Russia Historic Collections

RUSSIA HISTORIC COLLECTIONS

Russia History Collections

 

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Copyright @ 2012

 

 

Biography

Emperor Alexander I

 

 

 

Orangtuanya Paulus, anak dari Catherine yang Agung dan Maria Fyodorovna, Putri mantan Wurttemburg. Saat lahir, ia dibawa untuk dibesarkan oleh Nenek nya Catherine Agung. Alexander adalah seorang anak laki-laki, berambut pirang tampan dan cerdas. Masa kanak-kanak terganggu oleh divisons dalam keluarga. Kedua belah pihak mencoba menggunakan dia untuk tujuan mereka sendiri dan ia robek emosional antara neneknya dan ayahnya, Pewaris takhta. Ini diajarkan Alexander, sangat awal, bagaimana memanipulasi orang-orang yang mencintainya dan dia datang bunglon alami, mengubah pandangannya dan kepribadian tergantung pada siapa dia bersama pada saat itu.

Dia dibimbing langsung oleh filsuf republik Swiss, La Harpe, yang secara pribadi dipilih oleh Catherine untuk cetakan Alexander pribadi dan memberinya pendidikan yang luas. Sang Ratu tidak takut memiliki pendidikan Tsar masa depan di tangan seorang republikan, karena ia tahu kekuatan otokrasi dan kesadaran politik terbelakang dari Rusia pada saat itu. Catherine diharapkan bahwa pendidikan liberal akan membantu Alexander untuk memerintah dengan bijak untuk kepentingan negara. Di bawah bimbingan La Harpe Alexander seorang ahli budaya Eropa, sejarah dan kepala sekolah politik – sang pangeran muda menjadi seorang idealis dalam tradisi Pencerahan – namun, fokus La Harpe pada teoritis, kepala sekolah abstrak meninggalkan Alexander tanpa kekuatan karakter dan memutuskan untuk menjadi pemimpin benar-benar efektif.

Alexander adalah 17 pada 1793 ketika ia menikah dengan Elizabeth indah Baden, seorang putri cantik yang hanya empat belas tahun. Mereka sangat bahagia bersama di tahun-tahun pertama pernikahan mereka. Elizabeth dipandang Alexander sebagai tampan ‘pangeran menawan’ dan dia mencintainya sebagai balasannya. Sebagai hadiah pernikahan, Catherine memberikan Alexander Istana Alexander, menunjukkan preferensi dia untuk cucunya lebih putranya, Paul, dengan memberikan Alexander pengadilan lebih besar dari ayahnya. Hal ini semakin meracuni suasana dalam keluarga.

Catherine meninggal pada tanggal 6 November 1796 dan anaknya Paulus diasumsikan tahta. Dia segera melakukan sejumlah undang-undang baru untuk merusak aspek-aspek pemerintahan ibunya dia tidak setuju dengan. Tindakan Paulus pergi terlalu jauh, ia marah negara dan khususnya kaum bangsawan. Plot aristokrat yang menetas terhadap kehidupan Paulus. Dengan persetujuan diam-diam dari Alexander, Tsar dibunuh di Castle Mikhailovski di St Petersburg pada malam tanggal 11 Maret 1801.

Alexander dinobatkan Tsar untuk menggantikan ayahnya. Ibunya, Maria, menolak untuk berbicara kepada anaknya untuk waktu yang lama, dia tidak pernah sepenuhnya memaafkan dia karena keterlibatannya dalam pembunuhan ayahnya. Dalam tahun pertamanya di tahta Rusia, Alexander berusaha memerintah dengan cara yang tercerahkan. Negara itu sangat gembira dengan prospek masa pemerintahan Alexander; ada harapan besar bagi masa depan Rusia dan antisipasi dari bentuk yang lebih liberal dari pemerintah dan kebebasan meningkat. Beberapa pergi sejauh untuk berharap untuk mengakhiri lembaga perbudakan, yang melemahkan bangsa energi itu. Pada awalnya Tsar tidak sedikit untuk mencegah aspirasi. Perlahan-lahan, untuk sejumlah alasan, Alexander berpaling dari mimpi masa kecilnya dan kepala sekolah. Semakin ia merasa lebih mudah untuk mendapatkan hasil dengan menggunakan kekuatan otokrasi. Setelah ia mulai menggunakan kekuasaan otokratis, yang dikelola melalui pria yang disajikan di kehendaknya, itu rusak dia. Semakin lama ia menggunakan metode memerintah Rusia, semakin sulit ia Bagan baginya untuk kembali ke prinsip-prinsip pemerintahan yang baik dan peran raja yang telah dipelajarinya di masa mudanya.

Perang dengan Napoleon, yang melanda Rusia mengambil ratusan ribu nyawa dan menghancurkan beberapa kota Kekaisaran terbaik, mengambil itu sendiri, pulsa pribadi tentang Alexander. Dia terganggu oleh hilangnya nyawa dan perang itu sendiri, yang dia melihat sebagai pertempuran tidak hanya antara negara, tetapi juga peperangan rohani antara kekuatan baik dan jahat. Setelah banyak pertempuran dan kemunduran, kemenangan Sekutu atas Napoleon dinobatkan oleh entri kemenangan para jenderal triumpant ke Paris. Alexander berkuda di kepala mereka. Dia adalah puncak dari pemerintahannya. Alih-alih beristirahat pada kemenangan dan menikmati status pahlawan ia menikmati seluruh Eropa, Alexander adalah lebih dan lebih bermasalah spiritual. Sementara di Eropa Barat dengan Tentara Rusia ia dicari dan berada di bawah pengaruh dari penasihat spiritual dari luar negeri. Dia bermain-main dengan beberapa konsep dan ide, akhirnya membuang mereka untuk iman Orthodox dari negerinya sendiri. Tahun terakhir-Nya dipenuhi dengan obsesi dengan Tuhan dan Kristen. Pada akhir pemerintahannya ia meninggalkan nyonya Polandia nya 13 tahun, Maria Naryshkina, dan kembali ke istrinya, Elizabeth, yang telah menderita dari perselingkuhan dan kelalaian selama bertahun-tahun. Dia orang yang bermasalah dan rusak. Satu jatuh dia dan Elizabeth pergi ke bagian selatan Rusia. Di sana, pada 19 November 1825 di kota Taganrog, itu diklaim telah memalsukan kematiannya sendiri, menghilang menjadi seorang biarawan bernama Kuzmich, berkeliaran di hutan Siberia beberapa tahun setelahnya. Pemerintah Soviet mengipasi api dari rumor ini ketika mengumumkan peti mati telah dibuka pada tahun 1920-an dan ditemukan menjadi kosong.

 

 

Nicholas II

Tsar terakhir Rusia

Nicholas II adalah Tsar terakhir yang memerintah atas Rusia. Istana Alexander adalah tempat kelahirannya, tempat ibunya disampaikan dia di Kamar Tidur mewah Biru nya di keenam bulan Mei tahun 1868. Menakutkan, ini kebetulan menjadi hari raya Ortodoks Ayub St Penderita, yang tampaknya meramalkan uji tak berujung yang akan mengganggu kehidupan tragis Nicholas. Kecil “Nicky”, karena dia dipanggil, adalah produk dari, menakjubkan mungil berambut cokelat, Maria Fyodorovna Romanova – sebelumnya Dagmar, Putri Denmark – Alexandrovich dan ayah, raksasa mengintimidasi, Alexander Romanov.

Alexander III adalah orang yang mengesankan, yang mendominasi orang lain dengan ukuran dan kuat secara pribadi. Sepanjang abad ke-19 pria Romanov memiliki reputasi untuk menjadi besar dan megah. Sayangnya, Nicholas ambil setelah ibunya. Dia adalah tentang 5’6 “tinggi dan Romanov-nya paman semua tampak menjulang di atasnya Ia mencoba untuk mengimbangi tinggi badannya dengan bekerja dengan bobot dan peralatan olahraga.. Tidak peduli apa yang dia lakukan untuk membangun ukuran tubuhnya dia masih tetap sedikit dan liat di fisik Kakinya. pendek, tapi ini kurang jelas ketika dia menunggang kuda. Nicholas tampak paling anggun ketika dipasang. Kebanyakan orang yang bertemu Tsar mengomentari mata birunya yang menakjubkan Denmark, yang menurut pendapat sebagian adalah baik untuk nya jiwa. Dia selalu mengenakan rambut cokelatnya berpisah di sebelah kiri dan tumbuh jenggot tebal diisi dengan highlight emas ketika ia masih muda. Ini tinggal bersamanya sepanjang hidupnya dan menjadi fitur tanda tangannya, bersama dengan kebiasaan gugup ia menyikat gigi kumisnya dengan punggung tangannya. Dari ayahnya ia mewarisi hidung pesek, yang tidak disukai karena mengingatkannya pada Paulus I, yang ia menganggap paling jelek dari nenek moyangnya.

Nicholas memiliki pendidikan yang sangat baik dan mungkin adalah raja terbaik Eropa terpelajar pada masanya. Orang tuanya di mana cukup lihai untuk melihat tantangan menghadapi Tsar 20th Century akan cukup berbeda daripada masa lalu dan mencoba mempersiapkan dirinya untuk tanggung jawab masa depannya. Ancaman yang sangat nyata dari terorisme menutupiku Keluarga Kekaisaran terus-menerus. Setelah bom meledak mobil kereta mereka, dan hanya bahu kuat Alexander disimpan atap dari menghancurkan seluruh keluarga. Sebuah barisan yang kuat dari polisi rahasia dan penjaga militer melindungi mereka, tapi ini berarti Nicholas tumbuh di isolasi dari keluarganya. Ini menahannya dan ia terlambat jatuh tempo. Dia tidak pernah mendapatkan rasa percaya diri dan kemandirian. Kurangnya teman dari luar kaum bangsawan Eropa kehilangan Nicholas dari kepentingan memahami cara subyek masa depannya tinggal. Dalam hal ini ia tidak berbeda dari kebanyakan rekan-rekan kerajaannya. Tapi Nicholas juga sengaja terputus dari pemikiran liberal dan ide-ide oleh orang tuanya. Karena ia hampir tidak memiliki kontak dengan komunitas tumbuh Rusia intelektual dan artistik dia mengembangkan ide-ide sempit kehormatan, pelayanan dan tradisi yang akan membahayakan kemampuannya untuk memerintah Rusia di masa mendatang.

Sementara pewaris tahta, sebagai Tsarevich, Nicholas mencapai pangkat Kolonel Pengawal Kehidupan. Dia mencintai militer dan selalu menganggap dirinya seorang tentara. Karakter dan kebiasaan sosial sangat dipengaruhi oleh pengalamannya sebagai perwira muda dan ia membuat banyak persahabatan terpanjang nya abadi antara petugas saudaranya. Ini di mana tahun-tahun paling berbahagia, ketika ia hampir bebas perawatan dan khawatir tentang masa depan. Ayahnya masih relatif muda dan Nicholas bisa berharap beberapa tahun untuk mengisi peran petugas, gagah aristokrat sebelum ia dipanggil untuk melayani negaranya dalam sebuah peran yang lebih serius. Para Tsarevich memeluk kebebasan relatif dari kehidupan tentara dengan penuh semangat. Dia bisa minum dan melakukan seperti yang paling hedonistik petugas sesama. Hidup penuh dengan makan malam resimen, konser, tarian dan wanita cantik. Ia selama ini waktu dia bertemu dengan seorang penari muda dari Ballet Imperial bernama Mathilde Kschessinka, yang menjadi yang pertama, teman gadis nyata. Itu bukan hubungan serius. Keduanya tahu itu tidak bisa pergi ke mana saja dan selain itu, Nicholas sudah memberikan hatinya kepada yang muda bermata sedih dan ditarik bernama Jerman putri Alix dari Hesse. Banyak pikir itu tidak cocok. Alix tidak dianggap memiliki ciri-ciri kepribadian yang tepat dan agresivitas keluar dicari dalam seorang Rusia Ratu-to-be. Nicholas tidak bisa dibujuk untuk mempertimbangkan pengantin selain Alix, dan pasangan mana secara resmi terlibat dalam 1893. Pada musim gugur, 1894, ayah Nicholas mengembangkan kondisi nefritis serius yang menjadi semakin buruk. Dokter Alexander menyarankan perjalanan ke iklim lembut Krimea. Penyembuh terkenal John dari Kronstadt dipanggil ke samping tempat tidur Tsar meninggal di pelukan istrinya di Lividia berusia 47 dari nefritis.

Nicholas merasa belum siap untuk memerintah. Dia tahu tugas berat memerintah Rusia lebih besar dari pengalaman dan kemampuan. Namun ia percaya, bahkan dengan semua kekurangan dan keraguan diri, bahwa Allah telah memilih takdirnya. Kaisar baru mengambil sumpah penobatannya sangat serius dan melihat urapan sebagai Tsar sebagai pengalaman spiritual. Setelah mahkota itu ditempatkan di kepalanya Nicholas akan mencari dukungan dan bimbingan pertama dalam dirinya sendiri dan kemudian kepada Allah, yang telah memberinya beban ini. Cepat menyadari ia dikelilingi oleh kekejian dan kepentingan pribadi para birokrat dan penjilat, Nicholas menyimpulkan bahwa di bumi ia bisa percaya beberapa orang. Diganggu dan disesatkan oleh keluarganya ia semakin berpaling kepada istrinya untuk dukungan. Nicholas menjadi sinis dan tidak percaya sifat manusia. Kesepian dan isolasi akan jauh dalam hidup.

Di atas segalanya, Nicholas dicintai Rusia pertama dan kemudian keluarganya. Dia berpikir nasib kedua adalah tak terpisahkan. Tidak ada yang tahu kekurangan dari Dinasti Romanov lebih baik dari dia namun dia merasa monarki adalah satu-satunya kekuatan mencegah Rusia dari semakin hancur lebur. Nicholas cukup cerdas untuk menyadari mungkin pembunuhannya cukup tinggi. Keputusan Alexandra untuk menikah dengannya dan berbagi masa depan tidak pasti itu adalah sebuah komitmen dia selalu dihargai.

Nicholas adalah orang yang sangat religius dan umumnya soliter, yang mencintai persahabatan setia anjing nya ke perusahaan menteri negara. Berburu di perkebunan itu adalah hobi favorit, di mana ia bisa menghindari politik kisruh St Petersburg dan urusan mengganggu menterinya. Daripada tinggal di Istana Musim Dingin di pusat kota, Nicholas memilih untuk tinggal di pedesaan terdekat. Istana Alexander menjadi rumah utama dan Peterhof mundur pantai nya. Di istananya, Tsar bekerja sendirian di mejanya. Menolak untuk memiliki sekretaris, ia melakukan bisnis sendiri, dibantu oleh pembantu-d-kampnya, pejabat Pengadilan dan pelayan pribadi-Nya. Nicholas adalah seorang pekerja keras dan rajin tentang bisnis negara, meskipun prestasinya mana sangat dibatasi oleh kecenderungannya untuk fokus pada detail daripada gambaran besar. Dia tidak yakin pendapat sendiri tentang hal dan merasa meminta nasihat menjadi tanda kelemahan atau keraguan. Oleh karena itu ia mencoba untuk mengikuti sendiri ‘naluri’ yang dibatasi oleh pengalaman dan asuhan yang sempit.

Nicholas menyukai musik, terutama Wagner. Tristan dan Isolde adalah miliknya dan sepotong favorit Aleksandra tentang musik. Ketika ia bisa menemukan waktu, menulis ke teman atau membaca adalah hiburan favorit setelah menghabiskan waktu dengan keluarganya. Nicholas sangat pribadi dan dibenci disentuh oleh orang asing, meskipun ia tidak angkuh. Orang menyayangi dia sangat ramah dan baik hati di alam.

Meskipun dipuji karena kualitas mengagumkan pribadinya, sebagai otokrat Nicholas mutlak telah dianggap gagal. Dia merasa tidak mungkin untuk mendamaikan pandangan sendiri yang ketat dari apa yang benar dan salah bagi Rusia dengan tanggung jawab seorang raja modern untuk berkompromi pandangan sendiri untuk kebaikan bangsa.

Bukan orang bodoh, tapi ragu-ragu untuk menarik kesimpulan sendiri, Nicholas terombang-ambing isu-isu penting. Kurang cerdas politik dan naluri, dia jarang yakin bagaimana untuk menangani urusan negara. Hal ini membuatnya tampil sebagai lemah dan bertentangan dengan menterinya. Mereka merasa sulit untuk membaca pikiran sejati dan merasa sulit untuk mengikuti kepemimpinannya. Meski telah sangat argumen oleh orang lain, keputusan politik Nicholas tidak didominasi oleh istrinya, Aleksandra. Dia memutuskan sendiri dan fakta bahwa mereka setuju pada poin begitu banyak hanya menunjukkan kedekatan naluri politik mereka tentang Rusia.

Pada akhirnya, dalam beberapa minggu sebelum revolusi, Nicholas benar-benar rusak dengan tanggung jawabnya dan masalah keluarga. Kesehatannya buruk tetapi ia melakukan yang terbaik untuk menyembunyikan kelelahan dan rasa sakit fisik (tanda-tanda lebih lanjut dari kelemahan sendiri untuk Nicholas) dari orang lain. Yang tiba-tiba turun tahta-Nya adalah tanda lebih lanjut dari seorang pria yang tidak pasti dan bermasalah.

– Alexander III

oleh Scott Malsom

Dianggap benar otokrat terakhir Rusia, Alexander III adalah teladan dari apa yang Tsar Rusia seharusnya. Kuat, tangguh, keras patriotik, dan pada 6 ‘4 “menjulang tinggi di atas rekan senegaranya Dia adalah perwujudan dari beruang Rusia dongeng.. Dia berkuasa pada titik kritis dalam sejarah Rusia Imperial. Revolusi Industri akhirnya datang ke Rusia dan kapitalisme telah mengakar Investasi asing di dalam negeri adalah di semua waktu tinggi.. Bapa-Nya, Alexander II adalah beberapa jam setelah pemberian negara konstitusi pertama. pewaris Ironisnya, Alexander III tidak dilahirkan ke tahta Rusia.

Lahir di St Petersburg pada 26 Februari 1845 (gaya lama), dia adalah anak kedua dari Alexander II, “Tsar Pembebas” yang membebaskan budak. Kakaknya dan pewaris takhta, Nicholas, meninggal pada 1865. The Grand Duke muda sangat dipengaruhi oleh guru nya Konstantin Petrovich Pobedonostsev yang ditanamkan ke dalam dirinya fundamental konservatif otokrasi, Ortodoks dan nasionalisme yang diperlukan untuk memerintah Kekaisaran Rusia. Pobedonostsev percaya bahwa semua oposisi terhadap pemerintah akan tanpa ampun menghancurkan ide-ide liberal dan dilihat sebagai konstitusi dan kebebasan pers sebagai ancaman terhadap negara. Itu juga Pobedonostsev yang mengajarkan Alexander III sebagai anti-Semit dan melihat komunitas Yahudi Kekaisaran sebagai “Kristus Killers”.

Dengan kematian saudaranya, Alexander mewarisi lebih dari sekedar judul Tsarevich. Sementara di ranjang kematiannya, saudaranya Nicholas bersikeras bahwa dia juga mengambil fiancÚe nya. Pada Oktober 1866 Alexander menikah dengan Putri Dagmar Denmark. Setelah konversi ke Ortodoks, dia mengambil nama Marie Fedorovna. Bersama-sama, Alexander III dan Ratu Marie memiliki lima anak. Anak pertama mereka, Nicholas, lahir pada 1868 dan akan menjadi Tsar terakhir dari Rusia. Anak kedua mereka, George, lahir pada tahun 1871 diikuti oleh Xenia (1871), Michael (1878) dan Olga (1882). George meninggal pada 27 TB pada 1899. Michael kadang-kadang dianggap ‘Tsar untuk sehari’, seperti Nicholas turun tahta menguntungkannya pada tahun 1917 sebelum ia juga meninggalkan tahta. Kaum Bolshevik membunuh Michael enam hari sebelum Nicholas dan keluarganya pada bulan Juli 1918. Xenia dan Olga berhasil kabur Rusia bersama dengan ibu mereka selama Revolusi.

Pemerintahan Alexander III dimulai pada tragedi. Pada tanggal 1 Maret 1881, menjelang penandatanganan dalam konstitusi pertama hukum Rusia, dua pembunuh melemparkan bom di kereta Tsar di St Petersburg. Alexander II terluka parah dan meninggal tak lama setelahnya. Harapan Rusia untuk sebuah konstitusi juga meninggal hari itu. Seseorang tidak dapat reaksi kesalahan Alexander mati ayahnya. Ayahnya, Pembebas Tsar, telah membebaskan budak, mendahului Proklamasi Emansipasi Lincoln dengan dua tahun. Kita hanya bisa membayangkan kemarahan dia, istrinya dan anak-anak merasa saat mereka menyaksikan Tsar berdarah dan mati di St Petersburg istana. Acara ini akan memperkuat nada reaksioner dari 13 tahun pemerintahannya.

Sebagai hasil dari pembunuhan itu, Alexander III tidak akan mempertimbangkan pemberian konstitusi. Ia memperketat sensor pers dan mengirimkan ribuan revolusioner ke Siberia. Dalam Manifesto Aksesi, ia menyatakan keinginannya untuk memiliki “iman penuh pada keadilan dan kekuatan otokrasi” bahwa ia telah dipercayakan. Setiap proposal liberal dalam pemerintah dengan cepat dipecat. Alexander bertekad untuk memperkuat pemerintahan yang otokratis sebagai Allah yang diberikan benar. Pemerintahannya sering disebut sebagai Zaman Reformasi Counter.

Untuk banyak orang Barat ia muncul mentah dan tidak terlalu cerdas. Ratu Victoria berkomentar bahwa ia menganggapnya sebagai “berdaulat yang ia tidak memandang sebagai gentlemen”. Memang, ia tidak dididik atau dipersiapkan di masa mudanya untuk menjadi Kaisar. Tapi apa dia kekurangan dalam gaya ia lebih dari dibuat dalam keyakinannya posisinya, cintanya untuk negaranya, dan pemahaman tentang pentingnya ia bisa bermain dalam membentuk masa depan negaranya. Ia memiliki semacam kuat akan memerintah sebagai Kekaisaran Rusia sebagai otokrat absolut, ke titik di mana Kekaisaran stabil dan makmur, sehingga memungkinkan kapitalisme untuk mulai berakar. Selama pemerintahannya otokrasi stabil dan perbedaan pendapat dipaksa bawah tanah. Dia bekerja untuk memperkuat dan memodernisasi angkatan bersenjata Rusia sementara menghindari konflik bersenjata dan meningkatkan posisi Rusia sebagai kekuatan dunia.

Untuk kreditnya, sebagai seorang suami dan ayah ia sangat sukses. Ia juga baik dengan anak-anak dan sangat menyayanginya pada putri-putrinya. Dia berpakaian sederhana dan akan memakai pakaiannya sampai mereka usang. Kesederhanaan juga terbukti dalam pilihannya dari tempat tinggal. Meskipun ia tinggal di Istana Gachina besar, dia memilih untuk tinggal di daerah hamba direnovasi. Dia dikenal sebagai “Tsar Petani”, dan karena ukuran tubuhnya selalu dipandang sebagai lebih besar dari kehidupan. Dia mencintai kesederhanaan kehidupan Rusia dan memiliki sedikit rasa untuk apa pun barat.

Pada bulan Oktober 1888 Imperial kereta tergelincir sementara Tsar dan keluarganya sedang makan di gerbong makan. Tidak ada yang terluka parah, tetapi Alexander kuat III mengangkat atap mobil dari reruntuhan sehingga keluarga bisa melarikan diri. Itu tidak diketahui pada saat itu, tapi Tsar menderita memar parah pada ginjalnya yang akan berkontribusi pada kematiannya 6 tahun kemudian.

Pada awal 1894 Alexander III adalah 49 tahun. Ia percaya bahwa ia, melarang pembunuhan, bertahun-tahun tersisa untuk pemerintahannya. Dengan berjalannya tahun, kesehatannya memburuk pada tingkat yang mengkhawatirkan. Para dokter terbaik waktu dipanggil untuk membantu, tapi tidak mampu menyimpan Kaisar sekarat. Alexander Alexandrovich Romanov, Tsar dari semua Rusia, meninggal karena Nefritis pada 20 Oktober 1894 (OS) di istana musim panas di Livadia di Crimea. Dia dimakamkan di St Petrus & Paulus Katedral di St Petersburg, Tsar terakhir begitu. Dia meninggalkan warisan yang tidak lengkap, karyanya belum selesai, dan pewaris tidak siap untuk memerintah.

Sejarah cenderung melihat Alexander III sebagai lalim kasar. Prestasi satu-satunya adalah untuk memperkuat pemerintahan yang otokratis nya dengan mengorbankan kelas pekerja dan kaum tani. Untuk kredit, ia stabil pemerintah Rusia dan dipelihara perdamaian dengan tetangganya Eropa dan Asia. Sejarah diberkati dengan tabir sempurna. Alexander III, bagaimanapun, tidak memiliki kemewahan tersebut. Dia tidak tahu bahwa penyebab ia dirawat dan sarana di mana ia memperoleh mereka akan menyebabkan kehancuran akhirnya cara hidup dan pemerintah dia dihargai begitu dalam. Membatalkan Nya konstitusi yang direncanakan ditetapkan menjadi peristiwa gerak yang akhirnya akan membawa Rusia ke jurang kehancuran. Tsar ketidakmampuan atau keengganan untuk mempersiapkan putranya Nicholas pada usia dini untuk memerintah sebagai otokrat absolut diperburuk peristiwa masa depan yang akan menyapu atas Empire. Akhirnya, Alexander adalah putus asa keluar dari sentuhan dengan realitas muncul dari Rusia industri modern. Pemerintahan yang otokratis didirikan pada suatu waktu dalam sejarah Rusia ketika negara itu buta huruf, tidak berpendidikan, dan menyerang dari kekuatan asing di semua sisi. Waktu itu tidak lebih. Pada saat pemerintah Rusia harus mulai menyesuaikan diri dengan realitas perubahan abad 19, Alexander bukan menempel dan diperkuat otokrasi. Ini kegagalan terbesarnya. Dia adalah seorang ayah dan suami yang setia. Tidak ada keraguan bahwa ia mencintai negaranya dan sangat berharap untuk menjawab kepada Tuhan seperti ketika akuntabilitas sebagai Tsar. Sejarah telah membuat keputusannya. Haruskah kita pernah berpretensi tahu

 

Emperor Alexander I

 

 

 

His parents were Paul, son of Catherine the Great and Maria Fyodorovna, the former Princess of Wurttemburg. At his birth he was taken to be raised by his Grandmother Catherine the Great. Alexander was a blond, handsome and intelligent boy. His childhood was troubled by the divisons in the family. Both sides tried to use him for their own purposes and he was torn emotionally between his grandmother and his father, the Heir to the throne. This taught Alexander, very early on, how to manipulate those who loved him and he came a natural chameleon, changing his views and personality depending on who he was with at the time.

He was tutored by the Swiss republican philosopher, La Harpe, who was personally chosen by Catherine to mold Alexander’s personally and give him a broad education. The Empress had no fear of having a future Tsar’s education in the hands of a republican, for she knew the strength of the autocracy and the underdeveloped political awareness of Russia at the time. Catherine expected that a liberal education would help Alexander to reign wisely for the benefit of the country. Under La Harpe’s tutelage Alexander was well versed in European culture, history and political principals – the young prince became an idealist in the tradition of the Enlightenment – however, La Harpe’s focus on theoretical, abstract principals left Alexander without the strength of character and resolve to be a truly effective leader.

Alexander was 17 in 1793 when he married the lovely Elizabeth of Baden, a pretty princess who was only fourteen years old. They were very happy together in the first years of their marriage. Elizabeth looked upon Alexander as her handsome ‘prince charming’ and he loved her in return. As a wedding present, Catherine gave Alexander the Alexander Palace, showing her preference for his grandson over her son, Paul, by granting Alexander a larger court than his father’s. This further poisoned the atmosphere in the family.

Catherine died on November 6, 1796 and her son Paul assumed the throne. He quickly instituted a number of new laws to undermine those aspects of his mother’s reign he disagreed with. Paul’s actions went much too far, he infuriated the country and especially the nobility. Aristocratic plots were hatched against Paul’s life. With the tacit approval of Alexander, the Tsar was murdered at the Mikhailovski Castle in St. Petersburg during the night of March 11, 1801.

Alexander was crowned Tsar to succeed his father. His mother, Maria, refused to speak to her son for a long while, she never entirely forgave him for his complicity in his father’s murder. In his first years on the Russian throne, Alexander tried to rule in an enlightened way. The country was very excited at the prospects of Alexander’s reign; there were great hopes for the future of Russia and an anticipation of a more liberal form of government and increased freedom. Some went so far as to hope for an end to the institution of serfdom, which sapped the nation of it’s energy. At first the Tsar did little to discourage these aspirations. Slowly, for a number of reasons, Alexander turned away from his childhood dreams and principals. Increasingly he found it easier to get results by using the power of autocracy. Once he began using autocratic power, administered through men who served at his will, it corrupted him. The longer he used this method of ruling Russia, the more difficult he bagan for him to return to the principals of good government and the role of the monarch he had learned in his youth.

The war with Napoleon, which ravaged Russia taking hundreds of thousands of lives and destroyed some of the Empire’s finest cities, took it’s own, personal toll on Alexander. He was troubled by the loss of life and the war itself, which he saw as a not only a battle between nations, but also a spiritual battle between the forces of good and evil. After many battles and setbacks, the victory of the Allies over Napoleon was crowned by a triumphal entry of the triumpant generals into Paris. Alexander rode at their head. He was the apogee of his reign. Instead of resting on his laurels and enjoying the hero status he enjoyed across Europe, Alexander was more and more troubled spiritually. While in western Europe with the Russian Army he sought out and came under the influence of spiritual advisors from foreign countries. He toyed with some of their concepts and ideas, eventually discarding them for the Orthodox faith of his own country. His last years were filled with an obsession with God and Christianity. At the end of his reign he left his Polish mistress of 13 years, Maria Naryshkina, and returned to his wife, Elizabeth, who had suffered from his infidelity and neglect for years. He was a troubled and broken man. One fall he and Elizabeth travelled to the south of Russia. There, on November 19, 1825 in the town of Taganrog, it is claimed to have faked his own death, disappearing to become a monk named Kuzmich, wandering the forests of Siberia for years afterward. The Soviet Government fanned the flames of these rumours when it announced his coffin had been opened in the 1920’s and was found to be empty.

Nicholas II

The Last Tsar of Russia

 

Nicholas II was the last Tsar to reign over the Russia. The Alexander Palace was the site of his birth, where his mother delivered him in her plush Blue Bedroom on the sixth of May in 1868. Ominously, this chanced to be the Orthodox feast day of St. Job the Sufferer, which seemed to foretell the endless trials that would plague Nicholas’ tragic life. Little “Nicky”, as he was called, was the product of a stunning, petite brunette, Maria Fyodorovna Romanova – formerly Dagmar, Princess of Denmark – and a giant, intimidating father, Alexander Alexandrovich Romanov.

Alexander III was an impressive man, who dominated others by his size and powerful personally. Throughout the 19th century Romanov men had the reputation for being big and imposing. Unfortunately, Nicholas took after his mother. He was about 5’6″ tall and his Romanov uncles all seemed to tower over him. He tried to compensate for his height by working out with weights and athletic equipment. No matter what he did to build up his size he still remained slight and wiry in physique. His legs were short, but this was less apparent when he was on horseback. Nicholas looked the most regal when mounted. Most people who meet the Tsar commented on his stunning Danish blue eyes, which some thought were the well to his soul. He always wore his brown hair parted on the left and grew a thick beard filled with golden highlights when he was a young man. It stayed with him throughout his life and became his signature feature, along with the nervous habit he had of brushing his moustache up with the back of his hand. From his father he inherited a pug nose, which he disliked as it reminded him of Paul I, who he considered the ugliest of his ancestors.

Nicholas had an excellent education and was perhaps the best educated European monarch of his time. His parents where astute enough to see the challenges of facing a 20th Century Tsar would be quite different than those of the past and tried to prepare him for his future responsibilities. The very real threat of terrorism loomed over the Imperial Family constantly. Once a bomb blew apart their train car, and only Alexander’s powerful shoulders kept the roof from crushing the entire family. A powerful cordon of secret police and military guards protected them, but this meant Nicholas grew up in the isolation of his family. This held him back and he was late in maturing. He never gained a sense of confidence and self reliance. The lack of friends from outside the clan of European royalty deprived Nicholas of the benefit of understanding the way his future subjects lived. In this he was no different than most of his royal peers. But Nicholas was also purposely cut off from liberal thought and ideas by his parents. Since he had almost no contact with Russia’s growing intellectual and artistic community he developed narrow ideas of honor, service and tradition which would harm his ability to govern Russia in the future.

While heir to the throne, as Tsarevich, Nicholas achieved the rank of Colonel in the Life Guards. He loved the military and always considered himself an army man. His character and social habits were strongly influenced by his years as a young officer and he made many of his longest lasting friendships among his brother officers. These where his happiest years, when he was almost free of care and worry about the future. His father was still relatively young and Nicholas could expect a few years to fill the role of a dashing, aristocratic officer before he was called to serve his country in an more serious role. The Tsarevich embraced the relative freedom of army life with gusto. He could drink and carry on like the most hedonistic of his fellow officers. Life was full of regimental dinners, concerts, dances and beautiful women. It was during this time he met a young dancer from the Imperial Ballet named Mathilde Kschessinka, who became his first, real girl friend. It wasn’t a serious relationship. Both of them knew it couldn’t go anywhere and besides, Nicholas had already given his heart to a young, sad eyed and withdrawn German princess named Alix of Hesse. Many thought it was not a good match. Alix wasn’t thought to have the right personality traits and outgoing aggressiveness sought in a Russian Empress-to-be. Nicholas could not be persuaded to consider any other bride than Alix, and the couple where formally engaged in 1893. In fall, 1894, Nicholas’ father developed a serious nephritis condition which became progressively worse. Alexander’s doctors advised a trip to the gentle climate of the Crimea. The famous healer John of Kronstadt was summoned to the Tsar’s bedside died in the arms of his wife at Lividia aged 47 from nephritis.

Nicholas felt he was not ready to rule. He knew the weighty task of ruling Russia was greater than his experience and abilities. Yet he believed, even with all his inadequacies and self-doubt, that God had chosen his destiny. The new Emperor took his coronation oath very seriously and saw anointing as Tsar as spiritual experience. After the crown was placed on his head Nicholas would look for support and guidance first within himself and then to God, who had given him this burden. Quickly realising he was surrounded by deceit and the self-interest of bureaucrats and sycophants, Nicholas concluded that on earth he could trust few people. Bullied and misled by his relatives he increasingly turned to his wife for support. Nicholas became cynical and mistrustful of human nature. Loneliness and isolation would be his lot in life.

Above all else, Nicholas loved Russia first and then his family. He thought the fate of the two was inseparable. No one knew the shortcomings of the Romanov Dynasty better than he and yet he felt the monarchy was the only force preventing Russia from coming apart at the seams. Nicholas was intelligent enough to realise the probably of his assassination was quite high. Alexandra’s decision to marry him and share his uncertain future was a commitment he always appreciated.

Nicholas was a deeply religious and generally solitary person, who loved the faithful companionship of his dogs to the company of state ministers. Hunting on his estates was a favorite pastime, where he could avoid the tumultuous politics of St. Petersburg and the pestering affairs of his ministers. Rather than living in the Winter Palace at the center of the city, Nicholas chose to live in the countryside nearby. The Alexander Palace became his primary home and Peterhof his seaside retreat. In his palace, the Tsar worked alone at his desk. Refusing to have a secretary, he conducted business on his own, assisted by his aide-d-camp, officials of the Court and his valets. Nicholas was a hard worker and diligent about state business, although his accomplishments where severely limited by his tendency to focus on detail rather than the big picture. He was uncertain of his own opinions on things and felt asking for advice to be a sign of weakness or hesitancy. Therefore he tried to follow his own ‘instincts’ which were limited by his experience and narrow upbringing.

Nicholas loved music, particularly Wagner. Tristan and Isolde was his and Aleksandra’s favorite piece of music. When he could find time, writing to friends or reading were favorite pastimes after spending time with his family. Nicholas was intensely private and abhorred being touched by strangers, though he wasn’t standoffish. People fond him extremely affable and kindly in nature.

Though lauded for his admirable personal qualities, as an absolute autocrat Nicholas has been deemed a failure. He found it impossible to reconcile his own strict views of what was right and wrong for Russia with the responsibility of a modern monarch to compromise his own views for the good of the nation.

Not an unintelligent man, but hesitant to draw his own conclusions, Nicholas vacillated on important issues. Lacking political savvy and instinct, he was seldom sure how to handle the affairs of state. This made him come across as weak and contradictory to his ministers. They found it difficult to read his true thoughts and found it hard to follow his leadership. Although it has been strongly argued by others, Nicholas’ political decisions were not dominated by his wife, Aleksandra. He made up his own mind and the fact that they agreed on so many points only indicates the closeness of their political instincts concerning Russia.

In the end, in the weeks before the revolution, Nicholas was completely broken by his responsibilities and family problems. His health was bad but he did his best to conceal his exhaustion and physical pain (further signs of his own weakness to Nicholas) from others. The suddenness of his abdication was a further sign of an uncertain and troubled man.

 

– Alexander III

by Scott Malsom

 

Considered Russia’s last true autocrat, Alexander III was the epitome of what a Russian Tsar was supposed to be. Forceful, formidable, fiercely patriotic, and at 6′ 4″ towered over his fellow countrymen. He was the embodiment of the fabled Russian bear. He came to power at a critical point in Imperial Russian history. The Industrial Revolution had finally come to Russia and capitalism was taking root. Foreign investment within the country was at an all time high. His Father, Alexander II was within hours of granting the country its first constitution. Ironically, Alexander III was not born heir to the Russian throne.

Born in St Petersburg on February 26, 1845 (old style), he was the second son of Alexander II, the “Tsar Liberator” who had freed the serfs. His older brother and heir to the throne, Nicholas, died in 1865. The young Grand Duke was greatly influenced by his tutor Constantine Petrovich Pobedonostsev who instilled into him conservative fundamentals of autocracy, Orthodoxy and nationalism that were required to govern the Russian Empire. Pobedonostsev believed that all opposition to the government be ruthlessly crushed and viewed liberal ideas as constitutions and free press as a threat to the state. It was also Pobedonostsev that taught Alexander III to be anti-Semitic and view the Jewish community of the Empire as “Christ Killers”.

With the death of his brother, Alexander inherited more than just the title of Tsarevich. While on his deathbed, his brother Nicholas insisted that he also take his fiancÚe. In October 1866 Alexander married the Danish Princess Dagmar. After her conversion to Orthodoxy, she took the name of Marie Fedorovna. Together, Alexander III and Empress Marie had five children. Their first child, Nicholas, was born in 1868 and would be the last Tsar of Russia. Their second child, George, was born in 1871 followed by Xenia (1871), Michael (1878) and Olga (1882). George died at 27 of tuberculosis in 1899. Michael is sometimes considered ‘Tsar for a day’, as Nicholas abdicated in his favor in 1917 before he, too, renounced the throne. The Bolsheviks murdered Michael six days before Nicholas and his family in July 1918. Xenia and Olga were able to escape Russia along with their mother during the Revolution.

The reign of Alexander III began in tragedy. On March 1, 1881, on the eve of the signing into law Russia’s first constitution, two assassins threw bombs at the Tsar’s carriage in St. Petersburg. Alexander II was mortally wounded and died shortly thereafter. Russia’s hopes for a constitution also died that day. One cannot fault Alexander’s reaction to his father’s death. His father, the Tsar Liberator, had freed the serfs, predating Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation by two years. One can only imagine the rage he, his wife and children felt as they watched the Tsar bleed and die in a St Petersburg palace. This event would solidify the reactionary tone of his 13-year reign.

As a result of the assassination, Alexander III would not consider granting the constitution. He tightened censorship of the press and sent thousands of revolutionaries to Siberia. In his Accession Manifesto, he declared his intention to have “full faith in the justice and strength of the autocracy” that he had been entrusted with. Any liberal proposals in government were quickly dismissed. Alexander was determined to strengthen autocratic rule as a God given right. His reign is often referred to as the Age of Counter Reform.

To many westerners he appeared crude and not overly intelligent. Queen Victoria commented that she thought him as “a sovereign whom she does not look upon as a gentlemen”. Indeed, he was not educated or prepared in his youth to be Emperor. But what he lacked in style he more than made up for in his conviction of his position, his love for his country, and an understanding of the importance he could play in shaping his country’s future. He possessed such a strong will as to rule the Russian Empire as absolute autocrat, to the point where the Empire stabilized and prospered, thus allowing capitalism to begin to take root. During his reign the autocracy stabilized and dissent was forced underground. He worked to strengthen and modernize Russia’s armed forces while avoiding armed conflict and improve Russia’s standing as a world power.

To his credit, as a husband and a father he was greatly successful. He was also good with kids and doted upon his daughters. He dressed simply and would wear his clothes until they were threadbare. His simplicity was also evident in his choice of living quarters. Though he lived in the large Gachina Palace, he chose to live in the renovated servants area. He was known as “The Peasants Tsar”, and because of his size was always viewed as larger than life. He loved the simplicity of Russian life and had little taste for anything western.

In October 1888 the Imperial train derailed while the Tsar and his family were eating in the dining car. No one was seriously hurt, but the strong Alexander III lifted the roof of the car from the wreckage so that his family could escape. It was not known at the time, but the Tsar had suffered a severe bruise to his kidney that would contribute to his death 6 years later.

At the beginning of 1894 Alexander III was 49 years old. It was believed that he had, barring assassination, many years left to his reign. As the year progressed, his health deteriorated at an alarming rate. The best doctors of the time were called to help, but none were able to save the dying Emperor. Alexander Alexandrovich Romanov, Tsar of all the Russia’s, died of Nephritis on October 20, 1894 (OS) at the summer palace at Livadia in the Crimea. He was buried in the St. Peter & Paul Cathedral in St Petersburg, the last Tsar be so. He left behind an incomplete legacy, his work unfinished, and an heir unprepared to rule.

History tends to view Alexander III as a brutish despot. His only accomplishment being to strengthen his autocratic rule at the expense of the working class and peasantry. To his credit he stabilized the Russian government and maintained peace with his European and Asian neighbors. History is blessed with perfect hindsight. Alexander III, however, had no such luxury. He had no idea that the causes he cared for and the means at which he obtained them would cause the eventual destruction of the way of life and government he cherished so deeply. His canceling of the planned constitution set into motion events that would eventually take Russia to the brink of annihilation. The Tsar’s inability or unwillingness to prepare his son Nicholas at an early age to rule as absolute autocrat further exacerbated the future events that would sweep over his Empire. Finally, Alexander was hopelessly out of touch with the emerging realities of a modern industrialized Russia. Autocratic rule was established at a time in Russian history when the nation was illiterate, uneducated, and attacked from foreign powers on all sides. That time was no more. At a time when the Russian government should have begun adjusting itself to the changing realities of the 19th Century, Alexander instead clung to and strengthened the autocracy. This is his greatest failure. He was a loving father and devoted husband. There is no doubt that he loved his country and fully expected to answer to God as to his accountability as Tsar. History has made its judgement. Should we ever presume to know

The Icon of our Lady of the Sign – Znamenskaya

In Russia the icon of Our Lady of the Sign is called “Znamenskaya”.  The icon shows Mary, the Mother of God with her arms outstretched in an attitude of prayer.  This position of prayer is called Orans and the image of the Mother of God in this position is sometimes called the “Oranta”.  In her breast is a circular medallion with the Christ child blessing the world.  The icon originated in Byzantium and was considered a talisman of the Imperial throne there and in Russia.

The Church of Our Lady of the Sign in Tsarskoe SeloLeft: The Church of Our Lady of the Sign in Tsarskoe Selo.

This icon is closely associated with Tsarskoe Selo and the Romanov family.  One of the earliest churches in the town was dedicated to this icon and it is located very close to the Catherine Palace.  The church had a huge, silver-covered ikon of this ikon that was a popular place for prayer.  Alexandra and her daughters would come here frequently to ask for the intercessionary prayers of the Virgin and light candles before the icon.

The icon was brought to the Alexander Palace for special services, frequently when the Tsarevich was sick.

After the revolution, just prior to the exile of the Romanovs to Siberia where they were eventually murdered, the icon was carried in procession from the church and throughout the halls of the palace.  As Countess Sophia Buxhoeveden writes in the Life and Tragedy of Alexandra Feodorovna writes:

At Makarov’s order, packing was begun very discreetly, so as not to suggest to the soldiers that there was any idea of departure. As August 12th was the Grand Duke Alexei’s thirteenth birthday, a Te Deum was sung before the ikon of “Our Lady of Znamenie,” which was specially brought to the Palace. Prayers for the success of the journey were added to the usual ones. The Emperor and Empress took leave of all the servants who were not going with them, and thanked them for their faithful service. The Empress sorted out her dresses, and sent parcels of them to humble friends and Polish refugees, who were living at Tsarskoe Selo. The departure was fixed for the night of August 13th, but owing to some mistake on the part of the authorities it was delayed for hours. There were not enough men to move the luggage, which was to be taken at the last moment, and in the meantime the soldiers had got wind of the departure, and held meetings in all the barracks to discuss whether or not it should be allowed. The Emperor and Empress waited patiently for many hours till they were told they could leave. No one knew yet where they were being taken, and they only heard their actual destination when they were in the train.

Another account follows from Last Days at Tsarskoe Selo by Count Paul Beckendorff (the difference in dates is due to the Russian Calendar which was behind the calendar used in the West):

On the 30th of July, the birthday of the Tsarevich, we went to Mass, and at 2 o’clock in the afternoon a holy ikon, which was greatly venerated, was brought from the Church of Our Lady of the Sign (A feast of purely Russian origin.), which is next to the Lyceum. It was brought in procession and the clergy of this church were admitted to the Palace and to the Chapel. The Te Deum was sung and prayers were said asking God for a prosperous journey for their Majesties, their children and all those who accompanied them. The scene was moving. The ceremony was as poignant as could be: all were in tears. The soldiers themselves seemed touched, and approached the holy ikon to kiss it. They followed the procession as far as the balcony, and saw it disappear through the Park. It was as if the past were taking leave, never to come back. The memory of this ceremony will always remain in my mind, and I cannot think of it without profound emotion. In the course of the day we all went, as usual, to the kitchen-garden, and groups were taken.

Alexandra had a special icon of the Znamenskaya which she placed in her private bedroom chapel.  This icon always traveled with her and the Empress took it with her into exile in Siberia.  It was found in Yekaterinberg stripped of it’s jeweled cover (if anyone knows what became of ths ikon I would like to know!).  The grandduchesses had identical copies of the ikon in Siberia, which were also found by the Whites after the Bolsheviks withdrew from Yekaterinburg.

Copies of the ikon hung in many of the rooms of the Alexander Palace and in the rooms of Marie and Anastasia’s hospital in the Feodorovski Village (Gorodok).  These versions wore distinctive white cowls.

Here are three icons of the Znamenskaya:

Our Lady of the Sign from Alexandra's Bedroom

Above: This ikon was on the wall behind the Imperial bed.  It hung at the top on the right-hand side near the entrance to Alexandra’s small chapel.  It was presented to the Imperial family around 1910.  This ikon shows “Our Lady of the Sign” in the center, surrounded by images of the Imperial family’s heavenly protectors.  The ornate silver setting is by the Moscow firm of Olovianishnikov.  This icon stayed in the Empress’s bedroom until 1941.  After the war it was sent to the central depot in the Alexander Palace, where all of the returning treasures of Tsarskoe Selo and Pavlovsk were stored.  In 1956 many of the treasures of the Alexander Palace were divided up and sent to other museums.  This icon went to the Hermitage, where it is today.

Icon of the Mother of God of the Sign

Above:  This was one of the last icons given to Alexandra before the revolution. This icon hung in the Imperial bedroom ad It was presented to the Tsaritsa on December 11, 1916 during the fateful visit of the Empress and her daughters to Novgorod.  This was just a few days before the murder of Rasputin.  This visit is described by Anna Vyrubova in Memories of the Russian Court:

In the last days of 1916 the Empress with Olga, Tatiana, and General Racine paid a brief visit to Novgorod to inspect military hospitals and to pray in the monastery and church of Sofivsky Sobor, one of the oldest churches in Russia. Her visit was opposed, quite senselessly, by St. Petersburg society, which accused her of going for some bad purpose, God knows what. But at Novgorod the people poured out in throngs to greet her with peals of bells, music, and cheers. Before leaving the city the Empress paid a visit to a very old woman who had spent forty helpless years in bed, still wearing the heavy chains of penitence which as a pilgrim she had, almost a lifetime before, assumed. As her Majesty entered the old woman’s cell a feeble voice uttered these words: “Here comes the martyred Empress, Alexandra Feodorovna.” What could this aged and bedridden recluse have known or guessed of events which were to come?

Below: The ikon of our Lady of the Sign below was reproduced in books and prints.  This image was printed in the last years of the dynasty.  It shows a very sentimentalized version of the icon, encrusted in gold, with a jeweled veil.  This is a loose replica of the celebrated icon in the Tsarskoe Church.

Our Lady of the Sign icon
 
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Protected: Admiral Zheng Ho historic collections

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Tan Ka Kee the founder Of Xianmen University historic Collections

TAN KA KEE HISTORIC COLLECTIONS

Tan Ka Kee

Historic Collections

 

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Copyright@2012

 

 

 

Introduction

Remembering Tan Kah Kee

 

FOUR years ago, the son of Tan Kah Kee

e gave a speech at an event in Beijing that commemorated the 130th anniversary of the late philanthropist’s birth.

“My father didn’t leave behind much fortune for us, but what we inherited is his intellectual assets – which is even more valuable to all of us,” said Tan Yuan Ji, then 89.

The businessman, whose descendants have settled in Singapore and other parts of the world, recalled that his father was very strict with his children and educated them to be prudent in money matters.

 

Tan Kah Kee (second from left) inspecting the construction site of Xiamen University.

According to Yuan Ji, his father led by example and was thrifty in what he ate, wore and used. He expected his children to do the same.

But, when it came to education, the late Kah Kee was extremely lavish.

Throughout his eventful life, Kah Kee channelled all his energy and the money he earned from his overseas businesses – in rubber, a pineapple plantation and manufacturing – back to society.

He founded and funded Jimei University and Xiamen University in his hometown of Xiamen, Fujian Province, China, and other schools such as the Singapore Chinese High School and Tao Nan School, also in Singapore.

When he died in 1961, he donated his remaining savings of three million yuan to education.

 

The selflessness exemplified by the late Tan Kah Kee is embraced and highly regarded by students of Jimei University and Xiamen University as well as the people of Xiamen. Tan’s statue is placed at the main entrance of Jimei University to commemmorate the great philanthropist.

“He visited the Jimei school to examine its construction every day. He was very frugal. He set aside only 15 yuan from his monthly pension of 300 yuan for our food allowance. Each of the children only received 0.15 yuan for pocket money,” Yuan Ji recalled.

The rest of his father’s money, he said, was donated to education.

Born to a humble family of merchants in Jimei Village, Xiamen, in 1874, Kah Kee started school at the age of nine.

At 17, he moved to Singapore to help in his father’s wholesale rice business.

Kah Kee later set up his own pineapple production business and paid off his father’s business debts.

His business expanded to rice and saw milling, manufacturing and a sugar refinery. By 1925, he owned over 15,000 acres of rubber plantation and employed more than 30,000 people in his various businesses.

With a fortune of a million taels of gold, he was hailed as one of the greatest rubber magnates in Singapore and Malaya.

In the wake of the world financial crisis in the 20s and 30s, his businesses suffered and he declared bankruptcy in 1934. But by then, he had already amassed a fortune that enabled him to support a cause close to his heart – education.

A staunch believer that sound education can bring prosperity to a nation, he established his first family school in Jimei at the age of 21. In 1912, he returned to the new Republic of China from Singapore and opened Jimei Primary School the subsequent year.

In an interview with The Star, Xiamen University General Alumni Association editor Huang Zhongshi said, “He had a great vision. He first set up a primary school and later a teacher training college because he wanted to produce adequate teachers for the education system.”

After setting up the teacher training college, Kah Kee expanded the Jimei school village to include a high school, a kindergarten and institutes in agriculture, navigation, commerce, forestry and marine studies as well as other facilities.

These schools and institutes, which still exist today, were fully funded by Kah Kee. Students were invited to class to study for free to encourage them to pursue knowledge, Huang said.

In 1996, Jimei University was formed to bring together all the institutes and faculties. Today, the university has an enrolment of more than 20,000 full-time students.

Founder of universities

Kah Kee travelled between Singapore, Malaya and China to prepare for the setting up of the second university. He spent a million yuan to establish Xiamen University in 1921.

According to university records, it was even bigger in size than the Jimei school village and became one of the most famous overseas Chinese higher learning institutions in the region at that time.

Many of the university’s alumni came from South-East Asia, especially Malaya, Singapore and Indonesia.

 

Xiamen University General Alumni Association editor Huang Zongshi: ‘He (Tan Kah Kee) had a great vision.’

The philanthropist, who was also a well-respected overseas Chinese leader, hired the best team possible to run the university and educate the students. Among the famed Chinese and Singaporean literary figures and writers who served the university at that time were Lu Xun, Lim Boon Keng and Lin Yutang.

“Why did these academicians come to Xiamen University from Beijing?” Huang said. “This was because the remuneration paid to them was lucrative and the university did not owe them salaries.

“The management paid them on time every month. Lu Xun earned 400 silver dollars while the principal only got 500 silver dollars for coming to the university.”

The late Kah Kee’s selfless contribution to education has made him a respectable icon at the universities and in Xiamen.

Xiamen University post-graduate student He Jinxing said he was attracted by the beauty of the campus at first but he was even more amazed after learning about the tremendous sacrifice of the philanthropist.

“What we have now is the labour of Mr Tan. He established this beautiful university in 1921 and his spirit has made a deep impact on everyone at Xiamen University,” he said.

Jimei University student Lin Danping said: “I didn’t know about Mr Tan when I first came to the university. Only after a visit to Mr Tan’s former residence (in Xiamen) did I get to know about him. It was a turbulent period in the 1910s but he still put his money in education – this was a class act.”

 

The beautiful Jimei High School, inspired by architectural characteristics designed by its founder Tan Kah Kee, is still standing in the Jimei school village in Xiamen, Fujian Province, China.

Kah Kee’s influence is seen not only in his selflessness but also in the architecture of both Jimei and Xiamen universities. The unique red-and-white brick walls of the building clusters, hostels and other facilities were designed by the philanthropist himself.

Many overseas Chinese and alumni, like the late Lee Kong Chian (Kah Kee’s son-in-law and founder of Lee Rubber Company in Johor), have followed in his footsteps by donating money for the expansion of the universities.

His final years

Kah Kee’s love for his motherland and his support for its revolution movement was never a secret. He backed Sun Yat-Sen financially in the latter’s uprising to overthrow the Qing Dynasty which ended 267 years of rule in 1911.

During the Japanese Occupation, Kah Kee fled to Java where he wrote a book entitled A Memoir of an Overseas Chinese while Xiamen University was relocated to Changting in western Fujian to escape destruction.

After the retreat of the Japanese in 1945, Kah Kee was given a hero’s welcome on his return to Singapore. At a ceremony in Chongqing, China, to celebrate his return, the late Chairman Mao Zedong had inscribed a scroll about Kah Kee which read “Banner of Overseas Chinese, Glory of the Nation”.

In 1950, he returned to settle in Xiamen where he devoted his life to the reconstruction of China under the Communist Party’s rule. He served in the Returning Overseas Chinese League, Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress and Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference.

He then set up the Overseas Chinese Museum in Xiamen in 1956 to allow the younger generation to learn about the life of overseas Chinese.

In 1961, he died of cancer in Beijing and, after a state funeral, his body was transported back to Jimei where it was buried at the Ao Yuan Garden.

All in all, the philanthropist contributed an estimated 150 million yuan towards education both in China and abroad.

 

The mausoleum of the late Chinese philanthropist Tan Kah Kee at Jimei town in Xiamen, China.

Hong Yonghong, who co-wrote New Biography of Tan Kah Kee with the philanthropist’s nephew Tan Keong Choon, said: “If you take a look at his whole life, whether it was how he did his business, treated people, set up schools, denounced the Japanese Occupation and had a hand in the formation of New China, I cannot find any weakness in him.”

Hong said many people may have made donations towards education but the late Tan Kah Kee is perhaps the only person to give all his fortune towards this cause.

Leaders of Jimei and Xiamen universities and the people of Xiamen, he said, embrace the institutions’ respective mottos: “Sincerity and Fortitude” and “Strive for Excellence” (which Kah Kee personally penned) as well as the philanthropist’s noble spirit.

Xiamen University student Han Jian said: “In his mind, he had a clear philosophy of life that only education can make the nation prosperous.”

Echoing Han’s views, another student Che Hongtu said: “I think Mr Tan Kah Kee was a very charismatic personality. Having a person like him do such an important thing like setting up Xiamen University is indeed very respectable.”

At the 130th anniversary commemoration event, the delegation of 45 members of Kah Kee’s family was given a warm welcome when they visited the universities and Overseas Chinese Museum in Xiamen.

“We know that all this warm welcome was because of the great reputation of Tan Kah Kee,” his grandson Dib Jin said in a speech at the museum.

“The contribution of our grandfather remains unreachable but, as his descendants, we have no excuse not to do our part to continue his legacy.”

Xiamen University’s former vice-chancellor Lim Boon Keng best described the philanthropist in the university’s magazine of 1929: “He is a quiet and honest person who works hard for education. He doesn’t like people to sing praises about what he has done.

“All his factories in Singapore and Johor and the hundreds of acres of rubber estate were set up for nothing but to pay the operational costs of the university.”

Such was the ever generous and philanthropic Tan Kah Kee – a legend who will be remembered forever.

 

 

Tan Kah Kee’s timeline

1874 – Born in Jimei, Xiamen, Fujiang Province, China, to businessman Tan Kee Peck.

1890 – Received a letter from his father to help in the latter’s wholesale rice business in Singapore.

1893 – Returned to Jimei to marry Zhang Shi.

1898 – Returned to Jimei because of his mother’s death.

1910 – Joined the league for Chinese revolution, assumed capacity as assistant head of Singapore’s Chinese Chamber of Commerce and raised 50,000 yuan from overseas Chinese born in Fujian, for education.

 

1912 – Returned to Jimei to set up Jimei Primary School.

1919 – Returned to his hometown to establish Xiamen University.

1921 – Xiamen University opened.

1924 – Established Nanyang Siang Pau (Malaysia’s major Chinese-medium newspaper) in Singapore.

1926 – Faced financial crisis but he continued to pump in funds for Xiamen University and Jimei schools as well other schools in Singapore.

1941 – Led an association comprising overseas Chinese to fight against the Japanese Occupation.

1942 – Fled to Java to escape from Japanese attacks, and wrote Memoir of an Overseas Chinese, and Housing and Hygiene.

1945 – Returned to Singapore after the exile in Java.

1947 – Established Jiyou Bank in Hong Kong to ensure the institutions set up by overseas Chinese would be financially self-reliant.

1949 – Welcomed back to China by Chinese Government and served in the national Chinese People’s Political Consultative Committee.

1950 – Visited Singapore and Malaya for the last time before settling in his hometown Jimei.

1959 – Set up Overseas Chinese Museum in Xiamen.

1961 – Died of cancer in Beijing. His body was buried in Ao Yuan Garden in Jimei.

Brief History

Brief History

Nan Chiau Primary School is one of six schools run by the Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan. It was formerly the primary section of Nan Chiau High School. Established in March 1947, it is always progressing with the time, continuously undergoing self-renewal in line with the needs of the nation and making positive contributions to the educational development of Singapore. .

1941

Initiated by Mr Tan Kah Kee, Mr Lee Kong Chian donated a plot of land at Kim Yan Road as the school site for the building of Nan Chiau Teachers’ Training School.

   

1941

Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan converted the Nan Chiau Teachers’ Training School to Nan Chiau Girls’ High School including an ancillary primary school. Nan Chiau Girls’ High School was founded.

   

1965

Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan invested $2 million in rebuilding the school. The secondary school moved to temporary premises at Guillemard Road while the primary school remained at the original site.

   

1969

Nan Chiau Primary School is one of six schools run by the Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan. It was formerly the primary section of Nan Chiau High School. Established in March 1947, it is always progressing with the time, continuously undergoing self-renewal in line with the needs of the nation and making positive contributions to the educational development of Singapore. .

   

1979

The school began functioning as a full school, with the primary section and the secondary section sharing the same premises.

   

1980

The school adopted English as its main medium of instruction.

   

1984

With its first intake of male pupils, the school became co-educational and was renamed Nan Chiau High School.

2001

Relocated to Sengkang New Town in December 2000, Nan Chiau High School and
Nan Chiau Primary School operated as two schools in January 2001.

2003

Nan Chiau Primary School was officially opened by RAdm Teo Chee Hean, Minister for Education on 8 March 2003.

2005

The school was selected to join BackPack.NET, a collaborative initiative by MOE, Microsoft and iDA.

2006

The school was awarded the LEAD IT School status.
The school was also the Prototype School for Curriculum Innovation under the TLLM (Teach Less Learn More) initiative.

2007

The school achieved the Best School (National) Thinking Culture Award (TCA).
The school received the Programme for School-Based Excellence (PSE) in ICT Award.
The school received the Singapore Innovation Class (I-Class) Award.

2009

Nan Chiau Primary School and the Learning Sciences Lab/National Institute of Education jointly set up the Centre for Educational Research and Application in ICT (CERA).
The school was selected to join BackPack.LIVE, a collaborative initiative by MOE and Microsoft.

2010

The school was appointed the North Zone (NZ) Centre of Excellence (CoE) for ICT.
The school received the Singapore Innovation Class (I-Class) Award for the second time.

   

 

Biography

Mr. Tan Kah Kee (1874-1961), a renowned Overseas Chinese entrepreneur, social reformer, philanthropist, and educationist in modern history, was an outstanding representative of his peers fighting for nation’s prosperity and revitalization. With deep love for his motherland he generously donated to schools and made remarkable contribution to Chinese nation’s revival.

Mr. Tan Kah Kee departed for Singapore in his youth time to work for his father’s shop, and expanded his business by developing rubber industry and shipping, making himself a successful and outstanding entrepreneur. Mr. Tan had never forgotten his motherland and hometown. He financed a series of world famous schools and universities, such as Jimei Schools, and Xiamen University. In Sino-Japanese War which broke out in 1937, Mr. Tan united mass Chinese people in Singapore and organized many relief funds under his name. He also organized a large number of overseas Chinese back to China to support in Anti-Japanese War. His love for his country and his national integrity are worth admiring by Chinese people forever. Chairman Mao Tse-tung praised Mr. Tan Kah Kee as “flag of overseas Chinese and flame of Chinese nation”. Premier Zhou Enlai spoke highly of Mr. Tan Kah Kee that “he had tried his utmost for national victory and made boundless painstaking efforts for unification in Anti-Japanese War; His heart is to stay untainted in spite of rumors and slanders, and he is never to be subdued by force.”

 

 

Tan Kah Kee

 

Tan Kah Kee

 

Born

October 21, 1874(1874-10-21)
Tong’an County, Fujian province

Died

August 12, 1961(1961-08-12)
Beijing

Occupation

Businessman

Known for

Philanthropic work

Spouse

Teo Po Ke

Children

Tan Ai Li (daughter)

Parents

Tan Kee Peck (father)

Relatives

Tan Keng Hian (younger brother)
Lee Kong Chian (son-in-law)

This is a Chinese name; the family name is Tan.

Tan Kah Kee (simplified Chinese: 陈嘉; traditional Chinese: 陳嘉庚; pinyin: Chén Jiāgēng; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tân Kah-kiⁿ) (October 21, 1874 – August 12, 1961) was a prominent businessman, community leader, and philanthropist in colonial Singapore, and a Communist leader in the People’s Republic of China. [edit] Biography

Early years

Tan was born in Jimei, Tong’an county, Fujian province, China (present-day Jimei District in Xiamen City), and went to Singapore in 1890, when he was 16 years old, to work for his father’s rice store. After his father’s business collapsed in 1903, Tan started his own business and built an empire from rubber plantations and manufacturing, sawmills, canneries, real estate, import and export brokerage, ocean transport to rice trading. His business was at its prime from 1912–1914, where he was known as “Henry Ford of the Malaya community, both in Malaya and his native Fujian province.

Establishment of education institutions

Tan was one of the 110 founding members of Tao Nan School. He set up the Jimei Schools (now Jimei University) in 1913. In 1919, he set up The Chinese High School, now named Hwa Chong Institution in Singapore. While in 1921, he set up the Xiamen University and financially supported it until the Government of the Republic of China took it over in 1937.

Personal

In 1920, he married his daughter Tan Ai Li to Lee Kong Chian, who worked under him and who later became a famous Singaporean philanthropist and businessman.

World War Two

Tan was one of the prominent ethnic Chinese Malayans to financially support Chinese efforts in the Second Sino-Japanese War which broke out in 1937 and organized many relief funds under his name. He was also a participant in the Legislative Yuan of the Nationalist Government under Chiang Kai-shek in Chongqing. After the Japanese invaded and occupied Malaya and Singapore during the Battle of Malaya and the Battle of Singapore, these contributors were defined as “undesirables” and were subjected to systematic extermination in the Sook Ching Massacre, although Tan survived. Tan strongly rejected proposals to attempt to negotiate with the Japanese, regarding any such attempts as characteristic of a hanjian (traitor of the Chinese), and petitioned the pessimistic Wang Jingwei to dissuade him from any such activities. Tan also exercised considerable effort against the then-governor of Fujian province, Chen Yi, for perceived maladministration.[1]

Politics

Tan was the de facto leader of the Singaporean Chinese community, serving as chairman of the Chinese Chamber of Commerce and helped organise the Hokkien clan association. However, he lost this role when the Chinese Civil War divided the Singaporean Chinese community into Communist Party of China (CPC) and Kuomintang sympathizers. Tan was a CPC supporter as he was disillusioned with the corruption within the Nationalists.[citation needed] After the Communist victory in China, Tan tried to return to Singapore in 1950, but was denied entry by British colonial authority which was concerned about communist influence in Singapore and Malaya. He then moved permanently to China and served in numerous positions within the CPC. He died in 1961 in Beijing and was given a state funeral by the People’s Republic of China. In Singapore, the Tan Kah Kee Scholarship Fund, which later became the Tan Kah Kee Foundation, was established in memory of this philanthropy.

Later years

In 1943, while taking refuge in Java from the Japanese, Tan began writing his memoirs, The Memoirs of an Overseas Chinese of the Southern Ocean (simplified Chinese: 侨回忆录; traditional Chinese: 南僑回憶錄; pinyin: Nánqíao Húiyìlù). This work became a valuable resource of the history of overseas Chinese.

Image gallery

Statue of Tan Kah Kee in front of his memorial hall in Xiamen University

A statue of Tan Kah Kee in front of the clock tower of Hwa Chong Institution

 

 


Tan Kah Kee —”Henry Ford of Asia”
(not the “Chicken guy” of Tan Kah Kee Fried Chicken, but the great “Rubber Magnate!” & founder of Xiamen University)
From ” Xiamen University–Strength of the Nation” .by Dr. Bill Brown & Robin Feifei– almost 400 pages, bilingual Chinese/English parallel, B&W and color photos, drawings, maps.

)

A Double Portion of Tan’s Spirit
Innovative education is of course nothing new at XMU. Our university has been pioneering all elements of modern education ever since it was founded in 1921 by the “Henry Ford of Asia,” Mr. Tan Kah Kee. This famous Overseas Chinese patriot gave an estimated USD 100 million to educa-tion, thanks his business acumen and frugal lifestyle. But Mr. Tan left us much more than mere money.

As I teach in Organizational Behavior, organizations’ personalities often reflect those of their founders, and XMU is certainly no exception. XMU’s 85 years of success show it has inherited a double portion of Mr. Tan’s spirit and vision for a better China, a better Asia, and a better humanity.

Our university’s founder, Mr. Tan Kah Kee (Chen Jiageng, 1874-1961), gave an estimated 100 million USD to education over his lifetime but he was born into a humble family of merchants in the village of Jimei, on the mainland across from Xiamen Island. Tan worked the fields and the fishnets until he started school at the age of nine, and in the fall of 1890 he moved to Singapore to help in his father’s rice shop. His father’s business went under in 1904, but the savvy son pulled together enough capital to buy 500 acres of forested land in Singapore and started a pineapple plantation.

The Rubber Magnate Tan rapidly expanded into rice milling, manu-facturing, sawmills, real estate, and ocean transport, but it was rubber that really stretched his fortune. He set aside a few acres of his pineapple planta-tion and eventually had 10,000 acres of rubber trees. His expansion from rubber planting to rubber manufacturing helped create the rubber industry and made him one of the four great Rubber Barons.
By the mid 1920s, the Rubber Magnate’s Singapore-based empire em-ployed over 30,000 people, had 150 offices on 5 continents, and did business with 48 countries. But prices plummeted after 1926 and rubber never quite bounced back. Even worse, after Mr. Tan protested Japan’s brutal “Jinan Massacre” (May 3rd, 1928), his factory was burned to the ground. Yet even as he
struggled through the Great Depression he continued to finance Jimei School, Xiamen University, and Chinese and English schools in Singapore—a feat he managed in part because of his frugality.

The Frugal Philanthropist Rich philanthropists generally give but a fraction of their wealth while alive, but leave behind large foundations since the only thing they can take with them when they die is their reputation. But Mr. Tan quite literally gave like a prince while living like a pauper, subsisting on little more than rice porridge and potatoes, and using the same umbrella and battered suitcases for decades. Other rich Chinese of his day built luxurious villas on nearby Gulangyu Islet, but Mr. Tan contented himself with a sim-pler home in his native Jimei. As he wrote to a relative, his hometown still had great needs and “I cannot put myself before the community.”

The Japanese destroyed Tan’s home in 1938, and when the Chinese government offered to rebuilt it after Liberation, Tan insisted that war-damaged school buildings be rebuilt first. His home was finally renovated in 1955 and he lived there from 1958 until 1960, when he moved to Beijing. Tan’s house was restored to its original design in 1980 and is now a museum and meeting place for the Jimei School Committee. I think the most moving exhibits are the battered suitcases, umbrellas and worn-out shoes that the “pauper millionaire” used for decades.

Mr. Tan’s Vision for China Mr. Tan was a social and political reformer from youth. He supported Sun Yat-sen, and at one point accounted for about 1/3 of the Kuomintang’s finances (a feat he no doubt regretted when Chiang Kai Shek absconded to Taiwan with his money and everyone else’s). But Tan’s greatest hope for China was in modern education.

In 1894, at age 21, Tan began a family school in Jimei. In 1912, during the first year of the new Republic of China, Tan returned to China and on January 27, 1913 opened the Jimei Primary School. Between 1920 and 1926 he opened a school a year until Jimei School Village had 11 schools, includ-ing a middle school and schools in agriculture, commerce, forestry, navigation, etc. In addition, Jimei School Village’s education promotion department donated to more than 70 middle schools and primary schools throughout Fujian province.
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Supporting Education Abroad Tan also began or funded at least seven schools in Singapore, including Tao Nan (1907), Ai Tong (1912), Chung Fook Girls School (1915), Chung Poon (1915), the Singapore Chi-nese High School (1918), Nanyang Normal School (1941) and Nan Chaio Girls High School (1947). . His largesse was not limited to Chinese schools. He gave $30,000 to the Anglo-Chinese School in 1919 and in 1941 gave $10,000 to Raffles College, which later merged with the Medical College and eventually became the University of Singapore.

Xiamen University—Apple of Tan’s Eye In early November, 1920, Mr. Tan offered one million Yuan to start Xiamen University, which began with the Normal and Commerce Departments, and later expanded to five Colleges and 17 departments in Literature, Science, Law, Commerce and Education. Xiamen University captured the imagination of Chinese and foreigners alike. In the 1920s, Paul Hutchinson wrote,

“This school [Xiamen University] is entirely a Chinese institution, with no foreign teachers and no foreign connections, and right out in a small Chinese village. The course of study is being made very practical… When we think of the future days, it is one of the most encouraging things to be seen in the whole of China.”

Mr. Tan emphasized quality education. He sent students abroad, hired teachers from other areas, purchased the latest equipment, and emphasized sports. By the spring of 1937, his financial fortunes had so suffered that he allowed the government to take over Xiamen University, but he continued to subsidize it. Tan wrote to the minister of education that he had had “a fine start and a poor finish,” and would “live in perpetual regret.” [If only he could see XMU today!]
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XMU Retreats to Changting That same year, Xiamen University relocated to Changting in West Fujian to escape destruction by the Japanese, who had occupied Xiamen. [Read more in the next chapter, “Sa Bendong”]. The Japanese surrendered in August, 1945, and on October 21, 500 mass organizations in Singapore welcomed Tan’s return from a decade of exile in Java. A large meeting in Chongqing on November 18, 1945, celebrated Mr. Tan’s safety, and Chairman Mao inscribed a scroll about Tan which read, “Banner of Overseas Chinese, Glory of the Nation.”

XMU returned to Xiamen after Japan’s defeat and the new president and eminent biologist, Dr. Wang Deyao, immediately set out rebuilding and ex-panding the campus. Tan’s vision and money and Wang’s leadership paid off. XMU was designated a key national university in 1962 and has been mushrooming ever since.

On October 1, 1949, Chairman Mao invited Mr. Tan to Tiananmen to participate in the ceremony of the founding of the People’s Republic of China. Tan settled down in his homeland in 1950 and devoted the rest of his life and fortune to its reconstruction.
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Tan’s Final Years During his last years Mr. Tan served in many posts, including Chairman of Returning Overseas Chinese League, Member of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, and Vice-Chairman of the CPPCC. He was also responsible for innovations like China’s first sea-spanning bridge (the award-winning Xiamen-Jimei bridge), the Jimei Dragon Boat Pool, which has hosted numerous domestic and international aquatic events, and Jimei’s 15 storey Nanyuan Building, which has a navigational light on the roof to guide fishermen safely home.

Mr. Tan died of cancer in 1961, and after a State Funeral in Beijing, a special train transported his body to his hometown of Jimei. Tan left behind three million Yuan in banks, but the man who gave like a prince and lived like a pauper evidently expected his descendants to do the same—or make their own fortune. He left no money to his family, but gave half a million to Jimei School Foundation, half a million to construct Beijing’s Overseas Chinese Museum, and over two million Yuan for education.

Tan’s International Legacy Altogether, Mr. Tan gave an estimated 100 million USD towards education, both in China and abroad, and the Tan Kah Kee Foundation has been awarding a Postgraduate Scholarship since 1983. In 1986, Nobel Prize Laureate Prof. C.N. Yang set up the Tan Kah Kee Inventors’ Award, and in 1992, Prof Yang and two other Nobel Prize Laureates, Prof Samuel C.C. Ting and Prof Li Yuan Tseh, together with Prof Changlin Tien, former Vice-chancellor of the University of California at Berkeley, and Prof Wang Gungwu, former President of Hong Kong University, set up the Tan Kah Kee International Society Foundation to the advancement of education and culture in the spirit of Tan Kah Kee.

In 1991, Singapore’s president, Dr. Wee Kim Wee, launched the University Endowment Fund in honor of Mr. Tan, and set a goal of raising 1$ billion for education. On 11 March, 1990, the International Asteroid Center of China named Asteroid 2963 “Tan Kah Kee Star.” The naming ceremony was held at Xiamen University.
Lastly, the School of Chemistry in my home state’s University of California, Berkeley, has a “Tan Kah Kee Hall.” I hope more and more foreigners and Chinese alike will come to understand, and emulate, Tan Kah Kee’s spirit of sacrificial giving.
Fujian Province, China

 

 

Fujian province is the homeland of my ancestors who left the shores of this coastal province in the 19th century and sank roots in Nanyang – the South Seas. Otherwise known as South East Asia. They lived for generations in Malaysia before my father made his way south to the emerging island dynamo of Singapore which exploded economically not long after he arrived. Being an overseas son many times removed, I can’t think of a single reason why I should be remotely interested in Fujian, other than the stirrings of motherlands that call all who leave its shores from fish to fowl to mankind. Through my background readings, I’d like to paint you a landscape in words. Maybe one day, I’ll be able to fill in the broad strokes…

 


The Mountains of Fujian

Fujian is predominantly mountainous – walled in on the north, west and south sides. A truly spectacular sight. The precious arable flat land is rich but self limiting for a growing population.

There are over 1,000 islands off the Fujian coast which provides welcome fishing grounds for subsistence and over 600 species of fish.

The islands also provide the geographic shelter that created natural harbours for Fuzhou (Hokchew), Quanzhou (Chuanchew) and Xiamen (Amoy) to develop into trading ports.


In fact, during the Tang dynasty of 608 – 907 AD – China’s Renaissance Period of culture, literature, trade and arts, Chuanchew was a mecca for Arab and European traders who called the city Zaytun.

At the height of such international travel and trade, Hokkiens began to follow the trading routes into South East Asia and setting up trading settlements.

Thus began the Fujian Exodus.

 


 

THE STORY OF THE FUJIAN EXODUS

The Fujian Exodus is a story of hope and inspiration.

Of pioneering and sacrifice.

It is a legacy that we can all be proud of.


Trade Winds Fan The Flames Of Fujian Migration


Manila

It takes only three days for a junk to reach Manila from Fujian. Manila was a strategic hub of the galleon trade in the centre of Asia. Manila was a trade depot for Mexican silver on route to China as payment for silk and porcelain. The Hokkiens were well poised to act as intermediaries in Manila for this trade and soon formed a community that still thrives today.


Free Trade in Singapore and Malaya

A pineapple cannery in 1915.

The promise of limitless fortune lay in the free trade heartland of South East Asia – Singapore and Malaysia – then known as the Straits Settlements of Singapore, Penang and Malacca.

All three cities were natural ports and harbours like Amoy and Chuanchew. Hokkiens went from port to port and formed communities that are entrenched to this day.

Go to Penang, Malacca and Singapore today and the Min’Nan dialect is still the lingua fraca of most Chinese there.


Legacies of Courage and Resilience

Tan Kah Kee. Beloved China Patriot who led the fund raising campaign from Singapore to aid China’s anti-war effort in World War 2. He honoured in Singapore’s Hokkien Huay Kuan, the nation’s largest dialect clan association.

Jimei is also the hometown of Mr. Tan Kah-Kee, a famous overseas Chinese leader who devoted homself wholly to the education cause.He had started various schools in the town, including Jimei Normal School,Jimei Navigation Institute, Xiamen Aquatic Products Technical Institute and Agriculture School besides Jimei Kindergarden, Jimei Primary School and Jimei Middle School.

 

The former residence of Mr.Tan Kah-Kee is situated on Jiageng Road in the town of Jimei.It is still keeping its old looks to be visited and pondered. Mr.Tan Kah-kee was living frugally all his life. No one can keep unmoved when they see how simple those daily necessities and clothings are.

Tan Kah Kee established Amoy University in Xiamen and built a school district to further the cause of education in our home province. At his death, he was given a state funeral by Beijing.

 


LOCAL BORN

Hokkiens as a rule, migrated without their women, to save them from a life of hardship worse than the one they leave behind. Consequently, marriages with local Malay women in Singapore, Malaya and the Philippines created a new line of Chinese descendants who never knew the motherland.

In the Philippines, they were known as the Chinese mestizos.

The most famous mestizo of all was none other than the national hero of the Philippines – Jose Rizal, a Philippines patriot who engineered a failed revolution against the Spanish colonialists and was martyred..


In Singapore and Malaya, local born Chinese were called Peranakans because they adopted local Malay customs and blended it with their Hokkien heritage. A small subset of Peranakans are equivalent to the Mestizos because of mixed Hokkien-Malay parentage. Most Peranakans, like my family, were just local born Hokkiens.

This local born community developed a unique culture and cuisine that blended the best from both cultures. They spoke a distinct language based essentially on Malay but laced liberally with Hokkien vernicular.


The Linguistic Influence of Hokkien in other languages

Apparently, words of Hokkien origin have entered the vocabulary of not just Malay but English and Tagalog.

1. Satin. From the ancient port of Zaytun, now called Chuanchew in Fujian.

2. Tea. YES! This is actually a Hokkien word which is teh.

3. Junk. The Chinese ship. The Hokkien word for it is “jun”, which was kinda brutally mangled as “junk” by non-Min speakers grasping for a word to describe the odd looking sailing vessel.


PICTURE GALLERY OF FUJIAN

 

 

Zhangzhou (Tiongchew) – southern tip of Fujian, China.


 

Temple grounds of Quanzhou (Chuanchew), Fujian, China

 

COMMUNITY LEADERS

As prominent businessmen, Tan Kah Kee and Lee Kong Chian not only assumed positions of social authority, they also used their influence to build institutions and networks both locally and abroad, from the huay kuan to institutions of higher learning, that would further their respective causes.

 
 
 

1

Rallying the People

[

A key figure in the Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce, Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan, Ee Hoe Hean Club and various business associations, Tan Kah Kee encouraged these organisations to modernise, just as China needed to modernise. He often called for greater unity among the different Chinese dialect groups, and took the lead in rallying the Chinese in Southeast Asia to support China’s war effort against the Japanese.

Tan believed that for China to be strong, the different dialect groups or bang needed to work together. Even though his Hokkien community outnumbered the others and enjoyed more influence in the Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce, he felt that all Chamber members should be treated equally. He said, “The Chamber of Commerce is an organisation to rally all Singapore businessmen, and there seems to be no necessity to draw a line between their bang affiliation.”

Tan could not convince the Chamber to adopt a more democratic approach during his lifetime, but his ability to rally others to his causes helped him to build the Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan into a body that solidly supported education and promoted social development. Similarly, he encouraged Chinese towkays from other dialect groups to join the Ee Hoe Hean Club, a businessmen’s social club dominated by the Hokkien. With Tan as its chairman from 1923, the Club became a platform for raising political awareness of the Japanese invasion of China and the headquarters for Tan’s various Relief Fund efforts.

 

 

 

2

Supporting the Motherland

 

Despite the many years he spent in Singapore, Tan Kah Kee had a strong attachment to China. Besides building schools, he was instrumental in leading the Singapore Chinese community to support many relief efforts for China from the late 1920s. In 1938, Tan was elected to chair the South Seas China Relief Fund Union, which gathered not only financial resources but also sent volunteer drivers and mechanics to transport military and medical supplies on the Burma Road to China.

Tan’s early anti-Japanese war efforts were launched after the 1928 Jinan Incident, when Japanese and Chinese military clashes led to many civilian casualties. Believing that the Overseas Chinese had a responsibility to support their homeland when it was under threat, Tan led the Shandong Relief effort, which raised $1 million (Chinese currency) within a month.

Tan went on to lead other relief fund efforts, culminating in the Singapore China Relief Fund Committee and South Seas China Relief Fund Union. Under his able leadership, the latter consolidated the efforts of Chinese communities across Southeast Asia and contributed a total of about $5,500 million (Chinese currency) to the Chinese war effort between 1937 and 1942. Tan was greatly respected by the Chinese political leadership; during a 1940 mission to China, he met Chiang Kai Shek, Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, Zhu De and other key members of the Kuomintang and Chinese Communist Party.

 

 

 

 
 
 

1

Rebuilding After the War

 

When Lee Kong Chian returned to Singapore after the Second World War, he was quickly tapped by the colonial government as an advisor on restoring the business sector, then as a member of the Advisory Council. Although he enjoyed the confidence of the British, Lee spoke out against policies that he felt did not serve the people’s interests. These included attempts by the government to reduce financial support for Chinese schools, and a draft Federation of Malaya Constitution which discriminated against the Chinese in Malaya.

Lee believed in the value of social service and raising the standard of living, as the forces of nationalism and decolonisation were transforming Singapore and Malaya. He pleaded, “Wise men in Southeast Asia should pray for gradualism. They should put their faith in slow change. … [Change is] coming but let’s keep it from being too violent.”

To improve social conditions, Lee led community initiatives to help those who were affected by disaster, most memorably in response to the Geylang fire in 1953 and the Bukit Ho Swee fire in 1961. He made personal donations, as well as visited the disaster sites to talk to victims and help with relief work. Besides helping in times of crisis, Lee funded social organisations like hospitals sports facilities and childcare centres.


Lee also contributed to institutions such as the Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan and Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce and Industry – in particular, by donating to the construction of their buildings. These became important meeting places for members of Singapore’s Chinese business community, which played a key role in shifting Singapore’s post-war economy towards industrialisation.

 The exhibition, The Legacy of Tan Kah Kee and Lee Kong Chian, is on at the Sutera Mall  until July 19.

 

 

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Building Institutions That Last

 

Lee Kong Chian continued to give tirelessly to social causes in the 1950s and early 1960s, in both public and private capacities. He was appointed Chairman of the Council of Social Service (today known as the National Council of Social Service) and also established the Lee Foundation to further the charitable causes that he supported. He is fondly remembered for having been the first to suggest to the colonial government to set up a free public library, and later contributed to the building of the first National Library at Stamford Road.

Education was always close to Lee’s heart, and by stipulating that library services be provided free to the public, his donation put knowledge and learning resources into the hands of a young population. He gave generously to the University of Malaya (today’s National University of Singapore) and was a key donor towards the founding of Nanyang University. To spur others to give as well, he promised to contribute 10% of the total funds raised by the public effort. This approach helped to promote the importance of a shared social responsibility for good causes.

Lee recognised the need to extend help beyond what he alone could do. By setting up the Lee Foundation, he created a system that would continue what he had started. It would provide consistent support to cultural, educational, charitable and public organisations, regardless of race or religion, through good and bad times –all in the same spirit of generosity that he exemplified.

 

 

 

Tan Kah Kee

(Chen Jiageng, 1874-1961)

Originally from the village of Jimei, 16 miles from Xiamen in Fujian Province, China, Tan Kah Kee arrived in Singapore at age 16 (1890) to begin his career in his father’s rice store. That business collapsed in 1903, but Tan Kah Kee went on to build an industrial empire ranging from rubber plantations and manufacturing, sawmills, canneries, real estate, import and export brokerage, ocean transport to — rice trading. The years 1912 – 1914 were the best for his enterprises when he amassed a huge fortune. He came to be known as the “Henry Ford of Malaya.”

Originally from the village of Jimei, 16 miles from Xiamen in Fujian Province, China, Tan Kah Kee arrived in Singapore at age 16 (1890) to begin his career in his father’s rice store. That business collapsed in 1903, but Tan Kah Kee went on to build an industrial empire ranging from rubber plantations and manufacturing, sawmills, canneries, real estate, import and export brokerage, ocean transport to — rice trading. The years 1912 – 1914 were the best for his enterprises when he amassed a huge fortune. He came to be known as the “Henry Ford of Malaya.”

He spent his fortune not on himself or his family, but on education, for education, not business, was his abiding concern. He founded and financed several schools and other educational institutions in his native Jimei as well as in Singapore. In 1921 he set up Xiamen University where Lim Boon Keng was first Vice-chancellor, and maintained it for 16 years even during his financially difficult years, before the Chinese government took it over in 1937. Among the schools he founded in Singapore are Singapore Chinese High, Daonan, Aitong, Chongfu, Huachiao and Nanyang Girls’ High. Besides Chinese schools he also made contributions to Anglo-Chinese School and Raffles College. He was also active in campaigning for educational and social reforms in the 1920’s and 1930’s.

Tan Kah Kee was held in high regard as community leader. He was twice chairman of the Chinese Chamber of Commerce and helped reorganize the Hokkien Huay Kuan (Hokkien clan association). In 1923 when he was general manager of the Ee Hoe Hean (Yihexuan) Club, the so-called Millionaires’ Club of Singapore, he launched the Chinese newspaper, Nanyang Siang Pau (Nanyang Shangbao). In the years of China’s struggle against the Japanese invasion he provided leadership in organizing the various Relief Funds. His role as community spokesman, however, ended after World War II when the Singapore Chinese community was split into the pro-Communist and pro-Kuomintang camps. Tan Kah Kee’s sympathies lay with the Communists when he saw the corruption of the Kuomintang at the time. He returned to China in 1950, where he held various posts under the Communist government. He died in Beijing in 1961, and was accorded a state funeral.

Tan Kah Kee began writing his memoirs, Nanqiao huiyilu [The memoirs of an overseas Chinese of the South Seas], in 1943 while taking refuge in Java from the Japanese. From his memoirs one could see that he placed more importance on his involvement in education, social reform and politics than on his business undertakings, and the work is a most valuable source for the history of the Chinese community of that time. It was first published in Singapore in 1946 by Tan Kah Kee himself and has since gone through several reprints.

Tan Kah Kee became an overseas Chinese hero and legend not merely because of his phenomenal success in business, but chiefly because of what he did for the community, in Singapore and in China. His success derived not only from his enormous energy and drive, his sharp and analytical mind, his shrewdness and courage to take risks, but also from his firm belief in giving to others. He was an example and inspiration to the younger talents he helped nurture. Among these were Lee Kong Chian and Tan Lark Sye.

He is still an inspiration today. In 1986 the Nobel Laureate Prof C.N. Yang set up the Tan Kah Kee Young Inventors’ Award, and in 1992 three Nobel Laureates, Prof C.N. Yang, Prof Samuel C.C. Ting and Prof Li Yuan Tseh together with Prof Chang-lin Tien, former Vice-chancellor of the University of California at Berkeley, and Prof Wang Gungwu, former President of Hong Kong University initiated the Foundation of the Tan Kah Kee International Society whose aim is to promote education and culture for the advancement of mankind in accordance with the Tan Kah Kee spirit.

References:

Tan Kah Kee, The Memoirs of an Overseas Chinese of the South Seas  (in Chinese). Taiyuan: Shanxi Guji chuban she,1996.


He Shuilin, Ed.
Biographies of Singapore Chinese historical personalities (in Chinese). Singapore: Singapore Educational Publications Pte Ltd.,1995


The Memoirs of Tan Kah Kee. Ed.&Tr. AHC Ward et al. Singapore: Singapore University Press, 1994


Yong Chin Fatt.
Tan Kah Kee: The Making of an Overseas Chinese Legend. Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1989.


Chen Bisheng and Chen Yiming,
A Chronological Biography of Tan Kah Kee (in Chinese). Fuzhou, 1986.


Tan Kah Kee International Society.
A Brief Introduction to Tan Kah Kee (in Chinese) http://www.tkk.wspc.com.sg/tkk/exper.html accessed on 31 March 2001

A tale of two Chinese legends

 

TAN Kah Kee and Lee Kong Chian are probably two of the most well-known names among the Chinese community.

 
 
 

The Lee Pineapple Co Ltd in Singapore was one of the many companies under the Lee Kong Chian empire.

The duo were not only enterprising businessmen but philanthropists who built schools and universities.

Tan was born in the Fujian Province, China, in 1874. He emigrated to Singapore at the age of 16. He was hailed as the “Henry Ford of Malaya”, having built a vast empire that included real estate, rubber and the rice trade.

He also established the Tan Kah Kee Foundation and set up several schools and a university throughout Malaya, China and Singapore.

He penned The Memoirs of an Overseas Chinese of the Southern Ocean, which became a valuable resource on the history of overseas Chinese. Tan died in 1961.

His son-in-law Lee Kong Chian, who was born in 1893, also became one of the wealthiest men in Southeast Asia between the 1950s and 1960s.

He set up the Lee Foundation in Singapore in 1952, and in Malaya eight years later. He was also the man behind the Lee Pineapple Co Ltd in Singapore and Lee Pineapple Sdn Bhd in Skudai, Johor.

Lee died in 1967 but his legacy continues with his three sons and three daughters.

For the younger generation who would like to learn more about Tan and Lee, an exhibition entitled “The Legacy of Tan Kah Kee and Lee Kong Chian”, will be held at Sutera Mall in Johor Baru from June 20 to July 19.

Spokesman for the organising committee, Goh Lak Jin, said the event aims to capture the spirit of philanthropy and entrepreneurship of these pioneers and serve as an inspiration to youngsters.

The exhibition will be divided into four galleries. Gallery 1 will document the duo’s achievements as entrepreneurs.

Gallery 2 will feature them as promoters of education and Gallery 3 will showcase their lives as community leaders. Gallery 4 will highlight their legacy.

The public, especially students, are encouraged to attend the event which will include the screening of a documentary, old photographs and books on the two men sourced from China, Singapore and Malaysia.

There will also be a host of activities such as quizzes, dance and cultural performances by students of various schools, a calligraphy competition and a book fair.

The advisors of the exhibition are history researchers Jane Wee, Wendy Zoulu, Han Tan Juan and Lim Guan Hock.

Among the joint organisers are the Hokkien Huay Kuan Johor Baru, Federation of Johor Baru Tionghua and South Johor Chinese Press Club

 

 

 

 

 

Tan Kah Kee was one of the most prominent ethnic chinese Malayans to financially support chinese efforts in the Second Sino-Japanese war which broke out in 1937 and organised many relief funds under his name. Tan Kah Kee also exercised considerable effort against the then-governor of the Fujian province, Chen Yi, for perceived maladministration.

Tan Kah Kee was also the de facto leader of the Singapore Chinese Community, serving as chairman for the Chinese Chamber of Commerce and helped organise the Hokkien clan association. However he lost this role when the Chinese Civil War divided the Singaporean Chinese Community into Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and Kuomintang sympathizers. Tan Kah Kee was a CCP supporter as he was disillusioned with the corruption within the Nationalists.

After the Communist Victory in China, he tried to return to Singapore in 1950 but was denied entry by British colonial authority which was concerned about the Communist influence in Singapore and Malaya.

 

Tan Kah Kee was born in Jimei, Xiamen, Fujian Province, China, and went to Singapore in 1890, when he was 16 years old, to work for his father’s rice store. After his father’s business collapsed in 1903, Tan started his own business and built an empire from rubber plantations and manufacturing, sawmills, canneries, real estate, import and export brokerage, ocean transport to rice trading. His business was at its prime from 1912-1914, where he was known as “Henry Ford of Malaya“.

With the profit he made from his business empire, Mr Tan Kah Kee contributed greatly to the community, bothe in Malaya and his native Fujian Province. He was one of the 110 founding membersof Tao Nan School. He set up the Jimei schools, which is now known as the Jimei university, in 1913.In 1919, he set up The Chinese High School, now named Hwa Chong Institution in Singapore.While in 1921, he set up the Xiamen University and financially supported it until the Government of the Republic of China took it over in 1937. In 1920, he married his daughter Tan Ai Li to Lee Kong Chian, who worked under him and who later became a famous Singaporean philanthropist and businessman.

RICH HISTORY & DISTINGUISHED HERITAGE

 

Founded in 1919 by Mr Tan Kah Kee, The Chinese High School was established to cater to the needs of overseas Chinese primary school leavers in South-east Asia.

Today, it is one of the finest educational institutions for high-achievers and the gifted in the region.  Its reputation as a premier school is based not only on the academic excellence of the students but also their determination to excel in all other areas like leadership, sports and games, co-curricular activities, science research, and service to the community.

The Chinese High School has been a school of choice amongst the best and the brightest.  Every year it attracts the top 3% of the national PSLE cohort and the top 1% that forms the Gifted Education Programme.

This is not confined to only the high achieving students from Singapore but also those from countries like Malaysia and China.  With the merger in 2005, The Chinese High School now forms the High School Section of Hwa Chong Institution.

Hwa Chong Junior College is Singapore’s first government-aided junior college (JC) to be established in 1974.  More than 3 decades later, the College remains committed to offering students an unrivalled holistic education.

In 2004, Hwa Chong became the nation’s first JC to turn independent.  The College was ranked 1st for the last 4 years of the Junior College Ranking Exercise, based on the university point system.

 

 

 

The lush green surroundings evokes a sense of tranquility. The sound of rustling bamboo swaying with the wind. The occasional tunes of chirping birds can be heard from the trees. A sense of calm prevails. But 66 years ago at this same place, the feelings felt by those who trudged up this same path to the building were vey much different. The building was the Ford Motor Factory located at Upper Bukit Timah Road. The feelings of those present were that of the victors and the vanquished. The historical event was the signing of the surrender papers which took place on 15th Feb 1942 during World War II. The British surrendered to to the Japanese invading forces which led to a three and a half years of Japanese occupation of Singapore, once known to be the “Gibraltar of the East”, an impregnable fortress.

 

 

 

 

Tan Kah Kee: the Founding Father of Xiamen University

Xiamen University was founded in 1921, the first university in China to be established by an Overseas Chinese leader. Mr. Tan Kah-Kee was the pioneer of private education in China, spending his entire fortune in support of education in his native country. Tan Kah-Kee is an inspirational figure in China’s history of education, and was described by Mao Zedong as a “Standard-bearer of the Overseas Chinese and Glory of the Nation”. He was the first President of the China Overseas Chinese League, and outstanding Overseas Chinese leader, a great patriot, and an eminent entrepreneur, educator and social activist.

Standard-bearer of the Overseas Chinese and Glory of the Nation

Tan Kah-Kee was born on October 21st, 1874 in Jimei, in what was then Tong’an County in Fujian Province—currently Jimei District of Xiamen. He was born into an Overseas Chinese family, and was sent to a private school at the age of 7, to be educated in the traditional Chinese manner. He left China for Singapore at the age of 17 to work in his father’s business. He took over the company in 1904, but eventually it failed. In 1916, he started his own business in rubber planting and processing. By 1925, Tan Kah-Kee had become famous as an entrepreneur, known as one of the four founders of the “Malaya Rubber Kingdom” in Singapore.

Tan Kah-Kee was a real patriot, and considered the revitalisation of the Chinese nation a responsibility. He met Sun Yat-sen and, one year later, joined the United League. After the liberation of Fujian in the1911 Revolution, Tan was chosen to be leader of the Fujian Public Security Committee, to raise money for Sun’s revolution. He became the Chairman of the South Seas China Relief Fund Union following the Marco Polo Bridge Incident in 1937 — the incident thought of as the start of the Anti-Japanese War — and in 1939, he sent Wang Jingwei a telegram accusing him in harsh terms of betraying his motherland — Wang Jingwei was originally a close associate of Sun Yat-Sen, but in 1939 was negotiating a settlement with the Japanese, which led in 1940, to his setting up an independent government in Shanghai in opposition to Chiang Kai-Shek. In March 1940, Tan Kah-Kee led a team of Overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia to visit major war zones and Chongqing and Yan’an. He had become disillusioned with the corruption within Kuomintang and the dictatorship of Chiang Kai-shek, and became a firm supporter of the Communist Party as the force to save the people and the nation from chaos. He was the leader of the Singapore Overseas Chinese Anti-invasion Union when the Japanese invaded Malaya, and even though his life was in danger and he was forced to leave Singapore and seek refuge in Java, he never vacillated in sacrificing his own interests to the noble cause of the liberation of China.

When the Anti-Japanese War ended in 1945, he returned to Singapore to a warm welcome from every group within the Singaporean community. At the invitation of Chairman Mao, he attended the first National People’s Consultative Conference and the founding ceremony of New China in 1949, and in February 1952, returned to China permanently. Tan Kah-Kee held numerous positions within the Communist Party of China, including Member of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, Deputy-Chairman of the National People’s Political Consultative Conference. In his later years, he continued to visit cities all over China, in order to understand the primary concerns in life of the common people, and devoted himself to the establishment of the Chinese socialist society. He was also a pre-eminent factor in bringing the Overseas Chinese together to support the development of their hometowns and the nation as a whole. His final wish, even as he lay on his sick-bed was the unification of China. He died in Beijing on August 12th, 1961 at the age of 87, and was given a state funeral. His coffin was sent to his hometown of Jimei, where it is buried in the Turtle Garden.

Devoting his all to education

Even though he spent much of his life in Singapore, Tan Kah-Kee always retained the deepest love for his motherland. As an alien in a foreign land who had suffered indifference and discrimination, he felt the greatest sympathy for the suffering of the people of China as a result of domestic unrest and foreign invasion. He was an honest and successful businessman, and feeling his responsibilities as a Chinese, he resolved to use his wealth to support education in China as a way of helping the nation’s development. In 1913, Tan founded the Jimei Primary School, followed by the endowment of Jimei High School, Jimei Normal College, Jimei Fishery School, Jimei Navigation College, Jimei Business School and the School of Agriculture, which came to be known collectively as the “Jimei Schools”.

In due course, Tan Kah-Kee realised that there was not a single university, neither public nor private, within Fujian Province — a province with a rather large population — with a consequent shortage of professional expertise in both education and other fields. He also realised that there was no possibility of a government-funded university being set up in the province at the time, so, in 1921, he drew on his personal fortune to found Xiamen University. Initially, he saw to every detail himself: the selection of the President; the construction of the necessary buildings; and the recruitment of the academic staff; and, of course, the site for the university — with its back to the hills and its face to the sea, the University is widely acknowledged to have perhaps the most beautiful campus of any university in China. His aim was the development of talented people from both home and abroad, to which end he set up five schools in the University, teaching a total of 17 majors: the School of Liberal Arts, the School of Science, The School of Law, The School of Economics and the School of Education.

Tan Kah-Kee’s educational philanthropy in Singapore was equally impressive. He founded a number of schools of various kinds, and his endowments created an extensive, open education system known by his name. In spite of the fact that his business was running into difficulties as a result of an economic recession, he still managed to raise money in every possible way so as to maintain the continued operation of his schools. This commitment extended as far as turning down flat, in 1932, a generous offer from an overseas consortium which would have saved his business, simply because there was a precondition of withdrawing his support for Xiamen University and Jimei School Village. By spring 1937, he could no longer keep it up, having spent every penny of his fortune on supporting Xiamen University, so the Government of the Republic of China took over the university. Even after it became a public-funded university, he still followed its development closely. He returned to China to visit the university in 1940, after it had been forced to move to Changting because of the war, which the university survived in a manner that earned it the honorary title “Strength of the South”. Following his permanent return to Jimei in 1952, Tan Kah-Kee continued his efforts to raise funds for the expansion of the university.

But Tan Kah-Kee was not merely dedicated to educational philanthropy; he was a far-sighted, extraordinary visionary. He was a firm advocate of the overall development of the students, physically, intellectually and morally; he stressed the importance of vocational education and teacher training; and he laid emphasis on the decisive role in education of the university leadership and its academic staff. Tan Kah-Kee also promoted social development actively; he founded the museum in the Turtle Garden and it was he who proposed the establishment of the Xiamen Overseas Chinese Museum.

According to incomplete figures, Tan Kah Kee’s spent a total of 13.21 billion RMB between 1904 and 1931, including 8.37 billion directly on education itself, and 3.8 billion on interest charges related to his educational funding, in all 92% of his total outgoings. In contrast, his monthly living expenses amounted to less than 1,000 RMB. He said, “My earnings should be spent on public causes, not on personal affairs.” His generosity inspired many Overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia to follow his lead in supporting education. The figures show that, between 1915 and 1948, Overseas Chinese of Fujian Province origin set up 48 high schools in various regions of the Province, proof positive of Tan Kah-Kee’s influence on education in China.
 
The Tan Kah-Kee spirit: “Pursue Excellence, Strive for Perfection”

On establishing Xiamen University in 1921, Tan Kah-Kee gave it the motto: “Pursue Excellence, Strive for Perfection”.
“Pursue Excellence” refers to the conscious, unceasing effort to improve oneself. The expression first appears in the Book of Changes: “As Heaven maintains its vigour through movement, so the gentleman should pursue self-improvement unremittingly.” Tao Kan, the Governor of Jing Zhou during the Jin Dynasty made it his motto, and through his dedication became an powerful, outstanding military figure, whose fame spread wide. His stories of untiringly pursued self-improvement were even recorded This appears in the Book of Rites compiled towards the end of the Tang Dynasty, where it says, “Tao Gan, throughout his life was diligent and pursued self-improvement unremittingly”.

“Strive for Perfection” concerns the persistent effort to pursue ultimate perfection. It refers to the Daxue — “Great Learning” chapter of the Book of Rites: “The way of great learning consists in manifesting one’s shining virtue, in loving the people, in only stopping on achieving perfection.” Zhu Xi, a renowned Song Dynasty scholar explained the term “qin-min” as meaning “xin-min”, or “renovating the people” rather than “loving the people”, emphasising the role of education in fostering people’s inner good qualities. Zhu Xi also laid stress on “persistence” and “perfection” in “only stopping on achieving perfection”. Tan Kah-Kee’s aim in basing the university on ancient wisdom was to inspire the students and staff of the University to maintain a constant pursuit towards the grand goal of perfection and excellence which is the essence of education.

Xiamen University has now become a comprehensive university offering programmes and courses in a wide range of disciplines. It is the only high-level national key research university in any of China’s six Special Economic Zones which comes under the state key “211” and “985” projects. Its location in Xiamen facing the ocean on the southeast coast of China gives Xiamen University the unique geographical advantages of close proximity to Taiwan and easy access to Southeast Asia and the outside world.
 
The sayings of Tan Kah-Kee: words of wisdom and truth
 
“Education is the foundation of a nation, supporting education is the responsibility of every citizen.”

“For me, education is the ultimate way to save the nation. Though it may not bring immediate success, it will at least preserve the nation’s culture and spirit for future revival.”

“The wealth and well-being of a nation lies in its citizens, whose development depends on education.”

“A person can contribute the public cause within his ability at any time. If you choose to wait until you are wealthy, you will never be a philanthropist.”

“In spite of constant difficulties and frustrations, I am fully determined to donate the fortune I have earned to education and the service of the people.”

“In simple words, the goals of the University are, on the one hand to pursue scientific development through research, and on the other to promote social progress so that China can become one of the strong nations of this Earth.”

“A student should always make the prosperity of his nation and the well-being of his fellow citizens his first priority.”

“I would rather shut down my business than close the university.”

 

ENTREPRENEURS

While Tan Kah Kee was not very wealthy when he arrived in Singapore and Lee Kong Chian came from a humble background, the two men built up transnational business empires through hard work and keen business sense. This made them influential millionaires and laid the financial foundation for their generous philanthropy.

 

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Getting into the business [ View Details ]
When Tan Kah Kee came to Singapore in 1890, he was a 17-year-old young man, venturing for the first time from his birthplace of Jimei village in Tong´an county, Fujian. He joined his father´s Singapore rice mill as an apprentice and soon worked his way up to becoming the company´s manager and treasurer.At this time, Singapore was a port-city booming with business opportunities. Tan´s father did well enough in business that he also had a sago mill, pineapple cannery and property investments. But he fell heavily into debt and the business folded in 1904. Tan was left with $7,000 capital, and he was now on his own.[
 
 

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Pineapple Prince, Rubber Tycoon

 

Striking out on his own, Tan Kah Kee followed in his father´s footsteps to set up a pineapple cannery. It soon flourished and enabled him to expand into other profitable industries, such as rice and rubber; in fact, Tan became one of the successful pioneers of the rubber industry.

Pineapple canning proved to be so successful because of the great worldwide demand for it. At the turn of the 20th century, Singapore supplied about three-quarters of the world´s canned pineapples, making it a good launchpad for Tan´s new business empire. Similarly, rubber was in high demand because cars and the supply of electricity were then the newest technologies being introduced around the world. Rubber was essential for making car tyres and electrical insulation.

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Many Enterprises, One Vision [
In less than ten years, Tan´s business expanded to include eight pineapple canneries in Singapore and Johor. Tan also bought and sold rubber plantations at a healthy profit. By the mid-1920s, his business employed over 30,000 people, with 150 offices on five continents, and did business with 48 countries.Tan had many other business interests, such as shipping and banking. But this diversification could not protect him entirely from the shockwaves of the Great Depression. He also faced fierce competition from Japanese manufacturers and rival rubber traders. His business empire declined with the onset of the Great Depression in 1929, and by 1934 it had folded entirely. Nevertheless, Tan continued to be an energetic and widely respected community leader.[ Close ]
 

 

 
 
 

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A Humble Beginning [ View Details ]
When Lee Kong Chian began working in Singapore in 1912, his ambition was to become an engineer. But in 1915 he joined a trading company, and in the course of work he met Tan Kah Kee. Impressed by the capable young man who was proficient in English and Chinese, Tan offered him a job – and so started Lee on an extraordinary career in business.Unlike Tan, Lee came from a humble background. Often holding two jobs at once to earn enough income, he was at times a teacher, a translator and even worked as a municipal surveyor while taking a civil engineering correspondence course.[ Close ]
 

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The Meeting of the two men [ View Details ]
Lee was bilingual, having studied in both English- and Chinese-medium schools in Singapore, as well as furthering his education in China. This was a rare skill at the time and although Tan wanted to expand his business with American and European clients, none of his staff were fluent in English. Then he met Lee. Subsequently, or so the story goes, Tan and Lee met again at a hawker stall when it was raining. Lee loaned Tan his umbrella and when he went to collect it, Tan showed him some English documents from an American client. Lee not only understood the documents, he went on to successfully secure the deal – the first of many international deals he would handle for Tan. Gradually, Tan also gave him more financial and managerial responsibilities in the business.[ Close ]
 

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An Astute Businessman and Banker [ View Details ]
From managing Tan Kah Kee´s business interests, Lee Kong Chian gradually built up capital and influence, and initiated entrepreneurial efforts of his own. He established Lee Rubber and took a different path from Tan´s business, investing in rubber trading while Tan shifted towards manufacturing. Hence Lee Rubber did not hold much rubber stock and weathered the Great Depression better than Tan´s company. Lee also anticipated that the rubber market would bounce back from the Depression and strategically invested in rubber stockpiles and plantations that later turned multi-million dollar profits. Lee also made the most of new opportunities. In banking, he benefited from some of Tan´s shares in the Chinese Commercial Bank, while acquiring more on his own. Lee also suggested merging the bank with two other Chinese banks to form OCBC Bank, which eventually grew to become one of the largest banks in Singapore and Malaya. As its chairman (1937–1964, except for the Japanese Occupation years), Lee steered it through many difficult periods.[ Close ]

 

 

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Building the Lee Group [ View Details ]
Like Tan Kah Kee, Lee Kong Chian held many other business interests that helped his business to grow in many directions at once. Sometimes he took advantage of renting or buying property from Tan Kah Kee and other businessmen; at other times he accurately anticipated and tapped into lucrative new markets.World War Two dealt a serious blow to Lee´s businesses. Lee was in the United States when war broke out in Malaya, and he returned only after it ended. Although his rubber and pineapple holdings were in disarray, he did not write them off but began to rebuild the business with the aid of bank loans and other funds. By the 1950s, Lee Rubber was back on its feet and it made tremendous profits when rubber demand spiked during the Korean War. This propelled the growth of the Lee Group from the 1960s into a conglomerate with investments in many diverse industries, not to mention holdings in other major Singapore companies.[ Close ]
 

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Family Ties [ View Details ]
The close relationship between Tan Kah Kee and Lee Kong Chian was sealed when Lee won the hand of Tan’s eldest daughter, Ai Lay, in 1920. This was typical of the time, when Chinese towkays might marry their children to employees or family members of business associates, to strengthen kinship and business ties. Lee and Ai Lay went on to have six children. 

 

 

Xiamen covers a relatively small administrative region yet has three highly regarded universities and other educational institutions, many of which are historically linked to overseas Chinese philanthropists who sent money back for their construction. The photo above shows Jimei School Village which was founded by Mr. Tan Kah Kee who made his fortune through rubber plantations and manufacturing businesses.

 

He also donated millions of dollars to establish Xiamen University (above) and what would later become Jimei University (below) which both have particularly beautiful campuses well worth a visit just to stroll around and enjoy the old traditional buildings and a tranquil lakes. Interestingly the buildings use a  unique blend of Western and Chinese architecture with red brick walls and glazed tiles on more traditionally shaped roofs.

 

Such was his contribution to education in Xiamen that a museum was recently opened (below) to chronicle his life’ work and there are many statues of him dotted around the city. There’s quite a lot of content translated in English but possibly a bit much for a short visit. The beautiful garden is the main attraction.

 

One thing which struck me was how impeccably clean Xiamen is in comparison to most Chinese cities that are often more than a bit grimy around the edges. Apparently the city was recently voted China’s cleanest and one can imagine that student life here is pretty nice, something which I always appreciated and miss from my time studying in Durham (UK).

 

 

 

 

 

In memory of two great men

The exhibition, ‘The Legacy of Tan Kah Kee and Lee Kong Chian’, pays tribute to the two late tycoons famous for not only their wealth but also their generosity of spirit, writes SIM BAK HENG

 

A pineapple cannery in 1915.

 

The exhibition, The Legacy of Tan Kah Kee and Lee Kong Chian, is on at the Sutera Mall until July 19.


Lee Kong Chian tied the knot with Tan Kah Kee’s eldest daughter, Ai Lay, in 1920.

FOR many Johoreans and Singaporeans, the names Tan Kah Kee (1874-1961) and Lee Kong Chian (1893-1967) are synonymous with entrepreneurship and philanthrophy.

They were among the Chinese immigrants who made their way up through hard work, and later contributed to society by donating to charity and establishing foundations for education.

Their success stories have inspired many Malaysians and Singaporeans for over a century, as they built their business empires and used their wealth not only for personal enjoyment but for the betterment of society.

Tan left the Fujian province of China for Singapore in 1890 when he was 16. He started off by working in his father’s rice mill.

However, Tan’s father, who also owned a sago mill, pineapple cannery and property investment company, fell into debt and the business folded in 1904.

With $7,000 in hand, Tan followed in his father’s footsteps to set up a pineapple cannery. The business flourished and he ventured into other industries such as rice and rubber.

In less than 10 years, he owned eight canneries in Singapore and Johor. He also made money through the buying and selling of rubber plantations.

By the 1920s, there were 30,000 staff in his business conglomerate spreading across 48 countries in five continents.

During World War 1, Tan ventured into rubber-processing to be less dependent on the fluctuating prices of raw rubber.

Later, he set up Nanyang Siang Pau to promote education as well as to advertise the products made by his factories.

He also ventured into shipping and banking.

Tan’s diversification, however, did not spare him from the effects of the Great Depression. He also faced fierce competitions from Japanese manufacturers and rubber traders.

His empire diminished in 1929, and by 1934, it had collapsed.

Despite his downfall, Tan continued to be respected and admired by the community.

Tan is remembered for saying: “There is no shame in justifiable failure. There is shame only in the fear of failure.”

Lee, meanwhile, arrived in Singapore in 1903 at the age of 10. He began working in 1912, hoping to become an engineer.

But fate had something completely different in store for him.

Lee joined a trading company in 1915 and met Tan in the course of his work.

Impressed by Lee’s fluency in Chinese and English, Tan offered him a job — which proved to be the start of Lee’s foray into the business world.

Lee sealed many international deals for Tan, which prompted the latter to entrust him with more responsibilities.

From managing Tan’s business, Lee slowly built up capital and gained influence, and soon started his own businesses.

These businesses exist till today — established brands such as Lee Rubber, Lee Pineapple and Lee Biscuits are part of his empire.

He was known as Southeast Asia’s rubber and pineapple king during the interwar years. He also played a role in the setting up of the Overseas-Chinese Banking Corporation in 1932.

The close relationship between Tan and Lee was sealed when Lee married Tan’s eldest daughter, Ai Lay, in 1920.

With their vast fortunes, Tan and Lee were able to lend financial aid to many social, cultural and educational institutions.

Both believed in the old Chinese saying: “The benefit you get from society should be used to benefit society in return.”

Both were fervent supporters of education, in particular a modern education curriculum that would prepare young people for the demands of an industrialised society.

Lee set up the Lee Foundation to carry on the legacy he had built. The Tan Kah Kee Foundation was set up after the death of Tan to continue contributing to charity, promoting the spirit of entrepreneurship and supporting education.

Jimei School Village, China’s only school village founded by Mr. Tan Kah Kee

: Tan Kah Kee   Ao Yuan   Jimei School Village

 

Jimei School Village

 

 

 

 

 

Jimei is a small town on the other side of the bank facing north Xiamen Island, 17 kilometers (about 11 miles) from the Xiamen city center. With Gaoji Causeway and Xingji Causeway meeting there, Jimei becomes the sole gateway into Xiamen. Jimei is also the hometown of Mr. Tan Kah Kee (Chen Jiageng) (1874-1961), a famous overseas Chinese leader who devoted himself to the educational causes in China. Nowadays, Jimei is one of the four most popular tourist sites of Xiamen City, especially for its academic atmosphere as well as pretty natural and social sights.

Mr. Tan Kah Kee founded various schools in the town, including Jimei Normal School, Jimei Navigation Institute, Xiamen Aquatic Products Technical Institute and Agriculture School besides Jimei Kindergarten, Jimei Primary School and Jimei Middle School. Equipped with Science Hall, a library and a hospital, these schools brought the town the name “Jimei School Village” which is renowned both at home and abroad.

Jimei School Village, founded by Mr. Tan Kah Kee in 1913, is the only one in China. It occupies an area of over 10 hectares (about 25 acres) on a variety of various levels and schools ranging from primary to higher education and from traditional to vocational schools. The magnificent scale of this project has no equal elsewhere in China.

Jimei University was formed by the amalgamation of five former colleges and it is now Xiamen City’s major center of education and culture and has been given the general designation of Jimei School Village. The buildings of Jimei School Village are a combination of eastern and western styles, facing the beautiful seashore, and they are attractive places for visitors. Recently, Jimei School Village has been selected as a protected cultural relic of the nation together with another spot in Jimei, Ao Yuan.

Ao Yuan (鳌园Turtle Garden)

Ao Yuan (Turtle Garden), lying on the southeastern seashore of Jimei, was built in four years from 1950 by Mr. Tan Kah Kee. The Jimei Liberation Monument of 18 meters height (about 59 feet) and the tomb of Mr. Tan are sited in Ao Yuan. There is a corridor extending from the entrance to the garden. The side walls of the corridor are inscribed with groups of carvings. In addition, various kinds of stone inscriptions can be found all over the garden. The foundation of the monument is surrounded by gray jade carvings and relief sculptures polished with great care, embodying a concentrated reflection of exquisite workmanship and a unique style of south Fujian stone carving art.

Compared to the gorgeous structures in Jimei, a two-storey building appears simple and plain, this is the former residence of Tan Kah Kee. Mr. Tan had made many contributions to the educational undertakings; the schools he set up number more than 100, however, his lifestyle was always frugal and simple. To the west of Mr Tan’s residence is a display charting his life story.

Guilai Tang is to the south of the former residence of Tan Kah Kee. It was built for the wish of Mr. Tan. He wished to provide a place for the overseas Chinese to get together when they returned to their homeland. Guilai Tang was finished one year after Mr. Tan passed away. It occupies an area of more then 4,000 square meters (about 4,784 square yards) and the main body is in a traditional palace style. In front of Guilai Tang, there is Guilai Yuan constructed in 1983, and a bronze statue of Tan Kah Kee stands in the garden.

In addition to the spots mentioned above, Jiageng Park (Kah Kee Park), Dragon Boat Pond, Yanping Gulei, Crocodile Garden, etc. are also appealing to visitors.

 

Tan Kah Kee Memorial Place

Jimen is a small town on the other side of the bank facing north Xiamen Island, 17 kilometers (about 11 miles) from the Xiamen city center. With Gaoji Causeway and Xingji Causeway meeting there, Jimen becomes the sole gateway into Xiamen. Ji Men is also the hometown of Mr. Tan Kah Kee (Chen Jiageng) (1874-1961), a famous overseas Chinese leader who devoted himself to the educational causes in China. Nowadays, Jimen is one of the four most popular tourist sites of Xiamen City, especially for its academic atmosphere as well as pretty natural and social sights.

 

 

Mr. Tan Kah Kee started various schools in the town, including Ji Men Normal School, Ji Men Navigation Institute, Xiamen Aquatic Products Technical Institute and Agriculture School besides Ji Men Kindergarten, Ji Men Primary School and Ji Men Middle School. Equipped with Science Hall, a library and a hospital, these schools brought the town the name “Ji Men School Village” which is renowned at home and abroad.

 

Jimen Study Village, founded by Mr. Tan Kah Kee in 1913, is the only one in China. It occupies an area of over 10 hectares (about 25 acres) on a variety of various levels and schools ranging from primary to higher education and from traditional to vocational schools. The magnificent scale of this project has no equal elsewhere in China.

 

Jimen University was formed by the amalgamation of five former colleges and it is now Xiamen City’s major center of education and culture and has been given the general designation of Jimen Study Village. The buildings of Jimen Study Village are a combination of eastern and western styles, facing the beautiful seashore, and they are attractive places for visitors. Recently, Jimen Study Village has been selected as a protected cultural relic of the nation together with another spot in Jimen, Ao Yuan.

 

 

Ao Yuan (Turtle Garden)

 

Ao Yuan (Turtle Garden), lying on the southeastern seashore of Jimen, was built in four years from 1950 by Mr. Tan Kah Kee. The Jimen Liberation Monument of 18 meters height (about 59 feet) and the tomb of Mr. Tan are sited in Ao Yuan. There is a corridor extending from the entrance to the garden. The side walls of the corridor are inscribed with groups of carvings. In addition, various kinds of stone inscriptions can be found all over the garden. The foundation of the monument is surrounded by gray jade carvings and relief sculptures polished with great care, embodying a concentrated reflection of exquisite workmanship and a unique style of south Fujian stone carving art.

 

Compared to the gorgeous structures in Jimen, a two-storey building appears simple and plain, this is the former residence of Tan Kah Kee. Mr. Tan had made many contributions to the educational undertakings; the schools he set up number more than 100, however, his lifestyle was always frugal and simple. To the west of Mr Tan’s residence is a display charting his life story.

 

 

 

Guilai Tang is to the south of the former residence of Tan Kah Kee. It was built for the wish of Mr. Tan. He wished to provide a place for the overseas Chinese to get together when they returned to their homeland. Guilai Tang was finished one year after Mr. Tan passed away. It occupies an area of more than 4,000 square meters (about 4,784 square yards) and the main body is in a traditional palace style. In front of Guilai Tang, there is Guilai Yuan constructed in 1983, and a bronze statue of Tan Kah Kee stands in the garden.

 

In addition to the spots mentioned above, Jiageng Park, Dragon Boat Pond, Yanping Gulei, Crocodile Garden, etc. are also appealing to visitors.

 

Tan Kah Kee — legendary philanthropist

» The grounds of the memorial museum

 

Tan Kah Kee Memorial Museum

 

The end @ copyright 2012-02-29

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The Manchuria Historic Collections(Koleksi Sejarah Manchuria)

KOLEKSI SEJARAH MANCHURIA
 
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Manchuria

Manchuria adalah nama sejarah tertentu ke wilayah geografis yang luas di timur laut Asia. Wilayah ini adalah tanah air tradisional dari

 Xianbei (鲜卑 / 鲜卑, Cyrillic: сяньби)

, Khitan (契丹, Cyrillic: кидани),

 dan Jurchen (女真, Cyrillic: чжурчжэни),

yang membangun dinasti beberapa di China utara. Wilayah ini juga merupakan rumah dari Manchu, setelah yang bernama Manchuria

Manchuria is a historical name given to a large geographic region in northeast Asia. This region is the traditional homeland of the Xianbei (鮮卑/鲜卑, Cyrillic: сяньби), Khitan(契丹, Cyrillic: кидани), and Jurchen (女真, Cyrillic:чжурчжэни), who built several dynasties in northern China. The region is also the home of the Manchus, after whom Manchuria is named.

Wilayah historis secara kontemporer  dibagi antara Republik Rakyat Cina (bagian dari Timur Laut Cina) dan Federasi Rusia (bagian dari Timur Jauh Rusia). Batas-batas yang tepat dari wilayah tersebut tidak didefinisikan dengan baik. Untuk menghindari ambiguitas, Manchuria batin kadang-kadang dibedakan dari Manchuria Luar.

Manchuria batin sesuai kasar ke bagian China, termasuk Heilongjiang, Liaoning Jilinand) dan bagian dari Mongolia Dalam timur laut. Juga kadang-kadang dimasukkan ke dalam bahasa Cina Manchuria adalah wilayah Jehol provinsi Hebei.
Manchuria Luar atau “Manchuria Rusia” adalah wilayah dari Amur dan Ussuririvers ke Pegunungan Stanovoy dan Laut Jepang, termasuk Primorsky Krai, Khabarovsk Krai selatan, Oblast Otonom Yahudi dan Oblast Amur. Ini yang diserahkan ke Rusia oleh Qing Cina dalam Perjanjian Aigun (1858). Sakhalin Oblast juga umumnya termasuk dalam peta Cina sebagai bagian dari Manchuria Luar, meskipun tidak disebutkan secara eksplisit dalam Perjanjian Nerchinsk.
Manchuria

Manchuria.png

Asal nama


Manchuria adalah terjemahan dari Manchu kata Manju (bahasa Cina: Mǎnzhōu). Menurut Records Manchu Veritable, nama Manju pada awalnya diberikan oleh dinasti pendiri Bukūri legendaris Yongšon ke negara ia mendirikan ketika ia bersatu tiga klan berperang dari Odoli, di lokasi ofDunhua kota modern di provinsi Jilin. Nama ini digunakan dalam dokumen Cina sampai awal abad 20, ketika Manchuria diubah menjadi tiga provinsi oleh Qinggovernment akhir

The historical region is contemporarily divided between the People’s Republic of China(part of Northeast China) and the Russian Federation (part of the Russian Far East). The exact boundaries of the region aren’t well-defined. To avoid ambiguities, Inner Manchuria is sometimes distinguished from Outer Manchuria.

Origin of the name

Manchuria is a translation of the Manchu word Manju (Chinese languageMǎnzhōu). According to the Manchu Veritable Records, the name Manju was originally given by the legendary dynastic founder Bukūri Yongšon to the country he established when he united the three warring clans of Odoli, at the location of the modern city ofDunhua in Jilin province. This name was used in Chinese documents until the early 20th century, when Manchuria was converted into three provinces by the late Qinggovernment.

Sejak saat itu, “Tiga Provinsi Timur Laut” (东三省) secara resmi digunakan oleh pemerintah Qing di Cina untuk merujuk ke wilayah ini, dan jabatan Raja Muda Tiga Provinsi Timur Laut (东三省 总督) didirikan untuk memimpin provinsi-provinsi . Setelah revolusi 1911, yang mengakibatkan runtuhnya Dinasti Manchu Qing didirikan, nama wilayah di mana Manchu berasal dikenal sebagai Timur Laut dalam dokumen resmi di Republik yang baru didirikan Cina, selain “Tiga timur Laut Provinsi

Since then, the “Three Northeast Provinces” (東三省) was officially used by the Qing government in China to refer to this region, and the post of Viceroy of Three Northeast Provinces (東三省總督) was established to take charge of these provinces. After the 1911 revolution, which resulted in the collapse of the Manchu-established Qing Dynasty, the name of the region where the Manchus originated was known as the Northeast in official documents in the newly-founded Republic of China, in addition to the “Three Northeast Provinces”.

Tingkat Timur Laut Cina

Dalam bahasa Cina saat ini, seorang warga dari “Timur Laut”, atau Timur Laut Cina, adalah “Northeasterner” (Dong-bei-Ren). “Para Timur Laut” adalah istilah yang mengekspresikan seluruh kawasan, meliputi sejarah, budaya, tradisi, dialek, masakan dan sebagainya, serta “Tiga Provinsi Timur Laut” (东三省 atau 东北 三省), yang menggantikan konsep “Manchuria” di awal abad 20. Meskipun secara geografis juga terletak di bagian timur laut Cina, provinsi lain seperti Hebei tidak dianggap sebagai bagian dari “Timur Laut”. Setelah Perang Sino-Jepang Kedua, Republik Rakyat Cina telah menolak pengakuan nama Mǎnzhōu (“Manchuria”), hanya menggunakan “Timur Laut” untuk wilayah untuk menghindari mengakui warisan kekaisaran Jepang di daerah tersebut; judul Manchuria masih sering dikaitkan di Cina dengan negara boneka Manchukuo Jepang

Salah satu peta Eropa paling awal menggunakan “Manchuria” panjang (Mandchouria) (Yohanes Tallis, 1851). Sebelumnya, “Tartar Cina” istilah telah umum diterapkan di Barat ke Manchuria dan Mongolia.

Extent of Northeast China

In current Chinese parlance, an inhabitant of “the Northeast”, or Northeast China, is a “Northeasterner” (Dōng-běi-rén). “The Northeast” is a term that expresses the entire region, encompassing its history, culture, traditions, dialects, cuisines and so forth, as well as the “Three Northeast Provinces” (東三省 or 東北三省), which replaced the concept of “Manchuria” in the early 20th century. Though geographically also located in the northeastern part of China, other provinces such as Hebei are not considered to be a part of “the Northeast”. After the Second Sino-Japanese War, the People’s Republic of China has refused recognition of the name Mǎnzhōu (“Manchuria”), only using “the Northeast” for the region to avoid acknowledging the Japanese imperial legacy in the area; the title of Manchuria is still often associated in China with the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo

One of the earliest European maps using the term “Manchuria” (Mandchouria) (John Tallis, 1851). Previously, the term “Chinese Tartary” had been commonly applied in the West to Manchuria and Mongolia.

Salah satu peta Eropa paling awal menggunakan “Manchuria” panjang (Mandchouria) (Yohanes Tallis, 1851). Sebelumnya, “Tartar Cina” istilah telah umum diterapkan di Barat ke Manchuria dan Mongolia.

Penduduk

Manchuria dihuni oleh lebih dari 100 juta orang, 90 persen diantaranya adalah keturunan Tionghoa yang beremigrasi ke Manchuria antara 1880 dan 1930. Para Manchu adalah orang-orang asli dari Manchuria dan membuat sekitar 5 persen dari populasi saat ini. Sejumlah besar kelompok minoritas, seperti Korea dan Mongol, telah dimasukkan ke dalam budaya Cina melalui perkawinan dan pendidikan negara. Mereka mematuhi cara dan adat istiadat Cina dan hidup karena kebanyakan Cina lainnya.

Geografi dan iklim
Manchuria terdiri terutama dari sisi utara Cina berbentuk corong Utara Kraton, area besar batuan digarap dan overlaidPrecambrian. Cina Utara Kraton merupakan benua independen sebelum periode Trias, dan dikenal telah menjadi bagian utara tanah di dunia selama Karbon. Pegunungan Khingan di barat adalah pegunungan Jura yang dibentuk oleh tabrakan dari Cina Utara Kraton dengan Kraton Siberia, yang menandai tahap akhir pembentukan Pangaea thesupercontinent.

Meskipun tidak ada bagian dari Manchuria glaciated selama Kuarter, geologi permukaan sebagian besar bagian bawah dataran dan lebih subur di wilayah ini terdiri dari lapisan yang sangat dalam dari loess, yang telah dibentuk oleh gerakan angin kelahiran dari debu dan sampai partikel terbentuk di bagian glaciated Himalaya, Kunlun Shan dan Tien Shan, serta Gurun Gobi dan gurun. Tanah yang sebagian besar Mollisols subur dan Fluvents, kecuali di bagian yang lebih pegunungan di mana mereka kurang berkembang Orthents, serta ujung utara di mana permafrost terjadi dan Orthels mendominasi.

Iklim Manchuria memiliki kontras musiman ekstrim, mulai dari lembab, panas hampir tropis di musim panas untuk berangin, dingin kering, Kutub Utara di musim dingin. Hal ini terjadi karena posisi Manchuria berada di batas antara benua Eurasia yang besar daratan dan Pasifik Samudera besar menyebabkan pembalikan lengkap angin musiman.

Di musim panas, saat tanah sedang memanas lebih cepat dari laut, bentuk tekanan rendah di Asia dan hangat, selatan lembab untuk southeasterlywinds membawa berat, hujan bergemuruh, menghasilkan curah hujan tahunan berkisar antara 400 mm (16 inci), atau kurang di barat , untuk lebih dari 1150 mm (45 inci) di Pegunungan Changbai. Suhu di musim panas sangat hangat panas, dengan Juli rata-rata maksimum berkisar antara 31 ° C (88 ° F) di selatan sampai 24 ° C (75 ° F) di ujung utara. Kecuali di ujung utara dekat Sungai Amur, kelembaban tinggi menyebabkan ketidaknyamanan utama saat ini tahun.

Di musim dingin, namun Tinggi Siberia yang luas menyebabkan sangat dingin, angin utara ke barat laut yang membawa suhu serendah -5 ° C (23 ° F) di ujung selatan dan -30 ° C (-22 ° F) di utara, di mana zona permafrost terputus mencapai northernHeilongjiang. Namun, karena angin dari Siberia yang sangat kering, salju jatuh hanya pada beberapa hari setiap musim dingin dan tidak pernah berat. Hal ini menjelaskan mengapa, sedangkan garis lintang yang sesuai dari Amerika Utara sepenuhnya glaciated selama periode glasial dari Kuarter, Manchuria, meskipun lebih dingin, selalu tetap terlalu kering untuk gletser bentuk – sebuah keadaan ditingkatkan dengan angin barat lebih kuat dari permukaan lapisan es di Eropa.

People

Manchuria is populated by over 100 million people, 90 percent of which are descendants of Chinese who emigrated to Manchuria between 1880 and 1930. The Manchus were the original people of Manchuria and make up about 5 percent of the current populace. Significant numbers of minority groups, such as Koreans and Mongols, have been incorporated into Chinese culture via intermarriage and state education. They adhere to Chinese ways and customs and live as most other Chinese.

Geography and climate

Manchuria consists mainly of the northern side of the funnel-shaped North China Craton, a large area of tilled and overlaidPrecambrian rocks. The North China Craton was an independent continent prior to the Triassic period, and is known to have been the northernmost piece of land in the world during the Carboniferous. The Khingan Mountains in the west are a Jurassic mountain range formed by the collision of the North China Craton with the Siberian Craton, which marked the final stage of the formation of thesupercontinent Pangaea.

Although no part of Manchuria was glaciated during the Quaternary, the surface geology of most of the lower-lying and more fertile parts of the region consists of very deep layers of loess, which have been formed by the wind-born movement of dust and till particles formed in glaciated parts of the HimalayasKunlun Shan and Tien Shan, as well as the Gobi and Taklamakan Deserts. Soils are mostly fertile Mollisols and Fluvents, except in the more mountainous parts where they are poorly developed Orthents, as well as the extreme north where permafrost occurs and Orthels dominate.

The climate of Manchuria has extreme seasonal contrasts, ranging from humid, almost tropical heat in the summer to windy, dry, Arctic cold in the winter. This occurs because the position of Manchuria is on the boundary between the great Eurasian continental landmass and the huge Pacific Ocean causes complete monsoonal wind reversal.

In the summer, when the land heats up faster than the ocean, low pressure forms over Asia and warm, moist south to southeasterlywinds bring heavy, thundery rain, yielding annual rainfall ranging from 400 mm (16 in.), or less in the west, to over 1150 mm (45 in.) in the Changbai Mountains. Temperatures in the summer are very warm to hot, with July average maxima ranging from 31°C (88°F) in the south to 24°C (75°F) in the extreme north. Except in the far north near the Amur River, high humidity causes major discomfort at this time of year.

In the winter, however, the vast Siberian High causes very cold, north to northwesterly winds that bring temperatures as low as −5°C (23°F) in the extreme south and −30°C (−22°F) in the north, where the zone of discontinuous permafrost reaches northernHeilongjiang. However, because the winds from Siberia are exceedingly dry, snow falls only on a few days every winter and it is never heavy. This explains why, whereas corresponding latitudes of North America were fully glaciated during glacial periods of the Quaternary, Manchuria, though even colder, always remained too dry to form glaciers – a state of affairs enhanced by stronger westerly winds from the surface of the ice sheet in Europe.

Awal sejarah

citra Nurhaci

Manchuria adalah tanah air suku-suku nomaden, termasuk Manchu, Ulchs dan Hezhen (juga dikenal sebagai Goldi dan Nanai). Berbagai kelompok etnis dan kerajaan masing-masing, termasuk Korea, Sushen, Donghu, Xianbei, Wuhuan, Mohe, Khitan dan Jurchenshave naik ke kekuasaan di Manchuria. Pada berbagai waktu dalam periode ini, Dinasti Han, Cao Dinasti Wei, Dinasti Jin Barat, Dinasti Tang dan beberapa kerajaan kecil lainnya dari Cina menduduki bagian-bagian penting dari Manchuria.

File:Nurhaci image.JPG

Kaisar Huang Taiji dari Dinasti Qing

November 1612 – 31 Desember 1650), juga dikenal sebagai Hosoi Mergen Cin Wang, Rui Prince, adalah putra 14 Nurhaci dan seorang pangeran dari Dinasti Qing.

 Kangxi Kaisar di akhir tahun 60an

Berbagai kerajaan Korea, seperti Gojoseon, Buyo, Goguryeoand Balhae juga didirikan di beberapa bagian daerah ini.

Manchuria bawah Liao dan Jin
Orang-orang Manchu (Manchu: Manju; disederhanakan Cina: 满族; tradisional Cina: 满族; pinyin: Mǎnzú, Mongolia: Манж, Rusia: Маньчжуры) adalah peoplewho Tungusic berasal dari Manchuria (sekarang bagian timur laut Cina) dan salah satu dari 56 kelompok etnis Republik Rakyat Cina. Selama mereka naik pada abad ke 17, dengan bantuan theming pemberontak dinasti (seperti Wu Sangui umum), mereka berkuasa di Cina dan mendirikan Dinasti Qing, yang memerintah Cina sampai Revolusi Xinhai tahun 1911, yang mendirikan pemerintahan republik di tempatnya.

Para etnis Manchu sebagian besar telah berasimilasi dengan orang Cina Han. Bahasa Manchu hampir punah, sekarang hanya berbicara di antara sejumlah kecil orang tua di daerah pedesaan terpencil di timur laut Cina dan beberapa sarjana, ada sekitar sepuluh ribu penutur Sibe (Xibo), dialek berbicara Manchu di wilayah Xinjiang . Dalam beberapa tahun terakhir, bagaimanapun, telah terjadi kebangkitan kepentingan dalam budaya Manchu antara kedua etnis Manchu dan Han. Jumlah hari ini Cina dengan beberapa keturunan Manchu cukup besar dengan 10.680.000 anggota (di Cina), Manchu adalah kelompok etnis ke-3 terbesar di China setelah Han dan adopsi Zhuang.The kebijakan menguntungkan terhadap etnis minoritas (seperti preferensial masuk universitas, kesempatan kerja pemerintah dan pengecualian dari kebijakan satu anak) telah mendorong beberapa orang dengan Han campuran dan keturunan Manchu untuk kembali mengidentifikasi diri mereka sebagai Manchu.

Dengan Dinasti Song ke selatan, orang-orang Khitan Barat Manchuria, yang mungkin berbicara bahasa terkait dengan bahasa Mongolic, menciptakan Kekaisaran Liao di wilayah tersebut, yang kemudian mengontrol bagian-bagian yang berdekatan dari Cina Utara juga.

Sebuah patung kayu Bodhisattva, Dinasti Jin, Museum Shanghai.

Pada abad 12 awal Jurchen Tungusic orang (nenek moyang orang-orang Manchu kemudian) awalnya tinggal di hutan di perbatasan timur Kekaisaran Laio, dan merupakan anak sungai Liao, menggulingkan Liao dan membentuk Dinasti Jin (1115-1234) , yang kemudian mengontrol bagian Utara Cina dan Mongolia.

Potret Kaisar Qianlong di Gaun Pengadilan, oleh seniman pengadilan anonim. Hanging gulir, warna pada sutra. ThePalace Museum di Beijing.

Sebagian besar Khitan yang masih hidup bisa jadi telah berasimilasi ke dalam sebagian besar orang Cina Han dan penduduk Jurchen, atau pindah ke Asia Tengah, namun diperkirakan bahwa orang Daur, masih tinggal di utara Manchuria, juga keturunan Khitans.

Sebuah abad ke-12 Jurchen batu kura-kura di Ussuriysk hari ini

Jin pertama modal, Shangjing, yang terletak di Sungai Ashi tidak jauh dari Harbin modern, pada awalnya tidak lebih dari kota tenda, tapi di 1124 Jin kedua kaisar Wuqimaistarting sebuah proyek konstruksi besar, memiliki arsitek Cina utamanya, Lu Yanlun , membangun sebuah kota baru di situs ini, meniru, dalam skala lebih kecil, Song Utara modal Bianjing (Kaifeng). Ketika Bianjing jatuh ke pasukan Jin di 1127, ribuan aristokrat Lagu ditangkap (termasuk dua kaisar Song), akademisi, perajin dan penghibur, bersama dengan harta ibukota Song, semua dibawa ke Shangjing (Ibukota Atas) oleh pemenang .

 Foto Cina Janda Kaisar

Meskipun Jurchen penguasa Wanyan Liang, didorong oleh aspirasi untuk menjadi penguasa seluruh Cina, memindahkan ibukota Jin dari Shangjing untuk Yanjing (sekarang Beijing) in1153, dan memiliki istana Shangjing hancur pada tahun 1157, kota ini kembali tingkat signifikansi bawah Wanyan Liang penggantinya, Kaisar Shizong, yang menikmati mengunjungi daerah untuk berhubungan dengan akar Jurchen.

Pada 1234, Dinasti Jin jatuh ke tangan Mongol.

Budaya
Aspek kebiasaan dan tradisi Manchu dapat dilihat dalam masakan lokal, bahasa dan adat istiadat di Manchuria saat ini serta kota-kota di wilayah itu. Setelah jatuhnya Dinasti Ming, Manchu juga mengadopsi banyak budaya Han dan tradisi.

Mereka secara tradisional melingkar rambut mereka dalam jumbai yang tinggi di atas kepala mereka dan mengenakan anting-anting, gaun panjang dan sepatu bordir. Para wanita dengan status sosial lebih tinggi mengenakan sutra dan pakaian satin sementara pakaian katun dipakai oleh perempuan dari status sosial lebih rendah. Varian dari kostum tersebut (termasuk qi pao dan ma gua, Mandarin gaun) masih populer di seluruh Cina. Pakaian pria itu sekali terdiri dari jaket pendek dan disesuaikan? Lebih gaun panjang dengan sabuk di pinggang untuk memfasilitasi berkuda dan berburu.

Manchu tradisional tempat tinggal yang terdiri dari tiga perempat. Di tengah-tengah rumah itu dapur sementara sayap yang terdapat asrama dan ruang tamu. Tradisi unik Manchu tidak memungkinkan orang untuk mati di Nahan () di sebelah barat atau utara. Percaya bahwa pintu dibuat untuk jiwa-jiwa yang hidup, orang Manchu diperbolehkan mayat untuk dibawa keluar hanya melalui jendela dan pemakaman tanah adalah praktek umum.

Bahasa Manchu adalah anggota dari kelompok bahasa Tungusic, sendiri merupakan anggota dari keluarga bahasa Altai diusulkan.

Kisah tentang Dukun Nisan adalah bagian penting dari cerita rakyat Manchu.

Dilaporkan oleh ahli anthropologi Amerika Weston La Barre yang Manchu ibu digunakan untuk menunjukkan kasih sayang untuk anak-anak mereka dengan melakukan fellatio pada bayi laki-laki mereka, menempatkan penis di mulut dan merangsang itu, karena itu tidak dianggap sebagai tindakan seksual, sementara Manchu dianggap publik berciuman dengan jijik, yang dianggap seksual. Mereka juga dilaporkan untuk membelai organ seksual anak-anak mereka, menggelitik orang-orang dari anak perempuan mereka.

Gadis Manchu dilaporkan untuk mandiri dan sama dengan saudara laki-laki, yang memiliki hak lebih dari perempuan Cina. Wanita Manchu dikatakan menjadi agresif dan mudah tersinggung, Mongol dan Cina Bannermen menikah dengan mereka dilaporkan takut dari mereka, mengeluh kepada Kaisar, yang mengizinkan mereka untuk memprotes keras kepada istri mereka daripada bersembunyi.

 
 

Early history

File:Nurhaci image.JPG

image of Nurhaci

Manchuria was the homeland of several nomadic tribes, including the ManchuUlchs and Hezhen (also known as the Goldi and Nanai). Various ethnic groups and their respective kingdoms, including the KoreansSushen,DonghuXianbeiWuhuanMoheKhitan and Jurchenshave risen to power in Manchuria. At various times in this time period, Han DynastyCao Wei Dynasty, Western Jin DynastyTang Dynasty and some other minor kingdoms of China occupied significant parts of Manchuria.

File:Emperor Huang Taiji.jpg

Emperor Huang Taiji of the Qing Dynasty

File:Dorgon, the Prince Rui (17th century).jpg

November 1612 – 31 December 1650), also known as Hošoi Mergen Cin Wang, the Prince Rui, was Nurhaci‘s 14th son and a prince of the Qing Dynasty.

File:Old Kangxi.jpg

 Kangxi Emperor in late 60s

Various Korean kingdoms, such as GojoseonBuyeoGoguryeoand Balhae were also established in parts of this area.

Manchuria under the Liao and Jin

The Manchu people (ManchuManjui gisun.svg Manjusimplified Chinese: 满族; traditional Chinese:滿族; pinyinMǎnzúMongolian: Манж, Russian: Маньчжуры) are a Tungusic peoplewho originated in Manchuria (today’s northeastern China) and one of the 56 ethnic groups of People’s Republic of China. During their rise in the 17th century, with the help of theMing dynasty rebels (such as general Wu Sangui), they came to power in China and founded the Qing Dynasty, which ruled China until the Xinhai Revolution of 1911, which established a republican government in its place.

The Manchu ethnicity has largely been assimilated with the Han Chinese. The Manchu language is almost extinct, now spoken only among a small number of elderly people in remote rural areas of northeastern China and a few scholars; there are around ten thousand speakers of Sibe (Xibo), a Manchu dialect spoken in the  region of Xinjiang. In recent years, however, there has been a resurgence of interest in Manchu culture among both ethnic Manchus and Han. The number of Chinese today with some Manchu ancestry is quite large—with 10.68 million members (in China), Manchu is the 3rd largest ethnic group in China after the Han and the Zhuang.The adoption of favorable policies towards ethnic minorities (such as preferential university admission, government employment opportunities and exemption from the one child policy) has encouraged some people with mixed Han and Manchu ancestry to re-identify themselves as Manchu.

With the Song Dynasty to the south, the Khitan people of Western Manchuria, who probably spoke a language related to the Mongolic languages, created the Liao Empire in the region, which went on to control adjacent parts of Northern China as well.

File:Wood Bodhisattva 2.jpg

A wooden Bodhisattva statue, Jin DynastyShanghai Museum.

In the early 12th century the Tungusic Jurchen people (the ancestors of the later Manchu people) originally lived in the forests in the eastern borderlands of the Laio Empire, and were Liao’s tributaries, overthrew the Liao and formed the Jin Dynasty (1115–1234), which went on to control parts of Northern China and Mongolia.

File:Portrait of the Qianlong Emperor in Court Dress.jpg

Portrait of the Qianlong Emperor in Court Dress, by anonymous court artists. Hanging scroll, colour on silk. ThePalace MuseumBeijing.

Most of the surviving Khitan either assimilated into the bulk of the Han Chinese and Jurchen population, or moved to Central Asia; however, it is thought that the Daur people, still living in northern Manchuria, are also descendants of the Khitans.

File:Ussuriysk-Stone-Tortoise-S-3542.jpg

A 12th century Jurchen stone tortoise in today’s Ussuriysk

The first Jin capital, Shangjing, located on the Ashi River not far from modern Harbin, was originally not much more than the city of tents, but in 1124 the second Jin emperor Wuqimaistarting a major construction project, having his Chinese chief architect, Lu Yanlun, build a new city at this site, emulating, on a smaller scale, the Northern Song capital Bianjing (Kaifeng). When Bianjing fell to Jin troops in 1127, thousands of captured Song aristocrats (including the two Song emperors), scholars, craftsmen and entertainers, along with the treasures of the Song capital, were all taken to Shangjing (the Upper Capital) by the winners.

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 Photograph of China’s Empress Dowager

Although the Jurchen ruler Wanyan Liang, spurred on by his aspirations to become the ruler of all China, moved the Jin capital from Shangjing to Yanjing (now Beijing) in1153, and had the Shangjing palaces destroyed in 1157, the city regained a degree of significance under Wanyan Liang’s successor, Emperor Shizong, who enjoyed visiting the region to get in touch with his Jurchen roots.

In 1234, the Jin Dynasty fell to the Mongols.

Budaya
Aspek kebiasaan dan tradisi Manchu dapat dilihat dalam masakan lokal, bahasa dan adat istiadat di Manchuria saat ini serta kota-kota di wilayah itu. Setelah jatuhnya Dinasti Ming, Manchu juga mengadopsi banyak budaya Han dan tradisi.

Mereka secara tradisional melingkar rambut mereka dalam jumbai yang tinggi di atas kepala mereka dan mengenakan anting-anting, gaun panjang dan sepatu bordir. Para wanita dengan status sosial lebih tinggi mengenakan sutra dan pakaian satin sementara pakaian katun dipakai oleh perempuan dari status sosial lebih rendah. Varian dari kostum tersebut (termasuk qi pao dan ma gua, Mandarin gaun) masih populer di seluruh Cina. Pakaian pria itu sekali terdiri dari jaket pendek dan disesuaikan? Lebih gaun panjang dengan sabuk di pinggang untuk memfasilitasi berkuda dan berburu.

Manchu tradisional tempat tinggal yang terdiri dari tiga perempat. Di tengah-tengah rumah itu dapur sementara sayap yang terdapat asrama dan ruang tamu. Tradisi unik Manchu tidak memungkinkan orang untuk mati di Nahan () di sebelah barat atau utara. Percaya bahwa pintu dibuat untuk jiwa-jiwa yang hidup, orang Manchu diperbolehkan mayat untuk dibawa keluar hanya melalui jendela dan pemakaman tanah adalah praktek umum.

Bahasa Manchu adalah anggota dari kelompok bahasa Tungusic, sendiri merupakan anggota dari keluarga bahasa Altai diusulkan.

Kisah tentang Dukun Nisan adalah bagian penting dari cerita rakyat Manchu.

Dilaporkan oleh ahli anthropologi Amerika Weston La Barre yang Manchu ibu digunakan untuk menunjukkan kasih sayang untuk anak-anak mereka dengan melakukan fellatio pada bayi laki-laki mereka, menempatkan penis di mulut dan merangsang itu, karena itu tidak dianggap sebagai tindakan seksual, sementara Manchu dianggap publik berciuman dengan jijik, yang dianggap seksual. Mereka juga dilaporkan untuk membelai organ seksual anak-anak mereka, menggelitik orang-orang dari anak perempuan mereka.

Gadis Manchu dilaporkan untuk mandiri dan sama dengan saudara laki-laki, yang memiliki hak lebih dari perempuan Cina. Wanita Manchu dikatakan menjadi agresif dan mudah tersinggung, Mongol dan Cina Bannermen menikah dengan mereka dilaporkan takut dari mereka, mengeluh kepada Kaisar, yang mengizinkan mereka untuk memprotes keras kepada istri mereka daripada bersembunyi.

Manchuria di bawah Kekaisaran Mongolia
Pada 1211, setelah penaklukan Barat Xia, Jenghis Khan mengerahkan tentara untuk menaklukkan Dinasti Jin. Jebe umum dan Qasar saudara diperintahkan untuk mengurangi kota Jurchen di Manchuria. Mereka berhasil menghancurkan benteng Jin sana. Para Khitans bawah Yelü Liuge menyatakan kesetiaan mereka kepada Genghis Khan dan mendirikan negara nominal otonom di Manchuria di 1213. Namun, pasukan Jin mengirimkan sebuah ekspedisi penghukuman terhadap mereka. Jebe pergi ke sana lagi dan Mongol mendorong keluar Jins.

Sebuah berburu burung Tartar dengan senapannya, abad ke-15, tinta dan warna pada sutra

Sang jenderal Jin, Puxian Wannu, memberontak melawan Dinasti Jin dan mendirikan Dazhen (大 眞) kerajaan di Dongjing (Liaoyang) tahun 1215. Dia menganggap judul Tianwang (天王 menyala. Raja Surgawi) dan nama Tiantai era (天 泰). Puxian Wannu bersekutu dengan urutan Mongolsin untuk mengamankan posisinya. Namun, ia memberontak pada 1222 setelah itu dan melarikan diri ke sebuah pulau sementara tentara Mongol menyerbu Liaoxi, Liaodong dan Khorazm. Sebagai akibat dari perselisihan internal di antara Khitans, mereka gagal untuk menerima aturan Yelü Liuge dan memberontak terhadap Kekaisaran Mongol. Takut tekanan Mongol, mereka melarikan diri ke Goryeo Khitans tanpa izin. Tetapi mereka dikalahkan oleh aliansi Mongol-Korea. Genghis Khan (1206-1227) memberi saudara-kabupaten Cina Muqali di Manchuria.

Sebuah gambaran dari tiga bangsa di theSiberia. Orang Manchu di tengah adalah pakaian dalam pakaian tradisional dan soncoho.

Putra Khan Agung Ogedei Guyuk hancur Puxian Wannu itu dinasti di 1233, menenangkan selatan Manchuria. Beberapa waktu setelah 1234 Ogedei juga ditundukkan Tatar Air di bagian utara wilayah ini dan mulai menerima elang, harem dan bulu sebagai perpajakan. Bangsa Mongol menekan Air Tatar-pemberontakan tahun 1237. Di Manchuria dan Siberia, bangsa Mongol digunakan relay dogsled untuk ubi mereka. Ibu kota Karakorum langsung dikontrol Manchuria sampai 1260-an itu.

Sebuah penggambaran dua prajurit Jurchen dan kuda mereka.

Kubilai Khan Agung berganti nama kerajaannya “Great Yuan” di 1271, bukan judul-lama “Ikh Mongol ULS”. Di bawah Dinasti Yuan (1271-1368), Manchuria dibagi menjadi Liaoyang dan Zhendong kabupaten. Keturunan Jenghis Khan saudara asBelgutei tersebut dan Qasar memerintah daerah di bawah para Khan Agung. Bangsa Mongol bersemangat mengadopsi artileri baru dan teknologi. Awal meriam terkenal di dunia, tanggal 1282, ditemukan di Manchuria Mongol-diadakan.

Setelah pengusiran orang Mongol dari China, klan Jurchen tetap setia pada Mongol Khagan Toghan Temur. Pada 1375, Nahacu, seorang pejabat Mongol Yuan Utara di Liaoyang provinsi menginvasi Liaodong dengan tujuan untuk memulihkan bangsa Mongol berkuasa. Meskipun ia terus memegang selatan Manchuria, Nahacu akhirnya menyerah kepada Dinasti Ming tahun 1387. Untuk melindungi wilayah perbatasan utara Ming memutuskan untuk “menenangkan” para Jurchens untuk menangani masalah dengan sisa-sisa Yuan di sepanjang perbatasan utara. Ming memperkuat kontrol hanya di bawah Kaisar Yongle (1402-1424).

Manchuria pada masa Dinasti Ming
Kekaisaran Ming menguasai Liaoning pada 1371, hanya tiga tahun setelah pengusiran bangsa Mongol dari Beijing. Selama masa pemerintahan Kaisar Yongle di abad 15 awal, berbagai upaya dilakukan untuk memperluas kekuasaannya di seluruh Manchuria Cina keseluruhan. Armada sungai besar dibangun di Kota Jilin, dan berlayar beberapa kali antara 1409 dan ca. 1432, diperintahkan oleh Yishiha kasim menuruni Sungari dan Amur sampai ke mulut Amur, mendapatkan kepala suku dari suku-suku lokal untuk bersumpah setia kepada penguasa Ming.

Segera setelah kematian Kaisar Yongle kebijakan perluasan Ming digantikan dengan yang dari penghematan di selatan Manchuria (Liaodong). Sekitar 1442, sebuah dinding pertahanan dibangun untuk membela perbatasan barat laut Liaodong dari kemungkinan ancaman dari Jurched-Mongol Oriyanghan. Dalam 1467-68 tembok itu diperluas untuk melindungi wilayah itu dari timur laut juga, terhadap serangan fromJianzhou Jurchens. Meskipun hampir sama dengan Tembok Besar China, ini “Liaodong Wall” adalah desain sederhana. Sementara batu dan ubin digunakan di beberapa bagian, sebagian besar tembok itu sebenarnya hanya sebuah tanggul tanah dengan parit di kedua sisi.

Seorang pria Jurchen berburu dari kudanya, dari abad ke-15 dan tinta warna pada lukisan sutra.

Mulai tahun 1580-an, sebuah Jianzhou Jurchens kepala suku Nurhaci (1558-1626), awalnya berbasis di Hurha lembah Sungai timur laut dari Ming Liaodong Wall, mulai menyatukan suku-suku Jurchen daerah. Selama beberapa dekade berikutnya, Jurchen (kemudian disebut Manchu), mengambil kontrol atas sebagian besar Manchuria, kota-kota di Liaodong Ming jatuh ke Jurchen satu demi satu. Pada 1616, Nurhaci menyatakan diri sebagai khan, dan mendirikan Dinasti Jin Kemudian (yang penerusnya namanya pada 1636 untuk Dinasti Qing).

Manchuria dalam Dinasti Qing
Lihat juga: Rusia-Manchu konflik perbatasan
Pada tahun 1644, Manchu mengambil Beijing, menumbangkan Dinasti Ming dan segera membentuk pemerintahan Dinasti Qing (1644-1912) seluruh Cina.

Di sebelah selatan, daerah ini dipisahkan dari China yang tepat oleh Palisade Willow Dalam, parit dan tanggul ditanami willowsintended untuk membatasi pergerakan orang Cina Han ke Manchuria pada masa Dinasti Qing, karena daerah itu terlarang bagi Han sampai Qing mulai menjajah daerah itu dengan mereka di kemudian hari dalam pemerintahan dinasti ini. Gerakan orang Tionghoa Han ke Manchuria disebut Chuang Guandong. Daerah Manchu masih dipisahkan dari zaman modern Mongolia Dalam oleh Palisade Willow Luar, yang terus Manchu dan Mongol di daerah terpisah.

Kehilangan “Manchuria Luar”
Artikel utama: Aneksasi Amur
Di sebelah utara, berbatasan dengan Rusia Siberia yang ditetapkan oleh Perjanjian Nerchinsk (1689) sebagai berjalan di sepanjang daerah aliran sungai dari Pegunungan theStanovoy. Selatan Pegunungan Stanovoy, cekungan dari Amur dan anak sungainya milik Kekaisaran Qing. Utara Pegunungan Stanovoy, Lembah Uda dan Siberia milik Kekaisaran Rusia. Pada 1858, Kekaisaran Qing melemahnya dipaksa menyerahkan Manchuria utara Amur untuk Rusia di bawah Perjanjian Aigun, namun subyek Qing diizinkan untuk terus tinggal, di bawah kekuasaan Qing, di daerah kecil di sisi sekarang-Rusia sungai, yang dikenal sebagai Enam puluh Empat Desa Timur Sungai Heilongjiang.

Pada tahun 1860, pada Traktat Peking, Rusia berhasil memperoleh sepotong besar selanjutnya dari Manchuria, sebelah timur Sungai Ussuri.

Akibatnya, Manchuria dibagi menjadi setengah Rusia dikenal sebagai “Manchuria Luar”, dan setengah Cina yang tersisa dikenal sebagai “Manchuria batin”. Dalam literatur modern, “Manchuria” biasanya mengacu pada batin (Cina) Manchuria. (Bdk. Dalam dan Mongolia Luar). Sebagai akibat dari Traktat Aigun dan Peking, Cina kehilangan akses ke Laut Jepang.

Empat puluh tahun kemudian, selama Pemberontakan Boxer, tentara Rusia tewas sepuluh ribu Cina (Manchu, Han Cina dan orang Daur) tinggal di Blagoveshchensk dan Enam puluh Empat Desa Timur Sungai.

Rusia dan Jepang perambahan
Lihat juga: Cina Timur dan Selatan Kereta Api Manchuria Kereta Api
Pada abad ke-19, Manchu aturan telah menjadi semakin sinicized dan, bersama dengan perbatasan lain dari Kekaisaran Qing asMongolia tersebut dan Tibet, datang di bawah pengaruh kekuatan Eropa seperti Inggris yang menggigit di Tibet, Prancis pada Hainan andGermany di Shandong. Sementara itu Kekaisaran Rusia dirambah Turkestan dan Outer Mongolia, setelah mencaplok Manchuria Luar.

Gambar korban Wabah Manchuria di 1910-1911

Manchuria batin juga datang di bawah pengaruh Rusia yang kuat dengan pembangunan theChinese Timur Railway melalui Harbin ke Vladivostok. Beberapa petani Korea miskin pindah ke sana. Dalam Chuang Guandong banyak Han petani, sebagian besar dari Shandong peninsulamoved sana.

Jepang diganti pengaruh Rusia di bagian selatan Manchuria batin sebagai hasil dari theRusso-Jepang di 1904-1905. Sebagian besar cabang selatan Kereta Api Timur Cina (bagian dari Changchun ke Port Arthur (Jepang: Ryojun)) dipindahkan dari Rusia ke Jepang, dan menjadi Manchuria Selatan Kereta Api. Dalam rangkaian peristiwa sejarah, Jiandao (di wilayah yang berbatasan dengan Korea), diserahkan kepada Dinasti Qing sebagai kompensasi atas Manchuria Selatan Kereta Api.

Antara kedua perang dunia (WW1/WW2), Manchuria menjadi medan pertempuran politik dan militer. Pengaruh Jepang ke Manchuria Luar diperpanjang setelah theRussian Revolusi 1917, tapi Manchuria Luar telah kembali ke kontrol oleh Soviet 1925. Jepang mengambil keuntungan dari gangguan setelah Revolusi Rusia untuk menduduki Manchuria Luar, tetapi keberhasilan Soviet dan tekanan ekonomi Amerika memaksa mundurnya Jepang.

Pada 1920-an Harbin dibanjiri 100.000 sampai 200.000 emigran putih Rusia melarikan diri dari Rusia. Harbin memegang Russianpopulation terbesar di luar negara bagian Rusia (lihat Harbin Rusia).

Manchuria (dan masih) merupakan daerah penting bagi mineral yang kaya dan cadangan batu bara, dan tanah yang sangat cocok untuk kedelai dan barleyproduction. Untuk pra-Perang Dunia II Jepang, Manchuria adalah sumber penting bahan baku. Tanpa Manchuria pendudukan, Jepang mungkin tidak bisa dilakukan rencana mereka untuk penaklukan atas Asia Tenggara atau mengambil risiko untuk menyerang Pearl Harbor pada 7 Desember 1941.

Jepang invasi dan Manchukuo
Artikel utama: invasi Jepang ke Manchuria dan Manchukuo

Sekitar waktu Perang Dunia I, Zhang Zuolin membuktikan dirinya sebagai seorang panglima perang yang kuat dengan pengaruh atas sebagian besar Manchuria. Ia cenderung untuk menjaga nya tentara Manchu di bawah kekuasaannya dan untuk menjaga Manchuria bebas dari pengaruh asing. Orang Jepang mencoba membunuhnya pada tahun 1916 dengan melemparkan bom di bawah kereta, tapi gagal. Orang Jepang akhirnya berhasil pada tanggal 2 Juni, 1928 ketika sebuah bom yang ditanam meledak di bawah tujuh gerbong kereta nya beberapa mil dari stasiun Mukden.

Setelah Insiden Mukden pada tahun 1931 dan invasi Jepang berikutnya dari Manchuria, Inner Manchuria diproklamasikan sebagai negara merdeka, Manchukuo. Manchu terakhir kaisar, Puyi, kemudian ditempatkan di atas takhta untuk memimpin sebuah pemerintahan boneka Jepang di Falun Huang Wei, lebih dikenal sebagai “Istana Boneka Kaisar”. Manchuria batin demikian terlepas dari China oleh Jepang untuk menciptakan zona penyangga untuk mempertahankan Jepang dari Strategi Rusia Southing dan, dengan investasi Jepang dan sumber daya alam yang kaya, menjadi dominasi industri. Namun, di bawah kontrol Jepang Manchuria adalah salah satu daerah yang paling brutal dijalankan di dunia, dengan kampanye sistematis teror dan intimidasi terhadap penduduk Rusia dan Cina lokal termasuk penangkapan, kerusuhan terorganisir dan bentuk-bentuk penaklukan. Orang Jepang juga memulai kampanye emigrasi ke Manchukuo, yang Japanesepopulation ada meningkat dari 240.000 pada tahun 1931 untuk 837.000 di 1939 (orang Jepang punya rencana untuk mendatangkan 5 juta pemukim Jepang ke Manchukuo). Ratusan petani Manchu diusir dan peternakan mereka diberikan kepada keluarga imigran Jepang. Manchukuo digunakan sebagai dasar untuk menyerang sisa Cina, suatu tindakan yang sangat mahal ke Jepang dalam hal kerusakan pria, integritas materiil dan politik.

Pada akhir 1930-an, Manchuria adalah tempat masalah dengan Jepang, bentrok dua kali dengan Uni Soviet. Ini bentrokan – di Danau Khasan pada tahun 1938 dan pada Khalkhin Gol satu tahun kemudian – mengakibatkan korban Jepang. Uni Soviet memenangkan dua pertempuran dan perjanjian damai ditandatangani. Namun, kerusuhan daerah alami.

 
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Culture

Aspects of Manchu customs and traditions can be seen in local cuisines, language and customs in today’s Manchuria as well as cities in that region. After the fall of the Ming Dynasty, Manchus also adopted many Han customs and traditions.

They traditionally coiled their hair in high tufts on top of their heads and wore earrings, long gowns and embroidered shoes. The women with higher social standing wore silk and satin clothing while cotton clothing was worn by women of lower social standing. Variants of such costumes (including qi pao and ma guaMandarin dress) are still popular all over China. The man’s clothing once consisted of a short and adjusted ?jacket over a long gown with a belt at the waist to facilitate horse-riding and hunting.

The traditional Manchu dwellings were made up of three quarters. In the center of the house was the kitchen while the wings contained the dormitory and the living room. The unique Manchu tradition did not allow people to die on nahan (Nahan1.png) to the west or north. Believing that doors were made for living souls, the Manchus allowed dead bodies to be taken out only through windows and ground burial was the general practice.

The Manchu language is a member of the Tungusic language group, itself a member of the proposed Altaic language family.

The Tale of the Nisan Shaman is an important piece of Manchu folklore.

It was reported by American anthropologist Weston La Barre that Manchu mothers used to show affection for their children by performing fellatio on their male babies, placing its penis in their mouths and stimulating it, since it was not considered a sexual act, while the Manchu regarded public kissing with revulsion, which was considered sexual. They were also reported to caress their children’s sexual organs, tickling those of their daughters.

Manchu girls were reported to be independent and equal to male siblings, having more rights than Chinese girls. Manchu women were said to be aggressive and irritable, Mongol and Chinese Bannermen married to them were reported to be scared of them, complaining to the Emperor, who permitted them to protest out loud to their wives rather than hide.

Manchuria under the Mongol Empire

In 1211, after the conquest of Western XiaGenghis Khan mobilized an army to conquer the Jin Dynasty. His general Jebe and brother Qasar were ordered to reduce the Jurchen cities in Manchuria. They successfully destroyed the Jin forts there. The Khitans under Yelü Liuge declared their allegiance to Genghis Khan and established nominally autonomous state in Manchuria in 1213. However, the Jin forces dispatched a punitive expedition against them. Jebe went there again and the Mongols pushed out the Jins.

File:Tartar huntsman.JPG

A Tartar hunting birds with his musket, 15th century, ink and color on silk

The Jin general, Puxian Wannu, rebelled against the Jin Dynasty and founded the Dazhen (大眞) kingdom in Dongjing (Liaoyang) in 1215. He assumed the title Tianwang (天王 lit. Heavenly King) and the era name Tiantai (天泰). Puxian Wannu allied with the Mongolsin order to secure his position. However, he revolted in 1222 after that and fled to an island while the Mongol army invaded Liaoxi, Liaodong and Khorazm. As a result of an internal strife among the Khitans, they failed to accept Yelü Liuge’s rule and revolted against the Mongol Empire. Fearing of the Mongol pressure, those Khitans fled to Goryeo without permission. But they were defeated by the Mongol-Korean allianceGenghis Khan (1206–1227) gave his brothers and Muqali Chinese districts in Manchuria.

File:Samoyede,Manchu and Evenki.jpg

A depiction of three peoples of theSiberia. The Manchu man in the middle is dress in traditional clothes and soncoho.

The Great Khan Ogedei‘s son Guyuk crushed Puxian Wannu’s dynasty in 1233, pacifying southern Manchuria. Some time after 1234 Ogedei also subdued the Water Tatars in northern part of the region and began to receive falconsharems and furs as taxation. The Mongols suppressed the Water Tatar-rebellion in 1237. In Manchuria and Siberia, the Mongols used dogsled relays for their yam. The capital city Karakorum directly controlled Manchuria until the 1260s.

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A depiction of two Jurchen warriors and their horses.

The Great Khan Kublai renamed his empire “Great Yuan” in 1271, instead of the old title-”Ikh Mongol Uls”. Under the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368), Manchuria was divided into Liaoyang and Zhendong districts. Descendants of Genghis Khan’s brothers such asBelgutei and Qasar ruled the area under the Great Khans. The Mongols eagerly adopted new artillery and technologies. The world’s earliest known cannon, dated 1282, was found in Mongol-held Manchuria.

After the expulsion of the Mongols from China, the Jurchen clans remained loyal to the Mongol Khagan Toghan Temur. In 1375, Nahacu, a Mongol official of the Northern Yuan in Liaoyang province invaded Liaodong with aims of restoring the Mongols to power. Although he continued to hold southern Manchuria, Nahacu finally surrendered to the Ming Dynasty in 1387. In order to protect the northern border areas the Ming decided to “pacify” the Jurchens in order to deal with its problems with Yuan remnants along its northern border. The Ming solidified control only under Yongle Emperor (1402–1424).

Manchuria during the Ming Dynasty

The Ming Empire took control of Liaoning in 1371, just three years after the expulsion of the Mongols from Beijing. During the reign of the Yongle Emperor in the early 15th century, efforts were made to expand Chinese control throughout entire Manchuria. Mighty river fleets were built in Jilin City, and sailed several times between 1409 and ca. 1432, commanded by the eunuch Yishiha down the Sungari and the Amur all the way to the mouth of the Amur, getting the chieftains of the local tribes to swear allegiance to the Ming rulers.

Soon after the death of the Yongle Emperor the expansion policy of the Ming was replaced with that of retrenchment in southern Manchuria (Liaodong). Around 1442, a defence wall was constructed to defend the northwestern frontier of Liaodong from a possible threat from the Jurched-Mongol Oriyanghan. In 1467-68 the wall was expanded to protect the region from the northeast as well, against attacks fromJianzhou Jurchens. Although similar in purpose to the Great Wall of China, this “Liaodong Wall” was of a simpler design. While stones and tiles were used in some parts, most of the wall was in fact simply an earthen dike with moats on both sides.

File:A Tartar Huntsmen on His Horse.jpg

A Jurchen man hunting from his horse, from a 15th century ink and color painting on silk.

Starting in the 1580s, a Jianzhou Jurchens chieftain Nurhaci (1558–1626), originally based in the Hurha River valley northeast of the Ming Liaodong Wall, started to unify Jurchen tribes of the region. Over the next several decades, the Jurchen (later to be called Manchu), took control over most of Manchuria, the cities of the Ming Liaodong falling to the Jurchen one after another. In 1616, Nurhaci declared himself a khan, and founded the Later Jin Dynasty (which his successors renamed in 1636 to Qing Dynasty).

Manchuria within the Qing Dynasty

In 1644, the Manchus took Beijing, overthrowing the Ming Dynasty and soon established the Qing Dynasty rule (1644–1912) over all of China.

To the south, the region was separated from China proper by the Inner Willow Palisade, a ditch and embankment planted with willowsintended to restrict the movement of the Han Chinese into Manchuria during the Qing Dynasty, as the area was off-limits to the Han until the Qing started colonising the area with them later on in the dynasty’s rule. This movement of the Han Chinese to Manchuria is called Chuang Guandong. The Manchu area was still separated from modern-day Inner Mongolia by the Outer Willow Palisade, which kept the Manchu and the Mongols in the area separate.

Loss of “Outer Manchuria”

Main article: Amur Annexation

To the north, the boundary with Russian Siberia was fixed by the Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689) as running along the watershed of theStanovoy Mountains. South of the Stanovoy Mountains, the basin of the Amur and its tributaries belonged to the Qing Empire. North of the Stanovoy Mountains, the Uda Valley and Siberia belonged to the Russian Empire. In 1858, a weakening Qing Empire was forced to cede Manchuria north of the Amur to Russia under the Treaty of Aigun; however, Qing subjects were allowed to continue to reside, under the Qing authority, in a small region on the now-Russian side of the river, known as the Sixty-Four Villages East of the Heilongjiang River.

In 1860, at the Treaty of Peking, the Russians managed to obtain a further large slice of Manchuria, east of the Ussuri River.

As a result, Manchuria was divided into a Russian half known as “Outer Manchuria”, and a remaining Chinese half known as “Inner Manchuria”. In modern literature, “Manchuria” usually refers to Inner (Chinese) Manchuria. (cf. Inner and Outer Mongolia). As a result of the Treaties of Aigun and Peking, China lost access to the Sea of Japan.

Forty years later, during the Boxer Rebellion, Russian soldiers killed ten-thousand Chinese (Manchu, Han Chinese and Daur people) living in Blagoveshchensk and Sixty-Four Villages East of the River.

Russian and Japanese encroachment

By the 19th century, Manchu rule had become increasingly sinicized and, along with other borderlands of the Qing Empire such asMongolia and Tibet, came under the influence of European powers such as Britain which nibbled at Tibet, France at Hainan andGermany at Shandong. Meanwhile the Russian Empire encroached upon Turkestan and Outer Mongolia, having annexed Outer Manchuria.

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Picture of Manchurian Plague victims in 1910-1911

Inner Manchuria also came under strong Russian influence with the building of theChinese Eastern Railway through Harbin to Vladivostok. Some poor Korean farmers moved there. In Chuang Guandong many Han farmers, mostly from Shandong peninsulamoved there.

Japan replaced Russian influence in the southern half of Inner Manchuria as a result of theRusso-Japanese War in 1904–1905. Most of the southern branch of the Chinese Eastern Railway (the section from Changchun to Port Arthur (Japanese: Ryojun)) was transferred from Russia to Japan, and became the South Manchurian Railway. In this series of historical events, Jiandao (in the region bordering Korea), was handed over to Qing Dynasty as a compensation for the South Manchurian Railway.

Between both world wars (WW1/WW2), Manchuria became a political and military battleground. Japanese influence extended into Outer Manchuria in the wake of theRussian Revolution of 1917, but Outer Manchuria had reverted to Soviet control by 1925. Japan took advantage of the disorder following the Russian Revolution to occupy Outer Manchuria, but Soviet successes and American economic pressure forced Japanese withdrawal.

In the 1920s Harbin was flooded with 100,000 to 200,000 Russian white émigrés fleeing from Russia. Harbin held the largest Russianpopulation outside of the state of Russia (see Harbin Russians).

Manchuria was (and still is) an important region for its rich mineral and coal reserves, and its soil is perfect for soy and barleyproduction. For pre–World War II Japan, Manchuria was an essential source of raw materials. Without occupying Manchuria, the Japanese probably could not have carried out their plan for conquest over Southeast Asia or taken the risk to attack Pearl Harbor on the 7th of December, 1941.

Jepang invasi dan Manchukuo
Artikel utama: invasi Jepang ke Manchuria dan Manchukuo

IJA troops enter Mukden.jpg
Sekitar waktu Perang Dunia I, Zhang Zuolin membuktikan dirinya sebagai seorang panglima perang yang kuat dengan pengaruh atas sebagian besar Manchuria. Ia cenderung untuk menjaga nya tentara Manchu di bawah kekuasaannya dan untuk menjaga Manchuria bebas dari pengaruh asing. Orang Jepang mencoba membunuhnya pada tahun 1916 dengan melemparkan bom di bawah kereta, tapi gagal. Orang Jepang akhirnya berhasil pada tanggal 2 Juni, 1928 ketika sebuah bom yang ditanam meledak di bawah tujuh gerbong kereta nya beberapa mil dari stasiun Mukden.

Setelah Insiden Mukden pada tahun 1931 dan invasi Jepang berikutnya dari Manchuria, Inner Manchuria diproklamasikan sebagai negara merdeka, Manchukuo. Manchu terakhir kaisar, Puyi, kemudian ditempatkan di atas takhta untuk memimpin sebuah pemerintahan boneka Jepang di Falun Huang Wei, lebih dikenal sebagai “Istana Boneka Kaisar”. Manchuria batin demikian terlepas dari China oleh Jepang untuk menciptakan zona penyangga untuk mempertahankan Jepang dari Strategi Rusia Southing dan, dengan investasi Jepang dan sumber daya alam yang kaya, menjadi dominasi industri. Namun, di bawah kontrol Jepang Manchuria adalah salah satu daerah yang paling brutal dijalankan di dunia, dengan kampanye sistematis teror dan intimidasi terhadap penduduk Rusia dan Cina lokal termasuk penangkapan, kerusuhan terorganisir dan bentuk-bentuk penaklukan. Orang Jepang juga memulai kampanye emigrasi ke Manchukuo, yang Japanesepopulation ada meningkat dari 240.000 pada tahun 1931 untuk 837.000 di 1939 (orang Jepang punya rencana untuk mendatangkan 5 juta pemukim Jepang ke Manchukuo). Ratusan petani Manchu diusir dan peternakan mereka diberikan kepada keluarga imigran Jepang. Manchukuo digunakan sebagai dasar untuk menyerang sisa Cina, suatu tindakan yang sangat mahal ke Jepang dalam hal kerusakan pria, integritas materiil dan politik.

Pada akhir 1930-an, Manchuria adalah tempat masalah dengan Jepang, bentrok dua kali dengan Uni Soviet. Ini bentrokan – di Danau Khasan pada tahun 1938 dan pada Khalkhin Gol satu tahun kemudian – mengakibatkan korban Jepang. Uni Soviet memenangkan dua pertempuran dan perjanjian damai ditandatangani. Namun, kerusuhan daerah alami.

Setelah Perang Dunia II
Setelah bom atom Hiroshima, Jepang pada tahun 1945, Uni Soviet menginvasi daerah Manchuria Luar Soviet sebagai bagian dari deklarasi perang melawan Jepang. Dari 1945 hingga 1948, batin Manchuria adalah daerah basis untuk Tentara Pembebasan Rakyat China dalam Perang Saudara Cina. Dengan dorongan Uni Soviet, Manchuria digunakan sebagai tempat pementasan selama Perang Saudara Cina untuk Partai Komunis Cina, yang menang tahun 1949.

Soviet tentara di Harbin

Selama Perang Korea tahun 1950, 300.000 prajurit dari Tentara Pembebasan Rakyat Cina menyeberangi perbatasan Sino-Korea dari Manchuria untuk menahan pasukan PBB yang dipimpin oleh Amerika Serikat dari Korea Utara.

(Courtesy of Peter H) http://www.axishistory.com/index.php?id=967

Pada tahun 1960, perbatasan Manchuria dengan Uni Soviet menjadi tempat ketegangan paling serius antara andChina Uni Soviet. Perjanjian dari 1858, dan 1860 yang menyerahkan wilayah utara Amur, adalah ambigu, yang tentu saja sungai itu batas. Ambiguitas ini menyebabkan sengketa atas status politik beberapa pulau. Hal ini menyebabkan konflik bersenjata pada tahun 1969, yang disebut konflik perbatasan Sino-Soviet.

Sebuah kolom bermotor di muka Jepang ke Jehol 1933 Courtesy of Peter H)

Dengan berakhirnya Perang Dingin, masalah batas telah dibahas melalui perundingan. Pada tahun 2004, Rusia setuju untuk mengalihkan Pulau Yinlong dan satu setengah dari Pulau Heixiazi ke Cina, mengakhiri sengketa perbatasan abadi. Kedua pulau yang ditemukan pada pertemuan theAmur dan Sungai Ussuri, dan yang sampai saat itu dikelola oleh Rusia dan diklaim oleh Cina. Acara ini dimaksudkan untuk menumbuhkan perasaan rekonsiliasi dan kerjasama antara kedua negara oleh para pemimpin mereka, tetapi juga telah menimbulkan derajat yang berbeda dari perbedaan pendapat di kedua sisi. Rusia, terutama petani Cossack dari Khabarovsk, yang akan kehilangan ploughlands mereka di pulau-pulau, tidak senang tentang hilangnya nyata dari wilayah. Sementara itu, beberapa orang Cina telah mengkritik perjanjian sebagai pengakuan resmi legitimasi penguasaan Rusia atas Manchuria Luar, yang diserahkan oleh Dinasti Qing kepada Kekaisaran Rusia di bawah serangkaian Perjanjian yang tidak merata, yang termasuk Perjanjian Aigun pada tahun 1858 dan Konvensi Peking pada tahun 1860, untuk bertukar penggunaan eksklusif sumber daya yang kaya minyak Rusia. Pengalihan ini dilakukan pada tanggal 14 Oktober 2008.

Infanteri selama muka Jepang ke Jehol 1933 (Courtesy of Peter H)

Kejahatan perang di Manchukuo
Kejahatan perang di Manchukuo itu dilakukan selama pemerintahan Kekaisaran Jepang di timur laut Cina, baik secara langsung, atau melalui negara itspuppet Manchukuo, 1.931-1.945. Berbagai kejahatan perang telah diduga, namun telah mendapat perhatian sejarah relatif sedikit.

Opium poppy panen di utara Manchukuo

Hukum dasar
Meskipun Kekaisaran Jepang tidak menandatangani Konvensi Jenewa, yang telah memberikan definisi standar kejahatan perang sejak 1864, kejahatan yang dilakukan termasuk dalam aspek lain dari hukum internasional dan Jepang. Sebagai contoh, banyak kejahatan yang diduga dilakukan oleh aparat Jepang melanggar hukum militer Jepang, dan tidak tunduk pada pengadilan militer, sebagaimana diwajibkan oleh yang law.Japan juga melanggar perjanjian internasional ditandatangani, termasuk ketentuan-ketentuan Perjanjian Versailles seperti larangan penggunaan ofchemical senjata, dan Konvensi Den Haag (1899 dan 1907), yang melindungi tawanan perang (POW).

Jepang infanteri dalam seragam musim dingin di Manchuria 1933 (Courtesy of Peter H)

Pemerintah Jepang juga menandatangani Kellog-Briand Pact (1929), sehingga rendering tindakan dalam 1937-45 dikenakan tuduhan kejahatan terhadap perdamaian, tuduhan yang diperkenalkan pada Ujian Tokyo untuk menuntut “Kelas A” penjahat perang. “Kelas B” penjahat perang adalah mereka terbukti bersalah melakukan kejahatan perang per se, dan “Kelas C” penjahat perang adalah mereka bersalah atas kejahatan terhadap kemanusiaan. Pemerintah Jepang juga menerima ketentuan yang ditetapkan oleh Deklarasi Potsdam (1945) setelah akhir perang. Deklarasi ini disinggung, dalam Pasal 10, untuk dua jenis kejahatan perang: satu merupakan pelanggaran terhadap hukum internasional, seperti penyalahgunaan tahanan perang, yang lain itu menghalangi “democratictendencies kalangan rakyat Jepang” dan kebebasan sipil di Jepang.

(Courtesy of Peter H)

Di Jepang, istilah “kejahatan perang Jepang” umumnya hanya mengacu pada kasus diadili oleh Pengadilan Militer Internasional untuk Timur Jauh, juga dikenal sebagai Ujian Tokyo, setelah berakhirnya Perang Pasifik. Namun, pengadilan tidak mengadili kejahatan perang yang melibatkan tuduhan pertengahan perwira junior atau personil lebih. Mereka yang diatur secara tersendiri dalam uji diadakan di Cina dan di Unionafter Soviet Jepang menyerah.

Jepang lapis baja mobil di Manchuria 1931

(Courtesy of Peter H)

Sejarawan revisionis telah diperebutkan bahwa kejahatan tersebut terjadi. Sayap kanan kelompok nasionalis di Jepang memberhentikan beberapa tuduhan kejahatan perang sebagai kebohongan, atau anti-Jepang propaganda, dibuat atau sedang dilakukan oleh Republik Rakyat Cina untuk membenarkan ofManchuria pendudukannya, dan menempatkan Jepang modern dalam cahaya yang negatif untuk yang modern politik dan kebijakan luar negeri tujuan.

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Japanese invasion and Manchukuo

IJA troops enter Mukden.jpg

Around the time of World War IZhang Zuolin established himself as a powerful warlord with influence over most of Manchuria. He was inclined to keep his Manchu army under his control and to keep Manchuria free of foreign influence. The Japanese tried to kill him in 1916 by throwing a bomb under his carriage, but failed. The Japanese finally succeeded on June 2, 1928, when a planted bomb exploded under his seven-carriage train a few miles from Mukden station.

Following the Mukden Incident in 1931 and the subsequent Japanese invasion of Manchuria, Inner Manchuria was proclaimed as an independent state, Manchukuo. The last Manchu emperor, Puyi, was then placed on the throne to lead a Japanese puppet government in the Wei Huang Gong, better known as “Puppet Emperor’s Palace”. Inner Manchuria was thus detached from China by Japan to create a buffer zone to defend Japan from Russia’s Southing Strategy and, with Japanese investment and rich natural resources, became an industrial domination. However, under Japanese control Manchuria was one of the most brutally run regions in the world, with a systematic campaign of terror and intimidation against the local Russian and Chinese populations including arrests, organised riots and other forms of subjugation. The Japanese also began a campaign of emigration to Manchukuo; the Japanesepopulation there rose from 240,000 in 1931 to 837,000 in 1939 (the Japanese had a plan to bring in 5 million Japanese settlers into Manchukuo). Hundreds of Manchu farmers were evicted and their farms given to Japanese immigrant families. Manchukuo was used as a base to invade the rest of China, an action that was very costly to Japan in terms of the damage to men, matériel and political integrity.

At the end of the 1930s, Manchuria was a trouble spot with Japan, clashing twice with the Soviet Union. These clashes – at Lake Khasan in 1938 and at Khalkhin Gol one year later – resulted in many Japanese casualties. The Soviet Union won these two battles and a peace agreement was signed. However, the regional unrest endured.

After World War II

After the atomic bombing of HiroshimaJapan in 1945, the Soviet Union invaded from Soviet Outer Manchuria as part of its declaration of war against Japan. From 1945 to 1948, Inner Manchuria was a base area for the Chinese People’s Liberation Army in the Chinese Civil War. With the encouragement of the Soviet Union, Manchuria was used as a staging ground during the Chinese Civil War for the Communist Party of China, which emerged victorious in 1949.

File:Red Army in Harbin.png

Soviet soldiers in Harbin

During the Korean War of the 1950s, 300,000 soldiers of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army crossed the Sino-Korean border from Manchuria to repulse UN forces led by the United States from North Korea.

(Courtesy of Peter H) http://www.axishistory.com/index.php?id=967

In the 1960s, Manchuria’s border with the Soviet Union became the site of the most serious tension between the Soviet Union andChina. The treaties of 1858 and 1860, which ceded territory north of the Amur, were ambiguous as to which course of the river was the boundary. This ambiguity led to dispute over the political status of several islands. This led to armed conflict in 1969, called the Sino-Soviet border conflict.

A motorized column in the Japanese advance into Jehol 1933 Courtesy of Peter H)

With the end of the Cold War, this boundary issue was discussed through negotiations. In 2004, Russia agreed to transfer Yinlong Island and one half of Heixiazi Island to China, ending an enduring border dispute. Both islands are found at the confluence of theAmur and Ussuri Rivers, and were until then administered by Russia and claimed by China. The event was meant to foster feelings of reconciliation and cooperation between the two countries by their leaders, but it has also provoked different degrees of dissent on both sides. Russians, especially Cossack farmers of Khabarovsk, who would lose their ploughlands on the islands, were unhappy about the apparent loss of territory. Meanwhile, some Chinese have criticised the treaty as an official acknowledgement of the legitimacy of Russian rule over Outer Manchuria, which was ceded by the Qing Dynasty to Imperial Russia under a series of Unequal Treaties, which included the Treaty of Aigun in 1858 and the Convention of Peking in 1860, in order to exchange exclusive usage of Russia’s rich oil resources. The transfer was carried out on October 14, 2008.

Infantry during the Japanese advance into Jehol 1933 (Courtesy of Peter H) 

War crimes in Manchukuo

War crimes in Manchukuo were committed during the rule of the Empire of Japan in northeast China, either directly, or through itspuppet state of Manchukuo, from 1931 to 1945. Various war crimes have been alleged, but have received comparatively little historical attention.

File:Manchukuo-poppy harvest.jpg

Opium poppy harvest in northern Manchukuo

Legal basis

Although the Empire of Japan did not sign the Geneva Conventions, which have provided the standard definition of war crimes since 1864, the crimes committed fall under other aspects of international and Japanese law. For example, many of the alleged crimes committed by Japanese personnel broke Japanese military law, and were not subject to court martial, as required by that law.Japan also violated signed international agreements, including provisions of the Treaty of Versailles such as a ban on the use ofchemical weapons, and the Hague Conventions (1899 and 1907), which protect prisoners of war (POWs).

Japanese infantry in winter uniforms in Manchuria 1933 (Courtesy of Peter H)

The Japanese government also signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact (1929), thereby rendering its actions in 1937-45 liable to charges of crimes against peace, a charge that was introduced at the Tokyo Trials to prosecute “Class A” war criminals. “Class B” war criminals were those found guilty of war crimes per se, and “Class C” war criminals were those guilty of crimes against humanity. The Japanese government also accepted the terms set by the Potsdam Declaration (1945) after the end of the war. The declaration alluded, in Article 10, to two kinds of war crime: one was the violation of international laws, such as the abuse of prisoners of war; the other was obstructing “democratictendencies among the Japanese people” and civil liberties within Japan.

(Courtesy of Peter H)

In Japan, the term “Japanese war crimes” generally only refers to cases tried by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, also known as the Tokyo Trials, following the end of the Pacific War. However, the tribunal did not prosecute war crimes allegations involving mid-ranking officers or more junior personnel. Those were dealt with separately in trials held in China and in the Soviet Unionafter the surrender of Japan.

Japanese armored cars in Manchuria 1931 

(Courtesy of Peter H)

Revisionist historians have contested that such crimes occurred. Right-wing nationalist groups in Japan dismiss some of the alleged war crimes as lies, or anti-Japanese propaganda, made or being made by the People’s Republic of China to justify its occupation ofManchuria, and to place modern Japan in a negative light for modern political and foreign policy purposes.

Crimes

Human experimentation

Unit 731

Unit 731 (731 部隊 Nana-san-ichi butai?);simplified Chinese: 731部队 was a covertbiological and chemical warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) and World War II. It was responsible for some of the most notorious war crimes carried out by Japanese personnel.

Unit 731 was the code name (tsūshōgō) of an Imperial Japanese Army unit officially known as the Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department of theKwantung Army (関東軍防疫給水部本部, Kantōgun Bōeki Kyūsuibu Honbu). It was initially set up under the Kempeitai military police of the Empire of Japan to developweapons of mass destruction for potential use against Chinese, and possibly Sovietforces.

Unit 731

Unit 731 was based in HarbinHeilongjiang province in Japanese-occupied China.
Location Pingfang
Coordinates 45.6°N 126.633333°ECoordinates45.6°N 126.633333°E
Date 1935–1945
Attack type Human experimentation.
Biological/chemical warfare.
Weapon(s) Diseases
Chemicals
Explosives
Death(s) ~580,000 camp inmates.
(95% Chinese and Korean;
5% South East Asians and Pacific Islanders)
~200,000 Chinese military and civilians.
Perpetrator(s) General Shirō Ishii
Lt. General Masaji Kitano
Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department of the Kwantung Army

Description

Shiro Ishii, commander of Unit 731

Unit 731 was based at the Pingfang district of Harbin, the largest city in the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo (now Northeast China).

More than 10,000 people from which around 600 every year were provided by the Kempeitai—were subjects of the experimentation conducted by Unit 731.

More than 95% of the victims who died in the camp based in Pingfang were Chinese and Korean, including both civilian and military. The remaining 5% were South East Asians and Pacific Islanders, at the time colonies of the Empire of Japan, and a small number of the prisoners of warfrom the Allies of World War II.

According to the 2002 International Symposium on the Crimes of Bacteriological Warfare, the number of people killed by the Imperial Japanese Army germ warfare and human experiments is around 580,000. According to other sources, the use of biological weapons researched in Unit 731′s bioweapons and chemical weapons programs resulted in possibly as many as 200,000 deaths of military personnel and civilians in China.

(Courtesy of Peter H)

Unit 731 was the headquarters of many subsidiary units used by the Japanese to research biological warfare; other units included Unit 516 (Qiqihar), Unit 543 (Hailar), Unit 773 (Songo unit),Unit 100 (Changchun), Unit Ei 1644 (Nanjing), Unit 1855 (Beijing), Unit 8604 (Guangzhou), Unit 200(Manchuria) and Unit 9420 (Singapore).

Many of the scientists involved in Unit 731 went on to prominent careers in post-war politics, academia, business, and medicine. Some were arrested by Soviet forces and tried at the Khabarovsk War Crime Trials; others surrendered to the American Forces.

(Courtesy of Peter H)

On 6 May 1947, Douglas MacArthur, as Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces, wrote to Washington that “additional data, possibly some statements from Ishii probably can be obtained by informing Japanese involved that information will be retained in intelligence channels and will not be employed as ‘War Crimes’ evidence.”[7] The deal was concluded in 1948.

Formation

In 1932, General Shirō Ishii (石井四郎 Ishii Shirō), chief medical officer of the Japanese Army and protégé of Army Minister Sadao Araki was placed in command of the Army Epidemic Prevention Research Laboratory. Ishii organized a secret research group, the “Tōgō Unit”, for the conduct of various chemical and biological investigations in Manchuria.

(Courtesy of Peter H)

Unit Tōgō was implemented in the Zhongma Fortress, a prison/experimentation camp in Beiyinhe, a village 100 km (62 mi) south ofHarbin on the South Manchurian Railway. A jailbreak in autumn 1934 and later explosion (believed to be an attack) in 1935 led Ishii to shut down Zhongma Fortress. He received the authorization to move to Pingfang, approximately 24 km (15 mi) south of Harbin, to set up a new and much larger facility.

(Courtesy of Samuel A) 

In 1936, Hirohito authorized, by imperial decree, the expansion of this unit and its integration into the Kwantung Army as the Epidemic Prevention Department. It was divided at the same time into the “Ishii Unit” and “Wakamatsu Unit” with a base inHsinking. From August 1940, all these units were known collectively as the “Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department of the Kwantung Army (関東軍防疫給水部本部)” or “Unit 731″ (満州第731部隊) for short.

Activities

The test subjects were selected to give a wide cross section of the population and included common criminals, captured bandits and anti-Japanese partisans, political prisoners, and also people rounded up by the Kempetai for alleged “suspicious activities”. They included infants, the elderly, and pregnant women.A special project code-named Maruta used human beings for experiments. Test subjects were gathered from the surrounding population and were sometimes referred to euphemistically as “logs” (丸太 maruta?). This term originated as a joke on the part of the staff because the official cover story for the facility given to the local authorities was that it was a lumber mill.

Vivisection

Prisoners of war were subjected to vivisection without anesthesia. Vivisections were performed on prisoners after infecting them with various diseases. Scientists performed invasive surgery on prisoners, removing organs to study the effects of disease on the human body. These were conducted while the patients were alive because it was feared that the decomposition process would affect the results. The infected and vivisected prisoners included men, women, children, and infants.

Prisoners had limbs amputated in order to study blood loss. Those limbs that were removed were sometimes re-attached to the opposite sides of the body. Some prisoners’ limbs were frozen and amputated, while others had limbs frozen then thawed to study the effects of the resultant untreated gangrene and rotting.

Some prisoners had their stomachs surgically removed and the esophagus reattached to the intestines. Parts of the brainlungsliver, etc. were removed from some prisoners.

In 2007, Doctor Ken Yuasa testified to the Japan Times that, “I was afraid during my first vivisection, but the second time around, it was much easier. By the third time, I was willing to do it.” He believes at least 1,000 people, including surgeons, were involved in vivisections over mainland China.

Weapons testing

Human targets were used to test grenades positioned at various distances and in different positions. Flame throwers were tested on humans. Humans were tied to stakes and used as targets to test germ-releasing bombschemical weapons, and explosivebombs.

Germ warfare attacks

Prisoners were injected with inoculations of disease, disguised as vaccinations, to study their effects. To study the effects of untreated venereal diseases, male and female prisoners were deliberately infected with syphilis and gonorrhea, then studied.Prisoners were infested with fleas in order to acquire large quantities of disease-carrying fleas for the purposes of studying the viability of germ warfare

Plague fleas, infected clothing, and infected supplies encased in bombs were dropped on various targets. The resulting cholera,anthrax, and plague were estimated to have killed around 400,000 Chinese civilians. Tularemia was tested on Chinese civilians.

Unit 731 and its affiliated units (Unit 1644, Unit 100, et cetera) were involved in research, development, and experimental deployment of epidemic-creating biowarfare weapons in assaults against the Chinese populace (both civilian and military) throughout World War II. Plague-infested fleas, bred in the laboratories of Unit 731 and Unit 1644, were spread by low-flying airplanes upon Chinese cities, coastal Ningbo in 1940, and ChangdeHunan Province, in 1941. This military aerial spraying killed thousands of people with bubonic plague epidemics.

Other experiments

Prisoners were subjected to other torturous experiments such as being hung upside down to see how long it would take for them to choke to death, having air injected into their arteries to determine the time until the onset of embolism, and having horse urine injected into their kidneys.

Other incidents include being deprived of food and water to determine the length of time until death, being placed into high-pressure chambers until death, having experiments performed upon prisoners to determine the relationship between temperature, burns, and human survival, being placed into centrifuges and spun until dead, having animal blood injected and the effects studied, being exposed to lethal doses of x-rays, having various chemical weapons tested on prisoners inside gas chambers, being injected with sea water to determine if it could be a substitute for saline and being buried alive.

Biological warfare

Japanese scientists performed tests on prisoners with plaguecholerasmallpoxbotulism, and other diseases.[21] This research led to the development of the defoliation bacilli bomb and the flea bomb used to spread the bubonic plague.[22] Some of these bombs were designed with ceramic (porcelain) shells, an idea proposed by Ishii in 1938.

These bombs enabled Japanese soldiers to launch biological attacks, infecting agriculture, reservoirs, wells, and other areas withanthrax, plague-carrier fleas, typhoiddysenterycholera, and other deadly pathogens. During biological bomb experiments, scientists dressed in protective suits would examine the dying victims. Infected food supplies and clothing were dropped by airplane into areas of China not occupied by Japanese forces. In addition, poisoned food and candies were given out to unsuspecting victims and children, and the results examined.

Known Unit members

Divisions

Unit 731 was divided into eight divisions:

  • Division 1: Research on bubonic plaguecholeraanthraxtyphoid and tuberculosis using live human subjects. For this purpose, a prison was constructed to contain around three to four hundred people.
  • Division 2: Research for biological weapons used in the field, in particular the production of devices to spread germs and parasites.
  • Division 3: Production of shells containing biological agents. Stationed in Harbin.
  • Division 4: Production of other miscellaneous agents.
  • Division 5: Training of personnel.
  • Divisions 6–8: Equipment, medical and administrative units.

Facilities

 

One of the buildings is open to visitors

The Unit 731 complex covered six square kilometers and consisted of more than 150 buildings. The design of the facilities made them hard to destroy by bombing. The complex contained various factories. It had around 4,500 containers to be used to raise fleas, six cauldrons to produce various chemicals, and around 1,800 containers to produce biological agents. Approximately 30 kg of bubonic plague bacteria could be produced in several days.

Some of Unit 731′s satellite facilities are in use by various Chinese industrial concerns. A portion has been preserved and is open to visitors as a War Crimes Museum.

Tons of biological weapons (and some chemicals) were stored in various places in northeastern China throughout the war. The Japanese attempted to destroy evidence of the facilities after disbanding. Twenty-nine people were hospitalized in August 2003 after a construction crew in Heilongjiang inadvertently dug up chemical shells that had been buried deep in the soil more than 50 years before.

Anda testing site

This site was an open air testing area about 120 km (75 mi) from the Pingfang facility.

Hsinking (Changchun) HQ

Headquarters of “Wakamatsu Unit” (Unit 100), under command of veterinarian Yujiro Wakamatsu. This facility dedicated itself to both the study of animal vaccines to protect Japanese resources, and, especially, veterinary biological-warfare. Diseases were tested for use against the Soviet and Chinese horses and other livestock. In addition to these tests, Unit 100 ran a bacteria factory to produce the pathogens needed by other units. Biological sabotage testing was also handled at this facility: everything from poisons to chemical crop destruction.

Peking (Peiping) HQ

This HQ served as the headquarters of Unit 1855. It was also an experimental branch unit based at TsinanShantungPandemic diseases were extensively studied at this facility.

Nanking HQ

This section was the headquarters of the “Tama Unit” (Unit Ei 1644) and conducted extensive joint projects and operations with Unit 731.

Kwangtung (Canton) HQ

The headquarters of the “Nami Unit” (Unit 8604). This installation conducted human experimentation in food and water deprivation as well as water-borne typhus. In addition, this facility served as the main rat-farm for the medical units to provide them with bubonic plague vectors for experiments.

Syonan (Singapore) HQ

Formed in 1942, by Ryoichi NaitoUnit 9420 had approximately 1,000 personnel based at the Raffles Medical University. The unit was commanded by Major General Kitagawa Masataka and supported by the Japanese Southern Army Headquarters.

There were two main sub units: the “Kono Unit”, which specialized in malaria, and “Umeoka Unit”, which dealt with the plague. In addition to disease experiments, this facility served as one of the main rat catching and processing centers. Evidence points toward this facility supplying a medical sub-unit operating in Thailand, with diseases for unknown operations and or experiments.

Hiroshima HQ

A top secret factory in Ōkunoshima produced chemical weapons for the Japanese military and medical units. Starting with mustard gas production in 1928, the factory moved on to such poisons as Lewisite, and Cyanogen. During the 1930s, as the war in China grew worse, the island the factory sat on was removed from most maps to strengthen secrecy and security.Manchuria HQ (Unit 200)

This unit was associated directly with Unit 731, and worked mainly in plague research.

Manchuria HQ (Unit 571)

This section, with unknown headquarters, was another unit that worked directly and extensively with Unit 731.

Shinjuku

A medical school and research facility belonging to Unit 731 operated in Shinjuku, Tokyo during World War II. In 2006, Toyo Ishii—a nurse who worked at the school during the war—revealed that she had helped bury bodies and pieces of bodies on the school’s grounds shortly after Japan’s surrender in 1945. In response, in February 2011 the Ministry of Health began to excavate the site.

China has requested DNA samples from any human remains discovered at the site. The Japanese government—which has never officially acknowledged the existence of Unit 731—has rejected the request.

Special Mobile Teams

Special units led by Shirō Ishii’s elder brother and only staffed with members from Ishii’s home town operated separately from the regular medical organizations as roving researchers and trouble shooters.

Special Operations units

Units with special and unknown assignments in Manchuria and the Asian mainland. It has been suggested that nuclear weaponsresearch was conducted in Manchuria toward the end of the war by this branch.

Disbanding and the end of World War II

 

Information sign at the site today.

Operations and experiments continued until the end of the war. Ishii had wanted to use biological weapons in the Pacific conflict since May 1944, but his attempts were repeatedly foiled by poor planning and Allied intervention.

With the Russian invasion of Manchukuo and Mengjiang in August 1945, the unit had to abandon their work in haste. The members and their families fled to Japan.

Ishii ordered every member of the group “to take the secret to the grave”, threatening to find them if they failed, and prohibiting any of them from going into public work back in Japan. Potassium cyanide vials were issued for use in the event that the remaining personnel were captured.

Skeleton crews of Ishii’s Japanese troops blew the compound up in the final days of the war to destroy evidence of their activities, but most were so well constructed that they survived somewhat intact as a testimony to what had happened there.

After Imperial Japan surrendered to the Allies in 1945, Douglas MacArthur became the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, rebuilding Japan during the Allied occupation. MacArthur secretly granted immunity to the physicians of Unit 731 in exchange for providing America with their research on biological warfare. American occupation authorities monitored the activities of former unit members, including reading and censoring their mail. The U.S. believed that the research data was valuable. The U.S. did not want other nations, particularly the Soviet Union, to acquire data on biological weapons.

The Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal heard only one reference to Japanese experiments with “poisonous serums” on Chinese civilians. This took place in August 1946 and was instigated by David Sutton, assistant to the Chinese prosecutor. The Japanese defense counselor argued that the claim was vague and uncorroborated and it was dismissed by the tribunal president, Sir William Webb, for lack of evidence. The subject was not pursued further by Sutton, who was likely aware of Unit 731′s activities. His reference to it at the trial is believed to have been accidental.

Although publicly silent on the issue at the Tokyo trials, the Soviet Union pursued the case and prosecuted twelve top military leaders and scientists from Unit 731 and its affiliated biological-war prisons Unit 1644 in Nanjing, and Unit 100 in Changchun, in theKhabarovsk War Crime Trials. Included among those prosecuted for war crimes including germ warfare was General Otozo Yamada, the commander-in-chief of the million-man Kwantung Army occupying Manchuria.

Although most victims of unit 731 were Chinese, other victims were American POWs, British, Russian and other nationalities.[29]The trial of those captured Japanese perpetrators was held in Khabarovsk in December 1949.

A lengthy partial transcript of the trial proceedings was published in different languages the following year by a Moscow foreign languages press, including an English language edition: Materials on the Trial of Former Servicemen of the Japanese Army Charged with Manufacturing and Employing Bacteriological Weapons (Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1950). (French language: Documents relatifs au procès des anciens Militaires de l’Armée Japonaise accusés d’avoir préparé et employé l’Arme Bactériologique / Japanese language: 細菌戦用兵器ノ準備及ビ使用ノ廉デ起訴サレタ元日本軍軍人ノ事件ニ関スル公判書類 / Chinese language: 前日本陸軍軍人因準備和使用細菌武器被控案審判材料)

This book remains an invaluable resource for historians on the organization and activities of the Japanese biological warfare “death factory” lab-prisons. The lead prosecuting attorney at the Khabarovsk trial was Lev Smirnov, who had been one of the top Soviet prosecutors at the Nuremberg Trials.

After World War II, the Soviet Union built a biological weapons facility in Sverdlovsk using documentation captured from Unit 731 in Manchuria.

The Japanese doctors and army commanders who had perpetrated the Unit 731 atrocities and germ warfare experiments received sentences from the Khabarovsk court ranging from two to 25 years in a Siberian labor camp.

Some former members of Unit 731 became part of the Japanese medical establishment. Dr. Masaji Kitano led Japan’s largestpharmaceutical company, the Green Cross. Others headed U.S.-backed medical schools or worked for the Japanese health ministry.Shirō Ishii moved to Maryland to work on bio-weapons research.

Chemical and biological weapons

According to historians Yoshiaki Yoshimi and Seiya Matsuno, Emperor Hirohito authorized the use of chemical weapons in China.Furthermore, “tens of thousands, and perhaps as many 200,000, Chinese died of bubonic plaguecholeraanthrax and other diseases…”, resulting from the use of biological warfare. Although there is no record of chemical or biological weapons in Manchukuo itself, these weapons of mass destruction were partly researched, produced, and stockpiled in Manchukuo by the Kwangtung Army.

Forced labor

The Japanese military’s use of forced labor also caused many deaths. According to a joint study of historians Zhifen Ju, Mitsuyochi Himeta, Toru Kubo and Mark Peattie, more than 10 million Chinese civilians were mobilized for forced labor in Manchukuo under the supervision of the Kōa-in.

Forced laborers were often assigned work in dangerous conditions without adequate safety precautions. The world’s deadliest mine disaster, at Benxihu Colliery, occurred in Manchukuo.

Human rights violations

  • Arrest of civilians without due cause by the local Manchukuo police or Japanese authorities.
  • Torture of prisoners in regular penal or military jails.
  • Disappearances and Extrajudicial execution of political opponents
  • Preferential civil rights for Japanese subjects over other nationalities.
  • Forced land appropriations either with or without legal orders in favour of Japanese citizens or private and government companies.
  • Use of criminal gangs for robbery and intimidation of political opposition

Drug trafficking

In 2007, an article by Reiji Yoshida in the Japan Times argued that the Japanese investments in Manchukuo were partly financed byselling drugs. According to the article, a document claimed to have been found by Yoshida directly implicated the Kōa-in in providing funds to drug dealers in China for the benefit of the puppet governments of Manchukuo, Nanjing and Mongolia.  This document corroborates evidence analyzed earlier by the Tokyo tribunal which stated that

Japan’s real purpose in engaging drug traffic was far more sinister than even the debauchery of Chinese people. Japan, having signed and ratified the opium conventions, was bound not to engage in drug traffic, but she found in the alleged but false independence of Manchukuo a convenient opportunity to carry on a worldwide drug traffic and cast the guilt upon that puppet state (…) In 1937, it was pointed out in the League of Nations that 90% of all illicit white drugs in the world were of Japanese origin…

War crimes trials

Khabarovsk War Crime Trial

In late 1949, numerous members of the former Kwantung Army who had been captured in the Soviet invasion of Manchuria were convicted in connection with the activities of Unit 731, and related units for their connections with crimes against humanity and the use of chemical and biological weapons.

Tokyo Trials

The International Military Tribunal for the Far East convicted a number of high Japanese officials in connection with the invasion of Manchuriaestablishment of Manchukuo and with conspiracy to wage aggressive war against China. Those convicted to death with strong connections to Manchukuo included senior officers in the Kwantung Army Hideki TōjōAkira MutoSeishirō Itagaki and Kenji Doihara.

the end @copyright 2012

This a part of The china Historic Collections exist in CD-ROM for premium Member only

Oei Tiong Ham The King Of Sugar Trade from Semarang Java Indonesia Historic collections

Oei Tiong Ham

Historic Collections

this pictures courtecy Stephen Liem .the grandgrandchild of Oei tiong Ham

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Copyright@2012 

Official Photo

 

Autography

 

 on DEI Senarang recieved document with revenue(Dr Iwan Collections) 

Document history collections

Reicieved Of Oei Tiong Ham House rental with Revenue

During Indonesia independent revolution 1946

(Dr Iwan collections)

 

BIOGRAPHY

Oei Tiong Ham

Oei Tiong Ham

Born

Oei Tiong Ham
1866

Died

1924
Singapore

Occupation

Businessman

Spouse

Goei Bing-nio

Relatives

Father Oei Tjie Sien

Oei Tiong Ham (Chinese: 黄仲涵) (1866–1924) was a Chinese businessman. He was the son of Oei Tjie Sien (Chinese: 黄志信), the founder of the Kian Gwan Kong Si (Chinese: 建源公司), a multinational trading company. He was born in Semarang, Central Java, Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). He became one of the wealthiest and most powerful men in Semarang and, in his time period, in the region. Part of his wealth originates from his involvement in the sugar industry. In Singapore, a road was named after Oei Tiong Ham. There is also an Oei Tiong Ham Park, which is located near Holland Road.[1] His nickname, “Man of 200 Million”, originates from the passing of his 200 million guilder estate at the time of his death in 1924 in Singapore. [edit] Life

The significance of Oei Tiong Ham is related to his role with the Oei Tiong Ham Concern (OTHC), which was the largest conglomerate in the Dutch East Indies during the late colonial era and early Indonesian independence period.

The OTHC originally started with the trading firm of Kian Gwan, established in 1863 by Oei Tje Sein, Oei Tiong Ham’s father. In 1890, Oei Tiong Ham took over the firm Kian Gwan which diversified and grew into one of the largest firms in Southeast Asia. At the time Tiong Ham took over the firm, Kian Gwan’s main activity was trade, especially trade in rubber, kapok, gambir, tapioca and coffee. In addition, it was involved with pawnshops, postal services, logging and the highly lucrative opium trade. It has been estimated that between 1890 and 1904, Kian Gwan made a profit of some 18 million guilders in the opium trade alone, which provided the basis for his empire.

Unlike many of his Chinese contemporaries, Oei Tiong Ham relied heavily on written contracts in conducting his business. This did not make him popular in Chinese circles but it provided him with a legal basis to acquire the collateral for the loans he extended. Among his main debtors were often owners of sugar factories in East Java and when these factories were unable to repay the loans, due to the long-lasting effects of the sugar crisis of the 1880s he used his rights as a creditor. In this way he acquired five sugar factories. Sugar now became the backbone of the company and would remain so for the next several decades.

In the period between the 1890s and the 1920s, OHTC grew and diversified rapidly. It started branches in London and Singapore, created a bank, a steamship business and had a large wholesale business. Of all the ethnic Chinese business conglomerates in pre-war Asia, the Oei Tiong Ham concern was by far the largest. The company was even larger than the well-known “Big Five” Dutch trading companies that supposedly dominated the foreign trade of the Indies. The OTHC was strong in foreign trade, particularly in China. The basic strategy of the company was to take advantage of the opportunities on the world market for commodities produced in Indonesia. In 1912, Kian Gwan, the trading branch of the conglomerate was capitalized at fifteen million guilders, double the amount of the largest Dutch firm Internatio.

During the post-war boom of 1918-1920, the worldwide demand for Java sugar was high, creating many opportunities for sugar-mill owners and sugar brokers. But fortunes gained were easily lost in a couple of days. Oei Tiong Ham followed a cautious policy during these boom years. He did not speculate too heavily and took steps to improve its financial administration. Oei Tong Ham recruited talented accountants to set up a modern accounting system for the sugar factories. Due to the cautious and independent strategy, the company survived the subsequent sugar crisis while many other Chinese firms perished.

Besides making use of written agreements and a modern accounting system, Oei Tiong Ham also diverted from yet another Chinese business practice of the time. Instead of relying solely on family members in running his wide ranging business enterprises, he deliberately chose capable outsiders, such as Dutch directors, managers, and engineers to manage his companies. In 1920, Oei Tiong Ham left Semarang and settled in Singapore to escape Dutch colonial succession law and tax regime. Having eight wives and twenty-six official children, inheritance became important issues. He decided to hand his daughters and some of his sons cash, and make eight of his sons his rightful heirs, dividing among them an inheritance worth two hundred million guilders. Since only two of them, Oei Tjong Swan and Oei Tjong Hauw, had reached maturity, immediate succession did not seem to give too many problems.

Marriage

According to Madame Wellington Koo’s (née Oei Hui-lan) autobiography, “No Feast Lasts Forever”, Goei Bing Nio (魏明娘) was selected by Oei Tiong Ham’s mother to be his wife and was married to him at age 15. She bore him 2 daughters, Tjong-lan and Hui-lan. He had 18 acknowledged concubines.

One of Goei Bing-nio’s sisters was unable to have children and hence adopted 2 girls from her husband’s brother. These 2 girls both became Oei Tiong Ham’s concubines. The younger of the 2 sisters, Lucy Ho (or Hoo Kiem Hoa), moved to Singapore with Oei and lived with him until his death. One of Oei Tiong Ham’s sons with Lucy Ho later married his own granddaughter – the daughter of his son, Oei Tjong-Swan.

Death

Oei Tiong Ham died in Singapore. Madame Wellington Koo, his second daughter from his first wife, believed that he was poisoned to death by Lucy Ho, his mistress at the time of death. His body was shipped to Semarang for burial in his father’s tomb.

References

  1. 1.    ^ Oei Tiong Ham Park is a place in Singapore on the Map of Singapore
   
 
 
  • K. Yoshihara, The Rise of Ersatz Capitalism in South East Asia, (Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1988)

 

 

 

 

 

 

External links

 

 

RELATED INFORMATIONS

 

By

OEI HUI LAN 

Madame Wellington Koo – No Feast Last Forever

Madame Wellington Koo atau Oei Hui Lan ialah anak dari Raja gula Semarang yang sangat terkenal, yaitu Oei Tiong Ham. Kekayaan yang tidak ada habisnya dari ayahnya ternyata tidak pernah bisa memberikan kebahagiaan padanya. Hidup serba berkelimpahan di istananya di Semarang-Indonesia di masa pemerintahan Hindia Belanda, melewatkan masa mudanya di Paris, London, Amerika, hingga China saat berkeluarga, menjadi socialita terpandang di kaum elit Eropa, menjadi istri Wellington Koo, orang nomor dua di China saat itu ternyata juga tidak juga bisa memberikan kepuasan dan kebahagiaan kepadanya.

Dilahirkan sebagai anak kedua dari istri sah Oei Tiong Ham, Oei Hui Lan seolah menggenggam dunia dalam tangannya. Ayahnya yang kaya raya selalu memanjakannya dengan memberi apapun yang Ia inginkan, bahkan sampai membuatkan kebun binatang di istananya (istana mereka hingga saat ini masih ada di Semarang, namun sudah menjadi sebuah universitas swasta). Akan tetapi, tidak demikian dengan ibunya. Ibunya lebih menyayangi kakakanya, Oei Tjong Lan, dan lebih suka berfoya-foya membelanjakan uang ayahnya untuk membeli permata, berlian, emas, perhiasan mewah, dan baju-baju mahal hingga ke luar negeri demi menutupi kesedihannya akan kebiasaan buruk ayahnya yang memiliki banyak selir dan anak di luar nikah.

Kekayaan yang dimiliki oleh ayahnya ternyata justru mengancam kehidupan Oei Hui Lan beserta ibu dan kakaknya yang merupakan keluarga sah dari Oei Tiong Ham. Dengan keberadaan 18 selir dan 42 anaknya, keberadaan Hui Lan, ibu dan kakaknya selalu terancam. Para selir selalu berusaha untuk menggantikan ibu Hui Lan untuk menjadi istri sah ayahnya dan menguasai seluruh harta ayahnya. Ayahnya, Oei Tiong Ham, yang dikenal sebagai Raja Gula, bahkan orang terkaya se-Asia Tenggara saat itu memiliki pabrik tidak hanya di Pulau Jawa, tapi juga Singapura, London, Paris, Cina, dan kota lainnya. Dengan kekayaan ayahnya, Hui Lan dibekali kehidupan bergelimangan harta, pakaian mewah, perhiasan mahal yang menunjukkan kastanya, berbagai kursus seperti berkuda hingga kursus bahasa yang membuatnya menguasai 4 bahasa termasuk Inggris dan Perancis.

Semua itu ternyata masih membuat Hui Lan tetap mencari-cari kasih sayang di luar keluarganya. Pernah sekali waktu saat Ia, ibu dan kakaknya berlibur ke Singapura, Ia menemukan cinta pertamanya yang ternyata ialah seorang pria beristri. Pengalaman pahit itu membuatnya malas untuk menjalin hubungan lagi dengan pria, dan menyetujui ibunya untuk pindah tinggal ke London bersama kakaknya yang telah menikah.

 

Saat mulai masuk menjadi penghuni kota London, Hui Lan dan ibunya menjadi orang yang sangat norak dan terkesan pamer. Ibunya yang terobsesi untuk menjadikan Hui Lan wanita terpandang dan bisa berbaur dengan para socialita membekali Hui Lan dengan gaun-gaun mewah dan perhiasan mahal setiap mereka akan mengunjungi pesta. Mulai asyik dengan kehidupan barunya, Hui Lan menjadi sangat terbiasa berpesta, mengikuti acara para socialita Eropa, berteman dengan keluarga kerajaan, bergaul dengan pria bule, hingga terbiasa dengan kebiasaan ibunya untuk memberikan perhiasan mahalnya ke orang yang dekat dengannya.

Tapi semua itu tetap membuat Hui Lan merasa tidak puas. Ia selalu mencoba mencari cara untuk membahagiakan dirinya, tapi tidak pernah menemukannya.Obsesi ibunya untuk membuat Hui Lan menjadi orang terpandang akhirnya membuatnya harus menjalani kehidupan pernikahan tanpa cinta. Menikahi Wellington Koo, orang nomor dua di China, yang menjadi duta besar Cina untuk Amerika dalam rangka memerdekakan China memang membawanya ke kehidupan yang jauh lebih tinggi kastanya. Ia mulai dikenal oleh semua pembesar negara-negara yang menjalin hubungan dengan China, berbaur dengan berbagai keluarga presiden, kerajaan, menteri dan anggota pemerintahan dengan strata atas.

Dalam pernikahannya, suaminya tidak pernah memberi uang yang cukup seperti ayahnya. Karena terbiasa dengan harta dan kehidupan mewah, Hui Lan pun tak pernah segan mengeluarkan uang pribadinya untuk membahagiakan hidupnya. Mulai dari merenovasi rumah, menghias dirinya seperti kebiasaannya, memelihara banyak anjing sebagai temannya, dan masih banyak hal lainnya yang berujung kecurigaan media China akan mewahnya pola hidup Hui Lan yang saat itu lebih dikenal sebagai Madame Wellington Koo.

Hal itu tetap tidak membuatnya kapok, Hui Lan tetap memakai uang sesuka hati, bahkan meminta uang pada ayahnya untuk segala keperluannya. Sampai suatu ketika, Ia, suami dan anaknya mengunjungi Singapura untuk bertemu ayahnya yang ternyata telah menikah lagi dengan keponakan ibunya, Ia sangat kaget dengan pola hidup ayahnya yang telah berubah 180o. Ayahnya yang kaya raya malah hidup sederhana, bahkan cenderung prihatin untuk ukurannya. Hidup di ruko kecil di daerah kumuh, jauh sekali dari ingatannya tentang istana mereka saat di Indonesia. Ia berpikir dan bertanya mengapa ayahnya mau memilih kehidupan seperti itu, namun sepertinya Ia belum mengerti keputusan ayahnya.

Ia masih terus hidup berfoya-foya, sampai akhirnya Perang Dunia Kedua merenggut seluruh hartanya di China. Ia hanya bisa meratapi semuanya, namun tetap tidak mau merubah pola hidupnya yang bak putri di pesta dansa. Kepergian satu- persatu dari ayahnya, ibunya, lalu disusul kakaknya akhirnya mulai menyadarkannya akan  harta yang ternyata tidak bersifat kekal, dan malah menghancurkan keluarga mereka.

Di usianya yang mulai tua, tanpa keluarga yang telah meninggalkannya, hanya tersisa anak-anaknya, tanpa suaminya yang telah menikah lagi dengan wanita lain, Hui Lan mulai merasa kesepian tinggal di rumah besar dan megah. Ia pun memilih untuk tinggal di apartemen seorang diri, dengan terlebih dahulu membekali anak-anaknya dengan rumah-rumah pribadi. Perampokan yang terjadi di apartemen kecilnya di Amerika saat usianya telah tualah yang akhirnya semakin menyadarkannya bahwa Ia tidak bisa selalu hidup memamerkan hartanya, dan membawa-bawa hartanya ke manapun Ia pergi. Ia pun mulai menyimpan seluruh harta dan perhiasan mewahnya di bank, dan hanya menyisakan sedikit di apartemennya.

Kehidupannya yang bergelimangan harta, namun tetap tidak bisa membeli cinta dan kebahagiaan terasa begitu sayang baginya untuk dilewatkan. Bersama temannya, Hui Lan pun membuat sebuah buku yang hanya terbit di Amerika, yang berjudul “No Feast Last Forever”, sesuai dengan jalan hidup yang akan ditempuh semua orang. Tidak ada pesta yang tak berakhir. Bahkan pertemuan pun akan mengalami perpisahan. Segala pesta, kehidupan glamor, kemewahan harta, dan segala sesuatu yang menyertainya pada akhirnya akan habis juga. Kebahagiaan yang justru tak lekang oleh waktu justru tidak pernah Ia miliki, dan justru menjadi hal yang paling disesalinya seumur hidupnya.

Kisah Oei Hui lan mungkin hanya segelintir dari kisah hidup para socialita yang selalu dipenuhi pesta, hura-hura, dan barang mewah. Namun, pelajaran hidup yang dipetik Hui Lan di akhir hidupnyalah yang patut kita jadikan pembelajaran.  Jangan mengagungkan sesuatu yang sifatnya sementara seperti harta. Akan jauh  lebih baik mengumpulkan hal yang bersifat abadi seperti kebahagiaan dan cinta, karena hal itulah yang akan menguatkan kita saat dalam keadaan paling terpuruk sekalipun.

 

In Memoriam of Oei Hui Lan 1899-1992

 

 

 

 

MAIN OFFICE

“TAK ADA PESTA YANG TAK BERAKHIR”

Di masa akhir hidupnya…………

Oei Hui Lan menyadari kalau dirinya tidak pernah merasa bahagia. Satu hal yang ia sadari di akhir ialah kenyataan bahwa kekayaan tak dapat membeli kebahagiaan

Sedikit demi sedikit………….

kekayaannya berkurang akibat kondisi dunia yang belum stabil serta ketidak mampuannya mengelola uang lebih baik dari ayahnya. Meski diberi usia yang panjang, satu per satu keluarga yang disayanginya pergi meninggalkannya.

Namun

di masa akhirnya itulah akhirnya Oei Hui Lan, setidaknya akhirnya menemukan kunci kebahagiaannya

 

 

 

Ini lah kisah_nya….

 

Saya lahir di Semarang Desember 1889 sebagai Oei Hui Lan  putri Oei Tiong Ham yang pernah dikenal sebagai Raja Gula dan orang terkaya di Asia Tenggara.

 

 

 

Ibu saya istri pertamanya. Ibu hanya mempunyai dua orang anak, kedua duanya perempuan. Kakak saya Tjong lan, sepuluh tahun lebih tua dari saya. Ayah masih mempunyai 42 anak dari 18 gundik. Bagi orang Cina, anak gundik pun dianggap sebagai anak sah.

 

Kehidupan Oei Hui Lan kecil di bawah asuhan Oei Tiong Ham, benar-benar seperti putri raja. Apa yang dia mau selalu diberikan oleh ayahnya. Selain dimanja, dalam bukunya Hui Lan menulis,  ketika ayahnya sudah kaya raya dan mendapat gelar Majoor der Chinezen dari Pemerintah Belanda tahun 1901, Hui Lan juga sering diajak dalam perjalanan bisnis oleh ayahnya.

Ayahnya berpesan kepada sekretaris,”Belikan dia semua yang diinginkannya”. Sikap Ayahnya yang begitu sayang padanya membuat Hui Lan terbiasa untuk diistimewakan.

Hui Lan ingat, ketika di Belanda dia punya rumah boneka yang sangat indah.

 

Dia menulis :

“Tidak ada seorang anak Belanda pun yang memiliki rumah boneka seindah kepunyaan saya. Tingginya sedagu saya, dibeli Pietro di Eropa. Saya bisa merangkak masuk ke dalamnya. Perlengkapannya komplet dan penuh detail. Di kamar mandinya ada handuk yang serasi. Ranjangnya memakai per dan kasur. Dalam lemari pakaiannya bergantungan pakaian boneka boneka saya. Di dapurnya ada panci, alat penggoreng, garpu dan pisau.

Di belakang rumah kami ada kebun binatang, berisi kera, rusa, beruang, kasuari, dll. Kalau ayah kembali dari bepergian, ia selalu membawa hadiah untuk saya sepasang kuda poni, sepasang anjing chihuahua, boneka atau apa saja.

Umur saya belum tiga tahun ketika ibu mengalungkan bandulan intan 80 karat ke leher saya. Besar intan itu sekepalan tangan saya dan tentu saja menganggu gerak gerik dan bahkan menyakitkan saya. Namun ibu tidak perduli. Suatu hari ketika pengasuh memandikan saya, ibu melihat dada saya luka akibat intan itu. Barulah ibu melepaskannya. Sampai buku ini ditulis. Intan itu masih saya miliki, tersimpan di sebuah bank di London.”

Hui Lan mengenal secara seksama bagaimana karakter ayahnya. Selain karena anak dari istri pertama yang disayang. Ayahnya tidak dekat dengan Tjo Lan kakak Hui Lan. Jadi boleh dibilang pada masa awal-awal kejayaan kerajaan bisnis Oei Tiong Ham, hanya Hui Lan anak yang dekat Oei Tiong Ham.

Hui Lan paham betul bagaimana karakter ayahnya. Saat ikut ke Penang, Malaysia, Hui Lan yang ketika itu di dalam kapal menunggu ayahnya yang sedang di darat, didatangi oleh pria lanjut usia. Orang itu menyerahkan sekotak uang emas kepada Hui Lan sambil membungkukkan badan. Hui Lan tahu isi kotak itu adalah uang yang nilainya sekitar 200.000 poundsterling, tapi dia tak tahu apa maksudnya.

Hui Lan mengira mainan. Lalu saat sedang memainkannya, ayahnya bertanya darimana Hui Lan mendapatkan uang-uang itu. Mendengar jawaban Hui Lan, Oei Tiong Ham langsung menyuruh pembantunya untuk mengembalikannya.

Rupanya pria lanjut usia yang naik ke kapal itu bermaksud menyogok Oei Tiong Ham dengan memberi hadiah kepada anak kesayangannya. Menurut Hui Lan, Ayahnya pantang disogok, padahal dia sering menyogok pejabat pejabat Belanda supaya usahanya lancar.

 

Oei Tiong Ham juga tidak percaya dengan kegunaaan pengawal pribadi. Dia punya cara sendiri untuk melindungi keluarganya dan bisnisnya. Yaitu dengan memberi sejumlah uang kepada kelompok bandit yang paling berpengaruh setiap tahun untuk menangkal gangguan keamanan. Usahanya berhasil keluarga Oei Tiong Ham merupakan satu-satunya keluarga Tionghoa yang tinggal di luar pecinan.

Suatu ketika Oei Tiong Ham pernah melihat seorang anak Tionghoa diolok-olok anak-anak Belanda seusai pulang sekolah. Dia lalu turun dari kereta dan mendatangi anak yang tubuhnya paling besar diantara anak-anak Belanda itu.

Dia berkata, “Kelihatannya kamu orang pemimpin mereka,” kepada anak yang paling besar itu.  Lalu sambil memberikan sekeping uang emas kepadanya, Oei Tiong Ham kembali berkata, .”Tolong urus mereka.”

 


Tentang Ibunya,

Ibu Hui Lan bernama Bing Nio. Dalam bahasa Inggris artinya kira-kira Victoria. Bing Nio adalah istri pertama Oei Tiong Ham. Dia berasal dari keluarga Goei, nenek moyangnya berasal Shantung. Ibunya punya lima anak perempuan dan empat anak lelaki. Semua anak perempuannya cantik-cantik, tapi yang paling cantik Bing Nio.

Mendengar kecantikan Bing Nio, Ibunya Oei Tiong Ham tertarik mengambilnya menjadi menantu. Maka dia mengirimkan tandu keemasaan sebagai tanda lamaran kepada keluarga Goei. Dan keluarga Goei menerimanya.

Bing Nio tidak memberikan anak lelaki kepada Oei Tiong Ham, melainkan dua anak perempuan,  Tjong lan dan Hui Lan. Meski begitu, karena tradisi China yang kuat, Oei Tiong Ham tidak menceraikan Bing Nio. Sebaliknya memelihara banyak gundik, entah untuk kepuasan semata atau demi mendapat keturunan laki-laki.

Menurut Hui Lan, ayahnya termasuk bandot tapi tetap sayang dan baik terhadap Bing Nio, ibunya Hui Lan. Tidak terpikir olehnya untuk menceraikan Bing Nio yang tidak memberikan anak laki laki. Cuma saja ia terus menerus menambah gundik dan banyak di antara gundiknya itu yang memberinya anak laki laki.

Oei Tiong Ham juga selalu pulang ke rumah, tidak pernah tinggal dengan salah seorang gundiknya, sampai muncul seorang gundik bernama Lucy Ho dalam hidupnya.

Karena tidak mempunyai anak laki laki, Bing Nio terus menerus merasa dirinya memiliki kekurangan dan frustasi.

Ketika Hui Lan umur 12 tahun, suatu malam dia pernah melihat ibunya sedang menghitung uang di sebuah ruangan. Uang itu banyak dan bertumpuk tinggi.

Kepada Hui Lan, Bing Nio berkata sambil tersenyum, 
”Ayahmu pulang membawa sekoper uang. Aku mengambilnya sebagian. Ia tidak pernah menyadarinya.”

Hui Lan heran mengapa ibunya tidak meminta saja, dia yakin ayah akan memberikannya. Mungkin ibu tidak mau ayah tahu untuk apa uang itu. Pada masa itu memang Hui Lan dan Ibunya jarang membawa uang. Kalau menginginkan sesuatu, mereka tinggal mengambilnya saja di toko dan pemilik toko akan menagihnya kepada Oei Tiong Ham.

Ibu Hui Lan lahir pada tahun Naga, sebetulnya tak cocok dengan Oei Tiong Ham yang lahir tahun harimau. Karena sama-sana keras kepala.

Namun Bing Nio senang dengan predikat istri sah. Di luar rumah ia dianggap tokoh penting. Kalau pergi menonton sandiwara, para pemain berlutut di hadapannya seusai pertunjukan. Lantas Bing Nio akan memberikan tip yang besar sekali.

Seperti dikutip dalam buku Hui Lan, kalau pulang bertamu dari rumah nyonya Belanda, sering bajunya cuma disemat dengan peniti biasa, karena penitinya yang bertaburkan permata ia hadiahkan kepada nyonya rumah yang mengagumi perhiasannya itu. Dan Oei Tiong Ham pasti akan membelikannya yang baru.

 

Hui Lan sedikitnya punya 42 orang saudara. Hui Lan tak begitu mengenal dekat mereka, selain Tjo Lan kakaknya,  dan dua saudara lain ibu, Tjong Hauw dan Tjong Swan. Demikian juga dengan saudara dari ibunya.

Seorang saudara perempuan ibunya menikah dengan seorang pria yang cukup berada, tetapi tidak dikaruniai anak. Bibinya Hui Lan itu mengangkat dua anak perempuan dari saudara suaminya.

Beberapa tahun kemudian kedua anak angkatnya itu menjadi gundik Oei Tiong Ham. Yang paling tua cuma bertahan sebentar kemudian kabur bersama sopirnya yang pribumi  Sementara adiknya yang berwajah tak begitu cantik tapi memiliki tubuh yang indah dan pintar bernama Lucy Ho sanggup bertahan. Kelak Lucy Ho ini yang menemani Oei Tiong Ham menjemput ajal.

Bing Nio meninggalkan Oei Tiong Ham menyusul Hui Lan yang tinggal di London. Sementara Oei Tiong Ham bersama Lucy Ho menetap di Singapura. Seperti yang ditulis Hui Lan,  Oei Tiong Ham keluar dari Jawa untuk menghindari pajak. Lucy Ho gundik yang penuh pengabdian. Ia mengurusi keuangan dengan cermat dan ia memberi anak kepada Oei Tiong Ham setiap tahun.

Anak laki lakinya banyak. Tetapi setelah tinggal dengan Lucy Ho, Oei Tiong Ham berubah, meskipun uangnya masih  banyak, dia tak lagi hidup bermewah-mewah.

Suatu ketika, anak laki-laki Lucy Ho bertemu dengan anak perempuan Tjong Swan (Saudara Hui Lan lain ibu) di New York. Mereka jatuh cinta, tetapi tidak diperkenankan menikah oleh hukum AS, sebab ayah si pemuda adalah kakek si gadis. Mereka akhirnya menikah juga di Belanda.

Oei Tiong Ham juga memiliki gundik seorang janda yang dulu menolongnya dari aksi bunuh diri. Janda itu bernama Ny. Kiam. Dia membawa serta adik perempuannya yang berumur sepuluh tahun dan anak perempuannya yang berumur tiga tahun.

Ny. Kiam tak memberi keturunan untuk Oei Tiong Ham, maka ketika adik yang dibawanya itu beranjak dewasa, Oei Tiong Ham menjadikannya gundik pula. Dari perempuan itu Oei Tiong Ham punya lima anak laki laki dan empat anak perempuan.

Dari seluruh anak si gundik itu, Oei Tiong Ham lebih menyenangi putra yang kedua yakni Tjong Swan untuk menjadi andalannya dalam berbisnis. Tentu saja selain si Tjong Hauw, anak laki-lakinya yang lain dari gundik yang lain.

Dan dari semua saudara lain ibu, hanya Tjong Swan dan Tjong Hauw yang dekat dengan Hui Lan. Menurut Hui Lan, Oei Tiong Ham punya tiga anak yang disayanginya yakni dirinya, Tjong Swan dan Tjong Hauw.

 

 

Pesta Dansa Yang Gagal,

Rumah keluarga Oei Tiong Ham di Semarang sangat luas. Kurang lebih berdiri diatas lahan 93 hektar. Rumahnya dirancang dengan gaya arsitektur China. Ada kolam ikan dan jembatan-jembatan. Untuk mengurusi kebun yang luas, keluarga Oei Tiong Ham mempekerjakan lima puluh orang.

Di rumah besar itu terdapat tiga buah dapur yang fungsinya berbeda. Yang pertama dapur untuk ibunya Hui Lan dengan koki ahli masakan Indonesia. Ibunya Hui Lan memang menyukai masakan Indonesia. Sementara dapur yang lain adalah dapurnya Oei Tiong Ham yang dikendalikan oleh koki-koki ahli masakan Eropa. Koki-koki tersebut umumnya adalah koki-koki bekas para Gubernur Jenderal Belanda.  Kebetulan Oei Tiong Ham menyukai masakan Eropa selain masakan China. Sementara dapur yang satu lagi untuk para pekerja di rumah besar tersebut yang mempekerjakan dua koki Tionghoa.

Di belakang ada rumah untuk Nona Jones, guru pribadi Bahasa Inggris keluarga Oei Tiong Ham. Lalu ada rumah untuk tukang pijit, dan tukang cuci pakaian. Sementara untuk para tamu yang menginap, disediakan dua paviliun.

Di rumah itu, Oei Tiong Ham sering mengundang tamu-tamu penting, Termasuk Raja Siam (Thailand). Mereka juga pernah diundang makan di kediaman Gubernur Jenderal Hindia Belanda.

Saat usia Hui Lan 15 tahun, Hui Lan ingin menggelar pesta dansa bergaya Inggris seperti yang dia baca di The Tatler. Karena anak kesayangan dan dianggap membawa hoki, Oei Tiong Ham meluluskan keinginan Hui Lan. Oei Tiong Ham lalu menyewa 16 pemain musik yang dulu disewanya untuk perjamuan Raja Thailand. Oei Tiong Ham juga mengundang para rekanan bisnisnya untuk untuk mendatangkan anak-anak mereka ke pesta Hui Lan.

Tapi sayang, saat hari pesta tiba, tak ada satupun tamu yang datang. Oei Tiong Ham marah besar kepada para rekan-rekan bisnisnya. Mendengar seorang pengusaha sukses sekelas Oei Tiong Ham, pengacaranya Baron van Heeckeren,  Gubernur Jenderal Belanda ketika itu,  sampai mengusahakan agar putri-putrinya mengadakan pesta dansa untuk menghormati Hui Lan. Tapi Hui lan juga terlanjur sakit hati. Dia pun tak datang.

Meninggalkan Semarang,

Hui Lan meninggalkan Semarang saat berusia 16 tahun. Keluarga mereka berpisah. Ayahnya bersama Lucy Ho menetap di Singapura. Bing Nio dan dua anaknya Tjo Lan dan Hui Lan memilih ke Inggris.

Kepindahannya ayahnya karena pemerintah Hindia Belanda menekannya untuk menjual perkebunan tebunya dengan harga AS$ 70 juta. Oei Tiong Ham lalu mempercayakan perusahaannya di Jawa kepada putra-putranya yang terpilih yakni Tjong Swan dan Tjong Hauw.

Di Ibukota Inggris, Hui Lan dan ibunya tinggal di Brooke Street. Mereka juga punya rumah lain di Wimbledon yang luas lahannya hampir tiga hektar. Bing Nio punya sebuah Roll Royce, lengkap dengan sopir dan footman yang bertugas membukakan pintu mobil.

Sementara kakak iparnya, Ting Liang suaminya Tjo Lan,  punya mobil Daimler dan Fiat.

Selama tinggal di London, Ting Liang yang mengurus keperluan mereka. Ting Liang bertugas membayar seluruh tagihan dan pengeluaran termasuk berbelanja keperluan sehari-hari. Seluruh tagihan itu dilaporkan ke salah satu kantor Oei Tiong Ham di Mincing Lane.

Suatu ketika Hui Lan pernah bersitegang dengan Ting Liang karena dia tak mau membayar beberapa tagihan milik Hui Lan. Menurut Ting Liang, uang saku yang diberikan Oei Tiong Ham sudah cukup. Tapi Hui Lan mengatakan 400 poundsterling per tahun yang diterima dari ayahnya untuk beli baju, kurang. Setiap perdebatan soal uang, Ting Liang kerap kalah dari Hui Lan, karena Oei Tiong Ham pasti  selalu melunasi tagihan Hui Lan.

Suatu hari setelah bertengkar hebat dengan Ting Liang, Hui Lan pindah ke sebuah villa kecil di Curzon street. Seorang pembantu rumah tangga Perancis dan satu orang koki Prancis juga ikut serta. Tapi Ting Liang tidak mau membayar sewa rumah dan gaji pelayan serta koki Hui Lan.

Hui Lan langsung mengirim telegram ke ayahnya di Singapura. Tanpa banyak cincong ayahnya mengirim sejumlah uang dan menambah uang belanja Hui Lan.

Semasa remaja tinggal di London, Hui Lan benar-benar menikmati hidup, dia suka berdansa dan sering datang-datang ke pesta-pesta kaum jetset. Teman-temannya diantaranya Guy Brook yang kemudian menjadi Lord Brook, Sir Oliver duncan  yang kemudian menjadi Earl of Callo dan serta Sir Hugo Cuncliffe Owen.

Tahun 1918 saat berusia 18 tahun, Hui Lan mendapatkan mobil pertamanya bermerk Daimler. Tapi selama di London, Hui Lan mengaku hubunganya dengan Tjong Lan menjadi tak terlalu mulus. Pergaulan Tjong Lan terbatas pada orang orang sekantor ayah mereka atau para relasi bisnis. Hui Lan paham, Tjong Lan dibesarkan di tanah Jawa sehingga tidak mengalami kebebasan seperti Hui Lan semasa mudanya. Padahal Tjong Lan cantik dan jauh lebih pandai daripada dirinya, demikian tulis Hui Lan dalam bukunya.

 

 

 

Bertemu Wellington Koo,

Di London, Bing Nio mendapat banyak teman karean dia pandai membuat roti yang enak dan lembut. Suatu hari, tetangga mereka, Marquess of Duferin dan isterinya datang, katanya karena tertarik dengan bau roti yang mampir ke rumah mereka.

Hui Lan menulis, Putri Alice dari Monaco (Mungkin neneknya Pangeran Rainer) juga pernah bertandang karena roti. Sejak itu antara ibunya dan Putri Alice terjalin hubungan akrab. Putri Alice juga sering memberi saran dan kerap mengenalkan Bing Nio dan Hui Lan dengan bangsawan-bangsawan Eropa.

Lalu ketika Tjong Lan dan suaminya pindah ke Paris, suatu ketika dia mengirim telegram pada Bing Nio untuk segera datang ke Paris. Ternyata, salah seorang anggota delegasi pemerintah Cina yang sedang mengadakan pembicaraan perihal perdamaian setelah Perang Dunia I, ingin berkenalan dengan Hui Lan, setelah melihat fotonya di rumah Tjong Lan.

Nama anggota delegasi itu Wellington Koo. Usianya baru 32 tahun dan berotak cerdas.

Wellington Koo adalah seorang duda yang ditinggal mati istrinya. Almarhumah isterinya tak lain adalah anak Jenderal Tang, salah satu petinggi di China dan terkenal.

Wellington Koo adalah wakil China di AS semacam duta besar jaman sekarang. Dia jebolan Columbia University. Dan sebagai kakak, Tjong Lan menganggap sosok Wellington Koo sepadan dengan Hui Lan jika dinikahkan. Ibunya, Bing Nio, juga setuju. Baginya Wellington Koo merupakan calon menantu idaman. Cerdas, berwibawa dan memiliki hubungan dengan tokoh-tokoh penting.

Hui Lan buta soal politik, sementara Wellington boleh dibilang tokoh yang dihormati di kalangan politisi.

Tapi Hui Lan memang terkesan dengan sosok Wellington Koo, karena dia mendapat fasilitas yang dibayari pemerintah Perancis. Padahal dirinya saja mesti keluar uang untuk membeli mobil dan membayar sopir. Tapi Wellington Koo tidak, semuanya ditanggung pemerintah Perancis selama dia sana sebagai tamu kehormatan.

Hui Lan semakin terkesan ketika mereka berdua pergi menonton opera dan mendapat bangku khusus yang sudah di-booking pemerintah Perancis. Ayahnya saja yang pebisnis sukses belum tentu dapat perlakuan khusus seperti itu.

 

Sejak pertama kali bertemu, Welington Koo beberapa kali menelpon Hui Lan. Tampaknya dia memang menyukai Hui Lan. Dalam sebuah kesempatan ketika Hui Lan sedang merawat diri di salon Elizabeth Arden, Wellington Koo menyambanginya. Karuan saja, Hui Lan merasa tersanjung karena orang terhormat seperti Wellington Koo mau menemui dirinya saat sedang berada di salon seperti itu.

Dilamar Wellington Koo,

Beberapa saat berlalu, hubungan Hui Lan dengan Wellington Koo  semakin akrab. Dari segi latar belakang, banyak orang mengakui mereka adalah pasangan yang serasi. Prianya seorang politikus terhormat, wanitanya seorang anak pengusaha sukses dan kaya raya yang bergaya aristokrat.

Dalam sebuah kesempatan mereka pernah bercakap-cakap. Percakapan inilah yang kemudian selalu dikenang oleh Hui Lan karena Wellington Koo memintanya menjadi  istri. Percakapan bermula dari obrolan mengenai orang-orang biasa diundang ke tempat-tempat penting seperti istana.

Hui Lan berkata bahwa drinya tidak mungkin diundang ke Istana Buckingham, istana Elysee atau Gedung Putih, meski dia orang kaya. Wellington Koo menimpali
 “Istri saya ikut diundang, kalau saya menghadiri perjamuan resmi di tempat tempat itu,”katanya.
“Tentu isterimu kan sudah meninggal,” ujar Hui Lan.

Wellinton Koo lalu berkata,
 “Ya, dan saya punya dua orang anak yang masih kecil, yang memerlukan ibu,“

Hui Lan yang ketika itu baru berumur 19 tahun dan terbiasa berbicara blak-blakan seperti ayahnya langsung bertanya,
 “ Jadi kamu ingin menikah dengan saya,“tanya Hui Lan.

“Ya, dan saya harap kamu mau.” jawab Wellington Koo pendek, tanpa menyebutkan apakah dia mencintai Hui Lan  dan sebaliknya. Ketika itu Hui Lan tak langsung menjawab tetapi meminta waktu untuk  berpikir.

 

 

 

 

Menantu Impian,

Bagi Bing Nio, Wellington Koo merupakan menantu impian. Dia sangat ingin Wellington Koo bisa bersanding dengan Hui Lan.  Bing Nio kerap  memuji Welington secara terbuka. Tak terbayangkan betapa bangga dirinya jika menjadi mertuanya Wellington Koo. Soal sikap ibunya ini, Hui Lan pernah berpikir bahwa ibunya lebih cocok buat Wellington daripada dirinya. Menurut Hui Lan, Wellington lahir tahun Babi, cocok dnegan ibunya yang lahir tahun Naga. Sedangkan  Hui Lan lahir di tahun Harimau.


Tjong Lan memberi saran,”Hui Lan, kamu harus menikah dengan Wellington Koo, jangan seperti saya yang bersuamikan orang yang tidak berarti. Ingat, kamu akan menjadi Madame Wellington Koo dan orang akan menyapamu Your Excellency.”

Ketika Hui Lan masih dalam keragu-raguan, ibunya sudah tidak sabar. Hui Lan mengungkapkan dirinya belum siap menjadi ibu tiri dari dua anak Wellington. Tapi kata Bing Nio, Hui Lan tak perlu mengasuh sendiri anak-anaknya, kerana mereka sudah punya pengasuh. ”Ingat, sekarang masih ada aku yang akan melindungimu, tetapi aku ini berpenyakit diabetes. Kalau aku sudah tidak ada, kamu akan tidak bisa hidup serumah dengan Tjong Lan, karena kamu tidak akur dengan Ting Liang. Kamu tidak akan diperbolehkan hidup sendiri oleh ayahmu. Kamu harus pulang ke ayahmu, padahal Lucy Ho membencimu. Kamu bisa diracuni.“ kata ibunya seperti ditulis Hui Lan dalam bukunya.

.

Oei Tiong Ham Tak Setuju,

Tapi akhirnya Hui Lan memang menerima pinangan Wellington Koo. Segera setelah Hui Lan mau menikah dengan Wellington Koo, Bing Nio mengirim telegram kepada Oei Tiong Ham di Singapura untuk mengabarkan berita ini.

Tapi jawaban Oei Tiong Ham diluar dugaan. Berbeda dengan istrinya, Oei Tiong Ham justru tidak setuju. Alasannya,  mata-mata Oei Tiong Ham menemukan bukti bahwa Wellington Koo pernah menikah dan bercerai di Shanghai, sebelum menikah dengan putri Jenderal Tang.

Dia  lalu membalas telegram dengan bunyi :“Kalian tolol. Kalau Hui Lan dinikahkan dengan Wellington Koo, ia tidak bisa menjadi istrinya, karena Wellington Koo mempunyai istri yang masih hidup di Cina. Mengapa kalian tega berbuat demikian kepada Hui Lan?”

Tapi Bing Nio bergeming.  Soal itu, Bing Nio sudah diberitahu oleh Wellington bahwa semasa kanak kanak ia sudah dijodohkan dengan putri tabib yang menyembuhkannya dari penyakit berat. Waktu pulang liburan dari Amerika Serikat tahun 1908, ibu dan kakak laki lakinya mengirimkan tandu merah kepada putri tabib itu.

Wellington yang lahir 1887 dengan taat membawa gadis desa yang tidak terpelajar ke New York. Istrinya kemudian meminta dipulangkan karena tidak bisa menyesuaikan diri dengan kehidupan di sana. Diadakanlah rapat keluarga yang memutuskan mereka bercerai. Masa itu perceraian diakui kalau direstui orang tua.

Kemudian Wellington menikah dengan gadis berpendidikan barat, putri Tang Shao Yi, tangan kanan Presiden Yuan Shih Kai. Setelah mendapat gelar master dari Columbus dan lulus dari sekolah hukum di Yale, Wellington Koo kembali ke Cina untuk menjadi sekretaris dan penerjemah bagi Yuan di Beijing.


Wellington Koo berasal dari keluarga yang tidak kaya tidak pula miskin. Mereka termasuk kuno. Kaki ibunya masih diikat dan ibunya itu hanya bisa berbahasa Cina dialek Shanghai, serta tidak pernah pergi jauh dari rumah. Ketika bersekolah di Amerika Serikat, Wellington hanya bisa tinggal di asrama murah dan hidup sederhana sekali.

Pendek kata, akhirnya Wellington Koo dan Hui Lan menikah juga. Pertunangan mereka diumumkan di Hotel Ritz di Paris, sedangkan pernikahannya diselenggarakan di Kedutaan besar China di Brussels, Belgia.

Saat hari pernikahan, hanya Bing Nio yang hadir,  Tjong Lan dan suaminya Tiang Liang tak bisa hadir karena sakit. Sementara dari keluarga Wellinton Koo juga tidak ada yang hadir karena perlu waktu lama menempuh perjalanan laut dari China ke Eropa.

Pernikahan harus dilangsungkan sebelum Wellington menggantikan Alfred Tse sebagai Minister (Jabatan yang lebih rendah dari duta) Cina di London.

Hui Lan mengungkapkan, menerima hadiah pernikahan dari ibunya berupa sebuah Rolls-Royce dengan seragam sopir yang dibuat di Dunhill. Ibunya  juga menghadiahkan peralatan makan dari perak yang waktu itu harganya sekitar 10.000 poundsterling.  Sarung bantal tempat tidur mereka diberi kancing yang berhiaskan intan.

 

 

 

 

Cintanya Hanya Untuk China,

Seusai menikah, mereka kembali ke hotel. Sebagaimana layaknya pengantin baru, Hui Lan bermaskud menyenangkan suaminya dengan mengganti pakaian pengantinnya dengan pakaian negligee yang seksi. Tapi ternyata Wellinton tak memperhatikan dirinya, dia malah sibuk bekerja dikelilingi empat sekretarisnya. Jadi saya duduk saja menunggunya.


Malam itu juga mereka harus berangkat dengan kereta api ke Jenewa, Swiss, untuk menghadiri pembukaan Liga Bangsa-Bangsa (Kemudian menjadi PBB). Wellington Koo adalah ketua delegasi China.

Sejak itu mulai ada perasaan yang lain di hati Hui Lan, melihat begitu sibuknya Wellinton Koo.  Perhatian Wellington Koo hanya untuk Cina. Ia memang orang yang diperlukan oleh Cina, tetapi bukan suami yang tepat untuk Hui  Lain, tutur Hui Lan  dalam bukunya.

Otaknya cemerlang, tetapi ia tidak mampu bersikap mesra dan menunjukkan kelembutan kepada istrinya sendiri.


Sore itu, sebelum berangkat untuk menghadiri resepsi pernikahan yang diadakan bagi mereka oleh wakil Chna untuk Spanyol yang khusus datang dengan istrinya. Pesta resmi itu dihadiri pejabat-pejabat Perancis, Belgia, dsb.  Bing Nio yang ikut ikut bersama mereka tampak bangga sekali ketika mereka disambut dengan karangan bunga yang besar setibanya di stasiun.

Mereka mendapatkan kamar suite yang megah. di hotel Beau Rivage yang menghadap ke danau. Tapi belum lama mereka tiba di hotel, Wellington Koo langsung dijemput sekretarisnya untuk segera menggelar berbagai rapat. Daripada bosan menunggu suaminya rapat, akhirnya Hui Lan memutuskan pergi berbelanja bersama ibunya sambil menikmati keindahan kota Jenewa.

Suatu kali, Hui Lan pernah kaget dan tersinggung ketika Wellington dan Wang, sekretarisnya,  mengatur tempat duduk tamu di perjamuan yang mereka adakan. Ketersinggungan Hui Lan, selain Wellington tak mengajak berdiskusi, juga lantaran dirinya ditempatkan di tengah tempat duduk orang-orang yang menurut Hui lan membosankan.

Dan tanpa sepengetahuan Wellington, Hui Lan mengatur kembali letak kartu-kartu  di meja perjamuan.  Beberapa saat kemudian, saat sedang berdandan, tahu-tahu Wellington datang dan menegur Hui Lan. Begini katanya, “Hui Lan, ini bukan pesta pribadimu, kamu menjamu mewakili Cina, sehingga para tamu harus didudukkan sesuai dengan tingkatan mereka, agar tidak ada seorangpun yang merasa terhina atau hilang muka.“ ujar Wellington.

Tapi sejak saat itu, Hui Lan jadi banyak belajar soal protokol. Belakangan dia malah sangat ahli dalam mengatur tempat duduk para tamu, sehingga tugas itu diserahkan kepadanya.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tampak serasi padahal tidak sejalan,

Waktu demi waktu berlalu. Hui Lan sebagai istri seorang pejabat China dipanggil dengan sebutan terhormat Madame atau Your Excellency,  begitu juga dengan Bing No ibunya. Hui Lan masih ingat ketika pertama kali ke Istana Buckingham yaitu saat suaminya menyerahkan surat-surat kepercayaan kepada Raja George V dan Permaisuri Mary.

Putri Alice yang sebelumnya sudah mengajarinya tatacara di kerajaan,   yaitu cara wanita memberi hormat kepada keluarga raja. Termasuk pesannya supaya jangan berbicara kalau tidak ditanya. Sekeluar dari istana, suaminya berkomentar,”Kita ini memang pasangan yang hebat,” katanya.

Dari luar memang Welllington dan Hui Lan seperti pasangan yang serasi dan matang, padahal Hui Lan merasa pernikahan mereka tidak berjalan dengan mulus.

Orang memang mengagumi kecerdasan Wellinton. Tapi tak bisa dipungkiri bahwa mereka cuma negara kelas dua, sebab masa itu China bukan negara yang kuat. Kekuatan-kekuatan besar dunia cuma mengirimkan wakil setingkat minister ke Beijing, bukan duta besar.

Suatu kali dengan bergurau Hui Lan berkata pada Wellington,”Saya tidak ingin seumur hidup menjadi istri Minister, Kapan kamu menjadi dubes?”. Mendengar itu Wellinton jengkel.“Kalau kamu tidak puas dengan keadaanmu sekarang, kapan pun kamu tidak akan puas. Saya tidak bisa mendapat kedudukan lebih tinggi lagi dari ini, minister untuk Istana Saint James!” katanya ketus.


Pada tanggal 30 Januari 1922, putra mereka lahir di Washington. Ketika itu Wellington sedang menghadiri konferensi pembatasan senjata yang juga membicarakan nasib Shantung di tangan Inggris.

Putra mereka diberi nama Kai Yuen yang berarti “zaman baru”. Namun nama resmi putra kami itu Yu Chang yang diberi oleh abang sulung Wellington. Namun orang-orang lebih senang memanggil dengan nama Wellington Junior. Akhirnya sejak kecil mereka memanggilnya Junior saja.

 

 

Bertemu Dengan Ayah Lagi,

Pada  tahun 1916,  keadaan China kacau. Presiden Yuan Shih Kai meninggal tidak lama setelah berusaha menjadikan dirinya kaisar. Penggantinya lemah, Wellington yang sudah tujuh tahun meninggalkan China dipanggil pulang.

Dalam perjalanan ke China dengan S.S. Khyber mereka singgah di Singapura. Disanalah Hui lan mendapat kejutan yang tak disangka-sangka, yakni Ayahnya, Oei tiong ham datang menemui dirinya di atas kapal. Segera saja Hui Lan mengenalkan Wellington dengan Ayahnya. Itulah pertemuan pertama antara Oei Tiong Ham dengan menantunya sendiri.

 

Saat masih bersandar di Singapura itu, Hui Lan sempat diajak Ayahnya untuk mendarat untuk mengunjungi rumah yang selama ini ditinggalinya bersama Lucy Ho.

Sesampainya disana, Hui Lan heran, karena ayahnya yang glamour sudah jauh berubah. Hui Lan mendapati di rumah itu sama sekali tak ada air ledeng atau WC duduk. Sungguh jauh dari cirri-ciri kemegahan yang dulu dimiliki ayahnya. Bahkan ayahnya tak punya pelayan pribadi. Oei Tiong Ham sama sekali tak menjawab pertanyaan Hui Lan mengapa dirinya  menjadi hidup sederhana seperti itu.

Namun Oei Tiong Ham menjelaskan bisnisnya berjalan seperti biasa, Hauw maupun Swan bisa diandalkan. Kantor ayahnya di Singapura pun berjalan dengan baik, tetapi ia jarang ke sana.


Ayahnya juga  meminta Hui Lan supaya tak perlu khawatir. Kata Oei Tiong Ham,  neraca keuanganya bahkan lebih beres, karena ditangani sendiri oleh Lucy Ho. Memang berlainan dengan gundiknya yang lain . Lucy Ho cukup terpelajar dan pintar.

Tapi Hui lan tetap  tetap khawatir.  Dia tahu tidak semua istri setia. Mengapa Lucy Ho membiarkan dirinya terikat pada pria yang menghamilinya setiap tahun ? Hui Lan  memperingatkan ayahnya agar jangan mencampuradukkan seks dengan bisnis. Tapi oei Tiong Ham tertawa,”Kamu dan ibumu akan jauh lebih kaya, kalau pemasukan dan pengeluaran uang kalian seperti Lucy Ho.” katanya.

Tapi Hui Lan kemudian membalas,”Buat apa saya repot2 mengurusi neraca dan menelusuri kemana uang saya kalau saya mempunyai ayah seperti ini?”.

Saat kembali ke kapal, tak lupa Oei Tiong Ham menjejalkan lembaran dollar AS yang jumlahnya lebih dari US$ 50.000 ke dalam tas Hui Lan.

 

Setelah mengucap salam dan mennyarankan ayahnya supaya membeli mobil dan membuat WC duduk serta air ledeng. Oei Hui Lan dan Wellington Koo meneruskan perjalanan ke China.

Sesampainya di Shanghai mereka disambut meriah. Di Shanghai mereka sempat tinggal di rumah yang disewa oleh kakak sulung Wellington Koo untuk mereka. Tapi Hui Lan tak suka, karena selain ukurannya terlalu kecil, tak ada ledeng dan WC duduk pula.

Akhirnya mereka pindah ke hotel untuk beberapa waktu. Wellington Koo menurut Hui Lan sebetulnya tak setuju. Dia tak ingin menyinggung perasaan kakaknya yang sudah repot-repot menyewakan rumah. Tapi Hui Lan bergeming.

Beberapa waktu kemudian mereka membeli sebuah istana di Beijing, tentu saja dari uang pemberian Oei Tiong Ham, karena gaji Wellington tak mungkin mencukupi kebutuhan Hui Lan.  Istana itu dijual murah oleh pemiliknya, US$ 100,000, karena ia takut disita oleh pemerintah. Istana itu dibangun Kaisar pada abad XVII untuk seorang gundik yang paling dicintainya. Di istana itulah kemudian presiden China pertama Dr. Sun Yat Sen meninggal tahun 1925. Hui Lan menghabiskan dana tambahan sekitar US$ 150,000 lagi untuk memperbaiki istana itu. Di istana itu pula putra kedua Hui Lan lahir tanggal 24 Juli 1923 malam.

 

 

Oei Tiong Ham meninggal,

Setelah tinggal di China, Hui Lan masih sempat beberapa kali mengunjungi Singapura menemui Ayahnya.  Suatu ketika Hui Lan mendapat undangan jamuan makan dengan Gubernur Jenderal Singapura, ayahnya  yang melihat Hui Lan datang ke Singapura dengan perhiasan seadanya, langsung ke kamar dan setelah itu melemparkan setumpuk perhiasan intan yang besarnya berpuluh puluh karat ke pangkuan Hui Lan.

Yang diundang dalam perjamuan itu semuanya orang Inggris kecuali Hui Lan dan Sir Robert Ho tung dari Hong Kong.  Hui Lan mengajak ayahnya. Ayahnya  tidak paham bahasa Inggris dan ingin duduk di sebelahnya Hui Lan. Setelah dijelaskan kepada ajudan Gubernur Jenderal, akhirnya jamuan makan malan itu berlangsung lancar. Oei Tiong Ham duduk disebelah Hui Lan.

Hui Lan mengaku masih sekali lagi bertemu Oei Tiong Ham ketika Hui Lan datang ke Singapura untuk melihat pembangunan villa miliknya yang memasuki tahap akhir. Pada waktu itulah Oei Tiong Ham diramal oleh seorang India. Kata orang itu, akan ada musuh yang meracuni Oei Tiong Ham.

Hui Lan khawatir dan mengajak ayahnya meninggalkan Singapura. Tapi Oei Tiong Ham menolak, saat perpisahan di pelabuhan, Oei Tiong Ham  sempat berkata pada Hui Lan, “Hui Lan, aku lelah.“.

Hui Lan merasa sedih mendengar perkataan Ayahnya. Hui Lan sama sekali tak menyangka bahwa kalimat itu adalah perkataan terakhir dari Oei Tiong Ham untuk dirinya.

Setelah tiga bulan, Hui Lan menerima kawat dari Tjong Swan.  Oei Tiong Ham meninggal dunia.  Kabar yang dia terima, ayahnya meninggal mendadak akibat serangan jantung pada 6 Juni 1924.

Bagi Hui Lan, inilah awal masa suram kehidupannya. Hui Lan merasa sangat kehilangan. Sosok Oei Tiong Ham baginya juga sebagai pelindung. Selama ayahnya hidup, Hui Lan bukan Cuma merasa aman dari segi keuangan, tetapi juga selama ada Oei Tiong Ham, tidak seorang pun berani berbuat jahat terhadap Hui Lan dan keluarganya.

Ibunya, Bing Nio, menolak menghadiri pemakaman Oei Tiong Ham. Akhirnya ditemani Wang, sekretaris sekaligus kepala rumah tangga (majordomo) dan seorang pelayan perempuan, Hui Lan berangkat ke Singapura.

 

Sampai di Singapura, peti jenazah Oei Tiong Ham sudah ditutup. Saat itu banyak orang-orang yang tak dikenal Hui Lan datang. Mereka adalah teman-teman Lucy Ho. Hui Lan menyadari bahwa dirinya sekarang orang luar.

Hui Lan meminta agar jenazah ayahnya diotopsi, apalagi dia ingat betul perkataan peramal yang meramalkan ayahnya akan tewas diracun. Hui Lan curiga Lucy Ho meracuninya.  Namun menurut penasihat hukum di Singapura, sebagai anak perempuan almarhum Hui Lan tidak berhak meminta otopsi, kecuali ibunya, Bing Nio.

Diputuskan jenazah Oei Tiong Ham akan dimakamkan di Semarang.  Dua anak Oei Tiong  Ham yang dipercaya yakni Tjong Wan dan Tjong Hauw yang mengatur semuanya.  Jenazah lalu diangkut menggunakan kapal ke Semarang.

Di Semarang, prosesi pemakaman Oei Tiong Ham dilakukan tanpa biksu. Hui Lan  sebagai anak istri sah, duduk di kereta pertama pengiring kereta jenazah . Swan, Hauw , dan para putra Oei Tiong Ham dari gundik-gundiknya berjalan di belakang mereka.

Pembagian Warisan,

Oei Tiong Ham meninggalkan warisan cukup banyak.  Hui Lan mendapatkan warisan yang dijanjikan ayahnya.  Ibunya mendapat beberapa juta dollar.  Kakaknya, Tjong Lan mendapat satu juta dollar. Sementara perusahaan peninggalan Oei Tiong Ham dibagi tiga antara  Tjong Hauw, Tjong Swan dan Lucy Ho.  Belakangan Tjong Swan menjual bagiannya itu kepada Lucy Ho dan pindah ke Belanda.


Lucy Ho sendiri menurut kabar yang didengar Hui Lan, meninggal di Swiss akibat kanker. Swan meninggal akibat infeksi gigi yang ditelantarkan. Sementara  Hauw  meninggal di Jakarta karena serangan jantung tahun 1951.

Bisnis Oei Tiong Ham di Jawa lalu diambil alih Jepang dan sisanya kemudian diambil oleh pemerintah Soekarno.

 

 

 



Menjadi Dubes  AS,

Dua belas tahun kemudian, tepatnya  tahun 1936,  Wellington diangkat menjadi dubes China pertama untuk Prancis.  Hui Lan menulis dalam bukunya bahwa saat menuju Paris, dirinya meninggalkan banyak harta benda di China.  Hui Lan juga juga meninggalkan perhiasan almarhumah isteri pertama Wellington di sebuah bank di Shanghai, dengan maksud akan diberikan kepada putri mereka, Pat, kalau Pat sudah dewasa.

Waktu itu mereka tak berpikir bahwa akhirnya semua ternyata akan amblas oleh pemerintah komunis China.

Tujuh tahun menjadi dubes China untuk Perancis, Wellington pindah tugas menjadi Dubes di London tahun 1943.  Hui Lan mengaku berteman baik dengan Menteri Luar Negeri Anthony Eden dan pernah dijamu oleh PM Churchill, kemudian juga oleh PM Attlee. Bahkan mereka pernah diundang jamuan makan oleh Ibu Suri Mary yang  kemudian mereka balas dengan menjamunya di kantor kedubes China Di London.


Selama menjadi istri dubes, mereka bisa mengadakan perjamuan mewah semacam itu berkat warisan Oei Tiong Ham karena gaji Wellington yang ‘cuma’ US$ 600 sebulan.

Selama di London itu pula Hui Lan berteman baik dengan Joseph Kennedy, Jr yang kemudian tewas dalam perang.  Semasa perang dunia kedua, Hui Lan juga ikut menjadi sukarelawan Palang Merah Inggris di bawah Edwina Mountbatten.

Karier Wellington terus menanjak, tahun 1946 Wellington menjadi dubes China untuk sebuah negara besar yang kala itu memenangi perang dunia kedua, Amerika Serikat.

Kantor kedubes China di Washington sebelumnya adalah rumah milik penemu telepon Alexander Graham Bell. Tetangga sebelah mereka juga adalah seorang konglomerat AS yang kaya raya, Marjorie Merriweather Post.  Mereka kerap diundang jika Marjoie mengadakan pesta.

Kemudian Madame Chiang Kai Shek (isteri presiden Cina Nasionalis) juga pernah menjadi tamu di kediaman mereka. Oleh karena suaminya tidak bisa berbahasa Inggris, pemerintah China mengutus madame Chiang yang mendapat pendidikan di AS untuk berpidato di hadapan kongres.

Mereka juga berhubungan baik dengan wakil presiden Richard M. Nixon dan isterinya yang bijaksana itu. Dan sebagai duta besar, Wellington sering diundang dalam acara-acara penting dan formal pemerintah AS. Tentunya Hui Lan juga turut serta. Mereka sempat menghadiri upacara pelantikan presiden Harry S. Truman dan Presiden Dwight D. Eisenhower.

Bing Nio untuk beberepa saat pernah tinggal bersama mereka di Washington, tapi kemudian meninggal akibat kanker di sebuah rumah sakit di New York.  Hui Lan menuturkan dia sangat merasa kehilangan ibunya untuk waktu yang lama.

 

 

Akhir Dari Semuanya,

Tahun 1956, setelah bertugas di Washington selama sepuluh tahun, Wellington ditarik pulang. Ketika itu pemerintah China sudah terbagi dua, Taiwan dan China Daratan, antara nasionalis dan komunis.

Hui Lan memilih tetap tinggal di AS. Dia menyewa sebuah apartemen di Sutton Palace, New York. Anak tirinya, Pat sering datang menemani  Hui Lan mengobrol dan untuk mengajarinya memasak. Di apartemen itu Hui Lan tinggal bersama dua anjing peking kesayangannya.  Karena Wang ikut Wellington ke China, dua pelayannya  memilih bekerja di tempat lain sementara koki mereka membuka restoran.


Suatu kali Hui Lan mengalami peristiwa naas. Seusai pulang dari mengajak jalan-jalan anjingnya, Hui Lan disergap perampok. Dua perampok  bule itu mengikat tangan dan kaki Hui Lan.  Perampk itu berhasil membawa lari perhiasan Hui Lan yang nilainya kira-kira seperempat juta dollar.


Setelah perang usai, sulit sekali mengurus rumah rumah kami di pelbagai tempat di eropa. Dengan susah payah berhasil juga saya menjualnya, walaupun dengan harga murah. Saya mengagumi Ny. Kung, seorang Methodist yang tabah. Ia menghibur saya,“Apa pun milik kita yang hilang, jika Anda mencintai Tuhan, Anda tidak akan terpengaruh.“

Sejak itu Hui Lan mengaku jarang menjamu dan enggan menghadiri perjamuan.  Hui lan masih beruntung karena  anak tirinya Pat, dan anak-anaknya patuh terhadap dirinya. Putra sulungnya,  berhasil menjadi anggota tentara Angkatan Udara Nasionalis dan berada di Taiwan. Tjong Lan meninggal di New York tahun 1970. Suaminya meninggal setahun sebelumnya.

Hui Lan juga merasa memiliki pertalian emosional dengan Indonesia, tempat dia dilahirkan dan menghabiskan masa kecil. Oleh karena itu, tahun 1968 Hui Lan pernah mencoba berbisnis di Indonesia tetapi bisnis itu gagal.


Di penghujung usianya, Hui Lan menyadari berkenalan dengan kaum ningrat dan orang berduit tidaklah penting. Otak dan kepribadianlah lebih penting. Kita bisa menderita akibat haus kekuasaan, tetapi kita bisa mendapat kesenangan dari sikap hormat, kesederhanaan dan sifat lurus. Kita seharusnya menghargai orang orang lain dan hidup ini, tulis Hui Lan.

Nama Jalan di Singapura,

Hui Lan sendiri meninggal dunia tahun 1992, di Amerika. Menurut catatan redaksi majalah Intisari berjudul “Pelangi Cina di Indonesia”, Hui Lan masih sempat menulis kata pendahuluan untuk buku Raja Gula Oei Tiong Ham yang ditulis Liem Tjwan Ling, pada Maret 1978.

Sementara nasib benda-benda peninggalan Oei Tiong Ham di Semarang sudah sulit dilacak. Rumahnya di Jalan Gergaji, Semarang sekarang dijadikan tempat kursus bahasa asing dan komputer, milik keluarga Hoo Liong Tiauw pemilik pabrik plastik Polyplast.

Tjwan Ling Liem, penulis buku “Raja Gula Oei Tiong Ham (Surabaya, 1979) menulis terjadi pengambil alihan aset Oei Tiong Ham di Semarang oleh pemerintah.  Lalu sekitar tahun 1975-an, pemakaman Oei Tiong Ham dibongkar, tulang belulangnya di bawa ke Singapura dan diabukan disana. Nama  Oei Tiong Ham kemudian diabadikan sebagai nama salah satu jalan di Singapura.

Beberapa  bangunan yang masih bisa mengambarkan kejayaan

Oei Tiong Ham

yang tersebar di Semarang Singapora hingga London

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pada tahun 1863

seorang pengusaha China mendirikan perusahaan perdagangan hasil bumi di Semarang dengan nama NV Handel My Kian Gwan yang kemudian berkembang menjadi perusahaan konglomerasi dengan induk perusahaan bernama Oei Tiong Ham Concern. Pada tahun 1961 induk perusahaan tersebut diambil alih Pemerintah yang kemudian pada tahun 1964 seluruh harta kekayaannya yang ada di Indonesia digunakan sebagai penyertaan dalam pendirian PT Rajawali Nusantara Indonesia ( RNI ).

Sejak pendiriannya pada tahun 1964, RNI sudah merupakan holding company dengan 10 anak perusahaan yang bergerak dibidang agro industri, farmasi dan alat kesehatan, perdagangan, properti dan jasa. Dalam rangka pengembangan usaha selanjutnya, disamping dilakukan berbagai diversifikasi dimasing-masing bidang usaha, juga dikembangkan industri hilir dan pemanfaatan produk samping.

Seiring dengan perubahan kondisi perekonomian, peraturan perundang -undangan serta kebijakan pemerintah yang terkait dengan BUMN, dalam rangka meningkatkan efisiensi dan efektifitas pengelolaan, mulai tahun 1998 manajemen telah melakukan evaluasi dan penyesuaian terhadap kondisi usaha yang ada dengan kembali pada core business dan core competence semula yaitu agro industri, farmasi dan alat kesehatan serta perdagangan. Dengan menjadikan bidang perdagangan sebagai ujung tombak yang ditopang oleh bidang agro industri dan farmasi, diharapkan tercipta sinergi diantara ketiganya.

Bidang agro industri meliputi : gula, kelapa sawit, karet, teh dan hortikultura. Bidang farmasi dan alat kesehatan, meliputi : industri obat-obatan, industri alat radiologi, alat suntik, kondom dan reagensia. Bidang perdagangan, disamping menjadi agen dari prinsipal lain, juga memiliki industri kulit, sarung tangan, dan karung plastik.

Pengembangan industri hilir dan pemanfaatan produk samping meliputi : pabrik alkohol, spiritus, dan arak dengan bahan baku tetes, pabrik pakan ternak dengan bahan baku pucuk tebu, pabrik particle board dengan bahan baku bagas, pabrik kanvas rem dengan bahan baku bagas, pabrik pupuk mix dengan bahan baku blotong dan abu ketel.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Istana Oey Tiong Ham

 

Gambar dulu: Istananya berbentuk U. Di latar belakang tampak

bukit Bergota di kanan. Bukit Gunungsawo dan bukit Bongsari

di kiri.

Dua istananya sangat megah dan terkenal. Istana utama di Gergaji terkenal sangat luas, sedangkan istana yang berada di Simongan dikenal dengan keindahan pemandangannya. Istana di gergaji mempunyai luas areal sekitar 200 acre atau sekitar 81 hektar. Membentang dari Simpanglima, Jalan Pandanaran, Randusari, Mugas, Jalan Pahlawan termasuk kompleks Gubernuran dan Polda Jateng, wilayah Gergaji hingga Jalan Kyai Saleh.

Gedung intinya seluas 9,2 hektar, memiliki 200 ruangan, dapur, vila pribadi, 2 paviliun besar dan kebun binatang pribadi. Ia memiliki 40 pembantu dan 50 tukang kebun. Uniknya dia membangun tempat beribadah khusus untuk para pembantunya.

 

Bagian dalam rumah Oey Tiong Ham

 

 

 

Oey Tiong Ham Memorial Hall

 

 

 

Serambi muka rumah kediaman Oey Tiong ham

 

Istana ini merupakan landmark bagi masyarakat Semarang pada sekitar permulaan abad ke 20 hingga paruh abad ke 20. Masyarakat setempat menyebutnya Istana Oei Tiong Ham atau Istana Gergaji. Masyarakat juga menyebutnya sebagai Kebon Rojo karena Tiong Ham banyak memelihara hewan hingga mirip kebun binatang. Disebut juga Taman Bale Kambang karena di kompleks istana ada kolam-kolam ikan yang diatasnya dibangun bale atau gazebo untuk beristirahat. Nama Bale Kambang kini masih dipakai sebagai nama perkampungan di bekas lokasi tersebut.
Dalam pelelangan sekitar tahun 1883 rumah tersebut jatuh ke tangan Oei Tjie Sien, ayah Tiong Ham. Sayang tak ada catatan tahun berapa bangunan gedung tersebut dibangun tetapi diperkirakan sekitar seperempat abad ke 19. Pada sekitar tahun 1888 Oei Tiong Ham yang pada waktu itu berusia sekitar 22 tahun pindah menempati rumah yang terletak di jalan Gergaji (kini jalan Kyai Saleh) tersebut.

 

Rumah Kediaman Oey Tiong Ham, Jln. Kyai saleh

(Balai Prajurit yang sekarang digunakan sebagai Kampus STIMIK Provisi)

 

 

 

 

 

 

INTEROOR HOUSE OF OEI TIONG HAM

 

Istana Oey Tiong Ham

 

Gambar dulu: Istananya berbentuk U. Di latar belakang tampak

bukit Bergota di kanan. Bukit Gunungsawo dan bukit Bongsari

di kiri.

Dua istananya sangat megah dan terkenal. Istana utama di Gergaji terkenal sangat luas, sedangkan istana yang berada di Simongan dikenal dengan keindahan pemandangannya. Istana di gergaji mempunyai luas areal sekitar 200 acre atau sekitar 81 hektar. Membentang dari Simpanglima, Jalan Pandanaran, Randusari, Mugas, Jalan Pahlawan termasuk kompleks Gubernuran dan Polda Jateng, wilayah Gergaji hingga Jalan Kyai Saleh.

Gedung intinya seluas 9,2 hektar, memiliki 200 ruangan, dapur, vila pribadi, 2 paviliun besar dan kebun binatang pribadi. Ia memiliki 40 pembantu dan 50 tukang kebun. Uniknya dia membangun tempat beribadah khusus untuk para pembantunya.

 

Bagian dalam rumah Oey Tiong Ham

 

 

 

Oey Tiong Ham Memorial Hall

 

 

 

Serambi muka rumah kediaman Oey Tiong ham

 

Istana ini merupakan landmark bagi masyarakat Semarang pada sekitar permulaan abad ke 20 hingga paruh abad ke 20. Masyarakat setempat menyebutnya Istana Oei Tiong Ham atau Istana Gergaji.

Masyarakat juga menyebutnya sebagai Kebon Rojo karena Tiong Ham banyak memelihara hewan hingga mirip kebun binatang. Disebut juga Taman Bale Kambang karena di kompleks istana ada kolam-kolam ikan yang diatasnya dibangun bale atau gazebo untuk beristirahat. Nama Bale Kambang kini masih dipakai sebagai nama perkampungan di bekas lokasi tersebut.
Dalam pelelangan sekitar tahun 1883 rumah tersebut jatuh ke tangan Oei Tjie Sien, ayah Tiong Ham. Sayang tak ada catatan tahun berapa bangunan gedung tersebut dibangun tetapi diperkirakan sekitar seperempat abad ke 19. Pada sekitar tahun 1888 Oei Tiong Ham yang pada waktu itu berusia sekitar 22 tahun pindah menempati rumah yang terletak di jalan Gergaji (kini jalan Kyai Saleh) tersebut.

 

Rumah Kediaman Oey Tiong Ham, Jln. Kyai saleh

(Balai Prajurit yang sekarang digunakan sebagai Kampus STIMIK Provisi)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Oei buried Ceremony

 

ship

 

Oei gynealogy

 

oei‑hui‑lan.jpg

semarang.nl

154 × 208 – Oei Tiong Ham together with his wife

 

 

Bangunan kuno di Jl Sriwijaya itu adl makam Thio Sing Liang seorang kaya raya yg meninggal pd thn 1940. Di sana ada 4 orang dimakamkan yaitu Thio Sing Ling dan istri ke 2 di dalam gedung utama dan istri pertama dan kerabatnya di luar gedung di belakang. Ini foto2nya.

[

__________________

” Our company is the Manufacturer of Export Quality Tapioca/Cassava Chips in Indonesia. We have our own processing machine (peeling, cutting, oven, etc). We have also R&D team and Quality Assurance department to always improve our product quality. We can supply 5,000-10,000 Metric Ton/month with short/long term contract. Our factory is located in the capitol of Central Java Province, which is near the Semarang Tanjung Emas Port so we can deliver your order promptly. Our company is one of the Politama groups of company which has many companies like PT. Polidaya which produce Plastics Bags, PT. Polirubber which is the Tire Retreading factory, Hoo’s Clinic which is a hospital in Semarang, Study World Language School and ProVisi IT College (Diploma and Bachelor Degree IT Education with International Certification). These companies are based in Semarang and Jakarta. ”

ProVisi adalah kampus di bekas rumah Oei Tiong Ham di jl Kiai Saleh…

penelusuran selanjutnya:
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Alumni…/message/83598

“Menurut catatan, rumah tersebut bukanlah rumah yang di bangun oleh Oei Tiong Ham tetapi pemilik semula adalah tuan Hoo Yam Loo, seorang pedagangTionghoa kaya raya yang mendapat hak monopoli dalam perdagangan candu (opium pachter) dari pemerintah kolonial Belanda.”

“Era baru kemudian muncul bersamaan dengan berpindahnya kepemilikan bekas bangunan istana Oei Tiong Ham ke pemilik baru, seorang pengusaha muda bernama Budi Poernomo atau lebih akrab dengan panggilan Hoo Liem. Adalah suatu keuntungan pula bahwa Hoo Liem adalah seorang sosok pecinta sejarah dan sangat berminat tentang segala sesuatu yang berhubungan dengan kebudayaan, pendidikan dan heritage pada umumnya terutama yang berhubungan dengan kota kelahirannya Semarang.

Budi Poernomo memperoleh pasangan hidup seorang gadis benama Ibu Lolly yang juga menyelesaikan kuliahnya sebagai sarjana akuntansi di universitas yang sama di Canada. Pasangan muda ini dikaruniai 2 putera puteri, Ariel Olivia Poernama yang bersuamikan Kim Soen Chay, dan seorang putera Dwi Adhi Poernomo.

Sesuai dengan cita-citanya maka istana Oei Tiong Ham dipugar sesuai dengan bangunan aslinya dengan sedikit perubahan di bagian belakang selaras dengan kebutuhannya sebagai sebuah kampus pendidikan yang dikelola dengan nama : STMIK PROVISI yaitu Sekolah Tinggi Management Informatika dan Komputer serta STUDY WORLD sebuah laboratorium bahasa.

Banyak masyarakat pencinta kota Semarang yang concern dengan bangunan-bangunan kunonya yang satu persatu musnah tak terawat atau yang dibongkar untuk dibangun gedung baru yang lebih modern, merasa lega karena salah satu gedung bersejarah bagi masyarakat kota Semarang masih dapat dipertahankan bentuk aslinya oleh pemiliknya yang baru.”

 

 

Gak tau apa hubungannya Hoo Yam Loo sang raja Opiun dulu dengan Hoo Liem (Budi Poernomo). Kalo leluhurnya, berarti mr Hoo mewarisi kembali rumah leluhurnya yang bangkrut dulu…


Semarang Jg Pertama2 Kumandangkan Kemerdekaan Lewat Radio

* Setjara Tak Resmi Disiarkan Melalui Chotbah Sembahjang Djum’at Mesdjid Besar

BERITA tentang kekalahan Djepang tanpa sjarat kepada Sekutu itu dapat ditangkap oleh bagian tehnik “Semarang Hoso Kyoku” (sekarang RRI Semg) jang sedang bertugas melakukan monitoring dari Radio Tokyo pada hari Senin malam tgl. 13 Agustus 1945. Meskipun Djepang merahasiakan berita itu, tetapi sudah ada perobahan sikap pegawai Djepang sendiri di Semarang Hoso Kyoku, mereka tampak gelisah.

Pegawai2 Indonesia mulai membitjarakan situasi jg. dihadapi. Mereka berpendapat untuk merebut kekuasaan dari tangan Djepang. Persiapan segera diadakan dengan mengumpulkan alat2 tehnik jang dapat diangkat. Pegawai2 Djepang diasingkan dari tugas pekerdjaannja, tetapi belum berani bertindak karena pegawai2 Djepang bersendjata. Pada saat itu jang memimpin Hoso Kyoku ialah Jamawaki.

Berita kekalahan Djepang itu tjepat pula tersiar, terutama dikalangan tokoh2 pergerakan perdjoangan kemerdekaan jang selalu mengikuti perkembangan Perang Pasifik dan posisi Djepang waktu itu. Bahkan ketika berita Proklamasi sampai di Semarang tgl. 17 Agustus 1945 mendjelang siang hari Djum’at melalui kantor berita “Domei,” tjepat pula disiarkan baik dari mulut ke mulut maupun dgn plakat2.

Seperti biasa setiap hari Djum’at di Mesdjid Besar Semarang selalu diadakan sholat al Djumuah jg selalu direly dan disiarkan lewat radio oleh Semarang Hoso Kyoku. Pada tgl. 17 Agustus itu djuga pada siaran hari Djum’at siang dari mesdjid besar segera diatur seolah2 hendak menjiarkan chotbah dari mesdjid. Setelah persiapan selesai dan diadakan hubungan dgn studio, pertama2 terdengar suara adzan, biasanja diteruskan dgn chotbah keagamaan.

Tetapi orang jang berchotbah itu mengawali sambutannja dgn terlebih dahulu mengumumkan bahwa pada hari itu bangsa Indonesia telah memproklamirkan kemerdekaannja. Kemudian disusul dengan pembatjaan teks Proklamasi 17 Agustus 1945 jang telah diterima pula melalui orang2 jg berhubungan dengan “Domei.”

Segenap djemaah dan pendengar radio dirumah2 terkedjut bertjampur gembira mendengarnja, tetapi sebaliknja penguasa Djepang sangat marah. Pimpinan Hoso Kyoku marah2 dan mengusut siapa jang menjiarkannja tetapi tidak seorangpun mendjawab. Achirnja diperintahkan agar hubungan dengan mesdjid besar Semarang diputuskan walaupun siaran itu belum selesai.

Ini merupakan pengumuman tentang kemerdekaan bangsa Indonesia jang pertama sekali disiarkan untuk umum di seluruh Indonesia, meskipun tidak setjara resmi. Itu sebabnja mengapa gelora Proklamasi tjepat diikuti oleh Semarang dan Djawa Tengah umumnja.

Pembentukan K.N.I

Kumandangnja Proklamasi sangat tjepat ditanggapi dan digarap oleh pemimpin2 pergerakan kemerdekaan terutama para angkatan mudanja. Malam hari segera diadakan rapat di Purusara (Pusat Rumah Sakit Rakjat) Semarang. Dalam rapat ini segera dapat disusun suatu badan jang kemudian diresmikan sebagai KNI (Komite Nasional Indonesia), seperti jang diinstruksikan oleh perintah pusat tgl 22 Agustus 1945. Mr. Wongsonegoro jang waktu itu masih mendjabat Fuku Sutjokan (wakil residen Semarang), telah ditundjuk mendjadi ketua badan tsb.
Esok harinja para pemuda jang tidak sabar lagi telah mengantjam Mr. Wongsonegoro agar siang hari Sabtu itu djuga mengambil alih kekuasaan dari tangan Djepang.

Hal ini dipenuhi Wongsonegoro dgn mengumpulkan segenap kepala dan wakil kepala dan pegawai2 bangsa Indonesia di Gedung Papak dan didjelaskan bahwa mulai saat itu rakjat Semarang telah mengambil alih kekuasaan dan segala tanggung djawab kini dipegang oleh bangsa Indonesia sendiri.
Pada tgl. 19 Agustus 1945 djam 12.00 siang Wongsonegoro mengumumkan dengan resmi melalui radio tentang Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Bangsa Indonesia. (Depo Arsip-Pusda SM)

kisah tentang Oei Tiong Ham, terdiri dari 8 part, klik masing2 link di bawah ini:

Part 1 – Raja gula Asia Tenggara dari Semarang
Part 2 – Indahnya Istana Balekambang
Part 3 – Asetnya tersebar di seantro dunia
Part 4 – Punya bakat sugih sejak lahir
Part 5 – Namanya abadi sebagai nama jalan di Singapura
Part 6 – Akhir tragis sang taipan
Part 7 – Sisa kejayaanmu kini
Part 8 – Kisahnya berakhir di tangan ketua KPK Antasari Azhar

 

————————————-

Istana Oei Tiong Ham Jl Kyai Saleh itu ada di part 2, ini kutipannya:

Quote:

Dua istananya sangat megah dan terkenal. Istana utama di Gergaji terkenal sangat luas, sedangkan istana yang berada di Simongan dikenal dengan keindahan pemandangannya. Istana di gergaji mempunyai luas areal sekitar 200 acre atau sekitar 81 hektar. Membentang dari Simpanglima, Jalan Pandanaran, Randusari, Mugas, Jalan Pahlawan termasuk kompleks Gubernuran dan Polda Jateng, wilayah Gergaji hingga Jalan Kyai Saleh.

Gedung intinya seluas 9,2 hektar, memiliki 200 ruangan, dapur, vila pribadi, 2 paviliun besar dan kebun binatang pribadi. Ia memiliki 40 pembantu dan 50 tukang kebun. Uniknya dia membangun tempat beribadah khusus untuk para pembantunya.

Istana ini merupakan landmark bagi masyarakat Semarang pada sekitar permulaan abad ke 20 hingga paruh abad ke 20. Masyarakat setempat menyebutnya Istana Oei Tiong Ham atau Istana Gergaji. Masyarakat juga menyebutnya sebagai Kebon Rojo karena Tiong Ham banyak memelihara hewan hingga mirip kebun binatang. Disebut juga Taman Bale Kambang karena di kompleks istana ada kolam-kolam ikan yang diatasnya dibangun bale atau gazebo untuk beristirahat. Nama Bale Kambang kini masih dipakai sebagai nama perkampungan di bekas lokasi tersebut.


Asal usul istananya:

Quote:

Dalam pelelangan sekitar tahun 1883 rumah tersebut jatuh ke tangan Oei Tjie Sien, ayah Tiong Ham. Sayang tak ada catatan tahun berapa bangunan gedung tersebut dibangun tetapi diperkirakan sekitar seperempat abad ke 19. Pada sekitar tahun 1888 Oei Tiong Ham yang pada waktu itu berusia sekitar 22 tahun pindah menempati rumah yang terletak di jalan Gergaji (kini jalan Kyai Saleh) tersebut.


————————————-

 

Gambar dulu: Istananya berbentuk U. Di latar belakang tampak bukit Bergota di kanan. Bukit Gunungsawo dan bukit Bongsari di kiri.


Namanya Oei Tiong Ham, atau dalam bahasa Tionghoa dikenal sebagai Huáng Zhònghán. Jangan mengaku orang Semarang asli jika tidak mengenalnya. Dia adalah pendiri perusahaan multinasional pertama di Asia Tenggara dan orang terkaya pada zamannya di kawasan itu dengan kekayaan lebih dari 200 juta gulden.

Pria yang dijuluki Raja Gula Asia Tenggara ini dilahirkan di Semarang pada 13 Tjap-Gwee Tahun Phia-in zaman kaisar Tong Tie memerintah tahun ke lima, pukul 2 siang Bie Sie atau 19 November 1866, sama dengan tahun lahirnya pemimpin China, Dr Sun Yat Sen. Ia putra kedua dari delapan orang anak di dalam keluarganya. Tapi di literatur lain disebutkan Tiong Ham merupakan anak kedua dari tiga bersaudara. Kakaknya Oei Tiong Tjan meninggal usia muda, dan adiknya Oei Tiong Bing atau dikenal dengan Majoor Djoe Gwan.

Ayahnya, Oei Tjie-sien (Huáng Zhìxìn) adalah peletak dasar bagi imperium keluarga Oei. Tjie Sien berasal dari daerah Tong An di Fujian, China. Pada 1863 Tjie Sien mendirikan Kongsi dagang Kian-gwan (Jianyuan Gongsi) yang bergerak dalam jual-beli karet, kapuk, gambir, tapioka dan kopi.

Tiong Ham mewarisi kerajaan bisnis Tjie Sien pada 1890 dengan kekayaan senilai 17,5 juta gulden. Di tangannya bisnis didiversifikasi hingga ke jasa pengiriman, kayu, property, sampai opium. Pada 1890-1904, laba Tiong Ham yang mengibarkan bendera Oei Tiong Ham Concern (OTHC) mencapai 18 juta gulden.

Pada peralihan abad memasuki abad ke-20, Tiong Ham telah menjadi orang terkaya di Asia Tenggara dengan kekayaan 200 juta gulden. Cabang bisnisnya menyebar hingga Bangkok, Singapura, Hong Kong, Shanghai, London dan New York. OTHC juga mempunyai properti dan sejumlah pabrik di Jawa, sebuah bank, broker di London dan armada kapal yang terdaftar di Singapura.

Tak seperti kebanyakan pengusaha Tionghoa saat itu, Tiong Ham yang dekat dengan penguasa kolonial mempraktikkan kontrak bisnis dalam menjalankan usahanya. Ini membuatnya tidak populer di karangan pebisnis Tionghoa. Namun, memberinya kekuatan hukum ketika orang yang berutang padanya tak melunasi kewajibannya.

Banyak yang berutang padanya adalah pemilik pabrik gula di Jawa Timur. Dan ketika mereka tak bisa melunasi kewajibannya sebagai efek krisis gula yang terjadi di tahun 1880, Tiong Ham menggunakan haknya sebagai kreditor. Dia mengakuisisi banyak pabrik gula, di antaranya pabrik gula Tanggulangin, yang menjadikannya terkenal dengan sebutan Raja Gula.

Tiong ham tak hanya berhasil sebagai pebisnis. Tapi juga dalam kehidupan bermasyarakat. Ia diangkat menjadi pemimpin Tionghoa di Semarang berpangkat Mayor dan sering membantu dalam kegiatan sosial. Tahun 1904, Tiong Ham menjadi orang Tionghoa pertama di Semarang yang memotong thaocang atau kuncir rambut dan berpakaian jas model barat.

Tapi ia tidak sembarangan melakukannya. Untuk itu ia mendapatkan ijin dari Gubernemen Jenderal Hindia Belanda melalui advokatnya Baron van Heeckereen. Tingkahnya itu sempat menjadi buah bibir bahkan dimuat pada surat kabar Bintang Hindia yang terbit di Belanda, juga di koran Bintang Betawi, Pembrita Betawi, Warna Warta dan Pewarta Soerabaia.(*)

__________________


Mengenal Oei Tiong Ham (2), Indahnya Istana Balekambang
Penulis: lepenalit Tanggal 31 Maret 2011 Jam 20:37
dalam kategori: Info Bisnis

Keberhasilan Tiong Ham disebabkan oleh kepandaiannya menjalin hubungan baik dengan para penguasa kolonial Belanda. Ketokohannya membuat pemerintah Belanda mempercayakan gelar Mayoor der Chinezen kepadanya. Ia pun diijinkan menempati rumah di luar areal pecinan seperti yang ditentukan dan memotong kuncir rambut (taochang).

Dua istananya sangat megah dan terkenal. Istana utama di Gergaji terkenal sangat luas, sedangkan istana yang berada di Simongan dikenal dengan keindahan pemandangannya. Istana di gergaji mempunyai luas areal sekitar 200 acre atau sekitar 81 hektar. Membentang dari Simpanglima, Jalan Pandanaran, Randusari, Mugas, Jalan Pahlawan termasuk kompleks Gubernuran dan Polda Jateng, wilayah Gergaji hingga Jalan Kyai Saleh.

Gedung intinya seluas 9,2 hektar, memiliki 200 ruangan, dapur, vila pribadi, 2 paviliun besar dan kebun binatang pribadi. Ia memiliki 40 pembantu dan 50 tukang kebun. Uniknya dia membangun tempat beribadah khusus untuk para pembantunya.

Istana ini merupakan landmark bagi masyarakat Semarang pada sekitar permulaan abad ke 20 hingga paruh abad ke 20. Masyarakat setempat menyebutnya Istana Oei Tiong Ham atau Istana Gergaji. Masyarakat juga menyebutnya sebagai Kebon

Rojo karena Tiong Ham banyak memelihara hewan hingga mirip kebun binatang. Disebut juga Taman Bale Kambang karena di kompleks istana ada kolam-kolam ikan yang diatasnya dibangun bale atau gazebo untuk beristirahat. Nama Bale Kambang kini masih dipakai sebagai nama perkampungan di bekas lokasi tersebut.

Keindahan kompleks rumah Oei Tiong Ham menarik perhatian masyarakat. Banyak penumpang kapal yang berlabuh di Semarang menyempatkan diri untuk berkunjung. Tiong Ham juga memberi kesempatan kepada masyarakat untuk menikmati taman indah di rumahnya itu pada akhir pekan dan hari besar.

Menurut catatan, rumah tersebut bukanlah rumah yang di bangun oleh Oei Tiong Ham tetapi pemilik semula adalah tuan Hoo Yam Loo, seorang pedagang Tionghoa kaya raya yang mendapat hak monopoli dalam perdagangan candu (opium pachter) dari pemerintah kolonial Belanda. Tetapi dalam perjalanan waktu, pedagang tersebut mengalami kerugian besar sehingga dinyatakan bangkrut. Semua harta benda disita untuk kemudian dilelang termasuk gedung besar tersebut.

Dalam pelelangan sekitar tahun 1883 rumah tersebut jatuh ke tangan Oei Tjie Sien, ayah Tiong Ham. Sayang tak ada catatan tahun berapa bangunan gedung tersebut dibangun tetapi diperkirakan sekitar seperempat abad ke 19. Pada sekitar tahun 1888 Oei Tiong Ham yang pada waktu itu berusia sekitar 22 tahun pindah menempati rumah yang terletak di jalan Gergaji (kini jalan Kyai Saleh) tersebut.

Pada saat Tiong Ham memutuskan pindah, masyarakat Tionghoa merasa sangat heran dan kagum atas keberaniaanya untuk melawan hukum yang berlaku pada waktu itu. Maklum, saat itu masih berlaku peraturan Wijkenstelsel dimana orang-orang Tionghoa tidak diperbolehkan bertempat tinggal di luar daerah yang telah ditentukan oleh pemerintah kolonial Belanda, semisal daerah pecinan. Sedang rumah tersebut terletak di daerah pemukiman orang-orang Belanda.(*)

__________________
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Mengenal Oei Tiong Ham (3) Asetnya Tersebar Di Seantero Dunia
Penulis: lepenalit Tanggal 31 Maret 2011 Jam 20:57
dalam kategori: Info Bisnis

foto: Di salah satu bangunan di jalan ini (sekarang Jalan Kepodang, Kota Lama) tempat kantor Oei Tiong Ham

Istana Oei Tiong Ham bukan hanya di Semarang. Dia juga membangun istana lain di Singapura dan di Beijing untuk anak kesayangannya Oei Hui Lan dari istri pertama Geoi Bing Nio. Belum lagi rumah rumah mewah yang dia miliki di London, Paris dan Amerika.

Rumah Di London merupakan hadiah perkawinan untuk putri sulungnya Tjong Lan (kakak Oei Hui Lan). Seluas 2 hektar dengan harga 200.000 Poundsterling pada tahun 1913.

Istana di Beijing ini bukan gedung sembarangan. Bangunan mewah itu didirikan oleh Raja China dari Abad 17 untuk seorang gundiknya. Di istana itulah kemudian presiden China pertama Dr. Sun Yat Sen meninggal tahun 1925. Tempat itu dibeli Tiong Ham pada sekitar tahun 1920 dengan harga 100.000 US Dolar plus 150.000 US Dolar lagi untuk dekorasi rumah itu. Istana itu memiliki 200 ruangan, 80 kamar, dan kolam renang mewah model Eropa.

Tiong Ham masih menghadiahi putri emasnya itu dengan rumah mewah di Singapura. Tak kalah mentereng, rumah ini memiliki 40 kamar tidur dan kolam renang mewah model Eropa.

Yah, kekayaan 200 juta gulden pada masa itu memang luar biasa banyaknya. Tiong Ham telah menjadi orang terkaya di Asia Tenggara bahkan Asia. Cabang bisnisnya menyebar hingga Bangkok, Singapura, Hong Kong, Shanghai, London dan New York. Ia menguasai sejumlah pabrik gula di Jawa, sebuah bank, broker di London dan armada kapal yang terdaftar di Singapura.(*)

 

Oei Tiong Ham dikenal mempunyai bakat sugih sejak lahir. Selain berasal dari keluarga kaya, ia juga memiliki kecerdasan bawaan, pandai memanfaatkan kesempatan, mempunyai visi yang tajam, wawasan luas dan sangat disiplin serta bertanggung jawab.

Sifat-sifat menonjolnya itu sudah kelihatan sejak kecil. Ketika masih bayi, ayahnya memperlihatkan Peh Dji (perhitungan hari lahir) Tiong Ham kepada seorang peramal. Hasilnya si peramal mengatakan bahwa Tiong Ham memiliki Peh Dji sangat bagus. Ia diramal akan menjadi seseorang yang sangat tajam otaknya, mempunyai kedudukan mulia dan akan menjadi hartawan besar.

Bakatnya sebagai organisator dan pelobi ulung juga tergambar melalui sebuah cerita di masa kecilnya. Arkian, Tiong Ham memiliki banyak teman dan dia termasuk yang dituakan dalam kelompoknya. Suatu ketika ia mengajak para sahabatnya menonton pertunjukan Wayang Potehi di Klenteng Tay Kak Sie di Gang Lombok, kompleks Pecinan.

Karena terburu-buru salah satu sahabatnya menyenggol beberapa dasaran pedagang hingga jatuh berantakan. Walhasil, beberapa pedagang itu menuntut sahabatnya untuk mengganti rugi. Semua teman-temannya ketakutan. Tapi tidak dengan Tiong Ham. Ia maju sendirian dan berkata kepada pedagang bahwa dirinya yang akan mengganti rugi. Ia lalu mengajak para pedagang menghadap ayahnya di rumahnya.

Tentu saja ayahnya kaget. “Kenapa kita jang moesti ganti, boekankah itoe anak jang bikin salah?” kata Oei Tjie Sien.

Namun dengan tenang oei Tiong Ham menjawab bahwa ia merasa bertanggungjawab karena dirinyalah yang mengajak sahabatnya menonton wayang. “Kerna owee jang adjak menonton wajang, maka owee-lah jang aken pikoel itoe risico, dimana toch owee ada lebih mampoe dari sobat owee.”

Puas dengan jawaban Tiong Ham, ayahnya pun bersedia membayar semua kerugian para pedagang.(*)

__________________


apa masih ada keturunan dari oei yg masih tinggal di indonesia? apa udah pindah ke luar negeri semua yah?
skrg status nya istana nya oei itu milik siapa? pemerintah? apa bisa dikunjungi oleh orang biasa?

   

ini INFORMASI untuk melengkapi cerita di atas,cuma pasti mumet bacanya karena ini dalam Ejaan Lama (jadi tidak di cuplik) ,disusun dari blog cucu seorang Jurnalis Tionghoa dari Malang .. mungkin th 20-an spi 40an dengan nama Tjamboek Berdoeri

 

 

Cerita 4 seri ini mengingat kebaikan dan jiwa sosial Majoor Oei Tiong Ham,mungkin ditulis pada saat Majoor Oei Tiong Ham tsb meninggal.

 

   
 

Orang kaya dari Semarang (1)

 


Papanya OEI TIONG HAM

Tjeritanja ada begini:

B

 
   
 

Orang kaya dari Semarang (2)

 

 

 


 

       B

 

 

 

Ada photo ttg penguburan Majoor Oei Tiong Ham di atas, menarik photo di Bagian ke 2 tsb :

Tampak kereta mewah tp sebelumnya ada keterangan jenasah dipindahkan dari “praoe” (perahu ? .. apa sebelumnya Istana Oei Tiong Ham yang lain di Simongan tsb harus lewat kali Semarang (Banjir kanal Barat sekarang)) ke “vrathtauto” (mobil).

Dibagian ke empat ada informasi jenasah Oei Tiong Ham dikuburkan di daerah Simongan,bisa jadi Gedung Batu yang  pernah disebut

Harusnya sebelumnya semua sudah di Nasionalisasi ama Pemerintah Pak tipenb .Tapi kemudian bisa juga kalau orang yang mampu bisa ahli waris atau orang lain yang punya kemampuan dari segi finansial melakukan pengajuan “Ruslag”/tukar-guling”, transaksi dengan instansi pemerintah dgn menukar aset lain.Tentu saja pertimbangan awal disetujui Ruslag adanya “benefit” untuk Pemerintah juga ada kesepakatan memelihara aset BCB dll.
Misal Pemkot sedang butuh tanah untuk bikin Rusunawa … ada Bangunan Cagar Budaya yang sudah di-Nasionalisasi (milik pemerintah) .. bisa saja karena pertimbangan tanah untuk Rusunawa lebih penting untuk orang banyak .. BCB tsb diruslag oleh ahli waris misalnya.

   

Masih menangi th 80am habis lulus SMP .. nonton film “Puspa Indah Taman Hati” (Bintangnya Rano Karno dan Yessy Gusman release th 79, sebelumnya Gita Cinta dari SMA) di bioskop Gelora di Mataram ini. Seingat saya bentuk atasnya hampir spt di photo ini .. cuma tidak kotak-2 spt itu mgkn ada perubahan sedikit.
Biasanya ada pagar rel besi untuk antre masuk.

   


Rumah Warisan Raja Gula Asia Oei Tiong Ham Dirobohkan
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PUING-PUING: Seorang warga melintas di antara puing-puing bongkaran bangunan bersejarah di Jalan Pedamaran, Kampung Tamtin 69 Kawasan Pasar Johar Semarang, Jumat (25/3). Bangunan itu diperkirakan berusia 100 tahun, bekas gudang pern

Semarang, CyberNews. Salah satu bangunan heritage dua lantai di Kota Semarang di Jalan Pedamaran, Kampung Tamtin No 69, dirobohkan. Bangunan yang dulunya gudang niaga milik raja gula Oei Tiong Ham itu hari ini (25/3), tinggal menyisakan sebagian tembok. Atap rumah sudah dirobohkan.

Material bekas bangunan pun sudah tidak berbekas karena langsung dijual kepada pemborong. Pekerja yang pagi hari masih terlihat mengangkut material, sore harinya sudah tidak terlihat di lokasi. Hanya beberapa warga yang tampak melihat lihat bekas rumah tersebut.

Menurut informasi, rumah tersebut diwarisi oleh cucu Oei Tiong Ham, Tjie Susi Rahmawati (50). Slamet Riyadi (41), warga Kampung Tamtin mengatakan, sekitar 20 tahun terakhir rumah tersebut dikontrak oleh 53 keluarga. Karena alasan hendak dibongkar, pengontrak diminta pindah dan diberi uang pengganti Rp 400.000/keluarga.

”Uang Rp 400 ribu ini sama dengan besarnya sewa kontrak per tahun. Kami diminta pindah karena rumah itu akan dibongkar,” katanya.

Pembongkaran rumah bersejarah tersebut sejak 15 hari lalu. Ketua RT 2 Kampung Tamtin A Cholil Efendi (52) mengatakan, rumah tersebut dirobohkan karena kondisinya sangat memprihatikan. ”Kayu blandarnya sudah keropos dan membahayakan penghuni,” katanya.

( Hartatik / CN27 / JBSM )
http://suaramerdeka.com/v1/index.php…Ham-Dirobohkan
=====================
menurut berita dari suara merdela ini, masih ada ahli warisnya untuk beberapa aset. Mungkin yang dinasionalisasikan hanya aset berbentuk perusahaan, kekayaan lainnya masih diwariskan.

Liem Bwan Tjie (arsitek bioskop Grand)

ini tergolong arsitek terkemuka di Indonesia. Di Semarangkaryanya antara lain kolam renang Stadion, depan stadion diponegoro dan sebuah vila di Jalan Tumpang, Candi:

Arsitek Semarang yang terkemuka lainnya, sampai-sampai namanya diabadikan jadi jalan adalah Admodirono. Konon dia yang membantu Mr Pont (arsitek Sabuga ITB dan Stasiun Poncol) untuk merancang paviliun2 yang digunakan untuk pameran Koloniale Tentoonsteling 1914 di Mugas Semarang.

Ada yang tau informasi tentang Admodirono?

20 Agustus 2011, atau 97 tahun yang lalu tepatnya tahun 1914, Kolonial Tentoonsteling resmi dibuka. Sebagai Ekspo dunia, ini tentoonsteling adalah yang terbesar yang pernah diselenggarakan di Asia Tenggara sampai saat ini:

Lahan yang digunakan sekitar 26 hektar di lahan pinjaman dari Oei Tiong Ham

__________________

Gedong Dhuwur,rumah milik Oei Tjie Sin,Bapak dari Raja Gula Oei Tiong Ham.Pemilik tanah daerah Simongan pada jaman dulu.Dibangun th 1874 menurut berbagai sumber,tanah berupa bukit dibeli dari Yohanes Tuan tanah Yahudi.Sebagian tanah disumbangkan ke Yayasan Gedong Batu menjadi Kelenteng Sam Poo Kong.

Gedong Dhuwur (Sarang Rajawali) Tampak depan dan samping. Tampak Gedong ke dua di belakang sudah berubah bentuk,seharusnya dulu berlantai 2 juga,walau lebih kecil ukurannya.
Didepan Gedong ini dulunya adalah Kolam Teratai.

View Gedong Batu Sam Po Kong dari serambi depan Gedong Dhuwur,menghadap ke Selatan.

Gedong Dhuwur bagian belakang. Ditengah dulunya ada jembatan penghubung ke Gedong kedua.

The end @copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2012

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Marilyn Monroe

 

see collection: Marilyn Monroe

 


 

 

 


Andy Warhol
(1928-1987)
Turquoise Marilyn
1962
 


Andy Warhol
(1928-1987)
Turquoise Marilyn
 


Andy Warhol
(1928-1987)
Pink Marilyn Reversal
1986
 


Andy Warhol
(1928-1987)
Marilyn Monroe
1967
 


Andy Warhol
(1928-1987)
Marilyn Monroe

Membuat Mitos
 

Film dan seni
 
  Jadi kita berpikir tentang Marilyn yang cinta urusan setiap orang dengan Amerika, Marilyn Monroe yang pirang dan cantik dan memiliki rinky Dink-manis sedikit suara dan semua kebersihan semua halaman belakang Amerika bersih. Dia adalah malaikat kita, malaikat manis seks, dan gula seks datang dari dia seperti resonansi suara di biji-bijian yang paling jelas dari biola.

Norman Mailer, Marilyn, 1973
 

Marilyn Monroe

  
melihat koleksi: Marilyn Monroe

   

 
 
  Dia bertindak keluar hidupnya

di bawah tatapan melahap audiens yang raksasa, yang tidak bisa mendapatkan cukup dari dia: Marilyn, anak wanita mempesona, dengan hati-simbol seks, dewi tak terjangkau film. Dia tak terlupakan dalam Gentlemen Prefer Blondes, Some Like It Hot, dan The Itch Tujuh Tahun. Dia liar diakui, mendominasi berita utama, mengisi kolom gosip dan menjelma mimpi dekade. Di balik kemewahan, glamour dan senyum lezat yang memukau dunia adalah seorang wanita rentan dan belum menghasilkan. Apakah Amerika tahu selama ini? Apakah itu sumber rahasia mistik nya; Dia memiliki masa kecil yang mengerikan. Dia mengatakan bahwa dia mungkin kesalahan, bahwa ibunya tidak ingin memiliki sama sekali. Dia tidak pernah tahu ayahnya dan memantul antara rumah ibunya dan serangkaian keluarga angkatnya; ibunya sampai gila dan Marilyn menghabiskan dua tahun di panti asuhan. Dia tidak pernah lulus SMA dan menikah pada usia enam belas, mungkin untuk menghindari dikirim kembali ke panti asuhan. Dia kemudian berkomentar bahwa pernikahannya tidak bahagia, tapi tidak bahagia. Dia dan suaminya hanya tidak banyak bicara untuk setiap penemuan other.Her adalah bagian dari upaya perang. Sementara suaminya sedang berjuang dalam Perang Dunia II Marilyn berada dalam pabrik memeriksa parasut. Ronald Reagan mengirim David Conover, seorang fotografer tentara dua puluh lima tahun, untuk memotret ceria muda-pabrik amunisi pekerja. Conover memperhatikan ini gadis yang bisa membuat lebih banyak dari pose dari siapa pun yang pernah dilihatnya. Para humas mengambil penemuan dan menciptakan “Marilyn Monroe”, ikon pasca perang Hollywood. Dia anehnya terpisah dan terasing, mengatakan dia selalu merasa bahwa dia tidak nyata, bahwa dia adalah sesuatu seperti dibuat dengan baik palsu. Ia yakin bahwa setiap orang memiliki perasaan yang sama dari waktu ke waktu tapi dalam kasusnya hal telah pergi begitu jauh sehingga ia kadang-kadang berpikir dia benar-benar sintetis. Dia meninggal pada malam 4 Agustus 1962 secara misterius, tapi dia legenda hidup dan bahkan tumbuh.

Andy Warhol, putra imigran Ceko, memulai karir seninya dalam iklan, pindah ke pembuatan film dan menjadi potret artis favorit tinggi masyarakat. Dia akhirnya tokoh kultus, mungkin sosok kultus, dari Pop Art. Nya Marilyn Monroe adalah ikon abad kedua puluh seni. Dia menulis karyanya itu, apakah warna nya keras membuatnya menjadi simbol tidak relevan, dan jika warna itu cantik, itu karena dia; panggilan kecantikan untuk warna yang indah. Marilyn Monroe dikomersialisasikan kecantikan, cukup buatan dan cukup disalahpahami.
SAMPEL PASAL TANPA ILUSTRASI
Lukisan

yang Merubah Dunia

  ISI:
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  Tutankhamen makam Lorenzetti Grunewald Rembrandt Polisi Matisse
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Dari Lascaux untuk Warhol

Agung seni tradisional adalah pernyataan kebenaran heroik dan agama tertentu,
diwariskan dari zaman ke zaman, dimodifikasi oleh kejeniusan individu,
tetapi tidak pernah ditinggalkan.

William Butler Yeats

  
Jacques Callot
Tiga Puluh Yaars Perang “kesengsaraan Perang
 Lihat koleksi: Jacques Callot: Perang Tiga Puluh Yaars “penderitaan Perang”

Jacques Callot

Tiga Puluh Yaars Perang “kesengsaraan Perang
 
Jan Asselyn
(1615-1652)
Gustav II Adolf pada Pertempuran Lutzen
1650
  
Sebuah Lukisan yang dijaga ketat
 

Daya tarik dari The Night Watch

 
 Bagaimana ketukan drum,
Bagaimana trills pipa.
Bagaimana nafiri juga,
    dan shawms,
    dan suara ketel-drum,
О melihat
Bagaimana segar berdebar bendera.
Mei hatimu
Leap cahaya untuk sukacita.
Johannes Grab, Song Prajurit, abad ketujuh belas
  Manusia di Helm Emas
с 1650/55, adalah disebabkan lingkaran Rembrandt
   
 
 Berdenyut dengan kehidupan – drum dipukul, seekor anjing menggonggong, tombak dan senapan dibangkitkan, bendera yang dikibarkan, anak-anak berjalan sekitar di segala penjuru – The Night Watch dianggap sebagai karya pelukis Belanda Rembrandt van Rijn besar. Keanehan-satunya adalah bahwa subyek lukisan itu bukan jaga malam. Judul muncul menjelang akhir abad kedelapan belas setelah banyak lapisan lapisan pernis permukaan lukisan itu cukup gelap. Kegelapan sehingga dihasilkan memunculkan ide bahwa adegan ditangkap di malam hari. Judul asli lukisan itu Perusahaan Kapten Frans Banning COCG. Alih-alih menggambarkan jaga malam, itu adalah potret sekelompok orang milisi Amsterdam. Pada saat itu dicat, Amsterdam adalah terkemuka Eropa dagang kota, dengan tiga milisi sipil. Mereka menyebut diri mereka The Crossbowmen, The Long-pemanah dan The Guild of Arquebusiers setelah senjata orang-orang perusahaan mereka telah melahirkan pada Abad Pertengahan. Para milisi merekrut anggota dari kolam pria di kota mereka cocok untuk tugas militer, sementara setiap kabupaten memiliki perusahaan sendiri. Dalam masa perang dan kerusuhan, milisi memenuhi fungsi melindungi masyarakat. Sebelum waktu Rembrandtt itu, tugas mereka termasuk berpatroli di benteng kota dan mounting penjaga di pintu gerbangnya.
Pada 1653 Rembrandt menetap di Amsterdam. Para milisi sipil masih mempertahankan sesuatu dari karakter militer mereka, meskipun saat itu mereka didominasi fungsi sosial. Serikat tradisional dengan masa lalu bersejarah mereka mewakili berbagai bagian kota, terkadang menandai faksi politik, dan anggota mereka diarak pada perayaan kemasyarakatan. Ditugaskan tahun 1640 oleh Arquebusiers Amsterdam untuk melukis potret kelompok mereka, Rembrandt mungkin digambarkan anggota sebelum mereka untuk berpartisipasi dalam parade tradisional, yang mungkin telah diselenggarakan di perayaan kunjungan Ratu Prancis, Marie de ‘Medici, pada tahun 1638 . Sumber kontemporer menunjukkan bahwa ratu itu disambut oleh para penembak jitu serikat dan didampingi oleh mereka dalam parade upacara untuk pesta mewah di aula festival rumah serikat. Perusahaan Rembrandt laki-laki itu mungkin digambarkan pagi-pagi dari kunjungan kerajaan. Dipimpin oleh kapten mereka, Frans Banning Cocq, seorang pedagang terkemuka Antwerpen, anggota serikat tampaknya akan mengambil cuti untuk menyambut ratu Prancis di luar kota. Lukisan besar dengan kehidupan tokoh yang berukuran paling mungkin digantung di ruang festival Arquebusiers ‘serikat rumah. Pada 1715 itu dipindahkan ke Balai Kota Antwerpen. Karena terlalu besar untuk ruang itu untuk menduduki ada, itu segera ditebang untuk ukuran.

Rembrandt van Rijn
(1606-1669)
Perusahaan Kapten Frans Banning Cocq
(The Night Watch)
Frans Banning Cocq (dengan selempang merah)
1642
Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
  
   
Landsekap, Light dan Legenda
 

Terkendali Romantisisme

Claude Lorrain
(1600-1682)
Pelabuhan dengan Embarkasi dari Ratu Sheba
1648
National Gallery di London
  
   
Di belakang layar
 
Di istana Raja Philip IV dari Spanyol
 Istana dan kuil dibangun,
tentara terlibat dalam pertempuran,

elemen berkobar-

dan Raja dalam kenyataannya ada yang

tapi aktor yang menyamar, dan takhtanya

kursi make-shift ….

Masker dan make up, penipuan dan

kepura-puraan – ini adalah teater.

Diadaptasi dari karya Richard Alewyn terhadap kehidupan
di Pengadilan Raja Philip IV dari Spanyol, 1985
 Sebuah biara dan istana kerajaan: El Escorial berada di bawah administrasi Diego Velazquez di abad ke-17
 
  
 
 Jumlah mereka adalah legiun. Ada yang mengatakan ada 30.000 pelacur di Pengadilan Philip IV dari Spanyol. Memerintah dari 1621 sampai 1665, raja harus meninggalkan pemerintahan untuk bupati nya, Count Olivares. Tak heran, untuk selain wanita, Philip IV adalah pecinta berburu, seni dan sastra. Dia sangat menyukai teater. Karena negara ini berada dalam kemunduran, raja, seperti bangsanya, menarik diri ke dalam dunia ilusi. Namun, Philip IV tidak berpuas diri dengan menduduki kotak Kerajaan; ia menulis memainkan dirinya sendiri, kebanyakan dari mereka komedi. Ketika dia tidak sibuk bermain Raja Spanyol di panggung dunia, ia bisa dikagumi menampilkan bakatnya sebagai seorang aktor dalam pertunjukan amatir memakai di Pengadilan. Philip IV tinggal di dan untuk teater. Tanggung jawab untuk merancang dunia ilusi diserahkan pada semakin pelukis Diego Velazquez. Setelah dipanggil ke Pengadilan Spanyol pada tahun 1623, Velazquez memiliki karir meroket sebagai pejabat Pengadilan. Kantor terakhir yang dipegangnya adalah bahwa Usher Tuhan Tinggi Chamber, pangkat tertinggi ia mungkin mencapai di rombongan raja. Di bawah kepemilikan Velazquez, para istana kerajaan telah diperbaiki, diperbesar dan refurnished. Untuk setiap Revels Mahkamah banyak dan perayaan, di antaranya pernikahan dari Infanta Marie-Therese dari Spam untuk Louis XIV dari Perancis, Velazquez melemparkan dirinya ke tugas merancang semua dekorasi dan tirai, set panggung dan latar belakang. Tak lama sebelum dia, untuk memasukkannya ke dalam istilah modern, tidak hanya Designer Kepala di Pengadilan tetapi juga peringkat teratas Artist Instalasi nya. Philip IV sangat menyukai pria yang menciptakan dunia mimpinya. Dia sering mengunjungi seniman dalam lokakarya, yang berada di istana. Raja juga memberinya penginapan dekat apartemen kerajaan. Sekarang seorang teman intim raja, Velazquez sekali tidak merasa menyesal mengganggu menguasai kerajaan setiap saat. Pelukis menjadi akrab dengan segala sesuatu yang sedang terjadi di Pengadilan dan di keluarga kerajaan. Seberapa dekat persahabatan pelukis dengan raja benar-benar yang mungkin ditunjukkan paling jelas di Las Meninas. Adegan seperti snapshot fotografer, santai anekdot tentang apa yang terjadi di pinggiran kehidupan nyata. Para Infanta sedikit Margarita muncul di studio Velazquez, sementara artis adalah lukisan potret dua orang tuanya, yang tercermin dalam cermin di dinding belakang. Bertanggung jawab tidak hanya untuk pekerjaan konstruksi dan acara-acara pementasan, dia juga bertanggung jawab memastikan bahwa kerajaan acara berjalan lancar. Dia melihat ke linen, kayu bakar, para pelayan, karpet dan kenyamanan tamu dan kesejahteraan, rumah tangga dapur dan segala sesuatu yang berkaitan dengan seni. Terbebani dengan kesibukannya, Velazquezcollapsed dan meninggal pada tanggal 6 Agustus 1660. Dia dimakamkan di pakaian dan lambang dari seorang Ksatria Santiago. Setelah kematian Favourite nya, Raja Philip IV dikatakan secara pribadi telah mengambil kuas dan mengubah potret artis. Lagi pula, ketika gambar ini dilukis, seniman belum menjadi seorang Ksatria Ordo.
 
  
Velazquez
(1599-1660)
Las Meninas (The Maids of Honour)
1656
Museo del Prado, Madrid
  
Adegan Everyday Berubah Ke Puisi
 

Ketenangan dan kedamaian master besar

Vermeer yang Muses
   
Jan Vermeer
(1632-1675)
The Allegory of Lukisan
1666
Kunsthistonsches Museum di Wina
  
   
“L’etat, c’est moi!”
 
Mengapa Louis XIV gagal untuk tersenyum

 Raja adalah bupati dan citra Allah di bumi, keagungan-Nya adalah refleksi dari ilahi; seluruh negara, kehendak rakyat yang diwujudkan dalam dirinya. Hanya dia yang melayani Raja melayani negara.
Jacques-Benigne Bossuet (1627-1704), Uskup Meaux, Politik Menurut Ajaran-Ajaran Kitab Suci (mulai tahun 1678/79)
 Pusat dunia absolutis: Istana Versailles
 Dia ingin impressand ia takut: Louis XIV dari Perancis, Raja Sun, menjelma Absolutisme. Dia sangat suka digambarkan sebagai Imperator, mahakuasa, megah dan bangga. Dia itu sangat sehat dan dikenal karena kecakapan seksualnya. Di Versailles, istana megah yang telah dibangun untuk mengenang dirinya sendiri, tidak ada wanita yang selamat dari dia. Secara politik, ia juga berhasil. Penyerbuan ke Belanda, pendudukannya atas Strasbourg dan wilayah Jerman, pemecatan dan pembakaran Heidelberg dan Mannheim tidak hanya marah sezamannya; Louis XIV diberi tanda buruk untuk peperangannya oleh sejarawan kemudian juga. Perilakunya yang berkaitan dengan gigi, semua yang telah diekstrak atas saran dari dokternya, yang sayangnya tidak kompeten. Satu bencana mengerikan menyebabkan gigi lain, akhirnya meninggalkan wajah raja miring. Namun alasan sebenarnya untuk potret tersenyum itu merupakan konvensi estetika yang kembali setidaknya sejauh patung suram dari Republik Romawi dan diberi penekanan baru dalam Absolutisme. Penguasa, ilahi atau sebaliknya, tidak hanya diselenggarakan di kagum. Mereka yang digambarkan mereka diharapkan untuk mengamati konvensi frontality dan martabat tersenyum untuk meningkatkan kualitas sikap menyendiri agung, yang pada akhirnya berarti kekuasaan mutlak. Bahkan wanita kerajaan, Infantas sedikit dan ratu indah Spanyol, tunduk pada perlakuan keras.
Konvensi absolutis buritan memiliki sekuel di Amerika Serikat. Pelukis Charles Wilson Peale (1741-1827), yang bertugas di Revolusi Amerika, adalah seorang anak dari Pencerahan. Seorang pria dari banyak bakat, ia maju paleontologi awal, ditemukan jenis baru beberapa kacamata dan membuat gigi palsu. Para pelukis tipikal pahlawan Perang Revolusi, Peale bisa disebut pelukis potret resmi George Washington. Semua potret Presiden pertama Amerika Serikat (termasuk, tentu saja, varian pada greenbacks) adalah tutup mulut dan tidak tersenyum. Legenda mengatakan bahwa George Washington, juga memiliki masalah dengan gigi palsunya. Mungkinkah mereka telah dibuat oleh Peale? Dalam hal apapun dapat dengan aman berasumsi bahwa Presiden, seperti Louis XIV dari Perancis, hanya terlalu sadar dari gambar dia berhutang untuk bangsa dan sejarah.
Hyacinthe Rigaud
(Perancis, 1659-1745)
Louis XIV dari Perancis pada jubah-Nya Coronation
1701
Musee du Louvre, Paris
  
Pierrot dan Badut lain

Komedi dan melankolis

 
  
  Dapatkan pakaian Anda bersama-sama, string baik untuk janggutmu, pita baru untuk pompa Anda, saat bertemu di istana, setiap melihat orang o’er bagiannya …. Dalam hal apapun, mari Thisby memiliki kain linen yang bersih dan biarlah bukan dia yang memainkan pare singa kukunya, karena mereka akan berkumpul untuk cakar singa. Dan, aktor yang paling sayang, tidak makan bawang atau bawang putih, karena kita mengucapkan napas manis, dan saya tidak meragukan tapi untuk mendengar mereka berkata, itu adalah komedi manis ….
William Shakespeare, Bawah Dream A Midsummer Night itu, Babak V, Tema 11,36-46,1600
Maurice Pasir
(1823-1889)
Pulcinello; Pantaleone; Harlequin; Il Dottore; Le Notaire
 
 Pada abad kedelapan belas, anggota Mahkamah Prancis menghibur diri baik sekali: “Dua hari lalu ada sebuah teater topeng yang besar di Versailles”. Dengan demikian surat yang ditulis pada tahun 1700: “The Duchess of Burgundy, dengan menyamar sebagai pengantin desa, datang dengan rombongan nya dayang, yang semuanya bertopeng, karena dia, dan yang rambutnya dihiasi dengan bunga-bunga ini banyak dibuat. efek yang megah ceria …. Delapan hari sebelum ada lain bebodohan cantik di Marly The terindah adalah Savoyardes dengan bundel penjaja mereka di punggung mereka, yang mereka dibuka.. Dua Harlequins sedikit dan dua Columbines muncul keluar, gadis kecil dan anak laki-laki, yang menari dengan indah. ” Bahkan Raja Louis XV, maka hanya sebelas tahun, mengambil bagian dalam galantes fetes, hiburan elegan, pada 1721. Dia menirukan penari balet dalam balet berjudul The Elements.
Tidak hanya kaum bangsawan suka berdandan dan bermain teater. Seperti banyak orang sezamannya, pelukis Jean-Antoine Watteau juga begitu. Ia terutama yang diambil dengan karakter dalam komedi improvisasi Italia, komedi dell’arte. Mereka membawa pengalihan menyambut dan kenikmatan kepada orang miskin juga. Commedia dell’arte berasal sekitar tahun 1550 di Lombardy, berkembang sebagai teater jalanan di mana potongan improvisasi berdasarkan situasi saham dilakukan oleh rombongan dari aktor yang terlatih khusus. Semua yang telah diatur sebelumnya adalah sinopsis dari plot dan urutan adegan. Terutama terdiri dari melucu dan lelucon, dialog itu sama sekali improvisasi. Meskipun beberapa cinta milik repertoar saham, karakter lain adalah jenis bahan tertawaan, langsung dikenali karena mereka selalu muncul dalam topeng dan kostum yang sama: Pantalone – seorang pedagang Venesia tua, dokter, seorang sarjana dari Bologna dan Arlecchino, dan nya licik manusia-hamba, yang canggung dan melankolis sisi segera menjadi dipersonifikasikan sebagai karakter terpisah yang disebut Pedrolino.

Setelah komedi dell’arte telah menjadi didirikan di Perancis di pengadilan, pameran dan di jalanan, Pedrolino berubah menjadi bodoh menyedihkan, yang bisa disebut baik atau Pierrot Gilles. Karakter ini mewakili kekasih ditolak, yang selalu sedih. Ia ditandai dengan kostum putih khas, lebar lengan, masker putih dan baret putih lebar. Apakah Watteau cat nya Gilles sebagai potret seorang aktor terkenal untuk memainkan bagian dari Gilles atau Pierrot? Apakah ini lukisan seukuran mungkin tergantung di depan sebuah kafe, atau teater di mana aktor tersebut mungkin telah muncul dalam peran? Jadilah bahwa mungkin, badut melankolis, dicemooh, diejek dan dihina untuk berdaya bodoh, adalah favorit dengan Watteau untuk satu-satunya alasan bahwa ia begitu celaka sedih. Badut sedih muncul beberapa kali dalam karyanya. Apakah ini petunjuk biografi? Pelukis tahu benar bagaimana rasanya hanya memiliki dirinya untuk perusahaan. Tahun-tahun terakhir dirusak oleh penyakit dan melankolis sebelum ia meninggal pada tiga puluh tujuh tuberkulosis.
Jean-Antoine Watteau
(1684-1721)
Gilles dan Empat Karakter lain dari dell’Arte Commedia (Pierrot)
1718
Musee du Louvre, Paris
  
Sebuah Kota Kaya Emas
 

Venesia dan laut
 
 Dia melihatnya sekali lagi, bahwa pendaratan-tempat yang mengambil napas itu pergi, supaya kelompok menakjubkan struktur yang luar biasa Republik dibentuk untuk memenuhi terpesona mata dari pelaut mendekati: kemegahan lapang dari istana dan Jembatan Sighs, kolom dengan singa dan santo di pantai, kemuliaan sayap memproyeksikan candi peri, vista gateway dan jam.
Thomas Mann, Kematian di Venice, 1912

 Venesia dan gondola: Sebuah duo tak terpisahkan
Venice
 
 Tidak ada kota lain di dunia telah begitu mewah dipuji sebagai Venesia. Pada 1495 Duta Besar Perancis Philippe de Commines memujinya sebagai “kota paling gembira bercahaya” yang pernah dilihatnya. Dia menyebutkan fasad marmer putih, apartemen dengan antechambers emas dan perapian mewah hiasan. Ketika Napoleon menaklukkan Venesia pada 1797, pikirnya St Mark adalah “yang terbaik ruang duduk di Eropa dan Surga hanya layak menjabat sebagai langit-langit”, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, yang tinggal di laguna pulau-putus-putus di September 1786 saat perjalanan Italia-nya, berbicara dengan hormat dari “kota pulau indah”, yang ia “mendapat kesempatan untuk mengunjungi” dan di mana ia ingin berada “sampai aku kenyang keinginan saya untuk memandang pada gambar kota ini”. Setelah tak ada habisnya berperang dengan Genoa, Venesia akhirnya menaklukkan saingannya pada tahun 1380. Dari tanggal tersebut, kota ini adalah pemimpin yang tak tertandingi dalam perdagangan dunia. Pada 1423 Republik Venesia memerintahkan armada perang dari 45 perahu yang dibangun khusus untuk pertempuran dan kapal dagang dari 300 kapal dayung. Dengan populasi lebih dari 200.000, Venezia adalah salah satu yang terbesar, dan tentunya yang paling kaya, kota-kota Barat. Kemakmuran, optimisme dan keceriaan memerintah: “Orang-orang bernyanyi dalam kotak, tn jalan-jalan dan di kanal Pedagang bernyanyi ketika mereka prizing kemudian-barang; buruh bernyanyi ketika mereka meninggalkan tempat kerja mereka; gondolien bernyanyi ketika mereka menunggu pelanggan. “, kata para dramawan Italia Carlo Goldoni pada abad kedelapan belas. Kita bertanya-tanya apakah Doge, penguasa Republik, bernyanyi ketika melakukan urusan negara.
Bagaimanapun, ia harus mengucapkan doa yang sama setiap tahun pada Hari Kenaikan, yang merupakan peristiwa paling penting dalam kalender kota: “Wahai laut, kami menikah engkau dalam tanda kekuasaan kami yang benar dan kekal”. Dengan mantra ini, sumpah diperbaharui setiap tahun, Venesia berharap untuk mendamaikan pasukan primal laut untuk memastikan kebajikan mereka dan kesediaan untuk melakukan bagian mereka dalam mengamankan supremasi Republik di Adriatik. Pada hari-hari dari veduta pelukis Canaletto, yang “pernikahan dengan laut” yang dipentaskan sebagai arak-arakan mewah dan penuh warna. Doge naik ke kapal seremonial nya, Bucintoro, dan berlayar ke Porto di Lido, gateway utama ke Venesia, di mana “pernikahan dengan laut” terjadi. Di sana ia menuangkan air suci ke laut dan melemparkan cincin emas ke laut. Ritual telah dihidupkan kembali dalam beberapa tahun terakhir. Sekarang, tentu saja, sesuatu yang sangat berbeda yang dipertaruhkan. Tidak lagi adalah kekuatan, pengaruh dan kekayaan Venesia ditingkatkan. Kota membusuk sekali disebut Serenissima (“Republik Kebanyakan Serene”) harus dicegah mereda ke laut seharusnya badai mengamuk melepaskan kekuatan alam.
Canaletto
(1697-1768)
Kembali dari Bucentoro ke Molo pada Kenaikan
1732
Koleksi kerajaan. Windsor
  
Seorang Nyonya Pandai
 

Madame la Marquise de Pompadour dan Louis XV

  Saya selalu disalahkan untuk kemalangan umum, kebijakan berdasar Kabinet, kampanye perang bencana dan kemenangan dirayakan oleh musuh kita. Saya dituduh telah menjual segalanya, memiliki jari-jari saya di setiap kue, yang berkuasa di belakang layar. Suatu hari saat makan malam Raja meminta orang tua untuk menjadi begitu baik untuk memberikan pujian kepada Marquise de Pompadour. Semua orang menertawakan orang miskin sebagai tolol. Tapi aku tidak tertawa.
Madame la Marquise de Pompadour (1721-1764), Sastra, 1922
Louis XV, Raja Perancis (1710-1774) oleh Louis-Michel van Loo;
Madame de Pompadour oleh Jean-Marc Nattier; Madame de Pompadour oleh Maurice Quentin de la Tour
 
 Ada sebuah tangga rahasia kecil di Versailles yang dipimpin dari Kabinet raja ke lantai dua. Ada berdiam seorang wanita bernama Jeanne-Antoinette Hahahaha, yang telah turun dalam sejarah sebagai Marquise de Pompadour. Louis XV dari Perancis, Raja Sun cicit dan penggantinya, sering menaiki tangga untuk mengunjunginya. Dia dikatakan lebih suka menghilang dari pertemuan Kabinet untuk pertemuan-pertemuan dengan kekasihnya. Ketika itu terjadi, para menteri harus duduk dan menunggu raja sampai ia kembali sebagai etiket Pengadilan melarang kamar mereka tanpa raja. Jadi kacung Pengadilan bisa tertipu dengan berpikir raja telah menghabiskan seluruh waktu m konferensi dengan para menterinya. Witty, berbudaya dan indah, Madame de Pompadour mungkin merupakan putri seorang pengantin pria kepala bekerja pada sebuah real duke; ibunya adalah keindahan dalam haknya sendiri. Madame de Pompadour adalah pejabat nyonya kerajaan keempat. Meskipun menikah dengan putri Polandia Maria Leszczynska sejak 1725, Louis XV tampaknya telah memulai affair di luar nikah pertama di 1733. Tahun-tahun pertama pernikahannya telah yang bahagia dan enam anak perempuan dan anak selamat serikat dengan Maria, yang sangat dipermalukan oleh perselingkuhan suaminya. Tiga pertama gundik kerajaan yang akan didirikan berturut-turut di Pengadilan dari 1738 menghabiskan waktu mereka memberikan pihak atas biaya raja dan berperilaku dengan cara yang membangkitkan kemarahan publik. Tahun kemudian sang ratu masih mengeluh mengalami mimpi buruk tentang gundik mengerikan suaminya.
Madame la Marquise de Pompadour adalah sama sekali berbeda. Dia tidak seperti orang lain. Tidak ada pihak Bacchanalian terjadi di apartemen pribadi ini dame grande. Dia memberikan makan malam sedikit indah dengan raja dan undangan kepada mereka yang didambakan memang. Selain itu, Madame la Marquise sangat ingin berada pada pijakan yang baik dengan sang ratu. Dia mengunjunginya setiap hari, membawa bunga dan mengobrol dengannya. Marquise ini bahkan diketahui telah menjabat pada kesempatan sebagai perantara antara raja dan ratu. Ketika ia mendengar bahwa suatu hari sang ratu telah kehilangan jumlah yang besar pada judi tapi takut untuk memberitahu suaminya apa yang terjadi, Madame de Pompadour tanya raja untuk hak istimewa membayar utang Ratu kehormatan dirinya sendiri. Mengirimkan ke nasib dengan kesalehan lembut, Maria Leszcyriska diperbolehkan Madame de Pompadour untuk mengambil tempatnya di sisi raja. Para borjuis, yang ayah tidak pernah memuaskan didirikan, menjadi kekuatan di balik tahta di Versailles. Ketika sampai menunjuk pejabat dan menteri dan membuat keputusan besar, Louis XV selalu berkonsultasi gundiknya. Untuk alasan ini Francois Boucher, sekali gambar tuannya dan Painter Pengadilan kepada raja, dicat potret semi-resmi-nya. Segel dan surat mungkin mengisyaratkan ambisi politiknya. Bahwa ia adalah seorang penyanyi ulung dilambangkan dengan skor tersebar di kakinya. Bahkan spaniel kecil bukan prop disediakan oleh pelukis. Namanya Mimi dan dia benar-benar milik Madame de Pompadour.
 
Francois Boucher
(1703-1770)
Potret Madame de Pompadour
1756
  
Dia Ternyata My Head
 

Taman Delights Duniawi
 
 Selamat wajah, nimfa seperti gadis
Mata seperti ceri, tujuh belas
Delightful ocehan
Dia ternyata kepalaku.
Bernard, Chevalier de Bonnard (1744-1784), Poesies diverses, yang diterbitkan pada 1791
 
 Suatu hari pada bulan Oktober 1766, pelukis Paris Jean-Honore Fragonard dipanggil ke pondok berburu Baron SAMT-Julien. Bendahara aristokrat Gereja Katolik menunjuk gundiknya dan memerintahkan:. “Aku ingin kau melukis Madame di ayunan terus digerakkan oleh uskup Masukan saya di mana saya bisa melihat kaki gadis cantik atau lebih dekat, jika Anda ingin membuat gambar menyenangkan bahkan lebih. ” Seorang pria di dunia, Baron Saint-Julien sudah ditolak oleh pelukis yang mungkin mual tentang konsekuensi dari melaksanakan perintahnya – seseorang yang telah membuat nama untuk dirinya sendiri dengan representasi dari orang-orang kudus dan korban wabah dan merasa komisi adalah tidak senonoh sehingga ia menyarankan Fragonard, yang diterima. Hasilnya adalah Swing. Fragonard tidak memiliki keraguan untuk merusak reputasinya sebagai seorang pelukis adegan bersalah dengan mengambil komisi ini agak rumit. Tentu saja Fragonard, yang pernah menjadi anak manja, apa-apa jika tidak sopan dan canggih dirinya sendiri. “Semua karyanya didedikasikan untuk perempuan, mengapa tidak boleh hidupnya telah begitu juga?” meminta seorang penulis biografi. Pada 1756 dua puluh empat vear berusia Fragonard memanfaatkan hibah dari Akademik de Perancis untuk mempelajari karya-karya Old Masters di Roma. Dia dikatakan telah mengabdikan dirinya setidaknya sama penuh gairah dengan bermata gelap keindahan bermoral Trastevere mengenai lukisan ia pergi ke Roma untuk belajar. Bahkan, presiden Academie de Perancis di Roma mulai khawatir tentang anak didiknya. Reputasi Fragonard yang mengikutinya kembali ke Paris, di mana semua boudoirs terbuka baginya pada keindahan return.The tentang hari dan penari yang “hati tidak begitu konstan” semuanya mencari perhatian si pelukis. Bernard, Chevalier de Bonnard disarankan para pelukis dari hari ke “pengadilan semua wanita cantik Anda cat dan pastikan bahwa Anda dibayar untuk potret Anda di pelukan pengasuh Anda”. Tidak ada yang benar-benar diketahui tentang kehidupan cinta Fragonard itu. Namun, ia begitu sangat diakui sebagai pelukis yang segera ia diberikan dengan studio sendiri di Louvre. Begrudging dia pernikahannya karena dirampas mereka dari gosip, penulis biografinya ditandai istrinya sebagai “kurang ajar kesal”. Namun, ia ditujukan untuk dirinya, lembut memanggilnya “yang terbaik dari semua istri”. Meskipun reputasinya dengan wanita, keengganan acara Fragonarddid dalam satu hal: ia yakin Baron bejat Saint-Julien bahwa perlu untuk menggantikan uskup, yang pada awalnya seharusnya mendorong ayunan dalam lukisan, dengan punggawa sebuah.
 
  
Jean-Honore Fragonard
(1732-1806)
Swing
1767
Wallace Collection, London
  
Sebuah Pertanyaan Kelas
 

Masyarakat Inggris pada abad kedelapan belas
 Seorang Pemuda Fortune
   dan untuk ketenaran tidak diketahui …

Thomas Gray, Elegy Ditulis di Negara Gereja-Yard, 1751

  Siapakah pria muda yang duduk untuk Thomas Gainsborough, The Blue Boy! Identitasnya tidak diketahui selama hampir dua abad. Penelitian terbaru menunjukkan bahwa dia adalah Jonathan Buttall, anak remaja dari penjual besi London kaya. Gainsboroughis diperkirakan telah dibuat kenalan keluarga di Bath. Kota di selatan-barat Inggris yang terkenal sepanjang abad kesembilan belas kedelapan belas dan awal sebagai spa modis dimana keluarga Inggris kaya pergi untuk minum air dari mata air penyembuhan nya.
Yang paling dalam elegan penyiraman-tempat, Bath bahkan sering dikunjungi oleh anggota keluarga kerajaan saat mereka merasa letih. Pengunjung ke pemandian menjadi sasaran rejimen parah. Dipaksa bangun jam enam pagi, wanita menghabiskan satu jam di air hangat mandi mengenakan pakaian panjang terbuat dari bahan berat yang tidak bisa melekat pada tubuh mereka dan mengungkapkan kontur mereka. Pria juga, mandi berpakaian lengkap. Di luar mandi, kota adalah tempat untuk godaan, bola dan pihak malam kartu. Ada banyak fungsi resmi seperti Majelis-Rooms Balls dan tempat-tempat baik indoor maupun keluar di mana orang promenaded untuk tujuan memenuhi dan menjaga dengan kejadian-kejadian terbaru. Perjudian adalah marak dan kota membual atraksi meragukan sebuah perkumpulan demimondaines pesona menghilangkan kebosanan pria yang tidak di Bath dengan keluarga mereka. Perempuan harus puas dengan gosip di atas meja teh.

Kota ini mendidih dengan intrik, yang mengapa Horace Walpole mengatakan itu sepuluh kali lebih baik untuk meninggalkan kota daripada memasukkannya. Para pengunjung yang kaya cenderung sia-sia dan mencolok. Ini mungkin alasan mengapa Thomas Gainsborough muda meninggalkan Ipswich di timur Inggris untuk menetap di Bath pada 1759. Langkah ini berhasil. Mandi dengan komisi potret dari patron kaya, pelukis segera mampu membeli apartemen mewah di Circus Kerajaan indah dan elegan.

Namun, resor ini adalah bukan hanya menghantui aristokrasi. Itu hanya sebagai populer dengan keluarga yang kaya pedagang dan ‘produsen. Dari 1750 pengecoran besi Inggris dan pabrik kapas tumbuh pesat dan pemilik mereka juga mampu untuk mengambil air di Bath. Orang dapat membayangkan Gainsborough pertemuan Bapak Buttall, penjual besi, dan keluarganya di Ruang Pompa. Keuntungan-kota kecil mulai karirnya dengan menyalin dan memulihkan lukisan Flemish. Oleh karena itu tidak mengherankan bahwa ia meminjam elemen gaya dari karya Anthony van Dyck melukis Jonathan Buttall, yang mengenakan busana dari abad ketujuh belas.

Thomas Gainsborough
(1727-1788)
The Blue Boy
1770
  
Sebuah Tea Party yang Menyebabkan Demokrasi
Deklarasi Kemerdekaan Amerika
 
 Kami memegang kebenaran ini menjadi jelas: Bahwa semua manusia diciptakan sama, bahwa mereka diberkati oleh Pencipta mereka dengan hak yang tidak dapat dipisahkan, bahwa di antara ini adalah Life, Liberty dan mengejar Kebahagiaan …; bahwa setiap kali ada Bentuk Pemerintah menjadi merusak ini berakhir, itu adalah Hak Rakyat untuk mengubah atau menghapuskan, dan untuk melembagakan Pemerintah baru, peletakan berdirinya pada prinsip-prinsip tersebut, dan mengorganisir kekuasaannya dalam bentuk seperti itu, karena mereka akan tampak paling mungkin untuk efek mereka Keselamatan dan Kebahagiaan.
Amerika Serikat Deklarasi Kemerdekaan, 4 Juli 1776
 Sebuah versi Amerika kartun London yang mencela “perkosaan” dari Boston pada tahun 1774 oleh Intolerable Acts.
   
 
 Washington dan Lafayette memeriksa pasukan di Valley Forge
   
 
 John Trumbull, Pertempuran Bunker Hill, (Kematian Jenderal Amerika Warren), 1786
   
 
 Deklarasi Kemerdekaan
   
 
 The Boston Tea Party memicu Revolusi. Pada 1767 Inggris telah dikenakan bea masuk baru di koloni Inggris-nya. Murka koloni memuncak dalam pemboikotan barang-barang Inggris, yang langsung mengarah ke penghapusan tugas paling. Inggris, bersikeras demonstrasi kekuasaan, mempertahankan tugas pada teh. Memastikan India Timur monopoli Perusahaan pada teh dan kokot lain, kebijakan ini meninggalkan pedagang teh Amerika dibebani dengan tugas yang tinggi pada barang yang mereka impor dari Inggris.
Koloni Amerika, yang telah selama beberapa waktu dianggap menyatakan kemerdekaan dari Inggris, mengambil tugas pada teh sebagai alasan dipersilakan untuk melakukannya. Pada 16 Desember 1773 permusuhan terbuka pecah. Sekelompok Revolusioner melemparkan sebuah kapal kargo di seluruh teh ke dalam air keruh dari Boston Harbor: 342 peti teh senilai 10.000 pound sterling. Lebih dari 2.000 pengamat memuji perbuatan patriot “:” Ini adalah Gerakan paling menakjubkan dari semua Ada martabat, sebuah Mulia, Yang Tersuci, dalam hal ini Usaha terakhir dari Patriots bahwa saya sangat mengagumi Ini penghancuran Teh yang begitu berani.. , begitu berani, begitu tegas, pemberani dan tidak fleksibel, dan harus memiliki Konsekuensi begitu penting, dan abadi, bahwa saya tidak bisa tidak menganggapnya sebagai sebuah Epoch dalam Sejarah “adalah respons antusias John Adams untuk ini demonstrasi yang luar biasa dari ketegasan kolonial. Pemerintah Inggris membalas dengan cepat, menuntut hukuman yang keras. Tiga belas koloni-koloni Amerika bereaksi dengan pemberontakan terbuka. Weary penindasan dan lama terbiasa dengan pemerintahan sendiri pada jalur parlemen, para pemukim Amerika menolak menyerahkan kebebasan ekonomi dan politik untuk mahkota Inggris, yang ribuan kilometer jauhnya. Merajut bersama-sama oleh kejadian-kejadian di Boston, Amerika mengambil tindakan pertama mereka bersatu sebagai orang bebas dengan mengadakan Continental Kongres Pertama di Philadelphia pada 1774. Inggris tetap keras kepala; perang tak terelakkan.

Sementara George Washington, Komandan-in-Chief of American Kontinental Angkatan Darat, berbaris pasukannya dari satu pertempuran ke berikutnya, Deklarasi Kemerdekaan sedang disusun. Hal itu ditandatangani pada 4 Juli 1776 di Gedung Negara Philadelphia. Di antara para penandatangan adalah Thomas Jefferson, penulis, dan Benjamin Franklin. Jefferson dikutip mengatakan: “Saya bukan teman untuk pemerintah sangat energik”, meskipun ia sepenuh hati didukung penyebab kebebasan Amerika. Lain patriot kuat adalah pelukis John Trumbull, yang kemudian mendirikan American Academy of Fine Arts di New York dan menjadi presiden pertama. Anak dari seorang gubernur Inggris dari Connecticut yang mendukung perjuangan penjajah ‘kemerdekaan, John Trumbull menjabat sebagai aide-de-camp ke George Washington selama Revolusi Amerika.

Lukisannya yang paling terkenal, yang telah menjadi simbol dari idealisme bahwa Amerika singkatan, menggambarkan penandatanganan Deklarasi Kemerdekaan Thomas Jefferson sebagai menggambarkannya untuk artis.
John Trumbull
(1756-1841)
Deklarasi Kemerdekaan
1786-1797
  
Aku Percaya Marat, Yang Mahakuasa
 

Revolusi Perancis, 1789

 Saya percaya pada Marat, yang Mahakuasa, Pencipta kebebasan dan kesetaraan, harapan kami, yang menyerang ketakutan ke dalam aristokrasi, yang telah keluar dari jantung bangsa dan terungkap dalam Revolusi, yang dibunuh oleh musuh-musuh Republik, yang tercurah atas diri kita napas kebebasan, yang telah turun ke Elysian Fields, dari mana ia suatu hari akan kembali untuk menghakimi dan menghukum aristokrasi.
Sebuah anonim kontemporer “Creed” (Juli 1793-Februari 1795)

 
 Gulingkan Bastille! Penghancuran penjara pengadilan, simbol despotisme Bourbon, 14 Juli 1789
 
Eksekusi Louis XVI
Sketsa oleh Jacques-Louis David Majelis Nasional mengambil Sumpah Lapangan Tenis

Guillotine Model 1792
Guillotine, alat pilihan untuk
pemenggalan kepala selama Revolusi Perancis,
masih digunakan untuk eksekusi abad ini
Antara 18.000 dan 40.000 orang berada
dieksekusi selama Pemerintahan Terro
 Satir kartun lampooning ekses
Revolusi seperti yang terlihat dari luar negeri.
 
  
 Jean-Paul Marat duduk di bak mandi ketika jam terakhirnya melanda pada tanggal 13 Juli 1793. Seorang guru bahasa, wartawan dan dokter, Marat ternyata menjadi salah satu demagog paling radikal Revolusi 1789 diproduksi. Ia menghabiskan banyak waktu di bak untuk mencari bantuan dari ruam, gatal kronis. Dia memakai kompres di dahinya untuk meringankan sakit kepala dari mana ia juga menderita. Sementara ia mandi pada hari yang menentukan, dia sedang membaca surat dari Charlotte Corday, cucu-besar penulis drama Pierre Corneille. Para wanita bangsawan muda itu sia-sia untuk mendapatkan pengakuan dari Marat. Sekarang dia telah mengirim surat kepadanya di mana ia dengan licik menyarankan tete-a-tete. Dia membiarkan dia di dan dia menusuknya. Marat tewas seketika.
Beberapa sezaman pasti senang dengan perbuatan. Marat pernah menjadi pelanggan sulit. Dia telah 860 tiang gantungan didirikan untuk menghadapi musuh-musuh politiknya dan telah mengirimkan lebih dari 200.000 dari mereka untuk guillotine. Lawannya mungkin dianggap kematiannya sebuah balas dendam saja. Pengikut-Nya, namun, dirayakan dia sebagai martir hanya menyebabkan. Diangkat pemimpin upacara di pemakaman pahlawan, pelukis Jacques-Louis David adalah seorang revolusioner sungguh-sungguh dan teman pribadi dari Marat. Dia wajib dengan meletakkan mayat Marat di kanvas seperti yang telah memilikinya dipajang: dengan dada telanjang dan luka terlihat. Pada 15 Oktober 1793 David disajikan gambar ke Majelis Nasional. Ini menjadi simbol dari Revolusi Perancis. Salinan itu ditempatkan pada altar gereja, tertahan di bawah awan mengepul dari dupa. Bahkan di kantor-kantor publik salinan lukisan itu seharusnya mengganti salib dan potret kerajaan. Namun, sebelum bisa keluar dari tangan, kultus kepribadian dihentikan oleh jatuhnya Robespierre dan penangkapan Jacques-Louis David. Pada tanggal 10 Februari lukisan itu telah dihapus dari ruang Majelis Nasional. Jantung Marat, yang telah disimpan di Klub Cordeliers, adalah dibakar dan abunya disebar di selokan Montmartre.
 
  
Jacques-Louis David
(1748-1825)
Kematian Marat
1793
  
Seolah Dibawa off oleh Angin
 

The Rise to Power dari Iblis Korsika

 
  
 
 Prajurit, Anda telanjang dan sakit gizi. Aku akan membawa Anda ke dataran bumi yang paling subur. Provinsi Kaya dan kota-kota besar akan jatuh ke tangan Anda. Di sana Anda akan menemukan kehormatan, ketenaran dan kekayaan.
Napoleon Bonaparte, Pidato Tentara-Nya di Diangkat Menjadi Jenderal tentara Republik di Italia, 1796

 
  
Jean-Auguste Dominique Ingres, Potret Napoleon Bonaparte, Dewan Pertama, 1804
Jacques-Louis David, Napoleon dalam Studi Nya, 1812
Jacques-Louis David, Napoleon Menyeberangi Alpen
Jean-Auguste Dominique Ingres, Napoleon di atas takhta Imperial itu, 1806
 
  
     
 

 
 Ejaan Perancis Nya goyah memang dan aksen yang kuat Korsika menandai dia seperti satu provinsi. Karena dia mengucapkan nama depannya “Napolion”, teman-teman sekelasnya di sekolah menjulukinya “la-Paille-au-nez”, “sedotan hidung”. Dia rata-rata siswa; guru Jermannya bahkan menganggapnya sebagai bodoh. Namun dia adalah seorang pembaca rakus, dan buku-buku yang dimakan tidak membuat membaca mudah: Corneille, Montaigne, Montesquieu, Plutarch dan Tacitus. Selain itu, ia memiliki memori yang menakjubkan dan tidak pernah lupa apa-apa. Seorang guru tunggal, yang pasti lebih yg dpt lekas mengerti daripada yang lain, melihat di dalam dia “granit gunung berapi yang sedang memanas”. Hal yang masih mendidih di bagian belakang kompor itu. Lahir pada 15 Agustus 1769 di Ajaccio di Corsica, Napoleon Bonaparte dianggap sebagai seorang anak, pendiam suram dan sensitif. Diterima sebagai kadet di akademi militer Paris pada tahun 1784, ia ditugaskan letnan hanya satu setengah tahun kemudian. Dipindahkan ke resimen artileri, ia main mata dengan ide revolusi.
Pada awalnya seorang nasionalis Korsika kuat, ia mengambil bagian dalam pemberontakan terhadap otoritas Perancis. Namun pada tahun 1793, ia memutuskan hubungan dengan faksi nasionalis Korsika dan terpaksa melarikan diri dengan keluarganya ke daratan Prancis. Bergabung kembali dengan tentara, ia memihak Robespierre, menjadi komandan sebuah batalyon artileri. Sekarang karirnya dengan baik diluncurkan, sebuah persinggahan singkat di penjara setelah jatuh Robespierre yang tidak melakukan apapun untuk mencegahnya. Pada usia dua puluh enam Bonaparte ditunjuk Jenderal tentara Republik di Italia, dan secara luas dikagumi karena keterampilan cemerlang taktis, kecerdasan schooling dan kualitas kepemimpinan dia konsisten ditampilkan. Komandan lapangan Veteran sangat marah. Bawang Sebuah telah dipromosikan di atas kepala mereka, seorang pemuda bertubuh kecil dengan rambut terawat panjang. Bonaparte, bagaimanapun, tahu ke mana dia melangkah. Dalam kampanye melawan Austria, ia memenangkan kemenangan demi kemenangan di Italia utara. Dia tumbuh terkenal sebagai “Alexander kedua” yang “berjalan seperti manusia setengah dewa dari pertempuran ke pertempuran dan kemenangan kepada kemenangan”.

Para pelukis Antoine-Jean Gros menangkap adegan dari masa itu: Pertempuran Arcola, sebuah desa dua puluh empat kilometer tenggara dari Verona. Antara 15 dan 17 November 1796, Bonaparte mengalahkan bala bantuan dikirim ke bantuan pasukan Austria dikelilingi di Mantua. Perancis dirayakan sebagai “favorit Fortune dalam pertempuran”. Penyair Friedrich Holderlin adalah gembira: “Kudus pembuluh adalah penyair di antaranya anggur kehidupan, semangat pahlawan diadakan Tapi semangat pemuda itu, bahwa semangat cepat, harus tidak meledak kapal itu untuk menahannya?.”

Napoleon tetap dingin, tenang dan dikumpulkan. Ketika seorang utusan yang dikirim oleh Directoire, yang kemudian pemerintah Prancis, mencari Dia keluar setelah kemenangan di Arcole, ia diucapkan profetik: “Apa yang telah mencapai 1 di sini adalah agak belaka saya hanya pada awal karir saya Do.. Anda berpikir bahwa saya memenangkan kemenangan untuk tombak saya di Italia hanya untuk kebesaran dari Directoire itu? ” Dalam kata-katanya sendiri, ia merasa “seolah-olah dia telah dibawa oleh angin”.

 
  
Jean-Antoine Gros
(1771-1835)
Napoleon Bonaparte di Jembatan dari Arcole, 17 November 1796 |
1801
  
Sebuah Refleksi Horor
 

Pemberontakan Spanyol melawan Napoleon

 
  
 
 Tidak ada yang tidak bersalah sekali ia telah melihat apa yang saya lihat. Saya menyaksikan bagaimana cita-cita mulia kebebasan dan kemajuan berubah menjadi tombak, pedang dan bayonet. Pembakaran, penjarahan dan pemerkosaan, semua seharusnya membawa Orde Baru, pada kenyataannya hanya menukar mencekik untuk tiang gantungan.
Francisco de Goya, dari sebuah entri dalam buku hariannya, 1808

 
  
  Francisco de Goya, barbar!. No 38 dari seri “BENCANA PERANG”
   
melihat koleksi: Francisco de Goya “BENCANA PERANG”

 
  
 
 Napoleon marah besar. The “urusan Spanyol terkutuk” itu di luar kendali. Awalnya, Kaisar kekuasaan-gila Prancis telah pikir ini akan menjadi penurut. Charles IV dari Spanyol, lemah di terbaik, telah mundur ke latar belakang, meninggalkan pemerintah di tangan istrinya Maria Luisa dan kekasihnya Manuel Godoy. Napoleon bisa menang atas Godoy ambisius dengan membuatnya raja muda Spanyol. Namun, link dengan Napoleon, yang menyebabkan bencana perang dengan Inggris Raya, membuat Godoy tidak populer di seluruh Spanyol. Dia hanya nyaris lolos yang digantung dengan melarikan diri ke Prancis.
Napoleon, licik seperti dirinya, selalu diperlakukan Spanyol, sekutu Perancis, seperti bangsa subjek. Dia menolak untuk mengakui kekalahan di tangan bangsa yang diduduki oleh pasukannya. Berpura-pura untuk mencari rekonsiliasi, ia memanggil raja dan ratu Spanyol, dengan putra mahkota di belakangnya, ke Prancis. Maksud sebenarnya Napoleon adalah untuk menjaga tawanan Spanyol bangsawan dan menempatkan kakak sulungnya, Joseph Bonaparte, di atas takhta Iberia. Ketika Napoleon pengkhianatan dikenal, pemberontakan putus asa pecah di Spanyol pada 2 Mei 1808. Tak berdaya kalah jumlah, sekelompok orang bersenjata dengan pisau dan tombak menyerang kekuatan kavaleri kuat Prancis di Puerta del Sol, sebuah persegi di jantung kota Madrid. Dimulai pada buta, marah impoten, pemberontakan ditakdirkan sejak awal untuk kegagalan. Masih tanda kepada dunia bahwa orang menaklukkan berani berdiri untuk Napoleon, yang saat itu di puncak kekuasaannya. Kaisar Perancis dituntut sebuah balas dendam yang mengerikan. Pada malam yang sama, semua orang diduga telah mengambil bagian dalam pemberontakan itu dieksekusi oleh regu tembak Prancis.

Tidak ada yang makin mendekati menunjukkan kebrutalan telanjang peristiwa-peristiwa dari Francisco de Goya, Pengadilan Painter untuk Charles IV, yang awalnya menyambut cita-cita Napoleon. Dijiwai dengan semangat Revolusi Perancis, ia tidak ragu-ragu untuk menunjukkan keluarga kerajaan Spanyol untuk apa itu, lukisan mereka dalam cahaya yang sangat tidak menarik. Namun, Napoleon ternyata kebalikan dari apa yang tampak. Meskipun ia memiliki kebebasan awalnya dicanangkan bagi masyarakat sendiri dan lain Eropa, ia mengungkapkan dirinya sebagai seorang penguasa lalim. Mungkin nilai-nilai telah menjadi rusak dan memutar. Dalam hal apapun, Goya digambarkan adegan dengan twist: pahlawannya adalah korban yang akan menjadi berikutnya yang akan ditembak. Pria dengan kemeja putih menyebar lengannya seperti Kristus di kayu Salib. Luka-luka di tangannya seperti Kristus. Pesannya adalah: aku mati supaya kamu hidup. Hal itu untuk waktu lima tahun untuk mendorong keluar Perancis Spanyol.
 
  
Francisco de Goya
(1746-1828)
Ketiga Mei, 1808: Eksekusi Para Pembela Madrid
1814
Museo del Prado, Madrid
  
Angkatan Alam dan Kekuatan di sebuah Lukisan
 

Di keangkuhan manusia

 
  
 
 “Apa yang telah kita memukul?” tanya Kapten Smith. “Sebuah gunung es, Sir,” jawab perwira pertama Murdoch. “Kami mengarahkan keras ke kanan dan terbalik mesin kecepatan penuh Tapi kami sudah terlalu dekat.. Saya ingin pergi berkeliling gunung es. Tapi itu sudah terlambat.”
Setelah pernyataan yang dibuat oleh petugas kedua kapal Titanic, Charles Herbert Lightoller,
sebelum subkomite Senat AS di April 1912

 
  
 
 Berita itu melanda dunia seperti pukulan: “Titanic tenggelam empat jam setelah tabrakan dengan gunung es; 1.250 diperkirakan tewas.” Jadi membaca judul New York Times 16 April 1912. Hanya dua puluh empat jam sebelumnya, sebuah tragedi belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya telah ditetapkan 400 mil laut di lepas Newfoundland di Atlantik. Lebih dari ruang penumpang kapal meninggal.
Bukan saja sebuah kapal memukau elegan turun; dengan dia tenggelam mitos zaman modern. Industri pria percaya itu bisa menipu alam dengan teknologi: berkilauan baru Titanic, pada pelayaran gadisnya dari Southampton ke New York, dianggap sebagai

keajaiban teknik dan sebagai “tak dapat tenggelam”. Namun ia menjadi korban keanehan alam seperti kapal ekspedisi begitu banyak yang telah berlayar ke perairan berbahaya abad sebelumnya.

Dalam Caspar David Friedrich, The Polar Laut, kapal terbalik terjebak dalam es mungkin “penindas”, yang mengambil bagian dalam ekspedisi ke Kutub Utara yang membuat berita utama di 1819-20 dan 1824. Inggris Polar explorer Sir William Edward Parry telah menjadi terlibat dalam situasi yang sangat berbahaya sementara mencari Passage Northwest. Caspar David Friedrich mungkin telah terinspirasi oleh laporan surat kabar tentang Parry juga oleh floes es berat pada Elbe di musim dingin tahun 1820-21.

Lukisan itu telah kadang-kadang ditafsirkan sebagai memiliki makna religius yaitu intransience kehidupan manusia sebelum keabadian ilahi. Ada juga interpretasi politik: pengunduran diri dalam menghadapi perang Jerman membuahkan hasil kemerdekaan. Namun Laut Kutub tetap dalam contoh pertama simbol dari teror limbah es daerah kutub – dan praduga manusia, yang tidak lagi berdiri dalam kekaguman alam.

 
  
Caspar David Friedrich
(1774-1840)
Laut Kutub
1824
  
   
Salah satu Keajaiban Dunia
 
Misteri Stonehenge

 
  
 
 Band dari pucat perak sepanjang horison timur dibuat bahkan bagian-bagian yang jauh dari Great Plain tampak gelap dan dekat, dan lanskap besar yang menanggung seluruh terkesan cadangan, sifat pendiam, dan ragu-ragu yang biasa sebelum hari. Para timur pilar dan architraves mereka berdiri blackly terhadap cahaya dan api yang besar berbentuk Sun-batu di luar mereka, dan Batu tengah Kurban. Saat angin malam mati, dan kolam sedikit bergetar di cangkir-seperti cekungan batu berbaring diam
Thomas Hardy, The Novel Wessex, vol. Saya, Tess dari Urbervilles D'(1891), ed 5. 1896

 
  
 
 Druid Upacara di Stonehenge
  
 
 
Megalit ribuan tahun bangkit melawan langit selatan Inggris dekat Ames-mengubur di Wiltshire. Siapa yang mendirikannya? Apakah pengorbanan manusia terjadi di sini? Apakah dukun legendaris Merlin bekerja di sini?
Megalitikum batu pasir berpakaian didirikan untuk membentuk sebuah lingkaran batu lintelled sekitar enam meter, beberapa dari mereka beratnya mencapai empat puluh lima ton. Berdiri di angin-menyapu Salisbury Plain, monumen misterius ke dunia lama terlupakan pertama kali disebut “keajaiban Inggris” pada abad kedua belas. Sejak itu, tidak satu abad telah berlalu tanpa dugaan segar pada apa yang mungkin telah menyebabkan pembangunan monumen henge unik.

Kaum Romantik yang menguraikan teori-teori tinggi tentang Stonehenge ketika Inggris lansekap pelukis besar John Constable melukis cat air yang terkenal itu berdasarkan sketsa awal banyak ia telah membuat dalam kunjungan pada tahun 1820. Bahkan saat ini arti dari lingkaran tiga puluh uprights, beberapa di antaranya masih dibatasi oleh ambang besar, sekitar pengaturan tapal kuda dari lima trilithons (dua batu tegak dihubungkan dengan palang), adalah menjadi misteri seperti dulu. Arkeolog cenderung percaya bahwa motif agama menyebabkan ereksi Stonehenge. Dalam cahaya abu-abu dingin fajar, situs dengan megalit yang menjulang tinggi adalah tempat yang mengancam hampir apokaliptik. Dengan sinar pertama matahari, uprights bayangan membentuk pola linier menakutkan di tanah. Salah satu legenda mengatakan bahwa kekuatan Druid terkonsentrasi dimana bayangan bertemu.

Diduga Celtic imam, Druid adalah perantara antara para dewa dan manusia, peramal, dukun dan hakim, dan, sebagai tutor untuk anak-anak bangsawan, diduga para penguasa sebenarnya dari Inggris kuno. Sayangnya, bagaimanapun, rekening Latin dari Druid gagal untuk menjelaskan banyak pada struktur ini. Para penentang teori bahwa Druid diresmikan pada saat Stonehenge bahwa Wiltshire batu lingkaran telah berdiri selama lebih dari 2.000 tahun sebelum masa kejayaan bangsa Celtic dan Druid (100 ВС-AD 78). Selain itu, yang terakhir tidak diketahui memiliki candi dibangun. Sebaliknya, mereka mengadakan upacara mereka di padang. Pengetahuan tentang bintang mungkin telah diturunkan oleh tradisi lisan ke Druid, yang dihapuskan oleh orang Romawi di Anglesey di tahun 78.

Satu hal yang pasti: orang-orang yang membangun Stonehenge menunjukkan pengetahuan tentang astronomi. Pendekatan asli ke situs ditandai dengan batu dimana, bila dilihat dari pusat lingkaran, matahari terbit pada titik balik matahari musim panas.

Lingkaran batu dikelilingi oleh lima puluh enam lubang. Penanggalan radiokarbon dari salah satu gerabah serta menemukan menunjukkan bahwa struktur yang paling awal di situs tanggal kembali ke zaman Neolitik terlambat (sekitar 2.300 ВС). Apapun Stonehenge mungkin telah, situs itu lebih atau kurang digunakan terus-menerus selama ribuan tahun. Spekulasi ini teka-teki yang paling memikat dari semua monumen kuno terus abound hari ini.

 
  
John Constable
(1776-1837)
Stonehenge
1836
  
Dengan Sikat dan Palet di Barikade
 

Revolusi tahun 1830

 
  
  
 Ah minggu itu besar di Paris! Keberanian untuk kebebasan yang menguar lewat sini telah, tentu saja, membatalkan malam lampu sehingga tirai merah pada beberapa takhta telah terbakar dan mahkota emas telah tumbuh panas di bawah cahaya malam-topi. Tapi kutub tangkapan tua sudah membesarkan ember dowsing dan mengendus tentang semua lebih waspada.
Heinrich Heine, Fragmen Inggris, November 1830

 
  
  
 lihat juga: “Antara Dua Revolutions” (Dari Daud sampai Delacroix)

 
  
  
 
Victor Hugo tinggal di rumah. Sibuk meneliti untuk novelnya, The Hunchback of Notre Dame, ia tidak ingin meninggalkan istrinya sendiri, yang telah melahirkan seorang anak perempuan hanya empat hari sebelumnya. Para muda Alexandre Dumas, di sisi lain – kemudian untuk mencapai terkenal dunia untuk nya jagoan The Count of Monte Cristo – berani memanggul senapan berlaras dua, siap untuk mempertaruhkan nyawanya demi kebebasan dengan ribuan mahasiswa, pedagang, pekerja dan aktor.
Paris sekali lagi di ambang sebuah revolusi. Jalanan penuh warga gelisah menghadapi para penjaga kerajaan dengan pistol dan pentungan kayu, senapan dan pisau. Penyebab keributan adalah rasa takut warga negara yang sistem lama penindasan kerajaan, yang telah dihapuskan, sedang bangkit lagi. Pada awal 1814 rumah kerajaan Bourbon telah kembali kekuatan semula. Lotus XVIII, adik ke Louis XVI, yang telah dieksekusi selama Revolusi, telah dipanggil dari pengasingan untuk memerintah Perancis setelah kejatuhan Napoleon. Moderat dan berhati-hati, ia telah mengejar kebijakan liberal, menggabungkan rasa modern untuk kebebasan dengan prinsip-prinsip rezim lama. Ketika Louis XVIII meninggal pada tahun 1824, Charles X, bungsu dari tiga bersaudara, memiliki dirinya sendiri dimahkotai di Reims dengan keangkuhan abad pertengahan dan keadaan. Sezaman ke depan menemukannya reaksioner dan bodoh. Berkeinginan menghidupkan kembali pra-Revolusi Perancis, ia bermaksud untuk mengembalikan judul kuno dan hak istimewa untuk kaum bangsawan serta satu miliar franc di reparasi untuk properti hilang oleh kaum bangsawan selama Revolusi. Setelah Charles X mengeluarkan seri represif dekrit pada tanggal 25 Juli 1830, menghapuskan kebebasan pers, melarutkan legislatif dan merampas sebagian besar warga hak pilih, hal-hal datang ke kepala. Pada 28 Juli 1830 pemberontakan terjadi tidak jauh dari studio Eugene Delacroix ini. Sementara tentara bayaran dikerahkan oleh Charles X berjuang jalan melalui jalan-jalan sempit, para pendukung kaum revolusioner melemparkan furnitur, cuci-bak, ubin perakaran dan dada alat bawah pada mereka dari jendela, akhirnya dumping cartloads seluruh melon di kepala pasukan kerajaan memajukan untuk menghentikan kemajuan mereka. Bentrokan di jalan terjadi selama tiga hari. Pelukis dan kartunis Honore Daumier menderita pedang-garis miring di wajahnya selama pertempuran. Pada tanggal 3 Agustus 1830 warga menang, memaksa Charles X untuk turun tahta dan melarikan diri ke pengasingan.
 Delacroix, yang telah mengamati pemberontakan pada jarak yang aman, mengambil kuas dan palet. Dalam sebuah surat kepada saudaranya yang ditulis pada bulan Oktober 1830, ia mengaku, “Meskipun saya tidak melawan, aku akan di cat setidaknya untuk negara kita!” Dan hasilnya Liberty Memimpin Rakyat, pola dasar dari Revolusi.

 
  
  Eugene Delacroix
(1798-1863)
Liberty terkemuka Rakyat (28 Juli 1830)
1830
  
  Dunia Lama ditarik oleh New
 

Pada awal dari era modern

 
  
 
 Kapal uap sedikit jahat membusungkan aliran najis dan hantu-seperti asap, bersinar merah dan menyenangkan, sementara di belakangnya kapal tua berani mengikuti dengan lambat, sedih dan megah, ditandai dengan tanda Kematian.
Diadaptasi dari William Makepeace Thackeray, setelah 1839

 
  
Sebuah cikal bakal penemuan James Watt
 
  
 
 Ia telah melayani negaranya dengan baik dan sekarang dia
hari adalah masa lalu, dan Inggris berduka. Pertempuran “Temeraire”, seperti John Ruskin dan Inggris lain telah memanggilnya, adalah simbol kepahlawanan di laut. Ketika armada Inggris dan Perancis bentrok di Trafalgar tanggal 21 Oktober 1805, yang Temeraire adalah kapal kedua dari garis Inggris. Meskipun Laksamana Nelson, komandan armada Inggris, meninggal karena luka tembak di dek kapal adiknya, yang “Victory”, ia telah melakukan hari. Kalah jumlah oleh enam kapal, armada dari dua puluh tujuh telah mengalahkan Prancis. Para Temeraire memainkan peran penting dalam kemenangan di Trafalgar, yang adalah untuk menjamin supremasi Inggris di laut selama abad lain. Dia decoyed api Perancis, yang bertujuan untuk Nelson dan unggulan, jauh dari Kemenangan dan telah merebut hadiah. Pada akhir pertempuran, sebagai catatan kontemporer, ia hampir tersembunyi di antara dua kapal Prancis diamankan ke mainmast dan jangkar nya.

Beberapa tiga puluh tahun kemudian, Joseph Mallord William Turner sangat terharu menyaksikan kapal tua gagah yang ditunda dari Sheerness ke halaman pemutus di Deptford. Namun, pelukis brilian efek atmosfer dan suasana hati tidak hanya memikirkan perpisahan. Dia juga berharap untuk awal yang baru. Pada 1765, sepuluh tahun sebelum Turner lahir, James Watt telah memicu Revolusi Industri di Inggris dengan menciptakan mesin uap. Turner terpesona dengan keajaiban teknologi yang muncul di sekelilingnya. Dia adalah orang yang pertama yang melukis gambar, yang secara dramatis eksperimental, dari sarana modern transportasi, seperti kereta api dan kapal uap. Kedua keindahan dan aspek mengancam penemuan tersebut terungkap dalam lukisannya dari mereka. Pengamat mungkin menemukan simbolisme dalam pelayaran terakhir Temeraire itu: penarik kapal tunda di bawah uap yang mewakili Orde Baru dan semua ambivalensi nya, kapal berlayar Lama – sudah berubah di dalam memori.

 
  
Yusuf Mallord William Turner
(1775-1851)
Para Temeraire Berjuang menarik untuk Berth terakhir nya Be Broken Up
1858
National Gallery di London
 
  
Yusuf Mallord William Turner
(1775-1851)
Hujan, Uap dan Speed Kereta Api Great Western
  
Stark Naked
 

Perempuan mandi

 
  
 
 Saya percaya, secara keseluruhan, ada dua ratus wanita …. Sofa pertama ditutupi dengan bantal dan karpet kaya, yang duduk wanita, dan pada kedua, budak mereka di belakang mereka, …. semua berada di keadaan alamiah, yaitu, dalam bahasa Inggris, telanjang bulat …. Ada yang banyak di antara mereka sebagai tepat proporsional seperti biasa dewi pun ditarik oleh pensil … Titian, .. Saya terpesona dengan kesopanan dan keindahannya … Tis tidak kurang daripada kematian bagi seorang pria untuk ditemukan di salah satu tempat.
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Surat kepada Elizabeth Kaya pengalamannya dalam bak mandi perempuan di Sophia, tanggal 1 April 1717

 
  
Jean-Leon Gerome
Penangas
  
 
  
Jean-Leon Gerome
Penangas
  
 
  
Jean-Leon Gerome
Penangas
  
 
  
Jean-Leon Gerome
The Teaser dari Narghile yang
  
 
  
Jean-Leon Gerome
Penangas
  
 
  
Jean-Leon Gerome
Perempuan telanjang
  
 
  
Jean-Leon Gerome
Sebuah Bath, Wanita Mandi Kaki nya
  
 
  
Jean-Leon Gerome
Sebuah Bath, Wanita Mandi Kaki nya
 
  
 
 Meskipun Minoans dan kemudian orang Yunani kuno memiliki bak mandi, itu adalah Roma yang membuat mandi populer. Lambang peradaban Romawi, Romawi Therme, atau mandi, yang mewah dan luas. Kolam, dinding dan bahkan lantai dipanaskan. Contoh Splendid arsitektur perkotaan, Therme adalah tempat di mana pria dimandikan, memiliki manikur dan pedikur, mengambil mandi uap dan melakukan latihan senam. Mereka adalah titik pusat dari aktivitas sosial dan politik. Roma diketahui telah membuat keputusan penting sementara uap di pemandian atau berjalan-jalan di sandal dan handuk. Dengan jatuhnya kekaisaran Romawi, budaya mandi mulia menghilang dari kancah Eropa. Apa yang kemudian digantikan itu tentu dalam skala yang jauh lebih sederhana. Nuremberg abad pertengahan, misalnya, membual total tiga belas publik “kamar mandi” di mana bak kayu besar yang berisi air panas. Ada juga mandi uap kadang-kadang dan kamar istirahat dipanaskan dengan kompor ubin. Mandi seperti itu bukan hanya tempat untuk mempromosikan budaya tubuh, mereka juga digunakan sebagai operasi: gigi ditarik, darah membiarkan, kop-gelas yang diterapkan pada punggung dan dada dari mereka dengan pilek dan operasi kecil dilakukan. Kamar mandi yang disukai oleh karena Gereja untuk kesenangan bahenol dinikmati di dalamnya. “Petugas Bath” adalah perempuan bermoral yang dikatakan telah menjadi alasan mengapa Raja Wenceslas IV dari Bohemia mengunjungi perusahaan mandi dari Praha, ibukotanya, lebih sering daripada yang baik untuk kulit sensitif. Di Timur Dekat, di sisi lain, budaya mandi kuno selamat karena pergi ke hammam (mandi) yang diresepkan oleh Islam. Terinspirasi oleh akun Lady Mary Wortley Montagu dari perjalanannya di wilayah tersebut, pelukis Perancis Jean-Auguste Dominique Ingres dicat bagian wanita dari pemandian Turki. Master terkenal adalah delapan puluh tiga tahun ketika ia menambahkan sentuhan penobatan untuk oeuvre-nya dengan menggambarkan adegan mandi Turki. Ingres membuat ratusan sketsa awal untuk lukisan itu sebelum menyajikannya kepada Pangeran Charles-Louis-Napoleon pada Desember 1859. Hanya beberapa minggu kemudian, lukisan itu kembali ke Ingres, diduga karena istri sang pangeran, Eugenie de Montijo, telah dipermalukan oleh para wanita telanjang digambarkan begitu sensual dalam pekerjaan luar biasa. Ketika Permandian Turki diperagakan dalam versi kedua, pada dasarnya tidak berubah, telanjang adalah apa yang membawa pujian publik lukisan luas. Kritikus memuji sebagai “kencan dengan kegenitan Oriental” atau, agak kasar, sebagai “pesta kelezatan duniawi” dan “masih hidup kesenangan indria”. Ini tentu berdampak pada Picasso dan seniman lainnya, yang mengaguminya baik untuk komposisi dan idiom formal. Setelah karya ini, Ingreswas tidak lagi dianggap sebagai “eksponen tak berdarah dari Neoclassicism”. Mulai sekarang ia adalah terobosan “revolusioner”.
 
  

Jean-Auguste Dominique Ingres
(1780-1867)
Penangas
1863
 
  
   
Eros terbangun untuk Storm dari Kemarahan
 
Paris dan “Salon des Tolak”

 
  
 
  
 
  
Edouard Manet
(1832-1883)
Le dejeuner sur I’herbe
1863
Musee d’Orsay, Paris
  
A Look yang Tewaskan
 

Kuno dan Era Industri

 
  
 
 Tapi Perseus, dengan kepala rakasa ular berambut itu. Yang terkenal memanjakan, penuh kemenangan berjalan gemerisik Pada kepaknya melalui udara nyaman Dan, saat ia melayang di atas pasir Libya, Darah-tetes dari kepala Gorgon yang menetes ke bawah. Gurun terpercik memberi mereka kehidupan seperti ular. Halus ular dari berbagai jenis, dan tanah yang Masih kawanan dengan ular mematikan sampai hari ini.
Ovid, Metamorphoses, (IV. 617-24), AD 1-8

 
  

Benvenuto Cellini
Perseus dengan Kepala Medusa
1554
 
 
Peter Paul Rubens
Tete de Meduse
1618
 
 

Arnold Bocklin
Medusa
 
  

 
 
 
Bahkan Odiseus takut Medusa. Ini pahlawan Yunani licik memutuskan tinggal di Underworld karena ia takut berhadapan dengan kepala dipenggal dari rakasa, yang sekilas berubah siapa saja yang melihatnya menjadi batu. Menurut penyair Yunani Hesiod (c. 800 ВС), yang melakukan untuk mengatur mitos para dewa Yunani kuno di Theogony, Medusa adalah salah satu dari tiga saudara perempuan Gorgon yang berdiam di luar Mediterania di Barat jauh, yang mana terletak mitologi kuasa kejahatan menjadi.

 
  

1887
 
  

 

 
  
 
 

 
  
 
 

 
  

1883
 
  
   

 

 
  
 
 

 
  
  
   
  

 
  
Vincent Van Gogh

1889
 
  

 

 
  
 
  

 
  

 
  
 
  

1892

  

 

 
  
 
 

 
  
  
   
  

 
  

1895
  

 

 
  
 
 

 
  
  

 
 
 
 
 
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ORIGINAL INFO

ALL THE PAINTING COLLECTORS AND VISUAL ART HISTORY SCHOLAR MUST READ AND LOOK THIS AMIZING ARTICLE

THIS IS THE PART OF E-BOOK IN CD-ROM ABOUT THE FAMOUS VISUAL ART AND THE PAINTING WHICH CHANGED THE WORLD

THE COMPLETE cd EXIST,BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER

THIS ONE SAMPLE WITH ILLUSTTRATIONS

Making Myths
 

Film and art

 

So we think of Marilyn who was every man’s love affair with America, Marilyn Monroe who was blonde and beautiful and had a sweet little rinky-dink of a voice and all the cleanliness of all the clean American backyards. She was our angel, the sweet angel of sex, and the sugar of sex came up from her like a resonance of sound in the clearest grain of a violin.

Norman Mailer, Marilyn, 1973


Marilyn Monroe

 


see collection: Marilyn Monroe

 


 

 

She acted out her life

under the devouring gaze of a gigantic audience, one that couldn’t get enough of her: Marilyn, the enchanting child-woman, the breathtaking sex-symbol, the unattainable goddess of film. She was unforgettable in Gentlemen Prefer Blondes, Some Like It Hot, and The Seven-Year Itch. She was wildly acclaimed, dominated the headlines, filled the gossip columns and incarnated the dreams of a decade. Behind the glitz, glamour and the luscious smile which enthralled the world was a vulnerable and immature woman. Did America know it all along? Was that the secret source of her mystique; She had a terrible childhood. She said that she was probably a mistake, that her mother hadn’t wanted to have her at all. She never knew her father and was bounced between her mother’s home and a series of adoptive families; her mother had a nervous breakdown and Marilyn spent two years in an orphanage. She never graduated from high school and married at sixteen, perhaps to avoid being sent back to an orphanage. She was later to comment that her marriage wasn’t unhappy; but it wasn’t happy either. She and her husband just didn’t have much to say to each other.Her discovery was all part of the war effort. While her husband was fighting in World War II Marilyn was in a factory checking parachutes. Ronald Reagan sent David Conover, a twenty-five-year-old army photographer, to photograph cheerful young munitions-factory workers. Conover took notice of this girl who could make more out of a pose than anyone he had ever seen. The publicists took his discovery and created “Marilyn Monroe”, the icon of post-war Hollywood. She was oddly detached and alienated, saying she always had the feeling that she was not real, that she was something like a well-made counterfeit. She was sure that everyone had similar feelings from time to time but in her case things had gone so far that she sometimes thought she was completely synthetic. She died on the night of 4 August 1962 under mysterious circumstances, but her legend lived on and even grew.

Andy Warhol, the son of Czech immigrants, began his artistic career in advertising, moved on to film-making and became high-society’s favourite portrait artist. He ended up a cult figure, probably the cult figure, of Pop Art. His Marilyn Monroe is a twentieth-century icon of art. He wrote of his work that, whether or not his loud colours made her into a symbol was irrelevant, and if the colours were beautiful, it was because she was; beauty calls for beautiful colours. Marilyn Monroe was commercialised beauty, quite artificial and quite misunderstood.


Andy Warhol
(1928-1987)
Turquoise Marilyn
1962
 


Andy Warhol
(1928-1987)
Turquoise Marilyn
 


Andy Warhol
(1928-1987)
Pink Marilyn Reversal
1986
 


Andy Warhol
(1928-1987)
Marilyn Monroe
1967
 


Andy Warhol
(1928-1987)
Marilyn Monroe

THE SAMPLE OF ARTICLE WITHOUT ILLUSTRATIONS

 

THE SAMPLE OF ARTICLE WITHOUT ILLUSTRATIONS

Paintings

that Changed the World

  CONTENTS:          
  Lascaux Caves Manesse illuminated Massys Callot Friedrich Picasso
  Tutankhamen’s tomb Lorenzetti Grunewald Rembrandt Constable Matisse
  Europa and Minotaur Karlstein Castle Baldung  Claude Lorrain Delacroix Marc
  Banquet Tomb Limbourg brothers Altdorfer Velazquez Turner Kandinsky
  Pompeii Van Eyck Cranach Vermeer Ingres Monet
  Birth of Christianity Della Francesca Holbein Rigaud Manet Chirico
  Hagia Sophia Uccello Titian Watteau Burne-Jones Modigliani
  Book of Kells Mantegna Bruegel Canaletto Seurat Chagall
  St Benedict Botticelli Vicentino Boucher Van Gogh Kahlo
  Bayeux Tapestry Anonymous Arcimboldo Fragonard Toulouse-Lautrec Dali
  Donizo manuscript Durer El Greco Gainsborough Munch Ernst
  Liber Scivias Bosch Theodore de Bry John Trumbull Cezanne Hopper
  Carmina Burana Da Vinci Caravaggio David Gauguin Bacon
  Falcon Book Michelangelo Rubens Gros Degas Warhol
  Giotto Raphael Brouwer Goya Klimt  
             

From Lascaux to Warhol

Supreme art is a traditional statement of certain heroic and religious truth,
passed on from age to age, modified by individual genius,
but never abandoned.

William Butler Yeats

 
  
   
 
  
 
  
 
  
Jacques Callot
The Thirty Yaars War “Miseries of War

 
  
 
 See collection: Jacques Callot: The Thirty Yaars War “Miseries of War”

Jacques Callot

The Thirty Yaars War “Miseries of War
 

 
 
 
  
 
  
 
  
Jan Asselyn
(1615-1652)
Gustav II Adolf at the Battle of Lutzen
1650
  
A Well-Guarded Painting
 

The fascination of The Night Watch

 
  
 
 How the drum beats,
How the pipe trills.
How trumpets also,
    and shawms,
    and kettle-drums sound,
О see
How fresh the flag flutters.
May your hearts
Leap light for joy.
Johannes Grab, Soldier’s Song, seventeenth century
 
  
 
 The Man in the Golden Helmet
с 1650/55, is attributed to the circle of Rembrandt
   
 
 Pulsating with life — a drum is beaten, a dog barks, lances and muskets are raised, a flag is flown, children run about in all directions — The Night Watch is regarded as the masterpiece of the great Dutch painter Rembrandt van Rijn. The only oddity is that the subject of the painting is not a night watch. The title emerged towards the close of the eighteenth century after the many layers of varnish coating the surface of the painting had considerably darkened. The gloom thus produced led to the idea that the scene was captured at night. The original title of the painting was The Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocg. Instead of depicting a night watch, it is a group portrait of Amsterdam militia men. At the time it was painted, Amsterdam was Europe’s leading mercantile city, with three civic militias. They called themselves The Crossbowmen, The Long-bowmen and The Guild of Arquebusiers after the weapons the men of their companies had borne in the Middle Ages. The militias recruited members from the pool of men in their city fit for military service, while each district had its own company. In times of war and unrest, the militias fulfilled the function of protecting the community. Before Rembrandtt’s time, their duties included patrolling the ramparts of the city and mounting guard at its gates.
In 1653 Rembrandt settled permanently in Amsterdam. The civic militias still retained something of their military character, although by then theirs was predominantly a social function. The traditional guilds with their historic past represented different sections of the city, sometimes marking political factions, and their members paraded at civic festivities. Commissioned in 1640 by the Amsterdam Arquebusiers to paint their group portrait, Rembrandt probably portrayed the members before they were to participate in a traditional parade, which may have been held in celebration of the visit of the French Queen, Marie de’ Medici, in 1638. Contemporary sources show that the queen was welcomed by the marksmen’s guilds and was accompanied by them in a ceremonial parade to a lavish feast in the festival hall of a guild house. Rembrandt’s company of men was possibly depicted early in the morning of this royal visit. Led by their captain, Frans Banning Cocq, a reputable Antwerp merchant, the guild members seem to be about to take leave to greet the French queen outside the city. The large painting with its life-sized figures most likely hung in the festival hall of the Arquebusiers’ guild house. In 1715 it was transferred to Antwerp’s Town Hall. Because it was too large for the space it was to occupy there, it was promptly cut down to size.

 
  
 

Rembrandt van Rijn
(1606—1669)
The Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq
(The Night Watch)
Frans Banning Cocq (with a red sash)
1642
Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
  
   
Landscapes, Light and Legends
 

Restrained Romanticism

 
  
 
  
 
  
Claude Lorrain
(1600-1682)
Seaport with the Embarkation of the Queen of Sheba
1648
National Gallery, London
  
   
Behind the Scenes
 
At the palace of King Philip IV of Spain

 
  
 
 Palaces and temples were built,
armies engaged in battle,

the elements raged-

and the King in reality is nothing

but an actor in disguise, and his throne

a make-shift chair….

Masks and makeup, deception and

pretence – this is theatre.

Adapted from Richard Alewyn’s work on life
at the Court of King Philip IV of Spain, 1985

 
  
 
 A monastery and royal palace: El Escorial was under Diego Velazquez’s administration in the 17th century
 
  
 
 Their numbers were legionary. Some say there were 30,000 courtesans at the Court of Philip IV of Spain. Reigning from 1621 until 1665, the monarch had to leave governing to his regent, Count Olivares. No wonder, for in addition to women, Philip IV was an aficionado of hunting, the arts and literature. He was particularly fond of the theatre. Because the country was in decline, the king, like his countrymen, withdrew into a world of illusions. However, Philip IV did not content himself with occupying the Royal box; he wrote plays himself, most of them comedies. When he was not busy playing the King of Spain on the world stage, he could be admired displaying his talents as an actor in amateur performances put on at Court. Philip IV lived in and for the theatre. The responsibility for designing this world of illusion devolved increasingly upon the painter Diego Velazquez. After being called to the Spanish Court in 1623, Velazquez had a meteoric career as a Court official. The last office he held was that of Lord High Usher of the Chamber, the highest rank he might attain in the king’s retinue. Under Velazquez’s tenure, the royal palaces were restored, enlarged and refurnished. For each of the numerous Court revels and festivities, among them the marriage of the Infanta Marie-Therese of Spam to Louis XIV of France, Velazquez threw himself into the task of designing all the decorations and curtains, stage sets and backdrops. It was not long before he was, to put it in modern terms, not only the Head Designer at Court but also its top-ranking Installation Artist. Philip IV was very fond of the man who created his dream world. He used to visit the artist in his workshop, which was in the palace. The king also provided him with lodgings near the royal apartments. Now an intimate friend of the king, Velazquez had no compunction about disturbing his royal master at any time. The painter became familiar with everything that was going on at Court and in the royal family. How close the painter’s friendship with the king really was is perhaps shown most clearly in Las Meninas. The scene is like a photographer’s snapshot, casually anecdotal about what was happening on the fringes of real life. The little Infanta Margarita appears in Velazquez’s studio, while the artist is painting a double portrait of her parents, which is reflected in a mirror on the rear wall. Responsible not only for construction work and staging festivities, he was also charged with ensuring that royal outings went smoothly. He saw to the linen, the firewood, the servants, the carpeting and guests’ comfort and welfare, kitchen domestics and everything having to do with art. Overburdened by his many duties, Velazquezcollapsed and died on 6 August 1660. He was buried in the dress and insignia of a Knight of Santiago. After his Favourite’s death, King Philip IV is said to have personally taken up a brush and altered the artist’s portrait. After all, when this picture was painted, the artist had not yet become a Knight of the Order.
 
  
Velazquez
(1599—1660)
Las Meninas (The Maids of Honour)
1656
Museo del Prado, Madrid
  
Everyday Scenes Transformed Into Poetry
 

The calm and peace of a great master

 
  
 
  
Vermeer’s Muses
 
  
 
  
Jan Vermeer
(1632—1675)
The Allegory of Painting
1666
Kunsthistonsches Museum, Vienna
  
   
“L’etat, c’est moi!”
 
Why Louis XIV failed to smile

 
  
 
 The King is the regent and the image of God on earth, his majesty is the reflection of the divine; the entire state, the will of the people are embodied in him. Only he who serves the King serves the state.
Jacques-Benigne Bossuet (1627-1704), Bishop of Meaux, Politics According to the Teachings of the Holy Scriptures (begun in 1678/79)

 
  
 
 Centre of the absolutist world: The Palace of Versailles
 
  
 
 He wanted to impressand he was feared: Louis xiv of France, the Sun King, Absolutism incarnate. He particularly liked to be portrayed as an Imperator, omnipotent, magnificent and proud. He was remarkably healthy and was known for his sexual prowess. In Versailles, the magnificent palace he had built to commemorate himself, no woman was safe from him. Politically, he was equally successful. His invasion of Holland, his occupation of Strasbourg and of German territories, the sacking and burning of Heidelberg and Mannheim not only enraged his contemporaries; Louis XIV was given bad marks for his wars by later historians as well. His behaviour those relating to his teeth, all of which he had extracted on the advice of his physicians, who were woefully incompetent. One gruesome dental disaster led to another, ultimately leaving the king’s face lopsided. Yet the real reason for his unsmiling portraits is an aesthetic convention that goes back at least as far as the sombre busts of the Roman Republic and was given new emphasis in Absolutism. Rulers, divine or otherwise, were not only held in awe. Those who portrayed them were expected to observe the conventions of frontality and unsmiling dignity to enhance the quality of regal aloofness, which ultimately meant absolute power. Even royal women, little Infantas and the beautiful queens of Spain, were subject to this austere treatment.
The stern Absolutist convention had a sequel in the United States. The painter Charles Wilson Peale (1741—1827), who served in the American Revolution, was a true son of the Enlightenment. A man of many talents, he advanced early palaeontology, invented several new types of spectacles and made false teeth. The archetypal portraitist of Revolutionary War heroes, Peale might be called George Washington’s official portrait painter. All his portraits of the first President of the United States (including, of course, the variant on greenbacks) are tight-lipped and unsmiling. Legend has it that George Washington, too, had trouble with his false teeth. Could they have been made by Peale? In any case it can be safely assumed that the President, like Louis XIV of France, was only too aware of the image he owed to his nation and to history.

 
  
HYACINTHE RIGAUD
(French, 1659—1745)
Louis XIV of France in His Coronation Robes
1701
Musee du Louvre, Paris
  
Pierrot and Other Clowns

Comedy and melancholy

 
  
  Get your apparel together, good strings to your beards, new ribbons to your pumps; meet presently at the palace; every man look o’er his part…. In any case, let Thisby have clean linen; and let not him that plays the lion pare his nails, for they shall hang out for the lion’s claws. And, most dear actors, eat no onions nor garlic, for we are to utter sweet breath, and I do not doubt but to hear them say, it is a sweet comedy….
William Shakespeare, Bottom in A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Act V, Scene 11,36-46,1600

 
  
Maurice Sand
(1823-1889)
Pulcinello; Pantaleone; Harlequin; Il Dottore; Le Notaire
 
  
 
 In the eighteenth century, members of the French Court amused themselves splendidly: “The day before yesterday there was a great masque in Versailles”. Thus a letter written in 1700: “The Duchess of Burgundy, in the guise of a village bride, came with her retinue of ladies in waiting, who were all masked, as she was, and whose hair was adorned with many flowers. This made a gloriously cheerful effect…. Eight days before there was another pretty harlequinade at Marly. The loveliest were the Savoyardes with their pedlar’s bundles on their backs, which they opened. Two little harlequins and two Columbines popped out, little girls and boys, who danced beautifully.” Even King Louis XV, then only eleven years old, took part in fetes galantes, elegant entertainments, in 1721. He mimed a ballet dancer in a ballet entitled The Elements.
Not only did the nobility love dressing up and playing theatre. Like many of his contemporaries, painter Jean-Antoine Watteau did, too. He was particularly taken with the characters in Italian improvised comedy, commedia dell’arte. They brought welcome diversion and pleasure to the poor as well. Commedia dell’arte originated around 1550 in Lombardy, evolving as street theatre in which improvised pieces based on stock situations were performed by troupes of specially trained actors. All that was prearranged were synopses of the plot and the sequence of scenes. Consisting mainly of clowning and jokes, the dialogue was entirely improvised. Although a couple in love belonged to the stock repertoire, the other characters were burlesque types, instantly recognisable because they always appeared in the same masks and costumes: Pantalone — an elderly Venetian merchant, the doctor, a scholar of Bologna and Arlecchino, and his crafty man-servant, whose awkward and melancholy side soon became personified as a separate character called Pedrolino.

After commedia dell’arte had become established in France at courts, fairs and in the streets, Pedrolino changed into a pitiable fool, who might be called either Pierrot or Gilles. This character represented the rejected lover, who was always sad. He was characterised by a distinctive white, wide-sleeved costume, a white mask and a wide white beret. Did Watteau paint his Gilles as a portrait of an actor famous for playing the part of Gilles or Pierrot? Was this life-sized painting possibly hung in front of a cafe, or theatre in which the actor in question may have appeared in the role? Be that as it may, the melancholy clown, mocked, ridiculed and despised for his asinine helplessness, was a favourite with Watteau for the sole reason that he was so wretchedly sad. The mournful clown appears several times in his work. Is this a biographical clue? The painter knew all too well what it was like to have only himself for company. His final years were marred by disease and melancholy before he died at thirty-seven of tuberculosis.

 
  
Jean-Antoine Watteau
(1684—1721)
Gilles and Four Other Characters from the Commedia dell’Arte (Pierrot)
1718
Musee du Louvre, Paris
  
A City Rich in Gold
 

Venice and the sea

 
  
 
 He saw it once more, that landing-place that takes the breath away, that amazing group of incredible structures the Republic set up to meet the awe-struck eye of the approaching seafarer: the airy splendour of the palace and the Bridge of Sighs, the columns with a lion and saint on the shore, the glory of the projecting flank of the fairy temple, the vista of gateway and clock.
Thomas Mann, Death in Venice, 1912

 
  
 
 Venice and gondolas: An inseparable duo
Venice
 
  
 
 No other city in the world has been so extravagantly praised as Venice. In 1495 the French ambassador Philippe de Commines praised it as being “the most joyously radiant city” he had ever seen. He mentioned white marble facades, apartments with gilt antechambers and sumptuously ornate fireplaces. When Napoleon conquered Venice in 1797, he thought St Mark’s was “the best drawing-room in Europe and only Heaven is worthy of serving as its ceiling”, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, who stayed in the island-dotted lagoon in September 1786 while on his Italian journey, spoke with reverence of the “wonderful island city”, which he “was privileged to visit” and in which he wished to reside “until I have satiated my desire to gaze on the image of this city”. After endless warring with Genoa, Venice finally conquered her rival in 1380. From that date, the city was the unchallenged leader in world trade. In 1423 the Venetian Republic commanded a war fleet of 45 galleys specially built for combat and a merchant fleet of 300 galleys. With a population of over 200,000, Venice was one of the biggest, and certainly the richest, Western cities. Prosperity, optimism and cheerfulness reigned: “People sing in the squares, tn the streets and on the canals. Merchants sing when they are prizing then-wares; labourers sing when they leave their places of work; gondolien sing when they are waiting for customers”, remarked the Italian dramatist Carlo Goldoni in the eighteenth century. One wonders whether the Doge, the ruler of the Republic, sang when conducting the affairs of state.
At any rate, he had to utter the same invocation each year on Ascension Day, which was the most important event in the city calendar: “O sea, we wed thee in the sign of our true and everlasting dominion”. With this incantation, a vow renewed each year, the Venetians hoped to propitiate the primal forces of the sea to ensure their benevolence and willingness to do their share in securing the supremacy of the Republic in the Adriatic. In the days of the veduta painter Canaletto, the “nuptials with the sea” were staged as an opulent and colourful cavalcade. The Doge boarded his ceremonial ship, the bucintoro, and sailed to the Porto di Lido, the principal gateway to Venice, where the “nuptials with the sea” took place. There he poured holy water into the sea and cast a gold ring overboard. The ritual has been revived in recent years. Now, of course, something very different is at stake. No longer are the power, influence and wealth of Venice to be enhanced. The decaying city once called the Serenissima (“Most Serene Republic”) must be prevented from subsiding into the sea should a raging storm unleash the forces of nature.

 
  
Canaletto
(1697-1768)
Return of the Bucentoro to the Molo on Ascension Day
1732
Royal Collection. Windsor
  
A Clever Mistress
 

Madame la Marquise de Pompadour and Louis XV

 
  
 
 I am always being blamed for the general wretchedness, the Cabinet’s unfounded policies, the disastrous war campaigns and the triumphs celebrated by our enemies. I stand accused of having sold everything, of having my fingers in every pie, of ruling behind the scenes. One day at dinner the King asked an old man to be so kind as to give his compliments to the Marquise de Pompadour. Everyone laughed at the poor man as a simpleton. But I did not laugh.
Madame la Marquise de Pompadour (1721-1764), Letters, 1922

 
  
Louis XV, King of France (1710—1774) by Louis-Michel van Loo;
Madame de Pompadour by Jean-Marc Nattier; Madame de Pompadour by Maurice Quentin de la Tour
 
  
 
 There was a small secret staircase at Versailles that led from the king’s Cabinet to the second floor. There dwelled a lady named Jeanne-Antoinette Poisson, who has gone down in history as the Marquise de Pompadour. Louis XV of France, the Sun King’s great-grandson and his successor, frequently climbed the steps to visit her. He is said to have preferred to disappear from Cabinet meetings for trysts with his mistress. When that happened, the ministers had to sit and wait for the king until he returned as Court etiquette forbade their the room without the monarch. Thus Court lackeys could be deceived into thinking the king had spent the entire time m conference with his ministers. Witty, cultured and beautiful, Madame de Pompadour may have been the daughter of a head-groom working on a duke’s estate; her mother was a beauty in her own right. Madame de Pompadour was the fourth official royal mistress. Although married to the Polish princess Maria Leszczynska since 1725, Louis XV seems to have embarked on his first extramarital affair in 1733. The first years of his marriage had been happy ones and six daughters and a son survived the union with Maria, who was deeply humiliated by her husband’s infidelity. The first three royal mistresses to be established successively at Court from 1738 spent their time giving parties at the king’s expense and behaving in a way that aroused public indignation. Years afterwards the queen was still complaining of having nightmares about her husband’s dreadful mistresses.
Madame la Marquise de Pompadour was altogether different. She was unlike the others. No Bacchanalian parties took place in the private apartments of this grande dame. She gave exquisite little dinners with the king and invitations to them were coveted indeed. Moreover, Madame la Marquise was anxious to be on a good footing with the queen. She visited her every day, brought her flowers and chatted with her. The Marquise was even known to have served on occasion as an intermediary between the king and queen. When she heard one day that the queen had lost a considerable sum at gambling but was afraid to tell her husband what had happened, Madame de Pompadour asked the king for the privilege of paying the queen’s debts of honour herself. Submitting to fate with gentle piety, Maria Leszcyriska allowed Madame de Pompadour to take her place at the king’s side. The bourgeoise, whose paternity has never been satisfactorily established, became the power behind the throne at Versailles. When it came to appointing officials and ministers and making major decisions, Louis XV always consulted his mistress. For this reason Francois Boucher, once her drawing master and Court Painter to the king, painted a semi-official portrait of her. The seal and letter probably hint at her political ambition. That she was an accomplished singer is symbolised by the scores scattered at her feet. Even the little spaniel was not a prop provided by the painter. Her name was Mimi and she really did belong to Madame de Pompadour.

 
  
Francois Boucher
(1703—1770)
Portrait of Madame de Pompadour
1756
  
She Turns My Head
 

The Garden of Earthly Delights

 
  
 
 Happy face, nymph-like girl
Eyes like cherries, seventeen
Delightful prattle
She turns my head.
Bernard, Chevalier de Bonnard (1744-1784), Poesies diverses, published in 1791

 
  
 
 One day in October 1766, the Parisian painter Jean-Honore Fragonard was summoned to the hunting lodge of Baron Samt-Julien. The aristocratic treasurer of the Catholic Church pointed to his mistress and commanded: “I want you to paint Madame on a swing kept in motion by a bishop. Put me in it where I can see the legs of this pretty girl or even closer, if you want to make the picture even more pleasing.” A man of the world, Baron Saint-Julien had already been turned down by a painter who was probably squeamish about the consequences of carrying out his orders — someone who had made a name for himself with representations of saints and plague victims and felt the commission was indecent so he suggested Fragonard, who accepted. The result was The Swing. Fragonard had no qualms about damaging his reputation as a painter of blameless scenes by taking on this rather delicate commission. Of course Fragonard, who had been a spoilt child, was nothing if not urbane and sophisticated himself. “All his work is dedicated to women; why shouldn’t his life have been so too?” asks a biographer. In 1756 the twenty-four-vear-old Fragonard took advantage of a grant from the Academic de France to study works of the Old Masters in Rome. He is said to have devoted himself at least as passionately to the licentious dark-eyed beauties of Trastevere as to the paintings he had gone to Rome to study. In fact, the president of the Academie de France in Rome began to worry about his protege. Fragonard’s reputation followed him back to Paris, where all boudoirs were open to him on his return.The beauties of the day and dancers whose “hearts were not so constant” all sought the painter’s attentions. Bernard, Chevalier de Bonnard advised the painters of the day to “court all lovely ladies you paint and be sure that you are paid for your portraits in the arms of your sitters”. Nothing is really known about Fragonard’s love life. However, he was so highly acclaimed as a painter that he was soon provided with his own studio in the Louvre. Begrudging him his marriage because it deprived them of gossip, his biographers characterised his wife as “a peevish termagant”. However, he was devoted to her, tenderly calling her “the best of all wives”. Despite his reputation with the ladies, the Fragonarddid show reticence in one respect: he convinced the depraved Baron Saint-Julien that it was necessary to replace the bishop, who was originally supposed to push the swing in the painting, with a courtier.
 
  
Jean-Honore Fragonard
(1732—1806)
The Swing
1767
The Wallace Collection, London
  
A Question of Class
 

English society in the eighteenth century

 
  
 
 A Youth to Fortune
   and to Fame unknown…

Thomas Gray, Elegy Written in a Country Church-Yard, 1751

 
  
 
 Who was the young man who sat for Thomas Gainsborough’s The Blue Boy! His identity was unknown for nearly two centuries. Recent research suggests that he was Jonathan Buttall, the teenage son of a rich London ironmonger. Gainsboroughis thought to have made the family’s acquaintance in Bath. The city in south-west England was renowned throughout the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries as a fashionable spa where affluent English families went to drink the healing waters of its springs.
The ultimate in elegant watering-places, Bath was even frequented by members of the royal family when they felt jaded. Visitors to the baths were subjected to a severe regimen. Forced to get up at six in the morning, women spent an hour in the warm water of the baths dressed in long garments made of heavy material that could not cling to their bodies and reveal their contours. Men, too, bathed fully dressed. Outside the baths, the city was the place for flirtations, balls and evening card parties. There were many official functions like the Assembly-Rooms Balls and places both indoors and out where people promenaded for the purpose of meeting and keeping up with the latest goings-on. Gambling was rife and the city boasted the dubious attractions of a bevy of demimondaines to charm away the boredom of gentlemen who were not in Bath with their families. Women had to content themselves with gossip over the tea table.

The city seethed with intrigue, which is why Horace Walpole remarked it was ten times better to leave the city than to enter it. The rich visitors tended to be vain and ostentatious. This was probably the reason why the young Thomas Gainsborough left Ipswich in the east of England to settle in Bath in 1759. The move paid off. Showered with portrait commissions from wealthy patrons, the painter was soon able to afford luxurious apartments in the beautiful and elegant Royal Circus.

However, the resort was not merely the haunt of the aristocracy. It was just as popular with rich tradesmen’s and manufacturers’ families. From 1750 English iron foundries and cotton mills had been flourishing and their owners could well afford to take the waters at Bath. One can imagine Gainsborough meeting Mr Buttall, the ironmonger, and his family at the Pump Room. Gains-borough had begun his career by copying and restoring Flemish paintings. It is therefore not surprising that he borrowed stylistic elements from the works of Anthony van Dyck to paint Jonathan Buttall, who is dressed in the fashion of the seventeenth century.

 
  
Thomas Gainsborough
(1727—1788)
The Blue Boy
1770
  
A Tea Party that Led to Democracy
 

The American Declaration of Independence

 
  
 
 We hold these truths to be self-evident: That all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights; that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness …; that whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute a new Government, laying its foundation on such principles, and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.
United States Declaration of Independence, 4 July 1776

 
  
 
 An American version of London cartoon that denounces the “rape” of Boston in 1774 by the Intolerable Acts.
   
 
 Washington and Lafayette look over the troops at Valley Forge
   
 
 John Trumbull, The Battle of Bunker’s Hill, (The death of the American General Warren),1786
   
 
 The Declaration of Independence
   
 
 The Boston Tea Party triggered the Revolution. In 1767 England had imposed new customs duties on her English colonies. The wrath of the colonists culminated in a boycott of English wares, which soon led to the abolition of most duties. England, insisting on a demonstration of authority, maintained the duty on tea. Ensuring the East India Company monopoly on tea and other staples, this policy left American tea merchants burdened with high duties on the goods they imported from England.
The American colonists, who had for some time considered declaring independence from England, took the duty on tea as a welcome excuse to do so. On 16 December 1773 open hostilities broke out. A group of Revolutionaries threw an entire ship’s cargo of tea into the murky waters of Boston Harbor: 342 crates of tea worth 10,000 pounds sterling. Over 2,000 bystanders applauded the patriots’ deed: “This is the most magnificent Movement of all. There is a dignity, a Majesty, a Sublimity, in this last Effort of the Patriots that I greatly admire. This destruction of the Tea is so bold, so daring, so firm, intrepid and inflexible, and it must have so important Consequences, and so lasting, that I cannot but consider it as an Epoch in History” was John Adams’s enthusiastic response to this remarkable demonstration of colonial assertiveness. The English government retaliated swiftly, exacting harsh penalties. The thirteen American colonies reacted with open revolt. Weary of oppression and long accustomed to self-government on parliamentary lines, the American settlers refused to surrender their economic and political freedom to the English crown, which was thousands of nautical miles away. Knit together by the events in Boston, the Americans took their first united action as a free people by convening the First Continental Congress in Philadelphia in 1774. England remained intransigent; a war was inevitable.

While George Washington, the Commander-in-Chief of the American Continental Army, was marching his troops from one battle to the next, the Declaration of Independence was being drawn up. It was signed on 4 July 1776 in the Philadelphia State House. Among the signers were Thomas Jefferson, its author, and Benjamin Franklin. Jefferson is quoted as saying: “I am not a friend to a very energetic government”, although he wholeheartedly espoused the cause of American liberty. Another fervent patriot was the painter John Trumbull, who later founded the American Academy of Fine Arts in New York and became its first president. The son of an English governor of Connecticut who supported the colonists’ struggle for independence, John Trumbull served as an aide-de-camp to George Washington during the American Revolution.

His most celebrated painting, which has become a symbol of the idealism that America stands for, depicts the signing of the Declaration of Independence as Thomas Jefferson described it to the artist.

 
  
John Trumbull
(1756-1841)
The Declaration of Independence
1786-1797
  
I Believe in Marat, the Almighty
 

The French Revolution, 1789

 
  
 
 I believe in Marat, the almighty, the Creator of freedom and equality, our hope, who strikes terror into the aristocracy, who has gone forth from the heart of the nation and is revealed in the Revolution, who was murdered by the enemies of the Republic, who poured forth upon us the breath of freedom, who has descended into the Elysian Fields, whence he will one day return to judge and condemn the aristocracy.
A contemporaneous anonymous “Creed” (July 1793-February 1795)

 
  
 
 Down with the Bastille! The destruction of the court prison, a symbol of Bourbon despotism, 14 July 1789
 
Execution of Louis XVI
Sketch by Jacques-Louis David of the National Assembly taking the Tennis Court Oath

 
 
 
Guillotine model 1792
The guillotine, the instrument of choice for
beheadings during the French Revolution,
was still being used for executions this century
Between 18,000 and 40,000 people were
executed during the Reign of Terro
 Satirical cartoon lampooning the excesses
of the Revolution as seen from abroad.
 
 

 
  
 
 Jean-Paul Marat was sitting in the bathtub when his last hour struck on 13 July 1793. A teacher of languages, a journalist and a physician, Marat had turned out to be one of the most radical demagogues the 1789 Revolution produced. He spent much time in the tub to find relief from a chronic, itchy rash. He wore compresses on his forehead to relieve headaches from which he also suffered. While he was bathing on that fateful day, he was reading a letter from Charlotte Corday, the great-granddaughter of the playwright Pierre Corneille. The young noblewoman had tried in vain to gain admittance to Marat. Now she had sent him a letter in which she slyly suggested a tete-a-tete. He let her in and she stabbed him. Marat died instantly.
Some contemporaries must have been pleased at the deed. Marat had been a tough customer. He had had 860 gallows erected to deal with his political enemies and had sent over 200,000 of them to the guillotine. His opponents may have considered his death a just revenge. His adherents, however, celebrated him as the martyr of a just cause. Appointed master of ceremonies at the hero’s funeral, painter Jacques-Louis David was a fervent revolutionary and a personal friend of Marat. He obliged by putting Marat’s corpse on canvas just as he had had it put on display: with his bare chest and wounds visible. On 15 October 1793 David presented the picture to the National Assembly. It became the symbol of the French Revolution. Copies of it were placed on church altars, smothered under billowing clouds of incense. Even in public offices copies of the painting were supposed to replace Crucifixes and royal portraits. However, before it could get out of hand, the personality cult was stopped by Robespierre’s fall and the arrest of Jacques-Louis David. On 10 February the painting was removed from the chamber of the National Assembly. Marat’s heart, which had been kept in the Cordeliers Club, was burnt and the ashes scattered in the Montmartre sewer.
 
  
Jacques-Louis David
(1748—1825)
The Death of Marat
1793
  
As if Carried off by the Winds
 

The Rise to Power of the Corsican Devil

 
  
 
 Soldiers, you are naked and ill nourished. I shall lead you to earth’s most fertile plains. Rich provinces and great cities will fall into your hands. There you shall find honour, fame and wealth.
Napoleon Bonaparte, Speech to His Soldiers on Being Appointed General of the Republican Armies in Italy, 1796

 
  
Jean-Auguste Dominique Ingres, Portrait of Napoleon Bonaparte, The First Council, 1804
Jacques-Louis David, Napoleon in His Study, 1812
Jacques-Louis David, Napoleon Crossing the Alps
Jean-Auguste Dominique Ingres, Napoleon on his Imperial throne, 1806
 
  
     
 

 
 His French spelling was shaky indeed and his strong Corsican accent marked him as provincial. Because he pronounced his first name “Napolion”, his classmates at school dubbed him “la-paille-au-nez”, “straw nose”. He was an average student; his German teacher even regarded him as stupid. Yet he was a voracious reader, and the books he devoured did not make easy reading: Corneille, Montaigne, Montesquieu, Plutarch and Tacitus. Moreover, he had an astonishing memory and never forgot anything. A single teacher, who must have been more percipient than the rest, saw in him “granite which a volcano is heating up”. Things were still simmering on the back burner then. Born on 15 August 1769 in Ajaccio on Corsica, Napoleon Bonaparte was regarded as a taciturn, gloomy and sensitive boy. Accepted as a cadet at the Paris military academy in 1784, he was commissioned lieutenant only a year and a half later. Transferred to an artillery regiment, he flirted with the idea of revolution.
At first a fervent Corsican nationalist, he took part in a revolt against the French authorities. However in 1793, he broke with the Corsican nationalist faction and was forced to flee with his family to the French mainland. Rejoining the army, he sided with Robespierre, becoming commander of an artillery battalion. Now that his career was well launched, a short sojourn in prison after Robespierre’s fall did nothing to hinder it. At the age of twenty-six Bonaparte was appointed General of the Republican Armies in Italy, and was widely admired for his brilliant tactical skills, his schooled intellect and the leadership qualities he consistently displayed. Veteran field commanders were furious. A greenhorn had been promoted over their heads, a young man of small stature with long unkempt hair. Bonaparte, however, knew where he was heading. In the campaign against Austria, he won victory after victory in northern Italy. He grew famous as a “second Alexander” who “strode like a demigod from battle to battle and victory to victory”.

The painter Antoine-Jean Gros captured a scene from that period: the Battle of Arcola, a village twenty-four kilometres south-east of Verona. Between 15 and 17 November 1796, Bonaparte defeated reinforcements dispatched to the aid of the Austrian troops encircled at Mantua. France celebrated him as “Fortune’s favourite in battle”. The poet Friedrich Holderlin was jubilant: “Holy vessels are poets in whom the wine of life, the spirit of heroes is held. But the spirit of that youth, that quick spirit, must it not burst the vessel that was to contain it?”

Napoleon kept cool, calm and collected. When an envoy sent by the Directoire, which was then the French government, sought him out after the victory at Arcole, he pronounced prophetically: “What 1 have accomplished here is a mere trifle. I am only at the beginning of my career. Do you think that I am winning laurels for my lance in Italy simply for the aggrandisement of the Directoire?” In his own words, he felt “as if he had been carried off by the winds”.

 
  
Jean-Antoine Gros
(1771-1835)
Napoleon Bonaparte at the Bridge of Arcole, 17 November 1796|
1801
  
A Reflection of Horror
 

The Spanish Revolt against Napoleon

 
  
 
 No one is innocent once he has seen what I have seen. I witnessed how the noblest ideals of freedom and progress were transformed into lances, sabres and bayonets. Arson, looting and rape, all supposed to bring a New Order, in reality only exchanged the garrotte for the gallows.
Francisco de Goya, from an entry in his diary, 1808

 
  
  Francisco de Goya, Barbarians!. No. 38 from series “DISASTERS OF WAR”
   
see collection: Francisco de Goya “DISASTERS OF WAR”

 
  
 
 Napoleon was furious. The “damned Spanish affair” was out of control. Early on, the power-mad Emperor of France had thought it would be a pushover. Charles IV of Spain, a weakling at best, had retreated into the background, leaving the government in the hands of his wife Maria Luisa and her lover Manuel Godoy. Napoleon could have won over the ambitious Godoy by making him viceroy of Spain. However, his links with Napoleon, which led to a disastrous war with Great Britain, made Godoy unpopular throughout Spain. He only barely escaped being lynched by fleeing to France.
Napoleon, cunning as he was, had always treated Spain, an ally of France, like a subject nation. He refused to admit defeat at the hands of a nation occupied by his troops. Pretending to seek reconciliation, he summoned the Spanish king and queen, with the crown prince in tow, to France. Napoleon’s real intention was to keep the Spanish royals captive and put his eldest brother, Joseph Bonaparte, on the Iberian throne. When Napoleons treachery became known, a desperate revolt broke out in Spain on 2 May 1808. Hopelessly outnumbered, a band of people armed with knives and lances attacked a powerful French cavalry force in the Puerta del Sol, a square in the heart of Madrid. Begun in blind, impotent anger, the revolt was doomed from the outset to failure. Still it signalled to the world that a conquered people had dared to stand up to Napoleon, who was then at the zenith of his power. The French Emperor exacted a terrible revenge. That same night, everyone suspected of having taken part in the rebellion was executed by a French firing squad.

No one has come closer to showing the naked brutality of those events than Francisco de Goya, Court Painter to Charles IV, who had originally welcomed Napoleon’s ideals. Imbued with the spirit of the French Revolution, he had not hesitated to show the Spanish royal family for what it was, painting them in a highly unflattering light. However, Napoleon turned out to be the opposite of what he had seemed to be. Although he had originally proclaimed freedom for his own and other peoples of Europe, he revealed himself as a despot. Perhaps his values had become corrupted and twisted. In any case, Goya depicted the scene with a twist: his hero is the victim who will be the next to be shot. The man in the white shirt spreads out his arms like Christ on the Cross. The wounds on his hands are like Christ’s. His message is: I die that you may live. It was to take five years to drive the French out of Spain.
 
  
Francisco de Goya
(1746-1828)
The Third of May, 1808: The Execution of the Defenders of Madrid
1814
Museo del Prado, Madrid
  
The Force of Nature and the Power in a Painting
 

On the hubris of humankind

 
  
 
 “What have we hit?” asked Captain Smith. “An iceberg, Sir,” replied first officer Murdoch. “We steered hard to starboard and reversed the engines full speed. But we were already too close. I wanted to go around the iceberg. But it was already too late.”
After the statement made by the second officer of the Titanic, Charles Herbert Lightoller,
before a subcommittee of the US Senate in April 1912

 
  
 
 The news hit the world like a blow: “Titanic sinks four hours after collision with iceberg; 1,250 presumed dead.” Thus read the New York Times headline of 16 April 1912. Only twenty-four hours before, an unprecedented tragedy had been enacted 400 nautical miles off Newfoundland in the Atlantic. More than hall the ship’s passengers had died.
Not only had a stunningly elegant ship gone down; with her sank the myth of modern times. Industrial man had believed it could dupe nature with technology: the glittering new Titanic, on her maiden voyage from Southampton to New York, was regarded as a

marvel of engineering and as “unsinkable”. Yet she fell victim to the vagaries of nature like so many expeditionary vessels that had sailed into perilous waters a century before.

In Caspar David Friedrich’s The Polar Sea, the capsized ship caught in the ice may be the “Griper”, which took part in expeditions to the North Pole that made the headlines in 1819—20 and 1824. British Polar explorer Sir William Edward Parry had become embroiled in a very dangerous situation whilst seeking the Northwest Passage. Caspar David Friedrich may well have been inspired by newspaper reports about Parry as well as by heavy ice floes on the Elbe in the winter of 1820—21.

The painting has occasionally been interpreted as having a religious meaning: the intransience of human life before divine eternity. There are also political interpretations: resignation in the face of the fruitless German wars of independence. And yet The Polar Sea remains in the first instance a symbol of the terrors of the icy wastes of the Polar regions – and of human presumption, which no longer stands in awe of nature.

 
  
Caspar David Friedrich
(1774-1840)
The Polar Sea
1824
  
   
One of the Wonders of the World
 
The mystery of Stonehenge

 
  
 
 The band of silver paleness along the east horizon made even the distant parts of the Great Plain appear dark and near; and the whole enormous landscape bore that impress of reserve, taciturnity, and hesitation which is usual just before day. The eastward pillars and their architraves stood up blackly against the light and the great flame-shaped Sun-stone beyond them; and the Stone of Sacrifice midway. Presently the night wind died out, and the quivering little pools in the cup-like hollows of the stones lay still
Thomas Hardy, The Wessex Novels, vol. I, Tess of the D’Urbervilles (1891), 5th ed. 1896

 
  
 
 Druid Ceremony at Stonehenge
  
 
 
Megaliths thousands of years old rise up against the southern English sky near Ames-bury in Wiltshire. Who erected them? Did human sacrifice take place here? Was the legendary sorcerer Merlin at work here?
The dressed sandstone megaliths erected to form a lintelled stone circle are approximately six metres high, some of them weighing up to forty-five tonnes. Standing on wind-swept Salisbury Plain, this mysterious monument to a world long forgotten was first called a “wonder of Britain” in the twelfth century. Since then, not a century has passed without fresh conjectures on what might have led to the building of this unique henge monument.

The Romantics were expounding lofty theories about Stonehenge when the great English landscape painter John Constable painted his famous watercolour of it based on the numerous preliminary sketches he had made on a visit in 1820. Even today the meaning of the circle of thirty uprights, some of which are still capped by massive lintels, surrounding a horseshoe arrangement of five trilithons (two upright stones connected by a lintel), is as much a mystery as ever. Archaeologists tend to believe that religious motives led to the erection of Stonehenge. In the cold grey light of dawn, the site with its towering megaliths is a menacing, almost apocalyptic place. With the sun’s first rays, the uprights cast shadows forming eerie linear patterns on the ground. One legend has it that the power of the Druids was concentrated where the shadows converge.

Thought to have been Celtic priests, Druids were intermediaries between the gods and humankind, soothsayers, healers and judges, and, as tutors to the sons of the aristocracy, were allegedly the real rulers of the ancient Britons. Unfortunately, however, Latin accounts of the Druids fail to shed much light on these structures. Opponents of the theory that the Druids officiated at Stonehenge point out that the Wiltshire stone circle had already been standing for over 2,000 years before the heyday of the Celts and the Druids (100 ВС—AD 78). Besides, the latter are not known to have built temples. Instead, they held their ceremonies in glades. Knowledge of the stars may have been passed down by oral tradition to the Druids, who were wiped out by the Romans on Anglesey in the year 78.

One thing is certain: the people who built Stonehenge demonstrated a knowledge of astronomy. The original approach to the site is marked by a stone over which, when viewed from the centre of the circle, the sun rises on the Summer Solstice.

The stone circle is ringed by fifty-six pits. Radiocarbon dating of one of these as well as pottery finds indicate that the earliest structure on the site dates back to late Neolithic times (roughly 2,300 ВС). Whatever Stonehenge may have been, the site was more or less in continual use for thousands of years. Speculation on this most enthralling puzzle of all ancient monuments continues to abound today.

 
  
John Constable
(1776-1837)
Stonehenge
1836
  
With Brush and Palette on the Barricades
 

The Revolution of 1830

 
  
  
 Ah that great week in Paris! The courage for freedom that wafted through here has, of course, overturned the night-lights so that the red curtains on some thrones have caught fire and the gold crowns have grown hot under the glow of the night-caps. But the old catch poles are already bringing up the dowsing buckets and sniffing about all the more vigilantly.
Heinrich Heine, English Fragments, November 1830

 
  
  
 see also: “Between Two Revolutions” (From David to Delacroix)

 
  
  
 
Victor Hugo stayed at home. Busy researching for his novel, The Hunchback of Notre Dame, he did not wish to leave his wife alone, who had given birth to a daughter just four days before. The young Alexandre Dumas, on the other hand — later to achieve world renown for his swashbuckling The Count of Monte Cristo — bravely shouldered a double-barrelled musket, ready to risk his life for freedom with thousands of students, merchants, workers and actors.
Paris was once again on the brink of a revolution. The streets were full of agitated citizens confronting the royal guards with pistols and wooden cudgels, rifles and knives. The cause of the uproar was the citizens’ fear that the old system of royal oppression, which had been abolished, was on the rise again. As early as 1814 the royal house of Bourbon had regained its former power. Lotus XVIII, younger brother to Louis XVI, who had been executed during the Revolution, had been summoned from exile to rule France after the fall of Napoleon. Moderate and cautious, he had pursued liberal policies, combining the modern feeling for liberty with the principles of the ancien regime. When Louis XVIII died in 1824, Charles X, the youngest of the three brothers, had himself crowned at Reims with medieval pomp and circumstance. Forward-looking contemporaries found him both reactionary and foolish. Desirous of reviving pre-Revolutionary France, he intended to restore the ancient titles and privileges to the aristocracy as well as one billion francs in reparations for the property lost by the nobility during the Revolution. After Charles X issued a series of repressive decrees on 25 July 1830, abolishing freedom of the press, dissolving the legislature and depriving the majority of citizens of suffrage, things came to a head. On 28 July 1830 revolt broke out not far from Eugene Delacroix’s studio. While mercenaries deployed by Charles X fought their way through the narrow streets, supporters of the revolutionaries hurled furniture, wash-tubs, rooting tiles and tool chests down on them from windows, finally dumping entire cartloads of melons on the heads of the advancing royal troops to stop their progress. The street battles raged for three days. Painter and caricaturist Honore Daumier suffered a sabre-slash across his face during the fighting. On 3 August 1830 the citizens were victorious, forcing Charles X to abdicate and flee into exile.
 Delacroix, who had observed the revolt at a safe distance, took up his brushes and palette. In a letter to his brother written in October 1830, he confessed: “Although I didn’t fight, I’ll at least paint for our country!” And the result was Liberty Leading the People, the archetype of the Revolution.

 
  
  Eugene Delacroix
(1798-1863)
Liberty leading the People (28 July 1830)
1830
  
  The Old World Towed by the New
 

The beginnings of the modern age

 
  
 
 The devilish little steamship puffed out an odious and ghost-like stream of smoke, glowing red and ominous, while behind it the brave old ship followed at a slow pace, sad and majestic, marked by the sign of Death.
Adapted from William Makepeace Thackeray, after 1839

 
  
A forerunner to the inventions of James Watt
 
  
 
 She had served her country well and now her
day was past, and England mourned. The fighting “Temeraire”, as John Ruskin and other Englishman had called her, was the symbol of heroism at sea. When the British and French fleets clashed at Trafalgar on 21 October 1805, the Temeraire was the second ship of the English line. Although Admiral Nelson, the commander of the British fleet, died of a gunshot wound on the deck of her sister ship, the “Victory”, he had carried the day. Outnumbered by six ships, his fleet of twenty-seven had trounced the French. The Temeraire played an important part in the victory at Trafalgar, which was to assure British supremacy at sea for another century. She had decoyed French fire, which was aimed at Nelson and the flagship, away from the Victory and had captured a prize. At the end of the battle, as a contemporary records, she was almost hidden between two French ships secured to her mainmast and her anchor.

Some thirty years later, Joseph Mallord William Turner  was deeply moved watching the gallant old ship being towed from Sheerness to the breakers yard at Deptford. However, the brilliant painter of atmospheric effects and moods was not just thinking of farewells. He was also looking forward to new beginnings. In 1765, ten years before Turner was born, James Watt had triggered the Industrial Revolution in England by inventing the steam engine. Turner was fascinated by the marvels of technology that were emerging all around him. He was among the first to paint pictures, dramatically experimental ones, of modern means of transportation, such as trains and steamships. Both the magnificence and the threatening aspect of such inventions are revealed in his paintings of them. An observer might find symbolism in the Temeraire’s last voyage: the tugboat towing her under steam representing the New Order and all its ambivalence, the sailing vessel the Old — already transfigured in memory.

 
  
Joseph Mallord William Turner
(1775—1851)
The Fighting Temeraire Tugged to Her Last Berth to Be Broken Up
1858
The National Gallery, London
 
  
Joseph Mallord William Turner
(1775—1851)
Rain, Steam and Speed The Great Western Railway
  
Stark Naked
 

The women’s baths

 
  
 
 I believe, in the whole, there were two hundred women…. The first sofas were covered with cushions and rich carpets, on which sat the ladies; and on the second, their slaves behind them,…. all being in the state of nature, that is, in plain English, stark naked…. There were many amongst them as exactly proportioned as ever any goddess was drawn by the pencil of… Titian,.. I was charmed by their civility and beauty… Tis no less than death for a man to be found in one of these places.
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Letter to Elizabeth Rich on her experiences in the women’s baths at Sophia, dated 1 April 1717

 
  
Jean-Leon Gerome
Turkish Bath
  
 
  
Jean-Leon Gerome
Turkish Bath
  
 
  
Jean-Leon Gerome
Turkish Bath
  
 
  
Jean-Leon Gerome
The Teaser of the Narghile
  
 
  
Jean-Leon Gerome
Turkish Bath
  
 
  
Jean-Leon Gerome
Nude Woman
  
 
  
Jean-Leon Gerome
A Bath, Woman Bathing Her Feet
  
 
  
Jean-Leon Gerome
A Bath, Woman Bathing Her Feet
 
  
 
 Although the Minoans and later the ancient Greeks had bathtubs, it was the Romans who made bathing popular. The epitome of Roman civilisation, Roman therme, or baths, were luxurious and spacious. Pools, walls and even floors were heated. Splendid examples of urban architecture, therme were places where men bathed, had manicures and pedicures, took steam baths and did gymnastic exercises. They were a focal point of social and political activity. Romans are known to have made momentous decisions whilst steaming in the baths or strolling about in sandals and towels. With the fall of the Roman empire, this glorious bath culture disappeared from the European scene. What later replaced it was certainly on a much more modest scale. Medieval Nuremberg, for instance, boasted a total of thirteen public “bathing rooms” in which huge wooden tubs were filled with hot water. There were also sometimes steam baths and resting rooms heated by tiled stoves. Such baths were not just venues for promoting body culture; they were also used as surgeries: teeth were pulled, blood was let, cupping-glasses were applied to the backs and chests of those with colds and minor operations were performed. Bathing rooms were frowned on by the Church owing to the voluptuous pleasures enjoyed in them. “Bath attendants” were licentious women who are said to have been the reason why King Wenceslas IV of Bohemia visited the bathing establishments of Prague, his capital, more frequently than was good for his sensitive skin. In the Near East, on the other hand, the ancient bath culture survived because going to a hammam (bath) is prescribed by Islam. Inspired by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu’s account of her travels in the region, the French painter Jean-Auguste Dominique Ingres painted the women’s section of a Turkish bathhouse. The celebrated master was eighty-three years old when he added the crowning touch to his oeuvre by depicting a Turkish bath scene. Ingres made hundreds of preliminary sketches for the painting before presenting it to Prince Charles-Louis-Napoleon in December 1859. Only a few weeks later, however, the painting was returned to Ingres, allegedly because the prince’s wife, Eugenie de Montijo, was scandalised by the naked ladies depicted so sensuously in this remarkable work. When Turkish Bath was exhibited in a second, essentially unchanged version, the nudes were what brought the painting widespread public acclaim. Critics praised it as a “tryst with Oriental coquetry” or, rather crudely, as a “feast of carnal delights” and a “still life of sensual pleasures”. It certainly had an impact on Picasso and other artists, who admired it both for its composition and formal idiom. After this masterpiece, Ingreswas no longer thought of as a “bloodless exponent of Neoclassicism”. From now on he was a groundbreaking “revolutionary”.
 
  

Jean-Auguste Dominique Ingres
(1780—1867)
Turkish Bath
1863
 
  
   
Eros Awakes to a Storm of Indignation
 
Paris and the “Salon des Refuses”

 
  
 
  
 
  
Edouard Manet
(1832—1883)
Le Dejeuner sur I’herbe
1863
Musee d’Orsay, Paris
  
A Look that Kills
 

Antiquity and the Industrial Age

 
  
 
 But Perseus, with the snake-haired monster’s head. That famous spoil, in triumph made his way On rustling pinions through the balmy air And, as he hovered over Libya’s sands, The blood-drops from the Gorgon’s head dripped down. The spattered desert gave them life as snakes. Smooth snakes of many kinds, and so that land Still swarms with deadly serpents to this day.
Ovid, Metamorphoses, (IV. 617-24), AD 1-8

 
  

Benvenuto Cellini
Perseus with the Head of Medusa
1554
 
 
Peter Paul Rubens
Tete de Meduse
1618
 
 

Arnold Bocklin
Medusa
 
  

 
 
 
Even Odysseus was afraid of Medusa. This crafty Greek hero broke off his stay in the Underworld because he was afraid of being confronted by the decapitated head of the monster, whose glance turned anyone who saw her into stone. According to the Greek poet Hesiod (c. 800 ВС), who undertook to organise the myths of the ancient Greek gods in Theogony, Medusa was one of the three Gorgon sisters who dwelled beyond the Mediterranean in the far West, which is where mythology located the powers of evil to be. Due to their odious appearance and the fatal effect which they had on all who saw them, the Gorgons, like the goddesses of revenge, were the horror figures of antiquity. They contemptuously mocked everyone by sticking out their tongues and were hideous to behold: round faces with baleful eyes and hair and belts made of hissing snakes. The ancients thought these sisters were immortal, except for Medusa.
Therefore, Perseus, one of Zeus’s numerous offspring, was charged with killing her. He cunningly reached the home of the Gorgons and, along the way, assembled the necessary tools: a helmet that made him invisible, winged shoes that let him glide above the ground and a curved sword with which he eventually decapitated the sleeping Medusa. After he succeeded in killing her, Perseus put the ghastly head into a bag as a trophy for safe keeping, where, however, it did not remain for long. On his way home from the Gorgons, he fell in love with the beautiful Andromeda in Ethiopia and defeated a sea monster in order to save her. It was then that he felt he simply had to show his beloved the head of Medusa — though only the reflection of it in water — to prove his heroism and divine descent, which obliged him to battle evil.

Intrigued by this ancient myth in the late nineteenth century, the English painter Edward Coley Burne-Jones executed a Perseus cycle which concluded with a work entitled The Baleful Head. Originally intended for a church, the painter may have viewed Perseus as a forerunner to the Christian dragon-slayer St George, and the idyllic and tranquil garden scene as a symbol of the desire for a perfect world, free of evil and the taint of industrialism, which was rapidly growing in the nineteenth century. Burne-Jones grew up in the industrial city of Birmingham at a time when the slums were increasing. His contemporary, William Morris, a writer and critic, stated in a 1891 lecture that artists in industrial society had to “look back” for inspiration: “When an artist has really a very keen sense of beauty, I venture to think that he can not literally represent an event that takes place in modern life. He must add something or other to qualify or soften the ugliness and sordidness of the surroundings of life in our generation.” Against a background of retrogressive aestheticism, Burne-Jones formulated the following creed: “I mean by a picture a beautiful romantic dream, of something that never was, never will be — in a light better than any that ever shone — in a land no one can define or remember, only desire and the forms divinely beautiful.” Perhaps The Baleful Head represents a visionary prescription for dealing with a world out of control.

 
  
Edward Coley Burne-Jones
(1833-1898)
The Baleful Head
1887
 
  
The Heat of a Summer’s Day
 

Anyone for a swim?

 
  
 
 The summer spreads far and wide, despotic, colourless, heavy – as if a king with nothing better to do had inflicted the pains of death – in the white-hot glare of heaven which tightly ensnares you, and yawns. Liberated, Man left his work and rested.
Paul Verlaine, Allegoria, 1884

 
  
 
 In Bathers at Asnieresnot a cloud disturbs the relentless blue sky. The air and water shimmer in the oppressive heat, and motionless stillness smoulders. Only the boy in the water seems to be making a sound. Is he imitating the boat siren, as has been suggested by some art historians? Or is he shouting to a friend further out in the river?
Seurat was always a painter of summertime and summer light. He often travelled to the countryside to sketch men and women harvesting gram, peasants mowing fields with scythes, and labourers paving roads. Born in Paris in 1859, Seurat was one of the greatest painters of Post-Impressionism: his work shows the mark of the Impressionists’ fascination with light but he took their ideas in a new direction. He developed a painting technique called Pointillism which relied on the optical mixing of colours. When a work was seen from a distance, the small dots of colour which made up the painting, blended together to create a lively, painterly surface.

It was summer when the poet Gustave Kahn visited the artist in his cramped studio in Boulevard de Clichy. Seurat was in the process of completing a painting, and Kahn observed that he “worked so energetically, despite the oppressive heat and humidity, that by the end of the day the artist was thinner than when he began”. Seurat was a loner, an extremely serious and taciturn person. The artist Edgar Degas used to call him “the solicitor” because he was always formally dressed and wore a top hat. At the same time every evening “the solicitor” could be seen leaving his flat, striding purposefully towards the Boulevard Magenta to die with his parents.

Seurat enjoyed spending time at the waterfront and was a frequent visitor to the wooded island of La Grande Jatte on the Seine, a popular outing destination for the Paris bourgeoisie. His excursions took him as far as Asnieres-sur-Seine, located about five kilometres north-west of Paris. During Seurat’s lifetime, factory smokestacks already marked the Asnieres skyline, as can be seen in Bathers at Asnieres, and it was far from an ideal place to bathe. As long ago as 14 February 1790, when the royal medical Counsellor Boncerf tested the water he was overcome by a “biting, pungent alkaline stench that impaired his respiratory system to such an extent that his throat and tongue swelled mightily”. Until recently the Parisians’ “favourite wench” was so polluted with sulphur and other toxic waste that, at a depth of one metre, divers were unable to see their hands when held directly in front of their eyes. For several years now the waste from the vast city is treated in modern sewage plants and there are hopes that Parisians might one day be able to bathe again in the Seine — enjoying it more than they did when Seurat was alive.

 
  
Georges Seurat
(1859—1891)
Bathers at Asnieres
1883
 
  
   
“I Think Gauguin Is Sick of Me”
 
How Vincent van Gogh lost part of his ear

 
  
 
 There is a lot of strife to strive against There is a lot of suffering to suffer And many prayers to pray -But at the end of it all is peace.
Vincent van Gogh, from a sermon in Isleworth, October 1878

 
  
  Paul Gauguin, Les Miserables, 1888, Rijksmuseum Vincent van Gogh, Amsterdam
   
  Van Gogh left school without finishing, quit an apprenticeship and was a disaster as an itinerant preacher. He then became a painter and — as it seemed to most of those who knew him — was as unsuccessful at this as he had been at everything else, depending on his brother Theo who was an art dealer for money and becoming an out-of-control alcoholic, who spent his evenings in whorehouses. One episode of apparent madness led to his commitment. When he was discharged he shot himself: he died at the age of thirty-seven, a passionate and dreamy man.
Other painters admired him. Claude Monet thought Van Gogh’s pictures were the best at the March 1890 “Salon des Independants”, and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec challenged an acquaintance to a duel for mocking Van Gogh’s work. Yet Van Gogh was never able to make a living as a painter. The only picture he is known to have sold during his lifetime was Red Vineyard at Aries.

One episode has come to symbolise Van Gogh’s life lived between hallucination and creative frenzy. In 1888 he moved from Paris to Aries in Provence, attracted by the southern light and the intense colours. There he shared a little yellow house with Paul Gauguin, who was already a successful painter. But Gauguin soon found that he liked neither Aries nor Van Gogh. On December 23 they quarrelled worse than ever: Gauguin felt threatened and left to spend the night at an inn. When he returned the following morning, there was a throng of spectators in front of the house, which was spattered with blood. Gauguin was arrested. It turned out that Van Gogh had returned at night alone and had cut off his own ear lobe with a razor. Then he had gone to a brothel, where he had presented the ear lobe, wrapped in newspaper, to a prostitute named Rachel: “Truly I say unto you, you will think of me.” Emile Bernard, a staunch supporter of Van Gogh, admitted publicly that his friend was mad.

Van Gogh was sent to an asylum, where he painted Self-Portrait with Bandaged Ear which reveals the state he was in. He, who had always said he wanted to bring the sun to suffering people by painting in brilliant colours, appears as a shadow of what he had once been. When Van Gogh was young, Camille Pissarro had said: “This man will either go mad or he’ll leave all the rest of us far behind.” Rather than “either-or”, he should have said “bothand”.

 
  
Vincent Van Gogh
(1853—1890)
Self-Portrait with Bandaged Ear
1889
 
  
Paris: A City of Extremes
 

Chansons and cabaret

 
  
 
  
At the heart of Montmartre: The Moulin Rouge
 
  
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Outrageous and lascivious: Chilperic (Mlle Marcelle Lender Dansant le Pas du Bolero), 1896
 
  
 
  
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
(1864—1901)
Les Ambassadeurs, Aristide Bruant
1892
Coloured lithograph, posrer
  
“I Painted the Clouds like Real Blood”
 

The shadows of a bleak childhood

 
  
 
 One evening I was walking along a street, tired and ill, with two friends: the city and the fjord lay below us. The sun was setting and the clouds turned blood red. Then I heard the colours of nature scream -and that shrill cry echoed over the fjord.
Edvard Munch, From My Diary, 1929

 
  
  Edvard Munch, Death in the Sick-Room, 1893
   
  Edvard Munch had a hard life. A doctor’s son, he had a bleak childhood in Oslo. “My home was the home of illness, agony and death”, he was to write in his memoirs. His mother died of tuberculosis at the age of thirty, leaving behind four children. Edvard was only six at the time. In her letter of farewell she wrote: “And now, my dear children, my sweet little ones, I say farewell to you. Your father will be able to tell you about how to get to Heaven better than I can. I’ll be there waiting for you all.” A pious woman who accepted her fate, all she could do was to hope for joy in the world to come — certainly not a legacy likely to inspire happiness and a zest for living in her children. Until he was thirteen, every time Edvard had a fever he was convinced that he was going to die. Influenced by his mother’s negative way of viewing things, he vowed never to look forward to anything again. His father, at heart a good man, was distressing to his children. A sister of Munch’s had already died of tuberculosis and, after the death of his beloved wife, Munch’s father took refuge in fanatical pietism, forcing a strict regimen of prayer on his children.
When he was older, Edvard argued incessantly with his father, while a second sister became a religious fanatic who was eventually declared insane.

From around 1889 onwards, Edvard became increasingly depressive, suffering from occasional fits of terror. Yet, by the age of seventeen, he had discovered another language with which to express his feelings of desperation: painting. It promised relief, consolation and hope. In a state of feverish excitement, he concluded that “the curse on mankind has become the undertone of my art — and my paintings pages in my diary”. His visits to Paris and Berlin proved to be a great inspiration and, at the age of twenty-eight, he painted The Scream — an archetype of human experience on canvas. All the terrors of human existence seem to concentrate in the face, twisted with fear. Like so many other paintings of his, The Scream is, as Edvard Munch said himself, “a bitterly earnest scene — and a child of sleepless nights, which have taken their toll in blood and nerves”.

 
  
Edvard Munch
(1863—1944)
The Scream
1895
  
The Power of Nature
 

In the shadow of Mont Sainte-Victoire

 
  
 
 On the afternoon of 15 October 1906, the clouds had finally lifted after a thunder storm lasting many hours. A broad beam of light illuminated the rising ground between the Chemin des Lauves and the rugged Mont Sainte-Victoire Range. The country road was deserted. Only a horse-drawn cart was trundling on its way to Aix-en-Provence. Suddenly it was forced to a halt: a dark figure with dirty, wet clothing lay across the road: Pere Cezanne.
Kurt Leonhard, Cezanne, 1966

 
  
  Paul Cezanne, Still Life with Apples and Oranges
   
 
 He was not dead but unconscious. The two men eventually managed to hoist him up on to their cart and take him to his residence in town, where they left him in the care of his landlady, Mme Bremond. The first thing he is said to have asked on regaining consciousness was whether the sun was shining again. He wanted to go back out of doors to finish the painting he was working on when it had started to rain. However, the artist was never able to finish it. Paul Cezanne, in his youth a friend of Emile Zola’s, died seven days later. All his life he had been regarded as sickly: “Without painting he would have been nothing but a shy, introspective psychopath incapable of living a normal life — this is the image his family and the people of Aix seem to have had of him”, thus one of Cezanne’s many biographers. Some of the painter’s eccentricities have been recorded and range from nervous irritability and a phobia of physical contact, to paranoia. Cezanne went through phases of deep depression followed by manic periods during which he grandly over-estimated himself and his abilities. Then he would write about his celebrated former colleagues in Paris, such as Manet or Renoir: “Compared to me, all my compatriots are idiots”. Painting was the only thing that kept the unpredictable Provencal, whose world was as unsteady as a damaged ship floundering in heavy seas, on a fairly even keel.
Cezanne preferred to paint out of doors. However, because he could not bear having anyone look over his shoulder while he was painting, he fled town and sought the solitude of nature in the surrounding countryside. Cezanne was obsessed with Mont Sainte-Victoire. He drew and painted more than sixty versions of this massive limestone escarpment, which looms a thousand metres above the flat country fifteen kilometres east of Aix. Here, he was alone and could forget all his troubles with the municipal authorities, who, he felt, had ruined the city with pavements, hideous promenades and gas lights. A further advantage of the mountains was that they were serenely static. Always squabbling with someone about something when he was not painting, Cezanne concentrated so hard on his still lifes that the fruit was invariably rotten before he had finished. It once took him 115 sittings to complete a portrait and he was known to have burst into a terrible rage at sitters who altered their expression. It was ideal for him that the face of Mont Sainte-Victoire only changed with the varying light and the seasons of the year. The “Sacred Mountain of Provence”, as Mont Sainte-Victoire is sometimes called, became the leitmotif of Cezanne’s work. Under its shadow began and ended the life of a painter who hardly exchanged a word with others, yet stirred the world with his groundbreaking pictorial language.

 
  
Paul Cezanne
(1839-1906)
Mont Sainte-Victoire
 
  
Paul Cezanne
(1839-1906)
Mont Sainte-Victoire
 
  
Paul Cezanne
(1839-1906)
Mont Sainte-Victoire
  
I Couldn’t Care Less!
 

Another Eden in the South Seas

 
  
 
  
 
  
Paul Gauguin
(1848—1903)
Where are we? Who are we? Where are we going?
1897
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
  
   
Freezing Every Gesture
 
Light and effects

 
  
 
 I speak of the past, for it seems to me that everything is growing older in me – except my heart. And even my heart has something artificial about it. The dancers have sewn it into a pink silk sachet, slightly faded pink silk, like their ballet slippers.
Edgar Degas, letter to the sculptor Albert Bartholome, 17 January 1886

 
  
 
 Built between 1862 and 1865 near the Madeleine, the Paris Opera — then, the world’s largest opera house — covers an area of 11,000 square metres. Behind an exuberant facade, decorated with allegorical figures, the auditorium seats 2,200. The artist Edgar Degas, who lived three streets away near rue Le Peletier, did not require a season ticket. By the 1860s, this witty and entertaining painter, who could also be stubbornly intransigent when he so desired, had discovered ballet as his genre. Because he knew several members of the orchestra, he had access to the sacrosanct world backstage. Nearly every day the Frenchman sat on or behind the stage. Early on he had become interested in motifs drawn from urban life, painting workaday scenes of women ironing, passers-by in the streets and men in bars, as well as the pleasures of the Parisian racecourse or circus scenes. However, Degas, who was the son of an aristocratic banker of Italian descent and a New Orleans Creole, found artistes and prostitutes common but intriguing. What the Moulin Rouge was to Toulouse-Lautrec, the rehearsal room with its ballerinas was to Degas.
In those days the Pans Opera Ballet — not to mention more illustrious names — was waning in the firmament of the Parisian cultural scene. Choreographers were running out of ideas and the public was not satisfied with what the Opera Ballet had to offer. But the quality of the productions was of no consequence to Degas, who was concerned with movement, speed and the enchantment of ballet. In his paintings, he captured the elegance and delicate grace of ballet with an unprecedented keenness of observation. Tragically, by 1870, his eyesight was beginning to fail. As if to record as much as he could on canvas before it was too late, Degas painted ever more feverishly to freeze every gesture, every pose of his ballerinas: dancing on points, performing pas de deux or taking their curtain call, their tutus a froth of effervescence. He was even more fascinated by what went on behind the scenes. The pictures in which he captured ballerinas pulling up their tights, or fiddling with the laces of their slippers, are like snapshots taken by a hidden camera. He was not above depicting the darker side of dancing: ballerinas at the bar rubbing their ankles because they hurt or resting their heads on their arms in sheer exhaustion. Degas knew how to make even such moments of weariness enchanting. He introduced yet another first to painting: the effects of modern lighting. He was the first painter to study and exploit the effects of the mixture of natural and artificial light, like that of the setting sun and gas lanterns. The result was a painted twilight as it had never been seen before.

 
  
Edgar Degas
(1834—1917)
Behind the Scenes
1898
  
A New World Stage
 

Fin-de-siecle in Vienna

 
  
 
 I love those first timid caresses,
half questioning, yet already
     half trusting,
they crackle with red sparks
     of seduction
and shoot sheaves of gold
     into the fiery night.
Stefan Zweig, from Silver Strings, 1901

 
  
  In 1900 Vienna was the glittering hub of the
Austro-Hungarian Empire and the world capital of Fin-de-siecle culture. Tradition reigned supreme in the city of waltzes and coffeehouses. Mozart, Beethoven and Schubert, the immortal three in music, had lived here. Since the Habsburgs had made it their capital centuries before, all the currents of European culture and civilisation converged in Vienna. A harmony of contrasts, ”It was lovely to live here”, wrote Stefan Zweig, “for, unconsciously, every person in the city became a sophisticate, a cosmopolitan”. The charm of turn-of-the-century Vienna worked its magic on poets and authors, musicians and artists; the city was full of famous faces such as Hugo von Hofmannsthal, Arnold Schonberg and Gustav Mahler, who all adored it. Yet, an era was drawing to a close, overshadowed by the decline of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Still elegant, the boulevards of Vienna were growing shabby. The clouds of war were gathering on the horizon. The flower of Viennese Jugendstil was in late bloom and the golden age was fading.

Gustav Klimt was regarded as the leading Viennese painter of his day. A goldsmith’s son, he founded the “Vienna Secession” in defiance of academic painting. As eclectic as the city itself, Klimt’s aesthetic embraced such superficially disparate elements as jin-ie-swclt elegance and sensuousness and Byzantine icons and mosaics. Moreover, he incorporated elements of East Asian and ancient Egyptian art in his work. He lavishly bestowed symbolic ornament and decoration on his works, making the surfaces of his pictures glitter with the colours of jewels — cornflower sapphires and amethysts, alexandntes and pearls on a rich gold ground.

Influenced by the writings of his fellow Viennese, Sigmund Freud, Klimt painted sensuous and sumptuous pictures, which aroused the ire of the critics. His work was condemned as “obscene”, yet, all he did was revel in luxury and beauty with a suggestion of the physical pleasures in life, freed from the constraints of nineteenth-century inhibitions. His masterpiece, The Kiss, is a celebration of beauty and eroticism. Some might view it as a manifesto of decadence. In retrospect, Klimt’s oeuvre seems to reflect one of the last dreams of innocence before the horrors of war set in.

 
  
GustavKlimt
(1862—1918)
The Kiss
1907
  
   
Hewn with an Axe
 
Delight in distortion

 
  
 
 You remember, don’t you, that the picture was at first called The Brothel at Avignon. And do you know why? Avignon is a name that is linked to my life in Barcelona. There I lived only a few steps away from the Calle d’Avignon. That is where I always used to buy my paper and paints under the gaze of prostitutes.
Pablo Picasso, Word and Confessions, 1954

 
  
 
 The newborn baby was blue and made no sound. The midwife thought it was dead, but not Don Salvador, both its uncle and doctor, who was reading his newspaper in the next room. He had the presence of mind to blow a whiff of cigar smoke into the face of the nearly suffocated baby. It began to draw in breaths of air and to scream. Thus Pablo Picassoencountered and conquered death in the first moments of his Ions life. What would there be left for him to fear? The world admired his impressive vitality, his passion for sheer hard work and the overwhelming self-confidence displayed by the brilliant artist, who had exhibited his first picture by the time he was fourteen. Picasso, who lived to be nearly ninety-two, was celebrated for his talent all his life. At the age of eighteen in Barcelona, he used to meet the city’s intellectual avant-garde in the “The Four Cats”, an artists’ cafe. The youngest of the artists who frequented the cafe, he was soon the most popular: “He exerted such a powerful charisma that he became the leader of the entire group”, related a contemporary.
In 1904 Picasso moved to Pans. He is said to have burned drawings to keep the stove ablaze — and to have painted the walls of his empty room with furniture. All this may be the stuff of legends, but it does reflect the conditions in which he lived at that time. Because he had broken with academic convention, preferring instead to paint the down-and-out, clowns and prostitutes, he had to struggle to earn his livelihood in his youth. Even among friends his work remained controversial. The biggest scandal caused by the young firebrand erupted over the painting entitled Les Demoiselles d’Avignon. Not long before its completion, he had visited HenriMatisse and, in his flat, had picked up the first African sculpture he had ever seen. “He didn’t put it down all evening. And when I arrived at his studio the next morning, the floor was covered with sheets of paper. They all bore the same motif: the head of a black woman. The same woman then emerged on his canvases; sometimes there were two of them, sometimes three. Suddenly there was Les Demoiselles A’Avignon, a picture as big as a wall”, recalls the poet Max Jacob.

The writers and artists of the nineteenth century had depicted distant lands as being like paradise, exotically transfiguring and glamourising reality. Picasso, on the other hand, was interested solely in the aesthetics of exoticism. His defiance of convention in Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, which was decried as being “aggressively erotic”, set off shock waves. Contemporaries thought the figures’ faces looked “as if they had been hewn with an axe”. Construed as the artists homage to the shrill world of deformation and deconstructed myth, it was widely interpreted as a general attack on the ideals of European art. In retrospect, however, this picture, with its synchronicity of different perspectives, represents the beginning of a new era for painting — a break with the past and a challenge for the future.

 
  
Pablo Picasso
(1881—1973)
Les Demoiselles d’Avignon
1907
  
The Calming Effect of Colour
 

The blue of the Cote d’Azur

 
  
 
 What I dream of is an art of balance, of purity and serenity devoid of troubling or disturbing subject matter… like a comforting influence, mental relief-something like a good armchair in which one rests from physical fatigue.
Henri Matisse, A Painter’s Notes, 1908

 
  
 
BRASSAI: Matisse and his model, 1939
   
  The French artist HenriMatisse delighted in painting the blue of his beloved Cote d’Azur, the green umbrella pines and the rows of elegant white villas lining the coast. He revelled in capturing the essence of leisurely life on canvas: men playing boules in the shade of the trees, people relaxing and enjoying quiet, carefree days in the sun, yachts bobbmg on a gentle swellin the harbour accompanied by the balmy breezes of the mistral. Colours, for him, were like the harmony of music. He was convinced that contemplating sunlit colours induced profound inner calm. In Dance he explores the calming effect of colour. This is not the only occasion on which he consciously acted as a painterly pastor, a priest of the easel, who exuded an almost religious feeling for life. In 1908 he expressed the hope that people might find peace and tranquillity in his paintings. He loved life’s sensuous pleasures, the beauty of the models who sat for him and the lushness of nature. Painting was his way of sharing his own zest for life with others from all walks of life. He certainly succeeded. The Italian painter Renato Guttuso called Matisse’s work a “feast for the senses” and “a design for a paradise-like world”. With the joyous serenity depicted in his paintings, Matisse superbly “exemplified a love of life and trust in its beauty”. The French writer Louis Aragon, like Matisse a member of the French Communist Party, raved about the artists work. His paintings showed “the victorious smile of our times, since mankind has begun to turn away from darkness and, with just this smile, triumphantly confronts the days that are for ever bright and peaceful”. In Matisse’s paintings the sun is almost always shining and the people he portrays appear carefree. The lightness of being also imbues the five men and women suspended in dreamy abandon between heaven and earth in Dance. Later, Matisse designed sets and costumes for Sergei Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes in Paris, for he also loved ballet. Dance represented life and rhythm, sparkling with vitality and the freshness of youth. In 1905 Matisse is said to have watched Catalan fishermen dancing the Sardana, an old round dance with abrupt changes of beat and tempo, on the beach at Collioure. Perhaps the memory of this scene is lent expression in Dance. Although Matissefrequented the Paris cafe, Moulin de la Galette, where people danced on Sunday afternoons, he was not sufficiently inspired by the ambience there to paint it. What most likely captured his imagination at the Paris cafe were the intriguing steps of the farandole, an ancient Provencal dance, whose insistent rhythms seem to have underscored his painting.
 
  
HenriMatisse
(1869-1954)
Dance
1909
  
   
Blue Horses and Yellow Cows
 

Munich in 1911: The art capital

 
  
 
 The Blue Rider is here – a lovely sentence, five words -nothing but stars. I’m now thinking like the moon. Am dwelling in the clouds, especially in the evenings when no one else is in the streets…. My eyes hurt as if your sweet horse had kicked up a cloud of dust. Come to me, you and your spouse, Blue Rider, that I may love you.
The lyric poet Else Lasker-Schuler in a letter to Franz Marc, 9 December 1912

 
  
  Vasily Kandinsky, final design for the cover of the Blue Rider almanac, 1911
   
 
 In 1911 a full tankard of beer in the Bavarian royal capital of Munich cost 30 pfennigs. In those days the city on the bar boasted cultural attractions on a scale that dwarfed the “Oktober Fest”. Thomas Mann was writing Death in Venice in his flat in Schwabmg, the artistic and cultural hub of Munich. Bruno Walter was conducting the world premiere of Gustav Mahler’s Songs of the Earth at the Conservatory. Munich gleamed as the centre of the arts. As the lyric poet Else Lasker-Schuler remarked:
“Munich is like paradise…. Listening to friends playing the accordion; strolling past the windows of the reverent old stores; old masters, tasteful jewellery, wild weapons from the tombs of biblical potentates, and everywhere the blue eyes of King Ludwig!… One can muse so effortlessly in Munich, and recline in comfort on well-upholstered memories. Here it feels good to be oneself.”

However, even the disgruntled Munich of conventional wisdom found plenty to jolt it out of its stolidity. A performance staged by the nude dancer Via-Villany made the chamois tufts that Bavarian men wear on their loden hats wag with indignation. In a former shop in Tuerken Strasse two men could be seen through the window painting decidedly offensive pictures. One of them, Franz Marc, was defiantly brandishing the picture of a horse — painted blue! Loud protests were heard. The police who rushed to the scene had no legal right to make the painters stop what they were doing so they contented themselves with patrolling the area around the shop to keep public wrath from erupting. Marc and his colleague Vasily Kandinsky were committed to encouraging a dialogue between painting, literature and music with the purpose of “radically widening the bounds of expressive creativity”. In 1912 they published an almanac that caused a sensation. It contained nineteen articles and quoted passages, three musical scores and 141 reproductions of pictures, including folk art and children’s paintings and drawings, “primitive, Roman and Gothic art”, “twentieth-century art” and Egyptian shadow-play figures. By bringing together this jumbled mixture of artworks they hoped to encourage other artists to venture in new directions. The almanac bore the title “Blauer Reiter” (Blue Rider). “We thought up the name round the coffee table in the shade of Marc’s garden”, Kandinsky said, adding: “We both loved blue, Marc — horses, and I — riders. The name came of its own accord”. Soon afterwards, the Blue Rider had their first exhibition. Never tightly organised, the group consisted of a circle of artists around Marc and Kandinsky. Marc found animals “purer” than human beings. In his work, blue stood for masculinity, astrmgency and intellect. The horse was the attribute of the popular saints Martin and George, who as celestial riders conquered evil and materialism. Marc and Kandinsky contrived to emulate them in art. The Blue Rider did not last long; it dissolved in 1916 after Franz Marc was killed in action at Verdun.

 
  
Franz Marc
(1880—1916)
Blue Horse I
1911
  
Painting Music
 

From the visible world to an abstract symphony of colours

 
  
  The sun is melting Moscow down to a mere speck which, like a tuba gone mad, is making the whole inner being, the whole soul vibrate…. It is only the final chord of the symphony that heightens colours to their most vivid…. Pink, purple, yellow, white, pistachio-green, flaming red houses, churches – each a song unto itself – the shrill green lawn, the deep drone of the trees…. Painting this hour, I thought, would represent the artist’s most unlikely and loftiest happiness.
Wassily Kandinsky, 1912, in Collected Writings 1,1980

 
  
 
 The colours of Moscow: St Basil’s Cathedral on Reel Square
 
  
 
 One evening in 1910 Vasily Kandinskyentered his Munich studio, noticed a canvas that had been accidentally hung upside down and was enraptured. He had suddenly comprehended that this was a picture “of extraordinary beauty, glowing with an inner radiance”. At that time, as the Russian emigre would say later, he had, in a flash of insight, understood what abstraction really meant. In connection with art, “abstraction” did not mean “anything that could be perceived by the senses; it meant trying to represent the intellectual content of something”.This did not mean depicting a couple embracing, for instance, but instead expressing their feelings of joy, love and security solely by means of a non-representational approach.
The discussion waxed loud and long as to who had been the first to paint an abstract picture and who should therefore be regarded as the founder of abstract painting. All his life, Kandinsky would remain convinced that the honour should have gone to him. Today it is a well-known fact that other artists, such as Hans Schmithals, painted abstract pictures before Kandinsky did. Nevertheless, Kandinsky deserves full credit for the pioneering way he allowed colour and form to become autonomous in his compositions.

Kandinsky had refused a university chair in law to become a painter. His progress towards abstraction was long and arduous. At the beginning of his artistic career, any type of painting that did not correspond to reality left him bewildered. At the age of thirty he saw an exhibition of French Impressionists in Moscow and stood for hours before Monet’s Haystack, jotting down notes: “It was only when I read the catalogue that I realised it was a haystack. I couldn’t pick it out. I was embarrassed about not being able to do so. I also felt that the painter had no right to paint so indistinctly. I numbly sensed that the real subject of the painting was missing.” Then Kandinsky became more familiar with the painting and noted happily “that the picture not only seizes one, it imprints itself indelibly on one’s memory to hover, always unexpectedly, before one’s eyes in all its detail…. Painting has assumed magic-al power and magnificence. Unconsciously, however, the subject has been discredited as an unavoidable element of the picture. I had the general impression that a tiny particle of my sundrenched fairy-tale Moscow already had an existence of its own on canvas.” Despite his allegiance to abstraction, Kandinsky drew his inspiration solely from the visible world, starting with carvings on Russian peasants’ houses and extending to African masks and Upper Bavarian votive tablets. It was not his aim to represent nothingness with his abstract renderings; he endeavoured to reveal the primal chaos from which the creative force emerged, the force that once formed the world. Composition Vll, Kandinsky’s most important work from the period before the First World War, does not attest to destruction, but carries the message of a creative beginning.

 
  
Vasily Kandinsky
(1866-1944)
Composicion VI
  
   
Down the Garden Path
 
Water-lilies at Giverny

 
  
 
 When the water-lilies in the garden carry us from the surface of the water to the wandering clouds of infinite space, we take leave of the earth – and even its heavens – to enjoy the highest harmony of things, which lies beyond our little planet.
Georges Clemenceau, Claude Monet, 1929

 
  
  The former French president and statesman Georges Clemenceau described one of the water-lily pictures painted by his friend Claude Monet as “a water-meadow covered with flowers and leaves, ignited by the torch of the sun and glittering in the play of light between the sky and the surface of the water”. Clemenceau had successfully coordinated French political and military efforts towards the end of the First World War and made a major contribution to the Allied victory. He raved about Monet’s water-lily pictures calling them a “revelation”. Between 1915 and 1924 he made it possible for Monet to paint eight enormous water-lily murals on the walls of the Orangerie in the Tuileries as a gift to the nation. Despite such encouragement, however, Claude Monet was not surrounded by distinguished promoters and patrons from the outset. On the contrary, his work entitled Impression, soleil levant inspired the critic Louis Leroy to coin the derogatory term “Impressionists” for an entire group of painters whose work he did not like. For decades Monet was almost destitute. Not until art dealer Theo van Gogh, Vincent’s brother, managed to sell one of his paintings for 10,350 Francs — then an almost unheard of price for a work of contemporary art — was Claude Monetable to live fairly comfortably. Already middle-aged, he began to reap the fruits of his success.
Monet was even able to make a life-long dream come true. For seven years he had rented a country house in Giverny; now he was able to buy it and lay out a garden of flowers and shrubs. In 1895 and 1896 he successfully negotiated the purchase of several neighbouring plots of land — including a pond — which he planted with a profusion of weeping willows, irises, rhododendrons and water-lilies. An avid landscape gardener, he was inspired by Japanese woodcuts, which were by now sought after on the European art market, especially in France and England. Monet was so fond of his estate that his chief preoccupation for the remaining thirty-six years of his life was painting views of his gardens. As a young man he had always painted out of doors to capture the light and atmosphere and the interplay of colour and reflection. The six gardeners Monet employed in old age took care of his paradise, leaving him free to paint it and touch up the paintings in his studio. Water-lilies were his obsession: between 1903 and 1908 he painted forty-eight pictures of them, which he exhibited in Paris in 1909. He sought eternity in painting, or so his fleeting glimpse of it would seem to intimate.

 
  
Claude Monet
(1840—1926)
Water-Lilies
 
  
Claude Monet
(1840—1926)
Water-Lilies
 
  
Claude Monet
(1840—1926)
Water-Lilies
 
  
Claude Monet
(1840—1926)
Water-Lilies
 
  
Claude Monet
(1840—1926)
Water-Lilies
 
  
Claude Monet
(1840—1926)
Water-Lilies
  
Giorgio de Chirico and World War I

 
  
 
 I for my part believe that a place that paralyzes and freezes the brightness of noonday hides more secrets than a dark room in which someone is holding a seance.
Giorgio de Chirico, in a letter to a friend, January 1919

 
  
Giorgio de Chirico
Self-Portrait, 1924 
A possible source of inspiration? The arcades bordering the palace
gardens in Munich where Giorgio de Chirico studied between 1906-09
 
  
 
 
Seldom had spring brought forth more flowers than in 1914: the days were blue and soft and the air balmy. Inhabitants of the European capitals enjoyed the coffeehouses and parks. At seaside resorts crowds danced under chestnut trees to the strains of promenade concerts. And in their offices the diplomats were calculating and worrying. In the Balkans the vital interests of the Austrian, Russian and Turkish Empires were balanced: but it was an unstable balance and many nationalists were convinced that their nation would benefit from its overthrow. When the Austrian Archduke was assassinated in Sarajevo by a Slav nationalist the Austrian government calculated that it was then or never for their interests in the Balkans. Encouraged by their German allies, who believed that a war with the French was nearly inevitable and that Germany’s chances were better in 1914 than they would be in 1918, the Austrians issued the Serbs a humiliating ultimatum. But the Russians had appointed themselves the protectors of the Serbs and were closely allied to the French. No one knew how seriously the British took their alliance to the French….
The pressure rose slowly at first, but then rapidly. The levy of a war tax on one side was answered with the lengthening of the term of military service on the other; partial mobilization on one side was answered on the other by full mobilization. The German commanders were convinced that to prevail against France and Russia they would have to destroy France quickly before the slow Russians could assemble their armies. But that meant they had to strike first: they could not allow the Russians to mobilise. Human will seemed powerless in the face of unfolding events, long-determined plans, strategic necessities, the requirements of national prestige — for the most terrifying thing about this, the most bloody war Europe had ever known, was that no one had wanted it.

In Paris the twenty-six-year-old painter Giorgio de Chirico was filled with the sense of the meaninglessness and madness of life.

The son of an Italian railway engineer, he was born in Greece and grew up familiar with ancient legends, with myth, tragedy and a strong sense of fate. He believed in signs and in predestination, magical places and the astrology and studied ancient Greek religion. He was also a student of Nietzsche and Schopenhauer.

De Chirico’s feelings about the senselessness and terror of his time were worked through these symbols and ideas. He was one of the most truly “disturbing” of modern painters. De Chirico conjures up menacing Italian piazzas which seem to conceal the key to a looming catastrophe. His colonnade-lmed facades seem to be the surface of an isolated world; to reflect the hot light of a shuttered noon. The purpose of his “Metaphysical Painting” was to reveal invisible forces, fears, emotions and shadows concealed behind the world of visible things. He played with allusions and like the ancients delighted in riddles and enigmas, such as the Sphinx, the oracle at Delphi and the Sybilline Books. What is the significance of the painting of 1914, Mystery and Melancholy of a Street? Could it signify anonymity, the solitude and menace of a great city? The work seems to evoke a mood which many of us have sensed before, of doom and evil, and of the senseless and unavoidable, bearing down on us. It is difficult for us not to see the work as a prophecy of what at the time was called “The Great War”.

 
  
Giorgio de Chirico
(1888—1978)
Mystery and Melancholy of a Street
1914

 
  
The Poetic Nude
 

Absinthe and transfiguration

 
  
 
 Wouldn’t you like to rest? With these words her gestures assumed a new softness so that I trembled in the innermost fiber of my being as if to a voice never heard and indefinable. She felt me, and over her eyes descended a heavy veil and I fell on my knees and with my eager hand on her body, she stood up, her body taut and quivering like a living harp.
Gabriele d’Annunzio, Infermezzo, V 111-117 (1883)

 
 
 
 Plagued by misfortunes: Modigliani’s Self-Portrait of 1919, and his wife Jeanne Hebuterne, 1918
 
 
 
 His name stood for scandal. Amedeo Modigliani was a wild aesthete after the manner of his time. He loved Nietzsche, Baudelaire, Oscar Wilde and Gabnele D’Annunzio, smoked hashish, drank absinthe, danced naked on the tables of third-rate cafes, fought with the police and spent many an odd night locked up. He is supposed to have been intimate with many waitresses, painter’s models and prostitutes. Once a model schoolboy, he was also tubercular and the English writer Beatrice Hastings left him when he decided to find his happiness and health in alcohol and drugs. She was fed up with getting up early every day to write the articles and poetry that put food on their table — while he slept until noon.
The young Italian, who had moved to Paris in 1910, forgot her soon enough. He met the love of his life at Mardi Gras: a girl fourteen years younger than himself, Jeanne Hebuterne. Friends warned him to keep away from her because she came from a family which had sired celebrated clerics. Her parents would find him a disgusting character. But Modigliani was not to be deterred. The tragic aesthete who, despite the excesses of his Paris life, still retained at thirty-three the beauty of his youth, had fallen deeply in love. He found in her the incarnation of the “lady with the swan-like neck” whom he had painted many hundreds of times. It was love at first sight for both of them and the power of love removed all obstacles. Jeanne defied her family to be Modigliani’s permanent model. His fame grew, chiefly due to the series of paintings of which Nude with Necklace is one. The critic Francis Carco wrote in 1919 on the series: “Animal suppleness, waiting motionless in abandonment of self, in delicious languor, has never been more tellingly interpreted by a painter.” Others praised Modigliani’s poetic nudes as “hymns to a sensitive beauty”.

The elegiac melancholy of these paintings reflects the tragedy and uncertainty of their creator’s own life. For the first time he had enough money to live on, yet his health was collapsing. He died of meningitis on 24 January 1920. He was thirty-six and an incurable alcoholic. Jeanne Hebuterne, who was nearly nine months pregnant, committed suicide the following morning by jumping out of a window of her parents’ fifth-floor flat.

see also: Nude in Art of the 20th century. “The Second Temple of Beauty”

 
 
Amedeo Modigliani
(1884-1920)
Nude with Necklace
1917
 
The Fiddler on the Roof
 

Folklore, music and persecution

 
 
 
 Airy beings in flight as transient phenomena are at the heart of Marc Chagall’s lyrical interpretation of Sholem Aleichem. The Jew floating over the rooftops is anywhere but on firm ground. And he proves that he is an acrobat solely by surviving nimbly in a world in which he is not at home. He is a strange creature who lives in books and dreams. In order to survive, he is always inventing new fantasies and dreams of riches and power so he doesn’t perceive the wretchedness and hopelessness of his situation.
Avram Kampf, Chagall in the Moscow Yiddish Theatre, 1991

 
 
 
 Poster for Fiddler on the Roof, for the world premiere in New York City, 1964
 
 
 
 Marc Chagall’s painting of a melancholy violinist has become world famous as “the fiddler on the roof”. The musical of that name, adapted from a set of tales by the Russian Jewish writer Sholem Aleichem, premiered on 22 September 1964 at the Imperial Theater in New York City and was sold-out to theatres for years. The story is set in Anatevka, a little Jewish shtetl in the Russian Ukraine, shortly before the revolutionary turmoils of 1905. Tevye, a milkman who owns a lame nag, lives together with his wife Golde and their five daughters in a cramped peasant cottage; they live in bitter poverty and constant fear of pogroms. Yet Tevye drives a desperate but quick-witted bargain with God and turns the tables on tragedy by the sheer volubility of his wit.
As Maurice Samuel wrote: “Life pets the better of him but he comes off better in debate with it.” At first Tevye has something to hold on to: “Without tradition our lives would be just as insecure as the fiddler up there on the roof.” But then nothing turns out the way one expects. His daughters refuse to let their father choose their husbands and marry as they please. Heartbreaking scenes, being disowned by their father and the depths of despair are the consequences. An edict of the Tsar’s puts an end to it all. Tevye and his wife Golde are rejected by their daughters. Denied the descendants they long for, they and all the other Jews of Anatevka are expelled from their homes.

Chagall was born in 1887, the son of a Jewish fishmonger in Liozno near the White Russian provincial capital of Vitebsk. His early life was remarkably like that which is enacted in the musical. At the age of thirty-three he had his first experience of scene painting and directing plays at the Moscow Yiddish Theatre.

In 1941 he emigrated — like Sholem Aleichem had twenty-five years earlier — to the United States, where he again worked in the theatre.

The musical Fiddler on the Roof goes back to a pre-Surrealist image of Chagall’s. It was 1920 when he first painted this image on the wall of the auditorium of the Moscow Yiddish Theatre as a symbolic representation for music. Thus Chagall’s colourful, opulent realm of motifs, nurtured in the soil of Jewish myth and Russian folklore, was transformed into theatre. And this theatrical reality recalls the centuries-old fate of a people who have always been driven from place to place. In the face of such hardship, often the only thing left to fall back on is faith together with irony, humanity and wit.

 
 
Marc Chagall
(1887-1985)
The Fiddler, 1913; Green Violinist, 1924
 
 

The destiny of a woman painter

 
 
 
 Diego. Beginning
Diego. Builder
Diego, my child
Diego, my bridegroom
Diego. Painter
Diego, my lover
Diego, my husband
Diego, my friend
Diego, my father Diego, my mother
Diego, my son
Diego. I
Diego. Universe.
Diversity in unity.
Why do I call him my Diego?
He never was, nor will he ever be, mine.
He is his own.
Frida Kahlo, from a diary entry  
 
Frida Kahlo, Frida; The Two Fridas, 1939
 
 
 
 The Mexican painter Diego Rivera was working on a mural when a gifted young painter came by to show him some of her work. The twenty-one-year-old Frieda Kahlo (who later changed the spelling of her name to Frida) was of multicultural descent, with a German father and a Mexican mother. She wanted to know what Rivera thought of her work. A friend of Pablo Picasso’s, Rivera had lived in Paris (1911—192т) and later returned to Mexico, becoming one the most important artists of the Social Realist movement. He told Kahlo that he found her work to be expressive, sensuous and of a style distinctly her own. Rivera later said that it was immediately obvious to him that this woman was exceptionally talented. He advised her to continue painting and visited her frequently. They fell in love. In 1929 Kahlo married Rivera, who was twenty-one years her senior. The “delicate dove and fat frog” were now a pair although their life together was tempestuous. The first strains of their marriage became apparent during a three-year stay in the United States. Rivera was fascinated by the country and its people but Kahlo soon had enough of the Americans. After their return to Mexico, Rivera engaged in several extramarital affairs. In 1935 he fell in love with Kahlo’s sister Cristina, who had been his model for two murals. Deeply hurt, Kahlo left Rivera, revenging herself on him by having affairs of her own with men and women. In 1939 Kahlo and Riveradivorced. However, they were still drawn to each other and remarried a year later in San Francisco.
The way Kahlo remembered her first wedding is captured in Frieda and Diego Rivera. All her paintings similarly reflect the events of her stormy life, which was overshadowed not only by her unhappy marriage. Kahlo was dogged by ill health all her life. In 1913 polio left her with a crippled right foot which later had to be amputated. In 1925 fate struck again when she was riding a bus that collided with a tram and Kahlo sustained serious injuries to her lower abdomen and spine, forcing her to wear a corrective corset. These illnesses and misfortunes wore heavily upon her and she made her own psychological and physical pain the subject of many of her works. Stylistically she was influenced by Mexican folk art, particularly votive paintings. While she was a professor at the La Esmeralda Art School, she talked more about personal feelings than about art with her students. With her health declining rapidly, she wanted to commit suicide — “only Diego keeps me from doing it”. Kahlo died a week after her forty-seventh birthday and her last diary entry reads: “I await the end joyfully. And I hope never to return.”
 

see also: Frida Kahlo “Frida – The Life in Self-Portraits”

 
 

 
 
Diego Rivera and Frieda Kahlo, 1932

Frieda Kahlo
(1907—1954)
Frieda and Diego Rivera
1931
 
The Paranoid-Critical Camembert
 

Into the subconscious with Salvador Dali

 
 
 
 You can be sure that my famous soft watches are nothing other than the affectionate, extravagant, lonely, paranoid-critical Camembert of time and space.
Salvador Dali, The Conquest of the Irrational, 1935

 
 
 
 Salvador Dali
Gala and Salvador Dali
 
 
 
 A ghost which can be used as a table, a skull copulating with a concert grand piano, fried eggs riding or a mournful mirror: the world that appears in Salvador Dali’s pictures is certainly bizarre. He has been criticised for this, frequently and severely- He was regarded as neurotic, perverse and mad. One of the more harmless epithets applied to him “an erotomaniac eccentric”. None of this bothered him in the least.
At twenty-five, the eccentric Catalonian fell in love with Elena Diakonova. He called her “Gala” and, no less scandalous than he, she shared the rest of his life. He found ingenious ways of wooing her: he cut his best shirt so short that his navel showed, turned his trousers inside out, died the hairs m his armpits bright blue and smeared his body with a mixture of fishpaste, goat dung and aspic. Just before Gala entered the house, he washed off the stinking mess, changed his clothes and collapsed at her feet, laughing hysterically. She found him repulsive, but by the end of that year she vowed: “My little boy! We’ll never leave each other!”

Dali – a boy who never grew up. Spoilt by his permissive mother, he conducted sadistic experiments, and his school reports were so bad that, as a biographer relates, his parents were devastated. However, all these ploys safeguarded his boundless creativity, which drew on an inexhaustible imagination, from outside intervention. He became one of the great visionaries of the Surrealist movement and modern painting.

Influenced by Freudian psychology and inspired by his own subconscious, he captured the irrational world of his dreams, visions and hallucinations on canvas with meticulous objectivity. Making a fetish of detail, he wrote books about everything he was doing and created ballet sets and film scenarios teeming with his grotesque motifs. Dali was certainly a self-obsessed megalomaniac and a choleric one at that. He was both an anarchist and an admirer of monarchy, and has been accused of having fascist tendencies. He publicly proclaimed his right to be insane. Yet he is supposed to have drawn on mundane reality for at least some of his inspiration. The story has it that he painted The Persistence of Memory after having eaten Camembert.

 
 
Salvador Dali
(1904—1989)
The Persistence of Memory
1931
 
Man’s Inhumanity to Man
 

Europe in turmoil

 
 
  The painting which I did after the defeat of the Republicans was L’ange du foyer (Fireside angel). This is, of course, an ironic title for a clumsy figure devastating everything that gets in its way. At the time, this was my impression of what was happening in the world, and I think I was right.
Max Ernst, from his writings, 1948

 
 
 
 The scene of destruction: The Basque town of Guernica у Luno after the bombing of 26 April 1937
 
 
  Sergeant Yoldi was appalled: “There was nothing to be heard but the crackle and roar of flames. No one spoke and even the cattle trotting aimlessly through the streets made no noise. We were all dumb with horror. I had known Guernica before the war — there was nothing left of it. It had been a little town with red-roofed, white-walled houses. Now its streets were strewn with charred animal carcasses.” On 26 April 1937, just twenty-four hours before Sergeant Yoldi arrived in Guernica, the town had been bombed by the German Condor Legion. This became the most famous of the Spanish Civil War atrocities, horrifying a world which had not yet grown used to air attacks on defenceless cities. The war began in July 1936, when General Francisco- Franco led a revolt against the Spanish Republic. The Spanish Left had won a parliamentary majority but was unable to restrain those among them who were deter-mined that their turn in power should be used to destroy the Right. Franco’s revolt became a civil war, and Franco received the support of Mussolini’s Italy and Hitler’s Germany, which went so far as to send troops — using the Spanish war to try out new weapons and tactics. The Republicans were supported by volunteers from all over the world, as well as by Stalin’s Soviet Union. Horrifying and sadistic atrocities were committed by both sides — Pablo Picasso, who was a Spaniard, made Guernica the subject of one of his most famous paintings. After Franco’s victory the German painter Max Ernst created his spectral L’ange du foyer(Fireside angel), an apocalyptic monster bursting with destructive energy, a King-Kong-like Angel of Death spreading fear and terror.
Ernst was born in 1891 at Bruhl near Cologne, and as a painter he was quite “degenerate”: or this is how he was described by the propagandists of the Third Reich. In 1921 Ernst moved to Pans, where he threw himself into sculpture, print-making and film as well as painting. There he became a participant in the French Dada movement, a short-lived movement from 1916 to about 1922 which declared that all established values, morals and aesthetics had been rendered meaningless by the catastrophe of the World War I. Later, in 1924, Ernst became a member of the Surrealist movement which followed Dada and was considered one of its most innovative members. The Surrealists still touted the importance of chance in their work, as did the Dadaists, but added to it more control and theories borrowed from psychoanalysis, emphasising the subconscious and the importance of dream imagery.

In 1937, the year he painted L’ange du foyer, Ernst learned that the National Socialists had confiscated his early work, which he had left behind m Germany. It was soon destroyed in the National Socialist effort to “purify” German art. We may suppose, then, that when he painted this work, Spain was not the only thing worrying him. When World War II began, the French interned Ernst at Aix-en-Provence as an “enemy alien”, but friends interceded for him. He was released and ordered to leave France. He went to the United States of America with the help of the art connoisseur and collector Peggy Guggenheim, who he later married.

 
 
Max Ernst
(1891—1976)
L’ange du foyer (Fireside angel)
1937
 
 
Max Ernst
(1891—1976)
L’ange du foyer (Fireside angel)
 
The Silent Observer
 

An American dream

 

Florence Nightingale Historic collections

Florence Nightingale

Historic Collections

 

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Copyright@2012

 

 

Introduction

 

Florence Nightingal

e’s London

 

A wartime letter from nursing heroine Florence Nightingale to a soldier’s grieving sister has been publicly unveiled for the first time.

In the poignant note, Miss Nightingale – known as the Lady with the Lamp – informs Crimean soldier Gunner Evans’ sister of the ‘sad certainty’ of his death.

‘I have never had so painful and unsatisfactory a letter to write,’ the message reads.

Biography

Florence Nightingale

 
 
 
Florence Nightingale
Born 12 May 1820(1820-05-12)
Florence, Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Died 13 August 1910(1910-08-13) (aged 90)
Park Lane, London, United Kingdom
Known for Pioneering modern nursing
 
Profession Nurse and Statistician
Institutions Selimiye Barracks, Scutari
Specialism Hospital hygiene and sanitation
Signature

Florence Nightingale OM, RRC (play /ˈflɒrəns ˈntɨŋɡl/; historically [ˈflɒɾəns]; 12 May 1820 – 13 August 1910) was a celebrated English nurse, writer and statistician. She came to prominence for her pioneering work in nursing during the Crimean War, where she tended to wounded soldiers. She was dubbed “The Lady with the Lamp” after her habit of making rounds at night. An Anglican, Nightingale believed that God had called her to be a nurse.

Nightingale laid the foundation of professional nursing with the establishment, in 1860, of her nursing school at St Thomas’ Hospital in London, the first secular nursing school in the world, now part of King’s College London. The Nightingale Pledge taken by new nurses was named in her honour, and the annual International Nurses Day is celebrated around the world on her birthday.

[edit] Biography

[edit] Early life

Embley Park, now a school, was one of the family homes of William Nightingale

Florence Nightingale was born into a rich, upper-class, well-connected British family at the Villa Colombaia,[1] near the Porta Romana at Bellosguardo in Florence, Italy, and was named after the city of her birth. Florence’s older sister Frances Parthenope had similarly been named after her place of birth, Parthenopolis, a Greek settlement now part of the city of Naples.

Her parents were William Edward Nightingale, born William Edward Shore (1794–1874) and Frances (“Fanny”) Nightingale née Smith (1789–1880). William’s mother Mary née Evans was the niece of one Peter Nightingale, under the terms of whose will William inherited his estate Lea Hurst in Derbyshire, and assumed the name and arms of Nightingale. Fanny’s father (Florence’s maternal grandfather) was the abolitionist and Unitarian William Smith. (For family trees, see here.)

Inspired by what she took as a call from God in February 1837 while at Embley Park, Florence announced her decision to enter nursing in 1844, despite the intense anger and distress of her mother and sister. In this, she rebelled against the expected role for a woman of her status, which was to become a wife and mother. Nightingale worked hard to educate herself in the art and science of nursing, in spite of opposition from her family and the restrictive societal code for affluent young English women. Nightingale was courted by politician and poet Richard Monckton Milnes, 1st Baron Houghton, but she rejected him, convinced that marriage would interfere with her ability to follow her calling to nursing.

Florence Nightingale, circa 1858

In Rome in 1847, she met Sidney Herbert, a brilliant politician who had been Secretary at War (1845–1846), a position he would hold again during the Crimean War. Herbert was on his honeymoon; he and Nightingale became lifelong close friends. Herbert and his wife were instrumental in facilitating Nightingale’s nursing work in the Crimea, and she became a key adviser to him in his political career, though she was accused by some of having hastened Herbert’s death from Bright’s Disease in 1861 because of the pressure her programme of reform placed on him.

Nightingale also much later had strong relations with Benjamin Jowett, who may have wanted to marry her.

Nightingale continued her travels (now with Charles and Selina Bracebridge) as far as Greece and Egypt. Her writings on Egypt in particular are testimony to her learning, literary skill and philosophy of life. Sailing up the Nile as far as Abu Simbel in January 1850, she wrote

“I don’t think I ever saw anything which affected me much more than this.” And, considering the temple: “Sublime in the highest style of intellectual beauty, intellect without effort, without suffering… not a feature is correct – but the whole effect is more expressive of spiritual grandeur than anything I could have imagined. It makes the impression upon one that thousands of voices do, uniting in one unanimous simultaneous feeling of enthusiasm or emotion, which is said to overcome the strongest man.”

At Thebes she wrote of being “called to God” while a week later near Cairo she wrote in her diary (as distinct from her far longer letters that her elder sister Parthenope was to print after her return): “God called me in the morning and asked me would I do good for him alone without reputation.”[2] Later in 1850, she visited the Lutheran religious community at Kaiserswerth-am-Rhein in Germany, where she observed Pastor Theodor Fliedner and the deaconesses working for the sick and the deprived. She regarded the experience as a turning point in her life, and issued her findings anonymously in 1851; The Institution of Kaiserswerth on the Rhine, for the Practical Training of Deaconesses, etc. was her first published work;[3] she also received four months of medical training at the institute which formed the basis for her later care.

On 22 August 1853, Nightingale took the post of superintendent at the Institute for the Care of Sick Gentlewomen in Upper Harley Street, London, a position she held until October 1854.[4] Her father had given her an annual income of £500 (roughly £40,000/US$65,000 in present terms), which allowed her to live comfortably and to pursue her career.

[edit] Crimean War

A print of the jewel awarded to Nightingale by Queen Victoria, for her services to the soldiers in the war

A tinted lithograph by William Simpson illustrating conditions of the sick and injured in Balaklava

A ward of the hospital at Scutari where Nightingale worked, from an 1856 lithograph

Florence Nightingale’s most famous contribution came during the Crimean War, which became her central focus when reports began to filter back to Britain about the horrific conditions for the wounded. On 21 October 1854, she and a staff of 38 women volunteer nurses, trained by Nightingale and including her aunt Mai Smith,[5] were sent (under the authorisation of Sidney Herbert) to the Ottoman Empire, about 295 nautical miles (546 km; 339 mi) across the Black Sea from Balaklava in the Crimea, where the main British camp was based.

Nightingale arrived early in November 1854 at Selimiye Barracks in Scutari (modern-day Üsküdar in Istanbul). She and her nurses found wounded soldiers being badly cared for by overworked medical staff in the face of official indifference. Medicines were in short supply, hygiene was being neglected, and mass infections were common, many of them fatal. There was no equipment to process food for the patients.

After Nightingale sent a plea to The Times for the government to produce a solution to the poor condition of the facilities, the British Government commissioned Isambard Kingdom Brunel to design a prefabricated hospital, which could be built in England and shipped to the Dardanelles. The result was Renkioi Hospital, a civilian facility which under the management of Dr Edmund Alexander Parkes had a death rate less than 1/10th that of Scutari.[6]

At the beginning of the 20th century, it was asserted that Nightingale reduced the death rate from 42% to 2% either by making improvements in hygiene herself or by calling for the Sanitary Commission. The 1911 first edition of the Dictionary of National Biography made this claim, but the second edition in 2001 did not. However, death rates did not drop: they began to rise. The death count was the highest of all hospitals in the region. During her first winter at Scutari, 4,077 soldiers died there. Ten times more soldiers died from illnesses such as typhus, typhoid, cholera and dysentery than from battle wounds. Conditions at the temporary barracks hospital were so fatal to the patients because of overcrowding and the hospital’s defective sewers and lack of ventilation. A Sanitary Commission had to be sent out by the British government to Scutari in March 1855, almost six months after Florence Nightingale had arrived, and effected flushing out the sewers and improvements to ventilation.[7] Death rates were sharply reduced. During the war she did not recognise hygiene as the predominant cause of death, and she never claimed credit for helping to reduce the death rate.[8]

Nightingale continued believing the death rates were due to poor nutrition and supplies and overworking of the soldiers. It was not until after she returned to Britain and began collecting evidence before the Royal Commission on the Health of the Army that she came to believe that most of the soldiers at the hospital were killed by poor living conditions. This experience influenced her later career, when she advocated sanitary living conditions as of great importance. Consequently, she reduced deaths in the army during peacetime and turned attention to the sanitary design of hospitals.

[edit] The Lady with the Lamp

During the Crimean war, Florence Nightingale gained the nickname “The Lady with the Lamp”, deriving from a phrase in a report in The Times:

She is a ‘ministering angel’ without any exaggeration in these hospitals, and as her slender form glides quietly along each corridor, every poor fellow’s face softens with gratitude at the sight of her. When all the medical officers have retired for the night and silence and darkness have settled down upon those miles of prostrate sick, she may be observed alone, with a little lamp in her hand, making her solitary rounds.[9]

“Nightingale receiving the Wounded at Scutari”, a portrait by Jerry Barrett

The phrase was further popularised by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow‘s 1857 poem “Santa Filomena”:[10]

Lo! in that house of misery
A lady with a lamp I see
Pass through the glimmering gloom,
And flit from room to room.

[edit] Later career

While she was in the Crimea, on 29 November 1855, a public meeting to give recognition to Florence Nightingale for her work in the war led to the establishment of the Nightingale Fund for the training of nurses. There was an outpouring of generous donations. Sidney Herbert served as honorary secretary of the fund, and the Duke of Cambridge was chairman. Nightingale was considered a pioneer in the concept of medical tourism as well, on the basis of her letters from 1856 in which she wrote of spas in the Ottoman Empire, detailing the health conditions, physical descriptions, dietary information, and other vitally important details of patients whom she directed there (where treatment was significantly less expensive than in Switzerland). It may be assumed[citation needed] she was directing patients of meagre means to affordable treatment.

By 1859 Nightingale had £45,000 at her disposal from the Nightingale Fund to set up the Nightingale Training School at St. Thomas’ Hospital on 9 July 1860. (It is now called the Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery and is part of King’s College London.) The first trained Nightingale nurses began work on 16 May 1865 at the Liverpool Workhouse Infirmary. She also campaigned and raised funds for the Royal Buckinghamshire Hospital in Aylesbury, near her family home.

Nightingale wrote Notes on Nursing, which was published in 1859, a slim 136-page book that served as the cornerstone of the curriculum at the Nightingale School and other nursing schools established, though it was written specifically for the education of those nursing at home. Nightingale wrote “Every day sanitary knowledge, or the knowledge of nursing, or in other words, of how to put the constitution in such a state as that it will have no disease, or that it can recover from disease, takes a higher place. It is recognised as the knowledge which every one ought to have – distinct from medical knowledge, which only a profession can have”.[11]

Notes on Nursing also sold well to the general reading public and is considered a classic introduction to nursing. Nightingale spent the rest of her life promoting the establishment and development of the nursing profession and organizing it into its modern form. In the introduction to the 1974 edition, Joan Quixley of the Nightingale School of Nursing wrote: “The book was the first of its kind ever to be written. It appeared at a time when the simple rules of health were only beginning to be known, when its topics were of vital importance not only for the well-being and recovery of patients, when hospitals were riddled with infection, when nurses were still mainly regarded as ignorant, uneducated persons. The book has, inevitably, its place in the history of nursing, for it was written by the founder of modern nursing”.[12]

Nightingale was an advocate for the improvement of care and conditions in the military and civilian hospitals in Britain. Among her popular books are Notes on Hospitals, which deals with the correlation of sanitary techniques to medical facilities; Notes on Nursing, which was the most valued nursing textbook of the day; Notes on Matters Affecting the Health, Efficiency and Hospital Administration of the British Army.

As Mark Bostridge has recently demonstrated, one of Nightingale’s signal achievements was the introduction of trained nurses into the workhouse system in England and Ireland from the 1860s onwards. This meant that sick paupers were no longer being cared for by other, able-bodied paupers, but by properly trained nursing staff. This innovation may be said to herald the establishment of the National Health Service in Britain, forty years after Nightingale’s death.

It is commonly stated that Nightingale “went to her grave denying the germ theory of infection”. Mark Bostridge in his recent biography[13] disagrees with this, saying that she was opposed to a precursor of germ theory known as “contagionism” which held that diseases could only be transmitted by touch. Before the experiments of the mid-1860s by Pasteur and Lister, hardly anyone took germ theory seriously and even afterwards many medical practitioners were unconvinced. Bostridge points out that in the early 1880s Nightingale wrote an article for a textbook in which she advocated strict precautions designed, she said, to kill germs. Nightingale’s work served as an inspiration for nurses in the American Civil War. The Union government approached her for advice in organizing field medicine. Although her ideas met official resistance, they inspired the volunteer body of the United States Sanitary Commission.

In the 1870s, Nightingale mentored Linda Richards, “America’s first trained nurse”, and enabled her to return to the USA with adequate training and knowledge to establish high-quality nursing schools. Linda Richards went on to become a great nursing pioneer in the USA and Japan.

By 1882, Nightingale nurses had a growing and influential presence in the embryonic nursing profession. Some had become matrons at several leading hospitals, including, in London, St Mary’s Hospital, Westminster Hospital, St Marylebone Workhouse Infirmary and the Hospital for Incurables at Putney; and throughout Britain, e.g., Royal Victoria Hospital, Netley; Edinburgh Royal Infirmary; Cumberland Infirmary and Liverpool Royal Infirmary, as well as at Sydney Hospital in New South Wales, Australia.

In 1883, Nightingale was awarded the Royal Red Cross by Queen Victoria. In 1907, she became the first woman to be awarded the Order of Merit. In 1908, she was given the Honorary Freedom of the City of London. Her birthday is now celebrated as International CFS Awareness Day.

From 1857 onwards, Nightingale was intermittently bedridden and suffered from depression. A recent biography cites brucellosis and associated spondylitis as the cause.[14] An alternative explanation for her depression is based on her discovery after the war that she had been mistaken about the reasons for the high death rate.[8] There is, however, no documentary evidence to support this theory which remains, therefore, largely supposition. Most authorities today accept that Nightingale suffered from a particularly extreme form of brucellosis, the effects of which only began to lift in the early 1880s. Despite her symptoms, she remained phenomenally productive in social reform. During her bedridden years, she also did pioneering work in the field of hospital planning, and her work propagated quickly across Britain and the world.

[edit] Relationships

Although much of Nightingale’s work improved the lot of women everywhere, she had little respect for women in general.[15] She criticized early women’s rights activists for decrying an alleged lack of careers for women at the same time that lucrative medical positions, under the supervision of Nightingale and others, went perpetually unfilled.[16] She preferred the friendship of powerful men, insisting they had done more than women to help her attain her goals, writing, “I have never found one woman who has altered her life by one iota for me or my opinions.”[17] She often referred to herself in the masculine, as for example “a man of action” and “a man of business”.[18]

She did, however, have several important and passionate friendships with women. Later in life she kept up a prolonged correspondence with an Irish nun, Sister Mary Clare Moore, with whom she had worked in Crimea.[19] Her most beloved confidante was Mary Clarke, an Englishwoman she met in 1837 and kept in touch with throughout her life.[20]

In spite of these deep emotional attachments to women, some scholars of Nightingale’s life believe that she remained chaste for her entire life; perhaps because she felt an almost religious calling to her career, or because she lived in the time of Victorian sexual morality.[21]

The grave of Florence Nightingale in the churchyard of St. Margaret’s Church, East Wellow.

[edit] Death

On 13 August 1910, at the age of 90, she died peacefully in her sleep in her room at 10 South Street,[22] Park Lane.[23] The offer of burial in Westminster Abbey was declined by her relatives, and she is buried in the graveyard at St. Margaret Church in East Wellow, Hampshire.[24][25] She left a large body of work, including several hundred notes which were previously unpublished.[26]

[edit] Contributions

[edit] Statistics and sanitary reform

Diagram of the causes of mortality in the army in the East” by Florence Nightingale.

Florence Nightingale had exhibited a gift for mathematics from an early age and excelled in the subject under the tutorship of her father. Later, Nightingale became a pioneer in the visual presentation of information and statistical graphics.[27] Among other things she used the pie chart, which had first been developed by William Playfair in 1801. While taken for granted now, it was at the time a relatively novel method of presenting data.[28]

Indeed, Nightingale is described as “a true pioneer in the graphical representation of statistics”, and is credited with developing a form of the pie chart now known as the polar area diagram,[29] or occasionally the Nightingale rose diagram, equivalent to a modern circular histogram, in order to illustrate seasonal sources of patient mortality in the military field hospital she managed. Nightingale called a compilation of such diagrams a “coxcomb”, but later that term has frequently been used for the individual diagrams. She made extensive use of coxcombs to present reports on the nature and magnitude of the conditions of medical care in the Crimean War to Members of Parliament and civil servants who would have been unlikely to read or understand traditional statistical reports.

In her later life Nightingale made a comprehensive statistical study of sanitation in Indian rural life and was the leading figure in the introduction of improved medical care and public health service in India. In 1858 and 1859 she successfully lobbied for the establishment of a Royal Commission into the Indian situation. Two years later she provided a report to the commission, which completed its own study in 1863. “After 10 years of sanitary reform, in 1873, Nightingale reported that mortality among the soldiers in India had declined from 69 to 18 per 1,000”.[29]

In 1859 Nightingale was elected the first female member of the Royal Statistical Society and she later became an honorary member of the American Statistical Association.

[edit] Literature and the women’s movement

Nightingale’s achievements are all the more impressive when they are considered against the background of social restraints on women in Victorian England. Her father, William Edward Nightingale, was an extremely wealthy landowner, and the family moved in the highest circles of English society. In those days, women of Nightingale’s class did not attend universities and did not pursue professional careers; their purpose in life was to marry and bear children. Nightingale was fortunate. Her father believed women should be educated, and he personally taught her Italian, Latin, Greek, philosophy, history and – most unusual of all for women of the time – writing and mathematics.[30]

But while better known for her contributions in the nursing and mathematical fields, Nightingale is also an important link in the study of English feminism. During 1850 and 1852, she was struggling with her self-definition and the expectations of an upper-class marriage from her family. As she sorted out her thoughts, she wrote Suggestions for Thought to Searchers after Religious Truth. This was an 829 page, three-volume work, which Nightingale had printed privately in 1860, but which until recently was never published in its entirety.[31] An effort to correct this was made with a 2008 publication by Wilfrid Laurier University, as volume 11[32] of a 16 volume project, the Collected Works of Florence Nightingale.[33] The best known of these essays, called Cassandra, was previously published by Ray Strachey in 1928. Strachey included it in The Cause, a history of the women’s movement. Apparently, the writing served its original purpose of sorting out thoughts; Nightingale left soon after to train at the Institute for deaconesses at Kaiserswerth.

Cassandra protests the over-feminization of women into near helplessness, such as Nightingale saw in her mother’s and older sister’s lethargic lifestyle, despite their education. She rejected their life of thoughtless comfort for the world of social service. The work also reflects her fear of her ideas being ineffective, as were Cassandra‘s. Cassandra was a princess of Troy who served as a priestess in the temple of Apollo during the Trojan War. The god gave her the gift of prophecy but when she refused his advances he cursed her so that her prophetic warnings would go unheeded. Elaine Showalter called Nightingale’s writing “a major text of English feminism, a link between Wollstonecraft and Woolf.”[34]

[edit] Theology

Despite being named as a Unitarian in many older sources, Nightingale’s own rare references to conventional Unitarianism are mildly negative, and she remained in the Church of England throughout her life, albeit with unorthodox views.[35] Suggestions for Thought is also Nightingale’s work of theology, her own theodicy, which develops her heterodox ideas. Nightingale questioned the goodness of a God who would condemn souls to hell, showing sympathy for the idea of universal reconciliation.[36][37]

[edit] Legacy and memory

Young Florence Nightingale

[edit] Nursing

The first official nurses’ training program, the Nightingale School for Nurses, opened in 1860. The mission of the school was to train nurses to work in hospitals, work with the poor, and to teach. This intended that students cared for people in their homes, an appreciation that is still advancing in reputation and professional opportunity for nurses today.[38]

Florence Nightingale’s lasting contribution has been her role in founding the modern nursing profession. She set an example of compassion, commitment to patient care, and diligent and thoughtful hospital administration.

The work of her School of Nursing continues today as the Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery at King’s College London. The Nightingale Building in the School of Nursing and Midwifery at the University of Southampton is also named after her. International Nurses Day is celebrated on her birthday each year.

The Florence Nightingale Declaration Campaign,[39] established by nursing leaders throughout the world through the Nightingale Initiative for Global Health (NIGH), aims to build a global grassroots movement to achieve two United Nations Resolutions for adoption by the UN General Assembly of 2008 which will declare: The International Year of the Nurse–2010 (the centennial of Nightingale’s death); The UN Decade for a Healthy World–2011 to 2020 (the bicentennial of Nightingale’s birth). NIGH also works to rekindle awareness about the important issues highlighted by Florence Nightingale, such as preventive medicine and holistic health. So far, the Florence Nightingale Declaration has been signed by over 18,500 signatories from 86 countries.

During the Vietnam War, Nightingale inspired many U.S. Army nurses, sparking a renewal of interest in her life and work. Her admirers include Country Joe of Country Joe and the Fish, who has assembled an extensive website in her honour.[40]

The Agostino Gemelli Medical School[41] in Rome, the first university-based hospital in Italy and one of its most respected medical centres, honoured Nightingale’s contribution to the nursing profession by giving the name “Bedside Florence” to a wireless computer system it developed to assist nursing.[42]

In 1912 the International Committee of the Red Cross instituted the Florence Nightingale Medal, awarded every two years to nurses or nursing aides for outstanding service.

[edit] Hospitals

Four hospitals in Istanbul are named after Nightingale: F. N. Hastanesi in Şişli (the biggest private hospital in Turkey), Metropolitan F.N. Hastanesi in Gayrettepe, Avrupa F.N. Hastanesi in Mecidiyeköy, and Kızıltoprak F.N. Hastanesi in Kadiköy, all belonging to the Turkish Cardiology Foundation.[43]

An appeal is being considered for the former Derbyshire Royal Infirmary hospital in Derby, England to be named after Nightingale. The suggested new name will be either Nightingale Community Hospital or Florence Nightingale Community Hospital. The area in which the hospital lies in Derby has recently been referred to as the “Nightingale Quarter”.[44]

[edit] Museums and monuments

A vertical rectangular stained glass window with nine panels, each holding one or more human figures

Florence Nightingale stained glass window, originally at the Derbyshire Royal Infirmary Chapel and now removed to St Peter’s Church, Derby and rededicated October 9th 2010

Statue of Florence Nightingale in Waterloo Place, London

Florence Nightingale Statue, London Road, Derby

Florence Nightingale exhibit at Malvern Museum 2010

A statue of Florence Nightingale stands in Waterloo Place, Westminster, London, just off The Mall.

There are three statues of Florence Nightingale in Derby — one outside the London Road Community Hospital formerly known as the Derbyshire Royal Infirmary, one in St. Peter’s Street, and one above the Nightingale-Macmillan Continuing Care Unit opposite the Derby Royal Infirmary. A public house named after her stands close to the Derby Royal Infirmary.[45] The Nightingale-Macmillan continuing care unit is now at the Royal Derby Hospital, formerly known as The City Hospital, Derby.

A remarkable stained glass window was commissioned for inclusion in the Derbyshire Royal Infirmary chapel in the late 1950s. When the chapel was later demolished the window was removed, stored and replaced in the new replacement chapel. At the closure of the DRI the window was again removed and stored. In October 2010, £6,000 was raised by friends of the window and St Peters Church to reposition the window in St Peters Church, Derby. The remarkable work features nine panels, of the original ten, depicting scenes of hospital life, Derby townscapes and Florence Nightingale herself. Some of the work was damaged and the tenth panel was dismantled for the glass to be used in repair of the remaining panels. All the figures, who are said to be modelled on prominent Derby town figures of the early sixties, surround and praise a central pane of the triumphant Christ. A nurse who posed for the top right panel in 1959 attended the rededication service in October 2010.[46]

The Florence Nightingale Museum at St Thomas’ Hospital in London reopened in May 2010 in time for the centenary of Nightingale’s death. Another museum devoted to her is at her sister’s family home, Claydon House, now a property of the National Trust.

2010 marked the centenary of Nightingale’s death, and to commemorate her connection with Malvern, the Malvern Museum held a Florence Nightingale exhibit,[47] with a school poster competition to promote some events.[48]

In Istanbul, the northernmost tower of the Selimiye Barracks building is now a museum,[49] and in several of its rooms, relics and reproductions relevant to Florence Nightingale and her nurses are on exhibition.[50]

When Nightingale moved on to the Crimea itself, in May 1855, she often travelled on horseback to make hospital inspections. She later transferred to a mule cart and was reported to have escaped serious injury when the cart was toppled in an accident. Following this episode, she used a solid Russian-built carriage, with a waterproof hood and curtains. The carriage was returned to England by Alexis Soyer after the war and subsequently given to the Nightingale training school for nurses. The carriage was damaged when the hospital was bombed by Nazi Germany during the Second World War. It was later restored and transferred to the Army Medical Services Museum in Mytchett, Surrey, near Aldershot.

A bronze plaque, attached to the plinth of the Crimean Memorial in the Haydarpaşa Cemetery, Istanbul and unveiled on Empire Day, 1954, to celebrate the 100th anniversary of her nursing service in that region, bears the inscription:[51]

“To Florence Nightingale, whose work near this Cemetery a century ago relieved much human suffering and laid the foundations for the nursing profession.”

[edit] Audio

Florence Nightingale’s voice was saved for posterity in a phonograph recording from 1890 preserved in the British Library Sound Archive. The recording is in aid of the Light Brigade Relief Fund, and says:

“When I am no longer even a memory, just a name, I hope my voice may perpetuate the great work of my life. God bless my dear old comrades of Balaclava and bring them safe to shore. Florence Nightingale.”[52]

The recording is available online.[53]

[edit] Theatre

The first theatrical representations of Nightingale was Reginald Berkeley in his “The Lady with the Lamp”, premiering in London in 1929 with Edith Evans in the title role. This does not portray her as an entirely sympathetic character and draws much characterisation from Lytton Strachey‘s biography of her in Eminent Victorians.[54] It was adapted as a film of the same name in 1951. Nightingale also appears in Edward Bond‘s surrealist play Early Morning, in which she is depicted having a lesbian affair with Queen Victoria.

In 2009, a stage musical play representation of Nightingale was produced by the Association of Nursing Service Administrators of the Philippines (ANSAP), entitled “The Voyage of the Lass”. The play depicts the story of love and vocation on the nursing communities’ icon Florence Nightingale, shown on all Fridays of February 2009 at the AFP Theatre, Camp Crame, Philippines. The play tells the story of Nightingale’s early life and her struggles during the Crimean War. “The Voyage of the Lass” was a two-hour play that showcased Philippine local registered nurses from various hospitals of the country, exposing their talents on the performing arts.

[edit] Television

Portrayals of Nightingale on television, in documentary as in fiction, vary – the BBC’s 2008 Florence Nightingale emphasised her independence and feeling of religious calling, but in Channel 4’s 2006 Mary Seacole: The Real Angel of the Crimea and Simon Schama’s A History of Britain she was portrayed as narrow-minded and opposed to Seacole’s efforts. In 1985 a TV biopic “Florence Nightingale”, starring Jaclyn Smith as Florence, was produced.

[edit] Film

In 1912 a biographical silent film titled The Victoria Cross starring Julia Swayne Gordon as Nightingale was produced. In 1915 another biographical silent film titled Florence Nightingale was produced starring Elisabeth Risdon. In 1936 a biographical film titled White Angel was produced, starring Kay Francis as Nightingale. A 1951 a second biographical film titled The Lady With the Lamp was produced starring Anna Neagle.

[edit] Banknotes

Florence Nightingale’s image appeared on the reverse of Series D £10 banknotes issued by the Bank of England from 1975 until 1994. As well as a standing portrait, she was depicted on the notes in a field hospital in the Crimea, holding her lamp.[55]

[edit] Photography

Nightingale had a principled objection to having photographs taken or her portrait painted. An extremely rare photograph of her, taken at Embley on a visit to her family home in May 1858, was discovered in 2006 and is now at the Florence Nightingale Museum in London. A black and white photograph of Florence Nightingale taken in about 1907 by Lizzie Caswall Smith at Nightingale’s London home in South Street, Park Lane, was auctioned on 19 November 2008 by Dreweatts auction house in Newbury, Berkshire, England, for £5,500.[56]

[edit] Biographies

The first biography of Nightingale was published in England in 1855. In 1911 Edward Cook was authorised by Nightingale’s executors to write the official life, published in two volumes in 1913. Lytton Strachey based much of his chapter on Nightingale in Eminent Victorians on Cook, and Cecil Woodham-Smith relied heavily on Cook’s Life in her 1950 biography, though she did have access to new family material preserved at Claydon. In 2008 Mark Bostridge published a major new life of Nightingale, almost exclusively based on unpublished material from the Verney Collections at Claydon,and from archival documents from about 200 archives around the world, some of which had been published by Lynn McDonald in her projected sixteen-volume edition of the Collected Works of Florence Nightingale (2001 to date).

[edit] Fiction

Nightingale is a major supporting character in the Enola Holmes detective novel, The Case of the Cryptic Crinoline, where a coded message in a crinoline she once gave to Enola’s landlady in the Crimean War gets her kidnapped. In this novel, Nightingale is depicted as a firm feminist who malingers as an invalid in order to focus on her political and medical work without the distractions of expected feminine behaviour of the day. This facade, as well as her advanced age and social respect, enables her to bluntly explain to Enola’s brother, Sherlock Holmes, why his sister is determined to defy her brothers’ wish for her to conform at a boarding school.

[edit] Florence Nightingale syndrome

Florence Nightingale syndrome is a term used to describe a situation where a caregiver, typically a doctor or nurse, develops an emotional attachment to a vulnerable patient in his or her care. This attachment may progress into a sexual attraction.[57]

[edit] Other

Several churches in the Anglican Communion commemorate Nightingale with a feast day on their liturgical calendars. The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America commemorates her as a renewer of society with Clara Maass on 13 August.

Beginning in 1968, the U.S. Air Force operated a fleet of 20 C-9A “Nightingale” aeromedical evacuation aircraft, based on the McDonnell Douglas DC-9 platform.[58] The last of these planes was retired from service in 2005.[59]

In 1982 Sentara Healthcare inaugurated its medical helicopter service, officially named “Nightingale”.[60]

[edit] See also

Nightingale circa 1854

[edit] Works

[edit] Sources

[edit] References

  1. ^ Florence Nightingale’s birthplace with photo of commemorative plaque
  2. ^ Edward Chaney, “Egypt in England and America: The Cultural Memorials of Religion, Royalty and Revolution”, in: Sites of Exchange: European Crossroads and Faultlines, eds. M. Ascari and A. Corrado (Rodopi, Amsterdam and New York, 2006), 39-74.
  3. ^ Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
  4. ^ History of Harley Street at Harley Street Guide (commercial website)
  5. ^ Gill, CJ; Gill, GC; Gillian C. Gill (Jun 2005). “Nightingale in Scutari: Her Legacy Reexamined”. Clinical Infectious Diseases 40 (12): 1799–1805. doi:10.1086/430380. ISSN 1058-4838. PMID 15909269
  6. ^Report on Medical Care“. British National Archives (WO 33/1 ff.119, 124, 146–7). Dated 1855-02-23.
  7. ^ Nightingale, Florence (1999-08). Florence Nightingale: Measuring Hospital Care Outcomes. ISBN 0866885595. http://books.google.com/?id=dRpgFsQ7nqkC&pg=PA114&lpg=PA114&dq=sanitary+commissioner+Scutari. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  8. ^ a b Florence Nightingale, Avenging Angel by Hugh Small (Constable 1998)
  9. ^ Cited in Cook, E. T. The Life of Florence Nightingale. (1913) Vol 1, p 237.
  10. ^ “”The Atlantic Monthly”; November 1857; “Santa Filomena,” by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow ; Volume 1, No. 1; pages 22-23″. Theatlantic.com. http://www.theatlantic.com/unbound/poetry/nov1857/filomena.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  11. ^ Nightingale, Florence (1974. First published 1859). “Preface”. In …. Notes on Nursing: What it is and what it is not. Glasgow & London: Blackie & Son Ltd.. ISBN 0-216-89974-5
  12. ^ Nightingale, Florence (1974. First published 1859). “Introduction by Joan Quixley”. In …. Notes on Nursing: What it is and what it is not. Blackie & Son Ltd.. ISBN 0397550073
  13. ^ Florence Nightingale, the Woman and her Legend, by Mark Bostridge (Viking 2008)
  14. ^ Bostridge (2008)
  15. ^ In an 1861 letter, Nightingale wrote “Women have no sympathy. […] Women crave for being loved, not for loving. They scream out at you for sympathy all day long, they are incapable of giving any in return, for they cannot remember your affairs long enough to do so. … They cannot state a fact accurately to another, nor can that other attend to it accurately enough for it to become information.”.
  16. ^ In the same 1861 letter she wrote, “It makes me mad, the Women’s Rights talk about ‘the want of a field’ for them — when I would gladly give $500 a year for a Woman secretary. And two English Lady superintendents have told me the same thing. And we can’t get one…”
  17. ^ Cook, Sir Edward Tyas (1914). The Life of Florence Nightingale: 1862-1910. http://books.google.com/?id=totpAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA15&lpg=PA15&dq=They+scream+out+at+you+for+sympathy+all+day+long#v=onepage&q=iota&f=false
  18. ^ Stark, Myra. “Florence Nightingale’s Cassandra”. The Feminist Press, 1979, p.17.
  19. ^ “Institute of Our Lady of Mercy, Great Britain”. Ourladyofmercy.org.uk. 2009-12-08. http://www.ourladyofmercy.org.uk. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  20. ^ Cannadine, David. “Ever Yours, Florence Nightingale: Selected Letters.” The New Republic. 203.7 (13 August 1990): 38-42.
  21. ^ Dossey, Barbara Montgomery. Florence Nightingale: Mystic, Visionary, Reformer. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1999.
  22. ^ Plaque #6 on Open Plaques.
  23. ^ “Miss Nightingale Dies, Aged Ninety”. The New York Times. 1910-08-15. http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0512.html. Retrieved 2007-07-21. “Florence Nightingale, the famous nurse of the Crimean war, and the only woman who ever received the Order of Merit, died yesterday afternoon at her London home. Although she had been an invalid for a long time, rarely leaving her room, where she passed the time in a half-recumbent position, and was under the constant care of a physician, her death was somewhat unexpected. A week ago she was quite sick, but then improved, and on Friday was cheerful. During that night alarming symptoms developed, and she gradually sank until 2 o’clock Saturday afternoon, when the end came.” 
  24. ^ http://www.countryjoe.com/nightingale/joe_grave.jpg
  25. ^ “Florence Nightingale: The Grave at East Wellow”. Countryjoe.com. http://www.countryjoe.com/nightingale/wellow.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  26. ^ Kelly, Heather (1998). Florence Nightingale’s autobiographical notes: A critical edition of BL Add. 45844 (England) (M.A. thesis) Wilfrid Laurier University
  27. ^ Lewi, Paul J. (2006). Speaking of Graphics. http://www.datascope.be/sog.htm
  28. ^ Cohen, I. Bernard (March). “Florence Nightingale”. Scientific American 250 (3): 128–137. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0384-128. PMID 6367033.  (alternative pagination depending on country of sale: 98-107. Bibliography on p.114) online article – see documents link at left
  29. ^ a b Cohen, I. Bernard (1984), p.107.
  30. ^ Cohen, I. Bernard (1984), p.98
  31. ^ Nightingale, Florence (1994). Michael D. Calabria & Janet A. Macrae. ed. Suggestions for Thought: Selections and Commentaries. ISBN 0-8122-1501-X. http://books.google.com/?id=CHcm-2Zm5DQC&dq=%22suggestions+for+thought%22&printsec=frontcover&q. Retrieved 6 July 2010 
  32. ^ McDonald, Lynn, ed. (2008). Florence Nightingale’s Suggestions for Thought. Collected Works of Florence Nighingale. Volume 11. Ontario, Canada: Wilfrid Laurier University Press. ISBN 978-088920-465-2. http://books.google.com/?id=Mle5Sjixa0cC&printsec=frontcover&dq=McDonald++%22suggestions+for+thought%22&q. Retrieved 6 July 2010.  Privately printed by Nightingale in 1860.
  33. ^ Collected Works of Florence Nightingale. Wilfrid Laurier University Press. http://www.wlupress.wlu.ca/Series/CWFN.shtml. Retrieved 6 July 2010 
  34. ^ Gilbert, Sandra M. and Susan Gubar. “Florence Nightingale.” The Norton Anthology of Literature by Women: The Traditions in English. New York: W.W. Norton, 1996. 836-837.
  35. ^ Lynn McDonald Florence Nightingale: extending nursing p11 Nightingale’s rare references to Unitarianism are mildly negative, and while her religious views were heterodox, she remained in the Church of England throughout her life. Her biblical annotations, private journal notes and translations of the mystics give quite a different impression of her beliefs, and these do have a bearing on her work with nurses, and not only at Edinburgh, but neither [Cecil Woodham-]Smith nor his followers consulted their sources.”
  36. ^ Lynn McDonald Florence Nightingale’s theology: essays, letters and journal notes 2002 p18 “Certainly the worst man would hardly torture his enemy, if he could, forever. Unless God has a scheme that every man is to be saved forever, it is hard to say in what He is not worse than man. For all good men would save others if they could”
  37. ^ [influence on Clara Barton] Russell E. Miller The larger hope: the first century of the Universalist Church in 1979 Clara Barton – “Although not formally a Universalist by church membership, she had come of a Universalist family, was sympathetic to the tenets of the denomination, and has always been claimed by it.124 Known as “the Florence Nightingale of our war”
  38. ^ Neeb, Kathy. Mental Health Nursing. 3rd. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company, 2006.
  39. ^ “Florence Nightingale Declaration Campaign”. Nightingaledeclaration.net. http://www.nightingaledeclaration.net/. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  40. ^ “Country Joe McDonald’s Tribute to Florence Nightingale”. Countryjoe.com. http://www.countryjoe.com/nightingale/. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  41. ^ “Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore – The Rome Campus”. .unicatt.it. http://www3.unicatt.it/pls/unicatt/consultazione.mostra_pagina?id_pagina=9396&id_lingua=4. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  42. ^ Cacace, Filippo et. al. “The impact of innovation in medical and nursing training: a Hospital Information System for Students accessible through mobile devices”
  43. ^ Group Florence Nightingale
  44. ^ “Hospital name campaign will honour Florence”. Derby Express. 18 August 2011. 
  45. ^ “Florence Nightingale”. Derby Guide. http://www.derby-guide.co.uk/florence_nightingale.html. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  46. ^ http://www.stpetersderby.org.uk/DRI_window.html
  47. ^ “Malvern Museum’s Nightingale Exhibit March – October 2010”. http://www.malvernmuseum.co.uk/index.php/events2010.html. Retrieved 16 July 2010 
  48. ^ “Chase pupil wins poster competition”. Malvern Gazette (Newsquest Media Group). 21 June 2010. http://www.malverngazette.co.uk/news/8230148.Chase_pupil_wins_poster_competition/. Retrieved 12 July 2010 
  49. ^ “The Florence Nightingale Museum (Istanbul)”. Telegraph (Telegraph Media Group). 15 September 2007. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/destinations/europe/turkey/738278/The-Florence-Nightingale-Museum.html. Retrieved 16 July 2010 
  50. ^ “Florence Nightingale”. Florence-nightingale-avenging-angel.co.uk. http://www.florence-nightingale-avenging-angel.co.uk/tower.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  51. ^ “Commonwealth War Graves Commission Haidar Pasha Cemetery” (PDF). http://www.cwgc.org/admin/files/cwgc_haidar.pdf. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  52. ^ “Florence Nightingale”. British Library. http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/onlineex/voiceshist/flonight/index.html. Retrieved 2011-01-14. 
    “”In aid of the Light Brigade Relief Fund” – catalogue entry”. British Library. http://searchbeta.bl.uk/primo_library/libweb/action/display.do?doc=BLLSA6928292. Retrieved 2011-01-14. 
  53. ^ “Florence Nightingale voice”. archive.org. http://www.archive.org/details/FlorenceNightingaleVoice. Retrieved 2011-01-14. 
  54. ^ Mark Bostridge, Florence Nightingale – The Woman and Her Legend
  55. ^ “Withdrawn banknotes reference guide”. Bank of England. http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/banknotes/denom_guide/index.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  56. ^ “Rare Nightingale photo sold off”. BBC News. 19 November 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/7737130.stm. Retrieved 2008-11-19. 
  57. ^ Nurse Link Loyala University
  58. ^ Air Mobility Command Museum: “C-9 Nightingale”.
  59. ^ Air Force Link: “Historic C-9 heads to Andrews for retirement”.
  60. ^ Sentara Healthcare: Nightingale Regional Air Ambulance Service

[edit] Further reading

  • Bostridge, Mark (2008). Florence Nightingale. The Woman and Her Legend. Viking (2008); Penguin (2009). US title Florence Nightingale. The Making of an Icon. Farrar Straus (2008).
  • Chaney, Edward (2006). “Egypt in England and America: The Cultural Memorials of Religion, Royalty and Revolution”, in: Sites of Exchange: European Crossroads and Faultlines, eds. M. Ascari and A. Corrado. (Rodopi, Amsterdam and New York,, 39-74.
  • Davey, Cyril J. (1958). Lady with a Lamp. Lutterworth Press. ISBN 9780718826413
  • Gill, Gillian (2004). Nightingales: The Extraordinary Upbringing and Curious Life of Miss Florence Nightingale. Ballantine Books. ISBN 9780345451873
  • Nelson, Sioban and Anne Marie Rafferty, eds. Notes on Nightingale: The Influence and Legacy of a Nursing Icon (Cornell University Press; 2010) 184 pages. Essays on Nightingale’s work in the Crimea and Britain’s colonies, her links to the evolving science of statistics, and debates over her legacy and historical reputation and persona.
  • Rees, Joan. Women on the Nile: Writings of Harriet Martineau, Florence Nightingale, and Amelia Edwards. Rubicon Press: 1995, 2008
  • Rehmeyer, Julia (2008-11-26). “Florence Nightingale: The Passionate Statistician”. Science News. http://www.sciencenews.org/index/generic/activity/view/id/38937/title/Florence_Nightingale_The_passionate_statistician. Retrieved 2008-12-04. 
  • Richards, Linda (2006). America’s First Trained Nurse: My Life as a Nurse in America, Great Britain and Japan 1872-1911. Diggory Press. ISBN 9781846850684
  • Strachey, Lytton (1918). Eminent Victorians. Garden City, N.Y.: Garden City Pub. Co., Inc.. ISBN 0848646045.  – available online at http://www.bartleby.com/189/201.html

 the end@copyright 2012

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