THE MYANMAR HISTORIC COLLECTIONS(SAMPLE)

The Myanmar  historic

Collections

 

Created by

Dr Iwan suwandy ,MHA

this sample only, the complete e-book exist for [remium member,please subscribe via comment. 

Business Line Pagodas for miles: Ruins at the ancient Buddhist site of Bagan in Myanmar. – Photo: Aditi De

the land of the golden smile.

At the heart of Myanmar lies a golden smile. Last month, we glimpsed it on the glorious Buddha images across the land. But the smile equally lit up our young guide in Yangon, as it did children at play among the famed Bagan ruins.

The days since our return have been packed with positive political news from Myanmar. Cause for celebration? Not yet. Because sub-texts shadowed our six days in the country, yet unspoilt by mass tourism, making it difficult to share our experience in high-definition black-and-white.

Burma (renamed Myanmar in 1989) shares borders with China, Laos, India, Bangladesh and Thailand. It has been my dream destination since I was a child. I’d read of fabled royalty decked in rubies and jade, of the Mon civilisation, of the Bagan kingdom dating back to 1057. I knew Myanmar had natural resources such as petroleum, timber, lead and coal.

I was aware of how the military junta had ruled since a 1962 military coup. But since March 2011, Myanmar has been a unitary presidential republic, led by former general Thein Sein. Its administrative capital shifted from Yangon to Naypyidaw, 320 km north, in November 2005.

We fly into Yangon from India. The first impressions are clean streets, disciplined people, and crumbling colonial buildings reminiscent of north Kolkata. Right-hand driven, ancient Nissans and Toyotas rattle past our bus. We see little evidence of littering, road rage, or the traffic chaos of Bengaluru.

What’s Yangon’s population? Few at bustling Bogyoke Aung San Market know for sure. Myanmar’s last official census was held in 1983. Guesstimates say 16 million live in the former capital, out of 58-80 million across Myanmar.

In the footsteps of karma-driven locals, we seek solace at the 2,500-year-old golden Shwedagon pagoda, which soars almost 100 metres above Yangon. Its history? Burmese merchants Tapussa and Bhallika visited the Buddha shortly after he attained enlightenment. He gave them eight hairs from his head, which they gifted to their king at Okkalapa (now Yangon.) He enshrined these relics in a 20-metre pagoda. Since the 14th century, the pagoda had been rebuilt several times. It dazzles at night with a ceremonial vane and bud, bejewelled with 3,154 golden bells and 79,569 diamonds.

Monks chant, drums roll, lamps flare and dim as a procession winds past various lamp-lit shrines, heralding the full moon. Smiling gently, beatific worshippers offer lotus blossoms and squares of gold leaf with reverence.

It was at the Shwedagon that Aung San Suu Kyi, the global face of Myanmar, made her first public speech on August 26, 1988, to an audience estimated at between 30,000 and a million, catapulting her into history. Standing by its monument to martyred students from 1988, I tune into another tale — of a struggle for a three-year Myanmar passport.

Amidst the smiling Buddhas, tucking into green tea salad, or learning of age-old thanaka cosmetic paste, we cue in to proliferating child trafficking and human rights abuses. Our bus cannot pause for a moment outside 54 University Avenue, Nobel laureate Suu Kyi’s residence. We are forbidden to record images of the army or the police.

Do shadows constantly mask facts? It is tough to tell in this nation of 85 per cent Therawada Buddhists. In historic 41 sq km Bagan in central Myanmar, on the banks of the Ayeyarwaddy river, 500 km north of Yangon, we glimpse the ancient capital of Burman and Mon rulers between the 10th and 13th centuries.

Bagan’s green landscape is dotted with 2,217 temples, pagodas, stupas and ruins, the largest Buddhist site globally. Following a devastating earthquake in 1975, UNESCO has restored over 200 monuments. India sent in over $20 million worth of conservation aid. But UNESCO has refused to recognise Bagan as a world heritage site, citing government restoration as unscientific.

Ananda Phaya, built in 1105 AD by King Kyanzittha, is one of Bagan’s four surviving temples. At its entrance, vendors sell local crafts — including lacquerware, sand paintings, and woven longyis. They include children of four or six, peddling their own drawings on ruled notebook pages. “Only $1,” they plead, hungry-eyed, “only 1,000 kyat.” The temple houses four giant gold-covered Buddhas facing the cardinal directions, architecturally fusing Mon and Indian styles. Eight monks, locals say, told their king of how they meditated in the Himalayan Nandamula Cave temple. With the aid of Indian artisans, they replicated the symmetry of Bengal and Orissa architecture. Later, the king executed the monks to ensure no future copies. Within the temple, niches celebrate Buddha’s life in stone. Jataka scenes are embossed on terracotta tiles. In the plains around, hardy Israeli desert trees ensure that bird droppings do not ruin the restoration.

But post-dusk in wondrous Bagan, its buggies drawn by horses of Assamese origin, pitch darkness falls over the local town of Nyaung-U and its 12,000 inhabitants. Though our hotel has 24/7 air-conditioning and dial-up Internet access, reality bites. A small village nearby has just three LED lights. The town’s lone hospital, constructed by the Russians decades ago, boasts of two doctors and a dentist. Monks ensure justice, in lieu of its single lawyer. The elderly refuse hospitalisation, fearing that the generator heralds the god of death. Around Bagan, most people — whether scholars, waiters or puppeteers — earn daily wages, according to reliable sources.

But some are visibly more equal than others. A general’s son-in-law has built a dissonant convention centre amidst the ruins, while another general has constructed a ‘duplicate’ palace to perpetuate his own glory. All because Bagan was once the ‘Land of Victory.’

These truths, however, blur on the idyllic freshwater Inle Lake in Shan State, 22 km long, 11 km wide, and 1,328 metres above sea level. Birds skim the water at shoulder-level as our five-seater motorised boat propels us towards our hotel on stilts. Over 254 recorded bird species thrive in these protected wetlands.

From the 18 surrounding villages, traditional fishermen bypass weeds and water hyacinth to snare carp. They stand upright on one leg, the other wrapped around an oar. Floating gardens of lake-bottom weeds, anchored by bamboo poles, bob with the tide, rich with tomatoes. Often crouched twenty to a boat, villagers paddle by.

Whether Intha, Shan or other ethnicities, smiles greet us. At the Five Buddha Temple with its gold-leaf wrapped, feature-blurred statues. At the world’s only lotus silk handloom centre. At the floating market where flexi-tailed lucky fish ear-rings are a good bargain. At the once submerged Inn Dein pagoda complex. Or even from the briefly glimpsed brass-hooped, long-necked Padaung tribal women.

Reflecting on Myanmar as we glide over Inle, I wind back to a chance encounter on a Yangon Airways flight. With Eindra, a young woman of Burmese origin, whose family relocated to the US three generations ago. Her US-born 50-plus parents, both professionals, now yearn to return to Myanmar, to spend their golden years with their extended family.

Perhaps their lens on Myanmar is double-faced. Like the south-facing Kassapa Buddha at the Ananda Phaya. Solemnly meditative from one angle; from another, he smiles, reassuring worshippers that all sadness must pass. He seems in sync with the beautiful, tolerant people of Myanmar. For theirs is indisputably the land of the golden smile.

 

 

  1. 1.     The Golden Hinta Flag tiin ko ai, kum 1300 an 1500
  2. 2.     tian lo hmang ii.

 

2. Flag of Third Burmese Empire under Konbaung dynasty tiin ko ai,

 kumpibawipa Kung Bawng san ai hmanghnak thantar ii. (1752 – 1885)

 

3. Flag of British Burma as a colony of British India tiin ko ai,

British acuzah in kawlram khiah lo uk teng lai fangin,

British India acuzah kuthnia ah a umh teng, (1824 – 1939) kum sawng hmanghnak thantar ii.

 

4. Flag of British Burma, as a separate colony tiin ko ai, British

acuzah in Kawlram khiah a tumce niuin a kuthnia ah a uk teng, (1939 – 1943)

tian hmanghnak thantar ii.

 

5. Flag of the State of Burma tiin ko ai, 1943 an 1945

tian hmanghnak thantar ii.

 

6. Simplified flag of the State of Burma tiin ko ai, 1945

kum ah hmanghnak thantar ii.

 

7. Flag of British Burma tiin ko ai, 1945 an 1948

tian hmanghnak thantar ii.

 

8. Flag of the Union of Burma tiin ko ai, 1948 an 1974

 tian hmanghnak thantar ii.

 

 

9. 1974 an 1988

 tian khiah, Flag of the Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma tiin ko ai, 1988 an 2010 tian khiah Flag of the Union of Myanmar tiin kohnak thantar ii.

 

10. October 21, 2010

 fangin, Kawlram acuzah in thantar a thar thlenghnak ii.

 

 

Changing face of Myanmar

This year — December 2: US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton concludes a 3-day visit to Myanmar, where she met both Aung San Syu Kyi and General Thein Sein. She carried letters to both from President Barack Obama. This is the first major US political move in a country isolated for over 50 years.

November 18: Suu Kyi-led National League for Democracy (NLD) decides to contest all 48 seats in the forthcoming by-elections.

November 17: The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) clears Myanmar to chair the bloc in 2014, as a reward for recent reforms.

November 16: Suu Kyi meets President Thein Sein to press for the release of 6,300 political dissidents as promised by the State media. Only 200 are set free.

2010 — Military-backed Union Solidarity and Development Party (USDP) wins the first election in 20 years. The National League for Democracy, headed by Suu Kyi, boycotts poll.

November 6: Suu Kyi released from house arrest. The Nobel peace laureate has spent 15 years and 19 days of the last two decades in detention.

2007 — Military junta crushes peaceful demonstrations led by monks and students. Thousands imprisoned.

1988 — Over 3,000 shot dead during student demonstrations in Rangoon. Thousands arrested.

1962 — General Ne Win stages a coup. Myanmar has been under various types of military rule since then.

1948 — Burma gains independence from the British.

July 19, 1947 — Bogyoke Aung San (Suu Kyi’s father) assassinated in the Yangon Secretariat, along with six other ministers.

Fast facts

Tourist season: November to February

Currency: Kyats. Approximately $100 = 76,000 kyat. A local meal costs about 3,000 kyats (less than Rs 200).

Internal airlines: Yangon Airways, Air Bagan, Air Mandalay, among others. Airport security lax. But good in-flight service.

Local special foods: Green tea salad. Mohinga (fish soup).

Main tourist sites: Yangon, Mandalay, Inle Lake, Bagan, Pindaya caves.

Tested travel agency: Mya Thiri Travels, Yangon. myathiri@myanmar.com.mm

Warning: Credit cards, Internet and international mobiles do not work. Local handsets/ SIM cards can be hired at the airport for $50 each

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

History of Myanmar

While both the names Bama and Myanma

historically referred only to the main ethnic Burmese group, the Burmese governments in the post-independence period instituted a difference in meaning between Myanmar and Bamar in the official Burmese language.

The name Myanma/Myanmar was expanded to include all citizens of the country, while the name Bama/Bamar kept its original meaning, referring to the Burmese people. Both are in widespread use colloquially.

 Most people still use Bamar/Myanmar interchangeably to refer to the country, depending on the context. But officially the country is now called Myanmar.

the key historical dates.

The earliest archaeological evidence of civilisation in the Irrawaddy valley dates to about 1500 BC. People in the region were turning copper into bronze, growing rice, and domesticating chickens and pigs; they were among the first people in the world to do so.

Prehistory of Burma

Various human species had lived in the region now known as Burma as early as 750,000 years ago. They were replaced by or probably mixed with[1] Homo sapiens—the only surviving human species today.[2] However, evidences for the earliest human settlements in Burma are not yet discovered. Current archeological evidence dates the settlements at about 11,000 BC in the caves of Padah-Lin, which depicts Neolithic culture.[3] They further advanced to Bronze Age and to Iron age around 1,200 BC. These indigenous people, together with later migrating peoples formed mainstream of present day Burmese civilization.

The more recent migrations occurred during the third or fourth millennium BCE to last millennium BC.[4] Pyu, Mon, Rakhine came from various parts of South Asia. They brought cultural diffusions among indigenous people and resided in different parts of Burma—with Pyu at the center, Mon at the South, and Rakhine at the west.

By about 1500 BC, ironworks were in existence in the Irrawaddy Valley followed by Iron age which began around 1200 BC.[5] About 500 BC, a rice-growing population was living in a densely settled various systems of small cities and large villages in the valleys of Upper Myanmar.[3] But Urban age probably did not emerge till the last century BC when advances in irrigation systems and the building of canals allowed for year long agriculture and the consolidation of settlements.[5] From the 2nd century BC to founding of Pagan Dynasty in 11th century AD, these peoples traded with India and dynasities of China including Han and Qin. These trades brought Buddhism and coinage which further spread to other South East Asian countries.[4]

 

 

Homo Erectus

Pre-migration preiod

Homo erectus began to settle in Burma in 75,000 BC before the arrival of Homo sapiens from Africa. However, archaeological evidences of Homo sapiens before the 11th millennium are not yet discovered. The pre-migration period of Burma, spans from 11,000 BC to 4,000 BC before the mass migrations of Pyu, Mon and Arakanese people from India and Tibet. This era is characterized by Stone age culture which later advanced to Bronze and Iron age cultures. The cave ritual system, which later used for Buddhist caves, is believed to have rooted in earliest civilization of this era. The effect can be seen today in many Buddhism ritual caves across Burma.[4]

Timeline

Date

Event

750,000- 275,000 years B.P.

Lower Palaeolithic men of early Anyathian culture (Homo erectus) lived along the bank of the Ayeyawaddy river.

275,000-25,000 years B.P.

Lower Palaeolithic men of late Anyathian culture

11,000 BC

Upper Palaeolithic men (Homo Sapiens) live in Badah-lin caves which situated in Ywagan township in southern Shan States.

7,000 – 2,000 BC

Neolithic men live in central Myanmar, Kachin State, Shan States, Mon State, Taninthayi Region, and along the bank of the Chindwin and Ayeyarwaddy rivers.

1500 BC

Earliest evidence of copper and bronze works, rice growing, domesticating chickens and pigs in Irrawaddy valley[6]

500 BC

Iron-working settlements south of present day Mandalay[6]

100 BC

Pyu people enter the Irrawaddy valley from north

 

 

Mesolithic blade in Shinma-daung Area Central Myanmar

 

 

Neolithic paintings found inside Padah-Lin Caves. Radiocarbon dated up to 13,000 years ago

Mesolithic age

Roughly polished stone implements of various sizes are often found in the Shan States of eastern Burma.[4][7] Pebble tools, including choppers and chopping tools, are found in the Pleistocene terrace deposits of the Irrawaddy Valley of Upper Myanmar.[4] These complexes are collectively known as the Anyathians, thus, the culture is called the Anyathian culture. The Early Anyathian is characterized by single-edged core implements made on natural fragments of fossil wood and silicified tuff, which are associated with crude flake implements. However, domestications and polishing of stones, which are possible signs of Neolithic culture, are not known until the discovery of Padah Lin caves in Southern Shan State.[8]

Neolithic age

Three caves located near Taunggyi at the edge of the Shan Plateau, depict the Neolithic age when farming, domestication, and polished stone tools first appeared. [4]

They are dated between 11,000 to 6,000 BC.

 The most significant of these is the Padah-Lin cave where over 1,600 of stones and cave paintings have been uncovered.[9] These paintings lie from ten to twelve feet above the floor level depicting figures in red ochre of two human hands, a fish, bulls, bisons, a deer and probably the hind of an elephant.[10] The paintings indicate that the cave was probably used for religious ritual. If so, these caves could be one of the earliest sites used for worshiping in Burma. The use of caves for religious purposes continued into later periods. Thus, Buddhist Burmese use of cave worshiping originates from the earlier Animist period.[4]

Bronze age

 

 

Tool transitions from late Stone age to early Bronze Age, and finally to Iron age

The finding of bronze axes at Nyaunggan located in Shwebo township

suggests that Bronze Age of Burma began around 1500 BC in parallel with the earlier stages of Southeast Asian bronze production.[11]

 

 This period spans from 1500 to 1000 BC

 during which knowledge of the smelting and casting of copper and tin seems to have spread rapidly along the Neolithic exchange routes.[12]

Another site is the area of Taungthaman,

 near Irrawaddy River within the walls of the 18th century capital, Amarapura, was occupied from the late Neolithic through the early iron age, around the middle of the first millennium BC.[4] Small trades, barters as well as Animism had already begun in this age.

Iron age

Bronze and iron age cultures were found to be overlapping in Burma.[4] In this era, wealth was accumulating due to agriculture and to access to the copper resources of the Shan hills, the semi-precious stone and iron resources of the Mount Popa Plateau, and the salt resources of Halin. This wealth is evident in grave items bought from Chinese kingdoms.[3] A notable characteristics of the people of this era is that they buried their dead together with decorative ceramics and common household objects such as bowls and spoons.

Beikthano
The ruins lies some 20 km west of Taungdwingyi is not easily recognized by casual passers-by but the elderly local people remember that the fort walls stood much higher than now about half a century ago before the bricks were quarried for building roads and rail tracks. The excavations, though limited to twenty-five selected sites during six open seasons, reveal that the cultural equipment of the site is essentially Pyu in character.

Masonry structures with massive walls constructed of large sized bricks, un-inscribed silver coins bearing symbols of prosperity and good-luck, burial urns of plain and exquisite designs, beads of clay and semi precious stones, decorated domestic pottery, iron nails and bosses are among the finds which reveal convincing cultural links between Beikthano and the established Pyu site of Srikshetra. The burial urns are definite evidence of cultural relationship between Beikthano on the one hand and Srikshetra and Hanlin on the other. Innumerable urns unearthed at Srikshetra are of the same character as those from Beikthano as regards the contents and manner of burials. The antiquity of Beikthano is vouched by the recovery of un-inscribed coins or medals known Pyu coins. Though the number recovered by excavation is quite few, surface finds were also made by the local people from time to time. From these specimens it appears that not only the predominant type found at Srikshetra but also the type peculiar to Hanlin occurs at this site. In Myanmar these types of un-inscribed coins could be definitely attributed as one of the chief characteristics of Pyu culture.

Hanlin
An ancient site where Pyu culture flourished as early as the 2nd century A.D. It is located 17 km southeast of Shwebo. The located residents after coming across objects of antiquarian interest such as gold, silver and bronze objects, utensils, mirrors, coins and ornaments, which are usually melted down. Unlike Srikshetra or Beikthano where Hindu or Buddhist religions influenced with image worship, no traces could be found at Hanlin. Another interesting factor that prevailed at Hanlin indicates the practice of burial of corporeal remains as also burial of cremated remains in urns was in vogue. The brick-walled city complex is two miles long and a mile wide.

Tagaung
The Glass Palace Chronicle says that Myanmar history starts in Tagaung, some 300 years before the birth of Buddha [850 BC]. Situates 200 km up river north of Mandalay. But then it is quite a civilized period, with cities, kings, farmers, workers and festivals. Tagaung still exit as a big village and can be reached by river way from Mandalay.

Hmawza
The ancient site of Srikestra lies 8 km north-east of Pyay in the village of Hmawza. It dates to the early Pyu kingdom that ruled the surrounding area from the 5th to 9th century AD. By the old palace site stands a small museum and a map of the area. Inside the museum is a collection of artifacts colleted from Thayekhittaya excavations, including royal funerary urns, stone relief’s, a couple of bodhisattvas, statues of the Hindu deities Tara Devi, Vishnu and Lakshmi and several 6th century Buddha images, tile fragments, terracotta votive tablets and silver coins minted in the kingdom etc.

Padalin Cave
Situates in the Panlaung reserved forest area in Ywangan township in Taunggyi district at precisely latitude 21º61½´N and longitude 96º18´E. The distance to Padahlin from Nyaunggyat village is four miles whereas from Yebok it is only a mile away. The caves lie in the jungle-clad mountains and are situated at a height of 1000 ft above sea level. The terrain is rough and rugged. Being limestone caves the interior abounds in stalagmites and stalactites.

The excavation at Padhlin yielded a horde of artifacts and other finds. Innumerable stone implements, hundreds of animal bone fragments, a few human fossils, shells of land mollusks, charcoal pieces, mounds of clay, etc were discovered. The stone implements and the fauna remains testify the age of Padahlin to be Neolithic. Together with these priceless treasures several cave paintings from the depths of prehistory were also brought to light. Let us take a glimpse at these paintings found on the walls of Padahlin.

The mural paintings done in a linear and compact fashion adorn the walls of Padahlin. They were drawn at a height of 10 to 12 feet above floor level in the smaller eastern cave. They were painted in the middle part of the wall which divides the rocks. The drawings of these cave dwellers numbered about a dozen images. They were all done in red ochre circles in the open palm, a huge fish, a deer, bisons, bulls followed at their heels by a calf, a human skull? and probably the rear part of an elephant. On the high cavern ceiling they drew the sun between two converging irregular lines.

From the few paintings found at Padahlin one might well argue that the artist had a fine eye for detail. They also had a gifted hand and creative capacity. These paintings seem to have been their act of lateral thinking. Otherwise stated it must never been the outward manifestation of their thoughts- a feat rather rare for their time. They were remarkably talented souls.

Like the paintings at Padahlin the cave drawings at Lascaux in France, (which has been called “the Sistine chaple of prehistoric art)” and Altamira in Spain also portrayed human hands and more or less similar animals. Painted handprints of early men are also seen on the walls of the Cosquer cave on the French Riviera. Again images of human hands, some in red, others in black pigment were found recently in the Chauvet limestone cave near Avignon, France.

Unlike the Padahlin and Lascaux cave paintings, the Paleolithic cave drawing at Chauvet pullulates with images of predatory and dangerous species such as cave bears, panthers, lions, wooly rhinoceroses and hyenas. But like the Laxcaux and Cyhauvet cavern images the preponderance of animal figures over human form is discernible at Padahlin.

Though open to conjecture the general consensus is that the legacy of cave paintings at Padahlin must surely have been more than what was found in 1968. It might be surmised that the elements, the deposition of calcium carbonate on the walls and the acid smoke emitted from the fire used for cooking and warming themselves must have obliterated and destroyed a great part of the treasure trove.

Whatever the case may be it is evident that our forebears of Pakahlin and the prehistoric ancestors of Europe had used the large cave walls of their time as big doodling sheets. On these vast expanses they had left their visual reflections. It was most thoughtful of them to leave their art in permanent places – the walls of their respective caverns. Despite the similarities and differences in representing art, these Homo Sapiens had definitely left their prehistoric possessions in the sands of time.

Nyaunggan
The Bronze-Age culture heritage site is located near Nyaunggan Village, Budalin Township, Sagaing Division, about 50 km from Monywar. The site is situated on a crater of a dormant volcano, which is about 4 miles northeast of the famous Twintaung. There are 5 excavation sites so far, where you can find burial mounds of our ancestors. In these excavation sites human skeletal remains were found together with pots of various size and shapes, stone rings, beads, socket bronze axes and some animal bones. This is an extraordinary prehistoric culture, which was found as the missing link between Stone Age and Iron Age culture, and the first discovery of a Bronze-age Burial site in Myanmar.

By 500 BCE,

iron-working settlements emerged in an area south of present-day Mandalay.

Bronze-decorated coffins and burial sites filled with earthenware remains have been excavated. Archaeological evidence at Samon Valley south of Mandalay suggests rice-growing settlements that traded with China between 500 BC and 200 CE

Chapter I: Prehistoric and Animist Periods


 

A. Prehistoric Sites

 

1. Introduction

 

As infrequent archaeological excavations have slowly revealed pieces of Burma’s past, a better but still incomplete understanding of Burma’s prehistory has slowly emerged.  Scant archaeological evidence suggests that cultures existed in Burma as early as 11,000 BC,

long before the more recent Burmese migrations that occurred after the 8th century AD. 

The conventional western divisions of prehistory into the Old Stone Age, New Stone Age

and the Iron or Metal Age are difficult to apply in Burma because there is considerable overlap between these periods.

 In Burma,

most indications of early settlement have been found in the central dry zone, where scattered sites appear in close proximity to the Irrawaddy River. Surprisingly, the artifacts from these early cultures resemble those from neighboring areas in Southeast Asia as well as India. Although these sites are situated in fertile areas, archaeological evidence indicates that these early people were not yet familiar with agricultural methods.

 

The Anyathian, Burma’s Stone Age, existed at a time thought to parallel the lower

and middle Paleolithic in Europe.

At least six  kinds of stone hand tools have been discovered in the fourteen sites associated with this period. 

This assemblage of stone tools in conjunction with additional archaeological evidence indicates that these people lived by hunting animals and gathering wild fruits, vegetables and root crops.

 

The Neolithic or New Stone Age,

when plants and animals were first domesticated and polished stone tools appeared, is evidenced in Burma by three caves located near Taunggyi at the edge of the Shan plateau that are dated to 10000 to 6000 BC. 

The most complex of these, the Padhalin cave, contains wall paintings of animals,

not unlike those found in the Neolithic caves at Altimira, Spain or Lascaux, France.

These paintings may be interpreted as an indication that the cave was used as a site for religious ritual. Thus, caves were among the earliest sites used for Buddhist worship in Burma.

This is of importance because the use of caves for religious purposes continued into later periods and may be seen as a “bridge” between the earlier non-Burmese, Animist period

and the later Buddhist period.

Numerous caves around the ancient city of Pagan have been outfitted with Buddha images or have been incorporated into early temples such as Kyauk Ku Umin or Thamiwhet and Hmyatha Umin.

 

 

Thamiwhet Umin, Nyaung-o, Pagan

 

Buddha image erected inside Thamiwet Umin

 

A Buddhist temple is referred to as a cave, whether it is naturally formed or,

as is most often the case, architecturally constructed.

The Burmese word for cave is “gu” and has been continually used to refer to Buddhist temples.  It is frequently incorporated into the name of a temple, for example

 Shwe Gu Kyi or Penatha Gu. Also, until the twelfth century, temple interiors were intentionally dimly lit. This effect was achieved by installing permanent stone or brick lattices in all the relatively small windows. (The Burmese ethnic group has been credited with building their temples with larger, unobstructed windows and thereby creating more brightly-lit interiors – a transition that is seen in the temples of the Pagan Period).

 

By the second half of the first millennium BC a new developmental phase

began in the dry zone of Burma. Referred to as the early Bronze – Iron Age,

 these cultures shared practices and methods of production with various neighboring areas. 

Burial methods

 resemble those of Thailand and Cambodia. 

Iron working technology most likely came from India or other parts of Southeast Asia, and ceramic forms and decoration correspond to those of the bronze –

iron Age levels at Ban Chiang in northern Thailand and at Samrong Sen in Cambodia.  Numerous beads have been recovered that stylistically resemble those imported from Andrha Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in India.

 

2. Prehistoric: Early man at Taungthaman

 

The site of Taungthaman is located near the 19th century city of Mandalay,

 on an alluvial terrace of the Irrawaddy River within the walls of

the 18th century capital, Amarapura, and was occupied from the late Neolithic

through the early iron age, around the middle of the first millennium BC.

Many artifacts have been uncovered at Taungthaman such as sophisticated stone tools, intricate ceramic wares, and primitive iron metallurgy. 

Many of these objects would have been acquired from the prosperity gained through industrious farming and trade. 

When burying their dead, their new affluence encouraged these people to include

among the grave goods fine decorative ceramics produced by specialized potter artisans as well as the more common household objects such as bowls and spoons. 

Human and animal figures discovered at Taungthaman in the 1970’s are thought to have been used for religious practices. If this is so, these artifacts represent the oldest of their kind found in Burma. Although no building in permanent material was discovered at Taungthaman, the excavations uncovered a pattern of post-holes that are the results of buildings having been supported on wooden pilings.

 

 

The mighty bend in the Irrawaddy inhabited since prehistoric times

 

Capitols of Burma

 

Taugthaman area in annual flood

 

Stone bracelet from Taungthaman

 

Stone hoe? from Taungthaman

 
 

 

 
       

 

 

 

My insatiable thirst for ancient ornamental crafts keeps me traveling to various parts of the country to visit ancient sites and likely sources, looking happily over this little thing and that. It was on one such trip to Mandalay checking up a source that I first noticed a small, dice- shaped bead among other artifacts. At first, my attention was drawn to the other, more familiar items but when my eyes fell on the unusual bead I was startled. It was a rectangular, hollow gold piece with auspicious Pyu symbols measuring 8.10 x 8.76 x 11.77 mm and weighing 1.5 gm.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

When I looked closer, I found boreholes in each of the center of a lotus blossom on opposite sides, formed with repousee and chasing work. On the remaining four sides are the symbols of Srivasta (The Holy House), Bhaddha- pith a (The Throne), Sankha (The conch shell), and the twin-fish. The symbols are set within decorative designs, so they stood out from other representations of the symbols. From what I could find out the origin of the bead was Halin, an ancient Pyu city in Upper Myanmar.

I was fascinated with this bead, and from then on, I started looking out for more of the same style. I gathered that a few others have been unearthed but there are not many around. I also tried to find references to the dice-shaped beads in archaeology journals and papers, particularly those with symbols. No such references have been found. I made a vow to myself, there and then, that someday I would write about these fascinating beads.

The gold dice bead with symbols of conch shell, twin-
fish, Sirivatsa, and Bhaddapitha.

The gold dice bead with symbols of conch shell, Sirivatsa,
twin fish and other auspicious symbols.

Therefore, I started look- ing for more dice beads on my .survey trips. It was not until months later that I came across another one, from Myinmu. It is similar to the first one in shape and use of symbols but slightly bigger. The setting of the symbols is also different but both can definitely be identified as Pyu origin. The third bead found from Halin is similar to the first two in style but a bit smaller. Here, the wheel replaced the twin-fish symbol. It is also a little heavier since more gold was used, It could be termed as semi-solid.

The gold dice bead with symbols of conch shell, Srivatsa,
Bhaddapitha, and twin fish.

I began to wonder whether there would be any other variations in style since the three were quite similar. To my delight, a collector friend happened to find a gilded dice bead from Hmaw Zar, ! measuring 7.86 x 7.56 x 10.26 mm and weighing 3.4 gm. Hmaw Zar used to be part of srikestra, the famous ancient Pyu kingdom. This bead is gilded bronze. Engraved in single lines on the four faces are the symbols, srivasta, Bhaddhapitha, the twin-fish, and the swastika. Some flat gold beads were also un- earthed from the area. Most of them are rectangular with the usual Pyu symbols fabri- cated with gold wire and granulation.

Apart from the gold dice beads with symbols, some with images of animals such as elephants, lions, bulls, horse, and the garuda bird, have been found from Halin, Ayardaw near Halin, and Hmawzar in Sriksetra.

   

From that time on dice beads started coming my way. My collector friends informed me whenever they got hold of what they called my “babies”, A friend from Mawlamyaing luckily managed to obtain some solid gold beads with Pyu symbols, Srivasta, Bhaddhapitha, conch shell, swast\ka, or the twin fish from the Suvanabhummi site, Suvanabhummi is the early Mon kingdom contemporary to that of the Pyu. In addition to the usual symbols, new ones are seen such as a cross and dots, a human figure, wheel, and an auspicious symbol that resembles a zedi surrounded by dots. Compared with those found in Upper Myanmar, they are very small. However, up to that time, I assumed from the use of Pyu symbols that dice beads were Pyu innovations. The said symbols might have an auspicious significance and they are somewhat like Pyu symbols on most of the deco- rative ornaments, coins, personal items, and even pottery. Coins and other personal items bearing Pyu marks are known to have spread to as far as Oc-Eo in Southern Vietnam.

   

 

 

It was fortunate in a way that I was somewhat too busy with my other obligations to get around to writing about these exotic beads until 2003. Had I been able to do so, I would have provided faulty information. I was flabbergasted when in 2003 an incredible found was made in Taung-tha-man Neolithic site: a terracotta dice bead. This bead is about 8 x 6 x 6 cm with boreholes through the center of a lotus blossom on opposite sides. On the other four sides are the images of a seated male, a seated female; a male lion, and a female lion.

The designs were most probably punched into the clay. It dawned upon me that these prehistoric people must be the innovators of the dice beads that fascinate me no end and that the Pyu people were the modifiers. This find of a terracotta dice bead left me in awe and wonder at the unique expressions of aesthetic notions, creativity, and resourcefulness of our ancestors.

 

Thauangthaman Village

After you cross U Bein’s bridge you will come to the village of Taungtaman. Here it seemed like the main industry was cutting and drying palm leaves and bamboo. There are also a few boat drivers. I didn’t see any weaving mills as the area has a lot of them but the people probably walk to Amarapura if they hold one of those jobs. There are some old Payas that were being rebuilt in the area too.

 

 

3. Transition to Pre-Pagan Period

 

From the limited information available at present, the evolution of these early prehistoric cultures into the later Mon and Pyu societies is not well understood,

although the late Iron Age coincided with the rise of Pyu culture and

 the creation of the first cities in Burma. 

 However, there is ample evidence that by the fifth century AD,

the Mon as well as the Pyu peoples had adopted the Indianized cultural life then widely practiced throughout mainland Southeast Asia which included elements of both Hinduism (Brahamanism) as well as aspects of Theravada, Mahayana, and Tantric Buddhism.

 


Bibliography- Prehistoric Period

 

Aung Thaw,

‘The “Neolithic Culture of the Padah-lin Caves”, Asian Perspectives, 14 (1971), pp. 123-133.

 

Ba Maw, “Research on Early Man in Myanmar”, Myanmar Historical Research Journal, no.1 (November 1995), pp. 213-220.

 

Bob Hudson, “The Nyaungyan ‘Goddesses': Some Unusual Bronze Grave Goods from Upper Burma”, TAASA Review, vol 10, no 2 (June 2002), pp. 4 –7.

 

William Solheim, “New Light on a Forgotten Past”, National Geographic, vol 139, No. 3 (March 1971), pp. 330-339.


 

B. Animism and the Arts

 

1. Animism

 

Animism is a generic term used to describe the myriad religious beliefs and practices that have been utilized in small-scale human societies since the beginning of the prehistoric era and is the earliest identifiable form of religion found in Burma.  This is not an unexpected occurrence because animist beliefs and practices have been found among early human societies in almost every country of the world.  Animism is a belief that spirits exist and may live in all things, sentient and non-sentient. The world is thought to be animated by all sorts of spirits that may intervene negatively or positively in the affairs of men.  Although spirits may live in all things, every object does not harbor a spirit.   If there were a spirit in everything, the daily activities of mankind would be seriously disrupted because a spirit would have to be addressed or placated at every step in a day’s activities.  Spirits by their very nature are thought to be normally invisible and to assume visible form only on rare occasion. Therefore, it is a challenge for anyone to contact a specific spirit and be absolutely sure that the correct spirit was contacted and was present. Therefore, throughout the world, spirits are often assigned a contact point where they may be enticed for consultation.  Salient features of the landscape often become the “home” of a spirit by assignment.  Spirits are thought to live, for example, on the highest peak in a mountain range or at the odd bend in the creek but not in every stone or drop of water. If a landscape is devoid of a salient feature, such as is the case with a flat rice field, one is created by assignment such as building a simple shrine in the northeast corner of the field. That the spirits have a recognized “home” is important since the relevant spirit or spirits must be located and consulted before important decisions are made or an activity undertaken.  Location as well as “presence” is of vital importance in animism because the spirit must be agreeably enticed to the location so that the request will meet with a positive response. A home or locus for consulting ancestor spirits is often created in animist societies by carving a generic but gendered human image and wrapping it in a garment or with possessions identified with the deceased. Gifts of all kinds, often of luxury goods, are ritually presented to the image when it may be wrapped in any of the deceased individual’s possessions.

 

In virtually all societies that practice animism, there are three broad categories of spirits: Spirits of the Ancestors, Spirits of the Locale or Environment (often referred to as genie of the soil) and Spirits of Nature or Natural Phenomenon. Those individuals who were important in this life, such as patriarchs, matriarchs, clan leaders, political leaders, or chiefs, are honored after their death because it is believed that if they were powerful in this life then they will be powerful in the afterlife and consequently they should be consulted. Security for the living is achieved and maintained by consulting these important ancestor spirits to receive advice on major decisions and assistance to bring them to fruition.

 

Spirits of the locale or environment include, for example, the spirit of the mountain, the waterfall, the great tree or of each plot of land. In inhabited areas in Burma and especially within villages or towns, almost every large tree has a spirit shelf on which food and drink is placed to please the spirit and thus assure its blessings. The small wayside shrines, typically containing no images that are found along thoroughfares as well as in remote locations throughout Burma are dedicated to the spirit(s) of that area, that tract of land or that city plot.

 

The Spirits of Natural Phenomenon are consulted as needed. These include the sun, moon, storms, hurricanes, typhoons, winds and earthquakes. These spirits represent the uncertainty of the world; that which is beyond the understanding and complete control of the living.

 

Animism is typically practiced through rituals that are performed by a specially trained practitioner who serves as an intermediary between a person or group and the spirit to be consulted. The term shaman – the word used for such an individual in tribes living along the American Northwest Coast – is today widely employed by academics to identify such individuals wherever they appear in the world. This practitioner is called to perform a ritual at an auspicious location in which he entices the appropriate spirit or spirits to appear and cooperate by flatteringly calling them by name, performing their favorite music or songs, recounting their good deeds and offering them the things that they enjoyed when alive, such as food, drink (frequently alcohol), or things that have an appealing fragrance such as flowers or incense. These “objects of enticement” are considered by outsiders to be the Arts of Animism. Since animist rituals often do not require an image, these arts frequently consist of the objects used for enticement such as fine textiles, fine basketry or fine ceramics. Typically these items are the best available, expensive, newly made for the ceremony, or at least refurbished since it would be offensive to offer old clothing or stale food to a respected individual. Once the shaman is convinced the desired spirit is present and in an agreeable mood, he goes into trance and consults with the spirit concerning the critical matter at hand.  He then comes out of trance and shares the wishes of the spirit(s) with his client(s).

 

There are typically three categories of questions that are asked: those that involve the security of the group or person; the fertility of humans, livestock and crops; and the health of the group or the individual.  All three categories of questions have to do with everyday life, the here and now, and unlike the “Great Religions”, little attention is focused on the afterlife.

 

The practitioners of animism, the shaman or mediums, do not belong to an organized clergy but, instead, learn the rituals and the practices of animism by having been an apprentice or an acolyte to another shaman.  The specialized task of the shaman requires them to communicate with spirits, whether male or female, while in a trance. Consequently, an individual of ambiguous gender is well suited to speak intimately with spirits of either gender. Therefore, shaman tends to be either effeminate males or masculine females who at their will are capable of going into trance.

 

In Burma, animism has developed into the cult of the Thirty-Seven Nats or spirits. Its spirit practitioners, known as nat ka daws, are almost always of ambiguous gender, and are thought to be married to a particular spirit or nat.  Despite their physical appearance and costume, however, they may be heterosexual with a wife and family, heterosexual transvestites, or homosexual. Being a shaman is most often a well-respected profession because the shaman performs the functions of both a doctor and a minister, is often paid in gold or cash, and is often unmarried with the time and money to care for their aging parents. Shamans who combine their profession with prostitution lose the respect of their clients – a universal conflict and outcome.  The reputation of Burmese nat-ka-daws has been generally damaged by this conflict.

 

 

Nat images in Nat shrine, Shwezigon Stupa, Pagan

 

Nat images in Nat shrine, Shwezigon Stupa, Pagan

 

Animism, a generic term for the Small Religions, is a substratum of beliefs out of which the Great Religions have developed. It is a useful term to describe all of the small religions that vary greatly in the specifics of their practice.  However, there are general characteristics that are easily recognized.  Since animism is based upon the worship of individuals who once lived in addition to spirits that dwell in specific environmental locations, there are a myriad number of spirits. These spirits change in name and function in different physical environments. Consequently, the names of the spirits change from valley to valley, from one village to another or from one small group to the next.  The worship of numerous spirits differs markedly from the great religions, which usually have one all encompassing god or a limited pantheon of gods. By comparison, in Burma and Thailand there is a spirit attached to every parcel of land.

 

Since Animism is typically practiced by non-literate groups of people, a written record of their theology or literature doesn’t exist.  Practices or beliefs are passed down orally from shaman to apprentice.  Since it is important for the shaman to preserve the correct order in which chants and genealogies must be recited, shaman in several societies have independently invented what scholars have come to refer to as “memory boards”. These are boards on which there are a series of symbols or marks that assist in proper recollection and recitation. These boards have been found in many small-scale societies including those in Southeast Asia, particularly in Borneo and as far away as Easter Island. These boards, although often undecipherable to the uninitiated, are important because they are examples of the first form of writing.

 

Art objects used in animism are typically made of perishable materials. The images are often of wood, cane, feathers, leather, and other materials such as unfired clay that easily disintegrate.  Due to humidity, bacteria, and the foraging of animals and insects, these art forms do not last for long periods. Art forms made of perishable materials are suitable for animist ritual since the animist aesthetic places importance on the new and beautiful because the end goal is to please and attract the spirits.  The sentiment here is that attractive gifts should be new and not secondhand. Therefore, old images that have been used previously are frequently repainted, re-dressed or made anew.  At times, the “art objects” are discarded after a ritual since the objects have served their purpose of attracting the spirit and the spirit by its very nature of being a spirit can not take the objects away.

 

Animist art obects are created in almost any form. The images may be anthropomorphic, or just an uncut slab of rock. The object may be adorned or unadorned.

 

In Burma, the major Animist spirits were transformed into the Pantheon of the 37 Nats during the Pagan Period. The earliest known images of the brother and sister nats, Min Mahagiri and his Sister, who lead the pantheon, were painted on two planks hewn from a their sacred tree that had been thrown into the Irrawaddy and had floated down the Irrawaddy to Pagan.

 

 

Min Mahagiri in nat shrine, Shwezigon, Pagan

 

Mahagiri’s Sister, Shwemyethna, Princess Golden Face in nat shrine, Shwezigon Stupa, Pagan

 

2. Bronze Drums – An Animist Art Form

 

The use and manufacture of bronze drums is the oldest continuous art tradition in Southeast Asia. It began some time before the 6th century BC in northern Vietnam and later spread to other areas such as Burma, Thailand, Indonesia and China. The Karen adopted the use of bronze drums at some time prior to their 8th century migration from Yunnan into Burma where they settled and continue to live in the low mountains along the Burma – Thailand border. During a long period of adoption and transfer, the drum type was progressively altered from that found in northern Vietnam (Dong Son or Heger Type I) to produce a separate Karen type (Heger Type III). In 1904, Franz Heger developed a categorization for the four types of bronze drums found in Southeast Asia that is still in use today.

 

 

Heger’s four drum types

 

The Karen Drum Type or Heger Type III

 

The vibrating tympanum is made of bronze and is cast as a continuous piece with the cylinder.  Distinguishing features of the Karen type include a less bulbous cylinder so that the cylinder profile is continuous rather than being divided into three distinct parts. Type III has a markedly protruding lip, unlike the earlier Dong Son drums. The decoration of the tympanum continues the tradition of the Dong Son drums in having a star shaped motif at its center with concentric circles of small, two-dimensional motifs extending to the outer perimeter.

 

 

Tympanum of a Karen Bronze Drum

 

Complete Tympanum of a Karen Drum

 

Detail of Tympanum of a Karen Drum

 

Detail of Tympanum of a Karen Drum

 

In Burma the drums are known as frog drums (pha-si), after the images of frogs that invariably appear at four equidistant points around the circumference of the tympanum.

 

 

Frog on Tympanum of a Karen Drum

 

A Karen innovation was the addition of three-dimensional figures to one side of the cylinder so that insects and animals, but never humans, are often represented descending the trunk of a stylized tree.

 

 

Stylized tree with snails and elephants

 

Detail of stylized tree with snails and elephants

 

Detail showing a complex arrangement of snails, elephants, trees squirrels and other animals.

 

The frogs on the tympanum vary from one to three and, when appearing in multiples, are stacked atop each other. The number of frogs in each stack on the tympanum usually corresponds to the number of figures on the cylinder such as elephants or snails. The numerous changes of motif in the two- and three-dimensional ornamentation of the drums have been used to establish a relative chronology for the development of the Karen drum type over approximately one thousand years.

The Karens speak several languages that linguists have had difficulty classifying.  Karen groups often speak different languages, some of which are not mutually intelligible.  Hence, the Karen peoples are an exception to the basic assumption that an ethnic group can be defined by the fact that all its members can converse in a single tongue. There are at least three major cultural and linguistic divisions among the Karen: the Karreni or the Red Karen, who cast the bronze drums, the Pwo Karen, and the Sgaw Karen, as well as a number of other splinter groups who have scattered into the mountains below the Shan Plateau.

 

 

Two Red Karen Women

 

A Sgaw Woman

 

Two Sgaw Karen couples

 

These hillside people practice swidden or slash-and-burn agriculture and speak a language that is very different than that of the lowland Burmese.  The practice of slash-and-burn agriculture consists of burning the forests and then using the ashes from the burnt timber as fertilizer for the fields.

 

 

A swidden field ready for planting

 

Broadcasting rice in swidden field

 

 

The fertilizer lasts for only several years, never more than six, and at that time the Karen must pack and move everything to a new site where a different section of the forest is burned.  A number of hillside groups practice slash-and-burn agriculture and periodically move through each other’s hereditary territory to new lands.  These people move back and forth across the Thai border with little regard for the national boundary.  Slash-and-burn agriculture is perilous in that after the forest is burned, seeds must be planted and then rains must occur quickly and consistently until the plants are well established.  If this does not happen, the plants will wither and die or insects and animals will eat the seeds.  It is not unusual for the Karen to be forced to plant four times in order to reap a single harvest.  For the Karen, the bronze drums perform a vital service in inducing the spirits to bring the rains. When there is a drought, the Karens take the drums into the fields where they are played to make the frogs croak because the Karens believe that if the frogs croak, it is sign that rain will surely fall. Therefore, the drums are also known as “Karen Rain Drums”

 

Bronze drums were used among the Karen as a device to assure prosperity by inducing the spirits to bring rain, by taking the spirit of the dead into the after-fife and by assembling groups including the ancestor spirits for funerals, marriages and house-entering ceremonies. The drums were used to entice the spirits of the ancestors to attend important occasions and during some rituals the drums were the loci or seat of the spirit.

 

It appears that the oldest use of the drums by the Karen was to accompany the protracted funeral rituals performed for important individuals. The drums were played during the various funeral events and then, among some groups, small bits of the drum were cut away and placed in the hand of the deceased to accompany the spirit into the afterlife.  It appears that the drums were never used as containers for secondary burial because there is no instance where Type III drums have been unearthed or found with human remains inside. The drums are considered so potent and powerful that they would disrupt the daily activities of a household so when not in use, they were placed in the forest or in caves, away from human habitation.  They were also kept in rice barns where when turned upside down they became containers for seed rice; a practice that was thought to improve the fertility of the rice. Also, since the drums are made of bronze, they helped to deter predations by scavengers such as rats or mice.

 

When played, the drums were strung up by a cord to a tree limb or a house beam so that the tympanum hung at approximately a forty-five degree angle.

 

 

Karen drum being played

 

The musician placed his big toe in the lower set of lugs to stabilize the drum while striking the tympanum with a padded mallet. Three different tones may be produced if the tympanum is struck at the center, edge, and midpoint.  The cylinder was also struck but with long strips of stiff bamboo that produces a sound like a snare drum. The drums were not tuned to a single scale but had individualized sounds, hence they could be used effectively as a signal to summon a specific group to assemble. It is said that a good drum when struck could be heard for up to ten miles in the mountains. The drums were played continuously for long periods of time since the Karen believe that the tonal quality of a drum cannot be properly judged until it is played for several hours.

 

The drums were a form of currency that could be traded for slaves, goods or services and were often used in marriage exchanges. They were also a symbol of status, and no Karen could be considered wealthy without one.  By the late nineteenth century, some important families owned as many as thirty. The failure to return a borrowed drum often led to internecine disputes among the Karen.

 

a. Animist Drums and Buddhism

 

Although the drums were cast primarily for use by groups of non-Buddhist hill people, they were used by the Buddhist kings of Burma and Thailand as musical instruments to be played at court and as appropriate gifts to Buddhist temples and monasteries. The first known record of the Karen drum in Burma is found in an inscription of the Mon king Manuha at Thaton, dated 1056 AD.  The word for drum in this inscription occurs in a list of musical instruments played at court and is the compound  pham klo: pham is Mon while klo is Karen.  The ritual use of Karen drums in lowland royal courts and monasteries continued during the centuries that followed and is an important instance of inversion of the direction in which cultural influences usually flow from the lowlands to the hills.

 

b. Casting the drums

 

The town of Nwe Daung, 15 km south of Loikaw, capital of Kayah (formerly Karenni) State, is the only recorded casting site in Burma. Shan craftsmen made drums there for the Karens from approximately 1820 until the town burned in 1889.  Karen drums were cast by the lost wax technique; a characteritic that sets them apart from the other bronze drum types that were made with moulds. A five metal formula was used to create the alloy consisting of copper, tin, zinc, silver and gold. Most of the material in the drums is tin and copper with only traces of silver and gold. The Karen made several attempts in the first quarter of the twentieth century to revive the casting of drums but none were successful.

 

 

Karen drums casting – 1923

 

During the late 19th century, non-Karen hill people, attracted to the area by the prospect of work with British teak loggers, bought large numbers of Karen drums and transported them to Thailand and Laos. Consequently, their owners frequently incorrectly identify their drums as being indigenous to these countries.

 


Bibliography – Animism and the Arts

 

F. Heger,  Alte Metalltromeln aus Sudest-Asie (Leipzig, 1902).

 

H. I. Marshall, The Karen People of Burma: A Study in Anthropology and Ethnology (Columbus, 1922).

 

H. I. Marshall, “Karen Bronze Drums”, Journal of the Burma Research Society, xix (1929), pp. 1-14.

 

Richard M. Cooler, “The Use of Karen Bronze Drums in the Royal Courts and Buddhist Temples of Burma and Thailand: A Continuing Mon Tradition?”, Papers from a Conference on Thai Studies in Honor of William J. Gedney  (Michigan Papers on South and Southeast Asia, No 25, Ann Arbor, 1986) pp. 107-20.

 

Richard M. Cooler, The Karen Bronze Drums of Burma: Types, Iconography, Manufacture, and Use (Leiden, 1994).

 

 

Migrations

Main article: Migration period of ancient Burma

Thayekhittaya (Sri Ksetra

The mass migrations occurred during

the third or fourth millennium BCE to last millennium BC.

[4] Pyu, Mon, Rakhine came from various parts of South Asia. They brought cultural diffusions

among indigenous people and resided in different parts of Burma—with

Pyu at the center,

 Mon at the South, and Rakhine at the west.

 

 

As early as 6th century,

Early civilisation in Myanmar dates back to the 1st century

with archaeological evidence of

 Pyu (a Tibetan ethnic group) Kingdoms in

, Beithano (Visnu)

and Hanlin

 

The Pyu went on to found settlements

 throughout the plains region centered around the confluence of the Irrawaddy

and Chindwin rivers that has been inhabited since the Paleolithic age.[13]

 

 another people called the Mon began to enter the present-day Lower Burma

from the Mon kingdoms of Haribhunjaya and Dvaravati in modern-day Thailand.

 By the mid 9th century,

 the Mon had founded at least two small kingdoms (or large city-states) centered around Pegu and Thaton.

Pre-Pagan period

The Pre-Pagan period is the era when recent immigrants began to mix with indigenous peoples. This era is characterized by Urban age when the city states began to be established. Most notable ancient cities were founded by Pyu and Mons during this era.

 

Pyu

Main article: Pyu city states

Pyu city states’ (Burmese: ပျူ မြို့ပြ နိုင်ငံများ) were a group of city-states that existed from c. 2nd century BCE to late 9th century CE in present-day Upper Burma (Myanmar). The city-states were founded as part of the southward migration by the Tibeto-Burman-speaking Pyu, the earliest inhabitants of Burma of whom records are extant.[14] The thousand-year period, often referred to as the Pyu millennium, linked the bronze age to the beginning of the classical states period when the Pagan Dynasty emerged in the late 9th century.

The city-states—five major walled cities and several smaller towns have been excavated—were all located in the three main irrigated regions of Upper Burma: the Mu valley, the Kyaukse plains and Minbu region, around the confluence of the Irrawaddy and Chindwin rivers. Part of an overland trade route between China and India, the Pyu realm gradually expanded south. Halin, founded in the 1st century CE at the northern edge of Upper Burma, was the largest and most important city until around the 7th or 8th century when it was superseded by Sri Ksetra (near modern Pyay) at the southern edge. Twice as large as Halin, Sri Ksetra was the largest and most influential Pyu center.[14]

The Pyu culture was heavily influenced by trade with India, importing Buddhism as well as other cultural, architectural and political concepts, which would have an enduring influence on later Burmese culture and political organization.[15] The Pyu calendar, based on the Buddhist calendar, later became the Burmese calendar. Latest scholarship, though yet not settled, suggests that the Pyu script, based on the Indian Brahmi script, may have been the source of the Burmese script.

The millennium-old civilization came crashing down in the 9th century when the city-states were destroyed by repeated invasions from the Kingdom of Nanzhao. The Mranma (Burmans), who came down with the Nanzhao, set up a garrison town at Pagan (Bagan) at the confluence of Irrawaddy and Chindwin. Pyu settlements remained in Upper Burma for the next three centuries but the Pyu gradually were absorbed into the expanding Pagan Empire. The Pyu language still existed until the late 12th century. By the 13th century, the Pyu had assumed the Burman ethnicity. The histories/legends of the Pyu were also incorporated to those of the Burmans.[15]

[edit] Mon

Main article: Mon kingdoms

The earliest external reference to a Mon kingdom in Lower Burma was in 844-848 by Arab geographers.[16] The Mon practiced Theravada Buddhism. The kingdoms were prosperous from trade. The Kingdom of Thaton is widely considered to be the fabled kingdom of Suvarnabhumi (or Golden Land), referred to by the tradesmen of Indian Ocean.

Pagan Kingdom

The Burmans who had come down with the early 9th Nanzhao raids of the Pyu states remained in Upper Burma. Trickles of Burman migrations into the upper Irrawaddy valley might have begun as early as the 7th century.[17] More recent research indicates that the people of Nanzhao were Tibeto-Burman, and that the Burmans entered the Irrawaddy valley en masse in the 830s.) In 849, fourteen years after the last Nanzhao raid, Pagan was founded as a fortified settlement along a strategic location on the Irrawaddy near the confluence of the Irrawaddy and its main tributary the Chindwin.[18] It may have been designed to help the Nanzhao pacify the surrounding country side.[19] Over the next two hundred years, the small principality gradually grew to include its immediate surrounding areas— to about 200 miles north to south and 80 miles from east to west by Anawrahta‘s ascension in 1044.[20]

 

.

 As early as the 6th century,

people called the Mon began to enter from the Mon kingdoms of Haribhunjaya and Dvaravati in modern-day Myanmar. By the mid 9th century, the Mon had founded at least two small kingdoms (or

large city-states) centred around Pegu and Thaton.

In the 11th Century,

the First Empire was founded by King Anawrahta as the Bagan Empire,

 which lasted until the late 13th century when the Mongols invaded them. After the fall of Bagan, the Mongols left the hot Irrawaddy valley but the Kingdom was irreparably broken up into several small kingdoms.

 

 

Ancient Pagodas of Bagan

By the mid-14th century,

 the country had become organised along four major power centres: Upper Myanmar, Lower Myanmar, the Shan States and Arakan. There were the Ava Kingdom (1364–1555), the Hanthawaddy Pegu Kingdom (1287–1539) founded by King Bayintnaung, the Shan States (1287–1557) and the Arakan (1287–1784). Hanthawaddy was the most powerful and prosperous kingdom of all post-Pagan kingdoms. Under a string of gifted monarchs, the kingdom enjoyed a long golden age, profiting from foreign commerce. The kingdom, with a flourishing Mon language and culture, became a centre of commerce and Theravada Buddhism.

The Toungoo Dynasty

(1486–1752))
Toungoo, led by its ambitious king Tabinshwehti and General Bayinnaung, reunified the small kingdoms that had existed since the fall of the Bagan Empire, and founded the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia. However the overextended empire unravelled soon after Bayinnaung’s death in 1581. Siam declared independence in 1584 and went to war with Burma until 1605. Bayinnaung’s son, Nyaungyan, immediately began the reunification effort, successfully restoring central authority over Upper Burma and Shan States by 1605. Except for a few occasional rebellions and an external war – Burma defeated Siam’s attempt to take Lan Na and Martaban in 1662–64 – the kingdom was largely at peace for the rest of the 17th century. The kingdom entered a gradual decline, and the authority of the “palace kings” deteriorated rapidly in the 1720s.

 

 

 

The Konbaung Dynasty

(1752–1885)

was founded by

king Alaungpaya.

 

 

Burma british colonial

In 1885

the British captured the country to develop its empire. They give Burma full independence in 1948. The military took over power in 1962.

The Burma Unique Collections”

April 15, 2010 by uniquecollection

UCM: THE BURMA UNIQUE COLLECTIONS
UCM-uniquecollection.wordpress.com CyberMuseum
@cpyright Dr Iwan S.2010.
A. THE ILLUSTRATION OF BURMA UNIQUE COLLECTIONS

I.ANCIENT BURMA COLLECTIONS

1.ANCIENT BURMA FIGURINES

 

2.ANCIENT BURMA JAR FOUND IN INDONESIA

 

 

2. ANCIENT BURMA TEMPLE

 

 

II. BRITISH RULE BURMA
During this time Burma was the province ogf British Clony India, that is why British India stamps and revenue used at Burma.
The revenue sheet collections were during King Edward and king George, please the native Burma help me to translate the ccument because were writing in native language.
The Bristh India stamps used in Burma, was found nly from three city, Rangon, Moulmen and Mutiyana from Queen Victria until King George
(Mutiyana in Burma , Nepal other country ? please comment, during this time als used in anther country like Tibet,Nepal,Bhutan, and Aden, the cllectors wh have this stamps please share with us via comment)

(1) REVENUE SHEET HISTORY

(

2) POSTAL HISTORY

 

 

 

III. BRITSH COLONY BURMA COLLECTIONS
(1) British Colony Burma flag

 

(2) Vintage Military Picture

 

(3) Vintage Native Picture

 

2. BRITISH COLONY BURMA POSTAL HISTORY
(1) Dr iwan S.collections

(2) Mr Konrad collections

 

 

(

b) Union of Burma postally used Cover

 

new info the collections of Mr Konrad

 

THE DAI NIPPON OCCUPATION BURMA
1.Dai Nippon Occupation Burma Postal History

2.THE RARE DN BURMA POW CAMP CARD
(1) DUTCH SOLDIER AT MOULMEIN CAMP SENT THE DAI NIPPON MOULMEIN POW CAR VIA COURIER TO HIS WIFE TO HIS WIFE VIA BATAVIA (JAKARTA)
He told that he was in god health and asking about his children. His wife stayed at Soerabaja, During Dai Nippon Occupation the Indonesian citizen who merried expatriat didnot put in the POW camp.
Look at two very rare collections :
(1) Dai Nippon Moulmein POW Card sent to Batavia(Jakarta)
(2) His wife Dai Nippon Java ID issued by Dai Nippon Military government at Soerabia.

 

Moulmein POW Camp

 

Moulmein POW Card

 

POW card caption

 

 

Health info

 

Mr Romeijn handsigned

 

Front of POW card

 

[

(2) DAI NIPPON DUTCH POW MOULMEIN BURMA WIFE DAI NIPPON JAVA ID AT SURABAIA INDONESIA.

 

DaiNipponBurmaPOW wife ID

 

Dai Nippon POW Card

 

Ex POW Burma collections

 

 

The POW at Moulmein Camp

(3)THE BRIDGE ON THE RIVER KWAI FILM POSTER

 

The Movies Poster 1957

(4) THE PICTURE OF THE BRIDGE ON THE RIVER KWAI WERE MANY DAI NIPPON MOULMEIN POW WORK TO BUILD THAT BRIDGE
this famous bridge later became at theme of the very popular film with the famous song theme the Elephent Walk and also look at the picture of the POW camp..

 

The Bridge Of River Kwai

The bridge of river Kwai stamps

(5) DAI NIPPON BURMA POSTAL HISTORY 1943
AND 1944

 

Dai Nippon Burma 1943

 

Dai Nippon Burma 1944

THE UNION OF BURMA UNIQUE COLLECTIONS

1. GENERAL BA MAW THE FIRST MYANMAR PRIME MENISTRY PROFILE PICTURE

 

 

Ba Maw

(2) THE MYANMAR HEROS AUNG SAN PICTURE

 

 

Aung San

3. THE POSTAL HISTORY UNION OF BURMA
Union of Burma in native language overprint the British colony Burma stamps, revenue sheet and definif stamps.

 

 

UoBurma Rev.Sheet 1960

4.THE SECOND UNION OF BURMA (NOW MYANMAR)PRIME MENISTRYPROFILE PICTURE U NU.

 

U Nu

 

UOB flag

 

 

UnionOfBurma stamps

5. THE THIRD PRIME MENISTRY PROFILE PICTURE SAW MUANG

 

Saw Muang

6. THE FOURTH PRIME MENISTRY PROFILE NE WIN

 

Gen. Ne Win

7. THE DAUGHTER OFAUNG SAN,SYUU KYI, VINTAGE PROFILE PICTURE

 

Vintage A.S.Syuu Kyi

 

 

Postal Used Union of Myanmar

II. THE CHROLOGIC HISTORIC COLLECTIONS OF BURMA

THE BURMA UNIQUE COLLECTIONS
UCM-uniquecollection.wrdpress.com CyberMuseum
@copyright Dr Iwan S.2010

A.The Ancient Burma
Burma was a Buddhist Mnarchy in the Middle age
1.1st century BC
The Pyu arrived in Burma
2.6th Century AD
The Mon Kingdom of Dvaravati
3. 9th Century AD
The Bamr(Burman) people migrated from the China-Tibet brder region into the valley of Ayeyarwady.
4. Small Kingdom in Burma between 11th -14th century AD
(1) The Kingdom of Pagan (1044-1287)
(2) The Shan state at Arakan (1287-1539)
(3) The kingdom of Ava (1364-1555)
5. The Kingdomof Toungod(1531-1752)
6. The Konbuang Dinasty (1752-1885)

B. British In Burma
1. 1824
Britain Through three wars gained lower Burma 1n this year.
2.1884
(1)In this year Upper Burma also gained by Britain and administered them as part of India .
(2) During Burma as the province of India with capital Rangoon, the British Colony India Stamps were used in Burma :
(a) 19th century
l the Queen Victoria stamps of British colony India were used with CDS Rangoon and Moulmein . (look at the Map where that famous city situated)
(b)20th century
The King Edward and The King George stamps of British Colony India were used in Burma , CDS Rangoon and Mutiyana ( Burma or other countries city ? please India collectors comment)
(this collections found at Padang west sumatra and Jakarta)

3. 1936,
The second University student strike in this year was triggered by the expulsin of Aung San ,leader of RUSU(Ragn University Student Union)

4.1937
(1)The British separated Burma from India and Granted the British Colony Burma and Burma became a self-governing under the British Commenwealth. and Ba Maw was pointed to be the first prime Menistry.

(2) the British Colony Burma stamps issued in this year, overprint Burma on British colony India King Edward Stamps (look at the illustration.)

5.1938
In this year ‘The 1300 year Revlution’(named by the Burmese calender year) led by the Buddish Monk, a wafe of strike and protest that started frm the oil fields of central Burma. In Rangoon Student protest were charged by the British mounted Police Wielding Baton and killing a Rangon University student called Aung Kyaw in Mandalay and Plice shoot int a crowded of protester.

6.1939
(1)Aung San cofounded the PRP(People Revolutionary Party) and he als instrumental in founding the Freedm Clc by forginf aan Alliance of the Dobama(Plitically active monk), and Ba Maw Poor Man Party.
After the Dobama organization called for a National uprising, an arrest warrant was issue formany of the organization leader including Aung san , he escaped to China.
(2) Ba Maw succeeded by Prime menistry U Saw until 1940.
(3) The British Colony Burma issued the Burma King George Stamps.(look at the illustration)
(4) The king Edward and King George of The British colony India revenue sheet without verprint still used in Rangoon Burma in 1939 and 1940.
(5) The rare postally homemade cover send from Malacca (straits settlement with King Edward stamps to Rangoon Burma, and then used as document with native Burma language handswritten document (Please the native Burma collectors help to translate)
(All the Burma cover and revenue sheet were found at Kunming South China in 2007-including the Dai Nippon revenue sheet )

C. Burma During Pacific War (WW II)

1.1942
(1)January 1942
(a)Prime Menister U Saw was arrest by British Burma Government for communicated with Dai Nippon Milutary Administration in South East Asia and Aung San announced the formation of BIa-Burma Independent Army in order to anticipation of the Dai Nippon invasin of Burma in this year.
(b) In 1942 te Dai Nippon had win large territoriest in Asia in small cost. also in Burma they had strategic , The Dai Nippon Military administration had promise eventual ‘Independence’ to Burma only if this country became co-operative satellite states. Japanese attamps to win over the mass of Burmese people same with ther Asia people to support the war against against their frmer colonial masters was almost totally a failure. The great majrity of he ordinary people did not see the conflict as their war.

(2) Simultaneous with the invation of Malaya, another Dai Nippon Army crossed from Thailand in to Burma and by the end of April 1942 hade driven the weak British Forces into India and
Burma was overrun by Dai Nippon Military Administration.

(3)September 1942
The first Prisoner Of War (POW) arrived at THanbyuzayat (65 kmm from Moulmein), via Molemein . (known as The Dai Nippon Burma Moulmein POW Camp) and established as a POW base camp.
From this POW camp the Prisoner sent to Nong Platuh ,359 km suth of Thanbyuzwat , where the build the famous bridge across the Mae Kong river from Nong Platuh Burma to Tamarakan Thailand because in 1957 , made the film base on the original story The Bridge on The River Kwai (the rename of the Mae kong River in 1960)
The Bridge on the Rver Tamarakan was the Train Crossing wooden bridge which spanned the mae Kong River (rename Kwai Yai River in 1960), the building of the bridge begun in October 1942 using prisoner of War labour .
Please look the collections related with this Moulmen POW Camp and the Bridge on the river Kwai (Moulmen POW card from te Dutch Soldier to his wife in Surania via Batavia Indonesia, and the Dai Nippon ID card of His wife issued by The Dai Nippon Surabaia -Shi.)

(4)The Rare Dai Nippon Burma Collections 1942
(a)The rare Burma Revenue sheet collections with the Burma emblem two Swords used in Burma with the native Burma language handwritten (please native Burma collectors to translate this rare dcument)
(b)The Postally used cover with Dai Nippon Native Burma Bird emblem overprint the king George of British Colony Burma CDS special comemorative stamped in japanese kaji character date 8.12.2602(1942). send from Japanese Special Service Post Burma to Mr Thanan Clark office of BDOM Military camp Rangoon Burma( I think this original CTO-phillatelic cretions covers)
Also look at the off cover of the same stamps collections.
(The very rare Prison of War from Moulmen Camp Burma card was send by the Dutch Soldier to his Wife via his family at Batavia (Jakarta) and the Dai Nippon Soerabaia -Shi ID card of his wife (the complete infrmation read below, and look at illustrations of that very rare cllections)

2. 1943

(1)Feb.1943
The Bride of River kwai was completed and operational by early February 1943.
(2) Dai Nippon Military Postal Office issued Engraved printing Dai Nippon Burma definitif stamps (look the illustrations)

(3)In this year,when the Japanese declared, in theory ‘Independent’ , the BDA was renamed BNA-Burma National Army, the Ba Maw declared head of State, and his Cabinet included Aung San as War Menister.

3. 1944
(1)Aung San began negtiation with Thakin (communist leader) and Bi Swe(Socialist leader) for the Formatin of the AFO-anti Frascis Peple Freedm Leaguae.
Thakin and Tin Swe made contact with the exile Colonial Government in Simla India. There were infrmal contact between AFO and the Allies between 1944 and 1945.

4. 1945
(1) March,27th 1945
In this day, BNA rose up in a countryside rebellion against the Dai Nippon Army (this day celebrated as The Resistance Day). then Aung San and other subsequence began negtiation with the commender in Chief British allied forces Lord Munbatten and officially join the Allies as PDF-Patriotic Burmese Forces.
(2) June 1945
Both the wooden and the adjescent steel bridge of River Kwai were subjected to numerous air raids between Jan and June 1945. POW labour was used to repaired the woden bridge in each occassion.Tamarakan is 50 km north of Nong Platuh, 5km north of Kanchanabuty, and 359 km south of THanbyuzwat were the Dai Nippon Moulmein POW camp was located.
Total grave at the Thanbyuzayat or moulmein Camp 3771, 15o8 British including 27 unknwn grave, 1335 Australian and 621 Dutch.May be one of the grave was the Dutch soldier who sent the Moulmei PW card to his wife,who knows I never vist this area (I have a tobacco metal box with the incised of the Moulmen camp,may be the owner as the POW labour in the bridge of River Kwai, I didnot installed the illustrations because I am afraid smeone will made repro, the rare box was found in Jakarta in 1995 , this one of the POW who still alive back to Indonesia and after he died his tobacco box was threw ut by his familily because they didnot understand the meaning f incised info on tha box the date and year he insiced from batavia,singapore and Moulmein POW – and back to Batavia, may be one day I will made an exhibitions of this rae collection together with the pOW Card and the DN ID card -dr Iwan S.)

(3)July 1945
British Troops were fighting in Burma and the Japanese were fanatically resisting the advance of Americans on the Island approached to their homeland. The war was expected to last many mre monts,unitil the atmic bomb in August 1945 reveald its awesome power and unexpectedly ended the fighting

(I have found The very rare collection of Dai Nippon Military administrations Collections related with the Dai nippon military administration java indonesia in 1943. This collection belong of The Native Indonesian who stayed at Surabaya (found at Jakarta) consist two very rare collections :
(a) The Imperial Japanese Army Prisorner of War at Camp War Prisoner Camp at Moulmein Burma postcard send by military courier without stamps, from the Dutch POW Romeyn M(AX) nationality Nederlander,rank Landstorm Soldaat to his wife Mevr.(MRS) E.F.C Romeyn adress P/A Fam L.Linn Salimba 15 B Batavia Centrum Java, Mrs Romey live at Soerabaja-look her Dai nippon ID card.
(b) Dai Nippon yellow ID Card of Mrs EFC Romeyn with handstamped revenue F 80.- (for women, for Man F100.-)
The Form in Japanese and Indonesian Language.
(b1)The front side :
(aa) Name: Nj.Romeyn-Berrety,Emma Frederike Clementine ( I think she was Java Indonesia-Euro race
(bb) Adress: Kaliboetoeh 183, Serabaja Shi (city)
(cc) status : have merried with four children
(b2) The Backside in Japanese and Indonesian language with Dai Nippon Official red double circle stamped Pendaftaran Rakjat Soerabaia-Shi.

Caption : PERHATIAN
Orang jang terseboet diatas dinjatakan, bahwa telah bersoempah kesetiaan pada tentara Nippon, serta soedah masoek daftar penduduk bangsa asing
1.Soerat Keterangan ini haroes senatiasa dibawa, oentoek memboektikan, bahwa ia telah bersoempah kesetiaan pada tentara Nippon,serta soedah masoek daftar pendoedoek bangsa asing.
2.Soerat keterangan ini soepaja dijaga djangan sampai kotor atau hilang, sebab serat keterangan adalah perloe boeat psir ataupoen partikelir.
3.Djikalau ada perbahan apa-apa tentang hal jang tertoelisn disoerat keterangan ite haroes dengan segera memberi tahe tentang perobahan ite kepada kantor jang memberi soerat keterangan itoe.
4.Momer,tanggal dan tempat keterangan ite haroes ditjatat agar moedah dioeresnja kalau serat keterangan hares diberikan lagi atau lain-lain.
5.Djikalau soerat keterangan itoe hilang haroes segera memberi tahoe hal itoe kepada kantor jang doelooe memberikan soerat keterangan terseboet dan minta soerat keterangan baroe dengan membajar ongkos jang soedah ditetapkan.)

D. Burma After the WW II

1. 1947
(1)January,27th 1947
The negotiation for Burmese Independent which were concluded succeesfully in Londn as the Aung San-Atlee Agreement.
(2) April 1947
The popularity of The AFPFL now dominated by Aung San and the Socialist was eventually confirmed when it won overhelm Victory in the April 1947 constituent Assembly Election.
(3) July,9th.1947
U Saw , a conservative pre war prime Menister of Burma,engineer the ASSASINATION OF AUNG SAN and several members f his cabinet this day (later this day commenorative as the Martyr Days)

2.1948
(1)In January,4th.1948 Union of Burma became Independent outside the Commnwealth by treaty and a member of the UN in this year.
The constitution which went into effect in 1948 created a parliamentary democracy
(2)No sooner after had independence come to Burma,than internal disruption threatened to plunge the country into chaos, The British had left behind a demcratic constitution modelled on Westminster, which proved unsuitable for a country so under-develped and so disorganised. At the time of Independence, Burma was led by U Nu,an oustanding plitician who manage to maintain constitrutional democracy intact fr ten years until 1958.
(3) Union Of Burma Postal ffice in this year issue the Overprint Union of Burma in native language on British Colony Burma stamps
(look at the stamps illustratin, only overprint on King Goerge British colony Burma 2 rupee Stamps,( I have the highest value 10 rupee but I keep on the bank deposit box afraid will broken if made the picture.)

21957
In this year the film :The bridge n The River Kwai was produced by the film directr David Lean, and this film have seven academy award including the best Actr Alec Guiness, best Picture, Best Director, Best Screenply, and Best Cinematography.(lok at the poster of that film)

3.1958
Union of Burma provided for nationalization of certain industries and in this year political crisis, Gen. Ne Win tookover the Government from Premier U Nu.

3.1960
Election were held in this year and the union party headed by U NU won a large majority, he again became premier in April 1960.

4.1962
(1)Political and economic problems continiu and the government was again taken over by Gen. Ne Win.
(2) March,2nd.1962
Gen.Ne Win set up a revolutionary Council with himself as chief of state.

5. 1972
Gen. Ne Win setting aside the constitution in this year and he became premier. The Ne Win government pursued a socialistic program and Nationalized nearlly all f Industry and trade which had been controlled by Indian and China minorities. It continued a neutralist foreign policy and isolated the nation from most freign policy.

6.1974
On January,4th,1974 a new constiturion aimed making Burma a Socialist Republic under one party rule, was adptred, Ne Win continuede as premier.

7.1975
Recurrent problems facing the governmentvhave been the need to stimulate production,rebellions staged by Chinese-backed Communist frces and pressures from groups seeking greater autonomy for local ethnic groups. Communist guerillas ecame more active after the communist victories in Indochina in 1975.

8. 1987
The patient peple of Burma, who a suffered for twenty-five years from the Burmese road to socialism, began to give vent to their frustrations in largely studen led riots in Rangoon in September 1987.

9. 1988
The seventy year old General Ne Win decided to mve to the sidelines and resigned in this year amid signs of military disaffection. Reform were promised, it looked as if Burma would more out of her-self imposed isolation and darkness. But just a month later, in September 1988, the military took over and general Saw Maung emerged at the head of a junta. The restoration of law and order marked the beginnings of a repression against students and dissidents, brutal even by Burmese standards.

10.1989
(1)In this year the name of Burma was changed to Myanmar, a transliteration of the English’Burma’ into Burmese.
(2) In this year , placed under house arrest the most likely leaders of any oppsition, including Aung San Suu Kyi, the daughter of Aung San (who played a crucial role at the birth of the Burmese independence) and wife of an English Lectrured at Oxford. Syuu Kyi had returned in her native land to lead a new party,the Natinal League for Democracy. It was her criticim of Ne Win and her call for justice and democracy that led to her arrest.

11. 1990
But to the chagrin of the junta, which had fielded its own front party , the National Unity party, the National League dor democracy gained aclear and outright victory at 1990 election.winning a huge majority in the Assembly. The military junta had no intention of bowing to this verdict.

12. 1991
In this year, Aung San Suu Kyi remained under arrest, and the military declared that they would release her only if she leaves the country and her adherence in her principles she was awarded the Noble Peace Price in this year. (still until now during the junta leader Tan Swee, she still under house arrest, why ? I donnot understand.look at Ta Swee and Suu Kyi. vintage photo 1989)

Koleksi Sejarah Umat Manusia (The History Of The Mankind :) Introduction

 

History Of The Mankind

Collections

 

Created by

Dr Iwan Suwandy

Private limited editon E-Book In CD_ROM

Copyright@Dr Iwan 2012

PREFACE

In order to save the Human Heritage, I write E-BOOK in CD-ROM about the history of the Mankind with illustrated with the rare picture,postal and other historic collections

Jakarta,January 2012

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

THIS E-BOOK DEDICATED TO MY SON ALBERT SUWANDY ST,GEA

indonesian version

KOLEKSI SEJARAH UMAT MANUSIA
 

DiSUSUN OLEH 

Dr Iwan Suwandy

Edisi pribadi Terbatas  E-Book  dalam CD_ROM

Copyright @ Dr Iwan 2012

PENGANTAR

Untuk menglestarikan  Warisan Umat Manusia, saya menulis E-BOOK di CD-ROM tentang sejarah Manusia dengan diilustrasikan dengan koleksi langka gambar , filateli dan koleksi bersejarah lainnya

Jakarta, Januari 2012

Dr Iwan Suwandy, MHA

E-BOOK INI SAYA DEDIKASIKAN UNTUK PUTRA SAYA 

 Albert SUWANDY ST, GEA

Perkenalan

Periode Tersier
65 Juta Tahun Lalu – 1,8 Juta Tahun yang Lalu
 

Periode waktu ini dimulai dengan bencana yang membunuh dinosaurus, sekitar 65 juta tahun yang lalu (mya), dan memungkinkan munculnya mamalia. Mereka menyebutnya “usia mamalia”, tetapi hanya dengan mudah bisa dinobatkan sebagai “umur tanaman berbunga” atau “usia serangga”.

Selama waktu ini, benua terus menjauh, dan 60 mya California berlari ke Amerika Utara, menciptakan Pegunungan Rocky.
55 mya India menabrak Asia, dan memberi kami Himalaya.
30 mya jatuh Afrika ke Eropa dan Alpen lahir.

6-8 mya hominid pertama (Catatan:. “Hominid” tidak perlu berarti ‘manusia’) berevolusi.
Dengan 2,5 orang mya yang menggunakan alat batu, dan kami masuk ke dalam sejarah manusia Paleolitik.

Tersier berakhir dengan pendinginan planet yang menyebabkan zaman es besar terakhir, sekitar 1,8 mya.

Periode Tersier
Dari Kidipede, ini adalah gambaran yang bagus di tingkat anak-anak ‘- dan apa-yang-kau-tahu -!? Memiliki gambar binatang favorit saya di atasnya!

Periode Tersier
Dari Fosil-Fakta-dan-Mencari, yang kami telah memanfaatkan sebagai salah satu teks utama kami, ini referensi mereka untuk Periode Tersier.

Bumi Bencana Masa Lalu: Zaman Es terakhir
Ini akan membawa Anda ke serangkaian klip video menjelaskan Zaman Es.

 

Para Woolly Mammoth

Zaman Es
Snowball Bumi?

oleh NationalGeographic | video info

132.509 views | 376 ratings

Para ilmuwan berpikir mungkin ada waktu di mana bumi benar-benar tertutup oleh gletser. Bola Salju Bumi: Sel 8 April 8P et / pt: http://channel.nationalgeographic.com/channel/nakedscience/?source=4003

dikuratori konten dari YouTube

Terkait Kegiatan & Eksperimen
Untuk mendampingi Segmen Tersier
 

ammoths Zaman Es
Ini adalah aktivitas ruang kelas yang disampaikan oleh Nova, karena menengah ke-atas nilai. Anda harus mampu beradaptasi itu sesuai aktivitas homeschool.

Ice Age Hidup
Sumber daya ini dari Lembaga Penelitian paleontologi dan dibagi menjadi tiga rentang usia.

Iceberg Ilmu
Ini adalah download PDF. Ini mengeksplorasi kepadatan gunung es, dan dapat disesuaikan dengan usia yang berbeda jika diperlukan.

Pencarian untuk Es dan Salju
Menggunakan database Bumi Gambar (Space Shuttle gambar) dan peta dunia, siswa mengidentifikasi tempat-tempat di bumi di mana ada es dan salju, dan kemudian membuat tabel yang menunjukkan di mana mereka menemukan informasi, dan lokasi geografis dari salju dan es. Dari Dunia Pendidikan.

Membuat Perjalanan Multimedia
Siswa mengambil perjalanan melalui suara suara menjelajahi tempat-tempat yang mereka kunjungi. Mereka kemudian penelitian beberapa tempat yang mereka kunjungi dan menulis account fiktif perjalanan mereka. Disampaikan oleh Dunia Pendidikan.

Badai salju & Halaman Salju Tema
Banyak sumber daya yang berkaitan dengan badai salju, salju, gletser, longsor, dan banyak lagi. Seharusnya ada sesuatu di sini untuk mendapatkan Anda pergi dan berjalan.

Studi Tambahan Gambar untuk Anda
 

Tersier Periode Mamalia

Tersier Periode Mamalia

Batu-Umur Peralatan

Manusia Paleolitik

Kuarter Ice Age

Manusia Paleolitik

Venus dari Willendorf: Idols mencerminkan ide bersalin dan kesuburan.

Paleolitik Mastodon Berburu

Paleolitik Clan

Seni Paleolitik

definitely a Hominid.” wf=”Ardipithicus, aka: Ardi–our oldest known ancestor, who was neither human nor ape, but definitely a Hominid.” xf=”Ardipithicus, alias: Ardi – nenek moyang tertua yang dikenal kita, yang tidak manusia atau kera, tetapi jelas Hominid sebuah. “>Ardipithicus, alias: Ardi – nenek moyang tertua yang dikenal kita, yang tidak manusia atau kera, tetapi <i> jelas </ i> Hominid sebuah.

Para Kuarter
1,8 Juta Tahun Lalu melalui Hadir
 

Pada saat ini, orang di Afrika sudah menggunakan alat-alat batu. Ada beberapa zaman es, sekitar setiap 40.000 tahun. Ada topi es besar di masing-masing kutub; dan mamalia besar, seperti harimau bertaring tajam, mammoth dan mastodon, nenek moyang kuda kecil, dan serigala.

800.000 tahun yang lalu orang-orang mulai menggunakan api untuk memasak makanan mereka, yang mereka kebanyakan untuk mengais.
400.000 tahun yang lalu setidaknya ada dua kelompok orang: Neanderthal, dan Homo sapiens.
350.000 tahun yang lalu Neanderthal telah meninggalkan Afrika dan tinggal di Asia Barat dan Eropa.
75.000 tahun yang lalu orang-orang mulai mengenakan pakaian.

60.000 tahun yang lalu, mungkin dipaksa oleh iklim pada akhir zaman es, beberapa orang meninggalkan Afrika. Mereka bepergian di sepanjang pantai Asia Selatan ke India, dan kemudian ke Australia. Sebuah kemudian orang kecil lainnya pindah dari Afrika, juga; ke Asia Barat, kemudian ke Eropa dan Asia Tengah, dan China. Orang-orang ini tinggal bersama manusia Neanderthal selama beberapa waktu, tetapi dengan 30.000 tahun yang lalu semua Neanderthal telah mati.

12.000 tahun yang lalu, pada akhir zaman es terakhir, iklim yang lebih hangat, dan basah, dari apa yang sekarang ini. Semuanya tumbuh dengan baik di kondisi seperti itu. Mamalia besar seperti Sabor bergigi Macan, mammoth, dan mastodon mati. Di Amerika Utara kuda, unta, dan cheetah mati juga. Beberapa orang menggunakan tanah-jembatan yang muncul, untuk menyeberang dari Asia ke Amerika Utara.

Karena iklim yang hangat, basah, ada banyak makanan di Asia Barat, dan beberapa pemburu-pengumpul nomaden menetap di satu tempat dan segera mulai pertanian. Begitu orang di Asia Barat menjadi petani menetap mereka bisa memberi makan banyak lebih banyak orang, dan penduduk mulai tumbuh.

6.000 tahun yang lalu ada orang-orang yang tinggal di kota-kota di Asia Barat, Cina, Amerika Selatan, India, Afrika, Eropa, Amerika Utara, dan Australia.

Hari ini lebih dari setengah orang di dunia hidup di kota.

Periode Kuarter
Ini adalah fosil-Fakta-dan-teks referensi Menemukan penampilan hominid pertama.

Periode Kuarter
Dari National Geographic: selalu sumber daya yang besar.

Paleontologi & Fosil
 

Banyak orang memiliki kesan bahwa paleontologi adalah studi tentang fosil, namun sebenarnya, jauh lebih dari itu. Ini adalah studi tentang apakah fosil memberitahu kita tentang ekologi dari masa lalu. Ini menggabungkan pengetahuan tentang biologi, geologi, ekologi, antropologi, arkeologi, dan ilmu komputer, untuk memahami proses yang telah menyebabkan evolusi dan kehancuran dari berbagai jenis organisme sejak kehidupan pertama kali dimulai.

Paleontologi dibagi menjadi subdisiplin:

· Micropaleontology: Studi fosil umumnya mikroskopis, terlepas dari kelompok yang milik.
· Paleobotani: Studi tanaman fosil, biasanya mencakup studi fosil ganggang dan jamur, selain lahan fawnas.
· Palynology: Belajar serbuk sari dan spora, baik hidup maupun fosil, diproduksi oleh tumbuhan darat dan protista.
· Avertebrata Paleontologi: Studi fosil hewan invertebrata, seperti moluska, echinodermata, dan lain-lain.
· Paleontologi Vertebrata: Studi fosil vertebrata, mamalia ikan primitif.
· Manusia Paleontologi (Paleoantropologi): Studi tentang manusia prasejarah dan proto-manusia fosil.
· Taphonomy: Mempelajari proses pembusukan, pelestarian, dan pembentukan fosil umum.
· Ichnology: Studi trek fosil, jejak, dan jejak kaki.
· Paleoecology: Studi ekologi dan iklim dari masa lalu, seperti yang diungkapkan baik oleh fosil dan metode lainnya.

Paleontologi
Dari ology Museum Sejarah Alam Amerika, sebuah website yang bagus untuk anak-anak, dengan banyak untuk belajar tentang paleontologi dan fosil, melalui permainan, wisata virtual, dan kegiatan. Tapi Anda tidak perlu mengambil kata saya untuk itu!

Paleontologi Sumber Daya
Ini adalah daftar panjang dari sumber daya untuk teliti.

Fosil Koleksi Dunia
Ini adalah panjang – PANJANG daftar link tentang paleontologi, fosil, dan pendidikan

Fosil, Rocks, dan Waktu
Ini dari USGS.

Menemukan Fosil
Ini adalah ditulis besar dan dirancang untuk individu dan keluarga dari semua tingkat pengalaman.
Bagaimana Fosil-fosil tanggal
Menemukan Ardi – Bagaimana Old Apakah Ardi?

Terkait Kegiatan & Eksperimen
Untuk mendampingi Segmen Paleontologi
Bagaimana Fosil Formulir
Ada beberapa kegiatan disajikan di sini untuk Anda
Trilobite Masker
Hal ini diarahkan untuk K-4 siswa
Geologi dan Paleontologic Cookbook
Lain sumber daya yang besar harus menyenangkan untuk menyertakan beberapa resep baru atau eksperimental dalam nama pendidikan!

Membuat Fosil Amber Goreng
Lain resep terbaik untuk menambah Cookbook Paleontolog Anda ‘.

Belajar Dari Catatan Fosil
Ini adalah daftar seluruh kegiatan; harus ada sesuatu yang berharga untuk rencana pelajaran Anda!

Penemuan Pendidikan

Pelajaran rencana dan sumber daya untuk studi Sejarah Kuno, dari Pendidikan Discovery.

Bumi Sumber Daya Sejarah Pendidikan

Ini adalah daftar panjang sejarah kuno bumi-link sumber daya pendidikan yang saya datang di, aku tidak punya waktu lagi untuk sepenuhnya mengeksplorasi, tapi ada sedikit pun untuk menjadi sejumlah sumber daya yang berguna di suatu tempat di semua itu!

Geologi dan Paleontologic Cookbook

Ini benar-benar rapi! Dengan makanan penutup, makanan pembuka, dan delectables, Anda yakin untuk membuat kesan yang besar pada murid-murid Anda!

Panduan Arkeologi Sejarah Manusia

Tentang informasi yang umumnya akurat, dan, terbaik dari semua, sejumlah link untuk membantu dalam pencarian Anda. Ini sangat bagus, karena untuk setiap zaman mereka memiliki beberapa link lebih selain blurbs singkat tentang periode waktu. Ini perlu klik.

Arkeologi
Arkeologi adalah studi ilmiah tentang budaya manusia masa lalu dan perilaku, dari asal-usul manusia hingga saat ini. Arkeologi penelitian terakhir perilaku manusia melalui pemeriksaan bahan sisa-sisa masyarakat manusia sebelumnya. Ini tetap termasuk fosil (tulang diawetkan) dari manusia, tetap makanan, reruntuhan bangunan, dan manusia artefak-barang seperti alat-alat, tembikar, dan perhiasan. Dari studi mereka, para arkeolog berusaha untuk merekonstruksi cara hidup masa lalu. Arkeologi merupakan bidang penting dari antropologi, yang merupakan studi yang luas dari kebudayaan manusia dan biologi. Arkeolog berkonsentrasi studi mereka pada masyarakat masa lalu dan perubahan dalam masyarakat-masyarakat selama jangka waktu yang sangat panjang.

Arkeologi
 rencana pelajaran, cerita, power-point presentasi, dan banyak lagi. Tapi Anda tidak perlu mengambil kata saya untuk itu!

Antropologi di Internet
Smithsonian Institute telah mengumpulkan sebuah perpustakaan sumber daya arkeologi untuk guru dan siswa.

Arkeologi
Sebuah sumber daya yang mencakup daftar istilah, rencana pelajaran, dan banyak lagi.

Antropologi Virtual Library
Sebuah daftar lengkap dari link di bawah setiap pembagian Anthropiology.

Arkeologi:
Studi Humanityheologists adalah Dedicated Orang!
Arkeolog

Merekonstruksi catatan budaya punah, terutama budaya belum melek huruf: Studi, mengklasifikasikan, dan menginterpretasikan artefak, fitur arsitektur, dan jenis struktur ditemukan oleh penggalian dalam rangka untuk menentukan usia dan identitas budaya. Menetapkan urutan kronologis perkembangan budaya masing-masing dari sederhana ke tingkat lebih maju. Dapat mengkhususkan diri dalam studi periode melek peradaban besar di Timur Dekat dan Tengah dan ditunjuk arkeolog, Klasik. Dapat mengkhususkan diri dalam studi sejarah Columbus masa lalu dari Amerika dan akan ditunjuk arkeolog Sejarah.

Terkait Kegiatan dan Eksperimen
Untuk mendampingi Segmen Arkeologi
Menganalisis Artefak
Dari Meja Referensi

Kotak Sepatu Arkeologi
Lain baik tangan-aktivitas dari Meja Referensi
Pelajaran Rencana Arkeologi
Setengah lusin-pelajaran rencana

Decoding Masa Lalu
Berikut adalah tiga rencana pelajaran rinci, dengan printables menyertainya.

Sejarah adalah panduan untuk navigasi di masa yang sukar. Sejarah adalah siapa kita dan mengapa kita adalah cara kita.
 

Dave Einsel / Getty Images

Zaman Batu (dikenal para ahli sebagai era Paleolitik) dalam prasejarah manusia adalah nama yang diberikan untuk periode antara sekitar 2,5 juta dan 20.000 tahun yang lalu. Ini dimulai dengan perilaku seperti manusia awal pembuatan alat batu mentah, dan berakhir dengan berburu manusia sepenuhnya modern dan masyarakat mengumpulkan

Ardipithicus

Relatif Manusia Tertua Ditemukan
Pertama Hominid
Para ilmuwan percaya

silsilah manusia dipisahkan dari yang dari primata kadang antara enam dan delapan juta tahun yang lalu.

 Hominid pertama diyakini telah turun dari pohon dan tinggal di Afrika Savannah.

Baru-baru ini ditemukan bahwa keyakinan yang palsu. Bukti fosil ditarik dari Bad Lands dari Ethiopia (diyakini sebagai buaian manusia) telah menunjukkan kepada kita bahwa hominid pertama sebenarnya adalah arboreal – mereka tinggal di pohon! Dan sama sekali tidak harus orang-orang hominid awal menjadi bingung dengan manusia hari ini, kita telah berevolusi dari waktu ke waktu dan ada spesies yang berbeda dari hominid sebelum manusia seperti yang kita kenal saat ini, muncul menjadi ada.

Seluruh periode dapat secara luas diklasifikasikan sebagai

Zaman Batu, Lembah Indus, Neolitik-Chalcolithic, Megalithic-awal periode bersejarah Bersejarah dan Akhir.

¤ Zaman Batu

Zaman Batu di India dimulai dengan Paleolitik dan berakhir setelah Mesolithic (Zaman Batu Tengah). Para Paleolitik tanggal kembali ke era geologi Pleistosen Tengah. Situs Paleolitik berlimpah di Semenanjung India, dan ditemukan lebih menonjol di Pallavaram di Tamil Nadu, Hunsgi di Karnataka, Kuliana di Orissa, Didwana di Rajasthan, dan Bhimbetka di Madhya Pradesh.

Situs Mesolithic jauh lebih banyak daripada yang Paleolitik, dan berlokasi di seluruh negeri. Identik dengan berburu maju, memancing, dan makanan-mengumpulkan ekonomi, Mesolithic biasanya sesuai dengan Holosen pasca-Pleistosen atau awal langsung (sekitar 10.000 tahun yang lalu) periode. Awal pembuangan orang mati, dan pembentukan masyarakat band yang juga ditandai tingkat periode ini. Lukisan-lukisan batu yang menggambarkan adegan awal berburu dan ritual warisan masa yang paling luar biasa.

Zaman Neolitik ¤-Chalcolithic

Fase Neolitik-Chalcolithic yang mengikuti budaya Mesolithic, ditandai oleh kemajuan yang luar biasa dalam teknik pertanian, dan domestikasi hewan, sehingga meletakkan dasar yang kokoh bagi kehidupan pedesaan India. Pial-oleskan rumah menjamur selama beberapa desa pemukiman selama milenium SM 3 dan 2 Inamgaon dan Walki di Maharashtra, Navdatoli di Madhya Pradesh, Ahar, Balathal dan Gilund di timur Rajasthan, Budhihal, Sangankalur, Maski dan Brahmagiri di Karnataka, di barat Utnur Andhra Pradesh, Golbai di Orissa, Pandu-RAJAR-Dhibi di Bengal Barat, Chirand di Bihar dan Burzoham di Kashmir telah mengungkapkan fase Neolitik-Chalcolithic yang berbeda di India. Penggalian yang sedang berlangsung di Balathal dekat Udaipur di Rajasthan telah mengejutkan menghasilkan desa yang paling awal dikenal di India sejauh ini (tanggal radiokarbon-4.000 SM).

¤ Peradaban Lembah Indus

Sementara Neolitik-Chalcolithic situs India tidak cukup matang untuk diberi label sebagai peradaban, sekitar waktu yang sama, di atas sungai Indus dan lembah-lembah di barat laut Ghaggar India yang berbatasan dengan Pakistan, dan di Kutch dan Saurashtra di Gujarat, berkembang sebuah peradaban yang disebut untuk hari ini sebagai Peradaban Lembah Indus. Ini diperpanjang di area yang jauh lebih besar daripada peradaban lain yang sezaman. Beberapa yang terkenal Indus di India termasuk kota Dholavira, Kalibangan, Lothal, Surkotda dan Rakhigari.

¤ Situs Arkeologi Di India – Perencanaan Marvelous

Fitur yang paling menonjol dari Peradaban Lembah Indus adalah unik kotanya perencanaan dengan baik diatur jalanan, hampir selalu berorientasi sepanjang arah mata angin. Rumah-rumah terbuat dari batu bata lumpur atau baik kiln bata berbahan bakar ukuran diatur. Sebuah rumah rata-rata terdiri dari sebuah halaman sekitar yang dibangun kamar untuk tinggal di dan melaksanakan berbagai kegiatan rumah tangga.

¤ ini Konstruksi Kota

Sebuah kota Indus terdiri dari dua bagian, benteng dan kota yang lebih rendah, masing-masing dengan benteng masing-masing. Benteng itu bangunan monumental seperti Bath Lumbung Besar dan Assembly Hall.

¤ Bukti Ekonomi beradab

Agro-pastoralisme adalah andalan ekonomi peradaban. Selain itu, masyarakat pesisir juga dimanfaatkan berbagai kehidupan laut untuk subsisten mereka. Bukti untuk efek ini telah ditemukan di Kuntasi di Gujarat. Peradaban Lembah Indus juga sangat berpengalaman dalam membuat kerajinan manik-manik, keramik dan shell.

¤ Its Berkembang Dagang

Indus Lembah Peradaban dikenal untuk perdagangan, baik domestik dan asing, sistem bobot dan ukuran, naskah ditulis dan keyakinan agama. Peradaban menurun dengan 1700 SM, dan menyebabkan pertumbuhan pemukiman beberapa terfragmentasi di India Utara di dataran atas dari Sungai Gangga.
Kolektif disebut sebagai Budaya Ware Painted Gray, beberapa pemukiman penting telah digali di Ahichchatra, Hastinapura (baik di barat Uttar Pradesh) dan Purana Quilas di Delhi. Penggalian ditujukan untuk mengidentifikasi daerah-daerah yang disebutkan dalam epos besar Hindu, Mahabharata dan Ramayana.

¤ Megalitik Tahap

Pada saat Ware pemukiman Dicat Gray di utara, India Selatan melihat dominasi Budaya Megalitik. Monolit yang sederhana, sekelompok lingkaran batu atau Dolmen biasanya mencirikan sebuah situs megalitik. Agro-pastoral komunitas ini didirikan untuk memperingati baik penguburan atau untuk menggambarkan sebuah situs pemakaman yang sebenarnya. Di Kerala, megalitikum, adalah objek batu berbentuk jamur dikenal sebagai Topikal atau Kodekal.

Penggalian dilakukan di sejumlah situs megalitik telah mengungkapkan sejumlah besar artefak, menunjukkan ekonomi pastoral, perang dan perdagangan rudimenter dan pertukaran antara pemukiman.

Beberapa situs megalitik menonjol dari India Selatan yang ditemukan di Brahmagiri, Maski dan Rajan Kalur di Karnataka, Bhagimari di Maharashtraand utara dan selatan kabupaten Arcot di Tamil Nadu. Menariknya, tradisi Megalitik terus di daerah-daerah suku tertentu, terutama di kalangan Gadabas Orissa, Gonds dari Bastar, dan Bodosof timur laut India, yang masih tegak menhir (monolit) sebagai simbol peringatan untuk almarhum.

¤ Tahap Kedua Urbanisasi

Antara waktu Buddha (abad 6 SM) dan aturan dari Guptas (abad 4), selama sekitar 800 tahun, seluruh India untuk pertama kalinya mengalami transformasi paling mendalam.
Perubahan sosial, kerangka politik dan ekonomi (periode ini disebut sebagai Urbanisasi Kedua) yang pertama kali berevolusi di dataran Gangga di utara dalam konteks Buddhisme (untuk lebih lanjut, lihat Agama), secara bertahap bergeser ke seluruh negeri. Pergeseran ini membuka jaringan rute perdagangan internal dan luar negeri dengan implikasi, melihat pengenalan mata uang, dan menyaksikan berkembangnya berbagai seni dan kerajinan, termasuk keramik.

Penggalian di Kosambi, Saranath, dan Hastinapura di Uttar Pradesh, Vaishali, Rajagriha dan Bodhgaya di Bihar, Chandraketugarh di Bengal, Sisupalgarh di Orissa, Dharanikota di Andhra Pradesh, Arikamedu dekat Pondicherry, Nevasa di Maharashtra dan Vidisa di Madhya Pradesh telah mengungkapkan kota-kota benteng kencan kembali ke periode ini.

¤ Buddhis Tahap

Kota-kota awal berusaha untuk menciptakan alam semesta secara mikrokosmis, dengan benteng outsized besar yang melayani tujuan perlindungan simbolis. Buddhisme menikmati patronase yang luas dari penduduk perkotaan, termasuk raja dan pedagang, yang dibangun kuil banyak (Sanchi Saranath, Ajanta, Kaneheri, Amravati, Sanati dan Lalitgiri) melalui sumbangan populer dan kolektif. Berkat patronase kerajaan, Jainisme (untuk lebih lanjut, lihat Agama) juga menemukan pijakan di daerah tertentu. Untuk menyebutkan contoh, Khandagiri-Udayagiri di Orissa dan Mathura dekat Delhi terkenal akan Jaina indah mereka (yang berkaitan dengan Jainisme) monumen.

¤ ini Konstruksi Candi

Dalam era berikutnya, selama periode yang menandai berakhirnya Buddhisme sebagai kekuatan agama di India, penekanan bergeser untuk pembangunan kuil Brahmanical dengan gaya yang berbeda daerah seperti Nagara dan Kalinga di utara dan timur, dan Dravida dan Besara di selatan. Jainisme terus menjadi populer di saku tertentu, dan beberapa monumen terbaik dapat ditemukan di Sravanabelagola di Karnataka, dan Ellora di Maharashtra.

¤ Zaman Batu

Zaman Batu di India dimulai dengan Paleolitik

dan berakhir setelah Mesolithic (Zaman Batu Tengah). Para Paleolitik tanggal kembali ke era geologi Pleistosen Tengah. Situs Paleolitik berlimpah di Semenanjung India, dan ditemukan lebih menonjol di Pallavaram di Tamil Nadu, Hunsgi di Karnataka, Kuliana di Orissa, Didwana di Rajasthan, dan Bhimbetka di Madhya Pradesh.

Alat Dan Zaman Batu

Salah satu kemajuan yang paling penting dalam sejarah manusia adalah pengembangan dan penggunaan alat. Alat diperbolehkan hominid menjadi tuan dari lingkungan mereka, untuk berburu, untuk membangun, dan untuk melakukan tugas-tugas penting yang membuat hidup lebih mudah bagi mereka. Alat pertama terbuat dari batu. Dengan demikian, sejarawan mengacu pada periode waktu sebelum sejarah ditulis sebagai zaman batu.

Sejarawan membagi zaman batu ke dalam tiga periode yang berbeda, berdasarkan pada kecanggihan dan metode desain alat. Periode tersebut pertama adalah disebut sebagai Paleolitik atau Zaman Batu Lama. Zaman Batu Tua dimulai sekitar 2 juta tahun yang lalu dengan pengembangan alat pertama dengan Homo habilis, dan berlangsung sampai sekitar 12.000 tahun yang lalu.

Zaman Batu Tengah Mesolithic atau dimulai sekitar 12.000 tahun yang lalu, dan terus melalui sekitar 8.000 tahun yang lalu. Para Neolitik atau New Age Batu berlangsung dari 8.000 tahun sampai sekitar 5.000 tahun yang lalu

Batu Umur / Paleolitik Timelinr

Paleolitik Umur
alias: Zaman Batu
Zaman Paleolitik, atau Zaman Batu Tua, adalah era prasejarah dibedakan oleh perkembangan alat-alat batu pertama, dan mencakup sekitar 99% dari sejarah teknologi manusia. Ini meluas dari pengenalan alat-alat batu oleh hominid seperti Homo habilis 2,5 atau 2.6mya, pengenalan pertanian dan akhir Pleistosen sekitar 12.000 BP.

Selama Paleolitik, manusia dikelompokkan bersama dalam masyarakat kecil seperti band, dan hidup dari dengan mengumpulkan tanaman dan berburu binatang liar atau memulung. Paleolitik ditandai dengan penggunaan alat-alat batu knapped, meskipun pada saat manusia juga digunakan kayu dan alat-alat tulang. Komoditas organik lain diadaptasi untuk digunakan sebagai alat, termasuk serat kulit dan sayuran, namun, karena sifat mereka, ini belum diawetkan untuk setiap gelar besar. Penggabungan artefak dari era Paleolitik dikenal sebagai Paleoliths. Manusia secara bertahap berevolusi dari anggota awal dari genus Homo seperti sebagai Homo habilis – yang menggunakan alat-alat batu sederhana – menjadi sepenuhnya perilaku manusia modern dan anatomis (Homo sapiens sapiens) selama era Paleolitik. Selama akhir Paleolitik, khususnya Tengah dan atau Paleolitik Atas, manusia mulai memproduksi karya-karya awal seni dan terlibat dalam perilaku keagamaan dan spiritual seperti pemakaman dan ritual. Iklim selama Paleolitik terdiri dari satu set periode glasial dan interglasial di mana iklim berkala berfluktuasi antara suhu hangat dan dingin.

Paleolitik Istilah ini diciptakan oleh arkeolog John Lubbock pada tahun 1865. Ini berasal dari bahasa Yunani:; “. Zaman Batu Tua” Palaios “lama” dan Lithos, “batu”, secara harfiah berarti “usia tua dari batu” atau

Seni Paleolitik
Gua-Lukisan
 

Seni dari periode waktu yang intriguity, memberikan kita sekilas ke dalam pikiran orang-orang lalu panjang. Saya pikir gambar-gambar ini berbicara kepada kita semua pada beberapa tingkat naluriah dan primitif.

Seni Paleolitik
Umumnya, About.com menyediakan sumber daya yang layak, dan mereka pergi ke detail tentang asal-usul seni gua dari usia Paleolitik, dan dunia di sekitar manusia purba selama waktu ini.

Gua Lascaux
Ini adalah tur virtual dari gua-gua Lascaux, sumber daya luar biasa yang disediakan oleh pemerintah Perancis. Gua ini tertutup untuk umum, tetapi Anda dapat membayangkan diri Anda di dalam dengan tur online.

Periode Mesolithic
alias: Epipaleolithic
 

Epipaleolithic berarti “Paleolitik atas akhir” dan mengacu pada industri yang terjadi pada akhir akhir glaciation (10.000 BP), yang muncul untuk menggabungkan teknologi ke dalam Mesolithic. Selama waktu periode komunitas pertanian mulai didirikan, manusia berburu dan memancing, dan orang-orang mulai menjinakkan hewan dan ternak. Perubahan iklim melibatkan pemanasan global cepat planet ini, yang mengubah habitat hewan dan mengangkat permukaan air laut

Budaya di seluruh dunia

telah hematit digunakan untuk membuat pigmen merah oker sejak Paleolitik (Batu Zaman). Di bawah ini adalah oker merah (dan karbon hitam) wisent (bison Eropa) di Gua Altamira, Spanyol.

Hal yang rapi tentang oker adalah bahwa analisis geokimia sering dapat mengidentifikasi asal (di mana ia ditambang) dari pigmen – misalnya: Iriate, E., et al. 2009. Asal dan Karakterisasi geokimia dari ochres Merah dari Bustillo Tito dan Castillo Monte Gua (Spanyol Utara). Archaeometry 51: 231-251.

Gua singa, di Swaziland, Afrika selatan, adalah salah satu tambang tertua oker hematit yang kita tahu telah tanggal kembali ke 43.000 tahun. Perempuan Afrika selatan masih menggunakan oker untuk mempercantik diri (wanita di bawah ini dari suku Himba Namibia).

Pigmen Ochre adalah umum di Dunia Baru juga. Batupasir merah dari wilayah Dataran Tinggi Colorado merah karena hematit dan digunakan sebagai pigmen oleh Anasazi dan penduduk asli Amerika lainnya. Para pictograph di bawah ini adalah dari Galeri Agung yang mendalam di Taman Nasional Canyonlands Utah (Aku cinta gambar ini -???? Apa yang mereka Hantu Dukun Kachina-seperti dewa).

Saya masih memiliki beberapa sepasang kaus kaki putih bernoda sebelumnya merah dari tanah merah Utah dari hiking di Moab di Taman Nasional Arches.

Kuning oker, di sisi lain, adalah bentuk pada besi terhidrasi (III) hidroksida (FeO (OH) • nH2O). Ini biasanya disebut limonit namun limonit bukan nama mineral benar (meskipun itu biasanya digunakan oleh ahli geologi). Limonit sebenarnya merupakan campuran dari mineral hidroksida besi yang berbeda yang biasanya terbentuk ketika air kaya zat besi pertemuan oksigen atmosfer (dan biasanya dibantu oleh bakteri pengikat Fe) – maka nama “rawa besi” untuk deposit sedimen mineral ini.

Besi bog ini pernah menjadi bijih besi penting di Eropa Utara untuk orang-orang seperti Viking (inilah sebuah situs web yang menarik tentang ini). Ini juga digunakan sebagai pigmen cat. Di bawah ini adalah kura-kura oker kuning dan merah dari Taman Nasional Kakadu, Australia.

Roweromaniak

Pra-Tembikar Neolitik (disingkat PPN) adalah nama yang diberikan kepada orang-orang yang paling awal domestikasi tanaman dan tinggal di pertanian masyarakat di kawasan Mediterania timur dan Timur Dekat. Budaya PPN berisi sebagian besar atribut kita berpikir tentang Neolitik – kecuali tembikar, yang tidak digunakan di wilayah sampai ca. 5500 SM

english version

 

INTRODUCTIONS

 

The Tertiary Period

65 Million Years Ago–1.8 Million Years Ago

 

This time period begin with the catastrophe that killed the dinosaurs, approximately 65 million years ago(mya), and allowed for the rise of mammals. They call it “the age of mammals”, but it just as easily could have been named the “age of flowering plants” or the “age of insects”.

During this time, continents continued to drift apart, and 60 mya California ran into North America, creating the Rocky Mountains.
55 mya India crashed into Asia, and gave us the Himalayas.
30 mya Africa crashed into Europe and the Alps were born.

6-8 mya the first hominids (Note: ‘hominid’ does not necessary mean ‘human’.) evolved.
By 2.5 mya people were using stone tools, and we entered Paleolithic human history.

The Tertiary ended with the planet’s cooling causing the last big ice age, about 1.8 mya.

Tertiary Period
From the Kidipede, this is a nice overview on a kids’ level–and what-do-you-know?!–it has a picture of my favorite animal on it!

The Tertiary Period
From Fossils-Facts-and-Finds, which we’ve been utilizing as one of our main texts, this it their reference to the Tertiary Period.

Earth’s Catastrophic Past: The Last Ice Age
This will lead you to a series of video clips explaining the Ice Age.

 

The Woolly Mammoth

The Ice Age

Snowball Earth?

by NationalGeographic | video info


376 ratings | 132,509 views

Scientists think there may have been a time where Earth was completely covered by glaciers. Snow Ball Earth : TUES APRIL 8 8P et/pt : http://channel.nationalgeographic.com/channel/nakedscience/?source=4003

curated content from YouTube

Related Activities & Experiments

To Accompany the Tertiary Segment

 

ammoths of the Ice Age
This is a classroom activity presented by Nova; for middle-to-upper grades. You should be able to adapt it to suit a homeschool activity.

Ice Age Life
These resources are from the Paleontological Research Institution and divided into three age ranges.

Iceberg Science
This is a PDF download. It explores iceberg density, and can be tailored to suit different ages if necessary.

Search for Ice and Snow
Using an Earth Image database (Space Shuttle images) and world map, students identify places on Earth where there is ice and snow, and then create a table showing where they found the information, and the geographic location of the snow and ice. From Education World.

Creating a Multimedia Journey
Students take a journey through sound exploring the sounds of the places they visit. They then research some of the places they visit and write a fictional account of their journey. Presented by Education World.

Blizzards & Snow Theme Page
Numerous resources relating to blizzards, snow, glaciers, avalanches, and more. There ought to be something here to get you off and running.

Images to Supplement Your Studies

 

Tertiary-Period Mammal

Tertiary-Period Mammal

Stone-Age Tools

Paleolithic Man

Quaternary Ice Age

Paleolithic Man

Venus from Willendorf:Idols reflecting the idea of maternity and fertility.

Paleolithic Mastodon Hunt

Paleolithic Clan

Paleolithic Art

Ardipithicus, aka: Ardi–our oldest known ancestor, who was neither human nor ape, but <i>definitely</i> a Hominid.

The Quaternary

1.8 Million Years Ago through the Present

 

By this time, people in Africa were already using stone tools. There were a number of ice ages, about every 40,000 years. There were big ice caps at each of the poles; and big mammals, like the saber-toothed tigers, mammoths and mastodons, small ancestors of horses, and wolves.

800,000 years ago people began using fire to cook their food, which they mostly foraged for.
400,000 years ago there were at least two groups of people: the Neanderthals, and Homo Sapiens.
350,000 years ago the Neanderthals had left Africa and were living in West Asia and Europe.
75,000 years ago people had begun to wear clothes.

60,000 years ago, probably compelled by the climate at the end of an ice age, some people left Africa. They traveled along the coast of South Asia into India, and then on to Australia. A little later other people moved out of Africa, too; into West Asia, then into Europe and Central Asia, and China. These people lived alongside the Neanderthals for a time, but by 30,000 years ago all of the Neanderthals had died out.

12,000 years ago, at the end of the most recent ice age, the climate was warmer, and wetter, than what it is today. Everything grew well in such conditions. Large mammals like the Sabor-Toothed Tigers, Mammoths, and Mastodons died out. In North America horses, camels, and cheetahs died out, too. Some peoples used the land-bridge that appeared, to cross over from Asia into North America.

Because of the warmer, wetter climate, there was plenty of food in West Asia, and some nomadic hunter-gatherers settled in one place and soon began farming. Once people in West Asia became settled farmers they could feed lots more people, and the population began to grow.

6,000 years ago there were people living in cities in West Asia, China, South America, India, Africa, Europe, North America, and Australia.

Today more than half the people in the world live in cities.

The Quaternary Period
This is Fossil-Facts-and-Finds text reference of the appearance of the first hominids.

Quaternary Period
From National Geographic: always a great resource.

Paleontology & Fossils

 

Many people have the impression that paleontology is the study of fossils, but actually, it is much more than that. It is the study of what fossils tell us about the ecologies of the past. It incorporates knowledge of biology, geology, ecology, anthropology, archeology, and computer science, to understand the processes that have led to the evolution and destruction of the different types of organisms since life first began.

PALEONTOLOGY IS DIVIDED INTO SUBDISCIPLINES:

  • ·  Micropaleontology: The study of generally microscopic fossils, regardless of the group the belong to.
  • ·  Paleobotany: The study of fossil plants; typically includes the study of fossil algae and fungi, in addition to land-fawnas.
  • ·  Palynology: Studying pollen and spores, both living and fossilized, produced by land plants and protists.
  • ·  Invertebrate Paleontology: The study of invertebrate animal fossils, like mollusks, echinoderms, and others.
  • ·  Vertebrate Paleontology: Study of vertebrate fossils, primitive fishes to mammals.
  • ·  Human Paleontology (Paleoanthropology): The study of prehistoric human and proto-human fossils.
  • ·  Taphonomy: Studying the processes of decay, preservation, and the general formation of fossils.
  • ·  Ichnology: The study of fossil tracks, trails, and footprints.
  • ·  Paleoecology: The study of the ecology and climate of the past, as revealed both by fossils and other methods. 


    Paleontology

    From the American Natural History Museum’s Ology, a great site for kids, with lots to learn about paleontology and fossils, through games, virtual tours, and activities. But you don’t have to take my word for it!
     


    Paleontology Resources

    This is a long list of resources for your perusal.
    Fossil Collections of the World


    This is a long–LONG list of links regarding paleontology, fossils, and education
    Fossils, Rocks, and Time


    This from USGS.
    Discovering Fossils


    This is a great  written and designed for individuals and families of all levels of experience.

How Fossils are Dated

Discovering Ardi – How Old Is Ardi?  

Related Activities & Experiments

To Accompany the Paleontology Segment

How Fossils Form
There are several activities presented here for you
Trilobite Masks

This is geared toward K-4 students
Geologic and Paleontologic Cookbook

Another great resource  should be fun to include some new or experimental recipes in the name of education!

Make Edible Amber Fossils
Another great recipe to add to your Paleontologists’ Cookbook.

Learning From the Fossil Record
This is a whole list of activities; there should be something valuable for your lesson plans!

Discovery Education

Lesson plans and resources for study of Ancient History, from Discovery Education.

Earth History Educational Resource

This is a long list of ancient earth-history educational resource links that I came across; I haven’t had time yet to fully explore it, but there aught to be a number of useful resources somewhere in all of it!

Geologic and Paleontologic Cookbook

This is really neat! With desserts, appetizers, and delectables, you’re sure to make a big impression on your pupils!

Archaeological Guide to Human History

About generally accurate information, and, best of all, numerous links to assist in your searches. This is particularly nice, because for each era they have several more links in addition to short blurbs regarding the time period. It’s worth a click. 

Archaeology

Archeology is the scientific study of past human culture and behavior, from the origins of humans to the present. Archaeology studies past human behavior through the examination of material remains of previous human societies. These remains include the fossils (preserved bones) of humans, food remains, the ruins of buildings, and human artifacts-items such as tools, pottery, and jewelry. From their studies, archaeologists attempt to reconstruct past ways of life. Archaeology is an important field of anthropology, which is the broad study of human culture and biology. Archaeologists concentrate their studies on past societies and changes in those societies over extremely long periods of time.

Archaeology
 lesson plans, stories, power-point presentations, and more. But you don’t have to take my word for it!

Anthropology on the Internet
The Smithsonian Institute has put together a library of archaeology resources for teachers and students.

Archeology
A resource that includes a glossary of terms, lesson plans, and more.

 

Anthropology Virtual Library
A comprehensive listing of links under every subdivision of Anthropiology.

 

Archaeology:

The Study of Humanityheologists are Dedicated People!

Archeologists

 

Reconstructs record of extinct cultures, especially preliterate cultures: Studies, classifies, and interprets artifacts, architectural features, and types of structures recovered by excavation in order to determine age and cultural identity. Establishes chronological sequence of development of each culture from simpler to more advanced levels. May specialize in study of literate periods of major civilizations in Near and Middle East and be designated Archeologist, Classical. May specialize in study of past Columbian history of the Americas and be designated Historical Archeologist.

 

Related Activities and Experiments

To Accompany the Archaeology Segment 

Analyzing Artifacts
From the  Reference Desk

Shoe Box Archaeology
Another good hands-on activity from the  Reference Desk
Archaeology Lesson Plans

Half-a-dozen lesson plans

Decoding the Past
Here are three detailed lesson plans, with accompanying printables.

History is a guide to navigation in perilous times. History is who we are and why we are the way we are.
 

Dave Einsel / Getty Images

The Stone Age (known to scholars as the Paleolithic era) in human prehistory is the name given to the period between about 2.5 million and 20,000 years ago. It begins with the earliest human-like behaviors of crude stone tool manufacture, and ends with fully modern human hunting and gathering societies 

Ardipithicus

Human’s Oldest Relative Found

The First Hominids

Scientists believe

the human lineage split from that of the primate sometime between six and eight million years ago.

 The first hominids were believed to have come down from the trees and lived on the African Savannah.

Recently is was discovered that that belief was false. The fossil evidence pulled from the Bad Lands of Ethiopia (believed to be the cradle of man) has shown us that the first hominids actually were arboreal–they lived in trees! And in no way should those early hominids be confused with the humans of today; we have evolved over time and there were many different species of hominids before man as we know him today, came into existence.

The entire period can be broadly classified as

Stone Age, Indus Valley, Neolithic-Chalcolithic, Megalithic-Early Historic and Late Historic periods.

¤ The Stone Age

The Stone Age in India begins with the Paleolithic and terminates after the Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age). The Paleolithic dates back to the geological era of Middle Pleistocene. Paleolithic sites abound in Peninsular India, and are found more prominently at Pallavaram in Tamil Nadu, Hunsgi in Karnataka, Kuliana in Orissa, Didwana in Rajasthan, and
Bhimbetka in Madhya Pradesh.

The Mesolithic sites far outnumber the Paleolithic ones, and are located all over the country. Synonymous with the advanced hunting, fishing, and food-gathering economy, Mesolithic usually corresponds to the immediate post-Pleistocene or early Holocene (about 10,000 years ago) period. The beginning of the disposal of dead, and the formation of band level society also characterised this period. The early rock paintings depicting hunting and ritual scenes are the period’s most remarkable legacies.

¤ The Neolithic-Chalcolithic Age

The Neolithic-Chalcolithic phase that followed the Mesolithic culture, was marked by remarkable progress in the techniques of agriculture, and domestication of animals, thus laying down a firm foundation for India’s rural life.  Wattle-dab houses mushroomed over several village settlements during the 3rd and 2nd millennium B.C. Inamgaon and Walki in Maharashtra, Navdatoli in Madhya Pradesh, Ahar, Balathal and Gilund in eastern Rajasthan, Budhihal, Sangankalur, Maski and Brahmagiri in Karnataka, Utnur in western Andhra Pradesh, Golbai in Orissa, Pandu-Rajar-Dhibi in West Bengal, Chirand in Bihar and Burzoham in Kashmir have revealed a distinct Neolithic-Chalcolithic phase in India. The ongoing excavation at Balathal near Udaipur in Rajasthan has surprisingly yielded the earliest known village in India so far (radiocarbon-dated 4,000 B.C.).

 

¤ Indus Valley Civilisation

While the Neolithic-Chalcolithic sites of India were not matured enough to be labelled as civilisations, around the same time, over the Indus and Ghaggar river valleys in northwest India bordering Pakistan, and in Kutch and Saurashtra in Gujarat, flourished a civilisation that is referred to today as the Indus Valley Civilisation. It extended over an area that was much larger than any of the other civilisations that were its contemporaries. Some well-known Indus cities in India include Dholavira, Kalibangan, Lothal, Surkotda and Rakhigari.

¤ Archaeological Sites In India – Marvelous Planning

The most outstanding feature of the Indus Valley Civilisation was its unique town planning with well-regulated streets, oriented almost invariably along the cardinal directions. The houses were made of either mud bricks or kiln-fired bricks of regulated sizes. An average house consisted of a courtyard around which rooms were constructed to live in and carry out various household activities.

¤ The Construction of Towns

An Indus town consisted of two parts, the citadel and the lower town, each with their respective fortifications. The citadel had monumental buildings like the Great Bath the Granary and the Assembly Hall.

¤ Evidence of Civilized Economy

Agro-pastoralism was the mainstay of the civilisation’s economy. Besides, coastal communities also exploited a wide range of marine life for their subsistence. Ample evidence to this effect has been found in Kuntasi in Gujarat. The Indus Valley Civilisation was also very well versed in the craft of bead making, ceramics and shell.

¤ Its Flourishing Trade

The Indus Valley Civilisation was known for its trade, both domestic and foreign, its system of weights and measures, its written script and religious beliefs. The civilisation declined by 1700 B.C., and led to the growth of several fragmented settlements in North India in the upper plains of the River Ganges.
Collectively termed as the Painted Gray Ware Culture, some of its important settlements have been excavated at Ahichchatra, Hastinapura (both in western Uttar Pradesh) and Purana Quilas in Delhi. The excavations were aimed at identifying areas mentioned in the great Hindu epics, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana.

¤ Megalithic Phase

At the time of the Painted Gray Ware settlements in the north, South India saw the predominance of the Megalithic Culture. Simple monoliths, a cluster of stone circles or dolmens usually characterise a megalithic site. Agro-pastoral communities erected these either to commemorate a burial or to depict an actual burial site. In Kerala, the megaliths, are mushroom-shaped stone objects known as Topikal or Kodekal.

Excavations conducted in a number of megalithic sites have revealed a substantial amount of artifacts, indicative of a pastoral economy, warfare and rudimentary trade and exchange between settlements.

Some prominent megalithic sites of South India are found at Brahmagiri, Maski and Rajan Kalur in Karnataka, Bhagimari in Maharashtraand the north and south Arcot districts in Tamil Nadu. Interestingly, the Megalithic tradition has continued in certain tribal areas, especially among the Gadabas of Orissa, Gonds of Bastar, and the Bodosof northeast India, who still erect menhirs (monoliths) as commemorative symbols for the deceased.

¤ Second Urbanisation Phase

Between the time of the Buddha (6th century B.C.) and the rule of the Guptas (4th century A.D.), for about 800 years, the whole of India for the first time underwent a most profound transformation.
The changing social, political and economic framework (the period is termed as the Second Urbanisation) that had first evolved in the plains of the Ganges in the north within the context of Buddhism (for more, see Religion), gradually shifted to the rest of the country. The shift opened up a network of internal and overseas trade routes with far reaching implications, saw the introduction of currency, and witnessed a flourishing of numerous arts and crafts, including ceramics.

Excavations at Kosambi, Saranath, and Hastinapura in Uttar Pradesh, Vaishali, Rajagriha and Bodhgaya in Bihar, Chandraketugarh in Bengal, Sisupalgarh in Orissa, Dharanikota in Andhra Pradesh, Arikamedu near Pondicherry, Nevasa in Maharashtra and Vidisa in Madhya Pradesh have revealed fortified cities dating back to this period.

¤ The Buddhist Phase

The early cities attempted to recreate the universe in a microcosmic manner, with large outsized ramparts that served the purpose of symbolic protection. Buddhism enjoyed wide patronage from urban dwellers, including kings and merchants, who constructed numerous shrines (Sanchi Saranath, Ajanta, Kaneheri, Amravati, Sanati and Lalitgiri) through popular and collective donations. Thanks to royal patronage,Jainism (for more, see Religion) also found a foothold in certain areas. To cite examples, Khandagiri-Udayagiri in Orissa and Mathura near Delhi are noted for their splendid Jaina (pertaining to Jainism)monuments.

¤ The Construction of Temples

In the subsequent eras, during the period marking the end of Buddhism as a religious force in India, the emphasis shifted to the construction of Brahmanical temples with distinct regional styles such as the Nagara and Kalinga in the north and the east, and the Dravida and Besara in the south. Jainism continued to be popular in certain pockets, and some of its finest monuments can be found at Sravanabelagola in Karnataka, and Ellora in Maharashtra.

¤ The Stone Age

The Stone Age in India begins with the Paleolithic

and terminates after the Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age). The Paleolithic dates back to the geological era of Middle Pleistocene. Paleolithic sites abound in Peninsular India, and are found more prominently at Pallavaram in Tamil Nadu, Hunsgi in Karnataka, Kuliana in Orissa, Didwana in Rajasthan, and Bhimbetka in Madhya Pradesh.

Tools And The Stone Age

One of the most important advancements in human history was the development and use of tools. Tools allowed hominids to become the masters of their environments, to hunt, to build, and to perform important tasks that made life easier for them. The first tools were made out of stone. Thus, historians refer to the period of time before written history as the stone age.

Historians divide the stone age into three different periods, based on the sophistication and methods of tool design. The first such period is referred to as the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age. The Old Stone Age began about 2 million years ago with the development of the first tools by Homo Habilis, and lasted until around 12,000 years ago.

The Mesolithic or Middle Stone Age began around 12,000 years ago, and continued through about 8,000 years ago. The Neolithic or New Stone Age lasted from 8,000 years until around 5,000 years ago

Stone Age/Paleolithic Timelinr

The Paleolithic Age

aka: The Stone Age

The Paleolithic Age, or Old Stone Age, is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of the first stone tools, and covers roughly 99% of human technological history. It extends from the introduction of stone tools by hominids such as Homo habilis 2.5 or 2.6mya, to the introduction of agriculture and the end of the Pleistocene around 12,000 BP.

During the Paleolithic, humans grouped together in small societies such as bands, and subsisted by gathering plants and hunting or scavenging wild animals. The Paleolithic is characterized by the use of knapped stone tools, although at the time humans also used wood and bone tools. Other organic commodities were adapted for use as tools, including leather and vegetable fibers; however, due to their nature, these have not been preserved to any great degree. Surviving artifacts of the Paleolithic era are known as Paleoliths. Humankind gradually evolved from early members of the genus Homo such as Homo habilis – who used simple stone tools – into fully behaviorally and anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens sapiens) during the Paleolithic era. During the end of the Paleolithic, specifically the Middle and or Upper Paleolithic, humans began to produce the earliest works of art and engage in religious and spiritual behavior such as burial and ritual. The climate during the Paleolithic consisted of a set of glacial and interglacial periods in which the climate periodically fluctuated between warm and cool temperatures.

The term Paleolithic was coined by archaeologist John Lubbock in 1865. It derives from Greek: palaios “old”; and lithos, “stone”, literally meaning “old age of the stone” or “Old Stone Age.”

Paleolithic Art

Cave-Painting

 

Art from this time-period is intriguity, it gives us a glimpse into the minds of long ago people. I think these images speak to all of us on some instinctive and primal level.

Paleolithic Art
Generally, About.com provides decent resources, and they go into detail about the origins of cave art from the paleolithic age, and the world around early man during this time.

The Cave of Lascaux
This is a virtual tour of the caves of Lascaux, a wonderful resource provided by the French government. These caves are closed to the public, but you can imagine yourself inside with this online tour.

The Mesolithic Period

aka: Epipaleolithic

 

Epipaleolithic means “final upper Paleolithic” and refers to industries occurring at the end of the final glaciation (10,000BP), which appears to merge technologically into the Mesolithic. During this time period farming communities began to be established, humans hunted and fished, and people began to domesticate animals and livestock. Climatic changes involved the rapid global warming of the planet, which changed animal habitats and raised sea levels

Cultures around the world

have used hematite to make red ochre pigment since the Paleolithic (Stone Age).  Below is a red ochre (and carbon black) wisent (European bison) in Altamira Cave, Spain.

The neat thing about ochre is that geochemical analysis can often identify the provenance (where it was mined) of the pigment – for example: Iriate, E., et al. 2009. The Origin and Geochemical Characterization of Red Ochres from the Tito Bustillo and Monte Castillo Caves (Northern Spain). Archaeometry 51: 231-251.

Lion Cave, in Swaziland, southern Africa, is one of the oldest hematite ochre mines we know of having been dated back to 43,000 years old.  Women is southern Africa still use ochre to beautify themselves (the woman below is from the Himba tribe of Namibia).

Ochre pigment is common in the New World as well.  The red sandstones of the Colorado Plateau region are red because of hematite and were used as pigment by the Anasazi and other Native Americans.  The pictograph below is from the Grand Gallery deep in Canyonlands National Park of Utah (I love this picture – what are they?  Ghosts?  Shamans? Kachina-like gods?).

I still have a few pair of formerly white socks stained red from Utah red dirt from hiking around Moab in Arches National Park.

Yellow ochre, on the other hand, is a form on hydrated iron(III) hydroxide (FeO(OH) • nH2O).  It’s usually called limonite but limonite is not a true mineral name (although it’s commonly used by geologists).  Limonite is actually a mixture of different iron hydroxide minerals which typically form when iron-rich water encounters atmospheric oxygen (and typically helped along by Fe-fixing bacteria) – hence the name “bog iron” for sedimentary deposits of this mineral.

Bog iron was once an important ore of iron in Northern Europe for people like the Vikings (here’s an interesting web site about this).  It was also used as a paint pigment.  Below is a yellow and red ochre turtle from Kakadu National Park, Australia.

Roweromaniak

The Pre-Pottery Neolithic (abbreviated PPN) is the name given to the people who domesticated the earliest plants and lived in farming communities in the Levant and Near East. The PPN culture contained most of the attributes we think of Neolithic–except pottery, which was not used in the region until ca. 5500 BC

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2012

The Adventure Of IBN BATTUTA Historic Collections

 

Ibn battuta

Historic collections

 

Created by

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Private limited E-Book in CD-ROM edition

Copyright @ Dr Iwan 2012

THIS THE SAMPLE OF e-book WITHOUT ILLUSTRATUIONS, THE COMPLETE cd-rom EXIST ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER,PLEASE SUBSCRIBE VIA COMMENT.

 references

     

        Ibn Battuta stayed in Fathabad, a suburb of Bukhara, where there was a large zaviya and a mausoleum, which struck him by its dimensions, near the tomb of a sacred hermit Saif at-Din al-Baharzi. The Sheikh of the zaviya invited Ibn Battuta to his place, as well as all notables of the city, and ‘…reciters read the holy Koran in their pleasant voices, while the preacher made a sermon. They sang wonderful songs in Turkic and Persian. That was the most wonderful night of all nights.’ There is nothing like these lively details retained in the memory of an inquisitive and well-wishing person! And there are a lot of such excerpts in the manuscript, that is why the book is considered a masterpiece of rihla – geographic description of a country a traveller saw with his own eyes. Biographies of historical personalities often contain data that cannot be found in other sources.

        The next city Ibn Battuta visited was Samarkand. ‘It is one of the largest and most beautiful cities,’ Ibn Battuta writes, and remarks with bitterness that ‘most of Samarkand was turned into a shambles.’ The traveler could not but admire the beautiful mausoleums of the Shah-in-Zinda ensemble. He made special mention of a Muslim sanctity – the tomb of Sheikh Kusan ibn-Abbas of whom a legend says that he is Prophet Mukhammad’s cousin. ‘Over the grave is erected a dome on four supports, each of them flanked with twin marble columns of green, black, white and red colours. The walls of the mausoleum are decorated with multicoloured gilded inlay; its roof is covered with lead; the tomb is made of inlaid ebony, with silver-studded corners, and three silver lamps are hung inside. The floor of the mausoleum is covered with wool and cotton carpets…’

        From Samarkand the Moroccan traveler set his feet to Termez, which was a large city for that time, with beautiful buildings and market-places and an abundance of orchards and vineyards. Ibn Battuta pointed out some curious details of local everyday life. ‘In the baths city dwellers wash their heads with sour milk,’ he recalls. ‘Each bathhouse attendant has a lot of jugs filled with sour milk. Everyone who comes to the baths pours some milk into a small bowl and washes his head. This milk freshens the hair and makes it soft…’

        Of great importance for historians are Ibn Battuta’s data on the movement of sarbedars, which started in Khorasan in the 1330s as an expression of social and political protest of representatives of the middle class against the policy of Mongolian invaders. In 1365 the sarbedars headed an uprising in Samarkand and won. Their independent state existed in Khorasan from 1337 through 1381. They had their own army, minted their own coins, and abolished some taxes imposed by the Mongols. Meanwhile, there is practically no evidence of eyewitnesses about this movement in written sources

Abu Abdallah ibn Battuta was born in 1304 in Tangier, Morocco, across the Strait of Gibraltar from Spain. He came from a Muslim family of legal scholars and judges. Like them, he studied the Sharia, the sacred law of the Muslims based on the Koran and the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad. This prepared him to become a qadi, a Muslim judge.

Because of the gold trade, several successive empires arose in West Africa south of the Sahara. The Empire of Mali took over this area in the early 1200s and soon adopted Islam as its official religion. Mali included many different African peoples as well as Arab and Berber immigrants. Its gold financed a strong army of bowmen and an armored cavalry. But the real source of Mali’s success was its flourishing commerce with Muslim merchants and caravan traders. Africans traded gold, ivory, hides, and slaves for Arab and Berber salt, cloth, paper, and horses. The peak of Mali power and wealth took place under Mansa Musa and his successor, Mansa Sulayman whom Ibn Battuta met on his journey

 

Timbuktu was founded around 1100 as a market town bordering the Sahara. Almost from the beginning, it seems to have been a Muslim town. It was self-governing until Mansa Musa annexed it without bloodshed to the Mali Empire in 1325. Even after that, the city continued running its own affairs with little control from the Mali kings. Black African farmers and river people as well as white Arab and Berber merchants populated the city, making it an ethnically mixed settlement. It became known as a place open to newcomers and a city of refuge

 

 

 

ANCIENT MECCA

 

Ibn Battuta’s Journey to the Hajj
Ibn Battuta arrived to southeren china in 1346
1325

At age 21, Ibn Battuta left his parents to go on a hajj. This was a pilgrimage to Mecca, the holy city of Islam. After traveling across North Africa to Egypt, he took a detour through Palestine and Syria.

After Ibn Battuta studied for a while in Mecca, he left in 1328 to make his way down the Red Sea. He boarded a trading ship and sailed halfway down the east coast of Africa. Muslim merchants had established trading ports in East Africa, mainly to trade for African gold. Ibn Battuta next traveled north through the Middle East and Persia to Russia and then eastward into Central Asia

 

Ibn Battuta had decided to cross the sea and take the longer route to reach India. He spent about a month or more in Sinope waiting for a favorable wind to take him and his companions to the Crimean peninsula.

The ship’s captain, for some reason, decided to launch into the open sea and make a straight course for the Crimea instead of keeping close to the coasts. A storm had hit them three nights later, nearly blowing back to Sinope. The storm passed a few days later, and Ibn and his companions disembarked somewhere along the rural Crimean coast, not in a port. In al-Qiram, he traveled under the imperial escort of Tuluktemur to Azak. Near Azak, he was able to meet with Ozbeg khan, who was currently not at New Saray. Ibn Battuta was amazed by how women were treated in Mongol states. He had met with one of Ozbeg’s khatuns, or wives, and later joined her on a journey to Constantinople where she gave birth to her child. Apparently, she was the daughter of Andronicus III. After a month, he reached Astrakhan, and after finding out Ozbeg returned to New Saray, he set off once again. Ibn Battuta found the capital city “of boundless size” and “choked with its inhabitants.” From New Saray, he traveled south to Sarachik and traveled parts of Khawrzim, Transoxiana, and possibly Khurasan.

Ibn Battuta decided to travel from Anatolia to India by taking an alternative route across the Black Sea and the Central Asian Steppe. Along the route Ibn witnessed a high amount of violence and storms. For example, at the port of Kerch, he saw people trying to signal his ship not to dock and feared there may have been pirates. The following quote was during a violent storm experienced on the Black Sea:

We were in the sore of straits and destruction visibly before our eyes. I was in the cabin along with a man named Abu Bakr, and I bade him to go up on deck to observe the state of the sea. He did so and came back to me in the cabin saying to me “I commend you to God.”

Customs under Mongol and Turkish rule were immensely different from his hometown. In Persia, Ibn traveled under the mahalla of the Mongol King to al-Qiram and took a 700 mile wagon journey with the imperial court under the supervision of guides. Over the next year, Ibn traveled across Turkey in two and four wheeled carts. In May 1332 he had the privelege of traveling with the Ozbeg khan. He realized women were treated different under Mongol Rule. Mongol women had freedom, respect, and were near equal to men, which was different than the customs of Arab countries. Islamic customs were also different. In 1332-1333, Ibn traveled through: Astrakhan, New Saray, Sarachik, Ugench, Bukhara, Nakhshab, Samarkand, Tirmidh, Balkh, Qunduz, Charikar, and Kabul before arriving in Ghazna. He may have also taken a detour west from Balkh. From Ghazna Ibn moved southward in the company of merchants and arrived in India with 4,000 horses. They traveled through the Sulayman Mountains through the Khyber pass. On September 12, 1333 he reached the Indus River. Ibn Battuta was about to become a servant to Muhammad Tughluq at the court of Delhi.

 

Ibn Battuta crossed the Black Sea to Kaffa. There was only one mosque in the town since most of the people were Christians and Ibn Battuta was not very happy when the church bell rang. When he got ot al-Qiram he heard some good news. He could make the 700 mile trip to the Volga River with the King of the Golden Horde. So he bought 3 caravans and rushed to catch up to the king. Soon they caught up to the Khan, Ozbeg, and Ibn Battuta met with him an described the treatment of the women. He also described the food eaten by these Turks and was shocked about the fact that they drank an alchoholic drink called buza, he reminds me of Dr. Drew whenever he shows such disapproval to the drinks and drugs of a region. When they reached Astrakan it was discovered that the 3rd wife of the Khan was pregnant. So she was given permisssion to go and visit her father in Constantinople and Ibn Battuta got permission to go with her. Ibn Battuta stayed in Constantinople for a month and got to meet the emperor, Andronicus lll. Ibn Battuta was returning to the steps when a teribble winter was beginning. They traveled north from Astrakan to meet the Khan at New Saray. Ibn Battuta left New Saray heading in the direction of India, passing ruins of places attacked by Mongols along the way

After crossing the Black Sea and being continuously hit by severe storms, Ibn Battuta reached the central Asian Steppe. The Golden Horde khan, Ozbeg Khan had already proposed Islam as the main religion for the entire state, and Ibn was quite delighted. He described the Khan as one of “the seven kings who are great and mighty kings of the world”. He also met Princess Bayalun, the khan’s 3rd ranking wife, who had experienced the same feeling of “homesickness” as she was from Byzantium. From region to region, he learned more about the differences of Islam which were very unlike the practices he observed in his hometown. Ibn Battuta also managed to stay in Constantinople for a while and got plenty of gifts… (why do the people he meets keep giving him so much FREE stuff!?!)

Ibn Battuta eventually arrived in Hindu Kush after a 3-4 month journey. As he ends his stay in the Central Asian Steppes, so did the first part of the Rihla, signifying an important transition in his career. Though, he still has a lot more to explore….

 

Ibn Battuta visits the Steppes of Central Asia, homeland of the Turkish and the Mongols. It is here that he learns of the differences in the religion of Islam by region. The Muslims of Russia and modern-day Mongolia observe different religious practices for the month of Ramadan (A month of fasting during daylight hours) and praying towards Mecca 5 times a day. These differences occur because they are farther North and the daytime is much longer. We also find that, once again, Ibn Battuta is lucky to be travelling at the time he has chosen to do so. The Golden Horde Khanate had just recently chosen Islam as the state religion and so a large influx of scholars, qadis and jurists had filled the newly constructed Mosques and provided for a comfortable stay in the cities of Astrakhan and New Saray.

 

Ibn Battuta sailed west into the Mediterranean bound for Anatolia. He was attempting to go to India, but was sailing in the wrong direction. After not finding a translator in Jidda, he travelled down the Nile to Cairo. While in Cairo he met a legal scholar who he would remain friends with for years. They travelled through the mountains and boarded a ship to Alanya and Antalya. In Antalya, Ibn made the mistake of confusing a shaykh of the Akhis as a poor man. The fityan organization or Akhis were a group who provided hospitalitiy to travelers. He was “greatly astonished at their generosity and innate nobility”. They may be important throughout the coming chapters. While crossing the Sakarya River, Ibn’s Turkish horsewomen guide and her servent fell from their horses and were washed downstream. The women was rescued, but her servant died. While in a Turcoman village, Ibn hired another guide, but the man fled with money and left Ibn and his party in the snow.  While in Mudurnu, Ibn realized he needed an interpretor who spoke Arabic. He hired a local educated man, but the man proved to be a theif and attempted to steal and sell anything he could get his hands on. They were forced to continue using his services to get through the mountains. To add to Ibn’s misfortune, his slave girl almost drowned crossing another river. Luckily, Ibn finally arrived at Kastamonu. From there he traveled northeast into the Pontic.

After his third pilgrimage to Mecca, Ibn Battuta couild not stop thinking about getting a high paying job under the Sultan of Delhi. So he went to Jidd in search of a guide who could speak Persian and knew India well. But his search in India was not a success, so he traveled back to Egypt and went with a caravan to Damascus. From there he traveled, by Geonoese trading ship, to Alanya. While pleased with the Turks hospitality and faith, Ibn Battuta was suprised that “they eat hashish, and think no harm of it.” From Alanya he traveled to Antaliya which he described as ” one of the most attractive towns seen anywhere.” In every town that he trveled to Ibn Battuta was greeted heartily, lavished with gifts, and recommded to someone he could stay with in the next town. After getting to Sinop, the port in the Black Sea, it was decided that he would travel into the steppe lands. The Land of the Golden Horde

 

After returning to Mecca from his travels along the coast of Eastern Africa Ibn Battuta decided to set out for India a second time. Once again, however he became side tracked and ventured Northward, visiting the Nile valley in Egypt and Palestine once again, but then continuing farther North into Anatolia (Modern-Day Turkey). After sailing from Palestine to the Southern coast of Anatolia he travelled to many of the in-land cities there before winding up at Sinop, a town on the Black Sea. He sailed to Kerch in the Northern Black Sea and then travelled to Kaffa, Sudak, al-Qiram, and then on a long land route to Constantinople and back. Ibn Battuta ends his travels in this chapter at the city of Kastamonu, where he enjoyed feasting and staying with other scholars.

Then, riding northeastward into the Pontic, he crossed one of the high passes and descended through the dense forests of the northen slopes, the Black Sea and the land of the Golden Horde before him.

There seemed to be a lot of confusion on Ibn Battuta’s exact itinerary through Anatolia. No one seems to be sure which way he went after leaving Egridir, although logic would suggest that he continues eastward over the Sultan Daghlari mountains to Konya at the southwestern edge of the central plateau and arriving there sometime around early January 1331. The most interesting part in the book I found was when Ibn Battuta was introduced to the fityan associations of Anatolia, the institution that would later see to him through more than 25 different towns and cities. The fityan were a group of unmarried young men representing generally the artisan classes of Anatolian towns. Their purpose was essentially “the social one of providing a structure of solidarity and mutual aid in the urban environment.” Their code of conduct went by the name of futuwwa. They expressed the qualities of nobility, honesty, loyalty, and courage. Each association had a distinctive costume, and members met regularly in their lodges or their own homes. Ibn Battuta was “greatly astonished at their generosity and innate nobility.”

 

Ibn Battuta, yet again returned to Mecca to make his third pilgrimage. Although nobody knows how long he stayed there or what else he did, we know that it’s where he decided to actually go to India. He learns that the Sultan of Delhi was inviting many Muslim scholars and his first step was to find a guide, or more likely a translator who knew how to speak Persian. Unfortunate nobody to guide to India.

He ventured back to the Nile Valley (Egypt) and Palestine and finally continuing on to Anatolia. He visited the cities of Alanya, and Anatilya thereafter. Among the people that he meeted were other Muslim scholars that greeted him with food and shelter. Finally, he arrived at the port of Sinop in the Black Sea, where his next stop would be the steppes.

 indonesian version

Tahun Ibnu Batutah lahir
Feb 24, 1304
Abu Abdallah ibn Battuta dilahirkan di 1304 di Tangier, Maroko, melintasi Selat Gibraltar dari Spanyol. Dia datang dari keluarga Muslim sarjana hukum dan hakim. Seperti mereka, ia mempelajari Syariah, hukum suci umat Islam berdasarkan Al-Quran dan ajaran Nabi Muhammad. Ini menyiapkan dirinya untuk menjadi kadi, seorang hakim Muslim.

 
Ibnu Battua bertemu perjalanannya

Karena perdagangan emas, kerajaan berturut-turut muncul beberapa di Afrika Barat selatan Sahara. Kekaisaran Mali mengambil alih wilayah ini pada 1200 awal dan segera mengadopsi Islam sebagai agama resmi. Mali termasuk banyak orang Afrika yang berbeda serta imigran Arab dan Berber. Emas membiayai tentara yang kuat dari para pemanah dan kavaleri lapis baja.

Namun sumber nyata dari keberhasilan Mali

adalah perdagangan berkembang dengan pedagang Muslim dan pedagang karavan. Afrika diperdagangkan emas, gading, kulit, dan budak bagi Arab Berber dan garam, kain, kertas, dan kuda. Puncak kekuasaan dan kekayaan Mali berlangsung di bawah Mansa Musa dan penggantinya, Mansa Sulaiman yang Ibn Batutah bertemu di perjalanan

Timbuktu didirikan sekitar 1100 sebagai sebuah kota pasar yang berbatasan dengan Sahara.
1325
Timbuktu didirikan sekitar 1100 sebagai sebuah kota pasar yang berbatasan dengan Sahara. Hampir dari awal, tampaknya telah menjadi kota muslim. Itu adalah pemerintahan sendiri sampai Mansa Musa mencaploknya tanpa pertumpahan darah ke Kekaisaran Mali di 1325. Bahkan setelah itu, kota terus menjalankan urusan sendiri dengan sedikit kontrol dari raja-raja Mali. Petani Afrika hitam dan orang-orang sungai serta pedagang Arab dan Berber putih penduduk kota, sehingga penyelesaian etnis campuran. Ini dikenal sebagai tempat terbuka untuk pendatang baru dan kota perlindungan

KUNO Mekah

Ibnu Batutah Perjalanan ke Haji
Ibnu Batutah datang untuk southeren cina tahun 1346
1325

Pada usia 21, Ibnu Batutah meninggalkan orang tuanya untuk pergi pada haji. Ini adalah ziarah ke Mekah, kota suci Islam. Setelah bepergian di Afrika Utara ke Mesir, ia mengambil jalan memutar melalui Palestina dan Suriah.

Ibnu Batutah daun Mekkah untuk membuat jalan ke Laut Merah
1328
Setelah Ibnu Batutah belajar untuk sementara waktu di Mekah, ia meninggalkan di 1328 untuk membuat jalan nya ke Laut Merah. Dia naik kapal perdagangan dan berlayar di tengah pantai timur Afrika. Pedagang Muslim telah mendirikan pelabuhan dagang di Afrika Timur, terutama untuk perdagangan untuk emas di Afrika. Ibnu Batutah berikutnya perjalanan ke utara melalui Timur Tengah dan Persia ke Rusia dan kemudian ke timur ke Asia Tengah

Ibnu Batutah telah memutuskan untuk menyeberangi laut dan mengambil rute yang lebih panjang untuk mencapai India. Dia menghabiskan sekitar satu bulan atau lebih di Sinope menunggu angin yang menguntungkan untuk mengambil dia dan teman-temannya ke Semenanjung Krimea.

Kapten kapal, untuk beberapa alasan, memutuskan untuk meluncurkan ke laut terbuka dan membuat kursus langsung Krimea bukannya menjaga dekat dengan pantai. Badai telah memukul mereka tiga malam kemudian, hampir meniup kembali ke Sinope. Badai berlalu beberapa hari kemudian, dan Ibnu dan teman-temannya turun di suatu tempat di sepanjang pantai Krimea pedesaan, bukan di port. Dalam al-Qiram, ia melakukan perjalanan di bawah pengawalan kekaisaran Tuluktemur untuk Azak. Dekat Azak, ia dapat bertemu dengan Ozbeg khan, yang saat ini tidak di Saray Baru. Ibnu Batutah kagum dengan bagaimana wanita diperlakukan di negara Mongol. Dia telah bertemu dengan salah satu khatuns Ozbeg, atau istri, dan kemudian bergabung dengannya dalam perjalanan ke Konstantinopel di mana ia melahirkan anaknya. Rupanya, dia adalah putri Andronikus III. Setelah sebulan, ia mencapai Astrakhan, dan setelah mencari tahu Ozbeg kembali ke New Saray, ia berangkat sekali lagi. Ibnu Batutah menemukan ibukota “ukuran tak terbatas” dan “tercekik dengan penghuninya.” Dari Saray Baru, ia melakukan perjalanan ke selatan untuk Sarachik dan melakukan perjalanan bagian Khawrzim, Transoxiana, dan mungkin Khurasan.

 Stepa ini
Ibnu Batutah memutuskan untuk melakukan perjalanan dari Anatolia ke India dengan mengambil rute alternatif menyeberangi Laut Hitam dan Asia Tengah Steppe. Sepanjang rute Ibnu menyaksikan sejumlah kekerasan yang tinggi dan badai. Sebagai contoh, di pelabuhan Kerch, ia melihat orang yang mencoba untuk sinyal kapalnya ke dermaga dan tidak takut mungkin ada bajak laut. Kutipan berikut ini selama badai kekerasan yang dialami di Laut Hitam:

Kami berada di selat dan sakit dari kehancuran tampak di depan mata kita. Saya berada di kabin bersama dengan seorang pria bernama Abu Bakar, dan aku menyuruhnya untuk naik di dek untuk mengamati keadaan laut. Ia melakukannya dan kembali ke saya dalam kabin berkata kepadaku “Aku memuji kita kepada Allah.”

Bea bawah kekuasaan Mongol dan Turki sangat berbeda dari kota kelahirannya. Di Persia, Ibnu perjalanan bawah Mahalla Raja Mongol ke al-Qiram dan mengambil perjalanan 700 mil gerobak dengan istana kekaisaran di bawah pengawasan panduan. Selama tahun berikutnya, Ibnu perjalanan melintasi Turki dalam dua dan empat roda gerobak. Pada Mei 1332 ia memiliki hak istimewa untuk bepergian dengan Ozbeg khan. Dia menyadari perempuan diperlakukan berbeda di bawah Peraturan Mongol. Mongol wanita memiliki kebebasan, rasa hormat, dan berada di dekat setara dengan laki-laki, yang berbeda dari kebiasaan negara-negara Arab. Pabean Islam juga berbeda. Pada 1332-1333, Ibnu perjalanan melalui: Astrakhan, Baru Saray, Sarachik, Ugench, Bukhara, Nakhsyab, Samarkand, Tirmidh, Balkh, Qunduz, Charikar, dan Kabul sebelum tiba di Ghazna. Dia mungkin juga mengambil jalan memutar dari Balkh barat. Dari Ghazna Ibnu pindah selatan di perusahaan pedagang dan tiba di India dengan 4.000 kuda. Mereka melakukan perjalanan melalui Pegunungan Sulaiman melalui Khyber lulus. Pada September 12, 1333 ia mencapai Sungai Indus. Ibnu Batutah akan menjadi hamba kepada Muhammad Tughluq di pengadilan Delhi.

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Stepa ini
Ibnu Batutah menyeberangi Laut Hitam ke Kaffa. Hanya ada satu masjid di kota karena sebagian besar orang Kristen dan Ibnu Batutah tidak terlalu senang ketika lonceng gereja berbunyi. Ketika dia ot al-Qiram ia mendengar beberapa kabar baik. Dia bisa melakukan perjalanan 700 mil ke Sungai Volga dengan Raja Horde Emas. Jadi dia membeli 3 karavan dan bergegas untuk mengejar raja. Segera mereka terjebak ke Khan, Ozbeg, dan Ibnu Batutah bertemu dengan dia sebuah menggambarkan perlakuan terhadap perempuan. Dia juga menggambarkan makanan yang dimakan oleh Turki dan terkejut tentang fakta bahwa mereka minum minuman beralkohol yang disebut buza, dia mengingatkan saya pada Dr Drew setiap kali dia menunjukkan ketidaksetujuan tersebut untuk minuman dan obat-obatan suatu daerah. Ketika mereka sampai Astrakan ditemukan bahwa istri ke-3 Khan sedang hamil. Jadi dia diberi permisssion untuk pergi dan mengunjungi ayahnya di Konstantinopel dan Ibnu Batutah mendapat izin untuk pergi bersamanya. Ibnu Batutah tinggal di Konstantinopel selama satu bulan dan harus memenuhi kaisar, Andronikus III. Ibnu Batutah adalah kembali ke langkah ketika musim dingin teribble mulai. Mereka melakukan perjalanan ke utara dari Astrakan untuk memenuhi Khan di New Saray. Ibnu Batutah meninggalkan Saray Baru menuju ke arah India, melewati reruntuhan tempat diserang oleh bangsa Mongol di sepanjang jalan

Stepa ini
Setelah menyeberangi Laut Hitam dan yang terus menerus dilanda badai parah, Ibnu Batutah mencapai Steppe Asia Tengah. Golden Horde khan, Ozbeg Khan sudah mengusulkan Islam sebagai agama utama untuk seluruh negara bagian, dan Ibnu cukup senang. Dia menggambarkan Khan sebagai salah satu “tujuh raja yang hebat dan raja dunia”. Ia juga bertemu Putri Bayalun, istri peringkat 3 khan, yang pernah mengalami perasaan yang sama dari “kerinduan” karena dia dari Byzantium. Dari daerah ke daerah, ia belajar lebih banyak tentang perbedaan Islam yang sangat berbeda dengan praktek yang diamati di kota kelahirannya. Ibnu Batutah juga berhasil untuk tinggal di Konstantinopel untuk sementara waktu dan mendapat banyak hadiah … (mengapa orang-orang yang bertemu tetap memberikan begitu banyak barang GRATIS?!!)

Ibnu Batutah akhirnya tiba di Hindu Kush setelah perjalanan 3-4 bulan. Saat ia berakhir tinggal di padang Stepa Asia Tengah, begitu pula bagian pertama dari Rihla tersebut, menandakan sebuah transisi penting dalam kariernya. Meskipun, ia masih memiliki lebih banyak untuk mengeksplorasi ….

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Stepa ini
 

Ibnu Batutah mengunjungi stepa Asia Tengah, tanah air dari Turki dan Mongol. Di sinilah ia belajar dari perbedaan dalam agama Islam menurut wilayah. Kaum Muslim Rusia dan Mongolia modern mengamati praktik-praktik keagamaan yang berbeda selama bulan Ramadhan (bulan puasa Sebuah selama siang hari) dan berdoa menuju Mekah 5 kali sehari. Perbedaan ini terjadi karena mereka lebih jauh Utara dan siang hari jauh lebih panjang. Kami juga menemukan bahwa, sekali lagi, Ibn Batutah yang beruntung bisa bepergian pada saat ia telah memilih untuk melakukannya. Para Khanate Golden Horde baru-baru ini memilih Islam sebagai agama negara dan sehingga gelombang besar ulama, qadi dan ahli hukum telah memenuhi Masjid yang baru dibangun dan disediakan untuk tinggal yang nyaman di kota-kota Astrakhan dan New Saray.

Anatolia
 

Ibnu Batutah berlayar ke Mediterania barat menuju Anatolia. Dia mencoba untuk pergi ke India, tapi berlayar ke arah yang salah. Setelah tidak menemukan penerjemah di Jedah, ia pergi ke Sungai Nil ke Kairo. Sementara di Kairo ia bertemu seorang sarjana hukum yang ia akan tetap berteman dengan selama bertahun-tahun. Mereka melakukan perjalanan melalui pegunungan dan naik kapal ke Alanya dan Antalya. Di Antalya, Ibnu membuat kesalahan dengan membingungkan seorang syekh dari Akhis sebagai orang miskin. Organisasi fityan atau Akhis adalah kelompok yang memberikan hospitalitiy untuk wisatawan. Dia “sangat takjub kemurahan hati mereka dan bangsawan bawaan”. Mereka mungkin penting di seluruh bab-bab berikutnya. Sementara menyeberangi Sungai Sakarya, Turki horsewomen Ibnu membimbing dan servent dia jatuh dari kuda-kuda mereka dan dicuci hilir. Para wanita itu diselamatkan, tetapi pelayannya meninggal. Sementara di sebuah desa Turcoman, Ibnu menyewa panduan yang lain, tapi pria itu melarikan diri dengan Ibnu uang dan kiri dan partainya di salju. Sementara di Mudurnu, Ibnu menyadari bahwa ia membutuhkan sebuah interpretor yang berbicara bahasa Arab. Dia menyewa seorang pria berpendidikan lokal, tetapi pria itu terbukti menjadi pencuri dan mencoba untuk mencuri dan menjual apapun yang dia bisa mendapatkan tangannya. Mereka dipaksa untuk terus menggunakan jasanya untuk melewati pegunungan. Untuk menambah kemalangan Ibnu, gadis budak nyaris tenggelam menyeberang sungai lain. Untungnya, Ibnu akhirnya tiba di Kastamonu. Dari sana ia pergi ke timur laut Pontic tersebut.

Anatolia
Setelah ziarah ke Mekah ketiga, Ibnu Batutah couild tidak berhenti berpikir tentang mendapatkan pekerjaan dengan gaji tinggi di bawah Sultan Delhi. Jadi dia pergi ke Jidd mencari pemandu yang dapat berbicara Persia dan India juga tahu. Namun pencarian di India tidak sukses, sehingga ia bepergian kembali ke Mesir dan pergi dengan karavan ke Damaskus. Dari sana ia pergi, dengan kapal dagang Geonoese, ke Alanya. Sementara senang dengan Turki perhotelan dan iman, Ibnu Batutah terkejut bahwa “mereka makan ganja, dan berpikir tidak ada salahnya itu.” Dari Alanya ia pergi ke Antaliya yang dia digambarkan sebagai Dalam setiap “salah satu kota paling menarik dilihat di mana saja.” kota yang dia trveled Ibnu Batutah disambut sungguh-sungguh, mencurahkan dengan hadiah, dan recommded kepada seseorang ia bisa tinggal bersama di kota berikutnya. Setelah sampai ke Sinop, pelabuhan di Laut Hitam, maka diputuskan bahwa ia akan bepergian ke tanah padang rumput. Tanah Horde Emas

 Anatolia
 

Setelah kembali ke Mekkah dari perjalanan sepanjang pantai Afrika Timur Ibnu Batutah memutuskan untuk berangkat ke India untuk kedua kalinya. Sekali lagi, namun ia menjadi sisi dilacak dan berani utara, mengunjungi lembah Nil di Mesir dan Palestina sekali lagi, tetapi kemudian terus jauh ke Utara Anatolia (Turki modern-hari). Setelah berlayar dari Palestina ke daerah pantai selatan Anatolia ia berkunjung ke banyak kota di-tanah di sana sebelum penutupan di Sinop, sebuah kota di Laut Hitam. Dia berlayar ke Kerch di Laut Hitam Utara dan kemudian pergi ke Kaffa, Sudak, al-Qiram, dan kemudian pada sebuah rute darat yang panjang dan kembali ke Konstantinopel. Ibnu Batutah berakhir perjalanannya di bab ini di kota Kastamonu, di mana ia menikmati pesta dan tinggal dengan penerima beasiswa lainnya.

Kemudian, naik ke timur laut Pontic, ia melintasi salah satu melewati tinggi dan turun melalui hutan lebat dari lereng utara, Laut Hitam dan tanah Horde Emas di hadapannya.

 Anatolia
Tampaknya ada banyak kebingungan pada jadwal yang tepat Ibnu Batutah melalui Anatolia. Tidak seorang pun tampaknya untuk memastikan arah mana ia pergi setelah meninggalkan Egridir, meskipun logika akan menunjukkan bahwa ia terus ke timur selama Daghlari Sultan pegunungan ke Konya di tepi barat daya dataran tinggi pusat dan tiba di sana pada sekitar awal Januari 1331. Bagian yang paling menarik dalam buku ini saya temukan adalah ketika Ibnu Batutah diperkenalkan kepada asosiasi fityan Anatolia, lembaga yang kemudian akan melihat kepadanya melalui lebih dari 25 kota yang berbeda dan kota. Para fityan adalah sekelompok pemuda yang belum menikah umumnya mewakili kelas tukang kota Anatolia. Tujuan mereka adalah dasarnya “satu sosial menyediakan struktur solidaritas dan saling membantu di lingkungan perkotaan.” Kode etik mereka pergi dengan nama futuwwa. Mereka menyatakan kualitas bangsawan, kejujuran, kesetiaan, dan keberanian. Setiap asosiasi memiliki kostum khas, dan anggota bertemu secara teratur di loge mereka atau rumah mereka sendiri. Ibnu Batutah adalah “sangat heran pada kemurahan hati mereka dan bangsawan bawaan.”

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 Anatolia
 

Ibnu Batutah, lagi-lagi kembali ke Mekkah untuk berziarah ketiga. Meskipun tidak ada yang tahu berapa lama ia tinggal di sana atau apa lagi yang dia lakukan, kita tahu bahwa itu tempat ia memutuskan untuk benar-benar pergi ke India. Dia belajar bahwa Sultan Delhi mengundang cendekiawan Muslim dan langkah pertamanya adalah menemukan panduan, atau lebih mungkin seorang penerjemah yang tahu bagaimana berbicara Persia. Disayangkan tidak ada untuk membimbing ke India.

Ia memberanikan diri kembali ke Lembah Nil (Mesir) dan Palestina dan akhirnya melanjutkan ke Anatolia. Ia mengunjungi kota-kota Alanya, dan Anatilya setelahnya. Di antara orang-orang bahwa dia adalah sarjana muslim meeted lain yang menyambutnya dengan makanan dan tempat berlindung. Akhirnya, ia tiba di pelabuhan Sinop di Laut Hitam, di mana berhenti berikutnya akan menjadi padang rumput.

1333

Ibnu Batutah mencapai India
1333
Ibnu Batutah sampai di India pada 1333. Sultan muslim (raja) memerintah sebagian dari India. Sekarang, banyak yang mendengar tentang Ibnu Batutah dan perjalanannya. Sultan Delhi menyambut dia dengan hadiah dan uang, suatu bentuk keramahan bahwa ia datang ke harapkan dari para penguasa yang ia kunjungi. Ketenaran telah membuatnya mendapatkan kekayaan. Dia tidak lagi pergi sendirian, tapi dengan pelayan dan harem. Sultan juga membuatnya menjadi kadi, seorang hakim Muslim. Dia diadakan ini selama beberapa tahun. Ketika pemberontakan meletus, namun, sultan menjadi curiga banyak di sekitarnya, bahkan Ibnu Batutah. Ibnu Batutah sempat ditangkap. Ketika dirilis, ia melarikan diri Delhi. Tapi sultan memanggilnya kembali. Banyak kejutan Ibn Bathuthah itu, sultan menunjuk dia sebagai duta kepada kaisar Cina

1333

 

Ibn Battuta reached India in 1333. Muslim sultans (kings) ruled most of India. By now, many had heard of Ibn Battuta and his travels. The sultan of Delhi welcomed him with gifts and money, a form of hospitality that he came to expect from the rulers he visited. His fame had earned him wealth. He no longer traveled alone, but with servants and a harem. The sultan also made him a qadi, a Muslim judge. He held this post for several years. When a rebellion broke out, however, the sultan grew suspicious of many around him, even of Ibn Battuta. Ibn Battuta was briefly arrested. When released, he fled Delhi. But the sultan called him back. Much to Ibn Battuta’s surprise, the sultan appointed him as his ambassador to the emperor of China

 

 

In 1333

the Moor, Abu Abdullah Ibn Battuta (1304-1377)

described Samarkand

as “one of the largest and most perfectly beautiful cities in the world.” [1] For the nineteenth century poet, James Elroy Flecker, Samarkand was on a par with Heaven: “Death has no repose warmer and deeper than that Orient sand.” [2] Many others, including Keats, Milton, and Oscar Wilde, have also written about its charms – a spectacular oasis in the desert plains.

From a long history of invasion and a crucial position on the East/West trade routes emerged a city fit for kings – its name derives from Cimes-quinte, literally ‘great town’. Arguably, Samarkand’s most renowned ruler was the Turko-Mongol warrior Tamerlane (1336-1405) or Timur the Lame , who rebuilt the city on the Zarafshan River after the Mongols had largely destroyed it during its capture under Ghengis Khan in 1221. Tamerlane made the city the seat of his considerable power. His successor, Shah Rukh, moved his capital to Herat leaving his son Ulugh Bek to rule Samarkand.

If Tamerlane’s legacy in Asia was a vast empire, in Samarkand it was architecture to reflect such might and magnificence. As an old Arab proverb remarks on one of the buildings “if you want to know about us, observe our buildings.” [3] Principle among these was the Bibi Khanum Mosque, which is still standing, and was to be grander than anything Tamerlane had seen during his conquests. It was built between 1399 and 1404 by 600 slaves and 100 elephants from India, and 200 architects, artists, master craftsmen and masons. It was declared that “its dome would have been unique had it not been for the heavens, its portal would have been unique if it were not for the Milky Way.” [4] Another example of such architecture is the Taj Mahal in Agra, built by Shah Jahnon who himself was a Timurid.

 

Tamerlane

Samarkand also boasted a population fit for such a capital. Tamerlane brought captives from every land he conquered. “From Damascus he brought weavers of silk, and men who made bows, glass and earthenware… From Turkey he brought archers, masons, and silversmiths.” [5] There were also stone-masons from Azerbaijan, Isfahan and Delhi and mosaic-workers from Shiraz, all in such numbers that “the city was not large enough to hold them.” [6]

The population was reported to be over half a million, and netting half the commerce of Asia – such as leather, wool, linen, spices, silk, precious stones, fruit, hounds, horses and even leopards and lions. This was because the city was positioned at the heart of the Great Silk Road, a trading network running from Europe to Japan. The stops along the way, including Samarkand, were points of contact, not just for trade, but also for ideas, philosophies, knowledge and opinions.

 

Tamerlane’s descendants shared his love of creation, if not his love of war and conquest, and under the Timurid dynasty this part of Asia experienced a period of Muslim learning in the arts and sciences. It was noted that “from the time of Adam until this day no age, period, cycle or moment can be indicated in which people enjoyed such peace and tranquility.” [7]

The city was invaded by the Uzbeks in 1447, and again 50 years later, when they stayed to set up a new Turkic dynasty. Samarkand’s modern-day fate was sealed by the Russian invasion in 1868. Following the collapse of the Soviet empire in 1990 the city now stands as the second major city of Uzbekistan.

[1] Umid World

[2] from the poem, The Golden Journey to Samarkand by James Elroy Flecker, available on-line.

[3] Cited by Lisa Golombek, lecture, University of Victoria, 25 February 1988, Oxus Communications

[4] Virtourist.com

[5] ‘Narrative of the Embassy of Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo to the Court of Timour at Samarcand AD 1403-6′, New York: Burt Franklin p171

The Golden Road to Samarkand.

Mural, Samarkand,

 

  • 1342

Ib Battuta set sail for China in 1342, but was shipwrecked. He eventually arrived by sea in southern China in 1346. This was about a half-century after Marco Polo had left China

Ibn Battuta arrived in Tangier late in 1349
1349

Ibn Battuta arrived in Tangier late in 1349. He had been away from home for 24 years. He learned that his mother had died of the plague a few months earlier, and his father had died years before

Ibn Battuta left the Mali capital early in 1353, heading down the Niger River for Timbuktu. This city of about 10,000 people was never a military stronghold or seat of a king. Instead, its fame rested on its reputation as a city of scholars


p

After visiting with the qadi, scholars, and merchants of Timbuktu, Ibn Battuta joined a caravan going north to Morocco. He arrived home early in 1354. This ended his travels to foreign lands. Altogether, he covered about 75,000 miles in 29 years, meeting with 60 rulers in Asia and Africa. He probably had several wives. (Islamic law permitted a man up to four wives at once

IBN BATTUTA  OF MOROCCO

From Wikipedia

 

Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Abdullah Al Lawati Al Tanji Ibn Battuta

Full name Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Abdullah Al Lawati Al Tanji Ibn Battuta Born February, 1304 Tangier, Morocco Died 1368 or 1369

Ibn Battuta was a Moroccan Berber Muslim scholar and traveller who is known for the account of his travels and excursions called the Rihla (Voyage) in Arabic. His journeys lasted for a period of nearly thirty years and covered almost the entirety of the known Islamic world and beyond, extending from North Africa, West Africa, Southern Europe and Eastern Europe in the West, to the Middle East, Indian subcontinent, Central Asia, Southeast Asia and China in the East, a distance readily surpassing that of his predecessors and his near-contemporary Marco Polo. With this extensive account of his journey, Ibn Battuta is often considered as one of the greatest travellers ever.

A 13th century book illustration produced in Baghdad by al-Wasiti showing a group of pilgrims on a Hajj. All that is known about Ibn Battuta’s life comes from the autobiographical information included in the account of his travels. Ibn Battuta was born into a family of Islamic legal scholars in Tangier, Morocco, on February 24, 1304 during the time of the Marinid dynasty.[2] As a young man he would have studied the Sunni Maliki “school” of Muslim law which was dominant in North Africa at the time.[3] In June 1325, when he was twenty one years old, Ibn Battuta set off from his hometown on a hajj (pilgrimage) to Mecca, a journey that would take 16 months, but he would not see Morocco again for 24 years. His journey to Mecca was by land, and followed the North African coast crossing the sultanates of Abd al-Wadid and Hafsid. His route passed through Tlemcen, Béjaïa and then to Tunis where he stayed for two months. He usually chose to join a caravan to reduce the risk of being attacked. In the town of Sfax, he got married for the first of several occasions on his journeys. In the early spring of 1326, after a journey of over 3,500 km (2,200 mi), Ibn Battuta arrived at the port of Alexandria, then part of the Bahri Mamluk empire.

He spent several weeks visiting the sites and then headed inland to Cairo, a large important city and capital of the Mamluk kingdom, where he stayed for about a month. Within Mamluk territory, travelling was relatively safe and he embarked on the first of his many detours. Three commonly used routes existed to Mecca, and Ibn Battuta chose the least-travelled: a journey up the Nile valley, then east to the Red Sea port of Aydhab.[4] However, upon approaching the town he was forced to turn back due to a local rebellion. Returning to Cairo, Ibn Battuta took a second side trip to Damascus (then controlled by the Mamluks), having encountered a holy man during his first trip who prophesied that he would only reach Mecca after a journey through Syria. An additional advantage to the side journey was that other holy places lay along the route—Hebron, Jerusalem, and Bethlehem—and the Mamluk authorities made great efforts to keep the routes safe for pilgrims. After spending the Muslim month of Ramadan in Damascus, he joined up with a caravan travelling the 1,500 km (930 mi) from Damascus to Medina, burial place of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. After 4 days in the town, he journeyed on to Mecca. There he completed the usual rituals of a Muslim pilgrim, and having graduated to the status of al-Hajji, faced his return home but instead decided to continue journeying. His next destination was the Ilkhanate situated in modern-day Iraq and Iran. Iraq and Persia

An interactive display about Ibn Battuta in Ibn Battuta Mall in Dubai, United Arab Emirates On 17 November 1326, after a month in Mecca, Ibn Battuta joined a large caravan of pilgrims returning across the Arabian Peninsula to Iraq.[5] The caravan first went north to Medina and then, travelling at night, headed northeastwards across the Nejd plateau to Najaf, a journey lasting approximately 44 days. In Najaf he visited the mausoleum of Ali (Ali ibn Abi Talib), the fourth Rashidun (rightly guided Caliph), and son-in-law of Muhammad, a site venerated particularly by the Shi’a community. At this point, instead of continuing on to Baghdad with the caravan, Ibn Battuta started a 6 month detour that took him into Persia. From Najaf he journeyed to Wasit and then south following the Tigris to Basra. His next destination was the town of Esfahan across the Zagros Mountains in Persia. From there he headed south to Shiraz, a large flourishing city which had been spared the destruction wrought by the Mongol invasion on many more northerly towns. Finally, he headed back across the mountains to Baghdad arriving there in June 1327. Parts of the city were in ruins as it had been heavily damaged by the army of Hulagu Khan. In Baghdad he found that Abu Sa’id, the last Mongol ruler of the unified Ilkhanid state was leaving the city and heading north with a large retinue. Ibn Battuta travelled with the royal caravan for a while, then turned north to Tabriz on the Silk Road. It had been the first major city in the region to open its gates to the Mongols and had become an important trading centre after most of its nearby rivals were razed. On returning again to Baghdad, probably in July, he took an excursion northwards following the Tigris, visiting Mosul, then Cizre and Mardin, both in modern Turkey. On returning to Mosul he joined a “feeder” caravan of pilgrims heading south for Baghdad where they met up with the main caravan that crossed the Arabian Desert to Mecca. Ibn Battuta was ill with diarrhea on this crossing and arrived back in Mecca weak and exhausted for his second hajj. East Africa

Ibn Battuta then stayed for some time in Mecca. He suggests in the Rihla that he remained in the town for three years: from September 1327 until autumn 1330. However, because of problems with the chronology, commentators have suggested that he may have spent only one year and left after the hajj of 1328.[6] Leaving Mecca after the hajj in 1328 (or 1330) he made his way to the port of Jeddah on the coast of the Red Sea and from there caught a series of boats down the coast. His progress was slow as the vessels had to beat against the south easterly winds. Arriving in the Yemen he visited Zabid, and then the highland town of Ta’izz where he met the Rasulid Malik (king) Mujahid Nur al-Din Ali. Ibn Battuta also mentions visiting Sana’a, but whether he actually did is doubtful.[7] It is more likely that he went directly from Ta’izz to the port of Aden, arriving at around the beginning of 1329 (or 1331).[8] Aden was an important transit centre in the trade between India and Europe. In Aden, he embarked on a ship heading first to Zeila on the African shore of the Gulf of Aden and then on around Cape Guardafui and down the East African coast. Spending about a week in each of his destinations, he visited Mogadishu, Mombasa, Zanzibar, and Kilwa, among others. With the change of the monsoon, he returned by ship to Arabia and visited Oman and the Strait of Hormuz. He then returned to Mecca for the hajj of 1330 (or 1332). Byzantine Empire, Golden Horde, Anatolia, Central Asia and India

After spending another year in Mecca, Ibn Battuta resolved to seek employment with the Muslim Sultan of Delhi, Muhammad bin Tughluq. Needing a guide and translator for his journey, he set off in 1330 (or 1332) to Anatolia, then under the control of the Seljuqs, to join up with one of the caravans that went from there to India. A sea voyage from the Syrian port of Latakia on a Genoese ship landed him in Alanya on the southern coast of modern-day Turkey. From Alanya he travelled by land to Konya and then to Sinope on the Black Sea coast.[9] Crossing the Black Sea, Ibn Battuta landed in Caffa (now Feodosiya), in the Crimea, and entered the lands of the Golden Horde. He bought a wagon and fortuitously was able to join the caravan of Ozbeg, the Golden Horde’s Khan, on a journey as far as Astrakhan on the Volga River. Upon reaching Astrakhan, the Khan allowed one of his pregnant wives, Princess Bayalun, supposedly an illegitimate daughter of Byzantine Emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos, to return to her home city of Constantinople to give birth. Ibn Battuta talked his way into this expedition, his first beyond the boundaries of the Islamic world.[10] Arriving in Constantinople towards the end of 1332 (or 1334), he met the Byzantine emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos and saw the outside of the great church of Hagia Sophia. After a month in the city, he retraced his route to Astrakhan, then continued past the Caspian and Aral Seas to Bukhara and Samarkand. From there, he journeyed south to Afghanistan, the mountain passes of which he used to cross into India.[11] The Delhi Sultanate was a new addition to Dar al-Islam, and Sultan Muhammad bin Tughluq had resolved to import as many Muslim scholars and other functionaries as possible to consolidate his rule. On the strength of his years of study while in Mecca, Ibn Battuta was employed as a qazi (“judge”) by the sultan. Tughlaq was erratic even by the standards of the time, and Ibn Battuta veered between living the high life of a trusted subordinate, and being under suspicion for a variety of treasons against the government. Eventually he resolved to leave on the pretext of taking another hajj, but the Sultan asked him to become his ambassador to Yuan Dynasty China. Given the opportunity to both get away from the Sultan and visit new lands, Ibn Battuta took the opportunity. Southeast Asia and China

En route to the coast, he and his party were attacked by Hindus,[12] and, separated from the others, he was robbed and nearly lost his life.[13] Nevertheless, he managed to catch up with his group within ten days and continued the journey to Khambhat (Cambay). From there, they sailed to Kozhikode (Calicut) (two centuries later, Vasco da Gama also landed at the same place). However, while Ibn Battuta visited a mosque on shore, a storm came up, and one of the ships of his expedition were sunk.[14] The other then sailed away without him and ended up being seized by a local king in Sumatra a few months later. Fearful of returning to Delhi as a failure, he stayed for a time in the south of India under the protection of Jamal-ud-Din. Jamal-ud-Din was ruler of a small but powerful Nawayath sultanate on the banks of the Sharavathi River on the Arabian Sea coast. This place is presently known as Hosapattana and is located in the Honavar tehsil of Uttara Kannada district. When the sultanate was overthrown, it became necessary for Ibn Battuta to leave India altogether. He resolved to carry on to China, with a detour near the beginning of the journey to the Maldives. He spent nine months in the Maldive Islands, much longer than he had intended. As a qadi, his skills were highly desirable in these formerly Buddhist islands that had been recently converted to Islam, and he was half-bribed, half-kidnapped into staying.

Appointed chief judge and marrying into the royal family of Omar I, he became embroiled in local politics and ended up leaving after wearing out his welcome by imposing strict judgments in the laissez-faire island kingdom. In the Rihla he mentions his dismay at the local women going about with no clothing above the waist, and remarking his criticism of this practice, but being ignored by the locals. From there, he carried on to Sri Lanka for a visit to Adam’s Peak (Sri Pada). Setting sail from Sri Lanka, his ship nearly sank in a storm, then the ship that rescued him was attacked by pirates. Stranded on shore, Ibn Battuta once again worked his way back to Kozhikode, from where he then sailed to the Maldives again before getting on board a Chinese junk and trying once again to get to the Mongol Yuan Dynasty China. This time he succeeded, reaching in quick succession Chittagong, Sumatra, Vietnam, the Philippines and then finally Quanzhou in Fujian Province, China. From there, he went north to Hangzhou, not far from modern-day Shanghai. He also described travelling further north, through the Grand Canal to Beijing, although it is considered unlikely that he actually did so.[15] Return home and the Black Death

Returning to Quanzhou, Ibn Battuta decided to return home to Morocco. Returning to Calicut(Kozhikode now) once again, he considered throwing himself at the mercy of Muhammed Tughlaq but thought better of it and decided to carry on to Mecca. Returning via Hormuz and the Ilkhanate, he saw that the state had dissolved into civil war with Abu Sa’id having died since his previous trip there. Returning to Damascus with the intention of retracing the route of his first hajj, he learned that his father had died. Death was the theme of the next year or so, for the Black Death had begun, and Ibn Battuta was on hand as it spread through Syria, Palestine, and Arabia. After reaching Mecca, he decided to return to Morocco, nearly a quarter century after leaving it. During the trip he made one last detour to Sardinia, then returned to Tangier to discover that his mother had also died, a few months before. Andalus and North Africa

After a few days in Tangier, Ibn Battuta set out for a trip to al-Andalus—Muslim Iberia. Alfonso XI of Castile and León was threatening the conquest of Gibraltar, and Ibn Battuta joined up with a group of Muslims leaving Tangier with the intention of defending the port. By the time he arrived, the Black Death had killed Alfonso, and the threat had receded, so Ibn Battuta decided to visit for pleasure instead. He travelled through Valencia and ended up in Granada. Leaving al-Andalus, he decided to travel through one of the few parts of the Muslim world that he had never explored: Morocco. On his return home, he stopped for a while in Marrakech, which was nearly a ghost town after the recent plague and the transfer of the capital to Fez. Once more he returned to Tangier, and once more he moved on. Two years before his own first visit to Cairo, the Malian Mansa (king of kings) Musa had passed through the same city on his own hajj and had caused a sensation with his extravagant riches—West Africa contained vast quantities of gold, previously unknown to the rest of the world. While Ibn Battuta never mentions this specifically, hearing of this during his own trip could have planted a seed in his mind, for he decided to set out and visit the Muslim kingdom on the far side of the Sahara desert. The Sahara Desert to Mali and Timbuktu

A 13th century book illustration produced in Baghdad by al-Wasiti showing a slave-market in the town of Zabid in Yemen. In the autumn of 1351, Ibn Battuta left Fes and made his way to the town of Sijilmasa on the northern edge of the Sahara desert in present day Morocco.[16] There he bought some camels and stayed for four months. He set out again with a caravan in February 1352 and after 25 days, arrived at the salt mines of Taghaza which were situated in the bed of a dry salt lake. The buildings were constructed from slabs of salt by slaves of the Masufa tribe, who cut the salt in thick slabs for transport by camel. Taghaza was a commercial centre and awash with Malian gold, though Ibn Battuta did not have a favourable impression of the place: the water was brackish and the place was plagued with flies. After a 10 day stay in Taghaza the caravan set out for the oasis of Tasarahla (probably Bir al-Ksaib)[17] where it stopped for 3 days to prepare for the last and most difficult leg of the journey across a vast sand desert. From Tasarahla a Masufa scout was sent ahead to the oasis town of Oualata to arrange for a party to bring water a distance of four days travel to meet the thirsty caravan. Oualata was the southern terminus of the trans-Saharan trade route and had recently become part of the Mali Empire. Altogether, the caravan took two months to cross the 1,600 km (990 mi) of desert from Sijilmasa.[18] From there, he travelled southwest along a river he believed to be the Nile (it was actually the Niger River) until he reached the capital of the Mali Empire.[19] There he met Mansa Suleyman, king since 1341. Dubious about the miserly hospitality of the king, he nevertheless stayed for eight months. Ibn Battuta disapproved that female slaves, servants and even the daughters of the sultan went about completely naked. He left the capital in February and journeyed overland by camel to Timbuktu.[20] Though in the next two centuries it would become the most important city in the region, at the time it was small and unimpressive, and Ibn Battuta soon moved on by boat to Gao where he spent a month. While at the oasis of Takedda on his journey back across the desert, he received a message from the Sultan of Morocco commanding him to return home. He set off for Sijilmasa in September 1353 accompanying a large caravan transporting 600 black female slaves. He arrived back in Morocco early in 1354. The Rihla

After returning home from his travels in 1354 and at the instigation of the Sultan of Morocco, Abu Inan Faris, Ibn Battuta dictated an account of his journeys to Ibn Juzayy, a scholar whom he had met previously in Granada. The account, recorded by Ibn Juzayy and interspersed with the latter’s own comments, is the only source of information on his adventures. The title of the manuscript may be translated as A Gift to Those Who Contemplate the Wonders of Cities and the Marvels of Travelling but is often simply referred to as the Rihla or “The Journey”. There is no indication that Ibn Battuta made any notes during his 29 years of travelling, so, when he came to dictate an account of his adventures, he had to rely on his memory and to make use of manuscripts produced by earlier travellers. When describing Damascus, Mecca, Medina and some other places in the Middle East, Ibn Juzayy clearly copied passages from the 12th century account by Ibn Jubayr.[21] Similarly, most of Ibn Juzayy’s descriptions of places in Palestine were copied from an account by the 13th century traveller Muhammad al-Abdari.[22]

House in the Medina of Tangier perhaps lodging Ibn Battuta’s grave.

Western Orientalists do not believe that Ibn Battuta visited all the places that he described and argue that in order to provide a comprehensive description of places in the Muslim world Ibn Battuta relied on hearsay evidence and made use of accounts by earlier travellers. For example, it is considered very unlikely that Ibn Battuta made a trip up the Volga River from New Sarai to visit Bolghar[23] and there are serious doubts about a number of other journeys such as his trip to Sana’a in Yemen,[24] his journey from Balkh to Bistam in Khorasan[25] and his trip around Anatolia.[26] Some orientalists have also questioned whether he really visited China.[27] Nevertheless, whilst apparently fictional in places, the Rihla provides an important account of many areas of the world in the 14th century. Ibn Battuta often experienced culture shock in regions he visited where local customs of recently converted peoples did not fit his orthodox Muslim background. Among Turks and Mongols, he was astonished at the way women behaved (he remarked that on seeing a Turkish couple, and noting the woman’s freedom of speech, he had assumed that the man was the woman’s servant, but he was in fact her husband) and he felt that dress customs in the Maldives, and some sub-Saharan regions in Africa were too revealing. After the completion of the Rihla in 1355, little is known about Ibn Battuta’s life. He was appointed a judge in Morocco and died in 1368 or 1369.[28] For centuries his book was obscure, even within the Muslim world, but in the early 1800s extracts were published in German and English based on manuscripts discovered in the Middle East containing abridged versions of Ibn Juzayy’s Arabic text. When French forces occupied Algeria in the 1830’s they discovered five manuscripts in Constantine including two that contained more complete versions of the text.[29] These manuscripts were brought back to the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris and studied by the French scholars, Charles Defrémery and Beniamino Sanguinetti. Beginning in 1853, they published a series of four volumes containing the Arabic text, extensive notes and a translation into French.[30] Defrémery and Sanguinetti’s printed text has now been translated into many other languages. Ibn Battuta has grown in fame and is now a well-known figure.

 

Places visited by Ibn Battuta

 

. Ibn Battuta travelled almost 75,000 miles in his lifetime. Here is a list of places he visited. Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia Tangier Fes Marrakech Tlemcen (Tilimsan) Miliana Algiers Djurdjura Mountains Béjaïa Constantine – Named as Qusantînah. Annaba – Also called Bona. Tunis – At that time, Abu Yahya (son of Abu Zajaria) was the sultan of Tunis. Sousse – Also called Susah. Sfax Gabès Libya Tripoli Mamluk Empire Cairo Alexandria Jerusalem Bethlehem Hebron Damascus Latakia Egypt Syria Arabian Peninsula Medina – Visited the tomb of Prophet Muhammad. Jeddah – A major port for pilgrims to Mecca. Mecca – Performed the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca. Rabigh – city north of Jeddah on the Red Sea. Oman Dhofar Bahrain Al-Hasa Strait of Hormuz Yemen Qatif Byzantine Empire and Eastern Europe Konya Antalya Bulgaria Azov Kazan Volga River Constantinople Central Asia Khwarezm and Khorasan (now Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Eastern Iran and Afghanistan) Bukhara and Samarqand Pashtun areas of eastern Afghanistan and Pakistan) India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh Punjab region (now in Pakistan and northern India) Delhi Uttar Pradesh Deccan Konkan Coast Kozhikode Malabar Coromandel Coast- In India. Bengal now Bangladesh and West Bengal Brahmaputra River in Bangladesh visited the area on his way to China. Meghna River near Dhaka Sylhet met Muslim saint Hazrat Shah Jalal Yamani, commonly known as Shah Jalal. China Quanzhou – as he called in his book the city of donkeys Hangzhou — Ibn Battuta referred to this city in his book as “Madinat Alkhansa”.

He also mentioned that it was the largest city in the world at that time; it took him three days to walk across the city. Beijing – Ibn Battuta mentioned in his journey to Beijing how neat the city was. Other places in Asia Burma (Myanmar) Maldives Sri Lanka – Known to the Arabs of his time as Serendip. Sumatra Malay Peninsula Malaysia Philippines – Ibn Battuta visited the Kingdom of Sultan Tawalisi, Tawi-Tawi, the country’s southernmost province. Somalia and East Africa Mogadishu Berbera Kilwa Mombasa Mali West Africa Timbuktu Gao Takedda Mauritania Oualata (Walata) During most of his journey in the Mali Empire, Ibn Battuta travelled with a retinue that included slaves, most of whom carried goods for trade but would also be traded as slaves. On the return from Takedda to Morocco, his caravan transported 600 female slaves, suggesting that slavery was a substantial part of the commercial activity of the empire.[31]

Popular culture

Ibn Battuta was depicted in the 2009 Hollywood film Ninja Assassin. Ibn Batuta pehen ke joota is a popular Hindi nursery rhyme from the 1970s, written by the poet Sarveshwar Dayal Saxena.[32] Ibn-E-Batuta is a song from the 2010 Bollywood film Ishqiya, titled after Ibn Batuta. See also

Geography in medieval Islam

List of explorers Ibn Battuta Mall in Dubai Ibn Battuta (crater), the lunar landmark Xuanzang, Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveller, and translator, who travelled around the same region of the Silk Road and India. Evliya Çelebi Way Journey to Mecca (2009 film) Benjamin of Tudela

Notes

^ Nehru, Jawaharlal (1989). Glimpses of World History. Oxford University Press. pp. 752. ISBN 0195613236.. After outlining the extensive route of Ibn Battuta’s Journey, Nehru notes: “This is a record of travel which is rare enough today with our many conveniences…. In any event, Ibn Battuta must be amongst the great travellers of all time.”

^ Dunn 2005, p. 19 ^ Dunn 2005, p. 22

^ Aydhad was a port situated on the west coast of the Red Sea at 22°19’51? N 36°29’25? E. See Peacock,

David; Peacock, Andrew (2008), “The enigma of ‘Aydhab: a medieval Islamic port on the Red Sea coast”, International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 37: 32–48, doi: 10.1111/j. 1095-9270.2007.00172. x

^ Dunn 2005, pp. 89-103

^ Ibn Battuta states that he stayed in Mecca for the hajj of 1327, 1328, 1329 and 1330 but gives comparatively little information on his stay. After the hajj of 1330 he left for East Africa, arriving back again in Mecca before the 1332 hajj. He states that he then left for India and arrived at the Indus river on 12 September 1333; however, although he does not specify exact dates, the description of his complex itinerary and the clues in the text to the chronology suggest that this journey to India lasted around three years. He must have therefore either left Mecca two years earlier than stated or arrived in India two years later. The problems with the chronology are discussed by Gibb 1962, pp. 528-537 Vol. 2, Hrbek 1962 and Dunn 2005, pp. 132-133.

^ Dunn 2005, pp. 115-116, 134 ^ Gibb 1962, p. 373 Vol. 2 ^ Dunn 2005, pp. 137-156 ^ Dunn 2005, pp. 169-171 ^ Dunn 2005, pp. 171-178 ^ Dunn 2005, p. 215

^ Gibb & Beckingham 1994, pp. 773-782 Vol. 4; Dunn 2005, pp. 213-217

^ Gibb & Beckingham 1994, pp. 814-815 Vol. 4 ^ Dunn 2005, pp. 259-261

^ Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1853, p. 376 Vol. 4; Levtzion & Hopkins 2000, p. 282; Dunn 2005, p. 295

^ Levtzion & Hopkins 2000, p. 457. Bir al-Ksaib (also Bir Ounane or El Gçaib) is in northern Mali at 21°17’33? N 5°37’30? W. The oasis is 265 km (165 mi) south of Taghaza and 470 km (290 mi) north of Oualata.

^ Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1853, p. 385 Vol. 4; Levtzion & Hopkins 2000, p. 284; Dunn 2005, p. 298

^ Ibn Battuta’s itinerary is uncertain as the location of the capital of the Mali Empire is not known.

^ Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1853, p. 430 Vol. 4; Levtzion & Hopkins 2000, p. 299; Gibb & Beckingham 1994, pp. 969-970 Vol. 4; Dunn 2005, p. 304

^ Dunn 2005, pp. 313-314 ^ Dunn 2005, pp. 63-64

^ Dunn 2005, p. 179 ^ Dunn 2005, p. 134 Note 17 ^ Dunn 2005, p. 180 Note 3

^ Dunn 2005, p. 157 Note 13

^ Dunn 2005, p. 253 and 262 Note 20

^ Gibb 1958, p. ix Vol. 1; Dunn 2005, p. 318

^ Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1853, p. xx

^ Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1853-1858 ^ Candice Goucher, Charles LeGuin, and Linda Walton, Trade, Transport, Temples, and Tribute: The Economics of Power, in In the Balance: Themes in Global History
(Boston: McGraw-Hill, 1998)

^ Jyothi Prabhakar (4 February 2010). “Why credit for Ibn-e-Batuta asks Gulzar”. The Times of India. Retrieved 2010-03-14.

References

Defrémery, C.; Sanguinetti, B. R. trans. and eds. (1853-1858), Voyages d’Ibn Batoutah (Arabic and French text) 4 vols., Paris: Société Asiatic. Google books: Volume 1, Volume 2, Volume 3, Volume 4.

Dunn, Ross E. (2005), The Adventures of Ibn Battuta, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-24385-4. First published in 1986, ISBN 0-520-05771-6.

Gibb, H. A. R. trans. (1929), Ibn Battuta Travels in Asia and Africa (selections), London: Routledge. Reissued several times. Extracts are available on the Fordham University site.

Gibb, H. A. R.; Beckingham, C. F. trans. and eds. (1958, 1962, 1971, 1994, 2000), The Travels of Ibn Ba?? u? a, A. D. 1325–1354 (full text) 4 vols. + index, London: Hakluyt Society, ISBN 978-0904180374.

Hrbek, Ivan (1962), “The chronology of Ibn Battuta’s travels”, Archiv Orientalni 30: 409–486.

Levtzion, Nehemia; Hopkins, John F. P., eds. (2000), Corpus of Early Arabic Sources for West Africa, New York, NY: Marcus Weiner Press, ISBN 1-55876-241-8. First published in 1981. Pages 279-304 contain Ibn Battuta’s account of his visit to West Africa.

Mackintosh-Smith, Tim (ed.) (2003), The Travels of Ibn Battutah, Picador, ISBN 0-330-41879-3.

Further reading

Gordon, Stewart. 2008. When Asia was the World: Traveling Merchants, Scholars, Warriors, and Monks who created the “Riches of the East.” Da Capo Press, Perseus Books. ISBN 0-306-81556-7. External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Ibn Battuta

A Tangerine in Delhi — Saudi Aramco World article by Tim Mackintosh-Smith (March/April 2006).

The Longest Hajj: The Journeys of Ibn Battuta — Saudi Aramco World article by Douglas Bullis (July/August 2000).

Google Books — link to a 2004 reissue of Gibb’s 1929 translation.

Ibn Battuta — educational site of Harcourt School Publishers.

The Adventures of Ibn Battuta — excerpts from the book by Ross Dunn on the San Francisco Unified School District site. French text from Defrémery and Sanguinetti (1853–1858) with an introduction and footnotes by Stéphane Yérasimos published in 1982: Volume 1, Volume 2, Volume 3.

 

bn Battuta first set foot in a boat in 1330. He was 27 years old and already an experienced and resourceful traveler. The boat was a jalba, one of the notorious Red Sea craft described more than a millennium earlier in The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, made of planks sewn together with coir and waterproofed with shark oil.

 

This detail is from a 1598 painting in the manuscript of the “Baburnama,” and it shows the walls of Gwalior. NATIONAL MUSEUM, DELHI / JEAN-LOUIS NOU / AKG-IMAGES

He was in Jiddah, about to embark for Yemen and possibly one of the Gujarati ports beyond, for he had already heard that the Muslim ruler of Delhi was recruiting learned men to help with the administration of his sultanate. His companion, Mansur, urged Ibn Battuta to join him in his own jalba, but Ibn Battuta declined: “I did so because his jalba was also loaded with a number of camels, and since I had never before made a sea voyage, this terrified me.”

He was right to be worried. After two days’ sail, the wind shifted and the little fleet was driven off course. A storm rose, waves broke over the gunwales, and the passengers were seasick. The boats were finally beached not in Yemen but on the opposite shore, on the African coast between ‘Aydhab and Suakin.

The travelers hired camels and made their way south through the desert to the little island of Suakin, in the center of a deep bay surrounded by coral reefs. The ruler was Zayd ibn Abi Numayy, son of the governor of Makkah and, as it happened, brother of Ibn Battuta’s traveling companion. Their return trip across the Red Sea took six days, for although the distance is short, the lateral crossing of the Red Sea can be extremely difficult unless the winds are right.

The travelers made their way inland. Ta‘izz was the capital of Yemen and the residence of the sultan of the governing dynasty, the Rasulids, a Turkish military elite like many other dynasties of the time. Later, Ibn Battuta would find that court ceremonies here resembled those of Delhi, “but I don’t know whether the sultans of India copied the sultans of Yemen, or the sultans of Yemen copied those of India.”

Ibn Battuta next went to Aden, at the time the largest and richest of all the emporia on the Indian Ocean. “It is a big city,” he says, “but no crops, trees or water are found there; during the rainy season water is collected in reservoirs. These lie some distance from the town and the Bedouin often cut the road and prevent the townspeople from reaching them unless they are bribed with money and pieces of cloth…. It is the port for the merchants of India.” He goes on to list the Indian ports whose ships called, all on the west coast of India.

If Aden was as rich as Ibn Battuta says, how could the inhabitants allow the Bedouin to cut them off from their water supply? Though the traveler notes this almost in passing, it tells us something about the nature of the ruling dynasties of the 14th-century world.

Quite simply, the Rasulids of Yemen, the Mamluks of Egypt and Syria and the Delhi sultans all ruled vast dominions with too few troops. Control of their hinterlands, the spaces between major cities, was almost impossible. Even at the best of times, the ruler’s authority weakened as distance from the capital increased.

These military dynasties, whose efficacy lay in their “otherness,” had constantly to purchase new members in order to perpetuate themselves. Saladin, the founder of the Ayyubid Dynasty that ruled Egypt and Syria (and, briefly, Yemen), was a Kurd, and the sultans of Delhi and the Rasulids of Yemen were Turks, linguistically and culturally alien to the people they ruled.

The extreme example of this is the Mamluk Dynasty of Egypt, composed of Turco-Mongols and Circassians. Only slaves purchased in Central Asia or the Caucasus, usually as children, were allowed to join the ranks of the ruling caste. They were put through a rigorous course of training in the martial arts, at the completion of which they were granted their freedom.

After visiting Aden, Ibn Battuta sailed in 1331 to the East African coast, where he found another kind of state—port cities that might almost be called merchant republics. Mogadishu, now in Somalia, was the first he visited: “Mogadishu is a very large town. The people are merchants and very rich. They own large herds of camels…and also sheep. Here they manufacture the textiles called after the name of the town; these are of superior quality and are exported to Egypt and other places.”

 

As soon as he was settled in Mogadishu, the sultan sent him two small welcoming gifts: a plate of betel leaves and areca nuts, and a vial of Damascus rosewater. The first was the ritual welcoming gift of India, a custom that had spread to East Africa, and the rosewater from Damascus was to rinse his hands—another indication of far-flung commercial contact. The ceremonial meal that followed makes a similar, if more elaborate, point:

They eat rice cooked with ghee, which is served on a large wooden platter. On top they set dishes of kushan. These are relishes, composed of chicken, meat, fish and vegetables. In one dish they serve green bananas in fresh milk, in another yogurt with pickled lemon, bunches of pepper pickled in vinegar and salt, green ginger and mangoes. These are like apples, but with a pit. They are very sweet when ripe, but when immature are acid like lemons; they pickle the unripe mangoes in vinegar. They eat a mouthful of rice, then some of the salted and pickled relishes.

The Indian influence on this meal is obvious, but it has been adapted to local tastes. The rice and pepper would have been imported, but the mangoes were probably now grown locally, as was another Indian fruit, the jammun or jambul (Eugenia jambolana, java plum), which he encountered in Mombasa. Bananas also came to East Africa from India, perhaps as early as the 10th century. Although Ibn Battuta does not mention it, the meal was almost certainly served in Chinese bowls, much prized all along the East African coast. Special niches were built into the walls of dwellings in order to display the finer pieces.

After Mogadishu, Ibn Battuta sailed further south to Mombasa and Kilwa, both important trading cities. The wealth of these cities was later to strike the Portuguese, for it was based on the export not only of gold, but also of iron, which was sent to India, worked into steel, then re-exported to the Middle East. Ivory and tortoise-shell were other valuable exports. From Kilwa Ibn Battuta sailed to Dhufar, on the coast of the Arabian Peninsula, now in Oman. This was the Incense Coast of classical times. Millet and barley, he reports, were grown near the town, irrigated from deep wells, and rice was imported from India.

The people of Dhufar are traders and have no other means of livelihood. When a ship arrives from India, the sultan’s slaves go out to meet it in little boats, taking a full set of robes for the owner and captain, as well as for the kirani, the ship’s accountant…. Everyone on board is granted hospitality for three days; when the three days are up, they are fed in the sultan’s residence. The people do this in order to win the friendship of the ship-owners. They wear cotton clothes imported from India, fastening a length of cloth around their waist in place of trousers….They manufacture silk, cotton and linen cloth of excellent quality.

The fact that a local manufacturing industry was based on imported raw materials shows how regular shipping must have been, and how Indian Ocean traffic was not just in high-value, low-bulk items like spices. Textiles were always the bread and butter of the Indian Ocean trade, their production involving many ancillary techniques and employing thousands.

Bananas and betel, both of Indian origin, were cultivated in irrigated plantations on the outskirts of Dhufar. Since remote antiquity, southern Arabia, with its maritime links to India and Ethiopia, had been the corridor for plant introductions from both East and West. Durum wheat, sorghum, cotton, sugarcane, taro, indigo, oranges, lemons and many other plants had traveled this way. Some, like wheat and sorghum, returned from India in improved varieties and were then widely diffused in Africa and Europe.

 

From top: From Aden, at the farthest western reach of the Indian Ocean and one of the richest emporia of its time, Ibn Battuta sailed down the east coast of Africa. Among his ports of call was Mombasa (center), known for exports of gold and iron. He traveled as far south as Kilwa, still well north of Sofala, the most distant Arab port on the coast (lower). The progression from Aden’s cosmopolitan bustle to Sofala’s isolation is easily seen in these colored engravings from the late 16th century. BRAUN AND HOGENBERG, CIVITATES ORBIS TERRARUM, 1572 (3)

After visiting Oman, Ibn Battuta sailed across the Gulf to Hormuz. Until 1300, Hormuz had been located on the mainland. But in that year the ruler moved to the island of Jarun for greater security. “New Hormuz” was appallingly hot and dependent on the mainland for food, fuel and water, but it was strategically placed, controlling both sides of the Gulf at its narrowest point. It was “a big handsome city with excellent markets, for it is the port of India and Sind. Indian goods are exported from here to the two Iraqs, Fars and Khurasan.” Later, Hormuz would grow to rival Aden as the western hub of Indian Ocean commerce, replacing earlier Gulf emporia like Siraf, Kish and Suhar.

On September 12, 1333, after a two-year detour through Iran, Anatolia and Central Asia, Ibn Battuta finally stood on the banks of the Indus River, the western border of the domain of Muhammad Shah II, Sultan of Delhi.

To discourage casual visitors, each person wanting to enter India had to sign a statement in front of a notary swearing that he would remain forever. He also had to bring a substantial gift for the sultan—there were agents at the border who would advance money to travelers for this purpose—in order to demonstrate the seriousness of the immigrant’s intentions; when he presented his gifts in Delhi, the newcomer would receive many times their value in reciprocal gifts from the sultan. This exchange cemented a bond with tacitly understood mutual obligations.

Ibn Battuta was advanced money by an Iraqi merchant from Tikrit and bought 30 horses and a camel-load of arrows. These were acceptable gifts for a ruler engaged in enlarging his domains, and Ibn Battuta’s prudent investment was rewarded with the post of chief jurist (qadi) of Delhi at an annual salary of 12,000 dirhams—the revenues of two villages—and a lump-sum sweetener of 12,000 dinars. Overnight, the obscure Moroccan law student became a rich man.

Two years later, famine broke out in the sultan’s territories and lasted for seven years, leading to widespread rebellion. Ibn Battuta saw that the Delhi sultanate was unraveling and applied for permission to make the pilgrimage to Makkah, the only politic way of leaving the sultan’s service. At the last minute, the sultan asked him instead to lead 15 Chinese envoys and several shiploads of gifts to the Mongol Yuan emperor Toghon Temur. Ibn Battuta leapt at the chance for a graceful exit from a difficult situation combined with the opportunity to visit a new country.

The official delegation set out in the late summer of 1341 for the port of Cambay. It was attacked on the way by Hindu marauders, showing Muhammad Shah’s tenous hold on the countryside. Ibn Battuta was captured, escaped and rejoined his party. In Cambay he found a port whose wealth was based on the export of the finest cotton textiles in India, produced in the villages of Gujarat.

The mission met the sea captain and shipowner Ibrahim, who owned six ships. They must have been large, for into one of them, the Jakar, they loaded 70 horses, gifts for the Chinese emperor. They loaded 30 other horses, together with their own mounts, into the Manurt. Ibn Battuta embarked in the Jakar, along with 50 bowmen and 50 Abyssinian warriors: “They are the lords of this sea, for even if there is only one of them in a ship, pirates and Hindus think twice about attacking.”

As they sailed down the west coast of India, Ibn Battuta counted 12 semi-autonomous states, each of which owed its existence to the Indian Ocean trade. Whether the rulers were Muslim or Hindu, commerce was largely in the hands of Muslim merchants of the most varied origins. The rajas of these little states collected a percentage from every transaction and in return allowed the merchant communities freedom of worship.

 

How far into China Ibn Battuta traveled during his few months there is debatable. He claimed he reached Beijing, but his description of it is uncharacteristically thin. This painting from the early 15th century shows the houses of Kinsai, China, with characteristically curved roofs and bridges over canals. BIBLIOTHEQUE NATIONALE / ARCHIVES CHARMET / BRIDGEMAN ART LIBRARY (BOUCICAUT MASTER)

The richest towns of all were along the Malabar coast, the main source of the pepper that commanded such high prices in the markets of China, Alexandria and Venice but also of the teak used for building ships. The romance of the spice trade often obscures the fact that the bulk of Indian Ocean shipping was devoted to cargoes like rice, hardwoods, tin, iron ore, horses, weapons, textiles and other essential commodities.

When the little fleet reached Calicut, there were 13 junks anchored in the harbor, into which their cargo was transferred for the voyage to China. Their construction fascinated Ibn Battuta, who was especially struck by the self-contained compartments into which the hull was divided to minimize the danger of sinking. The junks had large cabins in which a number of people could travel in comfort, with private bathrooms and even stewards. A large junk could carry a crew of 1000, he wrote. This seems incredible, and scholars hotly debate the question of the size of medieval junks.

That night, a storm arose. Two large junks into which everything had been loaded put to sea, only to run aground and be smashed to pieces. Most of the passengers drowned, and the gifts for the Chinese emperor sank to the bottom.

Ibn Battuta escaped, for he had gone ashore to attend Friday prayers in the mosque. A small junk, called a kakam, with his wife aboard, also put to sea. With no possessions but his prayer rug and 10 dinars, Ibn Battuta set off on foot for Quilon, 300 kilometers (180 mi) down the coast, where he was told her ship was bound. There, he found no sign of the kakam. He later learned it had been captured by ships from Sumatra and that his wife was dead and all his possessions lost. Ibn Battuta nevertheless decided to continue to China on his own. After multiple stops and multiple mishaps, he reached Sonargaon, in today’s Bangladesh, where he bought passage on a junk for Sumatra.

Samudra, the port on the northern coast of Sumatra that has lent the island its name, was the first outpost of Islam in the huge Hindu–Buddhist area of what is now the Indonesian archipelago; it was the model for the Malay-speaking Muslim principalities which, over the next 300 years, were to spring up there.

The ruler of Samudra, Al-Malik al-Zahir, sent Ibn Battuta on to Guangzhou, the city Marco Polo called Zaitun, in a junk outfitted at his own expense. He set sail in April 1346 as soon as the southwest monsoon began to blow.

China at the time was ruled by the Mongol Yuan Dynasty, whose most famous ruler had been Kubilai Khan, who ruled during the years Marco Polo traveled in China. Although not Muslim, the Yuan relied heavily on Muslim officials and military advisors and encouraged Muslim trade. It was under the Yuan that Muslim merchants established themselves at key nodes along the rivers and canals of the empire. This harnessing of the hugely productive Chinese economy to the overseas maritime routes stimulated the growth of the new Muslim principalities in the Indonesian archipelago and the establishment there of Chinese merchant communities. Malaya and Indonesia became the turntable through which Chinese manufactures were distributed to the West.

Though Ibn Battuta was impressed with China, particularly with paper money and the quality of Chinese silks and porcelain, it was the only country he ever visited that affected him with culture shock. “Every time I left my house, I saw reprehensible things. I was so disturbed that I stayed home most of the time, only going out when necessary.” Yet at the same time, he opined, “China is the safest and pleasantest country in the world for the traveler.”

His account of travels within China lacks the characteristic detail that makes the rest of Ibn Battuta’s travels so entertaining, and his trips to Hang-chou and what is now Beijing are so vaguely described as to raise the suspicion that they are invented. His stay was brief, and by December 1346 he was back in Quilon, en route to his native Morocco.

 

Ibn Battuta

Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Abdullah al-Lawati al-Tanji ibn Battuta
أبو عبد الله محمد ابن عبد الله اللواتي الطنجي بن بطوطة


Ibn Battuta

Born

February, 1304
Tangier, Morocco

Died

1369
Morocco

Ethnicity

Berber

Occupation

Islamic scholar/Explorer

Religion

Sunni Maliki

Abū ‘Abd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Baṭūṭah (Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد ابن بطوطة‎), or simply Ibn Battuta, also known as Shams ad–Din[1] (February 25, 1304–1368 or 1369), was a Muslim Moroccan explorer, known for his extensive travels published in the Rihla (literally, “The Journey”). Over a period of thirty years, he visited most of the known Islamic world, including North Africa, the Horn of Africa, West Africa, Southern Europe and Eastern Europe in the West, to the Middle East, South Asia, Central Asia, Southeast Asia and China in the East, a distance surpassing his near-contemporary Marco Polo. Ibn Battuta is considered one of the greatest travellers of all time.[2] He journeyed more than 75,000 miles (121,000 km), a figure unsurpassed by any individual explorer until the coming of the Steam Age some 450 years later.[1]

 

Early life and his first hajj

 

 

A 13th century book illustration produced in Baghdad by al-Wasiti showing a group of pilgrims on a Hajj.

The Rihla supplies biographical background. Ibn Battuta was born into a Berber family of Islamic legal scholars in Tangier, Morocco, on 25 February 1304, during the reign of the Marinid dynasty.[3] As a young man he would have studied at a Sunni Maliki madhhab, (Islamic jurisprudence school), the dominant form of education in North Africa at that time.[4] In June 1325, at the age of twenty-one, Ibn Battuta set off from his hometown on a hajj, or pilgrimage, to Mecca, a journey that would take sixteen months. He would not see Morocco again for twenty-four years.

“I set out alone, finding no companion to cheer the way with friendly intercourse, and no party of travellers with whom to associate myself. Swayed by an overmastering impulse within me, and a long-cherished desire to visit those glorious sanctuaries, I resolved to quit all my friends and tear myself away from my home. As my parents were still alive, it weighed grievously upon me to part from them, and both they and I were afflicted with sorrow.”[5]

He travelled to Mecca overland, following the North African coast across the sultanates of Abd al-Wadid and Hafsid. The route took him through Tlemcen, Béjaïa and then Tunis where he stayed for two months.[6] For safety, Ibn Battuta usually joined a caravan to reduce the risk of an attack by wandering Arab bedouin. He took a bride in the town of Sfax, the first in a series of marriages that would feature in his travels.[7]

In the early spring of 1326, after a journey of over 3,500 km (2,200 mi), Ibn Battuta arrived at the port of Alexandria, then part of the Bahri Mamluk empire.[8] He spent several weeks visiting sites in the area then headed inland to Cairo, the capital of the Mamluk Sultanate and even at that time an important large city. After spending about a month in Cairo,[9] he embarked on the first of many detours within the relative safety of Mamluk territory. Of the three usual routes to Mecca, Ibn Battuta chose the least-travelled, which involved a journey up the Nile valley, then east to the Red Sea port of Aydhab,[10] Upon approaching the town however, a local rebellion forced him to turn back.[11]

Ibn Battuta returned to Cairo and took a second side trip, this time to Mamluk-controlled Damascus. During his first trip he had encountered a holy man, Shaykh Abul Hasan al Shadili, who prophesied that he would only reach Mecca by travelling through Syria. The diversion held an added advantage; due to the holy places that lay along the way, including Hebron, Jerusalem, and Bethlehem, the Mamluk authorities spared no efforts in keeping the route safe for pilgrims. Without this help many travelers would be robbed and murdered.

After spending the Muslim month of Ramadan in Damascus, he joined a caravan travelling the 1,500 km (930 mi) south to Medina, burial place of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. After four days in the town, he journeyed on to Mecca where completing his pilgrimage he took the honorific status of El-Hajji. Rather than return home, Ibn Battuta instead decided to continue on, choosing as his next destination the Ilkhanate, a Mongol Khanate, to the northeast.

Iraq and Persia

 

 

An interactive display about Ibn Battuta in Ibn Battuta Mall in Dubai, United Arab Emirates

On 17 November 1326, following a month spent in Mecca, Ibn Battuta joined a large caravan of pilgrims returning to Iraq across the Arabian Peninsula.[12] The group headed north to Medina and then, travelling at night, turned northeast across the Nejd plateau to Najaf, on a journey that lasted about two weeks. In Najaf he visited the mausoleum of Ali ibn Abi Talib (Ali), the first Shi’a Imam, a site venerated by the Shi’a community to this day.

Then, instead of continuing on to Baghdad with the caravan, Ibn Battuta started a six-month detour that took him into Persia. From Najaf he journeyed to Wasit then followed the river Tigris south to Basra. His next destination was the town of Esfahān across the Zagros Mountains in Persia. He then headed south to Shiraz, a large flourishing city spared the destruction wrought by Mongol invaders on many more northerly towns. Finally, he returned across the mountains to Baghdad, arriving there in June 1327.[13] Parts of the city were still ruined from the damage inflicted by Hulago Khan’s invading army in 1255.

In Baghdad he found Abu Sa’id, the last Mongol ruler of the unified Ilkhanate, leaving the city and heading north with a large retinue.[14] Ibn Battuta joined the royal caravan for a while, then turned north on the Silk Road to Tabriz, the first major city in the region to open its gates to the Mongols and by then an important trading centre as most of its nearby rivals had been razed by the Mongol invaders.

Ibn Battuta left again for Baghdad, probably in July, but first took an excursion northwards along the river Tigris, visiting Mosul, Cizre and Mardin, in modern day Iraq and Turkey. Once back in Mosul, he joined a “feeder” caravan of pilgrims heading south to Baghdad where they would meet up with the main caravan that crossed the Arabian Desert to Mecca. Ill with diarrhea, he arrived in the city weak and exhausted for his second hajj.[15]

Arabian peninsula

Ibn Battuta remained in Mecca for some time (the Rihla suggests about three years, from September 1327 until autumn 1330). Problems with chronology however, lead commentators to suggest that he may have left after the 1328 hajj.[16]

After the hajj in either 1328 or 1330, he made his way to the port of Jeddah on the Red Sea coast. From there he followed the coast in a series of boats making slow progress against the prevailing south-easterly winds. Once in the Yemen he visited Zabīd and later the highland town of Ta’izz, where he met the Rasulid dynasty king (Malik) Mujahid Nur al-Din Ali. Ibn Battuta also mentions visiting Sana’a, but whether he actually did so is doubtful.[17] In all likelihood, he went directly from Ta’izz to the important trading port of Aden, arriving around the beginning of 1329 or 1331.[18]

Somalia

 

 

The port and waterfront of Zeila.

From Aden, Ibn Battuta embarked on a ship heading for Zeila on the coast of Somalia. He then moved on to Cape Guardafui further down the Somalia seaboard, spending about a week in each location. Later he would visit Mogadishu, the then pre-eminent city of the “Land of the Berbers” (بلد البربر Bilad al Barbar, the medieval Arabic term for the Horn of Africa).[19][20][21]

When he arrived in 1331, Mogadishu stood at the zenith of its prosperity. Ibn Battuta described it as “an exceedingly large city” with many rich merchants, noted for its high quality fabric that was exported to other countries including Egypt.[22][23] He added that the city was ruled by a Somali Sultan, originally from Berbera in northern Somalia, who spoke both Somali (referred to as Mogadishan, the Benadir dialect of Somali) and Arabic with equal fluency.[24][25] The Sultan also had a retinue of wazirs (ministers), legal experts, commanders, royal eunuchs, and assorted hangers-on at his beck and call.[24]

Swahili Coast

 

 

The Great Mosque of Kilwa Kisiwani, made of Coral Stones is the largest Mosque of its kind.

Battuta continued by ship south to the Swahili Coast, a region then known in Arabic as the Bilad al-Zanj (“Land of the Zanj“),[26] with an overnight stop at the island town of Mombasa.[27] Although relatively small at the time, Mombasa would become important in the following century.[28] After a journey along the coast, Ibn Battuta next arrived in the island town of Kilwa in present day Tanzania,[29] which had become an important transit centre of the gold trade.[30] He described the city as “one of the most beautiful and well-constructed towns in the world”.[31]

Ibn Battuta recorded his visit to the Kilwa Sultanate in 1330, and commented favorably on the humility and religion of its ruler, Sultan al-Hasan ibn Sulaiman, a descendant of the legendary Ali ibn al-Hassan Shirazi. He further wrote that the authority of the Sultan extended from Malindi in the north to Inhambane in the south and was particularly impressed by the planning of the city, believing it to be the reason for Kilwa’s success along the coast. From this period date the construction of the Palace of Husuni Kubwa and a significant extension to the Great Mosque of Kilwa, which was made of Coral Stones the largest Mosque of its kind. With a change in the monsoon winds, Ibn Battuta sailed back to Arabia, first to Oman and the Strait of Hormuz then on to Mecca for the hajj of 1330 (or 1332).

Byzantine Empire, Golden Horde, Anatolia, Central Asia and India

 

Andronikos III Palaiologos

After spending another year in Mecca, Ibn Battuta decided to seek employment with the Muslim Sultan of Delhi, Muhammad bin Tughluq. In 1330 (or 1332), in need of a guide and translator for his journey, he set off for the Seljuq controlled territory of Anatolia to join one of the caravans that went from there to India. From the Syrian port of Latakia, a Genoese ship took him to Alanya on the southern coast of modern-day Turkey. He then travelled overland to Konya and afterwards to Sinope on the Black Sea coast.[32]

From Sinope he took a sea route to Crimea, arriving so in the Golden Horde realm. He went to port town of Azov, where he met with emir of the Khan, then to the large and rich city of Majar. He left Majar to meet with Uzbeg Khan traveling court (horde), which was in the time near Beshtau mountain. From there he made a journey to Bolghar, which became the northernmost point he reached, and noted its unusually (for subtropics dweller) short nights in summer. Then he returned to Khan’s court and with it moved to Astrakhan.

When they reached Astrakhan, Uzbeg Khan had just given permission for one of his pregnant wives, Princess Bayalun, a daughter of Byzantine Emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos, to return to her home city of Constantinople to give birth. Ibn Battuta talked his way into this expedition, which would be his first beyond the boundaries of the Islamic world.[33]

Arriving in Constantinople towards the end of 1332 (or 1334), he met the Byzantine emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos. He visited the great church of Hagia Sophia and spoke with a Christian Orthodox priest about his travels in the city of Jerusalem. After a month in the city, Ibn Battuta returned to Astrakhan, then arrived in the capital city Sarai al-Jadid and reported his travelling account to Sultatn Mohammad Uzbek. Thereafter he continued past the Caspian and Aral Seas to Bukhara and Samarkand. From there, he journeyed south to Afghanistan, then crossed into India via the mountain passes of the Hindu Kush. In the Rihla he mentions these mountains and the history of the range.[34]

Muhammad Ibn Tughluq was renowned as the wealthiest man in the Muslim World at that time. He patronised various scholars, sufis, Qadis, Viziers and other functionaries in order to consolidate his rule. As with Mamluk Egypt, the Tughlaq Dynasty was a rare vestigial example of Muslim rule in Asia after the Mongol Invasion. On the strength of his years of study in Mecca, Ibn Battuta was appointed a Qadi, or judge, by the Sultan. He found it difficult to enforce Islamic laws beyond the Sultan’s court in Delhi due to lack of Islamic appeal in India.[35]

From the Rajput Kingdom of Sarsatti, he visited Hansi in India, describing it as “among the most beautiful cities, the best constructed and the most populated; it is surrounded with a strong wall, and its founder is said to be one of the great infidel kings, called Tara”.[36] Upon his arrival in Sindh, Ibn Battuta mentions the Indian Rhinoceros that lived on the banks of the Indus River.

The Sultan was erratic even by the standards of the time, and for six years Ibn Battuta veered between living the high life of a trusted subordinate, and falling under suspicion of treason for a variety of offences. His plan to leave on the pretext of taking another hajj was stymied by the Sultan who asked him to instead become his ambassador to Yuan Dynasty China. Given the opportunity to get away from the Sultan and visit new lands, he readily accepted.

India, Sri Lanka, Maldives and China

 

 

Tomb of Muhammad ibn Tughluq in Delhi. Ibn Battuta served as a Qadi for 6 years during Tughluq’s reign

En route to the coast at the start of his journey to China, Ibn Battuta and his party were attacked by a group of Hindus.[37] Separated from his companions, he was robbed and nearly lost his life.[38] Despite this setback, within ten days he had caught up with his group and continued on to Khambhat in the Indian state of Gujarat. From there, they sailed to Kozhikode (Calicut), where Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama would land two centuries later. While Ibn Battuta visited a mosque on shore, a storm arose, and one of the ships of his expedition was sunk.[39] The other ship then sailed without him only to be seized by a local Sumatran king a few months later .

Afraid to return to Delhi and be seen as a failure, he stayed for a time in southern India under the protection of Jamal-ud-Din, ruler of the small but powerful Nawayath sultanate on the banks of the Sharavathi River next to the Arabian Sea. This area is today known as Hosapattana and lies in the Honavar administrative district of Uttara Kannada. Following the overthrow of the sultanate, Ibn Battuta had no choice but to leave India. Although determined to continue the journey to China, he first took a detour to visit the Maldive Islands.

 

 

A view of an island in the Maldives.

He spent nine months on the islands, much longer than he had intended. As a Chief Qadi, his skills were highly desirable in the formerly Buddhist nation that had recently converted to Islam. Half-kidnapped into staying, he became chief judge and married into the royal family of Omar I. He became embroiled in local politics and left when his strict judgments in the laissez-faire island kingdom began to chafe with its rulers. In the Rihla he mentions his dismay at the local women going about with no clothing above the waist, and the locals taking no notice when he complained.[40] From the Maldives, he carried on to Sri Lanka and visited Sri Pada and Tenavarai temple.

Ibn Battuta’s ship almost sank on embarking from Sri Lanka, only for the vessel that came to his rescue to suffer an attack by pirates. Stranded on shore, he worked his way back to Kozhikode, from where he returned to the Maldives and boarded a Chinese junk, still intending to reach China and take up his ambassadorial post.

He reached the port of Chittagong in modern-day Bangladesh intending to travel to Sylhet. Ibn Battuta went further north into Assam, then turned around and continued with his original plan.

In the year 1346 Ibn Battuta travelled on to Sumatra Indonesia where he notes in his travel log, that the ruler of Samudera Pasai was a Muslim, who performs his religious duties in his utmost zeal. The madh’hab he observed was Imam Shafi’i with the similar customs he had seen in coastal India especially among the Mappila Muslim (who were also the followers of Imam Shafi’i).[41] Ibn Battuta then sailed to Malacca, Vietnam, the Philippines and finally Quanzhou in Fujian Province, China.

 

 

Ibn Battuta arrived in the Chinese port city of Quanzhou, also known as Zaytun).

On arriving in China in the year 1345, one of the first things he notes is the local artists and their mastery in making portraitures of newly arrived foreigners. Ibn Battuta also mentions Chinese cuisine and its usage of animals such as frogs. While in Quanzhou he ascended the “Mount of the Hermit” and briefly visited a well-known Taoist monk. From there, he went north to Hangzhou, which he describes it as one of the largest cities he has ever seen,[42] and he noted its charm, describes the city sat on a beautiful lake and is surrounded by gentle green hills.[43] During his stay at Hangzhou, he was particularly impressed by the large number of well-crafted and well-painted Chinese wooden ships with colored sails and silk awnings assembling in the canals later he attends a banquet of the Yuan Mongol administrator of the city named Qurtai, who according to Ibn Battuta, was very fond of the skills of local Chinese conjurers.[44] He also described traveling further north, through the Grand Canal to Beijing, but as he neared the capital an internal power struggle among the Yuan Mongols erupted, causing Ibn Battuta and his Hui guides to return to the south coast. On boarding a Chinese Junk heading for Southeast Asia, Ibn Battuta was unfairly charged a hefty sum by the crew and lost much of what he had collected during his stay in China.[45] Ibn Battuta also reported “the rampart of Yajuj and Majuj” was “sixty days’ travel” from the city of Zeitun (Quanzhou);[46] Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb notes that Ibn Battuta believed that Great Wall of China was built by Dhul-Qarnayn to contain Gog and Magog as mentioned in the Quran.[46]

Return home and the Black Death

After returning to Quanzhou in 1346, Ibn Battuta began his journey back to Morocco.[47] In Kozhikode, he once again considered throwing himself at the mercy of Muhammad bin Tughluk, but thought better of it and decided to carry on to Mecca. On his way to Basra he passed through the Strait of Hormuz, where he learned that Abu Sa’id, last ruler of the Ilkhanate Dynasty had died in Persia. Abu Sa’id’s territories had subsequently collapsed due to a fierce civil war between the Persians and Mongols.[48]

In 1348, Ibn Battuta arrived in Damascus with the intention of retracing the route of his first hajj. He then learned that his father had died 15 years earlier[49] and death became the dominant theme for the next year or so. The Black Death had struck, and he was on hand as it spread through Syria, Palestine, and Arabia. After reaching Mecca, he decided to return to Morocco, nearly a quarter of a century after leaving home.[50] On the way he made one last detour to Sardinia, then in 1349 returned to Tangier by way of Fez, only to discover that his mother had also died a few months before.[51]

Al-Andalus and North Africa

 

 

Ibn Battuta visited the Emirate of Granada, which was the final vestige of the Muladi populace in Al-Andalus.

After a few days in Tangier, Ibn Battuta set out for a trip to the Moor controlled territory of al-Andalus on the Iberian Peninsula. King Alfonso XI of Castile and León had threatened to attack Gibraltar, so in 1350 Ibn Battuta joined a group of Muslims leaving Tangier with the intention of defending the port.[52] By the time he arrived, the Black Death had killed Alfonso and the threat of invasion had receded, so he turned the trip into a sight-seeing tour, traveling through Valencia and ending up in Granada.[53]

Following his departure from al-Andalus, he decided to travel through Morocco, one of the few parts of the Muslim world that he had never explored. On his return home, he stopped for a while in Marrakech, which was almost a ghost town following the recent plague and the transfer of the capital to Fez.[54]

Once more Ibn Battuta returned to Tangier, but only stayed for a short while. In 1324, two years before his first visit to Cairo, the West African Malian Mansa, or king of kings, Musa had passed through the same city on his own hajj and caused a sensation with a display of extravagant riches brought from his gold-rich homeland. Although Ibn Battuta never mentioned this visit specifically, when he heard the story it may have planted a seed in his mind as he then decided to cross the Sahara and visit the Muslim kingdoms on its far side.

The Sahara to Mali and Timbuktu

 

 

Ibn Battuta mentions the well built homes, city planning and water preservation systems in the city of Oualata, a crucial town in the trans-Saharan trade.

In the autumn of 1351, Ibn Battuta left Fes and made his way to the town of Sijilmasa on the northern edge of the Sahara in present-day Morocco.[55] There he bought a number of camels and stayed for four months. He set out again with a caravan in February 1352 and after 25 days, arrived at the dry salt-lake bed of Taghaza with its salt mines. All of the local buildings were made from slabs of salt by slaves of the Masufa tribe, who cut the salt in thick slabs for transport by camel. Taghaza was a commercial centre and awash with Malian gold, though Ibn Battuta did not form a favourable impression of the place, recording that it was plagued by flies and the water was brackish.

After a ten-day stay in Taghaza, the caravan set out for the oasis of Tasarahla (probably Bir al-Ksaib)[56] where it stopped for three days in preparation for the last and most difficult leg of the journey across the vast desert. From Tasarahla, a Masufa scout was sent ahead to the oasis town of Oualata, where he arranged for water to be transported a distance of four days travel where it would meet the thirsty caravan. Oualata was the southern terminus of the trans-Saharan trade route and had recently become part of the Mali Empire. Altogether, the caravan took two months to cross the 1,600 km (990 mi) of desert from Sijilmasa.[57]

From there, Ibn Battuta travelled southwest along a river he believed to be the Nile (it was actually the river Niger), until he reached the capital of the Mali Empire.[58] There he met Mansa Suleyman, king since 1341. Dubious about the miserly hospitality of the king, he nevertheless stayed for eight months. Ibn Battuta disapproved of the fact that female slaves, servants and even the daughters of the sultan went about completely naked.[59] He left the capital in February and journeyed overland by camel to Timbuktu.[60] Though in the next two centuries it would become the most important city in the region, at that time it was a small and growing city there Ibn Battuta was acquainted by a local Malian merchant named Abu Bakr Ibn Yaqub, together they ventured around Timbuktu and sailed to Gao, it was during their travels that Ibn Battuta first encounters the Hippopotamus, which was feared among the local boatmen because it drowned or killed local inhabitants, however Ibn Battuta also mentions an ingenious trick used by locals that allowed them to hunt Hippopotamus for both their flesh and hides.[44] Ibn Battuta is known to have sailed by boat to Gao where he spent a month learning about its inhabitants and geography. While at the oasis of Takedda on his journey back across the desert, he received a message from the Sultan of Morocco commanding him to return home. He set off for Sijilmasa in September 1353 accompanying a large caravan transporting 600 black female slaves and arrived back in Morocco early in 1354.

The Rihla

Main article: Rihla

After returning home from his travels in 1354, and at the instigation of the Sultan of Morocco, Abu Inan Faris, Ibn Battuta dictated an account of his journeys to Ibn Juzayy, a scholar whom he had previously met in Granada. The account is the only source for Ibn Battuta’s adventures. The full title of the manuscript تحفة الأنظار في غرائب الأمصار وعجائب الأسفار may be translated as A Gift to Those Who Contemplate the Wonders of Cities and the Marvels of Travelling but is often simply referred to as the Rihla الرحلة, or “The Journey”.

 

 

House in the Medina of Tangier, possible site of Ibn Battuta’s grave

There is no indication that Ibn Battuta made any notes during his twenty-nine year of travels. When he came to dictate an account of them, he had to rely on memory and manuscripts produced by earlier travellers. When describing Damascus, Mecca, Medina and some other places in the Middle East, Ibn Juzayy clearly copied passages from the 12th-century account by Ibn Jubayr.[61] Similarly, most of Ibn Juzayy’s descriptions of places in Palestine were copied from an account by the 13th-century traveller Muhammad al-Abdari.[62]

 

Handmade oil painting reproduction of Ibn Battuta in Egypt, a painting by Hippolyte Leon Benett.

Western Orientalists do not believe that Ibn Battuta visited all the places he described and argue that in order to provide a comprehensive description of places in the Muslim world, he relied on hearsay evidence and made use of accounts by earlier travellers. For example, it is considered very unlikely that Ibn Battuta made a trip up the Volga River from New Sarai to visit Bolghar[63] and there are serious doubts about a number of other journeys such as his trip to Sana’a in Yemen,[64] his journey from Balkh to Bistam in Khorasan[65] and his trip around Anatolia.[66] Some orientalists have also questioned whether he really visited China.[67] Nevertheless, while apparently fictional in places, the Rihla provides an important account of much of the 14th-century world.

Ibn Battuta often experienced culture shock in regions he visited where the local customs of recently converted peoples did not fit in with his orthodox Muslim background. Among the Turks and Mongols, he was astonished at the way women behaved, remarking that on seeing a Turkish couple, and noting the woman’s freedom of speech, he had assumed that the man was the woman’s servant, but he was in fact her husband. He also felt that dress customs in the Maldives, and some sub-Saharan regions in Africa were too revealing.

After the completion of the Rihla in 1355, little is known about Ibn Battuta’s life. He was appointed a judge in Morocco and died in 1368 or 1369.[68]

For centuries his book was obscure, even within the Muslim world, but in the early 19th century extracts were published in German and English based on manuscripts discovered in the Middle East containing abridged versions of Ibn Juzayy’s Arabic text. During the French occupation of Algeria in the 1830s, five manuscripts were discovered in Constantine, including two that contained more complete versions of the text.[69] These manuscripts were brought back to the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris and studied by the French scholars Charles Defrémery and Beniamino Sanguinetti. Beginning in 1853, they published a series of four volumes containing the Arabic text, extensive notes and a translation into French.[70] Defrémery and Sanguinetti’s printed text has now been translated into many other languages while Ibn Battuta has grown in reputation and is now a well-known figure.

indonesian version

Pada 1333

orang Moor, Abu Abdullah Ibnu Batutah (1304-1377)

dijelaskan Samarkand

sebagai “salah satu kota terbesar dan paling sempurna indah di dunia.” [1] Untuk penyair abad kesembilan belas, James Elroy menodai, Samarkand adalah setara dengan Surga: “Kematian tidak memiliki istirahat lebih hangat dan lebih dalam dari itu pasir Orient.” [2] Banyak orang lain, termasuk Keats, Milton, dan Oscar Wilde, juga menulis tentang pesona nya – sebuah oase yang spektakuler di dataran gurun.

Dari sejarah panjang invasi dan posisi penting di Timur / Barat muncul rute perdagangan cocok kota untuk raja – namanya berasal dari Cimes-quinte, harfiah ‘kota besar’. Diperdebatkan, penguasa Samarkand yang paling terkenal adalah prajurit Mongol Turko-Timurleng (1336-1405) atau Timur yang Pincang, yang membangun kembali kota di Sungai Zarafshan setelah sebagian besar telah dihancurkan Mongol selama menangkap di bawah Ghengis Khan di 1221. Timurleng membuat kota kursi kekuasaan yang cukup besar itu. Penggantinya, Shah Rukh, memindahkan ibukotanya ke Herat meninggalkan anaknya Ulugh Bek untuk memerintah Samarkand.

Jika warisan Timurleng di Asia adalah sebuah kerajaan yang luas, di Samarkand itu mungkin mencerminkan arsitektur tersebut dan kemegahan. Sebagai ucapan pepatah lama Arab di salah satu gedung “jika Anda ingin tahu tentang kami, mengamati gedung-gedung kami.” [3] Prinsip antaranya adalah Bibi Khanum Masjid, yang masih berdiri, dan harus megah dari apa Timurleng telah terlihat selama penaklukan. Dibangun antara 1399 dan 1404 oleh 600 budak dan 100 gajah dari India, dan 200 arsitek, seniman, master pengrajin dan tukang batu. Ini menyatakan bahwa “kubah akan menjadi unik kalau bukan untuk langit, portal akan menjadi unik jika bukan karena Bima Sakti.” [4] Contoh lain dari arsitektur tersebut adalah Taj Mahal di Agra, dibangun oleh Shah Jahnon yang dirinya adalah seorang Timurid.

 

Timurleng
Samarkand juga membanggakan populasi cocok untuk seperti modal. Timurleng membawa tawanan dari setiap tanah yang ditaklukkan. “Dari Damaskus ia membawa penenun sutra, dan pria yang membuat busur, kaca dan gerabah … Dari Turki ia membawa pemanah, tukang batu, dan perak.” [5] Ada juga batu-tukang batu dari Azerbaijan, Isfahan dan Delhi dan mosaik-pekerja dari Syiraz, semua angka tersebut bahwa “kota itu tidak cukup besar untuk menahan mereka.” [6]

Penduduk dilaporkan lebih dari setengah juta, dan jaring setengah perdagangan di Asia – seperti kulit, wol, linen, rempah-rempah, sutra, batu mulia, buah, anjing, kuda dan bahkan macan tutul dan singa. Ini karena kota itu diposisikan di jantung Jalan Sutera Besar, jaringan perdagangan berjalan dari Eropa ke Jepang. Berhenti di sepanjang jalan, termasuk Samarkand, adalah titik kontak, tidak hanya untuk perdagangan, tetapi juga untuk ide-ide, filosofi, pengetahuan dan pendapat.

 

Keturunan Timurleng berbagi cintanya penciptaan, jika tidak cintanya perang dan penaklukan, dan di bawah dinasti Timurid bagian Asia ini mengalami masa belajar Islam dalam seni dan ilmu. Telah dicatat bahwa “dari zaman Adam sampai hari ini tidak usia, periode, siklus atau saat dapat ditunjukkan di mana orang menikmati damai dan ketenangan.” [7]

Kota itu diserbu oleh Uzbek tahun 1447, dan lagi 50 tahun kemudian, ketika mereka tinggal untuk mendirikan sebuah dinasti Turki baru. Modern nasib Samarkand itu disegel oleh invasi Rusia pada tahun 1868. Setelah runtuhnya imperium Soviet pada tahun 1990 kota sekarang berdiri sebagai kota besar kedua dari Uzbekistan.

[1] Umid Dunia

[2] dari puisi, Perjalanan Emas ke Samarkand oleh James Elroy menodai, tersedia on-line.

[3] Dikutip oleh Lisa Golombek, kuliah, Universitas Victoria, 25 Februari 1988, Oxus Komunikasi

[4] Virtourist.com

[5] ‘Narasi dari Kedutaan Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo ke Pengadilan Timour di Samarcand 1403-6 AD’, New York: Burt Franklin p171

Jalan Emas ke Samarkand.

Mural, Samarkand,

 

 

1342
Ib Batutah berlayar untuk China di 1342, tapi terdampar. Dia akhirnya tiba lewat laut di China selatan pada 1346. Ini adalah sekitar satu abad setengah setelah Marco Polo telah meninggalkan Cina

Ibnu Batutah tiba di Tangier pada akhir 1349
1349

Ibnu Batutah tiba di Tangier pada akhir 1349. Dia telah pergi dari rumah selama 24 tahun. Dia belajar bahwa ibunya telah meninggal karena wabah beberapa bulan sebelumnya, dan ayahnya telah meninggal beberapa tahun sebelumnya

Ibnu Batutah meninggalkan ibukota Mali
1353
Ibnu Batutah meninggalkan ibukota Mali di awal 1353, pos menyusuri Sungai Niger untuk Timbuktu. Kota ini sekitar 10.000 orang tidak pernah menjadi benteng militer atau kursi raja. Sebaliknya, ketenaran beristirahat pada reputasinya sebagai kota sarjana

p

Ibnu Batutah bergabung dengan kafilah ke utara ke Maroko.
1354
Setelah mengunjungi dengan kadi, ulama, dan pedagang dari Timbuktu, Ibnu Batutah bergabung dengan kafilah ke utara ke Maroko. Dia tiba di rumah pada awal 1354. Ini berakhir perjalanannya ke negara asing. Secara keseluruhan, ia menutupi sekitar 75.000 mil dalam 29 tahun, pertemuan dengan 60 penguasa di Asia dan Afrika. Dia mungkin memiliki beberapa istri. (Hukum Islam diperbolehkan seorang pria hingga empat istri sekaligus

Ibn Batutah Maroko
 
Dari Wikipedia
 

Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Abdullah Al Lawati Al Tanji Ibn Batutah

Nama lengkap Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Abdullah Al Lawati Al Tanji Ibn Battuta Lahir Februari, 1304 Tangier, Maroko Meninggal 1368 atau 1369

Ibnu Batutah adalah Berber Maroko sarjana muslim dan wisatawan yang dikenal untuk kepentingan perjalanan dan wisata yang disebut Rihla (Voyage) dalam bahasa Arab. Perjalanan-Nya berlangsung selama hampir tiga puluh tahun dan hampir mencakup keseluruhan dari dunia Islam dikenal dan seterusnya, membentang dari Afrika Utara, Afrika Barat, Eropa Selatan dan Eropa Timur di Barat, ke Timur Tengah, benua India, Asia Tengah , Asia Tenggara dan Cina di Timur, jarak yang mudah melampaui pendahulunya dan dekat-kontemporer Marco Polo. Dengan account ini luas perjalanannya, Ibnu Batutah sering dianggap sebagai salah satu wisatawan terbesar yang pernah.

Sebuah ilustrasi buku abad ke-13 yang diproduksi di Baghdad oleh al-Washiti menunjukkan sekelompok peziarah pada haji. Semua yang diketahui tentang kehidupan Ibnu Batutah datang dari informasi autobiografi termasuk dalam rekening perjalanannya. Ibnu Batutah dilahirkan dalam sebuah keluarga sarjana hukum Islam di Tangier, Maroko, pada 24 Februari 1304 pada masa dinasti Marinid [2]. Sebagai seorang pemuda dia akan mempelajari Sunni Maliki “sekolah” hukum Islam yang dominan di Afrika Utara pada waktu itu [3] Pada bulan Juni 1325, ketika ia berusia dua puluh satu tahun, Ibnu Batutah berangkat dari kampung halamannya pada haji (ziarah) ke Mekkah, sebuah perjalanan yang akan mengambil 16 bulan,. tapi dia tidak akan melihat lagi Maroko selama 24 tahun. Perjalanan ke Mekah adalah dengan tanah, dan diikuti pantai Afrika Utara menyeberangi kesultanan Abd al-Wadid dan Hafsid. Rutenya melewati Tlemcen, Bejaia dan kemudian ke Tunis di mana dia tinggal selama dua bulan. Dia biasanya memilih untuk bergabung dengan kafilah untuk mengurangi risiko diserang. Di kota Sfax, ia menikah untuk yang pertama dari beberapa kesempatan dalam perjalanannya. Pada awal musim semi 1326, setelah perjalanan lebih dari 3.500 km (2.200 mil), Ibnu Batutah tiba di pelabuhan Alexandria, kemudian bagian dari kerajaan Mamluk Bahri.

Ia menghabiskan beberapa minggu mengunjungi situs dan kemudian menuju pedalaman ke Kairo, sebuah kota penting besar dan ibukota kerajaan Mamluk, di mana dia tinggal selama sekitar sebulan. Dalam wilayah Mamluk, perjalanan relatif aman dan ia memulai yang pertama dari sekian banyak jalan memutar. Tiga rute yang biasa digunakan ada ke Mekkah, dan Ibnu Batutah memilih paling-perjalanan:. Sebuah perjalanan ke lembah Nil, kemudian timur ke pelabuhan Laut Merah Aydhab [4] Namun, setelah mendekati kota ia dipaksa untuk kembali karena untuk pemberontakan lokal. Kembali ke Kairo, Ibnu Battuta mengambil sisi perjalanan kedua untuk Damaskus (kemudian dikendalikan oleh Mamluk), memiliki ditemui orang suci selama perjalanan pertamanya yang meramalkan bahwa ia hanya akan mencapai Mekah setelah perjalanan melalui Suriah. Keuntungan tambahan untuk perjalanan sisi adalah bahwa tempat-tempat suci lainnya tergeletak di sepanjang rute-Hebron, Yerusalem, dan Betlehem dan penguasa Mamluk melakukan upaya besar untuk menjaga rute aman bagi peziarah. Setelah menghabiskan bulan Ramadhan di Damaskus, ia bergabung dengan sebuah kafilah perjalanan 1.500 km (930 mil) dari Damaskus ke Madinah, tempat pemakaman Nabi Muhammad Islam. Setelah 4 hari di kota, ia melanjutkan perjalanan ke Mekah. Di sana ia menyelesaikan ritual biasa peziarah Muslim, dan setelah lulus dengan status al-Haji, dihadapkan kembali ke rumah tapi malah memutuskan untuk melanjutkan perjalanan. Tujuan berikutnya adalah Ilkhanate terletak di zaman modern Irak dan Iran. Irak dan Persia

Sebuah layar interaktif tentang Ibnu Batutah Ibnu Battuta di Mall di Dubai, Uni Emirat Arab Pada 17 November 1326, setelah sebulan di Mekah, Ibnu Batutah bergabung dengan kafilah besar peziarah kembali di Semenanjung Arab ke Irak [5]. Yang pertama kafilah pergi utara ke Madinah dan kemudian, bepergian di malam hari, menuju ke timur laut di dataran tinggi Najd ke Najaf, perjalanan berlangsung sekitar 44 hari. Di Najaf ia mengunjungi makam Ali (Ali bin Abi Thalib), yang Rasyidin keempat (Khalifah yang mendapat petunjuk), dan anak-dalam-hukum Muhammad, sebuah situs dihormati terutama oleh komunitas Syiah. Pada titik ini, bukan melanjutkan ke Baghdad dengan karavan, Ibnu Batutah memulai memutar 6 bulan yang membawanya ke Persia. Dari Najaf dia melakukan perjalanan ke Wasit dan lalu ke selatan berikut Tigris ke Basra. Tujuan berikutnya adalah kota Esfahan di Pegunungan Zagros di Persia. Dari sana ia menuju selatan ke Shiraz, sebuah kota berkembang besar yang telah luput dari kehancuran yang ditimbulkan oleh invasi Mongol di utara kota yang lebih banyak. Akhirnya, ia kembali melintasi pegunungan ke Baghdad tiba di sana pada Juni 1327. Bagian kota itu dalam reruntuhan sebagai sudah rusak berat oleh tentara Hulagu Khan. Di Baghdad ia menemukan bahwa Abu Sa’id, penguasa Mongol terakhir dari negara Ilkhanid bersatu meninggalkan kota dan menuju utara dengan rombongan besar. Ibnu Batutah bepergian dengan kafilah kerajaan untuk sementara waktu, kemudian berbelok ke utara ke Tabriz di Jalur Sutra. Ini telah menjadi kota besar pertama di wilayah ini untuk membuka gerbang kepada Mongol dan telah menjadi pusat perdagangan penting setelah sebagian besar dari saingan dekatnya yang dihancurkan. Pada kembali lagi ke Baghdad, mungkin pada bulan Juli, ia mengambil perjalanan berikut Tigris utara, mengunjungi Mosul, kemudian Cizre dan Mardin, baik di Turki modern. Pada kembali ke Mosul ia bergabung dengan sebuah “pengumpan” kafilah peziarah menuju selatan Baghdad di mana mereka bertemu dengan kafilah utama yang melintasi Gurun Arab ke Mekkah. Ibnu Batutah sakit dengan diare pada persimpangan ini dan tiba kembali di Mekkah lemah dan habis untuk nya haji kedua. Afrika Timur

Ibnu Batutah kemudian tinggal untuk beberapa waktu di Mekah. Dia menyarankan dalam Rihla bahwa dia tetap di kota ini selama tiga tahun: dari September 1327 sampai musim gugur 1330. Namun, karena masalah dengan kronologi, komentator telah menyarankan bahwa ia mungkin telah menghabiskan hanya satu tahun dan meninggalkan setelah haji dari 1328 [6] Meninggalkan Mekkah setelah haji di 1328 (atau 1330) dia berjalan ke pelabuhan. Jeddah di pantai Laut Merah dan dari sana menangkap serangkaian perahu di pantai. Kemajuannya lambat sebagai kapal harus mengalahkan melawan angin timur selatan. Tiba di Yaman ia mengunjungi Zabid, dan kemudian kota dataran tinggi Ta’izz mana ia bertemu dengan Malik Rasulid (raja) Mujahid Nuruddin Ali. Ibnu Batutah juga menyebutkan mengunjungi Sana’a, tapi apakah dia benar-benar diragukan [7]. Hal ini lebih mungkin bahwa ia pergi langsung dari Ta’izz ke pelabuhan Aden, tiba di sekitar awal 1329 (atau 1331). [8] Aden merupakan pusat transit yang penting dalam perdagangan antara India dan Eropa. Di Aden, ia memulai sebuah kapal pos pertama untuk Zeila di pantai Afrika Teluk Aden dan kemudian pada sekitar Cape Guardafui dan ke bawah pantai Afrika Timur. Menghabiskan sekitar seminggu di setiap tujuan, ia mengunjungi Mogadishu, Mombasa, Zanzibar, dan Kilwa, antara lain. Dengan perubahan musim hujan, dia kembali dengan kapal ke Arabia dan mengunjungi Oman dan Selat Hormuz. Dia kemudian kembali ke Mekkah untuk haji dari 1330 (atau 1332). Kekaisaran Bizantium, Golden Horde, Anatolia, Asia Tengah dan India

Setelah menghabiskan satu tahun lagi di Mekah, Ibnu Batutah memutuskan untuk mencari pekerjaan dengan Sultan Delhi Muslim, Muhammad bin Tughluq. Membutuhkan panduan dan penerjemah bagi perjalanannya, ia berangkat pada 1330 (atau 1332) ke Anatolia, kemudian di bawah kendali Saljuk, untuk bergabung dengan salah satu kafilah yang pergi dari sana ke India. Sebuah perjalanan laut dari pelabuhan Suriah Latakia di kapal Genoa mendarat dia di Alanya di pantai selatan Turki modern. Dari Alanya ia melakukan perjalanan darat ke Konya dan kemudian ke Sinope di pantai Laut Hitam [9] Menyeberangi Laut Hitam, Ibnu Batutah mendarat di Caffa (sekarang Feodosiya), di Krimea,. Dan memasuki tanah Horde Emas. Dia membeli gerobak dan kebetulan bisa bergabung dengan kafilah Ozbeg, Golden Horde Khan, dalam perjalanan sejauh Astrakhan di Sungai Volga. Setelah mencapai Astrakhan, Khan mengizinkan salah satu dari istri hamil, Putri Bayalun, konon merupakan anak tidak sah dari Kaisar Bizantium Andronikos III Palaiologos, untuk kembali ke rumahnya kota Konstantinopel untuk melahirkan. Ibnu Batutah berbicara jalan ke ekspedisi ini, pertama melampaui batas-batas dunia Islam. [10] Sesampainya di Konstantinopel pada akhir 1332 (atau 1334), ia bertemu dengan kaisar Bizantium Andronikos III Palaiologos dan melihat bagian luar yang besar gereja Hagia Sophia. Setelah satu bulan di kota, ia menelusuri kembali rute ke Astrakhan, kemudian dilanjutkan melewati Laut Kaspia dan Aral ke Bukhara dan Samarkand. Dari sana, dia melakukan perjalanan ke Afghanistan selatan, gunung melewati yang ia gunakan untuk menyeberang ke India. [11] Kesultanan Delhi tambahan baru ke Dar al-Islam, dan Sultan Muhammad bin Tughluq telah memutuskan untuk mengimpor sarjana Muslim sebanyak dan fungsionaris lain mungkin untuk mengkonsolidasikan kekuasaannya. Pada kekuatan dari tahun-tahun studi, sementara di Mekkah, Ibnu Batutah dipekerjakan sebagai kadi (“hakim”) oleh sultan. Tughlaq tidak menentu bahkan oleh standar waktu, dan Ibnu Batutah berbelok antara hidup hidup yang tinggi dari seorang bawahan terpercaya, dan berada di bawah kecurigaan untuk berbagai treasons terhadap pemerintah. Akhirnya ia memutuskan untuk meninggalkan dengan alasan mengambil haji yang lain, tetapi Sultan memintanya untuk menjadi duta untuk Dinasti Yuan Cina. Diberi kesempatan untuk baik pergi dari Sultan dan mengunjungi tanah baru, Ibnu Batutah mengambil kesempatan. Asia Tenggara dan Cina

En rute ke pantai, ia dan partainya diserang oleh orang Hindu, [12] dan, dipisahkan dari yang lain, dia dirampok dan hampir kehilangan nyawanya. [13] Namun demikian, ia berhasil mengejar ketinggalan dengan kelompoknya dalam waktu sepuluh hari dan melanjutkan perjalanan ke Khambhat (Cambay). Dari sana, mereka berlayar ke Kozhikode (Calicut) (dua abad kemudian, Vasco da Gama juga mendarat di tempat yang sama). Namun, sementara Ibnu Batutah mengunjungi sebuah masjid di pantai, badai datang, dan salah satu kapal ekspedisi tenggelam. [14] Yang lainnya kemudian berlayar pergi tanpa dia dan akhirnya disita oleh seorang raja lokal di Sumatera beberapa bulan kemudian. Takut kembali ke Delhi sebagai kegagalan, ia tinggal selama beberapa waktu di selatan India di bawah perlindungan Jamal-ud-Din. Jamal-ud-Din penguasa kesultanan Nawayath kecil tapi kuat di tepi Sungai Sharavathi di pantai Laut Arab. Tempat ini sekarang dikenal sebagai Hosapattana dan terletak di Tehsil Honavar dari Uttara Kannada kabupaten. Ketika kesultanan digulingkan, menjadi perlu bagi Ibnu Batutah meninggalkan India sama sekali. Dia memutuskan untuk melanjutkan ke Cina, dengan jalan memutar dekat awal perjalanan ke Maladewa. Dia menghabiskan sembilan bulan di Kepulauan Maldive, lebih lama daripada yang ia dimaksudkan. Sebagai kadi, keterampilan yang sangat diinginkan di pulau-pulau sebelumnya Buddha yang baru saja masuk Islam, dan ia setengah-menyuap, setengah diculik ke tinggal.

the end@copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2012

THE ORIGINAL STORY OF RAMAYANA-KISAH ASLI RAMAYANA

 

INTRODUCTION

RAMAYANA

 

Ramayana is the great theme of Valmiki

 

l.

 It consists of seven books or chapters namely BalaKand, AyodhyaKand, AranyaKand, KiskindhaKand, SundaraKand, YudhaKand and UttaraKand

 containing

tales of King Dasaratha’s court, the birth and boyhood of Rama and his brethren, his marriage with Sita – daughter of Janaka, his voluntary exile, the result of Kaikeyi’s guile and Dasaratha’s rash vow, the dwelling together of Rama and Sita in the great central Indian forest, her abduction by Ravana, the expedition to Lanka and the overthrow of the ravisher, and the life at Ayodhya after the return of the reunited pair.

Thus the structure of Srimad Valmiki Ramayana is arranged into Seven Kaandas or Books, and they are:

  1. 1.      Bala Kanda ( Book of Youth) [92 Pictures]
  2. 2.      Ayodhya Kanda (Book of Ayodhya) [137 Pictures]
  3. 3.      Aranya Kanda (Book of Forest ) [92 Pictures]
  4. 4.      Kishkindha Kanda (The Empire of Holy Monkeys) [92 Pictures]
  5. 5.      Sundara Kanda ( Book of Beauty ) [92 Pictures]
  6. 6.      Yuddha Kanda ( Book of War ) [137 Pictures]
  7. 7.      Uttara Kanda (Book of return to Ayodhya) [137 Pictures]

Once I wrote a letter to one scientist (the doctor in history, professor), the leading world specialist on learning of folklore, and asked him to comment likeness of myths and legends of different people and some myths with geologic events.

He replied to me that legends, all without exception, are fiction (“superstition and fiction of a devil” – the citation from a medieval text of times of inquisition) and there are no truth crumbs in them. I don’t want to denominate the name of this scientist not to discredit him.

Nevertheless, I can not also hide my surprise as such people can become leading experts on folklore learning. Most likely, they compound a skeleton of “committees on a struggle with a pseudo science”.
One of the main functions of which is a struggle with the true knowledge.
Reading and re-reading various miraculously escaped destruction during deluges, earthquakes, conflagrations, fires of inquisition and other natural disasters and acts of conscientious annihilation by people ancient books you strike every time, how much complete and deep they disclose (unveil) at times many thousand-year (and may be, and many million-year) wisdom.

 To take for example one of the most ancient books in the world – the old Indian “Rigveda” existing on the most conservative estimates from II millenary BC. The “Rigveda” speaks that the Earth had earlier bilayer atmosphere – the upper sky with water reserves “Svah” and being under it airspace “Bhuvah”, below which there was earth “Bhuh” (about the same – existence over an air layer (shell) or the “vault of heaven” or the “rakaya” the second, water-steam layer (shell) or the “waters which over vault of heaven” – is written in the Genesis of the Old testament), The “Rigveda” also narrates about various inhabitants of the previous Earth, their repeated destruction, occupation of our planet by space aggressors – asuras ( daityas and danavas), and also how they maped out a near-earth orbit and earth, deserted before their appearence (the grandparent of all danavas Vayshvanara “has measured spaciousnesses [of lands], Possessed by perfect strength of mind, he measured light space of heaven”).
Not a bit smaller revelations are given in the Book of Enoch (IV-I century BC) in the basis of which the knowledge was laid received by the biblical patriarch Enoch during his travelling into heaven. The Book of Enoch was considered rather authoritative both in the Old Testament, and in the New Testament epochs, though was not canonical the major portion of the Christian era under not absolutely clear reason of absence of evidences of its antiquity (more possible, because of shocking by its unlikeliness data) – now it is canonical only in the Ethiopian Church.
The Book of Enoch, which the Lord in the Highest ordered to save up to pass “the wise of people; because in them (the Pentateuch of Enoch) are the feast of the mind, the source of wisdom and the river of knowledge”, also speaks about any mysterious race of guards which in time immemorials descended from heavens to the Earth and carried out its mapping (apparently, maps of P. Reis, O.Fineaus, H. Ahmed, G. Merkator, F. Bousher and others are the copies of maps of that time), about the giants inhabited the Earth, about the anger granted on them by God, about the punishment of antediluvian mankind and about many other mysterious and inexplicable things.
The Book of Giants and the Book of Jubilees (reached our time in fragments which, according to Milik and some other scientists learning Qumran manuscripts, are the constituent parts of the Pentateuch of Enoch) – other vivid examples of the description of life of antediluvian mankind.
The analogous information is hidden in “Cabbala” books (Zohar, Tikuney Zohar, etc.).
Less shocking, but, in spite of this, turn traditional scientific conceptions about the world and an origin and evolution of mankind, knowledge are contained in canonical books of Jews, christians and Moslems the Torah, the Old testament and the Koran.
The detailed information about the main periods of evolution of the Earth, former mankinds, global catastrophes and also descriptions of catastrophes themselves are contained in rewrited by the Latin letters at the time of the Conquista ancient Aztec codes of Chimalpopoko (“the Legend about Suns” and “the Annals of Kuautitlan”), Florentine, Vatican A, Telleriano-Remensis, Rios, Ishtlilshochitl and others.
Many Shumerian-Babylonian, Egyptian, Chinese, Korean, Japanese and other ancient texts and oral legends of different people (living from Tierra del Fuego to Greenland and from California to Australia and New Zealand) narrate about a time when there was no moon in the sky, when above land two suns shone simultaneously, when the sun rised in the north and set in the south, when our planet was cleaved on parts by gigantic clefts, when it was covered by huge surges of deluges reaching tops of the highest mounts…
In many texts and legends strange multiarm, many-headed, two-bodied, single-eyed and other beings describe which formerly wandered on the earth surface…
Perhaps, the most important source of knowledge about the world and mankind (at least, they have produced such impression on me) are Old Indian epic poems the “Mahabharata”, the “Ramayana”, having similar content Puranas, the sacred book of Zoroastrians the “Avesta” and, certainly, the Sacred book of maya-kiche with surprising history “Popol-Vuh”, which narrate about previous mankinds, their destructions, long and wearisome life of far grandparents of maya in subterranean settlement Tulan-Chimostok (when there were impenetrable darkness on the Earth and terrible frosts), and also describe “old people” and speak about making (creation) of “new people”, similar to white gods, which were bereaved by them in the sequel of their extrasensory capacities and clairvoyance…
In the final part of “Popol-Vuh” it is told about termination of the period of darkness and Exodus (outcome) of far grandparents of maya from Tulan – Chimostok and settlement by them the South and the North Americas. To reach the Central and the North America, far grandparents of maya had to be necessary to cross a sea. Regarding that modern subterranean mazes stretching under a considerable parts of Ecuador, Peru, Bolivias, Chile and Argentina and having thousand kilometers in length were Tulan-Chimostok, and the sea between the North and the South America had disappeared approximately 5,3-5,5 million years ago, most likely, the information contained in “Popol-Vuh” unambiguously indicates that far grandparents of maya lived underground before this time.
Means, more than 5,5 million years ago there was also a period of darkness Chamak-Pacha in the end of which white god Vira Kocha had come to the South America. And if to regard furthermore that according to legends of the South American Indians, the megalithic city of Tiahuanaco in Bolivia lied in ruins at that time, it means that stated by H. Bellamy in the work “Built before the flood. The Problem of the Tiahuanaco ruins” and by me in the book “ The Earth before the flood – the world of sorcerers and werewolves” the supposition that megaliths of the South America and the Temple mount in Jerusalem had been builted much million years ago, very much near to true.
It is only necessary to read correctly ancient legends, to draw an analogies betwen them and geologic data and, the main, not to be frightened of an incredible, shocking antiquity of many events, described in legends. For example, that at the time of life of heroes of the “Ramayana” (written earlier II-III century of century BC) the ancient empire of rakshasas with capital of Lanka (according to different data the modern Shri Lanka or Brazil) was covered with snow and ice in winter. And it could not be after 12 thousand years ago…
I have told you about all these, that you can be convinced that to receive the true knowledge about the world and mankind history is impossible without comprehensive learning of the inheritance of the past. Some examples (it is in many times more them in the books) from the “Rigveda”, the Book of Enoch, “Popol-Vuh”,

the “Ramayana” I have just given .

 But still more greater source of wisdom, in my opinion,

is the “Mahabharata”.

It contains the detailed story how people appeared on the Earth, what reasonable beings wandered on land before appearence of people and how they looked, and also it speaks about those times, when seas were inhabited by marine monsters with whales or more in size – tymingils, swallowed them tjamitymingils, similar to gigantic crocodiles makaras, devouring them gigantic seabirds…
The “Mahabharata” (III-I millenaries BC) describes in detail episodes of settlement of the Earth by space aggressors, their struggle with native inhabitants of our planet, Earth’ destructions and perishing of previous mankinds during global catastrophes, the account of which is counted from those times when the earth surface teemed by orthograde, four-footed, winged and creeping dragons and snakes (Mesozoic era)… It is only necessary to manage to read far messages of the past correctly.
That is why I persistently call upon to learn children from a school bench to all these invaluable wells of wisdom which contain much more truthful information about our past, than modern textbooks on ancient history.
That is why I call upon to join together efforts of geologists, historians, ethnographers and other specialists to manage to decode the wisdom recorded in ancient legends and to prepare universal specialists on natural sciences.
And now I give you an opportunity to read some major fragments of ancient manuscripts which throw light on our true history. And for that you can easier detect their hidden sence, I supplement these fragments with my commentings (you can and not read them). I very much hope that you will also read my books in which I have carried out the comparative analisis of folklore and geologic data. I hope, for the first time in the world, therefore reconstructed by me history of mankind frightens by an incredible antiquity. Though about approximately the same time of settlement of the Earth N.K.Roerich also wrote, and he as no one else, possessed by many knowledge of Devoted.

According to the Vedic system, the history of the Earth was devided on the Satya-Yuga (Golden Age), the Treta-Yuga, the Dvapara-Yuga and Kali-Yuga, and duration of human life was changed from 100 000 years in the Satya-Yuga till 10 000 years in the Treta-Yuga, 1 000 years in the Dvapara-Yuga and, at last, 100 years in Kali-Yuga. According to the Indian legends, improbably ancient knowledge having in the Veda (perhaps, in the “Mahabharata” too) had been brought to people by immortal nagas (under other data, by gangharvas).

 

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INDONESIAN VERSION

 Ramayana Balakanda

Kitab Rama muda yang ajaib rincian kelahiran Rama, kehidupan awal di Ayodhya, membunuh tentang roh hutan pada permintaan Vishvamitra dan pernikahannya dengan Sita.

Narada tiba di Walmiki yang Hermitage

Walmiki bertanya Narada “Wahai orang bijak, apakah ada orang yang memiliki karakter tercela, adalah berani, jujur ​​tanpa kemarahan atau kecemburuan di dunia ini Beritahu saya tentang dia jika ada semacam jiwa besar.? Narada menjawab” Sulit untuk menemukan seperti seseorang, tetapi ada satu lahir di rumah Ikshvaku itu. Namanya Rama “. Narada kemudian mulai menceritakan kisah Rama untuk Walmiki.

Setelah menceritakan kisah Rama, Narada pergi Deva Loka

Sage Walmiki pergi untuk menawarkan persembahanmu tengah hari di Sungai Tamasa. Sepasang burung Krauncha menarik perhatiannya di sekitarnya dingin. Pada saat pasangan itu kawin, seorang pemburu yang ditujukan pada mereka panahnya dan dikirim itu. Ini menusuk jantung burung laki-laki. Burung betina mulai menangis untuk pasangannya sekarat. Ini pindah jantung jenis Walmiki membacakan Puisi pertama di dunia “Manishada …..

Brahma Komando

Ketika Walmiki kembali ke pertapaannya mengingat ledakan spontan Poesy, Brahma, Sang Pencipta, terwujud dan memerintahkan dia untuk menyusun cerita Rama dalam meter Anustup “Semoga itu buku pertama dan mungkin itu berlangsung selama sebagai The Kalpa berlangsung” kata Brahma

Visi Walmiki

Dengan berkat-berkat dari Sang Pencipta, bijak Valmiki yang ditawarkan terdiri doa dan duduk di kursi yang terbuat dari rumput kusa. Raja Dasaratha, istri nya, anak-anak, pasangan mereka, pembuangan Rama, Sita dan Lakshmana, pembantaian Rahwana datang sebagai visi untuk Walmiki. Valmiki sehingga meletakkan cerita Rama untuk anak cucu.

Walmiki menyusun Ramayana

Sage terdiri Walmiki Ramayana di 24.000 slokas dalam 500 sargas dan enam Cantos. Para kusa kembar dan Lava mendapatkan mereka dengan jantung. Mereka suara musik manis dan dipentaskan sebelum para narapidana dari pertapaan. Rama membawa mereka ke pengadilan untuk membacakan cerita.

Raja-raja dari Dinasti Ikshvaku

Di antara raja-raja yang memerintah bumi ini, itu Ikshvaku adalah terbesar. Dari Manu untuk Sagara mereka memerintah bumi dengan keriangan yang tidak merata. Di antara mereka Rama adalah permata mahkota. Kerajaan Kosala adalah di tepi sungai dan Sarayu modal adalah Ayodhya dibangun oleh Vaivaswata Manu. Di pusat kota adalah istana Raja

Besar Raya

Raja yang membawa kemuliaan ke kota Ayodhya dan Kosala Kerajaan itu Dasaratha. Ia membunuh beberapa musuh pria yang diundang dari keberanian dan sarjana untuk tinggal di kotanya. Orang-orang menjalani kehidupan puas dan benar.

Mampu Raja

Imam kepala kerajaan itu Vasistha dan Vamadeva. Raja Dasaratha memerintah efisien dengan bantuan dari delapan menteri yang dipimpin oleh Sumanta. Sumanta yang paling dekat dengan Dasaratha dan berhak bahkan untuk memasuki apartemen perempuan kerajaan.

Info lebih lanjut Ishavaku

SEJARAH Ksatria
Ksatria () adalah salah satu dari empat varna (tatanan sosial) dalam agama Hindu. Ini merupakan perintah militer dan memerintah dari sistem tradisional Hindu Veda-sosial sebagaimana digariskan oleh Veda dan Hukum Manu. Tuhan Rama, Krishna, Sang Buddha dan Tuhan Mahavira semua milik tatanan sosial ini.

Awalnya dalam masyarakat Veda kuno, posisi ini dicapai pada manfaat dari bakat seseorang (guna), perilaku (karma), dan alam (swabhava). Literatur Veda awal terdaftar ksatria (pemegang k atra,? Atau otoritas) sebagai peringkat pertama dalam, maka Brahmana (pendeta dan guru hukum), berikutnya Vaisya (pedagang-pedagang), dan akhirnya Sudra (pengrajin dan buruh ). Gerakan individu dan kelompok dari satu kelas ke yang lain, baik ke atas dan ke bawah, tidak jarang, kenaikan dalam status bahkan ke peringkat ksatria adalah hadiah diakui untuk pelayanan yang memuaskan untuk para penguasa hari [1] Selama bertahun-tahun. menjadi turun-temurun. Di zaman modern, varna ksatria termasuk kelas luas kelompok kasta, berbeda jauh dalam status dan fungsi tetapi dipersatukan oleh klaim mereka untuk pemerintahan, mengejar perang, atau kepemilikan tanah.

Legenda bahwa Ksatria, dengan pengecualian dari Ikshvakus, dihancurkan oleh Parasurama, keenam reinkarnasi Wisnu, sebagai hukuman atas tirani mereka dianggap oleh beberapa sarjana untuk merefleksikan perjuangan panjang untuk supremasi antara imam dan penguasa yang berakhir dengan kemenangan untuk mantan. Pada akhir era Veda, para Brahmana yang tertinggi, dan ksatria yang telah jatuh ke tempat kedua. Teks-teks seperti Manusm ti (sebuah buku Hindu hukum)? Dan sebagian dharmashastras lainnya (karya yurisprudensi) laporan kemenangan Brahman, tetapi teks-teks epik sering menawarkan account yang berbeda, dan kemungkinan bahwa dalam realitas sosial penguasa biasanya peringkat pertama . Representasi persisten dari dewa (terutama Wisnu, Kresna, dan Rama) sebagai penguasa menggarisbawahi titik, seperti halnya seri rumit peran ritual dan hak istimewa yang berkaitan dengan raja-raja melalui sebagian besar sejarah Hindu [2].. Dengan munculnya Buddhisme, Ksatria kembali posisi mereka sebagai yang pertama dari empat varna. Pembunuhan kaisar Maurya terakhir Brhadrata oleh-Nya Brahmana umum Pusyamitra Sunga, dan penurunan selanjutnya Buddhisme di India, ditandai supremasi Brahmana sekali lagi di India Timur. India Barat tetap menjadi kubu klan ksatria sebagaimana ditunjukkan oleh Rajputana dan ksatria kerajaan kuat yang memerintah dari Ujjain sampai ke serbuan Islam menyebabkan kejatuhan Ksatria Chauhan di Delhi.

Ikshvaku dinasti keturunan

 

Para daftar raja-raja Ik v?? Ku atau Aik? V? Ka dinasti ditemukan dalam Ramayana, Mahabharata, Harivamsha dan Purana. Tapi dua daftar ditemukan dalam Ramayana bervariasi secara signifikan dengan semua daftar lainnya. Para Raghuvamsha dari Kalidasa juga menyebutkan nama-nama dari beberapa raja-raja dinasti ini [3]. [4] [5]

 

 

 

 

 

IKSHVAKUS
Silsilah dari dinasti Ikshvaku seperti yang disebutkan dalam Ramayana (i.69.17-32 dan ii.102.4-29) [6] adalah sebagai berikut:

Brahma menciptakan 10 Prajapatis, salah satunya adalah Marichi.
Kashyapa adalah putra Marichi dan Kala. Kashyapa dianggap sebagai bapak manusia.
Vivasvan atau Surya adalah putra Kashyapa dan Aditi.
Vaivasvata Manu, awalnya Satyavrata, Kaisar kemudian dari Dravida adalah anak dari Vivasvan. Ia dianggap sebagai penguasa pertama milik dinasti Ikshvaku.
Ikshvaku adalah putra dari Vaivasvata Manu.
Kukshi adalah putra Ikshvaku
Vikukshi adalah putra Kukshi
Bana adalah putra Vikukshi
Anaranya adalah anak dari Bana
Prithu adalah putra Anaranya
Trishanku adalah putra Prithu
Dhundhumara adalah putra Trishanku
Yuvanashva adalah putra Dhundhumara
Mandhata adalah putra Yuvanashva
Susandhi adalah putra Mandhata
Dhruvasandhi dan Presenajit adalah anak-anak Susandhi
Bharata adalah putra Dhruvasandhi
Bahu (Asita) adalah putra Bharata
Sagara adalah putra Bahu
Asamanja adalah anak dari Sagara
Amsumanta (Ansuman) adalah anak dari Asamanja
Dileepa adalah putra Amsumanta
Bhagiratha adalah putra Dilipa
Kakustha adalah putra Bhagiratha
Raghu adalah putra Kakushta. Klan Raghuvamsha dimulai dengan Raghu
Pravriddha adalah sone dari Raghu
Shankhana adalah putra Pravriddha
Sudarshana adalah putra Shankhana
Agnivarna adalah putra Sudarshana
Shighra adalah putra Agnivarna
Maru adalah putra Shighra
Prashushruka adalah putra Maru
Ambarisha adalah putra Prashushruka
Nahusha adalah putra Ambarisha
Yayati adalah putra Nahusha
Nabhaga adalah putra Yayati
Aja adalah putra Nabhaga
Dasharatha adalah putra Aja
Rama, Lakshmana, Bharata dan Shatrughna adalah putra Dasaratha
Lava dan Kusha adalah putra dari Rama
Purana memberikan daftar silsilah dari Kusha untuk Brihadbala, yang dibunuh oleh Abimanyu dalam perang Mahabharata. Daftar ini dikuatkan oleh Raghuvamsha sampai Agnivarna [7]:

Atithi, anak Kusha
Nishadha, anak Atithi
Nala, putra Nishadha
Nabhas, anak Nala
Pundarika, yang Nabhas anak
Kshemadhanvan, anak Pundarika
Devanika, anak Kshemadhanvan
Ahinagu, anak Davanika
Paripatra, anak Ahinagu
Dala (atau Bala), putra Ahinagu
Uktha, anak Dala
Vajranabha, anak Uktha
Shankhana, anak Vajranabha
Vyushitashva, anak Shankhana
Vishvasaha, anak Vyushitashva
Hiranyanabha, anak Vishvasaha
Pushya, anak Hiranyanabha
Dhruvasandhi, anak Pushya
Agnivarna, anak Dhruvasandhi
Shighra, anak Agnivarna
Maru, anak Shighra
Prasushruta, anak Maru
Susandhi, anak Prasushruta
Amarsha dan Sahasvant, anak-anak Susandhi
Vishrutavant, anak Amarsha
Brihadbala, anak Vishrutavant.
Namun, Nepal dan Bauddhists melanjutkan dinasti lebih lanjut.

Lineage Descrepencies
Dari 2 sumber yang tercantum di atas, ada perbedaan yang perlu diselesaikan untuk akurasi data di atas. Berikut ini adalah daftar descrepencies:

Walmiki Ramayana menyatakan bahwa Prthu adalah putra Anaranya dan ayah dari Trisanku. Ramakatha Rasavahini merindukan Prthu dan menyatakan bahwa ayah Anaranya Trisanku
Walmiki Ramayana menyatakan bahwa Presenjit adalah ayah dari Bharatha sementara Ramakatha Rasavahini statest Daivasandhi sebagai bapak Bharatha
Walmiki Ramayana menyatakan bahwa Sankhana adalah putra Pravardha dan anak Sankhana adalah Sudarsana. Ramakatha Rasavahini merindukan menyebutkan Sankhana dan atribut Sudarsana sebagai anak Pravardha
Seeghraga disebutkan sebagai putra Agnivarna & ayah Maru di Ramakatha Rasavahini. Walmiki Ramayana tidak menyebut Seeghraga dan menyatakan bahwa ayah Maru adalah Agnivarna
Ikshvaku dinasti dalam tradisi Jaina
Dinasti Ikshvaku memiliki tempat yang signifikan dalam tradisi Jaina, seperti 22 Tirthankaras lahir di rumah kerajaan. Yang pertama Tirthankara Rishavadeva adalah putra Raja Ikshvaku Nabhi. Para Tirthankara kedua, Ajitanatha, putra Raja Ikshvaku Jitashatru adalah sepupu dari Sagara

Andhra Ikshvakus
Para Ikshvakus Andhra adalah salah satu dinasti yang berkuasa awal Andhra Pradesh. Mereka memerintah negara timur Andhra sepanjang sungai Krishna selama paruh akhir abad kedua Masehi [8]. Modal mereka adalah Vijayapuri (Nagarjunakonda). Beberapa ahli telah mengusulkan bahwa dinasti ini adalah terkait dengan Ikshvakus kuno mitologi Hindu. Rama Ramayana, yang dianggap sebagai inkarnasi dari Wisnu milik garis Ikshvaku. Menurut mitologi Hindu, Ikshvaku, yang adalah ayah dari Manu dan Kukshi, adalah pendiri dinasti Suryavanshi, memerintah dari Ayodhya pada saat dimulainya Treta Yuga dari. Namun tidak ada bukti langsung yang menunjukkan bahwa Ikshvakus Andhra yang terkait dengan Ikshvakus mitologis.

Bukti arkeologis telah menyarankan bahwa Ikshvakus Andhra segera menggantikan Satavahanas di lembah sungai Krishna. Ikshvakus telah meninggalkan prasasti di Nagarjunakonda, Jaggayyapeta, Amaravati dan Bhattiprolu.

Sastra Bukti Andhra Ikshvakus untuk Ikshvakus
Sebuah puisi Kannada Dharmamrita menyatakan bahwa Ikshvakus bagian Andhra adalah keturunan dari Ikshvakus terkenal India utara. Para ulama oriental seperti Buhler dan Rapson mengungkapkan pandangan bahwa Ikshvakus utara mungkin telah bermigrasi ke selatan. Menurut Purana Vayu, Manu, patriark besar India kuno memiliki sembilan putra di antaranya Ikshvaku adalah sulung. Modalnya adalah Ayodhya. Dia memiliki seratus anak, dan Vikushi tertua menggantikan ayahnya sebagai penguasa Ayodhya. Dari sisanya, lima puluh anak-anak didirikan kerajaan kecil di India Utara. Empat puluh delapan dari anak-anaknya bermigrasi ke selatan dan mengukir kerajaan untuk diri mereka sendiri.

Literatur Buddhis mengacu pada penetrasi Ikshvakus ke India Selatan dan menyatakan bahwa mereka mendirikan Asmaka, Mulaka dan kerajaan lainnya. Ksatria ini duduk di selatan dan mendirikan kerajaan-kerajaan kecil di sana. Jain literatur juga mengacu pada eksodus pangeran India utara ke selatan. Dalam Dharmamrita referensi dibuat bahwa selama masa hidup Tirthankara 12, seorang pangeran bernama Yasodhara yang berasal dari keluarga Ikshvaku berasal dari kerajaan Angga untuk Vengi di selatan. Kami diberitahu bahwa pangeran itu begitu terkesan dengan keindahan wilayah tersebut, dan kesuburan tanah bahwa ia membuat rumah permanen dan mendirikan sebuah kota yang bernama Pratipalpura. Hal ini diyakini bahwa Pratipalapura adalah Bhattiprolu modern, sebuah kota di Distrik Guntur [kutipan diperlukan]. Prasasti juga telah ditemukan di lembah Nagarjunakonda dan pada Jaggayyapeta dan Bhattiprolu menyinggung hal ini.

Etimologi

Dalam bahasa Sansekerta, itu berasal dari k? Atra, yang berarti “kekuasaan, kekuasaan, pemerintah” dari akar k?? “Untuk memerintah, mengatur, memiliki”. Lama Persia xs? Ya iya (“Kaisar”) dan XSA?? Ra (“alam”) yang terkait dengan itu, seperti kata-kata Persia baru S h (“Kaisar”) dan Sahr (“kota”,? “Alam” ). Kata Thai untuk “raja”, kasat, dan kata Melayu untuk “ksatria” atau “prajurit”, kesatria atau satria, yang juga berasal dari itu. Istilah menunjukkan status aristokrat.

Pada awal peradaban Veda, kasta ksatria disebut r janya atau? Kšatr? Ya. Yang pertama adalah bentuk sifat dari r Januari “penguasa, raja” dari akar r?? J “untuk memerintah”, serumpun untuk bahasa Latin rex “raja”, Reich Jerman “kerajaan / wilayah”, dan Thailand Racha “raja “. Di Persia, wakil raja, atau “kshatrapa”, adalah gubernur, atau “pelindung”, provinsi Kekaisaran Persia.

Kudus Prajurit
Tuhan Sri Rama (tengah) bersama istrinya Sita, saudara – Laksmana dan Hanuman pemuja. Rama dan Lakshmana selalu terbukti siap untuk berperang, dengan busur dan anak panah, seperti yang ksatria mereka untuk melawan. Rama adalah seorang ksatria dari garis keturunan Suryavanshi. Dia dianggap sebagai

inkarnasi Dewa Wisnu

 

Tuhan Sri Krishna dengan Radha. Krishna, seorang ksatria dengan kelahiran keturunan Chandravanshi, Ia dianggap inkarnasi lain Dewa Wisnu. Dalam Bhagavad Gita Arjuna ia mengajar tentang tugas Ksatria.

Seorang penguasa Hindu terikat oleh kitab-kitab suci untuk memerintah sebagai Raja Dharma (Hanya Aturan), dengan tugas utama yang melindungi rakyatnya dan ternak.

Rig Veda menyatakan:
praja arya jyotiragrah ‘. RV, VII. 33.17

Masyarakat yang dipimpin Arya yang dipimpin oleh cahaya Ilahi. Raja Rama Ayodhya dianggap yang terbesar dari Dharma-Raja-Raja:

arya Sarva samascaiva sadaiva priyadarsanah

Seorang Arya yang bekerja untuk kesetaraan semua, itu sayang kepada semua orang. Rama juga dianggap sebagai avatar Wisnu.

Ramayana menyatakan:
Seperti Manu raja kuno, ayah dari ra manusia

Dasaratha memerintah umat-Nya dengan kasih karunia seorang ayah.

Aswamedha

Tetapi Raja memiliki satu kekhawatiran. Dia keturunan. Jadi ia memikirkan melakukan pengorbanan Aswamedha yang mungkin memberinya anak laki-laki. Dia memanggil Menteri Sumanta dan kepala-imam dan pemimpin Vasistha Brahmana lainnya. Mereka mengangguk dan memberkatinya. Pengaturan dibuat untuk Yaga di tepi Sarayu

Menginginkan anak

Sumanta menyarankan raja untuk melakukan bukan pengorbanan Putreshthi. Hal ini telah diresepkan oleh Sanatkumara bijak. “Untuk melakukan ini Rishyasringa Yaga adalah orang yang tepat”, kata Sumanta Dasaratha.

Menarik Rishyasringa

Rishyasringa adalah anak dari Vibhandaka dan cucu dari Sage Kasyapa. Lahir di hutan, ia tahu apa-apa kecuali lingkungannya, api HOMA dan ayahnya. Angga negara diperintah oleh Raja Romapada. Dia membawa Rishyasringa dengan membujuk dia dengan bantuan gadis-gadis penari ketika hujan gagal tanah. Ketika Rishyasringa menginjakkan kaki di negeri ini, hujan deras dan kelaparan itu lenyap. Jadi, raja Romapada memberikan putrinya kepadanya dalam pernikahan dan Rishyasringa tinggal di mewah di istana.

Di Ayodhya

Raja Dasaratha meminta Romapada untuk membantu dan membawa Rishyasringa dan istrinya Santa Ayodhya

Sacrificial Kuda

Pada musim semi Dasaratha mulai Yaga dan kurban kuda didirikan perjalanan di seluruh kerajaan beberapa.

Yaga Dimulai

Setahun berlalu dan Raja Dasaratha melanjutkan dengan Yaga yang diresepkan.

Kembalinya Kuda

Pengorbanan kuda kembali. Pilar-pilar pengorbanan telah diukir dan burung-burung yang ditentukan, Ular dan kuda korban diikat kepada mereka. Ratu mengelilingi kuda dan ditebang dengan pedang emas. Anggota badan kuda itu ditawarkan kepada korban api

Dewa Tiba

Rishyasringa dilakukan pengorbanan Putrakamesthi. Dewa-dewa dan orang bijak tiba. Pertama yang datang adalah Brahma. Mereka meminta bantuan dari Brahma untuk membunuh Raja Rahwana. Brahma mengatakan “Rahwana telah memperoleh keuntungan dari saya yang melindungi dia dari kematian di tangan itu Deva, Danava itu, yaksha dan ghandharvas. Tapi dia bisa dibunuh oleh manusia. Jadi ia akan ……… “

Deva itu permohonan

Mereka mendesak Wisnu untuk mengambil inkarnasi manusia dan membunuh Rahwana. Dia setuju untuk dilahirkan di rumah Dasaratha.

Emas Kapal

Sebagai korban Putrakamesthi akan berakhir, ada muncul sosok luar biasa yang membawa emas dari kapal api HOMA. Dia menawarkan Raja Dasaratha puding nasi dan susu yang disiapkan oleh Deva “Let ratu Anda bagian dari hal itu dan mereka akan memiliki anak”, purusha Yagna diperintahkan.

Sacrificial makanan

Dasaratha ditawarkan setengah puding suci bagi Kausalyaa ratu, setengah dari setengah tersisa untuk ratu Kaikayi. Sisanya ia dibuat menjadi dua bagian dan menawarkan mereka untuk ratu Sumitra. Tiga ratu, setelah mengambil bagian puding dikandung.

Kelahiran Vanaras

Tuhan memerintahkan para Deva Brahma untuk pergi ke bumi lahir sebagai Vanaras. Oleh karena itu, dengan perintah Sugriwa Brahma lahir dari Sun, Vali Indira dan Hanuman dari dewa angin Vayu. Mereka untuk membantu Rama

Kelahiran Rama

Enam musim dan 12 bulan terakhir dan pada hari kesembilan dari bulan waxing Rama lahir Kausalyaa. Kaikayi melahirkan Bharatha dan Sumitra untuk Lakshmana anak laki-laki Kembar dan satrughna. Kelahiran mereka dirayakan oleh warga Ayodhya dengan keangkuhan dan penuh semangat.

Vishwamitra tiba

Dasaratha mulai berpikir tentang pernikahan mereka sebagai anak-anak tumbuh menjadi pemuda. Kemudian datang bijak Vishwamitra kepada raja dan berkata ‘oh, raja besar, saya melakukan kurban dan dua iblis yang mengganggu itu. Jadi mengirim Rama untuk melindungi situs pengorbanan. Aku akan menjaganya dan ia akan menjadi cahaya dari dinasti Ikshvaku.

Dasaratha yang Dilema

Dasaratha menjawab “Oh bijak besar, anak saya hampir enam belas tahun usia Bagaimana ia bisa menghadapi sihir setan dari Rakshasas?. Aku akan datang untuk membantu Anda sebagai gantinya. Tapi yang dua Rakshasas Yaga menghalangi Anda”. Ketika Vishwamitra mengatakan kepadanya bahwa mereka Mareecha dan Subahu dan mereka dikirim oleh Raja Rahwana dinasti Pulastya yang bijak.

Dasaratha sangat terkejut dan berkata “o bijak bahkan aku tidak bisa menghadapi Rahwana, Bagaimana ini anak muda melawan dia?”

Vishwamitra sangat marah mendengar jawabannya.

Vasistha nasihat

Sage Vasistha campur: “O, bagus raja ini Vishwamitra mampu membunuh semua setan dengan dirinya Dia hanya ingin membantu anak Anda melakukan perbuatan yang besar Jadi, kirim Rama dengan dia dan menjaga janji Anda…”

Belajar Eja

Dasaratha Rama dan Lakshmana menempatkan dalam perawatan Vishwamitra itu. Mereka berjalan menuju Sungai Sarayu dan setelah berendam di dalamnya, Rama diajarkan dua mantra ‘Bala dan Atibala’ oleh Vishwamitra, “mantra ini akan terus kelaparan dan kelelahan menjauh dari Anda” katanya kepada Rama.

Mereka beristirahat malam itu di tepi selatan Sungai.

Pembunuhan Manmadha

Saat fajar, mereka terbangun di tempat tidur yang terbuat dari rumput. Setelah wudhu pagi, mereka melanjutkan perjalanan mereka dan terlihat di mana Tuhan Siwa Sthanvashrama dilakukan penebusan dosa dan Manmatha berubah menjadi abu.

Mereka beristirahat di sana untuk malam. Kisah Tataka

Mereka menyeberangi Sungai Gangga dan memasuki hutan. Viswamitra mengatakan kepada mereka bagaimana tempat itu pernah berkembang dan kemudian ditinggalkan karena setan-Tataka.
“Dia Yakshini Wanita dapat mengambil bentuk dia keinginan dan memiliki kekuatan seribu gajah.. Dia menikah dengan Sunanda dan melahirkan setan Mareecha. Bunuhlah dan membuat tempat ini aman” katanya kepada Rama.

Rama Keraguan

Rama bertanya, “Mereka mengatakan Yaksha yang lemah dan ini Tataka adalah seorang wanita Bagaimana dia mendapatkan kekuatan seribu gajah itu?.”
Dia lahir dari yaksha bernama Suketu dan memperoleh kekuatannya melalui anugerah dari Brahma. Sunanda meninggal dan Tataka dan Mareecha menjadi setan-setan menyusul kutukan oleh Agasthya bijak.

“Bunuhlah dia untuk keselamatan sapi dan Brahmana Anda sendiri dapat membunuhnya.. Untuk perlindungan orang yang Anda tidak perlu ragu untuk membunuhnya meskipun dia adalah seorang wanita” perintahnya.

Kematian Tataka

“Jadi yang harus saya”, kata Rama dan menarik string busur. Suaranya bergema di seluruh hutan dan Tataki bergegas ke arah itu. Gerakan terangkat badai debu dan kegelapan turun. Ada hujan batu dari dia dan Rama menciptakan barikade dengan panah.
Saat matahari terbenam bijak mengatakan Rama “Ketika malam tiba kekuatannya akan tumbuh berlipat ganda Jadi membunuh. Sekarang”. Rama mengirimkan sebuah panah yang menusuk hatinya dan dia jatuh mati seperti pohon raksasa.

Senjata Baru

Mereka menghabiskan malam itu di hutan. Di pagi hari Viswamitra diajarkan Rama penggunaan Brahma perkasa, Narayana dan Astras lainnya. Selain pengiriman Rama mereka juga diajarkan penarikan mereka.

Menuju Siddhasrama

Mereka melanjutkan perjalanan mereka dan mencapai medan berbukit dan terlihat sebuah pertapaan yang dikenal sebagai Siddhasrama.

Cerita Hermitage

“Ini adalah di mana sekali Vishnu melanjutkan penebusan dosa dan kemudian ia tinggal di sini sekarang saya tinggal di sini.. Ini adalah di mana Anda harus membunuh setan”, kata Rama Viswamitra.

Mereka beristirahat sementara dan bijak melanjutkan ritualnya. Rama dan Lakshmana sedang terjaga sepanjang malam menunggu setan.

Hermitage Diserang
Jadi yang menghabiskan waktu lima hari dan malam. Pada pagi hari keenam sebagai kurban sedang berlangsung ada ledakan besar di atas seolah-olah langit telah meledak. Pertapaan dikelilingi oleh kebakaran. Mareecha dan Subahu menutupi langit dengan awan gelap.
Darah menghujani di situs korban. Senjata yang bertujuan untuk Mareecha mengirimnya seratus yojana jauhnya ke laut tapi Subahu tewas. Mengorbankan menyimpulkan tanpa gangguan. Perjalanan ke Mithila

Keesokan harinya beberapa narapidana dari pertapaan menyarankan bahwa Rama dan Lakshmana menemani mereka ke kota Mithila mana raja Janak adalah melakukan pengorbanan. “Ada sebuah busur indah ada berbakat oleh Tuhan Siwa untuk Devarata penguasa Mithila setelah pengorbanan seorang pun telah mampu string yang busur. Anda bisa melihatnya di sana.”.
Jadi disertai dengan Viswamitra mereka berangkat Mithila.

100 Dauhters

Viswamitra mengatakan Rama sejarah Mithila demikian: “pikir Brahma – anak kusa mendarat di bumi dari Brahmaloka dan menikahi putri Vidabha raja Mereka memiliki empat anak Kusambu, Kusanabha, Adhurtharajas dan Vasu Vasu membangun kota Girivrajapura Sungai yang mengalir dari… lima gunung sekitar adalah Sona. Hal ini juga dikenal sebagai Magadha.
Kusanabha memiliki seratus anak perempuan keindahan indah. Ketika mereka sedang bermain di taman satu hari Allah Angin Vayu bernafsu untuk mereka dan mendesak mereka untuk menikah dengannya. Mereka menolak permohonan itu dan Allah Vayu mengutuk mereka untuk menjadi jelek dan dwarf

Mengangkat Kutukan

Kusanabha membujuk penguasa kota Kampilya untuk menikahi mereka. Dengan sentuhannya mereka kehilangan keburukan mereka.

Kerinduan untuk Putra

Ketika semua ratus putrinya pergi dengan suami mereka, Kusanabha merasa kesepian dan merindukan seorang anak. Jadi, dia melakukan Putrakameshthi dan memperoleh seorang putra. Dia adalah Raja Gadhi “Akulah putra Gadhi dan dengan demikian kemudian dikenal sebagai Gadheya kata Viswamitra dan juga Kausika karena aku lahir di keluarga kusa”..
Viswamitra melanjutkan ceritanya “Saya mencapai Satyavathi kakak Swarga tubuh dan kembali ke bumi sebagai sungai Kausiki di Himalaya.

Asal Gangga
Rama mendesak Viswamitra menceritakan asal usul Gangga “adalah Repositori dari permata dan tujuh mineral Raja Himavanta.. Ia menikah Manorama. Mereka dikaruniai dua putri cantik Gangga dan Uma. Atas permintaan Deva, Himavanta membawa Gangga untuk Devaloka. uma dilakukan penebusan dosa yang berkepanjangan dan menikah Maheswara. Dia menjadi Rudrani “kata Viswamitra.

Siwa Benih

Viswamitra kemudian menceritakan kisah Parvati Rama: “Untuk melahirkan seorang putra Siwa dan Parvati larut dalam kenikmatan suami-istri ketika benih Siwa jatuh di bumi Segera menguap dalam api dan menjadi bukit putih Parwati mengutuk bumi dan Deva untuk mengambil.. benih dan wasting.
Dalam perjalanan waktu bukit tumbuh menjadi sebuah hutan lebat. Ada di padang gurun dilahirkan Kartikeya.

Enam berwajah Allah

Dewa api, Agni ditransfer ke benih Siwa Gangga dan dia menjadi hamil. Dia tidak tahan panas benih dan dibatalkan itu di kaki Himalaya. Dari ini, dihasilkan tujuh mineral. Dari sana muncul anak dengan enam wajah dan keindahan indah.
Ia dibesarkan oleh enam Kruttikas. Jadi, dia dikenal sebagai Kartikeya. Dia juga dikenal sebagai Shanmuka karena ia memiliki enam kepala. Allah Agni membuatnya komandan-in-chief dari tentara para dewa.

Kaisar putra Sagara

Vishwamitra mengatakan “Setelah Raja Sagara memerintah Ayodhya Dia punya dua istri, kesini dan Smati.. Tapi mereka tidak punya anak. Raja Sagara berdoa bijak Bhrigu untuk dua anak. Bhrigu mengatakan kepadanya bahwa istrinya sulung akan memiliki satu anak laki-laki dan 60.000 anak kedua.

Menggali bumi

Sagara dimulai pengorbanan Aswamedha. Dia mengutus besar-anaknya Ansumanta dengan kuda kurban dan anak itu kembali dengan itu dihalangi.

Ketika pengorbanan itu berlangsung Indira mencuri kuda suci. 60.000 putra Sagara pergi mencari itu menggali bumi turun ke dunia bawah

Kapila yang Wrath

Ketika mereka pergi menggali di arah utara-timur mereka menemukan Wisnu dalam bentuk bijak Kapila dan kuda kurban di sisinya. Mereka mengira dia pencuri kuda dan menyerangnya. Kapila mengubah mereka menjadi abu.

Upaya untuk menurunkan Gangga

Tidak dapat melacak 60.000 putranya Sagara dikirim Ansumanta untuk menemukan mereka. Ansumanta menemukan abu mereka dan menawarkan mereka upeti ia mencari air ketika Garuda muncul dan mengatakan kepadanya bahwa jika Gangga mengalir di atas abu mereka pamannya akan mencapai keselamatan.

Ansumanta mengambil kembali kuda kurban dan menceritakan cerita kakeknya. Sementara itu, Sagara gagal tanpa mampu membawa Gangga ke bumi.

Bhagiratha itu upaya

Setelah kematian Sagara itu, Ansumanta menggantikannya sebagai raja Ayodhya. Ia digantikan oleh putranya Dilipa dan Dilipa diikuti oleh Bhagiratha anaknya. Bhagiratha pergi pada penebusan dosa berkepanjangan untuk anak dan untuk membawa Gangga ke bumi.

Brahma muncul dan mengatakan kepadanya “Bhagiratha, Anda dapat memiliki anak Anda Tapi untuk Gangga turun ke bumi hanya Tuhan Siva dapat berisi kekuatan dia jatuh dari langit.. Jadi berdoa kepadanya”.

Turunnya Gangga

Siva terwujud Bhagiratha mengandung Gangga. Dia menanggung Gangga di panen dan dia bersembunyi di sana. Tidak menemukan di mana saja dia pergi lagi Bhagiratha penitensi untuk menyenangkan Dewa Siwa. Siva merilis Gangga ke danau Bindu. Dari sana Gangga turun sebagai Tujuh Streaming perkasa. Salah satu dari mereka mengikuti Bhagiratha itu kereta.

Membasahi dengan Ashes

Dia mengantarnya melalui abu leluhurnya dan dengan demikian mereka mencapai keselamatan pada akhirnya.

Jhanu tegukan Gangga

Kemudian Bhagiratha berpaling keretanya menuju pertapaan bijak Jhanu dan berhenti di sana. Namun Gangga perkasa mengikutinya tidak bisa berhenti di situ tiba-tiba dan mencuci pertapaan pergi. Sage Jhanu berbalik marah dan mengambil seluruh Gangga dalam satu tegukan di mulutnya. Bhagiratha meminta dia untuk melepaskan dirinya demi dunia dan Jhanu melakukannya dengan telinganya.

Dia lagi mengikuti Bhagiratha ke laut dan kemudian ke dunia bawah.

Samudera Sakti berputar

Dalam usia Krita putra Diti itu yang perkasa dan putra Aditi itu adalah benar. Ketika lautan susu bergejolak Amrita dihasilkan.
Ada sebuah perjuangan tentang berbagi antara Deva dan Danavas. Dewa Wisnu muncul dalam pakaian Mohini dan didistribusikan di antara Deva. Ada pertempuran sengit mengikutinya antara Deva dan Daityas yang kemudian dibunuh.

Indra pemotongan sampai embrio yang

Diti meratapi kematian semua putranya Dia mendesak Kasyapa menganugerahkan kepadanya seorang putra yang bisa rendah hati Indira. Kasyapa memintanya untuk mengamati penitensi ketat.
Satu siang Diti dizzed off dengan kepala dan kaki memutar sisi yang salah dan rambut diikat. Indira memasuki rahimnya dan memotong embrio menjadi tujuh bagian.

Indira keluar dan memohon dia untuk memaafkannya. “Para Anak di dalam rahim Anda adalah musuh saya. Apakah tidak tepat untuk seorang raja untuk membunuh musuhnya? “Ia bertanya dan mencari maaf padanya.

Kelahiran Maruts

Diti meratapi mutilasi embrio. ‘Buatlah ini tujuh segmen dari penguasa embrio dimutilasi dari angin di tujuh dunia. Dan membiarkan mereka dikenal sebagai ‘Maruts, ia mendesak Indira. Indira menghibur dan setuju untuk ini.

Tempat di mana Diti diamati penebusan dosa menjadi Visalapattana mana Raama, Lakshmana dan Vishwamitra menerima perhotelan yang diberikan oleh Raja Ikshvaku Sumati.

Indira itu kesombongan

Keesokan paginya mereka melanjutkan perjalanan mereka menuju Mithala. Dalam perjalanan, mereka menemukan pertapaan sepi bijak Gautama. Vishwamitra meriwayatkan kisah ‘Ahalya Ketika Gautama, berangkat wudhu Indira memasuki tempat tinggalnya dalam penyamaran dan dikawinkan dengan Ahalya. Pada kedatangannya Gautama menemukan kebenaran dan mengutuk kehilangan testisnya. Indira demikian menjadi impoten. Dia juga mengutuk Ahalya untuk tetap statis, debu naik tanpa makanan dan air dan bahwa ia akan ditebus dari penderitaan dengan sentuhan kaki Anda”Jadi untuk mengatakan Gautama meninggalkan Himalaya.

Ahalya Ditebus

Manas Indira dilengkapi dengan testis kambing. Ahalya menunggu kedatangan Rama. Dengan debu dari kaki Rama Ahalya ditebus dari penderitaan dan Gautama kembali ke pertapaannya.

Rama tiba di Mithila

Didampingi oleh penghuni pertapaan, dan Rama dan Lakshmana, Viswamitra masuk Mithila. Sage Raja Janaka maju untuk menyambut mereka. Viswamitra Rama dan Lakshmana diperkenalkan untuk Janaka.

Kisah Viswamitra

Sage Gautama Satananda anak diriwayatkan Rama, kisah Viswamitra. ‘Viswamitra telah menjadi Raja besar. Setelah setelah mengunjungi pertapaan-pertapaan berbagai Viswamitra pergi ke bijak “Vasistha katanya.

Sapi heran Sabala

“Vasistha mendesak raja untuk menerima perhotelan Viswamitra nya bersama dengan pasukannya.” Kata Satananda Rama. “Vasistha memiliki sapi Sabala ‘yang bisa memberi makan sejumlah orang.”

Viswamitra yang Keserakahan

“Setelah partaken dari makanan lezat, Viswamitra dan rombongannya terkejut dengan perbuatan Wonderous sapi ‘. Satananda melanjutkan. ‘Raja Viswamitra menawarkan satu sapi lakh dalam pertukaran Sabala tapi Vasistha menolak’.

Sabala yang Plea

Ada pada Viswamitra memerintahkan anak buahnya untuk mengambil sapi ajaib dengan kekuatan, Satananda kata. “Sapi itu meminta Vasistha untuk memungkinkan dia melawan raja dan orang-orangnya ‘.

Pria raja Dibunuh

Satananda berkata ‘bijak menyetujui dan sapi yang dihasilkan ribuan tentara dari anggota tubuhnya dan laki-laki membunuh Vishwamitra itu. “

Seratus Pangeran dibunuh

Satananda melanjutkan ‘Kemudian Vishwamitra dan seratus putranya Vasistha menyerang dimana bijak memandang mereka dalam kemarahan. Seratus anak-anak raja itu berubah menjadi abu. Raja Vishwamitra berada di kerugian untuk mengetahui apa yang harus dilakukan. Ia menyerahkan kerajaannya ke tunggal, hidup putra dan terus melakukan penitensi untuk menyenangkan Tuhan Siwa. Siva diberikan kepadanya beberapa anugerah dan senjata. ‘Vishwamitra menjadi sombong dan murka-Nya terhadap Vasistha pertapaan. Dia menghancurkannya. “Kata Satananda Rama.

Viswamitra dipermalukan

“Sage Viswamitra marah Dia membalas dengan membuat semua senjata dikirim oleh Viswamitra impoten.. Akhirnya Viswamitra mengutus Brahmastra paling ampuh yang Vasistha segera mengambil di dalam tubuh-Nya dalam satu tegukan.”

ENGLISH VERSION 

RAMAYAN Balakanda

Book of the young Rama which details the miraculous birth of Rama, his early life in Ayodhya, his slaying of the demons of the forest at the request of Vishvamitra and his wedding with Sita.

Narada arriving at Valmiki’s Hermitage 

Valmiki asked Narada “O sage, is there a person who has an impeccable character, is courageous, honest without anger or jealousy in this world? Tell me about him if there is such a great soul. Narada replied ” It is difficult to find such a person but there is one born in the house of Ikshvaku’s. His name is Rama”. Narada then began narrating the story of Rama to Valmiki.

Having narrated the story of Rama, Narada left for Deva Loka 

Sage Valmiki went to offer midday oblations in the Tamasa River. A pair of Krauncha birds attracted his attention in the cool surroundings. At a time when the pair was mating, a hunter aimed his arrow at them and dispatched it. It pierced the heart of the male bird. The female bird began crying for her dying mate. This moved the kind heart of Valmiki to recite The first poem of the world “Manishada….. 

Brahma’s Command 

When Valmiki returned to his hermitage recalling the spontaneous outburst of Poesy, Brahma, the Creator, materialised and ordered him to compose the story of Rama in the Anustup metre ” May it be the first book and may it last as long as The Kalpa lasts” said Brahma

Valmiki’s vision 

With the blessings of the Creator, sage Valmiki offered prayers and sat composed on a seat made of Kusa grass. King Dasaratha , his consorts, sons, their spouses, the banishment of Rama, Sita and Lakshmana, the Slaying of Ravana came as a vision to Valmiki. Valmiki thus put down the story of Rama for posterity. 

Valmiki composes Ramayana 

Sage Valmiki composed the Ramayana in 24,000 slokas in 500 sargas and six cantos. The twins Kusa and Lava got them by heart. They were of sweet musical voice and staged it before the inmates of the hermitage. Rama got them to the court to recite the story.

Kings of the Ikshvaku Dynasty 

Among the kings that ruled this earth, the Ikshvaku’s were the greatest. From Manu to Sagara they ruled the earth with unequal gaiety. Among them Rama was the crown jewel. The Kingdom of Kosala was on the banks of Sarayu river and its capital was Ayodhya built by Vaivaswata Manu. In the center of the city was the King’s palace

Great Kingdom 

The king who brought glory to the city of Ayodhya and Kosala Kingdom was Dasaratha. He slew several enemies and invited men of valor and scholars to live in his city. The people led contented and righteous lives. 

Able King 

The head priests of the kingdom were Vasistha and Vamadeva. King Dasaratha ruled efficiently with the help of eight ministers who were headed by Sumanta. Sumanta was closest to Dasaratha and was entitled even to enter the apartments of royal women. 

More info Ishavaku 

HISTORY OF KSHATRIYAS

Kshatriya () is one of the four varnas (social orders) in Hinduism. It constitutes the military and ruling order of the traditional Vedic-Hindu social system as outlined by the Vedas and the Laws of Manu. Lord Rama, Lord Krishna, Lord Buddha and Lord Mahavira all belonged to this social order.

Initially in ancient Vedic society, this position was achieved on the merits of a person’s aptitude (guna), conduct (karma), and nature (swabhava). The earliest Vedic literature listed the Kshatriya (holders of k?atra, or authority) as first in rank, then the Brahmins (priests and teachers of law), next the Vaisya (merchant-traders), and finally the Sudra (artisans and labourers). Movements of individuals and groups from one class to another, both upward and downward, were not uncommon; a rise in status even to the rank of Kshatriya was a recognized reward for outstanding service to the rulers of the day.[1] Over the years it became hereditary. In modern times, the Kshatriya varna includes a broad class of caste groups, differing considerably in status and function but united by their claims to rulership, the pursuit of war, or the possession of land.

The legend that the Kshatriyas, with the exception of the Ikshvakus, were destroyed by Parasurama, the sixth reincarnation of Vishnu, as a punishment for their tyranny is thought by some scholars to reflect a long struggle for supremacy between priests and rulers that ended in victory for the former. By the end of the Vedic era, the Brahmins were supreme, and the Kshatriya had fallen to second place. Texts such as the Manusm?ti (a book of Hindu law) and most other dharmashastras (works of jurisprudence) report a Brahman victory, but epic texts often offer a different account, and it is likely that in social reality rulers have usually ranked first. The persistent representation of deities (especially Vishnu, Krishna, and Rama) as rulers underscores the point, as does the elaborate series of ritual roles and privileges pertaining to kings through most of Hindu history.[2]. With the rise of Buddhism, Kshatriyas regained their position as first of the four varnas. The murder of the last Maurya emperor Brhadrata by his Brahmin general Pusyamitra Sunga, and the subsequent decline of Buddhism in India, marked Brahmin supremacy once more in Eastern India. Western India remained a stronghold of Kshatriya clans as epitomized by Rajputana and the powerful Kshatriya empire that ruled from Ujjain right up to the Islamic incursions led to a downfall of the Chauhan Kshatriyas in Delhi. 

Ikshvaku dynasty lineage

 

The lists of kings of Ik?v?ku or Aik?v?ka dynasty are found in the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, the Harivamsha and the Puranas. But the two lists found in the Ramayana vary significantly with all other lists. The Raghuvamsha of Kalidasa also mentions the names of some of the kings of this dynasty.[3][4][5]

 

 

 

 

 

IKSHVAKUS

The genealogy of the Ikshvaku dynasty as mentioned in the Ramayana (i.69.17-32 and ii.102.4-29)[6] is as follows:

  • Brahma created 10 Prajapatis, one of whom was Marichi.
  • Kashyapa is the son of Marichi and Kala. Kashyapa is regarded as the father of humanity.
  • Vivasvan or Surya is the son of Kashyapa and Aditi.
  • Vaivasvata Manu, originally Satyavrata, the then Emperor of Dravida is the son of Vivasvan. He is regarded as the first ruler belonging to the Ikshvaku dynasty.
  • Ikshvaku is the son of Vaivasvata Manu.
  • Kukshi is the son of Ikshvaku
  • Vikukshi is the son of Kukshi
  • Bana is the son of Vikukshi
  • Anaranya is the son of Bana
  • Prithu is the son of Anaranya
  • Trishanku is the son of Prithu
  • Dhundhumara is the son of Trishanku
  • Yuvanashva is the son of Dhundhumara
  • Mandhata is the son of Yuvanashva
  • Susandhi is the son of Mandhata
  • Dhruvasandhi and Presenajit are the sons of Susandhi
  • Bharata is the son of Dhruvasandhi
  • Bahu (Asita) is the son of Bharata
  • Sagara is the son of Bahu
  • Asamanja is the son of Sagara
  • Amsumanta (Ansuman) is the son of Asamanja
  • Dileepa is the son of Amsumanta
  • Bhagiratha is the son of Dilipa
  • Kakustha is the son of Bhagiratha
  • Raghu is the son of Kakushta. The clan of Raghuvamsha started with Raghu
  • Pravriddha is the sone of Raghu
  • Shankhana is the son of Pravriddha
  • Sudarshana is the son of Shankhana
  • Agnivarna is the son of Sudarshana
  • Shighra is the son of Agnivarna
  • Maru is the son of Shighra
  • Prashushruka is the son of Maru
  • Ambarisha is the son of Prashushruka
  • Nahusha is the son of Ambarisha
  • Yayati is the son of Nahusha
  • Nabhaga is the son of Yayati
  • Aja is the son of Nabhaga
  • Dasharatha is the son of Aja
  • Rama, Lakshmana, Bharata and Shatrughna are the sons of Dasaratha
  • Lava and Kusha are the sons of Rama

The Puranas provide a genealogical list from Kusha to Brihadbala, who was killed by Abhimanyu in the Mahabharata war. This list is corroborated by the Raghuvamsha till Agnivarna[7]:

  • Atithi, the son of Kusha
  • Nishadha, the son of Atithi
  • Nala, the son of Nishadha
  • Nabhas, the son of Nala
  • Pundarika, the son Nabhas
  • Kshemadhanvan, the son of Pundarika
  • Devanika, the son of Kshemadhanvan
  • Ahinagu, the son of Davanika
  • Paripatra, the son of Ahinagu
  • Dala (or Bala), the son of Ahinagu
  • Uktha, the son of Dala
  • Vajranabha, the son of Uktha
  • Shankhana, the son of Vajranabha
  • Vyushitashva, the son of Shankhana
  • Vishvasaha, the son of Vyushitashva
  • Hiranyanabha, the son of Vishvasaha
  • Pushya, the son of Hiranyanabha
  • Dhruvasandhi, the son of Pushya
  • Agnivarna, the son of Dhruvasandhi
  • Shighra, the son of Agnivarna
  • Maru, the son of Shighra
  • Prasushruta, the son of Maru
  • Susandhi, the son of Prasushruta
  • Amarsha and Sahasvant, the sons of Susandhi
  • Vishrutavant, the son of Amarsha
  • Brihadbala, the son of Vishrutavant.

However, the Nepalese and Bauddhists continue the dynasty further.

Lineage Descrepencies

From the 2 sources listed above, there are differences which needs to be resolved for accuracy of above data. The following is the list of descrepencies:

  • Valmiki Ramayana states that Prthu is the son of Anaranya and father of Trisanku. Ramakatha Rasavahini misses Prthu and states that Anaranya fathered Trisanku
  • Valmiki Ramayana states that Presenjit is the father of Bharatha while Ramakatha Rasavahini statest Daivasandhi as the father of Bharatha
  • Valmiki Ramayana states that Sankhana is the son of Pravardha and Sankhana’s son was Sudarsana. Ramakatha Rasavahini misses mentioning Sankhana and attributes Sudarsana as the son of Pravardha
  • Seeghraga is mentioned as the son of Agnivarna & father of Maru in Ramakatha Rasavahini. Valmiki Ramayana does not mention Seeghraga and states that Maru’s father was Agnivarna

Ikshvaku dynasty in Jaina tradition

The Ikshvaku dynasty has a significant place in Jaina tradition, as 22 Tirthankaras were born in this royal house. The first Tirthankara Rishavadeva was son of Ikshvaku King Nabhi. The second Tirthankara, Ajitanatha, son of Ikshvaku King Jitashatru was cousin of Sagara

Andhra Ikshvakus

The Andhra Ikshvakus were one of the earliest ruling dynasties of Andhra Pradesh. They ruled the eastern Andhra country along the Krishna river during the later half of the second century CE.[8] Their capital was Vijayapuri (Nagarjunakonda). Some scholars have suggested that this dynasty was related to the ancient Ikshvakus of Hindu mythology. Rama of Ramayana, who is considered as the incarnation of Vishnu belonged to the line of Ikshvaku. According to Hindu mythology, Ikshvaku, who was the Manu and father of Kukshi, was the founder of the Suryavanshi dynasty, reigning from Ayodhya at the commencement of the Treta Yuga. There is however no direct evidence to suggest that the Andhra Ikshvakus were related to the mythological Ikshvakus.

Archaeological evidence has suggested that the Andhra Ikshvakus immediately succeeded the Satavahanas in the Krishna river valley. Ikshvakus have left inscriptions at Nagarjunakonda, Jaggayyapeta, Amaravati and Bhattiprolu.

Literary Evidence of Andhra Ikshvakus to Ikshvakus

A Kannada poem Dharmamrita states that the Ikshvakus of Andhra were the descendents of the renowned Ikshvakus of northern India. The oriental scholars like Buhler and Rapson expressed the view that the northern Ikshvakus might have migrated south. According to the Vayu Purana, Manu, the great patriarch of ancient India had nine sons of whom Ikshvaku was the eldest. His capital was Ayodhya. He had one hundred sons, and the eldest Vikushi succeeded his father as the ruler of Ayodhya. Of the rest, fifty sons founded small principalities in Northern India. Forty eight of his sons migrated to the south and carved out kingdoms for themselves.

Buddhist literature refers to the penetration of the Ikshvakus into South India and declares that they founded the Asmaka, Mulaka and other principalities. These Kshatriyas settled down in the south and established small kingdoms there . Jain literature also refers to the exodus of northern Indian princes to the south. In Dharmamrita a reference was made that during the lifetime of the 12th Tirthankara, a prince named Yasodhara hailing from the Ikshvaku family came from the Anga kingdom to Vengi in the south. We are informed that the prince was so impressed with beauty of the region, and the fertility of the soil that he made it his permanent home and founded a city called Pratipalpura. It is believed that Pratipalapura is the modern Bhattiprolu, a town in Guntur District.[citation needed] Inscriptions have also been discovered in the Nagarjunakonda valley and at Jaggayyapeta and Bhattiprolu alluding to this.

Etymology

In Sanskrit, it is derived from k?atra, meaning “dominion, power, government” from a root k?? “to rule, govern, possess”. Old Persian xš?ya?iya (“emperor”) and xša?ra (“realm”) are related to it, as are the New Persian words š?h (“emperor”) and šahr (“city”, “realm”). The Thai word for “king”, kasat, and the Malay word for “knight” or “warrior”, kesatria or satria, are also derived from it. The term denotes aristocratic status.

In the early Vedic civilization, the warrior caste was called r?janya or kšatr?ya. The former was an adjectival form of r?jan “ruler, king” from a root r?j “to rule”, cognate to the Latin rex “king”, the German Reich “empire/realm”, and the Thai racha “king”. In Persia, the satraps, or “kshatrapa”, were the governors, or “protectors”, of the Persian Empire’s provinces. 

Holy Warrior 

Lord Sri Rama (center) with wife Sita, brother– Lakshmana and devotee Hanuman. Rama and Lakshmana are always shown to be ready for battle, with bow and arrow, as it is their Kshatriya to fight. Rama was a Kshatriya of Suryavanshi lineage. He is considered an

incarnation of Lord Vishnu

 

Lord Sri Krishna with Radha. Krishna, a Kshatriya by birth of Chandravanshi lineage, He is considered another incarnation of Lord Vishnu. In the Bhagavad Gita he taught Arjuna about the duty of a Kshatriya.

A Hindu ruler was bound by the holy scriptures to govern as a Dharma-Raja (Just Rule), with the main duties being protection of his subjects and livestock.

  • The Rig Veda states:

praja arya jyotiragrah’. RV, VII. 33.17

People ruled by Aryans are led by the Divine light. King Rama of Ayodhya is considered the greatest of the Dharma-Rajas:

arya sarva samascaiva sadaiva priyadarsanah

An Aryan who worked for the equality of all, was dear to everyone. Rama is also considered an avatar of Vishnu.

Like the ancient monarch Manu, father of the human ra

Dasaratha ruled his people with a father’s loving grace.

 

Aswamedha 

But the King had one worry. He had no offspring. So he thought of performing the Aswamedha sacrifice which might give him sons. He summoned Minister Sumanta and head-priest Vasistha and other Brahmin leaders. They nodded and blessed him. Arrangements were made for the yaga on the banks of Sarayu

Desiring sons 

Sumanta advised the king to perform instead the Putreshthi sacrifice. This had been prescribed by sage Sanatkumara. ” For conducting this yaga Rishyasringa is the right person “, Sumanta told Dasaratha.

Enticing Rishyasringa 

Rishyasringa was the son of Vibhandaka and grandson of Sage Kasyapa. Born in the forest, he had known nothing except his surroundings, the homa fire and his father. Anga country was ruled by King Romapada. He brought Rishyasringa by enticing him with the help of dancing girls when rains failed the land. When Rishyasringa set his foot in the country, it rained copiously and the famine vanished. So, king Romapada gave his daughter to him in marriage and Rishyasringa was living in luxury at the palace. 

In Ayodhya 

King Dasaratha appealed to Romapada for help and brought Rishyasringa and his wife Santa to Ayodhya

Sacrificial Horse 

In the spring season Dasaratha began the yaga and the sacrificial horse was set on its journey across several kingdoms. 

Yaga Begins 

A year passed and King Dasaratha went on with the yaga as prescribed.

Return of the Horse 

The sacrificial horse returned. The sacrificial pillars had been carved and the prescribed birds, Serpents and the sacrificial horse were tied to them. The queens circumambulated the horse and felled it with golden swords. The limbs of the horse were offered to the sacrificial fire

Gods Arrive 

Rishyasringa conducted the Putrakamesthi sacrifice. Gods and sages arrived. First to arrive was Brahma. They sought the help of Brahma to slay King Ravana. Brahma said “Ravana had obtained a boon from me that protects him from death at the hands of the Deva’s, Danava’s, Yaksha’s and ghandharvas. but he can be killed by a human being. So he shall………” 

Deva’s plea 

They urged Vishnu to take a human incarnation and kill Ravana. He consented to be born in the house of Dasaratha. 

Golden Vessel 

As the Putrakamesthi sacrifice was coming to an end, there emerged a magnificent figure carrying a golden vessel from the homa fire. He offered King Dasaratha the rice-and-milk pudding prepared by the Deva’s”Let your queens partake of it and they shall have children”, the Yagna purusha commanded.

Sacrificial food 

Dasaratha offered half the sacred pudding to the queen Kausalya, half of the remaining half to queen Kaikayi. The remainder he made into two halves and offered them to queen Sumitra. The three queens, after partaking of the pudding conceived. 

Birth of the Vanaras 

Lord Brahma commanded the Deva’s to go to earth be born as Vanaras. Accordingly, by the command of Brahma Sugriva was born of Sun, Vali of Indira and Hanuman of the wind-god Vayu. They were to help Rama 

Birth of Rama 

Six seasons and 12 months past and on the ninth day of the waxing moon Rama was born to Kausalya. Kaikayi gave birth to Bharatha and Sumitra to Twin boys Lakshmana and satrughna. Their birth was celebrated by the citizens of Ayodhya with great pomp and gusto.

Vishwamitra arrives 

Dasaratha began thinking about their marriages as the boys grew up into youths. Then came sage Vishwamitra to the king and said ‘oh, great king, I am performing a sacrifice and two demons are disturbing it. So send Rama to protect the sacrificial site. I shall look after him and he shall become the light of the Ikshvaku dynasty.

Dasaratha’s Dilemma 

Dasaratha replied ” Oh great sage, My son is hardly sixteen years of age. How can he face the vicious magic of the Rakshasas? I shall come to help you instead. But who are the two Rakshasas obstructing your Yaga”. When Vishwamitra told him that they were Mareecha and Subahu and they were sent by King Ravana of sage Pulastya’s dynasty.

Dasaratha was aghast and said ” o sage even I cannot face Ravana, How can this young boy fight him?’

Vishwamitra was furious hearing the answer.

Vasistha’s advice 

Sage Vasistha intervened: ” O, great king this Vishwamitra is capable of slaying all the demons by himself. He only wants to help your son do great deeds. So, send Rama with him and keep your promise.”

Learning Spell 

Dasaratha put Rama and Lakshmana in Vishwamitra’s care. They proceeded towards the Sarayu River and after bathing in it, Rama was taught the two spells ‘ Bala and Atibala’ by Vishwamitra, ” These spells will keep hunger and fatigue away from you ” he told Rama.

They rested that night on the southern bank of the River.

Slaying of Manmadha 

At dawn they woke up on the beds made of grass. After the morning ablutions, they resumed their journey and sighted the Sthanvashrama where Lord Shiva performed penance and Manmatha was turned into ashes.

They rested there for the night. Story of Tataka 

They crossed the Ganges and entered a forest. Viswamitra told them how the place once flourished and was later deserted because of a demon-Tataka.
“She is a Yakshini. She can take any shape she desires and has the strength of a thousand elephants. She married Sunanda and gave birth to demon Mareecha. Slay her and make this place safe” he told Rama.

Rama’s Doubt 

Rama asked ” They say Yakshas are weaklings and this Tataka is a woman. How did she obtain the strength of a thousand elephants then?”
She was born to a Yaksha named Suketu and obtained her strength through a boon from Brahma. Sunanda died and Tataka and Mareecha became demons following a curse by sage Agasthya.

“Slay her for the safety of cows and Brahmins. You alone can kill her. For the protection of people you need not hesitate to kill her even though she is a woman” he commanded.

Death of Tataka 

“So shall I “, said Rama and pulled the bow string. Its sound reverberated in the whole forest and Tataki rushed towards it. Her movement raised a dust storm and darkness descended. There was a hail of stones from her and Rama created a barricade with his arrows.
As the sun was setting the sage told Rama ” When night falls her strength will grow manifold. So slay her now”. Rama dispatched an arrow that pierced her heart and she fell dead like a giant tree.
 

New Weapons 

They spent that night in the forest. In the morning Viswamitra taught Rama the use of mighty Brahma, Narayana and other Astras. Besides their dispatch Rama was also taught their withdrawal.

Towards Siddhasrama 

They continued their journey and reached a hilly terrain and sighted a hermitage known as Siddhasrama.

Story of The Hermitage 

“This was where once Lord Vishnu went on penance and later he lived here. I now live here. This is where you have to slay the demons”, Viswamitra told Rama.

They rested a while and the sage resumed his rituals. Rama and Lakshmana were awake the whole night waiting for the demons. 

Hermitage Attacked 

Thus were spent five days and nights. On the sixth day morning as the sacrifice was in progress there was a big bang above as if the sky had exploded. The hermitage was surrounded by fires. Mareecha and Subahu covered the sky with dark clouds.
Blood rained on the sacrificial site. The weapon aimed at Mareecha sent him a hundred yojanas into the sea but Subahu was killed. The sacrifice concluded without interruption.
Journey to Mithila 

The next day some inmates of the hermitage suggested that Rama and Lakshmana accompany them to the city of Mithila where king Janak was performing a sacrifice. ” There is a wonderful bow there gifted by Lord Siva to Mithila’s ruler Devarata after a sacrifice. No one has been able to string that bow. You can see it there”.
So accompanied by Viswamitra they left for Mithila.

100 Dauhters 

Viswamitra told Rama the history of Mithila thus: “Brahma’s thought – child Kusa landed on earth from Brahmaloka and married Vidabha king’s daughter. They had four sons Kusambu, Kusanabha, Adhurtharajas and Vasu. Vasu built the city of Girivrajapura. The river flowing from the five mountains around is Sona. It is also known as Magadha.
Kusanabha had a hundred daughters of exquisite beauty. When they were playing in the garden one day God of Wind Vayu lusted for them and urged them to marry him. They rejected his plea and God Vayu cursed them to become ugly and dwarfs
 

Curse Lifted 

Kusanabha persuaded the ruler of the city of Kampilya to marry them. By his touch they lost their ugliness. 

Yearning for a Son 

When all his hundred daughters left with their husbands, Kusanabha felt lonely and yearned for a son. So, he performed a Putrakameshthi and obtained a son. He was King Gadhi.” I am the son of Gadhi and thus came to be known as Gadheya said Viswamitra and also Kausika for I was born in the family of Kusa”.
Viswamitra continued his story ” My elder sister Satyavathi attained swarga bodily and returned to earth as river Kausiki in the Himalayas.
 

Origin of Ganga 

Rama urged Viswamitra to tell him the origin of Ganga.” Repository of the gems and the seven minerals is King Himavanta. He married Manorama. They had two beautiful daughters Ganga and Uma. Upon the request of the Devas, Himavanta brought Ganga to Devaloka. Uma performed prolonged penance and married Maheswara. She became Rudrani ” said Viswamitra.

Siva’s Seed

Viswamitra then narrated the story of Parvati to Rama: “To beget a son Siva and Parvati indulged in conjugal pleasure when the seed of Siva fell on earth. It soon evaporated in fire and became the white hill. Parvati cursed earth and the Devas for taking the seed and wasting it.
In course of time the hill grew into a dense forest. There in the bulrushes was born Kartikeya.

Six-faced God

God of fire, Agni transferred Siva’s seed into Ganga and she became pregnant. She could not bear the heat of the seed and aborted it at the foot of the Himalayas. From this, were generated the seven minerals. From there emerged a child with six faces and exquisite beauty.
He was brought up by six Kruttikas. So, he is known as Kartikeya. He is also known as Shanmuka for he has six heads. God Agni made him the commander-in-chief of the army of the devas.

Emperor Sagara’s sons

Vishwamitra said ” Once King Sagara ruled Ayodhya. He had two wives , Kesini and Smati. But they had no children. King Sagara prayed sage Bhrigu for two sons. Bhrigu told him that his eldest wife would have one son and the second 60,000 sons.

Digging the earth

Sagara commenced the Aswamedha sacrifice. He dispatched his grand -son Ansumanta with sacrificial horse and the boy returned with it unhampered.

When the sacrifice was in progress Indira stole the holy horse. Sagara’s 60,000 sons went in search of it digging the earth down to the nether world

Kapila’s Wrath 

When they went digging in the north-eastern direction they found Vishnu in the form of sage Kapila and the sacrificial horse by his side. They mistook him for the horse thief and attacked him. Kapila turned them into ashes.

Bid to bring down Ganga

Unable to trace his 60,000 sons Sagara sent Ansumanta to find them. Ansumanta found their ashes and to offer them tribute he searched for water when Garuda appeared and told him that if Ganga flowed over their ashes his uncles would attain salvation.

Ansumanta took back the sacrificial horse and narrated the story to his grandfather. Meanwhile, Sagara failed without being able to bring Ganga to earth.

Bhagiratha’s effort

After Sagara’s death, Ansumanta succeeded him as king of Ayodhya. He was succeeded by his son Dilipa and Dilipa was followed by his son Bhagiratha. Bhagiratha went on a prolonged penance for a son and to bring Ganga to earth.

Brahma appeared and told him “Bhagiratha, you can have your son . But as to Ganga descending to earth only Lord Siva can contain the force of her fall from heaven. So pray to him”.

Descent of Ganga 

Siva materialised Bhagiratha to contain Ganga. He bore Ganga in his crop and she hid there. Not finding her anywhere Bhagiratha again went on penance to please Siva. Siva released Ganga into the Bindu lake. From there Ganga came down as Seven mighty Streams. One of them followed Bhagiratha’s chariot.

Drenching the Ashes 

He drove her through the ashes of his ancestors and they thus attained salvation at last.

Jhanu Gulps Ganga

Then Bhagiratha turned his chariot towards the hermitage of sage Jhanu and stopped there. But the mighty Ganga following him could not stop there suddenly and washed the hermitage away. Sage Jhanu turned furious and took the entire Ganga in one gulp in his mouth. Bhagiratha pleaded with him to release her for the sake of the world and Jhanu did so with his ears.

She again followed Bhagiratha into the sea and then to the nether world.

Churning the Milky Ocean 

In the Krita age Diti’s sons were mighty and Aditi’s sons were righteous. When the ocean of milk was churned Amrita was generated.
There was a fight over sharing it between Devas and Danavas. Lord Vishnu turned up in the garb of Mohini and distributed it among the Devas. There was a fierce battle following it between the Devas and the Daityas in which the later were slain.

Indra cuts up the Embryo

Diti lamented over the death of all her sons She urged Kasyapa to bestow him a son who could humble Indira. Kasyapa asked her to observe penance strictly.
One noon Diti dizzed off with her head and feet turned the wrong side and hair untied. Indira entered her womb and cut the embryo into seven pieces.

Indira came out and pleaded with her to forgive him. ‘ The Child in your womb is my enemy. Is it not right for a king to kill his enemy? ‘ he asked and sought her forgiveness.

Birth of Maruts 

Diti lamented over the mutilation of the embryo. ‘ Make these seven segments of the mutilated embryo lords of the winds in the seven worlds. And let them be known as Maruts’, she urged Indira. Indira consoled her and agreed to this .


The place where Diti observed penance became Visalapattana where Rama, Lakshmana and Vishwamitra accepted the hospitality provided by the Ikshvaku King Sumati.

Indira’s Conceit

Next morning they resumed their journey towards Mithala. On the way, they came across the deserted hermitage of sage Gautama. Vishwamitra narrated the story of Ahalya ‘ When Gautama , set out for ablutions Indira entered his abode in disguise and mated with Ahalya. On his return Gautama found out the truth and cursed to lose his testes. Indira thus became impotent. He also cursed Ahalya to remain static , dust ridden without food and water and that she would be redeemed of her plight with the touch of your foot ‘‘ So saying Gautama left for Himalayas. 

Ahalya Redeemed

The manas fitted Indira with the testes of a goat. Ahalya waited for the arrival of Rama. With the dust from Rama’s feet Ahalya was redeemed of her plight and Gautama returned to his hermitage.

Rama arrives in Mithila 

Accompanied by the inmates of the hermitage , and Rama and Lakshmana , Viswamitra entered Mithila. Sage King Janaka came forward to greet them. Viswamitra introduced Rama and Lakshmana to Janaka.

Viswamitra’s Story 

Sage Gautama’s son Satananda narrated to Rama , the story of Viswamitra. ‘ Viswamitra had been a mighty King. Once after visiting various hermitages Viswamitra went into the of sage Vasistha ‘ he said.

Wonder Cow Sabala 

” Vasistha urged king Viswamitra to accept his hospitality along with his army.’ Satananda told Rama. ‘ Vasistha had a cow ‘Sabala’ which could feed any number of people.’

Viswamitra’s Greed 

‘ Having partaken of the delicious food , Viswamitra and his entourage were surprised at the wonderous deeds of the cow’. Satananda continued. ‘ King Viswamitra offered one lakh cows in exchange of Sabala but Vasistha refused’.

Sabala’s Plea 

There upon Viswamitra ordered his men to take away the magic cow by force , Satananda said. ‘ The cow appealed to Vasistha to allow her to resist the king and his men’.

King’s Men Slain 

Satananda said ‘ the sage consented and the cow generated thousands upon thousands of soldiers from her limbs and slew Vishwamitra’s men.’

Hundred Princes killed

Satananda went on ‘Then Vishwamitra and his hundred sons attacked Vasistha whereupon the sage looked at them in anger. The hundred sons of the king were turned into ashes. King Vishwamitra was at a loss to know what to do. He handed over his kingdom to a lone , surviving son and went on doing penance to please Lord Siva. Siva bestowed him several boons and weapons . ‘ Vishwamitra became arrogant and turned his wrath towards Vasistha’s hermitage . He destroyed it.’ Satananda told Rama.

Viswamitra Humiliated 

“Sage Viswamitra was furious. He retaliated by making all the weapons dispatched by Viswamitra impotent. Finally Viswamitra dispatched the most potent Brahmastra which Vasistha promptly took inside his body in a gulp.” ” The Devas intervened and urged Vasistha to contain the potent weapon within himself. Vasistha was pacified. Viswamitra felt humiliated.

Vishwamitra’s penance 

Satananda continued ” Oh Rama, defeated and forlorn Viswamitra went southwards along with his wife to attain Brahma-hood. There he did sustained penance. Then Brahma materialised before him and made him a sage King. But Viswamitra was disheartened that he could not attain Brahma-hood. So, he intensified his penance.

Trisanku’s strange wish 

During Vishwamitra’s penance Trisanku was the ruler of the Ikshavaku Dynasty. He had a strange wish of reaching Swarga bodily. So, he approached Vasistha to suggest him a suitable sacrifice to fulfill his wish. ” But Vasistha told him that his wish was impossible to fulfill” Satananda continued his narration. 

Vasistha’s Curse 

Then King Trisanku approached the sons of Vasistha. They also said “it is not possible”. King Trisanku grew angry and said he would dismiss Vasistha as the royal priest. In retaliation the sons of Vasistha cursed him to become an untouchable.

Trisanku approaches Viswamitra

By morning Trisanku lost all his regal looks and became an untouchable. Even his ministers began to avoid him, Satananda told Rama. Trisanku approached Vishwamitra to show him a way to falafel his wish.

Viswamitra helps Trisanku 

Satananda continued the story thus: ” Viswamitra pitied Trisanku’s plight and offered to help him.” He summoned priests from all corners but Vasisthas refused the invitation. Viswamitra cursed them to have several lowly births”.

Trisanku dispatched to heaven 

With the help of other priests Viswamitra conducted the sacrifice. But the Devas rejected his summons to partake of the sacrificial offerings. ” Undaunted Viswamitra through the power of his penance sent Trisanku bodily towards heaven”.

Trisanku pushed back

” When Trisanku reached heaven Indra refused him entry. You have the curse of the guru on your head.

You can’t enter heaven. Go back. He ordered and the Devas pushed Trisanku head earthwards”.

Trisanku halted midway 

The falling Trisanku shouted for help from Viswamitra. The sage stopped him midway and created a heaven for him. The Devas consented to this arrangement and till today, Trisanku lies there between heaven and earth” Satananda told Rama. 

Sacrificial beast stolen 

When Ayodhya was ruled by king Ambarisha, during a sacrifice by him the sacrificial beast was stolen by Indra. When the beast could not be traced, Ambarisha paid one lakh cows to sage Ruchika and bought his son. 

Two magic spells 

When Ambarisha was bringing back Sunassepa with him they rested for sometime on the way . Sunassepa felt thirsty and went in search of water and reached Vishwamitra’s abode. Sunassepa urged Viswamitra to show him a way by which he can be left alive but Ambarisha would gain the fruits of the sacrifice.

Viswamitra revealed to him two magical spells and told him to recite them when he was tied to the sacrificial post.

Sunassepa saved

Sunassepa returned to Ambarisha and they resumed their journey. Sunassepa escaped death with the help of the two magical spells.

Menaka entices Viswamitra 

When Viswamitra resumed his penance to obtain the status of Brahmarishi, celestial dancer Menaka came to disturb his concentration.

Taken in by Menaka’s charms Viswamitra cohabited with her for ten years. Then repenting his lapse he went back into penance with renewed determination.

Rambha cursed 

Feeling his seat threatened by Vishwamitra’s penance. Indra sent another celestial dancer Rambha to disturb it. This time aware of the machinations of Indra , Vishwamitra grew angry and cursed her to turn into rock.But repenting that he had not gained control over anger he renewed his penance.

Indra begs for food

Viswamitra went on with his penance undaunted. One day at lunch time, Indra came to him in the guise of a brahmin and sought food.
The sage offered him all the available food depriving himself. Concluding that by then Viswamitra had gained control over all the emotions, the Devas approached Brahma and urged him to grant the sage the status of Brahmarishi.

Brahmarishi 

Brahma granted Viswamitra the rank of “Brahmarishi” but the sage sought such recognition from Vasistha also where upon Vasistha arrived there and granted him his desire”, said Satananda to Rama and concluded the story of Viswamitra.

Bow of Siva 

On the second day of their arrival in Mithila, Janaka showed Rama the mighty bow of Siva. He said ” This bow was given to the sixth king of our dynasty devarata by Siva. When I was ploughing a field to perform a sacrifice I found a female child in the earth. She has now attained puberty. I offer her in marriage to whoever can string the bow of Siva. So far nobody could do it”.

Rama breaks the bow 

King Janaka caused the box containing the bow brought to their presence by 5,000 able bodied men. Rama lifted the bow from the box effortlessly and stringed it. When he was engaging an arrow the bow broke. Janaka offered his foster daughter Sita and dispatched his ministers to king Dasaratha to obtain his consent.

Dasaratha Invited 

Janaka’s ministers traveled for full three days and on the fourth reached Ayodhya. Dasaratha was overjoyed at the news they brought.

Emissaries Honored

King Dasaratha conferred with Vasistha and Vamadeva and honored the emissaries suitably. 

Dasaratha leaves for Mithila 

The next day with all his kin, ministers and servants Dasaratha started in chariots towards Mithila.
Vasistha,Vamadeva, Jabali , Markandeya and others were dispatched in advance.

Janaka greets Dasaratha 

Four days later, the royal entourage reached Mithila, to a grand welcome from king Janaka and his men. Janaka asked king Dasaratha for permission to the wedding. Dasaratha replied ” O king , you are the giver and we are here to receive happily”. This pleased Janaka immensely.

Janaka’s brother arrives

Janaka concluded his sacrifice and summoned Satananda to make arrangements to bring his brother.
Kusadhwaja who was ruling the city of Sankasya. Emissaries brought him with them.

Dasaratha invited to court 

Janaka sent his minister Sudama to invite Dasaratha to his court. When the royal guests arrived Vasistha suggested that along with the wedding of Rama and Sita, Janaka’s daughter Urmila should be offered to Lakshmana.

Marriages fixed 

Janaka then introduced brother Kusadhwaja to Dasaratha , Vasistha and others. Kusadhwaja bowed to all of them. Both the weddings were fixed under ” Uttara Phalguni ” star two days later.

Festivities

Aided by Viswamitra and Satananda , Vasistha conducted the marriage rituals.

Viswamitra leaves 

The next day Viswamitra took leave of all the royal guests and hosts and proceeded towards the Himalayas to resume his penance. 

ILL -MENS 

Accompanied by his four sons and daughters-in-law and the royal treasures gifted by Janaka, Dasaratha turned towards home. On the way Dasaratha was disturbed by several ill-omens but Vasistha consoled him.
They encountered a giant holding bow and arrow and an axe. He was the slayer of the Kshatriya race,Parasurama. He stared at Rama red-eyed.

Encounter with Parasurama 

Parasurama challenged Rama ” The bow you broke was aged and brittle. I have this bow of Vishnu. If you are a true Kshatriya string this bow. Then we shall battle hand-to-hand”. 

Parasurama Retreats 

Rama strung the bow effortlessly . Seeing this Parasurama praised his might and said “you are god.
I gifted this earth to Kasyapa long ago. So, before nightfall , I must leave for the Mahendra Hill.
 

Do not impede my movement ” and left.

Rama’s Rule 

Rama gifted the bow and arrows to God Varian and the entourage reached Ayodhya safe. The newly weds were greeted by their mothers with great love and affection.

Rama began ruling Ayodhya guided by his father.

Some time later Bharata left for Girivraja with his maternal Uncle

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رامائن Balakanda

نوجوان رام رام کی چمتکاری پیدائش کی تفصیلات ، ایودھیا میں ان کی ابتدائی زندگی ، Vishvamitra کی درخواست میں جنگل کے راکشسوں کے ان کے قتل اور سیتا کے ساتھ اس کی شادی کی کتاب.

Narada والمیک آشرم پر پہنچنے

والمیک Narada “بابا O ، وہاں ایک شخص ہے جو ایک معصوم کردار ہے ، بہادر ہے ، اس دنیا میں غصہ یا حسد کے بغیر ایماندار اس کے بارے میں مجھے بتاو اگر وہاں اس طرح کی ایک عظیم روح ہے Narada.؟ جواب دیا” پوچھا تلاش کیجیے اس طرح کرنے کے لئے یہ مشکل ہے ایک شخص لیکن Ikshvaku کے گھر میں ایک پیدا ہوتا ہے. اس کا نام رام ہے “Narada تو والمیک کے لئے رام کی کہانی بیان کرنا شروع کیا..

رام کی کہانی بیان کرتے ، Narada دیوا Loka کے لئے روانہ

بابا والمیک Tamasa دریا میں دوپہر oblations کرنے کی پیشکش کی گئی تھی. Krauncha پرندوں کی ایک جوڑی ڈاؤن لوڈ ، اتارنا ماحول میں ان کی توجہ اپنی طرف مبذول کرالی ہے. ایک ایسے وقت میں جب جوڑی ملن تھا ، ایک شکاری نے ان پر ان کے تیر کا مقصد اور اس روانہ. یہ مرد پرندوں کے دل میں چھید. عورت برڈ اس کے مرنے کے ساتھی کے لئے رونا شروع کر دیا. یہ والمیک کی قسم دل میں دنیا کی پہلی نظم “Manishada پڑھنے منتقل کر دیا گیا…..

برہما کمان

جب والمیک نے ان کے Poesy ، برہما ، خالق کی بے دھماکہ کا ذکر کرتے ہوئے کٹی ، materialized واپس آئے اور اس کو حکم دیا کہ وہ Anustup میٹر میں رام کی کہانی کا معاہدہ “کی پہلی کتاب ہے اور جب تک کہ اس نے گزشتہ جیسا کہ کلپ رہتا ہے ہو سکتا ہے” برہما نے کہا کہ

والمیک نقطہ نظر

خالق کے مجزوب کے ساتھ ، بابا والمیک نے نماز کی پیشکش کی اور بیٹھ Kusa گھاس کی بنائی گئی ایک سیٹ پر مشتمل ہے. کنگ Dasaratha ، ان کے consorts ، بیٹوں ، ان کے اہل خانہ ، رام ، سیتا ، اور Lakshmana کے نرواسن ، راون کے قتل والمیک کے لئے ایک نقطہ نظر کے طور پر آیا ہے. والمیک اس طرح ذیل میں اولاد کے لئے رام کی کہانی ہے.

والمیک composes رامائن

بابا والمیک مشتمل 500 sargas اور چھ cantos میں 24،000 slokas میں رامائن ہے. جڑواں بچوں Kusa اور اضافی انہیں دل کی طرف سے ملا. وہ میٹھی موسیقی کی آواز کے تھے اور آشرم کے قیدیوں سے اس سے پہلے کہ منچن کیا. رام انہیں عدالت میں کہانی کی تلاوت کرنے کے لئے.

Ikshvaku خاندان کے بادشاہ

بادشاہ کے کہ اس زمین نے فیصلہ دیا کے علاوہ ، Ikshvaku کی سب سے بڑی تھے. مخ سے Sagara کرنے کے لئے وہ اسمان اللاس سے زمین نے فیصلہ دیا ہے. ان میں رام تاج گہنا گیا تھا. Kosala کی ریاست Sarayu دریا کے کنارے پر تھا اور اس کی دارالحکومت ایودھیا Vaivaswata مخ کی طرف سے بنایا گیا تھا. شہر کے مرکز میں بادشاہ کا محل تھا

عظیم سلطنت

بادشاہ ہے جو ایودھیا اور Kosala برطانیہ کے شہر کو عما لایا Dasaratha تھا. انہوں نے کئی چکر دشمنوں اور شوری اور علماء کرام کی مدعو مرد اپنے شہر میں رہتے ہیں. لوگوں کو مطمئن اور صالح زندگی کی قیادت کی.

قادر بادشاہ

اور ریاست کے سربراہ یاجکوں کو Vasistha اور Vamadeva تھے. شاہ Dasaratha آٹھ وزراء جو Sumanta کی سربراہی میں کی مدد کے ساتھ موثر انداز میں فیصلہ دیا. Sumanta Dasaratha کے قریب کیا گیا تھا اور بھی مستحق ہے شاہی خواتین کے اپارٹمنٹ میں داخل کرنے کے لئے.

مزید ہیں info Ishavaku

کشتری OF تاریخ
کشتری () ہندو مت میں چار varnas (سماجی احکامات) میں سے ایک ہے. یہ روایتی ویدک ہندو سماجی نظام کی فوجی اور حکمران آرڈر تشکیل کے طور پر ویدوں اور مخ کے قوانین کی طرف سے بیان کردہ. سب میں بھگوان رام ، بھگوان کرشن ، بھگوان بدھ اور رب مہاویر اس سماجی نظام سے تعلق رکھتے تھے.

شروع میں قدیم ویدک معاشرے میں ، اس کی حیثیت ایک شخص (گنا) ابیورتی ، طرز عمل (کرما) ، اور فطرت (swabhava) کے امتیازات وخصوصیات پر حاصل کیا گیا. جلد سے جلد ویدک ادب کی درجہ بندی میں پہلے کے طور پر درج کشتری (K atra ،؟ یا اتھارٹی کے حامل) ، پھر اگلے برہمن (پادریوں اور قانون کے اساتذہ) ، Vaisya (مرچنٹ تاجروں) ، اور آخر میں Sudra (کاریگروں اور مزدوروں ). افراد اور گروہوں کی ایک کلاس سے ایک اور کی تحریکیں ، دونوں اضافہ اور گرنے کا ، غیر معمولی نہیں تھے. حیثیت میں بھی کشتری کے عہدے پر اضافہ [1] سالوں کے دوران بقایا کی خدمت کے لئے تسلیم شدہ دن کے حکمرانوں کے لئے اجر یہ موروثی بن گیا. جدید دور میں ، کشتری حروف ذات کے گروپوں کے ایک وسیع طبقے شامل ہیں ، حیثیت اور تقریب لیکن ریاست ہائے متحدہ میں rulership کرنے کے لئے ان کا دعوی ہے ، جنگ کے حصول ، یا زمین کا قبضہ کی طرف سے کافی مختلف ہے.

علامات کہ Ikshvakus کی رعایت کے ساتھ کشتریوں ، ، ان کے ظلم کے لئے ایک سزا کے طور پر Parasurama ، وشنو کا چھٹا تناسخ ، کی طرف سے تباہ کیا گیا پادریوں اور حکمرانوں کے درمیان بالادستی کے لئے ایک طویل جدوجہد ہے جو فتح میں ختم ہو گئی کی عکاسی کرنے کے لئے بعض علماء کے قول کی طرف سے سوچا ہے سابق کے لئے. ویدک زمانے کے آخر تک ، برہمن سپریم تھے ، اور کشتری دوسری جگہ سے گر گیا تھا. Manusm TI (ہندو قانون کی کتاب ہے)؟ اور سب سے زیادہ دیگر dharmashastras (فقہ کے کاموں) کے طور پر سرخیوں کی شکل میں ایک براہمن فتح رپورٹ ، لیکن مہاکاوی نصوص کو اکثر ایک مختلف اکاؤنٹ پیش کرتے ہیں ، اور اس بات کا امکان ہے کہ عام طور پر سماجی حقیقت حکمرانوں میں پہلا درجہ ہے . دیوتاوں کے حکمرانوں کے طور پر مستقل نمائندگی پوائنٹ (خاص طور پر وشنو ، کرشنا ، اور رام) مرتب ، رسم کے کردار اور استحقاق کے وسیع سیریز کے طور پر ہندو تاریخ کی سب سے زیادہ کے ذریعے راجاوں کے کرتا متعلق [2]. بدھ مت کے اضافہ کے ساتھ ، کشتری کے پہلے چار varnas کے طور پر اپنی پوزیشن میں آ گیا. ان کے برہمن جنرل Pusyamitra Sunga ، اور بھارت میں بدھ مت کے بعد کمی کی طرف سے گزشتہ موریا سمراٹ Brhadrata کے قتل ، مشرقی پاکستان میں ایک بار پھر برہمن بالادستی نشان زد. مغربی بھارت کشتری گٹوں کے گڑھ کے طور پر راجپوتانا اور اججین سے فیصلہ دیا دہلی میں چوہان کشتری کے خاتمے کے قیادت میں اسلامی مداخلت کے حق طاقتور کشتری سلطنت کی طرف سے پرتیک رہے.

Ikshvaku راجونش کی وجہ سے

Ik V؟ جامعہ کراچی یا Aik؟ V؟ کا راجونش کے بادشاہ کی فہرست میں رامائن ، مہا بھارت ، Harivamsha اور پرانوں میں پائے جاتے ہیں. لیکن رامائن میں پایا دو فہرستوں دیگر تمام فہرستوں کے ساتھ نمایاں طور پر مختلف ہوتی ہیں. Kalidasa کے Raghuvamsha نے بھی کچھ اس خاندان کے بادشاہ کے نام کا ذکر [3] [4] [5]

IKSHVAKUS
Ikshvaku راجونش کی ونشاولی جیسا کہ رامائن میں بھی ہے (i.69.17 32 اور ii.102.4 29) [6] کے طور پر مندرجہ ذیل ہے :

برہما 10 Prajapatis ، جن میں سے ایک کی Marichi تھا پیدا کیا.
Kashyapa Marichi اور کالا کے بیٹے ہے. Kashyapa انسانیت کے والد کے طور پر مانا جاتا ہے.
Vivasvan یا سوریا Kashyapa اور ادتی کے بیٹے ہیں.
Vaivasvata مخ ، اصل میں Satyavrata ، ڈراوڈ کے اس وقت کے شہنشاہ Vivasvan کا بیٹا ہے. انہوں نے Ikshvaku راجونش سے تعلق رکھنے والے پہلے حکمران کے طور پر مانا جاتا ہے.
Ikshvaku Vaivasvata مخ کا بیٹا ہے.
Kukshi Ikshvaku کے بیٹے کا ہے
Vikukshi Kukshi کے بیٹے کا ہے
Bana Vikukshi کے بیٹے کا ہے
Anaranya Bana کے بیٹے کا ہے
Prithu Anaranya کے بیٹے کا ہے
Trishanku Prithu کے بیٹے کا ہے
Dhundhumara Trishanku کے بیٹے کا ہے
Yuvanashva Dhundhumara کے بیٹے کا ہے
منداتا Yuvanashva کے بیٹے کا ہے
Susandhi منداتا کے بیٹے کا ہے
Dhruvasandhi اور Presenajit Susandhi کے بیٹے ہیں
بھرت Dhruvasandhi کے بیٹے کا ہے
باہو (Asita) بھرت کا بیٹا ہے
Sagara بہو کے بیٹے ہے
Asamanja Sagara کے بیٹے کا ہے
Amsumanta (Ansuman) Asamanja کا بیٹا ہے
Dileepa Amsumanta کے بیٹے کا ہے
Bhagiratha Dilipa کے بیٹے کا ہے
Kakustha Bhagiratha کے بیٹے کا ہے
رگھو Kakushta کے بیٹے ہے. Raghuvamsha کی کلان رگھو کے ساتھ شروع ہوا
Pravriddha رگھو کی sone ہے
Shankhana Pravriddha کے بیٹے کا ہے
Sudarshana Shankhana کے بیٹے کا ہے
Agnivarna Sudarshana کے بیٹے کا ہے
Shighra Agnivarna کے بیٹے کا ہے
مارو Shighra کے بیٹے کا ہے
Prashushruka مارو کے بیٹے ہے
Ambarisha Prashushruka کے بیٹے کا ہے
Nahusha Ambarisha کے بیٹے کا ہے
Yayati Nahusha کے بیٹے کا ہے
Nabhaga Yayati کے بیٹے کا ہے
Aja Nabhaga کے بیٹے کا ہے
Dasharatha Aja کے بیٹے کا ہے
رام ، Lakshmana ، بھرت ، اور Shatrughna Dasaratha کے بیٹے ہیں
اضافی اور Kusha رام کے بیٹے ہیں
پرانوں Kusha سے Brihadbala ، جو مہا بھارت جنگ میں ابمنیو کی طرف سے ہلاک ہو گیا تھا ایک نسبی فہرست فراہم. اس فہرست Agnivarna تک Raghuvamsha کی طرف سے تصدیق [7] :

Atithi ، Kusha کے بیٹے
Nishadha ، Atithi کے بیٹے
نالا ، Nishadha کے بیٹے
Nabhas ، نالا کے بیٹے
Pundarika ، بیٹے Nabhas
Kshemadhanvan ، Pundarika کے بیٹے
Devanika ، Kshemadhanvan کے بیٹے
Ahinagu ، Davanika کے بیٹے
Paripatra ، Ahinagu کے بیٹے
Dala (یا بالا) ، Ahinagu کے بیٹے
Uktha ، Dala کے بیٹے
Vajranabha ، Uktha کے بیٹے
Shankhana ، Vajranabha کے بیٹے
Vyushitashva ، Shankhana کے بیٹے
Vishvasaha ، Vyushitashva کے بیٹے
Hiranyanabha ، Vishvasaha کے بیٹے
Pushya ، Hiranyanabha کے بیٹے
Dhruvasandhi ، Pushya کے بیٹے
Agnivarna ، Dhruvasandhi کے بیٹے
Shighra ، Agnivarna کے بیٹے
مارو ، Shighra کے بیٹے
Prasushruta ، مارو کے بیٹے
Susandhi ، Prasushruta کے بیٹے
Amarsha اور Sahasvant Susandhi کے بیٹوں
Vishrutavant ، Amarsha کے بیٹے
Brihadbala ، Vishrutavant کے بیٹے.
تاہم ، نیپالی اور Bauddhists راجونش مزید جاری رہے.

نسل Descrepencies
2 مندرجہ بالا ذرائع سے اختلافات ہیں جو مندرجہ بالا اعداد و شمار کی درستگی کے لئے حل کرنے کی ضرورت ہے. مندرجہ ذیل descrepencies کی فہرست اس طرح ہے :

والمیک ریاستوں رامائن کہ Prthu Trisanku Anaranya اور والد کے بیٹے ہیں. Ramakatha Rasavahini Prthu اور ریاستوں کو یاد کرتا ہے کہ Anaranya Trisanku پیما
والمیک ریاستوں نے رامائن کہ Presenjit Ramakatha Rasavahini statest Daivasandhi جبکہ Bharatha کے والد کے طور پر Bharatha کا باپ ہے
والمیک ریاستوں رامائن کہ Sankhana Pravardha کا بیٹا ہے اور Sankhana بیٹے سدرشن تھا. Ramakatha Rasavahini Pravardha کے بیٹے کے طور پر Sankhana اور صفات سدرشن کے ذکر سے یاد کرتا ہے
Seeghraga Ramakatha Rasavahini میں مارو کی Agnivarna اور والد کے بیٹے کے طور پر ذکر ہے. والمیک رامائن Seeghraga اور ریاستوں ہے کہ مارو والد Agnivarna تھا کا ذکر نہیں ہے
Jaina روایت میں Ikshvaku راجونش
Ikshvaku راجونش Jaina روایت میں ایک اہم جگہ ہے ، کے طور پر 22 Tirthankaras شاہی کے اس گھر میں پیدا ہوئے تھے. پہلی Tirthankara Rishavadeva Ikshvaku بادشاہ Nabhi کے بیٹے تھے. دوسری Tirthankara ، Ajitanatha ، Ikshvaku بادشاہ Jitashatru کے بیٹے Sagara کی چچازاد بہن کے تھی

آندھرا Ikshvakus
آندھرا Ikshvakus آندھرا پردیش کی قدیم ترین حکمران خاندانوں میں سے ایک تھے. انہوں نے دوسری صدی عیسوی کے بعد نصف کے دوران کرشنا دریا کے ساتھ ساتھ مشرقی آندھرا ملک نے فیصلہ دیا [8].. ان کا سرمایہ (شہارجنکونڈا) Vijayapuri بعض اہل علم نے تجویز دی ہے کہ اس راجونش ہندو پران کے قدیم Ikshvakus سے متعلق کیا گیا ہے. رامائن کے رام ، جو سمجھا جاتا ہے کے طور پر وشنو کے اوتار Ikshvaku کی لائن سے تعلق رکھتے تھے. ہندو پورانیک ، Ikshvaku ، مخ اور Kukshi کا باپ تھا ، کے مطابق سوریونشی خاندان کے بانی تھا ، Treta زمانے کے آغاز میں ایودھیا سے راج کر. تاہم تجویز ہے کہ آندھرا Ikshvakus پورانیک Ikshvakus سے متعلق تھے براہ راست کوئی ثبوت ہے.

پراتتو ثبوت نے تجویز دی ہے کہ آندھرا Ikshvakus فوری طور پر کرشنا دریا کی وادی میں Satavahanas میں کامیاب ہوگیا ہے. Ikshvakus شہارجنکونڈا ، Jaggayyapeta ، امراوتی اور Bhattiprolu پر شلالیھ چھوڑ دیا ہے.

آندھرا Ikshvakus کے ادب Ikshvakus دلائل سے یہ ثابت ہے
کہ کناڈا کے ایک نظم Dharmamrita ریاستوں آندھرا کے Ikshvakus شمالی بھارت کے مشہور Ikshvakus کی اولاد تھے. Buhler اور Rapson طرح مشرقی کہ شمالی Ikshvakus کو جنوب میں ہجرت کر سکتے ہیں میں علماء کرام کا اظہار کیا. ہوا پران کے مطابق ، مخ ، قدیم ہندوستان کے عظیم پیٹرآرک جن Ikshvaku سب سے بڑی تھا نو بیٹوں کا تھا. اس کا دارالحکومت ایودھیا تھا. انہوں نے ایک سو بیٹے ہوتے ، اور سب سے بڑی Vikushi ایودھیا کے حکمران کے طور پر اپنے والد میں کامیاب ہوگیا. آرام کی ، شمالی بھارت میں پچاس بیٹوں چھوٹے principalities کی بنیاد رکھی. چالیس اپنے بیٹوں کی آٹھ جنوب میں ہجرت کی ہے اور اپنے لئے ریاستوں میں کھدی ہوئی.

بدھ مت ادب جنوبی بھارت میں Ikshvakus کے دخول سے مراد ہے اور وانی ہے کہ وہ Asmaka ، Mulaka اور دیگر principalities قائم ہے. جنوب میں یہ کشتری آباد اور چھوٹے ریاستوں میں وہاں قائم ہے. جین ادب نے بھی جنوب میں شمالی بھارتی شہزادے کے پلاین سے مراد ہے. Dharmamrita میں نے ایک حوالہ دیا گیا تھا کہ 12th Tirthankara ، ایک کا نام Yasodhara Ikshvaku خاندان سے تعلق رکھنے والے پرنس کے زندگی بھر کے دوران جنوب میں Anga ریاست سے Vengi کرنے کے لئے آئے. ہمیں باخبر کیا ہے کہ پرنس خطے کی خوبصورتی سے متاثر تھا ، اور مٹی کی ارورتا کہ وہ یہ اس کا مستقل گھر ہے ، اور Pratipalpura نامی شہر کی بنیاد رکھی ہیں. یہ خیال کیا جاتا ہے کہ Pratipalapura جدید Bhattiprolu ، گنٹور ضلع میں ایک شہر ہے [ورژن کی ضرورت ہے].. شلالیھ بھی کیا گیا ہے شہارجنکونڈا وادی میں اور Jaggayyapeta اور Bhattiprolu اس alluding دریافت

Etymology

سنسکرت میں ، کشمیر atra؟ سے ماخوذ ہے “بادشاہی ، طاقت ، حکومت کی” جڑ کشمیر سے مطلب؟؟ “حکمرانی حکومت ، اہل”. پرانا فارسی xš؟ پھر iya (“سمراٹ”) اور xša؟ رضی اللہ عنہ (“دائرے”) سے متعلق ہیں ، کے طور پر نئے فارسی الفاظ ہیں ایچ ایس (“سمراٹ”) اور šahr (“شہر” ، “دائرے”؟ ). تھائی لفظ ، “بادشاہ” ، kasat ، اور “نائٹ” یا “یودقا” ، kesatria یا satria کے لئے مالے لفظ کے لئے بھی اس سے ماخوذ ہیں. اصطلاح کلین درجہ ظاہر کرنا.

ابتدائی ویدک تہذیب میں ، یودقا ذات ر janya یا kšatr؟ کہا جاتا تھا پھر؟ سابق نے ر کی ایک adjectival شکل تھی جنوری کی جڑ ر سے “حکمران ، بادشاہ” J “حکمرانی” ہے ، لاطینی ریکس “بادشاہ” ، جرمن ریخ “سلطنت / دائرے” کرنے کے لئے cognate ، اور تھائی racha بادشاہ “؟؟ “. فارس میں ، satraps ، یا “kshatrapa” ، گورنروں ، یا فارسی سلطنت کے صوبوں کے “محافظ” ، تھے.

حضور یودقا
رب سری رام کی بیوی سیتا ، بھائی کے ساتھ (درمیان میں) — Lakshmana اور بکت ہنخمین. رام اور Lakshmana ہمیشہ دخش اور تیر کے ساتھ جنگ ​​کے لئے تیار ہے ، ظاہر کئے گئے ہیں ، جیسا کہ یہ ان کے کشتری سے لڑنے کے لیے. رام سوریونشی خاندان کا ایک کشتری تھا. وہ ایک سمجھا جاتا ہے

بھگوان وشنو کے اوتار

رب سری کرشنا رادا کے ساتھ. کرشنا ، Chandravanshi نسل کی پیدائش کی طرف سے ایک کشتری ، انہوں نے بھگوان وشنو کے دوسرے اوتار تصور کیا جاتا ہے. بھگوت گیتا میں وہ ایک کشتری کی ذمہ داری کے بارے میں ارجن سکھایا.

ایک ہندو حکمران ایک مذہب کے راجہ (بس اصول) کے طور پر حکومت کرنے کے لئے مقدس صحیفوں کی طرف سے ان کے مضامین اور مویشیوں کے تحفظ کے کیا جا رہا ہے میں اہم فرائض کے ساتھ پابند کیا گیا تھا ،.

رگ وید کے ریاستوں :
praja آریایی jyotiragrah ‘. آر وی ، VII. 33،17

آریوں کی حکومت لوگوں نے نور الہی کی قیادت میں ہیں. ایودھیا کے بادشاہ رام دھرم راجاوں کا سب سے بڑا تصور کیا جاتا ہے :

آریا دکھائے samascaiva sadaiva priyadarsanah

ایک آرین جو سب کی برابری کے لئے کام کیا ، ہر کسی کو عزیز تھا. رام نے بھی وشنو کے اوتار تصور کیا جاتا ہے.

رامائن ریاستوں :
قدیم بادشاہ نے مخ ، انسانی رضی اللہ عنہ کے والد کی طرح

Dasaratha نے ایک باپ کی محبت کرنے فضل کے ساتھ اپنی قوم کے لوگوں نے فیصلہ دیا.

Aswamedha

لیکن بادشاہ ایک ہی فکر تھی. انہوں نے کوئی اولاد نہیں تھی. تو انہوں نے Aswamedha قربانی ہے جو اسے بیٹوں کو دے سکتا ہے کارکردگی کا مظاہرہ کر کے میں سوچا ہے. انہوں نے وزیر Sumanta اور Vasistha اہم پجاری اور دیگر برہمن کے رہنماؤں کی طلبی کی تاریخ. وہ nodded اور اس آشیش دی. انتظامات Sarayu کے بینکوں پر yaga کے لئے کئے گئے تھے

خواہش بیٹوں

Sumanta بادشاہ کو مشورہ دیا کہ وہ بجائے Putreshthi قربانی انجام. یہ تھا بابا Sanatkumara کی طرف سے مشروع کیا گیا ہے ہے. “اس yaga Rishyasringa کو منظم کرنے کے لئے صحیح شخص ہے” ، Sumanta Dasaratha کو بتایا.

Enticing Rishyasringa

Rishyasringa بابا Kasyapa Vibhandaka اور پوتے کا بیٹا تھا. جنگل میں پیدا ہوا ، وہ ان کے ارد گرد ، ہوما کی آگ اور ان کے والد کے سوا کچھ بھی نہیں معلوم ہوتا. Anga ملک بادشاہ Romapada کی حکومت تھی. انہوں نے لڑکیوں کے رقص جب بارش نے زمین میں ناکام رہے کی مدد سے اس enticing Rishyasringa لایا. جب Rishyasringa ملک میں ان کے پاؤں مقرر کرتے ہیں ، یہ copiously بارش اور اکال کے غایب ہو گئی. تو ، بادشاہ Romapada اس سے شادی میں ان کی بیٹی دی اور Rishyasringa محل میں عیش و آرام کی میں رہتا تھا.

ایودھیا میں

کنگ Dasaratha نے مدد کے لیے Romapada سے اپیل کی اور ایودھیا Rishyasringa اور اس کی بیوی سانتا لایا

قربانی ہارس

موسم بہار کے موسم میں Dasaratha yaga شروع ہوا تھا اور قربانی کے گھوڑے کی کئی ریاستوں بھر میں اس کے سفر پر قائم کیا گیا تھا.

Yaga شروع

ایک سال گزر چکا ہے اور شاہ Dasaratha yaga کے ساتھ گئے کے طور پر مشروع ہے.

ہارس کی واپسی

قربانی کے گھوڑے لوٹ آئے. قربانی کے ستون تھے نککاشیدار گیا ہے اور مشروع پرندے ، سانپ اور قربانی کے گھوڑے ان سے منسلک تھے. رانیاں گھوڑے circumambulated اور سونے کی تلوار کے ساتھ اس felled. گھوڑے کے اعضاء قربانی آگ کی پیشکش کی گئی

خدا کی آمد

Rishyasringa Putrakamesthi قربانی نے سرانجام دیئے. خدا اور sages میں پہنچے. سب سے پہلے آنے برہم تھا. وہ برہما کے قتل کنگ راون کے لئے مدد طلب کی. برہما نے کہا کہ “راون نے مجھ سے ایک وردان ہے کہ دیوا ہے کے ہاتھوں موت سے اس کی حفاظت کرتا ہے حاصل تھا ، Danava ، Yaksha اور ghandharvas. لیکن وہ ایک انسان کی طرف سے قتل کیا جا سکتا ہے. تو وہ کرے گا……… ”

دیوا کی درخواست

وہ وشنو پر زور دیا کہ وہ ایک انسانی اوتار لے اور راون کو مارنے ہے. انہوں نے Dasaratha کے گھر میں پیدا ہونے رضامندی.

گولڈن برتن

Putrakamesthi قربانی کا خاتمہ کرنے کے لئے آ رہا تھا ، وہاں ایک شاندار ہوما آگ سے ایک سونے کا برتن لے کر شخصیت ابھر کر سامنے آئے. انہوں نے بادشاہ Dasaratha دیوا “آپ کی رانیاں اس کا حصہ لینا ہیں اور وہ بچوں کو ہو گا” کی طرف سے تیار چاول دودھ اور پڈنگ کی پیشکش کی ، یشتھ مرد کا حکم.

قربانی کھانے

Dasaratha نے رانی Kausalya ، رانی Kaikayi باقی نصف نصف نصف مقدس کی کھیر کی پیشکش کی ہے. باقی وہ دو حصوں میں بنا دیا اور رانی Sumitra ان کی پیشکش کی ہے. تین رانیاں ، پڈنگ کے حصہ لینا بعد حاملہ ہوئی.

Vanaras کی پیدائش

رب برہما کا حکم دیوا زمین پر جانے کے لئے Vanaras کے طور پر پیدا ہونے. تدنسار ، برہما Sugriva کی کمان کی طرف سے سورج کی پیدا ، ہوا ہوا خدا کی اندرا اور ہنخمین کے ولی کو کی گئی. انہوں نے رام کی مدد کے لئے تھے

رام کی پیدائش

چھ ماضی اور waxing چاند رام کے نویں دن پر موسم اور 12 ماہ Kausalya پیدا ہوا تھا. Kaikayi Bharatha اور Sumitra ٹوئن لڑکوں Lakshmana اور satrughna کو جنم دیا. دوبام اور جوش کے ساتھ ایودھیا کے شہریوں کی طرف سے ان کی پیدائش منایا گیا.

Vishwamitra پہنچ گئے

Dasaratha نے ان شادیوں کے بارے میں سوچ شروع کے طور پر لڑکوں کے نوجوانوں میں پلی بڑھی. تب بادشاہ نے بابا Vishwamitra آئے اور کہا کہ ‘اوہ ، عظیم بادشاہ ، میں نے ایک قربانی کارکردگی کا مظاہرہ کر رہا ہوں اور دو راکشسوں پریشان کر رہے ہو. تو رام قربانی سائٹ کی حفاظت کرنے کے لئے بھیج. میں اس کی دیکھ بھال اور انہوں نے Ikshvaku خاندان کے روشنی ہو گی.

Dasaratha مشکوک

Dasaratha نے جواب دیا “اوہ عظیم بابا ، میرا بیٹا بمشکل ہی سولہ سال کی عمر کا ہے وہ Rakshasas کے شیطانی جادو کا سامنا کس طرح کر سکتے ہیں؟ میں آپ کی بجائے مدد آئے گی.. لیکن جو دو Rakshasas آپ کی Yaga رکاوٹ ہیں”. جب Vishwamitra نے انہیں بتایا کہ وہ Mareecha اور Subahu تھے اور وہ بابا ہے Pulastya کے خاندان کے بادشاہ راون کی طرف سے بھیجے گئے تھے.

Dasaratha aghast تھا اور کہا کہ “اے بابا میں بھی راون کا سامنا نہیں کر سکتے ، اس نوجوان لڑکے نے اسے کس طرح لڑ سکتے ہیں؟’

Vishwamitra غصے جواب سماعت تھا.

Vasistha مشورہ

بابا Vasistha مداخلت ہے : “O ، عظیم بادشاہ اس Vishwamitra خود تمام راکشسوں کو قتل کرنے کے قابل ہے وہ صرف مدد آپ کے بیٹے بڑے بڑے کاموں چاہتی ہے تو ، اس کے ساتھ رام بھیجیں گے اور اپنا وعدہ…”

سیکھنا ہجے

Dasaratha Vishwamitra کی دیکھ بھال میں رام اور Lakshmana ڈال دیا. وہ Sarayu دریا کی طرف روانہ کیا اور اس میں غسل کے بعد ، رام Vishwamitra کی طرف سے دو منتر ‘بالا اور Atibala’ پڑھائی جاتی تھی ، “یہ منتر بھوک اور تھکاوٹ کو رکھنے کے تم سے دور کرے گا” انہوں نے رام کو بتایا.

وہ دریا کے جنوبی کنارے پر اس رات کو آرام.

Manmadha کا قتل

طلوع فجر میں وہ گھاس کا بنا بستر پر اٹھی. صبح ablutions کے بعد ، انہوں نے اپنا سفر دوبارہ شروع کیا اور Sthanvashrama جہاں بھگوان شو تپسیا کارکردگی کا مظاہرہ کیا اور Manmatha راکھ میں تبدیل کر دیا گیا دیکھے.

انہوں نے رات کے لئے وہاں آرام کیا. کہانی Tataka کی

انہوں نے گنگا کو پار کر اور ایک جنگل میں داخل ہے. Viswamitra نے ان کو بتایا کہ کس طرح جگہ ایک بار فلا کیا گیا تھا اور بعد میں کیونکہ ایک دانو Tataka ویران ہے.
“وہ ایک Yakshini یہ ہے کہ وہ کسی بھی شکل ہے وہ خواہشات اور ایک ہزار ہاتھیوں کی طاقت لے جا سکتے ہیں.. وہ Sunanda سے شادی کی اور دانو Mareecha کو جنم دیا. اس کے قتل اور اس جگہ کو محفوظ بنانے کے” انہوں نے رام کو بتایا.

رام شک

رام سے پوچھا “ان کا کہنا ہے کہ Yakshas weaklings ہیں اور اس Tataka ایک عورت ہے ، وہ ایک ہزار ہاتھیوں کی طاقت کو کس طرح تو کیا حاصل؟.”
وہ ایک Yaksha نام Suketu پیدا ہوئے تھے اور برہما سے ایک وردان کے ذریعے اس کی طاقت حاصل کی. Sunanda مر گیا اور Tataka اور Mareecha بابا Agasthya کی طرف سے لعنت کی مندرجہ ذیل راکشس بن گئے.

“اسے گایوں اور برہمن کی حفاظت کے لئے قتل تم اکیلے اسے مار کر سکتے ہیں لوگوں کو آپ کی ضرورت ہے اس کے باوجود وہ ایک عورت ہے جان سے مارنے کی سنکوچ نہیں کی تحفظ کے لئے..” وہ حکم.

Tataka کی موت

“تو میں جائے گا” ، رام نے کہا کہ اور دخش سٹرنگ ھیںچا. اس reverberated کے پورے جنگل اور Tataki میں آواز کو اس کی طرف پہنچ گئے. ان کی تحریک دھول کے طوفان کو اٹھایا اور اندھیرے نزول. اس سے پتھروں کی ایک ولوں تھا اور رام نے ان کے تیر کے ساتھ ایک barricade پیدا.
طور پر سورج کی ترتیب تھا بابا رام کو بتایا کہ “جب رات آتا ہے اس کی طاقت کئی گنا بڑھ جائیں گے تو اس کے. قتل اب”. رام نے ایک تیر اس کے دل میں چھید روانہ کیا اور وہ ایک بڑا درخت کی طرح ہلاک ہو گئے.

نئے ہتھیاروں

انہوں نے جنگل میں نے اس رات بسر کی. صبح میں Viswamitra رام طاقتور برہما ، ناراین اور دیگر Astras کے استعمال سکھایا. اس کے علاوہ ان کے ڈسپیچ رام نے بھی ان کی واپسی سکھایا گیا تھا.

Siddhasrama کی طرف

انہوں نے اپنا سفر جاری رکھا اور ایک پہاڑی تک پہنچ گئی اور Siddhasrama کے نام سے جانا جاتا ایک کٹیا دیکھے.

کہانی کٹیا کے

“یہ تھا ایک بار جہاں بھگوان وشنو تپسیا پر گئے اور بعد میں وہ یہاں رہتے تھے اب میں یہاں رہنا.. یہ ہے جہاں آپ راکشسوں کو قتل کرنا ہے” ، Viswamitra راما کو بتایا کہ.

وہ تھوڑی دیر آرام کیا اور بابا اس کے رسومات کا سلسلہ دوبارہ شروع. رام اور Lakshmana جاگ پوری رات راکشسوں کے لئے انتظار کر رہے تھے.

آشرم پر حملہ
اس طرح پانچ دن اور رات خرچ کئے گئے. چھٹے دن صبح کے طور پر قربانی کی ترقی میں تھا جیسے آسمان پھٹا تھا اوپر ایک بڑا دھماکہ تھا. آشرم کو آگ کی طرف سے گھیر لیا گیا تھا. Mareecha اور Subahu سیاہ بادلوں کے ساتھ آسمان کا احاطہ کرتا ہے.
خون قربانی سائٹ پر بارش. Mareecha پر مقصد ہتھیار اس کے لئے ایک سو yojanas سمندر میں بھیجا لیکن Subahu ہلاک ہو گیا تھا. قربانی کو بغیر کسی رکاوٹ کے یہ نتیجہ اخذ کیا ہے. متلا کے لئے سفر

اگلے دن کٹیا کے کچھ قیدیوں کو تجویز دی ہے کہ رام اور Lakshmana ان متلا کے شہر جہاں بادشاہ پیرنٹ قربانی کارکردگی کا مظاہرہ کر رہا تھا ساتھ. “ایک شاندار بھگوان شو کی طرف سے وہاں قربانی کے بعد متلا حکمران Devarata کو تحفے میں دیا دخش ہے کوئی سٹرنگ کرنے کے قابل رہا ہے کہ. دخش آپ وہاں دیکھ سکتے ہیں.”.
تو Viswamitra کے ساتھ وہ متلا کے لئے چھوڑ دیا.

100 Dauhters

Viswamitra رام متلا کی تاریخ اس طرح بتایا : “برہما نے سوچا تھا — بچے Kusa Brahmaloka سے زمین پر پہنچے اور Vidabha بادشاہ کی بیٹی سے شادی کی انہوں نے چار بیٹوں Kusambu ، Kusanabha ، Adhurtharajas اور Vasu Vasu Girivrajapura کے شہر کی تعمیر دریا سے بہہ رہی ہیں… تقریبا پانچ پہاڑوں سونا ہے یہ بھی Magadha کے طور پر جانا جاتا ہے..
Kusanabha شاندار خوبصورتی کی ایک سو بیٹیوں تھا. جب وہ باغ میں کھیل رہے تھے ایک دن پون ہوا خدا نے ان کے لئے lusted اور ان پر زور دیا کہ وہ اس سے شادی کرنے کے لئے. انہوں نے اس درخواست کو مسترد کر دیا اور خدا ہوا ان پر لعنت بدسورت بن اور dwarfs

لعنت اٹھا لیا

Kusanabha Kampilya کے شہر کے حکمران قائل کیا ان سے شادی کرنے کے لئے. ان کے رابطے کی طرف سے وہ ان کے بدسورتی کھو دیا.

ایک بیٹے کے لئے تڑپ

جب ان کے تمام سو بیٹیوں کو اپنے اپنے شوہر کے ساتھ چھوڑ دیا ، Kusanabha تنہا محسوس کیا اور ایک بیٹے کے لئے yearned. تو ، وہ ایک Putrakameshthi کارکردگی کا مظاہرہ کیا اور ایک بیٹے کو حاصل ہے. انہوں نے بادشاہ Gadhi تھا “میں Gadhi کا بیٹا ہوں ، اس طرح کے طور پر Gadheya Viswamitra نے کہا ہے کہ اور بھی Kausika کے لئے میں Kusa کے خاندان میں پیدا ہوئے نام سے جانا گیا”..
Viswamitra اپنی کہانی جاری رکھی “میری بڑی بہن Satyavathi swarga جسمانی حاصل کیا اور دریا ہمالی میں Kausiki کے طور پر زمین پر واپس آئے.

گنگا کے نکالنے
رام Viswamitra پر زور دیا کہ وہ اس سے گنگا کا اصل کہنا “جواہرات اور سات افروز معدنیات کی ذخیرہ کنگ Himavanta ہے ، وہ منورما سے شادی کی… انہوں نے دو خوبصورت بیٹیوں گنگا اور اوما تھا. Devas کی درخواست پر ، Himavanta Devaloka گنگا لایا. اما طویل تپسیا کارکردگی کا مظاہرہ کیا اور Maheswara شادی کر لی. وہ Rudrani بن گیا “Viswamitra نے کہا.

شو بیجوں

Viswamitra تو پاروتی کی کہانی کو رام کرنے کے لئے روایت کیا ہے : “ایک بیٹا شو اور پاروتی ویواہیک خوشی میں ملوث جب شو کا بیج زمین پر گر گیا پیدا کرنے کے لئے جلد ہی آگ میں بخارات بن کر اڑ اور سفید پہاڑی بن گیا پاروتی لینے کے لئے زمین اور Devas لعنت.. بیجوں اور اسے برباد کر.
وقت کے دوران میں پہاڑی نے ایک گھنے جنگل میں اضافہ ہوا. bulrushes میں Kartikeya پیدا کر دیا گیا تھا.

چھ کا سامنا کرنا پڑا خدا

آگ کے خدا ، آگ گنگا میں شو کے بیج منتقل کیا اور وہ حاملہ ہوئی. وہ بیج کی گرمی برداشت نہیں کریں گے اور ہمالی کے دامن میں اسقاط حمل کر سکتے ہیں. اس سے ، سات افروز معدنیات پیدا کیا گیا. وہاں سے چھ چہروں اور شاندار خوبصورتی کے ساتھ ایک بچے ابھر کر سامنے آئے.
انہوں نے چھ Kruttikas کی طرف سے لایا گیا تھا. تو ، وہ Kartikeya کے طور پر جانا جاتا ہے. انہوں نے Shanmuka کے طور پر بھی جانا جاتا ہے وہ چھ سر ہے. خدا آگ اس devas کی فوج کے کمانڈر کے سربراہ بنا دیا.

شہنشاہ ہے Sagara بیٹوں

Vishwamitra نے کہا کہ “ایک بار جب بادشاہ Sagara ایودھیا فیصلہ دیا انہوں نے دو بیویاں ، Kesini اور Smati تھا لیکن وہ کوئی بچے نہیں تھے… کنگ Sagara دو بیٹوں کے لئے بابا Bhrigu دعا کی. Bhrigu نے اس کو بتایا کہ ان کی سب سے بڑی بیوی سے ایک بیٹا اور دوسری 60،000 بیٹوں ہوگا.

زمین کھودنے

Sagara Aswamedha قربانی شروع. انہوں نے قربانی کے گھوڑے کے ساتھ ان کے Ansumanta گرینڈ بیٹے کو روانہ کیا اور لڑکے واپس آئے کے ساتھ unhampered.

جب قربانی پیش رفت اندرا میں مقدس گھوڑے چرا لیا. Sagara 60،000 بیٹے نے اس کی تلاش میں گئے تھے زمین nether دنیا کے لئے کھدائی نیچے

کپلا غضب

وہ شمال مشرقی سمت وہ بابا کپلا کی فارم اور ان کی پارٹی کی طرف سے قربانی گھوڑے میں وشنو پایا میں جب کھدائی گئے تھے. انہوں نے اس گھوڑے کی چور سمجھ لیا اور اس پر حملہ کیا. کپلا ان راکھ میں بدل گیا.

نیچے گنگا لانے بولی

ان کی 60،000 بیٹوں Sagara کو ٹریس کرنے کے قابل نہیں Ansumanta ان کو تلاش کرنے کے لئے بھیجا. Ansumanta نے ان کی راکھ ملے اور انہیں خراج تحسین پیش جب گروڑ ظاہر اور اس سے کہا تھا کہ اگر گنگا کو ان کی راکھ بہہ اس کے چچا نجات حاصل کرے گی انہوں نے پانی کی تلاش میں پیش کرتے ہیں.

Ansumanta قربانی کے گھوڑے کو واپس لیا اور ان کے دادا کو کہانی بیان کرتے. دریں اثنا ، Sagara زمین پر گنگا لانے کے قابل ہونے کے بغیر ناکام رہے.

Bhagiratha کوشش

Sagara موت کے بعد ، Ansumanta اس ایودھیا کے بادشاہ کے طور پر کامیاب. انہوں نے ان کے بیٹے Dilipa اور Dilipa کی طرف سے کامیاب کے بعد ان کے بیٹے Bhagiratha کی طرف سے کیا گیا تھا. Bhagiratha ایک بیٹے کے لیے ایک طویل تپسیا پر گئے اور زمین پر گنگا لانے.

برہما شائع کیا اور اس سے کہا تھا کہ “Bhagiratha ، آپ اپنے بیٹے کو ہو سکتا ہے لیکن جیسا کہ گنگا زمین پر اترتے صرف بھگوان شو سے آسمان سے اس زوال کی طاقت پر مشتمل ہوسکتا ہے تو اس سے دعا..”.

گنگا کا نزول

شو Bhagiratha materialized گنگا کی روک تھام کے لئے. اس نے اپنی فصل میں گنگا بور اور وہ وہاں چھپا دیا تھا. اسے کہیں Bhagiratha نہیں کی تلاش دوبارہ تپسیا پر گئے شو کو خوش کرنے کے لئے. شو Bindu جھیل میں گنگا جاری. وہاں سے گنگا سات طاقتور اسٹریمز کے طور پر نیچے آ گئی. ان میں سے ایک ہے Bhagiratha رت کے بعد.

ایشز Drenching

اس نے اسے اپنے پتروں کی راھ کے ذریعے باہر دھکیل دیا اور وہ اس طرح آخر میں نجات حاصل کی.

Jhanu Gulps گنگا

اس وقت Bhagiratha بابا Jhanu کی کٹیا کی طرف اس کے رت میں بھی تبدیل کر دیا اور وہاں روک دیا. لیکن طاقتور اس کا پیچھا کر گنگا وہاں نہیں روک اچانک سکے اور آشرم میں بہہ. بابا Jhanu غصے کر دیا اور ایک نگلنا میں اس کے منہ میں پورے گنگا لیا. Bhagiratha اس کے ساتھ کی التجا کی اس دنیا کے لئے جاری کرنے اور اس کے کان کے ساتھ Jhanu نے ایسا ہی کیا.

اس نے پھر nether دنیا اور اس کے بعد سمندر میں Bhagiratha کے بعد.

دودیا اوقیانوس منتن

Krita کی عمر میں Diti بیٹوں طاقتور تھے اور ادتی بیٹوں صالح تھے. جب دودھ کے سمندر churned تھا امرتا پیدا کر دیا گیا تھا.
Devas اور Danavas کے درمیان اشتراک پر جھگڑا ہوا تھا. بھگوان وشنو موہنی کی آڑ میں کر دیا اور Devas کے درمیان تقسیم. ایک شدید لڑائی ہے جس میں بعد میں مارے گئے تھے Devas اور Daityas کے درمیان یہ مندرجہ ذیل تھا.

اندرا جنین کو کاٹتا ہے

Diti اس کے تمام بیٹوں کی موت پر افسوس کا اظہار کیا وہ Kasyapa پر زور دیا کہ وہ اس کے ایک بیٹا جو اندرا نمر کر سکتا دے. Kasyapa اس تپسیا سختی سے عمل کرنے کے لئے کہا.
اس کے سر کے ساتھ ایک دوپہر Diti dizzed اور پاؤں غلط طرف کر دیا اور بال کھل. اندرا نے اس کے پیٹ میں داخل کیا اور سات ٹکڑوں میں برانن کاٹا.

اندرا باہر آیا اور اس کے ساتھ اس کو معاف کرنے کی التجا. ‘تمہارے پیٹ میں بچہ میری دشمن ہے. کیا یہ ان کے دشمن کو قتل کرنے کے لئے بادشاہ کے لئے صحیح نہیں ہے؟ ‘وہ کہا گیا ہے اور اس کی بخشش کی کوشش کی ہے.

Maruts کی پیدائش

Diti برانن کے ویئتیکرن پر افسوس کا اظہار کیا. ‘سات دنیا میں ہواؤں کی مسخ برانن پربووں کا ان سات طبقات کریں. اور انہیں Maruts ‘جانا جا ، وہ اندرا پر زور دیا کہ. اندرا نے اس سے سکون اور اس کے کرنے پر اتفاق کیا ہے.

جگہ ہے جہاں Diti تپسیا کا مشاہدہ Visalapattana جہاں رام Lakshmana ، اور Vishwamitra Ikshvaku بادشاہ Sumati کی طرف سے فراہم کی مہمان نوازی کو قبول بن گیا.

اندرا اکڑ

اگلی صبح وہ Mithala کی طرف ان کا سفر دوبارہ شروع کر دیا ہے. ویسے پر ، وہ بابا کے ویران کٹیا بھر گوتم آیا. Vishwamitra Ahalya ‘کی کہانی ہے جب گوتم ، ablutions اندرا چھپانے میں ان کی رہائش گاہ میں داخل کے لئے مقرر اور Ahalya ساتھ میٹیڈ روایت کیا ہے. ان کی واپسی پر گوتم سچ مل گیا اور ان کے testes کھو لعنت ہے. اندرا اس طرح نامرد بن گیا. تو انہوں نے یہ بھی Ahalya لعنت رہے جامد دھول خوراک اور پانی کے بغیر اور یہ کہ وہ آپ کے پاؤں کے رابطے کے ساتھ اس کی حالت زار کا لیا جائے گا لبریز ”کہہ گوتم ہمالی کے لئے چھوڑ دیا.

Ahalya لیا

مانس نے ایک بکری کی testes کے ساتھ اندرا نصب. Ahalya رام کی آمد کے لیے انتظار کر رہے تھے. ہے رام کے پاؤں سے دھول کے ساتھ اس حالت زار کے Ahalya چھڑایا گیا تھا اور گوتم ان کے آشرم واپس.

رام متلا میں پہنچ گئے

Viswamitra متلا میں داخل ، کٹیا ، اور رام اور Lakshmana کے قیدیوں کے ہمراہ. بابا بادشاہ Janaka آگے ان کا استقبال کرنے کے لئے آیا تھا. Viswamitra Janaka رام اور Lakshmana کو متعارف کرایا.

ہے Viswamitra کی کہانی

بابا گوتم بیٹے Satananda رام ، Viswamitra کی کہانی کی روایت ہے. ‘Viswamitra ایک طاقتور بادشاہ رہا تھا. مختلف hermitages کے دورے کے بعد ایک بار Viswamitra بابا Vasistha ‘انہوں نے کہا کہ میں چلی گئی.

حیرت گای Sabala

“Vasistha بادشاہ Viswamitra پر زور دیا کہ وہ اپنی فوج کے ساتھ ان کی مہمان نوازی کو قبول کرنے ہے.’ Satananda راما کو بتایا. ‘Vasistha ایک گائے’ Sabala ‘جو لوگوں کی کسی بھی تعداد میں فیڈ ہو سکتا ہے.’

Viswamitra لالچ

سوادج کھانا کے partaken ، Viswamitra اور ان کے قافلے گائے wonderous اعمال پر حیران تھے ‘. Satananda جاری رہا. کنگ Viswamitra Sabala کے تبادلے میں ایک لاکھ گایوں کی پیشکش کی لیکن Vasistha سے انکار کر دیا ‘.

Sabala پلی

، Satananda نے کہا کہ وہاں پر Viswamitra نے ان کے مردوں کو طاقت کے ذریعے جادو گائے چھین لینے کا حکم دیا. ‘گائے Vasistha سے اپیل کی کہ اس کے بادشاہ اور اس کے آدمیوں کی مزاحمت کرنے کی اجازت’ ہے.

کنگ مرد مقتول

Satananda نے کہا کہ ‘بابا رضامندی اور گائے ہزاروں اس کے اعضاء اور چکر ہے Vishwamitra مردوں سے فوجیوں پر ہزاروں کی تعداد میں پیدا کیا.’

سو شہزادے ہلاک

Satananda ‘پھر Vishwamitra اور ان کے سو بیٹوں Vasistha پر حملہ whereupon بابا نے غصے میں ان کی طرف دیکھ گئے. بادشاہ کے سو بیٹوں کو راکھ میں بدل گیا. کنگ Vishwamitra جانتے ہو کیا کرنا نقصان پر تھا. انہوں نے اس ریاست پر ایک واحد دیا ، بیٹا زندہ بچ جانے والے اور رب شو کو خوش کرنے کے لئے تپسیا کر رہے پر چلا گیا. شو اسے کئی boons اور ہتھیاروں سے نوازا. ‘Vishwamitra تکبر بن گیا اور Vasistha کٹیا کی طرف ان کے غیض و غضب کر دیا. انہوں نے اس کو تباہ کر دیا. ‘Satananda راما کو بتایا کہ.

Viswamitra خفیف

“بابا Viswamitra غصے میں تھا انہوں نے Viswamitra کی طرف روانہ تمام ہتھیاروں نپوبسک بنانے کی طرف سے جوابی کارروائی آخر Viswamitra سب سے قوی Brahmastra سے ، جس Vasistha کی فوری طور پر ایک نگلنا میں اس کے جسم کے اندر لیا روانہ کیا…”

original version

.RAMAYAN Balakanda

યુવાન કે જે રામ ના ચમત્કારિક જન્મ વિગતો, તેની અયોધ્યા શરૂઆતમાં જીવન, Vishvamitra ની અરજી પર તેના વન દાનવો ઓફ કાનુની કતલ અને સીતા સાથે તેમના લગ્ન રમા ચોપડે.

માતાનો વાલ્મિકિ સંન્યાસાશ્રમ ખાતે Narada પહોંચ્યા

વાલ્મિકિ Narada “ઓ ઋષિ, એક વ્યકિત જે દોષરહિત પાત્ર છે ત્યાં છે, હિંમતવાન છે, અથવા આ વિશ્વમાં ક્રોધ ઈર્ષ્યા વગર પ્રમાણિક મને તેના વિશે કહો જો ત્યાં આવા મહાન આત્મા છે?. Narada જવાબ આપ્યો” કહેવામાં તે મુશ્કેલ છે, જેમ કે શોધવા વ્યક્તિ પરંતુ Ikshvaku ના ઘરમાં એક જન્મ છે. તેનું નામ રામ Narada પછી વાલ્મિકિ માટે રમા વાર્તા narrating શરૂ કર્યું છે. “.

રાખવાથી રમા વાર્તા વર્ણન, Narada દેવો Loka માટે ડાબી

સેજ વાલ્મિકિ માટે Tamasa નદી midday oblations ઓફર હતી. Krauncha પક્ષીઓ એક જોડી એ ઠંડી આસપાસના તેમના ધ્યાન ખેંચ્યું. એક સમયે જ્યારે જોડ સમાગમ હતી સમયે, એક પારધી તેમને તેમના તીર કરવાનો અને તેને dispatched. તે પુરુષ પક્ષી હૃદય વીંધેલા. મહિલા પક્ષી તેના મૃત્યુ માટે માટે રડતી શરૂ કર્યું હતું. આ વાલ્મિકિ જે પ્રકારનું હૃદય વિશ્વના પ્રથમ કવિતા પાઠ કરવો છે “Manishada ખસેડવામાં …..

માતાનો બ્રહ્મા આદેશ

જ્યારે વાલ્મિકી તેના કાવ્યરચના, બ્રહ્મા, સર્જક ના સ્વયંસ્ફુરિત ધડાકો પાછું બોલાવવું સંન્યાસાશ્રમ, ભૌતિક પરત કરવાનો આદેશ આપ્યો છે અને તેને માટે Anustup મીટર માં રમા વાર્તા કંપોઝ “તે પ્રથમ પુસ્તક હોઈ શકે અને તે લાંબા સમય સુધી છેલ્લા શકે તરીકે કલ્પ ચાલે” બ્રહ્મા જણાવ્યું હતું કે,

માતાનો વાલ્મિકિ દ્રષ્ટિ

સર્જક ના આશીર્વાદ સાથે, ઋષિ વાલ્મિકી પ્રાર્થના ઓફર અને શનિ એક Kusa ઘાસ બનાવવામાં સીટ પર બનેલા હોય છે. કિંગ Dasaratha, તેના consorts, પુત્રો, તેમના પતિ કે પત્નિ, રામ સીતા અને લક્ષ્મણ ની દેશવટો, રાવણ ના કાનુની કતલ વાલ્મિકિ માટે દ્રષ્ટિ હતી. વાલ્મિકિ આમ નીચે વંશજો માટે રમા વાર્તા મૂકે છે.

વાલ્મિકી રામાયણ બનેલું

સેજ વાલ્મિકિ બનેલા આ 500 sargas અને છ cantos માં 24,000 slokas માં રામાયણ. આ જોડિયા Kusa અને લાવા તેમને હૃદય હતો. તેઓ મીઠી સંગીતવાદ્યો વૉઇસ હતા અને તે સંન્યાસાશ્રમ ની કેદીઓ પહેલાં હતું. રમા તેમને કોર્ટમાં મળી વાર્તા પાઠ કરવો.

આ Ikshvaku વંશ કિંગ્સ

રાજાઓના કે આ પૃથ્વી પર શાસન કર્યું, તે પૈકી Ikshvaku માતાનો મહાન હતા. મનુ પ્રતિ સાગર માટે તેઓ અસમાન gaiety સાથે પૃથ્વી પર શાસન કર્યું. તેમને પૈકી રમા તાજ રત્ન હતું. Kosala ઓફ કિંગડમ Sarayu નદી બેંકો પર હતી અને તેની રાજધાની અયોધ્યા Vaivaswata મનુ દ્વારા બાંધવામાં આવી હતી. શહેરના કેન્દ્રમાં માં માતાનો કિંગ મહેલ હતો

ગ્રેટ કિંગડમ

રાજા જે અયોધ્યા અને Kosala કિંગડમ ઓફ શહેરમાં ખ્યાતિ લાવવામાં Dasaratha હતી. માર્યા ઘણા દુશ્મનો તે અને બહાદુરી અને વિદ્વાન આમંત્રિત પુરુષો પોતાના શહેર રહેવા માટે. લોકો સુખી અને પ્રામાણિક જીવન હતી.

સમર્થ કિંગ

કિંગડમ ઓફ ધ હેડ પાદરીઓ Vasistha અને Vamadeva હતા. કિંગ Dasaratha આઠ મંત્રીઓ જે Sumanta વડા હતા ની મદદ સાથે અસરકારક રીતે શાસન કર્યું. Sumanta Dasaratha નજીકનું હતો અને પણ ઉમેદવારી શાહી સ્ત્રીઓ એપાર્ટમેન્ટ્સ દાખલ કરો.

વધુ માહિતી Ishavaku

ક્ષત્રિયોના ઇતિહાસ
(ક્ષત્રિય) એક હિંદુ ચાર વર્ણ (સામાજિક ઓર્ડર) છે. તે પરંપરાગત વૈદિક-હિન્દૂ સામાજિક સિસ્ટમ લશ્કરી અને શાસક ક્રમમાં રચના તરીકે વેદ અને મનુ ના કાયદા દ્વારા દર્શાવ્યો હતો. ભગવાન રામ, ભગવાન કૃષ્ણ, ભગવાન બુદ્ધ અને ભગવાન મહાવીરે આ સામાજિક ઓર્ડર belonged.

પ્રાચીન વૈદિક સમાજમાં શરૂઆતમાં, આ સ્થિતિમાં એક વ્યક્તિ (ગુના) અભિરુચિ, આચાર (કર્મ), અને પ્રકૃતિ (swabhava) ની ગુણવત્તા પર હાંસલ કરવામાં આવી હતી. પ્રારંભિક વૈદિક સાહિત્યના ક્રમ પ્રથમ તરીકે ક્ષત્રિય (કે atra?, અથવા સત્તા ધારકોને) યાદી થયેલ હોય, તો પછી (પાદરીઓ અને કાયદો શિક્ષકો) આગામી બ્રાહ્મણો માટે, (વેપારી વેપારીઓ) વૈશ્ય, અને છેલ્લે Sudra (કસબીઓ અને કામદારો ). વ્યક્તિઓ અને જૂથો એક વર્ગ બીજી મુવમેન્ટ્સ, બંને ઉપર અને નીચે, અસામાન્ય ન હતી;. પરિસ્થિતિ માં પણ ક્ષત્રિય ક્રમ વધારો એક માન્યતા બાકી સેવા માટે [1] વર્ષો દિવસ શાસકો માટે ઈનામ હતું તે વંશપરંપરાગત બન્યા. આધુનિક સમયમાં, ક્ષત્રિય વર્ણ જાતિ જૂથો વ્યાપક વર્ગ સમાવેશ કરે છે, સ્થિતિ અને કાર્ય પરંતુ યુનાઇટેડ નોંધપાત્ર rulership તેમના દાવા, યુદ્ધ અનુસરણ, અથવા જમીનની કબજો દ્વારા અલગ.

આ દંતકથા છે કે Ikshvakus અપવાદ સાથે ક્ષત્રિયોના, તેમનો સામનો પરશુરામથી થયો, વિષ્ણુ ની છઠ્ઠી પુનર્જન્મ, તેમના દ્વારા જુલમ માટે સજા નાશ હતા કેટલાક વિદ્વાનો દ્વારા માનવામાં આવે છે માટે પાદરીઓ અને શાસકો વચ્ચે સર્વોપરિતા માટે લાંબા સંઘર્ષ કે વિજય અંત પ્રતિબિંબ ભૂતપૂર્વ છે. વૈદિક યુગ અંત સુધીમાં, બ્રાહ્મણો સર્વોચ્ચ હતા, અને ક્ષત્રિય બીજા સ્થાને ઘટી હતી. આ Manusm (હિન્દૂ કાયદાનું પુસ્તક)? સસ્પિશિયન અને મોટા ભાગના અન્ય dharmashastras (ન્યાયશાસ્ત્ર કામ) જેવા ગ્રંથોમાં એક બ્રાહ્મણ વિજય અહેવાલ, પરંતુ મહાકાવ્ય ગ્રંથો ઘણીવાર અલગ અલગ એકાઉન્ટ ઓફર, અને તે સંભવિત છે કે સામાજિક રિયાલિટી શાસકો સામાન્ય રીતે પ્રથમ ક્રમે છે . દેવતાઓ ની સ્થાયી શાસકો તરીકે (ખાસ કરીને વિષ્ણુ, કૃષ્ણ, અને રમા) પ્રતિનિધિત્વ બિંદુ underscores, કારણ કે ધાર્મિક ભૂમિકાઓ અને વિશેષાધિકારો ની વિસ્તૃત શ્રેણીમાં હિન્દૂ ઇતિહાસ સૌથી મારફતે નથી રાજાઓ લગતી. [2]. બોદ્ધ ધર્મ ઉદય સાથે, ક્ષત્રિયોના ચાર વર્ણ પ્રથમ તેમના સ્થાને મેળવ્યો હતો. તેમના બ્રાહ્મણ સામાન્ય Pusyamitra સુંગા, ભારત અને બોદ્ધ ધર્મ ના અનુગામી ઘટાડો દ્વારા છેલ્લા મૌર્ય સમ્રાટ Brhadrata ની હત્યા, પૂર્વ ભારતમાં બ્રાહ્મણ સર્વોપરિતા વધુ એક વખત ચિહ્નિત થયેલ. પશ્ચિમ ભારત ક્ષત્રિય સમૂહો એક ગઢ તરીકે રાજપૂતાના અને શક્તિશાળી ક્ષત્રિય સામ્રાજ્ય કે ઉજ્જૈન થી જમણે શાસન ઇસ્લામિક દિલ્હીમાં ચૌહાણ ક્ષત્રિયોના એક પતન તરફ દોરી આક્રમણ કરવા દ્વારા epitomized રહ્યું છે.

Ikshvaku વંશ વંશ

ઇક વિરુદ્ધ? કુ અથવા Aik? વિરુદ્ધ? કા સામ્રાજ્ય રાજાઓ આ યાદીઓ રામાયણ, મહાભારત, હરિવંશ કે અને પુરાણોમાં જોવા મળે છે. પરંતુ બે રામાયણ મળી યાદીઓ અન્ય બધી યાદીઓ સાથે નોંધપાત્ર અલગ અલગ છે. કાલિદાસ ના Raghuvamsha પણ આ રાજવંશ રાજાઓના કેટલાક નામો ઉલ્લેખ. [3] [4] [5]

IKSHVAKUS
આ Ikshvaku વંશ ના વંશાવળી તરીકે રામાયણ માં ઉલ્લેખ (i.69.17-32 અને ii.102.4-29) [6] નીચે પ્રમાણે છે:

બ્રહ્મા 10 Prajapatis, જેમાંથી એક Marichi સર્જન કરવામાં આવ્યું.
Kashyapa Marichi અને કાલા પુત્ર છે. Kashyapa માનવતાની પિતા તરીકે ગણવામાં આવે છે.
Vivasvan અથવા સુર્યા Kashyapa અને અદિતિ પુત્ર છે.
Vaivasvata મનુ, મૂળ Satyavrata, દ્રવિડ ની પછી સમ્રાટ Vivasvan પુત્ર છે. તેમણે પ્રથમ Ikshvaku વંશ સાથે સંકળાયેલા શાસક તરીકે ગણવામાં આવે છે.
Ikshvaku Vaivasvata મનુ પુત્ર છે.
Kukshi Ikshvaku પુત્ર છે
Vikukshi Kukshi પુત્ર છે
બના Vikukshi પુત્ર છે
Anaranya બના પુત્ર છે
Prithu Anaranya પુત્ર છે
Trishanku Prithu પુત્ર છે
Dhundhumara Trishanku પુત્ર છે
Yuvanashva Dhundhumara પુત્ર છે
Mandhata Yuvanashva પુત્ર છે
Susandhi Mandhata પુત્ર છે
Dhruvasandhi અને Presenajit Susandhi ના પુત્રો છે
ભારત Dhruvasandhi પુત્ર છે
બહુ (Asita) ભારત પુત્ર છે
સાગર બહુ પુત્ર છે
Asamanja સાગર પુત્ર છે
Amsumanta (Ansuman) Asamanja પુત્ર છે
Dileepa Amsumanta પુત્ર છે
Bhagiratha Dilipa પુત્ર છે
Kakustha Bhagiratha પુત્ર છે
રઘુ Kakushta પુત્ર છે. Raghuvamsha આ સમૂહનો રઘુ સાથે શરૂ
Pravriddha રઘુ ના સોને છે
Shankhana Pravriddha પુત્ર છે
Sudarshana Shankhana પુત્ર છે
Agnivarna Sudarshana પુત્ર છે
Shighra Agnivarna પુત્ર છે
મારું Shighra પુત્ર છે
Prashushruka મારું પુત્ર છે
Ambarisha Prashushruka પુત્ર છે
Nahusha Ambarisha પુત્ર છે
Yayati Nahusha પુત્ર છે
Nabhaga Yayati પુત્ર છે
Aja Nabhaga પુત્ર છે
દશરથ Aja પુત્ર છે
રામ, લક્ષ્મણ ભારત અને Shatrughna Dasaratha ના પુત્રો છે
લાવા અને Kusha રામ ના પુત્રો છે
આ પુરાણ Kusha માંથી Brihadbala, જે અભિમન્યુ દ્વારા મહાભારતના યુદ્ધમાં માર્યા હતી વંશાવળી યાદી પૂરી પાડે છે. આ યાદી Raghuvamsha દ્વારા Agnivarna સુધી corroborated છે [7]:

Atithi, Kusha પુત્ર
Nishadha, Atithi પુત્ર
નાળાં, Nishadha પુત્ર
Nabhas, નાળાં પુત્ર
Pundarika, પુત્ર Nabhas
Kshemadhanvan, Pundarika પુત્ર
Devanika, Kshemadhanvan પુત્ર
Ahinagu, Davanika પુત્ર
Paripatra, Ahinagu પુત્ર
(અથવા બાલા) Dala, Ahinagu પુત્ર
Uktha, Dala પુત્ર
Vajranabha, Uktha પુત્ર
Shankhana, Vajranabha પુત્ર
Vyushitashva, Shankhana પુત્ર
Vishvasaha, Vyushitashva પુત્ર
Hiranyanabha, Vishvasaha પુત્ર
Pushya, Hiranyanabha પુત્ર
Dhruvasandhi, Pushya પુત્ર
Agnivarna, Dhruvasandhi પુત્ર
Shighra, Agnivarna પુત્ર
મારું, Shighra પુત્ર
Prasushruta, મારું પુત્ર
Susandhi, Prasushruta પુત્ર
Amarsha અને Sahasvant, Susandhi ના પુત્રો
Vishrutavant, Amarsha પુત્ર
Brihadbala, Vishrutavant પુત્ર.
જો કે, નેપાળી અને Bauddhists એ વંશ આગળ ચાલુ રાખો.

વંશાવલિ Descrepencies
આ 2 ઉપર યાદી થયેલ સ્રોતો પ્રતિ, ત્યાં તફાવતો કે જે ઉપર માહિતી ચોકસાઇ માટે ઉકેલાઈ જરૂર છે. નીચેના descrepencies યાદી છે:

વાલ્મિકિ રાજ્યો રામાયણ કે Prthu Anaranya અને Trisanku પિતા પુત્ર છે. Ramakatha Rasavahini Prthu અને રાજ્યો કોઈ રન નોંધાયો નહીં કે Anaranya Trisanku fathered
વાલ્મિકિ રાજ્યો રામાયણ કે Presenjit Bharatha ના પિતા તરીકે Ramakatha Rasavahini statest Daivasandhi જ્યારે Bharatha ના પિતા છે
વાલ્મિકિ રાજ્યો રામાયણ કે Sankhana Pravardha પુત્ર છે અને Sankhana પુત્ર Sudarsana હતી. Ramakatha Rasavahini Pravardha પુત્ર તરીકે Sankhana અને લક્ષણો Sudarsana નોંધ્યું કોઈ રન નોંધાયો નહીં
Seeghraga Ramakatha Rasavahini માં Agnivarna અને મારું પિતા પુત્ર તરીકે ઉલ્લેખ છે. વાલ્મિકી રામાયણ Seeghraga અને રાજ્યો કે મારું પિતા Agnivarna ન હતું ઉલ્લેખ નથી
Jaina પરંપરા Ikshvaku વંશ
આ Ikshvaku વંશ પરંપરા Jaina નોંધપાત્ર સ્થળ છે, કારણ કે 22 તિર્થંકર આ શાહી ઘરમાં જન્મ થયા હતા. પ્રથમ તીર્થંકર Rishavadeva Ikshvaku કિંગ નાભિ પુત્ર હતો. બીજા તીર્થંકર, Ajitanatha, Ikshvaku કિંગ Jitashatru પુત્ર સાગર પિતરાઈ હતી

આંધ્ર Ikshvakus
આંધ્ર Ikshvakus એક પ્રારંભિક આંધ્ર પ્રદેશ ના શાસક વંશ હતા. તેઓ કૃષ્ણ નદી સાથે બીજી સદી ની પાછળથી અડધા દરમિયાન પૂર્વ આંધ્ર દેશમાં શાસન. [8] તેમની મૂડી Vijayapuri (Nagarjunakonda) હતા. કેટલાક વિદ્વાનો સૂચવ્યું છે કે આ રાજવંશ હિન્દૂ પૌરાણિક પ્રાચીન Ikshvakus સંબંધિત હતી. રામાયણ ના રમા, જેમણે તરીકે વિષ્ણુ ના અવતાર Ikshvaku ના વાક્ય belonged ગણવામાં આવે છે. હિન્દૂ પૌરાણિક, Ikshvaku, જે મનુ અને Kukshi પિતા હતો, મુજબ સુર્યવંશી વંશ ના સ્થાપક હતો, Treta યુગ ની શરૂઆત પર અયોધ્યા માંથી તાજ ધારણ કર્યો હોવાથી. ત્યાં જોકે કોઈ સીધો માટે સૂચવે છે કે આંધ્ર Ikshvakus દંતકથાની Ikshvakus સાથે સંબંધિત હતી પુરાવા છે.

પુરાતત્વીય પુરાવા સૂચવ્યું છે કે આંધ્ર Ikshvakus તરત જ કૃષ્ણ નદી ખીણ માં સતવાહન સફળ. Ikshvakus Nagarjunakonda, Jaggayyapeta, Amaravati અને Bhattiprolu ખાતે શિલાલેખ બાકી છે.

આંધ્ર Ikshvakus ની સાહિત્યિક Ikshvakus પુરાવા
એક કન્નડા કવિતા Dharmamrita જણાવે છે કે આંધ્ર ની Ikshvakus ઉત્તર ભારત પ્રખ્યાત Ikshvakus ના descendents હતા. Buhler અને Rapson જેમ પ્રાચ્ય વિદ્વાનો જોવા કે ઉત્તર Ikshvakus દક્ષિણ સ્થળાંતર હોઇ શકે વ્યક્ત કરી હતી. વાયુ પુરાણ અનુસાર, મનુ, પ્રાચીન ભારત મહાન પૂર્વજ Ikshvaku જેમને સૌથી મોટા હતી નવ પુત્રો હતા. તેમની મૂડી અયોધ્યા હતી. તેમણે એક સો પુત્રો હતા, અને સૌથી મોટા Vikushi અયોધ્યા ના શાસક તરીકે તેમના પિતા સફળ. બાકીના, પચાસ પુત્રો ઉત્તર ભારતમાં નાના હુકુમત સ્થાપના કરી હતી. ચાલીસરંગો તેમના પુત્રો આઠ દક્ષિણ સ્થળાંતર અને પોતાને માટે રજવાડાઓ કોતરવામાં.

બુદ્ધ સાહિત્યમાં દક્ષિણ ભારત માં Ikshvakus ના ઘૂંસપેંઠ સંદર્ભ લે છે અને જાહેર કર્યું કે તેઓ Asmaka, Mulaka અને અન્ય હુકુમત સ્થાપના કરી હતી. આ ક્ષત્રિયોના દક્ષિણ ડાઉન સ્થાયી અને નાના રજવાડાઓ ત્યાં સ્થાપના કરી. જૈન સાહિત્યમાં પણ ઉત્તર ભારતીય રાજકુમારો ઓફ ધ દક્ષિણ હિજરત સંદર્ભ લે છે. Dharmamrita ફૂટ સંદર્ભ કરવામાં આવ્યું હતું કે 12 તીર્થંકર, એક Yasodhara એ Ikshvaku કુટુંબ માંથી સંપ્રદાયમાંથી નામ રાજકુમાર ના જીવનકાળ દરમ્યાન દક્ષિણ માં અંગ સામ્રાજ્ય Vengi આવ્યો હતો. અમે જાણ છે કે રાજકુમાર જેથી પ્રદેશમાં સુંદરતા સાથે જ પ્રભાવિત થયો હતો, અને માટી ની પ્રજનન કે તે તેની કાયમી ઘર કરી અને Pratipalpura કહેવાય શહેર સ્થાપના કરી હતી. એવું માનવામાં આવે છે કે Pratipalapura આધુનિક Bhattiprolu, ગુંટુર જિલ્લા એક શહેર છે [સંદર્ભ આપો]. શિલાલેખો પણ Nagarjunakonda ખીણ અને Jaggayyapeta અને Bhattiprolu આ alluding નથી શોધ કરવામાં આવી છે.

વ્યુત્પત્તિશાસ્ત્ર

સંસ્કૃત, તે k-atra? પરથી આવ્યો છે, “આધિપત્ય, પાવર, સરકારી” રુટ k-અર્થ? “નિયમ સરકાર, ધરાવે છે.” જુની ફારસી xš યા? (“સમ્રાટ”) iya અને xša? રા? (“ક્ષેત્ર”) તે સંબંધિત છે, કારણ કે નવી ફારસી શબ્દો ઓ (“સમ્રાટ”) h, અને šahr? (“શહેર”, “ક્ષેત્ર” ). “રાજા”, kasat, અને “ઘોડો” અથવા “યોદ્ધા”, kesatria અથવા satria માટે મલય શબ્દ માટે શબ્દ થાઈ, પણ તે ઉતરી આવેલા છે. શબ્દ કુલીન પરિસ્થિતિ સૂચવે છે.

પ્રારંભિક વૈદિક સંસ્કૃતિ માં, યોદ્ધા જાતિ આર જાણ્યા? અથવા kšatr યા તરીકે ઓળખાતું હતું. ભૂતપૂર્વ R એક વિશેષણયુક્ત ફોર્મ Jan “શાસક રાજા” રુટ આર હતો? જ “કરવા માટે નિયમ”, લેટિન રેક્સ “રાજા”, જર્મન રીક “સામ્રાજ્ય / ક્ષેત્ર” માટે સગોત્ર છે, અને થાઈ racha “રાજા “. પર્શિયામાં માં, satraps, અથવા “kshatrapa” માં, રાજ્યપાલોના, અથવા ફારસી માતાનો સામ્રાજ્ય પ્રાંતો “સંરક્ષક” હતા.

પવિત્ર વોરિયર
પત્ની સીતા, ભાઇ સાથે ભગવાન શ્રી (કેન્દ્રમાં) રામ – લક્ષ્મણ અને ભક્ત હનુમાન. રમા અને લક્ષ્મણ હંમેશા યુદ્ધ માટે ધનુષ્ય અને તીર સાથે તૈયાર કરી શકાય બતાવવામાં આવે છે, કારણ કે તે તેમના ક્ષત્રિય છે લડવા. રામ સૂર્યવંશી ક્ષત્રિય વંશ એક હતી. તેઓ ગણવામાં આવે છે

ભગવાન વિષ્ણુ ના અવતાર

રાધા સાથે ભગવાન શ્રી કૃષ્ણ. કૃષ્ણ, Chandravanshi વંશની જન્મ દ્વારા ક્ષત્રિય, તેઓ ભગવાન વિષ્ણુને અન્ય અવતાર માનવામાં આવે છે. ભગવદ્ ગીતા માં તેમણે એક ક્ષત્રિય ની ફરજ વિશે અર્જુન શીખવવામાં આવે છે.

એક હિન્દૂ શાસક પવિત્ર કરવા માટે ધર્મ-રાજા (જસ્ટ નિયમ) તરીકે શાસન ગ્રંથો દ્વારા બંધાયેલ હતી મુખ્ય તેના વિષયો અને પશુધન રક્ષણ રહી ફરજો છે.

ઋગવેદ સ્ટેટ્સ:
નમે પ્રજા નમે jyotiragrah આર્ય ‘. આરવી, vii. 33,17

આર્યો દ્વારા શાસિત લોકો દૈવી પ્રકાશ આગેવાની છે. અયોધ્યા રાજા રામ કે ધર્મ-રાજાઓએ મહાન ગણવામાં આવે છે:

આર્ય સર્વ samascaiva sadaiva priyadarsanah

એક આર્યન જે તમામ સમાનતા માટે કામ કર્યું હતું, દરેકને ડિયર હતી. રમા પણ વિષ્ણુ એક અવતાર માનવામાં આવે છે.

રામાયણ સ્ટેટ્સ:
પ્રાચીન રાજા મનુ, માનવ રા પિતા જેમ

Dasaratha એક પિતા પ્રેમાળ ગ્રેસ સાથે તેમના લોકો પર શાસન કર્યું.

Aswamedha

પરંતુ રાજા એક ચિંતા હતી. તેમણે કોઈ સંતાન હતા. તેથી તેમણે Aswamedha બલિદાન જે તેને પુત્રો આપી શકે રહ્યા વિચાર. તેમણે મંત્રી Sumanta અને હેડ પાદરી Vasistha અને અન્ય બ્રાહ્મણ નેતાઓ સમન્સ. તેઓ nodded અને તેને ધન્ય. જોગવાઇઓ yaga માટે Sarayu ની બેન્કો પર કરવામાં આવી હતી

Desiring પુત્રો

Sumanta રાજા સલાહ આપી બદલે Putreshthi બલિદાન કરે છે. આ ઋષિ Sanatkumara દ્વારા સૂચવવામાં આવી હતી. , Sumanta “આ yaga Rishyasringa કરવા માટે જમણી વ્યક્તિ છે” Dasaratha જણાવ્યું હતું.

પ્રલોભક Rishyasringa

Rishyasringa Vibhandaka અને સેજ Kasyapa ના પૌત્ર પુત્ર હતો. જંગલ માં જન્મેલા, તેમણે આસપાસના માટે, homa આગ અને તેના પિતા સિવાય કંઈ જાણીતી હતી. અંગ દેશમાં કિંગ Romapada શાસન હતું. તેણે કન્યા નૃત્ય ત્યારે વરસાદ જમીન નિષ્ફળ ની મદદ સાથે પ્રલોભક દ્વારા Rishyasringa હતા. જ્યારે Rishyasringa દેશમાં તેના પગ સુયોજિત કરો, તો તે ખૂબ rained અને દુષ્કાળ અદ્રશ્ય થઇ. તેથી, રાજા Romapada તેમને લગ્ન તેમની પુત્રી અને આપ્યો Rishyasringa વૈભવી માં પેલેસ ખાતે વસવાટ કરો છો હતી.

અયોધ્યા ફૂટ

કિંગ Dasaratha મદદ માટે Romapada અપીલ અને અયોધ્યા માટે Rishyasringa અને તેની પત્ની સાંતા લાવ્યા

બલિદાન હોર્સ

વસંત સિઝનમાં ફૂટ Dasaratha એ yaga શરૂ કર્યું અને બલિદાન ઘોડો કેટલાક રજવાડાં તેના સમગ્ર પ્રવાસ પર સુયોજિત કરવામાં આવી હતી.

Yaga બિગીન્સ

એક વર્ષ પસાર અને કિંગ Dasaratha એ yaga પર ગયા તરીકે આપવામાં આવે છે.

ઘોડો ઓફ વળતર

આ યજ્ઞ ઘોડો પાછા ફર્યા. આ યજ્ઞ આધારસ્તંભ કોતરવામાં આવ્યો હતો અને નિયત પક્ષીઓ, સાપ અને બલિદાન ઘોડો તેમને બાંધી હતી. આ રાણીઓ કે ઘોડો circumambulated અને તે સોનેરી તલવારો સાથે felled. આ ઘોડો ઓફ અંગો યજ્ઞ આગ ઓફર કરવામાં આવી હતી

ગોડ્સ આગમન

Rishyasringa એ Putrakamesthi બલિદાન આયોજન કર્યું હતું. દેવતાઓ અને મુનિઓની પહોંચ્યા. માટે આવો પ્રથમ બ્રહ્મા હતી. તેઓ slay કિંગ રાવણ માટે બ્રહ્મા મદદ માંગી. બ્રહ્મા કહ્યું “રાવણ મને એક વિનંતી કે દેવો ના હાથમાં ખાતે મૃત્યુ તેમને રક્ષણ મેળવી હતી, Danava છે, Yaksha અને ghandharvas. પરંતુ તે મનુષ્ય દ્વારા હત્યા કરી શકાય છે. તેથી તેમણે રહેશે ……… ”

માતાનો દેવો કેફિયત

તેઓ વિષ્ણુ વિનંતી માટે માનવ અવતાર લે છે અને રાવણ મારી નાખે છે. તેમણે Dasaratha હાઉસ ઓફ માં જન્મ સહમતિ.

ગોલ્ડન વેસલ

જેમ જેમ Putrakamesthi બલિદાન અંત આવતા હતા, ત્યાં ભવ્ય એ homa આગ માંથી સોનેરી વહાણ વહન આકૃતિ ઉભરી આવ્યા હતા. તેમણે કિંગ Dasaratha તે ડાંગર અને-દૂધ માતાનો દેવો “ચાલો તમારા રાણીઓ તે લઇ અને તેઓ બાળકો હોય નહિ” દ્વારા તૈયાર પુડિંગ ઓફર માટે, Yagna purusha આદેશ.

બલિદાન ખોરાક

Dasaratha રાણી Kausalya, બાકીના રાણી Kaikayi માટે અડધા અડધા કરવા માટે અડધા પવિત્ર પુડિંગ ઓફર કરે છે. બાકીના તેમણે બે છિદ્ર કર્યા અને તેમને રાણી Sumitra માટે ઓફર કરે છે. ત્રણ રાણીઓ, આ કલમો ઓફ partaking પછી જોવામાં.

આ Vanaras જન્મ

ભગવાન બ્રહ્મા આદેશ એ દેવો માટે પૃથ્વી પર જાઓ શકાય Vanaras તરીકે જન્મ છે. તદનુસાર, બ્રહ્મા Sugriva ની આદેશ દ્વારા સન ઓફ જન્મ થયો હતો, ઈન્દિરા અને પવન દેવ વાયુ ઓફ હનુમાન ઓફ વળી. તેઓ રામ મદદ હતા

રામ જન્મ

છ ભૂતકાળમાં અને વધતો ચંદ્ર રમા જે નવમી દિવસે અને ૠતુઓ 12 મહિના Kausalya માટે થયો હતો. Kaikayi Bharatha અને Sumitra જન્મ ટ્વીન છોકરાઓ લક્ષ્મણ અને satrughna આપ્યો. તેમની જન્મ અયોધ્યા ની નાગરિકો દ્વારા મહાન ઠાઠમાઠ અને ઉલ્લાસ સાથે ઉજવણી કરવામાં આવી હતી.

Vishwamitra આવે

Dasaratha તેમના લગ્ન વિશે વિચારવાનો શરૂ કર્યું તરીકે છોકરાઓ યુવાનો માં અપ થયો હતો. પછી રાજા ઋષિ Vishwamitra આવ્યા હતા અને ‘જણાવ્યું હતું કે ઓહ, મહાન રાજા, હું એક બલિદાન રહ્યા છું અને બે રાક્ષસો તેને ખલેલ પહોંચાડી રહ્યાં છે. તેથી રામ મોકલવા માટે યજ્ઞ સાઇટ રક્ષા કરે છે. હું તેને સંભાળ અને તે Ikshvaku વંશ પ્રકાશ બની રહેશે રહેશે.

માતાનો Dasaratha ડાઇલેમા

Dasaratha જવાબ આપ્યો, “ઓહ મહાન ઋષિ, મારો પુત્ર ભાગ્યે જ આવે છે વય સોળ વર્ષના તેમણે Rakshasas ના નીતિભ્રષ્ટ જાદુ કેવી રીતે સામનો કરી શકે છે.? હું તો તમે તેની જગ્યાએ મદદ આવશે. પરંતુ બે તમારા Yaga ખલેલ પહોંચાડવા Rakshasas કોણ છે”. જ્યારે Vishwamitra તેમને જણાવ્યું હતું કે તેઓ Mareecha અને Subahu હતા અને તેઓ ઋષિ માતાનો Pulastya વંશ રાજા રાવણ દ્વારા મોકલવામાં આવ્યા હતા.

Dasaratha દિગ્મૂઢ હતી અને જણાવ્યું હતું કે “ઓ ઋષિ પણ હું રાવણ નથી સામનો કરી શકે છે, આ યુવાન છોકરા તેને કેવી રીતે લડાઈ કરી શકો છો? ‘

Vishwamitra જવાબ સુનાવણી ક્રોધાયમાન હતો.

માતાનો Vasistha સલાહ

સેજ Vasistha દરમિયાનગીરી: “ઓ, મહાન રાજા આ Vishwamitra પોતે દ્વારા તમામ દાનવો કાનુની કતલ માટે સક્ષમ છે કે તેણે માત્ર મદદ કરવા માટે તમારો પુત્ર મહાન કાર્યો નથી ઇચ્છે છે, તેથી તેમની સાથે રામ મોકલી અને તમારા વચન રાખો…”

શીખવી સ્પેલ

Dasaratha માતાનો Vishwamitra સંભાળ રામ અને લક્ષ્મણ મૂકે છે. તેમણે રામ તેઓ Sarayu નદી તરફ આવતી અને તે સ્નાન કર્યા પછી, રમા Vishwamitra દ્વારા બે મંત્રોની ‘બાલા અને Atibala’ શીખવવામાં આવ્યું હતું, “આ સમય ભૂખ અને થાક તમે દૂર રાખવા પડશે” કહ્યું હતું.

તેઓ નદીના દક્ષિણ બેન્ક પર રાત્રે શકાતું હતું.

Manmadha ઓફ કાનુની કતલ

પરોઢ સમયે તેઓ ઘાસ બનાવવામાં પથારી પર woke. સવારે ablutions પછી, તેઓ તેમના પ્રવાસ શરૂ કરે છે અને Sthanvashrama જ્યાં ભગવાન શિવે તપશ્ચર્યાને કરવામાં અને Manmatha રાખ માં ચાલુ હતી બુદ્ધિનું.

તેઓ રાત્રે ત્યાં શકાતું હતું. Tataka ઓફ સ્ટોરી

તેઓ ગંગા ઓળંગી અને વન દાખલ થયો હતો. Viswamitra તેમને કહ્યું હતું કે કેવી રીતે સ્થળ એકવાર વિકાસ થયો હતો અને પાછળથી એક રાક્ષસ-Tataka કારણે ઉજ્જડ.
તેમણે રામ “તેણીએ Yakshini છે તે કોઇ આકાર તેમણે ઇચ્છાઓ અને હજાર હાથી ની તાકાત છે લઈ શકે છે.. તેમણે સુનંદા લગ્ન અને રાક્ષસ Mareecha જન્મ આપ્યો હતો. તેના Slay અને આ સ્થળ સુરક્ષિત બનાવવા” કહ્યું હતું.

માતાનો રમા શંકા

રમા પૂછવામાં “તેઓ કહે છે Yakshas weaklings છે અને આ Tataka એક સ્ત્રી છે તે હજાર હાથી ની તાકાત કેવી રીતે કર્યું પછી મેળવો.?”
તેણીએ Yaksha નામ સુકેતુ માટે થયો હતો અને બ્રહ્મા પાસેથી વરદાન મારફતે તેના તાકાત મેળવવામાં આવે છે. સુનંદા મૃત્યુ થયું હતું અને Tataka અને Mareecha ઋષિ Agasthya દ્વારા શાપ નીચેના દાનવો બન્યા.

“તેના ગાય અને બ્રાહ્મણોને સલામતી માટે Slay તમે એકલા તેના મારી શકે છે.. લોકો તમને તેના મારવા છતાં પણ તે સ્ત્રી છે અચકાવું કરવાની જરૂર નથી રક્ષણ માટે” તે આદેશ.

Tataka મૃત્યુ

, રામ “તેથી મને રહેશે જણાવ્યું હતું કે” અને પણછ ખેંચાય. તેની સમગ્ર જંગલ અને Tataki માં reverberated સાઉન્ડ તે તરફ દોડી આવ્યા હતા. તેમની ચળવળ આંધી ઉછેર અને અંધકાર ઉતરી. ત્યાં તેના પરથી પત્થરો એક કરા હતી અને રમા તેના તીર સાથે આડશ બનાવી.
જેમ સૂર્ય સુયોજિત હતી ઋષિ રામ કહ્યું “જ્યારે રાત્રે જાય તેના મજબૂતાઇ મેનીફોલ્ડ વૃદ્ધિ કરશે તેથી. તેના હવે slay”. રામ એક તીર કે તેના હૃદય વીંધેલા dispatched અને તે એક વિશાળ વૃક્ષ જેવી મૃત હતો.

નવી શસ્ત્ર

તેઓ વન કે રાત્રે હતા. સવારે ફૂટ Viswamitra રમા શકિતશાળી બ્રહ્મા, નારાયણ અને અન્ય Astras ઉપયોગ શીખવવામાં આવે છે. ઉપરાંત તેમના રવાનગી રમા પણ તેમના ખસી શીખવવામાં આવી હતી.

Siddhasrama તરફ

તેઓ તેમના પ્રવાસ ચાલુ છે અને ડુંગરાળ ભૂપ્રદેશ પહોંચી અને Siddhasrama તરીકે ઓળખાય છે સંન્યાસાશ્રમ બુદ્ધિનું.

આ સંન્યાસાશ્રમ ની સ્ટોરી

“આ એક વાર જ્યાં ભગવાન વિષ્ણુ તપશ્ચર્યાને હતી અને બાદમાં તેમણે અહીં જીવતા હતા હવે હું અહીં છે.. આ એ જગ્યા છે જ્યાં તમે દાનવો slay છે”, Viswamitra રમા જણાવ્યું હતું.

તેઓ જ્યારે શકાતું અને ઋષિ તેની વિધિ શરૂ કર્યુ. રમા અને લક્ષ્મણ જાગવું સમગ્ર દાનવો માટે રાહ જોઈ રહ્યું રાત્રે હતા.

એકાંતવાસ હુમલો
આમ પાંચ દિવસ અને રાત્રિ ખર્ચવામાં આવ્યા હતા. છઠ્ઠા દિવસે સવારે તરીકે બલિદાન પ્રગતિ કરવામાં આવી હતી ત્યાં તો આકાશ ફેલાય હતી ઉપર મહાવિસ્ફોટ હતી. આ સંન્યાસાશ્રમ આગ દ્વારા ઘેરી લીધો હતો. Mareecha અને Subahu શ્યામ વાદળો સાથે આકાશમાં આવરી લે છે.
બ્લડ યજ્ઞ સાઇટ પર rained. આ Mareecha ખાતે કરવાનો શસ્ત્ર તેમને સમુદ્ર એક સો yojanas મોકલવામાં પરંતુ Subahu હત્યા કરવામાં આવી હતી. આ બલિદાન ઇન્ટ્રપ્શન વગર નિષ્કર્ષ. Mithila માટે જર્ની

આગળના દિવસે સંન્યાસાશ્રમ કેટલાક કેદીઓ સૂચવ્યું કે રામ અને લક્ષ્મણ તેમને Mithila શહેર છે જ્યાં રાજા Janak એક બલિદાન રહ્યા હતા ભેગી. “એક અદ્ભુત ત્યાં ભગવાન શિવ દ્વારા માતાનો Mithila એક બલિદાન પછી શાસક Devarata માટે પ્રતિભાશાળી નમન છે. કોઈ એક શબ્દમાળા માટે સક્ષમ કરવામાં આવી છે નમન કરું છું. કે તમે તેને ત્યાં જોઈ શકે છે.”
તેથી Viswamitra દ્વારા સાથે તેઓ Mithila માટે છોડી દીધી હતી.

100 Dauhters

Viswamitra રમા Mithila ઇતિહાસ કહ્યું આમ: “માતાનો બ્રહ્મા વિચાર – બાળક Kusa Brahmaloka માંથી પૃથ્વી પર જમીન અને Vidabha માતાનો રાજાની પુત્રી લગ્ન તેઓ ચાર Kusambu, Kusanabha, Adhurtharajas અને વાસુ પુત્રો હતા વાસુ Girivrajapura શહેરમાં આંતરિક નદી માંથી વહેતા… આશરે પાંચ પર્વતો સોના છે તે પણ મગધ તરીકે ઓળખાય છે..
Kusanabha ઉત્કૃષ્ટ સુંદરતા સો પુત્રીઓ હતી. જ્યારે તેઓ બગીચો માં ચાલતા હતા એક દિવસ પવન વાયુ ઓફ ગોડ તેમને માટે lusted અને તેમને વિનંતી કરી તેમને લગ્ન. તેઓ તેમના કેફિયત નકારી અને ભગવાન વાયુ તેમને શાપિત માટે બિહામણું બને છે અને dwarfs

ઉઠાવી કર્સ

Kusanabha Kampilya ના શહેર શાસક સમજાવ્યા તેમને લગ્ન. તેમના સંપર્કમાં સુધીમાં તેઓ તેમના ugliness ગુમાવી.

એક પુત્ર માટે Yearning

જ્યારે તેમના તમામ સો દીકરીઓ તેમના પતિના સાથે છોડી, Kusanabha લોનલી અનુભવાય છે અને એક પુત્ર માટે yearned. તેથી, તે Putrakameshthi કરવામાં અને એક પુત્ર મેળવવામાં આવે છે. તેમણે કિંગ Gadhi હતી. “હું Gadhi પુત્ર છું અને આમ તરીકે Gadheya Viswamitra અને જણાવ્યું હતું પણ Kausika માટે હું Kusa ના કુટુંબ માં જન્મ થયો હતો જાણીતા હતા.”
મારા મોટા બહેન Satyavathi swarga શારીરિક Viswamitra તેમની વાર્તા ચાલુ “પ્રાપ્ત અને હિમાલય માં નદી Kausiki તરીકે પૃથ્વી પર પાછા ફર્યા.

ગંગા ના વંશજ
રમા Viswamitra વિનંતી કરી તેને ગંગા મૂળ કહેવું કે “જેમ્સ અને સાત ખનિજો રીપોઝીટરી કિંગ Himavanta છે.. તેમણે મનોરમા પરણ્યા હતા. તેઓ બે સુંદર દીકરીઓ ગંગા અને ઉમા હતી છે. Devas ની અરજી પર, Himavanta Devaloka માટે ગંગા હતા. Viswamitra જણાવ્યું હતું કે, ઉમા લાંબા તપશ્ચર્યાને કરવામાં અને મહેશ્વર લગ્ન તેમણે Rudrani બની ગયું છે. “.

માતાનો શિવ બીજ

Viswamitra પછી રમા માટે પાર્વતી વાર્તા વર્ણન: “કરવા માટે એક પુત્ર શિવ અને પાર્વતી દાંપત્ય આનંદ આકર્ષણ જ્યારે શિવ ના બીજ પૃથ્વી પર પડી ઉપજાવવું તે તરત આગ બાષ્પીભવન થાય છે અને સફેદ હિલ બની પાર્વતી લેવા માટે પૃથ્વી અને Devas શાપિત.. બીજ અને તે વ્યય.
સમય કોર્સ માં પહાડી એક ગાઢ જંગલ માં થયો હતો. ત્યાં bulrushes માં Kartikeya જન્મ થયો હતો.

છ સામનો ભગવાન

આગ ભગવાન, અગ્નિ ગંગા માં માતાનો શિવ બીજ ટ્રાન્સફર અને તે ગર્ભવતી બની હતી. તે બીજ ની ગરમી ન રીંછ અને તે હિમાલય ના પગ પર દાબી દેવામાં શકે છે. આ પ્રતિ સાત ખનીજ પેદા કરવામાં આવ્યા હતા. ત્યાંથી છ ફલક અને ઉત્કૃષ્ટ સુંદરતા સાથે એક બાળક ઉભરી આવ્યા હતા.
તેમણે છ Kruttikas દ્વારા લાવવામાં આવી હતી. તેથી, તેમણે Kartikeya તરીકે ઓળખાય છે. પણ તેમણે Shanmuka તરીકે ઓળખાય છે માટે તેમણે છ હેડ છે. ભગવાન અગ્નિ તેમને એ devas ની સેના કમાન્ડર – ઇન – ચીફ હતી.

સમ્રાટ માતાનો સાગર પુત્રો

Vishwamitra જણાવ્યું હતું કે “એકવાર કિંગ સાગર અયોધ્યા શાસન તેમણે બે પત્નીઓ, Kesini અને Smati હતી.. પરંતુ તેઓ કોઈ બાળકો હતા. કિંગ સાગર બે પુત્રો માટે ઋષિ Bhrigu પ્રાર્થના. Bhrigu તેમને જણાવ્યું હતું કે તેમના સૌથી મોટા પત્ની એક પુત્ર અને બીજા 60,000 પુત્રો છે.

પૃથ્વી ખોદવું

સાગર એ Aswamedha બલિદાન કર્યું. તેમણે યજ્ઞ ઘોડા સાથે તેમના ભવ્ય-પુત્ર Ansumanta dispatched અને છોકરો પાછો સાથે unhampered.

જ્યારે બલિદાન પ્રગતિ ઈન્દિરા હતી પવિત્ર ઘોડો ચોરી કરે છે. માતાનો સાગર 60,000 પુત્રો તે શોધ ગયા પૃથ્વી ખોદવું એ નીચેનું વિશ્વમાં ડાઉન

માતાનો Kapila ક્રોધ

જ્યારે તેઓ દિશા ઉત્તર પૂર્વીય તેઓ ઋષિ Kapila સ્વરૂપમાં અને તેના બાજુ દ્વારા યજ્ઞ ઘોડો માં વિષ્ણુ મળી ખોદવું હતી. તેઓ તેમને ઘોડા ચોર માટે mistook અને તેને હુમલો કર્યો. Kapila તેમને રાખ માં આવ્યું છે.

નીચે ગંગા લાવવા બિડ

તેના 60,000 પુત્રો સાગર ટ્રેસ કરવામાં અક્ષમ Ansumanta મોકલવામાં તેમને શોધો. Ansumanta તેમની રાખ મળી અને ઓફર તેમને શ્રદ્ધાંજલિ તેમણે પાણી માટે શોધી જ્યારે Garuda દેખાયા અને તેને કહ્યું હતું કે જો ગંગા પર તેમની રાખ કીર્તી તેમના કાકાઓ મોક્ષ પ્રાપ્તિ થશે.

Ansumanta પાછા બલિદાન ઘોડો લીધો હતો અને તેના દાદા વાર્તા વર્ણન. દરમિયાન, સાગર માટે પૃથ્વી ગંગા લાવવા સક્ષમ રહી વિના નિષ્ફળ.

માતાનો Bhagiratha પ્રયાસ

માતાનો સાગર મૃત્યુ પછી, Ansumanta તેને અયોધ્યા રાજા તરીકે સફળ. તેમણે પોતાના પુત્ર Dilipa અને Dilipa દ્વારા સફળ હતી તેના પુત્ર Bhagiratha અનુસરતા હતી. Bhagiratha પુત્ર માટે લાંબા તપશ્ચર્યાને પર ગયા અને પૃથ્વી ગંગા લાવે છે.

બ્રહ્મા દેખાયા અને તેને કહ્યું હતું કે “Bhagiratha, તો તમે તમારા પુત્ર કરી શકાય છે પરંતુ ગંગા પૃથ્વી પર ઉતરતા જ ભગવાન શિવ સ્વર્ગ તેમના પતન બળ સમાવી શકે છે.. તેથી તેને માટે પ્રાર્થના”.

ગંગા વંશના

શિવ Bhagiratha ભૌતિક માટે ગંગા સમાવે છે. તેમણે પાક ગંગા બોર અને તે ત્યાં hid. શોધવામાં તેના ક્યાંય Bhagiratha નથી ફરીથી તપશ્ચર્યાને ગયો શિવ કરો. શિવ એ બિંદુ સરોવર માં ગંગા પ્રકાશિત થયેલ છે. ત્યાંથી ગંગા સાત શકિતશાળી સ્ટ્રીમ્સ તરીકે આવી હતી. એક તેમને ના Bhagiratha રથ છે.

આ ઈંગ્લેન્ડ ભીંજવી નાખનારું

તેમણે તેના પૂર્વજો રાખ મારફતે તેમાં લઈ જાય છે અને તેઓ આમ છેલ્લા અંતે મોક્ષ પ્રાપ્ત કરી હતી.

Jhanu Gulps ગંગા

પછી Bhagiratha ઋષિ Jhanu ના એકાંતવાસ તરફ તેમના રથ ચાલુ છે અને ત્યાં અટકી. પરંતુ તેને નીચેના શકિતશાળી ગંગા ત્યાં અચાનક બંધ અને સંન્યાસાશ્રમ દૂર ધોવાઇ શકે છે. સેજ Jhanu ક્રોધાયમાન ચાલુ છે અને એક મોટો કોળિયો તેમના મોં માં સમગ્ર ગંગા લીધો હતો. Bhagiratha તેમની સાથે pleaded માટે તેના વિશ્વની સુરક્ષા માટે પ્રકાશન અને Jhanu તેના કાન સાથે જેથી હતી.

તેમણે ફરીથી દરિયાઈ અને નીચેનું વિશ્વમાં પછી પ્રવેશ Bhagiratha છે.

આકાશ ગંગાની મહાસાગર વલોણાનું

આ Krita વય માં Diti પુત્રો શકિતશાળી હતી અને અદિતિ પુત્રો પ્રામાણિક હતા. જ્યારે દૂધ સમુદ્રમાં churned હતી અમૃતા પેદા કરવામાં આવી હતી.
ત્યાં તે Devas અને Danavas વચ્ચે શેરિંગ પર લડાઈ હતી. ભગવાન વિષ્ણુ મોહિની ના લાક્ષણિક મુદ્રા માં ચાલુ છે અને તે Devas વચ્ચે વહેંચાયેલી છે. એક ભીષણ તે Devas અને Daityas જે પાછળથી તેમનાં હતા વચ્ચે નીચેના યુદ્ધ હતું.

ઈન્દ્ર અપ ગર્ભ નહીં

Diti તેની તમામ પુત્રો મૃત્યુ પર દુખ વ્યક્ત કર્યું તે Kasyapa વિનંતી કરી તેમને એક પુત્ર જે નમ્ર ઈન્દિરા શકે રાખી મૂકવું. Kasyapa તેના તપશ્ચર્યાને અવલોકન કરવા માટે સખત કહ્યું.
એક મધ્યાહન Diti તેના માથા સાથે બંધ dizzed અને પગ ખોટી બાજુ ચાલુ અને વાળ untied. ઈન્દિરા તેના ગર્ભાશયની દાખલ અને સાત ટુકડાઓ માં ગર્ભ નહીં.

ઈન્દિરા બહાર આવ્યા હતા અને તેના સાથે pleaded તેને ક્ષમા. ‘તમારા ગર્ભાશયની માં બાળ મારા દુશ્મન છે. તે પોતાના દુશ્મન મારી રાજા માટે યોગ્ય નથી? ‘તે પૂછવામાં અને તેમના માફી માંગી.

Maruts જન્મ

Diti એ ગર્ભ ના અંગછેદન પર દુખ વ્યક્ત કર્યું. ‘સાત વિશ્વોની માં પવન ની ફાટેલી ગર્ભ ઉમરાવો આ સાત સેગમેન્ટો બનાવો. દો અને તેમને Maruts ‘તરીકે ઓળખાય છે હોઇ શકે છે, તેમણે ઈન્દિરા વિનંતી કરી હતી. ઈન્દિરા પોતાની consoled અને આ માટે સહમત થયા.

આ સ્થળ જ્યાં Diti તપશ્ચર્યાને અવલોકન Visalapattana જ્યાં રામ લક્ષ્મણ, અને Vishwamitra એ Ikshvaku કિંગ સુમતિ દ્વારા પૂરી પાડવામાં આવેલ હોસ્પિટાલિટી સ્વીકારવામાં બન્યા.

માતાનો ઈન્દિરા ઘમંડ

આગલી સવારે તેઓ Mithala તરફ તેમના પ્રવાસ શરૂ કર્યો. માર્ગ પર, તેઓ ઋષિ ની ઉજ્જડ સંન્યાસાશ્રમ સમગ્ર ગૌતમ આવ્યા હતા. Vishwamitra Ahalya ‘ની વાર્તા જ્યારે ગૌતમ, ablutions ઈન્દિરા વેશપલટો તેમના ઘર દાખલ કરવા માટે સેટ આઉટ અને Ahalya સાથે mated વર્ણન. તેના પાછી ગૌતમ આઉટ સત્ય મળી અને તેના સ્વાદો ગુમાવી શાપિત. ઈન્દિરા આમ અસહાય બની હતી. પણ તેમણે Ahalya શાપિત રહેવા માટે સ્ટેટિક ધૂળ, ખોરાક અને પાણી વગર અને તે તમારા પગ ના સંપર્કમાં સાથે તેના દુર્દશા ઓફ redeemed આવશે કે માંદગીથી”તેથી કહીને ગૌતમ હિમાલય માટે છોડી દીધી હતી.

Ahalya Redeemed

આ માનસમાં એક બકરી ના સ્વાદો સાથે ઈન્દિરા ફીટ. Ahalya રામ ના આગમન માટે waited. માતાનો રામ પગ પરથી ધૂળ સાથે Ahalya તેના દુર્દશા ઓફ redeemed હતી અને ગૌતમ તેના સંન્યાસાશ્રમ પાછા ફર્યા.

રમા Mithila માં આવે

આ સંન્યાસાશ્રમ, અને રામ અને લક્ષ્મણ ની કેદીઓ દ્વારા વડપણ, Viswamitra Mithila દાખલ થયો હતો. સેજ કિંગ Janaka આગળ આવી તેમને નમસ્કાર. Viswamitra Janaka માટે રામ અને લક્ષ્મણ રજૂ કરી હતી.

માતાનો Viswamitra સ્ટોરી

સેજ ગૌતમ પુત્ર Satananda રામ, Viswamitra વાર્તા માટે વર્ણન છે. ‘Viswamitra એક શકિતશાળી રાજા હતો. એકવાર વિવિધ hermitages મુલાકાત પછી Viswamitra ઋષિ Vasistha ‘ની તેમણે કહ્યું હતું કે આવી હતી.

વન્ડર ગાય Sabala

“Vasistha રાજા Viswamitra વિનંતી કરી પોતાના લશ્કર સાથે તેમના હોસ્પિટાલિટી સ્વીકારે છે. ‘Satananda રમા કહ્યું.’ Vasistha એક ગાય ‘Sabala’ છે, જે લોકો કોઈપણ સંખ્યાની ફીડ શકે હતી. ‘

માતાનો Viswamitra લોભ

‘રાખવાથી તે સ્વાદિષ્ટ ખોરાક partaken, Viswamitra અને તેના મંડળ ગાય ના wonderous કાર્યો પર આશ્ચર્ય હતા. Satananda ચાલુ રાખ્યું. ‘કિંગ Viswamitra Sabala વિનિમય માં એક લાખ ગાય ઓફર પરંતુ Vasistha ઇનકાર કર્યો હતો.

માતાનો Sabala કેફિયત

ત્યાં પર Viswamitra તેમના માણસો દૂર લેવા માટે દબાણ દ્વારા જાદુ ગાય કરવાનો આદેશ આપ્યો, Satananda જણાવ્યું હતું. ‘ધ ગાય Vasistha અપીલ કરવા માટે તેના રાજા અને તેના માણસો પ્રતિકાર કરવા માટે પરવાનગી આપે.

માતાનો કિંગ મેન હત્યા કરાયેલા

Satananda જણાવ્યું હતું કે, ‘ઋષિ સહમતિ અને ગાય તેના અંગો અને માર્યા માતાનો Vishwamitra પુરૂષો સૈનિકો હજારો પર હજારો પેદા થયેલ છે.’

સો રાજકુમારના હત્યા

Satananda ‘પછી Vishwamitra અને તેના સો પુત્રો Vasistha હુમલો ખરેખર ઋષિ ક્રોધ તેમને પર જોવામાં હતી. રાજા ની સો પુત્રો રાખ માં ચાલુ કરવામાં આવ્યા હતા. કિંગ Vishwamitra એક ખબર શું કરવું નુકશાન હતી. તેમણે સામ્રાજ્ય પર એકલા હાથે માટે, પુત્ર હયાત અને તપશ્ચર્યાને કરવાનું ભગવાન શિવ કૃપા હતી. શિવ તેમને ઘણા boons અને શસ્ત્રો bestowed. ‘Vishwamitra ઘમંડી બની અને Vasistha એકાંતવાસ તરફ તેમના ક્રોધ હતી. Satananda રમા તે નાશ કર્યો. ‘જણાવ્યું હતું.

Viswamitra અપમાન

“સેજ Viswamitra ક્રોધાયમાન હતો તે બધા Viswamitra દ્વારા dispatched શસ્ત્રો નપુંસક કરીને મૂક્યા.. છેલ્લે Viswamitra સૌથી બળવાન Brahmastra જે Vasistha તરત એક મોટો કોળિયો પોતાના શરીર અંદર લીધો dispatched.”

 THE END @ COPYRIGHT DR IWAN SUWANDY 2011

The Portugal Historic Collections

THE PORTUGAL HISTORIC COLLECTIONS

Portugal was joined with Spain in a sixty-year long and unpopular union.

A glance at the map of southern Europe might convince anyone with a fancy for geo-politics that the Iberian Peninsula, so clearly marked off in the north from the rest of the Continent by the Pyrenees, was designed by nature to be the home of a single nation and a single state. But the course of historical, cultural, and even economic development does not always obligingly reinforce ‘natural’ physical patterns. Strong centrifugal tendencies exist within the Peninsula, as we now see from the current pressure for increased regional autonomy in Spain, and a large slice of its Atlantic seaboard has long remained politically separate from the Spanish regions. Only for a troubled sixty-year period since Portugal became an independent kingdom in the twelfth century did the country reluctantly find itself constitutionally tied to the Spanish throne.

The shortlived union came about through circumstances which

Philip II’s superior military might and statecraft succeeded in turning to account but failed to perpetuate.

 Though thus linked to Spain when the latter was at the height of her imperial greatness, the Portuguese people have anything but happy memories of this shotgun marriage.

Portugal was still bleeding from the disaster suffered in 1578 when the flower of her nobility had been wiped out by the Muslim armies in the ‘Battle of the Three Kings’ at Alcazarquivir. Those who escaped death were enslaved, some being ransomed for sums which completed the ruin of an economy already exhausted by over-extended colonial ventures. Don Sebastian, the twenty-four year old King whose messianic crusading obsessions had precipitated the tragedy, was amongst those who fell. No one could say precisely what had been his fate. Although a body, said to be that of the young King, was later restored by the victors and given ceremonial burial in Portugal, rumours were soon rife that Don Sebastian had in fact escaped alive. His mourning subjects found comfort in the belief that he was living somewhere incognito until the moment should come when he would declare himself, resume his throne, and restore the country to its glorious destiny. Thus was born the myth of ‘Sebastianism’ with which a frustrated patriotism consoled itself during the ensuing years of alien domination. It was also to nourish a crop of colourful imposters and adventurers.

Don Sebastian left no issue, and the throne passed to his great-uncle, the timid and elderly Cardinal Henry who had acted as Regent during his minority. By the end of January, 1580 the old man too was dead and the question of the succession again open. There were three major claimants, each of them descended from King Manuel I who had died in 1521: his granddaughter Catherine, who had married into the great ducal house of Braganca; Antonio, Prior of Crato, born out of wedlock to one of King Manuel’s sons; and King Philip himself, whose mother, the Empress Isabella, was Manuel’s daughter. Philip’s first wife, moreover, had been a Portuguese Princess and his sister the mother of Sebastian.

Catherine’s cause, despite the Braganca wealth and influence, was handicapped by her sex and by the rancorous, quarrelsome and niggardly disposition of her husband. The people’s favourite was undoubtedly Don Antonio. Though educated for the priesthood, the royal bastard had early developed a taste for adventure and intrigue. Cardinal Henry banished him for plotting against the Regency and had it proclaimed that his illegitimacy disqualified the Pretender from any claim to the succession. Taken prisoner and ransomed after Alcazarquivir, Don Antonio nevertheless proclaimed himself King, and after Henry’s death made a solemn entry into Lisbon, where he set about raising troops to defend his title. Though acclaimed by the populace, amongst whom anti-Castilian feeling ran high, he could count on less support from what remained of the nobility, from the higher ranks of the clergy, or from the merchants who believed that union with Spain would restore their commercial fortunes.

Philip, whilst believing that the issue would ultimately have to be decided by force of arms, prepared the ground with care. Half Portuguese himself by birth, he had learned the value of a policy of calculated moderation frorn the adviser and favourite of his youth, the Portuguese Ruy Gomez, Prince of Eboli. The Prince was now dead, but the King found a worthy successor in the person of another Portuguese, Don Cristovao de Moura, who proceeded to win adherents to his master’s cause through a judicious blend of bribery and promises. Once he had become their sovereign, Moura assured his Portuguese friends, Philip would leave the country’s administration and overseas trade in their hands and continue to observe its laws and customs. Portugal, in short, would be united with Castile through their common sovereign, as Aragon had been united with Castile a century earlier, and Portugal’s autonomous character would remain intact. They therefore only stood to gain by his accession.

Whilst Moura was winning over influential figures with these assurances, a Spanish army mustered under the veteran Duke of Alba, whom Philip summoned from retirement to command the invasion. Preparations were held up for a time by an outbreak of plague which claimed many victims amongst the troops, caused Philip himself to fall ill, and carried off his young wife, Ann of Austria. But by the end of August the army was operational and able to link up with forces converging on Lisbon from the coast under the command of the Marquis of Santa Cruz. Don Antonio’s levies were defeated at the bridge of Alcantara, the Pretender fled north and, after a further repulse outside Oporto, sought refuge in France. Philip showed himself an affable and conciliatory victor. He rewarded the Duke of Braganca for his submission with new honours, and after the Portuguese Cortes had bowed to the inevitable and recognised him as their sovereign, the Spanish King made a formal entry into his new capital.

The Prior of Crato, meanwhile, found a welcome at the court of Catherine of Medici, who had herself at one time put forward a rather frivolous claim to the Portuguese throne. She now hoped to use the Pretender in her designs against Philip, the price for successful French help being the promised cession of Brazil to France. The first blow was aimed against the Azores, where Don Antonio had many supporters. It was frustrated by a resounding defeat inflicted on the French fleet in July, 1582. Don Antonio next turned to England, but an English fleet sent to aid him in 1583 was also defeated. Philip II felt his position secure enough to return to Castile.

Don Antonio’s supporters were meanwhile meditating an exercise in psychological warfare. As King Sebastian’s fatal obsession with his African crusade showed, religious exaltation could be strangely and powerfully blended with calculations of national policy. The crushing of the English and Dutch heretics was regarded in Spain as much as a service required by God as a matter of political expediency. Persons of exceptional sanctity, who could read heaven’s will and call down its blessings, might become as influential as princes. Lisbon boasted such a figure. Maria de Meneses was a young woman of noble birth whose brother had been amongst those slain at Alcazarquivir. She had taken the veil at the Convent of the Annunciation, where a reputation for exceptional virtue and mystical graces caused her to be elected Prioress at the early age of thirty-two. Soon the ‘Nun of Lisbon’ had acquired national fame as wonder-working saint and prophetess. It was also claimed that she had been granted the stigmata, and cloths bearing the blood marks of the five wounds were much sought after for their miraculous properties; some found it significant that the five wounds also figured in Portugal’s national coat-of-arms. The Archbishop of Lisbon and Cardinal Albert, whom Philip had appointed Regent, were amongst her devotees. The Venetian Ambassador reported that the Prioress had received several letters in King Philip’s own hand, ‘one of them commending his actions to her prayers and declaring that he desired to come to Portugal to visit her and kiss her hand’. Before the great Armada sailed out of the Tagus on its holy misson, the Nun gave its standards her solemn blessing.

Although the fate of the Armada can hardly have strengthened confidence in the Nun’s powers, Don Antonio’s supporters, whose hopes were now high, resolved to exploit them for their cause. It is not clear how or when they began to enlist her help, but reports of their intrigues reached the ears of the King and led him to a radical change of view. There had always been those in the convent who had alleged that the Prioress was a charlatan and her stigmata faked, but the investigators sent by the Inquisition remained convinced of her bona fides. Philip now issued peremptory orders that the Nun was to be re-examined. Before the end of the year the Venetian Ambassador was able to report that they had unmasked her as a fraud and washed off the alleged stigmiata with soap and water. She had been led to this deception, he added, by two Dominican friars, with a view to fomenting rebellion and of one day convincing the King that unless he handed over Portugal to Don Antonio his soul would be eternally damned.

But it needed more than prayer to prise his new kingdom away from Philip II. Despite the terrible defeat inflicted on his Armada, Spain remained a formidable power. The attempt made in 1589 by another English fleet raised for Don Antonio, and directed by Sir Francis Drake, attacked first Corunna and then Lisbon, but ended in failure. The Portuguese people did not rise to throw off the Spanish yoke. His hopes dashed once more, Don Antonio again sought refuge in France, where he ended his life in poverty and obscurity.

Whilst the Prior of Crato had been making his fruitless bids for the Portuguese throne, other Pretenders arose to press their still more dubious claims. The millenarian dreams of a devout and long-suffering people had long been nourished by prophecies of a future Messiah who would one day appear to usher in a reign of peace, justice, and glory. These dreams were now fused with expectations of the imminent return of the crusading prince falsely reported to have perished in Africa. Within twenty years of his death a succession of four pseudo-Sebastians appeared, each attracting in his turn a band of followers rapturous at the prospect of deliverance from the detested Spanish yoke. The first was a peasant youth known as ‘the hermit of Alcobaca’ or – more ironically – ‘the king of Penamacor’, from the small frontier town which became the centre of his cult. Despite the obvious fact that he was some ten years younger than the former king, he gained some support amongst the credulous populace before being apprehended and condemned to the galleys. He was succeeded the following year by an adventurer from the Azores, a certain Mateo Alvares, whose rebellion was more serious. Besides setting up a ‘court’ of his own, the imposter rallied some hundreds of armed supporters who murdered a number of royalist officials before being routed and executed.

The most audacious and potentially dangerous of the false Sebastians was a plausible rogue from Toledo called Gabriel de Espinosa. After being involved in a murder, he had taken refuge for a time in Portugal, whence he had returned with his common-law wife and child and set up as a pastry-cook in the small town of Madrigal, near Avila. There he struck up an acquaintance with Fray Miguel de los Santos, an intriguing Portuguese friar and former confessor to Don Sebastian who had been banished from his native country for his activities on behalf of the Prior of Crato. The friar had become chaplain to a convent in which one of the nuns happened to be Dona Ana, the natural daughter of the famous Don John of Austria, the victor of Lepanto and half-brother to King Philip. Fray Miguel conceived the fantastic plan of convincing the ingenuous twenty-seven year old nun that the handsome pastry-cook was none other than the luckless Don Sebastian whom misfortune had compelled to live in this humble incognito until such time as he might regain his throne. The friar succeeded in turning Dona Ana’s head with his romantic tales and persuading her that, since she had been put into the convent at the age of seven regardless of her own wishes, she could be released from her vows in order to marry the emigre Prince and one day ascend the Portuguese throne as his Queen. She was soon in correspondence with the pseudo-Sebastian and even sent him some jewels as a token of her love. This proved the conspirators’ undoing. Espinosa aroused suspicion and was apprehended whilst trying to sell them in Valladolid. The conspiracy was found to have ramifications throughout Spain and Portugal, and other arrests followed. The ringleaders were executed, the friar in Madrid, the pastry-cook outside his shop in Madrigal. The gullible Dona Ana was dealt with more leniently, being transferred to another convent in Avila and finally ending a life of exemplary piety as Abbess of the royal foundation of Las Huelgas near Burgos.

The fate of these imposters and the passage of the years did little to check the persistence of Sebastianism. The Prior of Crato’s death sent his followers in search of a new Pretender, and in 1598, when Philip III inherited the crowns of Spain and Portugal from his father, they claimed to have found the ‘real’ Don Sebastian somewhat surprisingly at large in the Republic of Venice. Objections that the new claimant spoke hardly a word of Portuguese, bore no resemblance to the late fair-skinned Portuguese monarch, and could give no convincing account of his movements since the defeat of Alcazarquivir, did not in the least abash his supporters. They blithely explained that their Prince had taken a vow not to speak his native tongue again until regaining his throne, and that the hardships of the long exile he had undergone in expiation for his defeat had rendered him unrecognisable. He remained unchanged only in his ostentatious piety he was fond of confounding doubters by quoting the text ‘Blessed are they who have not seen but yet have believed’ – which gained him the sympathy of the devout. Like previous impostors, he could count on the fanatical loyalty of a number of Portuguese friars.

A diplomatic battle soon raged over the person of the alleged Don Sebastian. The Spanish Ambassador pressed for his imprisonment, execution or at least extradition. King Henry IV of France showed cautious interest in the possibility of using him as a tool against Spain. The Serenissima demurred, but finished by having the Pretender apprehended and eventually expelled. He entered the lands of the Archduke of Tuscany, who courted the favour of the Spaniards by handing him over to their Viceroy in Naples. Confronted with acquaintances and relatives from Messina, including his own wife, the upstart was forced to admit that he was in fact a native of Calabria by the name of Marco Tulio and that he had never so much as set foot in Portugal. He was sentenced to the galleys and shipped off to Seville.

The hopes of the Sebastianists were not dashed even by the discomfiture of their latest impostor. With incredible effrontery and obstinacy, the friars continued to raise money on his behalf and persuaded the convict to retract his confession and to enter into secret correspondence with potential well-wishers in Spain and Portugal. The incorrigible charlatan at last over-reached himself by addressing an appeal for money and recognition, signed by himself as ‘The King, Don Sebastian’, to the Duchess of Medina Sidonia, whose husband had the military command of southern Spain. The authorities decided on an exemplary punishment, Marco Tulio and his leading accomplices were seized, forced under torture to admit everything, and then executed. The hunt for their hidden protectors in Portugal was ruthlessly pursued and did nothing to popularise the union with Spain.

Other nations too have had their messianic myths and spawned charlatans who sought to benefit from them; King Arthur and the Emperor Barbarossa slumbering on until the day when they would wake to save their people, the one ‘false Dmitry’ after another to whom the Russian people once gave such eager credence. But in Portugal the dream has shown singular potency and persistence. It failed, it is true, to bring liberation from Spanish domination. This came thirty-seven years after the execution of the Calabrian impostor, when the high-handed attempts by Philip IV’s minister Olivares to centralise the administration and impose unpopular reforms provoked a rebellion in Catalonia which gave the Portuguese their chance. The Catalans, after a dozen years of precarious separation, again became a part of Spain. The Portuguese, still eager for national independence after sixty years of unpopular union, were in a stronger economic and geographical position to regain it. Thanks to the resources received from Brazil and to the maritime links which brought trade and military assistance from France and England, they proved more than a match for their larger neighbour. The victory of Amexial (1663) set the seal on Portugal’s final separation from Spain.

The Duke of Braganca, who became the new King, had no need to invoke the titles of the late Don Antonio or the fantasies of Sebastianism. John IV was the grandson of Catherine, Duchess of Braganca, the claimant who had yielded gracefully before the superior might of Philip II, and the father of that other Catherine of Braganca, who became the consort of Charles II of England. The new dynasty was to remain in possession of the Portuguese throne for the next 270 years. But the millenarian manifestations of Sebastianism did not disappear with the dissolution of the hated Spanish match. It even migrated and took root in the very different soil of Portugal’s great overseas possession Brazil, where Lisbon, not Madrid, came to be regarded as the seat of alien domination. In the early half of the nineteenth century, two Portuguese friars were found travelling through the Brazilian backlands proclaiming the old gospel. Neither claimed to be a reincarnation of Don Sebastian himself, only his John the Baptist announcing the approach of the eternally longed-for age of freedom from want and oppression.

Notes on Further Reading:

H.V. Livermore, A new history of Portugal (second edition, Cambridge, 1976); J.H. Elliott, Imperial Spain, 1469-1716 (Arnold, 1963); Miguel d’Antas, Les Faux Don Sébastien (Paris, 1866); Julián M. Rubio, Felipe II y Portugal (1927); Alfonso Danvila, Felipe II y la Sucesion de Portugal (Madrid, 1956); Mary E. Brooks, The Madrigal Conspiracy, 1594-95 (University of Wisconsin Press, 1964

THE END

The Laos historic and Modern Collections

THE LAOS HISTORIC COLLECTIONS

 

CREATED BY

 Dr Iwan Suwandy

Private limites E-Book in CD-ROM Edition

Copyright @ Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

INTRODUCTIONS

 When I visit Laos in 2011, very difficult to get the Laos Hsitoric and modern Informations, after seeking everywhere i have found some info,and when back to Jakarta I am starting to seeking more info to write some articles about Laos such as Pathet Lao Historic Collections,Laos during Indochina,now other info will put in this E-BOOK

This is onle the sample ,If you want to geet the complete info please subscribed as premiuj member via comment

Jakarta Janary 2012

Dr Iwan suwandy

Note: be patient the info still on upload processing

 I write this E-Book special for traveler and someone who interest about Laos

TRAVELLING AROUND LAOS

 After my arrival in Laos my perception of South East Asia would be changed forever, as would my way of thinking and seeing the broader world.

4 days in Bangkok had left me a tad overawed as to what I had got myself into (a 6 month project travelling the length and breadth of Laos); I was not the type of person who wanted to be thrown into the deep end in an ever changing fast paced metropolitan society. 

As the Laos Airways ATR-72 (2nd hand from Vietnam Air I was assured?!) descended through the sparse cloud covering into Luang Prabang I was left wondering as to the whereabouts of town. As far as I could see it was large rolling hills covered in lush green rainforest and red soil. It was at this stage I regretted not researching more about Laos. A check and US$30 handed to customs later I had my first (of six) Laos visas stuck into my passport. Upon stepping out of the airport I became very confused very quickly, what I had become accustomed to in Bangkok, the constant touting of anyone slightly tourist looking, was completely absent. It then struck me, how would I get to where I was going without a tuk-tuk? I quickly spied the tuk-tuk rank 100m away from the entrance I made my way over where I discovered it was more like an impromptu siesta stop. After finding one tuk-tuk driver that was willing to take me into town I took a deep breath, threw my back pack on the tray of the tuk-tuk and had one of those ‘well here goes nothing’ moments.  

After one month of getting used to the lifestyle in Laos it was time to get out and explore what this magnificent country had to offer. Of the six months I was in Laos I was travelling / exploring for four of them both on public transport and an old brown land cruiser which I named Piripi. I had a couple of guide books which I promptly threw out as information held within these tomes was often different from what was on the ground or even obsolete. The locals of Laos are by far the best guides as they will always take you that step further to some amazing off the beaten path places.  

Slowly getting accustomed to Laos is the only thing you can do. And slowly (read Lazy) is the most apt way to explain how things get done in Laos. This is by far from a negative though, as it provides respite from what can often be seen as the blur and fury of activity of South East Asia. So with a lack of tourist infrastructure and this laid back nature you get one of the most charming and generous countries you will ever visit as well as one of the final bastions of true explorative travel.

A view from Laos


Why Laos

Laos is a country that people know little about and they often ask why they should go. The main reason is that Laos has not been exposed to tourism and western culture (and often many other local cultures) for so long. This gives Laos a very undiscovered and natural fell to it, uncommon in large parts of South East Asia. In 1975 the country became communist and tourism was stopped and it was not until the mid 90’s that the government allowed people into the country, even then it was only Luang Prabang, Vang Vieng and Vientiane that people were allowed to visit. This is why 90% of travellers will only travel this route as it is all that is well know (really taking the emphasis out of a unique Lao adventure). It reminds me of a quote from Alex Garland (who wrote The Beach): “everyone tries to do something different, but you always wind up doing the same thing.” The countries south opened up in the early 2000’s and is now becoming a more popular tourist destination and as a gateway to Cambodia and Vietnam as well now drawing travellers to this region. However, it is the unknown that keeps drawing voyagers to Laos.


Culture Identity and Protection

I decided to write this section before any other information as keeping Laos the way it is now will be the only way to sustain it as the jewel of the Mekong (people are always saying this is what Thailand was like before the tourists arrived!). Like the rest of South East Asia many people can see that a flood of tourists could potentially do more harm than good. There are a number of actions that you as travellers can do to protect these ideals.  Firstly, is to learn the cultural do’s and don’ts of Laos, this as a bare minimum will help to maintain the local culture, you can find these at the Tourism Laos website.

Secondly, where you can you should support local markets and goods as this puts money back into the community and keeps the real ‘old world’ feel about Laos. Supporting local and government backed projects are also a really good way to help out the local communities (Laos is consistently rated as one of the poorer countries in the world). One of the better and karma inducing projects is the Big Brother Mouse Group. Picking up a bunch of these books and giving them out to local children is far better than handing out money as the former often encourages begging.

Monks in Luang Prabang


Climate

Much like the rest of South East Asia, Laos can be divided up into two main seasons, wet and dry. 

The wet season usually lasts from May through to August. The dry season is November through to March. In between the seasons there are shoulder months which can go either way depending on weather patterns. The busiest season to travel in Laos is definitely the high season but often the better season is the wet season owing to fewer travellers. Also, the rain rejuvenates the rainforest bringing out the full flourish of the flora and fauna. The rain is always a welcome relief for the hot weather as well! 

As a general rule any mountainous regions north of Luang Prabang can get quite cool during the winter (as low as 5 degrees) so be prepared for that if you are considering trekking and down the south during summer can see the temperature pushing 40 degrees centigrade with almost 100% humidity.


History

I decided to just write about the main points that I know here otherwise I would just be paraphrasing a majority of information from other well-known publications.

The history of Laos is long and varied. So long and varied that I don’t want to repeat most of it here so I will just talk about the main points. Laos, as a country has been the site and often centre for many of South East Asia’s conflicts for the past 600 years or so and this could be the reason for the dozens of different cultural groups which are present all through Laos and what gives it the patchwork like ethnic and social make up it has to this very day.

Laos was once known as Lan Xang, the land of a million elephants and it was the cultural centre of South East Asia. Since the mid fifteen-hundreds Laos has been fought over and the one time capital Luang Prabang used to be the capital of a larger South East Asian region. It was also home to the famed emerald Buddha which now resides (after stolen by the Siamese) in Bangkok. Throughout the last 500 years Laos has been the site of many a battle and a few wars. The latest leaving the longest and largest scars on the people and the Landscape. During the Vietnam war Laos (under the Geneva Convention) declared itself neutral, but this did not stop both sides (Vietnamese and USA) courting the Laos government with aid and all sorts of other gifts. At one stage the USA even gifted the Laos government enough concrete to build an international airport runway which the Laos people then went and used to build a large national memorial with. After the Vietnamese war ended the Pathet Laos took over the government restricted tourism to virtually nothing until the mid nineties giving Laos, today, its old school charm.

History of Laos


Visas

Previous, during and after my travel to Laos I have heard some really good stories from people about their visas for Laos. One of the most common stories is that people only receive 15 days for Laos on entry. This is not true.  Most visas are (at the time of writing) 35 USD for 30 days. You can get these visas at your local Laotian embassy or the much easier option is to get them on entry to Laos. It doesn’t matter whether you come by bus, train, boat or plane all visas are for 30 days. Be aware the relaxed Laos customs workers don’t like working on weekends so you will be charged 1 USD extra for entering Laos.


Transport

Transport in Laos can often be worrying and bordering on death defying but does not need to be. There are three main ways of travelling between local centres, flying, boat and bussing. All of these have there positives and negatives and I will try and lay them out below

Flying

There are three international airports in Laos – Vientiane, Luang Prabang and Pakse. For these airports most of a South East Asia’s main hubs can be reached from these airports. You can also reach many of the smaller centres internally by flight as well. It’s definitely the quickest way to get from one place to another in Laos (a very un-Lao way of getting around) but with few airlines operating in and out of Laos this means flying is expensive.  The worst part about flying in Laos is the fact that you will miss out on all the amazing things in between towns which you fly over.

Boat

The river systems in Laos are often the next best way of getting around locally in Laos. For some really amazing places this is frequently the only way to get these places. During dry season some of the boat routes may not be passable due to low river levels. However, the Mekong River and its main tributaries are navigable almost all year round many people will get a 2 day long boat from Huay Xai in the North West to Luang Prabang. This journey (as with public busses) often has a 50% success rate. What I mean here is that 50% of the people that you talk to have said they thought the boat was a good idea, 50% said sitting on a small wooden slat for two days rated as one of the worst experiences they ever had. A quicker speed boat which travels the same route but only takes only takes one day is available; this is definitely a very dangerous way to travel. I have done this once which resulted in a minor boat accident that resulted in me using my backpack as a flotation device.

Bus

Public busses most common form of transport within Laos. Again, if you have a group of people standing in front of you, as with the boats about 50% of them will say they had an ok time and 50% would say they had a horrible experience and never do it again. Busses are commonly divided into three groups – express, Bus and VIP. The good thing about these busses is that they are cheap. But that’s about where the good ends. 

A common occurrence is busses not leaving until they are full and timetables changing minute before busses leave. The worst I found was the fact that they were point-to-point direct busses, stopping once along the way for a combined food and toilet stop. This means missing out on some amazing stuff along the way. The busses are large and on small windy roads this does nothing for motion sickness. It should also be noted that almost all Bus stations are out of town and you will have to pay for a tuk-tuk to your guest house or other destination. The smaller minivans are definitely the better way to travel. Unfortunately for anyone over 182cm in height they aren’t that great as the mini in minivan really means that – Laotian minivans built for Laotian sized people.

There are a number of private tours you can do with fixed itinerary and guides with companies such as Intrepid, Gap, Kamuka and Exetissimo through the main destinations. A flexible, guided, hop-on hop-off style bus (Stray Asia) has also recently started operating through Thailand, Laos and Cambodia which seems like the best way to visit some out of the tourist limelight destinations and it’s something that I would really recommend. 

Motorcycle

Most towns will offer up the option of motorbike/scooter hire. This is often a popular option for day trips and multi-day trips should only be experienced by experienced riders as the roads (and sometimes trails) in some parts could be described by the phrase ‘poor at best’.

A Laosation boat


Places to Visit – Luang Prabang

Luang Prabang is a UNESCO world heritage area famed for its blend of beautiful old Buddhist temples and nineteenth century French architecture. This town quickly becomes a favourite in most people’s eyes throughout the entire globe. From the daily alms ceremony at dawn every morning to the morning meat markets which follow just south east of town on the main road (Pothisalath) to the stunning waterfalls and Asiatic Black Bear at Kuang Si this town can easily waste away your days and weeks. 

Phou Si Mountain is a great place to invest in locally produced goods and just to see what the ladies bring in from in villages all around Luang Prabang. This market springs up around dusk every day. Another thing to check out while in Luang Prabang is the myriad of villages accessed by boat both up and down the Mekong River. Aptly named examples such as the Paper making village and Whisky village can be reached by the boat jetty near the amazing Wat Xieng Thong (well worth two hours walking around and exploring in itself). Be careful when touting a boat ride that your captain gives you a fair price (ask around other captains and travel agencies in town) and is not drunk. 

This reminds me as well about the tuk-tuk mafia. These guys are all around town and sit around the main tourist haunts. While these guys can give you a really good price for a trip out to Kuang Si waterfall park they are less than ideal for getting about town. For getting about town I would recommend using the New York City Taxi approach and just flag one down on the side of the road.   

Luang Prabang is where I spent a majority of my time and every time I returned I was able to be entertained by something different. If heading out of town try and find a restaurant in Ban Khoy. Here you can try and catch your fish for dinner in the ponds at the rear of the building then try your hand at on of the fiercest Petang (the national sport, similar to Pentanque or Boules) courts in all of Laos. 

Most things you may wish to do in Laos can be done in Luang Prabang or at least accessed from here any way. Another popular attraction is Phou Si Mountain. A rather large hill (the highest point) in the idle of town, this can be climbed (for around 20,000 Kip) and is well worth the view. However, everybody knows about this place and consequently goes there at sunset. 

If you are going to get up for the morning Alms ceremony with the monks, get up about half an hour earlier and head up here for sunrise, all to your self. The food in Luang Prabang can be either western based (I say this with a word of caution, nothing will be quite the same as home) or local. The best local fares are to be had down a side alley of the night market. Always fresh and cooked on the spot you can eat whatever you want and like a king. 

For a more restaurant style of food check the restaurants at the Phou Vao end of Manomai (particularly the amazing Lao BBQ) and for desert you have to hit up my best bud old man crepes, who sells crepes from his mobile kitchen here most nights.

Luang Prabang, Laos

Where to from here?

You can get Nong Khiaw or Phonsovan from Luang Prabang but beyond here in the northeast you will most likely struggle to find consistent and safe public transport to the amazingly isolated towns of Vieng Xai, Sam Neua, Vieng Thong and Muang Khoun. These places really are the heart of Laos and are not really geared up for tourism (except for Phonsovan) so are truly eye opening and humbling to any regular backpacker.

Most people come down the river from Huay Xai via Long boat but miss the amazing North West of Laos. Huay Xai is home to the original Gibbon Experience and although you may not necessersarily get to see them you will get to hear what David Attenborough describes as the voice of the jungle. 

However, they will miss out on the amazing country that is there. Up here is the highest (reported) diversity of ethnic groups (numbers range from 30-130) which makes this place the best for any trekking to hill tribes in Laos.  You may also want to access Phongsali, from Odoumxai which again is a very secluded beautiful mountainous area exploding with home stay and trekking opportunities.


Vang Vieng

Vang Vieng definitely knows what it is. It is the most Thai like of any of the towns in Laos. If you haven’t already heard about tubing there then you probably haven’t heard much about Laos. It was this tubing attraction that initially attracted tourist here in the early 2000’s (with some getting a tubing trip with out any bars?!). 

Basically the main attraction in town is a 2km section of the Nam Song River. After surrendering around 100,000 kip you will be given a tube and a tuk-tuk ride to the Bar 2. Here starts a very vibrant and sometimes hazy trip down a river. During this two kilometre section of river there are a dozen bars in which you should expect to find buckets, beers, loud music, mud football, mud volleyball, slides, jumps, and a lot of partying. Just remember if you get to the red bridge you need to get out of the river as it’s quite a long float back into town.

There are many other things to do in Vang Vieng now thanks to the tourism. Rock Climbing, kayaking, rafting, trekking, hot air ballooning, motorbike hire or even just checking out one of the many caves to the west of the town. 

When walking down the main street of town you will grow accustomed to the sound of canned laughter as constant reruns of Friends, The Simpsons and Family Guy echo down the road. One also needs to be acutely aware of the word ‘happy’ prefixing a meal or drink choice as this normally leads to a mind altering experience. A beautiful place to relax during the day  is the north end of  Don Khang but this is will quickly turn into a Thai style party area come nightfall.

If you want to avoid all this then it is very easy to do by crossing the permanent bridge just south of town towards the west where you will find a number of small, cosy and most importantly quiet, guest houses.

Vang Vieng, Laos

Where to from here?

It’s either north or south from Vang Vieng as Route 13 is the only road that services it. To the north lies Luang Prabang and just before this lies the turn off for Phonsovan and the amazing heritage rich north east area along Routes, 7, 6 and 1C. Have your cameras ready along this route though as it winds it way up through stunning kaarst landscape. South lies the capital Vientiane as well as the large man made lake of Nam Ngum Dam.


Vientiane

The 450 year old Lao capital that sits on the side of the Mekong isn’t exactly the most exciting prospect on the face of it, however, a little delving and there are some fairly interesting things that can be done in and around this city. 

Vientiane and Luang Prabang both pay homage to the French Indochina time period, Luang Prabang has retained a lot of the buildings where Vientiane has retained a large portion of the Culture. To get in and out of Laos to Thailand from Nong Khai (from the train) requires about a 20 min tuk-tuk ride. Most overnight busses from Thailand will take you to the bus station in Vientiane. 

A few things that are a must to check out and do in Vientiane are Xieng Khuan (the Buddha Park), Patuxai, That Dam, Pha That Luang, Thong Khan Kham Market and the Mekong night food markets.

Xieng Khuan is one two Buddha parks the other is on the opposite side of the Mekong river) built in the 1950’s. A crash course in the Lao Buddhist culture and Buddhism statues in general for the uninitiated. 

Patuxai is the national memorial built of concrete that was intended to be an airport runway. It harks back to the French influenced times. 

That Dam is one of the oldest standing stupa in the city. It provides a stark contrast to that of the busy motorcycle filled roads of the capital. 

Pha That Luang on the other hand is a more modern and far larger complex. It consists of a number of large golden temples as well as one of the largest stupa you will ever lay your eyes on. As you walk in to your left you will see a large open concrete area that most likely used to be a runway at some point. 

Thong Khan Kham market is a large local market with just about everything under the sun in it. Particularly interesting for its live food fare which (not for the squeamish) can often be prepared for you right on the spot. 

There is no better way to finish of a day in Vientiane than going down to the Mekong waterfront in the centre of town and chowing down on some local fare on the sand then cruising up to the 3rd story bar Bor Pen Yang for a cool, refreshing Beerlao. The old sector of town just back from Bor Pen Yang is also a really cool little hideaway from the hustle and bustle of the city.

Some street food

Where to from here?

I have travelled to some amazing places outside of Vientiane. Two of them lie to the east and I tried desperately to reach them on public transport (twice!) proved impossible so I had to make a trip back with my trusty Land Cruiser. The first spot is nestled in the Phu Khao Khuay national protected area, a little spot called Tad Leuk. It’s a really cool little waterfall campsite with a few little treks around the area. Stunningly peaceful during the dry season and powerfully forceful during the wet season makes this waterfall a real pleasure to visit. 

Just down the road from Tad Leuk but also in the Phu Khao Khuay national park is the well known village Ban Na. The locals have constructed a large tree top platform with cooking and sleeping facilities cool enough by itself, but when the local elephants come to taste the salt lick it becomes incredible. It should be noted that of the two times I visited I only saw the elephants once.  Its nature, nobody can control it. 

The second area that I was astounded by was Kong Lor. This translates to something like 7km cave and the locals don’t lie. This huge cave structure (7 km long fondly enough) has a large cathedral like open area in the middle. For a fee of around 50,000 kip the local boat man can take you through the cave, have a feed with the local tribe on the other side then take you back through. Truly an amazing experience.


Pakse

Pakse is really just a gate way to some of the most amazing sites in Laos. It is quite far removed from the tourist hub of the north. The Mekong is the life and soul of this town and it winds its way through the centre. Most people consider Pakse a transit point for Cambodia, Vietnam and Thailand but there are definitely a few things you must check out while around the region. 

The Wat Phou complex is Laos’ second UNESCO world heritage area and dates back 1,500 years. It is rarely visited as again it’s off the track where most travellers fail to visit but you can get there by boat from Pakse or further south at Muang. I heard that the Lao were building a bridge across the Mekong down so access may become a lot easier. 

The Bolaven Plateau is also has a really good few days in it with some cool spots to check out along the way. My favourite place to reside while here is either the quaint dusty road settlement of Tad Lo or the more upmarket places hidden amongst the jungles around Tad Fan. Tad Lo is home to a constantly flowing water fall, thanks to a dam further up stream and an elephant ride through the waterfall always feels really good. In the middle of Tad Fan and Tad Lo are plantations of some of the strongest coffee beans on the planet. These bad boys will have you seeing straight and true for kilometres and there are a few plantations where you can join a tour that lets you pick your own beans and take them through the entire roasting process right up to the drinking the coffee itself. 

For those tea people out there many of the coffee plantations also have tea trees growing on site and for those of you that don’t enjoy hot drinks a cold Beerlao is never far away. As well as the plantations there are a few interesting villages along the way, one which slightly escapes my mind but I have a feeling they worship the dead (maybe) and some other villages that produce some really nice textiles and weaves and such.

The best place close to Pakse however is Si Pha Don or in English, the four thousand islands. This area of the Mekong is up to four kilometres wide in sections and during the dry season there really are four thousand islands.  There are three main islands that you can stay on (read; dry all year round), the well structured and larger of the three Don Khong, and Don Det and Don Khon which are connected by an old French bridge. The former two have much older world charm to the and better access the dolphin spotting areas as well as the Li Phi and Koh Phapeng water falls. The people here are so laid back it’s really refreshing. These islands are a perfect place to relax as well with almost every guest house having access to a hammock over looking the Mekong. The highlight of this area is the presence of the Irrawaddy river dolphins. These dolphins are super rare and you can take sight seeing trips from most of the islands. Again, it is nature so it’s not guaranteed that you will see them but if you are there between the months of November and March you have the best chance due to the lower water levels.  Another awesome thing to do down here is hire a boat guide to take you and your mates fishing in the afternoon, then after getting enough for a feed he can take you to your own island, you can sit back and relax while dinner is prepared and cooked with a satisfying Beerlao and then watch the sun go down on the way home. 

Boating on the Mekong

Where to from here?

From Pakse you can easily get into Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. Remember for Thai visas you need to present your transport out of Thailand to get in, Cambodian visas are best applied for in advance however you can get them on entry into Cambodia as well. Vietnam requires you must have a tourist visa prior to entry so that must be applied for before you start travelling.

 

 LAOS HISTORIC COLLECTIONS
 
 The legend of Wan Hu, whose tale seems a particularly fine jump off point for an alternate history story.
 

One account by Herbert Zim in 1945 claims that “Early in the sixteenth century, Wan decided to take advantage of China’s advanced rocket and fireworks technology to launch himself into outer space. He supposedly had a chair built with forty-seven rockets attached. On the day of lift-off, Wan, splendidly attired, climbed into his rocket chair and forty seven servants lit the fuses and then hastily ran for cover. There was a huge explosion. When the smoke cleared, Wan and the chair were gone, and was said never to have been seen again.”
 
Wan Hu was a minor official of the Ming Dynasty believed to have died around 1500 CE or what would have been the Lao year 2043. It would be interesting to examine how different history would have been if he had succeeded.Depending on who you turn to in China, Wan Hu possibly managed to lift himself a foot using rockets. In most Chinese accounts though, he is considered just an unfortunate pioneer of space travel who burned to death or was blown to pieces because of the explosion caused by the rockets, and didn’t really succeed in becoming the first astronaut in history.Still, he gets credit for having the nerve to try.

 
From a Lao point of view, if 1500 is accurate,
 
 
Victory gate of Lan Xang
now
 
In Lan Xang,
 
this is the transition period between Somphou, who reigned between 1495-1500 and Visunarath who reigned between 1500-1520.
Lan Xang is approximately 150 years old, and 141 years away from first contact with the Dutch.
 
A few years earlier, Wan Hu would have been alive as Laasaenthai, the sixth son of King Sai Tia Kaphut, ruled. Crowned in 1491, Laasaenthai enjoyed peaceful relations with his neighbours in Annam and cultivated good relations with Ayudhya, “spending much of his time contemplating religious and legal matters, furthering the spread of Buddhism and building monuments.” Sompou, who succeeds Laasaenthai, is his only son, according to historic records.I imagine they all would have been very interested in the inquiries of Wan Hu. Even today, Lao celebrate our rocket festivals with great enthusiasm. What support might they have given him, what ventures might they have taken up on their own? And to be fair to Wan Hu’s own experience, what misadventures?

For reference sake, this was also the era of the Hongzhi Emperor, Zhu Youcheng, who reigned between 1470-1505, and just a few years after Columbus reached the Americas in 1492, while Henry VII rules England. Ramathibodhi II rules Autthaya and Sukhothai. In Cambodia, they are ruled by Thommareachea I in the Charktomok era.

 

The ancient Khmer religious complex of Wat Phu is one of the highlights of any trip to Laos. Stretching 1400 m up to the lower slopes of the Phu Pasak range (also known more colloquially as Phu Khuai or Mt Penis), Wat Phu is small compared with the monumental Angkor-era sites near Siem Reap in Cambodia. But the tumbledown pavilions, ornate Shiva-lingam sanctuary, enigmatic crocodile stone and tall trees that shroud much of the site in soothing shade give Wat Phu an almost mystical atmosphere. These, and a site layout that is unique in Khmer architecture, led to Unesco declaring the Wat Phu complex a World Heritage Site in 2001.

Sanskrit inscriptions and Chinese sources confirm the site has been worshiped since the mid 5th century. The temple complex was designed as a worldly imitation of heaven and fitted into a larger plan that evolved to include a network of roads, cities, settlement and other temples. What you see today is the product of centuries of building, rebuilding, alteration and addition, with the most recent structures dating from the late Angkorian period.

At its height the temple and nearby city formed the most important economic and political center in the region. But despite its historic importance, the 84 ha site remains in considerable danger from the elements. Detailed studies reveal that water erosion is pressuring the site and without a systematic water management plan the buildings will eventually collapse. Italian and Japanese funded the projects have helped stabilize the southern of two ancient canals built to channel water away from the central structures. However, the equally important northern side of the site. To see it, compare the relatively intact terraced steps and pavilions on the south of the site with those on the north, With about 1 million needed to repaired the northern canal and terrace, Wat Phu’s future is by no means secure.

But it’s not all doom and gloom. Years of work by the Italian Archaeological Mission and the inimitable Dr Patrizia Zolese, the leading expert on Wat Phu who has been working at the site since 1990, have resulted in the first detailed map on the site and surrounding 400 sq km, revealing much about way the ancients lived. During the last two years the local and falang archaeologists have restored the ceremonial causeway, replacing slabs and re-erecting stone makers that had been scattered across the site. Restoration of the Nandi Hall is underway and is expected to be finished in 2009.

Don’t miss the museum ( 8am – 4.30 pm) beside the ticket office. Extensive cataloging work has recently been completed on the dozens of lintels, nagas (mythical water serpents), Buddhas and other stone work from Wat Phu and it associated sites. Descriptions are in English.

CHAMPASAK IN ANTIQUITY

Under the palm trees and rice paddies 4km south of Champasak town is the remains of a city
that was about 1500 years ago, the capital of the Mon-Khmer Chenla kingdom. The site is known today as Muang Kao (Old City), but scholars believe It was called Shreitapura.

Aerial photographs show the remains of rectangular city measuring by 2.3km bay 1.8 km, surrounded bay double earthen walls on three sides and protected on the east by the Mekong river. Other traces of the old city include small baray, stone implements and ceramics. The sum of all this is an extremely rare example of an ancient urban settlement in the southeast Asia, one whose design reveals how important religious belief was in the workings of everyday life.
The original of the city remained a mystery until Southeast Asia’s oldest Sankrit inscription was discovered here. The 5th century stele stated the city was founded by king Devanika and was called Kuruksetra and also mentions the auspicious Sri Lingaparvata nearby, A clear reference to the mountain near Wat Phu Champasak. The “Honoured since antiquity” the mountain was believed to be the residence or the manifestation of the Hindu god Shiva, and even today local people honoured the mountain as the place of Phi Intha (the soul of protecting spirit of the mountain)
By the end of the 5th century the city was thriving. It continues as a major regional center until at least the 7th century, as showed by two Nandi Pedestal ( Shiva’s bull mount ) sculptures discovered in 1994-1995 bearing inscriptions by king Citrasena- Mahendaravarman, the conqueror who later shifted the kingdom’s capital to Sambor Prei Kuk in northeast Cambodia. Archaelogical material suggest the city was inhabited until the 16th century.

On going research bay Dr Zolese and her team has reveal that a second city was built near the Wat Phu after the 9th century. She believes the Nang Sida temple was at the centre of this city, which was probably Lingapura, a place mentioned in many ancient inscriptions but which has not been categorically identified by modern scholars.

 
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Laos Travel GuidePakse

Pakse sits a the confluence of the Mekong River and the SeDon ( Don River ) and is the capital of Champasak province. The town has grown quickly since the Lao –Japanese Bridge across the Mekong was opened in 2002, facilitating brisk trade with Thailand. Its position on the way to Si Phan Don in the far south, the Bolaven Plateau and remote provinces to the east, and Thailand to the west means anyone choosing to travel in the south will almost certainly spend time in Pakse.

The centre of Pakse retains the sort of Mekong river – town lethargy found in Savanakhet and Tha Khaek futher north. Fewer conolial – era buildings remain, though do look for the Franco – Chinese – style Chinese society building on Th 10 in the centre of town.

The vast Talat Dao Heung ( new market ) near the Lao – Japanese Bridge is one of the biggest in the country. Famous for its selection of fresh produce of coffee from the fertile Bolaven Plateau. Short day trips from the Pakse can made to Ban Saphai and Don Kho weaving centres 15 km north of town.

SIGHTS & ACTIVITIES

Champasak historical Heritage

Museum
Has a few artifacts and a lot of boring documents chronicling history of the province. Once you get past the Lao and communist hammer – and – sickle flags at the entrance you are in the best part of the museum – three very old Dong Son bronze drums and striking 7th –century sandstone lintels found at Uo Moung (Tomo Temple). The simple textile and jewellery collection from the Nyaheun, Suay, and Laven groups is also interesting for its large iron ankle bracelets and ivory ear plugs since these are rarely worn nowadays.

Also on the ground floor are musical instruments, stelae in the Tham script dating from the 15th to 18th centuries, a water jar from the 11th or 12th century, a small lingam ( Shiva phallus ), plus a model of Wat Phu Champasak.

One you head upstairs you’ll be beginning you last five minutes in the museum. Apart a small collection of Buddha images and forlorn – looking American weaponry. It’s all headshots of party members.

Wats
There are about 20 wats in the city, of which Wat Luang and Wat Tham Fai ( both founded in 1935 ) are the largest.

A monastic school at Wat Luang features ornate concrete pillars whimsy departs from canonical art without losing the traditional effect. Behind the sim is a monk’s school in an original wooden building. A thaat on the ground contains the ashes of
Khamtay Loun Sasothit,a former prime minister in the Royal Lao Government.

Wat Tham Fai, near the Champasak Palace Hotel is undistinguished except for its spacious ground, making it a prime site for temple festival. It’s also known as Wat Pha Baht because there is a small Buddha footprint shrine. The stupas and Pepsi billboard near Rte 13 make good photos in the afternoon.

It will be 21 years before Magellan reaches the Philippines and 11 years before Malacca is conquered by Portugal, ending almost 100 years of the Malacca sultanate, which at the time was led by the sultan Mahmud Shah. Mahmud Shah is connected with the Malay legend of Puteri Gunung Ledang, which is about his failed courtship of a fairy princess.

In the century before, movable type printing has also been developed in Asia. Under the rule of Yongle Emperor, the Ming Dynasty territory reaches its pinnacle, the Forbidden City is built and Zhenghe has been commanded to explore the world overseas. Tamerlane established a major empire in the Middle East and Central Asia, in order to revive the Mongolian Empire. Also, the Inca Empire has risen to prominence in South America.

 

Possible steampunk or alternate history directions could be: What if Wan Hu didn’t make it to the moon, but made it to Lan Xang. (Or made it to the moon and found a way back to earth, landing in Lan Xang?) Or perhaps, what happens if Wan Hu’s experiment is still a failure but news of it inspires others to try, and perhaps someone in Lan Xang figures it out. Or thinks of something more interesting to do than try to go to the moon.

As the old saying goes, “Aim for the moon, hit the cow.”

“Court forms of dance theatre were established as Lao kings copied customs of powerful neighboring monarchs. Tradition holds that Cambodian (Khmer) court dance, along with the Ramayana and Jataka repertoire were introduced to Laos by Prince Fa Nguan in 1353. During the 14th century the Lao kingdom of Lan Sang (‘Million Elephants’) was established and in this time the Khmer monarchs with their troupe of female wives-dancers were the epitome of potent kingship in the region. Keeping up with the Khmer meant establishing female court dance with movement and repertoire modeled on Khmer practice. The Lao kings were never as rich as the rulers of Angkor. Nor could the Lao compete later in the 15th century with Thai rulers who, first at Ayutthaya and later in Bangkok, emulated Khmer practice… Just as Lan Sang in the early period aped Angkor, the small courts established by partition in 1700- Luang Prabang, Wiangjun and Chapassak – imitated Thai models: Thai female court dance LAKON FAI NAI, male masked dance drama KHON and shadow play NANG yai were taught and performed at court. The Lao chose not to alter the forms: the Royal Lao Ballet of the 1960s in Luang Prabang included only female dancers, the best of whom had trained in Bangkok. Rather than staging full dance dramas like the Thai and Cambodians, this smaller court favoured solo and small group dances” (Brandon, 191)

 It has been 123 years since the Dutch first came to visit Laos in 1641, but they have never really had much contact with Europe since. It is approaching 60 years since Lan Xang splintered into three kingdoms. Ong Long is nearing the end of his reign in Vientiane, which is a vassal state to Burma, and will be succeeded by Ong Bun. In Champassak, Sayakumane is in the middle of his reign (1737-1791). In Luang Prabang, Sotika-Kuomane is the ruler, and also approaching the end of his 19-year reign (1749-1768) but by 1765 they will also be a vassal state to Burma.

Because of this, we should make note of Hsinbyushin, the Burmese monarch, who has just started his reign in 1763. He will go on to be recognized as the most militaristic king of his dynasty, and will successfully repel 4 Chinese invasions and end the Ayutthaya Dynasty, at the time led by Somdet Phra Chao Ekkathat, who would die in 1767.With the end of the Ayutthaya Dynasty, their kingdom descends into chaos as provinces proclaimed independence under generals, rogue monks, and various members of the royal family. King Taksin would eventually rise from this to try and reunite the kingdom.Cambodia is in the middle of its Dark Ages, while the Nguyen Lords are in charge of what we would today consider South Vietnam, notably Nguyen Phuc Koat, who is approaching the last year of his reign, and will be succeeded by Nguyen Phuc Thuan VERY briefly. Trinh Doanh of the Trinh Lords is nearing the end of his reign (1767).

Malacca, or what we know as Malaysia, is under Dutch control, with a recent transition in power from David Boelen to Thomas Schippers. The Dutch have ruled for 123 years now, after ousting the Portuguese in 1641.

To the north, in China, we see the reign of the Qianlong Emperor, Hongli, who ruled between 1735–1796, during the height of the Qing Dynasty’s power as they ruled over 13 million square kilometers of territory. In 1755, or nine years earlier, the tallest wodden Bodhisattva statue in the world has been erected at the Puning Temple in Chengde.

Historically, in 1764, the new Ottoman Sultan Mustafa IIIhas just risen to power. Over the course of his reign he would not be considered very good at selecting his councilors and commanders. History regarded him as a headstrong and hasty man, which further compounded the effects of his poor decisions. However, historians consider him very industrious and talented, and that he was dedicated to promoting the interests of the Ottoman Empire. Recognizing he was not very good at war, he did what he could to avoid it.Catherine the II of Russiahas been on the throne just 2 years, and will eventually annex the Crimea from the Ottoman Empire. Interestingly, in 1765, she will also authorize a new way to prepare vodka. Notably, in 1766, Ivan Polzunov will invent a two-cylinder engine. Might an earlier version emerge elsewhere in Asia?

In Japan, the 117th emperor is the Empress Go-Sakuramachi. She is two years into her reign as regent after her brother, the Emperor Momozono abdicated in 1762 and died later that year at the age of 21. 

Korea is known at the time as Joseon and, the ruler of this era is Jeongjo of Joseon who will become widely regarded as one of the most visionary of the rulers of Joseon.

 

Meanwhile in 1764, historically, we see the Battle of Buxar, where the British East India Company defeats the combined armies of Mir Kasim, the Nawab of Bengal, the Nawab of Awadh, and Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II. King George the III rules Britain and is dealing with some rascal colonists abroad talking about liberty and other notions. Among European nations, muzzle-loaded flintlock muskets are the primary firearms used in conflicts at this time (and will be until approximately 1840.) 

Louis XVis the king of France and currently paving the road to the French Revolution with awful financial policies, unpopular wars and disgraceful debauchery.Clement XIII has been the pope for 6 years at the Vatican, notably getting embroiled in issues with the Jesuits.
I would also take into account that the Spanish, under the rule of Charles III, have just ended the 7 Years War that resulted in them losing significant territory. 
 
If steampunk technologies and social philosophies were prominent in this era, what would be the technologies people want, and what about the lives of the regular people living within each of these nations? Some very interesting questions indeed, and I can see why one might opt for 1764 as an interesting start off point for an alternate history story.
 
 
So, in our ongoing research and expansion of our understanding of the supernatural traditions in Southeast Asia, for a few weeks we’ll look at different phi and other creatures connected or likely to be connected to the region.In Thailand, one of the many Phi is the Phi Hai, also known as a Phi Tay Hong. The same term is used in Laos.This type of spirit inhabits places or areas where someone has died an unanutural or violent death. You’ll be able to identify them because they’re easily offended and like to possess a victim for any reason, if they’re given the excuse and opportunity. They are usually hungry and amoral according to the more common accounts.Most folklore suggests they can be tempted to give up the host they’re possessing in exchange for an offering of some sort. If the Phi Hai is being stubborn, an exorcism with incantations and lustral water can be used, and in more extreme cases, whipping apparently is enough to set things back to normal.Although you had best be prepared to explain to everyone why you were whipping someone if it goes that far.What are stories you’ve heard or remember about phi hai?
LAOS ART COLLECTIONS
 

Lao theater: Court Forms

 
In 1993, James R. Brandon’s The Cambridge Guide to Asian Theatre discussed the different forms of Lao theater, noting that there were three key forms: proto-theatrical indigenous forms, court forms that emulated Khmer-Thai models, and modern popular genres from the 20th century combining folk forms and popular Thai theatre elements such as the likay. Lao American theater is taking some different directions and inspiration. It will be interesting to see what the next forms will be when these communities get an opportunity to connect for an extended period of time with adequate resources to create a meaningful exchange.

This entry is obviously approaching 20 years old, but it’s an interesting start to consider how we discuss the journey of Lao theater and where we might see it go in the years ahead.

Geopolitics of 1764
 
 
A big thanks to Silver Goggles for pointing out a new example of Filipino Steampunk, High Society, and its write-up at Tinamats.

 
So, their framing setup is a big what-if regarding the Spanish being repelled from the walled city of Manila in 1764. It’s not a bad proposal, and I find myself wondering what a Lao experience and perspective would be in 1764. Would it be an interesting year to start from?
For the Lao, historically, this is the year 2307. (But for simplicity sake, we’ll use the Western calendar for the rest of this post.) What is the world like for them?

 


1893

after 1893 when Vientiane and Champassak had been bundled together with Luang Prabang to create a state that was a French protectorate called Laos, and a Lao narrator who worked often enough with the falang that he might reasonably refer to it as Laos. For stories set earlier than 1893, we have to be even more aware of anachronisms that take us out of a story, that suspension of disbelief.

 

In fiction, when we write place names, do we employ French or US/English romanization to keep it authentic?  It’s not always cut and dry. For a historical example, many Americans secretly stationed in Laos during the civil war in the 1960s commonly referred to the Plain of Jars as the PDJ, an abbreviation of Plaines des Jarres.

When we’re using an ethnic Lao narrator, one might argue, it may not matter and you could even use a non-standard romanization instead of Long Tieng (Long Cheng), or Luang Prabang (Luang Phrabang).

Radically, there could be great power in this: Lao names and geography written by Lao the way Lao themselves feel it should be spelled, and not just the way some falang missionary or policy wonk decided we should write the names of our cities and landmarks.  That would be significant step towards decolonization.

But we also need to decolonize time. Not everyone uses the solar calendar, after all.

LAOS  Culinary arts

 
Over the Thanksgiving weekend, I found myself discussing the UNESCO Creative Cities Network that is designating various cities as model examples of different art forms, and also had a fun twitter conversation on what Southeast Asian Steampunk cuisine would look like.Addressing the UNESCO Creative Cities network concept, what we saw were the usual forms you’d expect: Literature, film, music, crafts and folk art, design, media arts, and what I thought was particularly interesting, gastronomy.Before we go too much further, I should note that I’m also a fan of cryptogastronomy: the consideration of hypothetical recipes for mythic, theoretical and extinct species of flora and fauna. How might you pair a good wine with a 18th century Triceratops filet in the Lost World, for example?

 

 

LAOS OVERSEAS

1. Lao American Speculative Arts Anthology

 

 Approaching 40 years in the US, we know Lao Americans love science fiction, fantasy, horror, myths and legends. Now we’re looking your stories and art for the first full-length anthology of Lao American speculative art and literature.

Whether it’s a story of Lao astronauts in a distant future, nak or phi in ancient Lan Xang, the missing adventures of Sithong or Xieng Mieng, or wild weretigers and kinnali in Laotown, we want to hear about it! Tales of time-traveling silapin, Lao cyborgs and superheroes, or visitors to haunted villages are all encouraged and welcomed.

Send us your best original stories between 250 to 5,555 words in length. We also accept up to 10 poems, up to 255 words per poem. For longer or shorter works, please inquire. We are also looking for examples of visual art: painting, illustrations, textiles, mixed media, photography. Visual artists can submit between 5 to 10 pieces.

All genres and sub-genres such as steampunk are welcomed, but no “fan fiction” or use of characters and settings you do not have the rights to. No glittering vampires. Work should have a reasonably clear Lao connection.

This anthology is requesting one-time electronic and print rights, after which further publication rights revert to the creator. A physical contributor’s copy and e-book copy are provided.

To Submit: 
We accept RTF files by e-mail only. Put the words: LAO ANTHOLOGY in the subject line with your name. Double spaced manuscript in Times New Roman. Use italics, not underlines when necessary. Use of Laoglish is fine and encouraged, but absolutely NO italicizing Lao words. Have your contact information of the first page of the manuscript including e-mail address. Good grammar and spelling appreciated. No simultaneous submissions.

 Visual art submissions should be able to be reproduced well in black and white and sent as a digital file at 600 dpi or higher. Portrait orientation preferred, but landscape orientation accepted.

 

The fourth anniversary issues of CHA has arrived.

It’s hard to believe it’s been four years already, but a big congratulations to all of them in Hong Kong. This issue was guest edited by Robert E. Wood (poetry) and Royston Tester (prose).

 This issue, they have poetry from Christopher Barnes, Robert Masterson, John McKernan, Tristan Coleshaw, Chris Santiago, Sonia Saikaley, DeWitt Clinton, Kenneth Alewine, Dena Rash Guzman, Samuel Arizpe, Judith Toler, Rheea Mukherjee, David W. Landrum, W.F. Lantry, Mia Ayumi Malhotra, Anuradha Vijayakrishnan, Nicholas Y.B. Wong, Bernard Henrie, Mike Ladd, and Louis Marvin.

 In Fiction, they have pieces from Alzo David-West, Gun G. Ayurzana, Matthew Davis, John David Harding, Sharon Hashimoto, Shivani Sivagurunathan, and Genevieve Yim.

They are accepting submissions for Issue #16, which is scheduled for February 2012. Ankur Agarwal (poetry) and Mag Tan (prose) will act as guest editors and read the submissions with them. Deadline is set at 15 December.

 
 

Lao American Steampunk:

 Decolonizing Space and Time

 
Silver Goggles recently posted a great commentary on the need to decolonize geography within Steampunk literature, and I would argue we should do so within both historical fiction and speculative literature as well.As an applied example, when I wrote my Lovecraftian historical horror story “What Hides and What Returns,” there were questions I had to address as a writer in order to bring a reader into Laos, minimizing confusion with a minimum of compromise.For Lao, the year 2011 is mostly 2554, at least since April (Deuane Si or Mesa), depending on the system we’re using. These days, we’re following a system that figures 543 BC as Year 1.The Lao calendar has elements of Sino-Vietnamese and Thai-Khmer calendars, and are based on a solar-lunar mix.Lao years are reckoned by solar phases, but our months are determined by lunar phases. This is different from European and American calendars where the months are also determined by the sun. There is also reportedly an earlier Lao system in which year one would correspond with the year 638 BC, just to complicate things.

 
It’s not just a case of calibrating a time machine by simply setting a dial + or – 534 years.As a further example of the complicated nature of Time, especially in a decolonized Steampunk setting, bear in mind the traditional Chinese time-keeping system. Here we see the hours associated with different creatures of the zodiac. Chinese hours are actually about two Western hours:

23:00 – 01:00: 子 Rat
01:00 – 03:00: 丑 Ox
03:00 – 05:00: 寅 Tiger
05:00 – 07:00: 卯 Rabbit
07:00 – 09:00: 辰 Dragon
09:00 – 11:00: 巳 Snake
11:00 – 13:00: 午 Horse
13:00 – 15:00: 未 Goat
15:00 – 17:00: 申 Monkey
17:00 – 19:00: 酉 Rooster
19:00 – 21:00: 戌 Dog
21:00 – 23:00: 亥 Pig

Talking about time in a truly multicultural Steampunk world should take this into account. Time travel a la H.G. Wells’ classic ‘The Time Machine’ now becomes interestingly complicated when we consider whose sense of time applies. The visitor, or the visited?

But let’s look at an additional challenge for the role of time in Lao fiction: In Laos, we can run into big headaches because time is not homogeneous among the 100+ cultures who live within its frequently shifting borders.

To elaborate on the importance of this question, consider that in the mountains and jungles of Laos, highlanders such as the Hmong used time as the measure of distance. “It’s two days of walking to the next village.” Miles, kilometers, etc. are very abstract concepts to them in the old days, let alone 20,000 leagues under a sea to people born in a landlocked nation.

This is, of course, just the tip of the temporal iceberg, but I think it opens up some very intriguing questions for better Steampunk set among Southeast Asian cultures. And I hope it raises the bar for anyone who decides to use a English protagonist using a modified Mayan time travel device to visit ancient Mayao in the highlands of Annam to discover the secret to immortality or some other fantastic scenario.

 
Today we’re taking a quick look at the phi known as the phi kra-hang, which is a nocturnal spirit.According to most accounts, the phi kra-hang has the appearance of a flying man with two rice trays for wings with a pestle for tail. Some less common accounts say it is a feathered flying man with a bird-like tail who should NOT be confused with the kinnali or kinnon.Some believe it to be someone who has become skilled in the use of magic and can now grow wings and fly.  Others think it is someone who wronged a teacher, especially by breaking a promise to one. Another possible method is from eating certain gourds or walking under a bridge, but this isn’t considered a very common way to become a phi kra-hang.Upon finishing his transformation, according to the more common accounts, he now uses two circular, normally used for sifting rice, as his wings, and a small pestle as his tail held between his legs. You can see one depicted in the classic Thai light bulb commercial:

 

The preferred diet of the phi kra-hang is filth, but other than that, little is know of its ecology and habits. Some say it’s touchy about people touching his behind, for fear of his true nature being discovered if you see his stump of a tail. There are some accounts that connect him to the krasue, but this may be a stretch. A few claim these beings are restricted to central Thailand for the most part.

There is some dispute as to whether he hurts people, or is merely ambivalent towards them. Most consider it a phi to avoid in any case. There are accounts that at night, he gives off a glowing aura. But of course, it might be a different phi in the shape of a phi kra-hang. You never can be too certain with this sort of thing.

What stories do you know about the phi kra-hang?

 
On a lighter note, today we look at the Phi Kee of Southeast Asia, especially Laos and Thailand. This one is arguably one of the more helpful of the spirits, or at least ambivalent towards humans. It is encountered when you go to the toilet, following a nightmare.Folklore suggests you should politely ask your excrement to go peacefully before flushing so that the Phi Kee will also take away any bad luck with it on its way out. No one seems to have any accounts of the consequences if you’re rude or demanding about it, although given its domain, it seems something you really shouldn’t push. But what are some of the stories and advice you’ve heard regarding this spirit?

 
 
  LAOS PHILLATELIC AND NUMISMATIC COLLECTIONS

Fungi Horror Anthology coming

 

The Innsmouth Free Press has announced plans for a horror anthology centered on fungi!

Naturally, for a Lovecraftian anthology, there’s all manner of potential angles you can approach with this one. William Hope Hodgson’s “The Voice in the Night”, and its Japanese film adaptation, Matango have already been cited as inspirations, and naturally, “The Fungi from Yuggoth”. But let’s see some stories and works that really go beyond with this one.

I would add the advice that the editors really appreciate non-traditional perspectives and settings. Take them places we’ve never been as readers. They’re also interested in steampunk entries involving fungi if you have them. Good luck! They want to release it by October 2012, so keep an eye out for more details!

 
 

Laos is proceeding with the potentially environmentally disastrous Xayaburi Dam. Studies calculate it will “block fish migration on the Mekong, threaten between 23 and 200 fish species, have damaging effects on sediment flows and put unpredictable pressures on ecosystems around the river. More than 60 million people live in the river basin of the lower Mekong and about two-thirds of those depend on fishing for all or part of their livelihood.” What’s not to love?

Laos and the World Bank celebrated 50 years of “partnership”. Said one official, “Today we can take pride in the achievements of our enduring partnership. Laos has seen remarkable success in lifting millions of people out of poverty and improving their lives. In less than a generation, the incidence of poverty in Laos has dropped from about 50 per cent to just a little over 25 per cent.”

Laos faces challenges in creating productive jobs, said an expert from the International Labour Organization at a national workshop in Vientiane to discuss the Rural Employment Strategy for Poverty Reduction. With a population of 6.3 million, and 60 percent of the population is under 25 years old, Laos has opportunities but also challenges.

Meanwhile, Lao officials have been urged to actively lead local people in undertaking commercial ventures, so they can find their way out of poverty, saying “the growing of crops and livestock rearing should tie in with local needs.”

Air America veteran Richard O’Hara of Northville, Michigan and his service in Laos were discussed in the Observer & Eccentric.

In West Virginia, the story of Master Sergeant  Edward Ziobron’s bravery in Laos was discussed.

In the Daily Hampshire Gazette, Lee Hines shared his experiences in Laos in “Lessons we must learn again.”

The mayor of Frisco, Bill Pelham shared his story as a Forward Air Controller near the Laotian border in the Summit Daily.

The Gilroy Patch has an article on Joe Kline, who served in Vietnam and a mission in Laos to fly South Vietnamese troops in to cut off the Ho Chi Minh Trail.

Bill Flittie was profiled in the Shoreview Press. Flittie was in the navy and later joined International Volunteer Services, stationed in Savannakhet.

Newsweek has a story on “What Made the Spooks Disappear,” covering CIA operatives like Tony Poe who served in Laos with the Hmong.

USAID has a press release on 80-year old Hal Freeman, who was an education Foreign Service Officer with service around the world including Laos with the Hmong.

Thailand and Laos have officially opened a new Friendship Bridge.

And, Justin Bieber is auctioning off his snake to help a charity that builds schools in Laos, Nicaragua and Guatemala. His baby boa constrictor, Johnson.

 
 
“The Last War Poem” originally appeared in the 2002 anthology, Bamboo Among the Oaksfrom the Minnesota Historical Society Press.

The Last War Poem

I tell you, this is the last word for this war.
This little side war we were the center of.
 There is no justice from poetry-
 Any veteran can tell you that.

They want their land, their lives
Their livestock back.

Grenade fishing in the aftermath of Phou Pha Thi
Has lost its novelty
To the man with a bullet fragment rattling
In his body, slowly tearing him apart.

Write, they tell me. Write what?

We lost, we were forgotten, we are ghosts.
We are victims of fat tigers and foreign policy.

There is no Valhalla, only memories of Spectre gunships
There is no Elysium, only pleas for asylum.

This jungle was filthy.

There was shit. There was blood.
There were refugees
Who to this day can not explain why they were the enemy
When the war came.

Their sons fought. Their brothers died.

Their uncles, maimed, were hauled screaming into the shadows of the PDJ.

Write, they tell me, so people won’t forget.
So someone will know.

Lift the broken bodies with my words, bring them out
And say ‘we did not die in vain’.

For every bullet hole, let there be a word to stand as a monument.

For every lost limb let there be a sonnet to stitch the truth back together.

For every eye gone blind, let there be something to take its place.
Something. Anything.

How can you not have words for the war of whispers?

How can you not shout, now that the whispering is done?

And I swear, each time I break this promise, that the next time
Will be the last word I write about this damn war.

 
 

LAOS ARTS

Saymoukda Vongsay a 2011 Changemaker

 
 
 

Saymoukda Duangphouxay Vongsay is the Lao American author of No Regrets, a collection of poetry and haikus published by Baby Rabbit Publishing.

Her work has been published by Altra Magazine, the Journal of Southeast Asian American Education and Advancement, and Bakka Literary Journal, to name a few. A Minnesota-based spoken word poet, she has performed and taught creative writing workshops nationally across the United States and internationally in Italy and Japan.

She has worked with the Anchorage Urban League of Young Professionals lecturing and performing at the university-level and local high schools to urge voter registration and civic engagement and also served as liaison between local government and the Southeast Asian community regarding public policy.

Vongsay is a co-founding member of The Unit, a collective of emerging playwrights of color. Her short plays are staged at The Playwrights Center. Her piece, Yellowtail Sashimi, was part of the 2010 MN Fringe Festival. She was a co-chair of the first Lao American Writers Summit in Minnesota and has worked actively to support the work of Lao women writers and artists across the country to celebrate heritage, diversity and community development.

 

A multidisciplinary, multicultural arts center, Intermedia Arts supports a broad spectrum of artists, with a particular focus on voices you are unlikely to hear anywhere else. They were gracious hosts to the groundbreaking Legacies of War: Refugee Nation exhibit we held in Minnesota in 2010.

 

Their Queer Voices reading series is the longest running GLBT literary series in the nation. Their multimedia festival, B-Girl Be: A Celebration of Women in Hip-Hop, is the first of its kind worldwide, showcasing and celebrating the contributions of women to a revolutionary art form. Their annual performance series, Indigenous Voices, (co-presented with Pangea World Theater), explores First Nation issues of identity and human rights; and their youth media programs allow at-risk youth to create films and TV shows about issues in their lives and communities.

Intermedia Arts is a nationally recognized leader in empowering artists and community leaders to use arts-based approaches to solve community issues. Their leadership program, The Creative Community Leadership Institute, is one of only a few programs in the country to provide comprehensive, professional-level training and support for local community-engaged artists and community developers. Led by a core faculty of four of the leading thinkers in the field of community cultural development, Intermedia Arts’ Creative Community Leadership Institute has trained over 62 of the Twin Cities’ most active community artists, organizers and developers.

Again, a big congratulations to Saymoukda Vongsay for her much deserved recognition, and here’s to many more great things ahead from both her and Intermedia Arts!

 
 

The New Yorker has new piece by Daniel Mendelsohn contemplating a slimmer, faster Iliad, based on Stephen Mitchell’s new translation, which, among other things, completely cuts out Chapter 10, or the Doloneia. The abstract is extremely truncated, but the actual article is filled with some very interesting observations that would also apply for Lao American writers as we wrestle with our own literary traditions, for epics such as that of Sinxay.

We can spend so much time focused on the preservation and historicity of the classical Lao texts that we forget to make them living, breathing texts for ourselves. But that’s for a larger discussion in the years ahead, I suppose.

 
 

“Indochina’s Vicious Swamp Demons”

 
Author Brad Steiger, in his 1999 work, The Werewolf Book, notes a curious 1940 account in Ed Bodin’s Scare Me! A Symposium on Ghosts and Black Magic. In Steiger’s entry “Indochina’s Vicious Swamp Demons,” he retells Bodin’s story of a Colonel Marchand supposedly sent in 1923 to a French military colony. It isn’t clear which part of Indochina, but he brought his daughter Yvonne Marchand with him.A native thief,  faced between the choice of turning himself in to the authorities or crossing a haunted swamp, chose to surrender to the French.Colonel Marchand, amused by the superstition, ordered the thief cast into the middle of the swamp. The thief begged for lenience and threw himself at the feet of Yvonne Marchand, but to no avail. He was marched into the swamp at bayonet point.However, later that evening, he came back to the French camp and carried off the colonel’s daughter to the swamp.A search party was organized and they found the thief bleeding to death, covered in severe bites and scratches, his jugular torn open. With his dying breath, the thief claimed Yvonne did this horrible thing to him.Pressing further into the swamp, the men found Yvonne, “naked except for a strip of cloth about her thighs. The searchlights caught the streaks of blood on her body, but her father was more horrified by the fiendish grin that parted her lips. Yvonne stood there before them, her teeth flashing as if she were some wild thing waiting for prey to fall within reach of her claws and fangs. To the astonishment of the entire search party, the girl rushed the nearest soldier, ready to gouge and bite.”They subdue her, but when Yvonne comes to her senses, she describes her capture. When they stopped in the swamp, hideous, fanged demonic faces bobbed all around the pair.She described the strange sensations that came over her that drove her to kill the thief, remarking “I gloried in tearing away his flesh, in hearing him scream, in seeing him drop to the ground and crawl away. Then the faces summoned me on into the swamp. I tore off my clothes and began to bite myself. The faces laughed at me, and I laughed too.”Bodin’s account is difficult to corroborate.

I haven’t found any resources highlighting the service of a Colonel Marchand being stationed in Indochina around this time, but that does not wholly rule out the possibility. Proper, serious research of Southeast Asian metaphysics and the supernatural was not extensive among Europeans at the time, so we can only speculate what exactly they had encountered.

The floating fanged faces could have been any number of phi, including krasue, but there may be other possibilities. What do you think?

 
 
In Christopher Robbins’ 1987 book, The Ravens, there is a brief passage in Chapter 10:”Oddjob-the original Raven orphan, was long gone-officially adopted by an Air Force mechanic and taken back to the States…”If anyone happens to know what happened to him, I’d be very interested in finding out.

 

40 years ago in 1971, the secret airbase of Long Tieng in Laos was attacked on Valentine’s Day. Christopher Robbins’ wrote about the incident in his 1987 book The Ravens, Chapter 10, “Valentine”. Here is an excerpt that illustrates many of the lingering issues we’ve been discussing over the years:
 
The F-4 went in, but instead of returning to make multiple passes the pilot took the lazy course and pickled off his entire load of six CBU [Cluster Bomb Unit] canisters at once. Shep, his leg hastily bandaged, was outside with Burr Smith and a platoon of Meo [sic] guerrillas when the plane screamed over. Shep looked up and saw the CBU pods come off the aircraft and then watched in horrified fascination as the clamshells flew apart and the bomblets were spewed out. He yelled to his companions and hit the gorund. When he raised his head, after the CBU had passed beyond him, Burr Smith, himself, and a single Meo survived.
 
The exploding CBU tore through the village like a hurricane. Huts, trees, and telephone poles disintegrated before the Ravens’ eyes. “You’re dropping on the friendlies! Swedberg yelled into his radio. “You’re dropping on the friendlies!”
 
A wall of destructive flame raced toward the Raven hootch. “You sorry-assed son of a bitch,” Duehring shouted, and dived for the floor.
 
It was even worse than Swedberg feared. The pilot had misunderstood his instructions regarding the tracer and exactly reversed them-he had not dropped the deadly load where the tracers were ricocheting, but on the friendly machine gun itself.
 
Those in the hootch had hit the floor and were squirming on their bellies to get under the bed or behind some sort of cover. The CBU broke over building, peeling back the roof. It set the operations shack on fire, along with the Company sleeping quarters, the Air America hostel, and the Raven dining room, blasting the pool table into fragments. The CIA bar took a direct hit and burned to the ground. But the wily bears survived the holocaust by pressing themselves against the rock wall at the rear of their cage, which was built out from a cave.
 
It was obvious that the F-4 had dropped CBU, and from a great enough height for it to have a large pattern, (Clamshell CBU explodes in a doughnut patter, creating a circle of fire around a hollow. What looked to the Ravens like a solid wall of fire approaching them was actually a circle surrounding them-and the .50 caliber machine gun was directly in the center of it.)
 
With the building burning down around their ears, the Americans prepared to move back to the bunker, where a series of sporadic explosions made them think they were under renewed attack. It then dawned on them that the continuing explosions were their own ordnance. “Christ,” somebody groaned, “some of that shit is time delayed.”
 
“Confirm CBU-24,” Swedberg radioed Cricket. 
 
“CBU-24 confirmed,” Cricket responded. There was a pause. “Also CBU-49 mixed in there.”
 
CBU-49 was a canister of time-delayed, baseball-sized bomblets that, according to the book, went off randomly over a thirty minute period, each one blasting out 250 white-hot ball bearings. In reality, they often continued to explode for as long as two hours, and now they were littered throughout the compound.”
 
 

From The Night They Burned The Mountain, by Dr. Thomas A. Dooley (1960) in the village of Muong Sing in Northwest Laos:
 
“Frequently at night we show a movie on the wall of our house. Some 1,000 people sit on the grass and watch in wonder. Little Guntar loves the movies. I think movies have just as much therapeutic value as antibiotics. Walt Disney gave me a 16 mm. version of Dumbo. Dumbo has enchanted North Laos, and the children watch for him every time we show this movie. They never seem to tire of it. “What a wonderful land America must be,” they say. “They have huge elephants and the elephants are pink and green and blue and purple. And some of these elephants have ears so big that they can fly through the air.” Dumbo is winning friends in the ten-year-old bracket for sure.” 
 

 
 

 

 
LAOS BOOK COLLECTIONS
Lydia Laube’s Lost in Laos
It’s an encouraging sign that people now are expecting a lot more out of stories by falang trampling all over Muang Lao.
 
 
LAOS HUMAN TRAFFIKING
Over 3,500 mail order brides were rescued  from Laos who were victims of human trafficking
 
 
LAOS  FAUNA AND FLORA  

Lao Civet Coffee?

 
 
A few weeks ago we talked about the growing range of Lao coffees being offered to the market. Lao forests are facing significant reduction by a wide range of development projects and illegal lumber harvesting reducing the habitat for any number of creatures, including civets.We often associate civet coffee with islands such as the Phillipines, or Sumatra and Vietnam where a pound can cost as much as $600. But these little guys are certainly plentiful in Laos, too, and maybe we should pay a little more attention to its choice in Lao coffee berries. 
 
Personally, I’m not in that much of a hurry to drink civet coffee, but there are certainly many others in the world who are, and this approach might be more ecologically sound than, say, making a massive hydroelectric dam without taking anyone else’s opinion into consideration. But it’s just a thought. 
 
 
 

 
Lao farmers need an alternative to opiumaccording to Irin News. Antinarcotics efforts slashed opium production from 26,800 hectares to 1,500 hectares between 1998 and 2006. Since 2007 opium farming has doubled to 3,000 hectares and the upward trend is still continuing, according to the UN Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Sychan Vakongxiong, a Hmong opium farmer is interviewed, as is Edna Legaspi and Khamen Phomally, deputy district governor of Xay District in Oudomxay and chairman of the local committee on drug control.

.
 
Lao are apparently involved in smuggling exotic animal parts. Members of an international syndicate allegedly use Thai prostitutes to ‘hunt’ and export South African rhino horn and also lion bones to supply the “Vichai Company” which it turns out is actually Xaysavang Trading Export/Import and its owner in Laos is said to be a man known as Vixay Keosavang. It’s stuff like this that seriously makes me want to start rumors that other things besides animal parts are effective “natural viagra.”
 
 

The India Pre Colonial Historic Collections

The India Pre Colonial Historic collections

Created By

dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Private Limited edition E-Book In CD-ROM

@copyright dr Iwan suwandy 2012

 

The Ram Bagh Garden At Agra

INTRODUCTION

The Delhi Sultanate – 1211 – 1526

During the last quarter of the 1100s, Muhammad of Ghor invaded the Indo-Gangetic Plain.  Qutb ud-Din, one of his generals, proclaimed himself Sultan of Delhi and established the first dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate, the Mamluk Dynasty (mamluk means “slave”) in 1211.  Various Moslem dynasties succeeded the Mamluks over the years 1211 to 1526.   They presided over a flowering of Moslem / Hindu arts, and were powerful enough to insulate India from the rampaging Mongol hordes in the north in the 1200s, though Tamerlane did get through to sack Delhi in 1398.   The Sultanate period came to an end with the arival of Babur in 1526 …..

 

 

The Mughals were a Moslem dynasty which originated in central Asia.  One of the secrets of the success of the greatest of the Mughal Emperors like Akbar was their religious tolerance, and indeed their enthusiasm for embracing all the religious groups within their domains.

 

Babur   1483 – 1526 – 1530 (47)

 

The first of the Great Mughals was Babur (“The Tiger”), who invaded and conquered India in 1526.  He was also a diarist, an enthusiastic hunter and lover of gardens.

 

He died in the Ram Bagh gardens in Agra, and his tomb lies in gardens bearing his name in Kabul, Afghanistan. 

 

Babur was the great great great grandson of the Mongol Warlord Tamerlane.  

 

   

 

Humayun 1508 – 1530 – 1540 – 1556 (48)

Born in Kabul, Humayun was the eldest of Babur’s sons, and had helped his father with the conquest of India.   He humayun ascended the throne at Agra on December 30 1530 at the age of 23, but did not have the skills to manage the immature empire, Afghan warlords, Hindu Rajput princes and his own brothers.  He would have liked nothing better than to pursue his passions of mathematics and astronomy, but he had not been dealt that hand! 

 

In 1540 he lost his empire to Afghan leader Sher Shah, but he hung in and managed to get it back 16 years later in 1556.  However, only six months later he died as a result of falling down the steps of his library.  Had he known all of this at the time, he might not have chosen a name which meant “the fortunate”.

 

Humayun did, however, do one memorable thing for posterity, and that was to introduce Persian artists who blended with the locals to produce what we now know as the classic mughal artistic tradition.

 

Humayun’s tomb in Delhi was built by his widow Baga Begam in 1565 – 1569.  It is the earliest  example in India of large scale Mughal architecture – not just the building itself, but the large formal gardens with water channels and fountains, which led to the perfection of the Taj Mahal 70 years later. 

 

It was here in Humayun’s Tomb that the last Mughal Emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar II (1775 – 1862 (87)), was hunted down and taken prisoner by a certain Lieutenant Hodson following the Indian Mutiny in 1857, a prelude to direct rule of India by the British from 1858. 

 

Hodson was the son of an Archdeacon in the Diocese of Lichfield in Central England.  After public school, Cambridge University and the Grenadier Guards he was tasked with raising and operating an irregular cavalry unit which became known as Hodson’s Horse.   He was killed and buried at Lucknow in 1858, just a year after capturing Zafar.  Monuments to dad Hodson and Hodson of Hodson’s Horse were later put up in the south choir aisle of Lichfield Cathedral.

 

Akbar   1542 – 1556 – 1605 (63)
 

The greatest of the Mughal Emperors, Akbar,  was born in exile and ascended the throne at the age of 13 after his father’s short restoration. 

 

In many ways Akbar was the Indian equivalent of Suleiman the Magnificent (1494 – 1520 – 1566).  He conquered massive new territories including much of Rajasthan, created a long lasting civil and military administrative system (called Mansabdari), introduced standard weights and measures, tax structures and a workable police force.

 

Akbar was married to at least seven wives, one of them a Rajput Hindu princess from Jaipur.  He was enormously liberal for his time, promoting religious tolerance (and even his own hybrid Islamic / Hindu / Christian / Zoroastrian religion called Din – i llahi), abolishing slavery and forbidding forced sati.

 

Akbar collected Persian poets, painters and musicians (including Tanzen) at his court like they were  going out of fashion.

 

Finally he gave full vent to the emerging Mughal architectural style in a new purpose built 7.5 sq km administrative capital at Fatehpur Sikri near Agra (1570 – 1582).  This  was the least practical of his ventures because a lack of water forced its abandonment 16 years after its completion.  However the state buildings have been well looked after over the intervening 400+ years and can be visited today as perhaps the finest example of Mughal architecture (after the Taj Mahal).

 

Akbar died in Agra in 1605 and is buried in Sikandra.

Above and below right:  Fatehpur Sikri (built 1570 – 1582)
1600The British East India Company is Born

On 31 December 1600, England’s Queen Elizabeth I (1533 – 1558 – 1603 (70)) signed the Royal Charter which created the British East India Company. Originally a monopoly joint stock trading company, it grew to being the administrator of the whole of India until, in the wake of the rebellion of 1857, India was made a Crown Colony and the assets of the Company were taken over by the British Government.

Babur

 
 
 Babar was more of a soldier than a politician.
 It has been suggested by historians that the government he set up was saifi (by the sword ) and not qalami (by the pen). Considerable parts of his empire were ruled by his ministers with full sovereignity. He was an orthodox Sunni muslim and loved architecture and music; he was also a master of Turki, his mother tongue, as well as Persian. The chronicles of his life, the Babarnama, remains widely used and is a masterpiece of that genre of literature. Babar appears not to have been enamored of Delhi and India, and in recent years his name has been mired in controversy. A mosque by the name of Babri masjid, apparently built in 1526 at his command, was destroyed on 6 December 1992 by Hindu militants. They claim that a Hindu temple, marking the site of Lord Rama’s birth, was destroyed at Babar’s orders, and a mosque built at that very site. For Hindu militants and chauvinists, Babar’s name has become synonymous with the history of Muslim tyranny and oppression, but almost nothing in the historical record warrants this reading

King Humayun

Humayun

 
Humayun
Flag of the Mughal Empire.svg 2nd Mughal Emperor of India
Reign 26 December 1530 – 17 May 1540
(&100000000000000090000009 years, &10000000000000143000000143 days)
22 February 1555 – 27 January 1556
(&100000000000000000000000 years, &10000000000000339000000339 days)
Coronation 30 December 1530, Agra
Predecessor Babur
Successor Akbar
 
Spouse Hamida Banu Begum
Bega Begum
Bigeh Begum
Haji Begum
Mah-chuchak
Miveh Jan
Shahzadi Khanum
Issue
Akbar, son
Mirza Muhammad Hakim, son
Aqiqeh Begum, daughter
Bakshi Banu Begum, daughter
Father Babur
Mother Maham Begum
Born 17 March 1508(1508-03-17)
Kabul
Died 27 January 1556 (age 47)
Delhi
Burial Humayun’s Tomb
Religion Islam

Nasir ud-din Muhammad Humayun (Persian: نصیر الدین محمد همایون; full title: Al-Sultan al-‘Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram, Jam-i-Sultanat-i-haqiqi wa Majazi, Sayyid al-Salatin, Abu’l Muzaffar Nasir ud-din Muhammad Humayun Padshah Ghazi, Zillu’llah; OS 7 March 1508–OS 22 February 1556) was the second Mughal Emperor who ruled present day Afghanistan, Pakistan, and parts of northern India from 1530–1540 and again from 1555–1556. Like his father, Babur, he lost his kingdom early, but with Persian aid, he eventually regained an even larger one. On the eve of his death in 1556, the Mughal empire spanned almost one million square kilometers.

He succeeded his father in India in 1530, while his half-brother Kamran Mirza, who was to become a rather bitter rival, obtained the sovereignty of Kabul and Lahore, the more northern parts of their father’s empire. He originally ascended the throne at the age of 22 and was somewhat inexperienced when he came to power.

Humayun lost Mughal territories to the Pashtun noble, Sher Shah Suri, and, with Persian aid, regained them 15 years later. Humayun’s return from Persia, accompanied by a large retinue of Persian noblemen, signaled an important change in Mughal court culture, as the Central Asian origins of the dynasty were largely overshadowed by the influences of Persian art, architecture, language and literature and also there are many stone carved and Persian language In India from the time of humayun also thousands of Persian manuscript in India..

Subsequently, in a very short time, Humayun was able to expand the Empire further, leaving a substantial legacy for his son, Akbar. His peaceful personality, patience and non-provocative methods of speech earned him the title Insan-i-Kamil, among the Mughals.[1][Full citation needed]

Contents

 [show

[edit] Background

Babur’s decision to divide the territories of his empire between two of his sons was unusual in India, but it had been a common Central Asian practice since the time of Genghis Khan. Unlike most European Monarchies which practised primogeniture, the Timurids, following Genghis Khan’s example, did not leave an entire kingdom to the eldest son. Although under that system only a Chingissid could claim sovereignty and khanal authority, any male Chinggisid within a given sub-branch (such as the Timurids) had an equal right to the throne.[2] While Genghis Khan’s Empire had been peacefully divided between his sons upon his death, almost every Chinggisid succession since had resulted in fratricide.[3][Full citation needed]

Timur himself had divided his territories between Pir Muhammad, Miran Shah, Khalil Sultan and Shah Rukh, which resulted in inter-family warfare.[2][Full citation needed] Upon Babur’s death, Humayun’s territories were the least secure. Babur had ruled only four years, and not all umarah (nobles) viewed Humayun as the rightful ruler. Indeed earlier, when Babur had become ill, some of the nobles had tried to install Humayun’s uncle, Mahdi Khwaja, as ruler. Although this attempt failed, it was a sign of problems to come.[4][Full citation needed]

[edit] Personal traits

Question book-new.svg
This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2011)
 

The Zamburak was introduced as a major weapon in the Mughal Empire by the Mughal Emperor Humayun.

Humayun was portrayed in the biography Humāyūn-nāma written by his sister Gulbadan Begum, as being extraordinarily lenient, constantly forgiving acts which were deliberately aimed at angering him. In one instance the biography records that his youngest brother Hindal killed Humayun’s most trusted advisor, an old Sheikh, and then marched an army out of Agra. Humayun, rather than seek retribution, went straight to his mother’s home where Gulbadan Begum was, bearing no grudge against his younger brother, and insisted he return home. Humayun was loyal, gentle and humane man by the standards of the day. As a warrior he had served honorably alongside his father Babur during the Battle of Khanwa while he was just seventeen years old.

He was interested in poetry and fascinated by Astrology and the Occult. Upon his accession as Padishah (Emperor), he began to re-organise the administration upon mystically determined principles. The public offices were divided into four distinct groups, for the four elements. The department of Earth was to be in charge of Agriculture and the agricultural sciences, Fire was to be in charge of the Military, Water was the department of the Canals and waterways while Air seemed to have responsibility for everything else. His daily routine was planned in accordance with the movements of the planets, so too was his wardrobe. He refused to enter a house with his left foot going forward, and if anyone else did they would be told to leave and re-enter. His servant, Jauhar, records in the Tadhkirat al-Waqiat that he was known to shoot arrows to the sky marked with either his own name, or that of the Shah of Persia and, depending on how they landed, interpreted this as an indication of which of them would grow more powerful.

Early reign

The Mughal Emperor Humayun, fights Bahadur Shah of Gujarat, in the year 1535.

Upon his succession to the throne, Humayun had two major rivals interested in acquiring his lands — Sultan Bahadur of Gujarat to the south west and Sher Shah Suri (Sher Khan) currently settled along the river Ganges in Bihar to the east. Humayun’s first campaign was to confront Sher Khan Suri. Halfway through the counter offensive Humayun had to abandon it and concentrate on Gujarat, where a threat from Ahmed Shah had to be squelched. In this he succeeded and annexed Gujarat and Malwa. Champaner and the great fort of Mandu followed next.

During the first five years of Humayun’s reign, these two rulers were quietly extending their rule, although Sultan Bahadur faced pressure in the east from sporadic conflicts with the Portuguese. While the Mughals had acquired firearms via the Ottoman Empire, Bahadur’s Gujurat had acquired them through a series of contracts drawn up with the Portuguese, allowing the Portuguese to establish a strategic foothold in north western India.[5]

Humayun was made aware that the Sultan of Gujarat was planning an assault on the Mughal territories with Portuguese aid. Showing an unusual resolve, Humayun gathered an army and marched on Bahadur. His assault was spectacular and within a month he had captured the forts of Mandu and Champaner. However, instead of pressing his attack and going after the enemy, Humayun ceased the campaign and began to enjoy life in his new forts. Bahadur, meanwhile, escaped and took up refuge with the Portuguese.[6]

Sher Shah Suri

Sher Shah Suri, the usurper to the rule of Mughal Emperor Humayun.

Shortly after Humayun had marched on Gujarat, Sher Shah saw an opportunity to wrest control of Agra from the Mughals. He began to gather his army together hoping for a rapid and decisive siege of the Mughal capital. Upon hearing this alarming news, Humayun quickly marched his troops back to Agra allowing Bahadur to easily regain control of the territories Humayun had recently taken. A few months later, however, Bahadur was dead, killed when a botched plan to kidnap the Portuguese viceroy ended in a fire-fight which the Sultan lost.

Whilst Humayun succeeded in protecting Agra from Sher Shah, the second city of the Empire, Gaur the capital of the vilayat of Bengal, was sacked. Humayun’s troops had been delayed while trying to take Chunar, a fort occupied by Sher Shah’s son, in order to protect his troops from an attack from the rear. The stores of grain at Gauri, the largest in the empire, were emptied and Humayun arrived to see corpses littering the roads.[7] The vast wealth of Bengal was depleted and brought East giving Sher Shah a substantial war chest.[5]

Sher Shah withdrew to the east, but Humayun did not follow: instead he “shut himself up for a considerable time in his Harem, and indulged himself in every kind of luxury.”[7][Full citation needed] Hindal, Humayun’s 19-year old brother, had agreed to aid him in this battle and protect the rear from attack but abandoned his position and withdrew to Agra where he decreed himself acting emperor. When Humayun sent the grand Mufti, Sheikh Buhlul, to reason with him, the Sheikh was killed. Further provoking the rebellion, Hindal ordered that the Khutba or sermon in the main mosque at Agra be read in his name, a sign of assumption of sovereignty.[6][Full citation needed] When Hindal withdrew from protecting the rear of Humayun’s troops, Sher Shah’s troop quickly reclaimed these positions, leaving Humayun surrounded.[8]

Humayun’s other brother, Kamran, marched from his territories in the Punjab, ostensibly to aid Humayun. However, his return home had treacherous motives as he intended to stake a claim for Humayun’s apparently collapsing empire. He brokered a deal with Hindal which provided that his brother would cease all acts of disloyalty in return for a share in the new empire which Kamran would create once Humayun was deposed.[8]

Sher Shah met Humayun in battle on the banks of the Ganges, near Benares, in Chausa. This was to become an entrenched battle in which both sides spent a lot of time digging themselves into positions. The major part of the Mughal army, the artillery, was now immobile, and Humayun decided to engage in some diplomacy using Muhammad Aziz as ambassador. Humayun agreed to allow Sher Shah to rule over Bengal and Bihar, but only as provinces granted to him by his Emperor, Humayun, falling short of outright sovereignty. The two rulers also struck a bargain in order to save face: Humayun’s troops would charge those of Sher Shah whose forces then retreat in feigned fear. Thus honour would, supposedly, be satisfied.[9]

Once the Army of Humayun had made its charge and Sher Shah’s troops made their agreed-upon retreat, the Mughal troops relaxed their defensive preparations and returned to their entrenchments without posting a proper guard. Observing the Mughals’ vulnerability, Sher Shah reneged on his earlier agreement. That very night, his army approached the Mughal camp and finding the Mughal troops unprepared with a majority asleep, they advanced and killed most of them. The Emperor survived by swimming the Ganges using an air filled “water skin,” and quietly returned to Agra.[5][8]

 In Agra

 
 

When Humayun returned to Agra, he found that all three of his brothers were present. Humayun once again not only pardoned his brothers for plotting against him, but even forgave Hindal for his outright betrayal. With his armies travelling at a leisurely pace, Sher Shah was gradually drawing closer and closer to Agra. This was a serious threat to the entire family, but Humayun and Kamran squabbled over how to proceed. Kamran withdrew after Humayun refused to make a quick attack on the approaching enemy, instead opting to build a larger army under his own name. When Kamran returned to Lahore, his troops followed him shortly afterwards, and Humayun, with his other brothers Askari and Hindal, marched to meet Sher Shah just 240 kilometres (150 mi) east of Agra at the Battle of Kanauj on 17 May 1540. The battle once again saw Humayun make some tactical errors, and his army was soundly defeated. He and his brothers quickly retreated back to Agra, humiliated and mocked along the way by peasants and villagers. They chose not to stay in Agra, and retreated to Lahore, though Sher Shah followed them, founding the short-lived Sur Dynasty of northern India with its capital at Delhi.

In Lahore

The four brothers were united in Lahore, but every day they were informed that Sher Shah was getting closer and closer. When he reached Sirhind, Humayun sent an ambassador carrying the message “I have left you the whole of Hindustan (i.e. the lands to the East of Punjab, comprising most of the Ganges Valley). Leave Lahore alone, and let Sirhind be a boundary between you and me.” Sher Shah, however, replied “I have left you Kabul. You should go there.” Kabul was the capital of the empire of Humayun’s brother Kamran Mirza, who was far from willing to hand over any of his territories to his brother. Instead, Kamran approached Sher Shah, and proposed that he actually revolt against his brother and side with Sher Shah in return for most of the Punjab. Sher Shah dismissed his help, believing it not to be required, though word soon spread to Lahore about the treacherous proposal and Humayun was urged to make an example of Kamran and kill him. Humayun refused, citing the last words of his father, Babur “Do nothing against your brothers, even though they may deserve it.”[10]

Withdrawing further

The Mughal Empire during the reign of Humayun.

Humayun decided that it would be wise to withdraw still further, Humayun and his army rode out through and across the Thar Desert, when the Hindu Rajput ruler Rao Maldeo Rathore allied himself with Sher Shah Suri against the Mughal Empire. In many accounts Humayun mentions how he and his heavily pregnant wife, had to trace their steps through the desert at the hottest time of year. All the wells had been filled with sand by the nearbyHindu inhabitants in order to starve and exhaust the Mughals further, leaving them with nothing but berries to eat. When Hamida’s horse died,no one would lend the Queen (who was now eight months pregnant) a horse, so Humayun did so himself, resulting in him riding a camel for six kilometeres (four miles), although Khaled Beg then offered him his mount. Humayun was later to describe this incident as the lowest point in his life.[11][Full citation needed]

He asked that his brothers join him as he fell back into Sindh. While the previously rebellious Hindal Mirza remained loyal and was ordered to join his brothers in Kandahar. Kamran Mirza and Askari Mirza instead decided to head to the relative peace of Kabul. This was to be a definitive schism in the family.

Humayun expected aid from the Emir of Sindh, Hussein Umrani, whom he had appointed and who owed him his allegiance. The Emir Hussein Umrani welcomed Humayun’s presence and was loyal to Humayin just as he had been loyal to Babur against the renegade Arghuns. Whilst in the oasis garrison of Umerkot in Sindh, Hamida gave birth to Akbar on 25 October 1542, the heir-apparent to the 34-year old Humayun. The date was special because Humayun consulted his Astronomer to utilize the astrolabe and check the location of the planets.

While in Sindh, Humayun alongside Emir Hussein Umrani, gathered horses and weapons and formed new alliances that helped regain lost territories. Until finally Humayun had gathered hundreds of Sindhi and Baloch tribesmen alongside his Mughals and then marched towards Kandahar and later Kabul, thousands more gathered by his side as Humayun continually declared himself the rightful Timurid heir of the first Mughal Emperor Babur.

Retreat to Kabul

After Humayun set out from his expedition in Sindh, along with 300 camels (mostly wild) and 2000 loads of grain, he set off to join his brothers in Kandahar after crossing the Indus River on 11 July 1543 along with the ambition to regain the Mughal Empire and overthrow the Suri dynasty.

In Kamran Mirza’s territory, Hindal Mirza had been placed under house arrest in Kabul after refusing to have the Khutba recited in Kamran Mirza’s name. His other brother Askari Mirza was now ordered to gather an army and march on Humayun. When Humayun received word of the approaching hostile army he decided against facing them, and instead sought refuge elsewhere. Akbar was left behind in camp close to Kandahar for, as it was December it would have been too cold and dangerous to include the 14-month old toddler in the forthcoming march through the dangerous and snowy mountains of the Hindu Kush. Askari Mirza found Akbar in the camp, and embraced him, and allowed his own wife to parent him, she apparently treated him as her own.

Once again Humayun turned toward Kandahar where his brother Kamran Mirza was in power, but he received no help and had to seek refuge with the Shah of Persia.[11]

Refuge in Persia

Shah Tahmasp greets the exiled Humayun.

Shah Tahmasp I and the Mughal Emperor Humayun in Isfahan.

Humayun fled to the refuge of the Safavid Empire in Iran, marching with 40 men and his wife and her companion through mountains and valleys. Amongst other trials the Imperial party were forced to live on horse meat boiled in the soldiers’ helmets. These indignities continued during the month it took them to reach Herat, however after their arrival they were reintroduced to the finer things in life. Upon entering the city his army was greeted with an armed escort, and they were treated to lavish food and clothing. They were given fine accommodations and the roads were cleared and cleaned before them. Shah Tahmasp, unlike Humayun’s own family, actually welcomed the Mughal, and treated him as a royal visitor. Here Humayun went sightseeing and was amazed at the Persian artwork and architecture he saw: much of this was the work of the Timurid Sultan Husayn Bayqarah and his ancestor, princess Gauhar Shad, thus he was able to admire the work of his relatives and ancestors at first hand. He was introduced to the work of the Persian miniaturists, and Kamaleddin Behzad had two of his pupils join Humayun in his court. Humayun was amazed at their work and asked if they would work for him if he were to regain the sovereignty of Hindustan: they agreed. With so much going on Humayun did not even meet the Shah until July, some six months after his arrival in Persia. After a lengthy journey from Herat the two met in Qazvin where a large feast and parties were held for the event. The meeting of the two monarchs is depicted in a famous wall-painting in the Chehel Sotoun (Forty Columns) palace in Esfahan.

The Shah urged that Humayun convert from Sunni to Shia Islam, and Humayun eventually and reluctantly accepted, in order to keep himself and several hundred followers alive.[12] Although the Mughals initially disagreed to their conversion they knew that with this outward acceptance of Shi’ism, Shah Tahmasp was eventually prepared to offer Humayun more substantial support.[12] When Humayun’s brother, Kamran Mirza, offered to cede Kandahar to the Persians in exchange for Humayun, dead or alive, Shah Tahmasp refused. Instead the Shah threw a party for Humayun, with 300 tents, an imperial Persian carpet, 12 musical bands and “meat of all kinds”. Here the Shah announced that all this, and 12,000 choice cavalry were his to lead an attack on his brother Kamran. All that Shah Tahmasp asked for was that, if Humayun’s forces were victorious, Kandahar would be his.

Kandahar and onwards

 
 

An image from an album commissioned by Shah Jahan shows Humayun sitting beneath a tree in his garden in India.

With this Persian Safavid aid Humayun took Kandahar from Askari Mirza after a two-week siege. He noted how the nobles who had served Askari Mirza quickly flocked to serve him, “in very truth the greater part of the inhabitants of the world are like a flock of sheep, wherever one goes the others immediately follow”. Kandahar was, as agreed, given to the Shah of Persia who sent his infant son, Murad, as the Viceroy. However, the baby soon died and Humayun thought himself strong enough to assume power.

Humayun now prepared to take Kabul, ruled by his brother Kamran Mirza. In the end, there was no actual siege. Kamran Mirza was detested as a leader and as Humayun’s Persian army approached the city hundreds of Kamran Mirza’s troops changed sides, flocking to join Humayun and swelling his ranks. Kamran Mirza absconded and began building an army outside the city. In November 1545, Hamida and Humayun were reunited with their son Akbar, and held a huge feast. They also held another, larger, feast in the childs’ honour when he was circumcised.

However, while Humayun had a larger army than his brother and had the upper hand, on two occasions his poor military judgement allowed Kamran Mirza to retake Kabul and Kandahar, forcing Humayun to mount further campaigns for their recapture. He may have been aided in this by his reputation for leniency towards the troops who had defended the cities against him, as opposed to Kamran Mirza, whose brief periods of possession were marked by atrocities against the inhabitants who, he supposed, had helped his brother.

His youngest brother, Hindal Mirza, formerly the most disloyal of his siblings, died fighting on his behalf. His brother Askari Mirza was shackled in chains at the behest of his nobles and aides. He was allowed go on Hajj, and died en route in the desert outside Damascus.

Humayun’s other brother, Kamran Mirza, had repeatedly sought to have Humayun killed, and when in 1552 he attempted to make a pact with Islam Shah, Sher Shah’s successor, he was apprehended by a Gakhar. The Gakhars were one of only a few groups of people who had remained loyal to their oath to the Mughals. Sultan Adam of the Gakhars handed Kamran Mirza over to Humayun. Humayun was tempted to forgive his brother, however he was warned that allowing Kamran Mirza’s continuous acts to go unpunished could foment rebellion within his own ranks. So, instead of killing his brother, Humayun had Kamran Mirza blinded which would end any claim to the throne. He sent him on Hajj, as he hoped to see his brother absolved of his hateful sins, but he died close to Mecca in the Arabian Peninsula in 1557.

India revisited

 
 

The Mughal Emperor Humayun, gathered a vast army and attempted the challenging task of retaking the throne in Delhi.

Sher Shah Suri had died in 1545; his son and successor Islam Shah died too, in 1554. These two deaths left the dynasty reeling and disintegrating. Three rivals for the throne all marched on Delhi, while in many cities leaders tried to stake a claim for independence. This was a perfect opportunity for the Mughals to march back to India. Humayun placed the army under the able leadership of Bairam Khan. This was a wise move given Humayun’s own record of military ineptitude, and turned out to be prescient, as Bairam was to prove himself a great tactician.

 Marriage relations with the Khanzadas

The Gazetteer of Ulwur states:

Soon after Babar’s death, his successor, Humayun, was in AD 1540 supplanted by the Pathan Sher Shah, who, in AD 1545, was followed by Islam Shah. During the reign of the latter a battle was fought and lost by the Emperor’s troops at Firozpur Jhirka, in Mewat, on which, however, Islam Shah did not loose his hold. Adil Shah, the third of the Pathan interlopers, who succeeded in AD 1552, had to contend for the Empire with the returned Humaiyun.[13]

In these struggles for the restoration of Babar’s dynasty Khanzadas apparently do not figure at all. Humaiyun seems to have conciliated them by marrying the elder daughter of Jamal Khan, nephew of Babar’s opponent, Hasan Khan, and by causing his great minister, Bairam Khan, to marry a younger daughter of the same Mewatti.[13]

Bairam Khan led the army through the Punjab virtually unopposed. The fort of Rohtas, which was built in 1541-43 by Sher Shah Suri to crush the Gakhars who were loyal to Humayun, was surrendered without a shot by a treacherous commander. The walls of the Rohtas Fort measure up to 12.5 meters in thickness and up to 18.28 meters in height. They extend for 4 km and feature 68 semi-circular bastions. Its sandstone gates, both massive and ornate, are thought to have exerted a profound influence on Mughal military architecture.

The only major battle faced by Humayun’s armies was against Sikander Suri in Sirhind, where Bairam Khan employed a tactic whereby he engaged his enemy in open battle, but then retreated quickly in apparent fear. When the enemy followed after them they were surprised by entrenched defensive positions and were easily annihilated.

From here on most towns and villages chose to welcome the invading army as it made its way to the capital. On 23 July 1555, Humayun once again sat on Babur’s throne in Delhi.

Ruling North India again

 
 

Copper coin of Humayun

With all of Humayun’s brothers now dead, there was no fear of another usurping his throne during military campaigns. He was also now an established leader, and could trust his generals. With this new-found strength Humayun embarked on a series of military campaigns aimed at extending his reign over areas to East and West India. His sojourn in exile seems to have reduced Humayun’s reliance on astrology, and his military leadership instead imitated the methods he had observed in Persia, allowing him to win more effectively and quicker.

In the year 1540,

 the Mughal Emperor Humayun met the Ottoman Admiral Seydi Ali Reis. During their discussion in the Durbar, Humayun asked which of the two empires was bigger and Seydi Ali Reis, stated that the Ottoman Empire was “ten times bigger”, Humayun was very inspired and he turned towards his nobles and remarked without resentment: “Indeed Suleiman the Magnificent, deserves to be called the only Padshah on Earth”.[14]

This also applied to the administration of the empire. Persian methods of governance were imported into North India in Humayun’s reign. The system of revenue collection is held to have improved on both the Persian model and that of the Delhi Sultanate one. The Persian arts too were very influential, and Persian-style miniatures were produced at Mughal (and subsequently Rajput) courts. The Chaghatai language, in which Babur had written his memoirs, disappeared almost entirely from the culture of the courtly elite, and Akbar could not speak it. Later in life, Humayun himself is said to have spoken in Persian verse more often than not.

Trusted Generals

 
 

After defeating Bahadur Shah’s confederacy in Gujarat, Humayun placed the following Generals in Gujarat:

  1. Mirza Askurry at Ahmedabad
  2. Yadgar Nasir at Patan
  3. Kasim Hussein Sultan in Bharoach
  4. Hindu Beg in Baroda
  5. Tardy Beg Khan in Champaner

However, these officials and generals could not contain uprisings and left Gujarat to be occupied by Bahadur Shah again.

Death and legacy

 
 

On 27 January 1556, Humayun, with his arms full of books, was descending the staircase from his library when the muezzin announced the Adhan (the call to prayer). It was his habit, wherever he heard the summons, to bow his knee in holy reverence. Kneeling, he caught his foot in his robe, tumbled down several steps and hit his temple on a rugged stone edge. He died three days later, and was succeeded by the 13-year old Akbar.

 References

  1. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=uB1uAAAAMAAJ&q=Humayun&source=gbs_word_cloud_r&cad=6
  2. ^ a b Sharaf Al-Din: “Zafar-nama”.
  3. ^ Svat Soucek: “A History of Inner Asia”.
  4. ^ Nizamuddin Ahmad: “Tabaqat-i-Akbari”.
  5. ^ a b c Rama Shankar Avasthy: “The Mughal Emperor Humayun”.
  6. ^ a b S.K. Banjerji: “Humayun Badshah”.
  7. ^ a b Jauhar: “Tadhkirat al-Waqiat”.
  8. ^ a b c Bamber Gascoigne: “The Great Moghuls”.
  9. ^ Badauni: “Muntakhab al-Tawarikh”.
  10. ^ Abul-Fazel: “Akbar-nama”.
  11. ^ a b http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00islamlinks/ikram/part2_10.html
  12. ^ a b John F. Richards, Gordon Johnson (1996). Cambridge University Press. ed. The Mughal Empire (illustrated, reprint ed.). p. 11. ISBN 0521566037. http://books.google.com/books?id=HHyVh29gy4QC&pg=PA11&dq=Humayun+shia+islam&as_brr=3&client=opera&hl=es
  13. ^ a b http://www.archive.org/stream/gazetteerofulwur00powliala#page/8/mode/2up/search/bairam
  14. ^ http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=s04pus5jBNwC&pg=PA11

 

1498

When Vasco da Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope

 and landed at Calicut in 1498,

the trade with India and the Far East passed into a Portuguese channel.

A budgerow, Calcutta

The old routes had been in the hands of Mohammedan traders, who shipped their goods by the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea, and so overland to Syrian and Egyptian ports, whence the merchandise found its way to Europe in Venetian bottoms. These routes were tapped at their source when Portugal acquired the command of the Indian Ocean. In the hands of such heroes as Pacheco, Almeida, and

 Albuquerque,

the control of Portugal over the whole of the commerce with the East Indies, Spice Islands, and China was assured. Arab traders and Egyptian navies sought in vain to oust the invaders of their ancient privileges. From the Cape of Good Hope to China the extended coast-line was armed with a chain of Portuguese fortresses, and no ship could sail without a Portuguese passport. 

But the age of heroes for Portuguese India passed away, and there were still no signs of a consolidated Portuguese empire in the East. Albuquerque had dreamed of such an empire, in the spirit of a Dupleix or a Clive, and he had exhausted his little nation by the constant drain of colonization. His policy had not been continued, and an empire on Indian soil was abandoned in favour of fortified trading centres supported by the command of the Eastern seas. The forts remained, but no attempt at any more ambitious settlement was made; and should the command of the seas be lost, there was nothing to save the commerce of Portugal with the East.

1566

Akbar’s Reforms – The Divine Faith – 1566–1605 A.D.

This assimilation of the Hindu chiefs was the most conspicuous feature of Akbar’s reign. His wars were like other Indian wars, only mitigated by his sovereign quality of mercy to those who submitted, and by his scrupulous care that the peasants should not suffer by the passage of his troops. The empire was gradually extended till it stretched from Kandahar to the Bay of Bengal, and included the whole of Hindustan down to the Narbada. But the remarkable points about this expansion to the old limits of Ala-ad-din’s realm were, first, that it was done with the willing help of the Hindu princes, and, secondly, that expansion went hand in hand with orderly administration. This was a new thing in Indian government, for hitherto the local officials had done pretty much as it pleased them, and the central authority had seldom interfered so long as the revenue did not suffer. Akbar allowed no oppression by his lieutenants, and not a few of his campaigns were undertaken mainly for the purpose of punishing governors who had been guilty of self-seeking and peculation. Much of the improvement was due to his employment of Hindus, who at that time were better men of business than the uneducated and mercenary adventurers who formed a large proportion of the Mohammedan invaders.

No Moslem served Akbar more zealously or with more far-reaching results than the great financier, Raja Todar Mal, a Khatri Rajput, who had served in his youth under the able administration, of Sher Shah, and had thus gained priceless experience in the management of lands and revenues. He assisted Akbar’s first chancellor of the exchequer, Muzaffar Khan, in settling the newly acquired kingdom, and

1566

 in 1566 took a leading part in suppressing the revolt of Ali Kull. It was the first time, in Moghul rule, that a Hindu had been sent against a Moslem enemy, and his employment was doubtless due to Akbar’s suspicion that the Mohammedan generals might act in collusion with their old comrade, the rebel. After this he was employed in settling the revenue system of Gujarat, and

1574

then again took military command in the conquest of Bengal in 1574–7 and its reduction in 1581, when he distinguished himself by his firm courage. He was rewarded soon afterwards with the office of vizir, and

in 1582

 became chief finance minister, introducing the famous reforms and the new assessment known as Todar Mal’s rent-roll, the Domesday Book of the Moghul empire. He died in 1589. “Careful to keep himself from selfish ambition,” writes Abu-l-Fazl, “he devoted himself tothe service of the state, and earned an everlasting fame.”

There is no name in mediaeval history more renowned in India to the present day than that of Todar Mal, and the reason is that nothing in Akbar’s reforms more nearly touched the welfare of the people than the great financier’s reconstruction of the revenue system. The land-tax was always the main source of revenue in India, and it had become almost the sole universal burden since Akbar had abolished not only the poll-tax and pilgrims’ dues but over fifty minor duties. The object was now to levy a fair rent on the land, which should support the administration without unduly burdening the cultivators. Mr. H. G. Keene, an able modern Indian administrator, thus describes the system: “The basis of the land-revenue was the recognition that the agriculturist was the owner of the soil, the state being entitled to the surplus produce. Sometimes an official or a court favourite obtains an alienation of the state’s demands on a township or group of townships; but the grant, even if declared to be perpetual, is usually treated as temporary, in the sense that it is liable to be resumed at the death of the grantee or at the demise of the crown. That being the normal conception in systems like that of the Moslems in Hindustan, the agriculturists – especially if they were Hindus – were taillables et corvéables à merci1. It was Sher Shah who, first among these rulers, perceived the benefit that might be expected from leaving a definite margin between the state’s demand and the expenses of cultivation. The determination of this margin, and the recognition of the person who should be secured in its enjoyment, formed the basis of the system which, under the name of ‘settlement,’ still prevails in most parts of India.

“A fixed standard of mensuration having been adopted, the land was surveyed. It was then classified, according as it was waste, fallow, or under crop. The last class was taken as the basis of assessment, that which produced cereals, vetches, or oil-seeds being assessed to pay one-third of the average gross produce to the state, the other two-thirds being left to the cultivators. This was a complete departure from the law of Islam, for it made no difference between the revenue raised from Moslems and that raised from unbelievers. Sher Shah’s demand was in no case to be exceeded. It is very noticeable that Akbar added to his policy of union the equally important policy of continuity of system. He aimed at securing to the peasant the power of enjoying his property and profiting by the fruit of his labours. The needy husbandman was furnished with advances, repayable on easy terms. The assessments when once made were assessed for nineteen years; and after the twenty-fourth year of the reign, the aggregate collections of the past ten years having been added together and divided by ten, the future collections were made on the basis of this decennial average.

“Care was taken to provide easy means of complaint when undue collections were exacted and to punishs everely the guilty exactors. The number of minor officials employed in realizing the recorded dues was diminished by one-half. The cultivators were to be made responsible, jointly as well as severally; the cultivators of fallow land were to be favoured for two years; advances of seed and money were to be made when necessary, arrears being remitted in the case of small holdings. Collectors were to make yearly reports on the conduct of their subordinates. Monthly returns were to be transmitted to the imperial exchequer. Special reports were to be sent up of any special calamities, hail, flood, or drought. The collectors were to see that the farmers got receipts for their payments, which were to be remitted four times in the year; at the end of that period no balance should be outstanding. Payments were if possible to be voluntary, but the standing crops were theoretically hypothecated, and where needful were to be attached. Above all, there was to be an accurate and minute record of each man’s holding and liabilities. The very successful land-revenue system of British India is little more than a modification of these principles.”

One special feature of Todar Mal’s system was the enactment that all government accounts should be kept in Persian, instead of in Hindi, as heretofore. As Blochmann well says, “He thus forced his co-religionists to learn the court language of their rulers – a circumstance that may be compared with the introduction of the English language in the courts of India. The study of Persian therefore became necessary for its pecuniary advantage. Todar Mal’s order, and Akbar’s generous policy of allowing Hindus to compete for the highest honours – Man Singh was the first ‘Commander of seven thousand’ – explain two facts: first, that before the end of the eighteenth century the Hindus had almost become the Persian teachers of the Mohammedans; secondly, that a new dialect could arise in Upper India, the Urdu, which, without the Hindus as receiving medium, could never have been called into existence. Whether we attach more importance to Todar Mal’s order or to Akbar’s policy, which when once initiated his successors, willing or not, had to follow, one fact should be borne in mind – that before the time of Akbar the Hindus as a rule did not study Persian and stood therefore politically below their Mohammedan rulers.”

Such changes, which put the subdued Hindu absolutely on a level with the conquering Moslem, were naturally repugnant to Akbar’s more bigoted followers. The contemporary historian Badauni writes bitterly on the subject, and his cynicism is a useful corrective to the enthusiastic panegyrics of other writers of the time. Yet even when he wishes to make things appear in the worst light, he really shows the excellence of the intentions, at least, of the new measures, while exposing some of their defects. For instance, referring to one of the early attempts at land assessment,

in 1574,

he says:

“In this year an order was promulgated for improving the cultivation of the country and for bettering the condition of the rayats, or peasants. All the parganas, or fiscal unions of the country, whether dry or irrigated, in towns or hills, deserts or jungles, by rivers or reservoirs or wells, were to be measured, and every piece of land large enough to produce, when cultivated, one crore of tankas was to be divided off and placed under the charge of an officer called the crori, selected for his trustworthiness and without regard to his acquaintance with the revenue officials: so that in three years’ time all the uncultivated land might be tilled, and the treasury be replenished. The measurement was begun near Fathpur, and one crore was named Adampur, another Sethpur, and so on after prophets and patriarchs. Rules were laid down, but were not properly observed, and much of the land was laid waste through the rapacity of the croris; the peasants’ wives and children were sold and dispersed, and everything went to confusion. But the croris were brought to account by Raja Todar Mal, and many pious men died from severe beatings and the torture of rack and pincers. Indeed so many died after long imprisonment by the revenue officers that the executioner or headsman was forestalled.”

All this is intended by the writer to cast ridicule on the reforms, but it really shows that they were good, and that they were, moreover, strictly enforced. The same cynic can see no advantage in Akbar’s system of territorial commands. The Moghul officers, whether Hindus or Moslems, were spread over the land, and the state taxes were granted to them in certain districts (except the Khalisa, or exchequer lands) in return for military service. They had to bring a fixed number of men-at-arms, horses, and elephants into the field, and were rated, according to the number they brought, as mansabdars of ten, twenty, a hundred, a thousand, and the like. It was no invention of Akbar’s, for we have seen it at work in much earlier times, and of course it was liable to abuse, though Akbar did much to remove the old dangers and corruptions of the system. Badauni said that the laziness, license, extravagance, and greed of the mansabdars ate up all the grant, and that no money was left to pay the soldiers, so the amirs dressed their grooms and servants as men-at-arms and passed them off at the muster, and then sent them back to their duties. “The treasure, tax-gathering, and expenditure of the mansabdars remained unchanged, but in every way dirt fell into the plate of the poor soldier, and he could not gird up his loins. Weavers, cotton-dressers, carpenters, and Hindu and Moslem chandlers would hire a charger, bring it to the muster, obtain a mansab [or order on the land-revenue], and become a crori, trooper, or substitute for some one: a few days later not a trace would be found of the hired horse, and they became footmen again. This sort of trade was carried on to a great extent [and Akbar knew it]; nevertheless the emperor’s good luck was such that his foes were everywhere crushed, and soldiers were not so much wanted.” As the enemies could not be crushed without soldiers, the system, though abused, appears to have answered its purpose.

There were doubtless many imperfections and many cases of malversation in spite of Akbar’s efforts; but this is only to say that the best system in the world is open to abuse, especially in an Oriental country, where to cheat the government is a virtue and to grind the faces of the poor a venial fault. The real reason that Badauni is so severe upon these reforms is that they were but a part of a general tendency to lax views on the part of the emperor. It was not merely in his just and equable treatment of the Hindus that Akbar showed his broad and open mind. There were other influences at work besides those of his Hindu wives and friends, and they all made for what the orthodox Badauni denounced as latitudinarian. A king who was constitutionally unable to see why a Hindu should pay more taxes than a Moslem was also liable to equally deplorable liberality in matters of faith, and Akbar had been deeply moved by the mystical doctrines of the Persian Sufis as revealed to him by two brilliant brothers. From the time when Faizi, the mystic poet, joined the emperor’s suite at the siege of Chitor in 1568, and still more when seven years later he introduced his young brother, the gentle and enthusiastic scholar Abu-l-Fazl, Akbar’s mind had been unsettled in religion. He was essentially eclectic, and saw good in almost every form of worship. From his youth he had delighted in the conversation of scholars and philosophers and had shown the greatest deference to real learning; he had books read aloud to him daily from his rich library, and would go through them again and again; and now under the influence of the speculative mind of Abu-l-Fazl – a man of wide culture and pure spiritual ideals, who recognized his hero in his king, and devoted himself to him with his whole heart – he began to encourage debates on doctrinal and philosophical questions and displayed an eager curiosity in the discussions.

The Divan-i-Khas, Fathpur-Sikri

These debates took place in a hall called the Hall of Worship (Ibadat-Khanah – supposed to be identical with that now known as the Divan-i-Khas), founded in 1574 at the city of Fathpur, which had become the emperor’s favourite residence. The city itself was the offspring of faith. Akbar, at least in the earlier part of his reign, was a devout visitor of holy places, and frequented the tombs of Moslem saints. We read again and again how he made solemn pilgrimages to famous

Sheikh Salim Chisti’s Tomb at Fathpur-Sikri. shrines;

Tomb of Shaikh Salim Chisti, Sufi saint during Mughal Empire, in Uttar Pradesh, India

 

Tomb of Shaikh Salim Chisti, Sufi saint during Mughal Empire, in Uttar Pradesh, India

 and one of his objects was to secure an heir, for up to the fourteenth year of his reign none of the sons born to him had lived. He repaired to a holy man dwelling in a cave at the village of Sikri, not far from Agra; the hermit promised him a son, and Akbar placed his wife, the Princess of Amber, under the care of the saint till her time should be accomplished. Sikri, as well as its local prophet, waxed rich and populous by the numerous visits of the anxious king.

Palaces began to rise by 1569,

 and the prophet, Salim Chisti,

set up a new monastery and a noble mosque. The aristocrats built them mansions near the palace. Sikri knew itself no more, and its name was changed to Fathpur, “the town of victory.” Happily the seer was justified in the event, and Akbar’s son, named Salim after the holy man, but better known as the Emperor Jahangir, was safely ushered into the world. Fathpur derived fresh lustre from this auspicious event, and Akbar lavished all the taste and art of the age upon its adornment.

Nothing sadder or more beautiful exists in India than this deserted city, the silent witness of a vanished dream. It still stands, with its circuit of seven miles, its seven bastioned gates, its wonderful palaces, peerless in all India for noble design and delicate adornment; its splendid mosque and pure marble shrine of the hermit saint; its carvings and paintings – stands as it stood in Akbar’s time, but now a body without a soul. Reared with infinite thought and curious care, it was deserted fourteen years later. When William Finch visited it five years after its founder’s death he found it “ruinate, lying like a waste district, and very dangerous to pass through at night.” Ruinate it has remained ever since, desolate and abandoned. No later ruler of India has ever aspired to dwell in Akbar’s Versailles, just as none ever rose to the height of Akbar’s ideals. In the empty palaces, the glorious mosque, the pure white tomb, the baths, the lake, at every turn we recognize some memory of the greatest of Indian emperors. We may even enter his bedroom, the Khwabgah, or “home of dreams,” and see the very screens of beautiful stone tracery, the same Persian couplets, the identical ornament in gold and ultramarine on which Akbar feasted his eyes in the long sultry afternoons of the Indian plains. We may walk into the houses of Faizi and Abu-l-Fazl, the laureate and the premier of his empire, who sang his glory and chronicled his reign. We may stand in the audience-hall, with its pillar throne and galleries, where the keenest dialectic of Moslem schoolmen, Catholic priests, Pantheists, Zoroastrians, Brahmans, and Buddhists rose in heated battle for their creeds, till quarrels and coarse vituperation called up the bitter sneer of the puritanic Badauni and the regretful contempt of the royal seeker after truth.

Fathpur, with its beauty in desolation, has stirred the poetic vision of a Heber, and compelled the homage of the wisest critic of Indian art. Fergusson wrote of the “Turkish Sultana’s House,” which still overlooks the Pachisi Court where Akbar is said to have played his games of living chess with slave-girls as pieces moving on the checkered pavement, that nothing can be conceived so picturesque in outline, so richly and so marvellously carved, without one touch of extravagance or false taste. The five-storied Panch Mahal, a kind of Buddhist Vihara, and the house of Akbar’s witty Hindu favourite, Raja Birbal, have their individual charm; while the frescoes in “Miraim’s Kothi” are curious documents in the history of Indian painting, of which we obtain some glimpses in the albums of Moghul portraits, drawn by artists of the Panjab and now preserved in the British Museum and a few private collections. The presence of Jesuit Fathers at Agra, attracted by the liberal views of Akbar, accounts for some of the characteristics of these curious paintings. Aureoles and angels appear; a little later we find the Blessed Virgin represented in a kiosk of Jahangir; and scenes of Christian hagiography were favourite subjects with Moghul artists. The Annunciation is believed to be depicted in a fresco at Fathpur-Sikri, while another strongly resembles the fall of Adam. There are even traces of the work of Chinese artists in the Buddhist paintings in the “Home of Dreams.” Indeed this Indian Pompeii, with its unique and never iterative designs, is a museum of exquisite aesthetic genius. Akbar’s views on art were characteristic. One day he remarked to some friends: “There are many that hate painting, but such men I dislike. It appears to me as if a painter had quite peculiar means of recognizing God; for a painter, in sketching anything that has life, and in devising its limbs one after the other, must come to feel that he cannot bestow personality upon his work, and is thus forced to think of God, the giver of life, and will thus increase in knowledge.” He had always been fond of painting, and kept a number of painters at court, whose work was displayed before him every week.

“The Turkish Sultana’s House.” Fathpur-Sikri

“Hence the. art flourishes,” wrote Abu-l-Fazl, “and many painters have obtained great reputations, while masterpieces worthy of [the famous Persian court painter] Bahzad may be placed beside the wonderful works of the European painters who have attained world-wide fame. The minuteness in detail, the general finish, the boldness of execution, and the like, now observed in pictures, are incomparable.” This was written in Akbar’s lifetime, and it is noteworthy that the historian distinguishes the Hindu painters as the best among the hundred famous masters of the age, though he mentions some great artists from Persia.

In this fairy city Akbar’s dream of a universal religion grew into definite shape. It was in the Hall of Worship that he sought wearily to elicit truth from the debates of professors. “The unity that had existed among the learned,” says Blochmann, “disappeared in the very beginning; abuse took the place of argument, and the plainest rules of etiquette were, even in the presence of the emperor, forgotten. Akbar’s doubts, instead of being cleared up, only increased; certain points of the Hanafi law, to which most Sunnis cling, were found to be better established by the dicta of lawyers belonging to the other three sects; and the Moral character of the Prophet was next scrutinized and found wanting. Makhdum-al-mulk [the head of the ultra-bigoted orthodox party] wrote a spiteful pamphlet against Shaikh Abd-an-Nabi, the Sadr [or chancellor] of the empire, and the latter retorted by calling Makhdum a fool and cursing him. Abu-l-Fazl, upon whom Akbar from the beginning had fixed as the leader of his party, fanned the quarrels by skilfully shifting the disputes from one point to another.” The heated discussions of the learned men whom he gathered on Thursday nights to defend the dogmas of their creeds only inspired him with compassion for the futility of their reasoning and contempt for the narrowness of their grasp. In Akbar’s eyes there was truth in all faiths, but no one creed could hold the master-key of the infinite As Abu-l-Fazl wrote:–

“O God, in every temple I see those who see thee, and in every tongue that is spoken, thou art praised.

Polytheism and Islam grope after thee.

Each religion says, ‘Thou art one, without equal.’

Be it mosque, men murmur holy prayer ; or church, the bells ring, for love of thee.

Awhile I frequent the Christian cloister, anon the mosque :

But thee only I seek from fane to fane.

Thine elect know naught of heresy or orthodoxy, whereof neither stands behind the screen of thy truth.

Heresy to the heretic – dogma to the orthodox –

But the dust of the rose-petal belongs to the heart of the perfume-seller.”

Tennyson has finely expressed Akbar’s dream of a pure and universal faith:–

“I can but lift the torch

Of reason in the dusky cave of Life,

And gaze on this great miracle, the World,

Adoring That who made, and makes, and is,

And is not, what I gaze on – all else Form,

Ritual, varying with the tribes of men.”

It had taken many years to develop this new religion of catholic comprehension. Akbar would often sit, in the first hour of dawn, on a stone in his palace court, watching the rising of the sun and meditating on the mystery of life. He was passing through a stage of earnest doubt. He listened eagerly to the words of the Christian fathers, to the Vedanta philosophy of ascetic yogis, and he must have known the Buddhist doctrine and the profound metaphysic of India. He had versions of the Sanskrit classics to be made for him and he ordered a translation to be made of the Gospels of Christ. Badauni, the Mohammedan writer, says:– “In the year 986 A.H. (1578 A.D.) the missionaries of Europe, who are called Padres, and whose chief pontiff, called Papa, promulgates his interpretations for the use of the people, and who issues mandates that even kings dare not disobey, brought their Gospel to the emperor’s notice, advanced proofs of the Trinity, and affirmed the truth and spread abroad the knowledge of the religion of Jesus. The emperor ordered Prince Murad to learn a few lessons from the Gospel and to treat it with all due respect, and Shaikh Abu-l-Fazl was ordered to translate it. Instead of the prefatory Bismillah, the following ejaculation was enjoined: O thou whose name is Jesus Christ.’ ”

Islam no longer satisfied him, though his instinctive devoutness still took him on pilgrimages to Moslem shrines, and as late as the twenty-first year of his reign he was contemplating a journey to Mekka. But Islam was too narrow for his expanding soul. The outward symbols went; the Moslem shibboleth vanished from the coinage, and the ambiguous formula “Allahu Akbar,” “God is most great” (or, as detractors construed it, “Akbar is God”), took its place. When Moslems met, instead of the customary salam, they were to say “Allahu Akbar,” and the reply, “Jalla Jalaluh,” “May his glory shine!” was construed as containing another suspicious reference to Akbar’s surname, Jalal-ad-din. While plainly declaring that he pretended to no divine incarnation, such as the Shi’as acknowledge, the emperor assumed a wholly new position in relation to matters of faith. He found that the rigid Moslems of the court were always casting in his teeth some absolute authority, a book, a tradition, a decision of a canonical divine, and, like Henry VIII, he resolved to cut the ground from under them; he would himself be the head of the church, and there should be no Pope in India but Akbar.

His first assumption of the role of priest-king was unintentionally dramatic. Following the precedents of the caliphs of old, he stood before the people in the great mosque of Fathpur one Friday in 1580, and began to read the bidding prayer (khutba), into which Faizi had introduced these lines:

“The Lord to me the Kingdom gave,

He made me prudent, strong and brave,

He guided me with right and ruth,

Filling my heart with love of truth;

No tongue of man can sum His State –

Allahu Akbar! God is great.”

But the emotion of the scene, the sight of the multitude, and the thought of his high office were too much for him. Akbar faltered and broke down, and the court preacher had to finish the prayer.

Soon afterwards Akbar promulgated a document which is unique in the history of the Mohammedan world. It was drawn up by the father of Faizi and Abu-l-Fazl, himself a Shi’a pantheist, and it was signed, sorely against their will, by the orthodox divines and lawyers of the court. It set forth in unmistakable terms that the authority of the just king was higher than that of a Mujtahid (or sublime doctor of the faith), and that, should a religious question arise regarding which the Mujtahids were at variance, the emperor’s decision should be binding on the Moslems of India, and any opposition to the imperial decrees should involve the loss of goods and religion in this world, and ensure damnation in the world to come. In other words, Akbar’s judgment was set above every legal and religious authority except the plain letter of the Koran. It was a promulgation of a doctrine of imperial infallibility.

After thus breaking sharply with the principles of Mohammedan tradition, Akbar went, as of old, on pilgrimage to a saint’s tomb. Badauni smiled grimly and said “it was strange that his Majesty should have such faith in the good man of Ajmir while rejecting our Prophet, the foundation of everything, from whose skirt hundreds of thousands of first-class saints had sprung.” With the same superstitious bent, oddly contrasting with his philosophic theory, Akbar is said to have varied the colours of his clothes in accordance with the regent planet of the day, to have muttered spells at night to subdue the sun to his will, to have prostrated himself publicly before the sun and the sacred fire, and to have made the whole court rise respectfully when the lamps were lighted. On the festival of the eighth day after the sun entered Virgo, the emperor came forth to the audience-chamber with his brow marked in

Hindu fashion and with jewelled strings tied by Brahmans on his wrists to represent the sacred thread. He was not above charms and sortileges. He studied alchemy as well as astronomy, and is reported to have exhibited the gold he had professedly transmuted, and he took boundless interest in the tricks and miracles both of the Hindu ascetics, or yogis, and of the Moslem fakirs.

The truth is that Akbar was singularly sensitive to religious impressions of every kind, and that his new religion, the Din-i-Ilahi, or “divine faith,” an eclectic pantheism, contained elements taken from very diverse creeds. While overthrowing nearly every ceremonial rule, whether of Islam or of Hinduism, and making almost all things lawful save excess, he took ideas from learned Brahmans as well as from Portuguese missionaries; he adopted the worship of the sun as the symbol of the Creator, and himself daily set the example of “adoring Him the Timeless in the flame that measures Time “; as the starting-point of his new Ilahi era he introduced the solar year which begins at the vernal equinox; he forbade cow-eating, in deference to Indians, and had himself ceremonially weighed in Hindu fashion on both his solar and his lunar birthday; he instituted the sacred fire adored of the Parsis, and encouraged the hem sacrifice of the Hindus in his palace. The new cult was cordially professed only by a small band of courtiers calling themselves “the elect,” and including Faizi, Abu-l-Fazl, and other Persians, chiefly poets, as well as one Hindu, Birbal, but the rest, even of the court, remained indifferent, when not hostile. Some boldly refused to join the new faith, but the most part temporized for fear of losing favour. Of course an eclectic religion never takes hold of a people, and Akbar’s curiously interesting hodgepodge of philosophy, mysticism, and nature-worship practically died with him; but the broad-minded sympathy which inspired such a vision of catholicity left a lasting impress upon a land of warring creeds and tribes, and for a brief while created a nation where before there had been only factions.

Darugha Pershad’s house, Fathpur-Sikri

With the promulgation of the emperor’s infallibility the debates in the Hall of Worship came to an end; the leading bigots Makhdum and Abd-an-Nabi were sent to refresh their fanaticism at Mekka, and the pantheists under Abu-l-Fazl and his brother enjoyed a brief triumph. Both held high rank, but Faizi prized his office of poet-laureate above any political power, while Abu-l-Fazl became Divan, or Treasurer, of the Province of Delhi. These two brilliant and sympathetic brothers were now Akbar’s chief intimates, and he found in their devotion more than compensation for the solitary elevation that is the inevitable fate of a reforming sovereign born centuries before the accepted time. Probably they encouraged him in the fancies and extravagances which somewhat marred his later life. One of these fancies was a belief that the religion of Islam would not survive its millennium, and that its collapse would be accompanied by the advent of the Mahdi, the Lord of the Age, in whom Akbar was easily induced to recognize himself. He ordered a “History of the Millennium” (Tarikh-i-Alfi) to be compiled by a company of scholars, including the reluctant Badauni, to put a seal, as it were, upon an extinct religion. The events of the thousand years of doomed Islam were related from a Shi’a point of view, and, to add to the confusion, the chronology was reckoned from the death of the Prophet instead of from his flight (Hijra).

This was an example of Akbar’s love of innovation, and it is impossible to deny that he was fond of experiment and novelty for their own sake. “All good things must once have been new,” he remarked, and accordingly he tested the novel habit of smoking tobacco, which was first introduced in India in his reign. As Dr. Holden has said, “He experimented in all departments, from religion to metallurgy,” and som of his changes appear to have been dictated by mere whim and restless curiosity, rather than by reason and judgment. His experimental spirit was displayed in the way he endeavoured to ascertain the natural religion of the untaught child. He separated a score of hapless babies from their mothers, and shut them up in a house where none might speak to them, in order to see what faith they would evolve. After three or four years the children were let out, and they came forth – dumb! The emperor’s experiments were not always wise.

Nevertheless, he had wise counsellors, and it was an age of great literary abundance. Faizi was one of the most exquisite poets India has ever produced, and Abu-l-Fazl’s “Book of Akbar” (Akbarnamah), written in 1597, the third volume of which forms the celebrated Ain-i-Akbari, or “Acts of Akbar,” will always retain its fascination as a minute record of the customs and institutions of the greatest age of the Moghul empire. As Col. H. S. Jarrett, one of its translators, has said, “it crystallizes and records in brief for all time the state of Hindu learning, and, besides its statistical utility, serves as an admirable treatise of reference on numerous branches of Brahmanical science and on the manners, beliefs, traditions, and indigenous lore, which for the most part still retain and will long continue their hold on the popular mind. Above all as a register of the fiscal areas, the revenue settlements, and changes introduced at various periods, the harvest returns, valuations and imposts throughout the provinces of the empire, its originality is as indisputable as its surpassing historical importance.”

While Akbar was busy in enlarging the boundaries of faith, his material empire had not stood still. The conquests of Gujarat and Bengal, though requiring more than one repetition, had brought the empire to the normal limits of Hindustan. Kabul and the Afghan country, ruled by his disloyal brother Hakim, had repeatedly revolted; Badakhshan was finally lost in 1585,

and the merry Raja Birbal fell in a disastrous attempt to coerce the wild Yusufzais in 1586.

 But after Hakim’s death Kabul was pacified, and Kashmir was annexed in 1587, while in 1594 Kandahar was included in the empire. These were small changes, but more important conquests were attempted in the south. Again and again in Indian history we find in the Deccan the bane of Delhi kings. Nature never intended the same ruler to govern both sides of the Vindhya mountains, for people, character, and geographical conditions are dissimilar. Nevertheless, to conquer the Deccan has been the ambition of every great King of Delhi, and the attempt has always brought disaster. Akbar was not immune from the Deccan fever, but it seized him late in life. Up to the last decade of his reign his power had scarcely been felt south of the Satpura range, and although he had taken Burhanpur and made the rajas of Khandesh and Berar his tributaries as early as 1562, their tribute was intermittent and their fealty barely nominal.

1599

A viceroy of the Deccan was eventually appointed

The Tomb of Akbar the Great at Sikandra

Five miles northwest of Agra stands the magnificent tomb in which the dust of the great Moghul emperor Akbar reposes. The approach to the mausoleum is beneath a grand portal and up a handsome pathway lined on either side with trees and fragrant shrubs. The building itself is of red sandstone, except the upper story, which is of the finest white marble. In the midst of this upper tier is a superb white marble cenotaph resting upon a tessellated pavement and standing directly above the place where, in a vaulted chamber, three stories below, lie the remains of him who was India’s noblest king.to consolidate authority, but in the hands of the emperor’s bibulous son Murad, and his equally intemperate successor, Prince Daniyal, the office became contemptible. Murad’s incompetence to subdue open rebellion in Berar led to his recall and the appointment of Abu-l-Fazl to the command of the army which in 1599 resolutely set about the re-conquest of the Deccan. Akbar himself arrived at the seat of war, and success soon followed. Ahmadnagar, formerly strenuously defended by the Princess Chand Bibi, had again fallen after six months’ siege, and Asirgarh, the strongest fortress in Khandesh, opened its gate in 1600. An inscription on that glorious gateway, the Buland Darwazah at Fathpur, records how “His Majesty, King of Kings, Heaven of the court, Shadow of God, Jalal-ad-din Mohammad Akbar Padishah conquered the Kingdom of the South and Dandesh, which was heretofore Khandesh, in the Ilahi year 46, which is the year of the Hijra 1010. Having reached Fathpur he went on to Agra. Jesus (on whom be peace!) hath said: ‘the world is a bridge; pass over it, but build no house there: he who hopeth for an hour may hope for eternity: the world is but an hour – spend it in devotion: the rest is unseen.’ ”

1602

In these last sad years the great heart of the emperor was weighed down with grief. He had lost his beloved friend, the poet Faizi, in 1595, two of his own sons were sinking to their dishonoured deaths; the eldest, Salim, was little better and had shown flagrant insubordination. And now the closest of his friends, the inspirer of many of his best thoughts and acts, was to be sacrificed. Prince Salim, jealous of Abu-l-Fazl’s influence and impatient of his censure, caused this upright and faithful servant of his father to be murdered on his return from the Deccan in 1602. It was the last and crowning sorrow, and Akbar never recovered from the shock. The quarrels and intrigues of his worthless family hastened the end. At an elephant fight there was a scene of jealous disputing in his presence; the weary king gave way to ungovernable fury, as he too often did in this stricken period of his decay, and was led away sick unto death. Round the bed of the dying Akbar the intrigues for the succession went on shamelessly, but at the last he received his only surviving son, Salim, and invested him with the sword of state. He died in October, 1605, the noblest king that ever ruled in India

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2012