THE AMERICAN INDIAN APACHE HISTORY COLLECTIONS

American Indian History Collections

Part four

The Unites States Indian part two

Apache  Indians

 

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Limited private E-BOOK in CD-ROM Edition

Special for Premium member

Copyright@2012

The American Apache Indian

 

Apache Indian man

I walked with my Father

I walked with my Son

I walked with my Grandson

Now I walk in the shadows

 

kiowa apache

 

KIOWA – APACHE

 

 

Dohosan ( Little Bluff)

( Tribe : Kiowa )

( Painting by GEORGE CATLIN )

c.1805-1866. Noted for his courage and defiance in the face of threats from the U.S. government, Dohosan is considered by many to be the greatest of a hereditary line of chiefs of the Kiowas. In 1833, he became principal chief of all Kiowas after the Osages decimated a band of Kiowas and took their Sun Dance gods. As a result, his predecessor, Dohate or “Bluff”, was deposed. Although he signed several treaties (notably the Fort Atkinson Treaty of July 27, 1852, and the Little Arkansas River Treaty of October 18, 1865), Dohosan had little regard for the white man and his agreements. He believed that Indians should fight to retain their lands and rights as free people. However, he identified with and respected the Mexicans, who thought and fought much as he died. When Kid Carson started with more than 300 soldiers a winter campaign against the restive nation of the Kiowas on November 24, 1864, Kid Carson attacked a camp of Kiowas at Adobe Walls at the Canadien River. Dohosan, who was only a visitor in this camp, succeded in repulse this attack with great bravery. When Dohosan died in 1866 at the hands of a Dakota man, his name was bestowed upon his son, also a distinguished warrior.

The Kiowa – Apache are also known as the Prairie Apache. The name Apache was applied to them many years ago, because they were thought to be the same as the Apache people of Arizona. They have not had a connection with the Arizona Apache, other than belonging to the same language group. They came from the north, as a part of the Kiowa. Recent authorities now think the Apache divided somewhere in Montana, one group migrating down the west side of the Rockies into the Southwest, and a smaller group staying with the Kiowa. Whichever theory is correct, The Kiowa – Apache have a distinct language, and call themselves Nadi-ish-dena. The Pawnee and early French explorers and settlers called them Ga ta’ka, which is the name they appear as in their first treaty with the United States.

The Kiowa – Apache were associated with the Kiowa before they left the Rocky Mountains. In 1682, La Salle referred to them as “Gattacka, saying they had horses, which they sold to the Pawnee. La Harpe in 1719, after being in the now Oklahoma area, mentioned the tribe as “Quataquios” living on the Arkansas River as neighbors of the Tawakoni. Lewis and Clark found them in 1805 in the Black Hills where the Kiowa were.

In 1837, the Kiowa – Apache signed their first treaty with the United States at Fort Gibson. Since then they have identified with the Kiowa, and for the most part, share a common history.

In 1865, at their request, the Kiowa-Apache were officialy attached to the Cheyenne as a result of the Treaty of the Little Arkansas, but in the Medicine Lodge Treaty, two years later, were reunited with the Kiowa.

Their principal chief, Pacer, was friendly with the white people and used his influence to promote peace among the tribes on the Kiowa – Comanche Reservation until his death in 1875. That year, A. J. Standing, a Quaker, schoolteacher, had established the first school among the Kiowa – Apache at their request.

The group had settled peaceably on the reservation and were highly commended by the authorities for their industry and their efforts to make their own living. In 1894, Apache John (Gonkon, “Stays in tipi”) a concientious leader, represented them in the delegation to Washington with A’piatan, in protesting the agreement of 1892. Most of the Kiowa -Apache were living in the vicinity of present day Apache, in Caddo County, OK, under the leadership of their chief, Tsayaditl-ti (“White Man”), just before allotments and the opening of the reservation lands in 1901.

The present location of the Kiowa – Apache is the vicinity of Fort Cobb and Apache in Caddo County. There are approximately 400 now. Official reports list their numbers as about 300, when Lewis and Clark found them, 378 in 1871, 344 in 1875, 349 in 1889, 208 in 1896, and only 194 in 1924.

 

The above information is contained in the book, “A Guide to the Indian Tribes of Oklahoma” by Muriel H. Wright, published by University of Oklahoma Press, 1971.

 

Satanta (Set-Tainte)

1830-1878. Born on the Northern Plains, Satanta (“White Bear Person”) was the son of Red Tepee, who was the keeper of the Tai-me, the Kiowa medicine bundles. During his boyhood, he was known as Guaton-bain or “Big Ribs”. He was a young man when a prominent warrior, Black Horse, presented him with a war shiled that he used while raiding in Texas and Mexico. During the early days of the Civil War, he conducted many raids along the Santa Fe Trail. He would later become a principal chief in the Kiowa Wars of the 1860s-1870s and was known as “The Orator of the Plains.” When Little Mountain died in 1866, Satanta became the leader of the war faction of the Kiowas. His rival was KICKING BIRD of the peace faction. As a result of his rivalry, Lone Wolf became the compromise choice for the position of principal chief. Meanwhile, Satanta and his warriors continued raiding in Texas. Famed for his eloquence, Satanta spoke at the Medicine Lodge Treaty of 1867 where the Kiowas ceded their lands in the valleys of the Canadian and Arkansas Rivers and agreed to settle on a reservation within Indian Territory. However, some of the Kiowas were slow to move onto their lands in Indian Territory. When Satanta came under a flag of truce to tell the U.S. Army that he had not been with Black Kettle at the Battle of the Washita, General Philip H. Sheridan held him and several other leaders as hostages until their bands had relocated to Indian Terretory. In May 1871, Satanta was in a war party that attacked the Warren wagon train with SATANK, BIG TREE and MAMANTI. Later, Big Tree, Satank, and Satanta were seized for trial after bragging openly about their exploits. Satank tried to escape on the road to Texas; he was fatally shot. Big Tree and Satanta went to trial and were sentenced to death. Indian rights groups objected to the harsh penalties, however. The Bureau of Indian Affairs even contended that they should be released because their actions were associated with war and not murder. In 1873, they were paroled on a pledge of good behavior for themselves and the entire Kiowa tribe. However, Kiowa, Comanche, Cheyenne, and Arapaho war parties renewed their raids on white settlers under the Comanche leader Quanah Parker. These actions started the Red River War of 1874-1875. Satanta tried to prove to army officials that he was not a party to the raids. In September 1874, Big Tree appeared to THE Cheyenne Agency at Darlington to state that Satanta wished to surrender peacefully. True to his word, Satanta surrendered the next month. Although it appears that he had not violated the terms of his parole, Satanta was taken into custody and then imprisoned at Huntsville, Texas. On October 11, 1878, sick, tired, and despairing that he would ever be released, Satanta jumped off the upper floor of the prison hospital and committed suicide. The proud and dignified warrior was buried in Texas. His grandson, James Auchiah, received permission in 1963 to bring Satanta’s remains to Fort Sill, Oklahoma, so that he could be interred with other Kiowa chiefs.

 

WHITE HORSE

(?-1892). White Horse (Tsen-tainte), a Kiowa chief during the second half of the nineteenth century, was noted among the tribe for his daring. Even in his teens he showed remarkable adeptness as an apprentice warrior. Due to his unusual strength, he became an outstanding horseman, able to snatch up a child while at a gallop. In the summer of 1867 White Horse joined a large party of Comanches and Kiowas on a revenge raid against the Navajos, who were then living in exile on the reservation near Fort Sumner, New Mexico. On the Canadian River near the Texas-New Mexico line, White Horse and some of his followers killed and scalped a Navajo warrior. Shortly afterward, the war party attacked a Navajo village on the Pecos River. Although White Horse participated in the council at Medicine Lodge Creek in Kansas, he soon cast his lot with the war faction and gained considerable notoriety during the early 1870s for his raids on Texas settlements. He and his followers made a raid on Fort Sill on June 12, 1870, following the annual tribal Sun Dance, and stole seventy-three mules from the post quartermaster. On June 22 they attacked a party of cattle drovers on the trail a few miles south of the fort. White Horse killed and scalped two men before a detachment of troops came to the Texans’ relief. Whites considered him the “most dangerous man” among the Kiowas. Shortly thereafter, White Horse led his band into Texas, killed Gottlieb Koozer, and took his wife and six children captive. Subsequently, on August 7 the Quaker Indian agent, Lawrie Tatum, reprimanded the guilty party and withheld the weekly rations until all captives and stolen stock were returned; the Koozers were ransomed for $100 each, and raids in the vicinity of Fort Sill were curtailed, but White Horse defiantly continued his attacks south of the Red River. On September 30 he ambushed a stagecoach en route to Fort Concho near Mount Margaret (also known as the Mound) and killed Martin Wurmser, a trooper who was serving as an escort. White Horse also participated in the Warren Wagontrain Raid on May 18, 1871, and helped carry the fatally wounded brave, Hau-tau, to safety during the fight; afterward he escaped arrest. While the imprisonment of chiefs Satanta and Big Tree momentarily curbed his raiding, he and Big Bow engineered another attack on a wagon train in what is now Crockett County on April 20, 1872, which resulted in the death of seventeen Mexican teamsters. On the way back from that foray, White Horse was wounded in the arm during a skirmish with Capt. N. Cooney’s Ninth Cavalry troops. On May 19 White Horse’s younger brother, Kim-pai-te, was killed in a fight with L. H. Luckett’s surveying crew near Round Timbers, twenty-five miles south of Fort Belknap. That event prompted White Horse to organize a revenge raid, and on June 9, with the help of Big Bow, he attacked the homestead of Abel Lee on the Clear Fork of the Brazos, about sixteen miles from Fort Griffin. Lee and his fourteen-year-old daughter Frances were fatally shot, his wife scalped and murdered, and the remaining three children carried into captivity. Soldiers trailed them, but the Kiowas escaped back to the reservation and held a scalp dance that went on for several nights. The Lee children remained captives for a few months before they were ransomed. After the 1872 councils and the release of Satanta and Big Tree from prison on parole, White Horse was peaceful for a time but remained with the war faction. He accompanied the intertribal war party to the second battle of Adobe Walls in June 1874 and was encamped in Palo Duro Canyon when Col. Ranald S. Mackenzie’s troops attacked on September 27. As a result, White Horse and his followers surrendered at Fort Sill on April 19, 1875. Because of the atrocities he had committed, he was among those singled out by Kicking Bird for incarceration at St. Augustine, Florida. In 1878 he was returned with the others to the reservation near Fort Sill, where he spent his remaining years peacefully with his family. White Horse died of a stomach ailment in 1892 and was buried on the reservation.

 

TWO HATCHET

 

Lone Wolf ( Guipago )

Kiowa Chief . c.1820-1879

 

KICKING BIRD

1835-1875

gioyathiary apache

 

The Kiowa Tribe

 

The Kiowa Tribe consisted of about 220 members and had 22 representatives attending the congress. They came from a reservation in southwestern Oklahoma, adjoining the Wichita. They called themselves Nadiishan-Dina, and are also mentioned under their Pawnee name of Gataka. Until being assigned to a reservation in 1869, the Kiowa were well known for their raiding wars. Since this time,they have been a typical plains tribe, without agriculture, pottery, or basketry, depending entirely on the buffalo for subsistence, and shifting their skin tipis from place to place as whim or necessity guided.

They hunted and fought on horseback, carrying the bow, the lance, and the shield (and more recently the rifle), and participated in the great annual ceremony of the sun dance.

Physically they are tall and well made, with bold, alert expression. Every man and woman of the delegation came dressed in full buckskin, beautifully fringed and beaded. They set up their canvas tipis adjoining the Wichita, enclosing one of them with a circular windbreak of leafy willow branches after the manner of the winter camps of the plains Indians. Suspended from a tripod in front of the same tipi was a genuine, old-time ‘buffalo shield’, the last shielding remaining in the tribe. It is now the property of the National Museum.

The name tipi, ‘house’, is from the Sioux language and has now almost entirely superseded the former term, lodge. The tipi is a conical structure, formerly of dressed buffalo hides, but now of cow-skins or canvas, sewn together with sinew, over a framework of poles of cedar or other wood, tied together near their tops and spread out at the ground to form a circle of about twenty feet diameter.

An average tipi would house a family of about six persons. Three strong poles form the main support of the tipi. One of these is at one side of the doorway, which always faces the east; another, to which is usually tied the ‘medicine-bag’ of the owner of the dwelling, is nearly opposite the doorway, while the third is on the north side. These three poles are first tied together about two feet from their upper ends with one end of a long rope, and are then raised in place by the women and firmly planted in the earth. The other poles are next sorted out according to length and leaned against them in such a way that when set up the tipi’s longest slope will be toward the front.

The covering is lifted onto this framework and the ends are fastened with a row of wooden pins. Grass and wild sage are used to fill in any spaces which might let in cold air.

The fire is built in a shallow hole dug in the center of the tipi. Behind and on each side of the fire are low platforms, set close against the wall of the tipi, which serve as seats by day and beds by night. The frames are of small poles, supporting mats of willow rods, usually looped at one end in hammock fashion, and covered with skins or blankets. Above the beds are canopies set so as to catch the raindrops which may come in through the smoke-hole during rainstorms.

The clear space of ground near the fireplace, where the women cook, is sometimes separated from the bed space by a border of interwoven twigs. The tipi is painted on the outside with heraldic designs and decorated with buffalo tails, streamers from the poles, or similar adornments. In summer it is set up on the open prairie to escape the mosquitoes. In winter it is removed to the shelter of the timber along the river bottom, and surrounded with a high fence or windbreak of willow branches.

Of the Kiowa Apache delegation the most prominent member was the hereditary chief, White-man, (pictured left). In spite of years he sits his horse as firmly and bears his lance as steadily as the youngest of his warriors. In former days he was one of the two war leaders deemed worthy to carry the beaver-skin staff which pledged them never to avoid a danger or turn aside from the enemy.

Another notable man is the captive, Big-whip, whose proper name is Pablino Diez, and who jokingly claims kinship with the distinguished president of the sister republic. He is one of a considerable number of captives still living among these southern tribes. Unlike most of these unfortunates, Pablino retains the knowledge of his name and his Spanish language, and remembers vividly how he was taken, when about eight years of age, in a sudden dash by the Apache upon the town of Parral in Chihuahua.

To see more images from the Indian Congress, visit the Indian Congress Photo Gallery. This collection includes over 500 photographs of Native Americans, including portraits of individuals, group photos of families and photographs of various activities.

The library also has the original “Secretary’s Report” from the TransMississippi Exposition. This document includes a section on the The Indian Congress by Mr. W. V. Cox, Secretary of the Government Exhibit Board. It also contains the Report of Captain Mercer, manager of the Indian Congress

apache jndian girl

 

apache Indian scouty

 

nuchez cichanhua apache

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Conquering Bear ( Oglala Sioux )

Curley Bear ( Blackfoot )
.  

Medicine Crow – Perits Shinakpas ( Crow ) 1848-….

Plenty Coups – Adhantsi ahush ( Crow ) 1848-1932
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Scabby Bull – Kakuyanaka ( Arapaho )

Dull Knife ( Northern Cheyenne ) 1810-1883
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Geronimo – Goyathlay ( Apache )  1829-1909

Naiche (Chiricahua Apache) 1857-1921 [Geronimo allied]
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Low Dog – Xunka Kuciyedan ( Oglala Sioux )

Man Packs The Eagle – Whoe A Ke ( Cuthead Sioux )
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Chato (Mescalero Apache) [Cochise Captain]

Red Arrow – Wanduta ( Lakota Sioux )
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Crow King – Kangi Yatapi ( Hunkpapa Sioux )

Rain In The Face – Itomagaju (Hunkpapa Sioux) 1835-1905
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Red Cloud – Mahpiya Luta (Oglala Sioux) 1822-1909

Red Cloud (old) – Mahpiya Luta (Oglala Sioux) 1822-1909
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Red Fish ( Dakota Sioux )

Red Horse – Tasunke Luta – ( Sioux )
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Chief Joseph – Hin mah too yah lat kekt  ( Nez Perce )

Two Hatchet ( Kiowa )
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Sitting Bull – Tatanka Yotanka (Hunkpapa Sioux) 1831-1890

Sitting Bull – Tatanka Yotanka (Hunkpapa Sioux) 1831-1890
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Gall – Pizi ( Hunkpapa Sioux ) 1838-1894

White Belly ( Sioux )
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Two Strikes – Nomkahpa ( Brulé Sioux )

Yellow Dog ( Crow )
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Little Big Man ( Oglala Sioux )

Red Armed Panther ( Cheyenne ) 
.
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Apache Indian bow arrow

 

Apache Indian girl

 

Apache Indian altar

 

Apache Indian man

 

APACHE INDIAN GRASS HUT

 

Chincahua apache princess

Portrait of an Indian maiden holding a finely-crafted, coiled basket. Like Indian men, women would also wear leggings above their moccasins.

 

 

 

Apache Geronimo head dress

Creation of the Apache Honor Society

 
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Back in 1945 and 1946, Mr. Andy Reed, the Director of Camp Fuller By The Sea YMCA Camp for Boys, was very interested in Indian lore and had Princess Redwing of the Narragansett Indian Tribe of Rhode Island, and Tarzan Brown (the marathon runner) come to camp and present the customs of the local New England tribes. Mr. Reed found out that I had an Indian heritage. My father’s great-grandmother married a member of the Mohawk Tribe in New Hampshire. Needless to say, back in the old days an interracial marriage was not common and that is why the maiden name of my father’s great-grandmother was used (Hanscomb) I had a background in Indian crafts, Indian dancing and etc., prior to being hired as a Counselor at Camp Fuller while I was a student at Cranston High School (since renamed Cranston High School East).

In the picture above, taken around 1946,  on the left, dressed as Chief Little Beaver, Chief of the Camp Fuller Apaches. Beside him is Mr. Andy Reed, who served as the Director of Camp Fuller from 1933 – 1947.

The man in the dark suit is the Honorable John O. Pastore, the then Governor of Rhode Island, a position he held from 1945 – 1950, after which time he was elected to the Senate from Rhode Island, serving from 1950 – 1976. The gentleman on the right of the picture in the white suit is Mr. Fred Bank, Insurance Executor and President of the Cranston Branch and the Rotary Club that donated the United Nations flagpoles (which are located between the Administration building and the Council Ring). (Click on the picture to see a larger version.)

Mr. Reed wanted an Honor Society at Fuller to match the one at the Boy Scout Camp. He asked him to adapt some of the admirable qualities of the Indians, along with the spirit, mind, and body symbol of the YMCA. Knowing the nostalgia in dealing with the Indians’ story of the Custer Fight and the folklore tales about Geronimo, he decided that the name of the Honor Society would be “Apache”. He wanted to show admiration and the highest esteem for Geronimo and Chief Apache John, who combined dealing with being brave, never running away from the challenges of manhood and showing the incredible quality of being at peace with mankind.

 

The very name APACHE means enemy and stands on the pages of all Indian History as a synonym of terror. The Apaches were hostile in many conflicts, and were favored with rare and gifted leadership. Due to Geronimo’s leadership, it took and required the skill, strategy and profoundest generalship of two of the greatest generals of the Civil War to subdue and capture the daring and reckless Geronimo.

 

 

Following Geronimo was Chief Apache John who surrendered to civilization (as Peace Maker) and attended the Great Indian Council in 1909. He participated with eminent Indian Chiefs from nearly every Indian Reservation in the United States. Books have been written about the stories of their lives as told through their own words. From these stories, the foundation and guidelines for the Camp Fuller Apache Honor Society were formulated.

 

 

 

 

Apache kid center with two other Indian Scout

 
 Said to have been the fiercest Apache next to Geronimo, as well as a notorious outlaw of the late 19th century, was the Apache Kid.Born in the 1860’s on the San Carlos Reservation in Arizona, the “Kid” was most likely of the White Mountain Apache. Named Haskay-bay-nay-natyl, “the tall man destined to come to a mysterious end,” the pronunciation was too much for the citizens of Globe, who simply called him “Kid.” Learning English at an early age, he worked at odd jobs in Globe and was soon befriended by the famous scout, Al Sieber. At that time, early settlers of the Southwest faced numerous raiding bands of Apaches and General George Crook had come up with the idea to use Apaches to fight other Apaches. Enlisting Apache Indians from San Carlos and other reservations, the enlisted scouts could locate the trails that the hunted Apaches traveled.  In 1881, the Kid enlisted in the Indian Scouts and was so good at the job that he was promoted to sergeant in July, 1882. The following year he accompanied General George Crook on the expedition of the Sierra Madre.
The
Geronimo Campaign of 1885-1886 found the Kid in Mexico early in 1885 with Sieber, and when the Chief of Scouts was recalled in the fall, Kid rode with him back to San Carlos. He re-enlisted with Lieutenant Crawford’s call for one hundred scouts for Mexican duty, and again went south in late 1885. In the Mexican town of Huasabas, on the Bavispe River, the Kid nearly lost his life in a drunken riot in which he had been a participant. Rather than see the Apache Kid shot by a Mexican firing squad, the judge fined him twenty dollars, and the Army sent him back to San Carlos. 

 

Apache Kid

In May, 1887 the Apache Kid was left in charge of the Indian Scouts and guardhouse at San Carlos when Captain Pierce and Al Sieber, an anglo scout, were both gone on business. Though the brewing of tiswin, a beverage made of fermented fruit or corn, was illegal on the reservation, with the white officers gone, the Indian Scouts decided to have a party. As the liquor flowed freely, a man named Gon-Zizzie killed the Apache Kid’s father, Togo-de-Chuz. Kid’s friends, in turn, killed Gon-Zizzie. However, the killing of Gon-Zizzie was not enough for the Apache Kid, who then went to the home of Gon-Zizzie’s brother, Rip, and killed him.  

 

Apache Kid (middle) with two other Indian Scouts.

 

When the Apache Kid and the four other scouts returned to San Carlos on June 1, 1857, both Captain Pierce and Al Sieber were there ahead of him. Captain Pierce ordered the scouts to disarm themselves and the Kid was the first to comply. As Pierce ordered them to the guardhouse to be locked up, a shot was fired from the crowd who had gathered to watch the display of events. In no time, the shots became widespread and Al Seiber was hit in the ankle, which ended up crippling him for life. During the melee that followed, the Apache Kid and several other Apaches fled. Though it was never determined who fired that shot that struck Sieber, it was for sure not the Kid nor the other four scouts ordered to the guardhouse as they had all been disarmed.

The Army, reacting swiftly, soon sent two troops of the Fourth Cavalry to find the Apache Kid and the others who had escaped. For two weeks the cavalry followed the fugitives along the banks of the San Carlos River, when finally, with the aid of more Indian Scouts, they located the Kid and his band in the Rincon Mountains.

The soldiers seized upon the Apaches‘ horses and equipment while the Indians fled by foot into the rocky canyons. In negotiations with the soldiers, Kid relayed a message to General Miles stating that if the Army would recall the cavalry he and his band would surrender.   When Miles complied, the Apache Kid and seven members of his band surrendered on June 25th.

The Kid and four others were court-martialed and found guilty of mutiny and desertion and sentenced to death by firing squad. However, General Miles was upset over the verdict and ordered the court to reconsider the sentence. When the court reconvened on August 3, they were re-sentenced to life in prison. Miles was still not satisfied and reduced the sentence to ten years. Beginning their sentence in the San Carlos guardhouse, they were later sent to Alcatraz.

However, their conviction was soon overturned on October 13, 1888, due to prejudice among the officers of the court-martial trial, and the Indians were returned to San Carlos as free men. Causing an outrage among the citizens of the area, a new warrant was issued in October, 1889 in Gila County for the re-arrest of the freed Apaches for assault to commit murder in the wounding of Al Sieber.

At the trial on October 25, 1889, four Apaches including the Apache Kid were found guilty and sentenced to seven years in the Territorial Prison at Yuma.  While being transported to the prison the Apache Kid, along with several others escaped. During the fighting that took place during the escape, the three guards, Glenn Reynolds, Eugene Middleton and W. A. Holmes, were overpowered. Glen Reynolds was killed, Middleton was wounded and Holmes apparently died of a heart attack. Middleton later recovered, saying the Kid had prevented another of the Apaches from “finishing” him by bashing his head with a rock.

The Kid and the others fled, their tracks obliterated by a snowstorm. It would be the last “official” sighting of Apache Kid, though unconfirmed reports of his whereabouts would continue to filter in for years.

 

 

 

Over the next few years the Apache Kid was accused of various crimes and said to have led a small band of renegade Apache followers, raiding ranches and freight lines throughout New Mexico, Arizona and Northern Mexico as he hid out in the Mexican Sierra Madre Mountains. Others insist that he became a lone wolf who was despised by his own people and was terribly feared by the Anglo settlers. Some accounts have the Apache Kid kidnapping an Apache woman until he tired of her, then killing her, before kidnapping yet another. Reportedly, the Kid preyed on lone ranchers, cowboys, and prospectors, killing them for their food, guns, and horses. Before long, a price of $5,000 was placed on his head by the Arizona Territorial Legislature, dead or alive, but no one ever claimed the reward. It is impossible to determine how many of the crimes he is blamed for that he actually committed. During an 1890 shootout between Sonoran Rurales (a branch of the army) and Apaches, a slain warrior was found to have Reynolds’ pistol and watch, but he was too old to have been the Kid.  After 1894, reports of his crimes came to an end. Some sources claimed he died at this time while others argue that he crossed into Mexico and retired to his mountain hideout.In 1899, Colonel Emilio Kosterlitzky, head of the Rurales, reported him alive and living with other Apaches in the Sierra Madre. In the interim, there were several unconfirmed reports of his death – by gunshot or by tuberculosis. However, southern Arizona ranchers continued to report Apache stock raids into the 1920s.There are so many different variations of the crimes committed by the Apache Kid, all with the purpose of exacting revenge for the treacherous way in which the Apache scouts had been treated by the army, that even historians cannot agree on exactly what he was responsible for, nor when he died. Seemingly, his namesake “the tall man destined to come to a mysterious end” was a prophecy. Though the questions are many regarding the death of the Apache Kid, a gravesite memorial can be found high in the San Mateo Mountains of the Cibola National Forest in New Mexico. Here is yet another place that the Apache Kid was said to have been killed, after having been hunted down by local ranchers angered by his relentless raids. Reportedly, to mark the site of the of the Kid’s undoing, the vengeful posse blazed a tree, the hacked remains of which you can see to this day. The grave is one mile northwest of Apache Kid Peak at Cyclone Saddle.

 

The Apache Kid as a prisoner in Globe, Arizona in 1889, courtesy Arizona Historical Society

 

 

apache Indian mask

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Indian Mask of Tsunukwalah

Here for your browsing pleasure is an imposing photo of Tsunukwalahl. It was made in 1914 by Edward S. Curtis.

The illustration documents Person wearing Mask of Tsunukwalahl, a mythical being, used during the Winter Dance.

The illustrations below only for premium member

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Face of Sun God Kachina Mandala
Cynthia Whitehawk – Apache

 

This mini gourd Kachina Mandala is hand-painted hand-crafted Native American Ceremonial Healing Art.

The Sun God Kachina has a beautiful feather headdress.

Dimensions

8″ diameter hoop wrapped in soft deer skin;
22″ overall length from top of dreamcatcher hoop to tips of fringe.

Artist

Cynthia Whitehawk, Apache

 

The Kachina Mask is hand painted with acrylics & enamels for rich vibrant colors, genuine, unique, entirely hand crafted, signed and dated by the artist. Comes with a Certificate of Authenticity.

 

Shields & Masks

Return Policy

Cynthia Whitehawk – Apache
Face of Sun God
Kachina Mask Mandala

DCS14
$225 plus s/h
SOLD

Shields & Masks

 

Paula says -

“This mandala is a unique and collectible piece of Native American art. Cynthia Whitehawk’s work is stellar. Her pieces are entirely hand crafted, made in ceremony, with attention to detail & durability.”

 

The cascading golden deerskin fringe is tipped with traditional nickel jingle cones, red and golden horn beads and brass, copper and nickel beads.

 

There is a Sterling Silver and Turquoise medallion at the base of the mandala.

Words from Apache artist Cynthia Whitehawk:

MINIATURES –

The techniques used in the creation of this one of a kind art are the most difficult to master. Miniature pyrography (carving with fire) takes the utmost of patience, a precise clear vision, as well as an extremely delicate hand. Not only is miniature work the most difficult, but the most time consuming, add to that working on a slick rounded surface which requires the highest of skill. This art is extremely rare and only practiced by the most gifted of people.

SUNFACE KACHINA

is a leader of ceremonies and represents Bringer of Warmth, shelter for the old, a bright future, and playfulness of the young. Sunface Kachina is essential to all life and growth, in nature as well as Spiritual.

DREAM CATCHERS –

Dreamcatchers originated in the Ojibwa Nation and were later adopted by Native Americans of a number of different Nations. The dreamcatcher was based on a willow hoop on which was woven a net or web of sinew. It was then decorated with personal and sacred items such as feathers and beads. Some consider the dreamcatcher a symbol of unity among the various Indian Nations, and a general symbol of identification with Native American or First Nations cultures. Others believe that dreamcatchers protect sleepers from nightmares – the web allows only good dreams to pass through while holding bad dreams to perish in the light of day.

SPIDER WOMAN –

She is the creator and weaver of life, the great teacher, protector and Mother of all creation. She manifests as Sacred Guardian, overseeing the welfare of all those in need. In her aspect as Creator and Mother, Spider Woman affirms that women are essential and central to the life process. She reminds us that people of all races were created from the same source, with equal rights and responsibilities.

SPIRIT SHIELD –

Shields are ancient ceremonial tools, providing protection from that which would harm or divert one from the good path, bringing strength and healing through ones power totems, Spirit Animals and Beings, and Mother Earths elements.

MANDALA –

A design symbolic of the universe that is used in Hinduism and Buddhism as an aid to meditation. A Native American mandala is a hoop similar to a dreamcatcher but instead of a web the hoop is filled with yarn, feathers, fur and usually has feathers hanging from the bottom. A mandala is something you use in ceremony or hang for prosperity and good fortune on a door or wall inside your office, home, hogan, or tipi.

 

 

INDIAN WHISPERS

Our time ended long ago

 Be still and listen

Hear our messages in the wind

Today we are a whisper

Tomorrow we thunder

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 Apache Cowboy  Apache Indian  Apache Man
 Indian War Dance  Apache Reaper   Apache Still Life 
 Apache Girl  Indian Boy  Apache Indian
 Apache Girl  Apache Indian Man  Indian Mask 
 Medicine Cap   Apache Girl   Apache Maiden 
 Indian Baby 

Medicine Man


Medicine Man

 War Party   Brule War Party  Going Home 

 

Indian Camp

 Indian Woman  Old Indian
 Indian Hut  Indian Storm  Indian Ceremony 
 Indian Land  Women Cooking  The Cornfield
 Apache Indian Man  Indian Fishing  Indian Man
 Indian Son  Indian Visitors  Indian Lessons
 Misunderstood  Undecided  Wise Man
 The Chill  Eternal Rest  Indians on Horses

 

 

INDIAN WHISPE

I apache Indian jewelary

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Title : Apache Hunter; C.1880
 
Title : Apache Men & White Man; Camp Apache, Arizona, C.1890
 
Title : Twenty-Four Noted Indian Chiefs; C.1890

 

 


Title : Aged Apache Woman; 1906
 
Title : Apache Children & Adults & Captured White Boy; 1886
 
Title : Twenty-Four Noted Indian Chiefs; C.1890

 


Title : Apache Bird Hunter & Bag; C.1900
 
Title : Apache at Cook Jewelry Store; Prescott, Arizona, C.1910
 
Title : Apache (?) Indian woman working in cornfield S.L., N.D.

 
Title : Apache Woman Weaving Basket; 1900
 
Title : Twenty-Four Noted Indian Chiefs; C.1890
 


Title : Apache Woman & Baby; C.1900

 
Title : Apache Indian Women Delivering Hay to Quartermaster; San-Carlos, Arizona, 1887
 
Title : Apache Indian Wickiup; N.D.
 
Title : Indian Camp; 1886

 
Title : Homes of Scouts, San Carlos, Arizona, c. 1880s
 
Title : Apache Indian Woman Weaving; N.D.
 
Title : Group of Apache Indian-Scouts; C.1880

 
Title : Apache Indian Farms San-Carlos, Arizona; C.1880
 
Title : Apache Indian Camp Before Surrender to U.S. Cavalry; 1886
 
Title : Group of Apache Indian-Scouts; C.1880

 
Title : Apache Indian Men & Women; San-Carlos, Arizona; N.D.
 
Title : Council to Arrange Surrender of Apache-Indians; 1886

 


Title : Apache Man with War Bow & Arrows, c. 1880s

 


Title : Mescalero Apache Chief; C.1880
 
Title : Apache woman with baby in cradleboard, Prescott, Arizona, C.1890
 
Title : Apache man with Springfield Musket, Prescott, Arizona, C.1875

 
Title : Apache Indian Women at Anglo Gathering; C.1900
 
Title : Apache Scouts scattered on hillside, Canon de los Embudos, Arizona, C.1880
 
Title : Apache men with Winchester Rifle and headdress, Prescott, Arizona, C.1880

 
Title : Four portraits; Apache men, Cocopah man, Navajo Man; S.L., N.D.
 
Title : Apache medicine woman, S.L., C.1890
 
Title : Apache men with Winchester Rifle and headdress, Prescott, Arizona, C.1880

Call
Title : Apache woman with baby in cradleboard, Prescott, Arizona, C.1890
 


Title : Apache man with Springfield Musket, Prescott, Arizona, C.1875
 
Title : Apache men, one playing Apache violin, San Carlos Reservation, Arizona, C.1880

 
Title : Apache woman weaving a burden basket, S.L., C. 1900
 
Title : Groups of Apache men with weapons, S.L., C.1880
Call
Title : Apache Women, S.L., C.1900

 


Title : Apache women, S.L., C.1900
 
Title : Groups of Apache men with weapons, S.L., C.1880

 


Title : White Mountain Apache Chief, S.L., C.1880

 
Title : Apache women, S.L., C.1900
 
Title : Apache men and women hauling wood, S.L., C.1890
 
Title : Apache men, women, and children, S.L., C.1900

 
Title : Groups of Apache men with weapons, S.L., C.1880
 
Title : Apache children underneath a ramada, S.L., C. 1880
Call
Title : Apache twin babies in cradleboards, S.L., C.1900

 
Title : Apache twin babies in cradleboards, S.L., C.1900
 
Title : Apache men and Anglos at tent camp, S.L., C.1890

 


Title : Apache family: man wears gun, gun belt, and chaps, S.L., C.1880

   


Title : Apache Family, S.L., C.1890
 
Title : Apache baby girl, “Apache May.” Captured by John Slaughter, S.L., C.1890

 
Title : Six Apache men: two carry Springfield Muskets; one man in uniform, S.L., C.1880

  


Title : Apache man in leg irons, with two women, S.L., C.1890
 
Title : Apache baby girl, “Apache May.” Captured by John Slaughter, S.L., C.1890
  


Title : Apache youth wearing unusual bead and bone necklace, S.L., C.1880

 
Title : Apache Indians at Roosevelt Lake, Arizona, C.1890
 
Title : Apache woman, “Cittie Mittie,” holding basket and awl canes, S.L., C.1890
  


Title : Apache women, S.L., C.1900

 
Title : Eight Apache Scouts with bolt action rifles, S. L., C.1885
 
Title : Apache scouts and soliders trailing “The Apache Kid”, S.L., C.1870
  


Title : Apache Scout, S.L., C.1880

 
Title : Apache Scout with Springfield musket, S.L., C. 1880
 
Title : Apache Scouts at Fort Apache, Arizona, C.1870
 


Title : Apache Scout, S.L., C.1880

   


Title : Apache Scouts, S.L., C.1880
 
Title : Apache Scouts at Fort Apache, Arizona, C.1870
   


Title : Apache women and children, S.L., C.1880

  


Title : Portrait of an Apache Scout, S.L. C.1890
 
Title : Apache Scouts with interpreter, Mariojolvido Grehalva, and Lt. Clark, S.L., 1882
 
Title : Apaches with W. H. Williscraft, near Grant, Arizona, C.1880

 
Title : Apache Scout, Camp Verde, Arizona, C.1880
   


Title : Nana, Apache Chief, S.L.

  


Title : Apache Chief Bonito; C.1870

 

 
Title : Three Apache Scouts, including “The Apache Kid,” Tombstone, Arizona, 1886 

   


Title : Mickey Free, S. L., C.1870
  


Title : Geronimo in council with General George Crook and others, S.L., 1886

 
Title : “The Apache Kid,” S.L., N.D.
 
Title : Chiricahua Apache Chief, Chatto, S.L., C.1870
 
Title : Geronimo in council with General George Crook and others, S.L., 1886

 


Title : “The Apache Kid,” S.L., N.D.
  


Title : Apache Outlaws: C.1870
  


Title : Apache Chief Geronimo; 1886

 


Title : Apache Chief Geronimo; 1886
 
Title : Apache Chief Natches, c. 1876

 

 

Camp Verde, Arizona, occasionally present public performances of the Mountain Spirit Dance. Oklahoma Apaches sometimes perform the Fire Dance at the annual American Indian Exposition in Anadarko, Oklahoma; and the San Carlos Apache, San Carlos, Arizona, and the White Mountain Apache, Whiteriver, Arizona, perform the Sunrise Dance and Mountain Spirit Dance throughout the summer, but their traditional dances are most easily observed at the San Carlos Tribal Fair and the White Mountain Tribal Fair.

HOLIDAYS

Apaches celebrate a number of holidays each year with events that are open to the public. The San Carlos Apache Tribal Fair is celebrated annually over Veterans Day weekend at San Carlos, Arizona. The Tonto Apache and Yavapai-Apache perform public dances each year at the Coconino Center for the Arts, Flagstaff, Arizona, on the Fourth of July. The White Mountain Apache host The Apache Tribal Fair, which usually occurs on Labor Day weekend, at Whiteriver, Arizona. The Jicarilla Apache host the Little Beaver Rodeo and Powwow, usually in late July, and the Gojiiya Feast Day on September 14-15 each year, at Dulce, New Mexico. The Mescalero Apache Gahan Ceremonial occurs each year on July 1-4 at Mescalero, New Mexico. Apaches in Oklahoma participate in the huge, week-long American Indian Exposition in Anadarko, Oklahoma, each August.

HEALTH ISSUES

Apaches have suffered devastating health problems from the last decades of the nineteenth century and throughout most of the twentieth century. Many of these problems are associated with malnutrition, poverty, and despair. They have suffered incredibly high rates of contagious diseases such as tuberculosis. Once tuberculosis was introduced among the Jicarilla, it spread at an alarming rate. The establishment of schools, beginning in 1903, only gave the tuberculosis bacteria a means of spreading rapidly throughout the entire tribe. By 1914, 90 percent of the Jicarillas suffered from tuberculosis. Between 1900 and 1920, one-quarter of the people died. One of the reservation schools had to be converted into a tuberculosis sanitarium in an attempt to address the crisis. The sanitarium was not closed until 1940.

Among nearly all Native peoples of North America, alcohol has been an insidious, destructive force, and the Apache are no exception. A recent study found that on both the Fort Apache Reservation and the San Carlos Reservation, alcohol was a factor in more than 85 percent of the major crimes. Alcohol, though long known to the Apache, has not always been a destructive force. Sharing the traditional telapi (fermented corn sprouts), in the words of one elder, “made people feel good about each other and what they were doing together.” Alcohol as a destructive force in Apache culture is a phenomenon that dates from colonization, and it has been a byproduct of demoralization and despair. Tribal leaders have attempted to address the underlying health problems by trying to create tribal enterprise, by fostering and encouraging bilingual and bicultural educational opportunities, and by trying to make it possible for Apaches to gain more control over their lives.

Language

The Athapascan language family has four branches: Northern Athapascan, Southwestern Athapascan, Pacific Coast Athapascan, and Eyak, a southeast Alaska isolate. The Athapascan language family is one of three families within the Na-Dene language phylum; the other two, the Tlingit family and the Haida family, are language isolates in the far north, Tlingit in southeast Alaska, and Haida in British Columbia. Na-Dene is one of the most widely distributed language phyla in North America. The Southwestern Athapascan language, sometimes called Apachean, has seven dialects: Navajo, Western Apache, Chiricahua, Mescalero, Jicarilla, Lipan, and Kiowa-Apache.

Family and Community Dynamics

For the Apaches, the family is the primary unit of political and cultural life. Apaches have never been a unified nation politically, and individual Apache tribes, until very recently, have never had a centralized government, traditional or otherwise. Extended family groups acted entirely independently of one another. At intervals during the year a number of these family groups, related by dialect, custom, inter-marriage, and geographical proximity, might come together, as conditions and circumstances might warrant. In the aggregate, these groups might be identifiable as a tribal division, but they almost never acted together as a tribal division or as a nation—not even when faced with the overwhelming threat of the Comanche migration into their Southern Plains territory. The existence of these many different, independent, extended family groups of Apaches made it impossible for the Spanish, the Mexicans, or the Americans to treat with the Apache Nation as a whole. Each individual group had to be treated with separately, an undertaking that proved difficult for each colonizer who attempted to establish authority within the Apache homeland.

Apache culture is matrilineal. Once married, the man goes with the wife’s extended family, where she is surrounded by her relatives. Spouse abuse is practically unknown in such a system. Should the marriage not endure, child custody quarrels are also unknown: the children remain with the wife’s extended family. Marital harmony is encouraged by a custom forbidding the wife’s mother to speak to, or even be in the presence of, her son-in-law. No such stricture applies to the wife’s grandmother, who frequently is a powerful presence in family life. Apache women are chaste, and children are deeply loved.

Employment and Economic Traditions

Apaches can be found pursuing careers in all the professions, though most of them must leave their communities to do so. Some are college faculty; others, such as Allan Houser, grand-nephew of Geronimo, have achieved international reputations in the arts. Farming and ranching continue to provide employment for many Apaches, and Apaches have distinguished themselves as some of the finest professional rodeo performers.

By 1925, the Bureau of Indian Affairs had leased nearly all of the San Carlos Reservation to non-Indian cattlemen, who demonstrated no concern about overgrazing. Most of the best San Carlos farmland was flooded when Coolidge Dam was completed in 1930. Recreational concessions around the lake benefit mostly non-Natives. By the end of the 1930s, the tribe regained control of its rangeland and most San Carlos Apaches became stockmen. Today, the San Carlos Apache cattle operation generates more than $1 million in sales annually. Cattle, timber, and mining leases provide additional revenue. There is some individual mining activity for the semiprecious peridot gemstones. A chronic high level of unemployment is the norm on most reservations in the United States. More than 50 percent of the tribe is unemployed. The unemployment rate on the reservation itself is about 20 percent. U.S. Census Bureau figures show the median family income for Apaches was $19,690, which is $16,000 less than for the general population. Also, 37.5 percent of Apaches had incomes at or below the poverty level as of 1989.

A number of tribal economic enterprises offer some employment opportunities. The Fort Apache Timber Company in Whiteriver, Arizona, owned and operated by the White Mountain Apache, employs about 400 Apache workers. It has a gross annual income of approximately $30 million, producing 100 million board feet of lumber annually (approximately 720,000 acres of the reservation is timberland). The tribe also owns and operates the Sunrise Park Ski Area and summer resort, three miles south of McNary, Arizona. It is open year-round, and contributes both jobs and tourist dollars to the local economy. The ski area has seven lifts and generates $9 million in revenue per year. Another tribally owned enterprise is the White Mountain Apache Motel and Restaurant. The White Mountain Apache Tribal Fair is another important event economically.

The Jicarilla Apache also operate a ski enterprise, offering equipment rentals and trails for a cross-country ski program during the winter months. The gift shop at the Jicarilla museum provides an outlet for the sale of locally crafted Jicarilla traditional items, including basketry, beadwork, feather work, and finely tanned buckskin leather.

Many members of the Mescalero Apache find employment at their ski resort, Ski Apache. Others work at the tribal museum and visitor center in Mescalero, Arizona. A 440-room Mescalero resort, the Inn of the Mountain Gods, has a gift shop, several restaurants, and an 18-hole golf course, and offers casino gambling, horseback riding, skeet and trap shooting, and tennis. The tribe also has a 7,000-head cattle ranch, a sawmill, and a metal fabrication plant. In 1995, the Mescaleros signed a controversial $2 billion deal with 21 nuclear power plant operators to store nuclear waste on a remote corner of the reservation. The facility is scheduled to open in 2002, barring any legal challenges.

For the Yavapai-Apache, whose small reservation has fewer than 300 acres of land suitable for agriculture, the tourist complex at the Montezuma Castle National Monument—where the tribe owns the 75 acres of land surrounding the monument—is an important source of employment and revenue.

Tourism, especially for events such as tribal fairs and for hunting and fishing, provides jobs and brings money into the local economies at a number of reservations. Deer and elk hunting are especially popular on the Jicarilla reservation. The Jicarilla also maintain five campgrounds where camping is available for a fee. Other campgrounds are maintained by the Mescalero Apache (3), the San Carlos Apache (4), and the White Mountain Apache (18).

Politics and Government

The Apache tribes are federally recognized tribes. They have established tribal governments under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 (25 U.S.C. 461-279), also known as the Wheeler-Howard Act, and they successfully withstood attempts by the U.S. government to implement its policy during the 1950s of terminating Indian tribes. The Wheeler-Howard Act, however, while allowing some measure of self-determination in their affairs, has caused problems for virtually every Indian nation in the United States, and the Apaches are no exception. The act subverts traditional Native forms of government and imposes upon Native people an alien system, which is something of a mix of American corporate and governmental structures. Invariably, the most traditional people in each tribe have had little to say about their own affairs, as the most heavily acculturated and educated mixed-blood factions have dominated tribal affairs in these foreign imposed systems. Frequently these tribal governments have been little more than convenient shams to facilitate access to tribal mineral and timber resources in arrangements that benefit everyone but the Native people, whose resources are exploited. The situations and experiences differ markedly from tribe to tribe in this regard, but it is a problem that is, in some measure, shared by all.

RELATIONS WITH THE UNITED STATES

Apaches were granted U.S. citizenship under the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924. They did not legally acquire the right to practice their Native religion until the passage of the American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978 (42 U.S.C. 1996). Other important rights, and some attributes of sovereignty, have been restored to them by such legislation as the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1966 (25 U.S.C. 1301), the Indian Self-Determination and Educational Assistance Act of 1975 (25 U.S.C. 451a), and the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (25 U.S.C. 1901). Under the Indian Claims Commission Act of 1946, the Jicarillas have been awarded nearly $10 million in compensation for land unjustly taken from them, but the United States refuses to negotiate the return of any of this land. In Merrion v. Jicarilla Apache Tribe, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in favor of the Jicarillas in an important case concerning issues of tribal sovereignty, holding that the Jicarillas have the right to impose tribal taxes upon minerals extracted from their lands.

Individual and Group Contributions

LITERATURE, ACADEMIA, AND THE ARTS

Apaches are making important contributions to Native American literature and the arts. Lorenzo Baca, of Mescalero Apache and Isleta Pueblo heritage, is not only a writer, but also a performing and visual artist who does fine art, sculpture, video, storytelling and acting. His poetry has been anthologized in The Shadows of Light: Poetry and Photography of the Motherlode and Sierras (Jelm Mountain Publications), in Joint Effort II: Escape (Sierra Conservation Center), and in Neon Powwow: New Native American Voices of the Southwest (Northland Publishing). His audio recording, Songs, Poems and Lies, was produced by Mr. Coyote Man Productions. An innovative writer, his circle stories entitled “Ten Rounds” in Neon Powwow illustrate his imagination and capacity to create new forms of poetic expression. Jicarilla Apache creative writers Stacey Velarde and Carlson Vicenti present portraits of Native people in the modern world in their stories in the Neon Powwow anthology. Velarde, who has been around horses all her life and has competed in professional rodeos since the age of 13, applies this background and knowledge in her story “Carnival Lights,” while Vicenti, in “Hitching” and “Oh Saint Michael,” shows how Native people incorporate traditional ways into modern life.

White Mountain Apache poet Roman C. Adrian has published poetry in Sun Tracks, The New Times, Do Not Go Gentle, and The Remembered Earth. The late Chiricahua Apache poet Blossom Haozous, of Fort Sill, Oklahoma, was a leader in the bilingual presentation of Apache traditional stories, both orally and in publication. One of the stories, “Quarrel Between Thunder and Wind” was published bilingually in the Chronicles of Oklahoma, the quarterly scholarly journal of the Oklahoma Historical Society.

Jose L. Garza, Coahuilateca and Apache, is not only a leading Native American poet but a leading Native American educator as well. His poetry has appeared in such publications as Akwe:kon Journal, of the American Indian Program at Cornell University, The Native Sun, New Rain Anthology, The Wayne Review, Triage, and The Wooster Review. Garza is a professor at Edinboro University in Pennsylvania and is a regional coordinator of Wordcraft Circle of Native American Mentor and Apprentice Writers. In Wordcraft Circle, he organizes and helps conduct intensive writing workshops in which young Native writers from all tribes have an opportunity to hone their creative skills and learn how they can publish their work.

Other Apache writers include Lou Cuevas, author of Apache Legends: Songs of the Wild Dancer and In the Valley of the Ancients: A Book of Native American Legends (both Naturegraph); Jicarilla Apache scholar Veronica E. Velarde Tiller, the author of The Jicarilla Apache Tribe (University of Nebraska Press); and Michael Lacapa, of Apache, Hopi, and Pueblo heritage, the author of The Flute Player, Antelope Woman: An Apache Folktale, and The Mouse Couple (all Northland). Throughout the Apache tribes, the traditional literature and knowledge of the people is handed down from generation to generation by storytellers who transmit their knowledge orally.

VISUAL ARTS

Chiricahua Apache sculptor Allan Houser has been acclaimed throughout the world for his six decades of work in wood, marble, stone, and bronze. Houser was born June 30, 1914, near Apache, Oklahoma. He died on August 22, 1994, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. His Apache surname was Haozous, which means “Pulling Roots.”

In the 1960s, Houser was a charter faculty member at the Institute of American Indian Arts in Santa Fe, where he began to cast statues in bronze. He taught until 1975. After retirement from teaching, he devoted himself full-time to his work, creating sculptures in bronze, wood, and stone. In April 1994, he presented an 11-foot bronze sculpture to first lady Hillary Rodham Clinton in Washington, D.C., as a gift from the American Indians to all people.

Houser was known primarily for his large sculptures. Many of these could be seen in a sculpture garden, arranged among pinon and juniper trees, near his studio. His work is included in the British Royal Collection, at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, the Heard Museum in Phoenix, Arizona, the Denver Art Museum, Denver, Colorado, the Museum of Northern Arizona at Flagstaff, Arizona, the Linden Museum in Stuttgart, Germany, the Fine Arts Museum of the Museum of New Mexico in Santa Fe, New Mexico, the Apache Tribal Cultural Center in Apache, Oklahoma, the Gilcrease Museum in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and the University Center in Tulsa, Oklahoma.

Houser’s work has won many awards, including the Prix de West Award in 1993 for a bronze sculpture titled “Smoke Signals” at the annual National Academy of Western Art show at the National Cowboy Hall of Fame in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. “Smoke Signals” is now a part of the permanent collection of the National Cowboy Hall of Fame.

One of his best known works, a bronze statue of an Indian woman, titled “As Long as the Waters Flow,” stands in front of the state capitol of Oklahoma in Oklahoma City. At the University of Oklahoma, in Norman, two large Houser sculptures were on loan to the university and on display on the grounds of the campus at the time of his death. At the Fred Jones Jr. Museum on campus several Houser pieces from private Oklahoma collections were on view. Upon his death, the University of Oklahoma Student Association announced the creation of the Allan Houser Memorial Sculpture Fund. The fund will be used to purchase a major Houser sculpture for permanent display on the University of Oklahoma campus.

Jordan Torres (1964– ) is a Mescalero Apache sculptor from the tribe’s reservation near Ruidoso, New Mexico. His work illustrates the Apache way of life. It includes “Forever,” an alabaster sculpture of an Apache warrior carrying a shield and blanket; and a white buffalo entitled “On the Edge.”

 

the end @ Copyright 2912

The American Indian Navayo History Collections

American Indian History Collections

Part four

The Unites States Indian part two

Navayo Indians

 

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Limited private E-BOOK in CD-ROM Edition

Special for Premium member

Copyright@2012

 

The American Navajo Indian

 

Navayo women and children

 

Navayo Indian dance

 

Navayo Indian barboncito chief

 

Navayo Indian dolls

 

Read More Info

Navajo Indians

 

  •  

 

Navajo Indians: Barboncito – Chief of the Navajo Tribe in New Mexico

 

 

Navayo boy

 

Union Pasofic Navayo

 

Navayo Indian cloth

 

Navayo Indian girl

 

Chief of the San Yuan Navayo Indian

 

Navayo Indian man

 

Navayo Indian old man

 

 

Navayo Indian stingbow arrow

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Vintage navayo indian picture

 

 

 

 

 

Navayo Indian profile

 

 

Navayo Indian mother and child

 

Navayo Indian children

Navayo Indian mask

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NAVAYO INDIAN JEWELLARY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Navajo Indian silver smith

Native American ‘s Navajo Indian Jewelry Making

Photos Courtesy of Denver Museum Digital Archive & Library
of Congress.

American Indian jewelry is known throughout the
world for its use of sterling silver and turquoise,
a combination appreciated, worn and collected
for more than one hundred years. Turquoise holds
a special allure in the Southwest where it was
also linked to maize and status. Below A Navajo
Native American warrior proudlywears a silver
and turquoise Indian necklace, 1890.

 

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Southwestern Jewellery

 

 

 

 

 

 

Navajo woman

 

Preceding  the Europeans’ arrival in  the Americas, Native Indian jewellery was fairly simple in technique, consisting primarily of hammering and etching copper into pendants or earrings and fashioning copper and silver into beads. Then, in the mid-19th century, when Navajo, Hopi and Pueblo artists began to learn the art of silversmithing from their interaction with the Spanish, their metal jewelry designs burgeoned in the Southwest. Native jewelry such as the Squash Blossom necklace design (see the examples below), unique to the region - including Hopi silver overlay bracelets and Navajo turquoise inlay rings – combined and developed from that amalgamation of newly learned Spanish smithing techniques with their own traditional native designs to create distinctly Southwestern-styled jewellery unique to Native Indian culture.

 

Example of Squash Blossom jewellery

 

 

Image courtesy of: http://pennypatch.blogspot.com/

 

Each Native American Indian Tribe has its own unique style of jewelry making.

 

The Zuni Indian Nation  (located in New Mexico): the Zuni jewellers’ distinctive designs utilize mosaic (to stunning effect - as evidenced in the example below), clusters, channel inlayand what is commonly referred to as the petit point or needlepoint methods, using a variety of hard materials in the form of miscellaneous stones and shells.

 

 

Micro-mosaic inlay silver bracelet

 

The Navajo Indian Nation (located in the northern portion of Arizona and New Mexico):  are famous for their Squash Blossom necklaces and their jewellers tend to use large pieces of turquoise, coral and other inlay stones. Navajo sand casting is one of the oldest silver working methods; the Navajos are the largest producers of Native American jewelry.

 

 

Silver & turquoise necklace, 1960s
Other examples of Squash Blossom designs, above & below

 

 

The Hopi Indian Nation (located in the region of Arizona): the Hopi silversmiths favour the overlay technique with infrequent use of stones in their jewelry. According to the site, jewely-paideia.com, “Making jewelry with the overlay technique involves sawing the design out of one sheet of silver and then overlaying it on a second sheet to which it is then sweated or soldered. The background is oxidized to darken it with the top layer of the jewelry polished.”

 

 

Squash Blossom necklace & bracelet by Jack Adakai

 

The Santo Domingo Indian Nation (New Mexico): their techniques make use of seashells, turquoise, jet and coral and are known for their bead jewellery.

 

 

Zuni Sun-face Squash Blossom necklace

 

Traditionally speaking, although Southwestern Indian jewellery is more often than not executed in silver, contemporary designers are finding new ways to express their talents, such as their experimentation in the usage of gold (as the examples below demonstrate). Occasionally, they mix both metals, silver and gold, in the same piece.

 

 

 

Gold and turquoise

 

 

Bisbee turquoise

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Navajo silver, turquoise & coral bracelet

by silversmith Jeanette Dale, signed: ‘JDale’

 

 

 

Silver & Morenci turquoise pin by Edison Smith, ca. 1975

 

 

 

Contemporary New Mexican jewellery

By Michael Zobel of Atelier Zobel

(Note the combination of gold and silver)

 

 

Below are two examples of the work of silver and goldsmith artisan,

Jimmy King Jr.

 

Inlaid link bracelet by Jimmy King Jr.

 

 

Handmade silver cuff bracelet by Jimmy King Jr.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Silver ring made with natural Pilot Mountain turquoise

by Orville Tsinnie

 

 

 

Zuni Channel turquoise inlay necklace

 

 

 

 

An example of Santa Fe native Richard Stump’s contemporary design:

A bracelet of silver, turquoise & coral

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Below are examples of coral & silver bracelets:

 

 

Bracelet by David Cadman

 

 

By David Cadman

 

 

50 stone row bracelet by Albert Jake

 

 

Coral cluster bracelet by Albert Jake

 

 

 

 

 

 

14K gold & coral bangle by the artisan Edith Tsabetsaye

 

 

 

 

 

The jewellery of silversmiths, Wilson & Carol Begay:

 

 

 

 

 

Sandcast silver & Royston turquoise cuff bracelet

 

 

 

 

 

Silver & Morenci turquoise belt buckle

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sandcast silver cuff bracelet

 

 

 

 

Triple turquoise necklace by Charles Johnson

 

 

 

 

 

 

Silver belt buckle by silversmith Harrison Bitsue

 

 

 

 

Silver & Morenci turquoise cuff by Jay Livingston

 

 

 

 

 

Cuff bracelet by Arviso

 

 

 

A Darryl Yonnie silver & turquoise bracelet

 

 

 

Allsion Lee bracelets with Carico Lake turquoise

 

 

 

Silver & Lone Mountain turquoise – marked RM

 

 

 

 

 

A pair of R. Chee cuff bracelets with Royston turquoise

 

 

A pair of silver & turquoise cuffs by Derrick Gordon

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Below is an illustration of what is known as ‘Needlepoint’

 

 

 

Silver & turquoise Needlepoint cuff by Calvin Eustace

 

 

 

 

 

Tufa cast silver & turquoise bracelet by Harry H. Begay

 

 

 

 

 

Silver & turquoise cuff bracelet by Frederick Brown

 

 

Cuffs designed for men:

 

Buffalo horn, silver, gold, turquoise & coral men’s cuff by Boyd Tsosie

 

 

 

Silver, gold and turquoise men’s cuff by Aaron Anderson

 

 

 

Al Joe Easter silver & turquoise cuff

 

 

 

Fossil ivory, silver, turquoise & coral cuff by Richard Tsosie

 

 

 

Silver & turquoise cuff by Richard Tsosie

 

 

 

Aaron Anderson silver & turquoise beads cuff

 

 

 

Tufa cast heavy bracelet by Aaron Anderson & Tommy Jackson

 

 

 

 

 

Tufa cast silver, turquoise & coral men’s cuff by Olin Tsingine

 

Turquoise & silver belt buckle by Vernon Haskie

 

 

The work of Wes Willie

 

 

 

Gold, coral & turquoise bracelet

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tufa cast silver & stone inlaid cuff

 

 

 

 

 

14K gold cuff wiht stone inlays

 

An example of silver and gold used in one piece

 

 

 

 

 

Silver, gold, turquoise & coral bracelet

 

 

Zuni cuff by Don C. Dewa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Silver, turquoise & coral

 

Navajo bracelet by David Tune

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Silver and various inlaid stones

 

 

Millicent Rogers amassed a massive collection of Navajo jewellery, textiles and artifacts. Her namesake museum in Taos, The Millicent Rogers Museum, built to house her extensive collections, opened in 1956 by her family to preserve and showcase her extensive collection of the Southwestern art that she had lovingly assembled during her lifetime. Astoundingly, just of Millicent’s vast personal collection of silver and turquoise Southwestern jewellery alone, the museum contains over one thousand pieces .

 

 

American Indian Jewelry has been found in excavations of prehistoric ruins. Bead making is an
ancient craft. Bead necklaces are often called heishe, (see heishe necklace above right), from the
Santo Domingo word for shell. Seashells are commonly used to make beads. Oyster Shell, Mother of
Pearl, Abalone, Conch and Clam have been important trade items in the Southwest for over 1,000
years

 

 

 



American Indians are known worldwide for their beautiful turquoise jewelry, which usually includes
silver, especially the Navajo. See 1900
“squash blossom” Indian necklace below left,
and a Navajo Indian silversmith at work
in 1900 below right.

Squash Blossom Necklace 1900.

 Native beadwork  was already extremely
advanced in pre-Columbian times, including
the fine grinding of turquoise, coral, and
shell beads into smooth heishi necklaces,
the delicate carving of individual wood and
bone beads, the soaking and piecing of Navajo Indian Silversmith in 1900.
porcupine quills, and the intricate stitching
of thousands of beads together.

However, the use of tiny glass seed beads that are popularly associated with American Indians, was
not introduced into jewelry making until the 19th century. Seagoing fur traders appeared on the
Oregon and Washington coasts and began trading glass seed beads to various tribes, who
incorporated them into their jewelry and clothing designs.

Imported Czech seed beads have been the favored medium among many Indian artists for centuries
now, as shown in the jewelry pendant above.

Most Native American Indian tribes use Sterling Silver in their jewelry making, but it was not
introduced until the 1800s. Hopi and Pueblo artists learned silver-making from the Spanish making
silver Indian jewelry blossoms in the Southwest.

Sterling Silver is 92.5 percent silver and 7.5 percent copper. Silver is very soft so copper is added
which makes it malleable.

Many southwest Indian tribes have been making bead jewelry since ancient times, using the natural
elements around them, such as seashells, turquoise, jet and coral.

Native American Indian jewelry making skills are taught from one generation to the next and
families take pride in continuing the traditions of excellence and a sense of pride in themselves,
their Indian culture, and fostering American Indian tribal identity.

 

Introduction

Navajo

The Navajo live in the Four Corners area of the American southwest. This is the junction of northeast Arizona, southeast Utah, northwest New Mexico, and southwest Colorado. (There is a marker at the point where one can stand and simultaneously be in four different states.)

 

Marker at Four Corners (circa 1908)
Facing Northwest from New Mexico

According to Navajo legend, their land is enclosed by four sacred mountains and two sacred rivers.

The four sacred mountains are:

  • North — Mt. Hesperus, or Dibe’ntsaaa, (West of Durango, Colorado).
  • South — Mt. Taylor or Yucca Mountain, or Tsoodzil, (Near Grants, New Mexico).
  • East — Mt. Blanca or Gobernador Knob, or Tsisnaajini’, (East of Alamosa, Colorado).
  • West — San Francisco Peaks or Huerfanao Mountain, or Doko’oosliid, (Near Flagstaff, Arizona). This is the highest mountain in Arizona, and the city of Flagstaff is at its base.

The two sacred rivers bound the region at the north and south:

  • North — San Juan River (along southern Utah border).
  • South — Little Colorado River (middle of Arizona).

History of the Navajo People

Introduction

The existence of the Navajo as a people cannot be dated with any accuracy prior to A.D. 1500. The Navajo, like their cousins the Apache, are descended from the Athapaskan peoples who migrated from northwest Canada to the American southwest. (The name is also sometimes written as Athabaskan, but since their language lacked a “b” it is pronounced as a “p”. To this day the Navajo and Apache languages lack a “b” sound.)

The Athapaskans settled among ancestors of the Pueblo Peoples, commonly known as Anasazi, and had a relationship with them that was, until intervention by the United States, predatory, aggressive, and typically brutal. Even after the United States forced the Navajo to stop their raids, the Navajo managed to steal a substantial amount of Hopi land and then proceeded to despoil it, even to this day.

The Athapaskans normally ranched sheep, hunted and gathered, and raised corn and peaches, but they would also periodically raid the Pueblo Peoples. These raids, which were expanded to encompass Spanish, Mexican, and other settlers, continued until Kit Carson’s famous campaign.

The Athapaskans called themselves Diné (pronounced Dee-nay) which means simply “The People”. This is the name by which the Navajo refer to themselves today, and they refer to the area of land given to them by the Ye’i (deities) as Dinétah.

The name Navajo is a corruption of Nabaxu, which is the Tanoan word for an arroyo on the Rio Grande which had cultivated fields. The name Apache, interestingly enough, comes from the Tewa word apachu, meaning “strangers” or “enemy”. This is itself interesting since the Navajo themselves, even today, regard all non-Navajos as “enemies”. This is, in fact, the origin of the name Anasazi — it means “Ancestor of Enemies”. The name Navajo first appears in a 1626 Spanish document describing the local peoples as Apaches de Nabaxu, a combination of Tewa and Spanish meaning “Enemies of the Cultivated Fields”.

Virtually everything that is known about the Navajo from before the Mexican-American War — after which the southwest became the property of the United States — comes from Spanish and Mexican records. These records are primarily accounts of the interminable skirmishes and wars, and the numerous failed attempts to christianize the Navajo. Not all accounts are of wars, however. A 1788 report by Vicente Troncoso, who was the head of the Mexican Bureau of Indian Affairs, contains a description of the Navajo way of life. His description is one of the few that exists.

An excellent history of the Navajo can be found in Campbell Grant’s book on the peoples of Canyon de Chelly.

Colonization by Spain

 

In 1595, the king of Spain ordered the colonization of what the Spanish called “New Mexico”, in an effort to replenish the depleted treasury. The fact that the area was already populated by various native peoples did not seem to be a particular impediment to a Spanish invasion. At that time, New Mexico was a very large area consisting of Arizona and Nevada, and parts of Colorado, today’s New Mexico, and Utah.

The Navajo quickly stole horses from the Spanish and became adept horsemen, conducting lightning fast raids on the Spanish settlements. This was a new skill for them since, at that time, horses had been extinct in the new world for millenia. The appearance of mounted humans was so startling that the Navajo recorded it in their rock art, as shown to the right.

The Spanish considered the Navajo and Apache to be a serious problem, particularly since they were nomadic and lived in small clans, unlike the peaceful Pueblo Peoples who lived in villages and were more easily monitored and controlled.

In between trying to forcibly convert the Navajo to Catholicism, and attempting to exterminate them, the Spanish conducted slave raids against the Navajo to obtain menial servants for their settlements and, more commonly, to be worked to death in Spanish mines. The Navajo retaliated by stealing horses and sheep, and by capturing Spanish women and children as slaves. Periodically one side or the other would conduct a massacre, with the Spanish doing most of the killing.

Slavery Among the Navajo

In addition to capturing the Spanish, the Navajo also captured Paiute and Pueblo Peoples to use as household slaves, farmers, and herders, or to be traded to the Spanish for horses. Since the Navajo considered weaving to be the birthright of a Navajo woman, slaves were never used for weaving, only for menial work.

Pueblo Revolt

The conflict between the Spanish and the Pueblo Peoples rapidly became more and more severe. The Spanish levied high taxes on the Peubleo peoples, forced them to work as menials or in the mines, suppressed their religions, and engaged in the usual rapes and massacres. Strangely enough, converts to Christianity, an important goal of the Spanish, were forced to pay additional taxes.

In 1680 the Pueblo Peoples, a peaceful people not known for violence, had finally had enough of Spanish oppression and allied with the Navajo to fight a war against the Spanish. This period is called the Pueblo Revolt. The Spanish churches, homes, and towns were destroyed, settlers were killed, and the survivors driven off to the south. The Spanish, typically, undertook brutally savage efforts to subdue the region and recolonize it.

The Spanish brutality finally became so bad that between 1680 and 1696 the Pueblo Peoples sought refuge among the Navajo and the Hopi. Surprisingly, the tall, slender, warlike Navajo welcomed the short, stout, peaceful Pueblo Peoples and the two lived together in harmony, intermarrying extensively and exchanging cultural ideas.

The intermingling of cultures led the Navajo to adopt many Pueblo beliefs, many of which were inherited from the Anasazi, into their own belief system. For example, the Pueblo Kachina became the Navajo Ye’i. The Navajo also adopted Sand Painting, rock painting, and weaving. The Hopi integrated similar beliefs into their religion.

Spanish Conquest Continues

Efforts by the Spanish, including a campaign to divide the united Pueblo Peoples into warring factions which could be conqured individually, finally began to succeed. The internicine sparring, coupled with a severe drought, resulted in the Spanish conquest being essentially completed by 1698, and a brief period of non-war ensued.

The Spanish continued to exploit and abuse the Navajo and Pueblo Peoples, however, and in 1702 the Navajo resumed raiding and the Spanish resumed their campaign of raw brutality. Spanish oppression increased until 1716 when the Navajo sought an end to the conflict. Once again, a brief period of non-war followed. Encroachment and brutality by the Spanish led to renewed raiding, which in turned caused even more retaliation.

Mexican Conquest

The territory eventually passed from Spain to the newly created Mexican government in 1821, but the pattern of treaties and the breaking of treaties — as well as the raids and retaliation for them — continued while the land was under Mexican rule.

Mexican-American War

Mexico repeatedly refused to sell New Mexico and California to the United States, so, in 1846, the United States attacked Mexico in order to seize the desired territory. After a short war, which really consisted of a few minor battles, Mexico was forced to cede what is now Arizona, Nevada, California, and parts of Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah. At the time, New Mexico was an enormous territory; far larger than todays’ size of the state would suggest.

The southwest now began to be occupied by Americans, and the Navajo raided them, just as they had raided the Spanish and before them the Pueblo Peoples. These raids eventually led to a number of punitive missions by the United States Army, with little success until Kit Carson’s famous campaign.

Carson Subdues the Navajo

By the time the United States acquired the southwest, the Navajo were among the richest Native Americans. Their enormous livestock thefts had resulted in impressive herds which had been multiplied through adept animal husbandry. Complaints to the United States Government between 1847 and 1851 show that the Navajo had stolen: 453,293 sheep, 31,581 head of cattle, 12,887 mules, and 7,050 horses.

Spanish horses increased the Navajo’s reach, and the territory under their control was consequently greatly expanded. The Navajo must have expected to have no more difficulty handling the United States than they had with the Mexicans and the Spanish before them. Underestimating the United States was, however, a ver serious miscalculation.

 

General Stephen Watts Kearney

General Stephen Watts Kearney explained, in 1846, that the New Mexicans need no longer fear Navajo raids:

“The Apaches and the Navajos come down from the mountains and carry off your sheep and your women whenever they please. My government will correct all this. They will keep off the Indians, protect you in your persons and property.”

His words were true, but it took nearly twenty years for them to take effect.

Scorched earth policy authorized

The United States Government decided to begin a campaign to destroy the Navajo’s ability to prey on white Americans, Mexicans, and Native Americans. This campaign was scheduled to begin on July 1, 1863. The Commander of the Headquarters Department of New Mexico, Brigadier General James H. Carleton, and Colonel Christopher “Kit” Carson were charged with destroying the Navajo’s strength using a scorched earth policy.

 

Christopher “Kit” Carson (circa 1890-1910)

Carson, a famous guide and “Mountain Man” was ordered to force the surrender of the Navajo by destroying their corn and other crops, killing or capturing their livestock, and burning their homes. Once the Navajo surrendered, they would be removed from the area. The Navajo were given nineteen days, until July 20, to peaceably surrender themselves and voluntarily travel to Fort Sumner in New Mexico. Any Navajo remaining after that date was to be killed or captured.

War commences — and ends — quickly.

Needless to say, the Navajo did not enthusiastically embrace surrender, so Carson began executing the planned campaign. He began carefully, burning corn, capturing horses and sheep, and advancing slowly and deliberately. Native American scouts tracked down every individual Navajo and every Navajo family. Carson was careful to avoid battle or other armed conflicts because he knew that winter was coming and that the weather would be his ally.

The winter snows came quickly enough, and the Navajo became desperate. Because Carson had destroyed their crops they had no food stores. They could not hunt because of the scouts and troops. They could not gather piñon (pine nuts). Neither could they light fires to keep warm, because the light attracted scouts and troops.

Early on in the campaign the Navajo had retreated into the canyons and conducted raids. On January 6, 1864, less than six months after the campaign had begun, Carson led approximately four hundred of his troops into the Canyon de Chelly. This was the last piece of territory of any consequence that was still held by the Navajo, and the Navajo considered it to be impregnable territory. Carson’s men destroyed two thousand peach trees, the bark of which the desperate Navajo had been reduced to eating.

Surrender of the Navajo

Faced with starvation of the young and the elderly, living in icy caves, constantly threatened with death or capture, the Navajo finally surrendered. (Some clans went into hiding and never surrendered.) Relatively few Navajo had been killed in combat with soldiers, but many — primarily the young, the old, and the infirm — had died from starvation and exposure.

“Long Walk” to Fort Sumner

Captivity at Fort Sumner

Fort Sumner was in the center of Bosque Redondo, a military outpost about forty square miles at the base of the Pecos River. (Approximately 180 miles southeast of Santa Fe.) The land had originally been occupied by the Mescalero Apache, and the 400 Mescalero imprisoned at Fort Sumner still regarded it as their domain and resented the Navajo prisoners.

 

Navajo at Bosque Redondo (circa 1864 – 1868)

The Navajo were set to work planting corn alongside the Mescalero. Never in their entire existence had the nomadic Navajo ever used hoes or irrigation ditches. Despite planting two thousand acres with corn and digging thirty miles of irrigation ditches, every single crop failed the first year. And the second year. And the third year.

In addition to crop failures, there was little wood for fires, the housing consisted of flimsy canvas and brush shelters which gave little shelter, and the region’s alkaline water sickened the Navajo.

During their four years of imprisonment the Navajo fared so poorly — because they had no experience with the peculiar diet of such things as wheat flour, salted fatback pork and coffee — that at one point the Fort Sumner soldiers were placed on half rations in order to feed the Navajo who were dying of starvation. At the end of their confinement, rations consisted of a pound of corn and beef per day per Navajo, along with a pinch of salt. This was probably the minimum required to prevent massive starvation.

Treaty with the United States

Congress finally decided that the Navajo would be moved from Fort Sumner to some worthless piece of land where they would not longer constitute a menace and where they would not require monies to maintain. Lieutenant General William Tecumseh Sherman — infamous for his brutal destruction of Georgia during his “March to the Sea” campaign of the American Civil War — and Colonel S. F. Tappan, Peace Commissioner, were to supervise the relocation.

A treaty was finally reached on June 11, 1868 whereby the Navajo received a reservation consisting of a portion of the lands they had occupied near the Four Corners area and in exchange agreed to cease their raids. The area selected was 5,500 square miles of sandy, wind-swept desert, where it often went twenty-five months between rains, and where waterholes were fifty miles apart.

At the time of the treaty this arid land was deemed “worthless” by the United States, years later it was found to be riddled with valuable mineral deposits. Along with this “worthless” land the Navajo were issued fourteen thousand sheep and one thousand goats — about two animals per person — along with the promise of a small allowance of seeds, farm implements, clothing, and schools. (These promises were never kept.)

The land was so inhospitable that the Navajo were expected to quietly become extinct without placing any additional burden on the United States. A week later the Navajo set out to their new home: 7,111 Navajo, consisting of 2,060 men, 2,693 women, 2,157 under 12 years old, and 201 age and sex unknown. They left on foot, with no wagons or horses, no cooking utensils, no tools, no guns, no clothing, and no matches.

Concerns of Hopi Regarding Navajo Return

The Hopi had been the Navajo’s enemies ever since the Athapaskans had first arrived in the area. The Hopi called the Navajo Tavasuh, which means “head-bangers” or “beaters”, and had no use for them. There are two versions of the role the Hopi played in the return of the Navajo, both of which illustrate the justifiable distrust the Hopi had for the Navajo.

Adopting New Ways

 

Navajo Woman in Traditional Dress (circa 1878)

After the treaty was signed, the Navajo adopted non-confrontational ways, returning to their farming and weaving, and adding the new skill of silversmithing.

 

Navajo Weaver Outside Her Hogan (circa 1885 – 1890)

Traders discovered there was a great demand for their blankets, and the Navajo were soon producing large quantities. Even today their weavings are famous and in great demand. Experiments in cast and hammered silver — the Navajo had greatly admired Spanish silverwork when they saw it for the first time — led to spectacular silver and turquoise jewelry which continues to be highly desirable. The “worthless” land of the Navajo reservation was found to contain rich deposits of oil, coal, and uranium.

 

Navajo Silversmith Stamping Conchos (circa 1904 – 1932)

Despite a mere 7,111 survivors of the Long Walk having returned to the barren desert alloted to them by the United States, the Navajo have prospered. Their numbers multiplied to the point that they are the largest remaining Native American tribe.

Land Disputes with the Hopi

As their wealth and power increased, the Navajo forgot their promises gven to the Hopi. Instead, they encroached on Hopi land and claimed it by right of occupancy, just as their Athapaskan ancestors did. The Hopi were still poor and few in number, so there was little they could do. A Hopi reservation of 3,863 square miles was finally established by President Chester A. Arthur’s Executive Order of 1882, but this was a fraction of the lands claimed by the Hopi.

By the 1950s the land problems had become so severe that the Hopi were ready to show the Navajo the two tiponi given to the Hopi by the Navajo as a sign of the Navajo’s honorable intentions. (How the sacred tiponi came to be in Hopi hands is an interesting story.)

Such an exhibition would obviously be an attempt to humiliate the Navajo, given the significance they associate with the Tiponi. (It is unclear, however, that the Navajo’s oppression of the Hope would cease simply based upon some slight shame. If they had any shame they wouldn’t have persecuted the Hopi so extensively.) The Hopi, who place great significance on waiting until the proper time to take action, finally decided that the time was not yet right. Instead, in the 1960′s the Hopi went to the courts to have the land that was rightfully theirs restored to them. The Navajo, naturally, objected strenuously.

This was the start of a protracted legal conflict between the Hopi and the Navajo, and the beginning of elaborate court battles which continue to this very day. The dispute is typically portrayed as a struggle between two native peoples which requires the assistance of a benevolent United States government to mediate. The truth is that these disputes resulted from the United States government’s wrongful partition of the land and assignment to the Navajo, and the core of the issue is actually mining revenue.

Lawsuit grounded in mining rights

The Navajo want the Big Mountain Diné region because the Peabody Corporation (a division of Kennecott Copper, which was since acquired by the British holding company Hanson) is strip-mining the 24 billion tons of valuable low-sulphur coal lying beneath land the size of Rhode Island. The Navajo do not, understandably, want this revenue stream disrupted.

 

Big Mountain Coal Slurry Transport

The name of the area is a misnomer; there is no “mountain”, nor is there a big one; just a slight rise in the land. Low sulphur coal produces less sulphur dioxide when burned, and thus less acid rain. Such coal therefore commands a greater price than ordinary coal. So far the coal slurry created by the Peabody Corporation — in order to transport the coal by pipeline to the Mohave power plant — has dropped the surrounding water table by 100 feet. This greatly concerns the Hopi who live nearby, since they share this water table and, unlike the Navajo, they cannot drink sand.

The Hopi, by way of contrast with the Navajo, do not allow their land to be mined or otherwise despoiled. They were forced to join the Navajo in signing a lease for the Big Mountain region to the Peabody Corporation in 1966, since the land had been designated as “joint use” by the United States government. The choice was to sign and receive royalties or not to sign and receive nothing. Mining would, in either case, have gone on without Hopi consent. The Hopi approach their land has clearly placed them in conflict with the multinational mining companies backing the Navajo.

The Hopi point to the poor treatment of the disputed land by the Navajo, saying that the line of demarcation between the Navajo side and the Hopi side is obvious because the Hopi side is still green while the Navajo side has been overgrazed by Navajo sheep into a desert.

This dispute is likely to continue for some time given the mineral revenues at state. The only clear winners to date are the large multinational corporations who have been strip mining the area for decades.

Current Status

The Navajo as a people have not fared particularly well since losing their armed conflict with the United States government. Despite being a “sovereign nation” on paper, the US government manages, either directly or by proxy, the Navajo’s land, money, and, for many years, educated their children. For a long time Navajo children were forcibly kidnapped — as was done with other Native American cultures — and educated in government run schools. This was intended to, and did, prevent them from receiving an education in the Navajo language and traditions, and thus destroy what remained of the Navajo culture. (The practice of kidnapping has since been stopped.)

The US government stripped the Navajo nation of their right to manage its own funds, requiring all moneys to be turned over to the US government for “safe keeping” and management. Navajo funds managed by the US government, including grossly undervalued royalty payments for mineral rights, were then either stolen or lost. (In 1999 the United States Secretary of the Interior was held in contempt of court and fined for deliberately obstructing the first audit ever of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA).)

Because Navajo land contains valuable minerals, their reservation is now littered with toxic mine tailings and the vast scars left by strip mines. While the Navajo tribal leaders certainly consented to the rape of their land, the Navajo as a people have been ill-served by it. (Their neighbors, the Hopi fought against many of these mines as they border on Hopi territory.)

 

Navajo Uranium Miners (circa 1956)

The US government, acting through the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) absolved the uranium mining and machining companies from the need to clean up their operations or protect people living in the area. Instead, the waste, a fine sand, was left out in the open to blow away during the 1970s and 1980s, resulting in contamination of the Four Corners area.

The air and water on the Navajo reservation have been fouled by coal fired electricity plants, notably not producing power for the Navajo, and this contributes to lung ailments. The air over the Grand Canyon is often hazy with sulfur dioxide and other pollutants from a dozen coal-fired power generation plants which export electricity to the southwest. These plants burn five million tons of coal a year — at a rate of ten tons of coal per minute — and spew 300 tons of fly-ash into the air each day. Coal mining and power generation draw 60 million gallons of water a year — nearly 7,000 gallons per hour — from the Black Mesa water table, resulting in desertification and sinking of the ground.

 

Map of Pollution from Coal Powerplants

Despite the vast mineral wealth that has enriched large multi-national corporations by billions of dollars, most reservation Navjo continue to live in poverty, suffering disease and illness at levels surpassing the inner city poor.

Code Talkers

During World War II the Navajo volunteered and served with great distinction. The famous “code talkers” used native languages as an unbreakable code during various wars. The Choctaw performed a similar service during World War I, but have received virtually no recognition and their efforts have essentially been forgotten. An initial number of Navajo Code Talkers were augmented with Comanche, Cherokee, Navajo, Papago, Pima, and other Native Americans.

 

WWII Navajo Code Talkers on Bouganville

In addition to using native languages which usually were not accessible to the enemy, non-standard dialects and new vocabularies were invented in order to make decipherment impossible even when a native speaker was captured.

Religion

Introduction

The Navajo religion is quite complex, involving deities called Ye’i (pronounced “Yay”) which represent the spiritual essence of a wordly thing, and elaborate ceremonies replete with songs. The key element is Hózhó, the concept of balance and harmony.

The religious ceremonies are very expensive when done for the benefit of an individual. Not only must the shaman be well compensated for the ceremonies, but his entire entourage must be fed and housed for the duration. Since some ceremonies last many days, the costs can be so large that it was not unknown for a family to be bankrupted by them.

Hózhó

The idea behind Navajo religious rituals is that of a bargain: the petitioner has “given” some offering to the Ye’i and expects something in return. The Night Way, makes this bargain clear:

I have made the sacrifice for you;
I have prepared a smoke for you;

My feet restore for me.
My legs restore for me.
My body restore for me.
My mind restore for me.
My voice restore for me.

Hózhó

The Navajo believe the world to be an orderly place filled with interconnected objects all existing in a state of balance and harmony. The bedrock of the Navajo religion is the concept of Hózhó, which means a combination of existing in a state of balance, harmony, wellness, peace, and completeness. A sort of integrated oneness, with the universe running like an incredibly finely adjusted watch, with everything seamlessly working together. It is a complex concept that is remarkably similar to the Chinese Tao.

The simplified translation of “to walk in beauty” trivializes the complexity of Hózhó. For the Navajo, Hózhó is everything, and when it goes awry, the orderly universe is disrupted and must be restored to its natural order. The issue is not one of aesthetics, as beauty is, but a fundamental characteristic of existence.

Ways, Sings, or Chants

Navajo periodically have Ways, or , which are chanting ceremonies done for every possible purpose imaginable. These are also sometimes known as “sings” or as “chants”. Since there is so much more to these ceremonies than just singing or chanting, this page refers to them as “ways”.

Blessing Way

The Blessing Way, or Hózhó jí, is used as a general blessing ceremony to restore Hózhó, and ensures the recipient will have good luck, health, and prosperity. Religious uses include undoing mistakes made in other chants or in sand paintings, or when making prayer sticks.

The Blessing Way is the most important of the Ways, and, according to Navajo mythology, is the first Way given to the Navajo by Changing Woman. It goes as follows:

Hózhóogo naasháa doo
Shitsiji’ hózhóogo naasháa doo
Shikéédéé’ hózhóogo naasháa doo
Shideigi hózhóogo naasháa doo
T’áá altso shinaagó hózhóogo naasháa doo

Házhó náhásdlíí
Házhó náhásdlíí
Házhó náhásdlíí
Házhó náhásdlíí

which can be rather loosely rendered as:

In oneness
   I walk.
With oneness before me
   I walk.
With oneness behind me
   I walk.
With oneness above me
   I walk.
With oneness below me
   I walk.
With oneness all around me
   I walk.
With oneness within me
   I walk.

It is finished
   with oneness restored.
It is finished
   with oneness restored.
It is finished
   with oneness restored.
It is finished
   with oneness restored.

Enemy Way

The Enemy Way, or ‘Anaa’ jí, is used to expunge chindi or evil spirits which plague a person. These are most commonly the result of violence, such as warriors who are plagued by the spirits of those they killed, but can also arise from failure to follow the Navajo rituals concerning ordinary death. For example, the Navajo never mention the name of someone who has died, for fear that the evil components of his spirit will haunt them. (The good components of his spirit having already moved on.) The Enemy Way originated with the great hero Monster Slayer who was troubled by the spirits of all the monsters he killed.

After the subjugation of the Navajo by Kit Carson’s famous campaign, and before the Navajo began serving in World War I and subsequent wars, the Enemy Way fell into disuse for a while. But the Navajo soon decided that the Enemy Way would remove danger from those who had contact with whites. This included children sent to boarding school and those who worked with for various non-Navajo businesses.

Interestingly enough, the Enemy Way is the only chant which does not use a sand painting.

Night Way

The Night Way, or Ye’i bichai, is a lengthy, eight day curative ritual. The name combines Ye’i with bi, the word for “his” and tchai or tsai meaning “maternal grandfather”. The meaning is therefore “grandfather of the terrible, but benevolent, ones”, or, more succinctly “grandfather of the deities”. This is another name for Talking Ye’i, who is believed to lead the other Ye’i to the aid of a suffering mortal. This way is commonly called the Night Chant because one of its major components, the Dance of the Masked Gods, is held at night.

The Night Way consists of four days of cleansing and inviting the deities, four days during which the deities arrive, and a final night when the cure takes place. Ritual cleansing uses a sweat lodge for sweating and herbal brew to induce vomiting. There are various food taboos both during and for sometime after the ceremony.

 

Navajo Sweat House (circa 1907 – 1920)

During the other rituals a fire is built in the hogan, and the patient, nearly naked, leans over it while wrapped in a blanket. For the final night both the patient and the chanter remain awake until dawn, since the curative power of the sand painting increases when the morning sun flows into it from the east. For the next four days the patient must sleep in the ceremonial hogan, and must not go to sleep before sundown.

The Night Chant is a very serious chant, and the Navajo believe that any mistakes — either by the patient or by a shaman’s student — cause blindness, warping, crippling, facial paralysis, and deafness. These illnesses come about because the Night Chant is believed to cure them, and so any mistakes cause the illnesss instead of curing it.

Mountain Way

The Mountain Way is a healing ritual that takes its name from the home of the Ye’i that it invokes. This way, like the Night Way, is performed only in the winter.

The Mountain Way concludes with paid performers engaging in such acts as fire handling, sword swallowing, and plants that magically grow in a few minutes. This exhibition reproduces powers related in myths, and thus summons the bearers of those powers.

The number of “miracles” is limited only by the wealth of the patient; the more money he has the more power that will be summoned. A truly wealthy man could afford to have a dozen or more dancers covered in white clay perform the Fire Dance, whirling torches around themselves and each other.

Shooting Way

The Shooting Way is used to relieve injuries caused by arrows, lightning, and snakes. The name comes from the nature of arrows, lightning, and snakes. Since these entities caused the illness they must, of necessity, be its cure. This way is also used for indeterminate illnesses, just as the Bead Way is.

Bead Way

The Bead Way is used to relieve skin ailments. The name comes from a legend where a boy called Scavenger acquired the treasures of the Spider People. Among these treasures were the stones held precious to the Navajo: abalone, jet, redstone, turquoise, and whiteshell. Collectively these stones are called “whiteshell”.

Scavenger acquired these treasures because the Spider People wanted him to throw young eagles out of their nest and lowered him down a cliff to do this. But Scavenger had been warned by Talking Ye’i that the men, who had never treated Scavenger well, planned to leave him in the nest to die once he had thrown out the eagles. Talking Ye’i told him to stay in the nest and that the birds would protect him.

Scavenger stayed in the nest and the Spider People at first tried to bribe him with precious stones, then with bucksins, food, and baskets, each of which were thrown into the nest. When these tactics failed, the Spider People made torches from cedar bark, tied them to arrows, and set them aflame. They then shot the nest setting it afire.

But Scavenger and the young eagles retreated to the rocky ledge and escaped harm. When the parent eagles returned they were angry and dropped the shed moulting feathers of the young birds onto the Spider People below. Wherever the feathers hit the skin, the effect was like that of a fire ant sting, and the Spider People all ran away. The skin irritation developed into sores as punishment for the suffering that the Spider People had inflicted on Scavenger and the young eagles. (Scavenger survived intact and had more adventures.)

The Navajo believe that like cures like, so the ritual associated with the skin sores inflicted on the Spider People will cure any skin ailments. This way is also used for indeterminate illnesses, just as the Bead Way is.

Other Ways

There are many, many, many other chants. The War Dance dispels foreign enemies. The Rite of Good Men was used before a war or a raid, but has not been used much since the United States Government forced the Navajo to end raiding and war. The Way for Dispelling the Darts of the Male Powers of Evil deals with rattlesnakes, lightning, and other dangerous things. The Awl Way was used when a moccasin was made.

A Corral Rite was used to bring success in corralling deer and antelope; the introduction of rifles have eliminated much of the need for this chant. (The term “corralling” refers to the practice of constructing a fenced in area with an opening on one side and then driving the animals into it.)

A similar chant is the Way for the Trapping of Eagles, which aids in overcoming the magical powers of eagles enough to allow one to be captured.

The winds are kept under control using the Wind Way,

The Moving Upward Way, deals with the origin of things in the lower worlds and their emergence upwards, and is useful for dealing with witches. The Rite for Dispelling Monsters vanquishes native enemies and witches.

These are just a few of the numerous Navajo chants.

Ceremonial House (Hogan)

The Navajo name for a house is hogan. This initially was a dwelling constructed out of poles and mud in about a day. Constructing such a hogan specifically for a ceremony and then demolishing it was not especially burdensome. As the Navajo adopted octagonal hogans made from logs, however, it was impractical, in both time and materials, to destroy the hogan after the ceremony. The solution was to purify the hogan with a Blessing Way after the ceremony. Modern Navajo often share a ceremonial log hogan.

The logs must come from trees that have not been struck by lightning and the site must be one where lighting does not strike. The reason for this is that the Navajo consider lightning to be very dangerous, and scrupulously avoid all contact with it.

Ye’i

Ye’i (pronounced “Yay”) are the Navajo deities. (These pages will use the term “Ye’i” in place of “god” since the two are not strictly equivalent and some Navajo are annoyed by the comparison.)

The name Ye’i comes from the Zuni word for “spirit” and means “terrible, but benevolent, one”. Ye’i are also known as Xasce, or Hasche, which means “powerful one who is speechless”. The Ye’i are the Navajo equivalent of the Pueblo People’s Kachina and are intermediaries between the spirit world and humans, and work to promote prosperity. The Ye’i clearly have roots in the kachina, which began showing up in Pueblo People’s rock art in the 1300s, clearly predating the arrival of the Navajo. (While the Navajo never use Kachina dolls, modern Navajo often sell Kachina dolls to tourists. This irritates the Hopi greatly.)

Ye’i are prominent in sand paintings. Male Ye’i usually have round heads — sometimes with horns, masks, pointed caps, or other head-dresses — straight bodies, and wear kilt like garments. The headgear is sometimes feathered. The bodies are often adorned with necklaces or criss-cross patterns. Female Ye’i usually have square heads. (The Corn Maiden shown on the Navajo Art page is one such Ye’i.) Ye’i of either sex may have tassles dangling from their arms or clothes, and may carry wands, staffs, corn, or religious artifacts.

Fourteen different Ye’i

There are fourteen different Ye’i:

  • Talking Ye’i, Xasce lti’i
  • Calling Ye’i, Xasce oyan
  • The six Male Ye’i, Xasce bakan, each with a drooping rain collar
  • The six Female Ye’i, Xasce bakan, each with a dawn band and ear flaps
  • Black Ye’i, Haskéshjini or Xasce shchini,
  • Monster Slayer, Nayenezgani or Naye nezyani
  • Born-For-Water, To’baadsistini or To’baachis’chini.
  • Water Sprinkler, To’neinili, also known as Gray Ye’i, ibáhi.
  • Humpbacked Ye’i, Ghaan’ask’idii or Ya’askidi
  • Fringed Mouth Ye’i , Zahadolchahi
  • Red Ye’i, Xasce hlichi
  • The Destroyer, Hadachishi
  • Whistling Ye’i, Xasce ‘iditchonsi
  • Shooting Ye’i, Xasce ‘ohltohi

Talking Ye’i

Talking Ye’i, Xasce lti’i is also known as the Grandfather of the Ye’i. He is paired with Calling Ye’i. He is specified as the leader of the Ye’i in the Night Way. Talking Ye’i controls the dawn, the east, and the chase. (The dawn and the east have particular importance to the Navajo, and a sand painting always has an opening at the east to allow the healing power of dawn in.)

Much of the importance of Talking Ye’i in legends and ceremonies derives from the value of his counsel. Whenever a hero reaches an impasse, Talking Ye’i appears and offers a valuable suggestion. His cry is “whu whu, whu whu, whu whu, whu whu!”.

Calling Ye’i

Calling Ye’i, Xasce oyan, is paired with Talking Ye’i, but is by far the less important of the two. He is in charge of agriculture, the west, and the yellow evening light. His cry is “hahowa, hahowa, hahowa, hahowa!”.

Water Sprinkler

Water Sprinkler, To’neinili, is also known as Gray Ye’i, ibáhi. Water Sprinkler has control over water from the sky and is the water carrier for the Ye’i. This Ye’i is paired with Black Ye’i. Once Black Ye’i has made a fire with lightning sparks from his firedrill, Water Sprinkler extinguishes it with rain. His cry is “yuh, yuh, yuh, yuh!”.

Black Ye’i

 

Black Ye’i, Haskéshjini or Xasce shchini, is the fire deity and creator of the constellations. He is the inventor of fire and the firedrill which summons it. A sacred firedrill is part of a shaman’s medicine bundle and is used to start the fires to induce sweating in healing rituals, such as the Night Way.

When Black Ye’i separated the Earth from the sky he kept the The Pleiades, or Dilyéhé, a cluster of seven stars, on his ankle. But every time he stamped his foot, the stars would fly up and hit him on the left side of his forehead. Eventually he decided that they should remain there and stamped his foot four times to make their position permanent. The seven dots on the forehead of the Black Ye’i can be seen in the sculpture above.

Fringed Mouth Ye’i

Relatively little is known about the Fringed Mouth Ye’i, or Zahadolchahi. He appears in the Bead Way, which is used to relieve skin problems, and assists the other Ye’i. The Fringed Mouth Ye’i is also known to give aid to those in dire need.

Humpbacked Ye’i

 

The Humpbacked Ye’i, Ghaan’ask’idii or Ya’askidi, is likely derived from the Anasazi Kokopelli. He is similar to the Fringed Mouth Ye’i of the Night Way which has a divided mask of half red and half yellow. The Hopi Mountain Sheep Kachina, or Panwu Kachina, is also similar.

The Humpbacked Ye’i is a fertility deity, like Kokopelli, and the hump is actually a satchel containing seeds and mist, often decorated with eagle feathers on the outside. These Ye’i wear sheep horns, which symbolize power, and carry staffs or planting sticks. (A planting stick is used to make a hole into which a seed, such as corn or squash, is dropped.)

The Fringe Mouth Ye’i of the Night Way is a variant of the Humpbacked Ye’i and is found in sand paintings. A female variant found in sand paintings is The Female Ye’i of the Night Way which is depicted with ears and a raised nose.

Cosmology

The Navajo considered stars to be very important, and painted star panels on the ceilings of caves and overhangs and incorporated them into their sand paintings. It was not until the Navajo returned from their exile in Fort Sumner in 1868, however, that a serious interest in cosmology developed among the Navajo. Navajo cosmology has thirty-seven constellations, some of which are similar to western culture constellations, but many are unique to the Navajo.

Constellations matching commonly accepted ones

Constellations and Stars Constellations that are similar or exact are:

  • náhookos bikhá’i (Big Dipper)
  • náhookos ba’áádi (Cassiopeia)
  • hastiin skai and Dilyéhé (The Pleides)
  • so’ hotsii (Aldebaran)
  • atsétso (a star in Scorpio)
  • atseéts’ósi (a star in Orion)
  • Yikáísdáhi (the Milky Way)

Unique constellations

Unique constellations include:

  • sash (the bear)
  • ‘anlt’ánii (the corn beetle)
  • thishtso (the horned rattlesnake)
  • dasani (the porcupine)

Specific Stars Recognized

The Navajo recognize a few specific stars:

  • so’tso lizhin (the Big Black Star)
  • so’tso litso (the Big Yellow Star)
  • so’tso tigai (the Big White Star)
  • so’tso deshjah (the Pronged Star)

Pleides

The Pleides are important to the Navajo because of their role as a clock. The appearance of the Pleides in the eastern sky meant that the frosts would occur soon. The Pleides are so important to the Navajo that Black Ye’i wears them on his shoulder.

Using the Pleides as a celestial clock was known to other peoples. The western name for the star group, Pleides, is derived from the Greek word plein, meaning “to sail”, since the Greeks considered the sailing season to be safe once the constellation rose and dangerous when it fell.

A Navajo myth says that the Pleides and Orion had twin daughters Sa’a Naghaí (Old Age That Goes About) and Bik’e Hózhó (On the Trail of Hózhó).

Star Ceilings

 

Starting in the 1700s, the Navajo began creating star ceilings and also incorporated star symbols into their sand paintings. These are small, equilinear crosses (like a plus sign and not a Christian cross) drawn, painted, or stamped onto ceilings and the undersides of rock overhangs. The crosses sometimes have a tapered point.

Stars are considered to be protective, and the act of painting stars on a ceiling or overhang may have been though to keep the rock ceiling from falling, just as the real stars hold the sky up.

These sites are considered special places, and the Navajo do not like to discuss them. Shaman still leave prayer sticks and other offerings near these panels in order to assist their patients.

The sculpture of the horned Ye’i above and to the right has a constellation on the right side of the face. The cross represents a star, possibly a supernova.

Stars motifs are also important for various rituals, and appear on ceremonial rattles and dance paddles.

Planetariums

A site in Cuba, New Mexico, has an elaborate planetarium, with stars represented as crosses, asterisks, flying birds, dragonflies, as well as circles, animals, eagle-like birds, and horsemen with lances. The animals may represent constellations or mythological scenes. Not only is the subject matter complex, but the details are rendered in black, white, gray, and red. This level of detail is, however, unusual.

Constellations

The size of a star on a ceiling seems to correspond to its brightness in the sky. Matching stars to constellations is difficult for non-Navajo, however, because the Navajo use different constellations and because the constellations themselves vary according to individual interpretation. Some of the ceilings also have stars so closely packed, likely from repeated paintings over time, that there often is no way to delineate the constellations.

Importance of Color

The four principal colors, or ‘atah’áá t’eego nidaashch’ígíí, are very important in the many rituals, including sand paintings and prayer sticks. The white cotton string used in rituals represents Hózhó, the unity and harmony of the Navajo with the world.

Embodiment of Direction or Time

Each color represents a direction, and often a time:

  • Blue, or doot’izh, representing the Mid-day Sun and the South, since the cloudless south is usually blue
  • Black, or izhin, representing the Night, the Sky, and the North, since dark, black clouds come from the north
  • White , or igai, representing the Dawn and the East, since the white light of morning is first seen in the east
  • Yellow, or itso, representing the Evening and the West, since the sunset in the west is often yellow

Four Sacred Mountains

Colors symbolize the four sacred mountains, with color being linked to the mountain’s location:

  • North — Mt. Hesperus, or Dibe’ntsaaa, (West of Durango, Colorado) is symbolized using black
  • South — Mt. Taylor, or Tsoodzil, (Near Grants, New Mexico) is symbolized using blue
  • East — Mt. Blanca, or Tsisnaajini’, (East of Alamosa, Colorado) is symbolized using white
  • West — San Francisco Peaks, or Doko’oosliid, (Near Flagstaff, Arizona) is symbolized using yellow

Sexual Symbolism

Color also has sexual symbolism. Navajo myths say that females were created from yellow corn and males from white corn, and this symbolism is used in sand paintings.

Horse Colors

The Navajo also believe that the first horses, or lin, were made from minerals and shells of various colors, and refer to them based upon their color:

  • iron-gray horse, or dolizi lin — made from turquoise
  • sorrel horse, or bastai lin — made from red stone, possibly carnelian
  • white horse — made from white shell
  • piebald horse, or yolkai lin — made from haliotis shell, which is spotted
  • black horse, or baszini lin, made from charcoal

Prayer Sticks

Prayer sticks also rely on the importance of color, and are made from different wood depending upon the direction they are to be placed and the associated sexual symbolism. The woods used for prayer sticks are their associated directions are:

  • North — uses cherry, because the fruit of the common wild cherry, Prunus demissa, ripens to black, the color of the North.
  • South — uses the coyote corn shrub, Forestiera neomexicana because its small, olive shaped fruit is blue, the color of the South.
  • East — uses mountain mahogeny, Cercocarpus parvifolius because it has a white aspect, and white is the color of the East.
  • West — uses juniper, because its outer branchlets are, when water is scarce, a yellow green, and yellow is the color of the West.

Another type of prayer stick is made by filling a two inch length of hollow reed with pollen, bird down, and tiny fragments of stone. These are then wrapped together, usually with feathers, and symbolically “lit” with a piece of crystal.

Sexual Symbolism

The Navajo also name things based on whether the thing has male or female characteristics. When there are two things that are essentially alike, the Navajo label the stronger, more violent, or coarser one as being “male” and label the gentler, weaker, or finer one as “female”. The San Juan River is quite turbulent and is called he-water, or To’baka. The slower, calmer Rio Grande is called she-water, or To’baad. A gentle rain with no thunder or lighting, for example, is called “she-rain”, or ni’ltsabaad. A hard rain with thunder and lighting is called “he-rain”, or ni’ltsabaka.

The Navajo also categorize objects according to sexual stereotypes. The north, a rough, mountainous, and unforgiving land from whence the hard rains and violent winds come, is considered to be male, so its associated color, black, is also male. The south, a more pleasant region from whence warm and gentle breezes originate, is seen as female.

Shaman’s Medicine Bundle

The medicine_bundle, or jish, is used in various rituals. The contents are acquired at various points inside Dinetah, that is, inside the area of land held to be given to the Navajo by the Ye’i (deities) and considered to be sacred by them. The medicine bundle contains crushed plants, pollens, and pieces of sacred stone.

Building a medicine bundle and the buckskin bag to store it in usually takes about three years. The bag itself must come from a deer killed without a wound, which entailed capturing a deer using a rope, placing a handful of pollen in its mouth, and then holding the mouth and nose tightly until the deer suffocated. The deer would then be butchered in the normal fashion and a portion of the hide carefully saved and tanned. Using a rope to capture a deer was quite difficult, and the bag was particularly valued for this reason.

The bag’s contents took a good deal of time to acquire because each of the sacred mountains had to be visited. Undertaking a journey to even one of the mountains required a good deal of preparation, not to mention travel time, so visiting all four was an especially arduous task.

Sand Paintings

Introduction

A sand painting consists of various patterns drawn using colored sand. These patterns can be figures representing various Ye’i, or they can be plants or other objects. Some sand paintings can be ten to twelve feet in diameter, while others can be as little as four feet. This is in direct contrast to the kiva painting, which is usually quite small. The shape may be round, oblong, or square. The larger sand paintings often require that the fire in the center of the lodge be moved to accommodate them.

 

Navajo Working on Sand Painting (circa 1890 – 1920)

Significance of Sand Paintings

Sand Paintings are a key component of many Ways, and are similar to, and likely derived from, the Pueblo Kiva painting. The Navajo name for the sand painting is ‘iikáá, meaning “the place where the Ye’i come and then go”. The reason for the “going” is that the sand painting is destroyed after it is used.

The Navajo believe that sand painting was given to them by the Ye’i. Unlike the Navajo, the Ye’i did not draw using sand. Instead, they had a flat sheet of some substance called nesha, which may have been cotton, upon which the designs were drawn. This sheet was unfolded whenever the images power was needed. Fearing misuse or destruction of the image, with dire consequences to the Navajo, the Ye’i told a shaman known as the Visionary, or Bitahatini, that the drawings could be painted upon the ground using the colors of the earth.

Sand Painting Evolution

 

The first sand paintings were made in the early 1700s, and by the end of the 1800s the style had essentially become standardized. There is, in fact, very little difference between a sand painting made today and one done in the late 1800s.

Figures were abstracted towards a geometric form with great angularity, unlike the rock art. Deities were stretched vertically and stylized to emphasize that their supernatural power and existence were divorced from normal human affairs. The sculpture to the left is a corn maiden. (The original appears in colors, but this one is one of Ancestral Art’s sculptures in metal. This sculpture has also been slightly modified from the original sand painting.) Note the stretched body and the angularity that is not seen in Navajo rock art. The rectangular head indicates that this Ye’i is female.

Some patterns require precise dimensions, some must be in certain proportions to other patterns, others must be aligned in certain ways, and others must be made using certain colors, If these dimensions, proportions, and colors are not maintained, the sand painting will not be effective or may have unintended results.

Orientation

A sand painting is always placed such that the top is at the east, notably where the sun rises, and has guardians at the other three points of the compass. The eastward facing top allows the goodness and strength to enter the sand painting while the three guardians prevent evil from entering the sand painting on those sides. The guardian can take many forms, but is commonly a rainbow, a bear, or a fly.

Rainbow Symbolism

A common guardian is the rainbow, which has has two different meanings. Rainbows are sometimes the trails of the Ye’i and sometimes they are the Ye’i themselves. A trail is represented using five lines of color: lines of red and blue are separated by a line of white and surrounded on either side by a line of white.

The Navajo consider the rainbow to have five colors; thus, when the rainbow represents the Ye’i it is considered to represent five female rainbow deities. These appear along with the rainbow itself. The Ye’i are depicted wrapped around the core of the sand painting, with a head at one end and the feet at the other, and with an opening at the east. The heads are square to show that the figure is female. The rainbow itself is represented in red and blue, the colors of sunshine and gentle water.

In sweat lodge decorations the five rainbow Ye’i do not appear, and instead are symbolized by placing a head at either end of the rainbow. This shows that each band represents a separate Ye’i.

A Navajo never points at a rainbow with a finger, since this is unlucky, and uses the thumb instead.

Star Symbolism

Stars and star fields are often represented in sand paintings, both individually and as constellations. Similar representations are made on Star Ceilings.

Sand Painting Power

The sand painting is believed to work because it is so symmetrical and orderly, and its creation focuses the body’s energy on balance, symmetry, and order.

Whenever a sand painting is created for non-religious reasons — such as for instruction or for artistic purposes — the Navajo always leave out or alter an element to ensure that the sand painting has no power. The alteration can be a simple as changing a color, or it may be that a figure is modified in some way. Sand paintings, suitably modified, are often reproduced as weavings, but there are those among the Navajo who frown upon what they see as a trivialization of an important rite.

Colors in a Sand Painting

The four principal colors are very important to the sand painting ritual, since each color symbolizes a different direction and thus different powers. Rain is represented using eight vertical black lines. Black symbolizes the north, from whence the rain clouds come. Color combinations also have significance. Red on black, for example, symbolizes sunlight on the back of a cloud, with red symbolizing the sun and black the rainclouds which come from the north. A yellow line crossed by black lines symbolizes rain and the evening sky.

The term sand is really a misnomer; the sand is actually finely crushed stone, or stone and charcoal, with the colors being derived as follows:

  • black is obtained from charcoal mixed with a small amount of powdered red sandstone to give it weight and stability
  • blue is obtained from black and white mixed, and is actually gray
  • white is obtained from white sandstone
  • yellow is obtained from yellow sandstone

While the “blue” is actually gray, it appears blue when seen against the sand painting’s white sand base in shadow or by firelight. Turqouise is blue, but it is too precious for use for sand paintings.

Creating a Sand Painting

The sand painting is usually made upon a fine sand base, called a séí, laid one to three inches deep, upon which the four colors will be set down. The base is smoothed using the same oaken battens that are used in weaving. The colored sand used to make the patterns is kept on trays of pine bark.

The patterns are created by the changer and his assistants who trickle the sand from between the thumb and forefinger. Careful measurements, and straight lines, are made using pieces of twine to ensure that all patterns are of the proper sizes and orientation.

A sand painting is constructed from the center out, so that new patterns do not disrupt those already laid down. Patterns are laid down in directional order, with east being first, then south, then west, and north last. The body is laid down first on top of the base, and then colored sand is layered on top of the body to create clothing and features. The order is from feet to head, since the sand painting will have power only if the movement goes upward. Deities wear the traditional Pueblo costume of sash and kilt, but often hold weapons, branches, or other symbols, and may have a crown of clouds or birds.

Mistakes are fixed by performing a Blessing Way — to restore balance — and then covering the mistake with clean sand of the same type as in the base.

Activating the Sand Painting

When the sand painting is finished it is an empty vessel that must be filled with power. This is done when the shaman sprinkles it with pollen and places special objects from his medicine bundle around it. The sand painting is now ready to be used in the final part of the healing ritual.

The patient is bathed, dried with cornmeal, and painted with symbols representing the Ye’i. A lump of turquoise is tied in the patient’s hair to represent the indestructible inner man. Sand from different parts of the sand painting are pressed against the patient, with the location of the ailment receiving most of the sand. The Navajo believe that the contact with the sand makes the patient one with the Ye’i and allows him to share in their power.

Disposing of the Sand Painting

Upon completion of the ceremony, the sand — which is believed to still retain power — is carefully swept up and discarded according to rituals lest evil happen to the shaman or to the patient. This is in contrast to the Tibetan Buhdists who simply sweep up their sand paintings and dispose of the sand as worthless, in keeping with their view of the fleeting and immaterial nature of the physical universe. The disposal contrasts with the semi-permanent kiva painting done by the Hopi.

Hero Twins or War Twins

Prominent in Navajo mythology are the Hero Twins or War Twins. The elder twin is Monster Slayer, Nayenezgani or Naye nezyani. The younger twin is Child-of-Water, To’baadsistini or To’baachis’chini. Child-of-Water is sometimes translated as Born-for-Water.

The To’baad component of the name means she-water, which is a gentle river or rain, as opposed to the violent, turbulent rivers and rain known as he-water, or To’baka. The translation as Born-for-Water has significance, since each Navajo child is “born to”  the clan of his father and is “born for”  the clan of his mother. Of the twins, Monster Slayer is always the more important.

Monster Slayer is represented by a bow, the weapon he used to slay the monsters in various myths. He is, in fact, sometimes known as “Bow-whose-string-extends-on-one-side”. Monster Slayer can also be represented by a fluffy head feather, rendered using red ochre in pictographs, or by zig-zag lightning.

Child-of-Water is represented using an hourglass shaped element, likely indicating the scalping that Child-of-Water performs after Monster Slayer has killed the monsters with his bow. (Historical revisionism to the contrary, the native peoples practiced scalping long before the Europeans encouraged it by paying a bounty.) The Pueblo tied scalps to rain and fertility and the Navajo adopted this belief. The hourglass sometimes stands alone in rock art, and sometimes it appears on the face or body. In pictographs the hourglass appears in red ochre.

During rituals, the Child-of-Water impersonator is painted with an hourglass in white, a color that appears to have been adopted from the Pueblo culture’s habit of decorating warriors with white paint. Both twins are sometimes represented by zig-zag lighting and by paired shields.

After the twins slew all the monsters, they went to the junction of the San Juan and Los Piños rivers. This location has shield petroglyphs representing the twins. (One of the paired shield pictographs at Todosio Canyon, along with Ye’i and other rock art including a star ceiling, was destroyed by Navajo Lake in 1963 when Navajo Dam was completed.)

Fetishes or Tiponi

The Navajo have two supremely important and very sacred fetishes, each called tiponi. The word tiponi means “Child of Importance”. There is one male figure and one female figure, both of which are wrapped in bucksin.

The male is about four inches wide and eighteen inches long. It consists of a feather and a cotton cord. Tied to the cotton cord are eagle feathers, the ends of which are tightly wrapped with cotton cord to about four inches from the end. In the center of the cord was a tail plume, the longest of the feathers.

This tiponi represents the life of all animals, and thus the life of all animals that the nomadic Navajo depended on for food. If this tiponi was damaged or destroyed the Navajo believed that the animals would die and the Navajo would perish. This tiponi therefore represents the food of the Navajo.

The female is also about four inches wide and eighteen inches long. This tiponi consists of an ear of yellow corn so old that it has turned white. Similar to the male, a long eagle feather is attached to the corn and is surrounded with smaller eagle feathers. Each is wrapped with cotton cord. Even more important then the male, this tiponi is called “Grandmother” and symbolizes the germination of all life, including that of the Navajos. The Navajo believe that damage or destruction of this tiponi would result in the death of the entire Navajo tribe.

Both of these fetishes passed into the hands of the Hopi in order to secure the Navajo’s adherence to their pledge to respect Hopi lands and property after the Navajo returned to the Four Corners Four Corners area. They have remained under Hopi control for over one hundred and thirty years.

Rock Art Sites

Rock Art Sites

Navajo rock art is usually naturalistic and typical subjects are horses, often with riders, deer, antelope, and cattle. There are also representations of Navajo deities called Ye’i.

The Navajo often used charcoal for pictographs, a practice that continues into modern times. These pictographs are fragile and usually do not survive well. Sometimes charcoal is used in combination with paint, and the paint portion survives better than the charcoal portion. Not all pictographs are made as part of rituals; charcoal drawings are often made by sheep herders, usually children, trying to dispel the intense boredom and pass the time.

The Navajo placed many of their ceremonial images on top of older Anasazi images. This could have been done to borrow the “power”  of the Anasazi image or it could simply have been done as a sort of signpost to indicate that area was now under Navajo control

 

 

 

The Navajo Reservation

The Navajo Reservation is also the largest Indian reservation in the United States, covering a total of 17.5 million acres and stretches across northwest New Mexico, northeast Arizona, and southeast Utah. From low, dry desert elevations to mountainous regions, Navajo land is larger than some states.

 

Modern theory describes the Navajo people as semi-nomadic, having ventured throughout the Southwest before settling in their present location. Navajo belief is that The People emerged into the world, the fourth world, to escape a flood in the lower world.

The Place of Emergence is located in northwest New Mexico, in an area known as Dinetah. This area still carries religious, traditional and cultural significance for the Navajo people. The boundary of the Navajo Nation today roughly follows the traditional boundary set by the Four Sacred Mountains.

The early Navajo people subsisted on herds of sheep and planted large fields of corn. They quickly adapted to the use of horses and other livestock introduced into the region by the Spanish. In the years around 1860, tensions between the Navajo people and non-Indian ranchers and the US Army increased.

In 1864, after a series of skirmishes and battles, a large portion of the Navajo population was forced away from their beloved homelands to the Bosque Redondo, an experimental reservation about 400 miles away on the plains of eastern New Mexico.

 

The people, under the eye of US Army guards, were forced to march the entire distance. Thousands died along the way, during the four years the people spent at the Bosque Redondo, and during the walk home in 1868.

This episode of tragedy and human survival is known as “The Long Walk.” The leaders of the different clans of the Navajo people signed the Treaty of 1868 at the Bosque Redondo with the United States. The treaty set aside a reservation — a fraction of the Navajo’s original homeland — and in exchange for peace, the US Government promised to provide basic services to the Navajo people

Authentic Navajo Indian Dreamcatchers

We offer a large collection of dreamcatchers of various types and sizes. These beautiful authentic dreamcatchers are handcrafted by the Navajo Indians on the Navajo reservation. The nature of the dream catchers is that will attract all dreams to its webs as they float by. The night air is filled with good and bad dreams. Good dreams, because they’re pure and intuitive, easily navigate through the center hole small center hole in the dream catchers and slip through. Then they slide down the feather and enter the sleeping dreamer. Bad dreams are malicious in intent get tangled in the webbing of the dreamcatcher and perish with the first light of a new day. On the wall above your bed or fireplace, the dream catchers will evoke good feelings and last a lifetime

 

The Dream Catcher legend……..

Many years ago, grandmother found a spider in her home. It was building a web above her bed, and she spent many days watching it work and marveled at its beauty. One day, as the web was nearing completion, her grandson came to visit and he saw the spider and immediately went to kill it. Grandmother stopped him, and said that the spider had been there for several days, working hard on the web. It had not bothered her, and she had enjoyed watching it. The spider thanked Grandmother for saving its life and told her that in return for her kindness, it would give her a gift. The spider said that the web above her bed would make sure she only had good dreams – the bad dreams would get caught in the web, and would burn up when the sun rose. Only the good and important dreams would pass through this dreamcatcher

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Ginseng

Ginseng Too Precious to Sell

Two citizens take a look at a 300-year-old ginseng root that went on display in a mall in Ningbo

A 300-year-old ginseng root, a therapeutic perennial herb, debuted at a mall in Ningbo, a coastal city in eastern China’s Zhejiang Province.

The local news Web site zjol.com.cn reported on Tuesday that the root weighs 98 grams, and was sold in an auction for 2,800,000 yuan (around 387,000 US dollars) in 1998. Now its estimated market value is as high as 5,000,000 yuan (around 691,000 US dollars).

Ginseng

 
   

Panax quinquefolius foliage and fruit

 

Scientific classification

 

Kingdom:

Plantae

 

(unranked):

Angiosperms

 

(unranked):

Eudicots

 

(unranked):

Asterids

 

Order:

Apiales

 

Family:

Araliaceae

 

Subfamily:

Aralioideae

 

Genus:

Panax
L.

 

Species

 

Subgenus Panax

Section Panax

Series Notoginseng

Panax notoginseng

Series Panax

Panax bipinnatifidus

Panax ginseng

Panax japonicus

Panax quinquefolius

Panax vietnamensis

Panax wangianus

Panax zingiberensis

Section Pseudoginseng

Panax pseudoginseng

Panax stipuleanatus

Subgenus Trifolius

Panax trifolius

 

Ginseng (generic term)

Chinese name

Traditional Chinese

人蔘 or 人參

Simplified Chinese

人参

[show]Transcriptions

Hakka

- Romanization

ngin11 sem24

Mandarin

- Hanyu Pinyin

rén shēn

- Bopomofo

ㄖㄣˊ ㄙㄣ

Min

- Hokkien POJ

jîn-sim; lîn-sim

Wu

- Romanization

zen sen

Cantonese (Yue)

- Jyutping

jan4sam1

Vietnamese name

Quốc ngữ

Nhân Sâm

Korean name

Hangul

인삼

Hanja

人蔘

[show]Transcriptions

- Revised
Romanization

in-sam

- McCune-
Reischauer

in sam

Japanese name

Kanji

朝鮮人参

Kana

ちょうせんにんじん

[show]Transcriptions

- Romanization

chōsen ninjin

       

 

Ginseng species

Chinese name

Traditional Chinese

人蔘屬

Simplified Chinese

人参属

[show]Transcriptions

Hakka

- Romanization

ngin11 sem24 sug5

Mandarin

- Hanyu Pinyin

rén sēn shǔ

- Bopomofo

ㄖㄣˊ ㄙㄣ ㄕㄨˇ

Min

- Hokkien POJ

jîn-sim-sio̍k

Wu

- Romanization

zen sen tsoh

Cantonese (Yue)

- Jyutping

jan4sam1suk6

Korean name

Hangul

인삼속

Hanja

人蔘屬

[show]Transcriptions

- Revised
Romanization

in-sam-sok

- McCune-
Reischauer

in sam sok

Japanese name

Kanji

トチバニンジン属

[show]Transcriptions

- Romanization

tochibaninjin zoku

 

 

Ginseng field in Wisconsin

 

 

Ginseng hand cream from North Korea

Ginseng (pronounced /ˈɪnsɛŋ/[1]) is any one of eleven species of slow-growing perennial plants with fleshy roots, belonging to the genus Panax of the family Araliaceae.

Ginseng is found only in the Northern Hemisphere, in North America and in eastern Asia (mostly Korea, northern China (Manchuria), and eastern Siberia), typically in cooler climates. Panax vietnamensis, discovered in Vietnam, is the southernmost ginseng known. This article focuses on the Series Panax ginsengs, which are the adaptogenic herbs, principally Panax ginseng and P. quinquefolius. Ginseng is characterized by the presence of ginsenosides.

Siberian Ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) is in the same family, but not genus, as true Ginseng. Like Ginseng, it is considered to be an adaptogenic herb. The active compounds in Siberian Ginseng are eleutherosides, not ginsenosides. Instead of a fleshy root, Siberian Ginseng has a woody root, (see below).

Etymology

The English word ginseng derives from the Chinese term rénshēn (simplified: 人参; traditional: 人蔘). Rén means “man” and shēn means a kind of herb; this refers to the root’s characteristic forked shape, which resembles the legs of a man.[2] The English pronunciation derives from a southern Chinese reading, similar to Cantonese yun sum (Jyutping: jan4sam1) and the Hokkien pronunciation “jîn-sim”.

The botanical/genus name Panax means “all-heal” in Greek, sharing the same origin as “panacea“, and was applied to this genus because Linnaeus was aware of its wide use in Chinese medicine as a muscle relaxant.

Besides Panax ginseng, there are many other plants which are also known as or mistaken for the ginseng root. The most commonly known examples are Xiyangshen, also known as American Ginseng 西洋参 (Panax quinquefolius), Japanese ginseng 东洋参 (Panax japonicus), crown prince ginseng 太子參 (Pseudostellaria heterophylla), and Siberian ginseng 刺五加 (Eleutherococcus senticosus). Although all have the name ginseng, each plant has distinctively different functions. However, true ginseng plants belong to the Panax genus.[3]

Traditional uses

Both American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) and Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) roots are taken orally as adaptogens, aphrodisiacs, nourishing stimulants,[citation needed] and in the treatment of type II diabetes, as well as for sexual dysfunction in men. The root is most often available in dried form, either whole or sliced. Ginseng leaf, although not as highly prized, is sometimes also used; as with the root, it is most often available in dried form.

This ingredient may also be found in some energy drinks, often the “tea” varieties; in these products, ginseng is usually present in subclinical doses and does not have measurable medicinal effects.[4][citation needed] It can be found in cosmetic preparations as well, but has not been shown to have clinically effective results.

Modern science and ginseng

Ginsenosides are the active compounds that distinguish the Panax species, and the beneficial ginsenosides are contained in the fleshy portions of the plant.

There are many manufacturers of ginseng products who, knowingly or unknowingly, actually use counterfeit products or ginseng leaves instead of roots. Herbal companies who follow Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) regularly test for the quality, potency, and species authentication of herbs using cross-sectional microscopic examination, thin layer chromatography, and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). One study found HPLC is especially useful in the differentiation and authentication of Panax ginseng from Panax quinquefolius due to the unambiguous distinction of slightly varying isotypes of ginsenoside compounds.[5]

Ginseng is noted for being an adaptogen, one which can, to a certain extent, be supported with reference to its anticarcinogenic and antioxidant properties.[6] Some studies have found no adaptogen responses in animal studies (Survival test on mice swimming).[7]

Many studies have been done with varying results using only ginseng extracts. However, when ginseng is used in combination with other traditional Chinese herbs, the synergistic effects had many more definitive and positive results. For example, Si Jun Zi Tang, a traditional Chinese formula, the main ingredient of which is ginseng, has been shown in multiple studies to have radioprotective effects, preventing a decrease in the hematocrit during radiotherapy.[8][9]

In research, it has been difficult to either verify or quantify the exact medicinal benefits of ginseng using science, as there are contradictory results from different studies, possibly due to the wide variety and quality of ginseng used in the tests. High-quality studies of the effects of ginseng in the United States are rare.[10] However, many high-quality, double blind, randomized controlled trials have been done in Asian countries, such as China, South Korea and Japan.[citation needed]

American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius), similar to Panax ginseng in that they both contain the active component ginsenoside, is distinguished in traditional Chinese medicine theory by having a cold property while the property of ginseng is warm. Japanese ginseng, though the same species as ginseng, is thought to have cooling properties similar to American ginseng due to the difference in cultivation environment. (cite M5050) American ginseng has been shown in various studies to have a beneficial effect for diabetes in the regulation of blood sugar levels.[11]

A comparative, randomized and double-blind study at the National Autonomous University of Mexico indicated it may be “a promising dietary supplement” when assessed for an increase in quality of life.[12]

A randomized, double-blind study showed that an extract of American ginseng reduced influenza cases in the elderly when compared to placebo.[10]

A recent study at the University of Hong Kong has identified ginseng to have anti-inflammatory effects. The study found of the nine ginsenosides they identified, seven could selectively inhibit expression of the inflammatory gene CXCL-10.[citation needed]

P. ginseng appear to inhibit some characteristics associated with cancer in animal models; nevertheless, this effect is unclear in humans.[13] A randomized, double-blind pilot study noted Ginseng appeared to reduce fatigue in cancer patients.[14]

There are references in literature, including authoritative compendia, that show interactions with ginseng. Herbalist Jonathan Treasure of the British National Institute of Medical Herbalists traces the growth of misinformation on an alleged adverse herb-drug interaction between the monoamine oxidase inhibitor phenelzine and Asian ginseng (P. ginseng C.A. Meyer). This originally was mentioned in a 1985 editorial by Shader and Greenblatt in the Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. Shader and Greenblatt devoted a couple of lines to the case of a 64-year-old woman who took an undisclosed dose for an undisclosed time of a dietary supplement product called “Natrol High” while concurrently taking phenelzine 60 mg qd. She experienced symptoms of “insomnia, headache, and tremulousness”. Treasure contacted Natrol by e-mail and discovered within ten minutes that there was no P. ginseng in the formula, but instead Eleutherococcus senticosus which was then called by the popular name “Siberian ginseng”, and it was given in a subclinical dosage mixed with a variety of other herbs. The purported interaction effects are well-known side effects of phenelzine alone, which had been given in a high dosage and are not at all suggestive of Eleutherococcus. However, this misinformed article with a misidentified herb has been picked up in literature searches and megastudies, and is now documented by conventional medical authorities, such as Stockley’s, and is repeated in several botanical monographs, e.g. World Health Organization (WHO 1999).[15][16][17]

Ginseng and reproductive activity

A 2002 study by the Southern Illinois University School of Medicine (published in the annals of the New York Academy of Sciences) found that in laboratory animals, both Asian and American forms of ginseng enhance libido and copulatory performance. These effects of ginseng may not be due to changes in hormone secretion, but to direct effects of ginseng or its ginsenoside components on the central nervous system and gonadal tissues.[18][19] In males, ginsenosides can facilitate penile erection.[20] This is consistent with traditional Chinese medicine and Korean medicine medicinal uses of ginseng.

Ginseng is known to contain phytoestrogens.[21][22][23] In some studies, ginseng has been demonstrated to have a stimulating effect on the pituitary gland to increase the secretion of gonadotropins. Another study found that in young mice, it speeds up the development of reproductive organs, while in adult male mice, it stimulates the production of sperm, and lengthens the estrus period in female mice.[3]

Side effects

According to a Sports Nutrition FAQ published by UMass Amherst, one of P. ginseng’s most common side effects is the inability to sleep.[24] However, other sources state ginseng causes no sleep difficulties.[25] Other side effects can include nausea, diarrhea, headaches, nose bleeds,[26] high blood pressure, low blood pressure, and breast pain.[27] Ginseng may also lead to induction of mania in depressed patients who mix it with antidepressants.[28]

Ginseng has been shown to have adverse drug reactions with phenelzine and warfarin, but has been shown to decrease blood alcohol levels.[29]

Overdose

The common adaptogen ginsengs (P. ginseng and P. quinquefolia) are generally considered to be relatively safe even in large amounts. One of the most common and characteristic symptoms of acute overdose of Panax ginseng is bleeding. Symptoms of mild overdose with Panax ginseng may include dry mouth and lips, excitation, fidgeting, irritability, tremor, palpitations, blurred vision, headache, insomnia, increased body temperature, increased blood pressure, edema, decreased appetite, increased sexual desire, dizziness, itching, eczema, early morning diarrhea, bleeding, and fatigue.[3]

Symptoms of gross overdose with Panax ginseng may include nausea, vomiting, irritability, restlessness, urinary and bowel incontinence, fever, increased blood pressure, increased respiration, decreased sensitivity and reaction to light, decreased heart rate, cyanotic (blue) facial complexion, red facial complexion, seizures, convulsions, and delirium.[3]

Patients experiencing any of the above symptoms are advised to discontinue the herbs and seek any necessary symptomatic treatment.[3]

Common classification

 

 

Ginseng roots in a market in Seoul, 2003

P. quinquefolius American ginseng (root)

According to traditional Chinese medicine, American ginseng promotes yin energy, cleans excess yang and calms the body. The reason it has been claimed that American ginseng promotes yin (shadow, cold, negative, female) while Asian ginseng promotes yang (sunshine, hot, positive, male) is because, according to traditional Chinese medicine, things living in cold places or northern side of mountains or southern side of rivers are strong in yang and vice versa, so that the two are balanced.[citation needed] Chinese/Korean ginseng grows in Manchuria and Korea, the coldest area known to many Koreans in ancient times. Thus, ginseng from there is supposed to be very yang.

Originally, American ginseng was imported into China via subtropical Guangzhou, the seaport next to Hong Kong, so Chinese doctors believed American ginseng must be good for yin, because it came from a hot area. They did not know, however, that American ginseng can only grow in temperate regions. Nonetheless, the root is legitimately classified as more yin because it generates fluids.[30]

The two main components of ginseng are claimed to be in different proportions in the Asian and American varieties, and are speculated to be the cause of the excitatory versus tonic natures.[31] The ginseng is traditionally hewn and a few slices are simmered in hot water to make a decoction.

Most North American ginseng is produced in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and British Columbia and the American state of Wisconsin, according to Agri-food Canada. P. quinquefolius is now also grown in northern China.

The aromatic root resembles a small parsnip that forks as it matures. The plant grows 6 to 18 inches tall, usually bearing three leaves, each with three to five leaflets two to five inches long.

Panax ginseng Asian ginseng (root)

 

 

Ginseng and reishi mushrooms in bottles being sold in Seoul, Korea.

Panax ginseng is available in four forms:

  1. 1.     The form called fresh ginseng is the raw product.
  2. 2.     The form called white ginseng (WG) is fresh ginseng which has been dried. It is grown for four to six years, and then peeled and dried to reduce the water content to 12% or less. White ginseng is air dried in the sun and may contain less of the therapeutic constituents. It is thought by some that enzymes contained in the root break down these constituents in the process of drying. Drying in the sun bleaches the root to a yellowish-white color.
  3. 3.     The form called red ginseng (RG) is harvested after six years, is not peeled and is steam-cured at standard boiling temperatures of 100 °C (212 °F), thereby giving it a glossy reddish-brown color. Steaming the root is thought to change its biochemical composition and also to prevent the breakdown of the active ingredients. The roots are then dried. RG is more common as herbal medicine than WG, and there is increasing research on the pharmacological activities of RG specific ginsenoside.
  4. 4.     The form called sun ginseng (SG) is created from a heat processing method which increases ginsenoside components such as ginsenoside-[Rg.sub.3], -[Rk.sub.1] and -[Rg.sub.5] by steaming white ginseng at a higher temperature than red ginseng. The herb is steamed for three hours at 120 °C (248 °F). Research has shown that SG has increased nitric oxide, superoxide, hydroxyl radical and peroxynitrite scavenging activities compared with conventionally processed RG or WG. The increased steaming temperature produces an optimal amount of biological activity due to its ability to amplify specific ginsenosides. Japanese researchers set out to investigate the antioxidant effect of SG on oxidative stress.

Red ginseng

 

 

Red ginseng

Red ginseng (Hangul: 홍삼; Hanja: 紅蔘; RR: hong-sam, simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: hóng sēn), is Panax ginseng that has been heated, either through steaming or sun-drying. It is frequently marinated in an herbal brew which results in the root becoming extremely brittle. This version of ginseng is traditionally associated with stimulating sexual function and increasing energy. Red ginseng is always produced from cultivated roots, generally from Korea.

In 2002, a preliminary double-blind, crossover study of Korean red ginseng’s effects on impotence reported that it can be an effective alternative for treating male erectile dysfunction, during which 60% of study participants noted an improvement in ability to produce an erection.[32]

Another study reported red ginseng reduced the relapse of gastric cancer versus control.[33]

A study of ginseng’s effects on rats found that while both white ginseng and red ginseng appear to reduce the incidence of cancer, the effects appear to be greater with red ginseng.[34]

A study by Sung H, Jung YS, Cho YK. showed potentially beneficial effects of a combination of Korean red ginseng and highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected patients.[35]

Falcarinol, a seventeen-carbon diyne fatty alcohol was isolated from carrot and red ginseng, and was thought to have potent anticancer properties on primary mammary epithelial (breast cancer) cells.[36] Other acetylenic fatty alcohols in ginseng (panaxacol, panaxydol and panaxytriol) have antibiotic properties.[37]

Wild ginseng

 

 

Harvested ginseng in Germany.

Wild ginseng is that which grows naturally and is harvested from wherever it is found to be growing. Wild ginseng is relatively rare, and even increasingly endangered, due in large part to high demand for the product in recent years, which has led to the wild plants being sought out and harvested faster than new ones can grow (it requires years for a root to reach maturity). Wild ginseng can be either Asian or American, and can be processed to be red ginseng.

There are woods-grown American ginseng programs in Maine, Tennessee, Virginia, North Carolina, West Virginia and Kentucky,[38][39] and United Plant Savers has been encouraging the woods planting of ginseng both to restore natural habitats and to remove pressure from any remaining wild ginseng, and they offer both advice and sources of rootlets. Woods-grown plants have a value comparable to wild-grown ginseng of similar age.

Ginseng alternatives

These mostly “adaptogenic” plants are sometimes referred to as ginsengs, but they are either from a different family or genus. Only jiaogulan actually contains compounds closely related to ginsenosides, although ginsenosides alone do not determine the effectiveness of ginseng. Since each of these plants has different uses, one should research their properties before using.[40]

Other plants which are referred to as ginsengs may not be adaptogens (although notoginseng is in the genus Panax):

History of Ginseng

One of the first reliable mention of the medicinal use of ginseng is contained in the ancient work of Chinese Emperor Shen-Noon “Shen-Ben-Cao (The Healing book of Shen – Noon”, IV century BC). Later, in 502 AD , a supplement to the Shen-Noon works was writen by Tao Heung – Chin, were described information about ginseng, and where also other 730 plants were described.
Since then, the majority of books on Chinese medicine will certainly contain a section devoted to ginseng, over time, they included the conditions of growing this medicinal root.
One of the most important sources of knowledge on ginseng has been 52-volume work of the Chinese pharmacologist and physician Li Shi-Chen “Ben-Cao Kang-mu”, which was published in 1592


The author has spent 27 years to compilate a description of almost 2 thousand not only plants but also animal and mineral drugs and different compositions of them
.
 

 
Information on ginseng was strictly guarded. Marco Polo’s book about his journey through the East (1274) reported about some “elixir of life.” In 1610 Dutch merchants first brought home the mysterious plant from Japan. So the information about the plant with the exceptional healing properties that exist on the East gradually came to Europe.


Only in 1711 the first serious work was written by a French Jesuit monk Jartie, which more closely acquainted Europeans with ginseng. Being in China, Jartie gathered a lot of information about ginseng.

   Jartie wrote: “.. they say that this is an excellent remedy for all kinds of weakness caused by excessive overwork of the body or spirit, that it cures the weakness of the lungs and pleurisy, and that it strengthens the chest and it’s a cure for apnea, that it strengthens the stomach and promotes appetite and that it increases vitality, improves lymph blood which is good for dizziness and poor vision, and that it prolongs life in old age.

In Russia, first mention about ginseng appeared in the compositions of translator of the embassy order N. Spafary. Spafary was in charge of the embassy sent by the king Aleksei Mikhailovich in February 1675 to China. A unique document, which was released in 1678, entitled “Description of first half of the universe called Asia, and also the Chinese state, with all its cities and provinces. “
It says: “And the root is boiled and given to those which are weak from a long illness, and the great support cast.” Spafary not only described the ginseng and methods of its usage in China, but also brought some roots to Russia.

In 1690 in Nuremberg, a court physician of the Russian monarch Lawrence Blumentroest wrote a letter, where he describes the preparation of the ginseng drugs and indications for its use. The doctors, members of the Russian mission in Beijing, as a sign of special grace several times received from the Chinese emperor about a half a pound of ginseng.
Shortly after the Jartie publication Joseph Francois Lyafito French missionary in Quebec (Canada), found five-leafed Ginseng near Montreal (1716), basing on descriptions given by his countrymen.


It turned out that North American Indians were well acquainted with this plant and used it for medicinal purposes long before European colonists appeared.


Canadian Indians used five-leafed ginseng as blood-purifuing treatment. He used by the Iroquois, known for its curative properties among Indian tribes Fox, Anandas, Oneyda, Potawatomi.

 
Cherokee Indians tribe called American ginseng atali gunli – “one that climb the mountains,” Iroquois called it the “guarantor-ogen, and Sioux have secret procedures for of the root preservation, as a result of which it became whitish and translucent.
  In June 1902 James Regsdeyl the American consul in Tianjin reported home: “There are four main types of ginseng, known for the trade – a local from Jilin Province and nearby provinces, Korean, American and Japanese.
Miraculous healing properties of ginseng are attributed to Jilin ginseng, and he has a very high cost: for the best roots traded for the silver by weight, and the silver was given to 200-600 times more than the weight of the root.

Of course, only rich people can benefit from this expensive drug, but the Chinese belief in the virtue of this plant is so strong, that even the poor doing terrible sacrifices to get it in cases of extreme necessity.
Due to huge demand and limited stocks of wild roots farmers near Jilin have thriving business, growing ginseng, although its price – only a small part of what one would pay for the wild ginseng.
Korean Ginseng - next by his cost. The consumption of its huge, but there is almost no statistics, because most of it being smuggled.
American ginseng every year becomes more and more famous and popular, especially in the southern provinces. Almost everyone consume it in a spring as a tonic. Cheapest Ginseng – Japanese. It is used primarily by those who can not buy the other types. “
 
At the end of the XIX century it was learned how to grow Ginseng at the plantation in Korea, and later in China and Japan. Ginseng is quite fragile and demanding. It requires a carefully preparation of the soil and very careful care. It is often become envenomed by fungi, and he dies. 
To harvest the Ginseng roots on the plantations is possible when the plant has reached the age of 6-7 years. The roots are carefully exhumed and thoroughly cleaned with the brush. Then dried in the dryer at a temperature of 40-60 ° C. Humidity of the dried roots should not exceed 10%.
The first Europen colonists in America was adding Ginseng to the tea in order to increase appetite and improve digestion, especially for the elderly and the weak children’s. Today in the U.S. and Canada five-leafed ginseng is becoming increasingly popular treatment and prevention tool. In 1992, American Society of Ginseng researchers published a book called “American ginseng in America,” which lists numerous examples of the use of five-leafed ginseng for medicinal purposes. Thus, the result of his admission medications (root powder, fresh root, etc.) have been lowering cholesterol levels, the disappearance of addiction to alcohol, he has assisted women in menopause, increased levels of estrogen (female sex hormone).
Oriental Medicine attributes the ginseng with the ability to prolong life,therefore in China, Korea, Japan and Indochina taking ginseng medicines encouraged not only for sick people but also healthy people who have reached 40 years.
 
For more information, see “Internet about Ginseng

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 History Collections

Part One

Aboriginal Canada

Muskwa And Inuit

 

Created by

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Private limited E-BOOK in CD-ROM Edition

Special for Premium Member Collectors

Copyright@2012

 

FORWARD

I have collected the archived of history collections from 1955 , starting during young boy until now, Some of the collections have upload in my web blog

Hhtp://www.uniquecollection.wordpress.com

Hhtp://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com

Hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

Almost 400.000 collectors visit this web blog

I have million informations of rare old archives now, and if the scientist ,journalist or collectors want to have the rare archives’s informations and illustrations please contact me via comment, but before you must subscribed via comment to be my blog premium member.

I hope my bigger project to collect the Informations from rare old archives will help everybody from all over the world.

I have met the the archives scholar from KTLV(Koninjkijl Tropen Leiden Vereneging) ,the Dutch archived of tropic area at Leiden Netherland who came to Indonesia to seeking the rare old archives,many Indonesian scholar visit KTLV to found 8informations related with their thesis because KTLV and also their Netherland tropen museum archives collectiosn cann’t copy because the protect with copyright.

I will show the Canada   Indian  and aborigin Archive History Collections, also

 their modern art 

and  hope everybody will happy to read the info and look the illustrations  

THIS ARTICLES DEDICATED TO THE CAVADA INDIAN AND ABORIGIN TRIBES

Jakarta,May.2012

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

American Indian and Aborigin

Indians, & Canadian Aboriginals

 

 

Communaute Autochtone Muskwa is a Historical 1st Nations / Self Governing Aboriginal Community with a ritch History dating back to the times of Port Royal in the Early 1600′s

Our Family are All Aboriginals & Muskwa’s Members”

What people & the public need to be aware of & understand clearly is that when

 

new members join Muskwa, they are not just recieving a “membership pass” or a “status card” which defines them as aboriginal or “Metis,” or a card which entitles them to the benifits of which an aboriginal community can give them threw one form or another.

 

In actuality besides the fact they recieve a card they are - aknowledged as part of our family unit, which carries the greatest of value & rewards, along with responsabuility and obligations, – because they are part of our family unit and that is something we take seriously, and we cherrish this.

“Our Family”

“is Our people!”

 

 

Being a member of ones family and of ones community has its pros and cons benifits and stresses, and when one joins our community – “our family” they are treated as such & are expected to conduct themselves as such, with dignity, honour, respect, and to act in kindness with honesty & good faith.

Regardless of location in Canada – all aboriginals are considered as “Family” members to us, – in fact we welcome all who are of aboriginal origen and their families.

A Proud Dancer.

 

 

We do not refuse any aboriginals from joining us, or from taking part as active members or non activ

Like all familys, some times there are disagreements, and then there is allot of love, support & help from family members, that is also part of what the word family means.

In todays society, as time passes, and as history of people evolve & continue to change, sometimes family values are lost, and sometimes bonds are broken & sometimes there are bad times & like with all other familys there are the good times as well.

“Chief Joseph”

 

 

At Muskwa we try to bring out the best of each & every member we have, we try to support our ever growing community, we try & educate our young to be the best that they can be, not only in support of their familys directly but also in support of their in-direct family members.

 

Reason being – we feel as if we do not help one & another, or we do not support the familys structures with their needs in daily living , we are not being a positive form of support for our familys or our future.

 

Our children & elderly, our poor & our handicap, they all depend on us! If we can give to them at minimum the time of day just to help address what ever seems to be a problem in their lives, then we are contributing to a more positive & healthy & productive society for genorations to come.

 

 “We are Aboriginals” 

“For Example” – As in all familys there is good & bad in all children  but truthfully there is no such meaning as “a truely bad child from the start”, because children are born innocent & pure & what they learn is what comes from set examples demonstrated to them in  society –  which shapes & forms their actions & behaviors as children & continues to remain until they are  adults.

“Example” – If a child is exposed to corruption from an early stage in his life – then chances are as he grows & developes he will have learned more & he will also have learned how to become corrupt.

“Example” – If a child is exposed to smoking or abuse of drugs or alcohol or if he is raised in an enviroment where there is criminal activity – then he may grow up repeating the same patterns – because thats all he has ever seen in his lifetime.

“Example” – If a child for example is raised in a financially poor enviroment where he has very little to eat, or poor living conditions, then chances are he may not have the inner will to walk the strait path to financial security & prospairity. – He may steal food to feed himself or his  siblings.

“Example” – If a child watches & witnesses his father beat his mother while he is growing up, or if he watches & witnesses his parents cheat on one & another then those examples too may assist in developing his opinion on what normal life may be, as he may grow to feel as though what he has lived threw is the way life should be & that is how he personally shoul be & he may repeat the set patterns of examples.

As intelligent respectable family members, we all know & understand that the examples which have just been given are by no means acceptable or tolorable in society, & with that in mind we do not nor should we judge those who have come from unfavorable situations, But what we should be doing is assisting in “Rectifying” what causes the problems.

Even if it means feeding the poor, of babysitting a neighbours child while she works to support her children – if we can. Or if at all possible donate to food drives, or churches when clothing drives are held.

The illimination of factors which contribute to poverty or poor living conditions creats a positive spinn off which in turn changes each & everyones future, which in turn allows for a healthy productive society later on.

We must strive to set the proper examples at all costs, & we must strive to contribute to upholding our laws which is what allows for our society to maintain its structure, & we must work hard at helping each other when needed.

One of the goals of our community is to maintain the family unit, keep our traditions & heritages strong & healthy, to take care of all our members direct or in-direct, & to keep our familys strong & healthy, despite who our members are, where they come from, or despite the social standings they hold in life – this job belongs to all of us & we take our responsabuilitys seriously.

We know the future will be dark if we all dont work hard at doing our part!

Amazing Grace

Amazing Grace, aboriginal music.

 

 

 THE TYPE OF CANADIAN INDIAN AND ABORIGIN TRIBES

1.   Siouan

  • While Americans associate the Sioux with their own Western Plains, some branches of this family also moved historically within Canada’s borders. The Assiniboin and Dakota serve as two primary examples. Each migrated between the present borders separating the U.S. and Canada, deriving much of their sustenance and livelihood from the nomadic bison herds they followed. The dominant language of each nation is traditionally Lakota. History of Canada Online states that an original population of 10,000 was reduced to 3,000 due to smallpox outbreaks in the 18th century.

look more Sioux pictures

(sorry not upload completely,complete illustrations only for premium member)

 Sioux Indians

 

A Child
A Child
A Gift Of Enlightenment
A Gift Of Enlightenment
Air
Air
Along The Way
Along The Way
A Mountain Ute
A Mountain Ute
An American Portrait
An American Portrait
Ancient And Modern Art
Ancient And Modern Art
Ancient Dreams
Ancient Dreams
An Indian Ong
An Indian Ong
An Indian Pueblo Laguna New Mexico
An Indian Pueblo Laguna New Mexico
Apache Ceremony
Apache Ceremony
Appaloosa Heart
Appaloosa Heart
A Prayer For Their Vanishing Herds
A Prayer For Their Vanishing Herds
Arrival Of Winter Messenger
Arrival Of Winter Messenger
A Sioux Indian
A Sioux Indian
A Treasured Handbag
A Treasured Handbag
Autumn Apache
Autumn Apache
Bears In The Rainbow
Bears In The Rainbow
Bear Walks
Bear Walks
Bird Trying To Look Like An Indian
Bird Trying To Look Like An Indian
Blackfeet Card Players
Blackfeet Card Players
Blackfoot Bear Shaman
Blackfoot Bear Shaman
Blackfoot Indians
Blackfoot Indians
Blessing Of The Kivas
Blessing Of The Kivas
Brave Eagle
Brave Eagle
Bright Cloud
Bright Cloud
Brothers In Spirit
Brothers In Spirit
Calm Sounds Of The Ceremony
Calm Sounds Of The Ceremony
Canyon Mist
Canyon Mist
Caretakers Of The Blue House
Caretakers Of The Blue House
Carriers Of Father Universe
Carriers Of Father Universe
Catch The Wind
Catch The Wind
Changing Woman
Changing Woman
Cheyenne Summer
Cheyenne Summer
Chief Raincloud
Chief Raincloud
 

 

  • The Iroquois Confederation, which included Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida , Onondaga, Seneca and Tuscarora tribes, was one of Canada’s most distinct native groups, enjoying partnerships in trade and mutual defense. The confederacy sought to incorporate conquered peoples into their collective. At its height, the confederation’s lands stretched from the Genesee River near Lake Ontario all the way to the environs of Lake Champlain.

Iroqouian

 

Algonquin

  • The Algonquin family group is one of the largest and most territorially expansive throughout all of North America. Their vast geographical coverage has spanned from the Atlantic Ocean in the East to the Rocky Mountains in the West. Some of the dominant tribes historically present in Canada include the Atsina, Chippawa and Cree. The large amount of territory covered by these peoples is, to some extent, a reflection of their significant mobility. While some of the Algonquin nations maintained hostile relations with the Iroquois Confederacy, at times they also fought each other, as did the Atsina and Cree.
  • There are many other tribes that were found throughout the Canadian landscape historically, and many are still present. Some examples include elements of the Shoshoni family, the Wendat Confederacy and the Skittegetan family. Additionally, there are peoples indigenous to the cold, northern expanse of Canada. Some of these tribes in the Northwest Territories include the Chipewyan, Dogrib, Gwich’in, Han, Hare, Kaska and Slavey, while the far northwest Yukon is also home to the Tagish, Tanana, Tlingit, Tutchone. The northern province of Nunavut, to the east, is governed entirely by the Inuit.

Others

Inuit

Inuit is a general term for a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples of the Arctic who descended from the Thule. The Inuit Circumpolar Conference defines its constituency to include Canada’s Inuit and Inuvialuit, Greenland’s Kalaallit people, Alaska’s Inupiaq and Yupik people, and Russia’s Yupik. However, the Yupik are not Inuit in the sense of being descended from the Thule and prefer to be called Yupik or Eskimo.

The Inuit

The National Voice of Inuit Women

 

Pauktuutit fosters greater awareness of the needs of Inuit women,

 

advocates for equality and social improvements, and encourages their participation in the community, regional and national life of Canada.

 

 

 Pauktuutit leads and supports

 

 Inuit women in Canada in policy development and community projects in all areas of interest to them for the social, cultural, political and economic betterment of the women, their families and communities.

 

 

Clothing Design

Qimniq, Klengenberg’ wife, was

 

an Inupiat from

 

 

 Point Hope Alaska. Prior to the family’s permanent move to

 

the Kitikmeot region in 1916,

 

 

 

Planning for the Kitikmeot Regional Chamber of Commerce

Expertise Provided: Organizational Planning, Policies and Procedures

Client: Kitikmeot Regional Chamber of Commerce

Northern Vision: The Kitikmeot region has a strong history of entrepreneurship and successful business development. The current economic climate and the expanding potential of mineral, oil, and gas development, highlighted the need for a regional forum to promote the growth of both local and regional businesses.

Nunavut Values: The small population and remoteness of the Kitikmeot communities have always represented a challenge to the coordination of any regional economic strategic planning. But through careful consultation with a wide range of stakeholders, Aarluk facilitated a successful series of meetings that identified the regional economic, goals, priorities, objectives and opportunities.

The Result: Aarluk’s work culminated in the creation of a Regional Chamber of Commerce, with a forward-looking mission and vision, and detailed plans for steering economic and business development in the Kitikmeot

 

 

 

The cook at Dr. L.D. Livingstone’s residence

Pangnirtung (Pangnirtuuq), 1929

 


Pangnirtung (Pangnirtuuq),

Pangnirtung (Pangnirtuuq)


Community meeting
Pangnirtung (Pangnirtuuq), 1965
 look more pictures from pangnirtung

 


Unidentified children in a field of wildflowers
Pangnirtung (Pangnirtuuq), circa 1975

 

Group of unidentified Inuit and Reverend Peck (back row centre)
Pangnirtung (Pangnirtuuq), September 5, 1903

 

Unidentified man, Pangnirtung (Pangnirtuuq), August 1946

 

Pangnirtung (Pangnirtuuq

 

Look more pictures from this area

soory the illustration not upload,you can look in

 E-BOOK IN CD ROM SPECIAL FOR PREMIUM MEMBER

Project Naming

Have you ever wondered about the unknown people in your old family photographs? What if an entire community of people was photographed and never identified?

These are the questions asked by ‘Project Naming’. Launched in 2004, ‘Project Naming’  is an on-going initiative by Library and Archives Canada (LAC) to aid in the identification of Inuit depicted in the various photographic collections held at LAC. This includes the photographic holdings from Indian and Northern Affairs, National Film Board, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and various private collections.  It’s a collaborative project between LAC, Nunavut Sivuniksavut (a specialized college program for Inuit youth based in Ottawa, Ontario), and the province of Nunavut’s Department of Culture, Languages, Elders and Youth (CLEY). The project provides Inuit youth with the opportunity to reconnect with elders from their communities and learn more about their heritage.

LAC has launched a Podcast series to accompany the efforts of ‘Project Naming’ and addresses various issues regarding photo documentation in the North over the past century..

 

Bella Lyall-Wilcox carrying her sister, Betty Lyall Brewster 

Taloyoak (formerly Spence Bay), circa 1961

 

Taloyoak (formerly Spence Bay),

 

Unidentified couple, Fullerton, 1904-1905

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fullerton

 

Niviaqsarjuk (left) and Jennie (right) wearing Western clothing, Fullerton, 1904

 

Portrait of Mallikee Fullerton, 1904-1905

 

Fullerton

Baker Lake (Qamanittuaq

 

Unidentified women
Baker Lake (Qamanittuaq), 1926

 

Baker Lake (Qamanittuaq

 

Look more pictures from this lake area

 

 

 sorry the illustration not upload,lood in CR-ROM

 

 

 

 

 

Eastern Arctic region

 

 

Unidentified couple
Eastern Arctic region 1947

 

 

Look more pictures from eastren artic region

 

sorry illustrations not upload,look at CD-ROM 

 

Studio portrait of an unidentified woman, probably from the Eastern Arctic, who came south on a New Bedford whaler, and was possibly on a “tour” when photographed
New York, New York, 1860

Arctic Bay

(Ikpiarjuk/Tuninirusiq),

 

Atuat
Arctic Bay (Ikpiarjuk/Tuninirusiq), circa 1974

Look more picture from ikplarjuk

 

 

 soory illustrations not upload

 

Atuat Nujaaqtu (left) and her sister
Arctic Bay (Ikpiarjuk/Tununirusiq), 1950

 

 

 

Iqaluit (formerly Frobisher Bay),

 

 

Unidentifed young woman holding her infant
Iqaluit (formerly Frobisher Bay), circa 1950s

 

 

 

Iqaluit (formerly Frobisher Bay),

Look more picture from iqaluit

  

Abe Okpik at home
Iqaluit (formerly Frobisher Bay), April 1964

Pond Inlet (Mittimatalik/Tununiq

 

 

 


 sorry another illustrations not upload lood at the CD-ROM

 

Miali Aarjuaq
Pond Inlet (Mittimatalik/Tununiq), 1923
 

Arnakallak’s family


. From left to right: Qaumajuq, Piipi Nasaq, Jonathan, Rhoda and Arnakallak
Pond Inlet (Mittimatalik/Tununiq), circa 1940-1944

Chesterfield Inlet (Igluligaarjuk)

Unidentified young girl
Chesterfield Inlet (Igluligaarjuk) September 5, 1958

Unidentified family travelling overland during summertime at Hudson Bay
Chesterfield Inlet (Igluligaarjuk), 1912 or 1916

 

Unidentified individuals from different groups of families
Chesterfield Inlet (Igluligaarjuk), summer 1952

 

Chesterfield Inlet (Igluligaarjuk

 

Unidentified individuals from different groups of families
Chesterfield Inlet (Igluligaarjuk), summer 1952

 

Inuit women of Padalamuit group, Igluligaarjuk (Chesterfield Inlet), NU, 1920

Barnabus Arnasungaaq
Beverly Lake, 1949

 

 

Beverly Lake 

Shappa, an employee of the Northwest Territories and Yukon Branch, Department of the Interior
Cape Dorset (Kinngait), 1929

Cape Dorset (Kinngait



Unidentified sculptor in a print shop
Cape Dorset (Kinngait), April 1968

Lyon Inlet

 

 

Unidentified group of children
Lyon Inlet, 1933

 

Lyon Inlet

Resolute Bay (Qausuittuq

 

 


Group of unidentified children
Resolute Bay (Qausuittuq), September 1959

Look more pictures from Qausuittuq

 

Resolute Bay Community History

Overview

Community Profile

Snapshot of Resolute circa 1950

Transitions

Resolute between 1953 and 1980

Infrastructure and services

Education

Health Care

Housing

Churches and Religion

Works Cited

Note on Place Names: The current official names of places are used here except in direct quotations from historical documents. Thus “Resolute” is used, even if Resolute is known as Qausuittuq or Qarmatalik locally and was formerly called Resolute Bay. Names of places that do not have official names will appear as they are found in the source documents.

Note: Currently, the histories are only available as drafts. These histories will change in response to evidence (oral and documentary) found during the work of the Commission.

Overview

Key Dates

 

Date Why is it important?
1947 A weather station and airstrip were established by the United States and Canada at Resolute
1949 A Royal Canadian Airforce base was established near the weather station
1953 Inuit and an RCMP officer were relocated to Resolute
1955 Inuit were relocated to Resolute
1958 Resolute received its first permanent school and full-time teacher
1960 A co-op was established
1965 An Anglican church was constructed
1968 A temporary nursing station was established
1974-1975 The settlement was relocated to provide improved water and sewage services and increase accommodation options for Qallunaat living off-base.
1987 Resolute achieved hamlet status
1991 Timothy Idlout moved to Resolute, and was the last Inuit to leave camp life for a settlement

 

Community Profile

The Hamlet of Resolute (pop. 229) is Canada’s second most northern community, and is located on the western shore of Resolute Bay on the south shore of Cornwallis Island. It was named after the ship HMS Resolute that participated in the search for English explorer Sir John Franklin. The Inuit name for the town is Qausuittuq, meaning “the place with no dawn.” Other names for the community have included Qarnartakuj, meaning “the place of the ruins,” and Resolute Bay (“First Eastern Arctic Mine,” 1973).

Archaeology provides evidence that the Cornwallis Island region was inhabited from time to time by Tunit cultures as early as 1500 BCE, and afterwards by Thule peoples as recently as 1000 CE (Kemp, et al, 1977). Historic-era Inuit did not establish camps or settlements on the island until the relocations of the 1950s.

Modern habitation of the Queen Elizabeth Islands began in 1947 when the United States and Canada built a weather station at Resolute Bay. Inuit were relocated to the area by the government in 1953 and 1955 from Pond Inlet and Inukjuak (formerly known as Port Harrison). In the 1960s and 1970s some residents left the community and returned to their previous homes, particularly the families that were originally from Inukjuak.

Scientists from all parts of Canada and around the world have used the community as a base for High Arctic studies, attracted to the area by its geographical proximity to the pole and the infrastructure provided by the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) base.

Selected Statistics

Population* and dwellings

Resolute, Hamlet

Total

Nunavut

Total

Population in 2006

229

29,474

Population in 2001

215

26,745

2001 to 2006 population change (%)

6.5

1.2

Total private dwellings

83

9,041

 

 

 

Aboriginal identity population in 2006 

200

24,915

Non-aboriginal identify population in 2006

30

4,410

Source: Statistics Canada (2007).

Terrain

Cornwallis Island is part of the Queen Elizabeth Islands. It boasts of a series of low-lying plains and plateaus, which create an almost featureless terrain scattered with rock debris. The island also has several lakes and rivers. The island geography and position are valuable features for Inuit hunting practices.

Between 1953 and 1960 Inuit hunted and trapped along the coasts of Somerset Island and parts of Prince of Wales Island. Hunters also travelled inland to the interior of Somerset Island where caribou were plentiful.

After 1960 hunting areas expanded as Inuit learned more about the land.

Caribou hunting still takes place in the spring on the western part of Somerset Island and on Russell Island, often along with the polar bear hunt, and in winter on Prince of Wales Island and Somerset Island. Char is fished throughout Cornwallis Island and Somerset Island in inland lakes and rivers. Smaller animals are also hunted (Milton Freeman and Associates, 1976).

For information on animals in the region, please visit the Animals (add hyperlink) section of this web site.

Snapshot of Resolute circa 1950

Four Inuit families were moved to Resolute Bay by ship in 1953 with an RCMP officer. Another six families were relocated to the community in 1955. The government saw the move as a success, but relocated Inuit protested that they had unwittingly participated in an ill-conceived experiment and demanded acknowledgement of wrong-doing by the government. In 1996, the Canadian Government awarded $10 million to the survivors of the relocation, but never offered an apology (Bell, 1996).

 
Group of Inuit children, Resolute Bay, N.W.T. Source: Library and Archives Canada, R1196-14-7-E, National Film Board of Canada. Still Photography Division, PA-178998. September 1959, Resolute Bay, NWT. [Resolute Bay (Qausuittuq), Nunavut].

 

The reasons for the government-sponsored High Arctic relocations of the 1950s have been examined by academics, authors, journalists, bureaucrats, independent scholars and, most notably, by the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP). There are sharp divisions concerning the reasons for the relocations. Reasons suggested by authors include:

  • A desire by the Government of Canada to populate the High Arctic to support Canadian sovereignty claims;
  • an intention on the part of the Government of Canada to centralize Inuit in communities where they could provide labour for government services (Kemp, et al, 1977);
  • a desire to improve the lives of Quebec Inuit whose livelihoods were thought to be under threat due to decreased game stocks; and,
  • an interest in reducing what was seen to be growing dependence on government assistance.

Camps

Some families chose to establish camps rather than live in the settlement. Between 1955 and 1960, three or four families occupied camps in the area (Kemp, et al, 1977). Timothy Idlout, his wife Nangat and their 12 children remained at a camp after all the other families left the area in 1967. Idlout lived on the land until 1991 when poor health forced him to move to Resolute. He was the last Inuit to leave camp life for the settlement (Welch, 1993).

Qallunaat Institutions

In 1947 Canada and the United States established a Joint Arctic Weather Station on the southern coast of Cornwallis Island. An airfield was built as part of the weather station project. Two years later an RCAF base was established near the weather station.

 
Alex Stevenson, on right, watching a group of unidentified Inuit bring in a dead walrus alongside their whale boat. Library and Archives Canada, Acc. 1983-120 NPC, Item no. 420. August 1955, [Resolute Bay (Qausuittuq), Nunavut]

The Inuit who arrived in Resolute from Inukjuak had been accustomed to receiving services in the core of Inukjuak. They were unable to receive these services in Resolute because most services were at the RCAF base, which was about five kilometres away. This distance was purposely created to reduce or prevent interactions between the base Qallunaat and Inuit (Tester and Kulchyski, 1994).

 

 

Transitions

Resolute between 1953 and 1980

1950s

There was no modern Inuit settlement at Resolute until September 1953 when four Inuit families consisting of 23 people, 27 dogs, and RCMP constable Ross Gibson were delivered to the area as part of a government relocation program. Three families came from Inukjuak, while the other family was from Pond Inlet. In 1955, 34 more people were relocated from Inukjuak and Pond Inlet to Resolute under the same government program.

The first year in Resolute was difficult due to “a lack of supplies and inadequate equipment” (Government of Canada, 1994, page 494). In addition to problems posed by substandard housing, a boat without a propeller, insufficient numbers of caribou skins for clothing and inadequate food and ammunition supplies, temperatures were much lower than temperatures in Inukjuak, game and terrain conditions were very different, and there were three months of darkness. Added on top of these hardships were the loss of friendships and kinships with the move and the cultural and language differences between the Pond Inlet and Inukjuak groups.

 
Department of Transport helicopters at Inuit village. Library and Archives Canada, National Film Board of Canada. Still Photography Division, PA-179003. September 1959. [Resolute Bay (Qausuittuq), Nunavut]

Many Inuit worked for various government agencies in Resolute, but they were not paid directly. Their wages were held in an account by the Department of Northern Affairs and Natural Resources which gave ‘credits’ to the wage-earners in place of cash. The credits appear to have been poorly managed, and Inuit allege that they often worked without pay (Marcus, 1992). A store managed by the Department determined which goods could be purchased by Inuit and at what price. This system only ended in 1960 when a co-operative was established in Resolute.

1960s

Early in the 1960s, the federal government officially ended relocations because of scarce game resources in the area. In this period, Inuit were finding casual employment at the RCAF base and weather station, but subsistence still depended on harvesting with supplements coming from carving and trapping (Weissling, 1991). Some Inukjuak Inuit began to petition to return to Northern Quebec (Kemp, et al, 1977).

In 1965, 12 Inuit were permanently employed at the base complex. By 1966, the community counted only one full-time hunter, although most employed men also hunted for food (Damas, 2002). In the opinion of the RCMP officer, progress had proven to Inuit “the benefits and security which employment provided compared to the hardships encountered in their old way of life” (Weissling, 1991, page 206).

The RCMP reported increasing problems in the community that were attributed to excessive alchohol consumption (Weissling, 1991). In 1968, Idlout, a Pond Inlet Inuk famous for his role in A Long Day’s Night, died in a snowmobile accident on his way home after leaving the base canteen where he had reportedly been drinking.

1970s

By the 1970s, researchers and geologists seeking natural resources had been travelling to the High Arctic for decades. However, the worldwide energy crisis of the 1970s sped up the search for oil and gas in the Cornwallis Island area. Resolute airport became the largest and busiest airport in the Arctic Circle (“Baffin Neighbourhood,” 1973). Scheduled weekly flights to Resolute from Edmonton, Montréal and Winnipeg began in 1973 (“Transair Okayed, ” 1974). The increased population of transients strained the local infrastructure, and in 1973 discussions began about relocating the Inuit settlement.

A new town site was meant to serve two functions: provide improved water and sewage services and more accommodation options for Qallunaat living off-base in Resolute. In 1974, materials for new buildings were shipped to Resolute and government services were moved to the new town site. Inuit homes were relocated the following year.

The location of the new village was poor from the perspective of Inuit. From this spot, they were unable to observe migrating marine mammals from town, and travel to the ice floe became difficult because equipment had to be hauled across land to boats (Kemp, et al, 1977).

The other major development in the 1970s was the significant decline of the caribou herd on Bathurst Island (Kemp, et al, 1977). Inuit blamed increased Qallunaat activity in the area. In the 1970s, natural resource development and seismic testing in the area were protested fiercely by the Inuit. This resolve eventually led to to the Inuit gaining mineral rights in Land Claim negotiations (McPherson, 2003).

Infrastructure and services

Prior to the relocation of the Inuit village in 1975, the village had poor services, including limited running water and hydro. The new town site boasted improved services. Fuel and water were delivered once a week and garbage was picked up weekly by truck in the summer, and snowmobile and sled in the winter. Buildings at the base complex and in South Camp were serviced by pipes from Char Lake and fuel from the tank farm (Kemp, et al, 1977).

Education

RCMP officer Ross Gibson offered simple schooling to the Inuit children in the first dark winters at Resolute. Leah Idlout took over the role of teacher when she and her father, Idlout of Pond Inlet, moved to the settlement in 1955 (Tester & Kulchyski, 1994). Leah taught school in a small house until she left the community in 1958. Resolute received its first permanent school and a full time teacher also in 1958. A second teacher arrived in 1965 and by 1967 a second classroom was added to the school (Government of Canada, 1994).

Health Care

In the settlement’s early years the local RCMP officer was tasked with ensuring the Resolute Inuit were in good health. The closeness of the settlement to the RCAF base allowed for easy extraction of patients with serious illnesses to Frobisher Bay or other healthcare centres – weather permitting (Bissett, 1968).

 
Inuit boy receiving a rabies inoculation [Joe Amagoalik is the boy receiving the inoculation at the Resolute Bay Nursing Station]. Resolute Bay, N.W.T., [Resolute Bay (Qausuittuq), Nunavut]. Library and Archives Canada. Health Canada, e002394468

The C.D. Howe provided annual x-rays and vaccinations as well as annual bouts of influenza and unwanted passage to southern sanitoriums for Inuit suffering tuberculosis. The measles was also brought to the Inuit at Resolute in 1957 when the C.D. Howe was forced to stop at Resolute after a number of its Inuit passengers contracted the disease. The infected passengers were off-loaded on the shore near the Inuit village, and while physically separated from the Resolute Inuit, the disease quickly jumped the gap, infecting the Resolute Inuit (Tester and Kulchyski, 1994).

Nurses travelling to High Arctic communities passed through the base at Resolute and often took time to examine the Resolute Inuit. The close proximity to the air base, while providing a convenient means of extraction in the event of serious illness, also provided for much more interaction between Inuit and transient Qallunaat. This resulted in frequent illness and influenza outbreaks (Bissett, 1968). In the 1960s, maintenance of the base complex was contracted out to Tower Company, which installed a permanent nurse in the base. However, the company complained to the Northern Health Service (NHS) about the large amounts of time the nurse dedicated to Inuit patients. In response to the complaint the NHS shipped a temporary nursing station to Resolute in 1968. Tower Company’s nurse staffed the trailer part time until a full time nurse was recruited (Bissett, 1968).

Housing

The first year in Resolute was spent in duck tents and later, when the snow conditions were right, igloos. The snow conditions were different in Resolute that what the Inukjuak Inuit were accustomed to and consequently made the construction of the Igloos much more difficult.(Tester and Kulchyski , 1994) When spring arrived, the Resolute Inuit gathered scrap and surplus wood from the RCAF base and the dump and began building homes. By 1957 there were 11 makeshift houses constructed along the beach. The base provided enough electricity to the village for each house to run a single light.

 
Inuit roofing a building. Library and Archives Canada, National Film Board of Canada. Still Photography Division, PA-178999. September 1959. [Resolute Bay (Qausuittuq), Nunavut]

(Weissling 1991) Inuit heated their homes by burning scrap wood in discarded oil drums.

Three houses were shipped to Resolute in 1956 but they arrived to late in the season to be erected. The following year the three buildings intentioned to be homes were constructed and used as a community store, a warehouse and a school. Four newer houses were erected in 1964 with material purchased from the co-op.( Weissling 1991) When the settlement was relocated to its present location in 1975 a number of new pre-fabricated houses, serviced by the utilidor system, were erected for Inuit occupation.

Churches and Religion

Anglicanism was thoroughly established in the Inuit in both Inukjuak and Pond Inlet for decades before the relocation (Kemp, et al, 1977). During the early years of the settlement, religious service was provided in a small shed constructed out of discarded base material. The space also served as a workshop and school house. An Anglican church was erected in the community in 1965, and a lay preacher from Pond Inlet conducted the services (Bissett, 1968).

 
Inuit woman Martha plays the concertina for a group of dancing boys. National Film Board of Canada. Still Photography Division, PA-179001, March 1956, Resolute Bay, NWT.

Works Cited

“Baffin Neighbourhood News, Resolute Booming” (1973, 12 October). Inukshuk, page 12.

Bell, J. (1996, March 15). Exiles Denied Apology. Nunatsiaq News. Retrieved 16 September, 2008, from www.nuunatsiaq.com.

Bissett, D. (1968). Resolute, an area economic survey. Ottawa: Industrial Division, Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development.

David Damas (2002). Arctic Migrants/Arctic Villagers: the Transformation of Inuit Settlement in the Central Arctic. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

“First Eastern Arctic Mine a Near Reality” (1973, 12 October). Inuksuk, 7( 32), pages 12, 19.

Government of Canada (1994). The High Arctic relocation summary of supporting information. Vol. 2. Ottawa: Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, 1994.

Kemp, W.B.; Wenzel, G.W.; Jensen, N.; Val, E. (1977). The communities of Resolute and Kuvinaluk: a social and economic baseline study. Polar Gas socio-economic program. Montreal: McGill University, Office of Industrial Research.

Marcus, A.R. (1992). Out in the cold: the legacy of Canada’s Inuit relocation experiment in the High Arctic. Copenhagen: IWGIA.

McPherson, R. (2003). New Owners of Their Own Land: Minerals and Inuit Land Claims. Calgary: University of Calgary Press.

Milton Freeman and Associates. Inuit land use and occupancy project, Volume three: Land use atlas. Ottawa: Department of Indian and Northern Affairs.

Statistics Canada (2007). Resolute, Nunavut . 2006 Community Profiles, 2006 Census. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 92-591-XWE. Ottawa. Released March 13, 2007. www.statscan.ca.

Tester, F.J. and Kulchyski, P.K. (1994). Tammarniit (mistakes) Inuit relocation in the Eastern Arctic. Vancouver: UBC Press.

“Transair Okayed to Fly into Resolute.” (1974, 12 June). Inukshuk, page 3.

Weissling, L.E. (1991). Inuit redistribution and development processes of change in the eastern Canadian Arctic 1922-1968. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Alberta.

Welch, H.E. (1993). Timothy Idlout (1916-1992). Arctic, 46(1).

 

Unknown location

Unidentified man
Unknown location circa 1950s


Unidentified man and two children
Unknown location, no date


Unidentified children playing
Unknown location circa 1950s


Unidentified woman carrying her baby in an amauti
Unknown location summer 1952

 

Ruth Enoch and Sarah Ross
Unknown location, 1929

 

 Qimniq had of course been sewing clothing for the family following the Inupiat traditions of design and construction. She taught this sewing tradition to her eldest daughter Etna, and when the family moved into Copper Inuit territory the two continued producing Inupiat style clothing.


Qimniq Klengenberg and her two daughters,
on left Lena, on right Etna, 1924.
(National Archives of Canada/PA 172875)


Qimniq Klengenberg, wife of
Charlie Klengenberg, 1924.
(National Archives of Canada/PA 172882)

Shortly after their move Etna had a Inupiat style parka sewn for a woman named Manigogina in the tree river area. Women in the area began to use the pattern, and this parka style became the height of style among Copper Inuit. As the parka required more skins than traditional Copper Inuit patterns, and as the “Mother Hubbard” cotton cover for the inner parka required store-bought cloth, ownership of such a parka was a mark of affluence. The Inupiat style clothing patterns came to completely replace the traditional Copper Inuit styles, and are today considered traditional dress.


Copper Inuit Clothing, Front View
(Diamond Jenness/CMC/51234)


Copper Inuit Clothing, Back View
(Diamond Jenness/CMC/51235)


Copper Inuit Overcoat
(National Archives of Canada/C86071

 

 

 

Canadian Inuit live primarily in

Nunavut, Nunavik

(a region in the northern part of the province of Quebec defined by the James Bay Agreement)

Read more info


Nature and Culture in the Highlands
.

 


 
Nunavik (Quebec or New) forms the northern third of the province of Quebec in Canada, and covers an area of about 507,000 sq km of tundra and boreal forest. The approximately 11,000 residents of Nunavik, 90% are Inuit living along the coast in 14 northern villages and the Cree village of Whapmagoostui.
Nunavik means “the place to live” in Inuktitut in Quebec and the Inuit of Nunavik are called Nunavik.
Summary

Geography

 


Nunavik is separated from the territory of Nunavut by Hudson Bay, west, and Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay to the north. The 55th parallel separates the region of James Bay, south. Together, these two regions form the administrative region of Northern Quebec. Southeast of Nunavik, are the administrative region of the North Shore and the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Ungava Peninsula forms the northern two thirds of Nunavik.


The administrative center of Nunavik is\

 

 

 the village of Kuujjuaq,

 

 

on

 

 

the river Koksoak,

south of

 

Ungava Bay.

 

 Other important villages are

 

 

Inukjuak

(where the film Nanook of the North was shot in 1922),

 

 

 

Salluit,

 

 

 

 

 

Puvirnituq

and

 

 

 

 

 

Kangiqsualujjuaq.


There is no road link between Nunavik and southern Quebec,
 

 although the Transtaiga ends near the 55th parallel

 (on the banks of Caniapiscau,

 a few hundred kilometers from Kuujjuaq), on the one hand, and the road to James Bay is about 250 km away from the twin

villages of Whapmagoostui

and Kuujjuarapik (on the east coast of Hudson Bay), on the other. There is a scheduled air service and a maritime link seasonal (summer and fall).
There are three sites in Nunavik meteoric craters, or craters Saguenay, and La Couture Moinerie.

Administration
The Convention of the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement of 1975 paved the way for the construction of the La Grande hydroelectric complex and laid the foundation for self-government for Nunavik region: the Kativik Regional Government (KRG). All residents of 14 northern villages, Native and non-indigenous, have the right to vote.

 The KRG is subsidized by the Government of Quebec (50%) and the Government of Canada (25%).
Makivik Corporation, which is headquartered in Kuujjuaq, representing the Inuit of Quebec in their relations with the governments of Quebec and Canada and manages the compensation paid by the Government of Quebec under the James Bay Agreement and Northern Quebec (about $ 140 million between 1975 and 1999). The Company argues for greater autonomy in Nunavik and has recently reached an agreement in principle on the recognition of Aboriginal rights of Nunavik Inuit on the islands off the coast, which are part of Nunavut.
The Cree village of Whapmagoostui, near the northern village Kuujjuarapik, is part of the Cree Regional Authority and the Grand Council of the Crees (Eeyou Istchee) and not involved in the KRG. Naskapi Nation of Kawawachikamach, the North Shore, owns land for hunting and trapping in the south of Nunavik and is represented in the KRG.
Although there are several islands off the coast of Nunavik, like all the islands of the Bay and Hudson Strait are under the jurisdiction of Nunavut.

Nunavik communities

Akulivik, (population : 483 hab.)

 

 

And

in Nunatsiavut

 (a region in Labrador whose borders are yet to be fixed.)

 

The Inuvialuit live primarily in the Mackenzie River delta, on Banks Island and part of Victoria Island in the Northwest Territories. There have been Inuit settlements in Yukon, especially at Herschel Island, but there are none at present. Alaskan Inupiaq live on the North Slope of Alaska, while the Yupik live in western Alaska and a part of Chukotka Autonomous Area in Russia. The Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami is a national organization in Canada which represents over 40,000 Canadian Inuit.

 

 

Inuit Woman 1907

The Inuit are traditionally hunters who fish and hunt whale, walrus, and seal by kayak or by boat or by waiting at airholes the seals make in the ice. They use igloos as hunting or emergency shelters. They make use of animal skins in their clothing (e.g. anorak). Dog sleds, known as qamutiit, are used for travel pulled by Inuit Sled Dogs in a fan hitch, though snowmobiles have largely replaced this mode of travel.

In Inuktitut, the language of the Inuit people, “Inuit” means “the people”. The English word “Eskimo” comes from the French “Esquimaux” but the origins of this French word are unclear. Many Inuit consider the word Eskimo offensive, but is still in general usage to refer to all Eskimo peoples, though it has fallen into disuse throughout Canada, where Canadians use the term Inuit. The men are traditionally hunters of seals, whales, walrus, and caribou, using harpoons, canoes (or kayaks), dogs, and sleds. Fishing is also important. The women take care of the children, clean the house and cook.

The Inuit living in North America were formerly classified together with other Native Americans, but they are now considered to be an entirely separate ethnic group who arrived in North America a few millennia after the latter did, probably around 500 as the Thule, replacing the Dorset culture. Accordingly, in Canada the Inuit are not considered First Nations. However, they, the Indians, and the Métis are collectively recognized by the Canadian Constitution Act, 1982 as Aboriginal peoples in Canada. Other synonyms include “First Peoples” and “Native Peoples”. Inuit are members of the Mongoloid race, which also includes various Siberian tribes such as the Yakut, as well as the Chinese and Japanese.

 

The European arrival caused a great deal of damage to the Inuit way of life, causing mass death and other suffering. Circa 1970, Inuit leaders came forward and pushed for respect for the Inuit and their territories. One of the resulting land-claims agreements created the Canadian territory of Nunavut, the largest land-claims agreement in Canadian history. In recent years, circumpolar cultural and political groups have come together to promote the Inuit people and to fight against ecological problems, such as the greenhouse effect and resulting global warming, which heavily affects the Inuit population due to the melting and thinning of the arctic ice and declining arctic mammal populations. Nunavut premier Paul Okalik took the lead in this regard in a First Ministers’ meeting discussing the Kyoto Accord.

 

One of the most famous Inuit artists is Pitseolak Ashoona. Susan Aglukark is a popular Canadian singer. In 2002 the feature film Atanarjuat: the Fast Runner directed by Zacharias Kunuk (with all dialogue in the Inuktitut language and written, filmed, produced, directed, and acted almost entirely by Inuit of Igloolik) was released world wide to great critical and popular acclaim. Jordin Tootoo became the first Inuk to play in the National Hockey League in the 2003-04 season, playing for the Nashville Predators. Well-known Inuit politicians include Premier Paul Okalik of Nunavut and Nancy Karetak-Lindell, MP for the riding of Nunavut. Also, Mitiarjuk Attasie Nappaaluk is helping to preserve the Inuit language, Inuktitut. She wrote the first Inuit novel. (to do list: culture past and present, spirituality, customs, etc)

 

Inuit clothing

 

Inuit woman wearing an amauti and carrying a child on her back (graphic material): N.W.T. (Nunavut), ca. 1926 – 1943.

 

Copper Inuit Clothing, Front View (Diamond Jenness/CMC/51234)Copper Inuit Clothing, Back View (Diamond Jenness/CMC/51235)

 

Copper Inuit Clothing, Back View (Diamond Jenness/CMC/51235)

 

This Inuit woman, photographed by the Scottish botanist-explorer Isobel Wylie Hutchison in the 1920s, is dressed in her colourful traditional national costume. The most characteristic part of this outfit is perhaps the “kamiker”, or heel-less sealskin top-boots, which reach up to the knee in the case of men, but well above that in the case of women, as illustrated here. The outer surface of the women’s boots is dyed white, scarlet, or blue, and decorated with abstract geometrical patterns of brightly-coloured leather strips. There is a removable inner lining which keeps the feet and legs warm. Hutchison found that such footwear was essential, not only for negotiating the slippery rocks and shingle, but for protection against insect bites.

 

 
 
Title Nowadlook, an Inuit women, dressed in fur parka, Alaska, 1907
Photographer Dobbs, B. B. (Beverly Bennett)
Date 1907
Notes Caption on image: Copyright 1907. B.B. Dobbs.  Handwritten on image: Nowadlook.  PH Coll 788.3 (See also PH Coll 323.88)
Contextual Notes Beverly Bennett Dobbs was born in 1868 near Marshall, Missouri. In 1888 Dobbs moved to Bellingham, Washington and operated a photography studio there for 12 years. In 1900 Dobbs moved to Nome, Alaska and continued to work as a photographer capturing images of Nome, the Seward Peninsula, and Inuit people. In 1909, Dobbs started the Dobbs Alaska Moving Picture Co. and began making films about the Gold Rush. By 1914, Dobbs had moved back to Seattle and was creating more films through the Dobbs Totem Film Company which he ran until his death in 1937.
Subjects (LCTGM) Eskimos–Women–Alaska; Eskimos–Clothing & dress–Alaska; Fur garments
Subjects (LCSH) Nowadlook; Parkas–Alaska
Location Depicted United States–Alaska
Digital Collection Alaska, Western Canada and United States Collection
Order Number AWC3207
   
Repository University of Washington Libraries. Special Collections Division
Repository Collection Beverly B. Dobbs Alaska photograph album. PH Coll 788
Beverly B. Dobbs Photographs. PH Coll 323
Object Type Photograph
Physical Description 7 x 9 1/2 in.
Digital Reproduction Information Scanned from a photographic print using a Microtek Scanmaker 9600XL at 100 dpi in JPEG format at compression rate 3 and resized to 768×600 ppi. 2008.
   

Beverly B. Dobbs Alaska photograph album.

 

 

 

The Inuit Art Collections

The Primitive  Inuit Art Collections

 

Inuit Art at UNBC

The Ray Anderson Inuit Art Collection

 

Artists: Imoona Karpik & Sowdluq Nakasook

Raymond Cecil Anderson was a dedicated Career Diplomat for the Canadian Foreign Service. Having been posted in Brazil, the Philippines, Los Angeles, Seattle, and as the High Commissioner to Australia, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, Mr. and Mrs. Anderson acquired and displayed Inuit and First Nations art for display in their “homes” away from home. The Anderson’s felt that the aesthetic quality of these two unique art forms communicated eloquently across the cultural boundaries they continually faced in their travels. In the summer of 1999, Mr. Anderson donated his extensive collection to the University of Northern British Columbia. Mr. Anderson passed away October 27, 2003.

 

Artist: Eegyvudluk Pootoogook

The Ray Anderson Inuit Art Collection includes 25 major Inuit sculptures and 75 smaller soap stone sculptures, the latter of which are primarily displayed on the second and third floors of the Geoffrey R. Weller Library. Also donated are 40 stonecut Inuit prints, produced by internationally recognized Inuit women artists such as Pitseolak, Ikajukta and Kudjuakjuk; as well as, work by eminent First Nations artists such as Bill Reid. In this one gift, Raymond Anderson – diplomat and art enthusiast – has left the University of Northern British Columbia a tremendous legacy of art which will serve both the research and aesthetic needs of the academic community in perpetuity.

 

 

 

 

 

Imagery in Inuit Art

Inuit were making sculptural works long before James Houston presided over the birth of the contemporary art industry. Working within the limits of available materials (mainly ivory and bone) and tools (mostly handmade), they crafted ornaments and toys, utilizing images from their everyday lives. To a certain extent, the subject of Inuit sculpture continues to be constrained by available materials and tools. The shape, size, and hardness of stone, for instance, dictate what can be done with it, although Inuit carvers succeed — surprisingly often — in rising to the challenge of producing original work.

 

Expression is also limited by the medium. Janet Berlo, for instance, has contrasted “the wealth of data about northern life, self representation, gender relations, and other concerns of aboriginal life” found in drawings with the “decorative, uncomplicated, and simple” information to be gleaned from prints (Berlo 1993:5).

Even with the limitations of available supplies and media, Inuit would more often than not use art to tell stories. As they often remind us, theirs is an oral culture. The making of art has taken the place of a written language in recording legends, events, and a way of life that is unknown to the younger generation. As Nunavik artist Paulosie Kasadluak said: “What we show in our carving is the life we have lived in the past right up to today” (“Nothing Marvellous,” in Port Harrison/Inoucdjouac [catalogue]. Winnipeg: Winnipeg Art Gallery, 1977:21). It has, however, long been the case that hunting and domestic scenes from a past way of life find expression in artwork, while more contemporary imagery is used less frequently.

There are artists —and their numbers may be growing — whose work is more personally expressive. Although Manasie Akpaliapik has talked about a desire to record legends, which, he said, “are important to us [Inuit] because we use them as guide posts to the old days” (IAQ 1990:11), he has also confided that artmaking is “healing” for him (Ayre 1993:38). He has also ventured into social commentary: one of his well-known works, in the collection of the National Gallery of Canada, depicts a despairing face with a bottle of alcohol emerging from its head, intended to convey the artist’s conviction that alcohol is contributing to the death of Inuit culture.

Social commentary has not, however, been a frequent feature of Inuit art. In part, this is because of what Terry Ryan, longtime northern arts advisor, has referred to as a public fixation on so-called traditional art, by which is meant the Inuit way of life as it was when the world “discovered” it in the mid-20th century. It is not unusual to see repetitive work, even from highly talented artists. It is difficult to explain the virtues of innovation and experimentation to people who can sell large, highly polished and handsomely carved stone bears for several thousand dollars each.

While the market pressure for imagery from a past way of life is undoubtedly a powerful influence, artists also play a role in the continuing production of what might be called “memory art.” Referring to their fear of losing their culture, if not their identity, Nunatsiavut artist Gilbert Hay said several years ago: “Look at us today. For the last 150 or 200 years our culture has been sabotaged by you guys, your values. I’m wearing your clothing. Any culture tries to hold onto what it’s losing. We were and still are trying to document our own history” (IAQ 1990:11).

Mutually reinforcing factors support the repetition of “traditional” imagery — the hunter with the bow and arrow and the woman flensing the skins — but, over the years, a few artists have successfully incorporated such modern imagery as airplanes (Pudlo Pudlat), drunkenness (Manasie Akpaliapik et al.), and residential school angst (David Ruben Piqtoukun). Renegades do, however, leave themselves open to dismissal. To quote from the 1997 Transitions exhibit organized by the federal government, even though Inuit art is not “simply arctic animals and scenes from the past,” (July Papatsie) it is sometimes dismissed as “unauthentic” when it incorporates “noticeable signs of modernity” (Barry Ace). July Papatsie, co-curator of the travelling exhibition, spoke for a growing number of artists when he said that Inuit want to be “modern and experimental” (Transitions: Contemporary Canadian Indian and Inuit Art [catalogue]. Ottawa: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 1997:4–8).

 

Some may be stretching the boundaries of what is expected, but Inuit have to work harder than most to have their innovations accepted (Seagrave 1998:4–15). There is a resistance to their drawing on western imagery, and the market has been slow to accept “modern” work. In recent years, however, there have been several well-promoted exhibitions of work by Inuit artists who are breaking free of constraining conventions. Annie Pootoogook’s depictions of contemporary Inuit life include Biblical references, ATMs, Ritz crackers, and Saddam Hussein — not the sort of stuff we have come to expect from Inuit.

While some, with the support of progressive marketing agents, are attracting mainstream attention for their work, the continuing focus on economic development has resulted in “carving factories” like the Jessie Oonark Arts and Crafts Centre, which opened in Baker Lake in 1992 to produce standardized carvings to be marketed as “gifts.” The project was aborted later in the face of a groundswell of opposition from artists, dealers, and others, but such attempts continue, the latest being the Nunavut government’s arrangement with organizers of the 2010 Winter Olympics to have artists produce up to 40,000 inuksuit. They were not to be mass-produced, but nonetheless two sizes were recommended.

This “production mentality,” as Terry Ryan called it, is counterproductive to the creation of expressive art (IAQ 2004:32). In a very early article in Inuit Art Quarterly, art historian Hal Opperman wrote about the Inuit interface with the modern world, which, ideally, results in transformed creativity and expression (Opperman 1986:1–4). Unfortunately, that same interface involves exposure to mass production strategies, which, if implemented, will demoralize the artists and destabilize the market. Given the unrelenting challenges to survive that artists face every day, it is difficult to resist get-rich-quick opportunities. There are, however, always those who want to make art — how they want, with what they want — and we have the elephant to prove it!

Marybelle Mitchell, editor-in-chief of Inuit Art Quarterly

 

Inuit

Inuit art is a defining feature of CUAG’s collecting and exhibition programmes. In 1992, Dr. Marion Jackson, a scholar of Inuit art, facilitated the generous gift to CUAG of the Priscilla Tyler and Maree Brooks Collection of Inuit Art. The collectors, both Americans, travelled extensively throughout Alaska, the Canadian Arctic, and Greenland in the 1970s and 1980s, meeting artists and buying their work. Their passion for Inuit narrative resulted in the 1995 co-publication by the gallery and Carleton University Press of Lela Kiana Oman’s The Epic of Qayaq: The Longest Story Ever Told By My People. Their art collection ultimately comprised approximately 1275 works in all media, with a strong concentration of prints by artists from Qamanittuaq (Baker Lake), Kinngait (Cape Dorset), Ulukhaktok (Holman), Panniqtuuq (Pangnirtung), and Puvirnituq. Exhibitions drawn from the Tyler/Brooks collection are frequently on display in the gallery

 

The Tyler/Brooks donation has attracted other significant gifts of Inuit art to the collection. Major donations include the R.D. Bell Collection of Inuit Art of 57 sculptures, with several large and impressive works, particularly by Cape Dorset artists, and the Josephine Mitchell and Lowell Schoenfeld Collection of Inuit Art, comprised of 55 sculptures. Most recently, John Andrew and Carolle Anne Armour donated 91 sculptures and 170 works on paper, including 32 drawings by the acclaimed Cape Dorset artist Parr and 15 drawings by Luke Anguhadluq, a senior Baker Lake artist. A medical doctor, Armour was especially interested in the activities of the shaman or angikoq – the doctor and healer of Inuit society – and as such, a number of the sculptural works in the collection address shamanic themes.

Priscilla Tyler and Maree Brooks intended their collection to foster greater understanding of and appreciation for Inuit art, a goal achieved through exhibitions, research, and publications. Indeed, CUAG’s Inuit collection is a rich resource for such activity, in particular by students. Many of the exhibitions have been curated by undergraduate and graduate art history students, who gain invaluable curatorial experience working with the collection in a professional setting.

The gallery has published several exhibition catalogues featuring their research, including Qiviuq: A Legend in Inuit Art (1996) by Jennifer Gibson, Making Art Work in Cape Dorset (1997) by Shannon Bagg, and The Arctic Lithograph (1998) by Jennifer Cartwright. In late 2009 we launched our first collections catalogue, Sanattiaqsimajut: Inuit Art from the Carleton University Art Gallery Collection, a full-colour, richly-illustrated, 232-page hardcover book documenting the highlight’s of CUAG’s important Inuit art collection and featuring the work of 34 guest writers. This book was awarded first prize in catalogue design by the American Association of Museums publication design competition (2009) and “special recognition” in the category of art publication of the year by the Ontario Association of Art Galleries (2010).

 

“SURVIVAL”
Inuit Art from the collection of Dr Samuel Wagonfeld and his wife Sally Allen

This is a virtual tour of the exhibition that I put together from photos I took.
The tour is broken out into 3 different pages. Each page will provide a link to the next page in the tour

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Page 1 of the virtual tour

Page 2 of the virtual tour

 

Page 3 of the virtual tour

These pages contain a few of the pictures that I took when I visited this exhibition on September 12th, 2004.
I also was lucky enough to meet and talk with Dr. Wagonfeld and his wife Sally before I attended his lecture. They are both wonderful people and
Dr. Wagonfeld and I have a similar story on how we both started collecting, we both started collecting from chance visits to a gallery and then started learning about the culture and became addicted.

 I enjoyed meeting them and talking to them and having Dr. Wagonfeld show me some of  his favorite pieces and also hear some interesting stories from his wife Sally.

They have been collecting for about 15 years now and have a
fantastic collection. I have a great appreciation for Inuit art even though they are not a culture that produces masks and statues like most African cultures.

The art that is produced by Inuit people is mainly art that was produced after the people were introduced to outside cultures and
influences. The Inuit were a largely nomadic people and the items they produced originally were mostly utilitarian objects.

There was a fantastic catalog put out with this exhibition,
and if you are interested in a copy you can call the museum directly at (970) 962-2410 (It’s $20 USD)

RAND

 

Press releases about the exhibition…
Original release

Loveland Museum Gives Dramatic View of Arctic Art and Culture

“Powerful.” “Eye-opening.” “Such a surprise.” “Extensive”. “Well-presented.” “Insightful”.

These are among visitor responses to the current exhibition of Inuit sculpture, prints, drawings and textile wall hangings now at the Loveland
Museum/Gallery, 5th & Lincoln in Loveland. Survival: Inuit Art offers a comprehensive introduction to the major life themes of the Inuit people,
northern Canadian Eskimos whose traditional way of life and culture are disappearing. The show encompasses works depicting family life, hunting
and fishing, Arctic wildlife, shamanism, legends and myths and historical accounts of life in the inhospitable climate of the Arctic North. It is a visually
dynamic exhibit, designed to enhance the artistic impact of each piece and, at the same time, to place each work of art in a broader and well-
documented context.

Spanning over a half-century of art-making in Arctic, the works on exhibit are from the private collection of Samuel Wagonfeld, M.D. of Denver. As
Canadian gallery-owner Patricia Feheley points out in the exhibit’s extensive color catalog, the collection illuminates a culture that has undergone
radical change. It also includes insight into the modern Inuit artists who move “beyond traditional cultural boundaries to stand as universal
expressions of mature artistic form.”

Almost as fascinating as the art and history of the Inuit are the questions the show raises about the passion of collecting art. “An art collection is as
individual as a thumbprint,” says Feheley. And, when a collection is shared with others through exhibition and publication, others can learn to
appreciate the art as well. As one viewer said, “To experience the depth of feeling for Inuit culture and art which is palpable in this exhibit was
moving in a way I had not anticipated.”

Why would a small local museum design a comprehensive exhibit of works undoubtedly unknown to most of its visitors? “One of the goals of our
exhibits mission is to introduce the community and region to unique art experiences. Another is to feature local collections. In this case, we were
able to do both,” says Janice Currier, the Loveland Museum/Gallery’s Curator of Exhibits. Currier lived in the Arctic for fifteen years and is well
acquainted with Inuit culture and its long struggle for survival. “We were pleased to discover Dr. Wagonfeld’s interest and commitment to Inuit art
and culture, and appreciate his willingness to share his collection with the community.”

Dr. Wagonfeld will present a gallery tour and illustrated lecture on Inuit art in the Foote Gallery at the Loveland Museum on Sunday, September 12,
at 1:00 p.m.

The exhibition continues through October 3 2004. The Loveland Museum/Gallery is located in downtown Loveland at Fifth and Lincoln. Hours are:
Tuesday-Friday, 10-5; Thursday evenings until 9; Saturday 10-4; Sunday 12-4.

 

 

Loveland Museum/Gallery hosts an exhibit examining Western influence on Inuit art.  
By Laura McWilliams / Rocky Mountain News
Original article

In his introduction to the show Survival: Inuit Art, Denver psychiatrist Dr. Samuel Wagonfeld describes his first experience with Inuit art as a “chance
visit to a gallery ‘north of the border.’” He adds, “The freshness of the strange and bold images, their imagination and wonderful appeal were
different from traditional Western art and captivated me.” His Inuit art collection, one Wagonfeld began after this chance encounter is on view in a
beautiful exhibit at the Loveland Museum/Gallery.

The Inuit are a people who have lived for thousands of years in a circumpolar region stretching from Siberia around the globe to Greenland.
Survival examines the art and culture of the Central Canadian Inuit.

The Canadian Inuit were until very recently a nomadic people living in small hunting bands. Contact with European explorers as early as the 16th
century affected Inuit culture and traditions as explorers, traders and missionaries brought with them useful materials such as metal and wood but
also introduced foreign diseases, money and trade into the traditionally subsistence economy.

Still, many Inuit continued to follow traditional ways until the 1950s, when changes in caribou migration routes and an ebb in the fur trade led to a
time of mass starvation and death among the people. The Canadian government stepped in to offer humanitarian assistance, resettling Inuit
groups in permanent villages throughout Canada. The government built churches, schools and houses, and administered social welfare programs.
It also introduced trades such as printmaking to many communities as a means of economic independence.
This period in the 1950s is the beginning of what Wagonfeld refers to as “a golden age” of contemporary Inuit art.

I expected this show to be strong on history and to emphasize traditional artistic styles and methods. The Loveland Museum/Gallery does a good
job of presenting a condensed version of modern Inuit history (if you’re interested, be sure to look through the show’s catalog). But I was surprised
by the wide variety of styles on view in the show. The exhibit consists of drawings, carvings, wall hangings and prints. The pieces are beautiful and
range from austere and simple prints to complex symbolic drawings and sculptural objects.
In addition, the earliest works differ greatly from more recent art. The earliest pieces are largely free from connections to Western art, but the more
recent Inuit art includes many subtle and not-so-subtle references to European systems of representation.
Much of the earliest prints, drawings and carvings in Survival illustrate a way of life that ended with the resettlement. The Inuit who lived through the
starvation period of the 1950s and the move to villages often idealized the lives they left behind, depicting bountiful lands and effortless hunts.

Drawings and prints by Luke Anguhadluq (1895-1982) depict a subsistence existence. His works include pictures of swimming caribou, hunters in
kayaks and fishers with fish. Anguhadluq turned the paper as he worked, conflating time, space and perspective as he strove to describe an image.

Kiakshuk (1886-1966) is described by the show’s catalog as “a well-known storyteller in the community” who “became highly respected for his
ability to translate oral history, tales of the hunt, of animals, family life, or shamans and spirits, into graphic media.” His “Hunting Seals and Polar
Bears” nearly takes the form of a manual for Inuit hunters. The flat graphite drawing shows diagrammatic images of a hunter trapping and spearing
a polar bear and fishing a seal out of an ice hole. His stonecut print, “Hunting Whales,” from 1961, depicts five large blue whales pursued by two
kayaks and one larger boat. This is a view of an idyllic land of plenty in which animals nearly outnumber Inuit and the hunting is easy and clean.
In contrast to the older generation, many younger artists make work that depicts stories passed on through generations by a strong oral tradition.
Much of this work illustrates shamanistic myths, Inuit legends or historic stories.

Victoria Mamnguqsualuk (b. 1930) is, according to the gallery’s artist description, “one of the best known Canadian Inuit artists of her generation.”
Her simple drawings are retellings of Inuit myths and legends. “Brother Moon/Sister Sun” presents an illustration of a creation myth and incest
taboo that describes the formation of the sun and the moon. The story runs from the paper’s bottom left corner and ends at the top, describing a
legend in which a girl is kissed by a stranger in the dark. When she discovers that the stranger is her brother, the two flee in shame into the sky to
become Sister Sun and Brother Moon.

Kenojuak Ashevak (b. 1927) uses animal shapes as vessels for her explorations of line, color and positive and negative space. “Bird with
Feathers” presents a legless bird surrounded by its own flowing, red-tipped, bulbous feathers. The bird shape is filled with obsessive, regular
scribbles that give form to the animal and which also serve to shade and highlight the rounded creature. The image is beautifully balanced with the
negative space of the white paper, and the delicate lines counteract the heavily geometric bird-and-feather form.

The drawings, prints and sculptures in this exhibit are enchanting and beautiful, and the formal choices of artists such as Anguhadluq and Ashevak
are delightfully innovative. But it is the dichotomy of Inuit/European that is most intriguing. The clear Western influence evident in much of the work
(English titles and captions, occasional attempts at realism and perspective) conflicts with the Inuit culture that is the exhibit’s subject matter.

This exhibit includes a nice variety of subjects and styles, and presents artwork from a large number of artists. It teaches a bit about Inuit history
and culture while allowing viewers to enjoy a truly gorgeous art show.

 

A Collection Carved in Stone

In the mid-1960’s the Toronto-Dominion Bank embarked on a groundbreaking project that would ultimately create the most complete collection of Inuit art in existence to that date. The collection is a source of national pride as this indigenous art form holds a significant place in the Canadian identity.

 

Inuit Modern Art

 

The exhibition organized by the Art Gallery of Ontario will feature Esther and Samuel Sarick collection, one of the world’s most comprehensive collections of Inuit art. Inuit Modern traces the transformation of 20th-century Inuit art and features more than 175 works by 75 artists, including sculptures, prints and drawings

 

Inuit Modern: The Samuel and Esther Sarick Collection

 

Inuit Modern is a sprawling exhibition that displays for the first time highlights from the Samuel and Esther Sarick Collection, one of the world’s most comprehensive collections of Inuit art.

The exhibition traces the transformation of Inuit art in the 20th century and features more than 175 works by 75 artists — including sculpture, prints, and drawings.

Curated by Gerald McMaster, the AGO’s Fredrik S. Eaton Curator, Canadian Art, and co-curated by Ingo Hessel, Inuit Modern draws from multiple communities and periods to embrace voices both traditional and contemporary in its consideration of the history and future of Inuit art, and closely examines how the Inuit have coped with and responded to the swift transition from a traditional lifestyle to one marked by the disturbing complexities of globalization and climate change. Featuring work by many of the most prominent Inuit artists of the 20th century, including David Ruben Piqtoukun, Kenojuak Ashevak, Karoo Ashevak, Annie Pootoogook, and Lucy Tasseor, at the heart of Inuit Modern lies a powerful message of social, political, and cultural transformation.

The exhibition is accompanied by a 272-page colour catalogue co-published by the Art Gallery of Ontario and Douglas & McIntyre Inc, which includes contributions by leading Canadian scholars in the field. The catalogue, also titled Inuit Modern, is edited by McMaster and available at shopAGO for $55.

Inuit Modern is generously supported by the J.P. Bickell Foundation and is organized by the Art Gallery of Ontario.

 

The Inuit Art Foundation terminated March 31, 2012, after 27 years of operation.

 

Below is a press release explaining the reasons for its closure and some recent video footage, which provides a good  picture of what the foundation was all about.

 

Concluding that it is no longer viable, the directors of the Inuit Art Foundation are in the process of dissolving the organization.

 Rather than taking the risk of going bankrupt, the directors made the decision to dissolve the organization while funds remained to do so in an orderly way.

 As Vice-President Okpik Pitseolak said: “We’ve done what we can. It is time to stop.”

The foundation has been providing professional development services to Inuit artists for over a quarter of a century . Its most visible activity is the publication of the Inuit Art Quarterly, the only magazine in the world dedicated to Inuit art.

A registered charitable organization, the foundation’s funding consisted of a mix of government grants, cost recoveries and private sector donations. In spite of the best efforts of the small Ottawa-based staff (varying, but typically four or five full-time people), revenues simply failed to keep pace with expenses. Calling it “a solemn occasion,” President Mattiusi Iyaituk said: “We cannot continue. We have seen for several years what has been happening. Our financial instability leaves us with no choice.”

Executive Director Marybelle Mitchell said: “We have had to face the fact that we have stretched our resources to the maximum. Rising expenses have meant that we can barely keep up with core programs, let alone initiate any new projects. We have been losing ground over the past few years.”

Nonetheless, the directors stress that the foundation should be viewed as a success story. There is sadness, of course, in dismantling something we have worked so hard to build up, but we have accomplished much of what we set out to do. In fact, given the scant resources available to us, what we have done is remarkable.

We are grateful to the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development for making it possible for Inuit artists to become directors of the only national Inuit Arts Service organization in Canada. We also extend our thanks to IAQ subscribers worldwide and to the many private donors and the handful of committed volunteers who provided invaluable resources and support over many years.

It is gratifying to see that other agencies are now picking up on some Inuit Art Foundation initiatives. As we finish up projects and wind down our affairs, we have reason to believe that our resource materials will be transferred to other organizations that will not only conserve, but find ways to use them. The terrain may change, but the wheel has been set in motion and will travel paths unforeseen. As for us, we’ve had a good run.

The end @ copyright 2012-05-29

The Best Articles Of Dr Iwan Web Blog History Informations Collections

The Best Information Collections

Of

Driwan web blog

 

Created by

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Private limited E-BOOK in CD-ROM Edition

Special for Premium Member Collectors

Copyright@2012

 

 

FORWARD

I have collected the archived collections from 1955 during young boy until now,

Some of the collections have upload in my web blog

Hhtp://www.uniquecollection.wordpress.com

Hhtp://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com

Hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

Almost 400.000 collectors visit this web blog

I have million informations of rare old archives now, and if the scientist ,journalist or collectors want to have the rare archives’s informations and illustrations please contact me via comment, but before you must subscribed via comment to be my blog premium member.

I hope my bigger project to collect the informations from rare old archives will help everybody from all over the world.

I have met the the archives scholar from KTLV(Koninjkijl Tropen Leiden Vereneging) ,the Dutch archived of tropic area at Leiden Netherland who came to Indonesia to seeking the rare old archives,many Indonesian scholar visit KTLV to found informations related with their thesis because KTLV and also their Netherland tropen museum archives collectiosn cann’t copy because the protect with copyright.

.

I will show the best Informations Collections from this web and The Limited E-BOOK in CD-ROM  edition produces by Driwancybermuseum.

, I hope with this info everybody will know and contact me via comment what info of rare archives they need.

 Jakarta,May.2012

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

 

A. The Driwancybermuseum Home office Profile

B.THE BEST INFO COLLECTIONS  

OF

 Dr Iwan web Blog

1.hhtp://www.uniquecollection.wordpress.com

 

  • Sesuai dengan persyaratan untuk mendaptakan sponsor iklan ., dengan ini dilaporkan kemajuan web Blog uniquecollection.wordpress.com Blog By Dr Iwan sebagai berikut …

    uniquecollection.wordpress.com/page/19 · Cached page

THE KOREA UNIQUE COLLECTION BOOK TWO “THE KOREAN WAR”
Posted on October 4, 2010 by iwansuwandy

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CREATED BY Dr IWAN S

Palestina Book 1938

Ababa-Jerusalem-Cairo

AdisAbaba-Cairo

Marakecch-AddisAbaba

Madrid-Marrakech

PalestineWar Map

Jerusalem at night

Jerusalem morning

Jerusalem Picture

Jerusalem Map

Jerusalem Map

Jerusalem city

Jaffa city

Islamic Jerusalem

Hulda

Jews Colonies

Talpiot Tomb

Aim Harod

Cave Tel Aviv

Palestine Post Jerusalem

Mufti Jerusalem

King Ibn Saud

Balfour declaretion

Mr Balfour

British Indian soldier

British Australian Troops

Vintage Hebron picture

Jews Independent Proclamation

Palestine Book 1938

THE RARE PALESTINA BOOK 1938
Created by Dr iwan S. based on the vintage Book written by Pierre van Passei, Days of our Years 1903-1938. arranged in chrnologic historic information added UCM collections illustration(The writer only told the story and Dr Iwan S. arranged chronologic historic in systematic informations,please colectors read before The British Prtectorate Palestine War Collections.)

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The Silent Film and Early Film Historic Collections 1877-1930

The Silent film Historic Collections

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Limited Private E-book In CD-ROM

Please look The Sample below and The complete CD-ROM only for premium member,please subscribed via comment)

This book dedicated

 to my grandgrandpa Tan G.L.who built  the first silent film cinema Scalabio at Padang City West Sumatra Indonesia and My Friend Ang T.L(Wirako) who Grandpa also built the silent and first speaking film Cinema at the same city.

Introduction

 

 
 

Scene from the 1921 Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, one of the highest-grossing silent films.

A silent film is a film with no synchronized recorded sound, especially with no spoken dialogue. In silent films for entertainment the dialogue is transmitted through muted gestures, pantomime and title cards.

Chronologic Historic Collections

 

1877-1887

 muybridge_occident_trotting.

 Muybridge’s initial attempts failed and it wasn’t until 1877

 eadweard_muybridge.

The first projected sequential proto-movie was made by Eadweard Muybridge some time between 1877 and 1880

 

1888

. The first narrative film was created by Louis Le Prince in 1888.

  The first narrative film was created by Louis
 

It was a two-second film of people walking in Oakwood streets garden, entitled Roundhay Garden Scene.[1]

 

Roundhay Garden Scene 1888, the first known celluloid film recorded.

 

1892

 West Orange, New Jersey, used December 1892

Edison Studios were first in West Orange, New Jersey (1892),

 1892

The Black Maria, Edison's first motion picture studio

The Black Maria, Edison's first motion picture studio
The Black Maria, Edison’s First Motion Picture Studio,
West Orange, New Jersey,
used between December 1892 and January 1901.
Inventing Entertainment: the Early Motion Pictures and Sound Recordings of the Edison Companies

Edison and Dickson continued to experiment with motion pictures in the late 1880s and into the 1890s. Dickson designed the Black Maria, the first movie studio, which was completed in 1893. The name was derived from the slang for the police paddy wagons that the studio was said to resemble. Between 1893 and 1903, Edison produced more than 250 films at the Black Maria, including many of those found in the Edison Motion Pictures collection of the Library of Congress. Most of the films are short, as it was believed that people would not stand the “flickers” for more than ten minutes.

Turn-of-the-century copyright law provided protection for photographs but not for motion pictures. Therefore, a number of early film producers protected their work by copyrighting paper contact prints (paper prints) of the film’s individual frames.

1894

Edison Kinetoscopic Recording of a Sneeze
Edison Kinetoscopic Recording of a Sneeze,
copyright January 9, 1894.
American Treasures of the Library of Congress

View the film which was reconstructed from the paper print.
Edison Kinetoscopic Record of a Sneeze
by W. K. L. Dickson, one of Edison’s assistants,
January 7, 1894.

 

edison_home_kine. 

Thomas Edison with his Home Kinetoscope, introduced 1912

1894

Tinting

 
 

Scene from Broken Blossoms starring Lilian Gish and Richard Barthelmess, an example of sepia-tinted print.

With the lack of natural color processing available, films of the silent era were frequently dipped in dyestuffs and dyed various shades and hues to signal a mood or represent a time of day. Blue represented night scenes, yellow or amber meant day. Red represented fire and green represented a mysterious mood. Similarly, toning of film (such as the common silent film generalization of sepia-toning) with special solutions replaced the silver particles in the film stock with salts or dyes of various colors. A combination of tinting and toning could be used as an effect that could be striking.

Some films were hand-tinted, such as Annabelle Serpentine Dance (1894), from Edison Studios. In it, Annabelle Whitford,[13] a young dancer from Broadway, is dressed in white veils that appear to change colors as she dances.

 

the+great+train+robbery+last+scene

Georges Méliès, the first truly great director in movie

Hand coloring was often used in the early “trick” and fantasy films of Europe, especially those by Georges Méliès.

 
 
1895
 
  

 

 The art of motion pictures grew into fullShowings of silent films almost always featured live music, starting with the pianist at the first public projection of movies by the Lumière Brothers on December 28, 1895 in Paris.[4]

 

1897

Edison Receives Patent for Kinetographic Camera

On August 31, 1897, Thomas Edison received a patent for the kinetographic camera, “a certain new and useful Improvement in Kinetoscopes,” the forerunner of the motion picture film projector. Edison and his assistant, W. K. L. Dickson, had begun work on the project—to enliven sound recordings with moving pictures—in hopes of boosting sales of the phonograph, which Edison had invented in 1877. Unable to synchronize the two media, he introduced the kinetoscope, a device for viewing moving pictures without sound—on which work had begun in 1889. Patents were filed for the kinetoscope and kinetograph in August 1891.

The kinetoscope (viewer), which Edison initially considered an insignificant toy, had become an immediate success about a decade earlier. The invention was soon replaced, however, by screen projectors that made it possible for more than one person to view the novel silent movies at a time.

 

1899 

sample frames from Edison film 'Three acrobats'
Three Acrobats,
Thomas A. Edison, Inc.,
copyright March 20, 1899.
The American Variety Stage: Vaudeville and Popular Entertainment, 1870-1920

1910

Unidentified silent film 1910

1912

By the time that the law was amended in 1912, some 3,500 paper prints had been deposited for copyright registration. This practice proved fortuitous, as many early films have been lost due to disintegration and the high combustibility caused by early film’s nitrate base. Many of these paper contact prints were converted back to film in the 1950s, and hundreds were digitized in the 1990s.

, 1933-Present to see photos and written historical and descriptive data of the Edison’s laboratories in New Jersey.

 

 1904

  

A film of a re-enactment of a naval battle, depicting Russians firing at a Japanese ship with a cannon

An early film, depicting a re-enactment of the Battle of Chemulpo Bay (Film produced in 1904 by Edison Studios)

 

1908

 Early studios

The early studios were located in the New York City area.

In December 1908,

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Driwanmasterpiece Cybermuseum:”Rare Vintage Egypt president Nasser with Bung Karno and Ex Pres Megawati Picture Photo”

March 10, 2011 by uniquecollection

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

THE FOUNDER

Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM

SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showroom :
The Driwan Masterpiece Uniquecollection Cybermuseum

(Museum Duniamaya koleksi unik masterpiece Dr Iwan)

SHOWCASE :
THE RARE VINTAGE PRESIDENT PICTURE PHOTO COLLECTIONS
FRAME ONE :
THE UNIQUE VINTAGE THREE PRESIDENT IN ONE PICTURES PHOTO (EGYPT FORMER PRESIDENT NASSER, INDONESIAN FIRST PRESIDENT SUKARNO AND THE THIRD INDONESIAN PRESIDENT MEGAWATI STILL YOUNG GIRL with her bother Guntur and sister)

FRAME TWO:
THE EGYPT FIRST PRESIDEN GAMAL ABADEL NASSER BIOGRAPHY
Gamal Abdel Nasser
This is an Arabic name; the family name is Abdel Nasser.
Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein
جمال عبد الناصر حسين

——————————————————————————–

2nd President of Egypt
1st President of the United Arab Republic (UAR)
In office

C.The Limited E-BOOK in CD-ROM Editon by Driwancybermuseum special for premium member

1.The Art Photography Collections

The Brigite Bardot Entertaiment Art Pictures Collections(Koleksi Seni Fotografi Bintang Film Prancis terkenal Brigite Bardot)

WELCOME COLLECTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD

                          SELAMAT DATANG KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN ASIAN

                                                AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                          DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

_____________________________________________________________________

SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR

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                                THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

                           MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

                 DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

                                        PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                     THE FOUNDER

                                            Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

    BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)

  

                         WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

                     SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

                     Please Enter

                    

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SHOWCASE :

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Frame One : The Vintage Art Photography Collections

1.Black-White

2.Colour

Frame Two:

The Brigite Bardot’s Photography Historic collections

Brigitte Bardot

2.The Vietnam Liberations war Collections

Category Archives: Driwan Vietnam War Cybermuseum

The French Indochina Post WW II PART TWO 1950-1954

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

                    Please Enter

                   

              DMC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Vietnam Cybermuseum)

THE VIETNAM FRENCH INDOCHINA POST WW II PART TWO 1950-1954

THE FRENCH INDOCHINA POST WW II PART TWO 1950-1954

1.Nha Trang Maritime Academy 1952-1970
skill 4 – small_taskforce_tactics;naval_engineering;naval_tr aining;seamanship
reference : http://haisu.tripod.com/index.htm Vietnamese source

2.Da Lat Military Academy 1930-1954
skill 2 – centralized_execution;small_unit_tactics;training

 

January 1, 1971

  • The 173d Airborne Brigade begins Operation GREENE LIGHTNING in Binh Dinh Province.
  • The 2d ARVN Division begins Operation QUYET THANG 405A in Quang Ngai Province.
  • The 2d ARVN Division begins Operation QUYET THANG 504A in Quang Tin Province.
  • The 2d ARVN Division begins Operation QUYET THANG 603A in Quang Ngai Province.
  • The 7th ARVN Division begins Operation CUU LONG/7/2 in Quang Ngai Province.
  • Operation WASHINGTON GREENE, initiated 15 April 1970 in Binh Dinh Province under control of the 173d Airborne Brigade, is terminated. Results are 1,957 enemy killed, 5,152 detained, 123 returnees, 227 US KIA 2,237 US WIA and 8 KCS WIA.
  • Sir Robert Thompson, British expert on guerrilla warfare, returns to RVN at President Nixon’s request to inspect US and GVN police and public safety programs.
  • Two USCG ocean-going cutters, the USCGC YAKUTAT (WHEC-180) and USCGC BERING STRAIT (WHEC-382) are turned over to the VNN, completing the planned turnover of WHECs.

__________________

 2) February 1971

((1)Feb.1st.1971

February 1, 1971

  • The 173d Airborne Brigade begins Operation GREENE LIGHTNING in Binh Dinh Province.
  • Operation KEYSTONE ROBIN CHARLIE (Redeployment, Increment VI) begins.
  • The 4th ARVN Regiment begins Operation QUYET THANG 405A in Quang Ngai Province.
  • The 5th ARVN Regiment begins Operation QUYET THANG 505A in Quang Tin Province.
  • The 6th ARVN Regiment begins Operation QUYET THANG 605A in Quang Ngai Province.
  • The 7th ARVN Division begins Operation CUU LONG/7/2 in Sa Dec, Vinh Long, Dinh Tuong and Go Cong Provinces.

__________________

(2)A major test of “Vietnamization” took place in South Vietnamese Forces in this month, when South Vietnamese Forces invaded Lao without American adviser .

       They performed poorly . The Life photographer who had been covering Vietnam for a decade , was killed during the operation.

(3)Feb,22th.1971

February 22, 1971

  • In Chuong Thien Province, a PF platoon from Trang Chanh village and one RF Intel Squad from Duc Long District engage an unknown size enemy unit 10 km northwest of Vi Thanh. Results are 21 enemy killed, 3 PF WIA and 8 sampans destroyed.
  • The South Vietnamese advance into Laos comes to a standstill 16 miles over the frontier.

__________________

 3)March 1971

March 1, 1971 – The Capitol building in Washington is damaged by a bomb apparently planted in protest of the invasion of Laos.

March 10, 1971 – China pledges complete support for North Vietnam’s struggle against the U.S.

March 15, 1971

  • Operation DEWEY CANYON II’s rear support base at Khe Sanh comes under Communist mortar and rocket fire. Sappers penetrate the perimeter. Results are 3 US KIA and 14 US WIA.
  • Operation DOK SOO RI initiated 22 Feb 71 in Phu Yen Province under control of the White Horse ROK Infantry Division, is terminated. Results are 410 enemy killed, 5 detained, 23 ROK KIA and 74 ROK WIA.

__________________

March 29, 1971 – Lt. William Calley is found guilty of the murder of 22 My Lai civilians. He is sentenced to life imprisonment with hard labor, however, the sentence is later reduced to 20 years, then 10 years. Out of 16 military personnel charged with offenses concerning the My Lai massacre, only five were actually court-martialed, and only Calley was ever found guilty.

March 30, 31, 1971   THE  DUC  DUC  REFUGEE  VILLAGE  MASSACRE    

 4)April 1971

April 1, 1971 – President Nixon orders Calley released pending his appeal.

April 2, 1971

  • In Operation QUANG TRUNG/22/FWD/4, the 2/41 ARVN Battalion moves onto FSB 6, joining the 1/41. Heavy contact continues all day. Results are 355 enemy killed, 7 ARVN KIA and 54 ARVN WIA.

__________________
April 6, 1971

  • The 360th Regional Forces Company outpost 2 km southeast of Mo Cay in Kien Hoa Province is attacked by an enemy sapper unit aided by 3 RF traitors (former Hoi Chanhs). The outpost is overrun and a nearby bridge destroyed. Results are 16 RF KIA, 3 RF WIA, 14 RF MIA and unknown enemy casualties.
  • Elements of the 2/42 ARVN Battalion operating 5 km east of Dak To in Kontum Province makes contact with an unknown-size enemy force. Results are 56 enemy killed, 4 detained and 2 ARVN WIA.

__________________

April 19, 1971 – ‘Vietnam Veterans Against the War’ begin a week of nationwide protests.

April 24, 1971 – Another mass demonstration is held in Washington attracting nearly 200,000.

April 29, 1971 – Total American deaths in Vietnam surpass 45,000.

April 30, 1971 – The last U.S. Marine combat units depart Vietnam.

     (1) April, 12th,1971

     The reciept of Tax by Buu-Bien Vietnam Cong Hoa, Nhan Cua O Ytauy Thai ,so tien la 8875 signed by truong ty, with revenue type Nha truoc va coniem 5$00 and Stamps 2 X 10 d.

(the only one Stamps used as revenue because the shortage of 10$00 revenue, and the situation very bad, -auth)

(2)April ,24th.1971

Trich Luc Bo Khai Sanh certificate with local saigon revenue

 5) May 1971

May 3-5 – A mass arrest of 12,000 protesters occurs in Washington

 (1)May,3rd,1971

Legalization Chung Chi Tinh Trang Quan Dich Certificate with local saigon revenue

(2)May,5th.1971

Giao Keo document with Stamp used as revenue

The May Day 1971 protests in San Francisco

Primary Source

Image:polbhem1$may-1971-riot-cops.jpg

May Day 1971 — SF police work over some demonstrators.

Anti-Vietnam War Demonstrations Paralyze Financial District

First-hand account over phone from downtown SF, broadcast originally on KPFA-FM, May 5, 1971.

The financial district got an adrenal rush in SF last Wednesday. Office workers for the most part stayed at their jobs and the wheels of war continued but everyone was aware that something was happening. Demonstrators were scattered all throughout the area and their words were falling on a lot of sympathetic ears. The full invincible force of the city’s private army was there including Motorcycle pigs, Honda Hogs, Horse Mounted pigs, squad cars with four cops in them, Tac squadders on foot, and plain clothes pigs. They angrily busted over 100 demonstrators. Two of the victims were Good Times reporters Eric and Mike. They both have a story we would like to print. The pigs don’t relate to deadlines.

There are a lot of stories to tell about the day’s activities. Most of them are repeats of similar incidents that were going on throughout the country. Office workers standing on the streets in front of their corporations rapping, some of them getting clubbed or busted in the rush of pig violence. Cops busting people with total disregard for their rights. Slamming them into paddy wagons as if they were hardened criminals. Demonstrators chanting and laughing. Everyone involved.

Here’s one account from a brother back from the day:

1:00 People rapping in groups on corners all over financial district. Freaks presenting treaty to Montgomery streeters. . .explaining it to them. Majority of them were sympathetic. Streets very crowded–workers on lunch now– Theatrics at B of A plaza … burning of U.S. flag. (mime troupe?) Plaza packed. Then after theatre, group breaks up into splinter groups … each proceeding to, a target building (Shell Oil, Std. Oil etc.) But most of the buildings were locked & super “secure”. Crowds, wandering around the sidewalks found horsepigs surrounding them. With the sidewalks packed, a few mounted pigs began backing their horses into people. Then indiscriminate clubbing. Screams and hysteria.

Image:polbhem1$may-1971-riot.jpg

May Day 1971

2:00 Young office workers got clubbed along with freaks. Pigs were especially brutal to women– Saw one pig at Zellerbach Plaza ride his horse into a crowd. A secretary screamed and the pig grabbed her by the hair and dragged her to a paddy wagon.

Drifted down towards Battery & Market. Workers stood with demonstrators gaping in awe as a brother ran up Battery St. with 3 mounted pigs in hot pursuit. “Run, Run!” came the cries from freaks & straights alike. Someone who had seen the beginning of the chase said that he had been holding a sign when a pig declared his corner to be an illegal assembly… and that made him the “leader” of the illegal assembly.

Near the Stock Exchange a brother lay on the ground unconscious bleeding from the head. A pig stood over him. No medical aid for twenty min. then into a paddy wagon. On California St. a brother lay on the sidewalk badly hurt … kicked by a horse. Stockbrokers with horror on their faces.

Later in the afternoon the streets of the financial district were mostly deserted except for clusters of freaks and cops on alternate corners. Occasionally the cops would ask them to move on. Eventually people started drifting over to Union Square. Union Square was quickly surrounded by pigs and as people gathered there, Honda Hogs would ride into the park and harass and intimidate. A couple of people were quickly busted for no apparent reason. Then a brother hoisted a peace flag and things got heavy. Cops came flying at him as though he had shot off a cannon and the brother was hauled away. The pigs stood tense waiting for the next feeble excuse to spring.

Honda Hog stepped up to and screamed in my face “Get out of this Park! Get out!’

Soon an announcement came over a bullhorn from outside the Square. “You have five minutes to disperse.” And then the countdown … one … two…

At five they charged the park like outraged rednecks. The Square was cleared within minutes. The pigs call it a victory. For our part the war isn’t over yet. The whole day was just one battle more.

Good Times newspaper, May 7, 1971 (Volume IV, No. 18)

 (3)May,31th.1971

The rare “Huyen Trin Qui” free military postal vietnam Map with paralel line cover, send from Dai Doi 3/2 KBC 3966 (2nd Battalion, unknown location)  with red KBC Stamped 3966 and Quan Buu date stamped 31-7.1971, send via KBC 3328 (Naval Headquaters saigon) by DVD (?)  HQ 503 ( LST-Landing Ship Transport NVH Navy at Vung Tua),

 inside Chinese langguage latter.

 The same type of cover send  in June,7th.1971 and October ,5th.1971 .

6) June 1971

It took part in Operation ‘Hermit Park’ in June 1971 when the barrel was struck by a round from an enemy anti-tank weapon (RPG), wounding the driver.

Centurion in VietnamCenturion in Vietnam FOD/71/0305/VN

(1)June,9th.1971

The decision was further reinforced when President Nguyen van Thieu pressed through an election lam on June,9.1971, which would limit the number of presidential candidates.  

The bill-disigned to cut the number of presidential candidates to give the winner a more convincing majority-stilpulated that prospective presidential candidates must have then nomination papers endorsed either by 40 deputies or senators or by 100 members of elected provincial councils.

Presiident Thieu consequently entered the South Vietnamese presidential elections with only one opponent former general Duong van Minh, who later withdrew.

  (2)June,19th.1971

The Military and Naval operation on Vietnam coast stamps were issued , the uncommon mint with ace  40pi ( I found this stamps in HCM city-auth)

(3) June.25th 1971

The Civil covers send  from CDS Qui Nhon 25-6- 1971 with chinese char letter, to Saigon with rate 2×1 dong + 4 dong stamp(6 Dong), with propaganda stamped “In International aid day 22.08.1971”  with  chinese char letter inside,(PH)

 7)July 1971

 (1)July,8th.1971

The reciept of Tax by BuuBien Vietnam cong Hoa, nhan cua O tang Tai, so tien la 11.825 with rare ravenue 3 X 10$00 and common 2X 080 (rate 21$60),

(the last serial reciept of Tax paid via Buu Bien during the escalation of vietnam liberation war-auth)

(2)July 14th 1971

The rare”Huyen Trin Qui “ free military  city’s dot of Vietnamese map cover with  paralel line border trade mark  two peagons and red-blue line via airmail , postally used with Quan Buu cds 14.1.1971, and red KBC 3966 , Free airmail covers from Dai Doi 3/2 KBC 3966 (SECOND ARMY BATTALION LOCATION ?) TO DVH Vung tau HQ 503 (LST –Long Ship transport NVN-Navy) via KBC 3328(Naval fleet Headquaters Saigon) 

 

     (The same type of Covers send with Quan Buu Stamped 14.5.1971 and 31.9. 1971 from the same sander and recievers address.

          From this three cover were found only two letter in chinese character, my  best friend have tranlated

April 20th 1972

do-truo’ng Saigon  document signed and official stamped of  Vietnam Conghoa Bo Thanh Saigon Khoi Chuyen Mon  Thong To Ky

May 1972

 (1) May,1972

     Trong cuoc chien dau chong phong toa thang 5-1972 , nganh xang dau cung cac nganh thep, dien than va nhan dan cac dan toc tinh Lang Son, chi trong 15 ngay dau thang 6-1972 da ti cong xong he thong  kho va tuyen ong tir bien gioi ve de kip thoi tiep nhan mot khoi luong lon xiang dau,cung cap day du cho cac nhu cau quoc phong, dan sinh.

          Sau do, tiep tuc xay dung 6 tuyen ong tu Lan Son.  Quang Ninh toi thu do Hanoi , hinh thanh mot mang luoi ong dan dau lien hoan,vung chac suot tu Bac den Nam.

translate :

In the struggle against the blockade 5-1972 scale, the petroleum industry supply steel, coal and people of other ethnic Lang Son and expenditures within 15 days of January 6-1972 ti da cong tuyen complete system inventory and Tir bee border in order to promptly receive a large volume xiang first, to provide adequate for the needs of national defense and people’s welfare.

           Then, continue to build a pipeline from Lan Son 6. Quang Ninh province to the capital Hanoi, forming a network of pipelines festivals, solid all the way from north to south.

(2) May ,15th.1972

 

Legalised the Chung Chi Tinh Trang Quan dich Document  with Rveneue 10 D and local revenue 1972  2×10 D.(3) May,17th.1972 PHIEU LANH LUONG ID SIGNED BY CHU SY pHONG lUONG BO’NG.

(3) May,17th.1972

Phieu Lanh Luong Bo tai Chanh NHa Tong Giam Doc Thue Vu ID

(4)Vietnam Conghoa issued the International year of book stamp 5 d,on cover but not cancelled:

(a) Front cover

 

 (b) Inside cover the  S 26 milk promotion label

6)June 1972

(1) June,15th .1972     

     Uncommon mint”Vietnam armed” stamps were isssue

To know the Vietnam war spring offensive across the the DMZ darmacation line in 1972,look the war map below(from google explorations), especially the Quantri area 2 Division where three cover send from this area in 1971.(look Vietnam War 1971)

Map Description
History Map of the Vietnam War 1972

Illustrating

Map a)
South Vietnam 1972
Spring Offensive

Map b)
Invasion Across the DMZ.

 
History Map of the Vietnam War. South Vietnam, Spring Offensive 1972, Invasion Across the DMZ.
 

(2)June,25th.1972

The Evacuation of wounded civilian and troops with helicopter   at Highway 13 Near An Loc to South Vietnam

photo

Vietnam War – An Lộc 1972

Lightly-wounded civilians and troops attempt to push their way aboard a South Vietnamese evacuation helicopter hovering over a stretch of Highway 13 near An Loc in Vietnam on June 25, 1972.

(3)June,29th .1972 Presidon Nixon at White House News Confetrence when his term was end.

 
 
 
 
 
President Nixon told a White House news conference on June 29, 1972 that the Vietnam War could be over –if the talks “go forward in a constructive and serious way” — by January 20, 1973, when his term of office end

July 1972

(1)July,11 th 1972

“Huyen Trih Qui KBC-4026 ” Free airmail letter from KBC 4026 (location unidentified) to HV/HP 2 c HSQ/CN (?)

Huyun Trinh Qui ,KBC 3319(Cam Ranh Naval Training Center), with red KBC 4029 and Quan Buu 11-7-72 Stamped.

     (Inside the letter from KBC3397 (River Patrol Group 52 ,Navy, Cat Lai ) date 8th June 1972 (may be this letter send from KBC 4026 not yet known location, three day from the  cat lai front, or from another cover, this letter from this location have never report before-auth), the letter

_____________________________________ 

                          

            KBC 3397 ngay 08-07-1972

 

3.The Driwan Adventure(travel) Unique Collections

China(PRC) Unique Collections(Intro)

January 6, 2010 by uniquecollection

Dr Iwan S. at the middle of chinese great wall, I have finish until the top and i could a special great wall medal. This illustration with another below were for the collector who read “Dr Iwan Travel Unique collection(Kisah perjalanan Dr Iwan)”. Not many unique collection found during my visit China in 2008 Xianmen and Beijing, my friend told me the coolections many at Shanghai and foochow (I didn’t visit), but during my visit south china (Nanning) from Hanoi by train and back by Bus I found some Chinese Nationalist Medal and Mao Cultural revolution medal,poster and book. The collection will showed with my collection found in the Chineseoverseas and Tionghoa ethic area in Indonesia in this blog look at Chinese Unique Collection (Cultural revolution), Chinese Postal History (rare stamps), Artefact Ceramic (Yuan/Ming) etc.@copyright Dr iwan S.2010.

Dr Iwan S at the bottom of the great wall.
My profile at Empress Szu Chi Qing Dynasty summer palace. all the collection fromthi spalace will showed at this blog “China Unique collection (Qing dynasti imperial ceramic/painting etc)
My profile at the China emperor palace in the forbidden city, all imperial collection will showed at “China Unique collection(Imperial ceramic/picture”
My profile in the front of Forbidden city with Mao photo.
My profile in the front of Bird’s nest olympic games Beijing 2008, some memorabilia of the olypic Beijing will showed in this blog “Chinese Unique collection(memorabillia Beijing Olypic games 2008)
One of the qing Emperor religious was Budha lama tibet, I joined with another Lama Budha praying for the healty lng life, happyness and mercy to all collectors in the world ( I am chriastian , but I think no problem to pray hear for our future life)
My profile at Templeof heaven Beijing, this temple during Ming and QIng dynasty only used by the emperor of China to prayed. All the collection in this temple will showed at “China Unique Collection (Imperial ceramic /Pictures etc)
From Quanzhou (Tjiang Tjioe) Bus station (look photo below) by taxi I went to the very exciting Pagoda temple with many ancient statue collection, old wooden tree (400 years old) , look my profile in the Kaiyuan temple gate, all the ancient collections will showed in my blog “Chinese unique collection(ancient statue)”
Walked fron the Kaiyuan temple to the left and from here at least i saw my grandpa home area, the old Hokian House same with in indonesia chinese area(Tionghoa), in my Granpa homeland I found some interesting collections like vintage mao era ID, the Cultural revolution books,neaqr same I found during visit at nanning -south china fromHanoi I cann’t show nanning photo because i took video theremay be if wordpress gave me facility the Video fromHanoi and Nanning will put in the blog. I am very happy to came the area where my grandpa was born, tall my family this our grandpa city (he called Tjiangtjioe)
After asking many times at Xianmen(Amoy) city, at least I came to my grandpa homeland by bus from Xiamen to Quanzhou( before called by grandpa Tjiangtjioe, from this city many Indonesian ‘s Fukien or Hokian by ship went to Indonesia . I am seeking my Grandpa home area near the kaiyuan temple by Taxi. Many native Chinese have wrong interpretation when I asked them, they always say Guanzhou or Canton in the south.
Namputao temple xianmen (before Szemin, Emuy or Amoy)

UHI-THE ADVENTURE OF Dr IWAN AT BORNEO 2008

UHI-UNIQUE hERITAGE iNFO-FREE INFO@COPYRIGHT dR IWAN S 2010,iwansuwandy.wordpress.com

*ill
The Kapuas river near Pontianak flea market*ill, during my duty in 1990-1994, I found many small uniquecollection object like chine cermic-pipe, jade, artifact ceramic, coins when the hot nonraining dry seasons we could walking in the beach of that river, but in my last visit no collection found anymore because all that area were clean.

*ill
After back to Pontianak by bus fromKuching Sarwak I stay one night and the last day of the journey 6.00 AM by citycar (oplet) I went alone to the Pontianak flea Market near Kapuas river*ill , I found unique collections Montrado and other kongsi Local chinese Kongsi tin coins(Cash coin) , and very rare James Brooke 1/2 cent 1841 coin (now put in Blog as Aung Aung rare sarawak coin), 12.00 AM Dr Sugeng Specialist Orthopaedi ex my younger medical doctor staff during my duty as the chief of WestBorneo helath and Medical National Police 1980-1994 during this time I have visit Kuching several time and found many interesting unique collection to put inblog. He came with the latest chief of Health and medical Police West borneo Dr Priok, after seeing the Police Hospital I builded in 1990-1994, many development and nostalgia for me to meet my ex staff there, Thank You very much Dr Priok and Dr Sugeng for your very kind helping me during my long journey in 2008. Dr Sugeng you always remember me during your first job at west borneo when I guided you to Sintang job with my car .I hope you will success in the future.

*ill
 After stay one night at Kuching, Mr Chan took me around Kuching, the photo of Chinese temple near uniquecollection shop*ill , where I found some unique coolection during my first visit 1994 and in this visit only found not much, Mr Chan please apoligized me because to long waiting and not on time because the shop not open must waiting, from here at 12.00 AM the journey continieu by Bus to Pontinak cross the border 4.00 PM and came to Pontiank 8.00 PM. THankyou verymuch Mr Chan for your very kind and phillatelic friendly help to me, I hope one day you will came to Jakarta during International Phillatelix exhibition and I will take you around.my greetings also to the other Sarawak Phillatelist Dr Francis H.H.Ngu.

*ill
*ill labuan poster of boat transportation from labua to Kotakinibalu and Muara brunei.
After continue long journey from jakarta to Pontianak by flight to Pontianak and frome here at night 9 PM by bus to the village near the entikong border rest a while 4.00-6.00 PM at restaurant to wait the border open, I starting again 6.00 PM cross the Entikong border gate throung Indonesian immigration-Malaysia immigration , the journey by road about four hours came at Kuching Sarawak Bus Station out the city and by Taxi I went the Kuching Post Office in August.31st.2008 Malaysia Independence day, when I am asking the Malaysia Stamps catalogue at the Phillatelic section of the postoffice I met Mr Chan Kee Tex -vicepresident Sarawak Specialist,s Association ,ex the Kuching Postmaster, He took me around with his BMW car around sight seeing, no uniquecollection,s shop open this day, Mr Chan Suggest me to continue my journey by Bus at 4.00 PM to Miri in the next day 6.00 AM from there by non official Toyota Kijang car cross the brunei border to see the very clean and modern rich country Brunei, I travel around Brunei and the capital city Bandar Sribengawan look at sultan Bolkiah out of his Palace until 2.00 PM ,the journey continue from the ferry Port by the speed ferry boat about one hours to Labuan (ex victoria city) ,looke at the ferry Brunei-Labuan ephemera, In Brunei I didn,t found the Uniquecololection shop /fleamarket, no bus and Motorbike here,the continue jouney read below.

*ill
 After stay one night in Labuan Island port (ex vixtoria city, the British Borneo Gouvernor General office there before the World War II), beautiful city with excellent and exciting sea side and seafood, thank you to the Malaysia-Indian man who helpme during seeking the Hotel and also the Hotelman who helme to contact me Wife by Malaysia Phonecard, I didin’t fine any uniquecollection shop or flee market there, early in the morning I take a photo of my two bags in the front of Labuan Ferry port*ill to continue my journey by Speedferry boat to Kota Kinibalu Sabah (before jesseltown North Borneo) about four hours.

*ill KK
 After long journey by speedferry boat from Labuan island I came at the KK(kota Kinibalu) Sabah (before JesseltownNorth Borneo), the photo was the gate of KK Port*ill KK , from here by taxi to the very nice city , I stayed here three days for unique collections hunting and I found some unique collections at KK PLaza like MR Chan kee Tex suggestme , stampd dom and also at the other place some best collections will illustrated , the complete information read at Sarawak Unque collection in this blog

4.The Indonesian Independence Revolustions and  War Collections

Indonesia Independence Revolution And War’s Postal And Document History Collections part one in 1945(Koleksi Revolusi Dan Perang Kemerdekaan Indonesia 1945)

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :D r Iwan Book Show

INDONESIA INDEPENDENCE REVOLUTION & WAR

 part one 1945

Base On Dr Iwan Postal And Document Collections

Private Limited E-book Special For Collectors.

PS.THE ILLUSTRATION WILL INSTALL LATER,SPECIAL FOR PREMIUM MEMBER.

The Driwan’s Indonesia Independence Revolution And War  Cybermuseum

Prolog in August 1945

1.July 1945

 (1)DAI NIPPON OCCUPATION JAVA’S  JULY CALENDER

THE  DAI NIPPON MILITARY OCCUPATION JAVA’S CALENDER COLLECTION , JULY  2605 (1945) with few days of August , THE LAST MONTH BEFORE SURRENDER TO THE ALLIED ARMED FORCES, AND THE BACK OF THIS CALENDER A NOTE HANDWRITTEN Married 16/7-1941 no.124 at Soerabaja.

On this Japanese callender,tehre were  the first day of August until 11th August , especially the day of  US “H”Bomb were thrown , Monday ,6th, at  Hirosima and thirsday, 9th, at Nagasaki

(, if some have the other month,  August until December ‘s Calender please show us-auth).

(2)In July 1945  Daan Mogot graduated from PETA

During the Japanese occupation, Daan Mogot entered the military organization formed by native Japanese in Java, the Defenders of the Homeland or PETA. The year was 1942, he became a member of PETA’s first generation. Daan Mogot actual age has not been determined eligible by the Japanese of 18 years. At that time he was 14 years old.

Because of his accomplishments, he was appointed manager of PETA members in Bali, then moved in Jakarta. When I was in Bali, he got two true friends of Kemal Idris and Zulkifli Lubis.

Those from Japan Seinen Dojo instructor was appointed as a Assistant Instructor. Therefore, training will be given to them much lighter than had ever received training at the Dojo in Tangerang Seinen. Education and training can be accomplished through four generations. The first batch started in December 1943 and the fourth generation, the last completed month of July 1945, before the Japanese surrender to the Allies on August 15, 1945.

There are 50 people taken from the first batch of trainees to attend educational “guerilla warfare” under the command of Captain Yanagawa. Among those who participated a special exercise that is Daan Mogot, Kemal Idris, Zulkifli Lubis, Kusno Wibowo, Sabirin Mukhtar, Syatibi and Effendi. The type of exercise is given, among others, how to maintain a dove, because birds that can be used for communication devices. In addition they are trained how to use a good weapon to face the opponent.

After the 50th person inducted into the officer, they no longer served as an Assistant Instructor, but a shodancho.

Once inducted into PETA officers, each officer returned to his native region. In Bali, Daan Mogot, Zulkifli Lubis and Kemal Idris, along with several other officers set up PETA and PETA train candidates in there. The reason Japan founded PETA in Bali because Bali is considered a defense areas and landing sites. For that power is prepared, especially in the Nagara and Klungkung. Japan gives credence to the Daan Mogot train in Tabanan, Kemal Idris in the Nagara and Zulkifli Lubis in Klungkung. Although the three friends separated their posts, but they always make contact, either discuss matters relating to training as well as about the fate of people who are suffering under the soles of the invaders. Specific training activities when it is preparing to face an enemy attack the defense on the beach. During the year the shodancho in Bali is doing well. The next year they should be separated. Four people shodancho should go back to Java, while Daan Mogot, Zulkifli Lubis, and Kemal Idris, who stayed. They act as instructors PETA, provide training to prospective officers until they are proficient in various fields of the army.

Daan Mogot is famous in the history of the revolution time of war to maintain the independence of Indonesia in fighting in the forest-Serpong, Tangerang Banten Lengkong, when the Military Academy Midshipman Tangerang he leads try to seize weapons from the Japanese army on 25 January 1946.

Ironically, while he struggled to maintain the independence of Indonesia even willingly fall on the battlefield, his father was killed by robbers who thinks “people Manado” (Minahasa people) as londoh-londoh (minions) the Netherlands.

One time, Major Daan Mogot meet with his cousin Alex Kawilarang. Wearing a green cap, he was down on his motorcycle. 17-year-old youth was later picked up by Alex on the roadside, and he showed the face of joy. A warm meeting place. Then they chatted in the house. Daan Mogot told me that he now lives in New Asem Jalan, riding on the family Singgih. Immediately disambungnya story of the struggle. About the attacks in Pondok Gede. He is also a story about his father who had just killed, is not known with certainty by whom. “A lot of true anarchy going on here,” said Alex. “Indeed, it is a must Torang clean up. Therefore, the weapon must be in the hands of Torang pe “continued Daan. He said again to Alex, “Torang, people of Manado, do not do the absurd. Caution, caution! Torang must actually demonstrate, at the side where we are. “

Then Daan also talked about his thoughts on a college to educate the youth who want to become soldiers, who later turned out to happen, is the establishment of “military academy” (military academy) on November 18, 1945 in Tangerang.

As a sponsor realization of the idea of establishing a military academy school, then on 18 November 1945 he was appointed as Director of the Military Academy Tangerang (MAT) at the time he was 17 years old. Actually in Yogyakarta also stand Military Academy Yogya (Yogya MA) almost simultaneously, which is dated 5 November 1945. The idea of establishing a military academy is indeed like that be imagined by Daan Mogot.

 
 

1a.Early August 1945:
The Shimoda detachment of the First Special Attack Force (12 Kairyu type midgets) receives a report about the sighting of an American submarine shelling Mikimoto lighthouse, off Shimoda harbor. A Kairyu is diespatched to intercept the submarine, but fails to locate it.

6 August 1945:
At 0815, Colonel (later Brig Gen) Paul W. Tibbetts’ B-29 “Superfortress”, nicknamed “ENOLA GAY”, of the 509th Composite Group, drops the 15-kiloton yield “Little Boy” uranium atomic bomb on Hiroshima.

Colonel Tibbetts with B-29 ENOLA GAY 

That same day, following TG 35.3′s bombardment of Kushimoto, four Kaitens are deployed from Otsujima base to Tanabe to be attached to the Sixth Special Attack Unit. 

8 August 1945:
Moscow declares that from 9 August 1945, the Soviet Government will consider itself to be at war with Japan. 

9 August 1945:
At 1101, Major (later Brig Gen, ANG) Charles W. Sweeney’s B-29 “BOCKSCAR”, of the 509th Composite Group’s 393rd Bomb Squadron, drops the 21-kiloton yield “Fat Man” plutonium atomic bomb, on Nagasaki. [4] 

That same day, carrying out Stalin’s pledge at Yalta, Marshal Aleksandr Vasilevsky, CINC, Soviet Far East Forces, launches Operation “August Storm”, the invasion of Japanese-held Manchuria (Manchukuo). The attack is made by three Soviet army groups (“fronts”) comprising 80 divisions of 1.5 million men. In less than two weeks, the Soviets defeat General Yamada Otsuzo’s depleted and ill-equipped Kwantung Army of over 600,000 men. [5] 

10 August 1945:
Japan offers to surrender to the Allies, if Emperor Hirohito (Showa) is allowed to remain the nominal head of state. 

12 August 1945:
The United States announces it will accept the Japanese surrender and that the emperor can remain in a ceremonial capacity. 

Shikoku, Kochi Prefecture. That same evening, the Suzaki kaiten detachment of the Eighth Special Attack Unit receives a report about the sighting of an enemy task force off Shionomisaki, Wakayama Prefecture. Based on that information the local IJA commander expects a landing at Tosa Bay the next morning. Two kaitens are immediately dispatched to Tosa Bay and sortie at 0600 the next morning, but fail to locate the enemy and return by 1000. 

13 August 1945:
Tokyo. At an evening conference attended by General Umezu Yoshijiro, Chief of the Army General Staff and Admiral Toyoda Soemu (33), (former CO of HYUGA), Chief of the Navy General Staff , the Vice Chief of the NGS, wild-eyed Vice Admiral Onishi Takijiro (40)(former XO of KAGA) proposes “that if we are willing to sacrifice 20 million Japanese lives in special attacks (kamikaze), victory can still be achieved!” 

14 August 1945:
Tokyo. At 1020, the emperor convenes a conference of his most senior military officers. Field Marshall Hata, freshly arrived from Hiroshima, expresses no confidence in Japan continuing the war over appeals from such strong-willed, arrogant personalities as Field Marshal Sugiyama Hajime and Fleet Admiral Nagano Osami who exhibit a dull-witted state of denial. The emperor dismisses their protestations for protracted carnage. 

The emperor notes that with the Soviet entry into the Pacific War and the enemy’s use of atomic weapons, not even Onishi’s Special Attack forces can stop them. He requests that his senior officers cooperate with him to end the war. Later, the Japanese announce that the emperor has decided to accept the Potsdam Declaration’s terms and end the War, effective the following day. 

That same day, 167 B-29s of the 20th Air Force from Saipan bomb Hikari Naval Arsenal, Yamaguchi Prefecture. The raid is supported by North American P-51 “Mustang” fighters from Iwo Jima, attacking various targets in the same area until 1040 in the morning. 71.8 percent of the arsenal’s total roof area is destroyed. 738 workers, mostly mobilized middle school students, die in the attacks. 

Emperor Hirohito Reads an Imperial Rescript 

The Dai Nippon Soldier hear the announcement

the allied forces very happy after hear the announcement


Dutch prisoners just after release from a Japanese concentration camp, 1945.Imperial Palace, Tokyo. At noon, the emperor announces Japan’s surrender that is broadcast by radio all over the Japanese Empire. 

Port Arthur, Manchuria. Lost to Japan in 1905, the Soviet Navy Flag flies again on 22 August 

August,15th.1945

the rare money order fragment send to Serang CDS 15.8.05 ,and  the date on the  money order 2605,

at front  ned.indie dancer  2x 71/2 cent the cds not clear .

17 August 1945

Proclamation of Indonesian Independence

The Proclamation of Indonesian Independence (Indonesian: Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia, or simply Proklamasi) was read at 10.00 a.m. on Friday, August 17, 1945. The declaration marked the start of the diplomatic and armed-resistance of the Indonesian National Revolution, fighting against the forces of the Netherlands until the latter officially acknowledged Indonesia’s independence in 1949. In 2005, the Netherlands declared that they had decided to accept 17 August 1945 as Indonesia’s independence date[1]

Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta, who were appointed President and Vice-president, respectively, were the documents signatories.

In 1945 when the Republic of Indonesia was proclaimed on August 17, 1945, Daan Mogot become a prominent leader of the Security Barisan Rakyat (BKR) and TKR (People’s Security Army) with the rank of Major. This is a unique at that time, Major Daan Mogot was only 16 years!

Declaration event

Sukarno, accompanied by Mohammad Hatta (right), proclaiming the independence of Indonesia.

The draft was prepared only a few hours earlier, on the night of August 16, by Sukarno, Hatta, and Soebardjo, at Rear-Admiral Maeda (Minoru) Tadashi’s house, Miyako-Doori 1, Jakarta (now the “Museum of the Declaration of Independence“, JL. Imam Bonjol I, Jakarta). The original Indonesian Declaration of Independence was typed by Sayuti Melik.[2][3] Maeda himself was sleeping in his room upstairs. He was agreeable to the idea of Indonesia‘s independence, and had lent his house for the drafting of the declaration. Marshal Terauchi, the highest-ranking Japanese leader in South East Asia and son of Prime Minister Terauchi Masatake, was however against Indonesia’s independence, scheduled for August 24.

While the formal preparation of the declaration, and the official independence itself for that matter, had been carefully planned a few months earlier, the actual declaration date was brought forward almost inadvertently as a consequence of the Japanese unconditional surrender to the Allies on August 15 following the Nagasaki atomic bombing. The historic event was triggered by a plot, led by a few more radical youth activists such as Adam Malik and Chairul Saleh, that put pressure on Soekarno and Hatta to proclaim independence immediately. The declaration was to be signed by the 27 members of the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence (PPKI) symbolically representing the new nation’s

1946

THE E-BOOK TWO OF ” INDONESIA INDEPENDENCE WAR POSTAL HISTORY”

THE POSTAL HISTORY OF INDONESIA INDEPENDENCE WAR

                              CREATED BY Dr IWAN S

FROM HIS PRIVATE DOCUMENT AND POSTAL HISTORY COLLECTIONS

                                           BOOK TWO

                                                  1946

                     

                        august,17th.1946 

one year Independence Proclamation Anniversary

 limited private edition E-book

          Special for The Premium Member of Dr Iwan Blog

          Jakarta @copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA 2010

B. THE INDONESIAN INDPENDENCE REVOLUTIONS IN  1946

I.. JANUARY 1946

Indonesia Independence War Collection(Jan.’46)

January 18, 2010 by uniquecollection 

ill no.13. 31.1.6(1946) The official free postal(bebas bea sudah dibajar) cover of Republic Indonesia Defend area Kedoe send from Magelang CDS 31.1.6 (1946) to parakan (official Military defend area official cover), the official stamped look above.

  

ill.no 12. 30.1.46 The aerliest used Rep.Indonesia Java Revenue with the same design with Dai Nippon Java revenue with small limabelas sen on the “Soerakarta” Hospital Billing inpatient 2 days rom 10/1 to 11/1 1946 cost 10 gld, Laboratoty 4 gld and medicine 1 gld, the billing form printed by Percetakan persatoean Solo 05(1945), this one of the best Indonesia health information collection. the hospital still exist now with name RSUP Solo (?)

ill no 11. 23.1.46 The chief of Repoeblik Indonesia Government Police Pajakoemboh (west sumatra) official stamped in violet color(Kepala Polisi Pamongpraja)this is from INdonesian National Police organization or Province Government organization ? please comment !

ill no 10. 22.1.46 Dai nippon sumatra revenue without overprint used at Bukittingi without Syowa date, Bukittingi under Republic Indonesia Occupation .

ill.no.9. Contraversial Letter (cover not found) from Indonesia village(Negeri in west sumatra means village) Book Aquantance examinine to calculate the amont of tax must paid from Village or small city chinese overseas Trader, this official office Padang didn’t mantioned from what government Dutch east indie, Dai Nippon or Republic Indonesia because the Chinese overseas asked to send the Trade account Books from 1939-1941(during Dutch East Indie), 1942-1945 (Duirng Dai Nippon Occupation) and 1945-1946 (during Republic Indonesia nd British Allied occupation) that cann’t sent at August 1945 due to the Independence war situation, This tax belong to what State? please comment, very best Fiscal collection during the War.

ill no 8 : 20.1.46.Postally used Postcard , Repoeblik Indonesia 5 den surcharged Dai nippon java 5 sen , send from CDS Djokjakarta 20.1.46 to Magelang, the earliest Republic Indonesia java postal history.

ill no 7. 19.1.46 Dai Nippon Revenue used by republican without Syowa date in Bukittinggi

ill no 6. 15.1.46 Death Ceritifate of Chinese overseas issued by Republic Indonesia special population official at Pemalang central java. Pemalang occupied by the Republic Indonesia.

Ill.no 5. 1.1.46 All payment through Rep Indonesia institution like Watersupply billing must added 0.50 gld(Rp) , for authentication all the form choped “Oentoek Fonds Kemerdekaan” For Independence Funds 0.50 squered in red color. ,this time still used Dai Nippon form DDDS-Djawa Denki Djigyosha but that character was surcharges woth red line.

ill.no.4. 1.1.46 The Rechieved of native people credit money 10 gld to republic Indonesia national coperation (Koperasi ) village Kerdjaan Koedoes . Koedes central Java official stamped . Many Kreteks cigaret produnction in this city and this day occupied by Republic Indonesia .

Ill, no 3. Republic Indonesia flag 1946 (native Calender 1946 ill.)

ill no 2. The Republic Indonesia First President Sukarno (vintage calender ill)

Chronologic Collections @copyright Dr Iwan S.2010 

Jan.1st  ill no1 .Vintage Native Rep.Indonesia Calender January 1946 with illustrated The first Indonesian President Sukarno(ill.no 2) with the picture of Mountain and Indonesia National Flag (ill no3) anonim painters. ill. no 4 : The recieved of Kredit money 10 gld(Rp) from Indonesia State  National Cooperation (Koperasi Oesaha Nasional ranting) Kerdjaan Koedoes. This day Koedes occupied by Republic Indonesia. ill no 5. Watersupply Billing from Bayeman  with added 0.50 gld(Rp) for Independence Fund (oentoek Fonds kemerdekaan) used old Dai Nippon Form “Djawa Denki Djigyosha  DS” but this char.was surcharge with red color machinal (Nama berbahasa Nippon dicoret dengan garis merah, ini kantor PAM daerah Bayaman ) Who Know where was the Bayaman Village, please informed via comment. 

February,17th.1946

six month independence proclamations annyversary

 

August,17th,1947

two years independnece proclamations anniversary

5.Around The World with Uniquecollections

The  Equatorial Guinea (Fernando Poo)  Collections Exhibition

Frame One :

The  Equatorial Guinea collections

1.Dr Iwan s Note

1.In 1988 I have send a leter to St Isabela San fernando,(but this time the name were changed to Bioko,please look the picture of that island and map below)

 but tis time this country have independent(maybe because  the old edition of international  postal adress book at Padang city Postoffice)  , after one years this aerogram had around the world first to Isabela Phillipine,then to USA and at Least to south africa and back to sender me , please look the very rare postal history  return to sender aerogam below.if someone have more post mark than this unique aerogram please show us.

I didnot understand why three bigger country postal services USA,Phillipine and South Africa diddnot know about this st Isabela fernado poo have changed to be Bioko Equatorial guenia, and they send back the aerogram back to me.

1) sent from Padang West Sumatra INDONESIA September,5 th, 1988

2) The aerogram around the world from Indonesia to USA,Phillipines and South Africa then back to Indonesia from Sept to Dec 1988.

a) first send to USA CDS Van Nuys California 9 Sept 1988 (4days)

b) second ,from USA to Phillipines with three CDS arrive 8 Nov, sortir i5 Nov and send to South africa 21 Nov 1988,

c) third from phillipnes to Johanesberg South africa CDS December 21th 1988

d) Back to indonesia with full of arrival CDS and handwritten direction note and back to sender handchoped.

2, Later I have found a book written by Sundiata ,Equatorial Ginea,Colonialism Sate Teror and The search fro Stability,Boulder San Fransisco and Oxford,Westren Press Inc,1990

this rare book had   gave me info that  the new name of this state San Fernado or fernado poo became Rio Muni and later became  Equatorial Guinea. Please look the rare collections from this country.

3.Based on that litaerature and more info from google exploration I had starting written about that country and now with new info the historic collections have finished and I will add in my cybermuseum blog.

4.The recent info from this country (google exploration)

1471—Portuguese navigator Fernao do Po sights the island of Fernando Poo, which is now called Bioko.

1477—Portugal cedes Fernando Poo to Spain.

1844—Spanish settle in what became the province of Rio Muni—mainland Equatorial Guinea.

[Malamboimage identifier]

Malabo:
Capital on the rim of a sunken volcano
Population: 60,065
Called Santa Isabel until 1973

1904—Fernando Poo and Rio Muni become the Western African Territories, later renamed Spanish Guinea.

1968—Spanish Guinea granted independence and becomes the Republic of Equatorial Guinea with Francisco Macias Nguema as president.

 
Francisco Macias NguemaFrancisco Macias Nguema(1924-1979) first President of

6.The Dai Nippon War History collections

Table Of Content

Part One:

The Dai Nippon war In Indonesia

1.Chapter One :

The dai nippon war In Indonesia 1942. 

2.Chapter Two:The Dai Nippon War In Indonesia 1945

Part Two.:

The Dai Nippon War In Korea

Part Three:

The Dai Nippon war In China

 Part Four :

The Dai Nippon War In Malaya Archiphelago ,Malayan Borneo and Singapore

Part five :

The Dai Nippon War In Burma and Vietnam

Part six:

The Dai Nippon War Homeland Preparation

 Part seven:

The Dai Nippon Pacific War

__________________________________________________________________________

Showcase:

The Japan Homeland During and after  Dai Nippon  War

Chapter One :

Used Japanese postal stationery  Reply card

A.Dai Nippon TAIKOKU (Japanese Homeland) Before 1937

1.1889

Dainippon term refers to “Dainippon Teikoku” that is, large Japanese empire, the self-designation of Japan during its expansionist era and since the Meiji Constitution (1889) the official name for Japan

2.1895

Dainippon Butokukai (Japanese 大 日本 武 徳 会. 1895-1946) is a large Japanese martial arts association to promote the virtues of Budo. It was founded in April 1895 and by the Imperial Japanese government responsible for the inspection of the various Japanese Ryu Bujutsu and standardize. For this purpose a committee was formed that the Budo menjō – spent (Bujutsu menjō rank certificates of martial arts master) and the menjō Shihan (teaching licenses) and confirm. This made all of Ryu, who joined the Butokukai not official outside of the frame.

 1902

For the participants in the annual tournament was awarded “seirensho created while assigned to the cooperating teacher from 1902 the title of” Hanshi “,” tasshi “and” Kyoshi

1904-05

Japan followed the example of Western nations and forced China into unequal economical and political treaties. Furthermore, Japan’s influence over Manchuria had been steadily growing since the end of the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-05.

1912

During the era of the weak emperorTaisho (1912-26), the political power shifted from the oligarchic clique (genro) to the parliament and the democratic parties.In the First World War, Japan joined the Allied powers, but played only a minor role in fighting German colonial forces in East Asia

1915

a postcard send from Kobe cds 14.2.1915 to Indonesia

1923

After WW1, Japan’s economical situation worsened. The Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923and the world wide depression of 1929 intensified the crisis.

1930

a picture postcard og Dai Nippon Emperor Palace’s bridge with hirohito coronation stamp.

During the 1930s, the military established almost complete control over the government. Many political enemies were assassinated, and communists persecuted. Indoctrination and censorship in education and media were further intensified. Navy and army officers soon occupied most of the important offices, including the one of the prime minister.

1931

Nagasaki picture postcard

When the Chinese Nationalists began to seriously challenge Japan’s position in Manchuria in 1931, the Kwantung Army (Japanese armed forces in Manchuria) occupied Manchuria. In the following year, “Manchukuo” was declared an independent state, controlled by the Kwantung Army through a puppet government. In the same year, the Japanese air force bombarded Shanghai in order to protect Japanese residents from anti Japanese movements

Bepu Island picture postcard sent from Kyoto  to Indonesia in 1931

1933

In 1933, Japan withdrew from the League of Nations since she was heavily criticized for her actions in China.

7.The China History collections

8.The Korean History Collections

9.The USA History Collections

10.The Indonesia History Collections

11.The African History collections

The south Africa Zulu War history Collections

The South Africa Zulu War History Collections

Part One

 

Created by

Dr iwan suwandy,MHA

Copyright @ 2012

THISIS THE SAMPLE OF E-BBOK IN CD-ROM,THE COMPLETE CD WITH ULL ILLUSTRATIONS EXIST BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER ONLY,PLEASE SUBSCRIBED VIA COMMENT

 

INTRODUCTIONS

i HAVE JUST FOUND SEVERAL ZULU wAR ANTIQUE PICTURES,

how amizing pictures which many seeking by the antique picture collectors and many use for the war games.

After made study , I have found that the Zulu War consit two episode ,firast the zulu-boer war and then the anglo-zulu war.

I hove antique pictures collectors,the historian and the war gamer will enjow to look at this CD-ROM.

This Information still not complete that is why corrections,comment and new info still need,

Jakarta April 2012

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

 

 

 

Zulu Wars

1838 to 1879

Zulus — versus — Boers, and British

 

Boer-Zulu War : 1838

The Zulus were one of the most important tribes in the history of South Africa. They were originally only one among many other like tribes in the region, sometimes called Bantu, or Kaffir, but in the early 1800′s a leader named Chaka united a great many African tribes into a Zulu empire, by fairly brutal means. Chaka was succeeded by his brother Dingan. Shortly after this, a great many Boer Voertrekkers moved into the region, and tried to negotiate the purchase of some land from the Zulu king. After an exchange of gifts and demonstrations of friendship, Dingan suddenly ordered a massacre of the ambassadors and a nearby group of several hundred Voortrekkers. He then attacked the remaining Voertrekkers, who by this time, were prepared to defend themselves. At the Battle of Blood River, a group of less than 500 Boers held off over 10,000 Zulus, with great slaughter.

The Boers then allied themselves with Mpane, one of Dingan’s enemies, and helped him drive Dingan out and assume the Zulu throne. For many years afterward, the relationship between Boer and Zulu was moderately peaceful, although there were a number of disputes. When the British laid claim to the coastal area of Natal, Mpane made a treaty with them, and allied himself with the British against the Boers. The British did not want to settle most of the region, however, it merely wanted to limit Boer influence, and took the side of the Zulus in border disputes to oppose the expansion of Boer territory

 

Beside them stood the women quietly loading guns.

12.The India History collections

The Vintage India Collections Exhibition

Driwancybermuseum’s Blog

tarian betawi tempo dulu                 

                           WELCOME COLLECTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD

                          SELAMAT DATANG KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN ASIAN

                                                AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                          DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

_____________________________________________________________________

SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR

_____________________________________________________________________

 *ill 001

                      *ill 001  LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

                                THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

                           MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

                 DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

                                        PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                     THE FOUNDER

                                            Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                                                         

    BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)

  

                         WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

                     SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showcase:

The Vintage India Collections Exhibition

Frame One :

Driwan Private Vintage India Collections

1.Postal History Collections.

2. India Stamps Used abroad

3. Numismatic collections.

 

 4.Vintage Picture Postcard collections 

Frame Two :

India Princely State Collections

               Created by Dr IWAN S from vintage book 1846, 1868 and 1947 added

                                    with his related Unique Collections

                                     

              PRIVATE LIMITED E-BOOK SPECIAL FOR COLLECTOR

                            JAKARTA @COPYRIGHT Dr IWAN S 2010

____________________________________________________________________

PREFACE

I write this book for my friend fron Princely State Udaipur based on my rare vintage India books 1846, 1868 and 1947 .

I know that this e-books not complete still need more info that is why I waiting for comment, corections and more informations to make this book as complete  as I can.

                                    

13.The Australia History collections

14.The rare ceramic zcollections

15.The rare stamps Collections

16.The Rare Numismatic collections

17.The Ancien China Numismatic Collections

18.The china Cast coins Collections

The Northern Sung History Collections

THIS THE SAMPLE OF E-BOOK IN CD-ROM ,THE COMPLETE CD EXIST BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER PLEASE SUBSCRIBED VIA COMMENT

The Ancient Chinese  Numismatic History collections

Part One(4)

Northern SongDynasty

 

Bronze 30mm North Song Orthodox script Ta Kuan tong bao

Created By

 

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Copyright@2012

Private Limited Edition In CD-ROM

FORWARD

I have collecting china numismatic including coins and papermoney from ancient to modern era almost 50 years, and starting to study the collections in 25 years.

At first very difficult because during President Suharto era 1966-1998 forbidden to read and collected Chinese literatures but the china numismatic could found easily with cheapest price until 1988 after the open diplomatic relationship between Indonesia and China I can found a little informations.

Since the President Gus Dur (abdulrahman Wahid) Era

my son anton for him this e-book dedicated

the Chinese overseas origin or Tionghoa ethnic became the Indonesian Ethnic nationality in the years 2000 I can found some informations and I could study in legal.but the collection very difficult to find because many chese nationality visit Indonesia and they swept all the Chinese numismatic collections.

I have visit china three times, first in 2007 to south china from Hanoi to

 

 Nanning of Jiangsi autonom province by

 

Bus and Train ,  in 2008 visit

Xianmen city

 

at Sin Hua Book store near my Hotel where I found Chinese coin catalogue

 

Native market like in Indonesia

 

 

 

 Xianmen with beautiful Gulangyu island, by bus to

 

 my grandpa homeland

 

 Chiangzhou city to find more info and look

 

 

 the amazing tallest pagoda Kai yuan with

 

 oldest turtle stone and

 

 

 

 

old village where my grandpa was born , from Xiamen by flight to

 

 Beijing by China Airlines to look

 

olympic games station,

 

 

With my wife Lily

 

 

forbidden city,

 

 great wall ,and at least in 2009 by flight and bus to

south china Guangzou(canton),Hangzou to Guillin to look the amazing dancer on the river,

3.THE SHI BA SUI WATERFALL AT HEZOU
The common waterfall was decorated with Handmade lake, beautiful and clean road to the waterfall which made the exciting landscape . the clever decrated area must be copy by many countries like Indonesia where more exciting waterfall still in the riginalsituations the same with another place , if the landscape were ddecrated like the picture below , I think will be more beautiful an interesting area.

4.THE TEMPLE OF DRAGON’S MOTHER AT WUZHOU
The temple of the mother of China Emperors Prince Crown was from Wu Zhou, in this temple there were the Statue of the China Empires Prince Crown during the ancient Emprire Before Christ, at the top of the hill beside the Yuanyang River was the Dragons Mother statue. Dragon was the symbols of the China Emperor, I think She was a concubine and his son became the crwn prince because the Empress didnot have the sons (the same as the Empress Dwager Xi Cie). Look at the paintings and the monument below (the Mother and crown prince will illustrated at the unique collections from WuZhou.

5.YUE XIU PARK GUANZHOU
This beautiful and exciting park sitatuated at YueXiu Hill in the Guan Zhou (before Canton), consist seven hill, three builded Lake and The Goat Statue of Guan Zhou city emblem ,look at that city emblem photo illustrations below.

.at guangzhou night market I found many achina numismatic collection with colour illustration which help me much to open the mystery of chinese cast coin script and code of reign

I have write in e-book CD-ROM about this and upload the sample in my web blog with caption  the dr iwan Adventure in China.

I bought the first catalogue Krause in 1989, in 2008 the Chinese coin catalogue with Chinese character,in 2008 my son Anton bought the best coin catalogue that made more understand how to read the chine native script  and in the same years I found several numismatic catalogue at Guangzhou.

I am starting writing about Chinese numismatic in my old web blog hhtp://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com which visit by 80.000 collectors.

This day I just found very best information about Chinese numismatic collections,and with this informations my study finish and I have writing the amazing e-book in CD-ROM about the report of my study with notification which coin ever found in Indonesia with mark @,this the first study ever report,and this informations will be the fact related to Chinese traded in Indonesia, the sample I upload in my other web blog hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.worpres.com which visit by 210.000 collectors from all over the world. The complete e.book in CD-ROM exist with full info and illustrations which made everyone can understand about the Chinese numismatic including the value ,but this only for premium member of the blog,that is why please subscribed via comment.

Why I am interesting to reasech about Chinese cast coin, the first reason that the coin came from My Grandpa homeland which relatated with my father and my self also hole family. The second reaond  this unique cast coin with hole in the center which known in Indonesia as Gobok coin and many find in Bali because they used as the magic lucky charm alhouth they didn’t now that the charm with rosette hole, from every character ,type of script  and position from the hole top,bottom,left andf right of the hole have their own name and used for special charm of magic power.They cannot read the Chinese character,the Hindu Bali native people gave tir own name,

like the grass script (scribbling or fast script) of  Yuan Feng tong bao,the yuan like flower and thy named the flower coin

 

.the eror printing cast coin with double print ar reverse which look like crescent moon they called  the Moon coin.

 

The grass script(Scribling) of Zhi Dao Yuan Bao,the character  at left  of circling they named as the symbol of happiness(bahagia) ,the owner will always happy all the time and they name this the happiness coin.

 

The Jian(Chien) Yen  tong Bao of southern song the yen character like grass,and they used as the lucky charm coin for the ranch of Horse because the horse eating the grass

 

Read at the souther Song dynasty history collections.

The metal of cast coin many from bronze, rare from iron and also from tin the heaven money coin.

All the Chinese cast coin collector will have the informations how to read the character Top-Bottom-left-Right or Top-Right-Bottom-ring contra clock wise the bali native called

 

the coin ‘s the position like cheng ho

tong bao,the ho char at  bottom 

, also info the difference between four type script from orthodox,Seal,grass(scribbling) and Li script.

Also info the character many used like Yuan,Tong ,Bao, Thien,Thay,Ho etc. 

I understand that this study not complete,more info and correction still need,please send your comment,for that thanks very much.

Jakarta April 2012

 

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

 


China was unified again by

the Song Dynasty

 (960 – 1279).

The Song dynasty produced a complex series of coins. Song emperors used many reign titles

and different calligraphy styles were used in the coins.

 

A particular type of coin is the “matched coin” (dui qian).

These are coins with inscriptions of different calligraphic style but identical make

(rim, thickness, hole and size). This is a unique feature of Northern Song coins.


The seal script  Tian Sheng Yuan Bao

 

 

seal script Zheng ho tong bao

is an example of a dui qian. It existed in

 seal script

 

Tian Sheng Yuan Bao cash, Emperor Ren Zong (1022-1063), China

 

li script and regular orthodox  scripts

also

@

n

seal script Xi Ning yuan  bao (熙宁元宝) inscription.

Xi at top,Ning at lef and yuan at bottom,this charm coin look the rosette hole

 compare witn above coin hole square

This inscription, however, is written in seal script.

Coins with this style of calligraphy were cast during the years 1068-1077 of the reign of Emperor Shen Zong.

; attributed to Emperor Ren Zong who used

 orthodox script tian sheng tong bao , tian at top,sheng at left clockwise read

as the period title of the years 1023 to 1031.

THE SUNG or SONG DYNASTY (960-1279)  

Over 300 years of Sung history is divided into the two periods of Northern and Southern Sung.

Because of the barbarian occupation of northern China the second half of the Sung rule

was confined to the area south of the Huai River. (Photo – painting of a scholar 11th century).

    Northern Sung (960-1126).

 General Chao K’uang-yin, later known as

 

Sung T’ai Tsu,

 was said to have been coerced to become emperor in order to unify China.

Wary of power-hungry commanders, Sung T’ai Tsu made the military into a national army under his direct control. Under his less capable successors, however, the military increasingly lost prestige.

Unfortunately for China, the weakening of the military coincided with the rise of successive strong nomad nations on the borders.

    In contrast to the military’s loss of prestige, the civil service rose in dignity.

The examination system that had been restored in the Sui and T’ang was further elaborated and regularized.

 Selection examinations were held every three years at the district, provincial, and metropolitan levels.

    Only 200 out of thousands of applicants were granted the jinshi degree, the highest degree,

and appointed to government posts. From this time on, civil servants

became China’s most envied elite, replacing the hereditary nobles and landlords.

   

Sung dominion extended over only part of the territories of earlier Chinese empires.

The Khitans controlled the northeastern territories, and

 the Xi Xia (Western Xia) controlled the northwestern territories. Unable to recover these lands,

the Sung emperors were compelled to make peace with the Khitans in 1004

 and with the Hsi Hsia in 1044. Massive payments to the barbarians under the peace terms depleted

the state treasury, caused hardship to taxpaying peasants, and gave rise to a conflict in the court among

advocates of war, those who favored peace, and reformers.

(Photo – Star Chart from Su Song’s Xin Yi Fa Yao published in 1092).

    In 1069

Emperor Shen Tsung (left)appointed Wang An-shih (right)as chief minister. Wang proposed a number of sweeping reforms based on the classical text of the `Rites of Chou’. Many of his “new laws” were actually revivals of earlier policies, but officials and landlords opposed his reforms.

When the emperor and Wang died within a year of each other, the new laws were withdrawn. For the next several decades, until

the fall of the Northern Sung in 1126,

 the reformers and antireformers alternated in power, creating havoc and turmoil in government.

   

In an effort to regain territory lost to the Khitans,

the Sung sought an alliance with the newly powerful Juchens from Manchuria.

Once the alliance had expelled the Khitans, however, the Juchens turned on the Sung and occupied the capital of Kaifeng.

The Juchens established the dynasty of Chin,

 a name meaning “gold,” which lasted from 1115 to 1234, in the north. They took the emperor and his son prisoner, along with 3,000 others, and ordered them to be held in Manchuria. (Photo – Astronomical Clock Tower from Su Song’s book, 1092).

    Southern Sung (1126-1279).

Another imperial son fled south and settled in 1127 at Hangzhou,

where he resumed the Sung rule as the emperor Kao Tsung. The Sung retained control south of

 

the Huai River,branch of Yangtse river at Hangzhou

where they ruled for another one and a half centuries.Although militarily weak and limited in area,

Hangzhou
杭州

In 2009

Dr Iwan ever Visit Hangzou by bus from Guangzhou to Guillin and sailed around

the Hangzhou lake

 

with many beautiful villa around the lake

 

at the hill espacially during sunset

—  Sub-provincial city  —

杭州市

At HANGZHOU IN THE MORNING AT THE FROM HOTEL

 dr iwan found local phone card with the picture of native china dancer, and the old man and women TAI Chi dancer sport, and many plays table tennis Pingpong.

Read more info in another CD-ROM

Dr Iwan Adventur In South China

The sample also exist at

Hhtp://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com and

Hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseun.wordpress.com

Look the amazing landscape of

 Hangzhou

below

 

 

Location of Hangzhou City in Zhejiang

 

 

Hangzhou

Location in China

Coordinates: 30°15′N 120°10′E

 

   

 

 

  

THE NORTHERN SUNG DYNASTY

This is a guide to the coins of

the Northern Sung Dynasty

(AD 960 to 1126),

the coin uncommon and rare.

Dr Iwan Notes

The Nothern Song found many than the Southern Song Coins in Indonesia before 1980,but after that became scarce.

The rare of another song cast coin are

the rosette hole ,lucky cham coin,

 Dr Iwan only found one coin ching te tong bao

soory no illustration

 

The Sung Dynasty, established in AD 960,

 saw relative stability in China, although conflict with the Tartars and Mongols continued. In AD 1127 the northern provinces were lost to them

and

 the capital had to be moved from

 

 K’ai-feng Fu (Pien-liang) in the north

 

To

 

 

 Lin-an Fu (Hangchou) in the south.

We now refer to the period before the move as the Northern Sung and after the move as Southern Sung.

This is a complex series, with nine Emperors using dozens of reign titles and many inscription and calligraphy variations which defined dates and mints. If the variations were catalogued, they would number in the thousands. Unfortunately the key to understanding them no longer exists..

Song Dynasty,

Is Many Armor Leaves (Iron Sheet) One Kind Of Iron Armor Which Connects With The Rawhide Or The Armor Nail Becomes. It Protects The Whole Body Nearly, For China Ancient Armor’s Apex.

AD960-AD1279


Northern Song Dynasty

 

  

       

Emperor Song Taizu

Emperor Song Taizong

Emperor Song Huizong

Emperor Song Gaozong

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emperor Taizu – Song Dynasty

19.The Rare Indonesian Stamps collections

20.The Russian history Collections

21,The Canada History Collections

22.The Zulu War History Collecrtions

23.The Narural History History Collections

24.The American Indian And aboriginal History Collecrions

25.The Borneo History Collections

UCNMarch27th’10: “The Kingdom of West Borneo Collections”

March 27, 2010 by uniquecollection

Kingdom Mempawa Tomb

Kingdom Mempawa Palace

King Tanjungpura Matan

Ancient West Borne

Hallo collectors, Thankyou for Click UCN today
@copyright Dr Iwan s.2010

I. SPECIAL INFORMATIONS
UCM will installed The Kingdom of West Borneo collection , look at the sample illustration old West Borneo Map and the King Saunan as the King of Tjanungpura-Matan kingdom.
Another West Borneo’s Kingdom like the kingdom of Sukadana,mempawah,Sambas, Tayan, Sangau ,Pontianak and other frgotten kingdom of West borneo will illustrated with the Map, King picture and another unique collections, please read UCN when the install will finish.

THE RARE BORNEO  COLLECTIONS FOUND

                                            AT PONTIANAK WEST BORNEO.

 

                                             

                                                             BY

                                                      Dr IWAN S.

                    

                                       e-book   Special for collectors

                                     @COPYRIGHT Dr IWAN S 2010

                                                Jakarta 2010

  ____________________________________________________________________

I.. Dr Iwan S Travelling Pontianak to found the  Rare coins.
1.In January 1990, I was graduate Master Hospital Administration, and I went back to West Sumatra to report the Education graduated, and waiting for the new job from the Headquaters, but not long in May I have the Radiogram of my new job as the chief of West Borneo Medical and Health Department of WEst Borneo National Police.
I am starting to collect the information about that area , but very difficult , because not many information about that area, and in two weeks the former chief of Medical and Healt WEst Borno have phoned me, he asked me to came more fast because the cheif of West Borneo National Police will changed soon, if I donnot fast came , I must waiting log until the new chief came. I know the former chief didnot like his Job because he didnot bring the family there because no good school there for his children and his wife have an Aphothecary, she didnot want to leave, I have will the same ,my wife and my two son still in their education in Java, I will work alone in west Borneo, but I like there because my uniquecollections will found there.
2.In August 1990 I went to Pontianak by flight without any informations, but in the flight a young man who stayed in Pontianak help me because he know many Pontianak Police Medical Docter, he help me to Pontianak from the airport about one hours, because too late in the night, I stayed in a Hotel near my office, I cannot contact the former Chief of Police Medical Department there because that time difficult communication and no HP that time.
Tomorrow I phone the West Borneo Police Headquaters, and after new the phone of the Police Policlinic at Pontianak, the former chief bring me to stayed at Hotel because no Official House he stayed at the Official guest house and I will used the same after he back to Java for his new job as the chief of Police Kediri Hospital.
I have  stayed in  Pontianak for four years, I will write the interesting story and info during my job at west Borneo.

II. Interesting Info from Pontianak

III. The Rare  Coins Found In Pontianak

1. North Borneo near mint Coins

a. head size

                                                     

b.tailsize
                                             

2. East India Compay Coins

3. India Straits coins

3. Strrait Settlement coins
4.North Borneo
5. Sarawak

IV. The Rare Native  Dayak Statue found in Pontianak

V. The Rare Chinese Ceramic found in West Borneo

NOTE : if you want the complete information,registered your name  via comment from now to be uniquecollection member.after the administraion OK,the e-book will send to you via e-mail.Thak You to join UCM.

The Sarawak Revenue History Collections

Sarawak Revenue History

dedicated to my Sarawak phillatelist collectors.

 I. PRE WORLD WAR II

1..RAJAH JAMES BROOKE

THE REVENUE DURING RAJAH J.BROOKE VERY DIFFICULT TO FIND ESPECIALLY IN 19TH CENTURY,IF SOME ONE HAVE PLEASE SEND THE INFO VIA COMMENT. IHAVE ONLY FOUND SOME HIS RARE COINS HALF CENT AND ONE CENT BUT THE CONDITION NOT VERY FIND ,ALTHOUGH IN THIS VERY GOOD CONDITION STILL DIFFICULT TO FOUND IN SARAWAK,IHAVE FOUND IN PONTIANAK CIRCA 1991, DURING MY LAST VISIT 2007 NO MORE EXIST,PLEASE LOOK AT THE RARE JAMES ROOKE COINS BELOW.

2. RAJAH CHARLES  BROOKE REVENUES

DURING THE RAJAH CHARLES BROOKE, SARAWAK ISSUED SPECIAL REVENUE STAMPS, ALTHOUGH THE FIRST CV BROOKE POTAGE AND REVENUE STAMPS COULD USED TOO AS REVENUE, BUT TO FOUND THIS LIMITED EDITON USED AS REVENUE IN COMPLETE DOCUMENT VERY DIFFICULT, i HAVE SOME , AND THE SPECIAL c.bROOKE REVENUE I FOUND DURING MY VISIT SARAWAK DURING PONTIANAK-KUNCHING AUTOMOBILE RACE I FOUND COMPLETE USED REVENUE, AND ONLY ONE IN DOCUMENT USED AFTER DAI NIPPON OCCUPATION DUE TO DIFFICULT TO FOUND THE REVENUE THAT TIME LOOK AT POST WW II COLLECTIONS.

THE COMPLETE COLLEC TION OF USED C.BROOKE REVENUE: 

(1) THE HIGHEST NOMINAL 10$,5$ AND 4$.

                                                                
 Rajah Charles Brooke revenue $4,$5 and $10.. One type revenue not illustrated because I don’t found until this day R overprint on Postage revenue stamps. Charles Brooke revenue used until Dai Nippon Occupation L.T. Ong report, Dr Francis H.H.Ngu report bigger block 12 rveneue               $10. Please choose the best revenue, and if someone have R overprint please show in this blog send to my e.mail.@Copyright Dr Iwan S.2010.
(2)Used Sarawak cv brooke 3$ and 1$ revenue 
 
                                              

                                                Rajah Charles Brooke revenue $3 and $1

 (3) sarawak c.brooke low nominal revenue

                                           

                                          Rajah Charles Brooke revenue 3,5 and 50 cent

 3.SARAWAK CHARLES VYNER BROOKE STAMPS USED AS REVENUE

(1) SARAWAK CV BROOKE STAMPS LOW NOMINAL USED AS REVENUE

                                                  

 Rajah CV Brooke 20 cent UAR
                                                    

 Rajah CV Brooke 25 cent UAR
                                                  

Rajah CV Brooke 30 and 50 cent UAR

 SARAWAK CV BROOKE HIGH NOMINAL STAMPS USED AS REVENUE

                                                 

Rajah CV Brooke $4 UAR
                                                     

15.9.1931 Rajah CV Brooke $1 UAR.
                                                       

Rajah CV Brooke $4 UAR
                                                

Rajah CV Brooke $4 and $3 used as revenue (UAR) with Serikei Inland Dept. official chop in violet.

 SARAWAK CV BROOKE STAMPS USED AS REVENUE ON COMPLETE DOCUMENT.

                                                      

20.11.34 Rajah CV Brooke 50 cent used As revenue(UAR) on Identity document.
                                                           

 11.8.1937 Rajah CV Brooke 3 cent used as revenue on arabic written Document.
                                                       

1.10.1937 Rajah CV Brooke 5 cent on the arabic written Recieved Document.

 II.SARAWAK REVENUE  DURING DAI NIPPON OCCUPATION

                                                     

Rajah CV Brooke 50 cent(2x) bold violet Dai Nippon Revenue overprint”recieved inwar” with Squqred court chop in red on fragment Deposit Document.
                                                        

Rajah CV Brooke $1(2x) with Bold violet Dai Nippon Revenue overprint “Recieved Inward” with Square court chop in red on fragment Deposit document.
                                                         

Rajah CV Brooke $2 with violet Dai Nippon revenue overprint “Recieve in ward ” and Square court Chop in Red ,fragment Deposit document.
                                                    

Rajah CV Brooke $2 + $1 overprint red Dai nippon revenue “Recieved inward” with Dai Nippon squared court choped on fragment Deposit document.
                                                

Rajah CV Brooke 5 cent with unidentified Black round overprint (Private or official Dai Nippon ? please comment)
                                                     

Rajah CV Brooke 50 cent with unidenytified hanchoped (private or Dai Nippon Official revenue Handchope?please comment)
                                              

 Rajah CV Brooke $1 with double Dai Nippon overprint thin red “recived inaward” and violet sarawak Dai nippron yubin Kyoku (not clear official or private handchoped ,please comment)
                                                   

Rajah CV Brooke $1 overprint thin violet Dai Nippon Revenue “Recieved inward’
                                              

Rajah CV Brooke $2 overprint thin violet Dai nippon revenue “Recieved inward”
                                                 

Rajah CV Brooke $3 overprint thin violet Dainippon revenue overprint”Recieved Inward”
                                                

1945- Rajah CV Brooke $2 (2x) with red Dai Nippon “Recieved Inward” overprint on the Land’s Change of Name certificate issued at Sibu.
                                                 

2.11.1941. Rajah CV brooke 3 cen UAR n the recieved fro Sime Darby & Co Ltd sign by Alan Dant (courtesy PSKS,Hong Ming Yong,photocopy)
III. DURING BRITISH COLONY SARAWAK
                                               

Rajah CV Brooke overprint crown $5 (UAR)
                                                        

14.1.1949.Rajah CV brooke 8 cent overprint Crown used as renenue ( UAR) on the recieved of buying gun at Hong Joo Company 3,Gambier road,Kuching .Sarawak.
                                              

 1.10.1949 Rajah CV Brooke overprint crown 6 cent Used as revenue on The recieved of buying Guns at Kuching Gun Shop.
                                               

22.11.1945 the bigger block ever seen , Block six Rajah CV brooke overprint crown $5 , the disposal stamp with puched hole used as revenue(UAR),please comment.
                                              

26.8.1949. Rajah CV Brooke $3 overprint crown (2x) added CV Brooke $1 with punch hole disposal stamps Used As Revenue(UAR) , rare combination from two era before the wW II and after Dai Nippon Occupation (British Colony), emergency used because during Sarawak British Colony no reveneu issue and disposal punche hole old stamps UAR , and after that regualr Stamp without punched hole also used, see below.
                                              

10.4.1950. Block six Rajah CV Brooke $4 overprint Crown , the disposal punch hole stamps Use As Revenue(UAR), only one exist,please comment.
                                               

 King G-V 50 cent and $2 UAR(used as Revenue)
                                             

King G-V $1 Used As Revenue(UAR)
                                    

Queen E-II $1 and $2 used as revenue(UAR)
THE END @copy right Dr iwan S 2010.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com blog

the end@copyright Dr IWAN S 2010.

25.The Rare Medal collections

The Belgium Independent Medal Collections 

Frame One:

A.Dr Iwan collections

1.headside

2. tailside

B.International Collections(COIN AND MEDAL)

1 Franc – Léopold II Independence 50th anniversary

KM# 38
Features
 
Country Belgium
Year 1880
Value 1 Franc (1 BEF)
Metal Silver (.835)
Weight 5 g
Diameter 23 mm
Engraver L. Wiener
Shape Round
Demonetized yes
 
1 Franc - Léopold II (Independence 50th anniversary) -  obverse1 Franc - Léopold II (Independence 50th anniversary) - reverse

Commemorative issue

Fifty years of the Belgian kingdom 1830-1880

Obverse

The profiles og Kings Leopold I and II with their names around

Lettering: LEOPOLD I * LEOPOLD II L. WIENER

Reverse

The Belgium coat of arms and facial value on both sides. Two olive twigs on the outside and the motto “L’UNION FAIT LA FORCE” (Unity makes Strength)

Lettering: L’UNION FAIT LA FORCE 1F 1830 1880

Edge

Reeded

Year Mintage VG F VF XF UNC Exchange    
1880  545,000                

Commemorative Medal of the Visit of The King & Queen of Belgium’s visit to Egypt

photo

Commemorative Medal of the Visit of The King & Queen of Belgium’s visit to Egypt (Reverse)

ANTIQUE Over 130 Years Old 1873 Kingdom of BELGIUM Leopold II 2 Cents Copper Coin

ANTIQUE Over 130 Years Old 1873 Kingdom of BELGIUM Leopold II 2 Cents Copper Coin
 
ANTIQUE Over 130 Years Old 1873 Kingdom of BELGIUM Leopold II 2 Cents Copper Coin ANTIQUE Over 130 Years Old 1873 Kingdom of BELGIUM Leopold II 2 Cents Copper Coin
<!–

The Indonesian Music record History collections

The History Of Betawi Music record Development Book Two 1951-1980(Sejarah perkembangan Musik Betawai 1951-1980)

 

Orkes keroncong komunitas Indies di Batavia  (Ilustrasi: A.Th. Manusama (1919:12a))

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom : 

 http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v188/missriboet/missdjadanmissriboet1932.jpg

Dr Iwan  Book Cybermuseum

The historical development of   Jakarta Music Record 

 In 20th Century.

Sejarah Perkembangan Rekaman Musik Betawi (1900-1975)

                   Based on

Dr Iwan Rare Old Books and Music Record Collections             

             By

               

     Dr Iwan Suwandy

    Limited Private Publication

   special for premium member

_______________________________________________________________________________

 hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com copyright @ Dr iwan Suwandy 2011

___________________________________________ 

TABLE OF CONTENT

1.Preface(Kata Pengantar)

 2.Book One_Buku Pertama:

Betawi Music record Early 20th Century.(Rekaman Musik Betawi Pada Awal Abad Ke-20)

(1) During Dutch East Indie _Masa Hindia Belanda 1900-1942 

(2)During Japanese Occupation _Masa pendudukan Jepang 1942-1945

(3) During Indonesian Independent War _Masa Perang Kemerdekaan Indonesia 1945-1950

3.Book Two-Buku Kedua:

(1) Era Bung Karno 1951-1965

(2) Era Pak Harto 1966-1980

 _____________________________________

BOOK TWO :

The History Of Betawi Music record deevlopment 1951-1980 

1.TANGKIWOOD

DSC_0061_25_preset1.jpg

O

 

AND

 MANY OTHER E-B0OK IN CR-ROM, ALL THE COLLECTORS CAN ASKED ME THE 50 QUENSTIONS AND THE ANSWER WILL UPLOAD IN CD-ROM

 

PLEASE CHOOSE WHAT YOU NEED AND TELL ME VIA COMMENT AFTER SUBSCRIBE AS THE PREMIUM MEMBER OF THE BLOG

THANK YOU VERY MUCH

FROM THE FOUNDER

DrIwan Suwandy,MHA

THE END@COPYRIGHT 2012

THE USA INDIAN HISTORY COLLECTIONS

The USA Indian Archives History Collections

 

Created by

The Wabanaki Indian Collection,

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Private limited E-BOOK in CD-ROM Edition

Special for Premium Member Collectors

Copyright@2012

 

FORWARD

I have collected the archived collections from 1955 during young boy until now,

Some of the collections have upload in my web blog

Hhtp://www.uniquecollection.wordpress.com

Hhtp://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com

Hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

Almost 400.000 collectors visit this web blog

I have million informations of rare old archives now, and if the scientist ,journalist or collectors want to have the rare archives’s informations and illustrations please contact me via comment, but before you must subscribed via comment to be my blog premium member.

I hope my bigger project to collect the informations from rare old archives will help everybody from all over the wolrd.

I have met the the archives scholar from KTLV(Koninjkijl Tropen Leiden Vereneging) ,the Dutch archived of tropic area at Leiden Netherland who came to Indonesia to seeking the rare old archives,many Indonesian scholar visit KTLV to found 8informations related with their thesis because KTLV and also their Netherland tropen museum archives collectiosn cann’t copy because the protect with copyright.

I will show the USA Indian Archive History Collections and  hope everybody will happy to read the info and look the illustrations  

THIS ARTICLES DEDICATED TO THE USA INDIAN TRIBES

Jakarta,May.2012

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

 

American Indian History & Culture


“Moenntarri Warrior in the costume of the dog danse”. Wied, Maximilian, Prinz von. Travels in the interior of North America during the years 1832-1834; illustrations by Karl Bodmer.

 The  rare books documenting Indian life-ways, and significant manuscript materials, including the papers of

 

anthropologist Morris Edward Opler,

 incorporating his research notes on

 

the myths and folklore of Apache tribes;

the Pete Hest North American Indian collection.

Read more info

 

 

Lipan Apache Tribe

of Texas

 

 

Indian Intruders From the North

Plains Indian warrior, inset from painting, “Comanches on the Trail,” by Theodore Gentilz, ca. 1840s. Original painting in Witte Museum. Historic Indian tribe locations map, ca. 1832, adapted from Hester 1989, Fig. 31.

Indian Intruders: Comanche, Tonkawa, and Other Tribes

By as early as the late 1600s, outside Indian groups had begun moving onto the South Texas Plains, accelerating the demise of the region’s vulnerable indigenous peoples. Among the new intruders were the Tonkawa, the Lipan and Mescalero Apache—groups which themselves had been displaced from their home territories far to the north and northwest. The availability of a new transportation system, horses, transformed many Plains Indian groups into societies that are sometimes characterized as “horse nomads.”

First and foremost, were the Comanche, who with the Kiowa, raided through south Texas and across the Rio Grande into northern Mexico. They were formidable foes to other native peoples as well as Anglo settlers in the 18th and 19th centuries. Facing increased hostilities, more competition for resources, and ravaged by Old World disease, local native groups were either pushed south into Mexico or assimilated into the new, more dominant tribes.

In late prehistoric times, the Lipan and Mescalero Apache lived in the Southern Plains of the United States. By the late 1600s, they found their homelands threatened by the Comanches and by Spanish raids seeking slaves for the silver mines around Parral and Chihuahua City or for the large ranches of what is today northern Mexico. To avoid those fates, they moved south and east, eventually reaching south-central Texas. As the tumultuous times unfolded, some Apache attempted alliances with other native peoples, including the Jumano and Tonkawa, groups with whom they had had hostile relationships in the past.

By the late 18th century, the Apache were pressing south across the Rio Grande and east into the South Texas Plains and brush country, where they began to align themselves with other native peoples. They chose this region, in part, because it had not been heavily settled by the Spanish, with the exception of the ranchos along the Rio Grande in the colony known as Nuevo Santander and the mission settlements there and in San Antonio de Bexar.

Although they lived a hunting and gathering lifestyle, the Lipan Apaches were mounted warriors who also raided homes and ranches for cattle and sheep. But as threats from Comanche and other groups intensified, the Lipan sought refuge in Spanish missions, including Santa Cruz de San Sabá (on the Edwards Plateau). In the second half of the eighteenth century and, after the mission on the San Saba River was destroyed by an allied force of their enemies, the Apache moved farther south, extending their range from the Bolson de Mapimi desert in north-central Mexico to the Rio Grande to the Nueces. In 1772, 300 Lipan Apache attacked haciendas and pueblos in Coahuila.

In the ensuing century, few Europeans settled in the region, and those that did, such as Richard King (founder of the fabled King Ranch), found that the key to success was the acquisition of vast lands for ranches. Thus, although the region was distant from their Southern Plains homeland, Lipan and Mescaleros found a refuge here until the early 1900s when they were forcibly moved onto a reservation in southern New Mexico where they reside today.
(Learn more about the Apache.)

Tonkawa

Although chiefly operating on the northeastern fringe of the area, the Tonkawa also played a role in the region’s history. Much has been made about whether the Tonkawa were an actual tribe or, rather, an amalgam of other groups and splinter tribes, some of which were from south Texas. Most likely, they were a bit of both and absorbed different peoples in later historic times.

The Tonkawa were first documented in 1601 in an area north of Texas on the Arkansas River, where the Wichita-speakers called them the Tancoa, a word meaning “they all stay together.” In their own language, the Tonkawa called themselves Titskanwatits, meaning “people of the country” or “Indian people here.” At that time, these hunting and gathering peoples lived in a number of large villages, but they faced increased conflicts with other native peoples. By the late seventeenth century, they were residing in Texas and were called the Tanquaay. During the late eighteenth century, they lived with various groups over a wide geographic area, ranging from the Red River to the area of present Waco, and, at times, even further south into the South Texas Plains.

Much of what we know of the Tonkawa during this period comes from documents written by a Frenchman named De Mezieres who visited them on several occasions in the 1770s, often in their camps close to the Red River. He estimated their population at about 500 and described them as hunters and gatherers living in tents and hunting buffalo and deer—both to eat and to obtain the animal skins that they traded.

By the late eighteenth century, the Tonkawa had absorbed several other Native American groups who sought protection within the larger Tonkawa nation. Some—such as the Sana and Yorica—were originally from the South Texas Plains and northern Mexico. These added numbers strengthened the increasingly threatened Tonkawas and helped them survive attacks by Apaches and others. Later, the Tonkawa served as scouts for the U.S. Army in west Texas during the Indian wars. In spite of their valued service, however, they were removed to a reservation in Oklahoma in the late 1880s. (See Tonkawa Tribe website.)

Comanche and Other Groups

The Comanche, latecomers to the South Texas Plains, were among the most feared. Indeed, the name, Comanche, is believed to be a Spanish version of a Ute word meaning “someone who wants to fight all the time.” By the early 18th century the Comanches had moved from Colorado into New Mexico, where they alternately raided and traded with Spanish settlements. Their attacks upon pueblo Indians and the Apache were nearly constant. Throughout the 1700s, the Comanche continued to move to the southeast, driving deeper into Texas and pushing the Lipan in their wake. Having established control of the Southern Plains, the Comanche moved onto the Edwards Plateau and beyond, where they secured their dominance by entering into a truce with the Spanish in New Mexico and forming an alliance with the Kiowa. (See Comanche Nation website.)

Other tribes who are known to have had a brief presence in the South Texas Plains were the, Shawnee, Caddo, Kiowa, Kickapoo, and Seminole. While not all were hunters and gatherers, their activities in this sometimes harsh region generally mimicked those of the hunters and gatherers whom Cabeza de Vaca and his companions had met and lived among some 300 years earlier.

To learn more about Indian groups in Texas during the Historic Period, see the following exhibit sections on this website:

Native Peoples of the Plateaus and Canyonlands

The Passing of the Indian Era

Additional information on the Comanche in later historic times is provided in:

The Die Is Cast

 
Among the new intruders in Texas were the Tonkawa, the Lipan and Mescalero Apache—groups which themselves had been displaced from their territories to the north and northwest.

The threat of enslavement by Spaniards seeking laborers for their mines caused some Plains peoples, including the Apache, to move southward to the South Texas Plains. This illustration from an early 16th-century Spanish document shows enslaved native peoples mining gold.

A Lipan Apache on the trail, upper Rio Grande.

Tonkawa Indians, as drawn during the 1828 Berlandier expedition. The Tonkawa were buffalo hunters who moved southward into Texas from the Plains. Note the incorporation of woven cloth into native dress and the traditional circular tattooing on the woman’s torso.
By the late eighteenth century, the Tonkawa had absorbed several other Native American groups, including the Sana and Yorica, natives of the South Texas Plains which became clans within the larger Tonkawa nation.

Sequence of Tonkawa migration during the historic period in Kansas, Okmlahoma, and Texas. Map by Dan Prikryl (2001: Fig. 1).

A Comanche family in Texas, as drawn during the Berlandier expedition, 1828. Note the buffalo robe worn by the man.

Comanche braves. Photo, circa 1867-1874, courtesy of the Center for American History (#01355), The University of Texas at Austin

 

 

 

 

 

History

 

The myths and tales of this volume are of particular significance, perhaps, because they have reference to a tribe about which there is almost no published ethnographic material.

The Lipan Apache were scattered and all but annihilated on the eve of the Southwestern reservation period. The survivors found refuge with other groups, and except for a brief notice by Gatshet,

they have been overlooked or neglected while investigations of numerically larger populations have proceeded. It is gratifying, therefore, to be able at this late date to present a fairly full collection of Lipan folk-lore, and to be in a position to report that this collection does much to illuminate the relations of Southern Athabaskan-speaking tribes and the movements of aboriginal populations in the American Southwest.

 

Lipan Apache Chief

Before the beginning of the 18th century the Lipan were already in the northern part of the present state of Texas, and were being forced southward by hostile Comanche. By the middle of the 18th century we find them in south central Texas, where the Spanairds sought to protect them from their persistent enemies by the erection of the Mission of San Sab?. Following the destruction of this mission, two others were established to the south and west to administer to these Apache. They met a like fate in 1767. In 1796 the Lipan are reported to have reached the Gulf Coast in the vicinity of the lower Rio Grande. For the next half century they lived on or in the vicinity of the coast and made a partial adjustment to that environment. The hostilities between the Texans and Mexicans during the last part of this period involved the Lipan as allies of the latter. Then part of the Kickapoo, who had ceded their lands in Illinois, invaded Texas and were added to the list of Lipan enemies. A serious epidemic of smallpox decimated the tribe further. The Lipan, wasted by warfare and disease, were forced northward and westward. Part of them found a retreat in the southern spurs of the Guadalupe Mountains, where they made contact with the southernmost settlements of the Mescalero Apache. These people, whom I have called the Northern Lipan in the tales, have become known as the “No Water People.” Another section of the tribe crossed the Rio Grande and settled in the neighborhood of Zaragoza, Coahuila. I place the date of the permanent removal of these Lipan to Old Mexico (raiding expeditions had penetrated into Old Mexico on previous occasions, of course) at about 1860 or shortly thereafter. This section of the tribe, the Southern Lipan of the tales, has become known as the “Big Water People.” The “Big Water People,” because their fate has been less involved with that of the Mescalero Apache until quite recently, are prone to consider themselves the true representatives of Lipan culture.

From 1860 on the Northern Lipan became increasingly amalgamated with the Mescalero. When attempts were made to concentrate the Mescalero at Ft. Stanton in 1870, many Lipan were gathered into the net. At this same time the Southern Lipan were having difficulty with the Mexican military and a group of them were happy to find protection to the north. Thus it was that in 1903, when a handful of Lipan who had survived a war of extermination which had been waged against them in Coahuila, were brought to Chihuahua, it became known that they had relatives on the Mescalero Reservation. Efforts were made to unite them with their kin living in the United States. In that year a small band of nineteen individuals was brought to Mescalero. This event has given rise to the impression that the Lipan were never anything more than an offshoot of the Mescalero tribe whose members somehow became separated from the main group and who were finally restored to their relatives.
 

 

Apache Encampment in the Texas Hill Country by George Nelson. The Lipan Apache were among several Plains tribes pushed southward as pressure for land and resources mounted across the western frontier. Image courtesy of the artist and the Institute of Texan Cultures, University of Texas at San Antonio.

 

Evidence is accumulating which suggests a different historical origin and other ethnic relationships for the Lipan, however. In an analysis of Southern Athabaskan kinship systems I have tried to show that the Lipan system resembles the Jicarilla and not the Chiricahua-Mescalero type, and the Lipan kinship stands closer to Jicarilla in respect to form, terms, and behavior patterns than to kinship usages of any other Southern Athabaskan-speaking tribe. Dr. Harry Hoijer?s scholarly analysis of the relationships of Southern Athabaskan languages demonstrates that Jicarilla and Lipan together constitute a sub-group of the eastern linguistic group, quite apart from Mescalero, which is classified in the other or western group. The conclusion seems inescapable that the affiliation of the Lipan and Mescalero is a recent and secondary one and that more ancient and fundamental connections must be sought to the north.

It is of interest and importance to consider whether the myths and tales yield materials which offer further insight concerning the place of the Lipan in Southwestern cultures. The results of such an inquiry have proved so gratifying that it is doubtful whether the value of mythology for purposes of ethnological analysis has ever been better vindicated.

A glance at the table of contents of this volume is enough to reveal one of the major differences in myth and conception which divides the Lipan from the Mescalero; the Lipan have a myth of emergence. This gives a definite cast to Lipan mythology which Mescalero mythology does not share, for a number of other Lipan stories take their inspiration from events which transpired in the underworld before the emergence (Section I, C). The myths of all Southern Athabaskan tribes (with the possible exception of the Kiowa Apache) include a story of a culture hero who slew the foes of the race.

The Navaho, Western Apache, and Jicarilla name the chief protagonist Killer-of-Enemies and have him attended by a subordinate (a younger brother, relative, or friend) who is ordinarily known as Child-of-the-Water.

 By a curious twist

the Mescalero

 and

Chiricahua

have reversed the positions of these two; for them Child-of-the-Water becomes the intrepid hero and monster slayer and Killer-of-Enemies his weaker companion. The Lipan lean towards the northern and western usage. Killer-of-Enemies is their culture hero. They use the term Child-of-Water seldom, and then only as a synonym for Killer-of-Enemies. In the Lipan tales a younger brother of the culture hero called Wise One appears, and to him are attributed the characteristics usually associated with the less important of the divine pair.

One of the monsters with whom the culture hero has difficulty is known as

Big Owl by

the Jicarilla

and

Western Apache.

The Mescalero and Chiricahua think of him as a giant. He appears as Big Owl in Lipan mythology, again indicating the orientation we have remarked.

The Lipan names for important concepts or supernaturals of the myths show marked departures from Mescalero usage. The Mescalero call masked dancers and the supernaturals they impersonate gahe. The Lipan know them as hashchi (hactci) and therefore agree in this respect with the Jicarilla who refer to comparable supernaturals as hashchin (hactcin), and with the Navaho who use the cognate term haashch’èèh (hactce).

There are a number of myths of diagnostic value which the Lipan relate but which could not be found for the Mescalero. One such is the tale of the man who traveled down the river in a hollow log (Section V, A, 1). This story has been recorded for the Jicarilla, Western Apache, and Navaho also. Another tale of significance for our purpose is that of the race around the world (Section VIII, B, 1). This story, unknown to the Mescalero but common to the Lipan and Jicarilla, has been expanded to ceremonial importance by the latter.

As has been implied in the materials surveyed, the sharp differentiation of Lipan from Mescalero mythology contrasts vividly with the many parallels between Lipan and Jicarilla mythology. In addition to the myths and themes which have been identified as belonging to the joint stock in trade of the Lipan and Jicarilla but which are not shared by the Mescalero (such as the emergence myth), there are a number of others which deserve mention, for their weight lends a decided Jicarilla cast to Lipan folk-lore. One such is the hint of Lipan traditions concerning a people who live to the north in a land of darkness (p. 15). Another is that of the boy who aids in the capture of his twin (p. 23). Still another has to do with the attempts of a malign being to chop up and cook the culture hero and his companion (pp. 23-24). The vitalization of a person or animal by the entrance of wind into the body (p. 29) is one of a number of themes of like character. We are fully justified in saying tha between the legends of the Lipan and Jicarilla the correspondences are impressive in respect to themes, names, and terms as well as story outlines. Most of these resemblances will be noted in the text.

But the myths also contain ethnographic items which attest to the cultural gulf between the Mescalero and Lipan and to the unmistakable relation of Lipan to Jicarilla culture. It may be useful to call attention to one or two examples of such materials here. In Section VII (Tales Connected with Death) mention is made of the ghost or vakosh (vakoc) ; vakosh is a term descriptive of the material remains of the dead as distinguished from the breath or spirit. The term and description are applied by the Lipan and Jicarilla and, as far as I have been able to discover, by no other of these Apache tribes. In the same section of the volume the Lipan conception of the underworld or land of the dead is described. The underworld is said to be divided into north and south compartments, inhabited by the spirits of the sorcerers and of the good respectively. Fire and fog harass the wicked, and snakes and lizards are their only food. The Jicarilla have an identical picture of the afterworld, and, as far as I have been able to determine, they are the only other Apache group to entertain such a set of beliefs. In one of the warpath stories of this volume a Lipan who had been made captive by the enemy and escaped, refrains from entering the encampment before a purifying ceremony has been held over him. There is no trace of such a ceremony for the Mescalero and Chiricahua, but this duplicates exactly the Jicarilla procedure. A systematic review of the contents of this volume would reveal scores of elements which might be similarly compared and interpreted. A more comprehensive comparison will not be attempted now, however, for it can be more profitably pursued after the publication of the volumes of Chiricahua and Mescalero mythology which are now being prepared.

Enough evidence of various kinds has been submitted, nevertheless, to establish with high probability that the Lipan are an offshoot of a Lipan-Jicarilla group, that their line of migration took them east to the plains and south to the gulf, and that they were lately forced westward and northward, to be finally located with the Mescalero.

 

Opler, Morris E. (1940). Myths and legends of the Lipan Apache Indians. Memoirs of the American Folk-Lore Society (Vol. 36). New York: J. J. Augustin.

 

 


 

The Lipan Apaches of Texas and Northern Mexico and the Early Settlers of


San Antonio

 and

Zaragosa (Coahuila)

                      
 


TIMELINE 1600 – 1900

 

Underground Worlds: Native American Mythology

 

Mythology: Hopi Ant People, Snake People, Blue Kachina, Star Gods

 

The Apache and other Pueblo Indians, such as the Zunis and Hopi, have legends about their ancestors emerging from an underground world, generally after some cataclysmic event, as if a cycle in time, or another reboot in the programmed realities of the human experiment, always linked to star gods, or star people, who brought them here from outer space.

 Hopi Prophecy speaks of the return of

the Blue Kachina,

or

Star People at the end of this cycle of time.

reae more about Hopi

Hopi

The Hopi are a Native America Nation who primarily live on the 1.5 million acre Hopi Reservation in northeaster Arizona. The reservation is surrounded by the Navajo reservation. Hopis call themselves Hopitu- ‘The Peaceful People’.

The name Hopi is the shortened form of the title to what they called themselves, “Hopituh Sinom”, “the people of Hopi”. Hopi is a concept deeply rooted in the culture’s religion, spirituality, and its view of morality and ethics. To be Hopi is to strive toward this concept, but one never achieves in this life. This concept is one where you are in a state of total reverence and respect for all things, to be at peace with these things, and to live in accordance with the teachings of ‘maasaw’.

Hopis live in northeast Arizona at the southern end of the Black Mesa. A mesa is the name given to a small isolated flat-topped hill with three steep sides called the 1st< Mesa, 2nd Mesa, and the 3rd Mesa.  On the mesa tops are the Hopi villages called pueblos. The pueblo of Oraibi on the 3rd Mesa started in 1050, and is the oldest in North America that was lived in continuously.

 

 

AncestryEvidence suggest that the Hopi consist of the descendants of various groups that entered the country from the north, the east, and the south, and that a series of movements covered a period of probably three centuries, and perhaps considerably longer.

Their ancestors, the Anasazi, appear to have been related to the Aztecs of Mexico, and may have arrived in their current location 5 to 10 thousand years ago. In that time, they have developed an intricate ceremonial calendar that has helped them survive and be strong in a place that would not seem to have enough reliable water to sustain life.

Related to people of the various Pueblos to the east, the Hopis never actually had a single group identity–they were independent villages, sharing with the Zuni and other Pueblos a basic culture and view of the sacred, while sharing among themselves their own (Uto-Aztecan) language base.

 

 

LanguageAlthough the Hopi are composed of elements that must have spoken diverse tongues, their speech is readily recognized as a dialog of the Shoshonean language, which in various forms was spoken in a large part of the Great Basin between the Rocky mountains and the Sierra Nevada, in southwestern Oregon, and in southern California even to the coast and on Santa Catalina island; and which furthermore is undoubtedly allied to the great Aztecan language. A linguistic map would represent the Hopi as an isolated people surrounded by alien tongues

 

 

Homes Hopi Mesa Homes

Hopis live in pueblos that are made of stone and mud and stand several stories high. The Kivas are an underground chamber in the pueblo home that they used to talk and have religious ceremonies in. They used the kivas for 100 years. The center of the floor had a fire pit. You climb down a ladder to get to the south end where a bench was placed for spectators.

The walls of some Hopi houses are constructed of undressed stone fragments bound with mud plaster. The flat roof consists of beams resting on the tops of the walls, pole battens, rod and grass thatching, a layer of gumbo plaster, and a covering of dry earth. Most of the houses are more than single story, some as much as four stories. The upper apartments are reached by outside ladders.

 

 

WomenThe traditional Hopi are organized into matrilineal clans. When a man marries, the children from the relationship are members of his wife’s clan. The Bear Clan is one of the more prominent clans.

The women and men each have specific jobs or duties they perform. The women own the land and the house. They also cook and weave the baskets. The men plant and harvest, weave cloth, and perform the ceremonies.

When a child is born they get a special blanket and a perfect ear of corn. On the 20thday they take the child to the mesa cliff and hold it facing the rising sun. When the sun hits the baby is given a name.

 

 

MarriageThe traditional Hopi are organized into matrilineal clans. When a man marries, the children from the relationship are members of his wife’s clan. The Bear Clan is one of the more prominent clans. The Hopi, more than most Native American peoples, retain and continue to practice their traditional ceremonial culture. However, like other tribes, they are severely impacted by the ambient American culture.

A Hopi bride grinds corn for three days at her future husband’s house to show she has wife skills. The groom and his male relatives weave her wedding clothes. After they are finished, the bride to be walks home in one wedding outfit, and carries the other in a container. Women are also buried in their wedding outfit so when they entered the spirit world they would be dressed appropriately. A Hopi man wears several bead necklaces on his wedding day.

 

 

EconomyTraditionally the Hopi were highly skilled subsistence farmers. With the installation of electricity and the necessity of having a motor vehicle and the other things which can be purchased, the Hopi have been moving into a cash economy with many people seeking and holding outside jobs as well as earning money from traditional crafts.

 

 

CraftsArt is a way for the Southwestern Native Americans to communicate their dreams, visions, and beliefs to each other or to people today.

Pottery, clothing, and making baskets are just a portion of the great arts and crafts of the Southwest Native Americans. Their art used symbols and signs to represent their ideas, beliefs, dreams, and visions.

Pottery was made for everyday use, including cooking, storage, bathing, and religious ceremonies.They were painted and carved with designs that told a story.

Modern earthen ware is considerably softer and of coarser texture than the pieces that have been exhumed in large numbers from the ruins of this region. The most successful imitator of this ancient ware, who is not a Hopi at all, but the Tewa woman Nampeyo, of the village Hano, says that its superiority was obtained by the use of lignite, by which the prehistoric potters were able to fire their vessels for several days; but a well-informed traditionalist, on the contrary, asserts that it is the result of burying the clay in moist sand for a long time, perhaps two moons, which ’caused something in the clay to rot’.”

Rugs

Hopi Cross Rug

 

 

ClothingThe clothing they wore depended on what they did. They lived in a warm climate so they wore little clothing. They would dress in flowers and paint with feather headdresses. They also used clothing to signify their fighting skills.

The Southwest Indians were the most skilled in making baskets. They would decorate the baskets with colors and patterns. They could be very symbolic like the art they made.  The Hopi method of basket making has not changed for hundreds of years.

 

 

DietThe very first Southwest Native Americans hunted mammoths until they became extinct. Then people began to hunt buffalo, also known as bison, as well as collect wild plants for food. They also learned to grow maize, or corn, that was their most common grain, which became domesticated in Mexico.

Corn is the central food of daily life, and piki – paper thin bread made from corn and ash–is the dominant food at ceremonies. Corn relies on the farmer to survive, and the Hopi relies on the corn – all life is designed to be interrelated.

The Hopi Indians grew food similar to the Navajo Indians. They raised corn or maize as the basic food. The Hopi Indians based religious ceremonies on the corn they grew.They grew 24 different kinds of corn, but the blue and white was the most common.They also grew beans, squash, melons, pumpkins, and fruit.

 

 

Kachinas

Kachina dolls were carved out wood by the Zuni and Hopi tribes. There are over 300 different Kachinas. They are generally clothed in masks and costumes to look like the men who dressed up as Kachina spirits. They were given to children to teach them to identify the different parts of Kachina dolls, and the parts they play in tribal ceremonies.

The Kachinas, or Gods, were beings of a great might and power to the Native Americans. They were known to come down to Earth and help the native Americans tend their fields brining wisdom about agriculture, law and government. They physically interacted with the people themselves. There are drawings of them on cave walls.

The famous Hopi Prophecy speaks about the return of the Blue Kachina to herald in the Fifth Age of Man. This is not unlike any other culture who await the return of their god or creational force – Example – Jesus.

Hopi Kachina Dancer and Kachina Doll

 

 

Mythology Kokopelli is a god worshipped by many southeastern tribes. He is a humpbacked flautist. Among the Hopi, he brought the fetuses to pregnant women, and took part in many rituals relating to marriage.

Muyingwa is the god of germination.

Taiowa is the creator god. He made Sotuknang and ordered him to make the universe. The first world was called Topela and had land, water and air, as well as Koyangwuti (spider woman), who then created twins, Poqanghoya and Palongawhoya. They made rivers, oceans and mountains. Koyangwuti then made all organisms, but most of the men did not obey the gods, so Sotuknang killed them with a flood. Two more bad worlds were created and destroyed.

The fourth world, the modern world, is Tuwaqachi.

Tokpela was the endless, primordial space before creation. Good people go west and become kachinas, but there is no absolute connection between the former soul and the kachina.

 


Hopi Prophecies – Blue Star Kachina
 


Spider Women Legends
 

 

Hopi Myths

Myths From Hopi Stone Tablets

Myth 1: The Mission of Two Brothers

This Bow Clan chief had two grown sons. When they learned of their father’s misdeed, they were very sad. Their knowledge of the teachings which they had received from him was all in order. Now they were left alone to lead their people, for the very next day their father died.

They asked their mother to permit them to carry out the order of their instructions for an event of this nature. She replied that it was up to them, for their knowledge was complete. Upon agreement, the younger brother was to continue in search of Maasau’u, and to settle where he found him. There he would await the return of this older brother, who was to travel eastward toward the rising sun, where he would rest briefly. While resting, he must listen for the voice of his younger brother, who would expect him to come to his aid, for the change in the life pattern will have disrupted the way of life of his people. Under the pressure of a new ruler they will surely be wiped off the face of the earth unless he comes.

So today we are still standing firmly on the Great Spirit’s instructions. We will continue to look and pray toward the East for his prompt return. The younger brother warned the elder that the land and the people would change “But do not let your heart be troubled,” he said, “for you will find us. Many will turn away from the life plan of Maasau’u, but a few of us who are true to his teachings will remain in our dwellings. The ancient character of our heads, the shape of our houses, the layout of our villages, and the type of land upon which our village stands, and our way of life. All will be in order, by which you will find us.”

Before the first people had begun their migrations the people named Hopi were given a set of stone tablets. Into these tablets the Great Spirit inscribed the laws by which the Hopi were to travel and live the good way of life, the peaceful way. They also contain a warning that the Hopi must beware, for in time they would be influenced by wicked people to forsake the life plan of Maasau’u. It would not be easy to stand up against this, for it would involve many good things that would tempt many good people to forsake these laws. The Hopi would be led into a most difficult position. The stones contain instructions to be followed in such a case.

The older brother was to take one of the stone tablets with him to the rising sun, and bring it back with him when he hears the desperate call for aid. His brother will be in a state of hopelessness and despair. His people may have forsaken the teachings, no longer respecting their elders, and even turning upon their elders to destroy their way of life. The stone tablets will be the final acknowledgment of their true identity and brotherhood. Their mother is Sun Clan. They are the children of the sun.

So it must be a Hopi who travelled from here to the rising sun and is waiting someplace. Therefore it is only the Hopi that still have this world rotating properly, and it is the Hopi who must be purified if this world is to be saved. No other person anyplace will accomplish this. The older brother had to travel fast on his journey for there was not much time, so the horse was created for him. The younger brother and his people continued on in search of Maasau’u.

On their way they came to a land that looked fertile and warm. Here they marked their clan symbols on the rock to claim the land. This was done by the Fire Clan,the Spider Clan, and the Snake Clank. This place is know called Moencopi. They did not settle there at that time. While the people were migrating, Maasau’u was waiting for the first ones to arrive. In those days he used to take walks near the place where he lived, carrying a bunch of violet flowers (du-kyam-see) in his belt. One day he lost them along the way. When he went to look for them he found that they had been picked up by the Hornytoad Woman. When he asked her for the flowers she refused to give them back, but instead gave him her promise that she would help him in time of need. “I too have a metal helmet,” she told him, (possibly meaning that certain people with metal helmets would help the Hopi when they get into difficulty).

Often Maasau’u would walk about a half mile north of his du-pa-cha ( a type of temporary house) to a place where there lay a long rock which formed a natural shelter, which he must have picked as the place where he and the first people would find each other. While waiting there he would amuse himself by playing a game to test his skill, the name of which (Nadu-won-pi-kya), was to play an important part later on in the life of the Hopi, for it was here that the knowledge and wisdom of the first people was to be tested. Until recent times children used to play a similar game there, something like “hide-and-seek.” One person would hide, then signal by tapping on the rock, which would transmit the sound in a peculiar way so that the others could not tell exactly where the tapping was coming from. (Some years ago this rock was destroyed by government road builders.) It was here that they found Maasau’u waiting.

Before the migrations began Maasau’u had let it be known, though perhaps not by direct instructions, that whoever would find him first would be the leader there. Later it became clear that this was a procedure by which their true character would be specified.

When they found him, the people gathered and sat down with him to talk. The first thing they wanted to know was where he lived. He replied that he lived just north of there at a place called Oraibi. For a certain reason he did not name it fully. The full name is Sip-Oraibi, meaning something that has been solidified, referring to the fact that this is the place where the earth was made solid.

They asked permission to live there with him. He did not answer directly, for within them he saw evil. “It is up to you,” he said. “I have nothing here. My life is simple. All I have is my planting stick and my corn. If you are willing to live as I do, and follow my instructions, the life plan which I shall give you, you may live here with me, and take care of the land. Then you may have a long, happy, fruitful life.”

Then they asked him whether he would be their leader, thinking that thus they would be assured a peaceful life. “No,” he replied, “the one who led you here will be the leader until you fulfill your pattern of life,” (for he saw into their hearts and knew that they still had many selfish desires). “After that I will be the leader, but not before, for I am the first and I shall be the last.” Having left all the instructions with them, he disappeared.

 

Myth 2Chief Dan Evehema, Grandfather Martin Gashweseoma and son-in-law Emery Homes shared wisdom’s about the stones how they came to be and current events and where about of the sacred tablets. The presentation took over 2 hours but according to the Chief Martin & Emery to get the full details you would need 8 to 9 days. This is what was recorded of this conversation.

As Emery spoke of mankind’s future according to our Native Prophecies he unfolded the story of the five Hopi stone tablets, given by the creator long, long ago. One of these tablets was kept by the Creator.

Two tablets were kept by the Hopis themselves passed down from generation to generation and used to renew Holy vows of spiritual commitments to the people and the creator at special times of the year. Martin was the last one who held the great responsibility for its care, a duty that had evolved to him by default because his uncle had lost honor by an act of adultery and was therefore no longer worthy to be the caretaker. Miss fortune later came to Martin also in this quest.

He was instructed and trained by his uncle earlier that when certain signs in nature were observed, the tablet should be taken to Santa Fe, the first US capital in the West recognized by the Hopi people. The signs came, Emery explained as he translated Martins story, Chief Martin set in deep thought and prayer a sadness of the ages around him.

As Grandfather Martin has been taught, he watched for the sign. It was the middle of winter, and the peach tree came into full bloom. Desert flowers came into full bloom, and snakes were seen out when they should have been in hibernation. These were the signs he had been waiting for, his signal to take the tablet to Santa Fe. So a delegation was organized to go to Santa Fe to share this knowledge with other Spiritual leaders.

As this story unfolds his relatives objected strongly. They organized and assessed that he had done wrong in taking the stone to Santa Fe saying he had made grave errors in judgments and was not fit to have the stone, saying that it was in the wrong household. So they took the stone tablet from him by force. Now Martin and Emery, said as of that day they did not know where the stone is.

In asking what the tablets looked like the Elders explained that 4 of them were exactly the same, two were left with the Hopi people, two were given to the true brothers to bring back at a special time in history, along with other sacred items from the four directions, when the world reunites in peace. The fifth one the Elders tell us was kept by the Creator and was different markings. Similar to one on the poster of a Hinduism Today paper “Truth is One, Paths Are Many” Grandfather Martin said.

This is a great loss for the Elder and now his life is centered around finding the true Brothers and telling the world of the great prophecies of the Hopis, the Mayans and other civilizations. These were shared next as the elders explained to us about there commitment to the human race and mother earth Chief Martin would often say, “We are humans: we cannot eat the money.” We must plant our fields and pray for guidance honor all the ceremonials, we can eat the Corn. He then disclosed a package of pictographs, the main one the size of a road map, consisting of numerous papers tapped together all in a single strip that we rolled out, page after page until it was open, over 8 feet long.

Emery and Martin explained to us very patiently and slowly the Mayan pictographs. The story of the pictures in words sometimes Hopi sometimes English. Beginning in ancient times and ending with four possible pathways that mankind can choose from their actions as a collective group. The choices range from complete destruction and loss of sunlight, to less server circumstances, providing corruption and greed has not already gone to far. The Elders seemed less optimistic then we had all hoped. The main concerns of the Elders and Holy people was Starvation and Marshal Law both they are already seeing to close as a new reality.

On this day, still waiting for the true white brother, the Elders came together in a meeting when East meets West. Hopi spiritual leaders of Hotevilla Arizona hosted The Hindu delegation led by Satguru Sivaya Subramuniyaswami in a special prayer meeting at the corn fields at Chief Dan Evehema’s corn fields.

 

 

ReligionThe Hopi have been affected by missionary work by several religions and also by consumerism and alcoholism. Nevertheless there remains a traditionalist core.

The people of the Southwest, along with the Southeast had full-time religious leaders with shrines or temple buildings. Most Native Americans believe that in the universe there exists an Almighty, a spiritual force that is the source of all life. The Almighty belief is not pictured as a man in the sky, but is believed to be formless and exist in the universe. The sun is viewed as the power of the Almighty.

They are not worshipping the sun, but praying to the Almighty, and the sun is a sign and symbol for that. Native Americans show less interest in an afterlife unlike the Christians. They assume the souls of the dead go to another part of the universe where they have a new existence carrying on everyday activities like they were still alive. They are just in a different world.

The religious and ceremonial life of the Hopi centers in the kiva, which is simply a room, wholly or partly subterranean and entered by way of ladder through an opening in the flat roof. While the membership of the kiva consists principally of men and boys from certain clan or clans, there is no case in which all the members of a kiva belong to one clan- a condition inseparable from the provision that a man may change his kiva membership, and in fact made necessary by the existence of more clans than kivas. It is probable, nevertheless, that originally the kivas were clan institutions.”

Snake Priest

The Hopi or “Hopituh Shi-nu-mu” meaning “The Peaceful People” or the “Peaceful Little Ones” are a well know Indian Nation in Northern Arizona, especially known for their “Kachina Dolls”. The Navajo name for the Hopi is Anazazi which means “ancient enemies”. The Hopi’s are a very peaceful tribe whose reservation lies somewhat in the center of the Navajo Nation and although the co-exist because of their geography their relationship is somewhat strained because of their tribal histories.

The cliff painting of the Mesa Verde and other areas are said to be “guides” for their warriors and they claim that the “snake-shaped” mounds in the eastern United States were built by their ancestors.

The “Snake Dance” is performed even today although the picture is of a Snake Priest Circa 1890. The dance takes about two weeks to prepare and the snakes are gathered and watched over by the children. The snakes are usually rattle snakes and are dangerous but no harm seems to befall the children. Before the dance begins the dancers take an emetic (probably a sedative herb or hallucinogenic) and then dance with the snakes in their mouths. There is usually an Antelope Priest in attendance who helps with the dance, sometimes stroking the snakes with a feather or supporting their weight. After the dance the snakes are released to carry the prayers of the dancers.

Beside the trail that leads from the Hopi mesas to an ancient shrine where salt was gathered in the Grand Canyon, a large boulder bears the markings of clans which carved their emblems into the rock each time they passed on a pilgrimage.

From various quarters, the Hopi have brought with them in their migration from other regions or have borrowed from other pueblo a mass of religious practices, and the result is a complex presenting many anomalies and obscurities. They recognize a very large number of deities, and of none can it be said that he is supreme. The explanation may be that that each was the principal deity of some one group that entered into the making of the present Hopi people. Numerous ceremonies are performed at proscribed times, which are determined by the position of the rising sun with reference to certain landmarks or by the moon.

 

 

Hopi Medicine Wheel

In the Hopi Medicine Wheel of the Hopi prophecyof the four peoples of the Earth, the cardinal direction North represents the body, plants and animals, the color white and ‘white skinned peoples’, and Childhood. (can also represent birth, and/or meeting a stranger and learning to trust as in infancy, explained in Erik Erikson’s stages of Psychosocial development).

The East is held to represent the mind, air, the color yellow and ‘yellow skinned peoples’, learning the groups to which people belong and Adolescence.

The South holds the heart, fire, the color red and ‘red skinned peoples’, and Adulthood.

Finally West holds the spirit, water, the color blue or black, and ‘black-skinned peoples’ and Elderhood. West also represents the final life stage in the wheel, being an elder and passing on knowledge to the next generation so that the wheel may start again just like the circle it takes after.

In many other tribes, however, the Northern direction corresponds to Adulthood (the White Buffalo), the South represents Childhood (the Serpent), the West represents Adolescence (the Bear) and the Eastern direction represents Death and Re-birth (Eagle). In terms of social dynamics, community building and the use of Circles in Restorative Justice work, the four quadrants of the circle correspond to Introductions.

 

 

Star Knowledge – Ant People

Native Americans followed the movements of the celestial markers – much as we do today. They called it Star Knowledge. Beyond the land where they lived, was the sky, and that beyond were dimensional portals or sky holes.Beyond that was an area that they called the Ocean of Pitch, were the beauty of the night sky and the galaxies spun out towards them. Beyond that were the boundaries of the universe. And that set along the rim at the boundaries of the universe were 4 different exterrestrial groups.

The Hopis called the Pleiadians the Chuhukon, meaning those who cling together. They considered themselves direct descendents of the Pleiadians. The Navajos named the Pleiades the Sparkling Suns or the Delyahey, the home of the Black God. The Iroquois pray to them for happiness. The Cree came to have come to earth from the stars in spirit form first and then became flesh and blood.

Each year a medicine man performs the green corn dance where he takes 7 ears of corn from 7 fields of the 7 clans to insure a healthy harvest. Early Dakota stories speak of the Tiyami home of the ancestors as being the Pleiades. Astronomy tells us that the Pleiades rise with the sun in May and that when you die your spirit returns south to the seven sisters.

They believe that Mythic Mountain is actually the home of the Kachinas. This mountain top is a sacred one. Being the home of the kachina spirits it is the place where all of the large mythic beings they honor in their rituals land. “We come as clouds to bless the Hopi people” is a quote passed from generation to generation.

There are some remarkable drawings that appear to be luminous discs of light in the petroglyphs all along the south west. Photographs of Billy Meier’s Pleiadian space and beam ships look just like these rock petroglyphs from long ago.

 


 

The Snake People and the Ant People

Petroglyphs

The Apache and other Pueblo Indians, such as the Zunis and Hopi, have legends about their ancestors emerging from an underground world, generally after some cataclysmic event, as if a cycle in time, or another reboot in the programmed realitiesof the human experiment, always linked to star gods, or star people, who brought them here from outer space.

They speak of the Snake People (metaphor for human DNA) and the Ant People (gray aliens,) who protected them beneath the surface. Physical reality is a metaphor for ‘beneath the surface’. To rise above is to return to higher consciousness, through the Back Hole (Eye of Time) or the Stargate of human creation.

Hopi Prophecyspeaks of the return of the Blue Kachina, or Star People at the end of this cycle of time.





Imprint of a gray alien placed in my crystal, while I meditated in the mountains of Sedona.

 

 

Present DayToday there are 12 Hopi villages on or below the three mesas, with Moencopi to the west (on Dinetah), and Keams Canyon to the east. Each village has its own village chief, and each contributes to the annual cycle its own ceremonies. Each village presents its own distinct cast of katsinam, and each village has maintained its own balance of engagement with the Euro-American culture and traditional Hopi practices and views.

Today, the Hopi Indians are divided into to traditional –which preserve ancient lands and customs, and new – who work with outsiders. The Hopi Indians today love their traditions, arts, and land, but also love the modern American life. Their kids go to school and they use medical centers.  The Hopi live and work outside of the reservations. Troubles with the Navajo whose reservations surround the Hopi still continue today.

There are now eight Hopi pueblos, all of them on the tops of mesas. The Hopi villages were established on their present almost inaccessible sites for purposes of defense; and with the same object in view the builders formerly never left a door in the outer walls of the first story, access to the rooms invariably being through hatchways in the roof.

They speak of the Snake People (metaphor for human DNA) and the Ant People (gray aliens,) who protected them beneath the surface. Physical reality is a metaphor for ‘beneath the surface’. To rise above is to return to higher consciousness, through the Back Hole (Eye of Time) or the Stargate of human creation.


 

ca. 1600− Lipan Apaches enter Texas from Great Plains; claim area around San Antonio as homeland and call it “Many Houses;” Lipans develop a tribal identity−Lipan means “Light Gray People.”
ca. 1650− Lipans develop a trade route to the Pecos Pueblo by following Rio Grande upriver to the Pecos. Lipans call Pecos Pueblo “White House.” Look the map

 

 

Trans peco

 

The lipan Indian picture

Indians, Missionaries, Soldiers, and Settlers:
History of the El Paso Valley

 

Missions and presidio at El Paso del Norte. Inset of 1727 map by Francisco Álvarez Barreiro, “Plano Corographñco de el Reyno y Provincia de el Nuevo Mexico una de las Nueva España…”. Paintings of Indios and Spaniards from O’Crouley 1747. Map courtesy of the Center for American History, University of Texas at Austin (di03656). See full map.

 

The history of the El Paso missions and settlements is one of amalgamation of European and native cultures and, with few exceptions, the loss of identities of once-distinct native groups. Before the arrival of the Spanish, El Paso had been inhabited for thousands of years by hunting and gathering peoples. Around A.D. 400, native peoples of the area began living in pithouse villages and experimenting with crops. Through time they built larger and more complex villages and by A.D. 1200, they were living in pueblos, relying heavily on crops for food, and participating in trade with peoples across the American Southwest and northern Mexico. Around A.D. 1450, the pueblos of El Paso were abandoned and the people who remained in the region reverted to the mobile hunting and gathering lifestyle of their ancestors. In their early expeditions to the El Paso area, the Spanish explorers encountered two groups of Native Americans whom they referred to as the Mansos and the Sumas. The Mansos occupied the Rio Grande in the immediate area of El Paso, north to Las Cruces. The Sumas were found along the Rio Grande southeast of El Paso, as well as in portions of northern Chihuahua, Mexico. Both groups lived in small communities, or rancherías, of primitive structures consisting of straw, brush, or poles. They may have also slept outside on beds of grass while in more temporary camps. Neither practiced horticulture, but subsisted primarily on rabbits, rats, fish, mesquite beans, mescal, prickly pear, agave, yucca, and various roots and seeds. Both groups wore body paint and little clothing, and carried bows, arrows, and clubs. The Spanish described the Sumas as participating in ceremonies or communal gatherings involving intoxication. Whether this involved some form of fermented beverage or hallucinogen, such as peyote, is unclear. The first recorded Spanish expedition, or entrada, to pass through El Paso was the Rodríguez/Chamuscado entrada of 1581. Hernán Gallegos, chronicler of the expedition, described the area south of present-day El Paso as suitable for ranches and cultivation, but reported no people living there. Two years later, Antonio de Espejo and his expedition camped in an area south of El Paso which he described as having very good land and climate, with buffalo herds nearby, abundant game and birds, mineral deposits, many forests and pasture lands, rich natural deposits of salt, and abundant water in large marshes and pools. Here they encountered Sumas who brought the explorers such large quantities of mesquite, corn, and fish that they feasted for three days, and much of it still went to waste. These people, who must have numbered more than a thousand men and women, and who are settled in their rancherías and grass huts, came out to receive us…. Each one brought us his present of mesquital, which is made of a fruit like the carob bean, fish of many kinds, which are very plentiful in those lagoons, and other kinds of their food, in such quantity that the greater part spoiled because the amount they gave us was so great.
–Antonio de Espejo, 1583

The Entry of Don Juan de Oñate

The most important entrada to pass through El Paso was the Oñate entrada. In 1595, King Phillip II of Spain appointed Don Juan de Oñate as governor, captain general, caudillo, discoverer, and pacifier of New Mexico, a territory that had not yet been conquered. The purpose of the entrada was both to find riches for Spain and to convert the native population to Christianity. Oñate was commanded to “attract” the native people he encountered to the Catholic faith with peace, friendship, and good treatment.

The promise of titles, riches, and adventure coaxed many Spaniards like Oñate to financially support their own expeditions. The son of a wealthy silver mine developer, Oñate arranged to lead 400 soldiers, 130 families, 1000 head of cattle, 1000 head of sheep, and 150 mares on a trek across the dune seas of the Chihuahuan desert. In late January 1598, Onate and his party departed from Santa Barbara in southern Chihuahua, Mexico. While previous Spanish expeditions to the Trans-Pecos region (of what is now Texas) and New Mexico had followed an established northbound course along the Río Conchos, Oñate chose his route as a shortcut. Crossing the desert resulted in many hardships as the company struggled for survival. They traveled for four days without shelter or fresh water in hopeless search of “el paso por las moñtanas”-a pass through the mountains-that would allow them to continue west. To their relief they came upon the Rio Grande and followed it upstream to present-day San Elizario, Texas.

On this site on April 30 1598, Oñate held a ceremony to formally take possession of all the land surrounding the Rio Grande in the name of King Phillip II of Spain. Oñate gave a sermon thanking God for delivering them safely across the harsh desert. His speech was witnessed and a written copy notarized by Juan Perez de Donis, royal notary and secretary of the jurisdiction and expedition, so that it could become a legal claim to the land for the King in the eyes of Spain. The ceremony, an event also known as “La Toma,” marked the beginning of over 200 years of Spanish rule in Texas. The celebration was concluded with a play written by Captain Marcos Farfán de los Gados. Although copies of the play have not survived, it is likely the first theatrical piece written in what is now the United States.

On May 1, 1598, the entrada continued traveling up the Rio Grande and within three days met their first native people. They were armed with bow and arrow, but offered as their first words “manxo, manxo, micos, micos,” which meant “peaceful ones” and “friends.” From these words, the Spanish derived the name, Mansos. The Indians also made the Sign of the Cross, considered by some to be evidence that the expeditions of Francisco Vasquez Coronado or Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca had passed through El Paso. The Mansos led the company to a ford on the river that they commonly used and helped them to cross it. The entrada then continued up the river until it reached present-day El Paso. Here, the river flowed through a break in the mountains. Termed “El Paso del Río del Norte—the pass of the north—it would serve as the Spanish gateway to the West.

Soon after leaving the pass, the entrada encountered a Manso village. Oñate and his men presented the Mansos with clothing and the Mansos repaid them with fish freshly caught from the river. In an act of thanksgiving, Oñate arranged for a feast to be held in honor of the company’s miraculous survival and asked the Mansos to be their guests. The banquet included fish, duck, and geese as well as supplies from the entrada’s stores. Though not a harvest celebration, this act of thanksgiving was the first to be celebrated in what is now the United States.

The entrada continued well into present-day New Mexico where Oñate established the first European settlements in the region. He sent out scouting parties in all directions to search for gold and silver, but they returned empty-handed. With no gold, silver, or other significant resources to be gained, the company fell into disarray. Oñate’s soldiers began to demand tribute from the Pueblo people of New Mexico. When the people of the Acoma pueblo refused and rose up against the Spanish, Oñate cruelly punished them by killing 800 people, enslaving 500, and cutting the left foot off of all men over the age of 25. Formal charges were brought against Oñate for mismanagement which claimed that he had become oblivious to the needs of the colonists and falsified information about the entrada’s findings in reports to the King. In 1607 Oñate resigned command of New Mexico and returned to Spain to face charges.

Don Juan de Oñate is a controversial historical figure. To the Spanish, he was the “pacifier of the west,” credited with establishing Spain’s legal claim to New Spain, opening a portal to the west, and colonizing New Mexico. To the native people of New Mexico, however, he was a cruel tyrant who invaded their lands.

Establishment of Missions

After the founding of Santa Fe in 1609, El Paso became a critical point in the long north-south route of communication and trade (soon to be known as the Camino Real) between the Mexican interior and the missions and Spanish settlements of the province of New Mexico. The Franciscan Father Custodian Alonso de Benavides spent much time in the El Paso area during the early part of the 17th century, and recommended that a mission and presidio be built among the Mansos to convert and settle them, as well as guard the highway to New Mexico and develop mines and farms in the area.

Between 1656 and 1659, the conversion of the Mansos of El Paso and the nearby Sumas and Janos began in earnest. Fray García de San Francisco, Fray Francisco de Salazar, and a group of Christian Piros from New Mexico began the aggregation of most of the Manso rancherías into settled habitations. In 1659, they established Mission Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe del Rio del Norte de los Mansos on the south side of the Rio Grande in present-day Ciudad Juárez for the Mansos. In 1665, Fray García and Fray Benito de la Natividad established the missions of San Francisco de la Toma for the Sumas and La Soledad for the Janos. Guadalupe de los Mansos was situated at a strategic location at the pass of the Rio Grande and became the mother church for El Paso. Over the next several years, the crude structures of the early complex were replaced with more permanent buildings. At a dedication ceremony of its church in 1668, 400 Mansos were present. In addition to the local Mansos, the mission served Piros, Sumas, Tanos, Tiguas, Tompiros, Apaches, and Jumanos who had been forced to flee their homelands by famine, disease, and warfare. By 1680, the mission ministered to over 2,000 native people.

Exodus from the North

A violent upheaval among the native peoples of the upper Rio Grande missions in New Mexico brought drastic change to the missions of El Paso. The Pueblo Revolt of 1680 left more than 400 Spanish colonists, 21 Franciscan missionaries, and 346 native people dead in New Mexico. Santa Fe was abandoned and more than 2,000 Spanish refugees and 317 Piros, Tiguas, Tompiros, Tanos, and Jemez retreated to El Paso. It is not clear whether these native people were loyal to the Spanish or were their slaves and hostages. The native people settled at Guadalupe de los Mansos while the Spanish settled in camps at San Pedro de Alcántara, Real del Santisimo Sacramento, and San Lorenzo de la Toma. Governor Antonio de Otermín made an attempt to reconquer New Mexico in the winter of 1681-1682, but was unsuccessful. On his trip back to El Paso, Otermín stopped at Isleta and burned the Tigua Pueblo there, taking its 385 residents hostage. Only 305 survived the trip to El Paso.

The Spanish now realized that the reconquest of New Mexico was not going to happen quickly and made arrangements for an indefinite stay, establishing El Paso as the temporary capital of New Mexico. Because they were considered temporary settlers, the New Mexicans were permitted to plant their crops wherever they considered it most convenient. They soon began to encroach on lands that belonged to the Mansos, Sumas, and Janos, making for uneasy neighbors. The large number of captive Tiguas now in El Paso further increased tensions between the native people and Spanish. The situation worsened when Apache raiders began to shift their activities south, from the recently abandoned New Mexico missions to El Paso.

In 1682, Otermín attempted to stabilize the situation by founding the missions of Corpus Christi de la Ysleta (Ysleta del Sur) for the Tiguas, San Antonio de Senecú for the Piros and Tompiros, and Nuestra Señora de la Limpia Conceptión del Socorro for the Piros, Tanos, and Jemez. These missions, particularly Socorro, strongly resembled the missions of New Mexico in their construction materials and use of native decorative elements.

In 1683, newly elected Governor Jironza Petríz de Cruzate established the Presidio de Nuestra Señora del Pilar y Glorioso San José at San Pedro de Alcántara and, with Fray Nicolas López, reorganized the Spanish and native settlements, establishing two new missions for the Sumas called Santa Gertrudis del Ojito de Samalayuca and Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe de los Sumas. The Spanish now lived at San Lorenzo, Ysleta, San Pedro, and Señor San José, a new settlement at the presidio. The Piros resided at Socorro and Senecú, the Tompiros at Senecú, the Sumas at San Francisco, Santa Gertrudis, and Guadalupe de los Sumas, the Mansos at Guadalupe de los Mansos, the Tiguas at Sacramento and Ysleta, the Janos at La Soledad, and the Tanos and Jemez at Socorro.

Revolt in El Paso

But the establishment of missions and a presidio did little to quell the unrest of the native people of El Paso. Along with Indians of northern Chihuahua, they were pushed over the edge by widespread famine in the winter of 1683-1684, caused by the strain that the influx of people to the area had put on local resources. In the spring of 1684, the Mansos revolted along with the Sumas, Janos, Julimes, Apaches, Conchos, and other groups, while the Piros, Tiguas, and a small number of Mansos remained loyal to the Spanish. Many of the disaffected were young men 20-30 years old who had been inspired by the success of the New Mexico Pueblo Revolt. In El Paso, the settlements of Socorro, Santa Gertrudis, and San Francisco participated in the revolt. Most of the missionized Mansos deserted El Paso and gathered at the rancherías of the unconverted Mansos and Sumas.

The revolt was so devastating that Cruzate was forced to move the Presidio San José closer to Guadalupe de los Mansos at the pass of the Rio Grande and gather all of the Spanish and native people who remained loyal around it for protection. It was renamed the Presidio Paso del Rio and a Spanish settlement called Paso del Norte sprung up around it. San Lorenzo, Socorro, Senecú, and Ysleta were relocated to the area of the presidio and San Pedro, San José, and Guadalupe de los Sumas were abandoned. Santa Gertrudis, San Francisco, and Sacramento had been destroyed in the revolt and were not rebuilt. Driven by hunger, the Sumas returned late in 1684 to Guadalupe de los Sumas, but many of the Mansos continued to revolt until 1686. Most of the native people who participated in the revolt never returned to the missions of El Paso. They had been brought closer together by their experience and developed a common identity as “Apache,” which came to mean hostile bands that opposed Spanish ways.

In 1691, the mission of Nuestro Padre San Francisco was established for the Mansos who remained in El Paso. In early 1692, the mission of San Diego de los Sumas was established to replace Guadalupe de los Sumas. In the spring and summer of that year, newly elected Governor Diego de Vargas, 40 Spanish soldiers, and 50 Tigua and Piro warriors reconquered New Mexico. The following year, 500 Spanish and native families returned to New Mexico, depleting the populations of many of the El Paso settlements. The native population was further reduced at the end of the century by a smallpox epidemic.

Life in the Missions

The native people who remained in El Paso lived in clusters of jacal structures loosely arranged around central plazas in the vicinity of the missions. They served the friars of the missions by working their fields, tending their gardens, bringing them firewood, and performing various domestic tasks for them. They also served as wage laborers, and sometimes forced laborers, for building projects. Though corn continued to be their most important crop, the mission inhabitants adopted European cultigens and livestock, such as wheat, various fruits, cows, goats, sheep, pigs, and chickens. The Franciscan visitor general praised the work of the native peoples in his 1754 report:

The Indians of [Ysleta] have their gardens adorned with beautiful grapevines, peach trees, apple trees, and good vegetables, and the garden of the convent imitates them in providing delight to the eyes and satisfaction to the taste. All the cultivation is due to the annual presence of the gardener and the sons [of the mission], who come to the convent every week with the boys needed for the daily cleaning of the cells; they also provide the other workers – a bellringer, porter, cook, two sacristans, and the Indian women needed to grind the wheat.
–Fray Miguel de San Juan Nepomuceno y Trigo, 1754

Continuing traditions that stretched back into prehistoric times, they made tools of chipped stone, using raw materials procured from local gravel deposits. They also revived the earlier tradition of making brownware utility vessels, using local clays. They still depended to differing degrees on wild resources, such as mesquite, prickly pear, deer, rabbit, antelope, and various bird species, and used riverine species such as turtle, fish, and shellfish as supplemental resources.

In 1707, the mission of Santa María Magdalena was established for the Sumas, but they rose up in revolt against the Spanish in 1710, then fled to the Organ Mountains to join the Apaches. In 1726, three Suma groups were settled at Guadalupe de los Sumas, which had been revived, Carrizal in northeastern Chihuahua, and San Lorenzo, which had previously been a Spanish settlement. Later that year, non-missionized Sumas revolted with the Apaches and Cholomes. The Spanish established the mission of Nuestra Señora Santa María de la Caldas for these Sumas in 1730. The Sumas who settled at the mission revolted in 1745 killing one Spaniard, and again in 1749 destroying the mission and fleeing to join the other Sumas in the mountains. The mission at San Lorenzo was abandoned by the Sumas in 1754, but resettled by a different group of Sumas in 1765.

 

 

 

 

 Artist’s depiction of native people of the Rio Grande. The Sumas, characterized by tattooed or painted faces, and the Mansos, known for their distinctive red-plastered hair, were groups that early Spanish explorers encountered in the El Paso area. The Mansos were so named because their first words to the Oñate expedition were “manxo, manxo, micos, micos,” which meant “peaceful ones” and “friends.” Photograph of display, El Paso Museum of Archeology, by Susan Dial.

 

 

Historic Timeline

  • ·  1581   Rodríguez/Chamuscado
                   entrada
  • ·  1583   Espejo entrada
  • ·  1598   Oñate entrada
  • ·  1609   Santa Fe established
  • ·  1659   Guadalupe de los Mansos mission established

 

 Passage of the Rio Grande, as shown in a circa 1850s lithograph. When the Oñate entrada reached present-day El Paso, it found that the river flowed through a break between the mountains. Named “El Paso del Río del Norte,” the pass would serve as the Spanish doorway to the West.

 

 In an act of thanksgiving for their safe passage across the Chihuahuan desert, the Oñate entrada arranged for a feast to be held and asked the Mansos to be their guests. This thanksgiving was the first to be celebrated in what is now the United States, a full 23 years before that of the Pilgrims at the Plymouth Colony. Painting by Jose Cisneros, courtesy of the University of Texas at El Paso Library and the artist.

 

 During the 1650s, Spanish priests began converting the Mansos, Sumas, and Janos of El Paso to Christianity and settling them in missions. Photo of mural at Guadalupe church in Juarez by Margaret Howard.

 

 “The Plaza and Church of El Paso,” painted by artist A. de Vauducourt during the 1850s, depicts the mission of Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe de los Mansos. Founded for the Mansos in 1659, the mission was the first to be established in the El Paso area. Today the carefully restored church stands in downtown Ciudad Juárez. Click to see the church as it appears today.

 

 Map of significant towns and pueblos during the Pueblo Revolt of 1680. Following the violent upheaval, a large number of Tigua, Piro, Tompiro, Tano, and Jemez refugees and hostages accompanied the Spanish to El Paso where the missions of Corpus Christi de la Ysleta, San Antonio de Senecú, and Nuestra Señora de la Limpia Conceptión del Socorro were established for them. This map depicts Ysleta and Socorro in their present-day locations on the north bank of the Rio Grande. Image from Martinez 2000, reprinted by permission of the El Paso Community Foundation.

 

 The mud-plastered jacal structures and outdoor ovens in this early 1900s photograph are probably very similar to those constructed by the native people of El Paso in the early 18th century. They were loosely arranged around central plazas in the vicinity of the missions. Photo from the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History.

 

 Corpus Christi de la Ysleta del Sur was established for the Tiguas in 1682. Though it has been at the mercy of floods and fires over the years, the mission and church were rebuilt on successive occasions. Ysleta and nearby Mission Socorro church are the two oldest, continuously active parishes in Texas. Photograph by Susan Dial.

 

 Saint Anthony of Padua, patron saint of the original Tigua mission and pueblo of Isleta, New Mexico, and the new mission and pueblo of Ysleta, Texas. Despite several changes to the mission’s name throughout the years, the Tiguas always considered Saint Anthony, who died in 1231, to be their patron saint and protector.

 

 Grapes growing on a Spanish arbor. In addition to their own domesticates, the native people of El Paso grew European crops, such as wheat, grapes, peaches, and other fruits. During his visit to El Paso in 1760, Bishop Don Pedro Tamarón y Romeral said of the missions that, “They maintain a large number of vineyards, from which they make generoso wines even better than those from Parras.. It is delightful country in summer..” Photograph by Carly Whelan.

 

 

 

 Inset from ca. 1740s map of New Mexico showing missions, presidios, and settlements along the Rio del Norte and El Paso valley (the label, Riego de las Missiones, refers to the irrigation canals emanating from the river). Shown are San Lorenzo (17); Ysleta del Sur (18); Socorro del Sur (19); Santa Maria de las Caldas (21) as well as the Presidio del Paso del Norte (15). The small structure shown as 20 may be Hacienda de los Tiburcios which was later the site of the Presidio and settlement of San Elizario. The map was drawn by Fray Juan Miguel Menchero following an inspection tour of the province during the 1740s.

 

Defense against Apache Raiders

Apache raids for livestock became common in El Paso during the first half of the eighteenth century. They increased after 1760, due to Spanish military pressure in New Mexico, pressure from Comanche groups in the east, and stress brought on by drought and the Spanish slave trade for the silver mines. During the 1770s, the line of presidios along the frontier of New Spain was relocated by the Spanish government for more effective defense against raids by hostile Apache groups. The presidio at Paso del Norte was relocated to Carrizal in 1773 and the Presidio de Nuestra Señora de las Caldas de Guajoquilla was relocated from Jiménez in northeast Chiahuahua to the Valle de San Elceario in 1774. In 1789 the Presidio de San Elceario, or San Elizario as it came to be known, was moved 60 kilometers (some 37 miles) upriver to the abandoned site of the Hacienda of Los Tiburcios. After several years of construction, the presidio and church of Nuestra Señora del Pilar y el Glorioso San José were completed in 1793.

The Spanish attempted to coax peaceful Apache groups into settlement around the new presidio by offering them rations. Some Mescalero Apaches from southern New Mexico accepted the invitation, but many groups refused. Others pretended to be interested in peace only to receive rations from the presidio, then left to raid other settlements. The Spanish government responded to the failure of the frontier presidios to protect its people from attack by launching more frequent campaigns against hostile Apache groups and encouraging them to fight with each other. But this only caused the Apache groups to increase their attacks against the frontier settlements of New Spain, particularly Socorro and San Elizario. Despite frequent attacks, the settlement of San Elizario quickly sprung up around the presidio, soon becoming second only to Paso del Norte in population in El Paso. Apache raids became a permanent fixture of life at El Paso until 1880, when the last hostile Apache groups were finally defeated by Mexican and American forces.

In the 1780s, a major smallpox epidemic ravaged both the Spanish and native people of El Paso, reducing the Sumas to extinction. The disease was not brought under control until vaccinations became available in 1805. The only settlements that remained in El Paso at the start of the nineteenth century were Guadalupe de los Mansos, Paso del Norte, San Elizario, San Lorenzo, Senecú, Ysleta, and Socorro. Three years after Mexican independence from Spain in 1821, the settlements of El Paso became part of Chihuahua. In 1829, a devastating flood changed the course of the Rio Grande. The old river channel continued to flow trapping Socorro, Ysleta, and San Elizario on an island for several years.

Becoming American

In the middle of the 19th century, El Paso became a center for trade between the United States and Mexico. A customs house was established in Paso del Norte in 1835 to regulate the caravans traveling from Chihuahua to Santa Fe and back. This trade route was soon connected to Saint Louis, Missouri, and Anglo entrepreneurs flocked to El Paso to make their fortunes as merchants, traders, and freighters. In 1836, Texas won its independence from Mexico and claimed the Rio Grande as its western boundary. The boundary was finalized by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 and American troops were sent to El Paso to enforce the claim. With the troops came an influx of Anglo officials, adventurers, and settlers. After the discovery of gold in California the following year, El Paso became a major jumping off point for Americans headed west. Many of them decided to remain in El Paso and soon five settlements had been founded on the Texas side of the river, including one directly across from Paso del Norte called Franklin. In 1859, Franklin was renamed El Paso, causing a considerable amount of confusion until Paso del Norte was renamed Ciudád Juarez in 1888. When the Rio Grande finished changing its course in 1852, it left Socorro, Ysleta, and San Elizario on the north side of the river, making them legally part of Texas. As a result, Ysleta became the oldest mission and pueblo in Texas.

The influx of Anglos to El Paso in the 19th century created tension with the Hispanic and native inhabitants of the area, at times leading to violent clashes, such as the San Elizario Salt War of 1877. The most contentious issue between the two groups was their differing laws regarding land transactions and property ownership. In 1751, King Charles V of Spain had issued each pueblo in New Spain a land holding that was to be free from trespass and settlement by non-native peoples. The protected status of this land was reaffirmed several times by Spanish law during the late 18th century, and by Mexican law during the early 19th century. In 1840, Texas adopted English common law, but recognized land grants that had been issued under Spanish and Mexican law. As Anglos began to flood into El Paso, however, they demanded that the Hispanic and native landholders provide legal titles to prove their ownership of the land. Legal titles were very expensive to obtain, thus many landholders could not prove that the land they occupied had been granted to them under Spanish or Mexican law. Those without legal titles were removed from the land to make way for Anglo settlers.

Land owned by native people fell under the jurisdiction of the U.S. federal government, but the native people of El Paso had great difficulty getting their status recognized. By the mid 19th century, most native groups of El Paso had intermarried with each other and the Spanish to such an extent that they had lost their ethnic identity. The Tiguas were the only distinctive native group left in El Paso, but the Texas government would not recognize them. Texas regarded the Tiguas as “inhabitants,” rather than “Indians,” meaning that their land could be acquired by the state under the doctrine of eminent domain. Although they originally had been granted more than 35 square miles of land by the Spanish, rights to this land had been in dispute over the years and much of it lost. In 1871, the Texas Legislature illegally incorporated the Ysleta Pueblo and its land into El Paso County, then seized most of the land under eminent domain. In the next three years, 304 conveyances of Tigua land were made to Anglo settlers. The act of incorporation was reversed in 1874, but in the two months before it took effect, another 254 conveyances took place, leaving the Tiguas with almost no land.

In 1881, the railroad arrived in the tiny town of El Paso. Within months, the town had been linked by rail to Santa Fe, Mexico City, and both coasts of the United States. Railroad service was the key to regional commercial and agricultural development at the time, and by 1890 El Paso had been transformed into a bustling frontier community of more than 10,000 people. Though the coming of the railroad meant prosperity for the Anglos of El Paso, it caused conditions to worsen for its few remaining native people. After being stripped of their land, many native people had turned to cottage industries to support themselves, but cheap industrial products shipped in on the railroad soon replaced the demand for native handicrafts.

Though the population of El Paso had been a heterogeneous mix of Spaniards and many different native groups after the Pueblo Revolt of 1680, the native people slowly lost their identities during the following centuries. The native groups of Socorro were the first to intermingle with the Spanish and each other, and by the end of the 18th century they referred to themselves largely as mestizo. By the middle of the 19th century most of the native groups of El Paso had lost their ethnic identities, and by the end of it the settlements of Ysleta, Senecú, San Lorenzo, and Socorro resembled any other Mexican town. Though the people of Ysleta identified themselves as Tiguas and the people of Senecú as Piros, they could no longer speak their native languages and could not explain the significance behind their rituals. Some in the El Paso area still identified themselves as Mansos and Apaches, but engaged in the same rituals as the Tiguas and Piros. San Lorenzo and Socorro had been thoroughly Mexicanized and their inhabitants did not identify themselves as native people at all. During the 20th century, those who wished to preserve their native heritage joined the Tiguas in Ysleta, the only native group who still maintained any sense of their identity. Today the Tiguas are the only surviving native group in El Paso and they observe celebrations deriving from native and Catholic traditions.

 Lipan Apache on the trail, drawn circa 1858 during a U.S. Mexican border survey. Apache raids became common in El Paso during the first half of the 18th century and increased after 1760, due to Spanish military pressure in New Mexico, pressure from Comanche groups in the east, and stress brought on by drought and the Spanish slave trade for the silver mines.

 

 In 1789 the Presidio de San Elizario was established in present-day San Elizario to protect the people of the El Paso area from Apache raids. This image, from “A Personal Narrative of Explorations and Incidents” by John Russell Bartlett, was drawn in 1850 after the structure had fallen into ruins.

 

 In 1793 the church Nuestra Señora del Pilar y el Glorioso San José was completed adjacent to the Presidio de San Elizario. The settlement of San Elizario sprung up around the presidio and church, soon becoming second only to Paso del Norte in population in the El Paso area. The structure shown was restored in 1877. Historic American Buildings Survey photo, Library of Congress.

 

 Shrine to Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe in the Ysleta church. The native people of El Paso integrated Catholicism with their own religions to create a unique system of beliefs that can still be seen today in Tigua religious ritual. Photograph by Susan Dial.

 

 Inset of boundary map between the United States and Mexico, reflecting changes under the Treaty of Dec. 30, 1853, as surveyed by William H. Emory, U.S. Commissioner in 1855. The movement of the Rio Grande to a new channel south of its original course (denoted as Old River or Rio Viejo) effectively brought the towns and missions of Ysleta, Socorro, and San Elizario into Texas and the United States. Map courtesy of National Archives.
See larger version and full map.

 

 By the end of the nineteenth century, most native people in El Paso had lost their native identity and considered themselves mestizos. During the twentieth century, those who wished to preserve their native heritage joined the Tiguas in Ysleta. Today the Tiguas are the only surviving native group in El Paso. Photograph by Bob Parvin. Courtesy of the Texas Historical Commission.
ca. 1670− In response to severe drought, Lipan tribe splits into 2 divisions: Plains Lipans (who move into upper Colorado River region) & Forest Lipans (who return to San Antonio area). Plains Lipans acquire horses from Jumanos and pueblos of New Mexico. Forest Lipans acquire horses from pueblo of La Junta (Presidio, TX).
1674− Mission San Ildefonso de la Paz founded on Rio Escondido of Coahuila near later site of villa of Zaragosa. San Ildefonso soon abandoned.
1700− Comanches enter Texas and begin to contest the Plains Lipans for control of the high plains of Texas.
1703− Mission San Francisco Solano revived on site of older San Ildefonso mission (Coahuila).
1708− San Francisco Solano moved to the Rio Grande.
1716− Presidio San Antonio de Béxar and small church founded at San Pedro Springs (Texas) but both burn down within 2 years.
May 1718− Béxar presidio moved to a site west of the San Antonio River. The Solano mission on the Rio Grande is dismantled and moved to the San Antonio River; renamed Mission San Antonio de Valero.
1715−1720 Comanches and Lipans fight epic 9-day battle in Red River Basin. Lipan corpses are “left in piles like leaves.”
1720−1725 Lipans begin sporadic raids against San Antonio; horse thefts escalate- up to ¼ of presidio’s saddle horse herd stolen at one time. Presidio troops begin retaliatory military campaigns. Nicholas Flores y Valdez follows Lipan horse thieves to Brazos River, attacks a ranchería, captures Lipan prisoners and recovering horses.
1726−1730 All quiet at San Antonio; no raids.
1730− 56 Canary Island settlers arrive at San Antonio; are offered land west of presidio but deem area too exposed to Lipan raids. Settle between presidio and mission. Found villa of San Fernando de Béxar.
1730− Lipan Apaches declare war on San Antonio; attacks escalate on anyone who ventures out of villa.
1731− On Sept. 18th, over 500 Lipan warriors ambush and attack 20 Spanish troops. Just when Spaniards think the end is near, Lipans break off attack.
1745− On the night of June 30th, over 300 Lipans attack the Béxar presidio, setting fire to many buildings; when soldiers fire guns, Lipans break off and run down side streets seeking to attack from another direction; the Apache attackers are run off by a large body of mission Indians.
1749− The Lipan Apaches and Spanish at San Antonio celebrate a grand peace; Apache hostages are released and a large pit dug in Military Plaza. A live horse, war club, arrows and lance are placed in the pit and covered with dirt to signify the end of a state of warfare.
1750− Smallpox breaks out in Lipan camps along Guadalupe River. Lipans are convinced that epidemic was caused by mission clothing worn by newly-released hostages. Lipans move their camps to upper Nueces River. Lipans establish stolen- horses-for-guns trade with east Texas tribes.
1751− A large group of Lipan traditionalists who wish no contact with Spanish other than raiding, and led by Bigotes (Whiskers or Mustached One), break away and cross the Rio Grande into Coahuila. This break-away group calls itself Kuné tsa (Big Water People) and camps along Rio Escondido and Rio San Rodrigo (Coahuila).
1753− On Feb. 1st, villa of San Fernando de Austria is founded on Rio Escondido (Coahuila); first settlers come from families of San Juan Bautista
1754− First mission dedicated to converting the Lipan is founded at the site of the old mission of San Ildefonso (Rio Escondido, Coahuila) on Dec. 21st. Mission San Lorenzo lasts one year; during night of Oct. 4, 1755, Lipans revolt, burn mission and ride away.
1757− Second Lipan mission established on San Saba River of Texas near Menard. Mission San Sabá is burned down in 1758 during an attack by Comanches and Wichitas.
1761− Third Lipan mission is founded on upper Nueces near Camp Wood, Texas- San Lorenzo de la Santa Cruz. A second small mission is founded several miles south near Montell, Texas- Nuestra Señora de la Candelaría; both missions abandoned by Lipans within 4 years.
1763− In March, Lipans attack villa of San Fernando de Austria (Coahuila), entering town by a ruse; 7 settlers killed, 40 horses stolen.
1780− Terrible smallpox epidemic ravages Lipan camps in Texas and then spreads to camps in Coahuila. so many Lipans die that priests a la Bahía fear the numerous corpses will cause other disease. Lipan shamans, seeking an herbal cure for small- pox, adapt the use of peyote from Carrizo Indians.
1760−1800 Lipan Apaches raid intensely in south Texas, Coahuila and Nuevo Leon. A series of military campaigns fail to “tame” them until 1800.
1814− Lipan Apaches fight along side rebels fighting for Mexican independence at Battle of Medina.
1827− Villa of San Fernando de Austria changes name to San Francisco de Rosas.
1836− Lipans watch Battle of Alamo unfold and want to assist Alamo defenders. Lipan proposed aid is based on friendship with Hispanic Tejano defenders, not on ties with Bowie and Travis, and dates back to Royalist-Republican battles of 1814, particularly the Battle of Medina.
1840−1880− Lipans from both sides of Rio Grande raid in Texas and drive stolen stock into Mexico to sell in border towns.
1850− Villa of San Fernando de Rosas changes name to Zaragosa (Coahuila).
1850− Zaragosa “adopts” the Lipan Apaches, offering them a settlement area at Hacienda Patiño. Villa of Musquiz (Coahuila) “adopts” Kickapoo, who had crossed into Mexico ca. 1850. Lipans and Kickapoo begin to fight each other in Coahuila.
1850− Smallpox epidemic in Texas drives many Texas Lipans into Mexico or New Mexico.
1869− Mexican troops from Monterrey brought to Zaragosa to eliminate Lipan Apaches, who are blamed for causing trouble. Troops attack many Lipan camps; survivors flee to the Mescaleros in New Mexico.
1873− US Army commander Ranald Mackenzie crosses Rio Grande with his troops and attacks Lipan camps at El Remolino (Coahuila).
1872−1875 US Army in New Mexico begins to force Mescalero Apaches and some Lipan Apaches onto a reservation in New Mexico.
1875−1876 US Army troops undertake joint military campaigns with Mexican Army to eliminate Lipans from Coahuila.
1881− Large campaign by Mexican Army’s Diaz division (assisted by US troops) runs all Lipans out of Coahuila and into Chihuahua State.
1884− A small number of Texas Lipans are transferred to a reservation in Oklahoma (Oakland Agency).
1903− About 30 Lipans are redeemed from a cattle pen in Chihuahua City, Chihuahua (where they were held as prisoners). This group is brought to New Mexico.

 

 

 


 

 

The Tribal Shield

 

This Tribal Shield heralds all that is Lipan, all that was Lipan, and all that will be Lipan and all these Truths reside with in the Sacred Hoop of Life.

 

Fourteen bones each engraved with an arrow, separated by four colored beads form a circle. Our Ancestors are represented by the bones.

 

Mountains, river, sky, desert, plants and a buffalo with calf are with in the confines of this circle.

 

Four Eagle feathers are carefully wrapped and hang in quiet eloquence from this Circle of Life.

 

To our Grandmothers and Grandfathers we owe honor and reverence.

 

Arranged in a ring, this speaks to the Circle of Life.

 

Fourteen arrows signify fourteen bands and the arrows track in a circular motion from East to West, a pathway Sacred to our People.

 

The beads that unite our Ancestors and clans together are painted in the colors of the East (black), the West (Yellow), the South (Blue), and the North (White).  The pattern is of life and blessing prayers with smoke.

 

The People of the Forest and the People of the Plains, all of the Nde are seen as one family under the Great Sky of blue. Nopalito and Yucca plants reveal how the land gives life as food, medicine, and provides for gifts of shelter and daily needs.

 

At the very center of all is the Buffalo, for he represents the hunt and the knowledge that Creator will provide for His People. Standing within the Buffalo is a white and pure calf, a symbol of rebirth and strength of a new generation. Here is the promise to teach the children of the old ways, to preserve the traditions, language, and culture of all that is Lipan Apache.

 

In prayers to the Creator for all that has past, all that is, and all that will be are four Eagle feathers. The ties that unite the Feathers to the Sacred Hoop of Life are red for the blood of the People and are wrapped in sinew four times, as the number four is a metaphor that names the Lipan Apache. The Feathers are the gift of Creator for prayer and through His Will; the Lipan Apache People will endure. And having been prepared, the Lipan Apache will walk in Beauty.

 


 

 


 

 

The centerpiece of Cornell’s American Indian holdings is the Huntington Free Library Native American Collection, a spectacular gathering of more than 40,000 volumes on the archaeology, ethnology and history of the native peoples of the Americas from the colonial period to the present.

Transferred to Cornell University on June 15, 2004 from its former home in the Bronx, NY,

 

 The Huntington Free Library Native American Collection is one of the largest collections of books and manuscripts of its kind.

 

The collection contains exceptional materials documenting the history, culture, languages, and arts of the native tribes of both North and South America. Contemporary politics, education, and human rights issues are also important components of the collection.

 

The rare portion of the Huntington Free Library Native American Collection encompasses more than 4,000 rare books, several significant manuscript collections, as well as photographs, artwork, and related materials. Highlights include a copy of

John Eliot’s

 

Bible in the Natick dialect (2nd edition, 1685),

The Eliot Indian Language Bible

Even wider in influence and more lasting in value than his personal labors as a missionary, was Eliot’s work as a translator of the Bible and various religious works into the Massachusetts dialect of the Algonquian language. The first work completed was the Catechism, published in 1653 at Cambridge, Massachusetts, the first book to be printed in the Indian tongue. Several years elapsed before Eliot completed his task of translating the Bible. The New Testament was at last issued in 1661, and the Old Testament followed in 1663. The New Testament was bound with it, and thus the whole Bible was completed. To it were added a Catechism and a metrical version of the Psalms. This book was printed in 1663 at Cambridge, Mass., by Samuel Green and Marmaduke Johnson, and was the first Bible printed in America. In 1685 appeared a second edition, in the preparation of which Eliot was assisted by the Rev. John Cotton (1640—1699), of Plymouth, who also had a wide knowledge of the Indian tongue.

Many people are shocked to discover that the first Bible printed in America was not English… or any other European language. In fact, English and European language Bibles would not be printed in America until a century later! Eliot’s Bible did much more than bring the Gospel to the pagan natives who were worshiping creation rather than the Creator… it gave them literacy, as they did not have a written language of their own until this Bible was printed for them. The main reason why there were no English language Bibles printed in America until the late 1700’s, is because they were more cheaply and easily imported from England up until the embargo of the Revolutionary War.

But the kind of Bible John Eliot needed for his missionary outreach to the native American “Indians” was certainly not to be found in England, or anywhere else. It had to be created on the spot. Eliot recognized that one of the main reasons why the native Americans were considered “primitive” by European settlers, is that they did not have a written alphabet of their own. They communicated almost exclusively through spoken language, and what little writing they did was in very limited pictorial images, more like Egyptian hieroglyphics than that of any functional alphabetical language like those of Europe or Asia or Africa.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

an album of original drawings of American Indians by

 

the artist George Catlin;

and

 

Edward S. Curtis’s

twenty-volume opus,

 

 

 

 

Look more George catlin Indian painting

 

DrIWAN NOTE

I AM SOORY AFTER THIS NO ILLUSTRATIONS UPLOAD, IF YOU WANT TO LOOK THE COMPLETE INFO AND ILLUSTRATIONS,PLEASE SUBSCRIBED AS PREMIYU M MEMBER VIA COMMENT,

THE COMPLETE CD-ROM EXIST BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER.

Look  Edward S. Curtis indian painting

The North American Indian. Genres represented in great depth include early books of voyage and exploration, missionary reports, ethnography, travel writing, native language dictionaries, captivity narratives, and children’s books.

The collection also contains a large body of related ephemeral material, such as pamphlets, newspaper clippings, auction catalogs, newsletters, travel brochures, and biography files on prominent Native Americans.

 

 

 

 

Manuscript holdings include

a letter from Mohawk leader

 

Joseph Brant,

early 20th century correspondence from

 

Seneca Indian individuals at

 

Cattaragus and

 

Tonawanda

 To

 

 Joseph Keppler, a pictographic catechism in the Quechua language, field notes by 19th century ethnographers; and the papers of archaeological expeditions. Many of the larger manuscript collections have been microfilmed and are available for interlibrary loan. Primary manuscript collections include:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • material culture of Wabanaki Indians
  • A panel discussion and lecture at Bates College on Feb. 11 will focus on the material culture of the Wabanaki people, the Native Americans that include Maine’s Penobscot, Passamaquoddy, Micmac and Maliseet tribes.
  • The panel presentation Artistic Lives — Living Art: Wabanaki Basketmakers begins at 4:15 p.m. in the Keck Classroom (G52), Pettengill Hall, 4 Andrews Road (Alumni Walk). A Basket Is a Song Made Visible, a keynote talk by Native American scholar Clara Sue Kidwell, follows at 7 p.m. in the Edmund S. Muskie Archives, 70 Campus Ave.
  • These events are made possible by a Colby-Bates-Bowdoin Mellon Collaborative Faculty Enhancement grant. For more information, please call 207-753-6933.
  • As a program titled Learning and Teaching with Wabanaki Culture, these events will examine Wabanaki material culture as a means for integrating aspects of indigenous thought and practice into a curriculum.
  • The program is part of a larger effort to increase awareness of Native American and Wabanaki issues at Bates, and to promote collaboration between the campus and Wabanaki communities.
  • With panelists including basketmakers Jeremy Frey, a member of the Passamaquoddy tribe, and Richard Silliboy of the Micmacs, the afternoon discussion will explore what material culture means to the Wabanakis and the roles that material culture can play in intercultural education.
  • Kidwell, director of the American Indian Center at the University of North Carolina, will address Native American knowledge systems, and scientific thought and practice.
  • She is an enrolled member of the White Earth Chippewa tribe and is also of Choctaw descent. Prior to coming to North Carolina she was director of the Native American studies program and professor of history at the University of Oklahoma in Norman.
  • Her publications include A Native American Theology (Orbis Books, 2001), co-authored with Homer Noley and George Tinker; Native American Studies (University of Edinburgh Press, 2005) co-authored with Alan Velie; and The Choctaws in Oklahoma: From Tribe to Nation, 1855-1970 (University of Oklahoma Press, 2007).
  • She received a bachelor’s degree in letters and a master’s and doctorate in the history of science from the University of Oklahoma. Before joining the faculty there in 1995, she served as assistant director of cultural resources at the National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution.
  • Kidwell previously taught at the University of California at Berkeley, Dartmouth College and the University of Minnesota, among other institutions

 

Other Resources for American Indian Studies:

 

JOB: The American Indian Program (AIP) at Cornell University seeks a Residence Hall Director (RHD)

by Ononda’geh Ongwawenna on Tuesday, November 22, 2011 at 9:54am ·
 

Res Hall Assoc I-16400 

Description

 

American Indian Program

Residence Hall Associate I

Term Appointment

Band E – Exempt

 

 

The American Indian Program at Cornell University in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences (CALS) provides a unique combination of educational, social and cultural opportunities to Native students studying at the University.  Our first commitment is to facilitate student’s academic success and address their cultural needs. 

 
Edward S. Curtis. “Chaíwa. Tewa, Profile,”
from The North American Indian, Vol. XII,
The Hopi, 1922. Photogravure.

The American Indian Program (AIP) at Cornell University seeks a Residence Hall Director (RHD) as a team-oriented staff member for its residential program house, Akwe:kon. Akwe:kon  is unique in that it is the only residential program house that is formally part of an academic program, the AIP.  The RHD position is key in helping the AIP Director and Associate Director ensure achievement of AIP’s Mission and Goals.

 

The RHD will:

·         carry out administrative, counseling, and programmatic responsibilities for the 35-student residential unit and the American Indian community at Cornell;

·         facilitate student involvement & supervise student staff;

·         administer and implement services and activities, and enhance community and individual development among residents;

·         work to involve faculty in the lives of students, provide personal counseling and work with campus units to provide a safe and attractive learning environment for students in the house.

·         The RHD will work closely with the AIP Associate Director and Director in developing and implementing other components of the Program with regard to student recruitment and development, academic programs, outreach initiatives, and in developing year-round programming in Akwe:kon that fully uses its resources and builds and enhances the AIP as a whole.

·         Work with Campus Life/Community Development staff to develop services and programs, select and train student staff, and contribute to university-wide activities as appropriate through participation on committees, etc.  

·         May act as an advisor to a registered Cornell University student organization. 

 

The AIP carries out the majority of the shared supervision of the RHD: the position reports to the AIP via the Associate Director (65% appointment) and to the Dean of Students office via the Assistant Director for Residential Programs (35% appointment). 

Qualifications

 

Required Qualifications:

·         Bachelor’s degree required, with 1-2 years’ experience or equivalent combination, and coursework in American Indian studies.

·         Substantial professional experience working with students in higher education in residential, counseling, and administrative functions.

·         Direct experience with and knowledge of Native American students, communities, and issues is essential, along with the ability for meaningful and appropriate interaction with people from a wide range of ethnic, social, and cultural backgrounds.

·         Due to the nature of the position, you will be required to work some nights and weekends and reside at the community Akwe:kon house.

·         Experience with events planning and development of programs. Must exercise sound judgment and respect highly confidential information.

 

Preferred Qualifications:

·         Master’s degree in counseling, cultural/ethnic studies, education, student development, social work, community development, or a related field with two to five years of experience in residential life or some other aspect of student development is preferred.

·         Prior budgeting experience helpful.

 

This position is a full-time, 12 month, live-in appointment.  Appointment term is for 3 years, renewable annually. 

 

Background check is required. 

 

Cornell University, located in Ithaca, New York, is an inclusive, dynamic, and innovative Ivy League University and New York’s land-grant institution.  Its staff, faculty, and students impart an uncommon sense of larger purpose and contribute creative ideas and best practices to further the university’s mission of teaching, research, and outreach.

 

 

American Indian Studies

See Also: Central New York: Native Americans | Electronic Texts | History | Images | Latin American Resources | Southwest | Yurts and Tipis

Aboriginal Canada Portal- “Links to the following sites in an organized manner: National Aboriginal Organizations, 12 Federal Government departments with Aboriginal mandates, all Provincial Governments and organizations with Aboriginal responsibilities, as well as all related Aboriginal community information.”Aboriginal Peoples Television Network- First network of its kind in the world, the APTN began broadcasting in Canada in September 1999.Resources for Aboriginal Studies – University of Saskatchewan Libraries and the University of Saskatchewan Archives. Consists of databases for photographs, Archival Material, Native Law Cases (with List of Cases), Northwest Resistance and several others. You can actually access the photographs in the collection and, although the images are relatively small, there are some gems: “Kooyook “a young Inuit woman from the Eastern Arctic, mixes dough for bannock in her tent at Lake Harbour, Northwest Territories. Her child is [in an armaut] on her back (1951)”, “Mrs. Andela Solomon (Patuanak), then 75 years old, working on a birch bark basket: an art she learned from her mother (1961),” Prosper John (ca 1938) and Yankine Whitecap and Wife (ca 1915.Administration for Native Americans – U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Administration for Children and Families. See also the Office of Community Services Division of Tribal Servicespage.

 

AIROS: American Indian Radio on Satellite – “National distribution system for Native programming to Tribal communities and to general audiences through Native American and other public radio stations as well as the Internet.” With programming via Real Audio 24 hours a day. You can Listen Live. There are Native Producer Profile Podcastson:Michelle Danforth (Oneida)Gary RobinsonPatricia LoewJulianna BrannumDustinn CraigTerry JonesKimberley LymanSuree TowfighniaCourtney HermannGeorge BurdeauBeverly MorrisBennie Klain

 

Akwesasne Mohawk Cultural Center- Hogansburg, New York.

 

Akwesasne Notes Magazine- Kahniakehaka Nation ,Akwesasne Mohawk Territory, Rooseveltown, New York. (518-358-3326)Dating the Iroquois Confederacy by Bruce E. Johansen, Akwesasne Notes, Fall, October/November/December, 1995, Volume 1, #3 & 4, pp. 62-63. See also Johansen’s Forgotten Founders: Benjamin Franklin, the Iroquois and the Rationale for the American Revolution (1982)

 

 

Alaska Digital Archive- Provides access to over 5,000 historical phhotographs and objects. Among them:Dance-House, Koutznahoo [Kootznahoo], Alaska (ca. 1896-1920)by Vincent SoboleffBaby Sleeping in Swing (ca. 1900)- ASL-P87-0180Nepcetaq Mask- UA2002-010-0005Eagle-headed dagger- UA92-001-0001-2Sealskin Belt and Pouch- UA64-021-0137-2Babiche Bag- 0900-0024Beaded Boots- UA97-025-0049ABBeaded Mitten- UA68-005-0001ABBeaded Moccasins- UA2002-007-0007AB

 

Amateur Athletic Foundation of Los Angeles – From the Search Page you can view the full-text of a number of periodicals including Outingfrom 1883 to 1899. A sampling of articles from Outing and more recent sources:Lacrosseby Ross Mackenzie, Outing, October, 1892, Vol. XXI, No. 1, p. 76-80.Lacrosse in the United Statesby J. A. Hodge, Outing, March, 1886, Vol. VII, No. 6, p. 665-676.Père Lacombe, A Wilderness Apostle of the Northby Agnes C. Laut, Outing, April, 1905, Vol. XLVI, No. 1, p. 1-15.The Indian Festival at Taosby James A. LeRoy, Outing, December, 1903, Vol. XLIII, No. 3, p. 282-288.Medicinal Games – Rites of the Iroquoian Linguistic Familyby Michael A. Salter, North American Society For Sport History. Proceedings And Newsletter, 1973, p. 30-31.Playing for the Creator: Iroquois Nationalism and Cultural Sovereignty Through Lacrosseby Donald M. Fisher, North American Society For Sport History. Proceedings And Newsletter, 1997, p. 49.American Indian and Alaska Native Areas 1990 Census- U.S. Census BureauAmerican Indian College Fund – Denver. With information on colleges.American Indian Environmental Office- EPAAmerican Indian Ethnobotany Database- Subtitled “Foods, Drugs, Dyes, and Fibers of Native North American Peoples”; Dan Moerman, Professor of Anthropology, University of MichiganAmerican Indian Heritage FoundationAmerican Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC) – Provides links to Tribal Colleges.American Indian Library AssociationAmerican Indian Movement Grand Govering CouncilAmerican Indian Observed: Sketches and Documents From the Collections of the Archives of American Art – Artists include George Catlin, Charles Henry Humphriss, Olive Rush, Allen Tupper True, Dorothy Newkirk Stewart, W. (Wilfred) Langdon Kihn and Edwin Willard Deming. Among the online exhibitions at the Archives of American Art are Selections from the George Catlin Papers. There are oral history interviews witb artists who talk about their interest in Indian subject matter: Donal Hord, Oscar Collier, Fritz Scholder, and Louise Nevelson.American Indian Resources – Subtitled A Library of Native American literature, culture, education, history, issues and language, and part of the larger Multicultural Resourcessite, these links have been organized and annotated by Will Karkavelas of Osaka University.American Indian Studies Research Institute- Indiana University, Bloomington.American Indian Law Review- University of Oklahoma College of Law. (Index only.)American Indian Research Project – South Dakota Oral History Center. “Contains over 1,900 taped interviews, 70 percent of which were gathered in the field between 1967 and 1973.” Except for one sample, the interviews are not online, but there is a partial indexand you can order transcripts.American Indian Studies: A Bibliographic Guide (1995) – By Phillip M. White. Parts of this book are available in Google Books.American Indian Tribal Directory – Provided by the American Indian Heritage Foundation.American Indian Tribal Portal- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, American Indian Environmental Office.EPA RegionsAmerican Indians: A Select Catalog of NARA Microfilm Publications- National Archives microfilm publications “that relate directly to American Indians, to the formation of federal Indian policy, and to the personnel who created or enforced that policy. The catalog is divided into civilian agency records and military establishment records. In each section, the publications containing the most information about Indians are listed first” followed by a roll-by-roll listing of the contents. Includes information on how to order the microfilm.”American Indians of the Pacific Northwest – “This digital collection integrates over 2,300 photographs and 7,700 pages of text relating to the American Indians in two cultural areas of the Pacific Northwest, the Northwest Coast and Plateau. These resources illustrate many aspects of life and work, including housing, clothing, crafts, transportation, education, and employment. The materials are drawn from the extensive collections of the University of Washington Libraries, the Cheney Cowles Museum/Eastern Washington State Historical Society in Spokane, and the Museum of History and Industry in Seattle.” Also accessible via the Library of Congress.

 

American Journeys: Eyewitness Accounts of Early American Exploration and Settlement- This is a valuable resource for schools and universities. Funded by the U.S. Institute of Museum & Library Services and by private donors, American Journeys is a collaborative project of the Wisconsin Historical Society and National History Day. Examples of texts include:Voyage Made by M. John Hawkins Esquire, 1565Catlin’s North American Indian PortfolioWabanip’s Speech to Assembled Iroquois Chiefs, April 30, 1798Joseph Brant’s Speech to British Government Concerning Indian Land Claims, Niagara, October 22, 1796Moravian Journals Relating to Central New York, 1745-66Trial of the Indians of Acoma, 1598Account of Florida, 1566-1568

 

American Museum of Natural History – New York. The Library provides access to Online Catalog. The Collections Database provides access to over 50,000 images and catalog descriptions from the North American Ethnographic Collection. You can search by culture, material, object name, catalog no., locale or donor name. A search for Catalog item E/ 2334 will retrieve the images of two Tlingit baskets. A search for ornament (object name) will retrieve over 800 images and a search for Plains (culture) and bead (material) will retrieve over 700 including a buffalo robe (50 / 5860). An object name search for kachinaretrieves 239 items. There are some lovely Navaho blankets (50.2/ 6840, 50.2/ 6841, 50.2/ 6842, 50 / 2091) and bracelets (50.2/ 4168, 50.2/ 4169, 50.2/ 4171, 50 / 6356 A, 50.2/ 2394). Searching by donor is particularly rewarding: try Auchincloss, Morgan, Wissler, Spinden, Boas, Harvey, Mead, Jesup, Peabody (baskets), or Emmons. Search for object name: amulet, apron, armlet, bag, ball, basket, beadwork, belt, bowl, brooch, canoe, carving, charm, club, coat, comb, cradle board (baby board), cup, dance, dice, doll, feather, fetish, fish, gambling, game, hat, headband, headdress, jacket, jar, knife, labret, lance, leggings, mask, medicine bundle, mittens, model, moccasin, necklace, paddle, parfleche, pipe, pottery, pouch, prayer stick, purse, rattle, robe, saddle, sheath, snowshoes (snow shoe), spear, spoon, tomahawk, totem pole, toy, tray, wampum.American Native Press Archives – The mission of the Sequoyah National Research Centeris “to acquire and preserve the writings and ideas of Native North Americans.”

 

American Philosophical Society – Founded by Benjamin Franklin in Philadelphia in 1743. The Library houses over 180,000 volumes and bound periodicals, six million manuscripts, and thousands of maps and prints. You can search MOLE, the Manuscripts Online Guide and VOLE, the Vaughan Online Catalog, and there are Finding Aids and Subject Guides. Collections of note include:William N. Fenton Papers- “Yale-educated ethnographer, William Fenton has devoted most of his career to study of the Iroquois Indians of New York State and Canada.”Franz Boas Papers – Founder of modern American anthropology. See also Images of Franz Boas.Ely Samuel Parker Papers – Seneca Indian and Civil War adjutant to Ulysses Grant.
Other resources include:Native American Sound Recordings - Recording #3 features an August 12, 1950 recording of Lucenda George speaking in the Onondaga language about locusts, Clifford’s garden, winter and the dam built on the Onondaga reservation.David Van Keuren’s “The Proper Study of Mankind”: An Annotated Bibliography of Manuscript sources on Anthropology and Archeology in the Library of the American Philosophical Society (c1986)American Indian Manuscripts in the American Philosophical Society (c1999)- By John Freeman, Murphy D. Smith, Daythal Kendall, and R.S. Cox.Anercan Philosophical Society Proceedings – with recent issues available online. The March 2000 issue contains the full-text of Christian B. Keller’s Philanthropy Betrayed: Thomas Jefferson, the Louisiana Purchase, and the Origins of Federal Indian Removal Policy in pdf format. Other articles of interest include Retrospecting the Origins of the League of the Iroquois by William A. Starna, APS Proceedings, Vol. 152, 3 (September 2008); Illegal Alien? The Immigration Case of Mohawk Ironworker Paul K. DiaboBy Gerald F. Reid, APS Proceedings, Vol. 151, 1 (March 2007).Native American Images – See also Abbot-Charnay Photograph Collection

 

The American Revolution and Its Era: Maps and Charts of North America and the West Indies, 1750-1789- Library of CongressAn American Time Capsule: Three Centuries of Broadsides and Other Printed Ephemera – More than 7,000 digitized primary source items dating from the seventeenth century to the present and encompassing key events and eras in American history. A search for Indianretrieves over 50 results, among which is an 1805 speech by Sagu-ua-what-hath (Red Jacket), a Seneca chiefAmon Olorin Flutes – Contemporary Native American Flutes by Ken Light, and flute workshops with R. Carlos Nakai, Native American flutist nominated for 2 Grammys. (You can also listen to clips from Earth Spirit, Changes: Native American Flute Music, Big Medicine or Feather, Stone & Light at Amazon.com.)Anasazi Heritage Center- Dolores, ColoradoAncient Cultures of the Southwest – Online exhibition of pottery at the Logan Museum of Anthropology, Beloit College, Wisconsin. There is a pottery catalog index.Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS): Partnerships Across NationsAnnual Review of Anthropology – Article abstracts (full-text available to subscribers only) from 1984 to the present. A search for American Indian(words in title or abstract), for example, retrieves 14 results.Anthropological Index of the Royal Anthropological Institute- “Anthropological Index Online is based on the journal holdings of The Anthropology Library at the The British Museum (Museum of Mankind) which receives periodicals in all branches of anthropology, from academic institutions and publishers around the world.”Anthropology Outreach Office – Smithsonian’s Department of Anthropology. Provides archives of AnthroNotes and Anthropolog. See Native Americans: General Topics.AnthroSource- Interactive repository of research and communications tools for anthropologists.Antique Tribal Art Dealers Association (ATADA)Theft AlertAntiquities of Wisconsin – Electronic text of the book by Increase A. Lapham, published by the Smithsonian Institution in 1855, includes 92 pages of text, illustrated with 61 wood engravings, and 55 lithographed plates.Archeological Research Institute – Arizona State University, Tempe. Host of Archnet. There is an online exhibition of Prehistoric Pottery of Arizona. Other resources include Pottery and Pigments in Arizona: Salado Polychrome and Roosevelt Platform Mound Study.Archives Canada France – A search in the database for Iroqouisretrieves over 900 documents.Archives nationales de France – A search for Iroquois in the Collections retrieves 26 results. See also Centre des archives d’outre-mer à Aix-en-Provence (CAOM)whose mission is the “conservation des archives de l’expansion coloniale française.”Archives of the Association on American Indian Affairs- Princeton University Library.Archives of Maryland Online – “The first 72 volumes of this series were published between 1883 and 1972 by the Maryland Historical Society. They contain many of the official records of Maryland from 1634 to 1820. We have also added 30 additional volumes to this series in the past year. The website contains images of the originals as well as fully searchable text.” Consider spelling variants as you search (Sasquehannah). The archives contains some interesting early records. Volume 6 of the series is a transcription of the Correspondence of Governor Horatio Sharpe, Volume 1,1753-1757 which includes some material about Indian Affairs. Starting on page 436 of this volume is a lengthy account from Fort George in New York on 4th June 1756, in which the author writes about Sir William Johnson, the Mohawks, and the Onondago. Proceedings of the Council of Maryland, 1732:1753, concerns the 1844 treaty council held in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Members of the Six Nations, including Onondaga chief Canasatego (Cannasatego), met with representatives from Maryland, Pennsylvania and Virginia. Conrad Weiser (Conrade) was present as interpreter.ArchNet: Ethnoarchaeology and EthnohistoryArctic Circle- Peoples and environment of the Arctic and Subarctic regionArctic Studies Center – Smithsonian Institution. Has a number of online exhibitions including Yupik Masks, Ekven Burial Chamber and Northern Clans, Northern Traces.Arizona Memory Project- “Established by the Arizona State Library, Archives and Public Records, is an online repository for digital collections from archives, libraries, museums, historical societies and other Arizona cultural institutions.” Collections of interest include:Medallion Papersa “series of 39 publications issued between 1928-1950 by the Gila Pueblo Archaeological Foundation. Gila Pueblo, as it later became known, was one of the earliest Arizona institutions doing archaeological surveying and research in the Southwest. It was founded by Winifred and Harold S. Gladwin as a private foundation and employed professional archaeologists whose research was published in the Medallion Papers. Their work was instrumental in defining the Hohokam, Mogollon, San Simon and Cochise cultures and in describing early pottery types including Hohokam red-on-buff, Salado polychrome, Casas Grandes and others.”Sharlot Hall Museum American Indians Image Collection- “This collection of still images is related to the American Indians of Arizona and the Southwest (1865-1970). Tribes include Navajo, Apache, Yavapai, Hualapai, Papago, Hopi, Mohave, Paiute, Yaqui, Havasupai, Pima and Maricopa.Also included in the collection are images of prehistoric ruins, pueblos, and rock art.”

 

Arizona State Museum – University of Arizona, Tucson. Established in 1893, this is the oldest and largest anthropology museum in the Southwest with the largest whole vessel collection of Southwest Indian pottery in the world. They offer Travel Tours and information on the Southwest Indian Art Fair. One of the Fair’s Award Winners for 2009 was Kachina Mana by Aaron Honanie, Hopi. The Libraryhas an online catalogue. Among the online resources are:PodcastsArizona Archaeological Site and Survey DatabasePottery Project 2,000 Years – 20,000 VesselsNampeyo Pottery Showcase – Includes a Black-on-red shallow bowlcollected 1926.With an Eye on Culture: The Photography of Helga TeiwesThe Trincheras Culture, Vignettes in Time

 

Arizona’s First People: The culture and lives of Arizona’s Native American tribes – Part of the Cultures AZ site. In Voices, Nan Telahongva recounts her experiences as a young Hopi girl new to Anglo schools and Betty Reid, a Native Navajo and a reporter for the Arizona Republic, talks about the transition from reservation life to city life.Arkansas Archeological Survey – University of Arkansas site provides Report Abstracts by county, Archeology Links, Educational Resources for Teachers and First Encounters: The Contact Period in the Mississippi Valley.Arnold Research Cave – Missouri. Contained 7500 years of prehistoric footwear.Michael J. Fuller- Provides photographs of footwear from the cave.ArtNet – A rich resource for art and antiques. (See their Site Index.) There is an Artist Index. The weekly ArtNet Magazine offers news & reviews, and features with archives back to 1996. The Galleriesdatabase is searchable by gallery name, artist name, gallery specialty, location, and furniture or design.As Long as the Waters Flow: Native Americans in the South and East – Photographs by Carolyn DeMeritt exhibited at the Light Factoryin Charlotte, North Carolina.Assembly of First Nations- National representative/lobby organization of the First Nations in Canada.Association for the Study of American Indian Literatures – Robert Nelson’s Guide to Native American Studies Programs in the United States and Canada provides a “comprehensive survey of U.S. and Canadian Native American Studies programs being offered as majors, minors, and certifications at the baccalaureate level or above.” The Association’s newsletter, SAIL, is searchableand is available in full-text from 1977-1987.Association of American Indian PhysiciansAssociation of American University Presses – With a search form for Native American Studies. (Try searching by year.)Avalon Project at Yale Law School – Collection of documents in law, history and diplomacy has texts of Treaties Between the United States and Native Americans, Statutes of the United States Concerning Native Americans and Relations Between the United States and Native Americans.Benedicte Wrensted: An Idaho Photographer in Focus- “Portraits of Indians from Southeastern Idaho Reservations, 1897.”Bethlehem Digital History Project – “Digitization and web publication of specific primary source materials relating to the early history of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania….selected to increase accessibility to sources that illuminate key elements of the Bethlehem community from its founding in 1741 through 1844.” Among the resources are Joseph Spangenberg’s Report on the Nanticokes’ and Shawnee’s Bethlehem visit in March 1753 and The Comprehensive Report on the Brethren’s Negotiations in Bethlehem and Gnadenhütten with the Nanticokes and Shawnee Nations from April 1752. (Moravian College and Theological Seminary)Betty Mae Jumper: a Seminole Legend – Maintained by the Seminole Tribe of Florida.Bibliographies of New England History- Volume 9 contains 4,231 citations to books, dissertations, pamphlets, and magazine and journal articles, most of which were published between 1989 and 1994.Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de CervantesBibliothèque Nationale de France – Although much of the site is in French you can locate many full texts in English and there are a number of outstanding visual resources as well. Gallica, a text and image digitization project comparable to the Library of Congress’s American Memory project, is a rich resource for material on American Indian history and anthropology. For example the Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletins are available from 1881 to 1933. To find them, do a click on recherche and search for the title (Mots du titre) bureau of american ethnology. From your results, select Annual report of the Bureau of American ethnology: to the Secretary of the Smithsonian institution (Voir la liste des fascicules). This will bring up a list of all the titles they own, from 1881 (N 01 / 1879-1880) to 1933 (N 048 / 1930-1931). Among the images are 192 portraits of American Indians [Indiens des Etats-Unis] taken by the photographer Pinart between 1860-1876. The simplest way to search (recherche) this site is by keyword search (recherche libre). Try specific tribe names (Shawnee, Delaware, Huron) or use such terms as Indiens, indienne. To limit your search to images check the box for Lots d’images (under Types de documents). Bureau of American Ethnology List of Publicationshas an index to titles and authors for Bulletins and Annual Reports.A Study of Pueblo Architecture: Tusayan and Cibolaby Victor MindeleffBibliothèque nationale du Québec – Their Banque images et sons is a rich source for images and texts. Look for Indiens d’Amérique Iroquois (Indiens), or Algonquiens for example, in the Index des sujets. Some of the titles which you will find in full-text are Histoire des Abénakis depuis 1605 jusqu’à nos jours (1866), Bref récit et succincte narration de la navigation faite en MDXXXV et MDXXXVI / par le capitaine Jacques Cartier aux îles de Canada, Hochelaga, Saguenay et autres (1863) and Vie de Catherine Tekakwitha, vierge iroquoise (1894). There are also maps (cartes géographiques) and 7,000 images of Québec from 1870 to 1907 in Revue d’un autre siècle.Bringing Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties to the World Wide Web- Suzanne L. Holcombe, Oklahoma State University Library. Presentation at the Proceedings of the 9th Annual Federal Depository Library Conference, October 22 – 25, 2000.British Columbia Archives – A keyword search for Haida in Visual Records, (checking the option Only match items with associated objects “AND LINK” e.g. images or finding aids) retrieves 54 images, a search for Indian People retrieves 858 images, a search for Dossetterretrieves 45 images.British Museum: North America – Their Compass database provides images of over 5,000 objects in the museum collection which includes a large collection of Native Arts. (Search for drawings of John White, Christy Collection, Sloane Collection, Canada, Algonquian, Ohio, pipe etc.)Buffalo Bill Historical Center – Cody, Wyoming library and museum provides access to their online catalog.

 

Built in America: Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) and the Historic American Engineering Record (HAER) – Library of Congress collection of measured drawings, large-format photographs, and written histories for more than 35,000 historic structures and sites dating from the seventeenth to the twentieth century. Search by keyword or browse by subject (Indians of North America) or place. Here you’ll find photographs of:Indian Castle Church- State Route 55, Town of Danube, Herkimer County (Fort Hendrick), taken by photographer Nelson E. Baldwin on May 5, 1936. “Indian Castle Church was built in 1769 by Captain Samuel Clyde for Sir William Johnson, who presented it to the Canajoharies (Mohawks of the Upper or Canajoharie Mohawks Castle), in 1770. It is the only Colonial Indian Mission Chursch standing in New York State and the only surviving Colonial building of the Mohawks or Iroquois Castles. The Church was built on land owned by Joseh Brandt [Brant], the famous Mohawk Chieftain, who was noted for his pity [piety?] and who translated the gospel of St. Mark into the Mohawk language. During the Revolution, the Mohawk Indian raiders, formerly residents here, attempted to steal the bell of this old church. They, however, neglected to fasten its clapper and its ringing awakened the parish settlers who armed themselves, sallied out and recovered the old church bell.” (Data Page 2).View (Southwest) down into Kiva- Pueblo Arroyo, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico (June 1966)Kalispel Indian Log Cabin- Usk, Pend Oreille County, Washington (1936)Rock Eagle Mound- Rock Eagle State Park, Putnam County, Georgia by Kenneth Kay (1980)Shoshone Indian Cemetery- Wind River Indian Reservation, Fort Washakie, Fremont County, Wyoming. “This cemetery supposedly contains the grave of Sacajawea, Indian guide of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Located in cemetery is the oldest chapel built for the Indians in Wyoming.” (Data page 2). Photograph by Jack E. Boucher (1974).Aztec Ruins – Detailed View of Through Passage- Aztec Ruins, West Ruin, New Mexico 44 near junction of U.S. 550, Aztec vicinity, San Juan County, New Mexico.Jeffers Petroglyphs- Image of turtle and man, looking East. Photograph by Jet Lowe, 12 April, 1990. Delton Township, Cottonwood County, Minnesota.

 

BuntingVisual Resources Library – University of New Mexico College of Fine Arts. Resources include Native American Arts Classification Manual and Visual Resources Catalog of Native American Artists (VIRCONA)Bureau of American Ethnology – Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin Series Electronic Editions – Consists of Hair Pipes in Plains Indian Adornment: A Study in Indian and White Ingenuity by John C. Ewers. (See also the List of Publications of the Bureau of American Ethnology with with index to authors and titles.) Also available is The Horse in the Blackfoot Indian Culture, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin, vol. 159. This series is also available in Gallica, bibliothèque numérique de la Bibliothèque nationale de France. Do a search (recherche) for the title (Mots du titre) bureau of american ethnology. From your results, select Annual report of the Bureau of American ethnology: to the Secretary of the Smithsonian institution (Voir la liste des fascicules). This will bring up a list of all the titles they own, from 1881 (N 01 / 1879-1880) to 1933 (N 048 / 1930-1931). There are over 13,000 Glass Negatives of Indians, collected by the Bureau of American Ethnology from the 1850s-1930s in the National Anthropological Archives. You can browse images in the drawings, sketches and paintings from National Anthropological Archives or search the Archival, Manuscript and Photograph Collections Catalog in SIRIS, the research information system of the Smithsonian.Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions- Marquette University

 

Bureau of Indian Affairs- U.S. Department of the InteriorBureau of Indian EducationIndian Arts and Crafts Board (IACB)Press ReleasesTribal Leaders DirectoryLibrary: Subject Guides to the Internet – Native AmericansFederally Recognized Tribes

 

 

C-SPAN Digital Library – You can use search, advanced searchor search by tag.Oregon Indians- “Stephen Beckham talked about the book he edited Oregon Indians: Voices from Two Centuries.” 9/3/2009 [6:00]Native America, Discovered and Conquered - Robert J. Miller, Professor, Lewis and Clark College Law School, 9/03/2009 [06:00]- Daniel Usner, Professor of History, Vanderbilt University, 6/13/2009 [57:00] “I Am a Man”- Joe Starita talked about his book “I Am a Man”: Chief Standing Bear’s Journey for Justice…In 1879, Ponca Chief Standing Bear challenged decades of Indian policy when he stood in a federal courthouse in Omaha, Nebraska, and demanded to be recognized as a person by the U.S. government. The eventual results were that all Native American peoples were given the full rights of American citizenship.” 06/07/2009, [46:00]The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian- “Sherman Alexie talked about his young adult novel The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian, published by Little, Brown Young Readers. It is a semi-autobiographical chronicle of growing up on a Washington State Indian reservation and transfering from the reservation school to the rich, white school. In a frequently humorous presentation he talked about his life and the differences from the book.” 11/03/2007 [44:00]Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site – Located near Collinsville, Illinois, the historic site holds the archaeological remnants of a sophisticated prehistoric civilization inhabited by the Mississippians from about A.D. 700 to 1400. A UNESCO World Heritage Site: “Cahokia Mounds, some 13 km north-east of St Louis, Missouri, is the largest pre-Columbian settlement north of Mexico. It was occupied primarily during the Mississippian period (800–1400), when it covered nearly 1,600 ha and included some 120 mounds. It is a striking example of a complex chiefdom society, with many satellite mound centres and numerous outlying hamlets and villages. This agricultural society may have had a population of 10–20,000 at its peak between 1050 and 1150. Primary features at the site include Monks Mound, the largest prehistoric earthwork in the Americas, covering over 5 ha and standing 30 m high.” See also Cahokia and Surrounding Mound Groupsby D. I. Bushnell, Jr., Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Vol. III, No. 1, May, 1904, pp. 1-84.

 

CBC Archives- Canadian Broadcasting Corporation archived interviews include:Rethinking Riel- Métis leader Louis RielGeorges Erasmus: Native Rights CrusaderThe Life and Legend of Bill Reid- Haida artistPhil Fontaine: Native Diplomat and DealmakerEeyou Istchee: Land of the CreeAn Inuit Education: Honouring a Past, Creating a FutureJames Bay Project and the CreeThe Oka CrisisThe Battle for Aboriginal Treaty RightsCreation of NunavutMercury Rising: The Poisoning of Grassy NarrowsA Lost Heritage: Canada’s Residential SchoolsLacrosse: A History of Canada’s GameDavis Inlet: Innu community in crisisLosing native languagesMétamorphose de l’Indien

 

California Heritage Digital Image Access Project – Online archive of over 28,000 images illustrating California’s history and culture consisting of photographs, pictures, and manuscripts from the collections of the Bancroft Library at the University of California, Berkeley. You can Browse the Collection. (Select “container listing” to access the images.) For example, the Merriam Collection of Native American Photographs, ca. 1890-1938, contains 1,447 digitized photographs of members of Californian tribes. See also California Cultures: Native Americans.California Digital LibraryCamping with the Sioux: Fieldwork diary of Alice Cunningham Fletcher – National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. Includes Folktales and a Photo Gallery.Canada’s Digital Collections – Rich resource for information on Canada’s First Peoples.Canada’s Native Peoples – Volume II in the Canada Heirloom Series of Canada’s Digital Collection.Canadian Broadcasting Corporation: News – Offers coverage of First Nations issues. INDEPTH: Aboriginal Canadians: From the Gift of the Iroquois to the Creation of Nunavut, by Martin O’Malley, July 2000 and After the Salmon Run: The Road to Nowhere by Peter McCluskey which offers video reports, archived stories and links.Canadian Encyclopedia Online- Full-text, multimedia encylopedia. The subject index shows 38 pages of entries for Native People. (Provided by Historica, a foundation whose mandate is to provide Canadians with a deeper understanding of their history.)Canadian Museum of Civilization – Toronto. Site provides a variety of information on indigenous cultures, archaeology, folk art and Canadian history. Virtual Collection Storage provides images of items on the museum, including some very handsome mittens and belts in the Ethnology Collection. Also provided is a collection of links to Online Resources for Canadian Heritage which has Ethnology and Archaeologysections.Canadian Medical Association – The site is searchable and provides tables of contents and selected articles from a number of its publications. A search for Cree, for example, retrieves 46 results, most of them abstracts of articles from the Canadian Medical Association Journal.Carlisle Indian Industrial School – Barbara Landis and Genevieve Bell. (See also Carlisle Studentsadapted from Charles Maclay’s index of “The Indian Industrial School” by Linda Witmer.)Carnegie Institution for Science- Washington, D.C.Casas Grandes and the Ceramic Art of the Ancient Southwest – Published by the Art Institute of Chicago in association with Yale University Press for the exhibition at the Art Institue of Chicago from April 22 to August 13, 2006. This is a beautiful book with 141 color photographs of pre-Columbian pottery, primarily from private collections. It’s $28.35 at Amazon.com (the list price is $45.00). See UNESCO’s World Heritage List – Archeological Zone of Paquimé, Casas Grandes.Catholic Encyclopedia – With over 11,602 articles, this encyclopedia is a good resource for researching the Jesuit presence in North America. For example there are articles on Catholic Indian Missions of the United States, Santa Fe (New Mexico), Huron, Sioux, Chippewa, Algonquins and Iroquois.Center for Agricultural Bioinformatics: Botanical Databases – The Medicinal Plants of North America Database (MPNADB)is “based on a two-volume book of the same name published in 1986 by the Museum of Anthropology of the University of Michigan. The database – which contains 17,634 items representing the medicinal uses of 2,147 species from 760 genera and 142 families by 123 different native American groups – was built over a period of about 10 years with support from the National Endowment for the Humanities, the National Science Foundation, and the University of Michigan-Dearborn.” The Food Plant Database, based on Food Plants of the North American Indians by Elias Yanovsky, c1936, reviewed approximately 80 years of literature, back to around 1850, listing 1,112 species in 444 genera of plants among 120 families, used for food by the North American Indians.Center for Southwest Research – University of New Mexico. Part of the larger Online Archive of New Mexico. Among their collections are the Robert E. Robideau American Indian Movement Papers, 1975-1994and the Kay Cole Papers.Center For World Indigenous Studies – Their Fourth World Documentation Projectis “an online library of texts which record and preserve our peoples’ struggles to regain their rightful place in the international community.”

 

A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774-1873 – “Consists of a linked set of published congressional records of the United States of America from the Continental Congress through the 43rd Congress, 1774-1875. Congressional bills and resolutions for selected sessions beginning with the 6th Congress (1799) in the House of Representatives and the 16th Congress (1819) in the Senate. A select number of documents and reports from the monumental U.S. Congressional Serial Set are available as well. This online collection houses the records of the U.S. Congress up to 1875, which includes the first three volumes of the Congressional Record, published by the Government Printing Office. To access the contemporary Congressional Record go to THOMAS, the Library of Congress’s legislative information Web site.” It includes:Journals of the Continental Congress (1774-89)Letters of Delegates to Congress (1774-89)Farrand’s Records: Records of the Federal Convention of 1787Elliot’s Debates: Debates in the Several State Conventions on the Adoption of the Federal Constitution (1787-88)Journals of the House of Representatives (1789-1875) and the Senate (1789-1875),Maclay’s Journal: Journal of William Maclay, United States Senator from Pennsylvania, 1789-1791The Annals of Congress – Formally known as The Debates and Proceedings in the Congress of the United States, the Amma;s “cover the 1st Congress through the first session of the 18th Congress, from 1789 to 1824. The Annals were not published contemporaneously, but were compiled between 1834 and 1856, using the best records available, primarily newspaper accounts. Speeches are paraphrased rather than presented verbatim, but the record of debate is nonetheless fuller than that available from the House and Senate Journals. The Annals were immediately succeeded by the Register of Debates, and subsequently by the Congressional Globe and Congressional Record.”Register of Debates (1824-37) – Consists of 14 volumesCongressional Globe (1833-73)Congressional Record (1873-75)House JournalSenate Journal- “The Journal should be seen as the minutes of floor action. It notes the matters considered by the Senate and the votes and other actions taken. It does not record the actual debates, which can be consulted through the “Link to date-related documents” in the full text transcription of the Journal.”Senate Executive Journal (1789-1875)- “Record of its executive proceedings that relate to its functions of confirming presidential nominees and consenting to the making of treaties. The Senate Executive Journal was not made public until 1828, when the Senate decided to print and publish the proceedings for all the previous Congresses and thereafter to publish the journal for each session at its close.”Bills and ResolutionsStatutes at Large (1789-1875)- “The eighteen volumes presented in this online collection cover the laws of the first forty-three Congresses, 1789-1875.”American State Papers (1789-1838)- “Thirty-eight physical volumes, contain the legislative and executive documents of Congress during the period 1789 to 1838.”U.S. Serial Set – “Began publication with the 15th Congress, 1st Session (1817). Documents before 1817 may be found in the American State Papers (1789-1838).” Of particular interest isIndian Land Cessions in the United States, 1784-1894 compiled by Charles C. Royce. (U.S. Serial Set Number 4015 contains the second part of the two-part Eighteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1896-97 by J.W. Powell, Director.) The report is browsable by Tribe, State/Territory and Date and includes treaties and 67 maps. You can search the entire site or browse individual titles. The 23rd Congress, 1833-1835 has Correspondence on the emigration of Indians, 1831-33. Use the find option (Indian) to locate material on Indian issues in the Register of Debates Browse List. Another important resource is Volume VII of the United States Statutes at Large, entitled Treaties between the United States and Indian Tribes. Published in 1845, this is a 604 page volume of treaties which has a chronological list of the treatiesstarting on p. iii.

 

Chaco Digital Initiative- Digitization of thousands of photographs from Neil Judd and Frank H.H. Roberts’ archaeological excavations in Chaco Canyon.Chaco Culture National Historical Park- National Park Service

 

Cherokee Field Office Records, 1968 – 1983 – Photographs in the National Archives and Records Administration, Record Group 435: Records of the Indian Arts and Crafts Board, 1929 – 1988.Burden Basket or Storage Basket Made of River Cane (ARC Identifier: 281597)Booger” Dance Mask with a Coiled Snake on Top (ARC Identifier: 281600)Hand Carved Pottery Designed Paddles (ARC Identifier: 281617)Seminole Coiled Sweet Grass Button Basket (ARC Identifier: 281626)Shell Tempered Duck Effigy Bowl Recovered from Williams Island Site, Hamilton County, Tennessee (ARC Identifier: 281637)Cherokee Craftsman, Jessie Saunlooke, Carving a Bear (ARC Identifier: 281633)Shell Tempered Double Wedding Vessel with a Human Effigy Recovered from the Cox Mound, Jackson County, Tennessee (ARC Identifier: 281639)Old Cherokee White Oak Basket (ARC Identifier: 281622)Single Weave River Cane Basket Owned by the Southern Hills Handicraft Guild (ARC Identifier: 281629)

 

Cherokee Nation – Official Site of the Cherokee Nation based in Tahlequah Oklahoma. They publish the Cherokee Phoenix and Indian Advocate, the the official newspaper of the Cherokee Nation, published monthly. The Fall 2000 issue has several articles on Diabetes.Code of Federal Regulations – National Archives and Records Administration. Title 25 deals with Indian issues. Other related titles include Native American Housing (Title 24, Part 1000), Indian Health (Title 42, Part 36), and Requirements for surface coal mining and reclamation operations on Indian Lands (Title 30, Part 75). You can also browse and search your choice of CFR titles and/or volumes; Title 25: Indians is available from 1997.CodeTalk- Federal interagency information network managed by native Americans at HUD’s Office of Native American Programs.Collector’s Guide to the Art of New Mexico – A rich resource for the collector. With sections on Indian Fetishes, milagros, Heishi, Antique Indian Silver Jewelry, Indian Pottery and Baskets.College & Research Library News – A publication of the Association of College & Research Libraries, they offer monthly columns on Internet Resources, one of which is Indigenous nations: Sites of interest, C&RL News, January 2004, Vol. 65, No. 1.Colonial Connecticut Records: the Public Records of the Colony of Connecticut 1636-1776 – The University of Connecticut, with the assistance of the Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center, has digitized microfilm copies of Connecticut (Colony). The Public Records of the Colony of Connecticut, from April 1636 to October 1776 … transcribed and published, (in accordance with a resolution of the General assembly). Hartford: Brown & Parsons. 1850-1890. 15 vols. Although not yet searchable by keyword, each volume is carefully indexed.Common Ground Online – Publication of the National Park Service Archeology and Ethnography Program. Online Archives go from the Summer 1994 to the present. Issues of interest include Earliest Americans (Spring/Summer 2000), Preservation on the Reservation (Fall 1999) and Speaking Nation to Nation(Summer/Fall 1997).Community Learning Network – “CLN is designed to help K-12 teachers integrate technology into their classrooms. We have over 265 menu pages with more than 5,800 annotated links to free resources on educational WWW sites — all organized within an intuitive structure.” There is a Theme Index and a section on First Nations History.Congressional Record – Via GPO Access for 1995 thru 2001 (Volumes 141 thru 147). Portions of the Congressional Record in pdf format are available for 2001, 2000 and 1999. You can also retrieve a specific page.Cornell American Indian ProgramCornell Powwow and Smokedance- Held annually in the SpringCouncil for Museum Anthropology – Offers links to Anthropology Museums on the Web.Cradleboard Teaching Project – Project begun by teacher and songwriter Buffy Sainte-Marie to help children through cross-cultural communication. Provides links to other resources and to other Tribal Websites.Creek Indian Bibliography: Sources for History, Biography and Genealogy; Print and Internet Links- Anne E. Gometz.A Critical Bibliography of North American Indians, For K-12 – Compiled in September 1996, this excellent resource for teachers and librarians describes over 800 books. There are sections organized by culture area and tribe and further divided into non-fiction and fiction, biographies, and traditional stories. From the Department of Anthropology at the Smithsonian Institution’s Museum of Natural History. There are sections for the Northeast, Southwest, Northwest Coast, California, Plateau, Arctic, Plains, Great Basin, Subarctic and the Southeast.Cross Cultural Symposium on Blacks and Native Americans – April 20-22, 2000, El Hajj Malik El Shabazz Center at Dartmouth College. To “explore the complex histories and experiences shared by Blacks and Indians.” Provides Speaker Biographies and links to related resources.Cultural Readings: Colonization and Print in the Americas – “Exhibition from the collections of the Jay I. Kislak Foundation and the Rosenbach Museum & Library, sponsored by the University of Pennsylvania Library.” Includes a section on Print and Native Cultures.Cultural Resource Management – Searchable and with Index of Past Issues. See Beyond Compliance: Tribes of the Southwest(Volume 23, No. 9, (2000).Dakota Conflict Trials (1862) – From Doug Linder’s Famous Trialspage.

Delgamuukw / Gisday’wa National Process- Resources relating to the Delgamuukw decision, in which the Canadian Supreme Court recognized the validity of Aboriginal title.Denver Public Library Photography Collection – Western History Department/Genealogy Department. Online collection contains 100,000 images including many of Native Americans. Try searching for the following: Indians of North America, Wounded Knee, Dakota, Sioux, Ute, Pueblo, David Barry, George Beam, C. G. Morledge, Horace Poley, Edward Boos, Sitting Bull or Red Cloud. A search for Wounded Knee Massacre, for example, retrieves 85 photographs, each carefully catalogued and annotated and with a url which can be bookmarked (the url for Indian Chiefs and U.S. officials, NS-163, goes to the enlarged image only, without identification.) Other highlights include Sitting Bull of the Custer Massacre (X-31384), Standing Holy, daughter of Sitting Bull, wearing jewelry (B-144), and Red Tomahawk, who killed Sitting Bull (X-31680). A search for Ben Wittick (1845-1903) retrieves 68 images by the photographer including the following examples from the 1880s: Approach to Pueblo Acoma, View in Pueblo Acoma, N.M., View in Apache camp, San Carlos River, Arizona, View in Pueblo Acoma, New Mexico, View in Pueblo Laguna, N.M., View in Pueblo Laguna, N.M., View in Pueblo Santo Domingo N. M., View in the aristocratic quarter of Oraibi Moqui, Woman of Zuni & water olla and Zuni maiden, daughter of Pa-lo-wa-ti-wa. See also the Collaborative Digitization Programwhich provides descriptions and links to other Digital Collections.Digital Library of Appalachia - Search for Cherokee.Digital Library of Canada – National Library of Canada. Relevant resources include Indian Affairs Annual Reports 1864-1990, Jesuit Relations and the History of New France, Early Canadiana OnlineDigital Library of Georgia – Among the collections is Southeastern Native American Documents, 1730-1842which “contains over 1,000 documents and images relating to the Native American population of the Southeastern United States from the collections of the University of Georgia Libraries, the University of Tennessee at Knoxville Library, the Frank H. McClung Museum, and the Tennessee State Library and Archives. The documents are comprised of letters, legal proceedings, military orders, financial papers, and archaeological images relating to Native Americans in the Southeast.” Georgia Historic Books “contains full-text, fully searchable books related to Georgia’s history and culture. Most are from the 19th to early 20th century and focus on Georgia history, biography, and literature.”Directory of Aboriginal Exporters- This directory, compiled by the Aboriginal Business Development (AIBD) Committee in 2002, lists 470 Canadian firms.Documenting the American South – Collection from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill of full-text primary sources on Southern history, literature and culture from the colonial period through the first decades of the 20th century. On July 27, 2001 there were 960 books and manuscripts in the collection. Includes, for example, the full-text of The Missionary Pioneer, or A Brief Memoir of the Life, Labours, and Death of John Stewart, (Man of Colour,) Founder, under God of the Mission among the Wyandotts at Upper Sandusky, Ohio (1827) by Joseph Mitchell. The collection is searchable and has a subject, author and titleindex.Documents Relating to the Negotiation of Ratified and Unratified Treaties With Various Indian Tribes, 1801-1869- “Collection has been created from the microfilm of record group 75, records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, specifically RG 75, Microcopy T494. These ten reels include instructions to treaty commissioners, reports, letters, and in some cases copies of the treaties.”Duke Collection of American Indian Oral History - “Provides access to typescripts of interviews (1967 -1972) conducted with hundreds of Indians in Oklahoma regarding the histories and cultures of their respective nations and tribes.”Early Americas Digital Archive (EADA) – “Collection of electronic texts originally written in or about the Americas from 1492 to approximately 1820… Published and supported by the Maryland Institute for Technology in the Humanities (MITH)at the University of Maryland.”

 

Early Canadiana Online – “Full text online collection of more than 3,000 books and pamphlets documenting Canadian history from the first European contact to the late 19th century. The collection is particularly strong in native studies, travel and exploration, and the history of French Canada.” (Note: a password is not required – leave username and password blank.) A search for Iroquoian Indians, for example, retrieves 12 documents including:William M. Beauchamp’s The Iroquois Trail, or, Footprints of the Six Nations: in Customs, Traditions and History(1892)Lewis Henry Morgan’s Houses and house-life of the American aborigines (1881)George Catlin’s Adventures of the Ojibbeway and Ioway Indians in England, France, and Belgium: being notes of eight years’ travels and residence in Europe with his North American Indian collection (1852)James Constantine Pilling’s Bibliography of the Iroquoian Languages(1888)Horatio Hale and Edward B. Tyler’s Four Huron Wampum Records: a Study of Aboriginal American History and Mnemonic Symbols(?1897).

A full-text search for Oswego retrieves 845 matching pages in 279 matching titles. A search for Sachems is also productive. Other items of interest include:

Collection de manuscrits contenant lettres, memoires, et autres documents historiques relatifs a la Nouvelle-France: recueillis aux Archives de la province de Quebec ou copies à l’etranger; mis en ordre et edites sous les auspices de la Legislature de Quebec, avec table, etc. by Jean Blanchet. A rich source for the years 1663-1713, with many letters from Frontenac to the French Minister (in French only). Contents include Lettre des Sauvages Abenaquis au Rois(page 433)

 

Sketch of the Life of Captain Joseph Brant, Thaydneanegea (1872)Ten years of Upper Canada in Peace and War, 1805-1815 being the Ridout letters (1890)Lives of Celebrated American Indians (1849)Life and Times of Kateri Tekakwitha, the Lily of the Mohawks, 1656-1680 (1891)- by Ellen Hardin WalworthLife of Tecumseh, and of his brother the prophet with a historical sketch of the Shawanoe Indians(1841)by Benjamin Drake

 

Eccles Centre for American Studies- British Library.United States Government Policies Toward Native Americans, 1787-1990: A Guide to Materials in the Gritish Libraryby David J.l Whittaker, Eccles Centre for American Studies 1996, 91pp. “This bibliographical guide to material in the British Library has been assembled to assist in locating the more important works on this significant topic. It is not comprehensive, but does call attention to the major studies and sources on American Indian policy history. Almost all of the books cited have their own bibliographies which will lead the serious researcher to additional material. A few items are listed which are not in the British Library.”British Travellers Report on the White Conquest of the Trans-Mississippi West, 1865-1905by R. A Burchell, First Annual Douglas W. Bryant Lecture, July 1993.

 

Educational Resources Information Center – There is a clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools with information on American Indian and Alaska Native Education. There is a searchable Native Education Directory which “includes organizations, governmental agencies, and schools that are involved in the education of Native students and serve a statewide, multistate, or national audience.” There are Expert Search Strategies for Programs for American Indian, Alaska Native, and Canada Native youth and Native students (American Indians, Canada Natives, Alaska Natives) and higher education.Edward S. Curtis’s The North American Indian – “One of the most significant and controversial representations of traditional American Indian culture ever produced. Issued in a limited edition from 1907-1930, the publication continues to exert a major influence on the image of Indians in popular culture…Featured here are all of the published photogravure images including over 1500 illustrations bound in the text volumes, along with over 700 portfolio plates.” (Library of Congress.) See also Edward S. Curtis’s The North American IndianEiteljorg Museum of American Indians and Western Art- IndianapolisElkus Indian Papers – “California Academy of Sciences houses a collection of over 2,000 documents related to Indian affairs over the period 1922-1963. These papers came from the estate of Charles de Young Elkus, a San Francisco attorney…” The database is searchableand browsable by name of correspondant.Emory Women Writers Resource Project – Among the full-text Native-American related titles are Nowita, the Sweet Singer. A Romantic Tradition of Spavinaw, Indian Territory (1900) by Mabel Washbourne Anderson, Memoir Of Elizabeth Jones, a Little Indian Girl, Who Lived at the River-Credit Mission, Upper Canada by Anonymous, The Sick Child (1899), An Autobiography (1911), My People [Winnebagoes](1897) and Gray Wolf’s Daughter (1899) all by Angel De Cora (Hinook-Mahiwi-Kilinaka), An Indian Woman’s Letter (1879), Bright Eyes (1881), Omaha Legends and Tent-Stories (1883), The Indian Question (1880) all by Susette La Flesche (Bright Eyes), and Great Work of an Indian (1906)by Ora Eddleman Reed.Encyclopedia Mythica: Native American Mythology- With over 350 entries on Native American mythology.Encyclopedia Smithsonian: Native American History and Culture- Selected links to sites hosted by Smithsonian Institution museums and organizations.FBI Art Theft Program – With a section on stolen Native American Art and recovered art (Navajo Ceremonial Artifacts, Geronimo’s Headress, Washoe Indian Baskets).FBI Freedom of Information Act Electronic Reading Room – FBI documents scanned from paper copies as released to FOIPA requesters. There is a file on the Osage Indian Murders.Falmouth Institute – Training and consulting organization to American Indian and Alaska Native communities. With list of publications and links to Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations. They monitor legislative activities on Capitol Hill, some of which can be read online in the American Indian Report’s Fedwatch.FedLaw: Native Americans- LawsFederally Recognized Tribes – “This notice publishes the current list of 561 tribal entities recognized and eligible for funding and services from the Bureau of Indian Affairs by virtue of their status as Indian tribes. The list is updated from the notice published on November 25, 2005 (70 FR 71194).” Published in the Federal Register.

 

Fenimore Art Museum – Cooperstown. The Eugene and Clare Thaw Collection of American Indian Art is described by Steven M. L. Aronson: “…The 800 arrestingly beautiful objects…are incontestably the best of their kind – milestones of American Indian inventiveness.” (Native Beauties: Eugene V. Thaw on His Extraordinary Compilation of North American Indian Works, Architectural Digest, June, 2008.) In the Virtual Museum you can view catalog records and images of the 825 itemsin the collection including:Seneca Bag- Circa 1830-1860Eastern Ojibwa Birch Bark Domed Box- Circa 1847-1853Teton Sioux (Lakota) Painted Hide War Record- Circa 1880Teton Sioux (Lakota) Storage Bags- Circa 1880-1889Huron Moosehair Embroidered Black-dyed Moccasins- Circa 1838-1853Tlingit Berry Basket- Circa 1910

 

FindArticles.com – Free online article-search service allows you to search for (and read) articles published over the last 1 to 2 years in more than 300 reputable magazines and journals. You can view publications by subject or by name.First American West The Ohio River Valley, 1750-1820- American Memory, Library of Congress.First Nations Collection – Part of the Southern Oregon Digital Archives (SODA), the First Nations Collection has “documents, books, and articles relating to the indigenous peoples of this bioregion.” Particularly interesting are three books by the anthropologist Edward Sapir (1884-1939. These books are rich sources of creation stories in which Coyote plays a major role. Yana Texts (235 pages) were collected in 1907 from two locations in Shasta County California: near Redding and between Round Mountain and Montgomery Creek. In also incorporates material collected by Roland. B. Dixon in 1900 from Sam Bat’wi and Round Mountain Jack. Takelma Texts (267 pages ) were collected Sapir in the summer of 1906 in Siletz Resertaion in western Oregon. Frances Johnson (Gwisgwashan) was the “sole informant”. Wishram texts, Volume II, Together with Wasco Tales and Myths(333 pages). The Wishram texts were obtained, for the most part, in Yakima Reservation, in southern Washington, in the summer of 1905. Much of the Wishram material was gathered by an interpreter, Pete McGuff from Louis Simpson (Menait). Jeremiah Curtin collected the Wasco texts.First Nations Site Index – Jordan S. Dill. Has a section on First Nation Histories.First Nations Periodical Index – Searchable index of 20 Aboriginal newspapers, journals, and magazines, of mainly Canadian Native content, covering the years 1981 to 1997. With a Journal List. (An advanced keyword search for Residential schoolsreturned 49 citations.) A joint project of the Saskatchewan Indian Federated College, Saskatoon Campus, the Saskatchewan Indian Cultural Centre and the Library Services for Saskatchewan Aboriginal Peoples committee.First PeoplesFirst Perspective- News of Indigenous Peoples of Canada.FirstGov- Official website for searching the U.S. Government.Florida State Archives Photographic Collection- The Peithmann Collection consists of 573 photographs, taken by Irvin M. Peithmann in the 1950s, documenting the daily lives of the Seminoles on Brighton and Big Cypress Reservations in south Florida. (Go to the bottom of the search page for information and access to the collection.)FLITE Supreme Court Decisions 1937-1975 – FedWorld site contains 7,407 full-text decisions issued from volumes 300 through 422 of US Reports, searchable by keyword or case name. (Other resources include Cornell’s Legal Information Institute’s Supreme Court Decisions, GPO Supreme Court Decisions (1937-1975), Landmark Supreme Court Cases, Supreme Court of the United States, Oyez Project: U.S. Supreme Court Media and FindLaw’s U.S..Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies (FAMSI) – Highlights include a collection of online Books and the Bibliografía Mesoamericana.Founders’ Constitution – Anthology of writings on American constitutional history edited by Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner. A joint venture of the University of Chicago Press and the Liberty Fund, the book was published in 1986. (It is not clear from the explanatory matter just how much of the print version appears online.) “The documents included range from the early seventeenth century to the 1830s, from the reflections of philosophers to popular pamphlets, from public debates in ratifying conventions to the private correspondence of the leading political actors of the day.” The site is searchable, contains a Table of Contents and an Index which includes Short Titles Used, Authors and Documents, Cases and Constitutional Provision. Pages dealing with Indian law: Article 1, Section 8, Clause 3 (Indians), Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (5 Pet. 1 1831), United States v. Bailey (24 Fed. Cas. 937, no. 14,495 C.C.D.Tenn. 1834). United States v. Cisna (25 Fed. Cas. 422, no. 14,795 C.C.D.Ohio 1835) and Johnson & Graham v. M’Intosh (8 Wheat. 543 1823).The Four Indian Kings- Virtual Vault, Library & Archives, Canada. “The four Indian kings first travelled to London in 1710 to meet Queen Anne as delegates of the Iroquoian Confederacy in an effort to cement an alliance with the British. Queen Anne was so impressed by her visitors that she commissioned their portraits by court painter John Verelst. The portraits are believed to be some of the earliest surviving oil portraits of Aboriginal peoples taken from life.”Friends Committee on National Legislation – Quaker lobby in the public interest. Provides Native American Legislative Updatesfor U.S. legislation.Fund of the Four Directions- “National Native-run charitable foundation dedicated to empowering Indigenous communities in North America to implement solutions that revitalize and are consistent with Indigenous ways and concepts.”Gallica, bibliothèque numérique de la Bibliothèque nationale de France – Digitization project, currently available in French only. “Au 1er janvier 2004, Gallica offrait sur la Toile : 70 000 volumes imprimés en mode image, 1200 volumes imprimés en mode texte, 500 documents sonores, 80 000 images fixes.” A catalogue search (recherche) for Crèvecoeur locates the text (in pdf format) and illustrations for Voyage dans la Haute Pennsylvanie et dans l’état de New-York depuis l’année 1785 jusqu’en 1798. The search results also include illustrations (Mosaique) from the work: there are images of Késkétomah, ancien Sachem de la Nation Onondaga and Koohassen, guerrier de la Nation Onéida. You can also browse many volumes of the Annual report of the Bureau of American ethnology: to the Secretary of the Smithsonian institution. Do a search (recherche) for the title (Mots du titre) bureau of american ethnology. From your results, select Annual report of the Bureau of American ethnology: to the Secretary of the Smithsonian institution (Voir la liste des fascicules). This will bring up a list of all the titles they own, from 1881 (N 01 / 1879-1880) to 1933 (N 048 / 1930-1931). For example, the Twenty-First Annual Report, published in 1903, and which covers the years 1899-1900, has articles on Hopi katcinas, drawn by native artists, by Jesse Walter Fewkes (Pp. 3-126, pls. II-LXIII) and Iroquoian cosmology, by J. N. B. Hewitt (Pp. 127-339, pls. LXIV-LXIX). (To locate contents of these Annual Reports, consult the Smithsonian’s List of Publications of the Bureau of American Ethnology which provides article titles, authors and page numbers.) A title search for Bureau of American ethnology retrieves 64 results, which include the full texts of Bibliography of the Iroquoian languages by James Constantine Pilling, The Problem of the Ohio mounds by Cyrus Thomas and Siouan tribes of the east by James Mooney. (Use AltaVista’s Babel Fish to help with translation.)Gallup Inter-Tribal Indian Ceremonial- August 9-13, 2000Ganondagan State Historic Site – Major seventeenth-century Seneca town and its palisaded granary, located in Victor, New York. With links to Haudenosaunee and Other Native American Sites.Garacontié- Daniel Garacontié was a 17th century Onondaga chief (Sagochiendagehté) known for his diplomacy and peace-keeping efforts.Gathering of Nations- Billed as the largest powwow in North America, it brings in indigenous people from 500 tribes and cultures in the U.S., Canada, Mexico and Polynesia.George Catlin and His Indian Gallery- Smithsonian American Art Museum.George Eastman House – Located in Rochester, New York, the museum’s Schankman Image Server offers access to a portion of its extensive still photography collection. See, for example, New Mexico Views by Bennett & Brown, Frederick Monsen (1865-1929), Timothy O’Sullivan (1840-1882), and C. W. Carter (1832-1918).George Washington Papers – Library of Congress American Memory Project to digitize approximately 65,000 documents is a rich resource for locating primary source material relating to Indian affairs. For example, if you are researching the Sullivan Campaign of 1779in New York, a keyword search for Sullivan locates many letters written by Sullivan and Washington between May and September of 1779, when the campaign occurred. A search for James Clinton,and Tioga will also retrieve letters of interest.Geronimo: His Own Story – Part of the From Revolution to Reconstruction site which also has a section on Civilizations under Siege: the European Conquest of the Americas.Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument- National Park Service. Consists of two sites: the Gila Cliff Dwellings and the Heart-Bar Site or TJ Ruin.Gilcrease Museum- Tulsa, OklahomaGood Minds- Educational Resources for Aboriginal Studies, First Nations Studies, Indigenous Studies, and Native American Studies.

 

G̦ttinger Digitalisierungszentrums РDigital Library at the Lower Saxony State and University Library, G̦ttingen, includes a collection of over 2,000 volumes of early travel books. A title search for Onondaga, for example, retrieves the following titles:Dictionnaire de la Langue Huronne (1632)by Gabriel Sagard Th̩odatJournals of the Military Expedition of Major General John Sullivan Against the Six Nations of Indians in 1779 (1887) by Frederick Cook [alternative url for this title.History of the Five Indian Nations of Canada (1747) by Cadwallader Colden [alternative url for this title]Memoirs of Lieut. Henry Timberlake, (Who accompanied the Three Cherokee Indians to England in the Year 1762)Travels in New-England and New-York (1821)by Timothy Dwight

 

Government Information Locator ServiceGPO Access Multi-Database Search – Will search Congressional Record, Federal Register, Congressional Bills, Public Laws, U.S. Code. For example, a search for Hopi, in the Federal Register, Volume 66 (2001), retrieves 20 results, one of which is a proposed rule change entitled “Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System; Religious Ceremonial Collection of Golden Eaglets From Wupatki National Monument”. There is also a Database List. A subject search for Indian in the General Accounting Office (GAO) Reports (on 4 June 2001) database retrieves 33 results including Money Laundering: Rapid Growth of Casinos Makes Them Vulnerable(01/04/96, GAO/GGD-96-28), Indian Programs: BIA Should Streamline Its Processes for Estimating Land Rental Values (06/30/1999, GAO/RCED-99-165) and Indian Trust Funds: Improvements Made in Acquisition of New Asset and Accounting System But Significant Risks Remain (09/15/2000, GAO/AIMD-00-259).Haida: Spirits of the Sea- Subjects include art, canoes, culture and ocean, food, First Totem, fishing, and Gwaii Haanas.GOVBOT- Searchable database of Federal Government web sites.Government of Canada Web Archive- “At the time of its launch in Fall 2007, approximately 100 million digital objects (over 4 terabytes) of archived Federal Government website data was made accessible.”Guide to Anthropological Fieldnotes and Manuscripts in Archival Repositories- Compiled by Robert Leopold, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.Guide to Law Online: Native Americans- Law Library of CongressGuide to Native American Studies Programs in the United States and Canada- Robert M. Nelson, EditorHandbook of Texas Online – 23,000 articles on people, places, events, historical themes, institutions, and a host of other topic categories. (A search for Indians retrieved over 1,000 articles.) A joint project of the General Libraries at the University of Texas at Austin and the Texas State Historical Association.Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development – John F. Kennedy School of Government. Offers a number of publications including American Indians on Reservations: A Databook of Socioeconomic Change Between the 1990 and 2000 Censuses is a 59 page pdf document. The is a list of all publications.Harvard Views of Readers, Readership, and Reading History – Harvard Open Collections Program. “Online exploration of the intellectual, cultural, and political history of reading as reflected in the historical holdings of the Harvard Libraries. For Internet users worldwide, Reading provides unparalleled digital access to a significant selection of unique source materials – more than 250,000 pages from 1,200 individual items, including 800 published books and 400 manuscript selections.” There is a section on Missions to Native North AmericansHarvard University Library Open Collections Program – “Provides access to digitized historical, manuscript, and image resources selected from Harvard’s library and museum collections.” In January 2006, the Women Working collection consisted of “7,500 pages of manuscripts 3,500 books and pamphlets 1,200 photographs.” You can browse by subject and genre, search by keyword, author, title and subject and search the full text. One of the items in the collection is Choup-nit-ki, with the Nez Perce (1909)by E. Jane Gay (1830-1919) is from the Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study. It is described as “a two-volume collection of hand-colored photographs, illustrations, and letters providing a first-hand account of the implementation of the federal government’s allotment policy toward the American Indians, as well as commentary on missionary work, westward expansion, racial conflict, and women’s issues.” The work is “illustrated from photographs by the author with deorations by Emma J. Gay.” The author, in a prefatory note, states the following: “It was from the Nez Perce reservation, in the their territory of Idaho, that these letters were written by an unoffical member of her [Alice C. Fletcher] party. They were addressed to personal friends from whom they have been gathered by the compiler.” There is a list of photographs on pp. 22-25 and a list of drawings on p. 27. The first of the letters, on p. 35, was written in May 30, 1889 from Lewiston, Idaho.Haudenosaunee: People Building a Long House- Official source of news and information from the Haudenosaunee (Hodenosaunee), comprised of the traditional leadership of the Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Mohawk and Tuscarora Nations.Heard Museum – Phoenix, Arizona museum has a “world-class collection of Native American art, which includes the Fred Harvey Company collection of 19th and 20th century ceramics, baskets, jewelry and textiles as well as the 420-piece Goldwater Kachina Doll collection” as well as Documentary Research Collections. The online exhibition Inventing the Southwest: the Fred Harvey Company and Native American Art “interprets how Native American art in the Southwest was shaped in the first half of this century by the marketing and collecting activities of the Fred Harvey Company.” Other resources include a Documentary Research Collections Guide and The Native American Fine Art Movement: A Resource Guide and Watchful Eyes: Native American Women Artists.Hinds’ Precedents of the House of Representatives (1907) – Asher C. Hinds,Clerk at the Speaker’s Table, 1895 to 1910. With Search Page.Hisatsinom and the Hohokam – Links to resources on the Hohokam people of Central Arizona, the ancestors of the Pima and Tohono O’odham Indians, and the Hisatsinom of the Four Corners, the ancestors of the Hopi, Zuni, and Pueblo Indians compiled by librarian Joel Rane.History Cooperative – Project of the American Historical Association, the Organization of American Historians, the University of Illinois Press and the National Academy Press. You can search the Journal of American History and the American Historical Review. A search for Mohawkretrieves 15 results. Contents (full-text):American Historical Review- from December, 1999Journal of American History- from June 1999Law and History Review- from Spring 1999William and Mary Quarterly- from January 2001History Matters – “Designed for high school and college teachers of U.S. History survey courses, this site serves as a gateway to Web resources and offers unique teaching materials, first-person primary documents and threaded discussions on teaching U.S. history.” Many Pasts “contains primary documents in text, image, and audio about the experiences of “ordinary” Americans throughout U.S. history.” (Examples: “The Moment That The Snows Are Melted The Indian Women Begin Their Work”: Iroquois Women Work the Fields by Joseph-François Lafitau; “Your People Live Only Upon Cod”: An Algonquian Response to European Claims of Cultural Superiority by Chrestien LeClerq; The Dutch Arrive: A Native Perspective by John Heckewelder.) WWW.Historyis an annotated guide to the most useful Web sites for teaching U.S. history and social studies.History of Biomedicine – Indigenous Cultures- Collection of links from the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.History of Museums and Ethnographic Collections – Pitt Rivers Museum, School of Anthropology and Museum Ethnography, University of Oxford. See site map.History of the American West, 1860-1920 – Created by the Denver Public Library (see above) and now part of the National Digital Library Program at the Library of Congress, this collection “contains “over 30,000 photographs, drawn from the holdings of the Western History and Genealogy Department at Denver Public Library, illuminate many aspects of the history of the American West. Most of the photographs were taken between 1860 and 1920. They illustrate Colorado towns and landscape, document the place of mining in the history of Colorado and the West, and show the lives of Native Americans from more than forty tribes living west of the Mississippi River. Also included are World War II photographs of the 10th Mountain Division, ski troops based in Colorado who saw action in Italy.” Keyword searchable and indexed by subject and by name. Try searching for the following: Indians of North America, Wounded Knee, Dakota, Sioux, Ute, Pueblo, David Barry, George Beam, C. G. Morledge, Horace Poley, Edward Boos, Sitting Bull or Red Cloud. A search for Wounded Knee Massacre, for example, retrieves 85 photographs, each carefully catalogued and annotated and with a url which can be bookmarked. A search for Ben Wittick (1845-1903) retrieves 68 images of Zuni, Apache, Hopi and Navajo scenes.History of the Indian Tribes of North America – By Thomas L. McKenney and James Hall. This was a three volume work published between 1837 and 1844 and is notable for the hand-colored lithographs by Henry Inman, based on portraits of Native Americans by Charles Bird King. See A Gathering of Nations: Images from McKenney & Hall’s History of the Indian Tribes of North America and McKenney & Hall’s History of the Indian Tribes of North America: A Selected Bibliography(pdf) by Alice M. Cornell.History of the Northwest Coast- Bruce HallmanHudson’s Bay Company Archives – Held by the Provincial Archives of Manitoba. See the CBC Interviews.Huntington Free Library’s Native American Collection – Cornell University collection, received June 15, 2004, is “comprised of more than 40,000 volumes on the archaeology, ethnology and history of the native peoples of the Americas from the colonial period to the present. Genres represented in great depth include books of voyage and exploration, missionary reports, ethnography, travel writing, native language dictionaries, captivity narratives, and children’s books.” The Fidelia Fielding Diaries consist of five volumes by Fidelia Hoscott Fielding (1827-1908), considered to be the last speaker and preserver of the Mohegan Pequot language. For additional information on the collection see p. 4 of the Cornell University Library Update for Spring 2005. The collection is valued at more than $8 million dollars and includes an album of original drawings by George Catlin. The collection was previously held by the Huntington Free Library, a public library in the Bronx, and, prior to that (1930), the Museum of the American Indian, then located in New York City. Following a lengthy legal battle over ownership between the Huntington Free Library and the Smithsonian Institution, which had absorbed the Museum of the American Indian in 1990, the collection was transferred to Cornell in June 2004. There are “plans to digitize a significant portion of its manuscript holdings and rare books. An exhibition drawn from the collection will go on view in the Hirshland Gallery in Kroch Library in October, 2005.” See ‘Vanished Worlds, Enduring People’ — Cornell’s Native American Collection goes on display in the Cornell Chronicle, October 19, 2005 and Vanished Worlds, Enduring People: Cornell University Library’s Native American Collection, the online exhibition.“If you knew the conditions…”: Health Care to Native Americans- Online version of an exhibit held at the National Library of Medicine in 1994.

Hopi

[There are many variations in search terms and spelling. When searching, particularly in older literature, look for Moki, Moqui, Moquis, Orayvi, Orabai, Oreibas, Tusayan, Sikyatki, Awatobi, Thomas Keam, Keams Canyon, Antelope Mesa, Jeddito...]