The Story behind The nice Postal history in 1834

THIS THE SAMPLE OF Dr iwan E-book In CD-ROM Limited edition




urat  dikirim ke


Lord Clifford di Palazzo Odescalchi

(itu masih ada) par estafette (pengiriman ekspres oleh pelatih) pada tahun 1834.

stempel  merah menunjukkan malam Maret 10.

Ditandai Corrispa Estera

da Genova.

Organisasi Angleterre (merah)  melalui Pont Beauvoisin.

Karena BIaya Pos  33 Bajocchi sekitar 0,35 sen dolar AS

Membuat saya tidak bisa  keluarkan cukup  biaya ongkos kirim. Sepertinya 92/8 yang akan menjadi jumlah yang fenomenal.

Satu dolar AS pada waktu itu sama dengan mata uang British  4/2 shilling.

Sebaliknya menunjukkan organisasi Wetherby mengaris bawahi dengan jarak tempuh.

Cap stempel  pos Malam 1.834

Sebuah segel merah dengan apa yang tampaknya menjadi sebuah lambang keluarga dari dua hewan (griffin dan unicorn?) Kedua sisi perisai atasnya oleh sebuah mahkota.

 Cap  stempel warna hitam yang saya tidak bisa baca. Sepertinya Firenze, sesuatu (Pamanzo?), 1834

english version

Folded letter sent to Lord Clifford at Palazzo (palace)Odescalchi(rome)

The arms of the Italian Princes Odescalchi.

The keys and the ombrellino above the shield indicate that a member of the family had been Pope

(it’s still there) par estafette (express delivery by coach) in 1834.

The red tombstone indicates the evening of March 10th.

Marked Corrispa Estera da


Angleterre (in red) origination via Pont Beauvoisin.

Postage due 33 Bajocchi approximately 0.35 US cents

I can’t quite make out the cost of postage. It looks like 92/8 which would have been a phenomenal sum.

A US dollar at the time was equal to 4/2 British currency.


Reverse shows Wetherby origination underlined with mileage.

An evening 1834 stamp.

A red seal with what appears to be a family crest of two animals (a griffin and a unicorn?) either side of a shield topped by a crown.

Black stamp which I cannot read. Looks like Firenze, something (Pamanzo?), 1834


The letter discusses the then current political situation in Italy.

The Clifford family arrived in England with

William the CoWilliam "the Conqueror"nquerer.









A Clifford has several lines in Shakespeare’s

Henry VI.

Another in Wordsworth’s White Doe of Rylestone.

The Cliffords were related to a number of the leading Catholic families in England. Lucy Clifford, the daughter of the 3rd Baron, married Thomas Weld who, after her death, entered the Catholic Church and became a Cardinal in 1830.

Their daughter, Mary Weld, married Hugh Clifford (1790-1858), the 7th Baron and probably the one to whom the letter is addressed.

William Clifford (1823-1893), the brother of the 8th Baron, was the Roman Catholic Bishop of Clifton.

Sir Hugh Clifford (1866-1941), the nephew of the 8th Baron, held a number of posts in the Colonial Service, including Governor of Ceylon, Governor of Nigeria and Governor of the Straits Settlements.

Sir Bede Clifford (1890-1969),


a son of the 10th Baron, was Private Secretary to the Governor-General of Australia in 1918-20 and later held a number of vice-regal appointments.

machinal translate

Surat tersebut membahas situasi politik saat itu di Italia.

Keluarga Clifford tiba di Inggris dengan William Conquerer tersebut.

Sebuah Clifford memiliki beberapa baris di Shakespeare Henry VI.

Lain dalam Wordsworth White Doe of Rylestone.

Para Cliffords tersebut terkait dengan sejumlah keluarga Katolik terkemuka di Inggris. Lucy Clifford, putri dari Baron 3rd, menikah dengan Thomas Weld yang, setelah kematiannya, memasuki Gereja Katolik dan menjadi Kardinal pada tahun 1830.

Putri mereka, Mary Weld, menikah dengan Hugh Clifford (1790-1858), Baron VII dan mungkin orang kepada siapa surat tersebut ditujukan.

William Clifford (1823-1893), adik dari Baron VIII , adalah Uskup  Katolik Roma  Clifton.

Sir Hugh Clifford (1866-1941), keponakan dari Baron VIII, mengadakan sejumlah posting di Layanan kolonial, termasuk Gubernur Ceylon, Gubernur Nigeria dan Gubernur Straits Settlements.

Sir Clifford Bede (1890-1969), seorang putra dari Baron X, adalah Sekretaris Pribadi Gubernur-Jenderal Australia di 1918-1920 dan kemudian mengadakan sejumlah peranjanjian  dengan  agung wakil Agung

 read more about
William "the Conqueror"But how about the time of William “The Conqueror”
(lived 1027-1087, my children’s 30th GGP)? Would you believe that we each have 4,294,967,296  30th GGP’s? That is more than 4 billion of that generation only! The reason for that great number at a time when there were only 2.5 million inhabitants in England is of course that most of these ancestors come up again and again. In a family with 10 children, most of the children will be our ancestors. So their parents will come up 10 times.
CharlemagneWilliam descends in one line from Holy Roman Emperor Charlemagne and his queen Matilda has seven such lines. Since we all have Charlemagne on the “average” as our 40th GGP, you have 4.398 trillion GGP’s around the time period so that each of us descends multitudinous times from Charlemagne and his queen Hildegarde. Even though there were only about 29 million inhabitants in all of Europe in 800 AD.

You must be wondering by now how many GGP’s (theoretical and actual) you had in A.D. 1 or 1 B.C., at the time of Christ’s birth. Well, you would have 590 quintillion, 295 quadrillion, 804 trillion, 989 billion, 996 million, 531 thousand, 712  67th GGP’s. However, the estimated population of the whole earth was 200 million at the time. So if you descended from each one equally, you would descend from each person 2.36 trillion times on a pedigree chart. 

However, unless you in your family can find any nobility or royalty with their proven historical lines you will never be able to show the actual pedigree to ancient people since our church books in Europe didn’t start until c.1700. It is also true – as I have noticed among the 10.400 ancestors in my children’s pedigree – that nobles and royals rarely married outside their own class. But they did have enough illegitimate offspring to make all of them our forefathers around the time of the Holy Roman or Byzantine empire and at the time of Jesus our world family thus branches out to even the furthest corners of the world, including our common ancestors in China and India. Unless, again, you are an Eskimo, American Indian or Australian Aborigine.

read more about Shaekspiere ‘s henry VI

Henry VI, Part 1


Facsimile of the first page of The first Part of Henry the Sixt from the First Folio, published in 1623

Henry VI, Part 1 or The First Part of Henry the Sixt (often written as 1 Henry VI) is a history play by William Shakespeare, and possibly Thomas Nashe, believed to have been written in 1591, and set during the lifetime of King Henry VI of England. Whereas 2 Henry VI deals with the King’s inability to quell the bickering of his nobles, and the inevitability of armed conflict, and 3 Henry VI deals with the horrors of that conflict, 1 Henry VI deals with the loss of England’s French territories and the political machinations leading up to the Wars of the Roses, as the English political system is torn apart by personal squabbles and petty jealousy.

Although the Henry VI trilogy may not have been written in chronological order, the three plays are often grouped together with Richard III to form a tetralogy covering the entire Wars of the Roses saga, from the death of Henry V in 1422 to the rise to power of Henry VII in 1485. It was the success of this sequence of plays which firmly established Shakespeare’s reputation as a playwright.

Henry VI, Part 1 is regarded by some as the weakest play in Shakespeare’s oeuvre[1] and, along with Titus Andronicus, is one of the strongest candidates for evidence of Shakespeare collaborating with other dramatists early in his career.



[edit] Characters

The English

  • Lawyer
  • Papal Legate
  • Gaoler
  • Messengers, captain, soldiers, heralds, etc.

The French

[edit] Synopsis

Frederick and Alfred Heath engraving of Scene in the Temple Garden by John Pettie (1871)

The play begins with the funeral of Henry V, who has died unexpectedly in his prime. As his brothers, the Dukes of Bedford and Gloucester, and his uncle, the Duke of Exeter, lament his passing and express doubt as to whether his son (the as yet uncrowned heir apparent Henry VI) is capable of running the country in such tumultuous times, word arrives of military setbacks in France. A rebellion, led by the Dauphin Charles, is gaining momentum, and several major towns have already been lost. Additionally, Lord Talbot, Constable of France, has been captured. Realising a critical time is at hand, Bedford immediately prepares himself to head to France and take command of the army, Gloucester remains in charge in England, and Exeter sets out to prepare young Henry for his forthcoming coronation.

Meanwhile, in Orléans, the English army are laying siege to Charles’ forces. Inside the city, the Bastard of Orléans approaches Charles and tells him of a young woman who claims to have seen visions and knows how to defeat the English. Charles summons the woman, Joan la Pucelle, (i.e. Joan of Arc). To test her resolve, he challenges her to single combat. Upon her victory, he immediately places her in command of the army. Outside the city, the newly arrived Bedford negotiates the release of Talbot, but immediately, Joan launches an attack. The French forces win, forcing the English back, but Talbot and Bedford engineer a sneak attack on the city, and gain a foothold within the walls, causing the French leaders to flee.

Back in England, a petty quarrel between Richard Plantagenet and the Duke of Somerset has expanded to involve the whole court. Richard and Somerset ask their fellow nobles to pledge allegiance to one of them, and as such the lords select either red or white roses to indicate which side they are on. Richard then goes to see his uncle, Edmund Mortimer, imprisoned in the Tower of London. Mortimer tells Richard the history of their family’s conflict with the king’s family—how they helped Henry Bolingbroke seize power from Richard II, but were then shoved into the background; and how Henry V had Richard’s father (Richard of Conisburgh) executed and his family stripped of all its lands and monies. Mortimer also tells Richard that he himself is the rightful heir to the throne, and that when he dies, Richard will be the true heir, not Henry. Amazed at these revelations, Richard determines to attain his birthright, and vows to have his family’s dukedom restored. After Mortimer dies, Richard presents his petition to the recently crowned Henry, who agrees to reinstate the Plantagenet’s title, making Richard 3rd Duke of York. Henry then leaves for France, accompanied by Gloucester, Exeter, Winchester, Richard and Somerset.

H.C. Selous‘ illustration of Joan’s fiends abandoning her in Act 5, Scene 3; from The Plays of William Shakespeare: The Historical Plays, edited by Charles Cowden Clarke and Mary Cowden Clarke (1830)

In France, within a matter of hours, the French retake and then lose the city of Rouen. After the battle, Bedford dies, and Talbot assumes direct command of the army. The Dauphin is horrified at the loss of Rouen, but Joan tells him not to worry. She then persuades the powerful Duke of Burgundy, who had been fighting for the English, to switch sides, and join the French. Meanwhile, Henry arrives in Paris and upon learning of Burgundy’s betrayal, he sends Talbot to speak with him. Henry then pleads for Richard and Somerset to put aside their conflict, and, unaware of the implications of his actions, he chooses a red rose, symbolically aligning himself with Somerset and alienating Richard. Prior to returning to England, in an effort to secure peace between Somerset and Richard, Henry places Richard in command of the infantry and Somerset in command of the cavalry. Meanwhile, Talbot approaches Bordeaux, but the French army swing around and trap him. Talbot sends word for reinforcements, but the conflict between Richard and Somerset leads them to second guess one another, and neither of them send any, both blaming the other for the mix-up. The English army are subsequently destroyed, and both Talbot and his son are killed.

After the battle, Joan’s visions desert her, and she is captured by Richard, and burned at the stake. At the same time, urged on by Pope Eugenius IV and the Holy Roman Emperor, Sigismund, Henry sues for peace. The French listen to the English terms, under which Charles is to be a viceroy to Henry, reluctantly agreeing, but only with the intention of breaking their oath at a later date and expelling the English from France. Meanwhile, the Earl of Suffolk has captured a young French princess, Margaret of Anjou, who he intends to marry to Henry and dominate the king through her. Travelling back to England, he attempts to persuade Henry to marry Margaret. Gloucester advises Henry against the marriage, as Margaret’s family are not rich, and the marriage is not advantageous to his position as king, but Henry is taken in by Suffolk’s description of Margaret’s beauty, and he agrees to the proposal. Suffolk then heads back to France to bring Margaret to England as Gloucester worryingly ponders what the future may hold.

[edit] Sources

Shakespeare’s primary source for 1 Henry VI was Edward Hall‘s The Union of the Two Noble and Illustre Families of Lancaster and York (1548). Also, as with most of Shakespeare’s chronicle histories, Raphael Holinshed‘s Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland (1577; 2nd edition 1587) was also consulted. Holinshed based much of his Wars of the Roses information in the Chronicles on Hall’s information in Union of the Two Noble and Illustre Families, even to the point of reproducing large portions of it verbatim. However, there are enough differences between Hall and Holinshed to establish that Shakespeare must have consulted both of them.

For example, Shakespeare must have used Hall for the scene where Gloucester is attempting to gain access to the Tower, and Woodville tells him that the order not to admit anyone came from Winchester. Dismayed, Gloucester refers to Winchester as “that haughty prelate,/Whom Henry, our late sovereign, ne’re could brook” (1.3.23–24). Only in Hall is there any indication that Henry V had a problem with Winchester. In Holinshed, there is nothing to suggest any disagreement or conflict between them. Another example of Shakespeare’s use of Hall is found when Sir Thomas Gargrave is injured by the artillery strike at Orléans (1.5). In the play, he dies immediately, and the rest of the scene focuses on the death of the more senior soldier Salisbury. Likewise, in Hall, Gargrave dies immediately after the attack. In Holinshed, however, Gargrave takes two days to die (as he did in reality). The semi-comic scene where the French leaders are forced to flee Orléans half-dressed (dramatised in 2.1) also seems based on an incident reported only in Hall. When discussing the English retaking of Le Mans in 1428, Hall writes, “The French, suddenly taken, were so amazed in so much that some of them, being not out of their beds, got up in their shirts.”[3] Another incident involving Gloucester and Winchester is also unique to Hall. During their debate in Act 3, Scene 1, Gloucester accuses Winchester of attempting to have him assassinated on London Bridge. Hall mentions this assassination attempt, explaining that it was supposed to have taken place at the Southwark end of the bridge in an effort to prevent Gloucester from joining Henry V in Eltham Palace.[4] In Holinshed however, there is no reference to any such incident. Another incident possibly taken from Hall is found in Act 3, Scene 2, where Joan and the French soldiers disguise themselves as peasants and sneak into Rouen. This is not an historical event, and it is not recorded in either Hall or Holinshed. However, a very similar such incident is recorded in Hall, where he reports of the capture of Cornhill Castle in Cornhill-on-Tweed by the English in 1441.

On the other hand, some aspects of the play are unique to Holinshed. For example, in the opening scene, as word arrives in England of the rebellion in France, Exeter says to his fellow peers, “Remember, Lords, your oaths to Henry sworn:/Either to quell the Dauphin utterly,/Or bring him in obedience to your yoke” (1.1.162–164). Only in Holinshed is it reported that on his deathbed, Henry V elicited vows from Bedford, Gloucester and Exeter that they would never willingly surrender France, and would never allow the Dauphin to become king. Another piece of information unique to Holinshed is seen when Charles compares Joan to the Old Testament prophetess Deborah (1.2.105). According to Judges 4 and 5, Deborah masterminded Barak‘s surprise victory against the Canaanite army led by Sisera, which had suppressed the Israelites for over twenty years. No such comparison is found in Hall. Another piece of information unique to Holinshed occurs when the Master Gunner mentions that the English have taken control of some of the suburbs of Orléans (1.4.2). Holinshed reports that the English captured several of the suburbs on the other side of the Loire, something not found in Hall.

[edit] Date and text

[edit] Date

The most important evidence for dating 1 Henry VI is the Diary of Philip Henslowe, which records a performance of a play by Lord Strange’s Men called Harey Vj (i.e. Henry VI) on 3 March 1592 at the Rose Theatre in Southwark. Henslowe refers to the play as “ne” (which most critics take to mean “new”, although it could be an abbreviation for the Newington Butts theatre, which Henslow may have owned[5]) and mentions that it had fifteen performances and earned £3.16s.8d, meaning it was extremely successful.[6] Harey Vj is usually accepted as being 1 Henry VI for a couple of reasons. Firstly, it is unlikely to have been either 2 Henry VI or 3 Henry VI, as they were published in 1594 and 1595 respectively with the titles under which they would have originally been performed, so as to ensure higher sales. As neither of them appear under the title Harey Vj, the play seen by Henslowe is unlikely to be either of them. Additionally, as Gary Taylor points out, Henslowe tended to identify sequels, but not first parts, to which he referred by the general title. As such, “Harey Vj could not be a Part Two or Part Three, but could easily be a Part One.”[7] The only other option is that Harey Vj is a now lost play.

That Harey Vj is not a lost play however seems to be confirmed by a reference in Thomas Nashe’s Piers Penniless his Supplication to the Devil (entered into the Stationers’ Register on 8 August 1592), which supports the theory that Harey Vj is 1 Henry VI. Nashe praises a play that features Lord Talbot: “How would it have joyed brave Talbot (the terror of the French), to think that after he had lain two hundred years in his tomb, he should triumph again on the stage, and have his bones new embalmed with the tears of ten thousand spectators (at least), who in the tragedian that represents his person imagine they behold him fresh bleeding.” It is thought that Nashe is here referring to Harey Vj, i.e. 1 Henry VI, as there is no other candidate for a play featuring Talbot from this time period (although again, there is the slight possibility that both Henslowe and Nashe are referring to a now lost play).

If Nashe’s comment is accepted as evidence that the play seen by Henslowe was 1 Henry VI, to have been on stage as a new play in March 1592 it must have been written in 1591.

There is a separate question concerning the date of composition however. Due to the publication in March 1594 of a quarto version of 2 Henry VI (under the title The First part of the Contention betwixt the two famous Houses of Yorke and Lancaster, with the death of the good Duke Humphrey: And the banishment and death of the Duke of Suffolke, and the Tragicall end of the proud Cardinal of Winchester, with the notable Rebellion of Jack Cade: and the Duke of Yorke’s first claim unto the crowne)[8] and an octavo version of 3 Henry VI in 1595 (under the title The The True Tragedie of Richard Duke of Yorke, and the death of good King Henrie the Sixt, with the Whole Contention betweene the two Houses, Lancaster and Yorke),[9] neither of which make any reference to 1 Henry VI, some critics have argued that 2 Henry VI and 3 Henry VI were written prior to 1 Henry VI. This theory was first suggested by E.K. Chambers in 1923, and revised by John Dover Wilson in 1952. The theory is that The Contention and True Tragedy were originally conceived as a two-part play, but due to their success, a prequel was created. Obviously the title of The Contention, where it is referred to as The First Part is a large part of this theory, but various critics have offered further pieces of evidence to suggest 1 Henry VI was not the first play written in the trilogy. R.B. McKerrow, for example, argues that “if 2 Henry VI was originally written to continue the first part, it seems utterly incomprehensible that it should contain no allusion to the prowess of Talbot.”[10] McKerrow also comments on the lack of reference to the symbolic use of roses in 2 Henry VI, whereas in 1 Henry VI and 3 Henry VI they are mentioned numerous times. McKerrow concludes that this suggests 1 Henry VI was written closer to 3 Henry VI, and as we know 3 Henry VI was definitely a sequel, it means that 1 Henry VI must have been written last, i.e., Shakespeare only conceived of the use of the roses while writing 3 Henry VI, and then incorporated the idea into his prequel. Eliot Slater comes to the same conclusion in his statistical examination of the vocabulary of all three Henry VI plays, where he argues that 1 Henry VI was written either immediately before or immediately after 3 Henry VI, hence it must have been written last.[11] Likewise, Gary Taylor, in his analysis of the authorship of 1 Henry VI, argues that the many discrepancies between 1 Henry VI and 2 Henry VI (such as the lack of reference to Talbot) coupled with similarities in the vocabulary, phraseology and tropes of 1 Henry VI and 3 Henry VI suggest 1 Henry VI was probably written last.[12]

One argument against this theory is that 1 Henry VI is the weakest of the trilogy and therefore, logic would suggest it was written first. This argument suggests that Shakespeare could only have created such a weak play if it was his first attempt to turn his chronicle sources into drama. In essence, he was unsure of his way, and as such, 1 Henry VI was a trial-run of sorts, making way for the more accomplished 2 Henry VI and 3 Henry VI. Emrys Jones is one notable critic who supports this view.[13] The standard rebuke to this theory, and the one used by Dover Wilson in 1952, is that 1 Henry VI is significantly weaker than the other two plays not because it was written first but because it was co-authored, and may have been Shakespeare’s first attempt to collaborate with other writers. As such, all of the play’s problems can be attributed to its co-authors rather than Shakespeare himself, who may have had a relatively limited hand its composition. In this sense, the fact that 1 Henry VI is the weakest of the trilogy has nothing to do with when it may have been written, but instead concerns only how it was written.[14]

As this implies, there is no critical consensus on this issue. Samuel Johnson, writing in his 1765 edition of The Plays of William Shakespeare, pre-empted the debate and argued that the plays were written in sequence: “It is apparent that [2 Henry VI] begins where the former ends, and continues the series of transactions, of which it presupposes the first part already written. This is a sufficient proof that the second and third parts were not written without dependence on the first.”[15] Numerous more recent scholars continue to uphold Johnson’s argument. E.M.W. Tillyard, for example, writing in 1944, believes the plays were written in order, as does Andrew S. Cairncross in his editions of all three plays for the 2nd series of the Arden Shakespeare (1957, 1962 and 1964). E.A.J. Honigmann also agrees, in his ‘early start’ theory of 1982 (which argues that Shakespeare’s first play was Titus Andronicus, which Honigmann posits was written in 1586). Likewise, Michael Hattaway, in both his 1990 New Cambridge Shakespeare edition of 1 Henry VI and his 1991 edition of 2 Henry VI argues that the evidence suggests 1 Henry VI was written first. In his 2001 introduction to Henry VI: Critical Essays, Thomas A. Pendleton makes a similar argument, as does Roger Warren in his 2003 edition of 2 Henry VI for the Oxford Shakespeare.

On the other hand, Edward Burns, in his 2000 Arden Shakespeare 3rd series edition of 1 Henry VI and Ronald Knowles, in his 1999 Arden Shakespeare 3rd series edition of 2 Henry VI make the case that 2 Henry VI probably preceded 1 Henry VI. Similarly, Randall Martin, in his 2001 Oxford Shakespeare edition of 3 Henry VI argues that 1 Henry VI was almost certainly written last. In his 2003 Oxford edition of 1 Henry VI, Michael Taylor agrees with Martin. Additionally, it is worth noting that in the Oxford Shakespeare: Complete Works of 1986 and the 2nd edition of 2005, and in the Norton Shakespeare of 1997 and again in 2008, both 2 Henry VI and 3 Henry VI precede 1 Henry VI.

Ultimately, the question of the order of composition remains unanswered, and the only thing that critics can agree on is that all three plays (in whatever order) were written by early 1592 at the latest.

[edit] Text

The text of the play was not published until the 1623 First Folio, under the title The first part of Henry the Sixt.

When it came to be called Part 1 is unclear, although most critics tend to assume it was the invention of the First Folio editors, John Heminges and Henry Condell, as there are no references to the play under the title Part 1, or any derivative thereof, prior to 1623.[16]

[edit] Analysis and criticism

[edit] Critical history

Some critics argue that the Henry VI trilogy were the first plays based on recent English history, and as such, they deserve an elevated position in the canon, and a more central role in Shakespearean criticism. According to F.P. Wilson for example, “There is no certain evidence that any dramatist before the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 dared to put upon the public stage a play based upon English history […] so far as we know, Shakespeare was the first.”[17] However, not all critics agree with Wilson here. For example, Michael Taylor argues that there were at least thirty-nine history plays prior to 1592, including the two-part Christopher Marlowe play Tamburlaine (1587), Thomas Lodge‘s The Wounds of Civil War (1588), the anonymous The Troublesome Reign of King John (1588), Edmund Ironside (1590 – also anonymous), Robert Green‘s Selimus (1591) and another anonymous play, The True Tragedy of Richard III (1591). Paola Pugliatti however argues that the case may be somewhere between Wilson and Taylor’s argument: “Shakespeare may not have been the first to bring English history before the audience of a public playhouse, but he was certainly the first to treat it in the manner of a mature historian rather than in the manner of a worshipper of historical, political and religious myth.”[18]

Another issue often discussed amongst critics is the quality of the play. Along with 3 Henry VI, 1 Henry VI has traditionally been seen as one of Shakespeare’s weakest works, with critics often citing the amount of violence as indicative of Shakespeare’s artistic immaturity and inability to handle his chronicle sources, especially when compared to the more nuanced and far less violent second historical tetralogy (Richard II, 1 Henry IV, 2 Henry IV and Henry V). For example, critics such as E.M.W. Tillyard,[19] Irving Ribner[20] and A.P. Rossiter[21] have all claimed that the play violates neoclassical precepts of drama, which dictate that violence and battle should never be shown mimetically on stage, but should always be reported digetically in dialogue. This view was based on traditional notions of the distinction between high and low art, a distinction based partly upon Philip Sidney‘s An Apology for Poetry (1579). Based on the work of Horace, Sidney criticised Thomas Norton and Thomas Sackville‘s Gorboduc (1561) for showing too many battles and being too violent when it would have been more artistic to verbally represent such scenes. The belief was that any play that showed violence was crude, appealing only to the ignorant masses, and was therefore low art. On the other hand, any play that elevated itself above such direct representation of violence and instead relied on the writer’s ability to verbalise and his skill for diegesis, was considered artistically superior and therefore, high art. Writing in 1605, Ben Jonson commented in The Masque of Blackness that showing battles on stage was only “for the vulgar, who are better delighted with that which pleaseth the eye, than contenteth the ear.”[22] Based upon these theories, 1 Henry VI, with its numerous on-stage skirmishes and multiple scenes of violence and murder, was considered a coarse play with little to recommend it to the intelligentsia.

On the other hand however, writers like Thomas Heywood and Thomas Nashe praised battle scenes in general as oftentimes being intrinsic to the play and not simply vulgar distractions for the illiterate. In Piers Penniless (1592), Nashe praised the didactic element of drama that depicted battle and martial action, arguing that such plays were a good way of teaching both history and military tactics to the masses; in such plays “our forefather’s valiant acts (that have lain long buried in rusty brass and worm-eaten books) are revived.” Nashe also argued that plays that depict glorious national causes from the past rekindle a patriotic fervour that has been lost in “the puerility of an insipid present,” and that such plays “provide a rare exercise of virtue in reproof to these degenerate effeminate days of ours.”[23] Similarly, in An Apology for Actors (1612), Heywood writes, “So bewitching a thing is lively and well-spirited action, that it hath power to new mould the hearts of the spectators, and fashion them to the shape of any noble and notable attempt.”[24] More recently, Michael Goldman has argued that battle scenes are vital to the overall movement and purpose of the play; “the sweep of athletic bodies across the stage is used not only to provide an exciting spectacle but to focus and clarify, to render dramatic, the entire unwieldy chronicle.”[25]

Questions of originality and quality, however, are not the only critical disagreement 1 Henry VI has provoked. There are numerous other issues upon which critics are divided, not the least of which concerns the authorship of the play.

[edit] Attribution Studies

A number of Shakespeare’s early plays have been examined for signs of co-authorship (The Taming of the Shrew, The Contention (i.e. 2 Henry VI), and True Tragedy (i.e. 3 Henry VI) for example), but along with Titus Andronicus, 1 Henry VI stands as the most likely to have been a collaboration between Shakespeare and at least one, but possibly more, other dramatists whose identities remain unknown, although Thomas Nashe, Robert Greene, George Peele, Christopher Marlowe and Thomas Kyd are common proposals.[26]

The theory that Shakespeare may have written very little of 1 Henry VI was first suggested by Edmond Malone in his 1790 edition of Shakespeare’s plays, which included A Dissertation on the Three Parts of King Henry VI, in which he argued that the large number of classical allusions in the play was much more characteristic of Nash, Peele, or Greene than of early Shakespeare. Malone also argued that the language itself indicated someone other than Shakespeare. This view remained the predominate one until 1929, when it was challenged by Peter Alexander.[27] From that time forward, scholars have remained divided on the issue. In 1944, for example, E.M.W Tillyard argued that Shakespeare most likely wrote the entire play, whereas in 1952, John Dover Wilson passionately argued that Shakespeare wrote hardly any of it.

In perhaps the most exhaustive analysis of the debate, the 1995 article, “Shakespeare and Others: The Authorship of Henry the Sixth, Part One”, Gary Taylor suggests that approximately 18.7% of the play (3,846 out of 20,515 words) was written by Shakespeare. Taylor argues that Nashe almost certainly wrote all of Act 1, but he attributes to Shakespeare 2.4, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4., 4.5, 4.6, and 4.7 through line 32. Taylor also suggests that the Temple Garden scene (2.4), in which the rival factions identify themselves through the selection of red and white roses, may have been a later addition. Scenes 4.5 to 4.7 include a series of rhyming couplets between Talbot and his son (4.5.15-4.7.50), which, while unusual to our ears, apparently had “an electric effect upon early audiences.”[28] Traditionally, these lines have often been pinpointed as one of the most obviously non-Shakespearian sections of the play. Roger Warren, for instance, argues that these scenes are written in a language “so banal they must be non-Shakespearean.”[29]

Other than Taylor, however, several other critics also disagree with Warren’s assessment of the quality of the language, arguing that the passages are more complex and accomplished than has hitherto been allowed for. Michael Taylor, for example, argues that “the rhyming dialogue between the Talbots – often stichomythic – shapes a kind of noble flyting match, a competition as to who can out-oblige the other.”[30] Similarly, Alexander Leggatt argues that the passages are a perfect blend of form and content: “The relentless click-click of the rhymes reinforces the point that for John Talbot, all arguments are arguments for death; as every other line ending is countered by a rhyme, so every argument Talbot gives John to flee becomes an argument for staying.”[31] Taylor and Leggatt are here arguing that the passages are more accomplished than most critics tend to give them credit for, thus offering a counter-argument to the theory that they are so poorly written, they couldn’t possibly be by Shakespeare. In this sense then, his failure to use couplets elsewhere in his tragedies or histories can thus be attributed to an aesthetic choice on his part, rather than offered as evidence of co-authorship.

Other scenes in the play have also been identifying as offering possible evidence of co-authorship. For example, the opening lines of Act 1, Scene 2 have been argued to show clear evidence of Nashe’s hand. The scene begins with Charles proclaiming, “Mars his true moving – even as in the heavens/So in the earth – to this day is not known” (I.ii.1–2). Some critics believe that this statement is paraphrased in Nashe’s later pamphlet Have with You to Saffron-Walden (1596), which contains the line, “You are as ignorant as the astronomers are in the true movings of Mars, which to this day, they never could attain to.”[32] The problem with this theory however, as Michael Hattaway has pointed out, is that there is no reason as to why Nashe couldn’t simply be paraphrasing a play with which he had no involvement, a common practice in Elizabethan literature (for example, Shakespeare and Marlowe often paraphrased one another’s plays).

Nasheeb Sheehan offers more evidence, again suggestive of Nashe, when Alençon compares the English to “Samsons and Goliases” (I.ii.33). The word ‘Golias’, Sheehan argues is unusual insofar as all bibles in Shakespeare’s day spelt the name ‘Goliath’, it was only in much older editions of the bible that it was spelt ‘Golias’. Sheehan concludes that the use of the arcane spelling is more indicative of Nashe, who was prone to using older spellings of certain words, than Shakespeare, who was less likely to do so.[33]

However, evidence of Shakespeare’s authorship has also been found within the play. For example, Samuel Johnson argued that the play was more competently written than King John, Richard II, 1 Henry IV, 2 Henry IV and Henry V, and therefore, not attributing it to Shakespeare based on quality made little sense. A similar point is made by Lawrence V. Ryan, who suggests that the play fits so well into Shakespeare’s overall style, with an intricate integration of form and content, that it was most likely written by him alone.[34]

Another aspect of the debate is the actual likelihood of Shakespeare collaborating at all. Some critics, such as Hattaway and Cairncross, argue that it is unlikely that a young, up-and-coming dramatist trying to make a name for himself would have collaborated with other authors so early in his career. On the other hand, Michael Taylor suggests “it is not difficult to construct an imaginary scenario that has a harassed author calling on friends and colleagues to help him construct an unexpectedly commissioned piece in a hurry.”[35] (obviously, this suggestion is based on the theory that The Contention and True Tragedy formed a two-part sequence that was extended into a trilogy due to its popularity).

Another argument that challenges the co-authorship idea is that the basic theory of co-authorship itself was originally hypothesised in the 18th and 19th century due to a distaste for the treatment of Joan. Critics were uncomfortable attributing such a harsh depiction to Shakespeare, so they embraced the co-authorship theory to ‘clear his name’—suggesting that he couldn’t have been responsible for the merciless characterisation of Joan, and as such, someone else must have written her scenes.[36]

As with the question of the order in which the trilogy was written, twentieth century editors and scholars remain staunchly divided on the question of authorship. Edward Burns, for example, in his 2000 edition of the play for the Arden Shakespeare 3rd series, suggests that it is highly unlikely that Shakespeare wrote alone, and throughout his introduction and commentary, he refers to the writer not as Shakespeare but as ‘the dramatists’. He also suggests that the play should be more properly called Harry VI, by Shakespeare, Nashe and others.[37] Burns’ predecessor however, Andrew S. Cairncross, editor of the play for the Arden Shakespeare 2nd series in 1962, ascribes the entire play to Shakespeare, as does Lawrence V. Ryan in his 1967 Signet Classic Shakespeare edition, and Michael Hattaway in his New Cambridge Shakespeare edition of 1990. In his 1952 edition of the play, Dover Wilson on the other hand, argued that the play was almost entirely written by others, and that Shakespeare actually had little to do with its composition. Speaking during a 1952 radio presentation of The Contention and True Tragedy, which he produced, Dover Wilson argued that he had not included 1 Henry VI because it is a “patchwork in which Shakespeare collaborated with inferior dramatists.”[38]

On the other hand, Michael Taylor believes that Shakespeare almost certainly wrote the entire play, as does J.J.M Tobin, who, in his essay in Henry VI: Critical Essays (2001), argues the similarities to Nashe do not reveal the hand of Nashe at work in the composition of the play, but instead reveal Shakespeare imitating Nashe. More recently, in 2005, Paul J. Vincent has re-examined the question in light of recent research into the Elizabethan theatre, concluding that 1 Henry VI is Shakespeare’s partial revision of a play by Nashe (Act 1) and an unknown playwright (Acts 2–5) and that it was the original, non-Shakespearean, play that was first performed on 3 March 1592. Shakespeare’s work in the play, which was most likely composed in 1594, can be found in Act 2 (scene 4) and Act 4 (scenes 2–5 and the first 32 lines of scene 7).[39] In 2007, Vincent’s authorship findings, especially with regard to Nashe’s authorship of Act 1, were supported overall by Brian Vickers, who agrees with the theory of co-authorship and differs only slightly over the extent of Shakespeare’s contribution to the play.[40]

As such, similarly to the question of the order of composition, critics remain staunchly divided on the issue of authorship.

[edit] Language

The very functioning of Language itself is literally a theme in the play, with particular emphasis placed on its ability to represent by means of signs (semiosis), the power of language to sway, the aggressive potential of language, the failure of language to adequately describe reality and the manipulation of language so as to hide the truth.

The persuasive power of language is first alluded to by Charles, who tells Joan after she has assured him she can end the siege of Orléans, “Thou hast astonished me with thy high terms” (1.2.93). This sense is repeated when the Countess of Auvergne is wondering about Talbot and says to her servant, “Great is the rumour of this dreadful knight,/And his achievements of no less account./Fain would mine eyes be witness with mine ears,/To give their censure of these rare reports” (2.3.7–10). Like Charles, Auvergne has been astonished with the ‘high terms’ bestowed on Talbot, and now she wishes to see if the report and the reality conflate. Later in the play, the persuasive power of language becomes important for Joan, as she uses it as a subterfuge to sneak into Rouen, telling her men, “Be wary how you place your words;/Talk like the vulgar sort of market men/That come to gather money for their corn” ( Later, she uses language to persuade Burgundy to join with the Dauphin against the English. As Burgundy realises he is succumbing to her rhetoric, he muses to himself, “Either she hath bewitched me with her words,/Or nature makes me suddenly relent” (3.3.58–59). Here, language is shown to be so powerful as to act on Burgundy the same way Nature itself would act, to the point where he is unsure if he has been persuaded by a natural occurrence or by Joan’s words. Language is thus presented as capable of transforming ideology. As Joan finishes her speech, Burgundy again attests to the power of her language, “I am vanquish’d. These haughty words of hers/Have battered me like roaring canon-shot,/And made me almost yield upon my knees” (3.3.78–80). Later, something similar happens with Henry, who agrees to marry Margaret merely because of Suffolk’s description of her. In a line that echoes Burgundy’s, Henry queries what it is that has prompted him to agree to Suffolk’s suggestion: “Whether it be through force of your report,/My noble lord of Suffolk, or for that/My tender youth was never yet attaint/With any passion of inflaming love, I cannot tell” (5.6.79–83). Here, again, the power of language is shown to be so strong as to be confused with a natural phenomenon.

Charles William Sharpe engraving of Talbot and the Countess of Auvergne by William Quiller Orchardson (1867)

Language can also be employed aggressively. For example, after the death of Salisbury, when Talbot first hears about Joan, he contemptuously refers to her and Charles as “Puzel or pussel, dolphin or dogfish” (1.5.85). In French, ‘puzel’ means slut, and ‘pussel’ is a variation of ‘pucelle’ (meaning virgin), but with an added negative connotation. These two words, ‘puzel’ and ‘pussel’, are both puns on Joan’s name (Pucelle), thus showing Talbot’s utter contempt for her.[41] Similarly, the use of the word ‘dolphin’ to describe the Dauphin carries negative and mocking connotations, as does the use of the word ‘dogfish’, a member of the shark family considered dishonourable scavengers, preying on anything and anyone.[42] Again, Talbot is showing his contempt for Charles’ position by exposing it to mockery with some simple word play.[43] Other examples of words employed aggressively are seen when the English reclaim Orléans, and a soldier chases the half-dressed French leaders from the city, declaring “The cry of ‘Talbot’ serves me for a sword,/For I have loaden me with many spoils,/Using no other weapon but his name” (2.1.81–83). A similar notion is found when the Countess of Auvergne meets Talbot, and muses, “Is this the Talbot so much feared abroad/That with his name the mothers still their babes” (2.3.15–16). Here words (specifically Talbot’s name) literally become weapons, and are used directly to strike fear into the enemy.

However although words are occasionally shown to be powerful and deeply persuasive, they also often fail in their signifying role, exposed as incapable of adequately representing reality. This idea is introduced by Gloucester at Henry V’s funeral, where he laments that words cannot encompass the life of such a great king: “What should I say? His deeds exceed all speech” (1.1.15). Later, when Gloucester and Winchester confront one another outside the Tower of London, Gloucester champions the power of real action over the power of threatening words: “I will not answer thee with words but blows” (1.3.69). Similarly, after the French capture Rouen and refuse to meet the English army in the battlefield, Bedford asserts, “O let no words, but deeds, revenge this treason” (3.2.48). Another example of the failure of language is found when Suffolk finds himself lost for words whilst attempting to woo Margaret: “Fain would I woo her, yet I dare not speak./I’ll call for pen and ink and write my mind./Fie, de la Pole, disable not thyself!/Hast not a tongue?” (5.4.21–24). Later, Joan’s words, so successful during the play in convincing others to support her, explicitly fail to save her life, as she is told by Warwick, “Strumpet, thy words condemn thy brat and thee./Use no entreaty, for it is in vain” (5.5.84–85).

Language as a system is also shown to be open to manipulation. Words can be employed for deceptive purposes, as the representative function of language gives way to deceit. For example, shortly after Charles has accepted Joan as his new commander, Alençon calls into question her sincerity, thus suggesting a possible discrepancy between her words and her actions; “These women are shrewd tempters with their tongues” (1.2.123). Another example occurs when Henry forces Winchester and Gloucester to put aside their animosity and shake hands. Their public words here stand in diametric opposition to their private intentions;

Well, Duke of Gloucester, I will yield to thee
Love for thy love, and hand for hand I give.

He takes Gloucester’s hand

(aside) Ay, but I fear me with a hollow heart.
(to others) See here, my friends and loving countrymen,
This token serveth for a flag of truce
Betwixt ourselves and all our followers.
So help me God as I dissemble not.

So help me God. (aside) As I intend it not.


Choosing the Red and White Roses by Henry Payne (1908)

Act 2, Scene 4 is perhaps the most important scene in the play in terms of language, as it is in this scene where Richard introduces the notion of what he calls “dumb significants”, something which will carry resonance throughout the trilogy. During his debate with Somerset, Richard points out to the lords who are unwilling to openly support either of them, “Since you are tongue tied and loath to speak,/In dumb significants proclaim your thoughts” (ll.25–26). The dumb significants to which he refers are roses; a red rose to join Somerset, a white rose to join Richard. As such, the roses essentially function as symbols, replacing the very need for language. Once all the lords have selected their rose, the roses then come to symbolise the House they represent. When Henry chooses a red rose, he is totally unaware of the implications of his actions, as he doesn’t understand the power the dumb significants have. He places all his trust in a more literal type of language, and thus selects a rose in what he thinks is a meaningless gesture, but which does in fact have profound implications. Henry’s mistake results directly from his failure to grasp the importance of silent actions and symbolic decisions; “a gesture – especially such an ill-considered one – is worth and makes worthless, a thousand pretty words.”[44]

[edit] Themes

[edit] Death of chivalry

A fundamental theme in the play is the death of chivalry, “the decline of England’s empire over France and the accompanying decay of the ideas of feudalism that had sustained the order of the realm.”[45] This is specifically manifested in the character of Talbot, the symbol of a dying breed of men honourably and selflessly devoted to the good of England, whose methods and style of leadership represent the last dying remnants of a now outmoded, feudal gallantry. As such, Michael Taylor refers to him as “the representative of a chivalry that was fast decaying,”[46] whilst Michael Hattaway sees him as “a figure for the nostalgia that suffuses the play, a dream of simple chivalric virtus like that enacted every year at Elizabeth‘s Accession Day tilts, a dream of true empire. He is designed to appeal to a popular audience, and his death scene where he calls for troops who do not appear is yet another demonstration of the destructiveness of aristocratic factionalism.”[47]

One of the clearest examples of Talbot’s adherence to the codes of chivalry is seen in his response to Fastolf’s desertion from the battlefield. As far as Talbot is concerned, Fastolf’s actions reveal him as a dishonourable coward who places self-preservation above self-sacrifice, and thus he represents everything wrong with the modern knight. This is in direct contrast to the chivalry that Talbot represents, a chivalry he remembers fondly from days gone by:

I vowed, base knight, when I did meet thee next,
To tear the garter from thy craven’s leg,
Which I have done because unworthily
Thou wast install’d in that high degree. –
Pardon me, princely Henry, and the rest.
This dastard, at the Battle of Patay,
When but in all I was six thousand strong,
And that the French were almost ten to one,
Before we met, or that a stroke was given,
Like to a trusty squire did run away;
In which assault we lost twelve hundred men.
Myself and divers gentlemen beside
Were there surprised and taken prisoners.
Then judge, great lords, if I have done amiss,
Or whether that such cowards ought to wear
This ornament of knighthood: yea or no?

To say the truth, this fact was infamous
And ill beseeming any common man,
Much more a knight, a captain, and a leader.

When first this order was ordained, my lords,
Knights of the garter were of noble birth,
Valiant and virtuous, full of haughty courage,
Such as were grown to credit by the wars;
Not fearing death nor shrinking for distress,
But always resolute in most extremes.
He then that is not furnished in this sort
Doth but usurp the sacred name of knight,
Profaning this most honourable order,
And should – if I were worthy to be judge –
Be quite degraded, like a hedge-born swain
That doth presume to boast of gentle blood.


Talbot’s description of Fastolf’s actions stands in direct contrast to the image of an ideal knight, and as such, the ideal and the reality serve to highlight one another, and thus reveal the discrepancy between them.

Similarly, just as Talbot uses knights to represent an ideal past, by remembering how they used to be chivalric, so too does Gloucester in relation to Henry V, who he also sees as representing a glorious and honourable past:

England ne’re had a king until his time.
Virtue he had, deserving to command;
His brandished sword did bind men with his beams,
His arms spread wider than a dragon‘s wings,
His sparkling eyes, replete with wrathful fire,
More dazzled and drove back his enemies
Than midday sun fierce bent against their faces.


Henry V has this function throughout much of the play; “he is presented not as a man but as a rhetorical construct fashioned out of hyperbole, as a heroic image or heraldic icon.”[48] He is seen as a representative of a celebrated past which can never be recaptured; “there is in the play a dominant, nostalgic, celebratory reminiscence of Henry V who lives on in the immortality of preternatural legend.”[49]

The Maid of Orléans by Henrietta Ward (1871)

The play, however, doesn’t simply depict the fall of one order, it also depicts the rise of another; “How the nation might have remained true to itself is signified by the words and deeds of Talbot. What she is in danger of becoming is signified by the shortcomings of the French, failings that crop up increasingly amongst Englishman […] also manifest are an English decline towards French effeminacy and the beginnings of reliance upon fraud and cunning rather than manly courage and straightforward manly virtue.”[50] If the old mode of honourable conduct is specifically represented by Talbot and Henry V, the new mode of duplicity and Machiavellianism is represented by Joan, who employs a type of warfare with which Talbot is simply unable to cope. This is seen most clearly when she sneaks into Rouen and subsequently refuses to face Talbot in a battle. Talbot finds this kind of behaviour incomprehensible and utterly dishonourable. As such, he finds himself fighting an enemy who uses tactics he is incapable of understanding; with the French using what he sees as unconventional methods, he proves unable to adapt. This represents one of the ironies in the play’s depiction of chivalry; it is the very resoluteness of Talbot’s honour and integrity, his insistence in preserving an old code abandoned by all others, which ultimately defeats him; his inability to adjust means he becomes unable to function in the newly established ‘dishonourable’ context. As such, the play is not entirely nostalgic about chivalry; “so often the tenets of chivalry are mocked by word and action. The play is full of moments of punctured aristocratic hauteur.”[51]

Talbot’s mode of chivalry is replaced by politicians concerned only with themselves and their own advancement: Winchester, Somerset, Suffolk, even Richard. Narcissistic political infighting has supplanted self-sacrificing patriotism and chivalry: “the play charts the disastrous breakdown of civility among the English nobility.”[52] Nobles concerned with personal power above all else have replaced knights concerned only with the empire. As such, by the end of the play, both Talbot and his son lay dead, as does the notion of English chivalry. In this sense then, the play “depicts the deaths of the titanic survivors of an ancien régime.”[53]

[edit] Patriotism

Hand-in-hand with the examination of chivalry with which the play engages is an examination of patriotism. Indeed, some critics argue that it was patriotism which provided the impetus for the play in the first place. Although England had defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588, leading to a short-lived period of international confidence and patriotic pride, the national mood by 1590 was one of despondency, and as such, 1 Henry VI may have been commissioned to help dispel this mood: “The patriotic emotions to which this play shamelessly appeals resonate at an especially fragile time politically speaking. Frightening memories of the 1588 Spanish Armada, or of the Babington Plot of 1586, which led to the execution of Mary, Queen of Scots; concerns over a noticeably declining and still unmarried Queen Elizabeth; worries over Catholic recusancy; fear of military involvement in Europe, and, just as disquietingly, in Ireland, combine to make a patriotic response a matter of some urgency. [The play] is a bracing attempt to stiffen the sinews of the English in a time of danger and deceit.”[54]

Evidence of this is seen throughout. For example, the English seem vastly outnumbered in every battle, yet they never give up, and oftentimes they prove victorious. Indeed, even when they do lose, the suggestion is often made that it was because of treachery, as only by duplicitous means could their hardiness be overcome. For example, during the Battle of Patay (where Talbot is captured), the messenger reports,

The tenth of August last, this dreadful lord [ie Talbot],
Retiring from the siege of Orléans,
Having full scarce six thousand in his troop,
By three-and-twenty thousand of the French
Was round encompass’d and set upon:
No leisure had he to enrank his men.
He wanted pikes to set before his archers;
Instead whereof sharp stakes plucked out of hedges
They pitch’d in the ground confusedly
To keep the horsemen off from breaking in.
More than three hours the fight continu’d,
Where valiant Talbot, above human thought,
Enacted wonders with his sword and lance.
Hundreds he sent to hell, and none durst stand him;
Here, there, and everywhere, enraged he slew.
The French exclaimed the devil was in arms:
All the whole army stood agazed on him.
His soldiers, spying his undaunted spirit,
‘À Talbot! À Talbot!’ cried out amain,
And rushed into the bowels of the battle.
Here had the conquest fully been sealed up
If Sir John Fastolf had not played the coward.
He, being in the vanguard placed behind,
With purpose to relieve and follow them,
Cowardly fled, not having struck one stroke.
Hence flew the general wrack and massacre;
Enclos’d were they with their enemies.
A base Walloon, to win the Dauphin’s grace,
Thrust Talbot with a spear into the back –
Whom all France, with their chief assembled strength,
Durst not presume to look once in the face.


Here Fastolf’s betrayal is the direct cause of the English defeat, not the fact that they were outnumbered ten-to-one, that they were hit by a surprise attack or that they were surrounded. This notion is returned to several times, with the implication each time that only treachery can account for an English defeat. For example, upon hearing of the first loss of towns in France, Exeter immediately asks, “How were they lost? What treachery was used?” (1.1.68). Upon losing Rouen, Talbot exclaims, “France, thou shalt rue this treason with thy tears/If Talbot but survive thy treachery” (3.2.35–36). Later, when thinking back on the French campaign, Richard asks Henry, “Have we not lost most part of all the towns/By treason, falsehood and by treachery” (5.5.108–109).

H.C. Selous’ illustration of Talbot engaging in battle in Act 4, Scene 6; from The Plays of William Shakespeare: The Historical Plays, edited by Charles Cowden Clarke and Mary Cowden Clarke (1830)

However if the English are of the mind that they can only be defeated by treachery and betrayal, the play also presents the French as somewhat in awe of them, bearing a begrudging respect for them, and fearing their strength in battle. As such, whilst the English attribute every defeat to treachery, the French opinion of the English seems to imply that perhaps this is indeed the only way to beat them. For example, during the siege of Orléans:

Froissart, a countryman of ours, records
England all Olivers and Rolands bred
During the time Edward the Third did reign.
More truly now may this be verified,
For none but Samsons and Goliases
It sendeth forth to skirmish. One to ten?
Lean raw-boned rascals – who would e’er suppose
They had such courage and audacity.

Let’s leave this town, for they are hare-brained slaves,
And hunger will enforce them to be more eager.
Of old I know them; rather with their teeth
The walls they’ll tear down than forsake the siege.

I think by some odd gimmers or device
Their arms are set, like clocks, still to strike on,
Else n’er could they hold out as they do.


As such, the play presents, to a certain extent, the English image of themselves as somewhat in line with the French image of them, with both stressing resoluteness and steadfastness.

Another component of the patriotic sentiment is the religious note the play oftentimes strikes. On the whole, everything Catholic is represented as bad, everything Protestant is represented as good: “The play’s popularity [in 1592] has to be seen against the backdrop of an extraordinary efflorescence of interest in political history in the last two decades of the sixteenth century fed by self-conscious patriotic Protestantism’s fascination with its own biography in history. It is not for nothing that Part One is persistently anti-Catholic in a number of ways despite the fact that in the fifteenth century the entire population of England was nominally Catholic (though not, of course, in 1592). The French are presented as decadently Catholic, the English (with the exception of the Bishop of Winchester) as attractively Protestant.”[55] Talbot himself is an element of this, insofar as his “rhetoric is correspondingly Protestant. His biblical references are all from the Old Testament (a source less fully used by Catholics) and speak of stoicism and individual faith.”[56] Henry V is also cited as an example of Protestant purity: “He was a king blest of the King of Kings./Unto the French the dreadful judgement day/So dreadful will not be as was his sight./The battles of the Lords of Hosts he fought” (1.1.28–31). “King of kings” is a phrase used in 1 Timothy, 6:15. “Lords of Hosts” is used throughout the Old Testament, and to say Henry fought for the Lord of Hosts is to compare him to the Christian warrior king, David, who also fought for the Lords of Hosts in 1 Samuel, 25:28.

However, despite the obvious celebratory patriotic tone and sense of Protestant/English religio-political identity, as with the lamentation for the death of chivalry, the play is somewhat ambiguous in its overall depiction of patriotism. Ultimately, the play depicts how the English lost France, a seemingly strange subject matter if Shakespeare was attempting to instil a sense of national pride in the people. This is rendered even more so when one considers that Shakespeare could have written about how England won France in the first place: “The popularity of “Armada rhetoric” during the time of 1 Henry VI’s composition would have seemed to ask for a play about Henry V, not one which begins with his death and proceeds to dramatise English loses.”[57] In this sense then, the depiction of patriotism, although undoubtedly strong, is not without ambiguity; the very story told by the play renders any patriotic sentiment found within to be something of a hollow victory.

[edit] Saintly vs. demonic

Joan and the Furies by William Hamilton (1790)

Demons, spirits, witches, saints and God are all mentioned on numerous occasions within the play, oftentimes relating directly to Joan, who is presented as “a fascinating mixture of saint, witch, naïve girl, clever woman, audacious warrior and sensual tart.”[58] The English continually refer to her as a witch and a whore, the French as a saint and a saviour, and the play itself seems to waver between these two poles: “Joan first appears in a state of beatitude, patient, serene, the “Divinest creature” of Charles’ adoration, the object of the Virgin Mary‘s miraculous intercession, chosen by her to rescue France, and so made beautiful, courageous and wise […] on the other hand, and virtually at the same time, she’s clearly an early combination of the demonic, the Machiavellian, and the Marlovian.”[59]

Joan is introduced into the play by the Bastard, who, even before anyone has seen or met her, says, “A holy maid hither with me I bring” (1.2.51). Later, after Joan has helped the French lift the siege of Orléans, Charles declares, “No longer on Saint Denis will we cry, but Joan la Pucelle shall be France’s saint” (1.7.28–30). Similarly, when Joan reveals her plan to turn Burgundy against the English, Alençon declares, “We’ll set thy statute in some holy place/And have thee reverenced like a blessed saint” (3.3.14–15).

On the other hand however, the English see her as a demon. Prior to her combat with Talbot, he exclaims, “Devil or devil’s dam, I’ll conjure thee./Blood will I draw on thee – thou art a witch –/And straightway give thy soul to him thou serv’st” (1.6.5–7). Then, after the fight, he says, “My thoughts are whirl’d like a potter’s wheel./I know not where I am nor what I do./A witch, by fear, not force, like Hannibal,/Drives back our troops and conquers as she lists” (1.6.19–22). Upon arriving in France, Bedford condemns Charles for aligning himself with Joan: “How much he wrongs his fame,/Despairing of his own arms’ fortitude,/To join with witches and the help of hell” (2.1.16–18). Talbot responds to this with, “Well, let them practice and converse with spirits./God is our fortress” (2.1.25–26). Later, Talbot refers to her as “Pucelle, that witch, that damn’d sorceress” (3.2.37) and “Foul fiend of France, and hag of all despite” (3.2.51), declaring “I speak not to that railing Hecate” (3.2.64). Prior to executing her, York also calls her a “Fell banning hag” (5.2.42).

Joan herself addresses this issue as she is about to be executed:

First let me tell you whom you have condemned:
Not me begotten of a shepherd swain,
But issued from the progeny of kings;
Virtuous and holy, chosen from above
By inspiration of celestial grace
To work exceeding miracles on earth.
I never had to do with wicked spirits;
But you, that are polluted with your lusts,
Stained with the guiltless blood of innocents,
Corrupt and tainted with a thousand vices –
Because you want the grace that others have,
You judge it straight a thing impossible
To compass wonders but by help of devils.
No, misconceiv’d, Joan of Arc hath been
A virgin from her tender infancy,
Chaste and immaculate in very thought,
Whose maiden blood, thus rigorously effused,
Will cry for vengeance at the gates of heaven.


Having failed in her efforts to convince the English she is a holy virgin, and that killing her will invoke the wrath of heaven, she alters her story and claims she is pregnant, hoping they will spare her for the sake of the child. She then lists off various French nobles who could be her child’s father in an effort to find one who the English respect. In this sense then, Joan leaves the play as neither saintly nor demonic, but as a frightened woman pleading fruitlessly for her life.

An important question in any examination of Joan is the question of whether or not she is a unified, stable character who vacillates from saintly to demonic, or a poorly constructed character, now one thing, now the other. According to Edward Burns, “Joan cannot be read as a substantive realist character, a unified subject with a coherent singly identity.”[60]

Michael Hattaway offers an alternate, sympathetic view of Joan which argues that the character’s movement from saintly to demonic is justified within the text: “Joan is the play’s tragic figure, comparable with Faulconbridge in King John. She turns to witchcraft only in despair; it cannot be taken as an unequivocal manifestation of diabolic power.”[61]

Another theory is that Joan is actually a comic figure, and the huge alterations in her character are supposed to evoke laughter. Michael Taylor, for example, argues, “A fiendish provenance replaces a divine one in [Act 5, Scene 5], a scene that reduces Joan to a comic, bathetic dependency on shifty representatives of the underworld.”[62] In line with this thinking, it is worth pointing out that in the 1981 BBC Television Shakespeare adaptation,[63] Joan, and the French in general, are treated predominately as comic figures. Joan (Brenda Blethyn), Alençon (Michael Byrne), the Bastard (Brian Protheroe), Reignier (David Daker) and Charles (Ian Saynor) are treated as buffoons for the most part, and there is no indication of any malevolence (significantly, when Joan’s fiends abandon her, we never see them, we simply see her talking to empty air). Examples of the comic treatment of the characters are found during the battle of Orléans, where Joan is ludicrously depicted as defending the city from the entire English army single-handed, whilst Talbot stands by incredulously watching his soldiers flee one after another. Another example appears in Act 2, Scene 1, as the five of them blame one another for the breach in the watch at Orléans that allowed the English back into the city. Their role as comic figures is also shown in Act 3, Scene 2. After Joan has entered Rouen and the others stand outside waiting for her signal. Charles is shown sneaking through a field holding a helmet with a large plume up in front of his face in an effort to hide.

The notion of demonic agency and saintly power, however, is not confined to Joan. For example, in the opening conversation of the play, speculating as to how Talbot could have been taken prisoner, Exeter exclaims “shall we think the subtle-witted French/Conjurers and sorcerers, that, afraid of him,/By magic verse have contrived his end” (1.1.25-27). Later, discussing the French capture of Orléans, Talbot claims it was “contrived by art and baleful sorcery” (2.1.15). Indeed, the French make similar claims about the English. During the Battle of Patay for example, according to the messenger, “The French exclaimed the devil was in arms” (1.1.125). Later, as the English attack Orléans,

I think this Talbot be a fiend of hell.

If not of hell, the heavens sure favour him.


Here, much as the English had done when they were being defeated by Joan, the French attribute diabolic power to their vanquishers. Unlike the English however, the French acknowledge that Talbot must be either a demon or a saint. As far as the English are concerned, Joan is demonic, it is not open to question.

[edit] Performance

Poster from Michael Boyd’s 2000 production

After the original 1592 performances, the complete text of 1 Henry VI seems to have been rarely acted. The first definite performance after Shakespeare’s day was on 13 March 1738 at Covent Garden, in what seems to have been a stand-alone performance, as there is no record of a performance of either 2 Henry VI or 3 Henry VI.[64] The next certain performance in England didn’t occur until 1906, when F.R. Benson presented the play at the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre in a production of Shakespeare’s two tetralogies, performed over eight nights. As far as can be ascertained, this was not only the first performance of the octology, but was also the first definite performance of both the tetralogy and the trilogy. Benson himself played Henry and his wife, Constance Benson, played Margaret.[65]

In 1953, Douglas Seale directed a production of 1 Henry VI at the Birmingham Repertory Theatre, following successful productions of 2 Henry VI in 1951 and 3 Henry VI in 1952. All three plays starred Paul Daneman as Henry and Rosalind Boxall as Margaret, with 1 Henry VI featuring Derek Godfrey as Talbot and Judi Dench as Joan.

A production which made much of its unedited status came in 1977, at the Royal Shakespeare Theatre, where Terry Hands presented all three Henry VI plays with Alan Howard as Henry and Helen Mirren as Margaret. Although the production was only moderately successful at the box office, it was critically lauded at the time for Alan Howard’s unique portrayal of Henry. Howard adopted historical details concerning the real Henry’s madness into his performance, presenting the character as constantly on the brink of a mental and emotional breakdown. Possibly as a reaction to a recent adaptation of the trilogy under the general title Wars of the Roses, which was strongly political, Hands attempted to ensure his own production was entirely apolitical: “Wars of the Roses was a study in power politics: its central image was the conference table, and Warwick, the scheming king-maker, was the central figure. But that’s not Shakespeare. Shakespeare goes far beyond politics. Politics is a very shallow science.”[66] Aside from Howard and Mirren, the production starred David Swift as Talbot and Charlotte Cornwell as Joan.

Under the direction of Michael Boyd the play was presented at the Swan Theatre in Stratford in 2000, with David Oyelowo as Henry and Keith Bartlett as Talbot. Both Margaret and Joan were played by Fiona Bell (as Joan is burned, Bell symbolically rose from the ashes as Margaret). The play was presented with the five other history plays to form a complete eight-part history cycle under the general title This England: The Histories (the first time the Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC) had ever attempted to stage the eight plays as one sequence). This England: The Histories was revived in 2006, as part of the Complete Works festival at the Courtyard Theatre, with the Henry VI plays again directed by Boyd, and starring Chuk Iwuji as Henry and Keith Bartlett reprising his role as Talbot. Katy Stephens played both Margaret and Joan. When the Complete Works wrapped in March 2007, the history plays remained on stage, under the shorter title The Histories, as part of a two-year thirty-four actor ensemble production. 1 Henry VI was performed under the title Henry VI, Part 1: The War Against France. At the end of the two-year programme, the entire octology was performed over a four-day period under the title The Glorious Moment; Richard II was staged on a Thursday evening, followed by the two Henry IV plays on Friday afternoon and evening, the three Henry VI plays on Saturday (two afternoon performances and one evening performance), and Richard III on Sunday evening.[67]

Boyd’s production garnered much attention at the time because of his interpolations and additions to the text. Most notably, Boyd introduced a new character into the trilogy. Called The Keeper, the character never speaks, but upon the death of each major character, the Keeper (played by Edward Clayton in 2000, and by Anthony Bunsee in 2006/2007), wearing all red, would walk onto stage and approach the body. The actor playing the body would then stand up and allow himself to be led off-stage by the figure. The production was also particularly noted for its realistic violence. According to Robert Gore-Langton of the Daily Express, in his review of the original 2000 production, “blood from a severed arm sprayed over my lap. A human liver slopped to the floor by my feet. An eyeball scudded past, then a tongue.”[68]

Apart from the 1738 performance at Covent Garden (about which nothing is known), there is no evidence of 1 Henry VI having ever been performed as a stand-alone play, unlike both 2 Henry VI (which was initially staged as a single play by Douglas Seale in 1951) and 3 Henry VI (which was staged as a single play by Katie Mitchell in 1994).[69]

Outside the UK, the first major American performance was in 1935 at the Pasadena Playhouse in California, directed by Gilmore Brown, as part of a production of all ten Shakespearean histories (the two tetralogies, preceded by King John and proceeded by Henry VIII).

In Europe, unedited stagings of the play took place at the Weimar Court Theatre in 1857. Directed by Franz von Dingelstedt, it was performed as the sixth part of the octology, with all eight plays staged over a ten day period. A major production was staged at the Burgtheater in Vienna in 1873, with a celebrated performance from Friedrich Mitterwurzer as Winchester. Jocza Savits directed a production of the tetralogy at the Munich Court Theatre in 1889 and again in 1906. In 1927, Saladin Schmitt presented the unedited octology at the Municipal Theatre in Bochum. Denis Llorca staged the tetralogy as one twelve-hour piece in Carcassonne in 1978 and in Créteil in 1979.

[edit] Adaptations

[edit] Theatrical

Evidence for the first adaptation of 1 Henry VI is not found until 1817, when Edmund Kean appeared in J.H. Merivale‘s Richard Duke of York; or the Contention of York and Lancaster at Drury Lane, which used material from all three Henry VI plays, but removed everything not directly related to York; the play ended with his death, which occurs in Act 1, Scene 4 of 3 Henry VI. Material used from 1 Henry VI includes the Temple Garden scene, the Mortimer scene and the introduction of Margaret.

Following Merivale’s example, Robert Atkins adapted all three plays into a single piece for a performance at The Old Vic in 1923 as part of the celebrations for the tercentenary of the First Folio. Guy Martineau played Henry, Esther Whitehouse played Margaret, Ernest Meads played Talbot and Jane Bacon played Joan.

Joan (Katy Stephens) is burned alive in Michael Boyd’s 2006 production at the Courtyard Theatre

The success of the 1951–1953 Douglas Seale stand-alone productions of each of the individual plays in Birmingham prompted him to present the three plays together at the Old Vic in 1957 under the general title The Wars of the Roses. Barry Jackson adapted the text, altering the trilogy into a two part play. 1 Henry VI and 2 Henry VI were combined (with almost all of 1 Henry VI eliminated) and 3 Henry VI was edited. Seale again directed, with Paul Daneman again appearing as Henry, alongside Barbara Jefford as Margaret. The roles of both Talbot and Joan were removed, and 1 Henry VI was reduced to three scenes – the funeral of Henry V, the Temple Garden scene and the introduction of Margaret.

The production usually credited with establishing the reputation of the play in the modern theatre is John Barton and Peter Hall’s 1963/1964 RSC production of the tetralogy, adapted into a three-part series, under the general title The Wars of the Roses, at the Royal Shakespeare Theatre. The first play (entitled simply Henry VI) featured a much shortened version of 1 Henry VI and half of 2 Henry VI (up to the death of Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester). The second play (entitled Edward IV) featured the second half of 2 Henry VI and a shortened version of 3 Henry VI, which was followed by a shortened version of Richard III as the third play. In all, 1,450 lines written by Barton were added to 6,000 lines of original Shakespearean material, with a total of 12,350 lines removed.[70] The production starred David Warner as Henry, Peggy Ashcroft as Margaret, Derek Smith (later replaced by Clive Swift) as Talbot and Janet Suzman as Joan.[71][72] Barton and Hall were both especially concerned that the plays reflect the contemporary political environment, with the civil chaos and breakdown of society depicted in the plays mirrored in the contemporary milieu, by events such as the building of the Berlin Wall in 1961, the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962 and the assassination of John F. Kennedy in 1963. Hall allowed these events to reflect themselves in the production, arguing that “we live among war, race riots, revolutions, assassinations, and the imminent threat of extinction. The theatre is, therefore, examining fundamentals in staging the Henry VI plays.”[73]

Another major adaptation was staged in 1987 by the English Shakespeare Company, under the direction of Michael Bogdanov. This touring production opened at the Old Vic, and subsequently toured for two years, performing at, amongst other places, the Panasonic Globe Theatre in Tokyo, Japan (as the inaugural play of the arena), the Festival dei Due Mondi in Spoleto, Italy and at the Adelaide Festival of Arts in Australia. Following the structure established by Barton and Hall, Bogdanov combined a heavily edited 1 Henry VI and the first half of 2 Henry VI into one play (Henry VI), and the second half of 2 Henry VI and 3 Henry VI into another (Edward IV), and followed them with an edited Richard III. Also like Barton and Hall, Bogdanov concentrated on political issues, although he made them far more overt than had his predecessors. For example, played by June Watson, Margaret was closely modelled after the British Prime Minister at the time, Margaret Thatcher, even to the point of having similar clothes and hair. Likewise, Paul Brennan‘s Henry was closely modelled after King Edward VIII, prior to his abdication.[74] Bogdanov also employed frequent anachronisms and contemporary visual registers (such as modern dress), in an effort to show the relevance of the politics to the contemporary period. The production was noted for its pessimism as regards British politics, with some critics feeling the political resonances were too heavy handed.[75] However, the series was a huge box office success. Alongside Watson and Brennan, the play starred Michael Fenner as Talbot and Mary Rutherford as Joan.

Another adaptation of the tetralogy by the Royal Shakespeare Company followed in 1988, performed at the Barbican. Adapted by Charles Wood and directed by Adrian Noble, the Barton/Hall structure was again followed, reducing the trilogy to two plays by dividing 2 Henry VI in the middle. The resulting trilogy was entitled The Plantagenets, with the individual plays entitled Henry VI, The Rise of Edward IV and Richard III, His Death. Starring Ralph Fiennes as Henry, Penny Downie as Margaret, Mark Hadfield as Talbot and Julia Ford as Joan, the production was extremely successful with both audiences and critics.

Michael Bogdanov and the English Shakespeare Company presented a different adaptation at the Grand Theatre in Swansea in 1991, using the same cast as on the touring production. All eight plays from the history cycle were presented over a seven night period, with each play receiving one performance only, and with only twenty-eight actors portraying the nearly five hundred roles. Whilst the other five plays in the cycle were unadapted, the Henry VI plays were combined into two, using the Barton/Hall structure, with the first named The House of Lancaster and the second, The House of York.

In 2000, Edward Hall presented the trilogy as a two-part series at the Watermill Theatre in Newbury. Hall followed the Jackson/Seale structure, combining 1 Henry VI and 2 Henry VI into one play that all but eliminated 1 Henry VI, and following this with an edited version of 3 Henry VI. This production was noted for how it handled the violence of the play. The set was designed to look like an abattoir, but rather than attempt to present the violence realistically (as most productions do), Hall went in the other direction, presenting the violence symbolically. Whenever a character was decapitated or killed, a red cabbage was sliced up whilst the actor mimed the death beside it.

In 2001, Tom Markus directed an adaptation of the tetralogy at the Colorado Shakespeare Festival. Condensing all fours plays into one, Markus named the play Queen Margaret, doing much the same with the character of Margaret as Merivale had done with York. Margaret was played by Gloria Biegler, Henry by Richard Haratine, York by Lars Tatom and Gloucester by Charles Wilcox. The only scene from 1 Henry VI was the meeting between Margaret and Suffolk.

Poster from the 2001 Shakespeare’s Rugby Wars

Another unusual 2001 adaptation of the tetralogy was entitled Shakespeare’s Rugby Wars. Written by Matt Toner and Chris Coculuzzi, and directed by Coculuzzi, the play was acted by the Upstart Crow Theatre Group and staged outdoors at the Robert Street Playing Field as part of the Toronto Fringe Festival. Presented as if it were a live rugby match between York and Lancaster, the ‘play’ featured commentary from Falstaff (Stephen Flett), which was broadcast live for the audience. The ‘match’ itself was refereed by ‘Bill Shakespeare’ (played by Coculuzzi), and the actors (whose characters names all appeared on their jerseys) had microphones attached and would recite dialogue from all four plays at key moments.[76]

In 2002, Leon Rubin presented the tetralogy as a trilogy at the Stratford Shakespeare Festival in Ontario. Using the Barton/Hall method of combining 1 Henry VI with the first half of 2 Henry VI, and the second half of 2 Henry VI with 3 Henry VI, the plays were renamed Henry VI: Revenge in France and Henry VI: Revolt in England. Michael Thierry played Henry, Seana McKenna played Margaret, Brad Ruby played Talbot and Michelle Giroux played Joan.

Also in 2002, Edward Hall and the Propeller Company presented a one-play all-male cast modern dress adaptation of the trilogy at the Watermill Theatre. Under the title Rose Rage, Hall used a cast of only thirteen actors to portray the nearly one hundred and fifty speaking roles in the four-hour production, thus necessitating doubling and tripling of parts. Although a new adaptation, this production followed the Jackson/Seale method of eliminating almost all of 1 Henry VI (Joan was completely absent). The original cast included Jonathan McGuinness as Henry, Robert Hands as Margaret and Keith Bartlett as Talbot. After a successful run at the Watermill, the play moved to the Chicago Shakespeare Theater. The American cast included Carman Lacivita as Henry, Scott Parkinson as Margaret and Fletcher McTaggart as Talbot.[77]

Outside England, a major adaptation of the tetralogy took place in 1864 in Weimar under the direction of Franz von Dingelstedt, who, seven years previously had staged the play unedited. Dingelstedt turned the trilogy into a two-parter under the general name Die weisse rose. The first play was called Haus Lancaster, the second Haus York. This adaptation was unique insofar as both plays were created by combining material from all three Henry VI plays. Following this structure, Alfred von Walzogen also produced a two-part play in 1875, under the general title Edward IV. Another European adaptation was in 1965 at the Teatro Piccolo in Milan. Directed by Giorgio Strehler it went under the title Il gioco del potenti (The Play of the Mighty). Using Barton and Hall’s structure, Strehler also added several characters, including a Chorus, who used monologues from Richard II, both parts of Henry IV, Henry V, Macbeth and Timon of Athens, and two gravediggers called Bevis and Holland (after the names of two of Cade’s rebels in the Folio text of 2 Henry VI), who commented (with dialogue written by Strehler himself) on each of the major characters as they set about burying them.[78] A major German adaptation was Peter Palitzsch’s two-part adaptation of the tilogy as Der krieg der rosen in 1967 at the Stuttgart State Theatre. Condensing the three plays into two, Heinrich VI and Eduard IV, Palitzsch’s adaptation concluded with the opening monologue from Richard III.[79]

[edit] Television

The first television adaptation of the play was in 1960 when the BBC produced a serial entitled An Age of Kings. The show comprised fifteen one-hour episodes that adapted all eight of Shakespeare’s sequential history plays. Directed by Michael Hayes and produced by Peter Dews, with a script by Eric Crozier, the production featured Terry Scully as Henry, Mary Morris as Margaret and Eileen Atkins as Joan. The character of Talbot was removed. The ninth episode, under the title ‘The Red Rose and the White‘ presented a heavily abridged version of 1 Henry VI.

In 1965, BBC 1 broadcast all three plays from John Barton and Peter Hall’s The Wars of the Roses trilogy (Henry VI, The Rise of Edward IV and Richard III) with David Warner as Henry and Peggy Ashcroft as Margaret. The play was presented as more than simply filmed theatre however. At certain performances of the plays, cameramen with hand-held cameras were allowed on stage to shoot battle scenes, and camera platforms were created around the theatre. In all, twelve cameras were used to record the performance, allowing the final product to be edited more like a film than a piece of static filmed theatre. Filming was done following the 1964 run of the plays at Stratford-upon-Avon, and took place over an eight-week period. In 1966, the production was repeated on BBC 1 where it was re-edited into eleven episodes of fifty minutes each.[80]

Joan (Brenda Blethyn) vows to lead the French to victory in Act 1, Scene 2. Behind her stand Alençon (Michael Byrne), Charles (Ian Saynor), Reignier (David Daker) and the Bastard (Brian Protheroe)

Another television version of the play was produced by the BBC in 1981 for their BBC Television Shakespeare series, although the episode didn’t air until 1983. Directed by Jane Howell, the play was presented as the first part of the tetralogy (all four adaptations directed by Howell) with linked casting. Henry was played by Peter Benson, Margaret by Julia Foster, Talbot by Trevor Peacock and Joan by Brenda Blethyn. All four plays were set in a children’s playground area, which decayed and became more and more dilapidated as the plays went on and social order became more fractious.

For the most part, Howell’s The First Part of Henry the Sixt is taken word-for-word from the First Folio, with only some relatively minor differences. For example, the adaptation opens differently to the play, with Henry VI singing a lament for his father. Another difference is that Fastolf’s escape from Rouen is seen rather than merely mentioned. Also worth noting is that Act 5, Scene 1 and Act 5, Scene 2 are reversed so that Act 4, Scene 7 and Act 5, Scene 2 now form one continuous piece.

Additionally, numerous lines were cut from almost every scene. Some of the more notable omissions include; in Act 1, Scene 1, absent are Bedford’s references to children crying and England becoming a marsh since Henry V died: “Posterity await for wretched years/When, at their mothers’ moistened eyes, babes shall suck,/Our isle be made a marish of salt tears,/And none but women left to wail the dead.” (ll.48–51). In Act 1, Scene 2, Alençon’s praise of the resoluteness of the English army is absent: “Froissart, a countryman of ours, records/England all Olivers and Rolands bred/During the time Edward the Third did reign./More truly now may this be verified,/For none by Samsons and Goliases/It sendeth forth to skirmish.” (ll.29–34). In Act 1, Scene 3, some of the dialogue between Gloucester and Winchester outside the Tower is absent (ll.36–43), whilst in Act 1, Scene 5, so too is Talbot’s complaint about the French wanting to ransom him for a prisoner of less worth: “But with a baser man-of-arms by far,/Once in contempt they would have bartered me—/Which I, disdaining, scorned, and crav’d death/Rather than I would be so vile-esteemed” (ll.8–11). In Act 1, Scene 7, some of Charles’ praise of Joan is absent: “A statelier pyramis to her I’ll rear/Than Rhodope’s of Memphis ever was./In memory of her, when she is dead,/Her ashes, in an urn more precious/Than the rich-jewelled coffer of Darius,/Transported shall be at high festivals/Before the kings and queens of France” (ll.21–27). In Act 3, Scene 1, some of Warwick’s attack on Winchester is absent: “You see what mischief – and what murder too –/Hath been enacted through your enmity” (ll.27–28). In Act 4, Scene 6, some of the dialogue between Talbot and John has been removed (ll.6–25). The most interesting omissions come in Act 4, Scene 7. In this scene, twelve of Joan’s sixteen lines have been cut; the entire seven line speech where she says John Talbot refused to fight her because she is a woman (ll.37–43); the first three lines of her five line mockery of Lucy’s listing of Talbot’s titles, “Here’s a silly, stately style indeed./The Turk, that two-and-fifty kingdoms hath,/Writes not so tedious a style as this” (ll.72–75); and the first two lines of her four line speech where she mocks Lucy, “I think this upstart is old Talbot’s ghost,/He speaks with such a proud commanding spirit” (ll.86–88). These omissions reduce Joan’s role in this scene to a virtual spectator, and coupled with this, Brenda Blethyn portrays the character as if deeply troubled by something (presumably the loss of contact with her ‘fiends’).

Another notable stylistic technique used in the adaptation is the multiple addresses direct-to-camera. Much more so than in any of the sequels, the adaptation of 1 Henry VI has multiple characters addressing the camera continually throughout the play, oftentimes for comic effect. The most noticeable scene in this respect is Act 2, Scene 3, where Talbot meets the Countess of Auvergne. Almost all of her dialogue prior to line 32 (“If thou be he, then thou art prisoner”) is delivered direct to camera, including her incredulous description of the difference between the real Talbot, and the reports she has heard of him. At one point during this speech, Auvergne exclaims “Alas, this is a child, a silly dwarf” (l.21), at which point Talbot himself looks at the camera in disbelief. The comedy of the scene is enhanced by having the 5-foot 10 actor Trevor Peacock playing Talbot, and the 6-foot 3 actress Joanna McCallum playing Auvergne. Elsewhere, addresses to the camera are found throughout the play. For example, as Bedford, Gloucester, Exeter and Winchester leave in Act 1, Scene 1, each one reveals their intentions direct-to-camera (ll.166–177). Other examples are Joan’s confession of where she got her sword (1.2.100–101); the Mayor’s last two lines at the Tower (1.3.89–90); Talbot’s “My thoughts are whirl’d like a potter’s wheel./I know not where I am nor what I do./A witch, by fear, not force, like Hannibal,/Drives back our troops and conquers as she lists” (1.6.19–22); some of Mortimer’s monologue prior to the arrival of Richard (2.5.22–32); Richard’s “Plantagenet, I see, must hold his tongue,/Lest it be said, ‘Speak, sirrah, when you should:/Must your bold verdict enter talk with lords?’/Else would I have a fling at Winchester” (3.1.61–64); Exeter’s soliloquy at the end of Act 3, Scene 1 (ll.190–203); Exeter’s soliloquy at the end of Act 4, Scene 1 (ll.182–194); most of the dialogue between Suffolk and Margaret as they ignore one another (5.4.16–64); and Suffolk’s soliloquy, which closes the play (5.6.102–109). Also to-camera is Joan’s “Poor market folks that come to sell their corn” (3.2.14), which is delivered as if it were a translation of the preceding line for the benefit of the non-French speaking audience.

In 1964, Austrian channel ORF 2 presented an adaptation of the trilogy by Leopold Lindtberg under the title Heinrich VI. The cast list from this production has been lost. In 1969, German channel ZDF presented a filmed version of the first part of Peter Palitzsch’s 1967 two-part adaptation of the trilogy in Stuttgart. The second part was screened in 1971.

[edit] Radio

In 1923, extracts from all three Henry VI plays were broadcast on BBC Radio, performed by the Cardiff Station Repertory Company as the third episode of a series of programs showcasing Shakespeare’s plays, entitled Shakespeare Night.[81] In 1947, BBC Third Programme aired a one hundred and fifty minute adaptation of the trilogy as part of their Shakespeare’s Historical Plays series, a six-part adaptation of the eight sequential history plays, with linked casting. Adapted by Maurice Roy Ridley, King Henry VI starred John Byron as Henry and Gladys Young as Margaret. Almost the entirety of 1 Henry VI was cut, with everything related to the conflict in France being removed. In 1952, Third Programme aired an adaptation of the tetralogy by Peter Watts and John Dover Wilson under the general name The Wars of the Roses. The tetralogy was adapted into a trilogy but in an unusual way. 1 Henry VI was simply removed, so the trilogy contained only 2 Henry VI, 3 Henry VI and Richard III. The adaptation starred Valentine Dyall as Henry and Sonia Dresdel as Margaret. In 1971, BBC Radio 3 presented a two-part adaptation of the trilogy by Raymond Raikes. Part 1 contained an abridged 1 Henry VI and an abridged version of the first three acts of 2 Henry VI. Part 2 presented Acts 4 and 5 of 2 Henry VI and an abridged 3 Henry VI. Nigel Lambert played Henry, Barbara Jefford played Margaret, Francis de Wolff played Talbot and Elizabeth Morgan played Joan. In 1977, BBC Radio 4 presented a 26-part serialisation of the eight sequential history plays under the general title Vivat Rex (long live the King). Adapted by Martin Jenkins as part of the celebration of the Silver Jubilee of Elizabeth II, 1 Henry VI comprised episodes 15 (“Joan of Arc”) and 16 (“The White Rose and the Red”). James Laurenson played Henry, Peggy Ashcroft played Margaret, Clive Swift played Talbot, Hannah Gordon played Joan, and Richard Burton narrated.

In America, in 1936, a heavily edited adaptation of the trilogy was broadcast as part of NBC Blue‘s Radio Guild series. Comprising three sixty minute episodes aired a week apart, the adaptation was written by Vernon Radcliffe and starred Henry Herbert as Henry and Janet Nolan as Margaret. In 1954, CBC Radio presented an adaptation of the trilogy by Andrew Allen, who combined 1 Henry VI, 2 Henry VI and 3 Henry VI into a one hundred and sixty minute episode. There is no known cast information for this production.

In 1985, German radio channel Sender Freies Berlin broadcast a heavily edited seventy-six minute two-part adaptation of the octology adapted by Rolf Schneider, under the title Shakespeare’s Rosenkriege.

[edit] References

[edit] Notes

All references to Henry VI, Part 1, unless otherwise specified, are taken from the Oxford Shakespeare (Taylor), based on the First Folio text of 1623. Under its referencing system, 4.3.15 means act 4, scene 3, line 15.

  1. ^ Taylor (2003: 32–39)
  2. ^ See Hattaway (1990: 63) and Taylor (2003: 92)
  3. ^ Hall (1548: Mmiiv)
  4. ^ For more information on this incident, see Bullough (1960: 50)
  5. ^ See Winifred Frazer, “Henslowe’s “ne””, Notes and Queries, 38:1 (Spring, 1991), 34–35 and Brian Vickers, Shakespeare, Co-Author: A Historical Study of Five Collaborative Plays (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), 149 for more information on this theory
  6. ^ According to Andrew Gurr, these earnings made it the second most profitable play of the year, after the anonymous (and now lost) The Wise Man of Westchester (Playgoing in Shakespeare’s London, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987, 136)
  7. ^ Taylor (1995: 152)
  8. ^ Referred to as The Contention from this point forward
  9. ^ Referred to as True Tragedy from this point forward
  10. ^ R.B. McKerrow, “A Note on Henry VI, Part 2 and The Contention of York and Lancaster“, Review of English Studies, 9 (1933), 161
  11. ^ The Problem of The Reign of King Edward III (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988)
  12. ^ Taylor (1995: 150)
  13. ^ Jones (1977: 135–138)
  14. ^ Taylor (2003: 12–13)
  15. ^ Samuel Johnson, The Plays of William Shakespeare (1765), 3
  16. ^ In the Stationers’ Register on 19 April 1602 an entry refers to The firste and Second parte of Henry the Vj, which has often been taken to mean 1 Henry VI and 2 Henry VI. However, this entry actually refers to 2 Henry VI and 3 Henry VI, which were entered into the Register when Thomas Millington sold his rights to the plays to Thomas Pavier. Confusingly however, when 1 Henry VI was entered into the Register in 1623 for publication in the First Folio, it was registered as The thirde parte of Henry ye Sixt (because the names of the first and second parts were already taken). For more information, see Ronald Knowles’ 1999 Arden edition of 2 Henry VI (119), and Randall Martin’s 2001 Oxford edition of 3 Henry VI (104n1).
  17. ^ Wilson (1969: 9)
  18. ^ Pugliatti (1996: 52)
  19. ^ Tillyard (1944)
  20. ^ Ribner (1957)
  21. ^ Rossiter (1961)
  22. ^ Jonson (1605: np)
  23. ^ All quotes from Nashe (1592: i212)
  24. ^ Heywood (1612: B4r)
  25. ^ Michael Goldman, The Energies of Drama (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1972), 161
  26. ^ Burns (2000: 75)
  27. ^ Alexander (1929)
  28. ^ Taylor (1995: 164)
  29. ^ Roger Warren, “Comedies and Histories at Two Stratfords, 1977″, Shakespeare Survey, 31 (1978), 148
  30. ^ Taylor (2003: 66)
  31. ^ Leggatt (1996: 18)
  32. ^ Quoted in Taylor (2003: 108)
  33. ^ Sheehan (1989: 30)
  34. ^ Ryan (1967: xxiv)
  35. ^ Taylor (2003: 13)
  36. ^ Charles Boyce, Shakespeare A to Z (New York: Roundtable Press, 1990), 274
  37. ^ Burns (2000: 84)
  38. ^ “Shakespeare’s Chronicles of the War of the Roses”, Radio Times, (24 October 1952), 7
  39. ^ Vincent (2005: 377–402)
  40. ^ Vickers (2007: 311–352)
  41. ^ See Burns (2000: 25–27, 156 and 287–298) for discussions of the multiple connotations of Joan’s name, which may also include ‘pizzle’, an Elizabethan word for the penis. Burns argues that the obvious contradiction raised by Joan’s name referring to both a whore and a virgin, as well as male genitalia, coupled with the fact that her female identity is questioned several times in the play, are all part of her complex characterisation, wherein she remains protean, never one thing for very long. Another example of this is the contrast between her representation by the French as a saint and by the English as a demon.
  42. ^ Taylor (2003: 130)
  43. ^ This particular line has created a great deal of controversy amongst editors of the play. In terms of Joan, some editors refer to her as ‘Joan la Pucelle’ (such as Michael Taylor), whilst others (such as Edward Burns) use the form ‘Joan Puzel’ (although he refers to the historical Joan in his introduction as ‘Jean la Pucelle’). The First Folio referred to her as ‘Ioane de Puzel’. In his version of 1.5.85, Burns follows the First Folio, which reads “puzel or pussel”, as opposed to Taylor’s “puzzel or pucelle.” A similar problem arises with relation to the Dauphin. In the First Folio, every occurrence of the word ‘Dauphin’ is in the form ‘Dolphin’. Again, Burns follows the First Folio here, although most 20th-century editors tend to change the form to ‘Dauphin’ (with the exception of 1.5.85). Michael Taylor argues that using the form ‘dolphin’ everywhere except 1.5.85 means that the pun in Talbot’s line is rendered meaningless. Similarly, H.C. Hart, in his 1909 edition of the play for the 1st series of the Arden Shakespeare, used the form ‘Dauphin’ throughout, but at 1.5.85 he argued, “Dolphin of the Folio must be considerately allowed to stand in the text here for the sake of the quibbling.” For more information on the various forms of Joan’s name and Charles’ title, see Appendix 1 in Burns (2000: 287–297)
  44. ^ Taylor (2003: 56)
  45. ^ Hattaway (1990: 6)
  46. ^ Taylor (2003: 21)
  47. ^ Hattaway (1990: 30)
  48. ^ Hattaway (1990: 5)
  49. ^ Taylor (2003: 19)
  50. ^ Ryan (1967: xxxi)
  51. ^ Taylor (2003: 40)
  52. ^ Hattaway (1990: 6)
  53. ^ Hattaway (1990: 17)
  54. ^ Taylor (2003: 23)
  55. ^ Taylor (2003: 16)
  56. ^ Burns (2000: 47)
  57. ^ Donald G. Watson, Shakespeare’s Early History Plays: Politics at Play on the Elizabethan Stage (Georgia: 1990), 39
  58. ^ Swandler (1978: 158)
  59. ^ Taylor (2003: 47–48)
  60. ^ Burns (2000: 26)
  61. ^ Hattaway (1990: 24)
  62. ^ Taylor (2003: 45)
  63. ^ The adaptation was filmed in 1981 but it didn’t air until 1983
  64. ^ Hattaway (1990: 43)
  65. ^ Halliday (1964: 216–18)
  66. ^ Robert Shaughnessy, Representing Shakespeare: England, History and the RSC (London: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1994), 61
  67. ^ “Nick Ashbury Histories Blog”. Archived from the original on 12 October 2008. Retrieved 16 January 2012. 
  68. ^ Review from the Daily Express (16 December 2000)
  69. ^ Taylor (2003: 34)
  70. ^ Taylor (2003: 33)
  71. ^ “RSC Performance Database Henry VI 17/07/1963″. Shakespeare Birthplace Trust. Retrieved 10 December 2010. 
  72. ^ “The RSC Shakespeare, The First Part of Henry the Sixth”. Retrieved 10 December 2010. 
  73. ^ Goodwin (1964: 47)
  74. ^ Ronald Knowles, King Henry VI, Part Two London: Arden, 1999, 27
  75. ^ Roger Warren, Henry VI, Part Two (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), 18
  76. ^ Shakespeare in Performance: Henry VI, Part 1, Internet Shakespeare Editions
  77. ^ Kenneth Jones, “Edward Hall’s Rose Rage is Henry VI Trilogy in Full Bloody Bloom”,, 17 September 2004)
  78. ^ All information about non-UK productions is from Roger Warren, Henry VI, Part Two (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), 26
  79. ^ A.J. Hoenselaars. Shakespeare’s History Plays: Performance, Translation and Adaptation in Britain and Abroad, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (2004), 143
  80. ^ Alice V. Griffin, “Shakespeare Through the Camera’s Eye”, Shakespeare Quarterly, 17:4 (Winter, 1966), 385
  81. ^ Unless otherwise noted, all information in this section comes from the British Universities Film and Video Council

[edit] Editions of Henry VI, Part 1

  • Bate, Jonathan and Rasmussen, Eric (eds.) Henry VI, Parts I, II and III (The RSC Shakespeare; London: Macmillan, 2012)
  • Bevington, David. (ed.) The First Part of Henry the Sixth (The Pelican Shakespeare; London: Penguin, 1966; revised edition 1979)
  • Burns, Edward (ed.) King Henry VI, Part 1 (The Arden Shakespeare, 3rd Series; London: Arden, 2000)
  • Cairncross, Andrew S. (ed.) King Henry VI, Part 1 (The Arden Shakespeare, 2nd Series; London: Arden, 1962)
  • Dover Wilson, John (ed.) The First Part of Henry VI (The New Shakespeare; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1952)
  • Evans, G. Blakemore (ed.) The Riverside Shakespeare (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1974; 2nd edn., 1997)
  • Greenblatt, Stephen; Cohen, Walter; Howard, Jean E. and Maus, Katharine Eisaman (eds.) The Norton Shakespeare: Based on the Oxford Shakespeare (London: Norton, 1997; 2nd edn., 2008)
  • Hart, H.C. and Pooler, C. Knox (eds.) The First Part of Henry the Sixt (The Arden Shakespeare, 1st Series; London: Arden, 1909)
  • Hattaway, Michael (ed.) The First Part of King Henry VI (The New Cambridge Shakespeare; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990)
  • Kingsley-Smith, Jane (ed.) Henry VI, Part Three (The New Penguin Shakespeare, 2nd edition; London: Penguin, 2005)
  • Montgomery, William (ed.) Henry VI Part I (The Pelican Shakespeare, 2nd edition; London: Penguin, 2000)
  • Ryan, Lawrence V. (ed.) Henry VI, Part I (Signet Classic Shakespeare; New York: Signet, 1967; revised edition, 1989; 2nd revised edition 2005)
  • Sanders, Norman (ed.) Henry VI, Part One (The New Penguin Shakespeare; London: Penguin, 1981)
  • Taylor, Michael (ed.) Henry VI, Part One (The Oxford Shakespeare; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003)
  • Wells, Stanley; Taylor, Gary; Jowett, John and Montgomery, William (eds.) The Oxford Shakespeare: The Complete Works (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986; 2nd edn., 2005)
  • Werstine, Paul and Mowat, Barbara A. (eds.) Henry VI, Part 1 (Folger Shakespeare Library; Washington: Simon & Schuster, 2008)

the end @ copyright @ 2012

The story behind the rare Australia postal history cover in 1930





1930 Lord Howe Island Provisional Manuscript Overprint – on Cover: In over 25 years of dealing I have never owned or offered one of these famous items. The Postmaster on tiny LHI had a shortage of 2d stamps when the latter rate increased at short notice in late July 1930 to 2d. He telegrammed Sydney GPO to ask what to do, and was advised by telegram to : “use 1½d stamps with endorsement – 2d Paid PM LHI”.

So the PM took his entire stock of 260 Sturt 1½d commemoratives, (SG #117) and wrote in black ink pen across each one as instructed, and went ahead and used them up on mail. At this time only an average 80 mail articles a month left the remote island, which is 702 km north east of Sydney, and 1000 km SW of Norfolk Island. The stamp is tied by “Lord Howe Island OC 3 : 1930 N.S.W” with an additional strike alongside. By the rough strikes of the cancels and the address, this cover appears to be non-philatelic.

This course is NOT what Sydney GPO had envisaged – they assumed he would write the endorsement on the cover to one side, and AWAY from the stamps, but the Telegram was explicit ….. albeit ambiguous.

The PMG Department HQ in Melbourne was unaware of these provisional “overprints” for some months, which had franked LHI outward mail in August, September and early October. When they discovered it, they over-rode the earlier authority, but the PM Mr Fenton was neither officially criticised or reprimanded at any time, as he had acted in good faith. This is a genuine commercial cover to the Burns Philp Trading Company. Dr Bill Mayo’s LHI philatelic book states most of the few recorded covers are addressed locally to LHI.

The very few covers I have seen illustrated in sale cats looks ratty and/or toned. This one is quite PRISTINE for 77 years old – as you can see. SG and ACSC have always listed and priced this rare provisional. SG says it is Cat £650 mint or used = $A1,625. Any commercial COVER used in this era is rare – franked with any issue.

SG Says on cover prices for SG 117-125 are “From 10 x ” so this one is theoretically rated “From $A16,250″. A lovely item, in condition that would delight even the MOST fastidious of buyers.

Gold Medal exhibit material stuff, or one for the super fund. $A1,600

SOURCE: COURTECY  carl steven


Japanese Occupation Sumatra Map 1942-1945


The Dai nippon Occupation Indonesia

Part Sumatra

The complete Cd Exist but only for premium member

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Unanswer of The Postal history Japanese stamp cancalled By DEI Makasser in 1936


THe Dutch East Indie History Collection




Netherlands Indies Paquebot Cancels – which it obviously is not.

The cancel is Makasser, which was in the Netherlands Indies, but I can’t find the stamp in the SG listings for Netherlands Indies … it does look like a Japanese Occupation stamp, but I can’t figure out for where



Dr Iwan Answ

It’s an ordinary Japanese stamp from 1932, Sakura #215.


The cancel looks typical Netherlands Indies for that period, but the year of 1936 is too early for Japanese Occupation?

So what is a Japanese stamp doing with a Makasser cancel?

Could it have been ships mail from Japan cancelled at the arrival port of Makasser?

And curse people who didn’t leave stuff like this on covers.


Three problems with that hypothesis:

1. the use of regular Japanese stamps in the parts of the Netherlands Indies under Navy control (which included Makassar) was quite rare.
2. the issue used stopped being distributed 5 years before the Japanese occupied the Netherland Indies
3. the cancel seems to be dated 1936, which predates the occupation by 6 years

So it seems a bit unlikely

It looks as though it is indeed a paquebot usage.

But if the cancellation is Dutch won’t it be 1936?


the date is something May 1936 at 18:00 hours.

This is a Japanaese stamp with a DEI cancel, effectively a paquebot, or item put ashore and cancelled there. The Ballpoint pen had not been invented so the postal official used a proper cancel.

Nice item
would be nicer on the entire cover
but never mind


similar cancels on DEI stamps using a 24 hour clock for times, so May 1936, 18:00 hours fits well, as does the dot type hatching.

Seems I’ve been convinced to follow the circle around from something I thought was not Paquebot, to that being the most likely explanation

DR Iwan Notes



I have the same collections from this city,surabaia,tandjong priok(Batavia), Padang,Olehleh aceh,belawan(medan)

the complete cd exist but only for premium member,please subscribe via comment

copyright @ 2012

The Story Behind The Rare Unissued China Mao -Lin Biao Stamps 1968




One of the great rarities of PRC stamps

Sold at auction this year for US $ 29,118

Unissued because there was no victory perhaps?


.Unissued because of that person standing to the right of  Mao


And who, font of all knowledge and keeper of the black flame of all that is ugly in philately, is that (non?) person standing to Mao’s left?

Lin Biao

Mao’s chosen successor who was killed in a plane crash in 1971, after which he was vilified. Supposedly was involved in a coup attempt, if memory serves?

But that all occured in 1971 and this stamp was planned, it seems, for 1968 when he was still beloved of the Chairman?

1968 W14 All China is Red 8f Expertly repaired, still one of the most famous stamp of PRC.Sold for US $ 23,529



this stamp was issued but recalled because the “All China is Red” slogan on the map was contradicted by Taiwan being shown on the map in white.
In September 1968, after the establishment of Cultural Revolution Revolutionary Committees, the Ministry of Posts issued the “All China Is Red” stamp.

It pictured workers, farmers and soldiers holding “the Quotations of Chairman Mao” and cheering; at the top, a red map of China with golden letters read “All China Is Red.” They were issued in Beijing for half a day before the China Atlas Press discovered that the Xisha and Nansha archipelagos were mistakenly missing from the map!

Due to its extremely limited number, the “All China Is Red” is one of the most famous rare ones in the world. Ten years ago, a post office sheet of 50 was displayed at the China Philatelic Expo in Guangzhou City and was considered a “national treasure,” valued at over 10,000,000 RMB.

Read More Info abou Lin Biao


Lin Biao

This article is about the Marshal of the People’s Republic of China. For the politician of the Republic of China, see Lin Biao (ROC).
This is a Chinese name; the family name is Lin.
Marshal Lin Biao
Marshal Lin Biao
First-ranking Vice Premier of the People’s Republic of China
In office
21 December 1964 – 13 September 1971
Premier Zhou Enlai
Preceded by Chen Yun
Succeeded by Deng Xiaoping
Vice Chairman of the Communist Party of China
In office
25 May 1958 – 13 September 1971
Chairman Mao Zedong
Vice Premier of the People’s Republic of China
In office
15 September 1954 – 13 September 1971
Premier Zhou Enlai
Personal details
Born (1907-12-05)5 December 1907
China Qing Dynasty Flag 1889.svgHuanggang, Hubei, China
Died 13 September 1971(1971-09-13) (aged 63)
Flag of the People's Republic of Mongolia (1949-1992).svg Öndörkhaan, Mongolia
Political party Communist Party of China
Spouse(s) Zhang Mei
Ye Qun
Lin Liguo (son)
Alma mater Whampoa Military Academy
Religion none
Military service
Years of service 1925-1971
Lin Biao
Chinese 林彪
Hanyu Pinyin Lín Biāo
Wade–Giles Lin Piao
Lin Yurong
Chinese 林育蓉
Hanyu Pinyin Lín Yùróng

Lin Biao (pinyin: Lín Biāo; IPA: [lǐn pjɑ́ʊ]; December 5, 1907– September 13, 1971) was a major Chinese Communist military leader who was pivotal in the communist victory in the Chinese Civil War, especially in Northeastern China. Lin was the general who commanded the decisive Liaoshen Campaign and Pingjin Campaign, co-led the Manchurian Field Army of the People’s Liberation Army into Beijing, and crossed the Yangtze River in 1949. He ranked third among the Ten Marshals. Zhu De and Peng Dehuai were considered senior to Lin, and Lin ranked ahead of He Long and Liu Bocheng.

Lin abstained from taking an active role in politics after the civil war, but became instrumental in creating the foundations for Mao Zedong‘s cult of personality in the early 1960s. Lin was rewarded for his service to Mao by being named Mao’s designated successor during the Cultural Revolution, from 1966 until his death.

Lin died in September 1971 when his plane crashed in Mongolia, following what appeared to be a failed coup to oust Mao. Because little inside information is available to the public on this “Lin Biao incident”, the exact events preceding Lin’s death have been a source of speculation among China scholars ever since. Following Lin’s death, he was officially condemned as a traitor by the Communist Party of China. He and Jiang Qing are still considered to be the two “major Counter-revolutionary cliques” blamed for the excesses of the Cultural Revolution



Lin Biao in Kuomintang uniform

Lin Biao was the son of a prosperous merchant family in the village of Huanggang, Hubei.[1] His name at birth was “Lin Yurong”.[2] Lin’s father opened a small handicrafts factory in the mid-late 1910s, but was forced to close the factory due to “heavy taxes imposed by local militarists”. After closing the factory, Lin’s father worked as a purser aboard a river steamship. Lin entered primary school in 1917,[3] but moved to Shanghai in 1919 to continue his education.[2] As a child, Lin was much more interested in participating in student movements than in pursuing his formal education.[4] Lin joined a satellite organization of the Communist Youth League before he graduated high school in 1925. Later in 1925 he participated in the May Thirtieth Movement and enrolled in the newly established Whampoa Military Academy in Guangzhou.[1]

As a young cadet, Lin admired the personality of Chiang Kai-shek, who was then the Principal of the Academy.[4] At Whampoa, Lin also studied under Zhou Enlai, who was eight years older than Lin. Lin had no contact with Zhou after their time in Whampoa, until they met again in Yan’an in the late 1930s.[5] Lin’s relationship with Zhou was never especially close, but they rarely opposed each other directly.[6]

After graduating from Whampoa in 1926, Lin was assigned to a regiment commanded by Ye Ting. Less than a year after graduating from Whampoa, Lin was ordered to participate in the Northern Expedition, rising from deputy platoon leader to battalion commander in the National Revolutionary Army within a few months. It was during the Northern Expedition that Lin joined the Communist Party[1] By 1927 Lin was a colonel.

When he was 20 Lin married a girl from the countryside with the family name “Ong”. This marriage was arranged by Lin’s parents, and the couple never became close. When Lin left the Kuomintang to become a communist revolutionary, Ong did not accompany Lin, and their marriage effectively ended.[4]

[edit] Chinese Civil War

After the Kuomintang-Communist split Lin’s commander, Ye Ting, joined forces with He Long and participated in the Nanchang Uprising on August 1, 1927.[2][7] During the campaign Lin worked as a company commander under a regiment led by Chen Yi.[8] Following the failure of the revolt, Lin escaped to the remote Communist base areas, and joined Mao Zedong and Zhu De in the Jiangxi–Fujian Soviet in 1928. After joining forces with Mao, Lin became one of Mao’s closest supporters.[6]

Lin became one of the most senior military field commanders within the Jiangxi Soviet. He commanded the First Army Group, and achieved a degree of power comparable to that of Peng Dehuai, who commanded the Third Army Group. According to Otto Braun, Lin was “politically… a blank sheet on which Mao could write as he pleased” during this period. After Mao was removed from power in 1932 by his rivals, the 28 Bolsheviks, Lin frequently attended strategic meetings in Mao’s name and openly attacked the plans of Mao’s enemies.[9]

Within the Jiangxi Soviet, Lin’s First Army Group was the best-equipped, and arguably most successful, force within the Red Army. Lin’s First Army became known for its mobility, and for its ability to execute successful flanking maneuvers. Between 1930 and 1933 Lin’s forces captured twice the amount of prisoners of war and military equipment as the Third and Fifth Army Groups combined. The successes of Lin’s forces are due partially to the division of labour within the Red Army: Lin’s forces were more offensive and unorthodox than other groups, allowing Lin to capitalize on other Red Army commanders’ successes.[10]

During the Communists’ defense against Chiang’s 1933-34 Fifth Encirclement Campaign, Lin advocated a strategy of protracted guerilla warfare, and opposed the positional warfare advocated by Braun and his supporters. Lin believed that the best way to destroy enemy soldiers was not to pursue them or defend strategic points, but to weaken the enemy through feints, ambushes, encirclements, and surprise attacks. Lin’s views generally conformed with the tactics advocated by Mao.[11]

After Chiang’s forces successfully occupied several strategic locations within the Jiangxi Soviet, in 1934, Lin was one of the first Red Army commanders to publicly advocate the abandonment of the Jiangxi Soviet, but he was opposed by most Red Army commanders, especially Braun and Peng Dehuai.[12] After the Communists finally resolved to abandon their base, later in 1934, Lin continued his position as one of the most successful commanders in the Red Army during the Long March. Under the direction of Mao and Zhou, the Red Army finally arrived at the remote Communist base of Yan’an, Shaanxi, in December 1936.

Lin and Peng Dehuai were generally considered the Red Army’s best battlefield commanders, and were not rivals during the Long March. Both of them had supported Mao’s rise to de facto leadership at Zunyi in January 1935. Lin may have become privately dissatisfied with Mao’s strategy of constant evasion by the end of the Long March, but continued to support Mao publicly.[13]

Lin Biao did not present the bluff, lusty face of Peng Dehuai. He was ten years younger, rather slight, oval-faced, dark, handsome. Peng talked with his men. Lin kept his distance. To many he seemed shy and reserved. There are no stories reflecting warmth and affection for his men. His fellow Red Army commanders respected Lin, but when he spoke it was all business …. The contrast between Mao’s top field commanders could hardly have been more sharp, but on the Long March they worked well together, Lin specializing in feints, masked strategy, surprises, ambushes, flank attacks, pounces from the rear, and stratagems. Peng met the enemy head-on in frontal assaults and fought with such fury that again and again he wiped them out. Peng did not believe a battle well fought unless he managed to replenish—and more than replenish—any losses by seizure of enemy guns and converting prisoners of war to new and loyal recruits to the Red Army.[14]

The American journalist Edgar Snow met Lin Biao in the Communist base of Shaanxi in 1936,[15] and wrote about Lin in his book, Red Star Over China. Snow’s account focused more on the role of Peng than Lin, evidently having had long conversations with, and devoting two whole chapters to, Peng (more than any individual apart from Mao). But he says of Lin:

With Mao Zedong, Lin Biao shared the distinction of being one of the few Red commanders never wounded. Engaged on the front in more than a hundred battles, in field command for more than 10 years, exposed to every hardship that his men have known, with a reward of $100,000 on his head, he miraculously remained unhurt and in good health. In 1932, Lin Biao was given command of the 1st Red Army Corps, which then numbered about 20,000 rifles. It became the most dreaded section of the Red Army. Chiefly due to Lin’s extraordinary talent as a tactician, it destroyed, defeated or outmanoeuvered every Government force sent against it and was never broken in battle …. Like many able Red commanders, Lin has never been outside China, speaks and reads no language but Chinese. Before the age of 30, however, he has already won recognition beyond Red circles. His articles in the Chinese Reds’ military magazines … have been republished, studied and criticised in Nanking military journals, and also in Japan and Soviet Russia.[16]

(Within a year of Snow’s reporting this, Lin was seriously wounded).[17]

Lin and Mao generally had a close personal relationship,[18] but some accounts claim that Lin sometimes made disparaging comments about Mao in private, and that Lin’s support of Mao was largely for the pursuit of power.[19] After arriving in Yan’an, Lin became the principal of the newly founded “Anti-Japanese University”. In 1937 Lin married one of the students there, a girl named Liu Ximin, who had earned the nickname “University Flower”.[20]

[edit] Second Sino–Japanese War (1937–1945)

In August 1937, Lin was named commander-in-chief of the 115th Division of the Communist 8th Route Army[2] and ordered to aid Yan Xishan‘s forces in repelling the Japanese invasion of Shanxi. In this capacity, Lin orchestrated the ambush at Pingxingguan in September 1937, which was one of the few battlefield successes for the Chinese in the early period of the Second Sino-Japanese War.

In 1938, while he was still leading Chinese forces in Shanxi, Japanese soldiers who had joined the Communists and were serving under Lin’s command presented Lin with a Japanese uniform and katana, which they had captured in battle. Lin then put the uniform and katana on, jumped onto a horse, and rode away from the army. While riding, Lin was spotted alone by a sharpshooter in Yan’s army. The soldier was surprised to see a Japanese officer riding a horse in the desolate hills alone. He took aim at Lin and severely injured him.[21] The bullet grazed Lin’s head, penetrating deep enough to leave a permanent impression on his skull.[22] After being shot in the head, Lin fell from his horse and injured his back.[21]

Recovering from his wounds and ill with tuberculosis, Lin left for Moscow at the end of 1937, where he served as the representative of the Communist Party of China to the Executive Committee of the Communist International. He remained in Moscow until February 1942, working on Comintern affairs and writing for its publication.[2] Lin was accompanied by his wife, Liu Ximin, but their relationship deteriorated in Moscow, and Lin eventually returned to Yan’an without her.[21]

While in Moscow, Lin became infatuated with Zhou Enlai’s adopted daughter, Sun Weishi, who was studying in Moscow from 1938 to 1946. Before returning to China, in 1942, Lin proposed to Sun and promised to divorce his wife, from whom Lin had become estranged. Sun was not able to accept Lin’s proposal, but promised to consider marrying Lin after completing her studies. Lin divorced Liu Ximin after returning to China, and married another woman, Ye Qun, in 1943. The relationship between Sun and Ye was notably bad.[23] After returning to Yan’an, Lin was involved in troop training and indoctrination assignments.

[edit] Defeating the Kuomintang

Lin with high-ranking officers under his command (Harbin, 1946)

Lin as commander-in-chief of the Manchurian Field Army.

Lin was absent for most of the fighting during World War II, but was elected the sixth-ranking Central Committee member in 1945 based on his earlier battlefield reputation.[17] After the Japanese surrender the Communists moved large numbers of troops to Manchuria, and Lin Biao moved to Manchuria to command the newly created “Communist Northeast Military District” in the fall. The Soviets transferred Japanese military equipment that they had captured to the Communists, making Lin’s army one of the most well-equipped Communist forces in China. By the time that units from the Kuomintang were able to arrive in the major cities of Manchuria, Lin’s forces were already in firm control of most of the countryside and surrounding areas.[24]

By the end of 1945 Lin had 280,000 troops in Manchuria under his command.[25] For the sake of bargaining with the Kuomintang in peace negotiations, Mao ordered Lin to assemble key armies to defend key cities, which was against the previous strategy of the Red Army. Lin suffered a major defeat in Siping, and retreated without receiving clear orders from Mao. After Siping Lin changed tactics, abandoning the cities and employing a strategy of guerrilla warfare and winning peasant support in the countryside.

When the Chinese Civil War resumed in 1947, Lin conquered the Manchurian provinces, and then swept into North China. Forces under Lin were responsible for winning two of the three major military victories responsible for the defeat of the Kuomintang. Lin suffered from ongoing periods of serious illness throughout the campaign.[17] Between the fall of 1948 and the spring of 1949, Lin commanded two of the “three great campaigns” waged by the PLA in northern China. Lin directed the Liaoshen Campaign, commanding a force of 700,000 against a KMT force of 550,000. Lin eliminated 470,000 Nationalist soldiers and secured the region for the Communists. Following the victory in Manchuria, Lin commanded over a million soldiers, encircling Chiang’s main forces in northern China during the Pingjin Campaign, taking Beijing and Tianjin within a period of two months. Tianjin was taken by force, and on January 22, 1949 General Fu Zuoyi and his army of 400,000 men agreed to surrender Beijing without a battle, and the PLA occupied the city on January 31. The Pingjin Campaign saw Lin eliminate a total of approximately 520,000 enemy troops. Many of those who surrendered later joined the PLA.[26]

After taking Beijing, the Communists attempted to negotiate for the surrender of the remaining KMT forces. When these negotiations failed, Lin resumed his attacks on the KMT in the southeast. After taking Beijing, Lin’s army numbered 1.5 million soldiers. By the end of 1949 the Red Army succeeded in occupying all KMT positions on mainland China. The last position occupied by Lin’s forces was the island of Hainan.

Lin Biao was considered as one of the Communist’s most brilliant generals after the founding of the People’s Republic of China, in 1949. Lin was the youngest of the “Ten Marshals” named in 1955, a title that recognized Lin’s substantial military contributions.[17]

[edit] Politician

[edit] Illness

Lin Biao continued to suffer from poor health after 1949, and chose to avoid high-profile military and political positions. His status led him to be appointed to a number of high-profile positions throughout most of the 1950s, but these were largely honorary and carried few responsibilities. He generally delegated or neglected many of the formal political responsibilities that he was assigned, usually citing his poor health as an excuse.[17]

After Lin’s injury in 1938, he suffered from ongoing physical and mental health problems. His exact medical condition is not well understood, partially because his medical records have never been publicly released. Dr. Li Zhisui, then one of Mao’s personal physicians, believed that Lin suffered from neurasthenia and hypochondria. He became ill whenever he perspired, and suffered from phobias about water, wind, cold,[27] light, and noise.[4] He was said to become nervous at the sight of rivers and oceans in traditional Chinese paintings, and suffered from diarrhea, which could be triggered by the sound of running water.[27] Li’s account of Lin’s condition is notably different from the official Chinese version.

Lin suffered from excessive headaches, and spent much of his free time consulting Chinese medical texts and preparing traditional Chinese medicines for himself. He suffered from insomnia, and often took sleeping pills.[28] He ate simple meals, did not smoke, and did not drink alcohol.[27] As his condition progressed, his fear of water led to a general refusal to either bathe or eat fruit. Because of his fear of wind and light, his office was gloomy and lacked any ventilation. Some accounts have suggested that Lin became a drug addict, either to opium[4] or morphine.

As early as 1953, Soviet doctors diagnosed Lin as suffering from manic depression. Lin’s wife, Ye Qun, rejected this diagnosis, but it was later confirmed by Chinese doctors. Lin’s fragile health made him vulnerable, passive, and easily manipulated by other political figures, notably Ye Qun herself.[27]

Lin’s complaints got worse with time and age. In the years before his death, the fiancee of Lin’s son reported that Lin became extremely distant and socially and politically detached, even to the extent that he never read books or newspapers. His passivity made him difficult to connect with at any meaningful level: “usually he just sat there, blankly”. In Lin’s rare periods of activity, he used his time mostly to complain about, and seek treatment for his large variety of medical issues.[29]

[edit] Alliance with Mao

Lin, like most of the Politburo, initially held serious reservations about China’s entry into the Korean War, citing the devastation that would result if the “imperialists” detonated an atomic bomb in Korea or China. Lin later declined to lead forces in Korea, citing his ill health.[30] In early October 1950, Peng Dehuai was named commander of the Chinese forces bound for Korea, and Lin went to the Soviet Union for medical treatment. Lin flew to the Soviet Union with Zhou Enlai and participated in negotiations with Joseph Stalin concerning Soviet support for China’s intervention, indicating that Mao retained his trust in Lin.

Due partially to his periods of ill health and physical rehabilitation in the Soviet Union, Lin was slow to rise to power. In the early 1950s Lin one of five major leaders given responsibility for civil and military affairs, controlling a jurisdiction in central China. In 1953 he was visited by Gao Gang, and was later suspected of supporting him.[31] In 1955 Lin was named to the Politburo.[17] In February 1958 Peng Dehuai, then China’s Defense Minister, gave a speech for the fortieth anniversary of the Soviet Red Army in which he suggested increasing the military cooperation between China and the Soviet Union. Mao wanted to distance China from the Soviet Union, and began grooming Lin Biao as a viable successor to Peng.[32] In 1958 Lin joined the Politburo Standing Committee[33] and became one of China’s Vice-Chairmen. In 1959, after the Lushan Conference, the relationship between Mao and Peng led to Peng’s arrest and removal from all government positions.[17] Privately, Lin agreed with Peng’s perspective on, and opposition to, Mao’s Great Leap Forward, and he was strongly opposed to Peng being purged, but Lin’s fear of being purged himself kept Lin from publicly opposing Mao’s efforts to purge Peng,[34] and Lin publicly condemned Peng as a “careerist, a conspiricist, and a hypocrite”.[35] Following Mao’s direction, Peng was successfully disgraced and put under indefinite house arrest.[34] Lin was the senior leader most supportive of Mao following the Great Leap Forward,[36] in which Mao’s economic policies caused an artificial famine in which tens of millions of people starved to death.[37]

Lin initially refused to replace Peng, but finally accepted the position at the insistence of Mao Zedong. As Defense Minister, Lin’s command of the PLA was second only to Mao, but he deferred many of his responsibilities to subordinates. The most important figures who Lin deferred the day-to-day operations of China’s armed forces to were Chief of Staff Luo Ruiqing and the Central Military Vice-Chairman, He Long.[17]

As Defense Minister, Lin’s policies differed from that of his predecessor. Lin attempted to reform China’s armed forces based on political criteria: he abolished all signs and privileges of rank, purged members considered sympathetic to the USSR, directed soldiers to work part-time as industrial and agricultural workers, and indoctrinated the armed forces in Mao Zedong Thought.[38] Lin’s system of indoctrination made it clear the Party was clearly in command of China’s armed forces, and Lin ensured that the army’s political commissars enjoyed great power and status in order to see that his directives were followed.[33] Lin implemented these reforms in order to please Mao, but privately was concerned that they would weaken the PLA (which they did).[39] Mao strongly approved of these reforms,[17] and conscientiously promoted Lin to a series of high positions.[40]

Lin used his position as Minister of Defense to flatter Mao by promoting Mao’s cult of personality.[41] Lin devised and ran a number of national Maoist propaganda campaigns based on the PLA, the most successful of which was the “learn from Lei Feng” campaign, which Lin began in 1963.[42] Because he was the person most responsible for directing the “learn from Lei Feng” campaign, Lin may have directed the forging of Lei Feng’s Diary, upon which the propaganda campaign was based.[41]

Because of Lin’s fragile health, Ye Qin controlled many aspects of Lin’s public life during the 1960s, including who would see Lin and what others would know about him. Mao encouraged Ye to act on Lin’s behalf, giving her an unusual amount of power and responsibility. In 1965 Mao asked Ye to publicly criticize Lin’s chief of staff, Luo Ruiqing, on Lin’s behalf, even though Ye did not yet hold any high political position. When Lin discovered that Ye had done so (after Luo was purged), he was angry at Ye, but powerless to alter Luo’s disgrace.[43]

Lin often read speeches prepared by others, and allowed his name to be placed on articles that he did not write, as long as these materials supported Mao. One of the most famous articles published in Lin’s name[44] was the 20,000-word pamphlet on revolution in developing countries, Long Live the Victory of the People’s War!, which was released in 1965. This article made Lin one of China’s leading interpreters of Mao’s political theories. The article likened the “emerging forces” of the poor in Asia, Africa, and Latin America to the “rural areas of the world”, while the affluent countries of the West were likened to the “cities of the world”. Eventually the “cities” would be encircled by revolutions in the “rural areas”, following theories prevalent in Mao Zedong Thought.[33] Lin made no promise that China would fight other people’s wars, and foreign revolutionaries were advised to depend mainly on “self-reliance”.

Lin worked closely with Mao, promoting Mao’s cult of personality. Lin directed the compilation of some of Chairman Mao’s writings into a handbook, the Quotations from Chairman Mao Zedong, which became known as the Little Red Book.[45] Lin Biao’s military reforms and the success of the 1962 Sino-Indian War impressed Mao. A propaganda campaign called “learn from the People’s Liberation Army” followed. In 1966, this campaign widened into the Cultural Revolution.

[edit] The Cultural Revolution

Main article: Cultural Revolution

[edit] Rise to prominence

Lin’s support impressed Mao, who continued to promote Lin to higher political offices. After Mao’s second-in-command, Liu Shaoqi, was denounced as a “capitalist roader” in 1966, Lin Biao emerged as the most likely candidate to replace Liu as Mao’s successor. Lin attempted to avoid this promotion, but accepted it on Mao’s insistence.[17]

Privately, Lin opposed the purging of Liu and Deng Xiaopeng, on the grounds that they were “good comrades”, but was not able to publicly oppose Mao’s condemnation of them. Lin privately admired Liu, and once told his daughter that Liu had “a better understanding of theory than Mao”. Zhou Enlai was also considered for the position of Vice-Chairman, but Zhou successfully withdrew from the nomination, leaving Lin the only candidate.[46]

Lin also seriously attempted to withdraw from the nomination, but was not able to do so because Mao had made Lin’s appointment a decision of the Central Committee, so rejecting the position would violate Party procedure and would risk ending Lin’s political career. Lin was not present at the conference where it was decided to name him vice chairman. After Lin was named, he met with Mao and begged him personally not to name him to the position, but Mao criticized him, comparing Lin to the Ming emperor Shizong, who devoted so much of his time to the search for longevity medicines that Shizong neglected his government responsibilities.[47] In 1966 all other candidates for the position were removed, and Lin accepted the position as sole Vice-Chairman, replacing Liu Shaoqi as Mao’s unofficial successor.[40] After his appointment, Lin again attempted to submit a formal written request to Mao, asking Mao to rescind Lin’s appointment to the position of vice-chairman, but Mao again rejected this request. When Lin received the rejection letter, he was so angry that he tore the letter up and threw it in the garbage.[47]

Because there was no way to avoid becoming Mao’s second-in-command, Lin attempted to protect himself from the chaos of the Cultural Revolution by giving absolute support to Mao and doing very little else. Lin avoided expressing any opinion, or making any decision on any matter, until Mao’s own opinions and positions on that matter were clear, after which Lin would adhere as closely to Mao’s direction as possible. Lin made sure that, whenever he and Mao were scheduled to appear in the same place, Lin would always arrive earlier than Mao, waiting to greet the Chairman. Lin attempted to make all observers believe that he was Mao’s closest follower,[48] always appearing beside Mao in all of Mao’s public appearances with a copy of Mao’s Little Red Book.[49] When he was informed that the public’s image of Lin was that he was “Mao’s best student”, Lin was pleased, and stated: “I don’t have any talent. What I know, I learned from Mao.”[48]

[edit] Activities

Because Lin had no real interest in the position of Vice-Chairman, he did little other than whatever he believed would ingratiate himself to Mao. Privately, Lin had no interest in promoting the Cultural Revolution, and attended government meetings only when Mao demanded that he do so. Those colleagues closest to Lin noted that Lin avoided talking about the Cultural Revolution in any context other than public speeches, and when pressed would only make very brief and ambiguous statements. After 1966, Lin made no phone calls, received few visitors, secluded himself from his colleagues, and gained a reputation as being “reticent and mysterious”.[attribution needed] He did not take an active role in government, but allowed his secretaries to read short summaries of selected documents for half an hour in the morning and half an hour in the afternoon. This was generally insufficient to fulfill the responsibilities of vice-chairman,[39] and he left most important work and family duties to his wife, Ye Qun.

Lin’s passivity was part of a calculated plan to survive the Cultural Revolution alive and well. When Lin perceived that his longtime subordinate, Tao Zhu, was in danger of being purged in the beginning of the Cultural Revolution, Lin sent a letter to warn Tao, advising Tao to be “passive, passive, and passive again”. Tao probably did not understand Lin’s advice, and was successfully purged in 1967.[39] In his relationship with Mao, Lin adopted a policy of “three ‘nos': no responsibility; no suggestions; no crime”.[50]

Following the lead of Mao, in 1966 Lin directed Red Guards in Beijing to “smash those persons in power who are traveling the capitalist road, the bourgeoisie reactionary authorities, and all royalists of the bourgeoisie, and to forcibly destroy the “four olds“: old culture, old ideas, old customs, and old habits.[51] In August 1966 Lin publicly called for a “three-month turmoil” within the PLA, and on October 6 Lin’s Central Military Commission issued an urgent instruction that all military academies and institutes were to dismiss their classes and allow their students to become fully involved in the Cultural Revolution. Following the orders of this directive, officers and commissars were expelled from their positions, and some were beaten to death.[52] Students at Chinese military academies followed Lin’s instructions to rebel against their senior officers, breaking into the offices of Lin’s National Commission for Defense Science to abduct one of the department’s directors, and claiming Lin’s deputy chief of staff, Li Tianyu, whom students accused of disciplining them.[51] The students “overthrew” General Xiao Hua, the head of the PLA’s Political Department since the previous July, and went on to purge 40 other top officers working under him in the Political Department, most of which died in prison.[52]

Lin continued to support the Red Guards until May 1967, when Mao accepted Zhou Enlai’s appeals to moderate their radical activity through military intervention.[51] Lin moderated some of the most radical activity within the PLA; but, from 1967 to 1969, 80,000 officers were purged, 1,169 of which died from torture, starvation, or execution. Research programs were cancelled and the number of military academies across China shrank by two thirds. Many defensive fortifications were destroyed, and regular training within the PLA ceased.[52]

After 1966, Lin’s few personal political initiatives were efforts to moderate the radical nature of the Cultural Revolution. Privately, he expressed unhappiness with the Cultural Revolution, but was unable to avoid playing a high-profile role due to the expectations of Mao, China’s unpredictable political environment, and the manipulations of his wife and son, Ye Qun and Lin Liguo.[17] After 1966, Lin, like Liu before him, attempted to build his own base of support so that he could better position himself for the inevitable, unpredictable political situation that would occur following the death of Mao.[53] Lin’s few proactive attempts to direct the Cultural Revolution were attempts to protect Red Guards and his political allies from political persecution, and to mediate the attempts of Jiang Qing and her followers to radicalize China’s political climate.[34] In May 1967, Lin’s follower, Chen Boda, saved Zhou Enlai from being persecuted by Red Guards by convincing them that Zhou was Lin’s follower and supporter. Zhou repaid Lin’s assistance by giving him excessive public praise three months later, in August, but was forced to write a formal apology to Lin after Lin complained to Mao that such praise was inappropriate.[54]

Lin and Jiang cooperated at the outset of the Cultural Revolution, but their relationship began to deteriorate in 1968 as Jiang frequently attempted to interfere in Chinese military affairs, which Lin found intolerable.[55] By 1970 Lin and Ye were very unfriendly with Jiang Qing: Lin referred to her as a “long-nosed pit viper”.[34] From 1968 until his death in 1971, Lin and his supporters disagreed with Zhou Enlai and his followers over the issue of China’s relationship with the United States and the Soviet Union. Lin believed that both superpowers were equally threatening to China, and that they were colluding to thwart China’s interests. Zhou Enlai believed that China should become closer to the United States in order to mediate the threat posed by the Soviet military. Lin was supported by Jiang Qing in his opposition to pursuing a relationship with the United States, but was not able to permanently disrupt Zhou’s efforts to contact the United States.[56]

Lin Biao, as Defense Minister, was responsible for the Chinese response to the Zhenbao Island incident of March 1969, a battle with the Soviet Union over a small, uninhabited island on the border of Mongolia. Lin issued a report labeling the Soviet Union a “chauvinist” and “social imperialist” power, and issuing orders warning Chinese troops to be wary of an impending Soviet attack. Lin’s followers attempted to use the hysteria generated by the incident in an effort to deepen the power that they had gained during the Cultural Revolution, disregarding and acting against the interests of Zhou Enlai and his supporters.[57]

[edit] Height of power

Lin officially became China’s second-in-charge in April 1969, following the 1st Plenary Session of the 9th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. Lin’s position as Mao’s “closest comrade-in-arms and successor” was recognized when the Party constitution was formally revised to reflect Lin’s future succession.[58] At the 9th Central Committee, Lin’s faction was unquestionably dominant within the Politburo. Of the Politburo’s twenty-one full members, Lin counted on the support of six members: the generals Huang Yongsheng, Wu Faxian, Li Zuopeng, Qiu Huizo; Ye Qun; and Chen Boda, an ambitious ideologue. Lin’s support surpassed the number of members aligned with Jiang Qing, and far surpassed those aligned with Zhou Enlai. Because over 45% of the Central Committee were of members of Army, Lin’s supporters dominated the Politburo, and Lin’s power was second only to Mao.[59]

During the Second Plenary Session of the 9th Central Committee, from August–September 1970, Mao became uncomfortable with Lin’s growing power, and began to maneuver against Lin by undermining his supporters and attacking some of Lin’s suggestions at the conference. At the Second Plenum, Lin advocated that Mao take the position of President, which had been dissolved after the removal of Liu Shaoqi, but Mao dismissed this appeal, suspecting Lin of using it to increase his own power.[58] Mao did not attack Lin directly, but showed his displeasure by attacking Lin’s ally, Chen Boda, who was quickly disgraced. Lin kept his position, but the events of the Lushan Conference revealed a growing distrust between Lin and Mao.[60]

Because Lin was one of the most influential figures in promoting Mao’s personality cult, he began to be criticized within the Party for its excesses later in 1970.[17] After 1970, some factions within the Army, and those led by Zhou Enlai and Jiang Qing, began to distance themselves from Lin.[58] In order to mediate Lin’s growing power, Mao approved Zhou’s efforts to rehabilitate a number of civilian officials who had been purged during the first years of the Cultural Revolution, and supported Zhou’s efforts to improve China’s relationship with the United States.[61]

A serious rift developed between Mao and Lin. Mao was displeased with comments that Lin had made about his wife, Jiang Qing, at the Second Plenary Session of the 9th Central Committee. Generals loyal to Lin refused to accept Mao’s criticism of them, and Mao began to question whether Lin continued to follow him unconditionally.[49] Mao wanted Lin to make a self-criticism, but Lin stayed away from Beijing and resisted doing so. Ye Qun made a self-criticism, but it was rejected by Mao as not genuine. Zhou Enlai attempted to mediate between Mao and Lin, but by 1971 Lin had become extremely reclusive and difficult to talk with at any level, and Zhou’s mediation failed. In July 1971 Mao decided to remove Lin and his supporters. Zhou again attempted to moderate Mao’s resolution to act against Lin, but failed.[62]

[edit] The “Lin Biao incident”

Lin died when a plane carrying him and several members of his family crashed in Mongolia on September 13, 1971, allegedly after attempting to assassinate Mao and defect to the Soviet Union. Following Lin’s death, there has been widespread skepticism in the West concerning the official Chinese explanation, but forensic evidence conducted by Russia (which recovered the bodies following the crash) has confirmed that Lin was among those who died in the crash.[6]

[edit] Official Chinese narrative

According to the Chinese government, Lin Biao was made aware that Mao no longer trusted him after the 9th Central Committee, and he harbored a strong desire to seize supreme power. In February 1971 Lin and his wife, Ye Qun (who was then a Politburo member), began to plot Mao’s assassination. In March 1971, Lin’s son, Lin Liguo (who was a senior Air Force officer) held a secret meeting with his closest followers at an Air Force base in Shanghai. At this meeting, Lin Liguo and his subordinates supposedly drafted a plan to organize a coup, titled “Project 571″ (in Chinese, “5-7-1″ is a homophone for “armed uprising”). Later that March, the group met again to formalize the structure of command following the proposed coup.[60]

Mao was unaware of the coup plot; and, in August 1971, scheduled a conference for September to determine the political fate of Lin Biao. On August 15 Mao left Beijing to discuss the issue with other senior political and military leaders in southern China. On September 5, Lin received reports that Mao was preparing to purge him. On September 8, Lin gave the order to his subordinates to proceed with the coup.[60]

Lin’s subordinates planned to assassinate Mao by sabotaging his train before he returned to Beijing, but Mao unexpectedly changed his route on September 11. Mao’s bodyguards foiled several subsequent attempts on Mao’s life, and Mao safely returned to Beijing in the evening of September 12. By failing to assassinate Mao, Lin’s coup attempt failed.[63]

Realizing that Mao was now fully aware of his abortive coup, Lin’s party first considered fleeing south to their base of power in Guangzhou, where they would establish an alternate ‘Party headquarters’ and attack armed forces loyal to Mao in cooperation with the Soviet Union. After hearing that Premier Zhou Enlai was investigating the incident, they abandoned this plan as impractical, and decided to flee to the Soviet Union instead. In the early morning of September 13, Lin Biao, Ye Qun, Lin Liguo, and several personal aides attempted to flee to the Soviet Union and boarded a prearranged Trident 1-E, (a CAAC B-256) piloted by Pan Jingyin, the deputy commander of the PLAAF 34th division. The plane did not take aboard enough fuel before taking off, ran out of fuel, and crashed near Öndörkhaan in Mongolia on September 13, 1971.[63] Everyone on board, eight men and one woman, was killed.[29]

[edit] Foreign perception of official Chinese explanation

The exact circumstances surrounding Lin’s death remain unclear, due to a lack of surviving evidence. Many of the original government records relevant to Lin’s death were secretly and intentionally destroyed, with the approval of the Politburo, during the brief period of Hua Guofeng‘s interregnum in the late 1970s. Among the records destroyed were telephone records, meeting minutes, personal notes, and desk diaries. The records, if they had survived, would have clarified the activities of Mao, Zhou Enlai, Jiang Qing, and Wang Dongxing relative to Lin, before and after Lin’s death.[6] Because of the destruction of government documentation related to Lin’s death, the Chinese government has relied on the “evidence” provided by the “confessions” of purged officials close to Lin to corroborate the official narrative, but non-Chinese scholars generally regard this “evidence” as unreliable.[49]

Ever since 1971, scholars outside of China have been skeptical of the government’s official explanation of the circumstances surrounding Lin’s death. Skeptics assert that the official narrative does not sufficiently explain why Lin, one of Mao’s closest supporters and one of the most successful Communist generals, would suddenly attempt a poorly planned, abortive coup. The government narrative also does not sufficiently explain how and why Lin’s plane crashed. Skeptics have claimed that Lin’s decision to flee to the Soviet Union was illogical, on the grounds that the United States or Taiwan would have been safer destinations.[49]

Influential Western historians critical of the Chinese government’s official story have promoted the view that Lin did not have either the intention or the ability to usurp Mao’s place within the government or the Party.[63] One theory attempted to explain Lin’s flight and death by observing that Lin opposed China’s rapprochement with the United States, which Zhou Enlai was organizing with Mao’s approval.[64] Because the Chinese government never produced evidence to support their report that Lin was on board the plane that crashed in Mongolia, Western scholars originally doubted that Lin had died in the crash. One book, published anonymously using a Chinese pseudonym in 1983, claimed that Mao had actually had Lin and his wife killed in Beijing, and that Lin Liguo had attempted to escape by air. Other scholars suggested that Mao had ordered the Chinese army to shoot down Lin’s plane over Mongolia.[65]

The Chinese government has no interest in re-evaluating its narrative on Lin Biao’s death. When contacted for its comment on fresh evidence that surfaced on the Lin Biao incident after the Cold War, the Chinese Foreign Ministry stated: “China already has a clear, authoritative conclusion about the Lin Biao incident. Other foreign reports of a conjectural nature are groundless.” Non-Chinese scholars interpreted China’s reluctance to consider evidence that contradicts its “official” history as the result of a desire to avoid exploring any issue that may lead to criticism of Mao Zedong or a re-evaluation of the Cultural Revolution in general, which may distract China from pursuing economic growth.[22]

[edit] Subsequent scholarship and reliable eyewitness accounts

A six-month investigation by Western scholars in 1994 examined evidence in Russia, Mongolia, China, the United States, and Taiwan, and came to a number of conclusions, some of which were contrary to the official Chinese version of events. The study confirmed that Lin Biao, Ye Qun, and Lin Liguo were all killed in the crash. Lin’s plane was travelling away from the Soviet Union at the time of its crash, making the exact sequence of events before Lin’s death more confusing, and casting doubt on the possibility that Lin was attempting to seek asylum in the USSR. Lin’s wife and son may have forced Lin to board the plane against his will. Several senior leaders within the Communist Party hierarchy knew that Lin’s party would flee, but chose not to attempt to stop their flight. According to this study, Lin had attempted to contact the Kuomintang in Taiwan on two separate occasions shortly before his death.[65] The findings of Lin’s attempt to contact the Kuomintang supported earlier rumors from inside China that Lin was secretly negotiating with Chiang’s government in order to restore the Kuomintang government in mainland China in return for a high position in the new government. The claims of Lin’s contact with the Kuomintang have never been formally confirmed nor denied by either the Communist government nor the Nationalist government in Taiwan.

The eyewitness account of Zhang Ning, who was Lin Liguo’s fiancee before his death, and another witness who requested anonymity, indicate a sequence of events different from the official narrative. According to Zhang, Lin Biao had become extremely passive and inactive by 1971. When Lin Liguo informed Ye Qun that Mao was preparing to strip Ye of her Politburo seat, the two became convinced that their family would be purged if they failed to act, and developed a plan to escape.[28]

At 10 o’clock the night before Lin’s party fled, Ye Qun announced that the family would board a plane at 7 the next morning to fly to Guangzhou. Lin’s 27-year-old daughter, Lin Liheng (known by the nickname “Doudou”) opposed the escape plan, and contacted Lin’s bodyguards to request that they guard her father from Ye. Doudou then phoned Zhou Enlai,[66] but was not able to contact him directly, and Zhou only received Doudou’s report second-hand.[55]

Zhou received Doudou’s message shortly after Doudou’s phone call, directly from the general office of the Central Committee responsible for guarding China’s senior leaders. The message contained Doudou’s warning that Ye Qun and Lin Liguo were attempting to persuade Lin Biao to flee the country using an aircraft currently being prepared at Qinhuangdao Shanhaiguan Airport. Zhou called Wu Faxian, the commander of the air force, who verified the plane’s existence. Zhou then issued orders that the plane could not take off without the written permission of himself and several other senior military officials, including Wu Faxian, general chief-of-staff Huang Yongsheng, and the commander of the navy and general chief-of-staff, Li Zuopeng. At 11:30, Ye Qun called Zhou and informed him that Lin Biao was planning to fly to Dalian, and denied that they had prepared a plane at Shanhuaiguan. Zhou then told Ye to wait for him to travel to see Lin before they left Beidaihe (where they were staying), issued orders to neutralize potentially disruptive officers close to Lin (Wu Faxian and Huang Yongsheng), and ordered two planes readied in Beijing so that he could fly to Lin’s residence to personally deal with the matter.[67]

Ye made an announcement that the party were to pack quickly. Two hours after Doudou contacted Zhou, soldiers had still not responded in any meaningful way. Ye and Lin Liguo woke Lin Biao and packed him into a waiting limousine. The party then drove to Shanhaiguan airport, 25 miles away from their residence in Beidaihe, where their plane was waiting. Lin’s bodyguards told Doudou and another companion that they were ordered to take them as well, but Doudou and her companion refused.[66]

One soldier shot at Lin’s limousine as it left Beidaihe, but missed, and most soldiers that the party encountered on their way to the airport allowed the limousine to pass. According to the driver of Lin’s limousine, there was no time to place mobile stairs next to the plane’s entrance, so the party boarded the plane via a rope ladder. Lin Biao was so weak that he had to be lifted and pulled onto the plane.[66]

Zhang Ning observed the plane after it left the airport. Lin’s plane initially traveled southeast (in the direction of Guangzhou). The plane then returned twenty minutes later and circled the airport several times as if it were trying to land, but the runway lights had been turned off. Soviet officials and Mongolian witnesses reported that the plane then flew north, over Mongolia and almost to the Soviet border, but then turned around and began flying south before it crashed. A Mongolian who witnessed the plane crash reported that the plane’s tail was on fire when it crashed.[68]

None of Zhou’s instructions prevented Lin’s flight, and he learned that Lin’s plane had taken off before he, himself, could fly to see Lin. Zhou then ordered all planes in China grounded without the written permission of Mao, himself, and several senior military leaders. He rushed to Zhongnanhai to brief Mao of Lin’s flight, and asked Mao if he wanted to order Lin’s plane shot down, but Mao replied that China should “let him go”. At 8:30 PM, September 13, the Mongolian Foreign Ministry summoned the Chinese ambassador to make a formal complaint about the unauthorized entrance of a plane into Mongolian airspace, and reported to the ambassador that the plane had crashed, killing all on board. The Chinese ambassador to Mongolia then phoned Zhou Enlai, who then instructed the ambassador to tell the Mongolians that the plane had entered Mongolian airspace because it had gone off course.[69]

Mongolian investigators were the first to inspect the wreckage, arriving later the same day. They found an identity card belonging to Lin Liguo, confirming Lin Liguo’s presence on the flight. Markings on the plane and surviving miscellaneous personal items confirmed that the plane and passengers had originated from China, but the Mongolians were uncertain that any of the dead were either Lin Biao or Ye Qun. After inspecting the crash, the Mongolians buried the dead onsite.[29]

Through the Chinese ambassador, Zhou requested and received permission for Chinese embassy staff to inspect the wreckage of Lin’s plane, which they did on September 15–16. The staff reported to Zhou that the plane had caught fire while attempting to land, and then exploded. Zhou then sent additional staff to interview Mongolian witnesses of the crash, and to perform a detailed technical assessment of the crash. The report concluded that the plane had approximately 30 minutes of fuel when it crashed, but attempted to land without activating its landing gear or wing flaps.[70]

Later in 1971 a Soviet medical team secretly traveled to the crash site and exhumed the bodies, which were by then modestly decomposed. The team removed the heads of two of the corpses suspected to be Lin Biao and Ye Qun and took them back to Russia for forensic examination. In 1972 the team concluded that the heads belonged to Lin Biao and Ye Qun (the heads are still stored in Russian archives). In order to corroborate their findings the team returned to Mongolia a second time to inspect the body believed to be Lin Biao’s. After exhuming the body a second time the team found that the corpse’s right lung had the remains of tuberculosis, which Lin had suffered from, confirming the Soviet identification. The Soviet team were not able to determine the cause of the crash, but hypothesized that the pilot was flying low to evade radar and misjudged the plane’s altitude. Judging from the fires that burnt after the plane crashed, the Soviets estimated that it had enough fuel to fly to the Soviet cities of Irkutsk or Chita. All of the work and its results were kept secret from the public: outside of the investigative team, only KGB director Yuri Andropov and Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev were informed. The report remained classified until the early 1990s, after the end of the Cold War.[71]

[edit] Aftermath

Graffiti with Lin Biao’s foreword to Mao’s Little Red Book. Lin’s name (lower right) was later scratched out, presumably after his death

Lin Biao was survived by Doudou and one other daughter.[17] All military officials identified as being close to Lin or his family (most of China’s high military command) were purged within weeks of Lin’s disappearance.[63] On September 14, Zhou announced to the Politburo that four of the highest-ranking military officials in China were immediately suspended from duty and ordered to submit self-criticisms admitting their associations with Lin. This announcement was quickly followed by the arrest of ninety-three people suspected of being close to Lin,[72] and within a month of Lin’s disappearance over 1,000 senior Chinese military officials were purged.[49] The official purge of Lin’s supporters continued until it was closed by the 10th Central Committee in August 1973.[73] The incident marked the end of the myth that Mao was always considered absolutely correct within the Party.[63] The National Day celebrations on October 1, 1971, were cancelled.

The news of Lin’s death was announced to all Communist Party officials in mid-October 1971, and to the Chinese public in November. The news was publicly received with shock and confusion. Mao Zedong was especially disturbed by the incident: his health deteriorated, and he became depressed. At the end of 1971 he became seriously ill, he suffered a stroke in January 1972, received emergency medical treatment, and his health remained unstable. Mao became nostalgic about some of his revolutionary comrades whose purging Lin had supported, and backed Zhou’s efforts to conduct a widespread rehabilitation of veteran revolutionaries, and to correct some of the excesses of the Cultural Revolution (which he blamed on Lin).[74] In the aftermath of the purge of Lin’s supporters, Zhou Enlai replaced Lin as the second most powerful man in China, and Jiang Qing and her followers were never able to displace him. Without the support of Lin, Jiang was unable to prevent Zhou’s efforts to improve China’s relationship with the United States, or to rehabilitate cadres who had been purged during the Cultural Revolution.[75] The clause in the Party constitution indicating that Lin was Mao’s successor was not officially amended until the 10th Central Committee in August 1973.[73]

The position of the Chinese government on Lin and the circumstances of his death changed several times over the decade following 1971. For over a year the Party first attempted to cover up the details of Lin’s death. The government then began to issue partial details of the event, followed by an anti-Lin Biao propaganda campaign. After Mao’s death, in 1976, the government confirmed its condemnation of Lin and generally ceased any dialogue concerning Lin’s place in history.[76] Throughout the 1970s, high-ranking leaders of the Chinese Communist Party, including Hua Guofeng, spread the story to foreign delegates that Lin had conspired with the KGB to assassinate Mao.[77]

In 1973 Jiang Qing, Mao’s fourth wife and a former political ally of Lin’s, started the Criticize Lin, Criticize Confucius campaign, aimed at using Lin’s scarred image to attack Zhou Enlai. Much of this propaganda campaign involved the creative falsification of history, including (false) details about how Lin had opposed Mao’s leadership and tactics thoroughout his career.[78] Lin’s name became involved in Jiang’s propaganda campaign after flashcards, made by Ye Qun to record Lin’s thoughts, were discovered in Lin’s residence following his death. Some of these flashcards recorded opinions critical of Mao. According to Lin’s writings, Mao “will fabricate ‘your’ opinion first, then he will change ‘your’ opinion – which is not actually yours, but his fabrication. I should be careful of this standard trick.” Another critical comment of Lin’s states that Mao “worships himself and has a blind faith in himself. He worships himself to such an extent that all accomplishments are attributed to him, but all mistakes are made by others”.[46] Lin’s private criticisms of Mao were directly contradictory of the public image cultivated by Lin, who publicly stated following the Great Leap Forward that all mistakes of the past were the result of deviating from Mao’s instructions.[79]

Like many major proponents of the Cultural Revolution, Lin’s image was manipulated after Mao’s death in 1976, and many negative aspects of the Cultural Revolution were blamed on Lin. After October 1976, those in power also blamed Mao’s supporters, the so-called Gang of Four. In 1980, the Chinese government held a series of “special trials” to identify those most responsible for the Cultural Revolution. In 1981, the government released their verdict: that Lin Biao must be held, along with Jiang Qing, as one of the two major “counter-revolutionary cliques” responsible for the excesses of the late 1960s.[63] According to the official Party verdict, Lin and Jiang were singled out for blame because they led intra-Party cliques which took advantage of Mao’s “mistakes” to advance their own political goals, engaging in “criminal activity” for their own self-benefit.[40] Lin has been officially remembered as one of the greatest villains of modern China since then. Lin was never politically rehabilitated, so the charges against him continue to stand.[63]

For several decades Lin’s name and image were censored within China, but in recent years a balanced image of Lin has reappeared in popular culture: surviving aides and family members have published memoirs about their experience with Lin; scholars have explored most surviving evidence relevant to his life and death, and have gained exposure within the official Chinese media; movies set before 1949 have made reference to Lin; and, Lin’s name has re-appeared in Chinese history textbooks, recognizing his contributions to the victory of the Red Army.[76] Within modern China, Lin is regarded as one of the Red Army’s best military strategists. In 2007 a portrait of Lin was added to the Chinese Military Museum in Beijing, included in a display of the “Ten Marshals”, a group considered to be the founders of China’s armed forces.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ a b c Leung 69
  2. ^ a b c d e Lazitch and Drachkovitch 265-267
  3. ^ Lin 164
  4. ^ a b c d e Lee 170
  5. ^ Barnonin and Yu 240
  6. ^ a b c d Mackerras, McMillen, and Watson. 140
  7. ^ Leung 70
  8. ^ Barnouin and Yu 242
  9. ^ Hu Chi-hsi 253
  10. ^ Hu Chi-hsi 263
  11. ^ Hu Chi-hsi 257-260
  12. ^ Hu Chi-hsi 264
  13. ^ Salisbury 188
  14. ^ Salisbury 191–192
  15. ^ Hu Chi-hsi 267
  16. ^ Snow 135
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Mackerras, McMillen, and Watson 141
  18. ^ Snow 84
  19. ^ Chang and Halliday 504
  20. ^ Lee 170-171
  21. ^ a b c Lee 171
  22. ^ a b Hannam and Lawrence 4
  23. ^ Zhang 2
  24. ^ Leung 70-71
  25. ^ Barnouin and Yu 103
  26. ^ Barnouin and Yu 116
  27. ^ a b c d Qiu The Culture of Power. 145
  28. ^ a b Hannam and Lawrence 2-3
  29. ^ a b c Hannam and Lawrence 2
  30. ^ Barnouin and Yu 142-143, 145
  31. ^ Barnouin and Yu 164, 166
  32. ^ Domes 82
  33. ^ a b c Lee 172
  34. ^ a b c d Hu Xingdou 1
  35. ^ Barnouin and Yu 183
  36. ^ Barnouin and Yu 191
  37. ^ Yang. Section I
  38. ^ Snow. “Biographical Notes”.
  39. ^ a b c Qiu The Culture of Power 80
  40. ^ a b c Qiu The Culture of Power. 15
  41. ^ a b Tanner 522
  42. ^ Ebrey 442
  43. ^ Qiu The Culture of Power. 149
  44. ^ Teiwes and Sun 5
  45. ^ Han
  46. ^ a b Qiu The Culture of Power. 78
  47. ^ a b Qiu The Culture of Power. 78-79
  48. ^ a b Qiu The Culture of Power. 79-80
  49. ^ a b c d e Qiu Distorting History
  50. ^ Hu Xingdou 2
  51. ^ a b c Barnouin and Yu 226, 229
  52. ^ a b c China at War 136
  53. ^ Robinson 1081
  54. ^ Barnouin and Yu 236–237, 241-243
  55. ^ a b Barnouin and Yu 272
  56. ^ Ross 268
  57. ^ Uhalley and Qiu 389
  58. ^ a b c Uhalley and Qiu 388
  59. ^ Ross 269-270
  60. ^ a b c He 248
  61. ^ Ross 270-272
  62. ^ Qiu The Culture of Power. 134-135
  63. ^ a b c d e f g He 249
  64. ^ Ross 265
  65. ^ a b Hannam and Lawrence 1
  66. ^ a b c Hannam and Lawrence 3
  67. ^ Barnouin and Yu 272-273
  68. ^ Hannam and Lawrence 1, 3
  69. ^ Barnouin and Yu 273-274
  70. ^ Barnouin and Yu 274
  71. ^ Hannam and Lawrence 3-4
  72. ^ Barnouin and Yu 275
  73. ^ a b Barnouin and Yu 280
  74. ^ Barnouin and Yu 275-276
  75. ^ Ross 275-276
  76. ^ a b Robinson 1080
  77. ^ Pacepa
  78. ^ Hu Chi-hsi 269
  79. ^ Barnouin and Yu 190

[edit] Bibliography




DrIwan CD-ROM”The Investation Value Of Uniquecollection”






Ming Vase







The Value Of Uniquecollection

Part One


Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Private Limites E-book In Cd-rom Edition

Special For Antique Trader

Copyright @ 2012




a.I starting stamps collection during 1955 very young boy. look my vintage photo with mother Diana lanny and father Djohan Oetama at Bukittingi West Sumatra 1955, my father passed away in 1985 and my mother is just pass away in July 2010.

b.Between 1960-1963, during study at Don Bosco high school I had started collected beside stamps all type of informations collections due to my Teacher Frater Servaas told me that I must collected the Informations due to the developing the satellite which made the globalizations which the growing of world communications will became fast and no border between the nations countries, who have the Information he will became the leader and the King in communications, thank you Frater Servaas your info which made me can built the very best informations communications uniquecollection blog in the world.
Look at in memoriam Frater Servaas with my teacher at Frater middle school in memorian Frater Eric at my House during my Sister Erlita 17th years birthday in 1963.

also look my profile with my loving teacher who still alive and stay at Padang city west sumatra Pak Sofjanto at my house in the same time of the photo above

c.Between 1973-1983 many interesting history which related with the stamp and postal history and also with my life :
1. In 1972 I have graduated Medical Doctor(MD) the temporary assitenst at Pulmonology (Lung Disease) department in Medical faculty


3.In 1973 join the medical officer of Indonesia National Police September 1973 I was merried with Lily W.


5. in 1974 my first son Albert our photographer was born in November 1974, and later in January 1977 born my second son Anton our Editor .
a. Albert at Solok city west Sumatra 1978

b.Anton at Solok city 1978

6. Between 1975 until 1989 I have travelled around Indonesia myself or officially and I have found many uniquecollections that time.

7.In 1985 I have made a postal communications, I have send the aerogram to all Postal services in the capital city of all oin the world, 90 % send to me back the official cover,this could be done by the helping of Padang postmaster Ahmadsyah Soewil, his father collections I had bought in 1980.
The vintage photo of Soewil St.marajo ,during the chief of Painan West Sumatra Post office
look his photos


During Dai Nippon occupation he still at Painan and during Indonesia Independence war he was the Finance officer of Padang office and later in 1950-1959 the chief of TelukBayur Harbour west Sumatra post office, seme of the rare West sumatra during Dai Nippon occupation and Indonesia Inedependence war were his collectins,thankyou Family Soewil for that rare collections(complete infrmatins source Dai nippon occupatin sumatra under Malaya Singapore or Syonanto Dai Nippon military Administrations and Indonesia Independence war collections.

8. Before between 1979-1985 I have joint the postal circuit club and I have found many covers from all over the world especially Latin America.This circuit as the help of my friend Frans,now he was in Bogor.

9.In 1990 I was graduate my Master Hospital Administration.

10.Between 1990-1994
I was on the duty at West Borneo and visit Sarawak,and I have fund some rare Sarawak stamps, revenue there and in Pontianak I have found rare sarawak coins

11.Between 1995 until 2000
I am seeking the postally used cover from the countries I havenot found especailly the new freedom countries.
All the postal stamps and covers I will arranged in the very exciting and unique collections, I will starting with Asia Countries, and later Africa, Australia, America and Euro.
This special collections were built dedicated to my Sons,especially the histrical fact from my vintage books collections as the rememberance what their father collected and I hope they will keep this beautiful and histric collections until put in speciale site in the CyberMuseum.
I hope all the collectors all over the world will help me to complete the collections, frm Asia I donnot have the cover from Bhutan,Mongol, Tibet, and SAfghanistan.but the stamps I have complete from that countries except my thematic bridge on the river kwai from Myanmar and Thailand.
12. In the years of 2000, I was retired from my job
this is my official profile just before retired.

13, Between 2000-2008
I am travelling around Asia,and starting to arranged my travelling unque collections.
14. December,25th 2008 until now
I built the Blog , and built the special site UCM-uniquecollections CyberMuseum with many types collections :
1. The Unique books collections
2. The Unique Stamps collectins
3. The rare Coins collections
4. The rare ceramic collections
5. The Unique label collections
6. The Travelling Unque collections (now changed as the Adventures of Dr iwan S0
7. The Tionghoa Unique Collections
8. The Asia Unique Collections
9. The Africa Unique collections
10. The Padang minangKabau CyberMuseum

I WRITE THIS MEMORABLE STORY WITH RELATED UNIQUECOLLECTIONS ILLUSTRATIONS AS MY HONOR TO MY LOVING FAMILY , ALL MY FRIEND AND MY TEACHERS.BECAUSE WITHOUT YOU I AM NOTHING AT ALL,AND YOU ARE ALWAYS IN MY HEART FOREVER.IN AUGUST AFTER BUILD THE NEW BLOG some interseting information from old blog were tagg to the new blog and edit and add the new informations I have just found, this uAsia unique collections became new tittle from Asia cicra 1976 to Asia Uniquecollections 1950-1980. Many new unique colletions and Informations will added.

If The google Adds didnot answer my communications, I am sorry this e-book will became Premium Info due to the operational cost special for premium members, I have contact Google Addss but still problem with my URL adress,may be Google didnot want to sponsor the blog,please informations from another wordpress blokker about this.





The Rarest and valuable Chinese red In Glazed Vase

I have read about the New world record for Ming vase
from China Daily newspaper Updated: 2006-05-31 05:52 HONG KONG: about A rare underglaze copper-red Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) vase sold for HK$78.52 million (US$10.13 million) in Hong Kong yesterday, setting a world auction record for Ming porcelain.Ming Vase Theow Tow, Deputy Chairman of Christie’s Asia and the Americas International Director of Chinese works of Arts, looks at an early Ming underglaze copper-red vase after it was sold for a world record of US$10,122,558 for any Ming porcelain during an auction in Hong Kong May 30, 2006. [Reuters]
“He’s bought the vase at the right price, making a world record,” said Edward Dolman, chief executive officer of Christie’s International, referring to buyer Steve Wynn, chairman of Macao-based Wynn Resorts.


The pear-shaped vase, decorated with a peony scroll, is the only copper-red vase of the early Ming Dynasty still in perfect condition to be offered at auction in more than 15 years, said Christie’s Hong Kong office.

The vase was originally inherited by a Scottish couple who used it as a lamp and did not realize its value until they saw a similar example in a museum.

Ceramics with underglaze copper-red decoration are very rare, owing to their complicated production process.

Dr Iwan note

I have found in Indonesia near same copper red vase but in broken condition one only top and the other which have restoration.,what about the value of this artifact ,please comment.This artifact important to compere with your own collections because many fake exist now.

I also found semipor celain red in glazed in boken near 80% per shape vase, so0meonje said to me that this is from anamaese,please comment

the end @ copyright Dr iwan suwandy 2011



kartu pos ultah I kemerdekaan RI yang  langka


Dr  I W A N   S

Publikasi Pribadi terbatas 100 expl. Khusus Untuk Kolektor


1.Kajian tentang  koleksi  yang memiliki nilai investasi (unik dan langka) sehingga ”layak koleksi” adalah sesuatu hal yang menarik pada saat ini, terutama sejak terjadinya krisis Global pasar saham pada akhirtahun 2008 dimana keyakinan para investor terhadap pasar modal(saham) mulai menurun dan mulai melirik ”Investasi dibarang Koleksi”*1)

2. Nilai investasi suatu koleksi ditentukan bukan hanya oleh kelangkaan atau umur yang tua  tetapi juga oleh kualitas dan keindahan untuk kesenangan pribadi dan pameran   *2)

3.Keindahan koleksi tergantung pada mata konsumen dan kondisi koleksi  seperti nilai investasinya  adalah suatu hal subjektif

4.Istilah Koleksi Unik berasal dari bahasa Inggeris Unique Collection sering diartikan secara keliru sehingga koleksi unik diidentikkan dengan koleksi dengan nilai investasi tinggi dan akhrnya jadi tumpukan lumpur

5.Koleksi unik ada juga yang menyebut”Rare”, ”Limited Edition” atau “Curio”,”Antique”*3)

6. Kolektor dan investor koleksi unik selalu menemui kesulitan dalam memilih koleksi yang layak dikumpul, sering kecewa saat menjual koleksinya karena dinilai sangat rendah tidakseperti yang diperkirakannya.Sehubungan dengan hal tersebut diatas perlu dilakukan kajian  berupa studi kepustakaan, sudi perbandingan perkembangan nilai koleksi deri katalogus dan hasil lelangan dalam suatu kurun waktu tertentu guna dapat menjawab  beberapa hal yang selalu menjadikan pertanyaanbagi para kolektor dan investor koleksi unik :

a.      Jenis koleksi yang layak dijadikan investasi


Prangko Hindia Belanda yang paling langka dan layak dikoleksi

b.      Bagaimana membuktikan hipotesis dibawah ini:

1)     Koleksi unik tidak selalu memiliki nilai investasi


Prangko Masa perang kemerdekaan RI di Sumatera  yang paling langka hanya  dua biji ditemukan,salah satunya ada dimuseum prangko Den Haag Negeri belanda kepunyaan kolektor terkenal Ricardo dan yang ini milik pribadi Dr iwan S, tetapi walaupun unik dan langka belum tentu nilai inventasinya tinggi, isteri saya berkomentar prangko jelek tak menarik siapa yang tertarik, tetapi bila dilihat Bulterman pakar filateli belanda langsung berteriak wow sambil pegang kepala,sangat menarik,hanya ada dua didunia,mau jual , jawab saya tidak karena sepantasnya prangko ini dipajang di mueum prangko Indonesia atau disandingkan dengan koleksi Ricardo di Museum den Haag, tetapi saat saya tawarkan kepada pakar filateli lainnya dari Negeri Belanda, saya katakan,prangko ini ingin saya sumbangkan ke musuem den Haag dengan syarat nama saya dicantumkan dan saya diundang ke negeri Belanda saat penyerahan piagam tanda terima sumbangan prangko langka ini, Ia jawab boleh saya akan beri tahu,tetapi sudah lima tahun tidak ada jawaban,bagaimana ,benarkan hipotesis saya langka tapi tak menarik dan tak selalu memiliki nilai investasi tinggi.

2)     Koleksi unik selalu memiliki informasi yang dibutuh orang-orang tertentu.


peta butut ini tidak menarik, tetapi memiliki informasi yang anda pasti ingin tahu, Subang anda tahu dan Kalijati mungkin tidak, tempat tersebut sangat bersejarah, kalijati adalah lapangan terbang yang dijatikan tempat perundingan penyerahan kekuasaan dari Militer Hiundia Belanda Kepada Panglima pasukan pendarata Dai Nippon di Jawa Let.jen. Hitoshi Immamoto, nah lu, baru koleksi ini bernilai histori karena ada informasi yang dibutukan rakyat Indonesia dan tentunya Belanda, dan selanjutnya anda pasti ingin tahu bagaimanakah profil Jendral Immamura ,untuk memenuhi penasaran anda lihat foto yang bersangkutan dibawah ini


Stelah melihat profil jen.Hitoshi Immamura,anda tambah penasaran , ia berunding dengan siapa,-silahkan baca Pendudukan Jepang di Jawa 1942 atau The Dai Nippon Military Administration Java atau Dai Nippon Gunseikanbu Jawa.(waah,memang penasaran membuat orang haus informasi-Dr iwan s)

Nilai investasi  koleksi dapat diketahui dari market  perdagangan barang antik yang akhir-akhir ini menjadi tidak diketahui  akibat resesi sehingga banyak “dealer”(pedagang-peyalur) dan “auctioner”(pelelang)  yakin  situasi jelek ini akan berakhir. Benda-benda koleksi berkembang jenisnya dan harga  bersaing selalu ditemukan  dan kadang-kadang suprising  suatu jenis benda dengan cepat berubah statusnya menjadi barang koleksi *4)


Medali Mao ini dulu siapa yang mau koleksi, tetapi saat ini diburu kolektor China, karena ekonomi negaranya meroket dan rakyatnya mulai makmur, maka komeradnya yang paling dicintai khususnya yang langka masa revolusi kebudayaan di beli dengan harga sangat tinggi, malah tiruannya yang banyak diproduksi tahun 1978 saat mao baru meninggal dunia saat ini masih dibeli di China untuk kenang-kenangan oleh turis karena yang asli harganya selangit. Pakar filatelis almarhum V.esbensen pernah menulis surat kepada saya, apa yang anda kumpulkan benda filateli masa pendudukan jepang dan perang kemerdekaan RI di sumatra,suatu wkatu akan menjadi investasi yang sangat tinggi nilainya apabila negara anda tambah makmur ekonominya,ternyata benar saat Jepang booming ekonominya tahun 1985, pendudukan jepang diborong semua orang jepang denga harga selangit, tapi saat ini para kolektor jepang sudah tua danbanyak meninggal seperti mr Aoki pasarannya jadi sepi lagi,untung saya sudah jual saat lagi booming, sampai sat ini koleksi saya dari China masih utuh danmuali booming,mungkin saya harus egera melepasnya, bagaimana, menakjubkan bukan.

Minat investasi perangko yang sempat memudar mulai berbinar *5) setelah berbagai pasar modal mengalami krisis.

Para pedagang koleksi uang (numismatik) akan kecipratan duit apabila uang lama bergambar seseorang tokoh meninggal dunia. *6)

Tentang hal ini , ada pengalaman saya ,suatu waktu saya menemui setumpuk duit lama gambar bung Karno pecahan Rp.25 alias uang prit jigo yang sangat banyak beredar,dalam kondisi yang masih mulus sulit didapat, anda tahu bagaimana harganya meroket mulai sepuluh ribu rupiah, kemudian naik dua puluh lima ribu rupiah tahu 1990 dan akhirnya tahun 2000 meroket jadi seratus ribu rupiah,tapi karena resesi ekonomi jatuh lagi tinggal 75 ribu rupiah,untuk saat paling tinngi sudha saya lepas seluruhnya kecuali yang nomor serinya urus dan cantik masih sya koleksi karena prospeknya bagus terutama nomor seri satu atau dua huruf,belum tahu belajar dong, baca buku, penasaran pean buku ini sebelum habis disikat orang lain,informasi adalah guru kita untuk menjadi kolektor yang sukses(Dr iwan S)

Penulis artikel berjudul “Sang Kolektor” kagum  kepada kolektor  yang kecintaannya  terhadap koleksi menjelma  menjadi  pengetahuan bagi orang banyak, tetapi ia  prihatin terhadap kerakusan dan kesrakahan mereka *7)

Koleksi yang memiliki nilai investasi tinggi tidak selalu likuid susah dijual dengan nilai pasar, pedagang punya prinsip Beli semurah-murahnya dan jual setinggi-tingginya. Kendatipun demikian ada juga koleksi yang liquid antara lain Jam tangan Antik *8)

Kekayaan warisan budaya suatu etnis merupakan refleksi suatu kultur, salah satunya adalah peralatan dan meubeler etnis tionghoa “cuiho” yang dimanfaatkan saat menikah *9)(termasuk alat musik,meja sembahyang dan pakaian serta Ranjang Pengantin berikut pernak-perniknya-pen)

Setiap orang memiliki idola dan heronya masin-masing sehingga berminat menyimpan barang cetak,foto dan kartu dengan gambar sang idola yang dikenal sebagai “trade card”*10)

Sang Idola tempo dulu da masa kini dibidang oleh raga menjadi incaran para kolektor seperti spot card sepak bola*11) dan Basket Ball NBA*12)

Istilah Unusual Coins( koin yang tidak biasa)  “ sometimes confusing” (beberapa waktu  membingungkan) dengan  istilah kreasi   “ the cormercial marketplace”(Tempat terbuka dikota yang gunakan  sebagai lokasi pasa), sering  merupakan “deceptive realm of numinmatic  emission  “ ( penerbitan matauang  tipuan ). Kendatipun demikian Unusual Coins ada juga yang diterbitkan sebagai mata uang lokal atau token *12)


Koin perk ini tahun1975-1980 dijual toko mas dengan menibang berat peraknya sekitar 45 gr,dijual per gram rp 500 sama dengan satu US $ ,jadi harganya sekitar 45 US$, anda tahu berapa harganya sekarang, karena sangat langkadan edisinya sangat terbatas koin perak belanda raja willem I ini nilainya sama dengan sebuah mobil toyota avanza,kalu tak percaya coba cari bila dapat pasti ada yang mau tukar dengan mobilnya,tapi jangan yang butut.

Membahas Koleksi Unik tidak akan habis-habisnya sehingga dalam karya tulis ini dibatasi mengenai Koleksi Unik Pribadi saja tidak meliputi Koleksi Unik Warisan Bangsa atau National (National Heritage Collection*13)

Kolektor dan investor koleksi unik didunia sangat banyak  seperti Koleksi perangko  Raja Inggeris orang tuanya Ratu Elisabeth II Inggeris, Bekas Raja Mesir yang koleksi luar biasa saat ia turun tahta dilelang dengan harga yang cukup tinggi saat itu sehingga dijulukilah kolesi perangko sebagai “The King of collection and the collection of the King” seiiring dengan berkembangnya komunikasi pos pada akhir abad ke XX pihak pos menerbitkan perangko dalam julah yang sangat tinggi sampai 20-100 juta eksp. Serta gerakan propaganda negara komunis liwat perangko yang membagi-bagikan perangko yang telah distempel pos investasi dikoleksi perangko menurun sehingga saat inin hanya yang perangko unik yang langka saja yang masih jadi incaran kolekstor dan investor spesialistis *14)

Kolektor dan Investor lokal di Indonsia cukup banyak akhir tahun 2008 timbul kasus Arca Kuno di Solo dan melibatkna kolektor yang tidak mengaku sebagai investor , dibebaskan oleh pengadilan Negeri  ,dan saat ini jaks a naik banding ( jangan koleksi koleksi unik warisan budaya nasional yang dilindungi secar hukum,-pen).

Beberapa kolektor yang dikenal penulis dibahas dalam karya tulis tersendiri antara lain kolektor Postal History Pendudukan Jepang dan revolusi kemerdekaan NRI 1942-49 Mr Ricardo mantan direktur BUMN Jacobson van den Berg –Batavia  yang saat ini milik  Museum Fiateli den Haag Negeri Belanda, Koleksi Keramik Mantan pimpin IOC Mr Average Brundage  , Koleksi Samurai Jepang Mr Baud –Srilangka, Kolektor Bungkus Rokok Butet Kertajaya,Koleksi Lukisan Afandi Bp Sumarican dan lainnya.Keberhasilan beberapa Kolektor Koleksi Perangko Unik yang mampu membeli rumah,Kolektor meubel antik membangun toko antik di Jakarta, Kolektor lukisan yang memvisualisai Indonesia dari negeri Belanda dan lainnya*14)

Hasil kjian mengenai Jenis, Nilai Investasi koleksi unik serta pembahasannya serta illustrasi koleksi unik pribadi kolektor Jakarta secara sederhana pada bab berikutnya, untukkolektor senior dan spesialistik dapat menhubunggi penulis guna dapat berdiskusi dan memperoleh karyatulis khusus pribadi dengan perjanjian.

Setelah membaca buku sederhana ini , pembaca yang memahami bahasa Indonesia diharapkan memberikan koreksi dan masukan informasi temuam koleksi unik baru sehinga selanjutnya dapat diterbitkan buku yang lebih lengkap dalamdua bahasa Indonesia dan Inggeris pada tahun 2010  .


Englis version

Machinal translate




The Literature Study

  The rare  Postcard Of First Anniversary Of independence of Indonesia

Dr I W A N S

Publications Private Limited 100 expl. Special For Collectors

1.Kajian about the collection that has investment value (unique and rare) that “a decent collection” is something that is interesting at the moment, especially since the global crisis on the stock market akhirtahun 2008 where the investor confidence in the capital market (stocks) declined and started looking at the “Investment dibarang Collection” * 1)
2. The investment value of a collection is determined not only by the scarcity or old age but also by the quality and beauty for personal enjoyment and exhibitions * 2)
3.Keindahan collection depends on the eye of the consumer and the condition of the collection as the value of the investment is a matter of opinion
4.Istilah Unique Collections from Unique Collection English often mistakenly interpreted so identified with a unique collection collection with high investment value and akhrnya so heaps of mud
There is also a unique 5.Koleksi called “Rare”, “Limited Edition” or “Curio”, “Antique” * 3)
6. Collectors and investors unique collections always have difficulty in choosing the appropriate collection gathered, often disappointed when selling his collection because it is considered so low that diperkirakannya.Sehubungan tidakseperti to the above necessary to study the form of literary study, comparison of the development of value deign deri collection of auction catalogs and results within a certain period of time in order to answer some of the things that always makes pertanyaanbagi collectors and investors a unique collection:
a. Type collection worthy investment

Netherlands Indies stamps most rare and worthy collection
b. How to prove the following hypothesis:
1) Unique collection does not always have the value of investments
Stamps during the war of independence of Indonesia in Sumatra’s most endangered only two seeds are found, one of which was dimuseum Hague stamp collector belongs to the Dutch State and is renowned Ricardo Dr iwan S privately owned, but the unique and rare though not necessarily high value inventasinya, my wife commented stamps ugly unattractive who is interested, but when viewed Bulterman philatelic expert wow dutch shouted while holding the head, very interesting, there are only two in the world, they want to sell, I am not responsible for proper postage stamps on display at mueum Indonesia or paired with a collection of Ricardo at the Hague Museum, but when I offer to other philatelic experts from the Netherlands, I say, these stamps I want to donate to the musuem den Haag on the condition my name mentioned and I was invited to the Netherlands as the delivery instrument donation receipt of this rare stamp , He said I should not be let out, but it’s been five years no answers, how to, justify my hypothesis is rare but not attractive and do not always have a high investment value.
2) always has a unique collection of information needed certain people.
battered map is not attractive, but it has the information that you would want to know, you know and Kalijati Subang maybe not, is a very historic place, Kalijati is dijatikan airfield where the transfer of power from military talks Hiundia Netherlands To the Commander of troops pendarata Dai Nippon in Java Let.jen. Hitoshi Immamoto, well lu, this new collection of historically valuable because there is information that dibutukan people of Indonesia and of course the Netherlands, and then you’ll want to know how Immamura General profile, to fulfill your curiosity is concerned see photo below
Stelah see Immamura jen.Hitoshi profile, you add curiosity, he conferred with whom,-please read the Japanese Occupation in 1942 or The Java Dai Nippon Military Administration Gunseikanbu Dai Nippon Java or Java. (Whoa, it makes people curious thirst for information-Dr iwan s)
The investment value of the collection can be seen from the antiques trade market lately become known due to the recession so many “dealers” (trader-peyalur) and “auctioner” (auctioneer) believe this ugly situation will end. Collection of objects evolving and price competitive types are always found and sometimes suprising some types of objects quickly turned into a collectible status * 4)
Mao’s first medal who wants a collection, but China is now hunted by collectors, due to the country’s economy soared and people began to prosper, the most loved komeradnya especially scarce during the cultural revolution in the purchase price is very high, even many replica produced in 1978 had died when mao is still bought in China for a memento by tourists because the original price was exorbitant.


 In Memoriam Expert philatelists V.Esbensen had wrote to me, what do you collect philatelic items during the Japanese occupation and war of independence of Indonesia in Sumatra, one time  will be a very valuable investment if you added prosperous state economy,


it is true as Japan’s booming economy In 1985, the Japanese occupation of premises hired all the Japanese people exorbitant prices, but now the older Japanese collectors danbanyak died as Mr Aoki market value so lonely anymore,


I’ve been selling at a profit again booming, till this sat my collection from China remain intact danmuali booming , maybe I should take it off imminent, how amazing is not it.

Investment interest had faded stamps began to shine * 5) after various capital market crisis.


The merchant cash collection (numismatic) will be showered money if someone figures illustrated old money dies. * 6)

On this, there is my experience, any time I see a pile of old money image bung Karno Rp.25 denominations aka money prit jigo very widely circulated, in circumstances that are difficult to obtain smooth, you know how the price skyrocketed from ten thousand dollars, then up twenty-five thousand dollars out 1990 and finally in 2000 rocketed be one hundred thousand dollars, but because of the economic recession fell again lived 75 thousand dollars,


 for the moment at least tinngi sudha I loose all but the serial numbers are still sya mismanagement and beautiful collection because prospects are good especially the serial number of one or two letters, do not know yet learned dong, read a book, curious pean brushed finished the book before anyone else, information is our teacher to be a successful collector (Dr iwan S)

Authors of articles titled “The Collector” admiration for the collectors who love the collection transformed into knowledge for the people, but he is concerned about the greed and their kesrakahan * 7)

Collections that have high investment value is not always hard sell illiquid market value, traders have principles Buy cheap-cheap and sell as high. Nevertheless there is also a collection of liquid including Antique Watches * 8)

An ethnically rich cultural heritage is a reflection of a culture, one of which is the equipment and the Chinese ethnic meubeler “cuiho” is used at marriage * 9) (including musical instruments, table clothes and bed praying and Bride follows the trimmings-pen)

Every person has the idol and brackish heronya one so interested in saving print items, photographs and cards with a picture of the idol known as “trade card” * 10)

The past Idol da field of the sport today the target of the collector as a football card spot * 11) and Basket Ball NBA * 12)

Terms Unusual Coins (Unusual coins) ‘sometimes confusing “(some times confusing) with the creation of the term” the cormercial marketplace “(an open place in the city who use the site pasa), often a” deceptive realm of numinmatic emission “(publishing matauang hoax ). Unusual Coins Nevertheless there is also published as a local currency or tokens * 12)
This perk Coins 1975-1980 sale store with menibang carp weighing about 45 grams silver, sold for Rp 500 per gram equals one U.S. $, so the price is about 45 U.S. $, you know how much it costs now, because it’s very langkadan very limited edition silver coin netherlands king Willem I was worth the same as a car toyota avanza, kalu disbelief can certainly try to find if one wants to exchange with the car, but do not be battered.

Discussing the Unique Collection not be exhausted so that the paper is limited to the Unique Personal Collection not include Unique Collection Nations Heritage or National (National Heritage Collection * 13)

Collectors and investors a unique collection of the world very much like the King of Great Britain Stamp Collection parent British Queen Elisabeth II, former King of Egypt’s extraordinary collection when he abdicated auctioned at a price high enough so dijulukilah kolesi time stamps as “The King of collection and the collection of the King “seiiring with the development of postal communication in the late twentieth century the postal stamps issued in the amount of the very high up to 20-100 million eksp.


As well as the communist propaganda movement through the following dispenses stamps that have been stamped postal stamps collectible stamps declining investment so that when this link is only a rare unique stamps are still so sought kolekstor and investors spesialistis * 14)

Collectors and local investors in Indonsia pretty much the end of 2008 raised the case of the ancient statues melibatkna Solo and collector are not claiming to be investors, acquitted Affairs, and is currently a Jaks appeal (not a collection of unique collection of protected national heritage laws secar ,-pen).

Some collectors are known writer discussed in a separate paper include collector Postal History of Japanese occupation and revolution 1942-49 NRI Mr. Ricardo former state director Jacobson van den Berg-Batavia which is now owned by Museum Fiateli den Haag Holland,


former lead Ceramic Collection IOC Mr Average Brundage, Japanese Samurai Collection Mr Baud-Sri Lanka, Collector Wrap Cigarette Butet Kertajaya, Mr. Affandi Painting Collection Sumarican and lainnya.Keberhasilan some Unique Stamps Collection Collectors who can afford to buy houses, collectors antique furniture antique shop building in Jakarta, Collector paintings memvisualisai Indonesia from the Netherlands and other countries * 14)

Results kjian the type, a unique collection of Investment and discussion and illustration of the unique collection of personal collectors Jakarta is simply the next chapter, untukkolektor menhubunggi senior and specialist authors to be able to discuss and obtain private special karyatulis agreement.

Having read this simple book, readers are expected to understand the Indonesian corrections and input temuam unique collection of new information can then be published so that a more complete book dalamdua Indonesian and English in 20102

The writer


Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA






Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Copyright @ 2012

Number One

Dai Nippon Occupatiions Rising star or solar  Lombok Surcharge

for more info look the collections of east marien  naval Dai nippon occupations overprint included the Lombok solar choped on Kon 10cent courtecy dai Nippon Clun Netherland below

Dr Iwan had ever seen  a postally used cover with this rarest stamps  Dai nippon Solar Lombok stamps belongin to in memoriamMr Zakir ex the chief PTT Soematra Boekittinggi PTT and

other dai Nippon naval area postal used card also very rare



Number  two


  • bezj5a

The Postally used dai Nippon Occupation Flores Nippon Kite surcharge postal stationer card

look the sample pf cover at the front cover of JR Niewkerk Dai Nippon Postalhistory Book below

Number Three


The Block eight mint Surakarta military stamps 1949 and the postally used on Covers

Number Four


The Block 20 mint DEI first stamps willem III unperforated.also


postally used cover

Number Five


The Full sheet 50 stamps  used the

second DEI stamps Willem III perforated

Number Six

The Koninnerburg 35 cent postally used cover

Number Seventh



postally used West sumatra one years and two years  Indonesian Independennt proclamations 19456 and 1947

Number Eight


the earliest nri sumatra typewriter overprint republik indonesia on Dai nippon stmaps in Middle sumatra bagan si-api api

the earliest nri sumatra typewriter overprint republik indonesia on Dai nippon stmaps in Middle sumatra bagan si-api api

The Middle Sumatra type machine overprint Republik Indonesia  on definitive dai nippon  sumatra stamps overprint hand

Number nine


The Overprint NRI west sumatra on dai Nippon stamps used as emergency revenue in 1946 complete on Document

Number Ten


The postally used  cover   pre stamped landmail on cover

Number eleventh

Number tweleve

The Postaly used dai nippon occupation overprint Bencoolen David star on DEI Stamps,and other are like Djambi NIPPON MA, SOUTH SUMATRA POSTMASTER RING CHOPED ON dei STAMPS LIKE



Number Thirteen

The ppostally used on cover  Dai Nippon  occupations south Sumatra ring and hand signed Overprint  on DEI Kon 10cent from IPL Palembang, the chief of postal office Martapura Boestami,etc

Number fourtheen

The Postally Used on cover NRI Sumatra overprint from regional  west sumatra.south Sumatra  and Lampong

Number Fifteen

the unissued Salak stamps’

Number sicteenth

Indonesia Prestamped Cover,like

the private Watson and Co Batavia postal servive in 1846


The Dai Nippon Occupation overprint Sumatra Area on cover like




the end @ copyright 2012



Dr Iwan Cybermuseum


Home Office

The Introduction From The Founder of Driwancybermuseum Web Blog

















The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum


(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)


Driwancybermuseum Blog A.Driwancybermuseum homeoffice openhouse

Cybermuseum open house”


Qillin decoration


Postal History and Document History collections in antique cupboard




Meeting room


working room


Dragon boat mini musuem


Ceramic Collection


Ceramic Collections 2


VOC ship tile


VOC Tile&Token


Ngoc San Tample Hoan Kiem Lake Hanoi tile


Ancient Wayang Petruk Manuscript


Ancient wayang Semar

Hallo Collector

THe founder and All of UCN uniquecollections cybernews staff send the greatings and Happy Chinese New Year “Gong Hi Fat Choi” .
During this happy seasons, UCM uniquecollection cybermuseum and UCN home office open house , all of our best friend collectors were invited to joint the celebration ceremony of the opening of the home office and small museum .

All the collectors from allover the world Please look at the illustration of the new restored UCM-UCN home office and small musuem:

1. The front of the homeoffice with Qillin staircase or tangga Killin as the protection of uniquecollection cybermuseum homeoffice, constist two Qillin stone statue,two Qillin wooden carving, three artifact Qillin late Ming ceramic , design by Dr Iwan S. built by Mr burhanuddin , the idea from Ming emperor palace forbidden city Beijing @copyright Dr Iwan S.2010 (ill. caption “Qillin decoration”)

2. The vintage Writing desk and cupboard (ill Vintage writingcase), in the cupboard the collector will see the albums of vintage document histories.

3. TheLibrary of uniquecollections literatures (ill.library)

4. The Meeting room

5. The Working room

6. The Small Museum consist :
(1) The Ancient ceramic Collections in two vintage showcase( ill ceramic collection 1 and 2)
(2) The dragon boat style Museum with the uniquecollections show : ceramic,stamps and revenue,martavan,woodencarving,statue,metal collections, cins,ancien smoking Pipes, vintage Labels, vintage paintings (ill Small museum)
(3) special close up illustration of VOC ship multicolour tiles-(ill VOC Gauda tiles), VOC Fort tiles(ill.VOC Delft tiles), Wayang Berber Paintings (ill Wayang berber 1945).
(4) The founder show the very rare handpainted pictures with calligraphy ancient wayang book (ill. Ancietn Wayang Petruk and ill. ancient wayang Semar)

After look of the UCM-UCN home office with small musuem illustrations we hope all the collectors will more closed with the best uniquecollection blog of the world and always click this blog to found anykind of uniquecollections information, if you didn’t found the informations please asked as collector choice via comment lika Fake Coins, the value of Rare stamps, the Indochine coins,stamps and papermoney informations etc.If our visitor near 1 million , uniquecollections blog will develop the uniquecollectins club all over the world, please the collectors of all over the world asking the copyright permission with special regulations via comment and editor will contact you to issued the written permission and regulations. every members will send the UCN and the UCM showed with regular one year or life member operational postal & scanning cost to send that information stright install via the members sms adress.the complete best color illustrations. This only the recent proposal, please comment and suggestions.

UCM-uniquecollections Cybermuseum have announced that this night will show ” The Qing Imperial Collections’consist The Qing imperial Paintings, ceramics , meubeluers, and other kind unique Qing imperial collections , this show sponsored by anonim Chinese Beijing collectors.

a.I starting stamps collection during 1955 very young boy. look my vintage photo with mother Diana lanny and father Djohan Oetama at Bukittingi West Sumatra 1955, my father passed away in 1985 and my mother just passed away in june 2011 at  91 years old.

b.Between 1960-1963, during study at Don Bosco high school I had started collected beside stamps all type of informations collections due to my Teacher Frater Servaas told me that I must collected the Informations due to the develping the satellite which made the globalizations which the growing of world cmmunications will became fast and no border between the nations countries, who have the Information he will became the leader and the King in communications, thank you Frater Servaas your info which made me could built the very best informations communications uniquecollection blog in the world.
Look at in memoriam Frater Servaas with my teacher at Frater middle school in memrian Frater Eric at my House during my Sister Erlita 17th years birthday in 1963.

also look my profile with my loving teacher who still alive and stay at Padang city west sumatra Pak Sofjanto at my house in the same time of the photo above

c.Between 1973-1983 many interesting history which related with the stamp and postal history and also with my life :
1. In 1972 I have graduated Medical Doctor(MD) the temporary assitenst at Pulmonology (Lung Disease) department in Medical faculty


3.In 1973 join the medical officer of Indonesia National Police September 1973 I was merried with Lily W.


5. in 1974 my first son Albert our photographer was born in November 1974, and later in January 1977 born my second son Anton our Editor .
a. Albert at Solok city west Sumatra 1978

b.Anton at Solok city 1978

6. Between 1975 until 1989 I have travelled around Indonesia myself or officially and I have found many uniquecollections that time.

7.In 1985 I have made a postal communications, I have send the aerogram to all Postal services in the capital city of all oin the world, 90 % send to me back the official cover,this could be done by the helping of Padang postmaster Ahmadsyah Soewil, his father collections I had bought in 1980.
The vintage photo of Soewil St.marajo ,during the chief of Painan West Sumatra Post office
look his photos


During Dai Nippon occupation he still at Painan and during Indonesia Independence war he was the Finance officer of Padang office and later in 1950-1959 the chief of TelukBayur Harbour west Sumatra post office, seme of the rare West sumatra during Dai Nippon occupation and Indonesia Inedependence war were his collectins,thankyou Family Soewil for that rare collections(complete infrmatins source Dai nippon occupatin sumatra under Malaya Singapore or Syonato Dai Nippon military Administrations and Indonesia Independence war collections.

8. Before between 1979-1985 I have joint the postal circuit club and I have found many covers from all over the world especially Latin America.This circuit as the help of my friend Frans,now he was in Bogor.

9.In 1990 I was graduate my Master Hospital Administration.

10.Between 1990-1994
I was n the duty at West Borneo and visit Sarwak,and i have fund some rare Sarawak stamps, revenue there and in Pontianak I have found rare sarawak coins

11.Between 1995 until 2000
I am seeking the postally used cover from the countries I havenot found especailly the new freedom countries.
All the postal stamps and covers I will arranged in the very exciting and unique collections, I will starting with Asia Countries, and later Africa, Australia, America and Euro.
This special collections were built dedicated to my Sons,especially the histrical fact from my vintage books collections as the rememberance what their father collected and I hope they will keep this beautiful and histric collections until put in speciale site in the CyberMuseum.
I hope all the collectors all over the world will help me to complete the collections, frm Asia I donnot have the cover from Bhutan,Mongol, Tibet, and SAfghanistan.but the stamps I have complete from that countries except my thematic bridge on the river kwai from Myanmar and Thailand.
12. In the years of 2000, I was retired from my job
this is my official profile just before retired.

13, Between 2000-2008
I am travelling around Asia,and starting to arranged my travelling unque collections.
14. December,25th 2008
I built the Blog with articles :
(1). The Unique books collections
(2). The Unique Stamps collectins
(3). The rare Coins collections
(4). The rare ceramic collections
(5.) The Unique label collectins
(6.) The Travelling Unque collections (now changed as the Adventures of Dr iwan S.
(7). The Tionghoa Unique Collections
(8.) The Asia Unique Collections
(9.) The Africa Unique collections
(10). The Padang minangkabau CyberMuseum

15. In 2010

I built another web :

(1) hhtp://


In this web the collectors will look the amizing collections:

(1) The Vietnam War 1965-1975, and another Vietnam Historic collections like Vienam during Indochina, Vienam Diem War 1955-1963,etc

(2) The Dai Nippon War 1942-1945, five part in homeland,pasific war,in Korea,in China, in south East Asia including Indonesia.

(3) The Indonesia Independence War  1945,1946,1947,1948,1949 and 1950.

(4) The Uniquecollections from all over the world.

(5) The Icon Cybermuseum, including Bung Karno,Bung Hatta,Sultan Hemangkubuwono, and also from foreign countries Iran,Iraq Sadam huseun ,Palestina jerusalam,turkey,afghanistan, libya Moamer Khadafi, Suriah , etc

(6) The Rare Ceramic Collections found In Indonesia, like China Imperial Tang,Yuan,Ming and Qing; also euro ceramic from delf,dutch maastrict ,etc

(7) and many other collections


8. I also built a amizing collections due to my premium member prefered, like The Indonesia Revenue Collections from 19th to 20th century, the mysteri of the Indonesian vienna Printing Stamps, the China  Gold Coins, The Rare Chian imperial ceramic design foun in Indonesia, The Tionghoa (Indonesia Chinese Overseas collection), Penguasa Wanta di dunia(Women in Leaders) etc.

5. At Least thankyou verymuch to all the collectors who have visit my blog and support me, my last prestation in June 2011 (26 years from the first starting to built the e-antique or uniquecollections info in internet) :

(1) hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum : visit 60.000, the highest per day 3200.

(2)hhtp:// 21.000,the highest per day 200.

(3)hhtp://, visit 40.000,the highest per day 210.

Jakarta June 2011

Greatings from teh founder

Dr Iwan Suwandy

the end @copyright XDr Iwan suwandy 2011









Showcase :

The Rare Late Ming Ceramic Which Foun At Indonesia Exhibition

(Dr Iwan Private Collections)

Frame one:Southern Ming Dynasty





History of China



wan li imperial mark and dragon five clow cup below.







The Southern Ming Dynasty (Chinese: 南明; pinyin: Nán Míng)

refers to the Ming loyalist regimes that existed in Southern China from 1644 to 1662 following the collapse of the Ming Dynasty and the capture of Beijing first by rebel armies led by Li Zicheng, and then by the forces of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty.

On April 24, 1644,

 Li Zicheng’s rebel soldiers, of the recently proclaimed Great Shun dynasty,

breached the walls of Beijing. The Chongzhen Emperor committed suicide the next day to avoid humiliation at their hands.

Remnants of the Ming imperial family and some court ministers then sought refuge in the southern part of China and regrouped around Nanjing, the Ming auxiliary capital, south of the Yangzi River. Four different power groups had eventuated:

  • Shun Dynasty led by Li Zicheng, with its power base north of the Huai river, which had been under controlled of the Ming Dynasty.
  • Zhang Xianzhong had established the Great West (Ch:大西) regime controlling Sichuanprovince.
  • Manchu-founded Qing Dynastyhad control of the north-east area beyond Shanhai Pass, at the same times much of the Mongol tribes.
  • The remnants of Ming Dynasty could only survive south of the Huai river.





Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum


(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)


The Original Dr Iwancybermuseum logo Collections .

Frame one:


1.In February.27th 2011 morning 7.30 am west Indonesia Time, during I walking out of Yacobus Church Kelapa Gading North Jakarta Indonesia to my car parking lot beyond the tree, God have send me one very amizing beautiful iron red fruit from the  tree which I donnot know it ‘s name, and  I bring to my cybermuseum home office ,put on my antique pure white stempcup ceramic , made to art photos by my digital camera Olympus, one still original and one was making corrections of the background by digital painting restorarion

2. then I have deciding that this art photography became the logo of my blog “Driwan Cybermuseum.


3.The red and white colour were the same of Indonesian flag colour,the flag of my homeland countries and their on red and pure white were my favorite colour of my ceramic collections, the background sandtone colour was my favorite colour of my cybermuseum homeoffice.

The  Iron red fruit was send to me by the holygod which give my the mercy and lucky in the future.

3.I hove all the collectors from all over the world to honor my logo copyright,please donnot copy.

Jakarta, February.27th 2011

The founder of Cybermuseum Blog

Dr Iwan Suwandy


Frame Two :

The Original Picture Of Driwancybermuseum Logo

1.The Original Photo at Driwancybermuseum

private home office


2.The Original Art photography of Driwancybermuseum’s logo(after digital restoration)


the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy






The Highest value Of Uniquecollections




Rarest Gems

The world’s rarest gem is believed to be painite, a gem that most have never heard of. The painite is orangish or reddish brown and was first discovered in Burma in the ’50s.

 Within the last couple of years, the source of the two original painite crystals was discovered and now a few hundred faceted stones exist.

A more well-known (but still very rare) gem is the red diamond


 Meteorites are rare and wondrous things, fragments of worlds other than our own.

The weight of gold that has been mined on Earth far exceeds the total weight of all meteorites in the world’s collections. Among the rarest of meteorites are pallasites, in which translucent yellow or green crystals of the gem mineral olivine occur embedded in crystalline nickel-iron metal.

Photo by Iris Langheinrich, pallasite slice on display in the Window on Our World, click image to enlarge.

In their raw state, pallasite meteorites are far from attractive. Their exteriors are blackened by the intense heat of entry through Earth’s atmosphere, or rusted by centuries embedded in soil. But cut into thin slices they can be stunningly beautiful.

Their structure is unlike anything found on Earth, but perhaps resembles what lies deep beneath our feet. The Earth has an iron core surrounded by a thick layer, the mantle, composed of olivine. Pallasite meteorites are from the core-mantle boundary of a small rocky planet that formed very early in the solar system but was later destroyed by planetary collision. These windows into another world give us a tantalizing glimpse of the deep interior of our own planet.

This particular pallasite slice, 46cm wide by 35cm high and weighing 3.45kg, is from a large meteorite found 150km northwest of the town of Seymchan, in the Magadan district of north-eastern Siberia. It was acquired by the Ulster Museum in 2009 and is on display on the upper level of Window on our World. More meteorites are on display in the Origins gallery of the Nature Zone


Rarest Signature

He may have done a lot of writing, but with only 6 of them in existence William Shakespeare’ s signature is one of the rarest of all and is valued somewhere around $3 million dollars.

Georgie Boy’ &  ‘Motherdear’





Collecting seems to bring out that primitive instinct for the hunt in some of its devotees, who stalk their prey with skill.  –

 Alicia Craig Faxon


Rarest Stamps

According to Wikipedia, the most expensive item by weight and volume is the Treskilling Yellow stamp from Sweden. It has a current estimated worth of $2.3 million. Here’s what makes it so valuable: In 1858, when the currency was known as the skilling, the 3-skilling stamp (“treskilling”) was printed in blue. And an 8-skilling stamp was printed in yellow. But due to a printing error, a few 3-skilling stamps were printed in yellow.


That instinct for the hunt has given a friend of mine the ability to assemble a “world class” collection of very rare stamps. 

The stamps are, in fact, so rare that I will make an exception to my usual rule that all posts must relate to cars. 




 My friend, Mahendra Sagar has spent a lifetime hunting and acquiring the rarest stamps in the Philatelic world,

called “Inverted Centers.”


These inverted centers, are stamps with the design element upside down with respect to the rest of the stamp. 

Most famous of these types is the inverted Jenny,  a stamp with the printing of the plane upside down. 

These errors are so rare, and so priceless, that they are pursued by only the most determined, skilled, and knowledgeable collectors.


Mahendra Sagar is such a man. 

He started collecting stamps when he inherited his older brothers collection at an early age. 

Now he specializes in these rarest of rare inverted centers. 

 His collection includes many choice stamps from other major collections, as well as some previously unknown stamps, all of which were acquired through years of auction bidding throughout the world.


The Mahendra Sagar Collection,

 as it is called, is one of the greatest offerings of inverted center stamps. 

Portions of the proceeds from the sale of the collection will go to various charitable institutions,

like Vipassana Research Institute, and Buddhist Global Relief.



Even if you are not a stamp collector, the catalogue is a brief history lesson into the world of inverted centers, and worthy of a look.  The auction house has created a special website linked here, which describes the collection in detail, and offers a printed brochure for prospective bidders.




It is one thing when a friend tells you that he is a stamp collector, but it is entirely different when you learn that his collection is “world class.” 

 In the car world, it would be like finding out your best friend doesn’t just own a classic car, but has a collection that rivals Ralph Lauren or Jay Leno. 

You have to be impressed.

the world’s rarest classic cars


A 1914 Dodge Type 30

 was the initial inspiration for the Louwman Collection of classic cars and automotive art housed in the newly-constructed National Automobile Museum of the Netherlands in the Hague.

Located near the Queen’s Palace, the collection dates back to 1934 when a Dutch car importer happened upon the 20-year-old Dodge that was already vintage classic. The Louwman family continued to expand over the years to its current size, boasting over 230 cars.

The cars are divided up into sections consisting of Dawn of Motoring, Motoring, Racing and Luxury. Highlights include a 1900 Georges Richard, which is rumored to have been found in a Parisian side street and “Genevieve,” a 1904 Darracq from the 1953 film. Rare 1948 Tatra T87 and a Spatz Victoria bubble car with central tube chassis, are both designed by the legendary Hans Ledwinka.

The collection includes an impressive range of vehicles, ranging in year and stature from 1944 Willys Jeep Model MB to a 1875 Thirion Modele N 2 Horse Drawn Steam Fire-Engine and 1922 American Lafrance Hook and Ladder Aerial Type 31/6.

Conceived by architecture firm Michael Graves & Associates, the 185,000-square-foot structure with its peaked roofs and woven brick facade, consists of temporary and permanent exhibition galleries, a reception hall, an auditorium and workshops for conservation and car repairs.


Rarest Cats Dogs

Of the rarest cat breeds, the Ashera (pic. left) is the most expensive ($20K+), the Sokoke the most exotic (from the wilds of Africa), and the Egyptian Mau has the coolest history (lived with the Egyptians). As for dog breeds, the one that keeps popping up on all the “rare” lists is the Lundehund, originally bred by the Vikings to hunt Puffins. Other rare breeds include Otterhounds and Stabyhounds.


Rarest Sea Salt

The earliest known sea salt produced by the Japanese may be the rarest of all. Called Amabito No Moshio (“Ancient Sea Salt”), unpolluted sea water is collected from the Seto-uchi inland sea, infused with seaweed to develop the “unami”, and then processed by cooking in an iron kettle, put into a centrifuge, and finally, cooked over an open fire while stirring constantly. The salt is worth over $40 per pound.


01. Don’t Leave me Alone


02. Transform Your Portrait in to Zombie


03. Surreal ocean scape in a bottle


04. Simple 3D Text Effect


05. Seductive Digital Art


06. Trap Your Friends in a Jar


07. Beautiful Abstract Portrait


08. Create an Abstract Playing Card


09. Create an Anti-Smoking Ad


10. Create a Fantasy Miniature World


11. A Professional Cartoon Effect from a Real Photograph


12. Creating an Ecological Fairy Tale


Advertise Here

13. Create a Beautiful Fan Surrounded by Magic Shapes, Runes and Plants


14. Flaming Car


15. The Police Officer


16. Powerful Human Disintegration Effect


17. Create a Beautiful Fantasy Angel


18. Creating Mechanical Horse


19. Create a Disturbing Scene of a Flooded Room with a Giant Hand Carrying a Fish


20. Underwater Vector Illustration


21. Create Movie Poster


22. Underwater 3D Text Effect


23. Road of Dreams


24. Fly High Light Effect


25. Texture Cube


26. Unique Abstract Text Effect


27. Create A Warm and Serene Portrait


28. create a Puss in Boots movie poster


29. Create an Exploding Light Text Effect


30. Create 3 Retro MP3 Players



Rarest Jeans

According to the Guinness Book of World Records, the most valuable jeans are an original pair of Levi Strauss Co 501 jeans aged over 115 years old which were sold to a collector in Japan for $60,000 through eBay in 2005. Quite rare indeed considering a new pair sells for $46.




Rarest Baseball Cards

In February 2007,

 a “near mint-mint” Honus Wagner sold for $2.3 million, at that point probably the highest sale for a baseball card in history.

 Then, in September 2007,

the same card was reportedly sold again.

This time for $2.8 million to a private collector.

The card in question, aT206 Honus Wagner, was made by the American Tobacco Company in 1909.

It has been called the “Mona Lisa of baseball cards.”




Rarest Comic Books

One of the rarest comic books still in existence in near-perfect condition is an issue of “Amazing Spider-Man #1,”

rare not only because of its singularity but also because of its quality.

The comic book sold for only 12 cents per copy when it was published in March 1963, and is now worth over $40K — not an exceedingly high price for comic books — but extremely rare in such pristine condition.




Rarest Real Estate

At the intersection of location, exclusivity and history you find some of the rarest pieces of real estate. With that criterion, blogger’s pick for the rarest piece of real estate currently on the market is Bran’s castle, the castle in Transylvania that inspired Bram Stoker’s Dracula, which is expected to fetch upwards of $135 million.


Rarest Horses

The Sorraia Horse is said to be the direct descendant of the wild Iberian horse but only 200 currently remain living in South Iberia. The Tiger Horse is a rare breed which is said to have existed in Ancient Spain and the beginning of the New World. Rare in terms of its abilities and characteristics, is the Lipizzaner (pic. left). Bred for its military prowess, one of these animals can sell for up to $100,000.




Rarest Books

There are countless rare books in the world, but by most experts’ standards the rarest of them all is the Gutenberg Bible. It was the first book ever printed back in 1456, and although several hundred copies were originally printed finding a complete first edition would net you $25-$35 million. In today’s market single pages alone go for $25K each, and several years ago just 1 volume (it’s a 2 volume set) sold for $5.5M.


Rarest Necklaces

In the world of rare necklaces, a couple million dollars doesn’t get you much. Even ten million dollars is cheap for these babies. The most expensive necklace may likely be one built around the Blue Empress, a rare natural blue diamond. The pear-shaped diamond weighs about 14 carats. It is set in 18k white gold and surrounded with white diamonds. It’s estimated to be worth $16 million



Rarest Wine

One of the rarest bottles of wine ever sold was purchased by Christopher Forbes for a mere £105,000 ($160,000). It was an unmarked green glass bottle with the inscription of “1787 Lafitte Th. J.” (now known as Lafite and thought to be owned by Thomas Jefferson), found behind a wall in Paris.


Rarest Vases

In 2006, a 20-inch high blue and white Yuan Dynasty vase fetched over $2 million. That sounds rare but at the end of that year, casino owner Steve Wynn paid even more for a rare vase. The small copper red and white porcelain vase, is a 14th century Ming vase (pic. left) decorated in scrolling flowers. It is from the exceptionally rare Hongwu period and went for around $10.9 million, making it the world’s most expensive.





Rarest Coins

As a general rule the more rare a coin is the more it’s worth, so what’s the rarest coin ever? It’s a debatable subject as not all experts always agree, but if the Double Eagle isn’t at the top of that list it’s sure near it. Back in 2002 the only Double Eagle coin left to be in private hands (or so everybody thought) sold for $7.9 million dollars.


Rarest Food

Served in China for over 400 years, the primary ingredient in bird’s nest soup or “Caviar of the East” is saliva nests built by cave swifts. Among one of the most expensive animal products consumed by humans it is believed to aid digestion, raise libido, and even alleviate asthma as it is dissolved in water to create a gelatinous soup. In Hong Kong, a bowl costs up to $30. Red version can cost $10K per gram.


Rarest Travel Trips

What is the rarest trip? There’s no real consensus on this, but blogger Deidre Woodward says that the trek to summit Mount Everest still remains among the rarest trips in the world. But even this has become something that is accessible to more people. In two months and for around $60,000 you can join a group and make the attempt of a lifetime.


__What You choose

Let we asked Coocle

What is the rarest collections In the world today September 2012


3 day ago jaguar

Argyle Pink Diamonds’ Beyond Rare campaign has been released through luxury fashion, financial and trade publications.


Media releases

Rio Tinto launches its 2012 collection of exceptionally rare pink, red and blue diamonds
03 September 2012 – Rio Tinto today announced the launch of its exclusive Argyle Pink Diamonds Tender 2012, an increasingly rare opportunity to purchase the world’s most precious diamonds …

Argyle Pink Diamonds glitter at the 84th Academy Awards
Los Angeles, February 27, 2012 – Australia’s exquisite Argyle pink diamonds were showcased to the world during the 84th Academy Awards ceremony ..

Rio Tinto discovers Australia’s biggest rough pink diamond at Argyle
21 February 2012 – Australia’s biggest pink rough diamond has been discovered at Rio Tinto’s Argyle mine, the world’s largest producer of rare pink diamonds …

Rio Tinto announces winning bids for the world’s most precious diamonds
Perth, October 26 Rio Tinto’s 2011 Argyle Pink Diamonds Tender, the most exclusive diamond sale in the world, has demonstrated strong global appeal and enduring value …

Rio Tinto launches its 2011 collection of exceptionally rare pink diamonds
Perth, July 13, 2011 – Rio Tinto today announced the launch of its exclusive Argyle Pink Diamonds Tender 2011, an increasingly rare opportunity to purchase the world’s most

Argyle Pink Diamond O pendant raises A$14,500 for indigenous Australian school
Perth, May 18 – Rio Tinto’s Argyle Pink Diamonds business is proud to announce the successful auction of a beautiful piece of Australian history – the sale of the “Number 1” …

Argyle Pink Diamonds announces new Authorised Partner in India
Perth, December 13, 2010 – Rio Tinto’s Argyle Pink Diamonds business today announced specialist diamond jewellery designer, manufacturer and luxury retailer, Nirav Modi …

Rio Tinto’s rare pink diamonds set new records and enter new markets
Perth, November 4, 2010 – Rio Tinto is delighted to announce an exceptional result for its 2010 Argyle Pink Diamonds Tender. Known as the most exclusive diamond sale in the world .

Rio Tinto’s exceptional pink diamonds to be showcased in New York
New York, October 12, 2010 – Rio Tinto’s exclusive Argyle Pink Diamonds Tender has arrived in New York, to be showcased alongside a much sought-after pink diamond tiara

Iconic Argyle Pink Diamonds Tender is showcased for the first time in China
Hong Kong, September 14, 2010. Rio Tinto today announced the inaugural showcasing of its Argyle Pink Diamonds Tender in mainland China.

Rio Tinto’s exceptional pink diamonds set to entice collectors and investors alike
Perth, August 18, 2010 – Rio Tinto today announced the launch of its exclusive 2010 Argyle Pink Diamonds Tender, an increasingly rare opportunity to purchase the world’s most precious

New publication highlights the immense appeal of the world’s most precious pink diamonds
Perth, July 5, 2010 – Rio Tinto today announced the launch of its new publication, Rare and Collectable, which focuses on the unique market position occupied by the rare pink diamonds

Rio Tinto’s Argyle Pink Diamond Tiara plays tribute to past and present crown jewels
Perth, June 24, 2010 – Rio Tinto’s rare Argyle pink diamonds today made a royal debut at the Masterpieces London Fair, a unique showcase of the most covetable objects on earth

Rio Tinto announces winning bids for the world’s most precious diamonds
Perth, October 22 – Rio Tinto has celebrated the 25th anniversary of its iconic Argyle Pink Diamonds Tender with an exceptional result that belies the global financial crisis

Iconic Argyle Pink Diamond Tender is showcased for the first time in India
Mumbai, August 9 – Rio Tinto’s 2009 Argyle Pink Diamond Tender is celebrating the 25th anniversary of its iconic offering of rare pink diamonds with its first ever viewing in India

Rio Tinto’s pink diamonds play tribute to grand passions and great loves
Perth, June 3 – Rio Tinto’s 2009 Argyle Pink Diamond Tender is set to celebrate the 25th anniversary of its iconic offering of pink diamonds with an exceptional collection

Rio Tinto’s Blue Diamond Tender Exceeds Expectations
PERTH, April 29, 2009 –Rio Tinto’s recent tender of rare blue diamonds from the Argyle Diamond Mine in Western Australia has set record prices and in doing so ..

Carats Direct Unveils Pink Diamond Jewelry Collection to Promote a Future Without Breast Cancer
VANCOUVER, 12th March, 2009 – Carats Direct has entered into a unique partnership with the Canadian Breast Cancer Foundation (CBCF). Carats Direct will donate .

Rio Tinto Tenders a Rare Offering Of Blue Diamonds
PERTH, 3rd March, 2009 – Rio Tinto’s Argyle Diamond Mine is set to showcase its rare blue diamonds to the world in a unique sale known as the ‘Once in a Blue Moon “ ..

Red Carpet Provides Unique Opportunity to Showcase Rare Argyle Pink Diamonds
NEW YORK, 26th January, 2009 – Rio Tinto’s iconic Argyle pink diamonds were the focus of much red carpet activity at the finale of the 2009 G’Day USA Australia …

Rare Argyle Pink Diamond Sells For Record Price
PERTH, 22nd December, 2008 – Rio Tinto’s Argyle Pink Diamond business today revealed that it had received the highest price ever for a pink diamond  

Argyle Pink Diamonds Set To Sparkle On The Red Carpet
ANTWERP, 22nd December, 2008 – Rio Tinto’s iconic Australian diamonds are set to grace the red carpet at the G’Day USA Australia Week events in New York in January 2009.

World’s Most Precious Pink Diamonds Deliver Strong Result
PERTH, 27th October, 2008 – Results from Rio Tinto’s 24th annual Argyle Pink Diamond Tender have demonstrated a strong market for this truly rare product..

World’s most precious pink diamonds go on sale
ANTWERP, 21st August, 2008 – Diamond experts and high society figures around the globe are preparing for the 24th annual Rio Tinto Argyle Pink Diamond Tender.




Press Clippings and Publications

Argyle pinks celebrated with special pendant
Rio Tinto’s Argyle Diamond Mine in Western Australia, which produces more than 90 percent of the world’s pink diamonds, is turning 25 this year, and the mining company plans to mark the milestone with the creation of one very rare pendant…

Oprah audience gifted diamond necklace
Each member of Oprah Winfrey’s 6000-strong Sydney audience will be given a white gold and diamond necklace, courtesy of mining giant Rio Tinto:

  • Oprah audience gifted diamond necklaces – AAP, PERTH, Dec 14
  • Audience gifted with diamonds – Daily Advertiser, Dec 15
  • Gem of an idea helps jewellers sparkle – The West Australian, Perth, Dec 15
  • Oprah Australia, Dec 15 – Oprah’s been and gone but diamonds are forever
  • Oprah’s audience get jewels – Bendigo Advertiser, Dec 15
  • Oprah shares the love – Ballarat Courier, Dec 15  >
  • Oprah shares the love, and the sponsors, on Aussie trip – Border Mail, Dec 15  >
  • Thousands gather at the Oprah House as ‘love festival for Australia’ reaches its climax – Melbourne Age, Dec 15  >
  • Pink diamonds and stars for Oprah’s fans – Daily Telegraph, Dec 14 Ossie! Ossie! Ossie! 0! 0! 0! – Daily Telegraph, Dec 15

The Argyle Pink Diamond Tiara
Combining the mystique and romance of a bygone era with the design of a contemporary treasure, the Argyle Pink Diamond Tiara is a signature jewellery piece

Diamonds are forever – Crystal Magazine Issue 3
CRYSTAL speaks with Josephine Archer, business manager of Argyle Pink Diamonds, about one of the most significant diamond tenders the world

The Green Carpet Challenge – In the Pink
Diamonds are a tricky issue on the red carpet. The Oscars will be covered in jewels and attendant security guards

Rio drives indigenous workforce boom
Apprentice mechanic Jono Adrian reckons anybody who really wants a job in the Kimberley can get one. The 22-year-old, who works at Rio Tinto’s Argyle diamond mine, is just one of the many young indigenous people employed on the siteLuxury Guide – Pretty in Pink
The east Kimberley is a culturally rich part of Australia that captivates the visitor in deep and mysterious ways. If it is not the Indigenous heritage or the supernatural out back landscapes, it’s the pink diamonds that the land creates..

Luxury Guide – Needful Thing
Argyle pink diamonds make up less than one tenth of one per cent of the total diamonds mined at the Argyle Diamond Mine – they are beyond rare…

Sitting Pretty in Pink – Crystal Magazine feature
How do you find a diamond in the rough? You need a helicopter and “the best team” according to Warren Atkinson, one of the geologists who originally discovered the Argyle mine in 1979…


WW II Propganda Poster

A rare collection of Second World War propaganda posters sold for almost £15,000 when they went under the hammer.

The 110 prints, bearing morale-boosting slogans such as Keep Calm And Carry On, were sold in 11 lots at Wallis and Wallis Auction Galleries in Lewes, East Sussex.

Bidding clerk Lyn Hayward said the total of £14,590 that was fetched was ”well in excess of what was expected”.

The posters, described as being in mint condition, were brought into the auction house by a relative of a worker who saved them from being thrown away during a clear-out at a print firm.

Many of the prints were part of the Back Them Up range of posters aimed at encouraging civilians to join the armed forces.

Others were emblazoned with extracts from some of Winston Churchill’s speeches, such as ”We shall not fail”.

Mrs Hayward said a pair of prints, one bearing the warning, Tell Nobody – Not Even Her, and the other, Careless Talk Costs Lives, fetched the highest single bid of £2,700.

She said the posters were believed to have been sold to a range of private collectors and there had also been interest from a number of museums.

Roy Butler, auctioneer, previously said he expected each lot to sell for up to £250 and had not known of such a collection going on sale before


The Investation Value Of Phillately collections




One of the Dutch east Indie (Hindia Belanda) rare stamps,the  hignest nominal value used stamps,the mint stamps more expensive, 55 years I am seeking this time ,and in 2009 I found this stam in jakarta from the senior stamps collectors from Bogor, I bought this stamps joint with my trader friend, I only bought this stamps and Bandung Jaarbeurs 10cent, and the other He bought, I am very happy as the phillatelist, I had ever seen in the auctions many times but never win the bidding, after the economic crisis and the price became only 10% of catalogue price I can bought this expensive stamps.(Dr Iwan S).


The  very rare Indonesia postal stationer,Bulterman catalogue price 5000 US Dollar, I found this postal history 1n 1984, and in 1985 I sold to Mr Karel US$ 1500, Mr Karel Sold in Van Dieten Auction Nederland in 2008 estimate price US  5000,- but I didnot now who baought this very rare postal History, Mr Karel promise me not sold abroad,but  because the economic crisis  he must sold abroad due ton in Tangeran Stamps Austion of Mr Suwito Harsono no one bidding, I am very upset this collections must keep in Indonesia, like I have keep the Type Machinewriter overpring Republimk Indonesia on 20 cent Dai N ippon Sumatra stamps,used on fragment ,only two exist one My Ricardo Collections now in Den Haag Musuem ,and the other one still in my collections.(Dr Iwan S)


This article dedicated to my Philatelist friend Mr Gogo who just pass away last week at Bandung, he was the first Phillatelist give me informations about Dai Nippon Occupation and Indonesia Independence war during my visit his stamps shop at Braga Street in 1984, this informations have help me starting to a phillatelist.

Before from 1955 until 1984 I am only the Stamp Collectors and investors I didnot know and no one gave me informations about phillatelis althought I have met senior Indonesia Phillatelist like Susantio, Dr Nelwan,Mr Thung Kim Tek, Wuysiang.General Surya Darma. Mr Pantau, Mpek Kok Sioe etc.

After have the phillatelist information from Mr Gogo Bandung in 1984 , starting from 1985 until now I learn many phillatelist literature, and met many senior phillatelis like Mr Ramkema, Mr P.R. Bulterman, Mr Suwito Harso, Mr Untung Raharjo, Mr Karel, Mr Dani etc from them I have many experience and information, I have bough many phillate;list Boooks, The International Stamp Catalogue like Stanly Gibbons,Yvert,Scott, and Michel, also collecting classic vintage catalogue,the postal history books and literature especially about the earliest 19th century Stamps.

I have write 389 article about unique collections, also about phillatelist from Asia country,after the old blog full, I am starting built the new internet blog in june 2010, with more profesional e-book,If you want to be the phillatelist you must joint my unqiue collection Club, and  my editor will send the new e-book info you like via your e-mail, you only paid the operational cost,please fast contact my editor via comment, I have only send 100 e-book only, if you late , you never found the very best information which I have learned almost 25 years.

I am sorry, the -book very limited because I didnot have enough time to produce the e-boook, like Indonesia Independence war and Dai Nippon Occupation Indonesia I have write almost two years still not finish that is why I only send you if you join the club, part and part have finish may be in two or three years because I have thousand collections realted to this very special momment for Indonesian Nations.


Yesterday (and as well as today) I got involved into a somewhat “interesting” discussion on my facebook and internet blog  that gathered five of comments in matter of hours. Unfortunately, it turned also into a catfight between stamp collectors and philatelists in few responses. I understand thta in the world 99 % were the stamp collectors and only one % phillatelist. My thoughts precisely. Why on earth can’t stamp collectors and philatelists co-exist in peace ?

Anyway – one of the comments hit a nerve as it labeled Yours truly as a philatelist based on the fact that I know lots of stamp related stuff (as well as share it openly with others).


Kemarin (dan juga hari ini) saya terlibat dalam diskusi agak “menarik” pada saya facebook dan blog internet yang mengumpulkan lima dari komentar dalam hitungan jam. Sayangnya, ternyata juga menjadi catfight antara kolektor perangko dan filatelis dalam beberapa tanggapan. Saya mengerti thta di dunia 99% adalah kolektor perangko dan hanya satu phillatelist%. Pikiranku tepat. Kenapa tidak dapat stempel kolektor dan filatelis hidup berdampingan dalam damai?
Pokoknya – salah satu komentar menabrak saraf seperti label Hormat sebagai Filatelis didasarkan pada kenyataan bahwa saya tahu banyak hal terkait cap (serta berbagi secara terbuka dengan orang lain).

When the first time found this stamps,Personally I consider myself nothing more than ordinarie stamp collector, as 99,9% of my time with stamps goes into hoarding large worldwide lots and filling spaces. In my books it definitely doesn’t qualify as philately. But after the China stamps became booming, The Mao Stamps  issued by DDR -easr Germany also up the value,every body in china more than 10 Million collectors seeking the M ao profile stamps and also after the Belrin wall broken and the unity of Germany this stamps became popular. in Germany and China, I like this stamps if on postally used cover to add my Mao Profila Postal history,you have  I want to buy. I am interested of things such as postmarks, errors or printing methods?

Who has said it is philatelists exclusive privilege to be interested of these things? Though stamp collecting is simply a task of filling spaces, there is a very clear need to know all sorts of stuff. Such as how to identify two printing methods from each other to successfully fill a specific gap. Or to verbally express one’s need very accurately to a seller / dealer / trading partner. Or to simply look out for all those “eBay bunnies” that try to sell “bogus products of crapmanistan” as the real thing because stamp collectors buy it all.

Both stamp collectors and philatelists share and live in same world where knowledge is power. It would simply be damn foolish for a stamp collector (or philatelist for that matter) to remain ignorant!

So what is the difference between a stamp collector and a philatelist? My personal opinion is that the main difference is in attitude towards collecting.

STAMP COLLECTORS do things with heart and with “easy rider” feeling. They are on a road to nowhere in particular, and they enjoy pretty much of everything (and all the stamps) that life throws at them.


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Ketika pertama kali ditemukan ini perangko, Secara pribadi saya menganggap diri saya tidak lebih dari kolektor perangko ordinarie, sebagai 99,9% dari waktu saya dengan perangko masuk ke banyak menimbun seluruh dunia yang besar dan ruang mengisi. Dalam buku saya itu pasti tidak memenuhi syarat sebagai filateli. Tapi setelah perangko China menjadi booming, The Stamps Mao dikeluarkan oleh DDR-easr Jerman juga naik nilai, setiap tubuh di cina lebih dari 10 Juta kolektor mencari M perangko ao profil dan juga setelah dinding Belrin rusak dan kesatuan Jerman ini perangko menjadi populer. di Jerman dan China, aku seperti ini perangko jika pada penutup postally digunakan untuk menambah saya Mao Profila sejarah Pos, Anda memiliki saya ingin membeli. Saya tertarik hal-hal seperti cap pos, kesalahan atau metode cetak?

Siapa yang mengatakan itu adalah hak istimewa filatelis eksklusif untuk tertarik hal-hal ini? Meskipun mengumpulkan prangko hanyalah sebuah tugas mengisi ruang, ada kebutuhan yang sangat jelas untuk mengetahui segala macam hal. Seperti bagaimana mengidentifikasi metode pencetakan dua dari satu sama lain untuk berhasil mengisi kesenjangan tertentu. Atau untuk mengekspresikan secara verbal kebutuhan seseorang sangat akurat untuk penjual / agen / mitra dagang. Atau untuk sekadar melihat keluar untuk semua orang “kelinci eBay” yang mencoba untuk menjual “produk-produk palsu dari crapmanistan” sebagai hal yang nyata karena kolektor perangko membeli semuanya.

Kolektor perangko baik dan berbagi filatelis dan hidup di dunia yang sama di mana pengetahuan adalah kekuatan. Ini hanya akan sialan bodoh bagi seorang kolektor prangko (Filatelis atau dalam hal ini) untuk tetap bodoh!
Jadi apa perbedaan antara seorang kolektor perangko dan seorang Filatelis? Pendapat pribadi saya adalah bahwa perbedaan utama adalah dalam sikap terhadap mengumpulkan.



 melakukan hal-hal dengan hati dan dengan perasaan “mudah pengendara”. Mereka berada di jalan ke mana-mana pada khususnya, dan mereka menikmati cukup banyak dari segala sesuatu (dan semua perangko) bahwa kehidupan melemparkan pada mereka


The Stamps collectors will comment this stamps beautiful pin color and  ethnic building I like it, but the Phillateslist different ,they look the related history  as the Postal History, this stamps issued during Indonesia in the United State Republic (Republik Indonesia Serikat) ,very short republic from December .27th 1949 until August ,17th 1950 ( after that became The United Republic of Indonesia -NKRI Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia until now), thi high nominal stamps from Rp. 2 to RP 25 didnot sold at Post office, the sdtamps will put on the cover or pakket and postal cancelled, only Indonesia phillatelic association can buy one sets for their collections, that time teh goverment protect the stamps used as investation like othe monetery -Papermoney, that is why the high nominal value especially RP.2 and Rp. 3,- very difficult to find in Mint stamps , and the other nom inal Rp.5, Rp 10 and 25 later many exist because many reprint and the stamps didnot used by the postal office sold to Indonesian and Nederlands trader. I have the Indonesian First issue stamp sample (contoh) put on the document for Postal announcement what kind of Stamps sold that time, that stamps still sold until 1952 after RIS. When the first RIS stamps sold and used on cover, you can read at my story about Indonesia Independent War and RIS in my old blog, and now i have starting to upgrade that story with more profesional style and illustrations, bvut not many stamps collector like this story, but they found that their stamps were fake ,they starting thingking to became phillatelist, also when they want to sold their collections, the trader didnot want to buy, they said your stamp collection not valuable or low valuse ,thay want to buy swapt with very low price, that is why the Stamp Collectors starting slowly but progress to disappears in the world, only the Phillatelic collections still alive and more valuable, I have an very best experience . If you are only want to be stamps collectors stop reading this article , you can seen many informations at facebook where many traders show their common beautiful which you can found many everywhere,very cheapest, that you can buy in Kilogram, when you want to sold noone will buy, also exchange in swap 100 different stamps in Stamp Circuit Club, or 10 kg from Christian Mission stamps Kiloware for charity, I have ever bought 10 kg British stamps, all the stamps were definitive stamps thaousand Elizabeth II stamps in 1986 only about 20 uncommon  stamps from the England state area stamps. I have bought 30 poundsterling which send via Bankdraft. I still have that garbe stamps until now,no one want to buy, maybe 100 years later my grandchild next generations  can sell this stamps.

PHILATELISTS  on the other focus on study and research, and take things much more seriously. And various “guidelines and rules” give them a very precise goal and path to follow for years to come.

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Para kolektor Perangko akan komentar ini warna prangko pin yang indah dan bangunan etnis Saya menyukainya, tapi berbeda Phillateslist, mereka terlihat sejarah terkait sebagai Sejarah Pos, perangko ini dikeluarkan selama Indonesia di Amerika Negara Republik (Republik Indonesia Serikat), sangat pendek republik dari Desember .27 th 1949 sampai Agustus, 17 1950 (setelah itu menjadi Republik Indonesia Serikat-NKRI Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia sampai sekarang), thi tinggi perangko nominal dari Rp. 2 sampai RP 25 didnot dijual di kantor Pos, para sdtamps akan mengenakan penutup atau pakket dan pos dibatalkan, hanya Indonesia phillatelic asosiasi dapat membeli satu set untuk koleksi mereka, bahwa pemerintah waktu teh melindungi perangko digunakan sebagai investasi seperti lain yang patut moneter-Papermoney , itulah sebabnya nilai nominal tinggi terutama Rp.2 dan Rp. 3, – sangat sulit untuk menemukan dalam perangko Mint, dan nom inal lainnya Rp.5, Rp 10 dan 25 banyak kemudian ada karena cetak ulang banyak dan perangko didnot digunakan oleh kantor pos dijual kepada pedagang Indonesia dan Nederlands. Saya memiliki masalah Indonesia sampel cap Pertama (Contoh) diletakkan pada dokumen pengumuman Pos apa Stamps dijual saat itu, yang stempel masih dijual sampai 1952 setelah RIS. Ketika perangko RIS pertama dijual dan digunakan pada penutup, Anda dapat membaca di cerita saya tentang Indonesia Independen Perang dan RIS di blog lama saya, dan sekarang saya telah mulai meng-upgrade cerita itu dengan gaya yang lebih profesional dan ilustrasi, bvut tidak banyak kolektor prangko seperti cerita ini, tetapi mereka menemukan bahwa perangko mereka palsu, mereka mulai berfikir untuk menjadi phillatelist, juga ketika mereka ingin menjual koleksi mereka, pedagang didnot ingin membeli, mereka mengatakan valuse koleksi perangko Anda tidak berharga atau rendah , thay ingin membeli swapt dengan harga yang sangat rendah, itu sebabnya Kolektor Stamp mulai perlahan tapi berkembang menjadi menghilang di dunia, hanya koleksi Phillatelic masih hidup dan lebih berharga,


saya memiliki pengalaman terbaik. Jika Anda hanya ingin menjadi kolektor perangko berhenti membaca artikel ini, Anda dapat melihat banyak informasi di facebook di mana banyak pedagang menunjukkan indah bersama mereka yang Anda dapat menemukan banyak di mana-mana, sangat murah, yang dapat Anda beli di Kilogram, bila Anda ingin menjual noone akan membeli, juga pertukaran di swap 100 prangko yang berbeda di Club Stamp Circuit, atau 10 kg dari Christian Mission perangko Kiloware untuk amal, saya pernah membeli perangko kg 10 Inggris, semua prangko adalah prangko definitif thaousand Elizabeth II perangko pada tahun 1986 hanya sekitar 20 perangko biasa dari perangko wilayah negara Inggris. Saya telah membeli 30 poundsterling yang kirim melalui Bankdraft. Saya masih memiliki perangko Garbe sampai sekarang, tidak ada yang ingin membeli, mungkin 100 tahun kemudian cucu saya generasi berikutnya dapat menjual perangko.

Filatelis pada fokus lainnya pada studi dan penelitian, dan mengambil hal-hal yang jauh lebih serius. Dan berbagai “pedoman dan aturan” memberi mereka tujuan yang sangat tepat dan jalan untuk mengikuti tahun-tahun mendatang.


This is my very rare phillatelic collection,  Indonesia Independence War Sumtra typemachine overpint

only two exist two in the world.

I’m not saying that neither of the paths a collector can go is better than the other. And they are not even mutually exclusive…So let’s let all the flowers blossom.

If you are the real phillatelist, join my unique collection club via comment, and you will find many special informations which guide you to be the phillatelist and valuable collections investors,look the sample below

Ini sangat jarang koleksi phillatelic saya, Indonesia Perang Kemerdekaan Sumtra typemachine overpinthanya dua ada dua di dunia.

Saya tidak mengatakan bahwa tak satu pun dari jalan kolektor bisa lebih baik daripada yang lain.

 Dan mereka bahkan tidak saling eksklusif … Jadi mari kita membiarkan semua mekar bunga.

Jika Anda adalah phillatelist nyata, bergabung dengan klub koleksi unik saya melalui komentar, dan Anda akan menemukan informasi khusus banyak yang membimbing Anda untuk menjadi phillatelist dan berharga koleksi investor, terlihat contoh di bawah


1. Rare Sweden philatelic collections

One of the most valued Swedish stamp issues are so called Landstormen surcharges.  These are semipostals used to collect funds to equip soldiers during World War I.

First about the series name… Between 1885 and 1941 Swedish soldiers were divided in “Beväringen” and “Landstormen”. Beväringen was the younger classess / men in the active service,  and Landstormen referred to  older classes in reserve.   In practice Landstormen was used mostly for the Swedish army’s area defense.

The first Landstormen series (Landstormen I) contains a new print of the invalidated 1872/86 Circular type series.  The stamps differ from the original circular type series on paper, which has wavy lines +letters watermark.  However, there exists an special edition Landstormen I on original stamp paper (with post horn on back).  The stamps were overprinted with new values and sold for the double face value.

1916 Sweden Landstormen I semipostal – Michel #86, cat.value 6.00€

The second Landstormen (Landstormen II) set was overprinted on old, and not any more used postage due stamps (or as swedish call – Löjsen).  These are extremely difficult to find as perfectly centered copies;  catalog prices usually apply for mixed / poorly centered copies.

On the left 1916 Landstormen II type, on the right 1918 Landstormen III typThe third Landstormen series (Landstormen III) reused unsold stamps from Landstormen I set. These were once again applied with new face value overprint.  The Circular type values of 2 – 6 öre should be overprinted with 7+3 öre, and 12 – 50 öre with 12+8 öre face value.  But there was some kind of mix up in the printing, and some of the overprints were mixed. The mixed overprint values are somewhat rare as used, but more common as mint/unused





2.The Rare Australian Bridge Postal History

Bridge Fever



Former Australia Post Chairman Maurice Williams sold his collection of Sydney Harbour Bridge stamps for more than $120,000

at the same Prestige May 24 auction mentioned above.The “Five Bob Bridge” is this country’s most iconic stamp design – the one issue every collector of Australian stamps aspires to own.It is to Australia what the 1929 £1 PUC Pound is to Great Britain fans, and what the 1893 $5 Columbus is to United States collectors.Mr Williams’ collection went far beyond the basic stamps. He managed to acquire First Day Covers, rare plate dot blocks, varieties, and many of the non-stamp collectables associated with the Opening of the Sydney Harbour Bridge in 1932.The illustration no installed !!!!!







$10,000 Smithy Cover

Charles Kingsford Smith carried 15 postcards on his dare-devil flight to commemorate the opening of the Sydney Harbour Bridge. The example in this sale franked with a near worthless 2d red, was signed by John Bradfield who designed the Bridge and other dignitaries, and sold for almost $10,000.Only a month or so back a similar opening day postcard flown by Kingsford Smith and signed by others, sold at a Charles Leski Melbourne auction for $A3,737.  Maurice Williams’ example went for almost three times that figure at $9,611.A client of mine bought the Leski piece, and is absolutely delighted with his savvy judgment!   Earlier this month I sold him a far rarer ‘Smithy’ signed cover for far less than that, so he is having a good year.The Illustration not installed!!!!!!








Sheet of 5/- Bridge

A sheet of twenty of the 5/- Bridge value cost £5 ($10), or at least  two weeks wages in the Depression era, when issued in 1932. It is no surprise that very few complete sheets still exist.  Maurice Williams’ sheet of 20 in good condition sold for $27,960.Mr Williams and his wife Norma attended the sale, and claimed that they were thrilled with the results.  As Mr Williams left the room he punched the air with delight I am advised! the illustration not installed !!!!!!!

I bet that got your attention

It certainly got mine when I found this pamphlet, and I thought Stampboarders might be interested to see it too.

This Raffle was held in 1978 to raise money for Nudgee College, a boys boarding school in Queensland.

Wow (at) the stamps ! I wonder who has them now




Cannon-balled  5 shilling Sidney Bridge stamps

The one result that amazed me was a pretty rough looking telegraph punctured copy   Has blue pen marks on it and lumpy perfs etc.Stolen goods pure and simple, as no telegraph punctured examples of any stamps have ever legally reached the market.  In the past they have been sold as very cheap gap-fillers by the trade.High value Kangaroos sell for about 20-25% of normal price with a telegraph puncture, as space-fillers.This 5/- stamp shown nearby sold for about $A875 – or around four times what a nice CTO copy brings.    How fashions change in stamp collecting – and very fast











Private limited e-book for philatelic collectors

Jakarta copyright Dr IWAN S 2010





I.The Introduction Of  Singapore  Ship mail

SHIPMAIL cover from Singapore with PAQUEBOT  Singapore postmark type 3 send on the High Seas at S.S. SIBAYAK ship (no postmark, because send at Singapore Port) to Indonesia BUTITENZORG  (now Bogor) CDS 6.12.1937. The other type  look at SHIPMAIL 1 and 2.



Five type Singapore Post MARK , Si-S2 straight line and S3-5 combine with port  name (Singapore)-Brig.M.A Studd’s work published only 200 copies.”PAQUEBOT  and SHIP LETTER  Cancellations of the world 1894-1951.M.A.Studd.


One of  unique postal history were the SHIPMAIL postmark when letters posted on the High Seas on the ship DEPARTURE from Singapore  and destination at Indonesia port. Many collectors asked me why Straits stamps from Perak and Johor were cancelled Singapore , Straits stamps were cancelled Indonesia (DEI) port or city cancelled (used abroad) and why the letter from Singapore cancelled with KPM (Dutch East indie Royal Ship) beside Paquebot stright line and PAQUEBOT  Singapore ?

Rules for letters posted on the HighSeas were drown up at the Postal union Conference in 1891. The used of the world “PAQUEBOT” was officially adopted at the UPU Congress ,Whasington.USA in 1897 for international use on correspondence posted on the HighSeas and handed over to the Postal administration at the first port of call.

Brief  the rules are : letters posted on the High seas bearing the stamps of the country in which the ship registered will accepted at the first port of call in any country for onward transmisssion to another member country of the UPU without further charge.

The stamp(s) should be cancelled with the chancellor  of the port and the indicator mark “PAQUEBOT” applied alongside. The letters posted on the High Seas are to be handed over to the postal authorities immediately on arrival, they should not be posted in a shore  side letter box.

Many variation were found, Singapore have 2 type straight line PAQUEBOT Mark type 1 and 2, beside that 3 type PAQUEBOT   combined Port’s name “PAQUEBOT -Singapore”  postmark type S3,4, and 5.

Pre war Singapore PAQUEBOT  postmark S4 and S5 very shortly used after the reoccupation (rare0, and some of destination postmark (Indonesia port) on Singapore departure ship without PAQUEBOT Postmark (Used abroad).

I hope after look carefully at the illustration from SHIP MAIL  1 ( with Singapore PAQUEBOT or KPM-Dutch east Indie (Indonesia) royal ship postmark, and SHIP MAIL h 2 : Indonesia (DEI) port only postmark without PAQUEBOT mark  , all the collector will understand and have the answer why other country stamps used in other country (Used abroad) with or without PAQUEBOT  postmark. This collection were the Marine ship collection thematic , became popular among the  Marine persons as the memorable of te ship where he/she or their family ever  work or travel and write  the letters on the high seas. Now everybody travel via AEROPLANE  and PAQUEBOT  mark never seen anymore. The last PAQUEBOT  letters circa 1970, a ship route from Singapore to Indonesia , like Medan (Belawan) ,Jakarta (TandjongPriok) should used her country’s stamps at the Port Belawan or Tandjong Priok  but Indonesia Stamps at Medan or Jakarta





II.Straits Ship mail abroad (Malaya and Indonesia )

1.Singapore PAQUEBOT Johore


2. Straits post agent ship mail Indonesia

(1) Makasar straits ship mail  agent post


2) Sumatra straits shipmail agent

(1) Pakanbaru straits Ship Mail agent



*ill 001

Disusun oleh Dr IWAN S

Berdasarkan koleksi pribadi dan informasi yang dipeoleh saat berkunjung ke Vietnam tahun 2007


JAKARTA  @hakcipta Dr Iwan S 2010

*ill oo1Le loi  pahlawan perang pertahanan vietnam terhadap dominasi kerajaan tiongkok abad 15



PADA WAKTU PERTUALANGAN SAYA KE HANOI TAHUN 2007,  yang kemudian dilanjutkan ke Nanning China meliwati perbatasan yang sangat terkenal Longson dengan nama perbatasan Persahabatan, tempat ini sangat bersejarah pada saat perang pertahanan rakyat Vietnam terhadap dominasikerajaan Tiongkok dipimpim oleh Le Loi dan Nguyen Trai sehingga patung le loi *ill 002  dan nama mereka di DIPATRIKAN PADA SIMPANG DAN JALAN*ill 004 &005  DIMANA SAYA MENGINAP   di hotel Phi Vu*ill003 Ho Chi Minh City lihat peta hotel tersebut*ill 6.

*002       *003     *006

*004     *004        *005

berkat informasi dari pegawai Hotel , karena takut nyasar naik bus maka  saya berjalan kaki seorong diri bertualang mencari informasi terkait dengan perang yang sangat bersejarah ini,stelah hampir tiga jam  akhirnya saya menemukan sebuah toko buku antik, dan menemukan banyak literatur perang Vietnam termasuk buku tentang Nguyen Trai* dalam bahasa Inggris lihat illustrasi kulit buku tersebut .*ill007


saya berusaha menterjemahkan dalam bahasa Indonesia agar Kolektor Bangsa Indon esia dapat memahami semangat Juang dan strategi dari pahlawan Vietnam Nguyen Trai sedemikian istimewa sehingga dapat dijadikan pedoman bagi gnerasi penerus, setelah membaca kisah ini  anda dapat memahami mengapa rakyat Vietnam mampu mempertahankan tanah airnya dari dominasi penjajah dari Kerajaan Tiongkok, Prancis dan Amerika Serikat, mereka tetap bersatu menghadang segala tantangan dari luar negeri dan saat ini Vietnam dikatakan sebagai  Naga baru yang  ekonominya sangat berkembang dengan situasi politik dan ekonomi relatif  stabil setelah perang Pembebasan Vietnam terakhir dimenangi oleh rakyat Vietnam tahun 1975.

Tulisan ini masih banyak kekurangannya dan banyak kesalahan ejaan sehingga komentar dan saran perbaikan serta tambahan informasi masih diperlukan liwat komentar,terima kasih.

Terima Kasih kepada berbagai teman di Vietnam yang telah memberikan banyak info dan jugasesama turis yang ditemukan di Vietnam dari Negeri belanda,Israel, Tiongkok dll yang memberikan semangat kepada saya untuk merampungkan tulisan ini.

Tulisan ini tidak dibuat dalam e-book,hanya sebagai karya tulis biasa , kolektor dan teman-teman dapat membacanya dengan gratis, tetapi saya mohon hormatilah hak cipta sya dengan tidak memanfaatkan informasi ini tanpa izin penulis.

Jakarta,July 2010



The Value Of Painting collections








Private limited e-book special for painting collectors

Jakarta @copyright Dr IWAN S 2010


I had starting interesting and collecting Painting from 1984 when many foreigners came to Indonesia asking me to find the native ethnic paintings, but also the expatriate painting collectors said to me that the painting’s investations value  low  due to the non professional painters or due to  repro or fake paintings. Ihave seen some best painting from old dutch painters and indonesian painters wakidi and Oesman Effendi from west Sumatra,but I didnot by their painting because too many fake or his son repro paintings.



In 1985, a dutchman visit my house and he told me that he ever met Indonesian painter Oesman Effendi which stayed at his father house near the john enschede printing office, he stayed three month to painting the Indonesian Money , everyday he made sketch wayang painting and other paintings, if he didnot like he thrown out, the dutchman as a boy made this for playing, very pity he didnot collect that sketch because now the Oesman Effendi sketch very expensive at least Oesman Effendi and his friend ABDUL SALAM HAVE MADE THE PAINTING OF THE 500 RUPIAH INDONESIAN MONEY PLEASE LOOK  BELLOW ;





Before pass away Oesman Effendi stayed at Koto Gadang Bukittinggi, he still made some paintings but I didnot bought because I didnot understans and many fake repro by his son.


After that I had collecting all kind of literature related with the Painter history and their paintings, The famous painter masterpiece painting auctions, but I still didn’t understand how to estimated the painting’s investation value, that is why I did not bought the masterpiece painting of Famous Indonesian Painters Affandi  during Affandi’s  daughter Kartika sold some of his father master price painting in very low price for  paid his father medical treatment cost in 1996 only US8000.- and I had seen the same painting sold at the Auction in 2006 US$250.000.-The same situation when I visit Sudjojono painting shop in Jogya 1984, and The La Meiyer sketch at his wife Nji Polok shop beside the Musuem, and Ida Bagus Made did not want to sold his native painting because not finish with frame he said to me if you want to buy comeback next year.

After almost 35 years learning from many literature, I still didn’t understand the value of a painting, but two weeks ago when I look again my vintage Painting literature I met several literature and starting to look at my paintings collections one Vintage Dutch Oil Painting of Nederland landscape from my grandpa who bought from the  Dutchman  in Indonesia before the WW II, Two watercolour black and white painting by DATUK BASA, Padang Ocean beach and ANAI Waterfall Padang Panjang , found at Padang city in 1986,Dutch expatriate painters  BETAWI found at Jakarta 1998, and the Mountain ANONIM  ,Also some painters sketch .


After read the literature and take the close up picture of the painting, I am starting to understand how to estimate the painting’s INVESTATION  value and write this e-book for painting collectors.

I REMEMBER DURING YOUNG BOY IN 1979, I ever met the famous Indonesian painters DULLAH at the BRANTAS HOTEL Surabaya, he stayed in the from of my room,in the morning he paint a waterfall painting, he told me that he always made the sketch in in notebook when trevelling, he show me that sketch and he told me to give the soul of the painting we must give the sun rays from the east to the waterfall, when I aske my father to bought that painting, he said to expensive that time US40.000.- but I think now the value US $ 100.000.-

When my friend Mr Fikri asked me to show my painting collections, I cannot show the masterpiece because I did not understand the investation value, I only told he that I have met many Indonesian Famous painters ,seen their masterpiece painting, and I have write the autobiography of Indonesia Senior painter which you can read in this blog.


I hope my information will useable by the painting collectors during identified what kind of paintings will be their collections.

Jakarta, June 2010



The Sun is high, and the scene you are painting is a patchwork of  sparkling color , and deep shadow. Your watercolor painting is looking good, but it’s drying too fast. Or you working in oils and you want to layer one color over another, leaving flecks of the first color showing through. You have seen this in other paintings, but you are not sure how to do it . Or do you wonder which medium to mix into your acrylic paints to get the effect you want?

Even professional painters have frustrations and near-disasters, but they learn to overcome them, and so will you with the help of this book. Unlike other books, this is not a painting course, but a source of the valuable painting’s working in watercolor and oils.(compile from many vintage books)
















14.      NO BLOTCHES


16.        OPACITY












The best painters created a varied surface, experiment with different ways of their handling brushes. They can stab the painting with the tip of the brush for very textural marks. They hold the brush horizontal to the paint surface and drag it across the surface for broken appl;ication of paint, or apply thin paint with a scrubbing motion for ascumbled effect.

Let’s we look at the sample from the best painting below, pain has been put on arange of ways. Energetic vertical brushstrokes in the figure ,offset with long flowing brusstrokes in the hair and distinct marks in the flower or three leaves , produced a lively image.








In order to harmonize the colour used across a painting,apply a layer of colour to the white ground.


Known as a toned ground,before starting the painting. If glazing and scumbling techniques are used to allow the ground colour to show through in places,then this will have a unifying egfect on the painting.





To keep the colour clean and vibrant when working into wet paint, work with a limited palette and have a plentiful supply of bushes.Loan the brush with planty of paint,and make aquick stroke holding the brush as nearly horizontal to the painting surface as you can.


look at the painting, the painter individual brushstrokes of strong colour are worked into wet paint with decisive marks to create an image that has clean and vibrant color.









The first step in estimate the Sketc painting, we must now the best sketch, then the handwritten of the painter, and the painters original mark or sign , let begin with Henk Ngfantung sketch below:

(1) Best sketch style


(2) original handwritten


(3)Original  Mark sign


After the first step OK, then we look at several  best sketch performance :



3 .         VARIETY OF MARK








THE END@copyright Dr IWAN S 2010

The value Of Medal collections







The Value Of Banknote Collections(Numismatic)

DEI Banknote



25 GULDEN 1815. P-4r! H-55a. Black! Government Credit Paper called Creatie. JEZ! Unused & Unsigned. ND, Uniface. Text in Dutch and Malay-Arabic, within musical frame. W/o Serial #. Strong paper. Crisp Very Fine or Better.
Limit price :   Rp.  8,000,000


50 GULDEN 1815. P-5r! H 56a. Government Credit Paper called Creatie. JEZ! Unused & Unsigned. ND, Uniface. Text in Dutch and Malay-Arabic, within musical frame. W/o Serial #. Strong paper. Stains at margin right on back! Good Extremely Fine.
Limit price :   Rp.  9,000,000


300 GULDEN 1815. P-7r! H-58a. Black! Creatie note or Government Credit Paper, issued during the reign of King Willem I. JEZ, ND, Uniface. Text in Dutch and Malay-Arabic, within musical frame. Unused, Unsigned & w/o serial #. Uncirculated. VERY RARE.
Limit price :   Rp.  16,000,000


600 GULDEN 1815. P 8r! H 59a. Brown! Creatie note. Unused, Unsigned & w/o serial #. Good Extremely Fine. VERY RARE.
Limit price :   Rp.  18,500,000




Elected Kings Period (1307 – 1526) Charles Robert of Anjou, Groschen (1330-1332) – Mint.: 0, Av.: Crowned King seated on the throne, holding sceptre and orb. (Kráľ s korunou sediaci na tróne, držiaci žezlo a korunovačné jablko.), Rv.: Halved shield with coat of arms of Anjou and…



Elected Kings Period (1307 – 1526) Charles Robert of Anjou, Groschen (1337) – Mint.: Smolník (Schmöllnitz), Av.: Crowned King seated on the throne, holding sceptre and orb. (Kráľ s korunou sediaci na tróne, držiaci žezlo a korunovačné jablko.), Rv.: Heraldic helmet with ostrich head…



Elected Kings Period (1307 – 1526) Charles Robert of Anjou, Denar (1330-1332) – Mint.: Budín? (Buda?), Av.: Crowned King seated on the throne, holding sceptre and orb. (Kráľ s korunou sediaci na tróne, držiaci žezlo a korunovačné jablko.), Rv.: Halved shield with coat of arms of Anjou…



Elected Kings Period (1307 – 1526) Charles Robert of Anjou, Parvus (1329) – Mint.: 0, Av.: Crowned King seated on the throne, holding sceptre and orb. (Kráľ s korunou sediaci na tróne, držiaci žezlo a korunovačné jablko.), Rv.: The lamb of god carrying the cross with flag. (Baránok…



House of Habsburg Period (1527 – 1918) Charles VI., Coronation token 1712 Pressburg – Mint.: Viedeň (Vienna), Av.: Text and date CAROLUS.VI:/ROM:IMPER:S:A:/GER HISPAN.HUNG:/BOH:REX. A:AVST./CORONAT 9/POSON. 22 MAY/1712 in seven lines. Crown above. (Hore uhorská koruna, pod ňou nápis…



House of Habsburg Period (1527 – 1918) Charles VI., Coronation token 1712 Pressburg – Mint.: Viedeň (Vienna), Av.: Text and date CAROLUS.VI:/ROM:IMPER:S:A:/GER HISPAN.HUNG:/BOH:REX. A:AVST./CORONAT 9/POSON. 22 MAY/1712 in seven lines. Crown above. (Hore uhorská koruna a pod ňou…



House of Habsburg Period (1527 – 1918) Charles VI., Ducat 1726 – Mint.: Kremnica (Kremnitz), Av.: Emperor standing, holding sceptre and orb. Mintmark K-B on either side of the Emperor. (Stojací panovník držiaci žezlo a korunovačné jablko. Po stranách panovníka mincové značky K-B.),…



House of Habsburg Period (1527 – 1918) Charles VI., Taler 1737 – Mint.: Kremnica (Kremnitz), Av.: Laureate bust of Emperor to right. Inscription devided on the left side by halved shield with Hungarian bars and double cross, on the right by Madonna and Child. (Doprava orientovaný portrét…



House of Habsburg Period (1527 – 1918) Charles VI., Taler 1739 – Mint.: Kremnica (Kremnitz), Av.: Laureate bust of Emperor to right. Inscription devided on the left side by halved shield with Hungarian bars and double cross, on the right by Madonna and Child. (Doprava orientovaný portrét…



House of Habsburg Period (1527 – 1918) Charles VI., 1/2 Taler 1740 – Mint.: Kremnica (Kremnitz), Av.: Laureate bust of Emperor to right. Inscription devided on the left side by halved shield with Hungarian bars and double cross, on the right by Madonna and Child. (Doprava orientovaný portrét…



House of Habsburg Period (1527 – 1918) Charles VI., 1/4 Taler 1726 – Mint.: , Av.: Laureate bust of Emperor to right. On the left side halved shield with Hungarian bars and double cross, on the right Madonna and Child. Inscription divided by rhombus. (Doprava orientovaný portrét panovníka…



British Coins and Medals. Elizabeth I, sixth issue, shilling, mm. hand (1590-1592), crowned bust l., rev. long cross fourchée over shield (S.2577; N.2014); third and fourth issues, sixpence, mm. eglantine, 1575 (S.2563; N.1997), both pierced, fair to fine; Charles I, halfcrown, Tower mint, under…



British Coins and Medals. Charles II, hammered coinage (1660-1662), first issue, unite, mm. crown/-, laur. and dr. bust l., rev. crowned, oval, garnished shield, C R at sides (S.3301; N.2753), in plastic holder, graded by NGC as AU55, portrait slightly double-struck, otherwise extremely fine,…



British Coins and Medals. Charles II, hammered coinage (1660-1662), second issue, double crown, mm. crown/-, laur. and dr. bust l., mark of value behind, rev. crowned garnished oval shield of arms with C-R at sides, wt. 4.56gms. (S.3305; N.2756; Schneider 416), attractively toned, extremely fine,…



British Coins and Medals. † Charles II, hammered coinage (1660-1662), third issue, shilling, mm. crown, crowned bust l., mark of value behind, rev. shield of arms over cross fourchée, wt. 5.96gms. (S.3322; ESC.1016), toned, extremely fine, an exceptional example Estimate:…



British Coins and Medals. Charles II, five guineas, 1673, QVINTO, first laur. bust r., rev. crowned cruciform shields, sceptres in angles (S.3328), light surface marks, adjustment marks on French shield, tiny rim bruise at 5 o’clock on obverse, otherwise almost extremely fine with brilliant…



British Coins and Medals. Charles II, five guineas, 1684, SEXTO, second laur. bust r., rev. crowned cruciform shields, sceptres in angles (S.3331), some light flecking on both sides, good very fine Estimate:…



British Coins and Medals. Charles II, two guineas, 1683, second laur. bust r., rev. crowned cruciform shields, sceptres in angles (S.3335), good extremely fine – practically as struck, a superb coin and very rare this choice Estimate:…



British Coins and Medals. Charles II, guinea, 1676, fourth laur. bust r., rev. crowned cruciform shields, sceptres in angles (S.3344), cleaned, about very fine Estimate:…


: Research tools for professionals


British Coins and Medals. Charles II, guinea, 1676, fourth laur. bust r., rev. crowned cruciform shields, sceptres in angles (S.3344), about fine Estimate:…



British Coins and Medals. Charles II, guinea, 1681, fourth laur. bust r., rev. crowned cruciform shields, sceptres in angles (S.3344), some digs and scratches, fair Estimate:…



British Coins and Medals. † Charles II, half guinea, 1670, first laur. bust r., rev. crowned, cruciform shields, sceptres in angles (S.3347), coin appears to be double struck on obverse, and has been cleaned in the past, otherwise extremely fine, rare Estimate:…



British Coins and Medals. † Charles II, crown, 1662, first laur. bust r., rose below, edge undated, rev. crowned cruciform shields, interlinked Cs in angles (S.3350; ESC.15), about very fine Estimate:…



British Coins and Medals. † Charles II, crown, 1662, first laur. bust r., rose below, edge dated, rev. crowned cruciform shields, interlinked Cs in angles (S.3352; ESC.19), good fine/about very fine Estimate:…



British Coins and Medals. Charles II, crown, 1672 V. QVARTO (S.3358); William III, shilling, 1696, first bust (S.3497); Anne, halfcrown, 1707 SEXTO, E below bust (S.3605); Victoria, crown, 1893 LVI (S.3937), fine to very fine (4) Estimate:…



British Coins and Medals. † Charles II, crown, 1681, T. TERTIO, fourth laur. bust r., rev. crowned cruciform shields, interlinked Cs in angles (S.3359; ESC.64), in plastic holder, graded by NGC as MS63, slight weakness on the top of the hair, otherwise practically as struck, extremely rare in…



British Coins and Medals. Charles II, halfcrown, 1666, XVIII, third laur. and dr. bust r., elephant below, rev. crowned cruciform shields, interlinked Cs in angles (S.3364; ESC.462), very fine and very rare Estimate:…



British Coins and Medals. † Charles II, halfcrown, 1673, V. QVINTO, plume under bust and in centre of reverse, fourth laur. bust r., rev. crowned cruciform shields, interlinked Cs in angles (S.3369; ESC.475), small nick on the neck and slight scratch by 3 of date, about fine One of the great…



British Coins and Medals. † Charles II, sixpence, 1675/4, laur. bust r., rev. crowned cruciform shields, interlinked Cs in angles (S.3382; ESC.1514), in plastic holder, graded by NGC as MS63 Estimate:…



British Coins and Medals. Charles II, gold coronation medallion, 1661, crowned, draped bust r., rev. king enthroned l., crowned by Peace hovering above, 29mm., 11.2gms. (Eimer 221), very light surface marks, otherwise extremely fine or better, very rare Estimate:…



British Coins and Medals. George III, dollar, oval countermarked on portrait 8 reales of Charles IV, 1794, Potosi (S.3765A; ESC.131), with old collector’s ticket, lightly toned, about as struck, exceedingly rare in this grade Estimate:…



British Coins and Medals. George III, dollar, oval countermark on portrait 8 reales of Charles IV, 1794, Potosi (S.3765A; ESC.131), host coin good very fine, countermark extremely fine Estimate:…



British Coins and Medals. † George III, half dollar, oval countermarked on portrait 4 reales of Charles III, 1774, Potosi (S.3767; ESC.611), in plastic holder, graded by NGC as VF25, rarely found on Potosi host coin Estimate:…



British Coins and Medals. George III, Bank of England, dollar, 1804, type A/2, laur. and dr. bust r., rev. Britannia seated l. within oval band (S.3768; ESC.144; L&S 53), overstruck on a Seville 8 reales of Charles III dated 1772, good very fine and extremely rare Extremely rare with a Spanish…



British Coins and Medals. George III, Bank of England, dollar, 1804, type C/2, laur. and dr. bust r., rev. Britannia seated l. within oval band (S.3768; ESC.149; L&S 58), overstruck on a Santiago 8 reales of Charles IV dated 1806, fine, rare Estimate:…



British Coins and Medals. George III, Bank of England, dollar, 1804, type C/2b, laur. and dr. bust r., rev. Britannia seated l. within oval band (S.3768; ESC.156; L&S 66), overstruck on a Seville(?) 8 reales of Charles III dated 1779, some tooling on obverse, otherwise about extremely fine,…



British Coins and Medals. George III, Bank of England, pattern dollar, 1804, type I/3, laur. and dr. bust r., rev. shield of arms within Garter (S.3768; ESC.182; L&S.91), overstruck on an 8 reales of Charles IV dated 1801, reverse struck twice with the die rotated 180° between strikes, once…



Foreign Coins and Medals. Spain, Carlos III, 8 escudos, 1788C, Seville, draped bust r., rev. crowned shield of arms (KM.409.2a; Fr.283; Cayon 13011), in plastic holder, graded by NGC as AU53 Estimate:…



Foreign Coins and Medals. Spain, Carlos III, 8 reales, 1776CF, Seville, draped bust r., rev. crowned arms (Calico 1038; KM.414.2), obverse lightly brushed, otherwise extremely fine Estimate:…


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EUROPÄISCHE GOLDMÜNZEN UND -MEDAILLEN ITALIEN NEAPEL UND SIZILIEN Karl I. von Anjou, 1266-1278. Salut d’or o. J., Neapel. 4,37 g. Fb. 808; Pannuti/Riccio 1. R Sehr schön­vorzüglich 1278 führte Karl I. von Anjou mit dem Saluto d’oro einen neuen, einprägsamen Münztyp ein. Dabei griff…



KÖNIG JOHAN III., 1568-1592 Daler 1571, Stockholm. 28,55 g. Münzmeister Hans Höjer. Ahlström 23 (R); Dav. 8705; Hagander 27. Henkelspur, winz. Schrötlingsfehler am Rand, sehr schön Exemplar der Slg. Karl-Erik Schmitz, Teil I, Auktion Schweizerischer Bankverein/Spink & Son, Zürich…



KÖNIG JOHAN III., 1568-1592 Daler 1586, Stockholm. 29,12 g. Münzmeister Gillis (Julius) Coyet d. Ä. Ahlström 29; Dav. 8705; Hagander 33. Attraktives Exemplar mit hübscher Patina, winz. Randfehler, sehr schönvorzüglich Exemplar der Slg. Lars Emil Bruun, Teil 1, Auktion Adolph Hess…



KÖNIG KARL IX. 1604-1611, SEIT 1560 HERZOG VON SÖDERMANLAND UND REICHSVERWESER 1592/1593 UND 1599-1604 PRÄGUNGEN KARLS ALS HERZOG VON SÖDERMANLAND UND ALS REICHSVERWESER Klippe zu 8 Mark 1599, Stockholm. 3,33 g. Münzmeister Gillis (Julius) Coyet d. Ä. Gekrönte Korngarbe…



KÖNIG GUSTAV II. ADOLF, 1611-1632 IN SCHWEDEN GEPRÄGTE MÜNZEN DES KÖNIGS GUSTAV II. ADOLF 16 Mark (Carolin) 1615, Stockholm. 4,88 g. Münzmeister Gillis Gillisson Coyet d. J. GVSTAVVS • ADOLF • D : G • DES • REX • SVE Geharnischtes Brustbild l. mit Lorbeerkranz und umgelegtem…



KÖNIG FREDRIK I., 1720-1751 Dukat 1746, Stockholm. 3,48 g. Münzmeister Hans Malmberg. Ausbeutedukat, geprägt mit Gold aus Ost-Indien. Ahlström 35; Fb. 66; Hagander 373; SMH 9.3. GOLD. RR Winz. Randfehler, vorzüglichStempelglanz Exemplar der Slg. T. J. Clarke, Jamestown (USA); durch…



KÖNIG FREDRIK I., 1720-1751 Riksdaler 1726, Stockholm. 29,50 g. Münzmeister Esaias Zedritz. Mit Stempelschneidersignatur auf der Vorderseite. Mit Randschrift. Ahlström 63 a; Dav. 1720; Hagander 396; SMH 26.4. Hübsche Patina, winz. Schrötlingsfehler am Rand, sehr…



KÖNIG FREDRIK I., 1720-1751 Riksdaler 1742, Stockholm. 28,81 g. Münzmeister Hans Malmberg. Mit Randschrift. Ahlström 83 (XR); Dav. 1728; Hagander 421; SMH 32.5. Von großer Seltenheit. Nur 486 Exemplare geprägt. 3. bekanntes Exemplar in Privatbesitz. Herrliche Patina, sehr…



KÖNIG KARL XIV. JOHAN, 1818-1844 Riksdaler 1843 (Jahreszahl im Stempel aus 1842 geändert), Stockholm. 33,95 g. Münzmeister Alexander Grandinson. Mit vertiefter Randschrift: 75/100 DELAR FINSILFVER (Verzierung). Büste r.// Gekröntes Wappen: Drei Kronen (Tre kronor), umher die Kette des…



BRITISH COINS Charles I (1625-1649) Tower mint, Unite, Gp C, mm. rose, class IIa, reads fr and hi, 9.05g/1h (SCBI Schneider 141; SCBI Brooker 75; N 2150; S 2690). About extremely fine £1,500-2,000 Footnote Provenance: DNW Auction 79, 24 September 2008, lot…



BRITISH COINS Charles I (1625-1649) Tower mint, Shilling, Gp G, mm. sun, coarse narrow bust, 6.01g/5h (Sharp H1/1; SCBI Brooker 564; N 2233; S 2802). Slightly small of flan and scratched in front of face, otherwise good fine £90-120 Footnote Provenance: E. Bohr Collection, Part II,…



BRITISH COINS Charles II (1660-1685) Third issue, Shilling, mm. crown, 6.06g/3h (ESC 1016; N 2764; S 3322). Weak on King’s face (and corresponding on reverse), otherwise very fine or better, toned £700-800 Footnote END OF SESSION…



BRITISH COINS Charles II (1660-1685) Halfpenny, 1672 (BMC 506; S 3393). Obverse good very fine, reverse with flan flaws and edge part-bevelled …



BRITISH COINS Charles II (1660-1685) Farthings (5), 1672 (2, both loose drapery, one with o over l in carolo), 1673 (2, one with no stop on rev.), 1675, o of carolvs over r (Cooke –, 730, 739, 747, 753; BMC 521, 522, 526, 528 var; S 3394) [5]. Second fair, others generally fine, BMC 526 and…



BRITISH COINS William and Mary (1688-1694) Proof Halfpenny, 1694, in copper, figure of Britannia from a punch used for Charles II, no stop after britannia, edge plain, thin flan, 9.96g/12h (BMC 612 var). Smoothed, fine, very rare £100-150 Footnote Provenance: P.W. Lawrence Collection; bt…



BRITISH COINS George V (1910-1936) James I, Third coinage, Halfgroat, mm. thistle, 0.82g/11h (N 2127; S 2671); together with other hammered and later coins (5), Charles I to Charles II [6]. First about very fine, others in varied state …



BRITISH COINS George V (1910-1936) Charles II to Victoria, Halfcrowns (10), 1683, 1688, 1689, 1708 plumes, 1713 roses and plumes, 1714 roses and plumes, 1817 small head, 1820, 1826, 1901 [10]. Second removed from a mount and poor, others generally fine or better £300-400 Footnote …



WORLD COINS Germany Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Karl II, 10 Thalers, 1828cvc (KM. 1115; F 742). Surfaces rather hairlined and a few minute rim nicks, otherwise nearly extremely fine; in attractive contemporary fitted case …



EUROPÄISCHE MÜNZEN UND MEDAILLEN SCHWEDEN KÖNIGREICH Karl XI., 1660-1697. Silbermedaille 1693, unsigniert, von A. Karlsteen, auf die 100-Jahrfeier des Religionstreffens in Uppsala am 26. Februar. Schiff mit Kreuz am Heck und einer Fahne mit dem Monogramm Christi fährt in tosendem…



DEUTSCHE MÜNZEN UND MEDAILLEN HESSEN HESSEN-KASSEL, LANDGRAFSCHAFT, SEIT 1803 KURFÜRSTENTUM Karl, 1670-1730. Silbermedaille 1704, von G. F. Nürnberger und M. Brunner, Nürnberg, auf die Eroberung von Trarbach und der Gräfenburg an der Mosel durch Erbprinz Friedrich von Hessen-Kassel (ab…


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HOCH- UND SPÄTMITTELALTER EUROPA ITALIEN VENEDIG Ludovico il Pio, 814-840. Denaro. 1,46 g. +DSCVSERVA RoMANo IMP Kreuz, in den Winkeln je eine Kugel//XPE SALVA VINECIAS Kirchengebäude. Biaggi 2748 (R5, dort unter Anonym, 875880); Depeyrot 1116 G (dort unter Ludwig II., 855875); Gamberini 4…



DEUTSCHE SILBERMÜNZEN UND -MEDAILLEN WÜRTTEMBERG WÜRTTEMBERG-OELS, HERZOGTUM Sylvius Friedrich, 1664-1697. Reichstaler 1686 IN, Bernstadt, auf den Tod seiner Mutter Elisabeth Maria von Münsterberg-Oels. 26,95 g. Stempelschneider Johann Neidhard. Brustbild mit geblümtem Kleid und…



Great Britain. Guinea, 1679. S. 3345; Fr-289; KM-440.2. Charles II, 1660-1685. Head right with Elephant and castle below. Reverse: Cross of four shields with scepter between. Moderate surface marks, cleaned, polished and removed from jewelry. Very Good. Estimated Value $400 -…



Austria – Olmütz. Taler, 1706. Dav-1211; KM-378. Karl III Joseph. Bust right. Reverse: Crowned arms. Some surface corrosion and light cleaning. Toned. Extremely Fine. Estimated Value $200 -…



Bolivia. 8 Reales, 1774-JR (Potosi). Eliz-12; KM-55. Charles III, 1759-1788. Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust of Charles III right. Reverse: Crowned Bourbon arms, flanked by bannered pillars. Sharply struck on both sides with reflective obverse fields and full original mint fresh luster. NGC…

1,700 USD 



Chile. 8 Reales, 1768 So-A (Santiago). Eliz-15; WR-2; KM-18. 26.75 grams. Charles III, 1759-1788. Pillar coinage. Crowned Bourbon arms. Reverse: Crowned globes flanked by crowned and bannered pillars, over water. Bold, even strike, with excellent detail at globes and shield. Choice original…



Great Britain. Medal, 1660. MI-460,53; Eimer-212. Silver 320 grams. 85.7 mm. by J. Roettier. Charles II. Restoration, ‘Felicitas Britanniae’. Armored and draped bust of King Charles II right. Reverse: Britannia seated beneath a cliff, receiving an olive-branch from Justice, standing before her…



Great Britain. Embarkation at Scheveningen Medal, 1660. Med Ill. 455,44; Eimer-210. 70 mm. Silver medal consists of two cast embossed plates joined at the edge by a broad rim. Charles II, 1660-1685. Executed in Holland by Peter van Abeele, to commemorate the embarkation, on June 2, 1660, of…



Great Britain. Medal, 1720. Woolf-38:1; MI-452, 60; Eimer-488. Bronze. 41.4 mm. by Otto Hamerani, Rome. Birth of Prince Charles. James (III), ‘Elder Pretender,’ and Princess Clementina. Conjoined busts of James and Clementina facing right. Reverse: Hercules takes the hand of Venus, attended by…



Great Britain. Group of Miscellaneous: Edward II, Penny; Elizabeth I. Milled 6 Pence, 1562 (only 2 of date shows); Charles I. Shilling; Charles II 3 Pence, 1679; William III. 6 Pence, 1696Y (scratches); Anne. 4 Pence, 1710 and 2 Pence, 1710; George II. 6 Pence, 1757; George III. Shilling, 1787…



World COLOMBIA, Colonial. Carlos III. King of Spain, 1759-1788. AV 2 Escudos (22mm, 6.76 g, 12h). Popayán mint. Dated 1783-SF. Armored and draped bust right, wearing Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece / Crowned coat-of-arms; all within Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece. ME 12522;…



WORLD GOLD COINS MEXICO. Escudo, 1775-FM. Charles III (1759-88). Fr-36; KM-118.2. Sharply struck and very attractive.NGC AU-58. Estimate: 600…



WORLD CROWNS & MINORS GREAT BRITAIN. Kings and Queens of England Medals, 1830. 40 mm; BHM-1437. 31 Pieces in lot. By Sir Edward Thomason after Jean Dassier. Struck in silvered white metal. Partial set includes William the Conqueror, Stephen, Richard I, Henry II, John, Henry III, Edward II,…



WORLD CROWNS & MINORS MEXICO. 8 Reales, 1762-66. Charles III (1759-88). KM-105. 5 Pieces in lot. Pillar 8 Reales with an example of each date from 1762 to 1766. A couple of pieces have been cleaned and/or polished. SOLD AS IS/NO RETURNS. GradesVERY FINE to EXTREMELY FINE. Estimate: 500…



WORLD CROWNS & MINORS MEXICO. Mexico City. 8 Reales, 1772-89. Charles III (1759-88). KM-106.1 & 106.2a. 21 Pieces in lot. Bust 8 Reales comprised of examples from every year that this type was struck for Charles III. Including legend and assayer varieties, in particular inverted mint and assayer…



WORLD CROWNS & MINORS MEXICO. Chihuahua. 8 Reales, 1805 (produced in 1810?). 23.81 gms. Colonial milled edge. Ferdinand VII (in the name of Charles IIII) (1808-21). KM-unlisted (see KM-123 for basic type); Cal-unlisted(see 89 for basic type); EL-unlisted (see page 199 for basic type). This…



WORLD CROWNS & MINORS PERU. 8 Reales, 1762-71. Charles III (1759-88). KM-A64.1/.2 & 64.2. 6 Pieces in lot. Pillar 8 Reales, 1762, ’64, ’67-’69 and ’71. The 1762 and 1764 are of the double dot variety. A few pieces have minor scratches, one has some graffiti. SOLD AS IS/NO RETURNS. Average…



WORLD CROWNS & MINORS MIXED LOTS. Exploratory Group of Bronze Medals, 30 Pieces in lot. Medals of France and Great Britain. Includes portrait pieces of French monarchs, writers, musicians, philosophers and a Holy Year of Pope Benedict XIV medal. British medals include eighteen pieces from Jean…



WORLD COINS. MEXICO. Charles II, 1665-1700. Cob 8 Escudos, 1700-L (OXM). AV 27.06 g. Cal 31. F 2. Oval shaped with full date and mintmark. Quite well struck for this issue and thus extremely rare. Good very fine . Estimate: US$…

26,000 USD 



Russian Coins & Historical Medals. Nicholas II, 1894-1917. Bicentenary of the Battle of Gangut Commemorative Rouble 1914 BC. Bit 337 (R2), Sev 4187 (RRR), Uzd 4202 I. Authenticated and graded by NGC MS 63. Steely lavender types set against a superb hematite gray on lustrous, reflective fields….


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GERMANY, Aachen (Stadt). AR Groschen (24mm, 1.90 g, 10h). Dated 1420 in mixed spelled-out and Roman numerals. · SCS : KΛROL : mΛ G : IPЄRΛTO’ * (double annulet stops), crowned half-length bust of Karl der Große (Charlemagne) facing slightly right, wearing mantum and holding city model and…



GERMANY, Pfalz bei Rhein (Alte Kurlinie). Ludwig IV von Wittelsbach. 1436-1449. AR Groschen – Weißpfennig (25mm, 1.74 g, 10h). Bacharach mint. Dated 1448 in Roman numerals. · MOnЄ’ · nOVΛ · · BΛCҺ’ (rosette stops), coat-of-arms, with three smaller coats-of-arms around in trefoil…



LOW COUNTRIES, Vlaanderen (Flanders [Provincie]). Karel de Stoute (the Bold). 1467-1477. AR Dubbel vuurijzer (26mm, 2.99 g, 4h). Brugge (Bruges) mint. Dated IΩΛ5 (1475). + KΛROLVS : DЄI : GRΛ : DVX : BVRG : CO : F : (double saltire stops), two lions rampant combatant; briquet above, sunburst…



GERMANY, Erfurt (Stadt). Uniface AR Scherf (13mm, 0.14 g). Dated 9Ω (1494). Wheel with five spokes; 9Ω above / Incuse and reverse of obverse. Levinson I-313. Good VF, toned. Very rare. From the R. J. Weinstein Collection (purchased privately from Charles H. Wolfe III). Estimate: 750…



GERMANY, Würzburg (Fürstbistum). Lorenz von Bibra. 1495-1519. AR Groschen (24mm, 2.11 g, 1h). Dated IΩ96 (1496). + LΛVRЄ · ЄPS’ · ҺЄRBn’ · FRΛ’ · DVX (annulet stops), garnished coat-of-arms; IΩ96 above / · SΛnCT’ · · KILIΛnVS (annulet stops), St. Kilian standing facing,…



GERMANY, Sachsen-Ernestinische Linie (Kurfürstentum und Herzogtum). Friedrich III der Weise (the Wise), with Johann and Albrecht. 1486-1525. AR Zinsgroschen (26mm, 2.54 g, 10h). Schneeberg mint. Dated 98 (1498). FRI · ΛL · IO · D · G · DVCЄS · SΛXOn (saltire stops), coat-of-arms…



CHILE, Colonial. Carlos III. King of Spain, 1759-1788. AV 8 Escudos (37mm, 27.01 g, 12h). Santiago mint. Dated 1788-DA. CAROL · III · D · G · HISP · ET IND · R ·, armored and draped bust right, wearing Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece; ·1788· below / IN · UTROQ · FELIX · ·…



CHILE, Colonial. Carlos IV. King of Spain, 1788-1808. AV 8 Escudos (36mm, 26.99 g, 12h). Santiago mint. Dated 1798-DA. CAROL · IIII · D · G · HISP · ET IND · R ·, armored and draped bust right, wearing Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece; ·1798· below / IN · UTROQ · FELIX · ·…



CHILE, Colonial. Carlos IV. King of Spain, 1788-1808. AV 8 Escudos (37mm, 26.98 g, 12h). Santiago mint. Dated 1799-DA. CAROL · IIII · D · G · HISP · ET IND · R ·, armored and draped bust right, wearing Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece; ·1799· below / IN · UTROQ · FELIX · ·…



CHILE, Colonial. Carlos IV. King of Spain, 1788-1808. AV 8 Escudos (37mm, 27.07 g, 12h). Santiago mint. Dated 1806/5-FJ. CAROL · IIII · D · G · HISP · ET IND · R ·, armored and draped bust right, wearing Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece; ·1806/5· below / IN · UTROQ · FELIX ·…



COLOMBIA, Colonial. Carlos III. King of Spain, 1759-1788. AV 2 Escudos (23mm, 6.72 g, 12h). Popayán mint. Dated 1768-J. · CAROLS · III · D · G · HISPAN · ET IND · REX · (flower stops), armored and draped bust right, wearing Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece; 1768 below / · NOMINA…



COLOMBIA, Colonial. Carlos III. King of Spain, 1759-1788. AV 8 Escudos (37mm, 27.00 g, 12h). Nuevo Reino (Bogotá) mint. Dated 1760-JV. (flower) CAROLS × III × D × G × HISPAN × ET IND × REX (flower), armored and draped bust right, wearing Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece; 1760 below…



COLOMBIA, Colonial. Carlos III. King of Spain, 1759-1788. AV 8 Escudos (38mm, 27.00 g, 12h). Popayán mint. Dated 1771-J. · CAROLS · III · D · G · HISPAN · ET IND · REX · (flower stops), armored and draped bust right, wearing Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece; 1771 below / (flower)…



COLOMBIA, Colonial. Carlos III. King of Spain, 1759-1788. AV 8 Escudos (36mm, 26.98 g, 12h). Popayán mint. Dated 1788-SF. CAROL · III · D · G · HISP · ET IND · R ·, armored and draped bust right, wearing Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece; ·1788· below / IN · UTROQ · FELIX · ·…



COLOMBIA, Colonial. Carlos IV. King of Spain, 1788-1808. AV 8 Escudos (35mm, 27.05 g, 12h). Popayán mint. Dated 1802-JF. CAROL · IIII · D · G · HISP · ET IND · R ·, armored and draped bust right, wearing Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece; ·1802· below / IN · UTROQ · FELIX · ·…



MEXICO, Colonial. Carlos IV. King of Spain, 1788-1808. AV 8 Escudos (36mm, 27.00 g, 12h). Ciudad de México (Mexico City) mint. Dated 1802-FT. CAROL · IIII · D · G · HISP · ET IND · R ·, armored and draped bust right, wearing Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece; ·1802· below / IN ·…



MEXICO, Colonial. Carlos IV. King of Spain, 1788-1808. AV 8 Escudos (36mm, 27.02 g, 12h). Ciudad de México (Mexico City) mint. Dated 1804-TH. CAROL · IIII · D · G · HISP · ET IND · R ·, armored and draped bust right, wearing Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece; ·1804· below / IN ·…



MEXICO, Colonial. Carlos IV. King of Spain, 1788-1808. AV 8 Escudos (36mm, 27.03 g, 12h). Ciudad de México (Mexico City) mint. Dated 1805-TH. CAROL · IIII · D · G · HISP · ET IND · R ·, armored and draped bust right, wearing Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece; ·1805· below / IN ·…



PERU, Colonial. Carlos III. King of Spain, 1759-1788. AV 8 Escudos (36mm, 26.93 g, 12h). Lima mint. Dated 1761-JM. · CAROLUS · III · D · G · HISPAN · ET IND · REX ·, armored and draped bust right, wearing Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece; 1761 below / NOMINA MAGNA SEQUOR, crowned…



PERU, Colonial. Carlos III. King of Spain, 1759-1788. AV 8 Escudos (37mm, 26.91 g, 12h). Lima mint. Dated 1770-JM. CAROLUS · III · D · G · HISP · ET · IND · REX, armored and draped bust right, wearing Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece; ·1770· below / IN · UTROQ · FELIX · ·…


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PERU, Colonial. Carlos III. King of Spain, 1759-1788. AV 8 Escudos (37mm, 26.95 g, 12h). Lima mint. Dated 1786-MI. CAROL · III · D · G · HISP · ET IND · R ·, armored and draped bust right, wearing Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece; ·1786· below / IN · UTROQ · FELIX · · AUSPICE…

1,800 USD 



Frequently Asked Questions

Asia Coin Value


THAILAND, tektite, glassy meteorite, from Thailand, image about 90% of actual size, LEFT, $35.00 MIDDLE, $24.00 RIGHT, $24.00 sold


TURKEY, Abdul Mejid, 1839-61, gold 100 kurus K679 1255 AH year 23 ( 1861) VF $145.00 sold


TURKEY,Abdul Aziz, 1861-76, gold 20 kurus K696 1277 AH year 2 (1862) XF $155.00 sold


TURKEY, Mehmet V, 1909-18, gold 100 kurus K776 1327 AH year 9 (1917) XF $155.00 sold



A, 19th c., silver “pat” fingenail protector, ~75mm long, floral engraving with “double-coin” cutout at base, VF, minor broken element at cutout $13.00


CHINA, 19th c. token, Bs33, Bai Ge Tong Yuan / same, “100 ge (~1 decilitre) same as 1 (of these tokens),” with 2 c/ms: double circle & unread character each side & 6 cuts on edge, from Jiangsu, VG $35.00 sold


ABBASID, Al-Mansur, 753-775, silver dirham, Al-Basrah, 142 AH (759 AD), edge chip, aVF $13.00 sold



ABBASID, Al-Mansur, 753-775, silver dirham, Al-Basrah, 143 AH (760 AD), cleaned F $15.50 sold


ABBASID, Al-Mansur, 753-775, silver dirham, Al-Basrah, 147 AH (764 AD), VF+ $24.00 sold


ABBASID, Al-Mansur, 753-775, silver dirham, Al-Kufah, 140 AH (757 AD), light clipping, aVF $17.50 sold 10/3/2007


ABBASID, Al-Mansur, 753-775, silver dirham, Madinat Al-Salaam (Baghdad), 151 AH (768 AD), F $16.00 sold


ABBASID, Al Mahdi, 775-85, silver dirham, Al-Muhammadiyya, 161 AH (778 AD), citing Ja’far, dents, cl G $11.00 sold


ABBASID, Al Mahdi, 775-85, silver dirham, Madinat Zaranj, 168 AH (785 AD), F $20.00 sold


ABBASID, Al-Rashid, 786-809, silver dirham, Balkh (in central Afghanistan), 187 AH (803 AD), VF/F $24.00 sold

Medal History One


Created By
Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5004
Griechenland – Erinnerungskreuz
für das bayerische Hilfskorps. Bronze, grün lackiert, 33 x 33 mm (Romanoff 161).

Zustand: II Limit: 450 EURO  

680 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5005
Freimaurer – fünf Bijoux und eine Medaille.
Bijou der Stephens Lodge Nr. 3089. Silber, vergoldet und emailliert mit Winkelmaß 1907/08. Bijou der Provinz Staffordshire 1907, Silber, emailliert, rs. lange Tragenadel. Bijou Nr. 3305 der Masters Lodge Buckinghamshire, Silber, vergoldet und emailliert. Altes, unbekanntes Bijou in Sternform mit rot-blauem Band, rs. Tragehaken, vergoldet. Bijou der Kölner Loge “Zum ewigen Dom”, sternförmig, vergoldet und emailliert, am hellblauen Halstrageband. Bronzemedaille der Wuppertaler Loge “Hermann zum Lande der Berge” zum 75-jährigen Bestehen der Loge 1890, Durchmesser 50 mm.

Zustand: II Limit: 160 EURO  

160 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5006
Königreich beider Sizilien – Orden Franz I.
Ritterkreuz mit Krone. Silber vergoldet und emailliert. Die Kreuzarme teilweise gechipt, die Medaillons unbeschädigt. Silberpunzen. In Etui der Firma Lemaitre, Paris. Fertigung um 1860. Dazu Frankreich, Ritterkreuz Orden der Ehrenlegion (1830 – 48), Silber, die Medaillons Gold, mit zwei Miniaturen und Belgien, Leopold-Orden, Offizierskreuz mit Miniatur um 1900.

Zustand: II Limit: 500 EURO  

800 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5007
Italien – Verdienstorden der Republik,
Stern zum Kommandeur 1.Klasse. Silber, teilvergoldet, emailliert (Zei 1423).

Zustand: I-II Limit: 280 EURO  




Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5008
FSR Jugoslawien – Orden des Volkshelden,
1. Stufe, verliehen am 27.11.1953 an Generalmajor Stevo. Vergoldete Ausführung, kleine Fehlstellen. In rotem Etui. Dazu die Verleihungsurkunde, Pergament mit anhängender, hölzerner Siegelkapsel. In geprägter, rot bezogener Dokumentenröhre.
Der Orden des Volkshelden wurde am 15.8.1943 gestiftet, der Entwurf stammt von Dorde Andrejevic-Kun.

Zustand: I- Limit: 1500 EURO    



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5009
Kirchenstaat/Vatikan – zwei Bronzemedaillen
anlässlich der 25-Jahrfeier der Weihe Pius XII. zum Erzbischof 1942. Bronzemedaille, 90 mm und identische, kleinere Medaille, 59 mm, jeweils in rotem Verleihungsetui mit Wappen des Papstes. Dazu eine einseitige Bronzemedaille zum Andenken an den Kirchen-Kunsthistoriker Joseph Wilpert, Durchmesser 60 mm.

Zustand: I- Limit: 100 EURO  

100 EURO


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5010
Kroatien – Sturm-Orden,
goldene Medaille. Vergoldet, rs. Schriftzug “Republika Hrvatska – Oluja”. Am Dreiecksband mit Interimsspange, im Verleihungsetui.

Zustand: I Limit: 80 EURO  

100 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5011
Pakistan – Orden Quaid-I-Azam,
Halsdekoration 2.Klasse, datiert 10. Dezember 1970. Gold, 104 g, emailliert, rückseitig Gravur für den US-Botschafter “Benjamin H. Oehlert Jr. December 10, 1970″. Der Orden wurde 1957 vierklassig für zivile und militärische Verdienste gestiftet und kann auch an Ausländer verliehen werden.

Zustand: I Limit: 2000 EURO    


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5012
Peru – Orden der Sonne von Peru,
Großkreuz. Bronze vergoldet, emailliert, rückseitig Herstellerbezeichnung “Casa Nacional de Moneda Lima-Peru”. An Schärpe mit Rosette.

Zustand: I-II Limit: 180 EURO    


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5013
Polen – Auszeichnungskonvolut.
Orden Polonia Restituta 1944, Ritterkreuz (Zei 2364). Verdienstorden der Volksrepublik, Offizierskreuz “RP” (Zei 2377), Ritterkreuz “PRL” (Zei 2378), Bronzekreuz “RP”. KZ-Opferkreuz (Öse neu verlötet). Tschechoslowakei, Kriegskreuz 1918.

Zustand: II Limit: 80 EURO  



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5014
Polen – sechs Auszeichnungen/Abzeichen.
Erinnerungsabzeichen für die Internierten des poln. Hilfskorps in Ungarn 1918, Nr. 4340, Messing versilbert. Tapferkeitskreuz 1920, Kupfer, 44 mm. Medaille “3. Maj 1925″, Silber, Nr. 8190. Medaille “POLSKA SWEMU OBRONCY” 1945, Messing, dazu die Miniatur an Band. Miniatur des Unabhängigkeitskreuzes 1930, Bronze vergoldet und teilemailliert. Außerdem vier Mützenadler, drei mit Schraubscheibe, teils mit Herstellerbez.

Zustand: II Limit: 350 EURO  





Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5015
VR. Rumänien – sieben Auszeichnungen.
Orden “Stern der sozialist. Republik”, Stern der 5. Klasse, versilbert, Arbeits-Verdienstorden, 1. und 3. Klasse, jeweils versilbert, vergoldet und emailliert, Ehrenzeichen “20 Jahre Befreiung des Vaterlandes”, Bronze, Ehrenzeichen “40 Jahre Kommunistische Partei 1921 – 1961″, vergoldet, Medaille “Fünf Jahre Republik 1947/1952″, vergoldet und emailliert, Militärverdienst-Medaille, 1. Klasse, versilbert. Jeweils an Band oder Tragespange, in Etui.

Zustand: II Limit: 70 EURO    

Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5016
Sowjetunion – drei militärische Abzeichen.
Erinnerungsabzeichen “Khasan”, Russ.-Jap. Kriegszwischenfall 1938, vergoldet und emailliert. Abzeichen für den besten Richtschützen in der artill. Ausbildung um 1940, vergoldet und emailliert. Erstes Bestenabzeichen “RKKA” der Roten Armee 1939, vergoldet und emailliert. Rs. jeweils mit Schraubscheibe.

Zustand: II Limit: 200 EURO  

200 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5017
Sowjetunion – Ordenskonvolut.
Ruhmesorden 2.Kl. Silber, Nr. “8688”, 3.Kl. Silber, Nr. “293741”. Tapferkeitsmedaille Nr. “471826” (Her.3.14.2). Medaille Verdienste im Kampf (Her.3.15.2). Orden d. Vaterländischen Krieges 3.Form, 1. und 2. Klasse (eine Schraubscheibe fehlt). Orden des Roten Sterns, Nr. “1584209” (Her. 2.22.2).

Zustand: II+ Limit: 150 EURO  

150 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5018
Serbien – Abzeichen für Skijäger.
Bronzierte Buntmetallplatte mit aufgenietetem, versilbertem Wappenadler, Lorbeerkranz und Medaillon (mit bronzefarbenem Skijäger). Rs. zwei Schraubscheiben.

Zustand: II Limit: 650 EURO    


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5019
Serbien – St. Sava-Orden.
Kommandeurskreuz 2.Typ ab 1915 (Heiliger im grünen Mantel). Silber, vergoldet, mit genähtem Halsband, in goldbedrucktem Verleihungsetui des Herstellers “Kovnica Sorlini Varazdin” (Zeige 3533).

Zustand: II Limit: 300 EURO  

420 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5020
Großkreuzsatz “1300 Jahre Bulgarien”.
Bruststern, Durchmesser 9 cm, Gewicht 140 g, und Schärpendekoration, Durchmesser 7 cm, 102 g. Gold, Silber vergoldet und farbiges Email.
Seit ihrer Stiftung wurde diese Auszeichnung 128 mal verliehen.

Zustand: I- Limit: 750 EURO  

950 EURO




Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5021
Goldene Medaille an Tragespange, Gold 17,3 g (ohne Spange), mit Verleihungsetui. Selten.

Zustand: I Limit: 400 EURO  

520 EURO




Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5022
gestiftet 1972. Goldmedaille an Tragespange, Gold 23,44 g (nur Medaille), im Verleihungsetui. Nur 18 Verleihungen, selten.

Zustand: I- Limit: 750 EURO  




Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5023
Georgi Dimitroff-Orden.
Gold, emailliert, mit Pentagonalband. An Bandtragespange. Im braunen, goldbedruckten Original-Verleihungsetui.

Zustand: II Limit: 290 EURO  



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5024
Orden der Ehrenlegion,
Ritterkreuz aus der Zeit Napoleons III. (1852 – 1870). Silber, Gold und emailliert, winzige Emailchips.

Zustand: II Limit: 100 EURO  

320 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5025
Ritterdekoration, Gold, emailliert, mit Band (Zei 814).

Zustand: II Limit: 80 EURO    

Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5026
St. Helena-Medaille,
1861. Bronze, privat vergoldet. Ohne Band.

Zustand: II Limit: 50 EURO  



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5027
Orden vom Goldenen Drachen,
7.Stufe, Silber, teilvergoldet mit Band, dazu die bedruckte Verleihungstüte.

Zustand: I- Limit: 360 EURO    


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5028
Orden der aufgehenden Sonne,
6.Klasse, Silber, emailliert, mit Band, dazu die bedruckte Verleihungstüte.

Zustand: I- Limit: 350 EURO  

350 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5029
Orden der aufgehenden Sonne,
7.Klasse, Silber, mit Band, dazu das bestoßene Verleihungsetui (schwarze Lackschachtel).

Zustand: II+ Limit: 80 EURO  



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5030
Orden vom Heiligen Schatz,
5.Klasse, Silber, emailliert, mit Dreiecksband, Knopflochrosette und Lackschachtel, etwas bestoßen.

Zustand: I- Limit: 280 EURO  

320 EURO




Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5031
Zwei Auszeichnungen.
Orden vom Heiligen Schatz, 6.Klasse, Silber, 38 mm, emailliert, an Bandstück in leicht beschädigter Lackschachtel. Orden der aufgehenden Sonne, 7.Klasse, Silber, mit Band, in bestoßenem Verleihungsetui (schwarze Lackschachtel). Dazu schwarze, bestoßene Lackschachtel mit zwei länglichen, z.T. polierten und mit Schriftzeichen versehenen Steinen, einer mit Chip, 7,5 x 2 cm.

Zustand: II Limit: 280 EURO    


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5032
Verdienstorden vom Roten Kreuz,
Silberner Verdienstorden. Silber, emailliert, Dreiecksband, Knopflochrosette, Lacketui.

Zustand: I- Limit: 180 EURO  

260 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5033
Kommandeurskreuz. Gold, emailliert, punziert für Vincenz Mayer & Söhne Wien und Gämsenkopf “3 A” für 18 Karat Gold. An rotem, genähtem Halsband (Breite 5 cm). In goldbedrucktem Etui des Herstellers mit dunkelgrüner Samteinlage, rs. gestempelt “1908” (Marko 086).

Zustand: II Limit: 1300 EURO  

2800 EURO




Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5034
mit der Darstellung des Militärverdienstkreuzes 3.Klasse mit KD in feinstem Grubenemail, ziseliert, handgemalt. Innenseite vergoldet, Widmungsgravur an den bayerischen Artilleriehauptmann Hans Butz (s.Nachlass desselben unter Ordensspangen) “Ihrem hochverehrten Kommandanten zur Erinnerung an die Dolomitenkämpfe. Die Offiziere der Batterie VIII F.K.R. 41 Oktober 1915″. Silberstempel “935”, Gewicht 122 g, 93 x 75 mm.

Zustand: I-II Limit: 280 EURO  

380 EURO




Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5035
1917. Bronze, vergoldet und emailliert. Monogramm Kaiser Karls I. Rückseitige Klammern und Herstellerbezeichnung “J. Zimber Wien VII”.

Zustand: I-II Limit: 800 EURO  

1500 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5036
achtteilig in österreichischer Dreiecksbandausführung. Silberne Tapferkeitsmedaille 1.Klasse, Kaiser Karl, versilbert (Feilspur). Silberne Tapferkeitsmedaille 2.Klasse mit Wiederholungsspange auf dem Band und bronzene Tapferkeitsmedaille, jeweils Franz Joseph. Eisernes Verdienstkreuz mit der Krone 1916, am Kriegsband. Kaiser-Karl-Tuppenkreuz. Verwundetenmedaille am Band für dreimalige Verwundung. Medaille für Österreich 1914/18. Ungarn Medaille 1914/18 für Kämpfer. Rs. große Sicherheitsnadel.

Zustand: II Limit: 120 EURO  

150 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5037
fünfteilig. DR, Medaille 1.10.1938, Verwundetenmedaille am Band für einmalige Verwundung, Kaiser-Karl-Truppenkreuz, Bronzemedaille 1848 – 1898 “50 Jahre reich an Taten”, versilberte Medaille zur Erinnerung an den 70. Geburtstag Kaiser Franz Josephs 1900. Rs. drei Haken zur Uniformbesfestigung.

Zustand: II Limit: 100 EURO    

Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5038
Militärverdienstkreuz 3.Kl. KD mit Band, im Verleihungsetui, rs. gechipt. Eisernes Verdienstkreuz mit Krone. Signum Laudis-Medaille am Band (FJI). Tapferkeitsmedaille in Bronze (FJI). Signum Memoriae 1898. Karl-Truppenkreuz. 1.Republik, Ritterkreuz 1.Klasse, im Etui, Band fehlt.

Zustand: II/II-III Limit: 120 EURO  

160 EURO


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5039
Feldzugmedaille Dänemark (Marko 359a). Kriegsmedaille 1873 (Marko 364b), Jubiläums-Erinnerungsmedaille (Marko 396), Jubiläumskreuz 1908 für Zivil (Marko 403). Karl-Truppenkreuz (Marko 419a), Weltkriegserinnerungsmedaille (Marko 551), Kreuz der Österr. Ehrenlegion. Ungarische Weltkriegserinnerungsmedaille mit Schwertern. Luftfahrerabzeichen 1917, sehr qualitätvolle Sammleranfertigung. Vier Signum-Laudis-Medaillen, Franz-Joseph, silbern, versilbert (Marko 146b), in Bronze, vergoldet (Marko 148b), Kaiser Karl Erinnerungsmedaille in Silber und Bronze (Marko 148/149a).

Zustand: II Limit: 120 EURO  

260 EURO


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5040
20 Auszeichnungen:
Medaille Elisabeth-Orden, Ehrenzeichen vom Roten Kreuz 2.Klasse, Verdienstkreuz in Silber. Zwei große (FJ) und zwei kleine (FJ und Karl) Tapferkeitsmedaillen in Silber, sowie eine kleine in Bronze (FJ). Militärdienstzeichen für Offiziere für 25 Jahre, Erinnerungskreuz 1912/13, zwei Erinnerungsmedaillen 1898, Bosnische Erinnerungsmedaille, zwei Weltkriegserinnerungsmedaillen, Medaille Landesverteidigung von Tirol, Medaille zum 70. Geburtstag, Medaille Jubiläum 1848 – 1898, kleine, silberne Verdienstmedaille der Republik. Sowie preußische Kriegsdenkmünze 1864. Jeweils Emailschäden, teils am falschen Band.

Zustand: II/III Limit: 250 EURO  

460 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5041
20 Auszeichnungen:
Militärverdienstkreuz 3.Klasse mit KD im Etui, Verdienstkreuz in Gold mit bzw. ohne Krone, Ehrenmedaille in Bronze vom Roten Kreuz mit bzw. ohne KD, zwei Kriegsmedaillen 1973, zwei Militärverdienstmedaillen (FJ) in Bronze, Militärdienstzeichen für 6 bzw. 12 Jahre, Ehrenmedaille 25 Jahre Feuerwehr, zwei Jubiläumskreuze 1908, zwei Karl Truppen Kreuze und drei Verwundetenmedaillen. Emailschäden, teils mit nicht dazugehörigem Band.

Zustand: II-/III Limit: 250 EURO  

440 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5042
Konvolut Auszeichnungen.
Orden der Eisernen Krone, 3.Klasse mit Kriegsdekoration (linkes Eichenlaub fehlt), am Dreiecksband im goldgeprägten Etui der Juweliere Roszet & Fischmeister Wien (Marko 074), Militärverdienstkreuz 3.Klasse mit Kriegsdekoration, rs. Medaillon fehlt, am Dreiecksband im goldgeprägtem Etui (Marko 134f), Militärverdienstmedaille FJI in Bronze, am roten Band im goldgeprägten Etui (Marko 148b). Serbien, St. Sava-Orden, V.Klasse, Silber emailliert, am Dreiecksband, im blauen Etui. Zwei Medaillen “Signum Memoriae” und zwei Feldspangen. Die Etuis leicht bestoßen, eines mit Wasserflecken.

Zustand: II-III Limit: 420 EURO  

1250 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5043
Zwölf Kappenabzeichen.
Abzeichen Franz Joseph I. mit Eichenlaub, vergoldet. 11.Armee, “Mit vereinter Kraft” Weltkrieg 1914/15. I.Armee “Weihnachten im Felde 1914″. 4.Armee “Feldzug 1914 – 15″. Isonzo-Armee 1915. IV.Korps Arz, z.T. emailliert. IR 59, Schild 1914 – 16, roter Rand. Heeresgruppe Bosnien, Herzegowina 1916. Landwehr Inf.Rgt. 10, 1914 – 16. K.u.K. Kraftfahrtruppe im Weltkriege. Abzeichen Karl I. 1914 – 1917. Wiedersehensfeier des Edelweiß-Korps Scharding, August 1925.

Zustand: II Limit: 200 EURO  

320 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5044
Kreuz der Königin Maria,
2.Klasse aus dem Besitz eines deutschen Stabsarztes. Silber vergoldet, der rechte Kreuzarm mit rumänischen Punzen. Am originalen Band, im weißen, goldgeprägten Etui. Dazu “Auf den Straßen des Sieges, Erlebnisse mit dem Führer in Polen”, Dr. Otto Dietrich, 1941, bebildert.

Zustand: II Limit: 250 EURO  

280 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5045
Buntmetall versilbert mit aufgelegtem, emailliertem Wappenschild, Sicherheitsverschluss.

Zustand: II Limit: 180 EURO  

220 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5046
Orden vom Stern Rumäniens 1.Typ, Offizierskreuz, Bronze vergoldet, emailliert mit Band (Zei 2675). Kronenorden 2.Typ, Ritterkreuz mit Band (Zei 2737). Medaille Kreuzzug gegen den Kommunismus. Volksrepublik, Militärverdienstorden 2.Kl. (Zei 2865).

Zustand: II Limit: 80 EURO  

180 EURO


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5047
Orden vom Weißen Adler – gestickter Bruststern
um 1840. Fein gestickte Ausführung in silbervergoldetem Lahn, vergoldeten Silberfäden und Pailletten. Rückseitige Abdeckung aus weißem Leder. Durchmesser 82 mm. In zeitgenössischem, zugehörigem, goldgeprägtem, rotem Lederetui mit heller Fütterung in Samt und Seide. Vermutlich geliefert von Kämmerer und Keibel, von 1836 – 1841 offizieller Lieferant der kaiserlichen Ordenskanzlei. In unberührtem Zustand.

Zustand: I Limit: 3500 EURO  

34000 EURO




Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5048
Orden St. Alexander Newsky – gestickter Bruststern
um 1840. Fein gestickte Ausführung in Silberlahn, Silberfäden und Pailletten. Rückseitige Abdeckung aus weißem Leder. Durchmesser 82 mm.

Zustand: II Limit: 3000 EURO  

9000 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5049
St. Stanislaus-Orden,
Schärpe zur 1.Klasse, 11 cm breites Seidenripsband, genäht mit vergoldetem Karabinerhaken. Getragenes Original.

Zustand: II Limit: 200 EURO  

2100 EURO


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5050
aus der Regierungszeit Katharina II. der Großen 1762 – 1796. Bronze, vergoldet, Vergoldung berieben, über dem massiven Schaft gebrochen, der Schaft mit dem Bart unsachgemäß seitenverkehrt zusammengefügt. Länge 19,7 cm.

Zustand: II Limit: 500 EURO  

17000 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5051
Akademieabzeichen für Ingenieure
des Instituts für Eisenbahntechnik. Miniatur, 22 x 27 mm, Silber mit Schraubscheibe (Patrikeev/Bojnovich 1.1.12).

Zustand: II Limit: 150 EURO  

200 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5052
des Vereins zur Wiederaufrichtung der Flotte, 1905. Silberanhänger, darauf Anker und Flaggen farbig emailliert, Aufschrift, 27 x 17 mm, rückseitig Feingehaltspunze “84” und Silberschmiedemarke “DO” für Dimitri Osipov.

Zustand: I-II Limit: 150 EURO  

180 EURO


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5053
Schildförmiger Jeton
mit Öse und Tragering. Silber, vs. reliefierter Schriftzug “Kornilowtsy”, darunter erhabener Totenkopf über gekreuzten Schwertern, flammender Granate und “1917 – 1918″, rs. Silberpunze für “84” zolotniki. Größe 23 x 32 mm, Gewicht 4,7 g.

Zustand: II Limit: 150 EURO  

7200 EURO




Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5054
Spottmedaille 1914.
Bronze, vs. Kopfrelief Nikolaus II. Rs. Schriftzüge “Zum Einzug in Berlin 1914″. Dazu Artikel in der Schlesischen Zeitung vom 20.10.1914, Verwahrung gegen diese Plakette die das Bildnis des Zaren trägt die besonders in Berlin vertrieben wurde. Sie stelle eine Bloßstellung des deutschen Vaterlandes dar.

Zustand: II Limit: 120 EURO  

350 EURO




Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5055
Ordensgruppe eines französischen Grafen
in schön gearbeiteter Schatulle aus Palisanderholz. Der Deckel mit Neusilbereinfassung und eingearbeitetem gräflichem Wappen mit Darstellung der verliehenen Orden in Boulle-Technik. Auf der Einfassung Herstellergravur “P. Sormani, Rue Charlot 10 Paris”. Im Inneren, mit blauem Samt und Seide ausgeschlagen, ein herausnehmbarer Einlegeboden mit eingearbeiteten Fächern für die Auszeichnungen. In den Fächern folgende Auszeichnungen: Königreich Spanien, Orden Carlos III. Kommandeurskreuz 1.Klasse mit Bruststern. Das Kreuz in Gold, emailliert, 22,1 g, der Bruststern zum Kommandeurskreuz Silber brillantiert mit goldenem, emailliertem Medaillon, rs. zwei Tragehaken, spitz zulaufende Nadel, das Medaillon bezeichnet “Nr. 46 Kretly Palais Royal Paris”, 61 g. Orden Isabella la Catolica, Kommandeurskreuz mit Bruststern. Kreuz, Silber, vergoldet und emailliert, Schriftreif des Medaillons mit minimalen Haarrissen, 38 g, Bruststern zum Kommandeurskreuz, Silber brillantiert, das vergoldete, emaillierte Medaillon mit Chiffre Ferdinands VII., rs. vergoldet mit zwei Tragehaken und geschwungener, punzierter Nadel, Medaillon bezeichnet “Halley Palais Royal Paris”, 56 g. Mexiko, Orden unserer lieben Frau von Guadeloupe, 2.Modell 1863 – 1867, Offizierskreuz, eingeführt 1865 für zivile Verdienste “Al Merito y Virtudes”, Silber, vergoldet und emailliert, am Band mit Rosette, 22 g. Frankreich, Orden der Ehrenlegion, Ritterkreuz (spätere Ausgabe) mit zwei Knopflochrosetten für das Offizierskreuz (nicht vorhanden). Dabei konfektioniertes Doppelhalsband mit zwei Trageringen für die Kommandeurskreuze und Vierfach-Barettband in den Farben der Auszeichnungen. Unter dem Einlegeboden die genähten Schärpen zu den Kommandeurskreuzen 1.Klasse, des Ordens Carlos III. und des Ordens Isabella la Catolica. Sehr schöne Ordensgruppe in exzellenter Aufbewahrungsschatulle. Breite 29,5 cm, Tiefe 29,5 cm, Höhe 11 cm. Der Schlüssel fehlt.

Zustand: II+ Limit: 2500 EURO  

5300 EURO






Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5056
Orden vom Joch und den Pfeilen,
1943 – 1975. Bruststern zum Großoffizierskreuz. Vergoldet und emailliert, rs. Nadel und zwei Steckhaken (C. Zeige 3965).

Zustand: II Limit: 300 EURO  




Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5057
Kreuz 1.Klasse der roten Abteilung, vergoldet und emailliert. An Bandstück. Zeit der Franco-Regierung.

Zustand: II Limit: 50 EURO  



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5058
Abzeichen “Merito Penitenciario”.
Silber, teils emailliert. Feingehaltspunze “925”. 79 g. An gelb/roter Kordel.

Zustand: I- Limit: 130 EURO    


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5059
Tombak vergoldet, bunt emailliert. Vs. spanisches Staatswappen aus der Franco-Zeit, rs. blaues Medaillon mit Inschrift “His Praevide et Provide – 8″. Das wappenförmige Medaillon an Blattkrone. Dazu zwei goldene Tragekordeln.

Zustand: II+ Limit: 150 EURO    


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5060

Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5061
NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal.
Bronze. Auszeichnung am Band, Miniatur, Bandspange und Knopflochminiatur, im Verleihungsetui.

Zustand: I Limit: 160 EURO    


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5062
NASA Exceptional Engineering Achievement Medal.
Bronze. Auszeichnung am Band, Miniatur, Bandspange und Knopflochminiatur, im Verleihungsetui.

Zustand: I Limit: 160 EURO    


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5063
NASA Equal Employment Opportunity Medal.
Bronze. Auszeichnung am Band, Miniatur, Bandspange und Knopflochminiatur, im Verleihungsetui.

Zustand: I Limit: 160 EURO    


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5064
Drei Auszeichnungen.
Army Distinguished Service Cross. Navy and Marine Corps Distinguished Service Medal. Miniatur (25 mm) Legion of Merit, Officer mit Miniaturbandauflage.

Zustand: I Limit: 50 EURO  



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5065
für 25 Dienstjahre der Unteroffiziere und Soldaten, Schnalle 1831 – 1868. Vergoldet, rs. Bandsteg mit Herstellerbezeichnung “I. Teuber”, ohne Nadel (OEK 305). Provenienz: Sammlung Dr. Söllner.

Zustand: II Limit: 240 EURO  

300 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5066
Fünf Auszeichnungen.
Erinnerungskreuz 1870/71 für freiwillige Krankenpflege (OEK 299). Felddienstauszeichnung (OEK 278). Gedächtnismedaille für 1849 (OEK 298). Dienstauszeichnung, Schnalle für IX Jahre 1868 – 1913 und Schnalle der Landwehr 1877 – 1913. Zusammen auf einem Bandstück ohne Blech (OEK 312/316). Z.T. an Bandstücken. Provenienz: Sammlung Dr. Söllner.

Zustand: II Limit: 160 EURO  




Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5067
Drei Auszeichnungen.
Silberne Verdienstmedaille Großherzog Friedrich I., 1882 – 1908, Silber, rs. kleine Fehlstelle (OEK 209). Silberne Verdienstmedaille Großherzog Friedrich II., 1916 – 1918, Kriegsmetall (OEK 215). Verdienstmedaille des bad. Helfer- und Sammlervereins 1918, Kriegsmetall. Provenienz: Sammlung Dr. Söllner.

Zustand: II-II- Limit: 80 EURO  



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5068
aus der Regierungszeit des Prinzen Luitpold bzw. des Prinzen Ludwig (1886 – 1914). Silber, vergoldet, am Bart Silbermarke “800” und Silberschmiedemarke “G. Weishaupt”. Silbernes Portepee aus Lahnstickerei mit goldgestickter Krone im Zentrum der Rosette. Portepee nur mäßig gedunkelt.
Vgl. S. Duwe, “Erzkämmerer, Kammerherren und ihre Schlüssel”, S. 183.

Zustand: II+ Limit: 1500 EURO  

1500 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5069
1827 – 1923. Ordenskreuz, Gold und Email (minimale Chips). Halbhohle, goldene Krone, rs. Herstellerpunze “EQ”. An kleiner Bandschleife (OEK 445).

Zustand: II Limit: 1200 EURO  

1200 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5070
Ehrenkreuz des St. Annen-Ordens,
1783 – 1918. Kreuz des Münchner Stifts. Gold und Email (kleine Haarrisse), an genähter Bandschleife (OEK 447).

Zustand: II Limit: 1300 EURO    




Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5071
Kreuz 4.Klasse mit Krone und Schwertern. Silber, Gold, emailliert, linker Kreuzarm beidseitig nachemailliert. Agraffe mit Hersteller- und Feingehaltspunze. An Bandstück (OEK 412).

Zustand: II- Limit: 320 EURO  

380 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5072
Kreuz 4.Klasse mit Schwertern. Silber, Gold, emailliert. Agraffe mit Hersteller- und Feingehaltspunze “J.L. 950″. An kurzem Bandstück (OEK 410).

Zustand: II Limit: 180 EURO  

190 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5073
Drei Militär-Verdienstkreuze,
2.Klasse, 3.Form 1913 – 1918. Kreuz mit Krone und Schwertern, ein Kreuz mit und eines ohne Schwerter, jeweils versilbert, mit kurzen Bandstücken. (OEK 428/29/30).

Zustand: II Limit: 150 EURO  

170 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5074
für die Feldzüge 1790 – 1812, verliehen 1848. Bronze, geschwärzt mit Teilvergoldung, an Bandstück (OEK 506). Militär-Denkzeichen für 1813, 1814, 1815 für Offiziere und Mannschaften, 1817 – 1818, Bronze, schwarz-grün lackiert (OEK 508).

Zustand: II Limit: 120 EURO  

150 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5075
Zwei Jubiläumsmedaillen
für die bayerische Armee 1905. Goldene Jubiläumsmedaille mit Krone und den Jahreszahlen “1839 – 1909″, vergoldet, an Einzeltragespange (OEK 518/1). Jubiläumsmedaille in Bronze, an Bandstück (OEK 517).

Zustand: II Limit: 150 EURO  

150 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5076
Sechs Dienstauszeichnungen.
Dienstauszeichnung, Kreuz 2.Klasse ab 1906, Kreuz 1.Klasse der Unteroffiziere für 15 Jahre, Medaillen 2. und 3.Klasse für 12 und 9 Jahre, Landwehr-Dienstauszeichnung, Medaille 2.Klasse 1913 – 1918. Jeweils am Band (OEK 526/30/31/32/35). Dabei Luitpoldkreuz für 40 Dienstjahre im Staats- und Gemeindedienst, 1911 – 1918 (OEK 471).

Zustand: II Limit: 180 EURO    


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5077
des Wilhelm von Grandjean. Militärdenkzeichen 1813/14, Bronze vergoldet, grün lackiert, an 23 cm langem Band, extrem schönes Exemplar (OEK 508). Dazu zeitgenössische, handschriftliche Notiz über die Stiftung des Militärdenkzeichens. Dazu goldene Miniatur des portugiesischen Christusordens, Gold, emailliert, 10 x 21 mm, sehr feine Arbeit, kleine Emailchips, an 40 mm breitem Band sowie Verleihungsetui aus rotem Saffianleder mit goldgeprägter Zierkante (20 x 7,5 cm) und Übersendungsschreiben mit blindgeprägtem Staatssiegel. Dazu eine Quittung von 1843. Das Ganze in einem beschrifteten, zeitgenössischen Umschlag.

Zustand: I/II Limit: 1000 EURO    


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5078
18 Auszeichnungen
und Abzeichen. Zweiteilige Ordensspange, EK 1914, 2.Klasse und Frontkämpferehrenkreuz, zwei Feldspangen, drei Militär-Verdienstkreuze 3.Klasse, Kreuz mit Krone und Schwertern, eines mit und eines ohne Schwerter, jeweils in bestoßenen Etuis, König-Ludwig-Kreuz, Hochzeitsmedaille 1921, fünf Feuerwehrauszeichnungen, Kreuz “Treu dem Regiment”, 1.InfRgt. “König”. Kriegervereins-Ehrenzeichen “In Treue Fest”, jeweils mit Bändern. Brosche mit Matrosenbild 1.WK, Medaille Kriegerverein Prien, Abzeichen der Kavallerie-Vereinigung Straubing und des Reserve-InfRgts. 17 Augsburg.

Zustand: II Limit: 320 EURO    


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5079
Feldspangen und Bänder. Veteranen-Denkzeichen für die Feldzüge 1790 – 1812, verliehen 1848. Bronze patiniert, an Bandstück (OEK 506). Militär-Denkzeichen für 1813, 1814, 1815 für Offiziere und Mannschaften, 1817 – 1818, Bronze, an Bandstück (OEK 508). Drei Feldspangen, überwiegend bayer. Auszeichnungen. Bänder für Militär-Verdienstorden ab 1913, Dienstauszeichnungen, EK-Band, Doppelbänder EK und MVO u.a., Band für Kreuz der französischen Ehrenlegion u.a.

Zustand: II Limit: 200 EURO  

220 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5080
Drei Medaillen.
Prinzregent Luitpold-Medaille in Silber (versilbert) und Bronze, jeweils am roten Band (OEK 460/61). Medaille des Infanterie-Leib-Regiments den Verteidigern Tirols 1915, versilbert, am Dreiecksband.

Zustand: II Limit: 160 EURO  




Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5081
Kronprinz Rupprecht.
Erinnerungszeichen an den 60. Geburtstag des Kronprinzen, 1929. Bronze, vergoldet, rs. Nadel und Jubiläumsdatum “18.5.1929”.

Zustand: II Limit: 100 EURO  

220 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5082
für 50 Dienstjahre des bayerischen Landesfeuerwehrausschusses 1925 – 1936. Silber, mit vergoldeter Krone und vergoldetem Mittelteil, blau emailliert, rechter Kreuzarm mit Feingehaltspunze “900”. An Einzelbandspange.

Zustand: II Limit: 220 EURO  

220 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5083
Bayerischer Verdienstorden,
Silber, vergoldet, emailliert. Im Verleihungsetui mit Halsband und den beiden Knopflochrosetten. Im Deckel Tintenspur.

Zustand: II Limit: 360 EURO  

380 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5084
Bayerischer Verdienstorden,
Silber, vergoldet, emailliert, im Verleihungsetui der Fa. Hemmerle München, an konfektioniertem Halsband mit Knopflochrosetten und 16 mm-Miniatur an Band mit Nadel. Dabei silberne Ehrennadel der CSU an gedrehter Nadel und bronzene Ehrenmedaille “Für Verdienste um die Kommunale Selbstverwaltung” des Bayerischen Staatsministeriums des Inneren, im Verleihungsetui. Durchmesser 5 cm.

Zustand: II Limit: 450 EURO    


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5085
des Ministerpräsidenten für Verdienste im Ehrenamt. Silber, vergoldet und emailliert, an gedrehter Nadel mit Sicherungsschraube. Im Verleihungsetui der Fa. Hemmerle München.

Zustand: II+ Limit: 200 EURO  




Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5086
Konvolut Ehrenzeichen
und ein Etui. Feuerwehr-Ehrenzeichen der Sonderstufe, vergoldet, emailliert und bemalt, rs. Längsnadel, dabei die Miniaturnadel. Feuerwehr-Ehrenzeichen in Gold für 40 Jahre, vergoldet, mit Band und Miniaturnadel, in bedruckter Tüte “40”. Ehrenzeichen für Verdienste um das Bayerische Rote Kreuz, Steckkreuz für Besondere Verdienste, vergoldet und emailliert, rs. Längsnadel. Verdienstmedaille der Wasserwacht des Bayerischen Roten Kreuzes in Gold, vergoldet und emailliert, rs. Längsnadel. Verleihungsetui der Fa. Hemmerle zum Bayerischen Verdienstorden.

Zustand: II Limit: 210 EURO  




Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5087
des Säuglingsheimes Prinzessin Arnulf-Haus. Runde, silberne Brosche, im Zentrum plastisches Kinderportrait, umschrieben “Säuglingsheim Prinzessin Arnulf Haus”, rs. Querbroschierung und Feingehaltspunze “800”. Durchmesser 4 cm. Dazu drei Hebammenabzeichen. Brosche der Fachkräfte der Deutschen Hebammen, emailliert mit HK (HeHü 5803a). Allgemeiner Deutscher Hebammenverband (ADHV), silberne und goldene Verdienstbrosche (HeHü 5802bc).

Zustand: II Limit: 200 EURO    


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5088
Drei Medaillen.
Ehrenzeichen 1.Klasse, Medaille 1903 – 1918, Silber (OEK 604). Versilberte Medaille des InfRgt. 92 den Veteranen 1870/71, 1896, an gelb-blauem Band. Centenarmedaille Peninsula 1809 – 1909, vergoldet.

Zustand: II Limit: 150 EURO  

150 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5089
Gibraltar-Medaille 1785.
Silber, 49,4 g. Ursprünglich nicht tragbare Medaille, oben in den Rand gebohrtes Loch zur Befestigung einer Rahe mit Zapfen (OEK 741). Es gelangten 1311 Medaillen zur Verleihung.

Zustand: II-III Limit: 500 EURO  

540 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5090
Urkunde zum Militär-Sanitätskreuz
für Dr. Wilhelm Oncken vom 8.5.1872 mit Blindprägesiegel und OU Ludwigs III. Gefaltet.

Zustand: II Limit: 200 EURO  

480 EURO


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5091
Hausorden von der Goldenen Flamme,
Bruststern ab 1757. Silberner, brillantierter Sternkorpus. Goldenes, aufgelegtes Ordenskreuz, fein gekörnte Kreuzarme, in den Winkeln der Kreuzarme Flammen. Medaillon dunkelblau emailliert, mit goldenem, in Zierschnitt aufgelegtem Wahlspruch “IN SENIO”. Rs. Medaillondeckel mit Firmenbezeichnung “F. Steinam-Hofjuwelier-Stuttgart”, taillierte, stumpfe Nadel. Gewicht 37,6 g, Durchmesser 65 mm (OEK 1017).

Zustand: II Limit: 1600 EURO  

1700 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5092
Hausorden von der goldenen Flamme,
Bruststern ab 1757. Silberner Sternkorpus. Schwach vergoldetes, aufgelegtes Ordenskreuz, fein gekörnte Kreuzarme, in den Winkeln der Kreuzarme Flammen. Medaillon dunkelblau emailliert, mit vergoldetem, in Zierschnitt aufgelegtem Wahlspruch “IN SENIO”, dieser mit Altschliffdiamanten verziert. Rs. zwei Steckhaken, taillierte, stumpfe Nadel, Medaillondeckel mit Firmenbezeichnung “J. Godet & Sohn – Königliche Hoflieferanten – Berlin”, Gewicht 81 g, Durchmesser 87 mm (OEK 1017). In rotem, leicht beschädigtem Etui mit blauer Seide und Samt ausgelegt.

Zustand: II Limit: 2000 EURO  

2000 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5093
Fürstlicher Hohenzollernscher Hausorden.
Ehrenkreuz 2. Klasse mit Krone und Schwertern seit 1866. Silber, vergoldet und emailliert (minimaler Chip unter der Kronenaufhängung). Fünfbügelige, halb gefütterte Krone mit rot emailliertem Futter, beweglich aufgehängt. Gewicht 24 g. An Bandstück.

Zustand: II Limit: 600 EURO  

660 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5094
Zwei Ehrenzeichen.
Silberne Medaille Bene Merenti, Fürst Friedrich 1927 – 1965, versilberte Bronze, an Bandstück (OEK 1055/3). Erinnerungskreuz des Bayerischen 22. Infanterie-Regiments “Fürst Wilhelm von Hohenzollern”, versilbert, am Band (OEK 1074).

Zustand: II Limit: 220 EURO  

220 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5095
Ende 19. bis Anfang 20.Jhdt. Messing vergoldet, Länge 14 cm. Dazu ein Königlich Sächsischer Kammerherrenschlüssel 1904 – 1918, Bronze vergoldet, Teil des Schlüsselkopfes abgebrochen.

Zustand: I-/III Limit: 350 EURO  

420 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5096
Militär-Verdienstkreuz 1870
für Frauen. Bronze, vergoldet, querstehende, angelötete Öse, an Damenschleife (OEK 1345).

Zustand: II Limit: 180 EURO  

360 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5097
Haus- und Verdienstorden von Herzog Peter Friedrich Ludwig,
Bruststern zum Goldenen Großkreuz mit der goldenen Krone. Silber, farbig emailliert, rs. vergoldet, geschwungene Nadel (OEK 1489). Gewicht 54 g.

Zustand: II Limit: 1000 EURO    

Read more





The China History collections 1800-1915




The China pre 1915

History Collections



Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-rom Edition

Special For Senior Collectot

Copyright @ 2012



Early 19th Century


Chine  Picture Postcard  Missionaries pf Tsingtau



Chinese Empire, 1836 (July 4th) early folded entire from London to Canton, from a London firm “W. I. Hall & Co.” to “Wetmore & Co” in Canton, with oblong framed British company in China firm chop alongside, VF piece of early Chinese trading history, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 19,000







Chinese Empire, 1851 stampless folded letter from Shanghai to Kingston MA, reverse with Hong Kong and London transits, New York receiver, ms “45” rate, 11 page letter, describes in detail life in China, scarce, Fine. Realized HK$ 2,800





Chinese Empire, 1853 (Feb 8) stampless folded letter from Canton to Boston, front re-rated twice with manuscript “via Marseilles” and crossed out “via southampton”. Reverse shows Hong Kong 10 FE 1853 transit and red blurred AP 2 1853 British (?) transit. Interesting and unusual usage, F-VFRealized HK$ 3,200


Chinese Empire, 1853 stampless folded letter from Canton to Middletown CT USA, Hong Kong and London transits on reverse, “75” rate with complete “New-York Am Pkt/APR/17″ cds, manuscript “via Marsailles”, discusses rebels heading northward, levelying captured towns and heading for Nanking, Very FineRealized HK$ 6,500



Chinese Empire, 1854 (Sep 23) stampless folded letter from Canton to New York, via Marseilles with back showing Hong Kong and London transits, front has corrected rate of “53” with complete “New York Br Pkt/NOV/29″ cds, letter on tea trade, scarce, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 6,500






Late 19th Century











Foochow, 1863 (March) cover from US Consulate in Foochow to NJ, forwarded to London, 24¢ Victoria tied on front by B62 killer on cover to Dover, NJ, then onto London. Front shows red london PAID dated 19 May and British Pkt 39 marking dated May 2(?). Reverse shows Hong Kong MR 31 63 cds and lovely, bold red “Consulate USA Foo Chow Foo” and fancy Eagle design handstamp. Slight reduction at left, F-VF, nice usage.
Estimate HK$ 1,500 – 2,000.



In 1875, the Qing government ordered Li to the creation of the Northern Navy, allocated four million taels of silver a year for the training of officers and men, the purchase of warships. In 1881, the Qing government has chosen to build a naval base in Port Arthur and Weihai. December 17, 1888, the Northern Navy was officially inaugurated. Since then, modern China officially has a sixth in the world at the time called Asia’s first naval fleet. The picture shows the custom-made 1880 the Qing government to the German ironclads, the “set” because of heavy tonnage, heavy caliber guns, armor thickness, once known as Asia’s first ship in


Northern sailors and more recruitment from coastal Shandong Province, joined the army to accept the strict Western training must learn, in a six month period based on the ship operational knowledge and English. Major warship captain and senior officers of almost all specialized Chuanzheng graduation, students practice and more than once to foreign Naval Academy, the late Qing Dynasty China walk in the forefront of the modernization of the crowd. However, for this reason, the Northern Navy became a stubborn conservative moment of envy, as the target. The picture shows the drilling in Weihai Liugong Island Northern sailors


[ 转自铁血社区 ]



This to follow the example of Western naval steam of the ship as the fleet of major equipment, clothing system, changed the style of the continuation of the “livery” in China since thousands of years, began the transition to the modern direction. Even though the style of the Northern Navy clothing is still Chinese, but the colors of the clothing, cuff rank logo design concepts have begun and European standards. The picture shows a Northern naval officer to receive warships in Europe during the shooting of a photo.




Shanghai, 1877, Small Dragon, 1ca on 3ca and 1ca on 6ca, blue surcharge (Scott 79-80. Chan 65-66), without gum, lovely, nicely centered pair, Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 1,200 – 1,500.





Chinese Empire, 1878, Large Dragons on thin paper, 1ca-5ca complete (Scott 1-3. Chan 1-3), all with o.g., very clean and fresh, sharp rich deep colors, outstanding set, scarce this fine, Very FineRealized HK$ 20,000


Chinese Empire, 1878, Large Dragons on thin paper, 1ca-5ca complete (Scott 1-3. Chan 1-3); 5 ca couple of short perfs on right side, deep rich colors, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 10,000


Chinese Empire, 1878, Large Dragon on thin paper, 1 ca green (Scott 1. Chan 1), with thin gum residue; fresh, slightly wrinkled, otherwise FineRealized HK$ 5,500


Chinese Empire, 1878, Large Dragons on thin paper, 1ca green and 3ca brown red, 2 each (Scott 1-2. Chan 1-2), shades, all without gum or small gum residue; small odd tonings on 3ca values, F.-V.FRealized HK$ 18,000



Chinese Empire, 1878, Large Dragons on thin paper, 3ca brown red and 5ca orange (Scott 2-3. Chan 2-3), used, the former with Customs cds, plus a fake 3ca on card like paper, with trimmed margins all around, fake cancel, 3 itemsRealized HK$ 6,000


Chinese Empire, 1878, Large Dragons on thin paper, 3ca brown red and 5ca orange (Scott 2-3. Chan 2-3), both with part seal cancel, deep rich color, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 6,500


Chinese Empire, 1878, Large Dragon on thin paper, 5ca orange (Scott 3. Chan 3), used with foreign cancel “Sydney/Australia” and other foreign cancels, three different types; stamp has diagonal crease, most unusual and scarceRealized HK$ 4,000




Chinese Empire, 1883, Large Dragon on thick paper, 3ca brown red and 5ca yellow (Scott 8, 9. Chan 11-12), rough perfs, 3ca with weak inking resulting in hollow “3” and weak frameline, 5ca intensive deep rich color, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 6,500



Chinese Empire, 1885-1888, Small Dragons mint group, including rough perfs and perforation varieties (Scott 10//15, Chan 13//21) comprised 1 ca (x6), 3 ca (x3), 5 ca, total 10 examples, some without gum, shades, overall fresh & clean, a nice group, o.g. or without gum, F.-V.F.
Estimate HK$ 4,000 – 5,000.




Shanghai, 1886, Small Dragon, 40cash on 100cash yellow, red surcharge varieties (Scott 117 vars. Chan LS 117a, 117ci), a lovely mint pair of these eye-catching varieties, o.g., Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 1,000 – 1,200.


Shanghai, 1886-88, Small Dragon, 40cash on 100cash yellow, red surcharge varieties (Scott 117 vars. Chan LS117a & ci), two lovely used examples showing surcharge inverted and reading from top left to bottom right varieties, Very Fine, scarce pair, each unpriced used.
Estimate HK$ 1,200 – 1,500.






Qing court the internal political struggle, the senior likes and dislikes, and other reasons, after 1888



Chinese Empire, 1888, Small Dragon, 1ca bright green, perf 11½ (Scott 13. Chan 19), margin block of 4, o.g., very lightly hinged at top, never hinged at bottom, beautiful front & back, a choice block, Very FineRealized HK$ 2,600


the Northern Fleet funding substantially reduced, to naval equipment update in 1890 was forced to completely terminate. For the Navy and technology are advancing by leaps and bounds, Japan by two naval expansion in the case of the rapid rise.







Shanghai, 1893, Double Dragons, 5¢ carmine pink, left half with inverted surcharge (Chan LS141a), with watermarked paper, Type I with Shanghai double circle postmark in blue, Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 800 – 1,200.



Chinese Empire, 1894, Empress Dowager 60th Birthday, 1st Printing, 1 ca value color proof on very thin cigarette paper (Scott 16 var.), without gum as issued, complete margins all around, fresh, Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 800 – 1,200.


Chinese Empire, 1894, Empress Dowager 60th Birthday, 1st Printing, 1 ca orange red, imperf horizontally (Scott 16 var.), vertical pair, used with complete Shanghai seal chop in dark blue; some overall aged toning, stamp Very Fine, rare item. Realized HK$ 6,500


Chinese Empire, 1894, Empress Dowager 60th Birthday 1st Printing, mint group (Scott 16-20,22. Chan 22-26, 28), comprising 1ca(3), 2ca(3), 3ca(3), 4 ca(2), 5ca and 9ca, most with o.g., 12 values, a clean group, generally F.-V.F.
Estimate HK$ 2,500 – 3,000. Realized HK$ 6,500


Chinese Empire, 1894, Empress Dowager 60th Birthday 1st Printing (Scott 16-18, 20-24. Chan 22-24, 26-30), group of 11 values, comprised 1ca, 2ca, 3ca (2), 5ca, 6ca, 9ca (2), 12ca, 24 ca(2), majority very fine, odd faults on couple of values as expected, F-VF.
Estimate HK$ 4,000 – 4,500. Realized HK$ 9,000


Chinese Empire, 1894, Empress Dowager 60th Birthday, 1st Printing,1ca-24ca complete (Scott 16-26. Chan 22-33), neat cancels, very clean, F.-V.FRealized HK$ 10,000





To the outbreak of the Sino in 1894,

the original Northern Fleet warships, regardless of speed, rate of fire, are behind Japan. While the Empress Dowager Cixi morbid extravagance and waste, to include the Navy’s military spending, including state financial burden of non-constructive


The summer of early 1894,

Japan provoke Sino aimed at aggression against the DPRK and China. September 17, 1894, the main force of the Northern Navy and the main force of the Japanese combined fleet encountered in the waters Yalu River, the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese Navy’s first decisive naval battle known as the Yellow Sea Dadonggou.

The picture shows a Japanese war ship “Atlantis pill” shot to the naval battle scene, near the Japanese combined fleet warships, the virtual shadow of the ship in the distant smoke is the Jigong the Northern Fleet to Japan’s combined fleet


[ 转自铁血社区 ]

The beginning of the Battle of Yalu River,

the intention of the Northern Navy cross team cut off at multiple points, disrupting the formation of the Japanese columns, however, the Northern Navy Gejian ship age old, and the speed of the fire completely overwhelmed by the Japanese failed to achieve the established tactical objectives, and ultimatelyinto was the siege of the Japanese. Has suffered serious injuries of the Northern Navy “Zhiyuan” ship under the command of Captain Deng Shichang Japanese ship launched a suicide assault, the intent in order to reverse the situation, and ultimately fall short unfortunately, was sunk by the Japanese. Deng Shichang fell into the meaning of not only students, refused to rescue, Daohai was martyred.


Battle of Yalu River ended with the defeat of the Northern Navy, Northern Navy was sunk by a number of large ships, but failed to sink a Japanese ship, the loss of ship equipment too heavy, the loss of the Yellow Sea naval supremacy. The Japanese army has launched the Battle of Port Arthur and Weihai, an attempt to annihilate the Northern Navy cleared the final obstacles to landing Bohai Bay. In February 1895, experienced a bitter struggle, the downfall of the Northern Navy ammunition aid must in Weihai. The picture shows before the destruction of the Northern Navy after the Japanese torpedo hit the stranded flagship be far “to avoid falling into the scene after the rival blew.


Carved in the of Weihai land fall, Northern Naval Commander Ding Yu to organize all of the Marines through the Gulf backs against the wall on the shore of the Japanese launched a counterattack final Marines advantage of the Japanese oppression to Longmiao mouth Beach, annihilated.Ding Yu suicide. The picture shows the post-war Japanese army shot near in Longmiao mouth killed in the Northern officers and men of the Marine Corps remains.


[ 转自铁血社区 ]




Amoy, 1895, First Issue, 2¢ blue, Type 1 (Scott 3. Chan LA3), block of 4, o.g., fresh mint, Very Fine, scarce block.
Estimate HK$ 1,000 – 1,200.





Chefoo, 1895 (20 July) US – Chefoo combination piece, franked by 5¢ US Grant issue (Scott 270) tied to piece along with Chefoo 1¢ Pagoda by “Chefoo 20 JUL 95 Local Post” cds and 5¢ Grant additionally cancelled by duplex “1” and partial “Postal Agency Jul 31 Shanghai;” nice combination, F-VF.
Estimate HK$ 800 – 1,000.


Chinkiang, Postage Due, 1895, Overprinted on ½¢ wide spaced (Scott J9, var. Chan LCHD8 & 8di), horizontal 4 stamps used on piece, second stamp showing “U” in “”DUE”” inserted by hand variety, Very Fine, scarce.
Estimate HK$ 800 – 1,200.


Chinkiang, Postage Due, 1895, 15¢ carmine, black over red overprint, both inverted (Scott J12cd. Chan LCHO24b), horizontal pair, o.g.; fresh, bright pair which is sensibly reinforced, right stamp tiny, pinpoint thin speck, otherwise F.-V.F., striking variety, scarce.
Estimate HK$ 2,500 – 3,500.



Hankow, Postage Dues, 1895, Type III complete (Chan LHD11-13), o.g.; 10¢ carmine with shallow thin spot, otherwise F.-V.F., scarce set.
Estimate HK$ 4,000 – 5,000. Realized HK$ 7,500

February 17, 1895,

the Japanese Navy with the landing in the island of Liu, Ji-Canton C, the town of medium remaining 10 ship for the Japanese army captured the northern fleet was wiped out. Subsequently, the Qing government sent Li plenipotentiary to Japan to peace, and the “Sino-Japanese Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed on April 17, the Sino-end. The destruction of the Northern Navy also marks the failure of the Westernization Movement, the Qing Empire’s international standing has plummeted, and once again become the object of the powers creeping. The picture shows the Japanese occupation of the Northern Navy Liugongdao Navy hall


  • ·              战舰军港尽失,拨银数千万两打造的北洋海军成为众矢之的。而清廷内部的门户派系斗争,更让海军衙门在战争结束之前就被撤销。1895428日,光绪帝颁布上谕将大批海军军官革职查办。三个月后,北洋海军各级职务从建制上被正式取消。从1874讨论南北洋海防,到1895年北洋海军覆灭,前后历时21年。图为北洋海军覆灭后,幸存官兵被集中至威海遣散。

battleship naval port lose dial Silver number of 10.002 million to build the Northern Navy become common knowledge. The Qing government portal within the factional fighting, leaving the Navy Yamen before the end of the war has been revoked. April 28, 1895, the Guangxu Emperor issued the Edict of a large number of naval officers dismissed and punished. Three months later, the Northern Navy positions at all levels from the establishment was officially canceled. Yang Hai Phong to discuss North-South from 1874 to 1895 collapse of the Northern Navy, and it took 21 years. The picture shows after the destruction of the Northern Navy, the surviving officers and men were concentrated to Weihai severance.





W. B. Thornhill, Shanghai, 1895 first edition published by Stanley Gibbons, with notes and publishers’ prices, Extremely Fine.
Estimate HK$ 800 – 1,200. Realized HK$ 2,600




Chinkiang, Official, 1896, 15¢ carmine, inverted overprint variety (Scott O8a. Chan LCHO8var), o.g., never hinged, pristine mint, F.-V.F., scarce.
Estimate HK$ 1,000 – 1,200


Hankow, Postage Due, 1896, 2¢ violet on buff, Type II (Scott J6 + var. Chan LHD6 + 6a), a lovely vertical strip of 3, top stamp showing large top of left character variety, fresh, Very Fine, scarce multiple.
Estimate HK$ 1,200 – 1,600.


Hankow, Postage Due, 1896, 2¢ violet on buff, Type II (Scott J6 var. Chan LHD6a), an attractive example, showing large top of left character variety, used, Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 1,000 – 1,400.



Chinese Empire, 1897, Large Figure ½¢ on Empress Dowager 2nd Printing 3ca orange, wide spacing, imperf horizontally (Scott 47c. Chan 56eii), vertical strip of 3, o.g., lightly hinged, fresh, F.-V.F.
Estimate HK$ 34,000 – 40,000.



Chinese Empire, 1897, Empress Dowager 60th Birthday, 2nd Printing, 4ca pale rose (Scott 19n. Chan 25S), o.g., fresh and F.-V.F., scarce.
Estimate HK$ 2,400 – 3,000.


Chinese Empire, 1897, Large Figure 1¢ on Empress Dowager 1st Printing 1ca vermilion, wide spacing (Scott 39. Chan 48), o.g., F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 1,100



Chinese Empire, 1897, Large Figure Surcharges on Empress Dowager, 2nd Printing, Wide Spacing, mint group (Scott 47//55, 73-74. Chan 56//64, 82-83), plus re-engraved set, comprised ½¢(2), 1¢(2), 2¢(2), 4¢, 5¢, 8¢, 10¢ and 30¢, re-engraved ½¢ missing corner and 2¢(2), total 14 values, majority clean and fresh overall condition, o.g., F.-V.F.
Estimate HK$ 6,000 – 7,000. Realized HK$ 11,000


Chinese Empire, 1897, Small Figure Surcharges on Empress Dowager, mint group (Scott 28//36), comprising ½¢(4), including pair shifted perfs, 1¢, 2¢, 4¢, 5¢, 8¢(2) one with “8” shifted to right, 10¢ on 6¢, 10¢ on 9¢ and 10¢ on 12¢, o.g. on all values, one 8¢ bottom straight edge, clean group, 13 values, F.-V.F.
Estimate HK$ 5,000 – 6,000. Realized HK$ 9,000


Chinese Empire, 1897, Large Figure Surcharges on Empress Dowager, 2nd Printing, Wide Spacing (Scott 47-51, 53-55), 8 values without 8¢ on 6ca, but with extra values, comprising ½¢(2), 1¢, 2¢, 4¢, 5¢, 10¢ on 9ca(2), 10¢/12ca and 30¢/24ca, total 11 values.
Estimate HK$ 2,500 – 3,000. Realized HK$ 5,000





Chinese Empire, 1897, Large Figure Surcharges on Empress Dowager, 2nd Printing, Narrow Spacing, mint & used group (Scott 65//71, 73. Chan 74-79, 83), comprised mint ½¢(2), 1¢(2), 2¢, 4¢, 10¢ and used ½¢, 1¢(3), 2¢(2), 10¢ on 9ca, 10¢ on 12ca, minor varieties noted, plus ½¢ on 3ca, total 17 values, generally F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 4,500



Chinese Empire, 1897, Small Figure Surcharges on Empress Dowager, used selection (Scott 28//36), comprised of ½¢(3), 1¢(2), 2¢(2), 4¢, 5¢(4) including pair, 8¢(3), 10¢ on 6ca, 10¢ on 9ca used on piece, 10¢ on 12ca with nearly complete “Tangku” cds in blue, overall F-VF, some faults expected, 18 values.
Estimate HK$ 2,800 – 3,500. Realized HK$ 7,500


Chinese Empire, 1897, Large Figure 30¢ on Empress Dowager 2nd Printing 24ca dark red, 2mm spacing (Scott 55a. Chan 64d), o.g., F.-V.FRealized HK$ 18,000



Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 2¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 80. Chan 88), o.g., small hinge remnant, clean, F.-V.FRealized HK$ 5,000





Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 1¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 78. Chan 87), o.g., fresh, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 3,400


Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 1¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 78. Chan 87), o.g., hinge remnant; perfs trimmed close at top, otherwise F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 3,000


Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 1¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 78), block of 4, part o.g., F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 26,000





Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 1¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 78. Chan 87), 3 examples, one mint and two used copies, the former has small gum thinned spot, used fine, all with surcharges shifted to the right, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 6,500


Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 2¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 80. Chan 88), used, fresh, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 2,200





Chinese Empire, 1897, Small 2¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 79. Chan 84), o.g., clean, exceptionally well centered, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 8,000


Chinese Empire, 1897, Small 2¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 79. Chan 84), surcharge slightly shifted to left; small thin top left corner, Fair exampleRealized HK$ 6,000


Chinese Empire, 1897, Small 2¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 79. Chan 84), used, well centered, Very FineRealized HK$ 6,500






Chinese Empire, 1897, Small 2¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 79. Chan 84), neat large part Customs postmark, good color and centering, Very FineRealized HK$ 19,000


Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 4¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 82. Chan 89), o.g., hinge remnant, clean, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 11,000


Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 4¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 82. Chan 89), has o.g. but used example, neat part Shanghai Dollar chop cancel, good color and superb centering, exceptional beauty, Very FineRealized HK$ 4,000


Chinese Empire, 1897, Small $1 on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 84. Chan 86), regummed, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 38,000


Chinese Empire, 1897, Large $1 on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 84. Chan 90), position 14, surcharge shifted downward, o.g., good color, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 40,000









Chinese Empire, 1897, Large $1 on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 84. Chan 90), used, clean, F-VF, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 22,000


Chinese Empire, 1897, Large $1 on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 84. Chan 90), position 7, used with complete strike of Swatow Pakua cancel, good color and centering, Extremely FineRealized HK$ 22,000


Hankow, 1897 P.P.C. “Pour Prendre Congé” overprint issue complete (Chan LH26-30), full o.g., fresh mint, F.-V.F., scarce set.
Estimate HK$ 2,000 – 3,000. Realized HK$ 18,000


Hankow, Postage Due, 1895, 20¢ blue on buff, Type III (Scott J13. Chan LHD13), used, full margins, fresh, Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 1,000 – 1,500.









Chinese Empire, 1897, Imperial Chinese Post, 50¢ blue green, color error (Scott 94b. Chan 100b), clean o.g., scarce shade,very well centered, VF, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 8,500


Chinese Empire, 1897, Imperial Chinese Post Coiling Dragon Series complete (Scott 86-97. Chan 92-103), with 8 additional shades, o.g., overall fresh, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 22,000



Chinese Empire, 1897, Imperial Chinese Post Coiling Dragon Series complete (Scott 86-97. Chan 92-103), $2, $5 appear to be no gum, others with large part o.g., vivid bright colors throughout, good to well centered, F.-V.F. setRealized HK$ 18,000


Chinese Empire, 1897 (May 27) prepaid subscriber cover from Chungking to Philadelphia, front showing blue “Customs 27 May 97 Chungking” handstamp, with Japan 5s Koban tied by Shanghai 11 Jun 97 IJPO cds from China inland Mission corner card with “Hankow” crossed out and replaced by “Chungking”. Reverse shows brown Shanghai large dollar chop date 7 Jun97, Yokohama 17 Jun transit Vancouver JU 30 transit and Philadelphia Jul 7 receiver. Scarce combination of markings, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 8,500


Chinese Empire, 1897 (Jun 19) prepaid subscriber cover from Chungking to Philadelphia, a lovely cover, with front showing bold, black “Chungking 19 Jun 97 Customes” handstamp, and 5s Japanese Koban, tied by “Shanghai 8 Jul 97 IJPO” cds. Reverse shows a wonderful array of clear markings including brown Shanghai 7 Jul large dollar chop, Yokohama 12 Jul transit, S.F. transit and Philadelphia Aug 9 receiver. Excellent usage, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 13,000


Chinese Empire, 1897 (Jul 5) prepaid subscriber cover from Chungking to Philadelphia, showing on front a lovely strike in black of “Chungking 5 Jul 97 Customs” oval dater along with vertical pair of 5s Japanese Koban which is cancelled “Shanghai 23 July 97 IJPO” cds. Reverse offers a wonderful range of marking including a brown Shanghai 20 Jul 97 large dollar chop, Yokohama 29 Jul transit and Philadelphia Aug 17 receiver. Atrractive and F-VF, a choice coverRealized HK$ 22,000


Chinese Empire, 1897 (Jun 9) prepaid subscriber cover from Chungking to Philadelphia, front showing nice strike of “Chungking 9 Jun 97 Customs” oval handstamp, along with 5s Japanese Koban, which is cancelled by “Shanghai 21 Jun 97 IJPO” cds. Reverse shows lovely, brown Shanghai 20 Jul 97 large dollar chop, Yokohama 26 Jun transit, Tacoma, Wash. Jul 16 transit and Philadelphia July 21 receiver. Lovely usage, F.-V.FRealized HK$ 15,000


Chinese Empire, 1897 (July 11) cover front from Chinkiang to North Carolina, franked by 5s Japanese Victory issue, tied by clean, “Shanghai 19 Jul 97 IJPO” cds. Front shows at lower left a choice strike in brown of Chinkiang small Customs chop and missionary corner card. Very scarce combination, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 18,000







Chinese Empire, 1898 (Apr 18) cover from Shanghai to Wellington, New Zealand, 10¢ rate with large 10 surcharge, franked with “Large Ten” Chinese character surcharge 10¢ on 30¢ QV (Scott 69a, Yang 54b), postmarked Shanghai cds, Ap/18/98, manuscript “Via Hong Kong Sorres Straits” and reverse Hong Kong “D” Ap/22/98 cds transit and Wellington/NZ 26 My 98 cds receiver alongside, “Large Ten” surcharge is rare, used on commercial cover possibly unique, rough opening, not affecting the attractiveness of this rare coverRealized HK$ 4,500


Chinese Empire, 1898 (Jan 4) prepaid subscriber cover from Chungking to Philadelphia, with front showing Chungking 4 Jan 98 large dollar chop along with two 5s Japanese Kobans, which are tied by “Shanghai 22 Jan IJPO” cds. Reverse shows black Shanghai 22 Jan 98 large dollar chop, Yokohama 27 Jan transit and SF Feb 18 1898 Paid All transit andvery light and indistinct Philadelphia receiver. This cover when compared with the other, surrounding covers from thsi missionary correspondence, shows the transition from the Chungking oval to the large dollar dater. F-VF, a lovely item. Realized HK$ 20,000


Chinese Empire, 1898, Chinese Imperial Post, 20¢, 30¢ and 50¢, Waterlow & Sons trial color proof in maroon (Scott 104-106 vars. Chan 110-112 vars.), block of 9, overprinted” Specimen” and security punched, without gum as issued, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 20,000

Early 20th Century




Chinese Empire, 1901, BRA 5¢ on Chinese Imperial Post Coiling Dragon ½¢ chocolate, green surcharge (Scott 98 var. Chan BRA 1), with usual BRA postmark in blue; odd toning spots, otherwise F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 700


Chinese Empire, 1901 (Nov 28) registered combination cover from Chunkiang? to Yokohama, Japan, a neat standard size envelope, franked with pair of 10¢ green coiling Dragon tied by bisected light cds with 10s Kiku Blue offices in China vertical pair alongside tied by dark blue Shanghai IJPO 16 Dec 01 dater. IJPO Shanghai registration label applied with straight Registered handstamp in purple. Large red “R” handstamp in Red alongside, docket 4198 in blue, red wax seals over flap on reverse. A clean neat colorful cover, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 6,000



Chinese Empire, 1901 (April 21) picture post card from Chefoo to Italy, franked on front by 4¢ Coiling Dragon tied by Chefoo 4/21 cds, while address side bears pair of 2¢ hong Kong Victoria’s tied by Shanghai Ap 26 01 British PO transit, Shanghai 25 April Chinese PO transit and Roma Jun 28 receiver. neat and Very Fine, nice usageRealized HK$ 1,800



Chinese Empire, 1902 (Dec 18) First Issue post card usage from Chungking to Philadelphia, 1¢ card uprated by 1¢ and 2¢ Coiling Dragons, all tied by Choice strikes of Kweiyang double-margin tombstone chops. Front additionally shows Chungking 18 Dec 02 cds, Shanghai bilingual 3 Jan 03 cds along with French PO Shang-Hai 3 JANU 03 cds, Nagasaki 6 Jan transit, Yokohama 8 Jan transit and Phila Jan 31 1903 arrivial. A spectacular card with wonderful eye-appeal, F-VF, a beauty! Realized HK$ 15,000


Chinese Empire, 1902, Chinese Imperial Post Coiling Dragon, 1901, ½¢, 1¢ and 2¢ in ultramarine, overprinted “Specimen” (Scott 110, 111, 112 vars.), a vertical strip of 3, unpunched (quite unusual), overprinted “Waterlow & Sons Ltd, Specimen”, without gum as issued, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 5,000


Chinese Empire, 1902, Chinese Imperial Post Coiling Dragon, 4¢, 5¢ and 10¢ in blue green, overprinted “Specimen” (Scott 113, 114, 116 vars.), a left margin vertical strip of 3, each stamp punched at bottom left, overprinted “Waterlow & Sons Ltd, Specimen”, without gum as issued, pristine, Very Fine and choiceRealized HK$ 4,500


Chinese Empire, 1902, Chinese Imperial Post Coiling Dragon, 4¢, 5¢ and 10¢ in orange brown, overprinted “Specimen” (Scott 113, 114, 115 vars.), a left margin vertical strip of 3, each stamp punched at top right, overprinted “Waterlow & Sons Ltd, Specimen”, without gum as issued, Very Fine, scarceRealized HK$ 3,800


Chinese Empire, 1902, Chinese Imperial Post Jumping Carp, 30¢ and 50¢ in violet, overprinted “Specimen” (Scott 117, 118, 119 vars.), a vertical strip of 3, each stamp punched at lower left, overprinted “Waterlow & Sons Ltd, Specimen”, without gum as issued, Very Fine and choice. Realized HK$ 2,400



Followed by the Boxer of the change and the Russo-Japanese War, the Qing government aware of the reconstruction of the Navy is still the only way.

1902 onwards,

a large number of former Northern naval officer to open recovery officer, and the establishment of the Naval Academy, from the talent to start rebuilding the Navy.

 [ 转自





Chinese Empire, 1903 & 1906 uprated 1¢ postal card usages to Philadelphia, two 1¢ cards, comprised of Oct 1903 card, uprated by 1¢ & 2¢ marginal coiling Dragons tied by Shanghai cdss to Philadelphia, plus a lovely 1906 1¢ uprated card with lunar cancels and tombstone branch marking to US as well. Interesting pair, F-VFRealized HK$ 7,000




The late Qing Dynasty naval battleship “sea”, where “sea Sum”, “sea-chips”, “Hairong” After the revolution, uprising, “sky” sank the ship ran aground in 1904. “Hai Qi” ships in the Revolution occurs by cruiser team command Cheng Biguang led to the identity of the Qing Dynasty naval warships to visit, to participate in the review a naval ceremony of the coronation of George V, King of England. The picture shows the “Hai Qi” ship to visit during the moored New York, USA.



The photo shows 1905 during the Russo-Japanese War, Port Arthur, the Japanese officer witnessed the Russian warships were sunk to the scene.





Naval Academy graduates to study in Japan is increasing year by year. In 1906,

17 graduates of the Jiangnan Naval Academy class of the fifth driving, 12 were sent to Japan. A lot of Navy trainees in Japan revolutionary ideas, and pave the way for the future defection.

The picture shows the Qing government and some officers of the Navy to receive the warship photo in Japan and shipyard officials.





Chinese Empire, 1909, Temple of Heaven, mint & used group (Scott 131-133. Chan 137-139), comprising mint 2¢(3), 3¢(3), 7¢(4) with or without gum, used 2¢(4), 3¢ & 7¢, 16 values, generally F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 1,200



Chinese Empire, 1909 printed local addressed registered cover, franked with complete set “Temple of Heaven” issue, individual postmarked by Shanghai registered cancels, handstamped Registered/Shanghai #132, with similar Shanghai receiver “Index 1″ on reverse, a fine cover used on second day of issue, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 6,500


Chinese Empire, 1909 cover from Fukien to England via Siberia, franked with 3¢ & 7¢ Temple of Heaven and 2¢ green & 4¢ brown coiling dragons tied by Fukien bilingual cds, on reverse various transit marks and Frome/England receiver Ja/15/10, minor imperfection, F-VF, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 7,500


Chinese Empire, 1909 (Sept 15) small cover from Peking to Germany, franked with 3¢ & 7¢ Temple of Heaven issue, tied by Peking bilingual bisected cds (15 Sept 09), VF and clean cover, Very FineRealized HK$ 2,400

July 15, 1909,

 the Qing court set up to organize the Naval Affairs, by the carrier Xun Sa town of ice act as deputy to the organization of the Admiralty, the combined north and south, two ocean navy, change the set up cruiser team and the Yangtze River Fleet.


 China for the first time a unified naval command structure and the Navy Command.

Contained a truly just appointed and announced an ambitious development of the Navy for seven years planning, plan a quick Tim made ​​eight first-class battleship, cruiser more than 20 ships, all kinds of soldiers round 10, the preparation of the first, second, third teamwater torpedo; the establishment of the ocean naval port and dock; the establishment of the naval College.

1909 to 1910, set out Xun Sa town ice has visited Europe and the United States, ordered the ships. The picture shows the contained truly, Sa the town of ice and his entourage visited the British navy, two left, front row, respectively Sa town ice contained Xun.


Although the Qing government to establish a naval command structure at all levels, but for the suspicion of the Han Chinese, the upper large number enabled the royal family, Banners, which agents Navy Marshal Zai Feng, Lord of the Admiralty contained truly do not understand naval operations, Sa town ice, althoughtechnical education, have to moderation by the royal family.

Mostly Navy grassroots officers origin Chuanzheng some there Liuyang experience, sense of lack of allegiance to the Qing court, and Banners dictatorship, a profound understanding of the upper corruption, widespread disappointment. These officers can be divided into two factions of Guangdong, Fujian, with each other intrigue, serious internal friction. The picture shows the ship “Horizon” custom-made in Britain


Boxer ordered before the “sea” cruiser Hai Qi “sky” Hai Chen and Hai, Hai “have arrived in the main the end of the Qing Navy. The naval powers had been involved in an arms race, one of the main battleship tonnage in the United Kingdom, equivalent to the sum of the entire tonnage of the Qing Dynasty cruiser team.

Aspects of naval port, Port Arthur, Weihai powers lease, coastal ports and more being carved up, the Qing court preparation in Xiangshan, Zhejiang, Xingang, but until Qing death also did not finish. After the cause of the picture shows the “sky” sister ship “Hai Qi” ship, the Chinese side received a photo of the ship officers in the ship, second row third from right human Sa town ice.




Of the 20th century,

to follow the example of Japan to become a big fashion in the late Qing Dynasty. The Navy purchased the ship and to study the focus turned to Japan. 1909, 14 ships in order fully to China total displacement of 5700 tons.

These warships, constitute the main later Yangtze River Fleet. The picture shows the custom-made in Japan, “Chu Qian warship instrument



Sa town ice, has been appointed as the preparation for the Lord of the Admiralty and Navy admirals, the unification of the Bureaucracy, flag-style uniforms, orders the implementation of the first scientific management of China’s modern navy.

Same year in August 24 to September 24,

contained Xun, Sa town ice from Beijing toured the nine coastal (and the Yangtze River) province of Hai Phong, and inspected the naval school, shipyards, and participated in the Xiangshan provision of Hong Kong ceremony.

To the Revolution broke out in a total of 16 years and a half in October 1911, the Qing government purchased warships 39 with a displacement of 34,728 tons (all failed to China, excluding warships).

Domestic warship 24, a total of 10,564 tons displacement. Northern Navy seems to be to revive the prestige. The photo shows portraits of the Bodhisattva town ice.








Chinese Empire, 1910 (Apr 10) picture postcard from Lungchow to England, franked on picture side CIP Coiling Dragon 1¢ and 3¢ Temple of Heaven, each tied by strike of Lungchow 14th Apr/10 bisected bilingual cds, on reverse similar Lungchow date & French style Lang-son/Tonkin 15 April/10 transit cds alongside, VF, accompanied with Experts & Consultants Ltd photo certificate #1870, scarce Lungchow usage. Realized HK$ 6,500


Long flagship team’s defection of the Chinese Navy toward Xinhai
Since the Westernization Movement suffered bitterly from imperialist intrusion, the Qing government had invested heavily to create one of Asia’s largest naval. Accept the Western-style military training, equipped with world-class battleship of the “Dragon’s flagship team, becoming a scene in the late Qing. After the defeat of the Sino-‘s modern navy is not dead. 17 years after the Revolution of 1911, the Qing court this placed an army of recycled high hopes, but one after another uprising, switch to the revolutionary ranks, becoming the Qing dynasty’s ironic footnote.

[ 转自铁血社区 ]

The late Qing Dynasty two Opium Wars, the Qing government deeply Haiphong empty aimed at “self-defense” Westernization Movement, including the construction of the focus is to create a modern naval. Organize the beginning of the Chinese Navy as a teacher In the United Kingdom, a large number of advanced weapons and equipment purchased from the United Kingdom, Germany and other European countries. The picture shows the custom-made by the Qing government in the UK “mosquito boats. These gunboats steel wooden outsourcing, known as the “mosquito boats” can be used for coastal defense but does not have ocean-going capability.




As the most grassroots level officers and sailors of the Qing Dynasty Cantonese, Fujianese, and the Rebel officers and men students, the uprising of the Association, the main vessels, the the Qing residue around the vessels uprisings. The picture shows the Jiujiang Army civil affairs, Linsen convince the naval uprising.




Reconstruction of the navy of the Qing government, already in the Qing court has not yet collapsed when all the uprising become an important military power in the hands of revolutionaries. The picture shows the uprising sailors preparing to attack Nanjing.



The picture shows the Navy’s carrier-based Norden flying cannon to be demolished ashore to participate in the attack on Nanjing.


[ 转自铁血社区 ]

May 8, 1911,

 the Qing government set up a royal cabinet, around the constitutionalists disappointed revolutionary activities has become more active.

October 10,

the Wuchang Uprising opened the curtain of the 1911 Revolution. Viceroy Rui Cheng parked in a hurry to escape Wuhan Jiang surface gunboat refuge.

On the 12th, the Qing court quickly set up a siege agencies, Army the Minister Yinchang unified command, rushed to the Wuhan repression.

The picture shows the Qing to the Revolutionary Armed Forces of the purposes of Fire Attack, Hankou Market flames




December 6,

the Revolutionary Armed Forces of the Navy General Command was established in Shanghai, acclaimed Cheng Biguang Navy chief, Huang Zhongying deputy commander, Tang Xiang Ming cruiser commander of the Qing court has to lift the load Xun Navy Minister from office by the Deputy Minister Tan Xuehengas the last Lord of the Admiralty, but neither the sea, nor the Navy.

Lapel with Jianghan view of the three towns, a huge ship role, and the Navy to help destroy the Qing court lie in Sa town ice rate. Sa town ice on the 13th since the Gao Temple rate “Chu” Chu Yu Chu and Qin, Chu Qian Jiang, Jian Wei gunboats and torpedo boats 6 set sail on the 15th to the Hankou middle of the river than the Army as early as two days notice consular corps, naval vessels in place, will open the shelling of the city. The picture shows the Wuhan Jiang surface of the Yangtze River Naval warships


Phase for a large number of revolution in the early uprising in the new army, the navy to join the revolution rarely. A ships range of sectors, a two-person rallying cry is difficult to control the ship; two treatment much better than the Army, leading to a naval officer in the politically more conservative; the focus of the work of the three revolutionaries are mainly concentrated in the new army and secret societies .

Therefore, for the rulers, the Navy is an important tool that they used to suppress the people to resist. Combined with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Water is weak, the Yangtze River Fleet to pose a major threat. The picture shows the primitive gun ship of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Jiujiang.


The Manchu three main cruiser and Hai “,” Hairong “,” sea Sum “has also been ordered to move into Wuhan Jiang surface assist in the fight. The three ship officers and men of the “naive” more sympathy for the revolution is the mainstream. Hoi Sum “ship officer Zhang Yi Bo contact the officers and men of the battleship, and are not aimed to make war, not venting is fired at the surface of the river. While other gunboats how ships of the original attribution of Hubei Province, the crew out of the incense of love do not want to force war. Above left: to raise the sea “; upper right:” sea Sum “; the following diagram: Hairong.


The commander in chief Sa town ice Mongolian Banners, but it is a career naval officer, but also teachers and students of friendship, and Li Yuan-hung arrangement came later did not actively attack the Revolutionary Armed Forces.


When receiving the letter of Li’s instigation, he also noncommittal, neither the response to the revolution, nor hard to combat. Navy and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of more than 3000 meters apart on the radio, each other shells are nothing but fall on the water, did not result in losses. Part of the naval officers and men have been germination of the idea of sympathy for the uprising, the Revolutionary Armed Forces continue to fight for the Navy. The picture shows the Revolutionary Armed Forces of the xiang next to the guard.





Chinese Republic, Group of 6 examples all with specimen overprints, 1912-1923 (Scott 192-3, 240-1, 253 & 260), comprising President Yuan Shih-Kai 3¢ and 5¢ First Peking Junk Issue, 1½¢ and 13¢ and 2nd Peking Printing 4¢ and 15¢, the former two values without gum, others o.g., overall fresh and clean, 6 values. Realized HK$ 500


Chinese Republic, 1912, Foochow “Provisional Neutrality”, 3¢ slate green (Scott 134. Chan 140), group of 4 items, comprised of 2 mint and 2 used examples; one mint copy light crease, F.-V.F. or better, one stamp each signed Bloch and Livingston. Realized HK$ 4,000


Chinese Republic, 1912, Nanking “Provisional Neutrality”, 7¢ maroon (Scott 140. Chan 146), used, fresh, F.-V.F., signed Livingston. Realized HK$ 1,800

February 12, 1912,

the Qing emperor abdicated, China more than two thousand years of the autocratic monarchy to an end. The picture shows the Tang Xiang Ming led the main fleet is to go northward into the Bohai Bay, the the Qing final without a ship attack.




Found on the New York media, all ship officers and sailors back of the head, “Hai Qi, Qing Dynasty China is typical of the Okanagan pigtails is no longer intact. It turned out that as early as in the “Hai Qi” left Shanghai, as reported to the Qing court, the officers of the ship had been all cut off the braids. “Hai Qi” ship has also become only a whole crew of the ship in the Navy of the Manchu government to cut off the braids of warships.

The picture shows the “Hai Qi” ship soldiers cut off the braids to attend the welcoming ceremony held by the New York official


[ 转自铁血社区 ]




As a fellow old friend of Sun Yat-sen, Cheng Biguang revolutionary message, after discussion, convened by the ship’s officers and men, and ordered the revolutionaries station starboard side, unwilling to stand portside, the results of the whole crew, together with the visit to the United States when the New York shipyard factorylong gift ship cat “station to starboard.

January 1, 1912,

far in the UK “Hai Qi ship held a changing of the guard ceremony, lowered the Qing Dynasty Huanglong flag, rising five-color flag of the Republic. “Hai Qi” ship in May 1912, after 30,850 sea miles voyage back to the port of departure to Shanghai at this time the land of China is no longer the imperial era.



Chinese Republic, 1912, Statistical Dept. “Republic” Overprints complete (Scott 146-160. Chan 152-166), full o.g., never hinged, good color, key values well centered, scarce, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 22,000


Chinese Republic, 1912, Statistical Dept. “Republic” Overprint, $1 red & pale rose, overprint inverted (Scott 158a. Chan 164b), cancelled Kuang-Tong, Kuan-Chow (Canton) June 17, 1st Year, clean and well centered, Very Fine, a major rarity, signed Livingston, ex Pedersen.
Estimate HK$ 140,000 – 160,000

One of 10 documented examples known and fourth copy referenced in”The Inverted Overprint Chung Hwa Min Kuo” by Henry Nyi, in “The China Clipper”, Volume 56, No. 6, pages 196-199



Chinese Republic, 1912, Waterlow & Sons “Republic” Overprint, $1 red & pale rose (Scott 175 & var. Chan 181, 181a), horizontal pair with right sheet margin, left stamp with “One” retouched, part original glazed gum, lightly hinged top margin, extremely fresh, F.-V.F., rare in pair.
Estimate HK$ 25,000 – 30,000.



Chinese Republic, 1912, Waterlow & Sons “Republic” Overprints complete (Scott 163-177. Chan 169-174), full o.g., several never hinged, clean, F.-V.FRealized HK$ 20,000


Chinese Republic, 1912, Revolution Commemoratives nearly complete (Scott 178-187, 189), 11 values without $2 value, mint, plus a short set 1¢-$1 used, 21 values, all o.g. except 1¢ without gum, generally F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 4,000


Chinese Republic, 1912, Revolution Commemoratives complete (Scott 178-189. Chan 184-195), o.g., clean fresh appearance, F.-V. Realized HK$ 12,000








Chinese Republic, 1912, Revolution and Republic Commemoratives complete (Scott 178-201. Chan 184-207), o.g., clean, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 22,000



China related covers, composed of registered red band Coiling Dragon cover, 1915 censored India to Canton cover, US Consular Service cover from Tsinan to USA and PPC from Shanghai US Postal Agency to New York



Post 1915



Chinese Republic, 1921, Postal Service issue plus overprinted for use in Sinkiang complete, overprinted “Specimen” (Scott 243-246, Sink. 39-42), o.g., F.-V.FEstimate HK$ 3,000 – 3,500.


Chinese Republic, 1923, Constitution complete, overprinted “Specimen” (Scott 270-273. Chan 289-292), clean o.g., Post Office fresh, Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 2,000 – 2,500.




The eve of World War II Japanese occupation of China’s northeast,

the German occupation of Hungary and Czechoslovakia, and not much reaction to the international community, the major powers of that time is not for these to each other fell, and the West countries are looking to Hitler and Stalin’s rally. However, if this time, Germany and Japan, timely close hand, enjoy the vested interests, and the major powers in the world to form a strategic balance or form an interest group, and perhaps no World War II, many countries of the world’s history and fate must be rewritten.
Is likely the three northeastern provinces do lose, there is Taiwan and Taiwan, Japan and the Soviet Union may reach some kind of treaty to carve up the Northeast and North Korea, endless civil resistance will not change the basis of the occupied and assimilation with the extension of time slowly popular.

Moreover, the domestic Kuomintang-Communist but also the civil war, no matter who wins, I’m afraid that did not have the power to recover the Northeast, a long time to become the next “Sino-Russian Treaty, Russia is not occupied millions of square kilometers of territory in China. ? . . .

 United States would not make great efforts and Japan against, the Cold War could be one, and anyone with who is anti-Japanese control in Northeast Asia, the United States control of the West Asia and the Americas, dominated the Middle East, Europe, Germany replaced Britain as the leader of the European, to become anti- Russia’s outpost. Running out of Time and the proxy war between the great powers will only be formed, each maintain their own sphere of inter


est, to form a triangular race for the situation. The majority of African and Latin countries, perhaps a subsidiary of the big countries or colonies, the imperialist countries to treat this issue is highly consistent.
Fortunately, history is not so simple, but the greed of the rulers of the reason the impossible idea of ​​who is the leader at all mutual destruction, completely failed to reach the balance of power between the major powers. Ever since, the power consumption between the great powers, developing countries may rise. Rather fight the country has been unable to control the situation, so they formed a modern military and interests of the alliance, NATO.


are greedy angered disaster, rewrite World War II history of the wonderful comments
Since the 1918

is destined to Japan once again a war

, it should be said that Chiang Kai-shek or heavy commitment,

 dual 12 Incident after the Chinese army began a large-scale training and consolidation, the Japanese fear China’s retaliation was to strike first.

The fuse of war in China is 918, the direct cause of a major shift of public opinion and government action in the 12 pairs of events after 77 Incident, only one will come sooner or later inevitable event.

 As for the results of that war, Japan doomed to fail, too big to Japan’s fundamentally impossible to directly effective rule.


The Great Unification of the Chinese people is too heavy, even if Japan does not get involved, after the Chinese government to achieve the complete reunification reunification of the war is bound to initiate the Northeast. Floor living looking through the history books, as long as the Han Chinese is not the rule of a government under the rule of China appear a variety of of Nanzheng or Northern Expedition.

The Japanese can assimilation northeast, but to make the Northeast people say Japanese words, to get to three generations, the Chinese government enough time to unite the force. If Japan does not respond to the 37 years of behavior of large-scale anti-Japan, the Japanese economy is devastated after losing China’s vast market, and the cohesion of the anti-Japanese banner within 20 years will be able to train a sufficient and Japan the army of the war, the result is in Japanese Liangbai with injury, the Japanese lost the status of the world’s second power, which is that Japan will not be tolerated.

The following is a reference to three days to play a fish in the 13 floor speech:
China’s War of Resistance Against Japan from the nine hundred and eighteen, counting even if the Japanese expansion in China have never stopped the anti-Japanese
German invasion of the Czech Republic, Austria-Hungary to a war a bit different in the past 20 years, people have not forgotten when Austria-Hungary brilliant many people see the German annexation moved to tears in a dream to rebuild the glory of the former Austria-Hungary

Austria, Germany as part of, I still think so! Bismarck allow Austria split only because of the lack of strength means of compromise, Hitler merged Austria is correct, and the Austrians are also supported.

China’s War of Resistance Against Japan

 from the nine hundred and eighteen, counting even if the Japanese expansion in China have never stopped the anti-Japanese
German invasion of the Czech Republic, Austria-Hungary to a war a bit different in the past 20 years, people have not forgotten when Austria-Hungary brilliant many people see the German annexation moved to tears in a dream to rebuild the glory of the former Austria-Hungary Said somewhat reluctantly.


Germany pre stations the upper hand, you have to know a lot of interest is being carved up. For example, in fact, Germany playing Poland and the cooperation of the Soviet Union. Our textbook does not mention nothing German ultimate goal of waging war is the Soviet Union, but the beginning does not terminate the action entirely in Asia, Japan ignore the strategic interests of the United States and Britain, the United States entered the war is also a matter of time, but because the U.S. blockade of Japan is also on the route a direct result of the war accelerated.
Not the case. Japan and Germany have their own special circumstances. Germany quickly gained the upper hand after the World War, but Hitler really want to end the war (“He won a large sum of money the gambler, the only thought is to get out of the tables” – Ciano), but Britain does not will allow this to win the money to leave the gaming tables (it really lost all), and Stalin launched an attack in the Romanian problem,


 Hitler is the last straw. Japan in World War II strategic confusion, not a core strategy, mainly because of the armed forces of the Government opposition, contradiction between Navy and Army, as well as the complex relationships within the army, September 18 Incident, the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, Incident of August in this context, the emperor and the government and the Chinese that there is no need to full-scale war broke out, but the army of interest groups did not listen to their command. Italy just with the wrong person. This is not greedy, but helpless.
Time after the global financial crisis period, the transfer of domestic conflicts in countries like Japan and Germany as light occupation of several areas can not solve domestic contradictions, can only continue to fight to keep playing

Can there be so easy to stop, it is impossible to stop, like Japan, the war decision is not even the politicians, but by the military (or even junior officers) decided to sub-fascists in power aggression while in power The Cabinet also had to step down, the ruling by the soldiers to support the invasion of China. If the Nazis do not continue to expand, waiting for them can only be a step down, by an advocate of continued expansion of political parties in power. The development of history is its inevitability, not an individual can be determined.
People never know where to draw a weak country at that time the aggressor is so vulnerable, they have no reason not to invasion and occupation. Until the violation of the powerful interests was only intervention. But the arrow has been shot
Back head
World War II, Japan was the initiator of the war is also a defeated country, or a very small proportion of Japanese troops to surrender in the war, killed in action rate is relatively high, especially in Southeast Asia and mainland Japan islands contention, and some the Japanese army annihilated, few survive, even if the Japanese soldiers were injured, most of them choose to commit suicide, according to more, as well as Japan’s Kamikaze Mission Impossible, etc. will not surrender, the impression Japanese soldiers are very brave, not afraid of death! Is not the case, Japan is an imperial society, the Emperor is the God of the hearts of the Japanese, and allegiance to the emperor after the death of heaven, into the shrine has become immortal! These ideas from childhood to instill in the hearts of the Japanese control of the Japanese spirit, the spirit of that generation of Japanese soldiers have been such allegiance to the emperor, after death into God’s thinking is firmly under control, lie said that more has become truth, when Japanese soldiers did most of the fear of death, when Japanese soldiers, death is a glorious thing, in many wars, the Japanese soldiers were surrounded, in the case of exhaustion, in the Union Army a strong network of fire, often also organize an intensive group impact, it plainly is to look for dead, to die! Scrambling to die people go – the Shrine, imagines himself to be God! It can be said that the small Japanese army in World War II, is not afraid of death, but can only say that is not afraid of death, far from doing battle brave, is a group of “loyalty to the emperor’s death as God” thinking firmly to fool and control, almost no own thinking is training to become a killing machine, the metamorphosis of a small Japanese!


The eve of World War II Japanese occupation of China’s northeast,

the German occupation of Hungary and Czechoslovakia, and not much reaction to the international community, the major powers of that time is not for these to each other fell, and the West countries are looking to Hitler and Stalin’s rally. However, if this time, Germany and Japan, timely close hand, enjoy the vested interests, and the major powers in the world to form a strategic balance or form an interest group, and perhaps no World War II, many countries of the world’s history and fate must be rewritten.
Is likely the three northeastern provinces do lose, there is Taiwan and Taiwan, Japan and the Soviet Union may reach some kind of treaty to carve up the Northeast and North Korea, endless civil resistance will not change the basis of the occupied and assimilation with the extension of time slowly popular.

Moreover, the domestic Kuomintang-Communist but also the civil war, no matter who wins, I’m afraid that did not have the power to recover the Northeast, a long time to become the next “Sino-Russian Treaty, Russia is not occupied millions of square kilometers of territory in China. ? . . .

 United States would not make great efforts and Japan against, the Cold War could be one, and anyone with who is anti-Japanese control in Northeast Asia, the United States control of the West Asia and the Americas, dominated the Middle East, Europe, Germany replaced Britain as the leader of the European, to become anti- Russia’s outpost. Running out of Time and the proxy war between the great powers will only be formed, each maintain their own sphere of inter


est, to form a triangular race for the situation. The majority of African and Latin countries, perhaps a subsidiary of the big countries or colonies, the imperialist countries to treat this issue is highly consistent.
Fortunately, history is not so simple, but the greed of the rulers of the reason the impossible idea of ​​who is the leader at all mutual destruction, completely failed to reach the balance of power between the major powers. Ever since, the power consumption between the great powers, developing countries may rise. Rather fight the country has been unable to control the situation, so they formed a modern military and interests of the alliance, NATO.


are greedy angered disaster, rewrite World War II history of the wonderful comments
Since the 1918

is destined to Japan once again a war

, it should be said that Chiang Kai-shek or heavy commitment,

 dual 12 Incident after the Chinese army began a large-scale training and consolidation, the Japanese fear China’s retaliation was to strike first.

The fuse of war in China is 918, the direct cause of a major shift of public opinion and government action in the 12 pairs of events after 77 Incident, only one will come sooner or later inevitable event.

 As for the results of that war, Japan doomed to fail, too big to Japan’s fundamentally impossible to directly effective rule.


The Great Unification of the Chinese people is too heavy, even if Japan does not get involved, after the Chinese government to achieve the complete reunification reunification of the war is bound to initiate the Northeast. Floor living looking through the history books, as long as the Han Chinese is not the rule of a government under the rule of China appear a variety of of Nanzheng or Northern Expedition.

The Japanese can assimilation northeast, but to make the Northeast people say Japanese words, to get to three generations, the Chinese government enough time to unite the force. If Japan does not respond to the 37 years of behavior of large-scale anti-Japan, the Japanese economy is devastated after losing China’s vast market, and the cohesion of the anti-Japanese banner within 20 years will be able to train a sufficient and Japan the army of the war, the result is in Japanese Liangbai with injury, the Japanese lost the status of the world’s second power, which is that Japan will not be tolerated.

The following is a reference to three days to play a fish in the 13 floor speech:
China’s War of Resistance Against Japan from the nine hundred and eighteen, counting even if the Japanese expansion in China have never stopped the anti-Japanese
German invasion of the Czech Republic, Austria-Hungary to a war a bit different in the past 20 years, people have not forgotten when Austria-Hungary brilliant many people see the German annexation moved to tears in a dream to rebuild the glory of the former Austria-Hungary

Austria, Germany as part of, I still think so! Bismarck allow Austria split only because of the lack of strength means of compromise, Hitler merged Austria is correct, and the Austrians are also supported.

China’s War of Resistance Against Japan

 from the nine hundred and eighteen, counting even if the Japanese expansion in China have never stopped the anti-Japanese
German invasion of the Czech Republic, Austria-Hungary to a war a bit different in the past 20 years, people have not forgotten when Austria-Hungary brilliant many people see the German annexation moved to tears in a dream to rebuild the glory of the former Austria-Hungary Said somewhat reluctantly.


Germany pre stations the upper hand, you have to know a lot of interest is being carved up. For example, in fact, Germany playing Poland and the cooperation of the Soviet Union. Our textbook does not mention nothing German ultimate goal of waging war is the Soviet Union, but the beginning does not terminate the action entirely in Asia, Japan ignore the strategic interests of the United States and Britain, the United States entered the war is also a matter of time, but because the U.S. blockade of Japan is also on the route a direct result of the war accelerated.
Not the case. Japan and Germany have their own special circumstances. Germany quickly gained the upper hand after the World War, but Hitler really want to end the war (“He won a large sum of money the gambler, the only thought is to get out of the tables” – Ciano), but Britain does not will allow this to win the money to leave the gaming tables (it really lost all), and Stalin launched an attack in the Romanian problem,


 Hitler is the last straw. Japan in World War II strategic confusion, not a core strategy, mainly because of the armed forces of the Government opposition, contradiction between Navy and Army, as well as the complex relationships within the army, September 18 Incident, the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, Incident of August in this context, the emperor and the government and the Chinese that there is no need to full-scale war broke out, but the army of interest groups did not listen to their command. Italy just with the wrong person. This is not greedy, but helpless.
Time after the global financial crisis period, the transfer of domestic conflicts in countries like Japan and Germany as light occupation of several areas can not solve domestic contradictions, can only continue to fight to keep playing

Can there be so easy to stop, it is impossible to stop, like Japan, the war decision is not even the politicians, but by the military (or even junior officers) decided to sub-fascists in power aggression while in power The Cabinet also had to step down, the ruling by the soldiers to support the invasion of China. If the Nazis do not continue to expand, waiting for them can only be a step down, by an advocate of continued expansion of political parties in power. The development of history is its inevitability, not an individual can be determined.
People never know where to draw a weak country at that time the aggressor is so vulnerable, they have no reason not to invasion and occupation. Until the violation of the powerful interests was only intervention. But the arrow has been shot
Back head
World War II, Japan was the initiator of the war is also a defeated country, or a very small proportion of Japanese troops to surrender in the war, killed in action rate is relatively high, especially in Southeast Asia and mainland Japan islands contention, and some the Japanese army annihilated, few survive, even if the Japanese soldiers were injured, most of them choose to commit suicide, according to more, as well as Japan’s Kamikaze Mission Impossible, etc. will not surrender, the impression Japanese soldiers are very brave, not afraid of death! Is not the case, Japan is an imperial society, the Emperor is the God of the hearts of the Japanese, and allegiance to the emperor after the death of heaven, into the shrine has become immortal! These ideas from childhood to instill in the hearts of the Japanese control of the Japanese spirit, the spirit of that generation of Japanese soldiers have been such allegiance to the emperor, after death into God’s thinking is firmly under control, lie said that more has become truth, when Japanese soldiers did most of the fear of death, when Japanese soldiers, death is a glorious thing, in many wars, the Japanese soldiers were surrounded, in the case of exhaustion, in the Union Army a strong network of fire, often also organize an intensive group impact, it plainly is to look for dead, to die! Scrambling to die people go – the Shrine, imagines himself to be God! It can be said that the small Japanese army in World War II, is not afraid of death, but can only say that is not afraid of death, far from doing battle brave, is a group of “loyalty to the emperor’s death as God” thinking firmly to fool and control, almost no own thinking is training to become a killing machine, the metamorphosis of a small Japanese!

  1. 1.      A Bullet For Chiang1 May 1926
    Republic of China (Kuomintang)Chiang Kai-Shek walked down the corridor of the Kuomintang Headquarters. He was in a good mood today. He had recently outmanoeuvred Wang Jingwei into leaving China a month ago at the behest of the Kuomintang Central Committee, by claiming that the left-wing of the party had been conspiring with the communists. The Committee agreed that the left-wing of the party needed to take a step back. For the last month Chiang had built up his power and managed to negotiate with the Russians.
    He was on his way to a meeting to confirm the new deal which would reduce the role of the Communists in the party. His wife, Chen Jieru, was accompanying him and his personal bodyguards to the meeting as well. He looked over at her and smiled, he was truly fortunate to have her as his wife. Down the corridor he saw a young man with an armful of newspapers coming the opposite way. Chiang assumed he was just a low level party member running an errand for one of the Council members.
    As the man came closer to Chiang he swiftly pulled his hand out from under the papers and pointed a revolver towards him. The man shouted as he pulled up the gun “You robbed my cousin of everything, DIE!”
    One of Chiang’s bodyguards reacted instantly, jumping right at the assassin but didn’t get to him before he fired off a single round. The bodyguard wrestled him to the ground and knocked the gun away. He threw the man against the wall and one of the other bodyguards emptied all of his rounds into him. The first bodyguard turned his head around at the sound of Chen’s high pitched scream.
    Chiang’s body was lying on the ground surrounded by the rest of his bodyguards and his wife cradling the body. Blood was covering her clothes and pooling on the floor. The bodyguards all had grim looks on their faces, there would be hell to pay for failing to protect Chiang.Taken from “Sun Yat-Sen’s Heirs”, by Liao Yanshi, © 1988, Lotus Flower Publishing, Guangzhou, Republic of ChinaDespite Chiang’s rise to power after the attempted coup [1], there was one thing he hadn’t counted on and that was Xu Chu, a young cousin of the deposed general, Xu Chongzhi. Xu confronted Chiang and accused him of stealing his cousin’s army and executing two other generals that he had been allied with, right before shooting him directly in the head. Xu was killed by Chiang’s bodyguards and they had to lead a weeping Chen Jieru away from the scene. Chiang’s death left a power vacuum in the Kuomintang, since he had become the main military and political leader in the last few months and it would be difficult for the Kuomintang leaders to find someone else able to fill both roles.5-8 May 1926With the death of Chiang Kai-Shek, the Kuomintang (KMT) leadership is thrown into turmoil. Chiang had been the major military and political leader and had managed to sideline his major opponents who had been contending for leadership of the party, Wang Jingwei and Hu Hanmin, in the previous months.The remaining party leaders and KMT warlord allies meet in Canton to decide on who should be elected as head of the committee and who should command the National Revolutionary Army. The right-wing of the party dominates, since Wang and his allies were driven out by Chiang. A decision is reached after much debate, Hu Hanmin continues his role as premier of the party [2], but this is a role with little function, Li Zongren, military governor of Guangxi, is appointed as the new commander-in-chief of the army.

    Tan Yankai as Chairman of the National Government [3] has become the main leader of the KMT, but he has little influence with the army. He holds the political power but must rely on Li to command the soldiers. He gives Li orders to begin preparing the soldiers for a confrontation with the warlord armies. Tan also secretly contacts Wang Jingwei and advises him that returning soon to China could be in his best interests [4].From “Political Leaders of the Republic of China: Volume 2, 1925-1935”, By Roy Wu, © 1990 University of Hong Kong PressTan Yankai may have been the nominal head of the Kuomintang, but he had little support. The right-wing faction saw him as a puppet of Wang Jingwei, with no military influence at all. The left-wing faction thought that he should have supported Wang earlier in the year, but instead he had sat on the sidelines. Tan had to delicately balance the party needs and he reshuffled the positions to keep both factions happy as well as continue the now slightly unsettled alliance with the CCP, against which there was a growing resentment [5].In addition to this was the growing sentiment that the Kuomintang had to start opposing the northern warlords sooner rather than later, in order to gain international recognition and expand its base of control. Tan would have to ensure that the military had a capable commander for the upcoming Northern Expedition.


Kuomintang leadership as at 15 May 1926:

Chairman of the National Government- Tan Yankai
Chairman of the KMT Executive Committee- Zhang Jingjiang
Head of the Organisational Department-Chen Guofu
National Revolutionary Army Commander-in-Chief- Li Zongren
President of Whampoa Military Academy-Li Jishen

Taken from “Sun Yat-Sen’s Heirs”, By Liao Yanshi, © 1988, Lotus Flower Publishing-Guangzhou, Republic of China

Wang Jingwei returned to Guangzhou on the 30 May 1926 after hearing of the divisions in the Kuomintang leadership, following Chiang’s death. An added advantage for him now, was the fact that his friend Tan Yankai was the party chairman and Wang thought it would not be difficult to sway enough of the party to his side to become its new leader. Wang would find it a more difficult road than he anticipated however and the disagreements between left and right would emerge strongly during and after the Northern Expedition. This was further complicated by Wang’s dislike of the CCP and his attempts to sideline them. When the march north started, many of the communist members of the Kuomintang had already decided not to take part, which made it much more difficult in convincing the people in the north that they were being freed by a progressive force, as well as reducing the aid from the Soviet Union. Eventually the Soviet advisor, Borodin stepped in and insisted that the CCP fully cooperate in order to overthrow the warlords and remake China.
They grudgingly did so, as they still were friendly with some of the left-wing Kuomintang but there was now a deep suspicion amongst them that would contaminate the Northern Expedition and split the Kuomintang, despite the work that Sun Yat-Sen had done in building up a Kuomintang-CCP alliance.

Chiang Kai-Shek, posing for a picture one week before his assassination.

Tan Yankai, Kuomintang Chairman.

Kuomintang members after the party meeting on 15 May 1926.

[1] A coup instigated by Wang Jingwei and the leftists, known as the Zhongshan Warship Incident. Wang attempted to have Chiang kidnapped by the captain of the Zhongshan on his way to Whampoa. Chiang was warned by his wife and organised against the conspiracy, arresting several CCP-KMT members and forcing Wang out of the country. Chiang gained in power after this and was able to control more of the party, despite continuing the alliance with the CCP and the USSR.

[2] Hu was suspected in the assassination of Liao Zhongkai and arrested. In OTL he supported Chiang after the Ninghan Split.

[3] This position is theoretically the top one in the KMT. In OTL Chiang took over from Tan and became supreme military and political leader, while the premier and other political roles were reduced in importance.

[4] Tan was an ally of Wang, but went along with the other Kuomintang leaders in supporting Chiang after the Zhongshan Incident. Here with Chiang’s death Tan feels that Wang will be able to win back control of the party and also be able to control the military. He may be Chairman, but his support is not huge and he only obtained the position due to Wang leaving.

[5] The Zhongshan Incident and Chiang’s assassination has made the right-wing and moderate Kuomintang members become more concerned about the communists and they are beginning to see why Chiang wanted to be rid of them. The anti-communist faction is led by Li Jishen and Chen Guofu, and Wang Jingwei is distrustful and suspicious of them, despite being the leader of the left-wing of the party that is allied with them.

Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History


2. To The North

Taken from “The Many Headed Dragon: Warlords in China”
By Rodger Stevens
© 1970, Bluewood Books
Philadelphia, USA

To better understand the situation in northern China at the start of 1926, it is necessary to provide a list of the factions of major warlords-
Zhang Zuolin-Fengtian Clique, controlling Manchuria and the north-east
Feng Yuxiang-Guominjun Clique, controlling a large area in the north-west
Wu Peifu-Zhili Clique, controlling the central plains
Sun Chuanfang,-Zhili Clique, controlling the east coast
Yan Xishan, Shanxi Clique, controlling Shanxi province

Beijing was under the control of Duan Qirui, his Anhui Clique had been mostly destroyed and his position as President was in name only [1]. True control was shared between Zhang and Feng, but disagreements between them had finally resulted in all out war and Zhang allied with Wu against Feng.

The Guominjun armies were hard pressed and were soon defeated and most of their soldiers fled, some of them passed through Shanxi, where troops attacked them for encroaching on their territory [2]. Duan was removed from office in April and Feng left China for the Soviet Union, though he would return in a few months. Zhang and Wu were now the most powerful leaders in the north but again disagreements on how to govern broke out. Wu wanted to return Cao Kun to the presidency while Zhang was a monarchist and distrusted the republican government. A weak series of governments ruled from the capital, but had little power and Zhang and Wu retained direct control over their own regions. A more important consequence of the war however, was the fact that Zhili had moved much of its army north, leaving its southern flank exposed to the ambitious Kuomintang government, which was preparing to launch its Northern Expedition.

Regions of warlord control.
Taken from “Great Moments in Chinese History” by Hsu Win-chin, Republic Press 1990

Li Zongren, speaking at Whampoa Military Academy before the Northern Expedition, 21 July 1926.

-“Students of Whampoa, soldiers of the National Army. I stand here before you as your commander, but also as your comrade. Our nation has been through turbulent times and continues to go through them. But with your courage and determination, along with the vision of a free, united China, left to us by President Sun Yat-Sen, we will prevail. The chaos in the north will be ended and we will restore China as it should be. As I take command of this expedition, I pledge to uphold the values that Sun and Chiang held. Values which will see us victorious over those who still follow the old ways and allow the new ways to usher in a strong China.”

Soldiers at Whampoa rallying for the Northern Expedition.

Li Zongren, Commander of the Kuomintang Army.

Taken from “Sun Yat-Sen’s Heirs”, By Liao Yanshi, © 1988, Lotus Flower Publishing-Guangzhou, Republic of China

On the 20 July 1926 the Northern Expedition began. This was the first true military test of the Republic’s National Revolutionary Army and its leadership. The training at Whampoa, Russian arms and advisors, the strong will and morale of the soldiers and the warm welcome they received from most of the common people as they marched north combined to be a deadly combination for the warlords. The first major battle was fought at Changsha in Hunan province, where General Tang Shengzhi was leading a rebellion against Wu Peifu. Tang had been supported by troops from the Guangxi Clique for some time and with the Northern Expedition his army become one of the eight that made up the NRA.

Ironically while the military was strong, in particular Li Zongren led a capable campaign against the northern warlords, politically the Kuomintang was struggling. Chiang’s death had left a power vacuum and three main contenders emerged to take the spotlight. Tan Yankai had no control over the left and right factions of the party and throughout the Northern Expedition he only kept his position as chairman because neither faction wanted to instigate political problems in the middle of the campaign [3].

Wang Jing-wei had managed to gather back much of the power and influence he once had and was slowly garnering support from most of the left and some of the middle ground in the party as well as having support from Tan, the current Chairman. His main problem was that despite his strong party influence, he had very little military power, though this would change by the end of the Northern Expedition. Hu Hanmin represented the moderate right-wing of the Kuomintang and despite his tarnishing by Chiang, he was the most popular man among the moderates. But his support base was small and he didn’t appeal to either of the extremes as a leader.
The final contender for leadership was Chen Lifu, while the other two had been close protégés of Sun Yat-Sen, Chen had come to the party later. However Chen had been close with Chiang Kai-Shek, had the backing of H. H. Kung, one of the richest men in China, and he and his elder brother, Chen Guofu, controlled a large number of interests via the growing secret police organisation they had begun to establish. He had support among the traditionalists, anti-communists and also from the underworld which controlled China’s opium trade [4]. Chen was the closest thing Chiang had to a successor, but he did not have the same military experience and thus his support from Whampoa and the NRA was mild. Whoever could garner the most support from the army generals was the one most likely to emerge as the leader of the Kuomintang.

[1] Duan had been placed as president as a figurehead, after the Second Zhili-Fengtian War and his small number soldiers only operated in Beijing.

[2] Yan Xishan tried to remain neutral, which meant that he attacked any forces in his territory, or risk being accused of aiding them.

[3] This is not exactly true. Political infighting began almost after the first battle had been fought. The CCP members started giving power to the poor peasants in areas that the KMT had conquered and staged worker’s uprisings. In addition the KMT left and right began contesting for power and Tan was simply left as Chairman until the each side decided to make their move.

[4] The opium trade in China provided large funds for the Nationalists, particularly via Big-Eared Du’s Green Gang in Shanghai.

Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History


Trouble In Th 3. Clash Of Arms

Taken from “The Many Headed Dragon: Warlords in China”
By Rodger Stevens
© 1970, Bluewood Books
Philadelphia, USA

The Northern Expedition carried out by the Kuomintang government was an astounding success. Wu Peifu and Sun Chuanfang’s armies were beaten back by the much more modern and capably led armies of Li Zongren and Li Jishen. Everywhere the warlord armies were pushed back, the common people celebrated their liberation and welcomed the new republican soldiers. Much of this support of the Kuomintang by the common people can be attributed to the extreme taxation, poverty and famines that had plagued the warlord controlled regions, while the Kuomintang was seen as being a government for the people, aided by its ties to the CCP. An additional benefit of the victories, other than morale and support was the influx of new young men signing up to join the KMT army. Many wanted to be part of the great revolution which was finally overthrowing the warlords and bringing China into the modern world.

By the end of the first year both warlords in central China had been utterly defeated their soldiers either dead, exiled or having switched sides to the KMT. After taking the cities of Wuhan, Shanghai and Nanjing the KMT was now in control of a large part of China. There was only one other powerful warlord still to contend with, the Mukden Tiger, Zhang Zuolin-warlord of Manchuria, whose own Fengtian Army outnumbered the KMT forces. [1]

Zhang Zuolin, The Mukden Tiger.

Textbook and reading material for History 402: China’s Move Into The Modern World, University of Natal, taught by Professor Dineke Weers.
“Breath Of The Dragon: A Military History Of Modern China”
© 1999 By Jonathan Drake
Crescent History Publishing, Pretoria, South Africa

The Battle of Huaibei is a defining moment in modern Chinese history. It marked the end of the corrupt warlord era of the last two decades [2] and showed the world that the revolutionary Kuomintang had the military strength and support that they very well could indeed unify the people of China into a modern nation.

On the plains north of the city of Zhang had managed to gather all of his elite troops that had served with him for many years. Throughout March the Fengtian and other warlord forces made their way into the plains, travelling along the shores of Lake Taihu and heading south. The main Kuomintang force was stationed in and around Suzhou, but when Li first heard reports of Zhang’s gathering army he quickly organized his generals into action. Li’s meeting with his generals went on for several hours as they discussed the strategy they would need to hold back the far greater numbers of Zhang’s army.

A rundown of the numbers at first glance seems to overwhelmingly favour the warlords. Zhang had four army corps which made up the bulk of his most loyal soldiers from the north, each of which had 30,000 men. He had also managed to bring in the forces of several allies, namely Tang Yulin and Zhang Jingyao, who contributed another 50,000 men. And finally the remnants of the Central China warlord armies had been placed under the command of Xu Kun who was eager to avenge the series of defeats his commander, Sun had suffered near Nanchang. He had at least 20,000 men under his command. In addition to this the warlord forces had several other armies spread out between Peking and Nanking, which were in place in case of any of the other Nationalist forces tried to make any further moves north.

In contrast the Kuomintang only had an army of just over 100,000 men garrisoned at Suzhou and many of the units in this army had been battered and experienced casualties in the previous campaign, thus many of the actual units were under strength from their original numbers. However because of this, the men in this army had a great deal of experience and were likely the best fighting force in China at the time. In addition to this they were far better equipped than their foes. The NRA soldiers were almost all supplied with Hanyang 88 rifles, a very reliable copy of the German Gewehr 88 and had more modern artillery devices than the warlord armies. Much of the lack of equipment amongst the warlord troops can be contributed to the miserly nature of their leaders, which is described in detail in Bennett’s Money From A Stone: Greed of the Warlords and Hu’s Lords Of Ruin. While the pay of many warlord soldiers was substantial and they lived far more luxuriant lives compared to most civilians in warlord controlled areas, this was not reflected in the standard of their supplies and equipment, much of which had to be traded for or bought on the black market [3].

The final and, in my opinion, most important multiplier [4] was the army officers and commanders. While Zhang’s army had some decent commanders, including Xu Kun-perhaps one of China’s best military leaders at the time, as well as Zhang Zongchang and Li Jinglin, but on the whole it was lacking sorely in competent leadership. Even Zhang’s direct forces had generals that were very cautious and held back constantly during combat. The officers were even worse. The system of corrupt, kleptocratic rule that governed the warlord territories spilled over into the military, such that any man in a position above his fellow soldiers would abuse his power and privileges. Thus the soldiers were hardly likely to be keen to follow their officers, who were even less likely to inspire their men.

The NRA forces however had some of the best generals in China and several of them were present at Huaibei, Li Zongren-who had commanded his own separate forces and land before joining the KMT [5] and would go on to command the most successful Chinese army in the Second Sino-Japanese War. Bai Chongxi had two divisions under his command and some brilliant tacticians, namely, Chen Jitang, Zhang Fakui and Xue Yue. Also participating in the battle was Chen Cheng, a young soldier who would demonstrate his leadership qualities for the first time at Huaibei, taking command of his unit when the captain was killed and would go on to hand the Chinese Communists their final defeat at Harbin in 1945.

Details of the Battle of Huaibei from Interpedia.

[1] Without Chiang’s decision to implement a communist purge in April, the KMT forces have not been split and confused and been able to defeat Wu and Sun much quicker. In addition Li Zongren and Li Jishen have made better military decisions without Chiang’s pride interfering in operations. There are still some strong anti-communist forces in the KMT, though without total military control they have decided to wait until the Northern Expedition has been completed.

[2] Strictly speaking the warlord era had not been going on for two decades, and it certainly didn’t end with this battle. There still numerous warlords in the west and north who would remain independent for some time and others that would go on to work with the Kuomintang government.

[3] Many soldiers in fact provided their own weapons and equipment, as the relics they were given were susceptible to jamming or outright failure. This added to their own personal costs and meant that some units were well-equipped while others were very under-equipped. This isn’t to say this is the case with all of the warlord troops but a large number of them certainly.

[4] Force multiplier is not a phrase used in TTL, people simply use multiplier when talking about military combat factors.

[5] Li Zongren was the leader of the Guangxi Clique which in OTL was closely allied with Chiang until 1928 and turned against him in the Central Plains War, with Chiang gone the Guangxi remain a vital part of the NRA.

Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

4. The Decisive Battle

North of the city of Huaibei two armies stand ready to face each other in the battle which will decide the outcome of the Northern Expedition. On one side is Li Zongren, NRA Commander-in-Chief, Guangxi warlord and Kuomintang soldier, on the other is Zhang Zuolin, the lord of Manchuria, the Northern Tiger and self-proclaimed Grand Marshal of the Republic of China.

20 March 1927
East of Huaibei
Anhui Province, Republic of China

General Li Zongren, military commander of the National Revolutionary Army looked over his men as they prepared for the most difficult battle of the entire Northern Expedition. Despite being some of the best soldiers from Whampoa, they were sorely outnumbered by Zhang’s forces, most of the other sections of the army were still keeping order at Nanjing and Wuhan, the need to keep these important urban centres secure was a high priority and they could be attacked by any of the other warlords at any moment. So He Yingqin remained in Nanjing along with much of the Kuomintang leadership, while Li Jishen had three armies at Wuhan, and he was here facing off against all that the northern warlords could gather against him.

Despite the fierce morning sun, Li refrained from squinting his eyes. The warlord forces were no doubt going to arrive any minute and he hoped that his plan would work, if not Zhang’s troops would pour into central China and split the KMT-held territory that had taken so much blood and effort to win. The sudden sound of gunfire pulled him out of his thoughts, that would be Bai’s units engaging the arriving enemy forces. He told his generals to get ready, they would be making their move soon.

The battle begins.

Textbook and reading material for History 402: China’s Move Into The Modern World, University of Natal, taught by Professor Dineke Weers.
“Breath Of The Dragon: A Military History Of Modern China”
© 1999 By Jonathan Drake
Crescent History Publishing, Pretoria, South Africa

Li strategy may have been fairly simple, but it was also effective. The warlord forces were using their overwhelming numbers to simply attack the NRA head on and hope that they would force them into a surrender o retreat eventually. Li had rightly predicted that they would do this and devised a plan to deal with it. Li had placed the bulk of his units behind the mountains and hills northeast of Huaibei. Bai Chongxi would have his units displayed nearer to the city and present as a target for the warlord soldiers. When enough of the enemy had charged forward at Bai’s men, Li and his soldiers would outflank the warlord forces, driving into their sides. The plan also hinged on General Tang Yulin, a Fengtian commander in the warlord armies. Tang had met with Li several times in secret in the previous few weeks and was sympathetic to the Kuomintang cause. Li had managed to convince him to use this battle to turn on his hated allies and join the NRA.

As Li forces engaged the shocked warlord soldiers from the west, Tang had positioned his force where it could do the most damage to the surprised forces. Tang gave the order for his men to turn on their allies after Li’s soldiers had forced the warlord troops to retreat some distance and absolutely shattered their remaining morale. Most of the warlord commanders saw the deteriorating situation and gave orders for their men to retreat in order to preserve what they could of their own forces. This led to much confusion and an orderly retreat turned into a debacle with most of the warlord forces taking heavy casualties. In addition to this Zhang Zuolin was killed when his horse threw him off, scared by a nearby artillery strike and he cracked his skull on a rock on the ground. Some of the warlord commanders put up resistance over the next week or so, but they were easily dealt with, as they were isolated from each other and captured or killed. By the morning of 30 March, the NRA was completely victorious having driven the warlord army from the region completely and securing central China for the Kuomintang. News of the battle quickly spread and other warlords were standing down and pledging their loyalty to the Kuomintang. Huaibei represented the end of the Northern Expedition and the destruction of the remaining northern warlords, in fact even the new leader of what remained of Fengtian, Zhang Xueliang-the former leaders son, joined the Kuomintang in another six months, when they were recognised as the legitimate government of China internationally. China had overcome the second stage of revolution [1] and was well on its way to progressing into a modern nation. However there were several more internal bumps that would occur before the road begun to smooth.

General Tang Yulin, leading his officers to meet with General Li after the battle

[1] Drake considers the Xinhai Revolution the first stage and the Northern Expedition the second stage.

Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

5. Consolidation

Taken from “The Many Headed Dragon: Warlords in China”
By Rodger Stevens
© 1970, Bluewood Books
Philadelphia, USA

The end of the first part of the Northern Expedition brought the Kuomintang into the spotlight in China and their support surged. There were still some warlords in the north that retained power and even after Huaibei they managed to maintain their independence, despite the international recognition that the Wuhan based Kuomintang government received after January 1927. Ironically these warlords that remained after the Northern Expedition had only been minor leaders previously and while many of them were connected with the new government and recognised its rule, they still ruled their provinces with a great deal of independence, such as Long Yun, Sheng Shicai , Ma Hongkui, Feng Yuxiang and Yan Xishan [1].

The Kuomintang allowed these warlords to keep their rule of provinces, as the Northern Expedition had exhausted the Kuomintang armies and they needed time to recover and establish their rule. This meant focussing on governing rather than fighting warlords that were willing to accept the new order. In addition some of the former warlords who had joined the NRA still tired to retain a form of independence, in terms of keeping control of their armies, but the new leadership was happy to accept this provided that those armies continued to fight for them, especially considering the new problems that would soon come to pass with the CCP.

Several of the Kuomintang allied warlords, from left to right, Long Yun, Ma Hongkui, Feng Yuxiang

6 February 1928
Wuhan, Republic of China


Chen Duxiu and Zhou Enlai were addressing their comrades in a large meeting hall. The Chinese Communist Party had for a long time been allies and many of them members of the Kuomintang and they both expected that to continue despite the recent problems many of their members had faced with the military and the right-wing of the party. Though neither of them had met with Wang in the last week, which was troubling, he usually held joint meetings for the entire party and was constantly giving them assurances that the CCP were important members of the new government.

Zhou stepped out of the main room after he was finished speaking to go and relieve himself, he had had some huangjiu [2] to drink earlier and it had seemed to go right through him. As he was doing so, he heard Chen speaking from the hall. Then he heard the doors open and Chen stopped. He heard some loud voices after that and several shouts of outrage. He finished what he was doing, but waited before going back inside. He put his head against the wall to see if he could hear better. Just as he did so, the sound of gunfire cracked through the wall and he withdrew his head in horror. He didn’t what had happened, but whatever it was, wasn’t good. He fled out the side door and ran as fast as he could to check the other party building in the city.

Taken from “Sun Yat-Sen’s Heirs”, By Liao Yanshi, © 1988, Lotus Flower Publishing-Guangzhou, Republic of China

The goodwill that had existed between the KMT and CCP was quick to disintegrate in 1928. Despite Sun Yat-sen’s wish that all Chinese revolutionaries cooperated together there was a substantial amount of distrust from the KMT rightwing. This had been increased in the wake of Chiang Kai-Shek’s assassination and during the Northern Expedition. Chinese communists had instigated uprisings during the Northern Expedition in several cities as well as several peasant revolts, which brought some alarm to many of the KMT leaders as well as their new warlord allies.
However Wang Jingwei had been close to the communists for quite some time and showed every sign of continuing the cooperation with them, despite what his later actions and attitude towards communists would reveal.

Wang had included them in his new Wuhan based government and met with their top leaders, Chen Duxiu, Li Dazhao and Xiang Zhongfa. In the north and east, anti-communist actions were already being taken by several KMT and warlord province rulers, in Beiping [3], Shanghai, Nanjing and Hangzhou armed gangs sanctioned by the city rulers would go out and disrupt CCP and labour union meetings in an effort to keep them from organising.

Warlord soldiers having just raided a communist HQ

This situation could not continue forever, the communists were reaching a point of striking back while the right-wing KMT had practically declared war. On 18 January Wang had a meeting with several key KMT leaders as well as generals, Li Zongren and Li Jishen. During the meeting Wang was presented with evidence that the Comintern had plans to use the CCP to replace the left-wing KMT and take over the party. (This was in fact true, Stalin had given Mikhail Borodin secret orders to this effect but told him not to implement them until the time was right, they were leaked and eventually ended up in the hands of one of Chen Guofu’s agents, who presented them to Wang)
Wang agreed with the other leaders that it was time to end the alliance with the communists before the Comintern ordered them to take over the party.
Wang stopped meeting with the communists and started planning the actions required to remove them, a dangerous move since it could have tipped them off to his intentions, but they remained unaware right up until the February Purge began.

From ‘Bloody Politics: A History of Ideological Violence’, By Brad Miller, © 1989, HGO Publishing-Chicago, USA

The February Purge
Location: Republic of China, various cities
Perpetrators: Kuomintang Government and allied warlords

After the Northern Expedition carried out by the Kuomintang’s National Revolutionary Army had succeeded in ousting the former warlords and unified China, tensions between the left and right soon increased. The Communists had worked hand in hand with the Kuomintang since Sun Yat-Sen had decided that all the revolutionaries need to work together and many of them were party members, but since his death there had been a growing anti-communist faction. This was only exacerbated by the Zhongshan incident and Chiang Kai-Shek’s assassination, which despite contrary claims, was not perpetrated by a communist agent. This claim was likely used as a way to discredit the CCP and curb their increasing power. Wang Jingwei, one of Sun’s successors had newly made his way to the top of the party and was in the precarious position of balancing the various interests and factions, one of the larger factors to weigh in on his decision to turn on the communists was due to many of the prominent NRA generals being very anti-communist and Wang needed their support to maintain his position. The first act of which became the February Purge happened on the 6 February 1928. Several communist leaders were holding a large party meeting in downtown Wuhan when soldiers stormed into the building and started making arrests. Anyone who tried to resist was shot down and in fact the soldiers had orders that made it clear, any small action could be interpreted as ‘resisting’. Among the first few killed was Chen Duxiu, one of the founders of the CCP. In addition Xiong Zhongfa was arrested at the house he was living in and hundreds of other communists were rounded up and taken into custody or in many cases executed on the spot. This was soon repeated in most of the other major cities in China and the CCP was dealt a hefty blow to its influence in the urban areas. Their response came quickly though and organised peasant rebellions broke out in March against KMT rule, led by important communists who had escaped the purge in the cities-Li Dazhao, Li Lisan, Zhou Enlai, Bo Gu, Fang Zhimin, and Mao Zedong. The Chinese Civil War had begun.

Rounding up communist prisoners in Wuhan

[1] Just as they did in OTL.

[2] Chinese yellow wine or liquor.

[3] Northern Peace-Beijing was renamed to this after OTL Northern Expedition as well.

Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

6. Party Splinters

March 1928
The Chinese Civil War between the Nationalists and Communists has begun. The February purge has decimated the CCP in the cities and led to the execution of many prominent communist leaders. The communist response was to organise large peasant uprisings against the government. Throughout the countryside in the provinces of Guangdong, Hunan, and Jiangxi large armies of peasants and workers mobilised and staged uprisings. A major battle is taking place in the cities of Fuzhou and Nanchang, the new Chinese Red Army commanded by He Long and Bo Gu has almost taken the city form the few remaining government forces. Meanwhile a much larger NRA force, commanded by Li Jishen is moving south in an attempt to retake the provincial capital.

6 May 1928
Hunan Province
Republic of China (recognised)
Hunan Soviet (proclaimed)

Mao Zedong was one of the last to retreat from the battlefield, as commander of his forces he felt responsible for them and refused to abandon his position until his comrades had escaped as well. Once the Kuomintang army had engaged his forces it was clear who was going to win, the enemy had overwhelmed them with sheer numbers.
Mao turned and spoke to his fellow communist and military commander, Lin Biao.
“We held out as long as we could, but they were too strong for us comrade” he said shaking his head.
“It isn’t over” replied Lin “This fight is just beginning, our army is intact and we can still fight these traitors.” And he gestured his hand at the advancing NRA force.
Mao nodded “You’re right. But from now we have to be smarter in how we fight, engaging the government forces in direct battle cannot work any longer. We have to conserve our forces, attack them when they are weak and lest expected. Spread the party message throughout the countryside until the peasants and workers outnumber the government soldiers and we can beat them back.”
Lin nodded in approval “Guerrilla warfare. Where are we heading for now?”
“Further west” replied Mao “we can avoid the Kuomintang in the mountains and regroup there.”
“Will the others be able to join us?” [1]
“I hope so. Last I heard Nanchang had fallen to Li Jishen and that rabid dog of a general has started slaughtering as many of our comrades as he can get his hands on, He’s forces were scattered. Bo Gu and Zhu De are still fighting but there are far too many for them to defeat. If they can make it here, we can consolidate forces and change our tactics. Ah, good, we had best be going.”
The last of Mao’s soldiers had retreated from the battlefield and Mao and Lin began leading them away on their horses.


Communist general Mao Zedong in 1928

Taken from “Our Struggle”, By Deng Xiaoping © 1979, Editorial Atlantida. Buenos Aires, People’s Republic of Argentina
Note-This Book is banned in the Republic of China

I wasn’t with Mao and Lin after their first losses, but they talked about it a lot during the Great March. It was then that the first developed the idea of turning the war into a protracted guerrilla struggle rather than large scale revolution. I barely escaped Nanchang with my life, fleeing in disguise as I had in Nanjing. After the failure in Nanchang, we were desperate, the Kuomintang armies were closing in and half of the Second Front Army had been killed or captured. There was little choice, we had to follow Mao to his hideout in the mountains [2]. So we marched west and found ourselves in the mountains soon to join the other forces making their way there. Once we had recovered things didn’t seem so bad, we still had a sizeable army and support among many of the peasants, but the government forces seemed to be everywhere. Then we received word that Zhang Guotao had returned and started his own uprising in Sichuan and Guizhou, and had declared the part of the province he ruled over as the Chinese Soviet State. We bided our time and waited for the right moment to sneak through the gaps between the enemy forces.

The flag of the Chinese Soviet State

CCP leaders gathering in Guiyang

Taken from “The Battle For China:1927-1945”, By Eric Warren © 1999, Blackwoods Books, London, UK
The initial seizures of Nanchang and Jiangxi province were relatively easy for the communist forces. There regions did not have large garrisons of NRA soldiers and many in the region had communist sympathies, in fact the party had spent a great deal of time appealing to the peasants and focussed on increasing their numbers. In addition to this many of the best communist military leaders, men who had lead forces in the Northern Expedition, took command of the communist soldiers and proved their worth. But eventually they ran out of time. Wang Jingwei had made his decision to rid himself of them and he stuck by it, indeed he may have had little choice, siding with the communists meant that he could align himself with the right wing of the Kuomintang, which included the ever growing secret police force led by the Chen brothers, the money and connections of several rich families and last, but not least connections to China’s underworld, which brought in a substantial amount of money from the growing opium epidemic [3].

In addition to this Wang badly needed some strong military allies and he choose generals that had given the best performance in the Northern Expedition, Li Zongren, Li Jishen, Bai Chongxi and He Yingqin. These men commanded some of the best and brightest from Whampoa, many of whom would go on to receive German military training and serve as the strong backbone of the NRA in the future. Wang needed these men firmly on his side and they had a large amount antipathy for the communists, so the communists had to go. But despite the quick campaigns to dismantle the communist holdings in the south and the brief uprisings in Shandong and Anhui, they were far from easy to eradicate completely. In fact several independent minded warlord allies, refused to attack them for fear of taking losses, since the only real power they could command came from the size of their armies. This gave the communists a reprieve and they were consolidated in the west, mostly in Sichuan under Zhang Guotao, recently returned from the Soviet Union and now the most senior member of the CCP after the recent purges and executions. But not all of the communists joined Zhang in his Chinese Soviet State, Mao Zedong had decided the war needed to be turned into a guerrilla struggle that would slowly wear away at the nationalists, so he only briefly stopped in Sichuan to resupply and conduct raids on the nearby nationalist armies. Before the end of the year he would have taken his men north on the Great March. The bulk of the communist forces under Zhang would not be easy to break for the nationalists, but the hammer came down in the spring of 1929. Four armies of the NRA were converging on the region with every intention of sealing off any escape and wiping them out completely.

[1] Lin is referring to the other Red Army forces further east. The make-up of these forces are the Second Front Red Army and the Third Front Red Army. The First Front Red Army was based further north, under the command of Li Dazhao and Ye Ting and has been mostly wiped out by the NRA.

[2] The idea of going to Hunan suggested by He Long is taken more seriously TTL since Mao’s army is already there and the Kuomintang already has an extremely large force in Guangdong.

[3] At this point is still fairly limited in China, but Warren is writing with the benefit of hindsight and as per OTL the opium trade will increase significantly via the Green Gang’s connection to the Kuomintang.

Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

. Two Red Eggs In The Basket

Taken from “The Battle For China:1927-1945”, By Eric Warren © 1999, Blackwoods Books, London, UK

Despite the fierce resistance put up by the communists in Sichuan they eventually lost out to the inevitable. Li Jishen was in command of the four armies converging on them and he had no intention of allowing them to escape. He made sure that he spread enough troops along the western and northern routes to attempt to stop the communist forces from retreating. However this didn’t stop all of them completely. Enough communists through themselves into the fight at Luzhou that Li was forced to recall some of his units to help him in the battle. This was in fact a strategy that Zhang Guotao had decided on in order to allow a large portion of the communists to escape north, closer to the Soviet Union. Mao Zedong had in fact already taken his forces north near to the mountainous region of Yan’an and Zhang had hoped to join him there. While this strategy did work for a time and allowed many communists to escape the region it was almost for nought. When most of the major battles in Sichuan had finished by 12 January 1929, Li Jishen was already directing troops to pursue the retreating communists. Continued harassment of their force and ambushes by the warlord troops of Ma Hongkui reduced the 100,000 strong force down to about 15,000. By the time Zhang and his remaining men arrived in Yan’an, Mao had already departed further north towards Manchuria, where he would set up his base of resistance which would endure for almost a decade.

With little hope left Zhang decided that defeat was inevitable and he allowed his men to go wherever they wished while he went into exile to Soviet-controlled Mongolia. Most of his men scattered into the countryside, and the Kuomintang declared a victory, but many of them would resurge years later in command of communist guerrilla bands which would cause numerous headaches to the government. In addition to this another group of communists had managed to link up with the southern army of Bo Gu and Zhu De. This group included Zhang Wentian who pushed for a move south towards Tibet where they could lie low and continue the struggle as Mao was now doing in the north. For now there remained two large groupings of communists in China, both in fairly secure areas which were difficult for large forces to reach them. Wang Jingwei had every intention of finishing them off, but had been convinced that they were finished as a fighting force and he had other concerns on his mind, like the reorganising of the Kuomintang armies and the first invasions of one of the greatest threats to the Republic.

A portrayal of the Nationalist victory over the communists at Luzhou

Communist soldiers crossing the Yangtze River to head south to Tibet

Taken from “Our Struggle”, By Deng Xiaoping © 1979, Editorial Atlantida. Buenos Aires, People’s Republic of Argentina
Note-This Book is banned in the Republic of China

They were black days in early 1929, more and more of our comrades were being captured every day, but Mao was like a steady rock of morale that kept us going. We headed further north until we reached the wild, untamed lands of Manchuria. The territory may have been under the control of the Young Warlord [1], but his control was limited to the major cities. Holed up in the Xing’an region, Mao set to work rebuilding and retraining us as effective guerrillas. It would prove invaluable, for Manchuria was about to be invaded, giving us an opportunity to train in warfare and also gain many more recruits to our cause. We also received word that Zhang had managed to hold up in the Tibet region and he was clamouring to be the rightful ruler of the CCP. Mao would make him eat those words in the years to come. Zhang had nothing on his brilliant leadership in battle, or his effectiveness at galvanising troops. I was placed in charge of some the new recruits in May of 1929 and the first thing I had to do was give them a proper revolutionary attitude. Many of them had joined up, simply because they didn’t like their warlord overlords, but they knew nothing about the worker’s cause. The first batch was sitting on some rocks awaiting me one morning and I could tell I would have my work cut out for me.

14 July 1929
Sichuan Province
Republic of China

Sweat trickled down Li Jishen’s forehead. The summer sun was scorching him, but he didn’t bother moving towards his tent. He waited and watched as the horseman rode towards his command headquarters. As he got closer, Li could see an official government banner on the horse’s side, it was likely a messenger from Wuhan.
The man pulled his horse up towards Li and his officers, stopped and climbed off.
“General sir, a message from President Wang.” [2]
He handed the envelope to Li who thanked him and bid him goodbye. Li opened it and began reading, his face developed a slight frown.
“General?” asked General Chen Mingshu, his second-in-command “what is it?”
Li sighed and said ‘We’ve being ordered to proceed immediately to Wuhan. The president has called meeting of all generals and subordinates.”
“But we haven’t finished chasing down these communist dogs!”said Chen.
“Yes” agreed Li “but Feng ahs been testing his authority against Wang for some time now and my guess is Wang has finally decided to implement changes to the armed forces that I recommended to him months ago, Feng will be satisfied, but in the long run I suspect it will curb his independent streak and make him a more useful part of the government. There’s not much more the rest of these traitors can do anyway. They’re leaderless, divided and finished. Tell the others to make ready to move out.”

General Li Jishen, who destroyed the communist forces in the Sichuan Campaign of 1929.

[1] Zhang Xueliang

[2] After the Northern Expedition, the Nationalist government was reorganised in a similar way as OTL, with the Executive Yuan, thought there are differences. The title of premier does not exist, the Yuan being headed by the president, while there is the administrative role is the Chairman, which shares many of the duties as OTL premier.

Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

8. Fast Times At Whampoa Military Academy

18 April 1995
Los Angeles

Moving to Los Angeles may have been the best move that John Lau [1] had ever made. Despite the lack of radiation around southern China and Hong Kong, the British colony had been flooded to the brim with refugees fleeing the chaotic mainland. The last year had seen some semblance of order restored to the still-liveable parts of China, but the government was only surviving by the skin of its teeth. So the people still left the country in droves, seeking a better life in places like Hong Kong, South Japan, Vietnam, even Korea, which had taken some damage [2] from the nuclear exchange between the old Chinese government and the former USSSR, but had managed to secure plenty of aid from Europe and the US.

John had tried his hand at acting in Hong Kong, but the growth of the film industry had been killed off by the flood of refugees and people having far greater concerns than investing in films. So he had come to America, where things seemed heavenly in comparison. And after a few minor roles in some films and one big role last year, he had managed to land the main character in a large scale historical film. Granted it was about Chinese history, which no doubt helped him, but there was no end of actors in LA and enough of them were Asian that he still had to compete for the role. And here he was now, ready and dressed in costume to begin filming in what he hoped would lead to fame and fortune.

“Ready John?” asked Daniel Spielberg [3], the director. Having him as director only made the film even more important for John. Spielberg had won several Academy Awards for his past films and his last historical film Three Days Of Blood [4], had received Best Film. He was one of the biggest names in Hollywood and John was excited to be working with him.
John nodded and stood up from his seat and made his way towards the set. It was a replica of Whampoa Military Academy as it looked in the 1920’s.
John heard the phrase “Action” and stood up to the podium to re-enact the famous speech Li had made at Whampoa shortly before the Northern Expedition.
He put a stern look on his face, hoping to capture Li’s military training and spoke to the extras that were standing below him as the cameras rolled.

From the LA Entertainment News-October 1995 Issue
Review of ‘Raising Flags: The True Story Of General Li Zongren’
By John Mabell
Despite broaching a controversial subject, Spielberg has managed to pull off what this critic considers another Oscar winning film. While any historical film will be biased in certain ways, Spielberg has managed to maintain an incredible amount of historical accuracy, while also balancing the need for plenty of action and drama. Hong Kong native John Lau has certainly come a long way since starting out in Hollywood and word is that he will be in the running for Best Actor for numerous awards.

As for the film itself, it gives us a brief view of Li’s early life and rise to power in south China, before becoming the Republic’s key military figure, then there is plenty of action detailing the battles that made up the Chinese Civil War and the Chinese part of World War II. Interspersed with this is Li’s struggle amongst the various government factions during the and after the war and his eventual rise to president in the chaotic aftermath of the assassination of President Wang in 1947. More action follows in the with the brief Sino-Soviet Border War and the spin-off conflicts in Korea, Japan and Vietnam as Li takes control of his country in more turbulent times.

The pacing of the film does at times feel slow, but this is more than made up for in the large scale battle sequences and tense dramatic moments between the various historical figures. The length provides enough slow and fast paced material to flesh out into a 2 hour and 45 minute epic that is certainly worth waiting in line at the box office for.

A film poster for Raising Flags, starring John Lau as Li Zongren.

Discussion at on
Thread started by LI-2
Topic: Could anyone else have done as good a job as Li Zongren as commander of the Kuomintang Army?

Jackhigh: This is a tough question. Do you mean as commander of the army or do you mean could someone else have done an army job and also gone on to become an impressive leader? For the latter I would say no.

LI-2: No, only could someone have stepped into place and commanded the NRA during the Chinese Civil War and Japanese invasion as well as Li did.

Blackguard: I suspect Li Jishen or He Yingqin would have been decent commanders but Li Zongren had more experience in politics and his position in both the army and the government was pretty crucial during the Clique Crisis, he managed to persuade President Wang to allow the warlords to maintain regional control and independent armies while some of them were on the verge of outright rebellion, a war between them at this time would have been devastating and could have allowed the communists to regroup and gain more ground. Not to mention the state of the Chinese armies when it came to the war with Japan.

Agoraphobiaaa: I reckon if Li had died during the late 1920s somewhere then Zhang Fakui would have been made commander of the army. He was very close to Wang Jingwei and his ‘Iron Army’ 4th corps was the one that had inflicted the final defeat on Zhang Zuolin. This gave him a very large status amongst the other generals. Its fortunate he shared similar aims to Li Zongren (anti-communism, regional independence) otherwise he may have tried to take power form him, but as it was he was content to follow Li, though they had some disagreements during the Clique Crisis. Zhang led some capable campaigns against the Japanese as well, in Nanjing, and Wuhan.

Democratic Bob: No Li Zongren in command equals Warlord Civil War in 1928.

LI-2: Seems like there are some candidates, but there is something else I should mention Li Zongren came up with the strategy of prolonged resistance that was very effective against the Japanese, would anyone else have thought this up? Otherwise the IJA could have made it much further into central China, perhaps even forcing the KMT to surrender.

Jackhigh: Doubtful. For Japan to conquer China would require far more men than they actually had, at worst it would allow more men to be used in the Pacific and delay the US victory perhaps, but the end result is the same. On Li Zongren, apparently Zhang Xueliang’s decision to fight the Japanese in Manchuria, came after he had a heated phone conversation with Li and Wang Jingwei, without Li would he have still fought them, or would he have kept to his orders and let them march into Manchuria?




Chinese Republic, 1931-37, Dr. Sun Yat-sen London Print, single & double circle Types I & II (Scott 290-306. Chan 305//328), mint complete set & extra values, Type I extra 1¢ value and Type II 2¢(3), 4¢, 5¢(3), 15¢ dark green, 15¢ scarlet (2), 20¢, 25¢, $1(3), $2(2), $5(2) including narrow & wide type varieties, 27 values, o.g., lightly hinged or never hinged, clean, fresh, F.-V.F. group. Realized HK$ 1,100


a Coiling Dragon cover franked with strip of 5 2¢ green one missing, a red band cover franked with 11 1¢ Martyrs including a block of 10 and a pair of 5¢ SYS, and a forwarded gold yuan red band.
Estimate HK$ 2,000 – 3,000.

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