collected at the Guanyinge kiln site. 

These are identical to

the delicate, thin-walled underglaze blue and red bowls found in the Wanli shipwreck cargo.

In addition to these samples, shards from thin-walled ‘crow’ bowls were also collected.

In March 2005 the author was also privileged to discover other production sites being uncovered when a bulldozer was completing the excavation for the basement of a new building along the ‘Thirteen Mile Road.’ This site is today known as the Weituoqiao kiln site.

The excavated area, four meters deep, with perfectly cut sides, revealed three independent waste piles of

Song dynasty coarse secondary clay pottery,


finer qingpai shards, and



Qing dynasty export ware.

These perfectly cut stratograpic levels were covered by a concrete basement before any recording of the material had taken place.

During the visit and cursory inspections of kiln sites in Jingdezhen, it became evident that wasters from the same site could include a wide array of porcelain.

Bowl motif from "The Western Chamber"

The finest export ware

was often mixed with rather crudely potted bowls with an unglazed biscuit ring in the well.  These bowls have often been called ‘Guangdong wares’

Guandong figurine ware

or more broadly attributed to ‘southern China.’  The array of forms, quality and decorative styles seen at the sites supports the idea of communal kilns that fired many different types of ware, presumably from different potteries. 

The fact that an exhibition of kiln wasters at

the Palace Museum in Beijing in November 2005 displayed shards similar to those seen at Jingdezhen — which were however attributed to various kiln sites in Fujian – demonstrates the difficulties in determining the origin on some of these types of wares.

There is little doubt that further investigation of these private kilns, and others, would be fruitful and much appreciated.  With the continuing demolition of late Qing dynasty buildings, which were constructed on top of old kilns, many more discoveries are due in the near future. 

However, it is sad, to hear that China’s new economic boom does not provide for the resources for a long-term archaeological program despite the fact that much information about Jingdezhen’s most important industry would be better understood. 

Simply to be able to document the varying decorative styles on export wares at different times in history is an important art-historical objective.

If we thought that making ‘fake’ pottery was a new phenomena, it is interesting to see that Perez’ d’ Entrecolle already in his famous letter of 1712 confirmed that the Jingdezhen potters had perfected the “art of imitating old porcelain being passed for being three or four centuries old or at least of the preceding dynasty of Ming”.


As enterprising now as then, Jingdezhen potters are still mining kaolin in the same quarries and pulverizing China stone in the same traditional manner.  The potting process, including the application of painted decoration, glazing, and firing in wood-fueled kilns is often identical to old techniques.  Porcelain made in this way today is sometimes also being passed as being centuries old.


The Complete informations cand read at t the litertaures studies  in part two.

Informasi lengkap dapat dibaca pada hasil kajian literature pada bab dua.

Read More

Bowl motif from "The Western Chamber"

Qing Finest Ware(not Upload)


  The findings of ceramic artifacts and art objects in the Indonesian Chinese empire

Temuan artifak keramik dan benda seni kerajaan Tiongkok di Indonesia oleh peneliti



The Finding Of Reseacher 

The findings by researchers relative amounted to quite a lot with various types of design motifs more, not withstanding the findings during a shipwreck there are huge numbers but relatively more limited type of design motive was primarily produced by special royal kiln for the companions of the Emperor of China. 

Temuan oleh peneliti relati berjumlah cukup banyak dengan variasi  tipe disain motif yang lebih banyak,kendatipun demikian  jumlah temuan kapal karam jumlahnya sangat banyak tetapi relative jenis disain motifnya lebih terbatas terutama yang diproduksi oleh kiln kerajaan khusus untuk para sahabat Kaisar Tiongkok.

Untuk lebih jelas  sebagian informasi dari bab dua  ditampilkan dibawah ini hanya dalam bahsa Inggris .

3.2.2 The Finding Of Shipwreck from The Sounth China Sea From Literatur studies


 maritime archaeology and antique pottery and porcelain from the South China Sea

3.2.2 a



By Rachel


The Gaspar Strait runs between the Indonesian islands of Bangka and Belitung, some 300 miles southeast of Singapore, where I sit today, writing these words. Its calm, blue surface belies the snarl of rocks and reefs beneath, and the so-called Belitung Wreck is just one of many ships that met its demise in these perilous waters. In 1998, a German prospector by the name of Tilman Walterfang dove into the strait and struck gold: or rather, some gold, silver, and lots of pots.

Tang treasure

 Over the year, his prospecting company pulled 60,000 handmade artifacts out of the heavily silted waters in the Gaspar, from the wreck of a large ship that we now know sunk sometime in the ninth century. Its contents, known vaguely as ‘the Tang treasure’, have been said to enlarge forever the boundaries of our knowledge of Chinese Tang dynasty maritime history and of the nature and dimensions of early Asian trade.

 For the next six years or so, the treasure languished in a New Zealand warehouse, while Qatar, Shanghai, Singapore and private collectors all vied vigorously for ownership. In 2005, Singapore bought the lot.

 And this afternoon, I had the good fortune to be taken for a private tour of it.


Tang treasure


Junks and their junk

The vessel that sunk was likely a dhow of Arab or Indian origin, a conjecture substantiated well by Michael Flecker, an archaeologist who was invited by Tilman Walterfang himself to direct and document the excavation.

Tang treasure

 (Some of Flecker’s academic papers on the topic, as well as a fascinating but brief clip of part of the excavation, can be found here).

According to Flecker, one of the most striking features of the dhow is that it was not held together with nails or dowels, but sewn together, likely with coconut-husk fibers. Its probable destination is also well established. In the world of the ninth century, dominated economically by two imperial giants —

Tang Dynasty China and Abbasid Persia — the ship has been reasonably thought to be sailing from one to the other, probably from Guangzhou to Basra. The vessel is purported to be the first of Middle Eastern origin found in Southeast Asian waters.

Singapore, alas, didn’t acquire the actual ship, so I didn’t get to see it. We saw the Tang treasure instead. At present, most of it is housed in an unassuming basement at the bottom of the Hua Song Museum in Singapore. The place looked to me, as I walked in this evening, a little like a bomb shelter.

Selat Gaspar berjalan antara pulau-pulau Indonesia dari Bangka Belitung dan, sekitar 300 km sebelah tenggara dari Singapura, di mana aku duduk saat ini, menulis kata-kata ini. Yang tenang, permukaan biru memungkiri kekusutan batu dan karang di bawah, dan disebut Belitung Wreck hanyalah salah satu dari banyak kapal yang mengalami kepunahannya di perairan berbahaya. Pada tahun 1998, seorang Jerman pencari dengan nama Tilman Walterfang terjun ke selat dan memukul emas: atau lebih tepatnya, beberapa emas, perak, dan banyak pot.

 Selama tahun ini, perusahaan calon nya menarik 60.000 artefak buatan tangan dari perairan berat tertimbun lumpur di Gaspar, dari bangkai kapal besar yang sekarang kita tahu tenggelam kira pada abad kesembilan. Isinya, samar-samar dikenal sebagai ‘Tang harta karun’, telah dikatakan untuk memperbesar selamanya batas-batas pengetahuan kita tentang sejarah maritim China dinasti Tang dan sifat dan dimensi perdagangan Asia awal.

 Selama enam tahun ke depan atau lebih, harta mendekam di Selandia Baru gudang, sementara Qatar, Shanghai, Singapura dan kolektor pribadi semua bersaing keras untuk kepemilikan. Pada tahun 2005, Singapura membeli banyak.
 Dan sore ini, saya memiliki nasib baik untuk diambil untuk tur pribadi itu.

Jung dan sampah mereka
Kapal yang tenggelam adalah kemungkinan dhow asal Arab atau India, sebuah dugaan didukung dengan baik oleh Michael Flecker, seorang arkeolog yang diundang oleh Tilman Walterfang dirinya untuk mengarahkan dan mendokumentasikan penggalian.
 (Beberapa makalah akademis Flecker pada topik, serta klip menarik namun singkat bagian dari penggalian, dapat ditemukan di sini).

Menurut Flecker, salah satu fitur yang paling mencolok dari dhow adalah bahwa itu tidak direkatkan dengan paku atau pena, tapi dijahit, mungkin dengan serat sabut kelapa. Kemungkinan tujuan juga mapan. Dalam dunia abad kesembilan, didominasi ekonomi oleh dua kekaisaran raksasa – Dinasti Tang China dan Abbasiyah Persia – kapal telah cukup dianggap berlayar dari satu ke yang lain, mungkin dari Guangzhou ke Basra. Kapal ini konon menjadi yang pertama asal Timur Tengah yang ditemukan di perairan Asia Tenggara.

Singapura, sayangnya, tidak mendapatkan kapal yang sebenarnya, jadi saya tidak bisa melihatnya. Kami melihat harta Tang sebagai gantinya. Saat ini, sebagian besar bertempat di sebuah ruang bawah tanah yang sederhana di bagian bawah dari Museum Song Hua di Singapura. Tempat tampak bagi saya, setelah saya berjalan di malam ini, sedikit seperti perlindungan bom

 Tang treasure

What strikes you almost as soon as you walk into the warehouse is the sheer scale of production. It seems that China then, as now, was mass producing and exporting their goods in staggering quantities — several centuries earlier than scholars have previously thought. You might say that in the hold of this sunken ship lurked, for 1200 years, a kind of ancient Ikea.

Apa yang mengejutkan Anda segera setelah Anda berjalan ke gudang adalah skala produksi. Tampaknya bahwa Cina kemudian, seperti sekarang, adalah massa memproduksi dan mengekspor barang-barang mereka dalam jumlah mengejutkan – beberapa abad lebih awal dari sarjana telah diperkirakan sebelumnya. Anda mungkin mengatakan bahwa dalam memegang ini kapal yang tenggelam mengintai, untuk 1200 tahun, semacam Ikea kuno.


The serial nature of most of the cargo, and the fact that the ceramics exhibit styles distinct to at least five different kilns from all over China, both seem to suggest that this was an export vessel. Of particular interest is the enormous quantity of mint-condition Changsha pottery, a form of Southern Tang ceramic readily identified by its distinctive brown and straw-coloured glaze.


 Tang treasure

Serial sifat sebagian besar kargo, dan fakta bahwa keramik menunjukkan gaya yang berbeda untuk setidaknya lima tanur yang berbeda dari seluruh Cina, kedua tampaknya menunjukkan bahwa ini adalah sebuah kapal ekspor. Yang menarik adalah jumlah besar-kondisi mint Changsha tembikar, bentuk Selatan Tang keramik mudah diidentifikasi oleh khas glasir coklat dan kekuning-kuningan


The Changsha specimens found in the Belitung wreck are decorated with an enormous range of motifs. There is something for everyone: lotuses, makara fish and Chinese calligraphy for the Buddhists, invocations of Allah and non-pictorial, geometric patterns for the Muslims, and everything in between. These are not terribly valuable in and of themselves; they are, as Simon Worrall’s droll appraisal in his article in National Geographic goes, “the Tang equivalent of Fiestaware”.

Tang treasure

Changsha spesimen ditemukan di bangkai kapal Belitung dihiasi dengan berbagai motif besar. Ada sesuatu untuk semua orang: teratai, ikan makara dan kaligrafi Cina bagi umat Buddha, doa Allah dan non-bergambar, pola geometris bagi kaum muslim, dan segala sesuatu di antaranya. Ini tidak sangat berharga dalam dan dari diri mereka sendiri, mereka, sebagai penilai lucu Simon Worrall dalam artikelnya di National Geographic pergi, “setara Tang dari Fiestaware”

This photo by Tony Law,
National Geographic

But there were a few big fish amidst these plebeian offerings: articles so valuable that they are kept elsewhere, under armed guard. These were artifacts found in the stern of the ship: a small clutch of exquisite, royal-grade items, valuable not only in dollar terms, or for their exquisite craftsmanship, but in terms of their historical import. They include a fine octagonal-shaped gold cup — the largest Tang dynasty gold cup ever found, featuring Persian-looking men and women embossed on each face — and three incredibly rare, perfectly preserved specimens of pre-Yuan blue and white porcelain.




Tapi ada beberapa ikan besar di tengah penawaran ini kampungan: artikel begitu berharga sehingga mereka tetap di tempat lain, di bawah pengawalan bersenjata. Ini adalah artefak yang ditemukan di buritan kapal: kopling kecil indah, item kerajaan-grade, berharga tidak hanya dalam dolar, atau keahlian indah mereka, tetapi dalam hal impor sejarah mereka. Mereka termasuk secangkir emas murni berbentuk segi delapan – yang terbesar dinasti Tang emas cangkir yang pernah ditemukan, menampilkan pria Persia tampan dan perempuan timbul pada wajah masing-masing – dan tiga sangat langka, sempurna diawetkan spesimen pra-Yuan biru dan porselen putih.

These photos by Tony Law,
National Geographic

The latter is a particularly interesting testament to the cross-cultural fertilization that characterizes Silk Road histories. Cobalt oxide was almost certainly brought to China by Arab traders; the ore from which it is made can only be found in West Asia, and particularly in Persia. When Arab traders brought cobalt oxide into Guangzhou and began commissioning blue and white ceramics from China, they set into motion the process by which China began to create porcelain that would, over the course of the next five centuries, become so iconic that they came forever to bear China’s name. The story of cobalt oxide is quite well known amongst scholars, but the Jingdezhen blue-and-whites only really began to take off in the late Yuan period. These three small plates, from a ship wrecked in the ninth century, disclose a longer, deeper history.

My personal favourites, however, were the most plebeian offerings of all: those artifacts encrusted with barnacles and corals. In the whole collection, they stood out to me like elegant anomalies, mute witnesses of a millennia of submergence, and utterly beautiful.

Yang terakhir adalah bukti yang sangat menarik untuk fertilisasi silang-budaya yang mencirikan sejarah Silk Road. Kobalt oksida hampir pasti dibawa ke China oleh pedagang Arab, bijih dari yang dibuat hanya dapat ditemukan di Asia Barat, dan khususnya di Persia. Ketika pedagang Arab membawa kobalt oksida ke Guangzhou dan mulai komisioning keramik biru dan putih dari Cina, mereka diatur ke dalam gerak proses dimana China mulai membuat porselen yang akan, selama lima abad berikutnya, menjadi begitu ikonik bahwa mereka datang selamanya untuk menanggung nama China. Kisah oksida kobalt cukup terkenal di kalangan ulama, tetapi Jingdezhen biru-putih hanya benar-benar mulai lepas landas pada periode Yuan terlambat. Ketiga piring-piring kecil, dari sebuah kapal karam pada abad kesembilan, mengungkapkan lebih lama, sejarah yang lebih dalam.
Favorit pribadi saya, bagaimanapun, adalah persembahan yang paling kampungan dari semua: mereka artefak bertatahkan teritip dan karang. Di seluruh koleksi, mereka berdiri keluar bagi saya seperti anomali elegan, saksi bisu dari ribuan dari rendaman, dan benar-benar indah.



Just like the waters of the Gaspar Strait, there too are hidden currents to the Belitung Wreck. For one thing, it came to Singaporean hands amidst a maelstrom of legal wrangling. In 2004, Tilman Walterfang became entangled in a court case when his own marketing agent, Baron Nicolai von Uexkull, took him to court for defaulting on the payment of his (the Baron’s) salary and commission, for the work of negotiating the sale of the treasure. In 2005, not long after the treasure was finally sold to Singapore’s Sentosa Leisure Group following months of negotiation, it emerged that the good Baron had, in his earlier negotiations with Singapore, allegedly disclosed price-sensitive information to the buyers. Walterfang then sued Von Uexkull in 2006 for breach of confidentiality.


As if that weren’t enough: in the course of the sale, Walterfang also became embroiled in a controversy with the Indonesian government, who accused him of failing to pay them the fair share of the proceeds from the treasure. 53,000 pieces of the Tang treasure were sold to Singapore for some US$32 million.

( sold by Indonesian government-Dr Iwan Note)

Under Indonesian conservation law, the state government is entitled to half of this, but it appears that only US$2.5 million or so ever made it into Indonesian coffers. The Indonesians are, naturally, highly displeased, and it seems unclear how Walterfang managed to get away with this. There have been, unsurprisingly, allegations of bribery.

Sama seperti perairan Selat Gaspar, ada juga adalah arus tersembunyi untuk Belitung Wreck. Untuk satu hal, itu datang ke Singapura tangan di tengah-tengah pusaran perselisihan hukum. Pada tahun 2004, Tilman Walterfang menjadi terjerat dalam kasus pengadilan ketika agen pemasaran sendiri, Baron Nicolai von Uexkull, membawanya ke pengadilan untuk default pada pembayaran nya (Baron) gaji dan komisi, untuk pekerjaan negosiasi penjualan harta karun. Pada tahun 2005, tidak lama setelah harta karun itu akhirnya dijual ke Sentosa Leisure Group Singapura setelah berbulan-bulan negosiasi, terungkap bahwa Baron baik memiliki, dalam negosiasi sebelumnya dengan Singapura, diduga diungkapkan sensitif terhadap harga informasi kepada pembeli. Walterfang kemudian digugat Von Uexkull pada tahun 2006 untuk pelanggaran kerahasiaan.
Seolah-olah itu belum cukup: dalam perjalanan penjualan, Walterfang juga menjadi terlibat dalam kontroversi dengan pemerintah Indonesia, yang menuduhnya gagal untuk membayar mereka adil dari hasil harta itu. 53.000 buah harta Tang dijual ke Singapura untuk beberapa US $ 32 juta.
(Dijual oleh pemerintah Indonesia Dr Iwan Catatan)
Menurut hukum konservasi di Indonesia, pemerintah negara berhak atas setengah dari ini, tapi tampaknya hanya US $ 2,5 juta atau pernah jadi berhasil masuk ke pundi-pundi Indonesia. Orang-orang Indonesia adalah, alami, sangat senang, dan tampaknya jelas bagaimana Walterfang berhasil lolos dengan ini. Ada, tidak mengejutkan, dugaan suap.



But the most interesting hidden current, for me, is the way in which a find like this slowly gets shaped into history. Curators and creative minds at the Singapore Maritime Heritage Foundation,

 which was brought into existence for the purpose of administering the treasure, are right now groping for a Grand Story, a narrative into which the Tang treasure can fit. In particular, there’s talk of a great Maritime Silk Route Museum to be built in Singapore to house and exhibit these wares.

Its story will no doubt vaunt Singapore’s central place at the elbow of a great oceanic route that ran parallel to the overland Silk Road. Its objectives will no doubt be to inscribe Singapore into a wider and more ancient world history, and to give historical credence to a position that is crucial to Singapore’s self-image today: as a global, maritime entrepot, and the lodestone on which Southeast Asia turns.

Counterfactual thinking here might be illuminating. What if Qatar, or Shanghai, had been successful in the bid?

What if, amidst all that legal wrangling, Singapore had been jostled out of the buy, or if the Indonesian government had somehow got their act together, claimed the wreck and written it into a narrative demonstrating the magnificence and global reach of the great Srivijaya Empire, instead? What stories would be spun then, out of these fragments we shore up against our ruins? When you visit Singapore one day in not-too-distant years to come, and your Lonely Planet guidebook exhorts you to visit the brand new Maritime History Museum of Singapore, it will be beautifully done, stimulatingly presented. But remember this: none of it was set in stone. We sculpt our own stones, and we call that process history.

Tapi saat tersembunyi yang paling menarik, bagi saya, adalah cara di mana menemukan seperti ini perlahan-lahan akan dibentuk menjadi sejarah. Kurator dan pikiran kreatif di Heritage Foundation Maritim Singapura,
  yang dibawa ke dalam keberadaan untuk kepentingan pengelolaan harta, yang sekarang mencari-cari Grand Story, sebuah narasi ke mana harta Tang dapat ditampung. Secara khusus, ada pembicaraan tentang Silk Route Maritime Museum yang besar akan dibangun di Singapura ke rumah dan menunjukkan barang-barang tersebut.
Ceritanya tidak akan ragu tempat sentral memuji Singapura pada siku dari laut rute besar yang berlari sejajar dengan darat Silk Road. Tujuannya tidak diragukan lagi akan untuk menuliskan Singapura menjadi lebih luas dan lebih kuno sejarah dunia, dan memberikan kepercayaan sejarah ke posisi yang sangat penting untuk Singapura citra diri hari ini: sebagai, entrepot maritim global, dan lodestone di mana Asia Tenggara ternyata.
Kontrafaktual Pemikiran di sini mungkin mencerahkan. Bagaimana jika Qatar, atau Shanghai, telah berhasil tawaran?
Bagaimana jika, di tengah semua perselisihan hukum, Singapura telah berdesakan keluar dari membeli, atau jika pemerintah Indonesia telah entah bagaimana punya bertindak bersama-sama, mengklaim kecelakaan dan ditulis ke dalam narasi menunjukkan keindahan dan jangkauan global dari Sriwijaya Kekaisaran besar , bukan? Apa cerita akan berputar kemudian, dari fragmen ini kita menopang terhadap reruntuhan kita? Ketika Anda mengunjungi Singapura satu hari di tahun tidak terlalu jauh untuk datang, dan Anda buku panduan Lonely Planet mendesak Anda untuk mengunjungi baru Maritime History Museum of Singapore, akan indah dilakukan, stimulatingly disajikan. Tapi ingat ini: tidak ada itu diatur dalam batu. Kami memahat batu kita sendiri, dan kita sebut bahwa sejarah proses.



Shipwreck Cargo Report

By Sten Sjostrand


Sten has spent more than forty years in Southeast Asia designing and engineering various marine structures. His interest in Asia’s pottery and porcelain eventually lead to his search and excavation of numbers of ancient shipwrecks.

As a championship sailor Sten has extensive knowledge and interest in ancient maritime trade, ships designs and construction. It is these interests and gained knowledge that is the base for all his books and extensive lecturing.


Sten’s company; Nanhai Marine Archaeology Sdn. Bhd. works with Malaysia’s Department of Museums and Antiquities and can therefore offer legally excavated artifacts from these shipwrecks.


In addition to working with recovering artifacts, Sten has located number of ancient kiln sites in Thailand and in China were his shipwreck ceramics was made centuries ago. He is therefore able to offer absolute provenance on all ceramics sold via Nanhai Marine Archaeology Sdn. Bhd. and, with good conscience sign every Certificate of Authenticity supplied with the artifacts.

The maritime archaeology of Sten Sjostrand has led to major advances in the study of Asian trade and trade ceramics in Southeast Asia. 

His meticulous documentation of a series of nine shipwrecks from the 11th to 19th centuries reveals the early dominance of Chinese trade ceramics, a subsequent loss of the Chinese monopoly in the late 14th century when Southeast Asian ceramics entered the market, the basic parameters of the Ming gap shortages of the 14th-15th centuries, and a resurgence of Chinese wares in the 16th and 17th centuries.

  Just as important, Sjostrand freely shares the information from his discoveries.

  Researchers are welcome at his headquarters where he documents his finds and patiently answers the queries of others. 

A lifetime’s experience with the sea and sailing allows Sjostrand to bring new understanding to ancient ship construction, and his voluminous reading allows him to set the ships and their cargoes in historical perspective.




During the excavation phase of the Wanli shipwreck, about 7,000 pieces of porcelain pieces was registered.

Only those pieces which retained more than 50% of its original form was registered

while all other pieces was considered “shards”. 

 From the 7,000 registered pieces, there were less than 2,000 totally intact pieces with many of them showing glaze deterioration and other defects.

In addition to registered artifacts  9,083 kilo “shards” were recovered.

This weight was represented by less than 50% intact pieces (to avoid double registration), broken, fragmented and pulverized pieces. These “shards” was then separated into respective types, weighted and compared with the weight of an intact counterpart to find the total number of porcelains originally loaded onboard the ship. 

 It was thus calculated that the total cargo originally consisted of more than 37,000 pieces. 

Most of the damage to the cargo  is believed to have been caused by an fire followed by an explosion which is likely to have been caused by an attacking Dutch force.

The fire could also have been set by the Portuguese crew trying to avoid a Dutch capture.


Many of the broken plates with intact center medallions, have since been  trimmed and are now available for sale on this page.

Each one of these center medallions has been registered and now displaying its respective serial number on a sticker:

Historical shipwrecks with cargoes of porcelain and pottery are perfect time capsules if properly excavated and researched.

Frozen in time, shipwrecks provide an accurate insight into ancient maritime trade and the goods traded at the time when the ship was lost.

From the ten shipwreck excavated and researched by Nanhai Marine Archaeology, we have learned a lot about this trade and been able to assign estimated dates to these ten shipwrecks and thereby date the artefacts we recover.

 We have learned about different shipbuilding designs, construction methods and been able to map shipbuilding sites and learned how they changed over time, due to political events

European vessel loaded with Chinese kraak porcelain

From the shipwrecks presented here, and the archeology made, we have established how

the early Chinese monopoly on ceramic export was challenged in the 14th – 16th century


by two rivaling Thai kiln complexes, each making different types of traditional Chinese pottery.


 It also becomes clear that the Chinese regained its monopoly in the 17th century when the Europeans entered into the  Asian trade network


3.2.2. c

A seafarers tale – an archaeological elucidation of a shipwreck

(By Sten Sjostrand)

Dreary weather and intermittent rain has led to a dramatic drop in temperature over the last few days and then, just as the rain finally stopped, a cold wind began to blow from the north.

It whipped up high waves and enormous swells that broke repeatedly against the side of the ship giving the deck, and everyone on it, a good showering.  It was unbearably cold, wet and miserable.


Captain Heng Tai dexterously managed to avoid getting any salt water in his face as he crouched and turned with every hit. He was an experienced captain who had sailed this route many times before, but never so late in the season. 

The best time for the voyage was December when the northeast monsoon winds guaranteed a fair and safe passage all the way down the South China Sea. 


But now, late in February, the winds were forceful, occasionally violent and sometimes frightening. 

The swell generated by these waves was higher than any Heng Tai could remember.

As well as being cold and wet, Heng Tai was now starting to get a very uncomfortable feeling in the pit of his stomach.

The junk he commanded was old and hadn’t been reinforced against the hungry attacks of the Teredo woodworms, which feasted on vessels like this.

The owner had recently lost a ship near the Malaysian islands and didn’t have sufficient reserves to pay for the sacrificial planks that would protect the hull from the woodworms’ greedy onslaught. 


 It was this cost-cutting that now worried Heng Tai and he bitterly regretted the time he’d had to spend waiting to load the cargo

in Ayutthaya. 

Without that delay he would have been at sea much earlier and none of this would be happening.

Ever since the ‘‘Ming ban’’

 when emperor Hongwu imposed restrictions on private overseas trade,

potters at the Thai kiln sites had been working flat out to meet the growth in demand from the Southeast Asian market.

Thuriang Kiln at Si Satchanalai ,Sukothai

Read more

Thuriang Kiln at Si Satchanali . Sukothai

(not Upload)

They were now supplying more than half of the total ceramics for the whole region and the increase in orders meant the kilns were swamped and finding it increasingly hard to meet delivery deadlines.  Merchants and captains, like Heng Tai, were seriously concerned about these delays; after all, the monsoon waits for no man. 

( This info prooff  and related to the very hard to found the Middle Ming artwork In Indonesia from dynasti Yung Lo, Hung Wu,Hsuan de Cenghua and Ceng De in Indonesia, If found this only  the present from the Chinese emperor to the Indonesian Sultan or King only not  trading this wares and the sukothai from ayuthada sincanalai  artwork came to Indonesia  to fill the demand  -Dr Iwan note)


Heng Tai had docked in Ayutthaya in December and had waited patiently for two months before his main cargo finally arrived from the ceramic kilns up north. 

 He’d already loaded more than 20 tonnes of iron ore and


ingots and was worried about the uneven distribution of his cargo, so he was greatly relieved when, at last, the celadon ware was loaded and the junk was well balanced again.  


The last water containers were filled and the chickens and ducks, which would feed the crew during the voyage, were secured. 

Heng Tai was finally able to head downriver into

the Bay of Siam,

where he set his sails and laid a course for

the bay of Terengganu.

In those days this part of the Malaysian east coast was under the suzerainty of

the Kingdom of Ayutthaya,

so the waters off Terengganu were safe and familiar and Heng Tai could proceed without danger.

  When Heng Tai sighted the islands off Terengganu he set a new course for

Tioman Island further down the coast.

Tioman was a regular stopover point for sailors from all over Asia as it provided good navigational references and had a plentiful supply of fresh water.  For many centuries seafarers had stopped there to offer prayers for a safe voyage and trade for some local fruit before continuing their arduous journey.

Here Heng Tai would replenish his fresh water supply before setting sail for

Java, his

Kingdom Majapahit

final destination.

Kingdom of Majapahit in Mojokerto Trowulan Site, It’s time you stir the imagination of the life of a fictional kingdom in Indonesia a more than 700 years ago.

Yes, this is the site Trowulan Mojokerto, roomates is the site of a future century Majapahit Empire XIII – XV AD. Located in Trowulan, Mojokerto, East Java as a place where you can no longer remember his greatness and assume that we only know from history books or lessons at school first.

Trowulan is the only site in the Indonesian cities of the covering 11 x 9 km 99 km ² and save Hundreds of Thousands of archaeological remains, both discovered and is still buried. Traveled to this place is not just a vacation, but you can also climb the great history of an empire that inspired the Indonesian nation about “Unity Archipelago”. Additionally you will find out how the level of civilization in Trowulan in the Majapahit period, starting from the system of government, trade, foreign affairs, technology, architecture, agriculture, crafts to art.

Kingdom Majapahit in Mojokerto Trowulan Site

Majapahit kingdom established after the fall of the kingdom in 1293 AD Singosari. Founded by Raden Wijaya, initially centered in the forest area there are many attractions that Maja tree that has fruit with bitter, hence the Majapahit. Raden Wijaya himself is the son of King Singosari Kertanegara lineage Ken Arok, founder of the Kingdom Singosari. He Became the first king of Majapahit until 1309 AD

Greatness Majapahit golden peak during the reign of King Hayam Wuruk and Gajah Mada Mahapatih Palapa Oath pledged to unite the archipelago. Majapahit managed to assemble networks of local and regional trade with commodities and rice crops in exchange for spices, ceramics, and textiles. The currency used is money and money ma gobog of gold or silver, the unique currency of the Chinese Tang Dynasty, Song, Ming, and Qing applies also in Majapahit. Pooling Occurs in religious life with the Buddhist religion of Shiva, in addition to developing Karesian religion and Islam. This shows Majapahit as a multicultural country and its people to live in peace with the various Faiths in harmony. Majapahit have ups and downs due to the seizure of the throne in the royal family until finally experiencing collapse XV century AD.

Kingdom Majapahit in Mojokerto Trowulan Site 2

Majapahit palace building is estimated as terraced houses with roofs of thin wood, walls of brick, the floor of the wicker or rattan mats. While the general population of a thatched roof. Sites in Trowulan restored to preserve its beauty. Trowulan site is crowded, especially on Saturday and Sunday and school holidays. Every day an average of 50-person on weekdays and on average 170′s of people on holidays and school holidays.

Kingdom Majapahit in Mojokerto Trowulan Site 3

Trowulan own site first Appeared in the literature Entitled “History of Java I” written Sir Stamford Raffles in 1817. Raffles said that the name came from Trang Wulan Trowulan or Light of the Moon. When found throughout the site covered a fairly dense teak forests, so she was not seen as a classic city.

Kingdom Majapahit in Mojokerto Trowulan Site 4

Classic city town site Trowulan divided Showed some segments that its role in the past. Built with a pattern of alleged water canal has to do with the concept of the mandala is used as a reference and basic Cosmological distribution of this city. Swimming Segaran proves this is like like a lake in the city center. By sketch reconstruction City Majapahit and aerial photographs showing the old city has a system of irrigation canals for drainage and water supply were made in a straight line extending the northwest-the southeast and the northeast-southwest.

Normally the stretch between Terengganu and Tioman was an opportunity for the captain and navigator to relax for a while.

There was a straight deepwater trench all the way so it was usually plain sailing. 

 This was a well-used shipping lane and he was hoping to come across a Chinese junk, sailing in spite of the ‘‘Ming ban’’, which he could hail for the latest news from China. But on this cold February afternoon, the strong winds and towering waves had ruled out any possibility of such communication and as Heng Tai fought to keep control of his ship his thoughts wandered homewards.


Heng Tai’s father had been an experienced sea captain who had left China fifty years before, shortly after the ‘‘Ming ban’’ came into force.  With their livelihoods at stake many seafarers like Heng Tai’s father, as well as merchants and artisans, had fled to Thailand where they were able to continue their trade.  It was these people who had made the celadon ware he was now carrying.

The Javanese kingdom of Majapahit, towards which he was heading, was flourishing and attracted many foreign merchants from all over Asia and the Middle East who paid top price for celadon ware as they believed it had magical protective powers. 

This era Chinese celadon were ban and only

sukothai celadon exist

Celadon plate, Sukhothai era

Compare the differences of the quality between Sukothai and Chinese celadon (  info not upload0

Read more about

Sukothai (Sangkhalok)celadon ware

(info not upload) 

Heng Tai was a good trader and knew the buyers well he also knew this year’s celadon was the best quality to ever come out of the Sisatchanalai kilns in northern Siam so he was sure of making a handsome profit.  Hopefully then his ship could be reinforced.

(This  info  told us the fact that many Celadon wares found in Indonesia not from Ming dynasty era but from  sisatchanalai  Nothern Siam  sent  export to Indonesia  from Atuthaya,

That is way we called Ayuthaya Siam celadon with the low  color and motif  celadon, but some Lungquan Chinese best celadon still found but very limited because this were not for trading ony as the present to the Chinese emperor friend in Indonesia-Dr Iwan Note)

Sejak” Larangan Ming ”

Ketika Kaisar Hongwu memberlakukan pembatasan perdagangan luar negeri swasta, tembikar di situs kiln Thailand telah bekerja keluar flat untuk memenuhi pertumbuhan permintaan dari pasar Asia Tenggara.

 Mereka sekarang menyediakan lebih dari setengah dari total keramik untuk seluruh wilayah dan peningkatan pesanan berarti kiln yang sibuk dan menemukan itu semakin sulit untuk memenuhi tenggat waktu pengiriman. Pedagang dan kapten, seperti Heng Tai, yang sangat prihatin penundaan ini, setelah semua, musim hujan tidak menunggu manusia.

(Info ini sebagai bukti  dan terkait dengan sangat sulitnya  untuk menemukan karya seni Ming pertengahan  Di Indonesia dari Dynasti Yung Lo, Hung Wu, Hsuan de Cenghua dan Ceng De di Indonesia,

Jika menemukan Kraya seni ini hanya ada sebagai  dari kaisar Cina kepada Sultan Indonesia atau Raja dan  tidak untuk perdagangan .Barang seni  dari  sukothai  sincanalai  dari ayuthada karya seni dikirim  ke Indonesia untuk mengisi kebutuhan  – catatan  Dr  Iwan )

Heng Tai telah berlabuh di Ayutthaya pada bulan Desember dan telah menunggu dengan sabar selama dua bulan sebelum kargo utamanya akhirnya tiba dari kiln keramik ke utara.
 Dia sudah dimuat lebih dari 20 ton bijih besi dan ingot dan khawatir tentang tidak meratanya distribusi kargo, jadi dia sangat lega ketika, akhirnya, para celadon ware dimuat dan sampah baik seimbang lagi.

Wadah air lalu diisi dan ayam dan bebek, yang akan memberi makan kru selama pelayaran, diamankan.
Heng Tai akhirnya bisa kepala hilir ke Teluk Siam, di mana ia mengatur layar dan meletakkan kursus untuk Terengganu.
Pada masa ini bagian dari pantai timur Malaysia berada di bawah kekuasaan raja dari Kerajaan Ayutthaya, sehingga perairan Terengganu yang aman dan akrab dan Heng Tai bisa dilanjutkan tanpa bahaya.
  Ketika Heng Tai terlihat pulau-pulau Terengganu ia menetapkan arah baru untuk Pulau Tioman lanjut ke pantai.
Tioman adalah titik perhentian reguler untuk pelaut dari seluruh Asia karena memberikan referensi navigasi yang baik dan memiliki pasokan air tawar. Selama berabad-abad para pelaut telah berhenti di sana untuk menawarkan doa untuk perjalanan yang aman dan perdagangan untuk beberapa buah lokal sebelum melanjutkan perjalanan yang sulit mereka.
Berikut Heng Tai akan mengisi pasokan air tawar sebelum berlayar ke Jawa, tujuan akhirnya.
Biasanya peregangan antara Terengganu dan Tioman adalah kesempatan bagi kapten dan navigator untuk bersantai untuk sementara waktu.
Ada Air yang dalam di diparit lurus sepanjang jalan jadi itu biasanya berlayar polos.
 Ini adalah jalur pelayaran baik digunakan dan ia berharap untuk menemukan kapal China, berlayar terlepas dari” Ming larangan”, yang dia bisa hujan es untuk berita terbaru dari Cina.

Tetapi pada sore dingin Februari, angin kencang dan ombak menjulang telah mengesampingkan kemungkinan komunikasi tersebut dan sampai Heng Tai berjuang untuk tetap mengontrol kapalnya pikirannya mengembara pulang.

Ayah Heng Tai pernah menjadi kapten kapal yang berpengalaman yang telah meninggalkan China lima puluh tahun sebelumnya, tak lama setelah” Ming larangan” diberlakukan.

Dengan mata pencaharian mereka dipertaruhkan banyak pelaut seperti ayah Heng Tai, serta pedagang dan pengrajin, telah melarikan diri ke Thailand di mana mereka mampu untuk melanjutkan perdagangan mereka. Itu orang-orang yang telah membuat ware celadon sekarang dia membawa.
Kerajaan Jawa Majapahit, ke arah mana ia menuju, sedang berkembang dan menarik banyak pedagang asing dari seluruh Asia dan Timur Tengah yang membayar harga tertinggi untuk celadon ware mereka percaya itu memiliki kekuatan magis pelindung.
Heng Tai adalah seorang pedagang yang baik dan tahu pembeli baik ia juga tahu celadon tahun ini adalah kualitas terbaik yang pernah keluar dari kiln Sisatchanalai di Siam Utara sehingga ia yakin untuk membuat keuntungan tampan. Semoga maka kapalnya bisa diperkuat.

(Info ini memberi tahu k
ita fakta bahwa banyak Celadon barang yang ditemukan di Indonesia bukan dari era dinasti Ming tapi dari sisatchanalai Nothern Siam mengirim ekspor ke Indonesia dari Atuthaya,
Itulah cara kita disebut Ayuthaya Siam celadon dengan warna rendah dan motif celadon, tetapi beberapa Lungquan Cina seladon terbaik masih ditemukan tetapi sangat terbatas karena ini bukan karena ony perdagangan sebagai hadir untuk
sahabat  kaisar Tiongkok di Indonesia- catatan Dr Iwan )

Heng Tai’s attention was suddenly drawn away from thoughts of future profit and ship maintenance as the wind continued to increase. 

Sea conditions were getting worse by the minute putting untold strain on the vessel and his nerves as he worried about the safety of his ship, crew and the precious cargo. 

 However, Heng Tai’s anxiety was nothing compared to how one of the passengers, a young man called Phra Dharmaraja, was feeling.

Dharmaraja was the king of Siam’s envoy who had boarded the ship in Ayutthaya.

King U-Thong Of Ayuthaya Sukhotai siam Kingdom

Everyone could tell just by looking at him that he wasn’t a sailor.  

 As a child he’d been traumatised by a crossing of


the Chao Phraya River

and had kept away from boats ever since. 

 Now, here he was being tossed about in middle of the South China Sea living out his worst nightmare. 

 He was the proud and only son of the first ‘Phra Khlang’ – the minister in charge of Ayutthaya’s treasure. 

His father’s position had allowed him to pull enough strings to secure a well-paid job in the revenue department and a recent promotion had further increased his confidence and status. 

It was a rare thing for a civil servant to be summoned by the king, so he’d been surprised and honoured when he was called to the palace.

The king appointed Dharmaraja as his personal envoy and commanded he accompany Heng Tai to Java to deliver some gifts to

the king of Majapahit

Read More Info

Driwan CD-Rom The Majapahit History Collections

in reciprocation for the tributes the Majapahit ruler had earlier sent to Ayutthaya.

Now as he clung to the handrail for dear life he wondered, between bouts of nausea and waves of terror, whether he’d be able to complete the mission he had been entrusted to undertake.

Every wave was forcing the ship into a near broach; even a small shift in the heavy cargo could prove disastrous. 

 The crew had managed to lower some of the sails to reduce the strain on the hull and rigging and were now struggling to take down the remaining sails, which were glued, by the force of the wind, to the mast, yarn and rigging.  Heng Tai and his crew knew that if the sails remained aloft they would eventually overpower the vessel but there was nothing more they could do.

With his proud character reduced to a mere memory and, in spite of being seriously concerned about his own safety and comfort, Dharmaraja had not forgotten the importance of his mission. 


 He knew that if he failed to deliver the gifts to the Majapahit ruler, it might cause some diplomatic tension and it would certainly embarrass his father.

The most important of all the gifts he was bearing was a royal seal, which reaffirmed Ayutthaya’s friendship and military alliance. 


 He kept it in a silk pouch tied around his waist, which he checked from time to time to make sure that it was still secure.  Arriving without the seal would mean landing without any purpose.  He resolved that, no matter how sick and frightened he was, he would not let this happen.


Suddenly, the crates containing the chickens and ducks were picked up by a huge wave and thrown onto the deck with such force that they smashed to pieces flinging the traumatised animals all over the place. 

As he listened to their terrified honks and screeches a premonition of impending doom sent an icy chill down Dharmaraja’s spine.


The tiller and rudder were under enormous and constant pressure as Heng Tai battled


the raging storm to keep the ship on course. 

Then, just as night fell, the strain finally took its toll and the tiller broke. 

 There was nothing more to be done.  Without the ability to steer her, the ship remained parallel to the waves and the sails dragged the vessel down sideways. 

 In a last effort to save the ship, the crew tried to slash the sails but it was too late. Capsizing was imminent as water came crashing over the decks from all directions.  Heng Tai’s last effort of beaching the ship on the shores of Tioman Island had proved impossible. The struggle to stay afloat was over.


Dharmaraja tried to save himself by clinging to the main mast in the hope of climbing to safety from the water that now engulfed him. 

 Being more experienced in this kind of situation, Heng Tai and his crew scoured the sea for some floating debris to cling to and slowly drifted away from the rattling sails, away from the creaks and groans of the straining hull, away from Dharmaraja’s screams.  The ship was swallowed up, leaving nothing but darkness and silence in its wake.

Read more

The south east china  Shipwreck archeology

(info not upload)

Perhatian Heng Tai tiba-tiba ditarik dari pikiran keuntungan masa depan dan pemeliharaan kapal sebagai angin terus meningkat.
Kondisi laut yang semakin parah oleh menit meletakkan ketegangan yang tak terhitung di kapal dan saraf saat ia khawatir tentang keselamatan kapal, awak dan barang berharga.
 Namun, kecemasan Heng Tai apa-apa dibandingkan dengan bagaimana salah seorang penumpang, seorang pria muda bernama Phra Dharmaraja, adalah perasaan.
Dharmaraja adalah raja utusan Siam yang telah naik ke kapal di Ayutthaya.
Semua orang bisa tahu hanya dengan melihat bahwa dia bukan seorang pelaut.

 Sebagai seorang anak ia sudah trauma oleh persimpangan dari Sungai Chao Phraya dan telah dijauhkan dari kapal sejak itu.
 Sekarang, di sini dia sedang terombang-ambing di tengah Laut Cina Selatan hidup dari mimpi terburuknya.
 Dia adalah anak bangga dan hanya yang pertama ‘Phra Khlang’ – menteri yang bertanggung jawab atas harta Ayutthaya.
Posisi ayahnya telah memungkinkan dia untuk menarik string cukup untuk mengamankan pekerjaan bergaji di departemen pendapatan dan promosi terbaru telah lebih lanjut meningkatkan kepercayaan diri dan statusnya. Itu adalah hal yang langka bagi seorang PNS untuk dipanggil oleh raja, sehingga ia terkejut dan merasa terhormat ketika ia dipanggil ke istana.
Raja mengangkat Dharmaraja sebagai utusan pribadinya dan memerintahkan dia menemani Heng Tai ke Jawa untuk memberikan beberapa hadiah kepada raja Majapahit di balasan untuk upeti penguasa Majapahit sebelumnya dikirim ke Ayutthaya.
Sekarang saat ia menempel pegangan erat-erat ia bertanya-tanya, antara mual dan gelombang teror, apakah dia akan bisa menyelesaikan misi yang telah dipercayakan untuk melakukan.
Setiap gelombang yang memaksa kapal ke dekat bros, bahkan pergeseran kecil di kargo berat bisa membuktikan bencana.
 Para kru berhasil menurunkan beberapa layar untuk mengurangi ketegangan pada lambung dan tali-temali dan sekarang berjuang untuk mencatat layar yang tersisa, yang terpaku, dengan kekuatan angin, tiang, benang dan tali-temali. Heng Tai dan krunya tahu bahwa jika layar tetap tinggi-tinggi mereka akhirnya akan mengalahkan kapal tapi tak ada lagi yang bisa mereka lakukan.
Dengan karakter bangga nya dikurangi menjadi memori belaka dan, meskipun secara serius prihatin tentang keamanan dan kenyamanan sendiri, Dharmaraja tidak melupakan pentingnya misinya.

 Dia tahu bahwa jika ia gagal untuk memberikan hadiah kepada penguasa Majapahit, mungkin menyebabkan beberapa ketegangan diplomatik dan tentu saja akan mempermalukan ayahnya.
Yang paling penting dari semua karunia ia bantalan adalah stempel kerajaan, yang menegaskan kembali persahabatan Ayutthaya dan aliansi militer.

 Dia menyimpannya di kantong sutra diikatkan di pinggangnya, yang ia diperiksa dari waktu ke waktu untuk memastikan bahwa itu masih aman. Sesampainya tanpa segel berarti mendarat tanpa tujuan apapun. Dia memutuskan bahwa, tak peduli betapa sakit dan takut dia, dia tidak akan membiarkan ini terjadi.

Tiba-tiba, peti yang berisi ayam dan bebek dijemput oleh gelombang besar dan dilemparkan ke geladak dengan kekuatan sehingga mereka hancur berkeping-keping melemparkan hewan trauma seluruh tempat.
Saat ia mendengarkan klakson mereka ketakutan dan pekikan firasat akan terjadinya kiamat mengirim dingin dingin ke tulang belakang Dharmaraja itu.

Penggarap dan kemudi berada di bawah tekanan besar dan konstan seperti Heng Tai memerangi amukan badai untuk menjaga kapal di jalur.
Kemudian, saat malam tiba, ketegangan akhirnya mengambil korban dan anakan pecah.
 Tak ada lagi yang harus dilakukan. Tanpa kemampuan untuk mengarahkan dia, kapal tetap sejajar dengan gelombang dan layar menyeret kapal turun menyamping.
 Dalam upaya terakhir untuk menyelamatkan kapal, kru mencoba untuk memangkas layar tapi itu terlalu terlambat. Terbalik sudah dekat seperti air datang menerjang atas deck dari segala arah. Upaya terakhir Heng Tai dari beaching kapal di tepi Pulau Tioman telah terbukti mustahil. Perjuangan untuk tetap bertahan usai.

Dharmaraja mencoba menyelamatkan diri dengan berpegangan pada tiang utama dengan harapan memanjat ke tempat yang aman dari air yang kini melingkupinya.
 Menjadi lebih berpengalaman dalam situasi seperti ini, Heng Tai dan krunya menjelajahi laut untuk beberapa puing-puing mengambang untuk melekat dan perlahan-lahan bergeser dari layar berderak, jauh dari pelan dan erangan dari lambung tegang, jauh dari jeritan Dharmaraja itu. Kapal itu ditelan, meninggalkan apa-apa kecuali kegelapan dan keheningan di belakangnya.




Almost 600 years later, a lone Swedish diver, monitored by an advanced ROV (remote operated vehicle) descended on the very spot where the vessel sank 

The only visible remains of the once proud ship was a mound of broken and overgrown ceramics. There was no sign of any ship’s timber above the seabed, the Teredo woodworms had taken care of that long ago.

The mound still points towards Tioman Island but the distance is too far for Heng Tai and his crew to have reached it safely in those sea conditions.  Dharmaraja would not have survived by clinging to the mast top either as the water was too deep, but the relationship between Ayutthaya and Majapahit did survive, even without the royal gifts.

Although fictitious, everything in Heng Tai’s story is based on evidence uncovered during the excavation of the Royal Nanhai shipwreck.  A seal was found next to the mast step but no remains of Dharmaraja could be found.


3,2,2 d

Brief historical background to Asia’s Maritime trade

(By Sten Sjostrand)

bagian terakhir dr suatu karya sastra
Hampir 600 tahun kemudian, tunggal Swedia penyelam, dipantau oleh ROV maju (dioperasikan kendaraan jarak jauh) turun di titik di mana kapal tenggelam
Satu-satunya sisa terlihat dari kapal sekali bangga adalah gundukan rusak dan ditumbuhi keramik. Tidak ada tanda-tanda kayu setiap kapal di atas dasar laut, para woodworms Teredo telah diambil dari perawatan yang lama.
Gundukan masih menunjuk pada Pulau Tioman namun jaraknya terlalu jauh untuk Heng Tai dan krunya telah mencapai dengan aman pada mereka kondisi laut. Dharmaraja tidak akan bertahan dengan berpegangan pada tiang atas baik sebagai air terlalu dalam, tetapi hubungan antara Ayutthaya dan Majapahit bisa bertahan, bahkan tanpa hadiah kerajaan.
Meskipun fiktif, segala sesuatu dalam cerita Heng Tai didasarkan pada bukti ditemukan selama penggalian dari Royal Nanhai kapal karam. Sebuah segel ditemukan di sebelah langkah tiang tetapi tidak ada sisa-sisa Dharmaraja dapat ditemukan.
Latar belakang singkat historis untuk perdagangan Maritim Asia
(By Sten Sjostrand)


Early Arab and Indian explorers opened the earliest maritime trade route between China, India and the Middle East.  By the 8th century Chinese merchants joined the trade and it wasn’t long before the South China Sea became a bustling marine highway.


Ships laden with Chinese pottery, textiles and iron stopped and trade all along the route, returning with cargoes of exotic indigenous products regarded as luxury items in China.  By the 13th century, green glazed celadon ware was in big demand as its colour resembled jade. It also had a reputation for having magical powers; Marco Polo was once told that celadon emitted a ringing tone when danger approached its owner. It was also reputed to change colour if poisoned food was placed on it. No wonder everyone wanted this ware, it was the only kind of life assurance available in those days. But whether celadon was really magical, or its “special powers” were nothing more than an innovative marketing strategy, the reality was that sales soared.  As a result Chinese ware enjoyed a virtual monopoly in the ceramics trade until the late 14th century.


As maritime trade increased, the Yuan dynasty slipped deeper into decline and eventually fell in 1368 to Zhu Yuan Zhang, a Chinese peasant who had led a successful rebellion against the Mongols.  He set up court in Nanjing where he established the Ming dynasty and named himself Hongwu, the ‘Son of Heaven’. Hongwu was eager to restore Chinese culture and so he reintroduced Confucian ideology that ranked chivalry higher than profit. Confucian scholars were given key positions at court but had little interest in seeing China develop into a great maritime trading power. Instead they concentrated on developing internal trade by rebuilding the network of canals that had been destroyed during the Mongol dynasty.  Hongwu felt threatened by the wealthy merchants and forcefully moved many of them inland. He then ordered their ships to be destroyed and prohibited all private overseas trade and the building of ocean going vessels.  This ‘‘Ming ban’’ on overseas private trade was introduced in 1371 and was often heavily enforced.  Anyone caught smuggling paid with his life.


By the beginning of the15th century however, a new ruler, the Yongle emperor (1403-1324) sent admiral Zheng He (also known as Cheng Ho) on a series of famous ocean voyages to promote tributary trade. This kind of trade emphasised the giving and receiving of tribute, which was in harmony with Confucian principles and meant trade could continue in the name of the emperor.  The expeditions visited Java, India, Mogadishu on the coast of Africa, Hormuz on the Persian Gulf, and sailed up the Red Sea to Jeddah. Gifts were exchanged, and rare spices, plants and animals, including a giraffe, were sent back to China.


The ‘‘Ming ban’’ caused China to loose its monopoly of the ceramic trade forcing many Chinese potters to migrate.  During the 14th century, ceramic production in Thailand and Vietnam increased and the Thai ceramic industry became internationally famous. The main developments seem to have been at the Thai kilns of Sukhothai and Sisatchanalai, which flourished between the 14th and 16th centuries. The kilns at Sukhothai produced underglaze black ware, which was very similar in design and decoration to pots that had been made in the northern Chinese kilns of Cizhou centuries earlier. The kilns at Sisatchanalai made celadon, which began appearing in overseas marketplaces from the last quarter of the 14th century


Evidence from 14th to 16th century South China Sea shipwrecks supports the idea that the Chinese shipbuilders also moved to S.E. Asia.  Traditionally, Chinese ships were made from a temperate climate species of wood and constructed around transverse bulkheads that were held together by square iron nails.  In contrast, Southeast Asian vessels were made from tropical hardwood and built around a framework joined by wooden dowels; a technique still used by boat builders in Terengganu today.  Almost all the shipwrecks from this period had transverse bulkheads attached to a framework, joined by wooden dowels and built from tropical hardwood. These hybrids are commonly referred to as South China Sea vessels and provide evidence that Chinese shipbuilders migrated southwards.


The ‘‘Ming ban’’ was officially abolished in 1567 and this allowed the Portuguese to openly trade with China.  By now Chinese potters were crafting exquisite blue and white porcelain ware that was as translucent as jade and almost as precious.  It captivated an ever-increasing group of European buyers and by the beginning of the 17th century blue and white porcelain was being exported to Portugal, Holland and England. From the beginning of the 18th century, more and more European merchant vessels were crossing the South China Sea with thousands of pieces of blue and white porcelain onboard. Many private European traders settled in Asia, using locally built ships to join in this lucrative commerce.


The ten historical South China Sea shipwrecks presented in this web page span these centuries of change.  Before the discovery of these wrecks, most of the information available to ceramic collectors came from pots that had been found at various archaeological excavations on land. These became a sort of benchmark for art historians who tended to date all types of similar ceramic pieces according to the dates of these sites.  Finding the ten shipwrecks not only resolved many of the questions I had about dating my own collection, it also provided important evidence for past maritime trade, ceramic development and shipbuilding techniques during a time when Asia was the leading technological hub and a dominant force in global trade.



Awal Penjelajah Arab dan India  membuka awal rute perdagangan maritim antara Cina, India dan Timur Tengah.

Pada abad ke-8 pedagang Cina bergabung perdagangan dan itu tidak lama sebelum Laut Cina Selatan menjadi jalan laut yang ramai.

Kapal sarat dengan tembikar Cina, tekstil dan besi berhenti dan perdagangan sepanjang rute, kembali dengan kargo produk asli eksotis dianggap sebagai barang mewah di Cina.

 Pada abad ke-13, hijau mengkilap celadon gudang adalah permintaan besar karena warnanya menyerupai batu giok. Ini juga memiliki reputasi karena memiliki kekuatan magis, Marco Polo pernah diberitahu bahwa celadon dipancarkan nada dering ketika bahaya mendekati pemiliknya.

Hal ini juga terkenal untuk mengubah warna jika makanan beracun ditempatkan di atasnya. Tak heran semua orang ingin gudang ini, itu adalah satu-satunya jenis asuransi jiwa yang tersedia pada masa itu. Tapi apakah itu benar-benar ajaib celadon, atau “kekuatan khusus” yang tidak lebih dari strategi pemasaran yang inovatif, kenyataannya adalah bahwa penjualan melonjak. Akibatnya gudang Cina menikmati monopoli virtual dalam perdagangan keramik sampai akhir abad ke-14.

Sebagai perdagangan maritim meningkat, dinasti Yuan tergelincir lebih dalam ke penurunan dan akhirnya jatuh pada tahun 1368 ke Zhu Yuan Zhang, seorang petani Cina yang telah memimpin pemberontakan berhasil melawan Mongol. Ia mendirikan pengadilan di Nanjing mana ia mendirikan dinasti Ming dan menamai dirinya Hongwu, ‘Anak Langit’. Hongwu sangat ingin untuk mengembalikan budaya Cina dan jadi dia diperkenalkan kembali ideologi Konghucu yang peringkat ksatria tinggi daripada keuntungan.

Konfusianisme ulama diberi posisi penting di pengadilan, tetapi memiliki sedikit minat dalam melihat Cina berkembang menjadi kekuatan perdagangan besar maritim. Sebaliknya mereka berkonsentrasi pada pengembangan perdagangan internal dengan membangun kembali jaringan kanal yang telah hancur selama dinasti Mongol.

 Hongwu merasa terancam oleh pedagang kaya dan tegas pindah banyak dari mereka pedalaman. Dia kemudian memerintahkan kapal mereka harus dihancurkan dan melarang semua perdagangan luar negeri swasta dan pembangunan kapal akan laut. Ini”” Ming larangan perdagangan luar negeri swasta diperkenalkan pada 1371 dan sering ditegakkan. Siapa pun yang tertangkap menyelundupkan dibayar dengan nyawanya.

Pada awal abad the15th Namun, penguasa baru, Yongle kaisar (1403-1324) mengirim Laksamana Zheng He (juga dikenal sebagai Cheng Ho) pada serangkaian perjalanan laut yang terkenal untuk mempromosikan perdagangan anak sungai.

 Ini jenis perdagangan menekankan memberi dan menerima upeti, yang selaras dengan prinsip Konfusian dan berarti perdagangan bisa berlanjut dalam nama kaisar.

 Ekspedisi mengunjungi Jawa, India, Mogadishu di pantai Afrika, Hormuz di Teluk Persia, dan berlayar ke Laut Merah ke Jeddah. Hadiah ditukar, dan rempah-rempah langka, tumbuhan dan hewan, termasuk jerapah, dikirim kembali ke China.

The” Ming larangan” menyebabkan China kehilangan monopoli dari perdagangan keramik memaksa banyak tembikar Cina untuk bermigrasi. Selama abad ke-14, produksi keramik di Thailand dan Vietnam meningkat dan industri keramik Thailand menjadi terkenal secara internasional.

Perkembangan utama tampaknya telah di kiln Thailand Sukhothai dan Sisatchanalai, yang berkembang antara abad 14 dan 16. Kiln di Sukhothai diproduksi underglaze hitam ware, yang sangat mirip dalam desain dan dekorasi untuk pot yang telah dibuat di tanur Cina utara Cizhou abad sebelumnya. Kiln di Sisatchanalai membuat celadon, yang mulai muncul di pasar luar negeri dari kuartal terakhir abad ke-14

Bukti dari 14 sampai 16 abad Laut Cina Selatan kapal karam mendukung gagasan bahwa pembuat kapal China juga pindah ke SE Asia. Secara tradisional, kapal Cina dibuat dari spesies iklim dari kayu dan dibangun di sekitar bulkheads melintang yang dilekatkan dengan paku besi persegi. Sebaliknya, kapal Asia Tenggara yang terbuat dari kayu keras tropis dan dibangun dengan kerangka bergabung dengan pena kayu, teknik masih digunakan oleh pembangun kapal di Terengganu hari ini.

Hampir semua bangkai kapal dari periode ini memiliki bulkheads melintang melekat pada kerangka, bergabung dengan pena kayu dan dibangun dari kayu keras tropis. Ini hibrida sering disebut sebagai Laut Cina Selatan dan kapal memberikan bukti bahwa pembuat kapal Cina bermigrasi ke selatan.

The”” Ming larangan secara resmi dihapuskan pada tahun 1567 dan ini membuat Portugis untuk secara terbuka perdagangan dengan China. Sekarang tembikar China kerajinan biru dan putih porselen indah yang seperti tembus seperti batu giok dan hampir sama berharganya. Ini terpikat kelompok yang terus meningkat dari pembeli Eropa dan pada awal abad porselen biru dan putih-17 telah diekspor ke Portugal, Belanda dan Inggris. Dari awal abad ke-18, lebih dan lebih Eropa kapal pedagang yang menyeberangi Laut Cina Selatan dengan ribuan keping porselen biru dan putih onboard.

Banyak pedagang swasta Eropa menetap di Asia, menggunakan kapal lokal dibangun untuk bergabung dalam perdagangan ini menguntungkan.

Kesepuluh sejarah Laut Cina Selatan bangkai kapal yang disajikan dalam halaman web rentang ini berabad-abad perubahan. Sebelum penemuan bangkai kapal ini,

sebagian besar informasi yang tersedia bagi kolektor keramik berasal dari pot yang telah ditemukan di berbagai penggalian arkeologi di darat. Ini menjadi semacam acuan bagi para sejarawan seni yang cenderung saat ini semua jenis potongan keramik yang sama sesuai dengan tanggal dari situs ini.

Menemukan sepuluh bangkai kapal tidak hanya diselesaikan banyak pertanyaan saya tentang kencan koleksi saya sendiri, juga memberikan bukti penting untuk perdagangan, pengembangan keramik masa lalu maritim dan teknik pembuatan kapal selama waktu ketika Asia adalah hub teknologi terkemuka dan kekuatan yang dominan di dunia perdagangan


Time capsules

(By Sten Sjostrand)


Diving on any shipwreck is an exciting experience full of mystique, but diving on an historical shipwreck is even more thrilling and definitely more challenging. 

These shipwrecks are fragile time capsules containing important information about a bygone era and the information they contain can be easily destroyed by careless excavation.  Some divers only value the cargo but the real treasure is the whole ship: its structure, cargo and the historical context.


Studying each shipwreck from this perspective means that everything onboard is valuable in determining the date and origin of the vessel.  The remains of perishable items onboard at the time of sinking, as well as the vessel’s design and construction method, are just as crucial as the cargo when it comes to fully understanding the importance of the wreck site.


By applying the same fastidious methods of excavation to each of the ten shipwrecks found in the South China Sea, I have been able to plot a proposed chronology for the development of ceramics. This wouldn’t have been as clear or comprehensive, if ten different people using different research criteria and techniques had undertaken the excavations.


Examining each ship’s cargo provided a lot of information. Most ships were loaded with items from different countries of origin, which not only sheds light on the trading routes, but also provides important information about the range of contemporaneous forms and styles of trade goods that were available along the route. 

Recording where each artefact was located often helps to unravel the true circumstances surrounding the item.  For example, on one occasion we found a few pieces of pottery that were older than the rest of the cargo, which possibly indicates the existence of a small trade in antiques at that particular time.  However as these pieces were discovered in a different location from the main cargo, it’s more likely to assume they were intended as gifts or were part of the personal effects of someone onboard.


By examining the remains of the ship it’s possible to determine its design, construction method and the type of timber used.  This information can tell much about the spread of shipbuilding techniques throughout the region.

A further examination of the ship’s loading arrangement and other objects found onboard provide a rather good picture of the historical events preceding the ship’s sinking.  It’s only when we combine all these factors that we can fully understand a shipwreck site.


Excavating historical shipwrecks is a daunting and painstaking business requiring enormous patience and stamina. I couldn’t wait to get started.


Kapsul waktu
(By Sten Sjostrand)

Diving pada setiap kapal karam adalah pengalaman yang menarik penuh mistik, tapi menyelam pada kapal karam sejarah bahkan lebih mendebarkan dan pasti lebih menantang. Ini adalah bangkai kapal kapsul waktu yang berisi rapuh informasi penting tentang zaman dulu dan informasi yang dikandungnya dapat dengan mudah dihancurkan oleh penggalian ceroboh. Beberapa penyelam hanya menghargai kargo tapi harta yang sesungguhnya adalah seluruh kapal: struktur, kargo dan konteks historis.

Mempelajari setiap kapal karam dari perspektif ini berarti bahwa segala sesuatu onboard berharga dalam menentukan tanggal dan asal kapal. Sisa-sisa barang tahan lama atas kapal pada saat tenggelam, serta desain kapal dan metode konstruksi, yang sama pentingnya dengan kargo ketika datang untuk sepenuhnya memahami pentingnya situs kecelakaan.

Dengan menerapkan metode rewel sama penggalian untuk masing-masing dari sepuluh bangkai kapal yang ditemukan di Laut Cina Selatan, saya telah mampu merencanakan sebuah kronologi diusulkan untuk pengembangan keramik. Ini tidak akan sejelas atau komprehensif, jika sepuluh orang yang berbeda menggunakan kriteria penelitian yang berbeda dan teknik telah dilakukan penggalian.

Memeriksa kargo setiap kapal memberikan banyak informasi. Kebanyakan kapal yang sarat dengan barang-barang dari berbagai negara asal, yang tidak hanya menyoroti rute perdagangan, tetapi juga menyediakan informasi penting tentang berbagai bentuk kontemporer dan gaya barang perdagangan yang tersedia di sepanjang rute. Rekaman di mana setiap artefak terletak sering membantu untuk mengungkap keadaan yang sebenarnya sekitar item. Misalnya, pada satu kesempatan kami menemukan beberapa potong tembikar yang lebih tua dari sisa kargo, yang mungkin menunjukkan adanya perdagangan barang-barang antik kecil pada waktu tertentu. Namun sebagai potongan ini ditemukan di lokasi yang berbeda dari kargo utama, itu lebih mungkin untuk menganggap mereka itu dimaksudkan sebagai hadiah atau merupakan bagian dari efek pribadi seseorang onboard.

Dengan memeriksa sisa-sisa kapal itu mungkin untuk menentukan desain, metode konstruksi dan jenis kayu yang digunakan. Informasi ini dapat memberitahu banyak tentang penyebaran teknik perkapalan di seluruh wilayah. Pemeriksaan lebih lanjut dari pengaturan pemuatan kapal dan benda-benda lain yang ditemukan onboard, memberikan gambaran yang lebih baik dari peristiwa sejarah sebelum tenggelamnya kapal. Hanya ketika kita menggabungkan semua faktor ini bahwa kita dapat sepenuhnya memahami situs kapal karam.

Menggali bangkai kapal sejarah adalah bisnis yang menakutkan dan melelahkan yang membutuhkan kesabaran yang sangat besar dan stamina. Aku tidak bisa menunggu untuk memulai.


Why Shipwrecked?

(By Sten Sjostrand)


Even though today’s ships are strongly built, carry good navigational equipment and charts and are manned by highly trained officers, an average of two ships per day still end up on the seabed – a staggering statistic!


Without any of this modern equipment and knowledge to rely on, ancient ships sailed virtually blind.  Some, like Heng Tai’s ship, were also weakened through lack of proper maintenance and some were in the hands of inexperienced officers, who were not always aware of all the navigational hazards they needed to avoid.  On top of this, these old ships were often terribly over crowded.


A common rule of trade was that individual merchants had to live above the compartment they had hired for their cargo. Consequently, there were a lot of passengers onboard and decks were often so crowded that people had to lie down to sleep in shifts.  Water jars, and other smaller items of cargo, were stored on deck too, which made it almost impossible for the crew to respond quickly in an emergency.  Presumably this would have been one of the reasons why Heng Tai’s crew couldn’t get their sails down fast enough to save the ship.  Another negative effect of this overcrowding was the fire risk created by the numerous cooking fires on deck.  Some of these old ships carried saltpetre and gunpowder so any fire onboard was potentially explosive.


The South China Sea offered plenty of hiding places for pirates and over the years these brigands became familiar with the course and destination of various trading ships and would lie in ambush along the route.  Normally the pirates stripped the ship of its precious cargo, firearms, cannons and anchors before killing everyone onboard and setting the ship ablaze. Destroying all evidence of the ship meant they could avoid detection. Surprisingly, the ship’s iron fittings were amongst the most valuable items onboard. Iron was very scarce in Southeast Asia, during this period, which is presumably why their shipbuilders didn’t use iron nails.


The European era adversely affected the safety of shipping in the South China Sea as the Portuguese, Dutch, English, and Spanish tried their best to minimize competition by inflicting as much damage as possible on each other’s vessels as well as any other Asian ship they encountered. Numerous reports exist about Portuguese captains beaching their own ships and setting them on fire rather than letting the Dutch capture them. Yet other reports describe how the Dutch immobilised ‘unfriendly’ ships by shooting down their masts. Then the cargo, anchors and bronze cannons were looted before the ship was set ablaze. Many later blew up ‘like thunder’ after the fire had spread to the powder store.


The Chinese and hybrid Southeast Asian vessels were better at surviving storms and reefs than any other local type of ship.  Their transverse bulkheads divided the ship into watertight compartments that could stay afloat if one or two of them became flooded. They would simply jettison the cargo from the damaged compartments, repair the broken structure from inside and then continue sailing.  All Chinese ships had bulkheads that went all the way to the deck and were quite watertight.  Watertight transverse bulkheads are still employed by ship designers today, which shows how innovative these early Chinese craftsmen had been. The Titanic sank because her watertight bulkheads didn’t go all the way to the upper deck and water was able to flow from one compartment to the other.


When a ship did sink it would have been almost inevitable that everyone onboard perished.  The chance of survival depended on how far the ship was from shore when it sank.  Of the ten historic wrecks excavated in the South China Sea, there’s only three (the Desaru, Tanjung Simpang and Wanli) that were close enough to shore for survival to have been possible. Sadly, most people onboard would have died and there would be no record of them. The human cost this early trade exacted is something I’m always respectfully mindful of when we work on a site.  Thankfully it’s very rare to find human remains on these sites.  Most of the passengers and crew would have jumped overboard before the ship sank and would have been swept away on the current.

Mengapa terdampar?
(By Sten Sjostrand)

Meskipun kapal hari ini yang kuat dibangun, membawa peralatan navigasi yang baik dan grafik dan diawaki oleh petugas terlatih, rata-rata dua kapal per hari masih berakhir di dasar laut – statistik mengejutkan!

Tanpa semua ini peralatan modern dan pengetahuan untuk mengandalkan, kapal kuno berlayar hampir buta. Beberapa, seperti kapal Heng Tai, juga melemah karena kurangnya perawatan yang tepat dan ada yang di tangan petugas berpengalaman, yang tidak selalu menyadari semua bahaya navigasi yang mereka butuhkan untuk menghindari. Di atas ini, kapal-kapal tua sering sangat lebih ramai.

Aturan umum dari perdagangan adalah bahwa pedagang individu harus hidup di atas kompartemen mereka telah menyewa untuk kargo mereka. Akibatnya, ada banyak penumpang onboard dan deck sering begitu ramai bahwa orang harus berbaring untuk tidur dalam shift. Tempayan, dan barang-barang kecil lainnya kargo, disimpan di geladak juga, yang membuat hampir tidak mungkin bagi kru untuk merespon dengan cepat dalam keadaan darurat. Agaknya ini akan menjadi salah satu alasan mengapa awak Heng Tai tidak bisa mendapatkan layar mereka turun cukup cepat untuk menyelamatkan kapal. Efek negatif lain dari kepadatan penduduk adalah resiko kebakaran yang diciptakan oleh berbagai kebakaran memasak di dek. Beberapa kapal tua dilakukan sendawa dan mesiu sehingga setiap kebakaran onboard, itu berpotensi meledak.

Laut Cina Selatan menawarkan banyak tempat persembunyian untuk bajak laut dan selama bertahun-tahun perampok ini menjadi akrab dengan program dan tujuan berbagai kapal dagang dan akan selalu menghalangi sepanjang rute. Biasanya para perompak dilucuti kapal kargo yang berharga, senjata api, meriam dan jangkar sebelum membunuh semua orang di pesawat dan pengaturan kapal terbakar. Menghancurkan semua bukti kapal berarti mereka bisa menghindari deteksi. Anehnya, fitting besi kapal berada di antara barang-barang yang paling berharga atas kapal. Besi sangat langka di Asia Tenggara, selama periode ini, yang mungkin mengapa pembuat kapal mereka tidak menggunakan paku besi.

Era Eropa berdampak buruk terhadap keselamatan pelayaran di Laut Cina Selatan sebagai Portugis, Belanda, Inggris, dan Spanyol mencoba terbaik mereka untuk meminimalkan persaingan dengan menimbulkan kerusakan sebanyak mungkin di kapal masing-masing serta setiap kapal Asia lainnya yang mereka temui . Sejumlah laporan ada tentang kapten Portugis beaching kapal mereka sendiri dan menetapkan mereka terbakar daripada membiarkan Belanda menangkap mereka. Namun laporan lain menggambarkan bagaimana Belanda amobil kapal ‘tidak ramah’ dengan menembak jatuh tiang-tiang mereka. Kemudian kargo, jangkar dan meriam perunggu dijarah sebelum kapal itu dibakar. Banyak kemudian meledak ‘seperti guntur’ setelah api telah menyebar ke toko bubuk.

Kapal Tenggara Cina dan hibrida Asia lebih baik dalam bertahan badai dan terumbu daripada jenis lokal lainnya kapal. Bulkheads melintang mereka dibagi kapal ke kompartemen kedap air yang bisa tetap bertahan jika salah satu atau dua dari mereka menjadi banjir. Mereka hanya akan membuang kargo dari kompartemen yang rusak, memperbaiki rusak struktur dari dalam dan kemudian melanjutkan berlayar. Semua kapal Cina memiliki bulkheads yang pergi semua jalan ke geladak dan cukup kedap. Kedap melintang bulkheads masih digunakan oleh desainer kapal saat ini, yang menunjukkan bagaimana inovatif ini pengrajin Cina awal telah. Titanic tenggelam karena dia bulkheads kedap air tidak pergi semua jalan ke atas dek dan air bisa mengalir dari satu kompartemen ke yang lain.

Ketika kapal itu tenggelam itu akan menjadi hampir tak terelakkan bahwa setiap orang atas kapal tewas. Kesempatan untuk bertahan hidup tergantung pada seberapa jauh kapal itu dari pantai ketika tenggelam. Dari sepuluh bangkai kapal bersejarah digali di Laut Cina Selatan, hanya ada tiga (di Desaru, Tanjung Simpang dan Wanli) yang cukup dekat dengan pantai untuk kelangsungan hidup telah menjadi mungkin. Sayangnya, kebanyakan orang atas kapal akan mati dan tidak akan ada catatan dari mereka. Biaya manusia perdagangan awal ini dituntut adalah sesuatu yang saya selalu hormat sadar ketika kita bekerja di situs. Untungnya sangat jarang untuk menemukan sisa-sisa manusia di situs tersebut. Sebagian besar penumpang dan awak akan melompat ke laut sebelum kapal tenggelam dan akan telah hanyut pada saat ini.

Early Laws of the Sea

(By Sten Sjostrand)

I was intrigued to discover that there were several Thai laws that related specifically to sailors even though there are no records of a strong maritime tradition.  

One law from 1350 prohibits the wife of a shipwrecked sailor from remarrying for seven years after his departure. 

This seems to have been quite a sensible law when you consider how long it might take for a shipwrecked survivor to eventually make his way back home. 


In 1690 a German traveller boarded a Dutch ship in Batavia that was heading first to Thailand and then onto Japan. 

Onboard he met a Japanese passenger who was finally going home after being shipwrecked in the South China Sea 10 years earlier. He and a few other survivors had been washed onto on a small sandbank in the middle of the South China Sea where they lived for a few years before being spotted and rescued.  The sandbank offered little in terms of quality of life being only fifty-three paces long and twenty-four paces wide!   When he finally returned to Japan, he found his wife had remarried and produced a son.


thai palace in bangkok

The same law states that a sailor has the right to give evidence in court in the furtherance of settling disputes involving other sailors. The fact that these laws had already been formulated by 1350 indicates that there was already a thriving Chinese seafaring community in Thailand before the ‘Ming ban’ of 1371. It also adds weight to my theory that part of the Chinese migration of Cizhou potters started as early as 1280 when the Mongols invaded China and established the Yuan dynasty.

These early immigrants most likely started the production of underglaze painted ceramics at Sukhothai, almost a hundred years before celadon production got underway at the Sisatchanalai kilns.  This theory is supported by evidence gathered from the Cizhou kiln sites and the Turiang shipwreck. This shipwreck cargo also reversed the earlier belief that Sisatchanalai was the first Thai kiln in export production.


The 15th century Melaka Maritime Code specifies rules pertaining to merchants and provides a general guide for ships as well as trading procedures. In this, the earliest known maritime code, it states that neither the merchant or the captain are liable to the owner for any lost goods if the cargo had to be jettisoned (a common practice if the ship hit a reef and needed repairs) or was totally lost by shipwrecking.  One can only assume that ships must have been lost quite frequently otherwise there would be no need for such a law.

Hukum  Laut Awal
(By Sten Sjostrand)
Saya tertarik untuk menemukan bahwa ada beberapa undang-undang Thailand yang khusus berkaitan dengan pelaut meskipun tidak ada catatan dari tradisi maritim yang kuat. Satu hukum dari 1350 melarang istri pelaut terdampar untuk menikah kembali selama tujuh tahun setelah kepergiannya. Hal ini tampaknya telah cukup masuk akal hukum ketika Anda mempertimbangkan berapa lama waktu yang diperlukan untuk korban terdampar akhirnya membuat jalan kembali ke rumah. Pada 1690 seorang musafir Jerman menumpang kapal Belanda di Batavia yang menuju pertama ke Thailand dan kemudian ke Jepang. Onboard ia bertemu seorang penumpang Jepang yang akhirnya akan pulang setelah terdampar di Laut Cina Selatan 10 tahun sebelumnya. Dia dan beberapa korban lainnya telah dicuci ke pada gosong pasir kecil di tengah Laut Cina Selatan dimana mereka tinggal selama beberapa tahun sebelum melihat dan diselamatkan. Gosong pasir ditawarkan sedikit dalam hal kualitas hidup yang hanya lima puluh tiga langkah panjang dan dua puluh empat langkah lebar! Ketika dia akhirnya kembali ke Jepang, ia menemukan istrinya sudah menikah lagi dan menghasilkan seorang putra.

Sama hukum menyatakan bahwa pelaut berhak untuk memberikan bukti di pengadilan dalam kelanjutan penyelesaian sengketa yang melibatkan pelaut lainnya. Fakta bahwa hukum-hukum ini sudah dirumuskan oleh 1350 menunjukkan bahwa sudah ada komunitas pelaut berkembang Cina di Thailand sebelum ‘Ming larangan’ dari 1371. Ia juga menambahkan bobot teori saya bagian dari migrasi Cina Cizhou tembikar dimulai sedini 1280 ketika Mongol menyerbu Cina dan mendirikan dinasti Yuan. Imigran awal ini kemungkinan besar mulai produksi keramik dicat underglaze di Sukhothai, hampir seratus tahun sebelum produksi celadon mendapat berlangsung di kiln Sisatchanalai. Teori ini didukung oleh bukti yang dikumpulkan dari situs kiln Cizhou dan Turiang kapal karam. Ini kapal karam kargo juga membalik keyakinan sebelumnya bahwa Sisatchanalai adalah kiln Thailand lebih dulu dalam produksi ekspor.

Abad ke-15 Melaka Maritime Kode menetapkan aturan-aturan yang berkaitan dengan pedagang dan menyediakan panduan umum untuk kapal serta prosedur perdagangan. Dalam hal ini, kode maritim dikenal paling awal, ia menyatakan bahwa baik pedagang atau kapten bertanggung jawab kepada pemilik untuk setiap barang yang hilang jika kargo harus dibuang (praktek umum jika kapal menabrak karang dan perbaikan diperlukan) ataukah benar-benar hilang dengan shipwrecking. Kita hanya bisa berasumsi bahwa kapal harus telah kehilangan cukup sering jika tidak, tidak akan ada kebutuhan untuk undang-undang tersebut.


The Chinese Imperial Ceramic Artwork Found In Indonesia ( continiu )






Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

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 Sunken Ship Found Treasure Ceramics and Jars from a old chinese Shipwreck in the South China Sea

Sunken Ship Found Treasure Ceramics and Jars from a old chinese Shipwreck in the South China Sea

3.3 Type and Motif Of Chinese Imperial Ceramic Artwork


Type And Motif Of Chinese Imperial Artwork Ceramic from

Shipwreck pottery

(By Sten Sjostrand)

Before sipwrecks were discovered there was little archaeological evidence available to help art historians date ancient pottery.

They theorised about origin, style of painting and choice of motifs, the kind of oxides used in the decorations and, in some cases, the density of the colour.

They also considered the type of clay used to mould the pot and the techniques involved in making the pottery.

But without a reference point much of this was educated guesswork mostly based on museum collections of unproven origin.  

 It was even thought that finer and more detailed decorations belonged to an earlier period and that somehow the art of decorating pots had devolved over time and become less refined 

The problem with this early method of dating is that it places too much emphasis on separating the different types of pottery into narrow time periods.

This has led to pieces that were actually made at the same time and place being given different dates. 

 Experts rarely considered the possibility that these different styles were produced contemporaneously.  

There was also little appreciation of the fact that not all of the potters and decorators would be equally skilled and that therefore some pots would look artistically superior to others.  

 In addition, these criteria were often applied to pieces in museum collections from unknown origins and so the research didn’t contribute to a long lasting chronology of ceramic ware. 

It’s in this area that historical shipwrecks have provided valuable new insights. 

 Most of the cargoes we’ve examined contained an array of pots, which according to the old way of dating, would have been made many years apart. 

But in fact most, if not all, of the objects found onboard these historic wrecks have revealed that a greater variety of ware was available than had previously been expected.

 It also seems clear that the production of different forms and styles of decoration overlapped and that each type was manufactured over a longer period than previously thought.

The contribution these shipwreck cargoes have made to the dating of ancient ceramics is one of the most important things to have come from their discovery and excavation.

Keramik Kapal Karam
(By Sten Sjostrand)

Sebelum sipwrecks ditemukan ada bukti arkeologi sedikit tersedia untuk membantu sejarawan seni saat tembikar kuno. Mereka berteori tentang asal, gaya lukisan dan pilihan motif, jenis oksida yang digunakan dalam dekorasi dan, dalam beberapa kasus, kepadatan warna. Mereka juga dianggap sebagai jenis tanah liat yang digunakan untuk cetakan panci dan teknik yang terlibat dalam pembuatan gerabah.

Tapi tanpa titik acuan banyak ini adalah dugaan berpendidikan sebagian besar didasarkan pada koleksi museum asal terbukti. Itu bahkan berpikir bahwa dekorasi halus dan lebih rinci milik periode sebelumnya dan bahwa entah bagaimana seni dekorasi pot telah diserahkan dari waktu ke waktu dan menjadi kurang halus

Masalah dengan metode ini awal kencan adalah bahwa hal itu menempatkan terlalu banyak penekanan pada memisahkan berbagai jenis gerabah dalam periode waktu yang sempit.

 Hal ini telah menyebabkan potongan-potongan yang benar-benar dilakukan pada waktu dan tempat yang sama diberi tanggal yang berbeda. Ahli jarang mempertimbangkan kemungkinan bahwa gaya yang berbeda yang diproduksi serentak. Ada juga sedikit apresiasi terhadap fakta bahwa tidak semua tembikar dan dekorator akan sama-sama terampil dan oleh karena itu beberapa pot akan terlihat artistik unggul dari orang lain. Selain itu, kriteria tersebut sering diterapkan untuk potongan dalam koleksi museum dari asal tidak diketahui sehingga penelitian tidak berkontribusi kronologi jangka panjang ware keramik.

Ini di daerah ini bahwa bangkai kapal sejarah telah memberikan wawasan baru yang berharga. Sebagian besar barang kami telah diperiksa berisi sebuah array pot, yang menurut cara lama berpacaran, akan telah dibuat bertahun-tahun terpisah. Namun pada kenyataannya sebagian besar, jika tidak semua, dari benda yang ditemukan onboard, ini bangkai kapal bersejarah telah mengungkapkan bahwa berbagai besar ware yang tersedia daripada yang sebelumnya telah diharapkan. Hal ini juga tampak jelas bahwa produksi berbagai bentuk dan gaya dekorasi tumpang tindih dan bahwa setiap jenis diproduksi periode yang lebih lama dari yang diperkirakan sebelumnya. Kontribusi tersebut kargo kapal karam telah dibuat untuk penanggalan keramik kuno adalah salah satu hal yang paling penting telah datang dari penemuan dan penggalian mereka


3.3.1 a


(11th century)

The Tanjung Simpang ship

Wreck location
Brown glazed kendi
Bronze gong
Copper ingot
Same marks on bronze & ceramics

The wreck found off Tanjung Simpangmangayau, in the north of Sabah, carried a cargo of Chinese ceramics tentatively dated to the Northern Song dynasty (960-1126 AD). Some pi


A 1000 year-old wreck site providing archeology and art history with new information

The Tanjung Simpang shipwreck site, the oldest in Malaysian waters, was unusual in many ways. 

 It was the only site the company discovered in shallow water and close to shore. The site was heavily looted by local fishermen.

Despite this looting, a number of Sung dynasty ceramic wares and few hundred kilos of pottery shards were recovered together with bronze gongs.

Some of these gongs were signed with Chinese characters, painted on the reverse

It has been known for a long time that the ancient Chinese potters made markings in the base of his pots to identify each individuals wares after its firing. These markings are referred to as “potters marks”.

Few of the Tg. Simpang ceramic wares had “potters marks” painted in the base of the pots. These characters are however masterly executed, and question its signing by a lesser educated potter

Luckily, the bronze gongs remaining on the site showed identical painted characters as those seen on the pottery. Such identical markings should start a new debate about whom and when the artifacts were signed and for what purpose. The main point of contention seems to be if the pots were ‘signed’ before or after it firing and if it should continually be referred to as “potters marks”.

One argument presented here, with the evidences from the Tanjung Simpang shipwreck, is that these markings were not “potters marks” but markings made by the Captain or an onboard merchants to identify their individual objects when reaching their destination.


Directed to an area off Tanjung Simpang-mangayau, the northwestern point of Sabah, by a local fisherman (who prefers to remain anonymous) the site was discovered on the 15th of April 2003. It was located 400 meters from the shore and in twelve meters of water.

The surface of the site is sandy but close to the fringing reef edge. The only indication of a shipwreck was stacks of bronze gongs that could be discerned above the flat seabed. This sandy layer varied between two and three feet in depth and is likely to have accumulated after the ship sunk.

This location is directly exposed to the northeast monsoon winds that generate large waves, which increases in height as they meet shallower water. After sinking, the ship appears to have landed on coral rocks. Pounding on these rocks by every wave, the ship is likely to have broken up almost immediately. This theory seems supported by the number of artefacts found scattered between the rocks.

Assuming that the ship sailed directly from China, it may have been damaged on the reefs extending east and west from Pulao Kalampunian and then sunk before the shore at Tanjung Simpangmangayau.

3.3.1 b



(AD. c. 1370)

Chinese Ceramics From the Shipwreck Turiang 14th Century

Around 1400, a Chinese ‘junk’ sank off the east coast of the Malaysian peninsula. The ship was probably sailing from Ayutthaya, then capital of Thailand, to Indonesia. The cargo was stoneware, mostly with green and brown glazes, from Thailand (57%), southern China (35%) and Vietnam (8%).

Archeology on this shipwreck site adds both information and confusion to today’s art history.

The archeology and the early Ming pottery found on the site suggest that present knowledge need review.  For More information about the importance of the Turiang shipwreck and its mixed ceramic cargo,

It was thought in the 70’s that potters moved from Sukhothai to start additional kilns at Sisatchanalai when sources for better clay were discovered in that area. Sisatchanalai, it was supposed, first made a few fishplates in imitation of Sukhothai and then concentrated their production on the main body of their ceramics, which included pottery like underglaze black and celadon wares


This chronology was adjusted in the 1980s after archaeological excavations at the Sisatchanalai kiln complex.

These showed that these kilns were more ancient, and definitely larger than Sukhothai.


Consequently, it became accepted that the Sisatchanalai site was the earliest producer of hign-fired ceramics and consistently manufactured larger numbers of ware than Sukhothai.


 Then it was thought that the Sukhothai kilns might not have made more ceramics until the 15th century, and that they produced only about 10-12% as much as Sisatchanali.

This seemed like a reasonable conclusion, since at least 800 kilns have been counted at Sisatchanalai but only 50 have been noted at Sukhothai.



There have however been no comprehensive excavations at the Sukhothai site, much of which was destroyed for the building of a new road within the Sukhothai Historical Park.


Various scholars devised theories to explain the differences in size and the relationships between the two kiln sites.


 It was thought that Sukhothai might have had insufficient clay resources and/or the Sisatchanalai site was simply better managed.


Shipwreck pottery recovered in the Bay of Thailand generally supported the idea that Sukhothai was a relatively minor producer.


This company’s discovery of four fully loaded wrecks, all with Thai pottery, did little to contradict the idea of lesser numbers of ware from Sukhothai.


The Longquan wreck did however indicate that the low percentage of Sukhothai exports might not be correct after all, at least not during all periods.


The cargo from this early Ming-period wreck comprised about 20% Sukhothai wares, and only 40% Sisatchanali ceramics.


The remainder of the wares came from China. In this one instance the proportion of Sukhothai wares to Sisatchanalai was 1:2.


Then came the discovery of the Turiang wreck. Not only is the proportion of wares surprising, the date for the founding of the Sukhothai kilns must also be revised.


Thousands of Sukhothai fish plates were seen on the first dive, without any example from Sisatchanalai in sight.


This, despite the fact that the ship was headed for Indonesia, a major market for Thai ceramics.


Further investigation did reveal Sisatchanalai wares but in limited numbers and from a time before the Sukhothai kilns are believed to have opened.


The obvious conclusion is that the Sukhothai kilns were in operation earlier than supposed, at the same time that the so-called ‘Mon’ wares (which are the type recovered) were being produced at Sisatchanalai.


 This Mon group of wares has been securely dated by radiocarbon samples from the kiln site to the mid 14th century. Thus it seems that the Sukhothai kilns must have begun exporting before the time of the Ming ban in AD. 1369.


The few Chinese ceramics recovered, indeed, are types traditionally assigned to the Yuan dynasty (AD. 1279-1368).


While the Turiang cargo may not exactly represent the proportions of production at the two main kiln centers in the Sukhothai kingdom, it gives pause for thought. It is even possible that brick-built kilns were first introduced at Sukhothai and then copied at Sisatchanalai, where in-ground non-brick kilns were previously in use.



The cargo also suggests that the first major exports of Thai pottery came from the Sukhothai rather than Sisatchanalai site.


 Of course, by the 15th century, when the Sisatchanalai potters were producing higher quality ceramics, they became the major source.


In suggesting a time when Sukhothai was the major supplier, it is interesting to review old data from the Philippines. H. Otley Beyer, who first looked at the presence of Thai ceramics in the islands, was convinced that Sukhothai wares typified lower stratigraphic levels.


Sisatchanalai wares, he believed, came later and were associated with 15th-century Chinese blue and white ceramics. It should be noted, incidentally, that 95% of the ceramics from the Turiang wreck are highly deteriorated after their long submersion in salt water. This makes the few intact examples extremely valuable.

In summary, it is believed that the Turiang wreck sank at a time in the 14th century, possibly around the very beginning of the Chinese Ming dynasty in AD. 1368.

3.3.1 c

Nanyang shipwreck

(AD. c. 1380)

Nanyang, a 14th century shipwreck was located in Malaysian Territorial water 11 miles from nearest island. She was loaded with now antique celadon wares from the famous Sisatchanalai kilns. The ship was found ten miles from Tioman island, a popular tourist spot and a popular stopover for seafarers since the 9th century.

The construction details noted thus far, which includes transversal bulkheads, joined with wooden dowels, fits a South China Sea type ship. The site has been surveyed but not yet excavated as much of the ships feature and the ceramics onboard are similar to that of the Royal Nanhai. The length of the vessel appear to be 18 meters and the beam 5 meters and it may have carried as much as 10.000 pieces of pottery, primarily celadon from the Sisatchanalai kilns, many of them showing scars from the use of spur discs.

Celadons dishes with spur marks have hardly ever been documented and seem to indicate an early production technique. Because the same type of dish, when found onboard the Royal Nanhai, does not have these spur marks, it is believed that the Nanyang is an earlier shipwreck perhaps dating to the later part of the 14th century. All evidence from the kiln site suggests that celadon dishes with spur marks are earlier than similar dishes without them. The larger storage jars on the Nanyang also suggest an earlier date. The tentative date for the loss of the Nanyang is therefore set to the period 1372-1390.

Four hundred and two pieces recovered from the wreck, for comparison purposes, were deposited in the collection of the Malacca Museum Corporation, State of Malacca. Malaysia. Without the promised conservation and registration, the artefacts were later returned to the company for proper treatment.



Early celadon cups from the Sisatchanalai kilns



Celadon jarlets and water dropper from Sisatchanalai



Incised decortaions in the early days at the Sisatchanali kilns was simple but elegant3.3.1 d

Longquan shipwreck

(AD. c. 1400)

The Longquan shipwreck was located in 63 meters of water, 22 nautical miles from the nearest Malaysian Island. She was loaded with 15th century antique celadon wares of the best quality. The site is only surface investigated but is expected  to provide archeology and art history with new archaeological data. The ship seems to have been a rather large Chinese junk seemingly measuring more than 30 meters in length, with a beam of 8 meters. The Longquan is the largest Ming-period shipwreck found fully loaded

Celadons from the Sisatchanalai kilns feature incised decorations. A smaller number of plates shows large tubular support scars, suggesting that the traditional stacking method is being phased out(Copy longqusn celadon with low quality colour Driwan found this plate at West Borneo and also the original  longquan celadon)

compare with the longquan original also found below


Chinese celadon from the famous Longquan kilns was probably loaded in China, where the ship is likely to have departed

3.3.1 e


(AD. c. 1460)

Over 20,000 ceramics were discovered in a vessel found north of the Turiang wreck.

The Royal Nanhai’s cargo consisted almost entirely of green- and brown-glazed stonewares of 1450-1500 made at Si Satchanalai in Thailand. The wares were probably being shipped to Indonesia. The discovery shows the success of the Si Satchanalai kilns in supplying this trade

The ceramic not upload because this werenot chinese imperial ware

3.3.1. f



(AD. c. 1540)

While the outline of the finds produced an acoustic image of a sea going vessel, approximately 28 x 8 meters in size, on site investigation did not produced any evidence of timber. Scattered ceramics on the surface of the seabed outlined the shape of a wreck but the finds extended only a few inches into the muddy sea floor. Despite extensive scanning with a sub-bottom profiler and a magnetometer, plus probing three meters into the sea bed with water jets, no wood fragments at all could be found.

The ceramics recovered include Chinese blue and white porcelain and monochrome white-glazed wares, Sisatchanalai celadon and underglaze black decorated wares, as well as Sukhothai underglaze black decorated bowls. Seven of the Chinese pieces display the reign mark of the emperor Xuande (AD 1426-1435). These pieces were probably made after the end of that reign, however, sometime in the late 15th century or mid 16th century. The Sukhothai samples, with their ‘solar whorl’ motifs, tend to confirm this later date. The whorl design is believed to belong to the later years of the Sukhothai kilns.

Excavation of the Xuande site was discontinued since no further evidence has warranted additional search and/or recovery attempts. Since the ceramics recovered from this site include examples of at least 20 different designs of Chinese ware, along with some Thai pieces, and the age of the pieces is still controversial, the assemblage should remain intact. One single museum is sought to accommodate the entire collection of some 250 artefacts.

…..It was therefore concluded that the ship sunk in the middle of the 16th century but carried a few ceramics that were already old. The concept of an early trade in antique ceramics, is beginning to be considered by some scholars.

Despite earlier date on the ceramics, it was the Sukhothai underglaze wares and these, Portuguese cannons that eventually confirmed an mid 16th century date for the shipwreck site.

Ewer without any Reignmark with Chrysanthenum moti


Chrysanthenum motif Ewer


with emperor Xuande’s (1425-1436) reign mark

in the base


Reign mark in bowls

3.3.1 g



(AD. c. 1550)

The Singtai shipwreck lies at a depth of 53 meters, 12 nautical miles from the island of Pulau Redang off the north-eastern coast of peninsular Malaysia.  The site was discovered in April 2001 and only a brief surface survey on the seabed has been conducted thus far.  The survey revealed a heavily loaded vessel perhaps 22 meters in length.  The construction of the ship which includes transverse bulkheads made from soft wood (joined by square iron nails) suggest that it may have been built in China.

the collections not upload because  this werenot chinese imperial ware

3.3.1 h



(AD. C. 1625)

The Wanli

Ming dynasty porcelain, kraak porcelain and other antique Chinese porcelain from the Wanli shipwreck. This site also offers information about Jingdezhen pottery development, other shipwreck pottery and antique Chinese export porcelain as well as pages for Chinese pottery marks and Asian antiques



A small kraak dish from the Wanli (c.1625) shipwreck. This dish is more than likely made at the Guangyinge kiln complex (Jingdezhen, China) where we have located production waster similar to this dish. The main decorative motifs are Chinese auspicious symbols wishing for a healthy and long life. The dish is totally intact with good glaze and soft decoration and limited ‘tender edges’



Zhushan butterfly bowl from the Wanli (c.1625) shipwreck. Similar butterfly bowls are reportedly found at the Zhushan (imperial) kilns at Jingdezhen, China, during excavations in the late 1990’s. Although not likely made at those kiln, it is possible that this bowl was made by an imperial Zhushan potter after the ‘official’ factory was closed in 1608. This bowl was found in two parts but now restored. The glaze surface is satin and the rendering in high contrast. The rim is smooth and free from ‘tender edges’. The base show a apocryphal six character (Chenghua Nian Zao) reign mark of emperor Chenghua (1464-1487)



A RARE peony dish painted in reserve where the background, rather than the motif, is painted in blue. The painting is crispy blue and well executed. The rim has, as it should, some ‘tender edges. The dish is intact although with some warping and limited glaze (surface) deterioration.


This kraak plate shows a grasshopper on a rock below a lotus arrangement. The plate is in good condition with contrasty decoration and no tender edges’  whilst here is a small, short, shallow rim repair at 7 o’clock. Grasshopper is a rather rare motif in the Wanli cargo. The plate will be delivered  with a Certificate of Authenticity



This fungus bowl belongs to the ‘best available’ group of ceramic artefacts from the Wanli shipwreck site. It shows a series of fungus liangcao motifs. This plant is a rare Chinese herbal medicine reputed as “elixir of life”. The bowl is totally intact with little ‘tender edges’along the rim. The glaze is in a very good glossy condition and the resonance of the bowl is very high pitch

Large Character Bowl


This RARE and much south after character type of bowl depicts Shou Lao, the God of longevity, riding a crane above crested waves in the well. The exterior decoration feature four medallions, each depicting two of the Eight Immortals, surrounded by repeated shou (longevity) characters.  This repeated use of the the shou character  is known as Bai Shou Tu in Chinese, meaning the ‘Picture of One Hundred shou characters’ and is very common in Chinese traditional work of art. These bowls are traditionally an excellent gift as they provide wishes for long life. The Eight Immortals are the favorite pantheon in Daoism.

Character bowl W-5908 is well made with all decorations perfectly executed and in high contrast This bowl is intact except for a rim repair which is hard to see. A fine hairline has been professionally mended and the resonance of the bowl is fully restored and now provide a high pitch sound when tapped. The base is glazed and show the (apocryphal) reign mark of emperor Chenghua whom ruled China between 1464 – 1487. The bowl will be delivered with a Certificate of Authenticity The diameter of the bowl is 22 centimeter.


Ming Wanli Turtle Motif Bowl.

The Chinese Imperial Artwork Found In Indonesia ( Continiu )






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 Sunken Ship Found Treasure Ceramics and Jars from a old chinese Shipwreck in the South China Sea

Sunken Ship Found Treasure Ceramics and Jars from a old chinese Shipwreck in the South China Sea

3.3.1 i



Historical Shipwreck




Shipwrecks which remain undisturbed on the seabed for centuries provide vital information about the past. The challenge of archaeology is to understand the past by studying material traces.

On land, archaeologists may excavate burial sites, lost monuments or deposited waste.

At sea, marine archaeologists may excavate ships fully loaded with today’s antique pottery. Object on board are usually assumed to be contemporary products dating from the year of sinking. Antique pottery recovered from such dated assemblages in the South China Sea, yield important clues about Asia’s ceramics developments and associated maritime trade.

“As time capsules, each with content deposited at a single moment in time, these are more valid as dating evidence than are decades of scholarly guesswork based on unprovenanced museum collections” (Asian Ceramic Research Organization)

The European East India ships of the 17th century provided the first direct contact with Asia’s spices, silk and ceramics. The Wanli Shipwreck was discovered off the coast of Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia in November 2003. It was fully excavated in mid-2005 in association with the then Malaysian Department of Museums and Antiquities. Believed to be a Portuguese vessel circa 1625, the ship was carrying an impressive cargo of late Ming Dynasty blue-&-white kraakware, a form of export porcelain produced during and following the reign of Emperor Wanli (1563-1619).

Kraak was the first blue & white porcelain to arrive in Europe in large quantities where it became highly sought after. The Ming


Wanli Kraak Porcelain with Bied on the rock symbol and surround by eight buddhist emblem and treasure emblem motif bigger palte 70 cm

porcelain of this period charmed buyers with its lively and spontaneous free painted images of deer, crickets and birds in natural settings.

The porcelain was named after the Carracks, the Portuguese ships that first transported this cargo. 

The Wanli Shipwreck bears testimony to the treacherous nature of maritime trade in the 17th Century. The distribution and condition of the porcelain cargo suggest that the ship’s gunpowder room may have exploded before sinking. It is thought that it was boarded and set alight by a ship from a rival nation.



Still Life with Fruit in a Wan-Li Bowl A Roemer c.1630

Detail from Tulips in a Wan-Li Vase c. 1619,


Chinese kraakware was far superior in terms of form and style to anything available at the time. It inspired the development of blue & white Delftware in Holland which emerged more than a century later. Prized Wanli bowls and plates featured prominently in the still lifes of the Dutch Masters of the 1600s who wanted to demonstrate their skill at depicting the delicate surfaces and intricate detailing of the exotic blue & white porcelain from the Far East.

Quoted from Sten Sjostrand essay:

“The ‘‘Ming ban’’ was officially abolished in 1567 and this allowed the Portuguese to openly trade with China.  By now Chinese potters were crafting exquisite blue and white porcelain ware that was as translucent as jade and almost as precious.  It captivated an ever-increasing group of European buyers and by the beginning of the 17th century blue and white porcelain was being exported to Portugal, Holland and England. From the beginning of the 18th century, more and more European merchant vessels were crossing the South China Sea with thousands of pieces of blue and white porcelain onboard. Many private European traders settled in Asia, using locally built ships to join in this lucrative commerce. “



The Bin Thuan Shipwreck Ceramics

Motif duck and lotus flower

Salvaged in 2001, from the Bin Thuan shipwreck situated 40 miles east of Phan Tiet, Vietnam, these Zhangzou (Swatow) ceramics were produced in China between 1550 and 1650

(3) The Camau Shipwrec’ 

The Ca Mau wreck


Tea bowl and saucer from the Ca Mau wreck, about 1725

A tea bowl and saucer.

Where and how it was made

This tea bowl and saucer were made in about 1725 at a porcelain works in Jingdezhen in southern China. The blue and white pattern is called ‘over the wall’. It shows a man climbing over a wall to meet two maidens, and may have been inspired by a Ming dynasty novel. While this is a Chinese design, some of the other ceramics found in the same shipwreck feature European motifs.

Two decorative dishes.

Left: These ‘Scheveningen’ dishes were recovered from the Ca Mau shipwreck. The decoration shows the Dutch fishing village of Scheveningen. Courtesy: Sothebys.

Where and how it was traded

It’s believed the wreck at Ca Mau was a Chinese merchant’s junk on its way from Canton (Guangzhou) to Batavia when it caught fire and sank in about 1725. The goods on board had been ordered by the merchant for Dutch traders who had limited access to China and its ports.

Engraving of a port.

Left: This engraving shows the port of Canton (Guangzhou) in China, about 1669. Courtesy: The Bridgeman Art Library.

22 ceramic dishes stuck together.

Right: Many of the ceramics in the Ca Mau wreck were tightly packed in 60-centimetre pinewood barrels. The fire on board was fierce enough to fuse some of the ceramics together. Courtesy: Sothebys.



(AD. c. 1830)

Pirates could have attacked the Desaru ship, killed her captain, captured passengers and crew, taken the most precious cargo, and set fire to the ship before selling the captured as slaves.

If this happened, the pirates would have been likely to take the ship’s cannons, valuable commodities at the time. Piracy was virtually uncontrolled during the first half of the 19th century. Writing in the late 1830’s, Newbold indicated that pirate activities around the Malay peninsula were seasonal and determined by the wind conditions.

From April to May, pirates would focus on the east coast; from June to September the brunt of their depredations fell on Johor and nearby islands. One pirate chief boasted that he had killed twenty-seven captains of European ships with his own hands. Piracy was curbed in 1837 when Admiralty jurisdiction granted prosecuting authority to the Straits Settlements; until then, all cases had to be referred to Calcutta. Around this time, Singapore started to supply ships with anti-pirate cannon, similar to the one found on the Desaru ship.

During excavation, structural members were held in place only by the ceramics and the surrounding compacted mud.

The scattered shards are found up to 4 metres either side of the ship, and up to 20 metres to the north and south, along the trawling directions.

Ceramics found in the port bow area were more broken and disorganized than in other sections of the ship

The blue and white porcelain found on the ship is attractive and of not  high quality,

The many large and crudely-potted storage jars found onboard suggest that more practical objects were in higher demand than decorative objects or wares for fine dining – although the discovery of over 50,000 soup spoons

unmatched with bowls also demonstrates the scale of contemporary trade and the danger of extrapolating too much from a single cargo.

 By the 18th century imitations were being made in Europe.  Genuine Yixing pots are made from a distinctive purplish red clay found only in Jiangsu province, and each of the examples from the Desaru displays a mark on the base giving either a potter’s or a supervisor’s name.  A number of the teapots carry the mark of Shao Youlan who is known to have been active in the Daoguang reign (1821-1850) and this, for the time being, is the best indication for the age of the shipwreck.




Blue & white porcelain on board consisted of a range of tableware from the Dehua and Jingdezhen kilns. Among these were flower bowls and dishes, lion dog and chrysanthemum blossom plates, Kamcheng jars decorated with delicate pea blossoms, covered wine bowls with Double Happiness motifs, and a large quantity of spoons.
The cargo comprised items typically used throughout Southeast Asia throughout this period.

Lion Dog Kamcheng Jars, teapots and Om plates from the Desaru Shipwreck

Much of the blue & white survived intact.  Excavated shards, however, were less abundant.  Due to the relative scarcity of these shards, pieces from from Tradewind Treasures’ Desaru Collection

The Desaru Shipwreck was found off the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia at a depth of 20 metres. It was fully researched and excavated in 2003. 

Chinese ceramics comprised 10% of the cargo of this Chinese vessel.  This included finely crafted Yixing teapots, and brown, black and green glazed stoneware for practical everyday use.