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Marilyn Monroe

 

see collection: Marilyn Monroe

 


 

 

 


Andy Warhol
(1928-1987)
Turquoise Marilyn
1962
 


Andy Warhol
(1928-1987)
Turquoise Marilyn
 


Andy Warhol
(1928-1987)
Pink Marilyn Reversal
1986
 


Andy Warhol
(1928-1987)
Marilyn Monroe
1967
 


Andy Warhol
(1928-1987)
Marilyn Monroe

Membuat Mitos
 

Film dan seni
 
  Jadi kita berpikir tentang Marilyn yang cinta urusan setiap orang dengan Amerika, Marilyn Monroe yang pirang dan cantik dan memiliki rinky Dink-manis sedikit suara dan semua kebersihan semua halaman belakang Amerika bersih. Dia adalah malaikat kita, malaikat manis seks, dan gula seks datang dari dia seperti resonansi suara di biji-bijian yang paling jelas dari biola.

Norman Mailer, Marilyn, 1973
 

Marilyn Monroe

  
melihat koleksi: Marilyn Monroe

   

 
 
  Dia bertindak keluar hidupnya

di bawah tatapan melahap audiens yang raksasa, yang tidak bisa mendapatkan cukup dari dia: Marilyn, anak wanita mempesona, dengan hati-simbol seks, dewi tak terjangkau film. Dia tak terlupakan dalam Gentlemen Prefer Blondes, Some Like It Hot, dan The Itch Tujuh Tahun. Dia liar diakui, mendominasi berita utama, mengisi kolom gosip dan menjelma mimpi dekade. Di balik kemewahan, glamour dan senyum lezat yang memukau dunia adalah seorang wanita rentan dan belum menghasilkan. Apakah Amerika tahu selama ini? Apakah itu sumber rahasia mistik nya; Dia memiliki masa kecil yang mengerikan. Dia mengatakan bahwa dia mungkin kesalahan, bahwa ibunya tidak ingin memiliki sama sekali. Dia tidak pernah tahu ayahnya dan memantul antara rumah ibunya dan serangkaian keluarga angkatnya; ibunya sampai gila dan Marilyn menghabiskan dua tahun di panti asuhan. Dia tidak pernah lulus SMA dan menikah pada usia enam belas, mungkin untuk menghindari dikirim kembali ke panti asuhan. Dia kemudian berkomentar bahwa pernikahannya tidak bahagia, tapi tidak bahagia. Dia dan suaminya hanya tidak banyak bicara untuk setiap penemuan other.Her adalah bagian dari upaya perang. Sementara suaminya sedang berjuang dalam Perang Dunia II Marilyn berada dalam pabrik memeriksa parasut. Ronald Reagan mengirim David Conover, seorang fotografer tentara dua puluh lima tahun, untuk memotret ceria muda-pabrik amunisi pekerja. Conover memperhatikan ini gadis yang bisa membuat lebih banyak dari pose dari siapa pun yang pernah dilihatnya. Para humas mengambil penemuan dan menciptakan “Marilyn Monroe”, ikon pasca perang Hollywood. Dia anehnya terpisah dan terasing, mengatakan dia selalu merasa bahwa dia tidak nyata, bahwa dia adalah sesuatu seperti dibuat dengan baik palsu. Ia yakin bahwa setiap orang memiliki perasaan yang sama dari waktu ke waktu tapi dalam kasusnya hal telah pergi begitu jauh sehingga ia kadang-kadang berpikir dia benar-benar sintetis. Dia meninggal pada malam 4 Agustus 1962 secara misterius, tapi dia legenda hidup dan bahkan tumbuh.

Andy Warhol, putra imigran Ceko, memulai karir seninya dalam iklan, pindah ke pembuatan film dan menjadi potret artis favorit tinggi masyarakat. Dia akhirnya tokoh kultus, mungkin sosok kultus, dari Pop Art. Nya Marilyn Monroe adalah ikon abad kedua puluh seni. Dia menulis karyanya itu, apakah warna nya keras membuatnya menjadi simbol tidak relevan, dan jika warna itu cantik, itu karena dia; panggilan kecantikan untuk warna yang indah. Marilyn Monroe dikomersialisasikan kecantikan, cukup buatan dan cukup disalahpahami.
SAMPEL PASAL TANPA ILUSTRASI
Lukisan

yang Merubah Dunia

  ISI:
  Gua Lascaux Manesse diterangi Massys Callot Friedrich Picasso
  Tutankhamen makam Lorenzetti Grunewald Rembrandt Polisi Matisse
  Europa dan Minotaur Karlstein Puri Baldung Claude Lorrain Delacroix Marc
  Perjamuan Tomb Limbourg saudara Altdorfer Velazquez Turner Kandinsky
  Pompeii Van Eyck Cranach Vermeer Ingres Monet
  Kelahiran Kekristenan Della Francesca Holbein Rigaud Manet Chirico
  Hagia Sophia Uccello Titian Watteau Burne-Jones Modigliani
  Kitab Kells Mantegna Bruegel Canaletto Seurat Chagall
  St Benediktus Botticelli Vicentino Boucher Van Gogh Kahlo
  Bayeux Tapestry Anonim Arcimboldo Fragonard Toulouse-Lautrec Dali
  Donizo naskah Durer El Greco Gainsborough Munch Ernst
  Liber Scivias Bosch Theodore de Bry John Trumbull Cezanne Hopper
  Carmina Burana Da Vinci Caravaggio David Gauguin Bacon
  Falcon Buku Michelangelo Rubens Gros Degas Warhol
  Giotto Raphael Brouwer Goya Klimt
             

Dari Lascaux untuk Warhol

Agung seni tradisional adalah pernyataan kebenaran heroik dan agama tertentu,
diwariskan dari zaman ke zaman, dimodifikasi oleh kejeniusan individu,
tetapi tidak pernah ditinggalkan.

William Butler Yeats

  
Jacques Callot
Tiga Puluh Yaars Perang “kesengsaraan Perang
 Lihat koleksi: Jacques Callot: Perang Tiga Puluh Yaars “penderitaan Perang”

Jacques Callot

Tiga Puluh Yaars Perang “kesengsaraan Perang
 
Jan Asselyn
(1615-1652)
Gustav II Adolf pada Pertempuran Lutzen
1650
  
Sebuah Lukisan yang dijaga ketat
 

Daya tarik dari The Night Watch

 
 Bagaimana ketukan drum,
Bagaimana trills pipa.
Bagaimana nafiri juga,
    dan shawms,
    dan suara ketel-drum,
О melihat
Bagaimana segar berdebar bendera.
Mei hatimu
Leap cahaya untuk sukacita.
Johannes Grab, Song Prajurit, abad ketujuh belas
  Manusia di Helm Emas
с 1650/55, adalah disebabkan lingkaran Rembrandt
   
 
 Berdenyut dengan kehidupan – drum dipukul, seekor anjing menggonggong, tombak dan senapan dibangkitkan, bendera yang dikibarkan, anak-anak berjalan sekitar di segala penjuru – The Night Watch dianggap sebagai karya pelukis Belanda Rembrandt van Rijn besar. Keanehan-satunya adalah bahwa subyek lukisan itu bukan jaga malam. Judul muncul menjelang akhir abad kedelapan belas setelah banyak lapisan lapisan pernis permukaan lukisan itu cukup gelap. Kegelapan sehingga dihasilkan memunculkan ide bahwa adegan ditangkap di malam hari. Judul asli lukisan itu Perusahaan Kapten Frans Banning COCG. Alih-alih menggambarkan jaga malam, itu adalah potret sekelompok orang milisi Amsterdam. Pada saat itu dicat, Amsterdam adalah terkemuka Eropa dagang kota, dengan tiga milisi sipil. Mereka menyebut diri mereka The Crossbowmen, The Long-pemanah dan The Guild of Arquebusiers setelah senjata orang-orang perusahaan mereka telah melahirkan pada Abad Pertengahan. Para milisi merekrut anggota dari kolam pria di kota mereka cocok untuk tugas militer, sementara setiap kabupaten memiliki perusahaan sendiri. Dalam masa perang dan kerusuhan, milisi memenuhi fungsi melindungi masyarakat. Sebelum waktu Rembrandtt itu, tugas mereka termasuk berpatroli di benteng kota dan mounting penjaga di pintu gerbangnya.
Pada 1653 Rembrandt menetap di Amsterdam. Para milisi sipil masih mempertahankan sesuatu dari karakter militer mereka, meskipun saat itu mereka didominasi fungsi sosial. Serikat tradisional dengan masa lalu bersejarah mereka mewakili berbagai bagian kota, terkadang menandai faksi politik, dan anggota mereka diarak pada perayaan kemasyarakatan. Ditugaskan tahun 1640 oleh Arquebusiers Amsterdam untuk melukis potret kelompok mereka, Rembrandt mungkin digambarkan anggota sebelum mereka untuk berpartisipasi dalam parade tradisional, yang mungkin telah diselenggarakan di perayaan kunjungan Ratu Prancis, Marie de ‘Medici, pada tahun 1638 . Sumber kontemporer menunjukkan bahwa ratu itu disambut oleh para penembak jitu serikat dan didampingi oleh mereka dalam parade upacara untuk pesta mewah di aula festival rumah serikat. Perusahaan Rembrandt laki-laki itu mungkin digambarkan pagi-pagi dari kunjungan kerajaan. Dipimpin oleh kapten mereka, Frans Banning Cocq, seorang pedagang terkemuka Antwerpen, anggota serikat tampaknya akan mengambil cuti untuk menyambut ratu Prancis di luar kota. Lukisan besar dengan kehidupan tokoh yang berukuran paling mungkin digantung di ruang festival Arquebusiers ‘serikat rumah. Pada 1715 itu dipindahkan ke Balai Kota Antwerpen. Karena terlalu besar untuk ruang itu untuk menduduki ada, itu segera ditebang untuk ukuran.

Rembrandt van Rijn
(1606-1669)
Perusahaan Kapten Frans Banning Cocq
(The Night Watch)
Frans Banning Cocq (dengan selempang merah)
1642
Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
  
   
Landsekap, Light dan Legenda
 

Terkendali Romantisisme

Claude Lorrain
(1600-1682)
Pelabuhan dengan Embarkasi dari Ratu Sheba
1648
National Gallery di London
  
   
Di belakang layar
 
Di istana Raja Philip IV dari Spanyol
 Istana dan kuil dibangun,
tentara terlibat dalam pertempuran,

elemen berkobar-

dan Raja dalam kenyataannya ada yang

tapi aktor yang menyamar, dan takhtanya

kursi make-shift ….

Masker dan make up, penipuan dan

kepura-puraan – ini adalah teater.

Diadaptasi dari karya Richard Alewyn terhadap kehidupan
di Pengadilan Raja Philip IV dari Spanyol, 1985
 Sebuah biara dan istana kerajaan: El Escorial berada di bawah administrasi Diego Velazquez di abad ke-17
 
  
 
 Jumlah mereka adalah legiun. Ada yang mengatakan ada 30.000 pelacur di Pengadilan Philip IV dari Spanyol. Memerintah dari 1621 sampai 1665, raja harus meninggalkan pemerintahan untuk bupati nya, Count Olivares. Tak heran, untuk selain wanita, Philip IV adalah pecinta berburu, seni dan sastra. Dia sangat menyukai teater. Karena negara ini berada dalam kemunduran, raja, seperti bangsanya, menarik diri ke dalam dunia ilusi. Namun, Philip IV tidak berpuas diri dengan menduduki kotak Kerajaan; ia menulis memainkan dirinya sendiri, kebanyakan dari mereka komedi. Ketika dia tidak sibuk bermain Raja Spanyol di panggung dunia, ia bisa dikagumi menampilkan bakatnya sebagai seorang aktor dalam pertunjukan amatir memakai di Pengadilan. Philip IV tinggal di dan untuk teater. Tanggung jawab untuk merancang dunia ilusi diserahkan pada semakin pelukis Diego Velazquez. Setelah dipanggil ke Pengadilan Spanyol pada tahun 1623, Velazquez memiliki karir meroket sebagai pejabat Pengadilan. Kantor terakhir yang dipegangnya adalah bahwa Usher Tuhan Tinggi Chamber, pangkat tertinggi ia mungkin mencapai di rombongan raja. Di bawah kepemilikan Velazquez, para istana kerajaan telah diperbaiki, diperbesar dan refurnished. Untuk setiap Revels Mahkamah banyak dan perayaan, di antaranya pernikahan dari Infanta Marie-Therese dari Spam untuk Louis XIV dari Perancis, Velazquez melemparkan dirinya ke tugas merancang semua dekorasi dan tirai, set panggung dan latar belakang. Tak lama sebelum dia, untuk memasukkannya ke dalam istilah modern, tidak hanya Designer Kepala di Pengadilan tetapi juga peringkat teratas Artist Instalasi nya. Philip IV sangat menyukai pria yang menciptakan dunia mimpinya. Dia sering mengunjungi seniman dalam lokakarya, yang berada di istana. Raja juga memberinya penginapan dekat apartemen kerajaan. Sekarang seorang teman intim raja, Velazquez sekali tidak merasa menyesal mengganggu menguasai kerajaan setiap saat. Pelukis menjadi akrab dengan segala sesuatu yang sedang terjadi di Pengadilan dan di keluarga kerajaan. Seberapa dekat persahabatan pelukis dengan raja benar-benar yang mungkin ditunjukkan paling jelas di Las Meninas. Adegan seperti snapshot fotografer, santai anekdot tentang apa yang terjadi di pinggiran kehidupan nyata. Para Infanta sedikit Margarita muncul di studio Velazquez, sementara artis adalah lukisan potret dua orang tuanya, yang tercermin dalam cermin di dinding belakang. Bertanggung jawab tidak hanya untuk pekerjaan konstruksi dan acara-acara pementasan, dia juga bertanggung jawab memastikan bahwa kerajaan acara berjalan lancar. Dia melihat ke linen, kayu bakar, para pelayan, karpet dan kenyamanan tamu dan kesejahteraan, rumah tangga dapur dan segala sesuatu yang berkaitan dengan seni. Terbebani dengan kesibukannya, Velazquezcollapsed dan meninggal pada tanggal 6 Agustus 1660. Dia dimakamkan di pakaian dan lambang dari seorang Ksatria Santiago. Setelah kematian Favourite nya, Raja Philip IV dikatakan secara pribadi telah mengambil kuas dan mengubah potret artis. Lagi pula, ketika gambar ini dilukis, seniman belum menjadi seorang Ksatria Ordo.
 
  
Velazquez
(1599-1660)
Las Meninas (The Maids of Honour)
1656
Museo del Prado, Madrid
  
Adegan Everyday Berubah Ke Puisi
 

Ketenangan dan kedamaian master besar

Vermeer yang Muses
   
Jan Vermeer
(1632-1675)
The Allegory of Lukisan
1666
Kunsthistonsches Museum di Wina
  
   
“L’etat, c’est moi!”
 
Mengapa Louis XIV gagal untuk tersenyum

 Raja adalah bupati dan citra Allah di bumi, keagungan-Nya adalah refleksi dari ilahi; seluruh negara, kehendak rakyat yang diwujudkan dalam dirinya. Hanya dia yang melayani Raja melayani negara.
Jacques-Benigne Bossuet (1627-1704), Uskup Meaux, Politik Menurut Ajaran-Ajaran Kitab Suci (mulai tahun 1678/79)
 Pusat dunia absolutis: Istana Versailles
 Dia ingin impressand ia takut: Louis XIV dari Perancis, Raja Sun, menjelma Absolutisme. Dia sangat suka digambarkan sebagai Imperator, mahakuasa, megah dan bangga. Dia itu sangat sehat dan dikenal karena kecakapan seksualnya. Di Versailles, istana megah yang telah dibangun untuk mengenang dirinya sendiri, tidak ada wanita yang selamat dari dia. Secara politik, ia juga berhasil. Penyerbuan ke Belanda, pendudukannya atas Strasbourg dan wilayah Jerman, pemecatan dan pembakaran Heidelberg dan Mannheim tidak hanya marah sezamannya; Louis XIV diberi tanda buruk untuk peperangannya oleh sejarawan kemudian juga. Perilakunya yang berkaitan dengan gigi, semua yang telah diekstrak atas saran dari dokternya, yang sayangnya tidak kompeten. Satu bencana mengerikan menyebabkan gigi lain, akhirnya meninggalkan wajah raja miring. Namun alasan sebenarnya untuk potret tersenyum itu merupakan konvensi estetika yang kembali setidaknya sejauh patung suram dari Republik Romawi dan diberi penekanan baru dalam Absolutisme. Penguasa, ilahi atau sebaliknya, tidak hanya diselenggarakan di kagum. Mereka yang digambarkan mereka diharapkan untuk mengamati konvensi frontality dan martabat tersenyum untuk meningkatkan kualitas sikap menyendiri agung, yang pada akhirnya berarti kekuasaan mutlak. Bahkan wanita kerajaan, Infantas sedikit dan ratu indah Spanyol, tunduk pada perlakuan keras.
Konvensi absolutis buritan memiliki sekuel di Amerika Serikat. Pelukis Charles Wilson Peale (1741-1827), yang bertugas di Revolusi Amerika, adalah seorang anak dari Pencerahan. Seorang pria dari banyak bakat, ia maju paleontologi awal, ditemukan jenis baru beberapa kacamata dan membuat gigi palsu. Para pelukis tipikal pahlawan Perang Revolusi, Peale bisa disebut pelukis potret resmi George Washington. Semua potret Presiden pertama Amerika Serikat (termasuk, tentu saja, varian pada greenbacks) adalah tutup mulut dan tidak tersenyum. Legenda mengatakan bahwa George Washington, juga memiliki masalah dengan gigi palsunya. Mungkinkah mereka telah dibuat oleh Peale? Dalam hal apapun dapat dengan aman berasumsi bahwa Presiden, seperti Louis XIV dari Perancis, hanya terlalu sadar dari gambar dia berhutang untuk bangsa dan sejarah.
Hyacinthe Rigaud
(Perancis, 1659-1745)
Louis XIV dari Perancis pada jubah-Nya Coronation
1701
Musee du Louvre, Paris
  
Pierrot dan Badut lain

Komedi dan melankolis

 
  
  Dapatkan pakaian Anda bersama-sama, string baik untuk janggutmu, pita baru untuk pompa Anda, saat bertemu di istana, setiap melihat orang o’er bagiannya …. Dalam hal apapun, mari Thisby memiliki kain linen yang bersih dan biarlah bukan dia yang memainkan pare singa kukunya, karena mereka akan berkumpul untuk cakar singa. Dan, aktor yang paling sayang, tidak makan bawang atau bawang putih, karena kita mengucapkan napas manis, dan saya tidak meragukan tapi untuk mendengar mereka berkata, itu adalah komedi manis ….
William Shakespeare, Bawah Dream A Midsummer Night itu, Babak V, Tema 11,36-46,1600
Maurice Pasir
(1823-1889)
Pulcinello; Pantaleone; Harlequin; Il Dottore; Le Notaire
 
 Pada abad kedelapan belas, anggota Mahkamah Prancis menghibur diri baik sekali: “Dua hari lalu ada sebuah teater topeng yang besar di Versailles”. Dengan demikian surat yang ditulis pada tahun 1700: “The Duchess of Burgundy, dengan menyamar sebagai pengantin desa, datang dengan rombongan nya dayang, yang semuanya bertopeng, karena dia, dan yang rambutnya dihiasi dengan bunga-bunga ini banyak dibuat. efek yang megah ceria …. Delapan hari sebelum ada lain bebodohan cantik di Marly The terindah adalah Savoyardes dengan bundel penjaja mereka di punggung mereka, yang mereka dibuka.. Dua Harlequins sedikit dan dua Columbines muncul keluar, gadis kecil dan anak laki-laki, yang menari dengan indah. ” Bahkan Raja Louis XV, maka hanya sebelas tahun, mengambil bagian dalam galantes fetes, hiburan elegan, pada 1721. Dia menirukan penari balet dalam balet berjudul The Elements.
Tidak hanya kaum bangsawan suka berdandan dan bermain teater. Seperti banyak orang sezamannya, pelukis Jean-Antoine Watteau juga begitu. Ia terutama yang diambil dengan karakter dalam komedi improvisasi Italia, komedi dell’arte. Mereka membawa pengalihan menyambut dan kenikmatan kepada orang miskin juga. Commedia dell’arte berasal sekitar tahun 1550 di Lombardy, berkembang sebagai teater jalanan di mana potongan improvisasi berdasarkan situasi saham dilakukan oleh rombongan dari aktor yang terlatih khusus. Semua yang telah diatur sebelumnya adalah sinopsis dari plot dan urutan adegan. Terutama terdiri dari melucu dan lelucon, dialog itu sama sekali improvisasi. Meskipun beberapa cinta milik repertoar saham, karakter lain adalah jenis bahan tertawaan, langsung dikenali karena mereka selalu muncul dalam topeng dan kostum yang sama: Pantalone – seorang pedagang Venesia tua, dokter, seorang sarjana dari Bologna dan Arlecchino, dan nya licik manusia-hamba, yang canggung dan melankolis sisi segera menjadi dipersonifikasikan sebagai karakter terpisah yang disebut Pedrolino.

Setelah komedi dell’arte telah menjadi didirikan di Perancis di pengadilan, pameran dan di jalanan, Pedrolino berubah menjadi bodoh menyedihkan, yang bisa disebut baik atau Pierrot Gilles. Karakter ini mewakili kekasih ditolak, yang selalu sedih. Ia ditandai dengan kostum putih khas, lebar lengan, masker putih dan baret putih lebar. Apakah Watteau cat nya Gilles sebagai potret seorang aktor terkenal untuk memainkan bagian dari Gilles atau Pierrot? Apakah ini lukisan seukuran mungkin tergantung di depan sebuah kafe, atau teater di mana aktor tersebut mungkin telah muncul dalam peran? Jadilah bahwa mungkin, badut melankolis, dicemooh, diejek dan dihina untuk berdaya bodoh, adalah favorit dengan Watteau untuk satu-satunya alasan bahwa ia begitu celaka sedih. Badut sedih muncul beberapa kali dalam karyanya. Apakah ini petunjuk biografi? Pelukis tahu benar bagaimana rasanya hanya memiliki dirinya untuk perusahaan. Tahun-tahun terakhir dirusak oleh penyakit dan melankolis sebelum ia meninggal pada tiga puluh tujuh tuberkulosis.
Jean-Antoine Watteau
(1684-1721)
Gilles dan Empat Karakter lain dari dell’Arte Commedia (Pierrot)
1718
Musee du Louvre, Paris
  
Sebuah Kota Kaya Emas
 

Venesia dan laut
 
 Dia melihatnya sekali lagi, bahwa pendaratan-tempat yang mengambil napas itu pergi, supaya kelompok menakjubkan struktur yang luar biasa Republik dibentuk untuk memenuhi terpesona mata dari pelaut mendekati: kemegahan lapang dari istana dan Jembatan Sighs, kolom dengan singa dan santo di pantai, kemuliaan sayap memproyeksikan candi peri, vista gateway dan jam.
Thomas Mann, Kematian di Venice, 1912

 Venesia dan gondola: Sebuah duo tak terpisahkan
Venice
 
 Tidak ada kota lain di dunia telah begitu mewah dipuji sebagai Venesia. Pada 1495 Duta Besar Perancis Philippe de Commines memujinya sebagai “kota paling gembira bercahaya” yang pernah dilihatnya. Dia menyebutkan fasad marmer putih, apartemen dengan antechambers emas dan perapian mewah hiasan. Ketika Napoleon menaklukkan Venesia pada 1797, pikirnya St Mark adalah “yang terbaik ruang duduk di Eropa dan Surga hanya layak menjabat sebagai langit-langit”, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, yang tinggal di laguna pulau-putus-putus di September 1786 saat perjalanan Italia-nya, berbicara dengan hormat dari “kota pulau indah”, yang ia “mendapat kesempatan untuk mengunjungi” dan di mana ia ingin berada “sampai aku kenyang keinginan saya untuk memandang pada gambar kota ini”. Setelah tak ada habisnya berperang dengan Genoa, Venesia akhirnya menaklukkan saingannya pada tahun 1380. Dari tanggal tersebut, kota ini adalah pemimpin yang tak tertandingi dalam perdagangan dunia. Pada 1423 Republik Venesia memerintahkan armada perang dari 45 perahu yang dibangun khusus untuk pertempuran dan kapal dagang dari 300 kapal dayung. Dengan populasi lebih dari 200.000, Venezia adalah salah satu yang terbesar, dan tentunya yang paling kaya, kota-kota Barat. Kemakmuran, optimisme dan keceriaan memerintah: “Orang-orang bernyanyi dalam kotak, tn jalan-jalan dan di kanal Pedagang bernyanyi ketika mereka prizing kemudian-barang; buruh bernyanyi ketika mereka meninggalkan tempat kerja mereka; gondolien bernyanyi ketika mereka menunggu pelanggan. “, kata para dramawan Italia Carlo Goldoni pada abad kedelapan belas. Kita bertanya-tanya apakah Doge, penguasa Republik, bernyanyi ketika melakukan urusan negara.
Bagaimanapun, ia harus mengucapkan doa yang sama setiap tahun pada Hari Kenaikan, yang merupakan peristiwa paling penting dalam kalender kota: “Wahai laut, kami menikah engkau dalam tanda kekuasaan kami yang benar dan kekal”. Dengan mantra ini, sumpah diperbaharui setiap tahun, Venesia berharap untuk mendamaikan pasukan primal laut untuk memastikan kebajikan mereka dan kesediaan untuk melakukan bagian mereka dalam mengamankan supremasi Republik di Adriatik. Pada hari-hari dari veduta pelukis Canaletto, yang “pernikahan dengan laut” yang dipentaskan sebagai arak-arakan mewah dan penuh warna. Doge naik ke kapal seremonial nya, Bucintoro, dan berlayar ke Porto di Lido, gateway utama ke Venesia, di mana “pernikahan dengan laut” terjadi. Di sana ia menuangkan air suci ke laut dan melemparkan cincin emas ke laut. Ritual telah dihidupkan kembali dalam beberapa tahun terakhir. Sekarang, tentu saja, sesuatu yang sangat berbeda yang dipertaruhkan. Tidak lagi adalah kekuatan, pengaruh dan kekayaan Venesia ditingkatkan. Kota membusuk sekali disebut Serenissima (“Republik Kebanyakan Serene”) harus dicegah mereda ke laut seharusnya badai mengamuk melepaskan kekuatan alam.
Canaletto
(1697-1768)
Kembali dari Bucentoro ke Molo pada Kenaikan
1732
Koleksi kerajaan. Windsor
  
Seorang Nyonya Pandai
 

Madame la Marquise de Pompadour dan Louis XV

  Saya selalu disalahkan untuk kemalangan umum, kebijakan berdasar Kabinet, kampanye perang bencana dan kemenangan dirayakan oleh musuh kita. Saya dituduh telah menjual segalanya, memiliki jari-jari saya di setiap kue, yang berkuasa di belakang layar. Suatu hari saat makan malam Raja meminta orang tua untuk menjadi begitu baik untuk memberikan pujian kepada Marquise de Pompadour. Semua orang menertawakan orang miskin sebagai tolol. Tapi aku tidak tertawa.
Madame la Marquise de Pompadour (1721-1764), Sastra, 1922
Louis XV, Raja Perancis (1710-1774) oleh Louis-Michel van Loo;
Madame de Pompadour oleh Jean-Marc Nattier; Madame de Pompadour oleh Maurice Quentin de la Tour
 
 Ada sebuah tangga rahasia kecil di Versailles yang dipimpin dari Kabinet raja ke lantai dua. Ada berdiam seorang wanita bernama Jeanne-Antoinette Hahahaha, yang telah turun dalam sejarah sebagai Marquise de Pompadour. Louis XV dari Perancis, Raja Sun cicit dan penggantinya, sering menaiki tangga untuk mengunjunginya. Dia dikatakan lebih suka menghilang dari pertemuan Kabinet untuk pertemuan-pertemuan dengan kekasihnya. Ketika itu terjadi, para menteri harus duduk dan menunggu raja sampai ia kembali sebagai etiket Pengadilan melarang kamar mereka tanpa raja. Jadi kacung Pengadilan bisa tertipu dengan berpikir raja telah menghabiskan seluruh waktu m konferensi dengan para menterinya. Witty, berbudaya dan indah, Madame de Pompadour mungkin merupakan putri seorang pengantin pria kepala bekerja pada sebuah real duke; ibunya adalah keindahan dalam haknya sendiri. Madame de Pompadour adalah pejabat nyonya kerajaan keempat. Meskipun menikah dengan putri Polandia Maria Leszczynska sejak 1725, Louis XV tampaknya telah memulai affair di luar nikah pertama di 1733. Tahun-tahun pertama pernikahannya telah yang bahagia dan enam anak perempuan dan anak selamat serikat dengan Maria, yang sangat dipermalukan oleh perselingkuhan suaminya. Tiga pertama gundik kerajaan yang akan didirikan berturut-turut di Pengadilan dari 1738 menghabiskan waktu mereka memberikan pihak atas biaya raja dan berperilaku dengan cara yang membangkitkan kemarahan publik. Tahun kemudian sang ratu masih mengeluh mengalami mimpi buruk tentang gundik mengerikan suaminya.
Madame la Marquise de Pompadour adalah sama sekali berbeda. Dia tidak seperti orang lain. Tidak ada pihak Bacchanalian terjadi di apartemen pribadi ini dame grande. Dia memberikan makan malam sedikit indah dengan raja dan undangan kepada mereka yang didambakan memang. Selain itu, Madame la Marquise sangat ingin berada pada pijakan yang baik dengan sang ratu. Dia mengunjunginya setiap hari, membawa bunga dan mengobrol dengannya. Marquise ini bahkan diketahui telah menjabat pada kesempatan sebagai perantara antara raja dan ratu. Ketika ia mendengar bahwa suatu hari sang ratu telah kehilangan jumlah yang besar pada judi tapi takut untuk memberitahu suaminya apa yang terjadi, Madame de Pompadour tanya raja untuk hak istimewa membayar utang Ratu kehormatan dirinya sendiri. Mengirimkan ke nasib dengan kesalehan lembut, Maria Leszcyriska diperbolehkan Madame de Pompadour untuk mengambil tempatnya di sisi raja. Para borjuis, yang ayah tidak pernah memuaskan didirikan, menjadi kekuatan di balik tahta di Versailles. Ketika sampai menunjuk pejabat dan menteri dan membuat keputusan besar, Louis XV selalu berkonsultasi gundiknya. Untuk alasan ini Francois Boucher, sekali gambar tuannya dan Painter Pengadilan kepada raja, dicat potret semi-resmi-nya. Segel dan surat mungkin mengisyaratkan ambisi politiknya. Bahwa ia adalah seorang penyanyi ulung dilambangkan dengan skor tersebar di kakinya. Bahkan spaniel kecil bukan prop disediakan oleh pelukis. Namanya Mimi dan dia benar-benar milik Madame de Pompadour.
 
Francois Boucher
(1703-1770)
Potret Madame de Pompadour
1756
  
Dia Ternyata My Head
 

Taman Delights Duniawi
 
 Selamat wajah, nimfa seperti gadis
Mata seperti ceri, tujuh belas
Delightful ocehan
Dia ternyata kepalaku.
Bernard, Chevalier de Bonnard (1744-1784), Poesies diverses, yang diterbitkan pada 1791
 
 Suatu hari pada bulan Oktober 1766, pelukis Paris Jean-Honore Fragonard dipanggil ke pondok berburu Baron SAMT-Julien. Bendahara aristokrat Gereja Katolik menunjuk gundiknya dan memerintahkan:. “Aku ingin kau melukis Madame di ayunan terus digerakkan oleh uskup Masukan saya di mana saya bisa melihat kaki gadis cantik atau lebih dekat, jika Anda ingin membuat gambar menyenangkan bahkan lebih. ” Seorang pria di dunia, Baron Saint-Julien sudah ditolak oleh pelukis yang mungkin mual tentang konsekuensi dari melaksanakan perintahnya – seseorang yang telah membuat nama untuk dirinya sendiri dengan representasi dari orang-orang kudus dan korban wabah dan merasa komisi adalah tidak senonoh sehingga ia menyarankan Fragonard, yang diterima. Hasilnya adalah Swing. Fragonard tidak memiliki keraguan untuk merusak reputasinya sebagai seorang pelukis adegan bersalah dengan mengambil komisi ini agak rumit. Tentu saja Fragonard, yang pernah menjadi anak manja, apa-apa jika tidak sopan dan canggih dirinya sendiri. “Semua karyanya didedikasikan untuk perempuan, mengapa tidak boleh hidupnya telah begitu juga?” meminta seorang penulis biografi. Pada 1756 dua puluh empat vear berusia Fragonard memanfaatkan hibah dari Akademik de Perancis untuk mempelajari karya-karya Old Masters di Roma. Dia dikatakan telah mengabdikan dirinya setidaknya sama penuh gairah dengan bermata gelap keindahan bermoral Trastevere mengenai lukisan ia pergi ke Roma untuk belajar. Bahkan, presiden Academie de Perancis di Roma mulai khawatir tentang anak didiknya. Reputasi Fragonard yang mengikutinya kembali ke Paris, di mana semua boudoirs terbuka baginya pada keindahan return.The tentang hari dan penari yang “hati tidak begitu konstan” semuanya mencari perhatian si pelukis. Bernard, Chevalier de Bonnard disarankan para pelukis dari hari ke “pengadilan semua wanita cantik Anda cat dan pastikan bahwa Anda dibayar untuk potret Anda di pelukan pengasuh Anda”. Tidak ada yang benar-benar diketahui tentang kehidupan cinta Fragonard itu. Namun, ia begitu sangat diakui sebagai pelukis yang segera ia diberikan dengan studio sendiri di Louvre. Begrudging dia pernikahannya karena dirampas mereka dari gosip, penulis biografinya ditandai istrinya sebagai “kurang ajar kesal”. Namun, ia ditujukan untuk dirinya, lembut memanggilnya “yang terbaik dari semua istri”. Meskipun reputasinya dengan wanita, keengganan acara Fragonarddid dalam satu hal: ia yakin Baron bejat Saint-Julien bahwa perlu untuk menggantikan uskup, yang pada awalnya seharusnya mendorong ayunan dalam lukisan, dengan punggawa sebuah.
 
  
Jean-Honore Fragonard
(1732-1806)
Swing
1767
Wallace Collection, London
  
Sebuah Pertanyaan Kelas
 

Masyarakat Inggris pada abad kedelapan belas
 Seorang Pemuda Fortune
   dan untuk ketenaran tidak diketahui …

Thomas Gray, Elegy Ditulis di Negara Gereja-Yard, 1751

  Siapakah pria muda yang duduk untuk Thomas Gainsborough, The Blue Boy! Identitasnya tidak diketahui selama hampir dua abad. Penelitian terbaru menunjukkan bahwa dia adalah Jonathan Buttall, anak remaja dari penjual besi London kaya. Gainsboroughis diperkirakan telah dibuat kenalan keluarga di Bath. Kota di selatan-barat Inggris yang terkenal sepanjang abad kesembilan belas kedelapan belas dan awal sebagai spa modis dimana keluarga Inggris kaya pergi untuk minum air dari mata air penyembuhan nya.
Yang paling dalam elegan penyiraman-tempat, Bath bahkan sering dikunjungi oleh anggota keluarga kerajaan saat mereka merasa letih. Pengunjung ke pemandian menjadi sasaran rejimen parah. Dipaksa bangun jam enam pagi, wanita menghabiskan satu jam di air hangat mandi mengenakan pakaian panjang terbuat dari bahan berat yang tidak bisa melekat pada tubuh mereka dan mengungkapkan kontur mereka. Pria juga, mandi berpakaian lengkap. Di luar mandi, kota adalah tempat untuk godaan, bola dan pihak malam kartu. Ada banyak fungsi resmi seperti Majelis-Rooms Balls dan tempat-tempat baik indoor maupun keluar di mana orang promenaded untuk tujuan memenuhi dan menjaga dengan kejadian-kejadian terbaru. Perjudian adalah marak dan kota membual atraksi meragukan sebuah perkumpulan demimondaines pesona menghilangkan kebosanan pria yang tidak di Bath dengan keluarga mereka. Perempuan harus puas dengan gosip di atas meja teh.

Kota ini mendidih dengan intrik, yang mengapa Horace Walpole mengatakan itu sepuluh kali lebih baik untuk meninggalkan kota daripada memasukkannya. Para pengunjung yang kaya cenderung sia-sia dan mencolok. Ini mungkin alasan mengapa Thomas Gainsborough muda meninggalkan Ipswich di timur Inggris untuk menetap di Bath pada 1759. Langkah ini berhasil. Mandi dengan komisi potret dari patron kaya, pelukis segera mampu membeli apartemen mewah di Circus Kerajaan indah dan elegan.

Namun, resor ini adalah bukan hanya menghantui aristokrasi. Itu hanya sebagai populer dengan keluarga yang kaya pedagang dan ‘produsen. Dari 1750 pengecoran besi Inggris dan pabrik kapas tumbuh pesat dan pemilik mereka juga mampu untuk mengambil air di Bath. Orang dapat membayangkan Gainsborough pertemuan Bapak Buttall, penjual besi, dan keluarganya di Ruang Pompa. Keuntungan-kota kecil mulai karirnya dengan menyalin dan memulihkan lukisan Flemish. Oleh karena itu tidak mengherankan bahwa ia meminjam elemen gaya dari karya Anthony van Dyck melukis Jonathan Buttall, yang mengenakan busana dari abad ketujuh belas.

Thomas Gainsborough
(1727-1788)
The Blue Boy
1770
  
Sebuah Tea Party yang Menyebabkan Demokrasi
Deklarasi Kemerdekaan Amerika
 
 Kami memegang kebenaran ini menjadi jelas: Bahwa semua manusia diciptakan sama, bahwa mereka diberkati oleh Pencipta mereka dengan hak yang tidak dapat dipisahkan, bahwa di antara ini adalah Life, Liberty dan mengejar Kebahagiaan …; bahwa setiap kali ada Bentuk Pemerintah menjadi merusak ini berakhir, itu adalah Hak Rakyat untuk mengubah atau menghapuskan, dan untuk melembagakan Pemerintah baru, peletakan berdirinya pada prinsip-prinsip tersebut, dan mengorganisir kekuasaannya dalam bentuk seperti itu, karena mereka akan tampak paling mungkin untuk efek mereka Keselamatan dan Kebahagiaan.
Amerika Serikat Deklarasi Kemerdekaan, 4 Juli 1776
 Sebuah versi Amerika kartun London yang mencela “perkosaan” dari Boston pada tahun 1774 oleh Intolerable Acts.
   
 
 Washington dan Lafayette memeriksa pasukan di Valley Forge
   
 
 John Trumbull, Pertempuran Bunker Hill, (Kematian Jenderal Amerika Warren), 1786
   
 
 Deklarasi Kemerdekaan
   
 
 The Boston Tea Party memicu Revolusi. Pada 1767 Inggris telah dikenakan bea masuk baru di koloni Inggris-nya. Murka koloni memuncak dalam pemboikotan barang-barang Inggris, yang langsung mengarah ke penghapusan tugas paling. Inggris, bersikeras demonstrasi kekuasaan, mempertahankan tugas pada teh. Memastikan India Timur monopoli Perusahaan pada teh dan kokot lain, kebijakan ini meninggalkan pedagang teh Amerika dibebani dengan tugas yang tinggi pada barang yang mereka impor dari Inggris.
Koloni Amerika, yang telah selama beberapa waktu dianggap menyatakan kemerdekaan dari Inggris, mengambil tugas pada teh sebagai alasan dipersilakan untuk melakukannya. Pada 16 Desember 1773 permusuhan terbuka pecah. Sekelompok Revolusioner melemparkan sebuah kapal kargo di seluruh teh ke dalam air keruh dari Boston Harbor: 342 peti teh senilai 10.000 pound sterling. Lebih dari 2.000 pengamat memuji perbuatan patriot “:” Ini adalah Gerakan paling menakjubkan dari semua Ada martabat, sebuah Mulia, Yang Tersuci, dalam hal ini Usaha terakhir dari Patriots bahwa saya sangat mengagumi Ini penghancuran Teh yang begitu berani.. , begitu berani, begitu tegas, pemberani dan tidak fleksibel, dan harus memiliki Konsekuensi begitu penting, dan abadi, bahwa saya tidak bisa tidak menganggapnya sebagai sebuah Epoch dalam Sejarah “adalah respons antusias John Adams untuk ini demonstrasi yang luar biasa dari ketegasan kolonial. Pemerintah Inggris membalas dengan cepat, menuntut hukuman yang keras. Tiga belas koloni-koloni Amerika bereaksi dengan pemberontakan terbuka. Weary penindasan dan lama terbiasa dengan pemerintahan sendiri pada jalur parlemen, para pemukim Amerika menolak menyerahkan kebebasan ekonomi dan politik untuk mahkota Inggris, yang ribuan kilometer jauhnya. Merajut bersama-sama oleh kejadian-kejadian di Boston, Amerika mengambil tindakan pertama mereka bersatu sebagai orang bebas dengan mengadakan Continental Kongres Pertama di Philadelphia pada 1774. Inggris tetap keras kepala; perang tak terelakkan.

Sementara George Washington, Komandan-in-Chief of American Kontinental Angkatan Darat, berbaris pasukannya dari satu pertempuran ke berikutnya, Deklarasi Kemerdekaan sedang disusun. Hal itu ditandatangani pada 4 Juli 1776 di Gedung Negara Philadelphia. Di antara para penandatangan adalah Thomas Jefferson, penulis, dan Benjamin Franklin. Jefferson dikutip mengatakan: “Saya bukan teman untuk pemerintah sangat energik”, meskipun ia sepenuh hati didukung penyebab kebebasan Amerika. Lain patriot kuat adalah pelukis John Trumbull, yang kemudian mendirikan American Academy of Fine Arts di New York dan menjadi presiden pertama. Anak dari seorang gubernur Inggris dari Connecticut yang mendukung perjuangan penjajah ‘kemerdekaan, John Trumbull menjabat sebagai aide-de-camp ke George Washington selama Revolusi Amerika.

Lukisannya yang paling terkenal, yang telah menjadi simbol dari idealisme bahwa Amerika singkatan, menggambarkan penandatanganan Deklarasi Kemerdekaan Thomas Jefferson sebagai menggambarkannya untuk artis.
John Trumbull
(1756-1841)
Deklarasi Kemerdekaan
1786-1797
  
Aku Percaya Marat, Yang Mahakuasa
 

Revolusi Perancis, 1789

 Saya percaya pada Marat, yang Mahakuasa, Pencipta kebebasan dan kesetaraan, harapan kami, yang menyerang ketakutan ke dalam aristokrasi, yang telah keluar dari jantung bangsa dan terungkap dalam Revolusi, yang dibunuh oleh musuh-musuh Republik, yang tercurah atas diri kita napas kebebasan, yang telah turun ke Elysian Fields, dari mana ia suatu hari akan kembali untuk menghakimi dan menghukum aristokrasi.
Sebuah anonim kontemporer “Creed” (Juli 1793-Februari 1795)

 
 Gulingkan Bastille! Penghancuran penjara pengadilan, simbol despotisme Bourbon, 14 Juli 1789
 
Eksekusi Louis XVI
Sketsa oleh Jacques-Louis David Majelis Nasional mengambil Sumpah Lapangan Tenis

Guillotine Model 1792
Guillotine, alat pilihan untuk
pemenggalan kepala selama Revolusi Perancis,
masih digunakan untuk eksekusi abad ini
Antara 18.000 dan 40.000 orang berada
dieksekusi selama Pemerintahan Terro
 Satir kartun lampooning ekses
Revolusi seperti yang terlihat dari luar negeri.
 
  
 Jean-Paul Marat duduk di bak mandi ketika jam terakhirnya melanda pada tanggal 13 Juli 1793. Seorang guru bahasa, wartawan dan dokter, Marat ternyata menjadi salah satu demagog paling radikal Revolusi 1789 diproduksi. Ia menghabiskan banyak waktu di bak untuk mencari bantuan dari ruam, gatal kronis. Dia memakai kompres di dahinya untuk meringankan sakit kepala dari mana ia juga menderita. Sementara ia mandi pada hari yang menentukan, dia sedang membaca surat dari Charlotte Corday, cucu-besar penulis drama Pierre Corneille. Para wanita bangsawan muda itu sia-sia untuk mendapatkan pengakuan dari Marat. Sekarang dia telah mengirim surat kepadanya di mana ia dengan licik menyarankan tete-a-tete. Dia membiarkan dia di dan dia menusuknya. Marat tewas seketika.
Beberapa sezaman pasti senang dengan perbuatan. Marat pernah menjadi pelanggan sulit. Dia telah 860 tiang gantungan didirikan untuk menghadapi musuh-musuh politiknya dan telah mengirimkan lebih dari 200.000 dari mereka untuk guillotine. Lawannya mungkin dianggap kematiannya sebuah balas dendam saja. Pengikut-Nya, namun, dirayakan dia sebagai martir hanya menyebabkan. Diangkat pemimpin upacara di pemakaman pahlawan, pelukis Jacques-Louis David adalah seorang revolusioner sungguh-sungguh dan teman pribadi dari Marat. Dia wajib dengan meletakkan mayat Marat di kanvas seperti yang telah memilikinya dipajang: dengan dada telanjang dan luka terlihat. Pada 15 Oktober 1793 David disajikan gambar ke Majelis Nasional. Ini menjadi simbol dari Revolusi Perancis. Salinan itu ditempatkan pada altar gereja, tertahan di bawah awan mengepul dari dupa. Bahkan di kantor-kantor publik salinan lukisan itu seharusnya mengganti salib dan potret kerajaan. Namun, sebelum bisa keluar dari tangan, kultus kepribadian dihentikan oleh jatuhnya Robespierre dan penangkapan Jacques-Louis David. Pada tanggal 10 Februari lukisan itu telah dihapus dari ruang Majelis Nasional. Jantung Marat, yang telah disimpan di Klub Cordeliers, adalah dibakar dan abunya disebar di selokan Montmartre.
 
  
Jacques-Louis David
(1748-1825)
Kematian Marat
1793
  
Seolah Dibawa off oleh Angin
 

The Rise to Power dari Iblis Korsika

 
  
 
 Prajurit, Anda telanjang dan sakit gizi. Aku akan membawa Anda ke dataran bumi yang paling subur. Provinsi Kaya dan kota-kota besar akan jatuh ke tangan Anda. Di sana Anda akan menemukan kehormatan, ketenaran dan kekayaan.
Napoleon Bonaparte, Pidato Tentara-Nya di Diangkat Menjadi Jenderal tentara Republik di Italia, 1796

 
  
Jean-Auguste Dominique Ingres, Potret Napoleon Bonaparte, Dewan Pertama, 1804
Jacques-Louis David, Napoleon dalam Studi Nya, 1812
Jacques-Louis David, Napoleon Menyeberangi Alpen
Jean-Auguste Dominique Ingres, Napoleon di atas takhta Imperial itu, 1806
 
  
     
 

 
 Ejaan Perancis Nya goyah memang dan aksen yang kuat Korsika menandai dia seperti satu provinsi. Karena dia mengucapkan nama depannya “Napolion”, teman-teman sekelasnya di sekolah menjulukinya “la-Paille-au-nez”, “sedotan hidung”. Dia rata-rata siswa; guru Jermannya bahkan menganggapnya sebagai bodoh. Namun dia adalah seorang pembaca rakus, dan buku-buku yang dimakan tidak membuat membaca mudah: Corneille, Montaigne, Montesquieu, Plutarch dan Tacitus. Selain itu, ia memiliki memori yang menakjubkan dan tidak pernah lupa apa-apa. Seorang guru tunggal, yang pasti lebih yg dpt lekas mengerti daripada yang lain, melihat di dalam dia “granit gunung berapi yang sedang memanas”. Hal yang masih mendidih di bagian belakang kompor itu. Lahir pada 15 Agustus 1769 di Ajaccio di Corsica, Napoleon Bonaparte dianggap sebagai seorang anak, pendiam suram dan sensitif. Diterima sebagai kadet di akademi militer Paris pada tahun 1784, ia ditugaskan letnan hanya satu setengah tahun kemudian. Dipindahkan ke resimen artileri, ia main mata dengan ide revolusi.
Pada awalnya seorang nasionalis Korsika kuat, ia mengambil bagian dalam pemberontakan terhadap otoritas Perancis. Namun pada tahun 1793, ia memutuskan hubungan dengan faksi nasionalis Korsika dan terpaksa melarikan diri dengan keluarganya ke daratan Prancis. Bergabung kembali dengan tentara, ia memihak Robespierre, menjadi komandan sebuah batalyon artileri. Sekarang karirnya dengan baik diluncurkan, sebuah persinggahan singkat di penjara setelah jatuh Robespierre yang tidak melakukan apapun untuk mencegahnya. Pada usia dua puluh enam Bonaparte ditunjuk Jenderal tentara Republik di Italia, dan secara luas dikagumi karena keterampilan cemerlang taktis, kecerdasan schooling dan kualitas kepemimpinan dia konsisten ditampilkan. Komandan lapangan Veteran sangat marah. Bawang Sebuah telah dipromosikan di atas kepala mereka, seorang pemuda bertubuh kecil dengan rambut terawat panjang. Bonaparte, bagaimanapun, tahu ke mana dia melangkah. Dalam kampanye melawan Austria, ia memenangkan kemenangan demi kemenangan di Italia utara. Dia tumbuh terkenal sebagai “Alexander kedua” yang “berjalan seperti manusia setengah dewa dari pertempuran ke pertempuran dan kemenangan kepada kemenangan”.

Para pelukis Antoine-Jean Gros menangkap adegan dari masa itu: Pertempuran Arcola, sebuah desa dua puluh empat kilometer tenggara dari Verona. Antara 15 dan 17 November 1796, Bonaparte mengalahkan bala bantuan dikirim ke bantuan pasukan Austria dikelilingi di Mantua. Perancis dirayakan sebagai “favorit Fortune dalam pertempuran”. Penyair Friedrich Holderlin adalah gembira: “Kudus pembuluh adalah penyair di antaranya anggur kehidupan, semangat pahlawan diadakan Tapi semangat pemuda itu, bahwa semangat cepat, harus tidak meledak kapal itu untuk menahannya?.”

Napoleon tetap dingin, tenang dan dikumpulkan. Ketika seorang utusan yang dikirim oleh Directoire, yang kemudian pemerintah Prancis, mencari Dia keluar setelah kemenangan di Arcole, ia diucapkan profetik: “Apa yang telah mencapai 1 di sini adalah agak belaka saya hanya pada awal karir saya Do.. Anda berpikir bahwa saya memenangkan kemenangan untuk tombak saya di Italia hanya untuk kebesaran dari Directoire itu? ” Dalam kata-katanya sendiri, ia merasa “seolah-olah dia telah dibawa oleh angin”.

 
  
Jean-Antoine Gros
(1771-1835)
Napoleon Bonaparte di Jembatan dari Arcole, 17 November 1796 |
1801
  
Sebuah Refleksi Horor
 

Pemberontakan Spanyol melawan Napoleon

 
  
 
 Tidak ada yang tidak bersalah sekali ia telah melihat apa yang saya lihat. Saya menyaksikan bagaimana cita-cita mulia kebebasan dan kemajuan berubah menjadi tombak, pedang dan bayonet. Pembakaran, penjarahan dan pemerkosaan, semua seharusnya membawa Orde Baru, pada kenyataannya hanya menukar mencekik untuk tiang gantungan.
Francisco de Goya, dari sebuah entri dalam buku hariannya, 1808

 
  
  Francisco de Goya, barbar!. No 38 dari seri “BENCANA PERANG”
   
melihat koleksi: Francisco de Goya “BENCANA PERANG”

 
  
 
 Napoleon marah besar. The “urusan Spanyol terkutuk” itu di luar kendali. Awalnya, Kaisar kekuasaan-gila Prancis telah pikir ini akan menjadi penurut. Charles IV dari Spanyol, lemah di terbaik, telah mundur ke latar belakang, meninggalkan pemerintah di tangan istrinya Maria Luisa dan kekasihnya Manuel Godoy. Napoleon bisa menang atas Godoy ambisius dengan membuatnya raja muda Spanyol. Namun, link dengan Napoleon, yang menyebabkan bencana perang dengan Inggris Raya, membuat Godoy tidak populer di seluruh Spanyol. Dia hanya nyaris lolos yang digantung dengan melarikan diri ke Prancis.
Napoleon, licik seperti dirinya, selalu diperlakukan Spanyol, sekutu Perancis, seperti bangsa subjek. Dia menolak untuk mengakui kekalahan di tangan bangsa yang diduduki oleh pasukannya. Berpura-pura untuk mencari rekonsiliasi, ia memanggil raja dan ratu Spanyol, dengan putra mahkota di belakangnya, ke Prancis. Maksud sebenarnya Napoleon adalah untuk menjaga tawanan Spanyol bangsawan dan menempatkan kakak sulungnya, Joseph Bonaparte, di atas takhta Iberia. Ketika Napoleon pengkhianatan dikenal, pemberontakan putus asa pecah di Spanyol pada 2 Mei 1808. Tak berdaya kalah jumlah, sekelompok orang bersenjata dengan pisau dan tombak menyerang kekuatan kavaleri kuat Prancis di Puerta del Sol, sebuah persegi di jantung kota Madrid. Dimulai pada buta, marah impoten, pemberontakan ditakdirkan sejak awal untuk kegagalan. Masih tanda kepada dunia bahwa orang menaklukkan berani berdiri untuk Napoleon, yang saat itu di puncak kekuasaannya. Kaisar Perancis dituntut sebuah balas dendam yang mengerikan. Pada malam yang sama, semua orang diduga telah mengambil bagian dalam pemberontakan itu dieksekusi oleh regu tembak Prancis.

Tidak ada yang makin mendekati menunjukkan kebrutalan telanjang peristiwa-peristiwa dari Francisco de Goya, Pengadilan Painter untuk Charles IV, yang awalnya menyambut cita-cita Napoleon. Dijiwai dengan semangat Revolusi Perancis, ia tidak ragu-ragu untuk menunjukkan keluarga kerajaan Spanyol untuk apa itu, lukisan mereka dalam cahaya yang sangat tidak menarik. Namun, Napoleon ternyata kebalikan dari apa yang tampak. Meskipun ia memiliki kebebasan awalnya dicanangkan bagi masyarakat sendiri dan lain Eropa, ia mengungkapkan dirinya sebagai seorang penguasa lalim. Mungkin nilai-nilai telah menjadi rusak dan memutar. Dalam hal apapun, Goya digambarkan adegan dengan twist: pahlawannya adalah korban yang akan menjadi berikutnya yang akan ditembak. Pria dengan kemeja putih menyebar lengannya seperti Kristus di kayu Salib. Luka-luka di tangannya seperti Kristus. Pesannya adalah: aku mati supaya kamu hidup. Hal itu untuk waktu lima tahun untuk mendorong keluar Perancis Spanyol.
 
  
Francisco de Goya
(1746-1828)
Ketiga Mei, 1808: Eksekusi Para Pembela Madrid
1814
Museo del Prado, Madrid
  
Angkatan Alam dan Kekuatan di sebuah Lukisan
 

Di keangkuhan manusia

 
  
 
 “Apa yang telah kita memukul?” tanya Kapten Smith. “Sebuah gunung es, Sir,” jawab perwira pertama Murdoch. “Kami mengarahkan keras ke kanan dan terbalik mesin kecepatan penuh Tapi kami sudah terlalu dekat.. Saya ingin pergi berkeliling gunung es. Tapi itu sudah terlambat.”
Setelah pernyataan yang dibuat oleh petugas kedua kapal Titanic, Charles Herbert Lightoller,
sebelum subkomite Senat AS di April 1912

 
  
 
 Berita itu melanda dunia seperti pukulan: “Titanic tenggelam empat jam setelah tabrakan dengan gunung es; 1.250 diperkirakan tewas.” Jadi membaca judul New York Times 16 April 1912. Hanya dua puluh empat jam sebelumnya, sebuah tragedi belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya telah ditetapkan 400 mil laut di lepas Newfoundland di Atlantik. Lebih dari ruang penumpang kapal meninggal.
Bukan saja sebuah kapal memukau elegan turun; dengan dia tenggelam mitos zaman modern. Industri pria percaya itu bisa menipu alam dengan teknologi: berkilauan baru Titanic, pada pelayaran gadisnya dari Southampton ke New York, dianggap sebagai

keajaiban teknik dan sebagai “tak dapat tenggelam”. Namun ia menjadi korban keanehan alam seperti kapal ekspedisi begitu banyak yang telah berlayar ke perairan berbahaya abad sebelumnya.

Dalam Caspar David Friedrich, The Polar Laut, kapal terbalik terjebak dalam es mungkin “penindas”, yang mengambil bagian dalam ekspedisi ke Kutub Utara yang membuat berita utama di 1819-20 dan 1824. Inggris Polar explorer Sir William Edward Parry telah menjadi terlibat dalam situasi yang sangat berbahaya sementara mencari Passage Northwest. Caspar David Friedrich mungkin telah terinspirasi oleh laporan surat kabar tentang Parry juga oleh floes es berat pada Elbe di musim dingin tahun 1820-21.

Lukisan itu telah kadang-kadang ditafsirkan sebagai memiliki makna religius yaitu intransience kehidupan manusia sebelum keabadian ilahi. Ada juga interpretasi politik: pengunduran diri dalam menghadapi perang Jerman membuahkan hasil kemerdekaan. Namun Laut Kutub tetap dalam contoh pertama simbol dari teror limbah es daerah kutub – dan praduga manusia, yang tidak lagi berdiri dalam kekaguman alam.

 
  
Caspar David Friedrich
(1774-1840)
Laut Kutub
1824
  
   
Salah satu Keajaiban Dunia
 
Misteri Stonehenge

 
  
 
 Band dari pucat perak sepanjang horison timur dibuat bahkan bagian-bagian yang jauh dari Great Plain tampak gelap dan dekat, dan lanskap besar yang menanggung seluruh terkesan cadangan, sifat pendiam, dan ragu-ragu yang biasa sebelum hari. Para timur pilar dan architraves mereka berdiri blackly terhadap cahaya dan api yang besar berbentuk Sun-batu di luar mereka, dan Batu tengah Kurban. Saat angin malam mati, dan kolam sedikit bergetar di cangkir-seperti cekungan batu berbaring diam
Thomas Hardy, The Novel Wessex, vol. Saya, Tess dari Urbervilles D'(1891), ed 5. 1896

 
  
 
 Druid Upacara di Stonehenge
  
 
 
Megalit ribuan tahun bangkit melawan langit selatan Inggris dekat Ames-mengubur di Wiltshire. Siapa yang mendirikannya? Apakah pengorbanan manusia terjadi di sini? Apakah dukun legendaris Merlin bekerja di sini?
Megalitikum batu pasir berpakaian didirikan untuk membentuk sebuah lingkaran batu lintelled sekitar enam meter, beberapa dari mereka beratnya mencapai empat puluh lima ton. Berdiri di angin-menyapu Salisbury Plain, monumen misterius ke dunia lama terlupakan pertama kali disebut “keajaiban Inggris” pada abad kedua belas. Sejak itu, tidak satu abad telah berlalu tanpa dugaan segar pada apa yang mungkin telah menyebabkan pembangunan monumen henge unik.

Kaum Romantik yang menguraikan teori-teori tinggi tentang Stonehenge ketika Inggris lansekap pelukis besar John Constable melukis cat air yang terkenal itu berdasarkan sketsa awal banyak ia telah membuat dalam kunjungan pada tahun 1820. Bahkan saat ini arti dari lingkaran tiga puluh uprights, beberapa di antaranya masih dibatasi oleh ambang besar, sekitar pengaturan tapal kuda dari lima trilithons (dua batu tegak dihubungkan dengan palang), adalah menjadi misteri seperti dulu. Arkeolog cenderung percaya bahwa motif agama menyebabkan ereksi Stonehenge. Dalam cahaya abu-abu dingin fajar, situs dengan megalit yang menjulang tinggi adalah tempat yang mengancam hampir apokaliptik. Dengan sinar pertama matahari, uprights bayangan membentuk pola linier menakutkan di tanah. Salah satu legenda mengatakan bahwa kekuatan Druid terkonsentrasi dimana bayangan bertemu.

Diduga Celtic imam, Druid adalah perantara antara para dewa dan manusia, peramal, dukun dan hakim, dan, sebagai tutor untuk anak-anak bangsawan, diduga para penguasa sebenarnya dari Inggris kuno. Sayangnya, bagaimanapun, rekening Latin dari Druid gagal untuk menjelaskan banyak pada struktur ini. Para penentang teori bahwa Druid diresmikan pada saat Stonehenge bahwa Wiltshire batu lingkaran telah berdiri selama lebih dari 2.000 tahun sebelum masa kejayaan bangsa Celtic dan Druid (100 ВС-AD 78). Selain itu, yang terakhir tidak diketahui memiliki candi dibangun. Sebaliknya, mereka mengadakan upacara mereka di padang. Pengetahuan tentang bintang mungkin telah diturunkan oleh tradisi lisan ke Druid, yang dihapuskan oleh orang Romawi di Anglesey di tahun 78.

Satu hal yang pasti: orang-orang yang membangun Stonehenge menunjukkan pengetahuan tentang astronomi. Pendekatan asli ke situs ditandai dengan batu dimana, bila dilihat dari pusat lingkaran, matahari terbit pada titik balik matahari musim panas.

Lingkaran batu dikelilingi oleh lima puluh enam lubang. Penanggalan radiokarbon dari salah satu gerabah serta menemukan menunjukkan bahwa struktur yang paling awal di situs tanggal kembali ke zaman Neolitik terlambat (sekitar 2.300 ВС). Apapun Stonehenge mungkin telah, situs itu lebih atau kurang digunakan terus-menerus selama ribuan tahun. Spekulasi ini teka-teki yang paling memikat dari semua monumen kuno terus abound hari ini.

 
  
John Constable
(1776-1837)
Stonehenge
1836
  
Dengan Sikat dan Palet di Barikade
 

Revolusi tahun 1830

 
  
  
 Ah minggu itu besar di Paris! Keberanian untuk kebebasan yang menguar lewat sini telah, tentu saja, membatalkan malam lampu sehingga tirai merah pada beberapa takhta telah terbakar dan mahkota emas telah tumbuh panas di bawah cahaya malam-topi. Tapi kutub tangkapan tua sudah membesarkan ember dowsing dan mengendus tentang semua lebih waspada.
Heinrich Heine, Fragmen Inggris, November 1830

 
  
  
 lihat juga: “Antara Dua Revolutions” (Dari Daud sampai Delacroix)

 
  
  
 
Victor Hugo tinggal di rumah. Sibuk meneliti untuk novelnya, The Hunchback of Notre Dame, ia tidak ingin meninggalkan istrinya sendiri, yang telah melahirkan seorang anak perempuan hanya empat hari sebelumnya. Para muda Alexandre Dumas, di sisi lain – kemudian untuk mencapai terkenal dunia untuk nya jagoan The Count of Monte Cristo – berani memanggul senapan berlaras dua, siap untuk mempertaruhkan nyawanya demi kebebasan dengan ribuan mahasiswa, pedagang, pekerja dan aktor.
Paris sekali lagi di ambang sebuah revolusi. Jalanan penuh warga gelisah menghadapi para penjaga kerajaan dengan pistol dan pentungan kayu, senapan dan pisau. Penyebab keributan adalah rasa takut warga negara yang sistem lama penindasan kerajaan, yang telah dihapuskan, sedang bangkit lagi. Pada awal 1814 rumah kerajaan Bourbon telah kembali kekuatan semula. Lotus XVIII, adik ke Louis XVI, yang telah dieksekusi selama Revolusi, telah dipanggil dari pengasingan untuk memerintah Perancis setelah kejatuhan Napoleon. Moderat dan berhati-hati, ia telah mengejar kebijakan liberal, menggabungkan rasa modern untuk kebebasan dengan prinsip-prinsip rezim lama. Ketika Louis XVIII meninggal pada tahun 1824, Charles X, bungsu dari tiga bersaudara, memiliki dirinya sendiri dimahkotai di Reims dengan keangkuhan abad pertengahan dan keadaan. Sezaman ke depan menemukannya reaksioner dan bodoh. Berkeinginan menghidupkan kembali pra-Revolusi Perancis, ia bermaksud untuk mengembalikan judul kuno dan hak istimewa untuk kaum bangsawan serta satu miliar franc di reparasi untuk properti hilang oleh kaum bangsawan selama Revolusi. Setelah Charles X mengeluarkan seri represif dekrit pada tanggal 25 Juli 1830, menghapuskan kebebasan pers, melarutkan legislatif dan merampas sebagian besar warga hak pilih, hal-hal datang ke kepala. Pada 28 Juli 1830 pemberontakan terjadi tidak jauh dari studio Eugene Delacroix ini. Sementara tentara bayaran dikerahkan oleh Charles X berjuang jalan melalui jalan-jalan sempit, para pendukung kaum revolusioner melemparkan furnitur, cuci-bak, ubin perakaran dan dada alat bawah pada mereka dari jendela, akhirnya dumping cartloads seluruh melon di kepala pasukan kerajaan memajukan untuk menghentikan kemajuan mereka. Bentrokan di jalan terjadi selama tiga hari. Pelukis dan kartunis Honore Daumier menderita pedang-garis miring di wajahnya selama pertempuran. Pada tanggal 3 Agustus 1830 warga menang, memaksa Charles X untuk turun tahta dan melarikan diri ke pengasingan.
 Delacroix, yang telah mengamati pemberontakan pada jarak yang aman, mengambil kuas dan palet. Dalam sebuah surat kepada saudaranya yang ditulis pada bulan Oktober 1830, ia mengaku, “Meskipun saya tidak melawan, aku akan di cat setidaknya untuk negara kita!” Dan hasilnya Liberty Memimpin Rakyat, pola dasar dari Revolusi.

 
  
  Eugene Delacroix
(1798-1863)
Liberty terkemuka Rakyat (28 Juli 1830)
1830
  
  Dunia Lama ditarik oleh New
 

Pada awal dari era modern

 
  
 
 Kapal uap sedikit jahat membusungkan aliran najis dan hantu-seperti asap, bersinar merah dan menyenangkan, sementara di belakangnya kapal tua berani mengikuti dengan lambat, sedih dan megah, ditandai dengan tanda Kematian.
Diadaptasi dari William Makepeace Thackeray, setelah 1839

 
  
Sebuah cikal bakal penemuan James Watt
 
  
 
 Ia telah melayani negaranya dengan baik dan sekarang dia
hari adalah masa lalu, dan Inggris berduka. Pertempuran “Temeraire”, seperti John Ruskin dan Inggris lain telah memanggilnya, adalah simbol kepahlawanan di laut. Ketika armada Inggris dan Perancis bentrok di Trafalgar tanggal 21 Oktober 1805, yang Temeraire adalah kapal kedua dari garis Inggris. Meskipun Laksamana Nelson, komandan armada Inggris, meninggal karena luka tembak di dek kapal adiknya, yang “Victory”, ia telah melakukan hari. Kalah jumlah oleh enam kapal, armada dari dua puluh tujuh telah mengalahkan Prancis. Para Temeraire memainkan peran penting dalam kemenangan di Trafalgar, yang adalah untuk menjamin supremasi Inggris di laut selama abad lain. Dia decoyed api Perancis, yang bertujuan untuk Nelson dan unggulan, jauh dari Kemenangan dan telah merebut hadiah. Pada akhir pertempuran, sebagai catatan kontemporer, ia hampir tersembunyi di antara dua kapal Prancis diamankan ke mainmast dan jangkar nya.

Beberapa tiga puluh tahun kemudian, Joseph Mallord William Turner sangat terharu menyaksikan kapal tua gagah yang ditunda dari Sheerness ke halaman pemutus di Deptford. Namun, pelukis brilian efek atmosfer dan suasana hati tidak hanya memikirkan perpisahan. Dia juga berharap untuk awal yang baru. Pada 1765, sepuluh tahun sebelum Turner lahir, James Watt telah memicu Revolusi Industri di Inggris dengan menciptakan mesin uap. Turner terpesona dengan keajaiban teknologi yang muncul di sekelilingnya. Dia adalah orang yang pertama yang melukis gambar, yang secara dramatis eksperimental, dari sarana modern transportasi, seperti kereta api dan kapal uap. Kedua keindahan dan aspek mengancam penemuan tersebut terungkap dalam lukisannya dari mereka. Pengamat mungkin menemukan simbolisme dalam pelayaran terakhir Temeraire itu: penarik kapal tunda di bawah uap yang mewakili Orde Baru dan semua ambivalensi nya, kapal berlayar Lama – sudah berubah di dalam memori.

 
  
Yusuf Mallord William Turner
(1775-1851)
Para Temeraire Berjuang menarik untuk Berth terakhir nya Be Broken Up
1858
National Gallery di London
 
  
Yusuf Mallord William Turner
(1775-1851)
Hujan, Uap dan Speed Kereta Api Great Western
  
Stark Naked
 

Perempuan mandi

 
  
 
 Saya percaya, secara keseluruhan, ada dua ratus wanita …. Sofa pertama ditutupi dengan bantal dan karpet kaya, yang duduk wanita, dan pada kedua, budak mereka di belakang mereka, …. semua berada di keadaan alamiah, yaitu, dalam bahasa Inggris, telanjang bulat …. Ada yang banyak di antara mereka sebagai tepat proporsional seperti biasa dewi pun ditarik oleh pensil … Titian, .. Saya terpesona dengan kesopanan dan keindahannya … Tis tidak kurang daripada kematian bagi seorang pria untuk ditemukan di salah satu tempat.
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Surat kepada Elizabeth Kaya pengalamannya dalam bak mandi perempuan di Sophia, tanggal 1 April 1717

 
  
Jean-Leon Gerome
Penangas
  
 
  
Jean-Leon Gerome
Penangas
  
 
  
Jean-Leon Gerome
Penangas
  
 
  
Jean-Leon Gerome
The Teaser dari Narghile yang
  
 
  
Jean-Leon Gerome
Penangas
  
 
  
Jean-Leon Gerome
Perempuan telanjang
  
 
  
Jean-Leon Gerome
Sebuah Bath, Wanita Mandi Kaki nya
  
 
  
Jean-Leon Gerome
Sebuah Bath, Wanita Mandi Kaki nya
 
  
 
 Meskipun Minoans dan kemudian orang Yunani kuno memiliki bak mandi, itu adalah Roma yang membuat mandi populer. Lambang peradaban Romawi, Romawi Therme, atau mandi, yang mewah dan luas. Kolam, dinding dan bahkan lantai dipanaskan. Contoh Splendid arsitektur perkotaan, Therme adalah tempat di mana pria dimandikan, memiliki manikur dan pedikur, mengambil mandi uap dan melakukan latihan senam. Mereka adalah titik pusat dari aktivitas sosial dan politik. Roma diketahui telah membuat keputusan penting sementara uap di pemandian atau berjalan-jalan di sandal dan handuk. Dengan jatuhnya kekaisaran Romawi, budaya mandi mulia menghilang dari kancah Eropa. Apa yang kemudian digantikan itu tentu dalam skala yang jauh lebih sederhana. Nuremberg abad pertengahan, misalnya, membual total tiga belas publik “kamar mandi” di mana bak kayu besar yang berisi air panas. Ada juga mandi uap kadang-kadang dan kamar istirahat dipanaskan dengan kompor ubin. Mandi seperti itu bukan hanya tempat untuk mempromosikan budaya tubuh, mereka juga digunakan sebagai operasi: gigi ditarik, darah membiarkan, kop-gelas yang diterapkan pada punggung dan dada dari mereka dengan pilek dan operasi kecil dilakukan. Kamar mandi yang disukai oleh karena Gereja untuk kesenangan bahenol dinikmati di dalamnya. “Petugas Bath” adalah perempuan bermoral yang dikatakan telah menjadi alasan mengapa Raja Wenceslas IV dari Bohemia mengunjungi perusahaan mandi dari Praha, ibukotanya, lebih sering daripada yang baik untuk kulit sensitif. Di Timur Dekat, di sisi lain, budaya mandi kuno selamat karena pergi ke hammam (mandi) yang diresepkan oleh Islam. Terinspirasi oleh akun Lady Mary Wortley Montagu dari perjalanannya di wilayah tersebut, pelukis Perancis Jean-Auguste Dominique Ingres dicat bagian wanita dari pemandian Turki. Master terkenal adalah delapan puluh tiga tahun ketika ia menambahkan sentuhan penobatan untuk oeuvre-nya dengan menggambarkan adegan mandi Turki. Ingres membuat ratusan sketsa awal untuk lukisan itu sebelum menyajikannya kepada Pangeran Charles-Louis-Napoleon pada Desember 1859. Hanya beberapa minggu kemudian, lukisan itu kembali ke Ingres, diduga karena istri sang pangeran, Eugenie de Montijo, telah dipermalukan oleh para wanita telanjang digambarkan begitu sensual dalam pekerjaan luar biasa. Ketika Permandian Turki diperagakan dalam versi kedua, pada dasarnya tidak berubah, telanjang adalah apa yang membawa pujian publik lukisan luas. Kritikus memuji sebagai “kencan dengan kegenitan Oriental” atau, agak kasar, sebagai “pesta kelezatan duniawi” dan “masih hidup kesenangan indria”. Ini tentu berdampak pada Picasso dan seniman lainnya, yang mengaguminya baik untuk komposisi dan idiom formal. Setelah karya ini, Ingreswas tidak lagi dianggap sebagai “eksponen tak berdarah dari Neoclassicism”. Mulai sekarang ia adalah terobosan “revolusioner”.
 
  

Jean-Auguste Dominique Ingres
(1780-1867)
Penangas
1863
 
  
   
Eros terbangun untuk Storm dari Kemarahan
 
Paris dan “Salon des Tolak”

 
  
 
  
 
  
Edouard Manet
(1832-1883)
Le dejeuner sur I’herbe
1863
Musee d’Orsay, Paris
  
A Look yang Tewaskan
 

Kuno dan Era Industri

 
  
 
 Tapi Perseus, dengan kepala rakasa ular berambut itu. Yang terkenal memanjakan, penuh kemenangan berjalan gemerisik Pada kepaknya melalui udara nyaman Dan, saat ia melayang di atas pasir Libya, Darah-tetes dari kepala Gorgon yang menetes ke bawah. Gurun terpercik memberi mereka kehidupan seperti ular. Halus ular dari berbagai jenis, dan tanah yang Masih kawanan dengan ular mematikan sampai hari ini.
Ovid, Metamorphoses, (IV. 617-24), AD 1-8

 
  

Benvenuto Cellini
Perseus dengan Kepala Medusa
1554
 
 
Peter Paul Rubens
Tete de Meduse
1618
 
 

Arnold Bocklin
Medusa
 
  

 
 
 
Bahkan Odiseus takut Medusa. Ini pahlawan Yunani licik memutuskan tinggal di Underworld karena ia takut berhadapan dengan kepala dipenggal dari rakasa, yang sekilas berubah siapa saja yang melihatnya menjadi batu. Menurut penyair Yunani Hesiod (c. 800 ВС), yang melakukan untuk mengatur mitos para dewa Yunani kuno di Theogony, Medusa adalah salah satu dari tiga saudara perempuan Gorgon yang berdiam di luar Mediterania di Barat jauh, yang mana terletak mitologi kuasa kejahatan menjadi.

 
  

1887
 
  

 

 
  
 
 

 
  
 
 

 
  

1883
 
  
   

 

 
  
 
 

 
  
  
   
  

 
  
Vincent Van Gogh

1889
 
  

 

 
  
 
  

 
  

 
  
 
  

1892

  

 

 
  
 
 

 
  
  
   
  

 
  

1895
  

 

 
  
 
 

 
  
  

 
 
 
 
 
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ORIGINAL INFO

ALL THE PAINTING COLLECTORS AND VISUAL ART HISTORY SCHOLAR MUST READ AND LOOK THIS AMIZING ARTICLE

THIS IS THE PART OF E-BOOK IN CD-ROM ABOUT THE FAMOUS VISUAL ART AND THE PAINTING WHICH CHANGED THE WORLD

THE COMPLETE cd EXIST,BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER

THIS ONE SAMPLE WITH ILLUSTTRATIONS

Making Myths
 

Film and art

 

So we think of Marilyn who was every man’s love affair with America, Marilyn Monroe who was blonde and beautiful and had a sweet little rinky-dink of a voice and all the cleanliness of all the clean American backyards. She was our angel, the sweet angel of sex, and the sugar of sex came up from her like a resonance of sound in the clearest grain of a violin.

Norman Mailer, Marilyn, 1973


Marilyn Monroe

 


see collection: Marilyn Monroe

 


 

 

She acted out her life

under the devouring gaze of a gigantic audience, one that couldn’t get enough of her: Marilyn, the enchanting child-woman, the breathtaking sex-symbol, the unattainable goddess of film. She was unforgettable in Gentlemen Prefer Blondes, Some Like It Hot, and The Seven-Year Itch. She was wildly acclaimed, dominated the headlines, filled the gossip columns and incarnated the dreams of a decade. Behind the glitz, glamour and the luscious smile which enthralled the world was a vulnerable and immature woman. Did America know it all along? Was that the secret source of her mystique; She had a terrible childhood. She said that she was probably a mistake, that her mother hadn’t wanted to have her at all. She never knew her father and was bounced between her mother’s home and a series of adoptive families; her mother had a nervous breakdown and Marilyn spent two years in an orphanage. She never graduated from high school and married at sixteen, perhaps to avoid being sent back to an orphanage. She was later to comment that her marriage wasn’t unhappy; but it wasn’t happy either. She and her husband just didn’t have much to say to each other.Her discovery was all part of the war effort. While her husband was fighting in World War II Marilyn was in a factory checking parachutes. Ronald Reagan sent David Conover, a twenty-five-year-old army photographer, to photograph cheerful young munitions-factory workers. Conover took notice of this girl who could make more out of a pose than anyone he had ever seen. The publicists took his discovery and created “Marilyn Monroe”, the icon of post-war Hollywood. She was oddly detached and alienated, saying she always had the feeling that she was not real, that she was something like a well-made counterfeit. She was sure that everyone had similar feelings from time to time but in her case things had gone so far that she sometimes thought she was completely synthetic. She died on the night of 4 August 1962 under mysterious circumstances, but her legend lived on and even grew.

Andy Warhol, the son of Czech immigrants, began his artistic career in advertising, moved on to film-making and became high-society’s favourite portrait artist. He ended up a cult figure, probably the cult figure, of Pop Art. His Marilyn Monroe is a twentieth-century icon of art. He wrote of his work that, whether or not his loud colours made her into a symbol was irrelevant, and if the colours were beautiful, it was because she was; beauty calls for beautiful colours. Marilyn Monroe was commercialised beauty, quite artificial and quite misunderstood.


Andy Warhol
(1928-1987)
Turquoise Marilyn
1962
 


Andy Warhol
(1928-1987)
Turquoise Marilyn
 


Andy Warhol
(1928-1987)
Pink Marilyn Reversal
1986
 


Andy Warhol
(1928-1987)
Marilyn Monroe
1967
 


Andy Warhol
(1928-1987)
Marilyn Monroe

THE SAMPLE OF ARTICLE WITHOUT ILLUSTRATIONS

 

THE SAMPLE OF ARTICLE WITHOUT ILLUSTRATIONS

Paintings

that Changed the World

  CONTENTS:          
  Lascaux Caves Manesse illuminated Massys Callot Friedrich Picasso
  Tutankhamen’s tomb Lorenzetti Grunewald Rembrandt Constable Matisse
  Europa and Minotaur Karlstein Castle Baldung  Claude Lorrain Delacroix Marc
  Banquet Tomb Limbourg brothers Altdorfer Velazquez Turner Kandinsky
  Pompeii Van Eyck Cranach Vermeer Ingres Monet
  Birth of Christianity Della Francesca Holbein Rigaud Manet Chirico
  Hagia Sophia Uccello Titian Watteau Burne-Jones Modigliani
  Book of Kells Mantegna Bruegel Canaletto Seurat Chagall
  St Benedict Botticelli Vicentino Boucher Van Gogh Kahlo
  Bayeux Tapestry Anonymous Arcimboldo Fragonard Toulouse-Lautrec Dali
  Donizo manuscript Durer El Greco Gainsborough Munch Ernst
  Liber Scivias Bosch Theodore de Bry John Trumbull Cezanne Hopper
  Carmina Burana Da Vinci Caravaggio David Gauguin Bacon
  Falcon Book Michelangelo Rubens Gros Degas Warhol
  Giotto Raphael Brouwer Goya Klimt  
             

From Lascaux to Warhol

Supreme art is a traditional statement of certain heroic and religious truth,
passed on from age to age, modified by individual genius,
but never abandoned.

William Butler Yeats

 
  
   
 
  
 
  
 
  
Jacques Callot
The Thirty Yaars War “Miseries of War

 
  
 
 See collection: Jacques Callot: The Thirty Yaars War “Miseries of War”

Jacques Callot

The Thirty Yaars War “Miseries of War
 

 
 
 
  
 
  
 
  
Jan Asselyn
(1615-1652)
Gustav II Adolf at the Battle of Lutzen
1650
  
A Well-Guarded Painting
 

The fascination of The Night Watch

 
  
 
 How the drum beats,
How the pipe trills.
How trumpets also,
    and shawms,
    and kettle-drums sound,
О see
How fresh the flag flutters.
May your hearts
Leap light for joy.
Johannes Grab, Soldier’s Song, seventeenth century
 
  
 
 The Man in the Golden Helmet
с 1650/55, is attributed to the circle of Rembrandt
   
 
 Pulsating with life — a drum is beaten, a dog barks, lances and muskets are raised, a flag is flown, children run about in all directions — The Night Watch is regarded as the masterpiece of the great Dutch painter Rembrandt van Rijn. The only oddity is that the subject of the painting is not a night watch. The title emerged towards the close of the eighteenth century after the many layers of varnish coating the surface of the painting had considerably darkened. The gloom thus produced led to the idea that the scene was captured at night. The original title of the painting was The Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocg. Instead of depicting a night watch, it is a group portrait of Amsterdam militia men. At the time it was painted, Amsterdam was Europe’s leading mercantile city, with three civic militias. They called themselves The Crossbowmen, The Long-bowmen and The Guild of Arquebusiers after the weapons the men of their companies had borne in the Middle Ages. The militias recruited members from the pool of men in their city fit for military service, while each district had its own company. In times of war and unrest, the militias fulfilled the function of protecting the community. Before Rembrandtt’s time, their duties included patrolling the ramparts of the city and mounting guard at its gates.
In 1653 Rembrandt settled permanently in Amsterdam. The civic militias still retained something of their military character, although by then theirs was predominantly a social function. The traditional guilds with their historic past represented different sections of the city, sometimes marking political factions, and their members paraded at civic festivities. Commissioned in 1640 by the Amsterdam Arquebusiers to paint their group portrait, Rembrandt probably portrayed the members before they were to participate in a traditional parade, which may have been held in celebration of the visit of the French Queen, Marie de’ Medici, in 1638. Contemporary sources show that the queen was welcomed by the marksmen’s guilds and was accompanied by them in a ceremonial parade to a lavish feast in the festival hall of a guild house. Rembrandt’s company of men was possibly depicted early in the morning of this royal visit. Led by their captain, Frans Banning Cocq, a reputable Antwerp merchant, the guild members seem to be about to take leave to greet the French queen outside the city. The large painting with its life-sized figures most likely hung in the festival hall of the Arquebusiers’ guild house. In 1715 it was transferred to Antwerp’s Town Hall. Because it was too large for the space it was to occupy there, it was promptly cut down to size.

 
  
 

Rembrandt van Rijn
(1606—1669)
The Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq
(The Night Watch)
Frans Banning Cocq (with a red sash)
1642
Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
  
   
Landscapes, Light and Legends
 

Restrained Romanticism

 
  
 
  
 
  
Claude Lorrain
(1600-1682)
Seaport with the Embarkation of the Queen of Sheba
1648
National Gallery, London
  
   
Behind the Scenes
 
At the palace of King Philip IV of Spain

 
  
 
 Palaces and temples were built,
armies engaged in battle,

the elements raged-

and the King in reality is nothing

but an actor in disguise, and his throne

a make-shift chair….

Masks and makeup, deception and

pretence – this is theatre.

Adapted from Richard Alewyn’s work on life
at the Court of King Philip IV of Spain, 1985

 
  
 
 A monastery and royal palace: El Escorial was under Diego Velazquez’s administration in the 17th century
 
  
 
 Their numbers were legionary. Some say there were 30,000 courtesans at the Court of Philip IV of Spain. Reigning from 1621 until 1665, the monarch had to leave governing to his regent, Count Olivares. No wonder, for in addition to women, Philip IV was an aficionado of hunting, the arts and literature. He was particularly fond of the theatre. Because the country was in decline, the king, like his countrymen, withdrew into a world of illusions. However, Philip IV did not content himself with occupying the Royal box; he wrote plays himself, most of them comedies. When he was not busy playing the King of Spain on the world stage, he could be admired displaying his talents as an actor in amateur performances put on at Court. Philip IV lived in and for the theatre. The responsibility for designing this world of illusion devolved increasingly upon the painter Diego Velazquez. After being called to the Spanish Court in 1623, Velazquez had a meteoric career as a Court official. The last office he held was that of Lord High Usher of the Chamber, the highest rank he might attain in the king’s retinue. Under Velazquez’s tenure, the royal palaces were restored, enlarged and refurnished. For each of the numerous Court revels and festivities, among them the marriage of the Infanta Marie-Therese of Spam to Louis XIV of France, Velazquez threw himself into the task of designing all the decorations and curtains, stage sets and backdrops. It was not long before he was, to put it in modern terms, not only the Head Designer at Court but also its top-ranking Installation Artist. Philip IV was very fond of the man who created his dream world. He used to visit the artist in his workshop, which was in the palace. The king also provided him with lodgings near the royal apartments. Now an intimate friend of the king, Velazquez had no compunction about disturbing his royal master at any time. The painter became familiar with everything that was going on at Court and in the royal family. How close the painter’s friendship with the king really was is perhaps shown most clearly in Las Meninas. The scene is like a photographer’s snapshot, casually anecdotal about what was happening on the fringes of real life. The little Infanta Margarita appears in Velazquez’s studio, while the artist is painting a double portrait of her parents, which is reflected in a mirror on the rear wall. Responsible not only for construction work and staging festivities, he was also charged with ensuring that royal outings went smoothly. He saw to the linen, the firewood, the servants, the carpeting and guests’ comfort and welfare, kitchen domestics and everything having to do with art. Overburdened by his many duties, Velazquezcollapsed and died on 6 August 1660. He was buried in the dress and insignia of a Knight of Santiago. After his Favourite’s death, King Philip IV is said to have personally taken up a brush and altered the artist’s portrait. After all, when this picture was painted, the artist had not yet become a Knight of the Order.
 
  
Velazquez
(1599—1660)
Las Meninas (The Maids of Honour)
1656
Museo del Prado, Madrid
  
Everyday Scenes Transformed Into Poetry
 

The calm and peace of a great master

 
  
 
  
Vermeer’s Muses
 
  
 
  
Jan Vermeer
(1632—1675)
The Allegory of Painting
1666
Kunsthistonsches Museum, Vienna
  
   
“L’etat, c’est moi!”
 
Why Louis XIV failed to smile

 
  
 
 The King is the regent and the image of God on earth, his majesty is the reflection of the divine; the entire state, the will of the people are embodied in him. Only he who serves the King serves the state.
Jacques-Benigne Bossuet (1627-1704), Bishop of Meaux, Politics According to the Teachings of the Holy Scriptures (begun in 1678/79)

 
  
 
 Centre of the absolutist world: The Palace of Versailles
 
  
 
 He wanted to impressand he was feared: Louis xiv of France, the Sun King, Absolutism incarnate. He particularly liked to be portrayed as an Imperator, omnipotent, magnificent and proud. He was remarkably healthy and was known for his sexual prowess. In Versailles, the magnificent palace he had built to commemorate himself, no woman was safe from him. Politically, he was equally successful. His invasion of Holland, his occupation of Strasbourg and of German territories, the sacking and burning of Heidelberg and Mannheim not only enraged his contemporaries; Louis XIV was given bad marks for his wars by later historians as well. His behaviour those relating to his teeth, all of which he had extracted on the advice of his physicians, who were woefully incompetent. One gruesome dental disaster led to another, ultimately leaving the king’s face lopsided. Yet the real reason for his unsmiling portraits is an aesthetic convention that goes back at least as far as the sombre busts of the Roman Republic and was given new emphasis in Absolutism. Rulers, divine or otherwise, were not only held in awe. Those who portrayed them were expected to observe the conventions of frontality and unsmiling dignity to enhance the quality of regal aloofness, which ultimately meant absolute power. Even royal women, little Infantas and the beautiful queens of Spain, were subject to this austere treatment.
The stern Absolutist convention had a sequel in the United States. The painter Charles Wilson Peale (1741—1827), who served in the American Revolution, was a true son of the Enlightenment. A man of many talents, he advanced early palaeontology, invented several new types of spectacles and made false teeth. The archetypal portraitist of Revolutionary War heroes, Peale might be called George Washington’s official portrait painter. All his portraits of the first President of the United States (including, of course, the variant on greenbacks) are tight-lipped and unsmiling. Legend has it that George Washington, too, had trouble with his false teeth. Could they have been made by Peale? In any case it can be safely assumed that the President, like Louis XIV of France, was only too aware of the image he owed to his nation and to history.

 
  
HYACINTHE RIGAUD
(French, 1659—1745)
Louis XIV of France in His Coronation Robes
1701
Musee du Louvre, Paris
  
Pierrot and Other Clowns

Comedy and melancholy

 
  
  Get your apparel together, good strings to your beards, new ribbons to your pumps; meet presently at the palace; every man look o’er his part…. In any case, let Thisby have clean linen; and let not him that plays the lion pare his nails, for they shall hang out for the lion’s claws. And, most dear actors, eat no onions nor garlic, for we are to utter sweet breath, and I do not doubt but to hear them say, it is a sweet comedy….
William Shakespeare, Bottom in A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Act V, Scene 11,36-46,1600

 
  
Maurice Sand
(1823-1889)
Pulcinello; Pantaleone; Harlequin; Il Dottore; Le Notaire
 
  
 
 In the eighteenth century, members of the French Court amused themselves splendidly: “The day before yesterday there was a great masque in Versailles”. Thus a letter written in 1700: “The Duchess of Burgundy, in the guise of a village bride, came with her retinue of ladies in waiting, who were all masked, as she was, and whose hair was adorned with many flowers. This made a gloriously cheerful effect…. Eight days before there was another pretty harlequinade at Marly. The loveliest were the Savoyardes with their pedlar’s bundles on their backs, which they opened. Two little harlequins and two Columbines popped out, little girls and boys, who danced beautifully.” Even King Louis XV, then only eleven years old, took part in fetes galantes, elegant entertainments, in 1721. He mimed a ballet dancer in a ballet entitled The Elements.
Not only did the nobility love dressing up and playing theatre. Like many of his contemporaries, painter Jean-Antoine Watteau did, too. He was particularly taken with the characters in Italian improvised comedy, commedia dell’arte. They brought welcome diversion and pleasure to the poor as well. Commedia dell’arte originated around 1550 in Lombardy, evolving as street theatre in which improvised pieces based on stock situations were performed by troupes of specially trained actors. All that was prearranged were synopses of the plot and the sequence of scenes. Consisting mainly of clowning and jokes, the dialogue was entirely improvised. Although a couple in love belonged to the stock repertoire, the other characters were burlesque types, instantly recognisable because they always appeared in the same masks and costumes: Pantalone — an elderly Venetian merchant, the doctor, a scholar of Bologna and Arlecchino, and his crafty man-servant, whose awkward and melancholy side soon became personified as a separate character called Pedrolino.

After commedia dell’arte had become established in France at courts, fairs and in the streets, Pedrolino changed into a pitiable fool, who might be called either Pierrot or Gilles. This character represented the rejected lover, who was always sad. He was characterised by a distinctive white, wide-sleeved costume, a white mask and a wide white beret. Did Watteau paint his Gilles as a portrait of an actor famous for playing the part of Gilles or Pierrot? Was this life-sized painting possibly hung in front of a cafe, or theatre in which the actor in question may have appeared in the role? Be that as it may, the melancholy clown, mocked, ridiculed and despised for his asinine helplessness, was a favourite with Watteau for the sole reason that he was so wretchedly sad. The mournful clown appears several times in his work. Is this a biographical clue? The painter knew all too well what it was like to have only himself for company. His final years were marred by disease and melancholy before he died at thirty-seven of tuberculosis.

 
  
Jean-Antoine Watteau
(1684—1721)
Gilles and Four Other Characters from the Commedia dell’Arte (Pierrot)
1718
Musee du Louvre, Paris
  
A City Rich in Gold
 

Venice and the sea

 
  
 
 He saw it once more, that landing-place that takes the breath away, that amazing group of incredible structures the Republic set up to meet the awe-struck eye of the approaching seafarer: the airy splendour of the palace and the Bridge of Sighs, the columns with a lion and saint on the shore, the glory of the projecting flank of the fairy temple, the vista of gateway and clock.
Thomas Mann, Death in Venice, 1912

 
  
 
 Venice and gondolas: An inseparable duo
Venice
 
  
 
 No other city in the world has been so extravagantly praised as Venice. In 1495 the French ambassador Philippe de Commines praised it as being “the most joyously radiant city” he had ever seen. He mentioned white marble facades, apartments with gilt antechambers and sumptuously ornate fireplaces. When Napoleon conquered Venice in 1797, he thought St Mark’s was “the best drawing-room in Europe and only Heaven is worthy of serving as its ceiling”, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, who stayed in the island-dotted lagoon in September 1786 while on his Italian journey, spoke with reverence of the “wonderful island city”, which he “was privileged to visit” and in which he wished to reside “until I have satiated my desire to gaze on the image of this city”. After endless warring with Genoa, Venice finally conquered her rival in 1380. From that date, the city was the unchallenged leader in world trade. In 1423 the Venetian Republic commanded a war fleet of 45 galleys specially built for combat and a merchant fleet of 300 galleys. With a population of over 200,000, Venice was one of the biggest, and certainly the richest, Western cities. Prosperity, optimism and cheerfulness reigned: “People sing in the squares, tn the streets and on the canals. Merchants sing when they are prizing then-wares; labourers sing when they leave their places of work; gondolien sing when they are waiting for customers”, remarked the Italian dramatist Carlo Goldoni in the eighteenth century. One wonders whether the Doge, the ruler of the Republic, sang when conducting the affairs of state.
At any rate, he had to utter the same invocation each year on Ascension Day, which was the most important event in the city calendar: “O sea, we wed thee in the sign of our true and everlasting dominion”. With this incantation, a vow renewed each year, the Venetians hoped to propitiate the primal forces of the sea to ensure their benevolence and willingness to do their share in securing the supremacy of the Republic in the Adriatic. In the days of the veduta painter Canaletto, the “nuptials with the sea” were staged as an opulent and colourful cavalcade. The Doge boarded his ceremonial ship, the bucintoro, and sailed to the Porto di Lido, the principal gateway to Venice, where the “nuptials with the sea” took place. There he poured holy water into the sea and cast a gold ring overboard. The ritual has been revived in recent years. Now, of course, something very different is at stake. No longer are the power, influence and wealth of Venice to be enhanced. The decaying city once called the Serenissima (“Most Serene Republic”) must be prevented from subsiding into the sea should a raging storm unleash the forces of nature.

 
  
Canaletto
(1697-1768)
Return of the Bucentoro to the Molo on Ascension Day
1732
Royal Collection. Windsor
  
A Clever Mistress
 

Madame la Marquise de Pompadour and Louis XV

 
  
 
 I am always being blamed for the general wretchedness, the Cabinet’s unfounded policies, the disastrous war campaigns and the triumphs celebrated by our enemies. I stand accused of having sold everything, of having my fingers in every pie, of ruling behind the scenes. One day at dinner the King asked an old man to be so kind as to give his compliments to the Marquise de Pompadour. Everyone laughed at the poor man as a simpleton. But I did not laugh.
Madame la Marquise de Pompadour (1721-1764), Letters, 1922

 
  
Louis XV, King of France (1710—1774) by Louis-Michel van Loo;
Madame de Pompadour by Jean-Marc Nattier; Madame de Pompadour by Maurice Quentin de la Tour
 
  
 
 There was a small secret staircase at Versailles that led from the king’s Cabinet to the second floor. There dwelled a lady named Jeanne-Antoinette Poisson, who has gone down in history as the Marquise de Pompadour. Louis XV of France, the Sun King’s great-grandson and his successor, frequently climbed the steps to visit her. He is said to have preferred to disappear from Cabinet meetings for trysts with his mistress. When that happened, the ministers had to sit and wait for the king until he returned as Court etiquette forbade their the room without the monarch. Thus Court lackeys could be deceived into thinking the king had spent the entire time m conference with his ministers. Witty, cultured and beautiful, Madame de Pompadour may have been the daughter of a head-groom working on a duke’s estate; her mother was a beauty in her own right. Madame de Pompadour was the fourth official royal mistress. Although married to the Polish princess Maria Leszczynska since 1725, Louis XV seems to have embarked on his first extramarital affair in 1733. The first years of his marriage had been happy ones and six daughters and a son survived the union with Maria, who was deeply humiliated by her husband’s infidelity. The first three royal mistresses to be established successively at Court from 1738 spent their time giving parties at the king’s expense and behaving in a way that aroused public indignation. Years afterwards the queen was still complaining of having nightmares about her husband’s dreadful mistresses.
Madame la Marquise de Pompadour was altogether different. She was unlike the others. No Bacchanalian parties took place in the private apartments of this grande dame. She gave exquisite little dinners with the king and invitations to them were coveted indeed. Moreover, Madame la Marquise was anxious to be on a good footing with the queen. She visited her every day, brought her flowers and chatted with her. The Marquise was even known to have served on occasion as an intermediary between the king and queen. When she heard one day that the queen had lost a considerable sum at gambling but was afraid to tell her husband what had happened, Madame de Pompadour asked the king for the privilege of paying the queen’s debts of honour herself. Submitting to fate with gentle piety, Maria Leszcyriska allowed Madame de Pompadour to take her place at the king’s side. The bourgeoise, whose paternity has never been satisfactorily established, became the power behind the throne at Versailles. When it came to appointing officials and ministers and making major decisions, Louis XV always consulted his mistress. For this reason Francois Boucher, once her drawing master and Court Painter to the king, painted a semi-official portrait of her. The seal and letter probably hint at her political ambition. That she was an accomplished singer is symbolised by the scores scattered at her feet. Even the little spaniel was not a prop provided by the painter. Her name was Mimi and she really did belong to Madame de Pompadour.

 
  
Francois Boucher
(1703—1770)
Portrait of Madame de Pompadour
1756
  
She Turns My Head
 

The Garden of Earthly Delights

 
  
 
 Happy face, nymph-like girl
Eyes like cherries, seventeen
Delightful prattle
She turns my head.
Bernard, Chevalier de Bonnard (1744-1784), Poesies diverses, published in 1791

 
  
 
 One day in October 1766, the Parisian painter Jean-Honore Fragonard was summoned to the hunting lodge of Baron Samt-Julien. The aristocratic treasurer of the Catholic Church pointed to his mistress and commanded: “I want you to paint Madame on a swing kept in motion by a bishop. Put me in it where I can see the legs of this pretty girl or even closer, if you want to make the picture even more pleasing.” A man of the world, Baron Saint-Julien had already been turned down by a painter who was probably squeamish about the consequences of carrying out his orders — someone who had made a name for himself with representations of saints and plague victims and felt the commission was indecent so he suggested Fragonard, who accepted. The result was The Swing. Fragonard had no qualms about damaging his reputation as a painter of blameless scenes by taking on this rather delicate commission. Of course Fragonard, who had been a spoilt child, was nothing if not urbane and sophisticated himself. “All his work is dedicated to women; why shouldn’t his life have been so too?” asks a biographer. In 1756 the twenty-four-vear-old Fragonard took advantage of a grant from the Academic de France to study works of the Old Masters in Rome. He is said to have devoted himself at least as passionately to the licentious dark-eyed beauties of Trastevere as to the paintings he had gone to Rome to study. In fact, the president of the Academie de France in Rome began to worry about his protege. Fragonard’s reputation followed him back to Paris, where all boudoirs were open to him on his return.The beauties of the day and dancers whose “hearts were not so constant” all sought the painter’s attentions. Bernard, Chevalier de Bonnard advised the painters of the day to “court all lovely ladies you paint and be sure that you are paid for your portraits in the arms of your sitters”. Nothing is really known about Fragonard’s love life. However, he was so highly acclaimed as a painter that he was soon provided with his own studio in the Louvre. Begrudging him his marriage because it deprived them of gossip, his biographers characterised his wife as “a peevish termagant”. However, he was devoted to her, tenderly calling her “the best of all wives”. Despite his reputation with the ladies, the Fragonarddid show reticence in one respect: he convinced the depraved Baron Saint-Julien that it was necessary to replace the bishop, who was originally supposed to push the swing in the painting, with a courtier.
 
  
Jean-Honore Fragonard
(1732—1806)
The Swing
1767
The Wallace Collection, London
  
A Question of Class
 

English society in the eighteenth century

 
  
 
 A Youth to Fortune
   and to Fame unknown…

Thomas Gray, Elegy Written in a Country Church-Yard, 1751

 
  
 
 Who was the young man who sat for Thomas Gainsborough’s The Blue Boy! His identity was unknown for nearly two centuries. Recent research suggests that he was Jonathan Buttall, the teenage son of a rich London ironmonger. Gainsboroughis thought to have made the family’s acquaintance in Bath. The city in south-west England was renowned throughout the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries as a fashionable spa where affluent English families went to drink the healing waters of its springs.
The ultimate in elegant watering-places, Bath was even frequented by members of the royal family when they felt jaded. Visitors to the baths were subjected to a severe regimen. Forced to get up at six in the morning, women spent an hour in the warm water of the baths dressed in long garments made of heavy material that could not cling to their bodies and reveal their contours. Men, too, bathed fully dressed. Outside the baths, the city was the place for flirtations, balls and evening card parties. There were many official functions like the Assembly-Rooms Balls and places both indoors and out where people promenaded for the purpose of meeting and keeping up with the latest goings-on. Gambling was rife and the city boasted the dubious attractions of a bevy of demimondaines to charm away the boredom of gentlemen who were not in Bath with their families. Women had to content themselves with gossip over the tea table.

The city seethed with intrigue, which is why Horace Walpole remarked it was ten times better to leave the city than to enter it. The rich visitors tended to be vain and ostentatious. This was probably the reason why the young Thomas Gainsborough left Ipswich in the east of England to settle in Bath in 1759. The move paid off. Showered with portrait commissions from wealthy patrons, the painter was soon able to afford luxurious apartments in the beautiful and elegant Royal Circus.

However, the resort was not merely the haunt of the aristocracy. It was just as popular with rich tradesmen’s and manufacturers’ families. From 1750 English iron foundries and cotton mills had been flourishing and their owners could well afford to take the waters at Bath. One can imagine Gainsborough meeting Mr Buttall, the ironmonger, and his family at the Pump Room. Gains-borough had begun his career by copying and restoring Flemish paintings. It is therefore not surprising that he borrowed stylistic elements from the works of Anthony van Dyck to paint Jonathan Buttall, who is dressed in the fashion of the seventeenth century.

 
  
Thomas Gainsborough
(1727—1788)
The Blue Boy
1770
  
A Tea Party that Led to Democracy
 

The American Declaration of Independence

 
  
 
 We hold these truths to be self-evident: That all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights; that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness …; that whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute a new Government, laying its foundation on such principles, and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.
United States Declaration of Independence, 4 July 1776

 
  
 
 An American version of London cartoon that denounces the “rape” of Boston in 1774 by the Intolerable Acts.
   
 
 Washington and Lafayette look over the troops at Valley Forge
   
 
 John Trumbull, The Battle of Bunker’s Hill, (The death of the American General Warren),1786
   
 
 The Declaration of Independence
   
 
 The Boston Tea Party triggered the Revolution. In 1767 England had imposed new customs duties on her English colonies. The wrath of the colonists culminated in a boycott of English wares, which soon led to the abolition of most duties. England, insisting on a demonstration of authority, maintained the duty on tea. Ensuring the East India Company monopoly on tea and other staples, this policy left American tea merchants burdened with high duties on the goods they imported from England.
The American colonists, who had for some time considered declaring independence from England, took the duty on tea as a welcome excuse to do so. On 16 December 1773 open hostilities broke out. A group of Revolutionaries threw an entire ship’s cargo of tea into the murky waters of Boston Harbor: 342 crates of tea worth 10,000 pounds sterling. Over 2,000 bystanders applauded the patriots’ deed: “This is the most magnificent Movement of all. There is a dignity, a Majesty, a Sublimity, in this last Effort of the Patriots that I greatly admire. This destruction of the Tea is so bold, so daring, so firm, intrepid and inflexible, and it must have so important Consequences, and so lasting, that I cannot but consider it as an Epoch in History” was John Adams’s enthusiastic response to this remarkable demonstration of colonial assertiveness. The English government retaliated swiftly, exacting harsh penalties. The thirteen American colonies reacted with open revolt. Weary of oppression and long accustomed to self-government on parliamentary lines, the American settlers refused to surrender their economic and political freedom to the English crown, which was thousands of nautical miles away. Knit together by the events in Boston, the Americans took their first united action as a free people by convening the First Continental Congress in Philadelphia in 1774. England remained intransigent; a war was inevitable.

While George Washington, the Commander-in-Chief of the American Continental Army, was marching his troops from one battle to the next, the Declaration of Independence was being drawn up. It was signed on 4 July 1776 in the Philadelphia State House. Among the signers were Thomas Jefferson, its author, and Benjamin Franklin. Jefferson is quoted as saying: “I am not a friend to a very energetic government”, although he wholeheartedly espoused the cause of American liberty. Another fervent patriot was the painter John Trumbull, who later founded the American Academy of Fine Arts in New York and became its first president. The son of an English governor of Connecticut who supported the colonists’ struggle for independence, John Trumbull served as an aide-de-camp to George Washington during the American Revolution.

His most celebrated painting, which has become a symbol of the idealism that America stands for, depicts the signing of the Declaration of Independence as Thomas Jefferson described it to the artist.

 
  
John Trumbull
(1756-1841)
The Declaration of Independence
1786-1797
  
I Believe in Marat, the Almighty
 

The French Revolution, 1789

 
  
 
 I believe in Marat, the almighty, the Creator of freedom and equality, our hope, who strikes terror into the aristocracy, who has gone forth from the heart of the nation and is revealed in the Revolution, who was murdered by the enemies of the Republic, who poured forth upon us the breath of freedom, who has descended into the Elysian Fields, whence he will one day return to judge and condemn the aristocracy.
A contemporaneous anonymous “Creed” (July 1793-February 1795)

 
  
 
 Down with the Bastille! The destruction of the court prison, a symbol of Bourbon despotism, 14 July 1789
 
Execution of Louis XVI
Sketch by Jacques-Louis David of the National Assembly taking the Tennis Court Oath

 
 
 
Guillotine model 1792
The guillotine, the instrument of choice for
beheadings during the French Revolution,
was still being used for executions this century
Between 18,000 and 40,000 people were
executed during the Reign of Terro
 Satirical cartoon lampooning the excesses
of the Revolution as seen from abroad.
 
 

 
  
 
 Jean-Paul Marat was sitting in the bathtub when his last hour struck on 13 July 1793. A teacher of languages, a journalist and a physician, Marat had turned out to be one of the most radical demagogues the 1789 Revolution produced. He spent much time in the tub to find relief from a chronic, itchy rash. He wore compresses on his forehead to relieve headaches from which he also suffered. While he was bathing on that fateful day, he was reading a letter from Charlotte Corday, the great-granddaughter of the playwright Pierre Corneille. The young noblewoman had tried in vain to gain admittance to Marat. Now she had sent him a letter in which she slyly suggested a tete-a-tete. He let her in and she stabbed him. Marat died instantly.
Some contemporaries must have been pleased at the deed. Marat had been a tough customer. He had had 860 gallows erected to deal with his political enemies and had sent over 200,000 of them to the guillotine. His opponents may have considered his death a just revenge. His adherents, however, celebrated him as the martyr of a just cause. Appointed master of ceremonies at the hero’s funeral, painter Jacques-Louis David was a fervent revolutionary and a personal friend of Marat. He obliged by putting Marat’s corpse on canvas just as he had had it put on display: with his bare chest and wounds visible. On 15 October 1793 David presented the picture to the National Assembly. It became the symbol of the French Revolution. Copies of it were placed on church altars, smothered under billowing clouds of incense. Even in public offices copies of the painting were supposed to replace Crucifixes and royal portraits. However, before it could get out of hand, the personality cult was stopped by Robespierre’s fall and the arrest of Jacques-Louis David. On 10 February the painting was removed from the chamber of the National Assembly. Marat’s heart, which had been kept in the Cordeliers Club, was burnt and the ashes scattered in the Montmartre sewer.
 
  
Jacques-Louis David
(1748—1825)
The Death of Marat
1793
  
As if Carried off by the Winds
 

The Rise to Power of the Corsican Devil

 
  
 
 Soldiers, you are naked and ill nourished. I shall lead you to earth’s most fertile plains. Rich provinces and great cities will fall into your hands. There you shall find honour, fame and wealth.
Napoleon Bonaparte, Speech to His Soldiers on Being Appointed General of the Republican Armies in Italy, 1796

 
  
Jean-Auguste Dominique Ingres, Portrait of Napoleon Bonaparte, The First Council, 1804
Jacques-Louis David, Napoleon in His Study, 1812
Jacques-Louis David, Napoleon Crossing the Alps
Jean-Auguste Dominique Ingres, Napoleon on his Imperial throne, 1806
 
  
     
 

 
 His French spelling was shaky indeed and his strong Corsican accent marked him as provincial. Because he pronounced his first name “Napolion”, his classmates at school dubbed him “la-paille-au-nez”, “straw nose”. He was an average student; his German teacher even regarded him as stupid. Yet he was a voracious reader, and the books he devoured did not make easy reading: Corneille, Montaigne, Montesquieu, Plutarch and Tacitus. Moreover, he had an astonishing memory and never forgot anything. A single teacher, who must have been more percipient than the rest, saw in him “granite which a volcano is heating up”. Things were still simmering on the back burner then. Born on 15 August 1769 in Ajaccio on Corsica, Napoleon Bonaparte was regarded as a taciturn, gloomy and sensitive boy. Accepted as a cadet at the Paris military academy in 1784, he was commissioned lieutenant only a year and a half later. Transferred to an artillery regiment, he flirted with the idea of revolution.
At first a fervent Corsican nationalist, he took part in a revolt against the French authorities. However in 1793, he broke with the Corsican nationalist faction and was forced to flee with his family to the French mainland. Rejoining the army, he sided with Robespierre, becoming commander of an artillery battalion. Now that his career was well launched, a short sojourn in prison after Robespierre’s fall did nothing to hinder it. At the age of twenty-six Bonaparte was appointed General of the Republican Armies in Italy, and was widely admired for his brilliant tactical skills, his schooled intellect and the leadership qualities he consistently displayed. Veteran field commanders were furious. A greenhorn had been promoted over their heads, a young man of small stature with long unkempt hair. Bonaparte, however, knew where he was heading. In the campaign against Austria, he won victory after victory in northern Italy. He grew famous as a “second Alexander” who “strode like a demigod from battle to battle and victory to victory”.

The painter Antoine-Jean Gros captured a scene from that period: the Battle of Arcola, a village twenty-four kilometres south-east of Verona. Between 15 and 17 November 1796, Bonaparte defeated reinforcements dispatched to the aid of the Austrian troops encircled at Mantua. France celebrated him as “Fortune’s favourite in battle”. The poet Friedrich Holderlin was jubilant: “Holy vessels are poets in whom the wine of life, the spirit of heroes is held. But the spirit of that youth, that quick spirit, must it not burst the vessel that was to contain it?”

Napoleon kept cool, calm and collected. When an envoy sent by the Directoire, which was then the French government, sought him out after the victory at Arcole, he pronounced prophetically: “What 1 have accomplished here is a mere trifle. I am only at the beginning of my career. Do you think that I am winning laurels for my lance in Italy simply for the aggrandisement of the Directoire?” In his own words, he felt “as if he had been carried off by the winds”.

 
  
Jean-Antoine Gros
(1771-1835)
Napoleon Bonaparte at the Bridge of Arcole, 17 November 1796|
1801
  
A Reflection of Horror
 

The Spanish Revolt against Napoleon

 
  
 
 No one is innocent once he has seen what I have seen. I witnessed how the noblest ideals of freedom and progress were transformed into lances, sabres and bayonets. Arson, looting and rape, all supposed to bring a New Order, in reality only exchanged the garrotte for the gallows.
Francisco de Goya, from an entry in his diary, 1808

 
  
  Francisco de Goya, Barbarians!. No. 38 from series “DISASTERS OF WAR”
   
see collection: Francisco de Goya “DISASTERS OF WAR”

 
  
 
 Napoleon was furious. The “damned Spanish affair” was out of control. Early on, the power-mad Emperor of France had thought it would be a pushover. Charles IV of Spain, a weakling at best, had retreated into the background, leaving the government in the hands of his wife Maria Luisa and her lover Manuel Godoy. Napoleon could have won over the ambitious Godoy by making him viceroy of Spain. However, his links with Napoleon, which led to a disastrous war with Great Britain, made Godoy unpopular throughout Spain. He only barely escaped being lynched by fleeing to France.
Napoleon, cunning as he was, had always treated Spain, an ally of France, like a subject nation. He refused to admit defeat at the hands of a nation occupied by his troops. Pretending to seek reconciliation, he summoned the Spanish king and queen, with the crown prince in tow, to France. Napoleon’s real intention was to keep the Spanish royals captive and put his eldest brother, Joseph Bonaparte, on the Iberian throne. When Napoleons treachery became known, a desperate revolt broke out in Spain on 2 May 1808. Hopelessly outnumbered, a band of people armed with knives and lances attacked a powerful French cavalry force in the Puerta del Sol, a square in the heart of Madrid. Begun in blind, impotent anger, the revolt was doomed from the outset to failure. Still it signalled to the world that a conquered people had dared to stand up to Napoleon, who was then at the zenith of his power. The French Emperor exacted a terrible revenge. That same night, everyone suspected of having taken part in the rebellion was executed by a French firing squad.

No one has come closer to showing the naked brutality of those events than Francisco de Goya, Court Painter to Charles IV, who had originally welcomed Napoleon’s ideals. Imbued with the spirit of the French Revolution, he had not hesitated to show the Spanish royal family for what it was, painting them in a highly unflattering light. However, Napoleon turned out to be the opposite of what he had seemed to be. Although he had originally proclaimed freedom for his own and other peoples of Europe, he revealed himself as a despot. Perhaps his values had become corrupted and twisted. In any case, Goya depicted the scene with a twist: his hero is the victim who will be the next to be shot. The man in the white shirt spreads out his arms like Christ on the Cross. The wounds on his hands are like Christ’s. His message is: I die that you may live. It was to take five years to drive the French out of Spain.
 
  
Francisco de Goya
(1746-1828)
The Third of May, 1808: The Execution of the Defenders of Madrid
1814
Museo del Prado, Madrid
  
The Force of Nature and the Power in a Painting
 

On the hubris of humankind

 
  
 
 “What have we hit?” asked Captain Smith. “An iceberg, Sir,” replied first officer Murdoch. “We steered hard to starboard and reversed the engines full speed. But we were already too close. I wanted to go around the iceberg. But it was already too late.”
After the statement made by the second officer of the Titanic, Charles Herbert Lightoller,
before a subcommittee of the US Senate in April 1912

 
  
 
 The news hit the world like a blow: “Titanic sinks four hours after collision with iceberg; 1,250 presumed dead.” Thus read the New York Times headline of 16 April 1912. Only twenty-four hours before, an unprecedented tragedy had been enacted 400 nautical miles off Newfoundland in the Atlantic. More than hall the ship’s passengers had died.
Not only had a stunningly elegant ship gone down; with her sank the myth of modern times. Industrial man had believed it could dupe nature with technology: the glittering new Titanic, on her maiden voyage from Southampton to New York, was regarded as a

marvel of engineering and as “unsinkable”. Yet she fell victim to the vagaries of nature like so many expeditionary vessels that had sailed into perilous waters a century before.

In Caspar David Friedrich’s The Polar Sea, the capsized ship caught in the ice may be the “Griper”, which took part in expeditions to the North Pole that made the headlines in 1819—20 and 1824. British Polar explorer Sir William Edward Parry had become embroiled in a very dangerous situation whilst seeking the Northwest Passage. Caspar David Friedrich may well have been inspired by newspaper reports about Parry as well as by heavy ice floes on the Elbe in the winter of 1820—21.

The painting has occasionally been interpreted as having a religious meaning: the intransience of human life before divine eternity. There are also political interpretations: resignation in the face of the fruitless German wars of independence. And yet The Polar Sea remains in the first instance a symbol of the terrors of the icy wastes of the Polar regions – and of human presumption, which no longer stands in awe of nature.

 
  
Caspar David Friedrich
(1774-1840)
The Polar Sea
1824
  
   
One of the Wonders of the World
 
The mystery of Stonehenge

 
  
 
 The band of silver paleness along the east horizon made even the distant parts of the Great Plain appear dark and near; and the whole enormous landscape bore that impress of reserve, taciturnity, and hesitation which is usual just before day. The eastward pillars and their architraves stood up blackly against the light and the great flame-shaped Sun-stone beyond them; and the Stone of Sacrifice midway. Presently the night wind died out, and the quivering little pools in the cup-like hollows of the stones lay still
Thomas Hardy, The Wessex Novels, vol. I, Tess of the D’Urbervilles (1891), 5th ed. 1896

 
  
 
 Druid Ceremony at Stonehenge
  
 
 
Megaliths thousands of years old rise up against the southern English sky near Ames-bury in Wiltshire. Who erected them? Did human sacrifice take place here? Was the legendary sorcerer Merlin at work here?
The dressed sandstone megaliths erected to form a lintelled stone circle are approximately six metres high, some of them weighing up to forty-five tonnes. Standing on wind-swept Salisbury Plain, this mysterious monument to a world long forgotten was first called a “wonder of Britain” in the twelfth century. Since then, not a century has passed without fresh conjectures on what might have led to the building of this unique henge monument.

The Romantics were expounding lofty theories about Stonehenge when the great English landscape painter John Constable painted his famous watercolour of it based on the numerous preliminary sketches he had made on a visit in 1820. Even today the meaning of the circle of thirty uprights, some of which are still capped by massive lintels, surrounding a horseshoe arrangement of five trilithons (two upright stones connected by a lintel), is as much a mystery as ever. Archaeologists tend to believe that religious motives led to the erection of Stonehenge. In the cold grey light of dawn, the site with its towering megaliths is a menacing, almost apocalyptic place. With the sun’s first rays, the uprights cast shadows forming eerie linear patterns on the ground. One legend has it that the power of the Druids was concentrated where the shadows converge.

Thought to have been Celtic priests, Druids were intermediaries between the gods and humankind, soothsayers, healers and judges, and, as tutors to the sons of the aristocracy, were allegedly the real rulers of the ancient Britons. Unfortunately, however, Latin accounts of the Druids fail to shed much light on these structures. Opponents of the theory that the Druids officiated at Stonehenge point out that the Wiltshire stone circle had already been standing for over 2,000 years before the heyday of the Celts and the Druids (100 ВС—AD 78). Besides, the latter are not known to have built temples. Instead, they held their ceremonies in glades. Knowledge of the stars may have been passed down by oral tradition to the Druids, who were wiped out by the Romans on Anglesey in the year 78.

One thing is certain: the people who built Stonehenge demonstrated a knowledge of astronomy. The original approach to the site is marked by a stone over which, when viewed from the centre of the circle, the sun rises on the Summer Solstice.

The stone circle is ringed by fifty-six pits. Radiocarbon dating of one of these as well as pottery finds indicate that the earliest structure on the site dates back to late Neolithic times (roughly 2,300 ВС). Whatever Stonehenge may have been, the site was more or less in continual use for thousands of years. Speculation on this most enthralling puzzle of all ancient monuments continues to abound today.

 
  
John Constable
(1776-1837)
Stonehenge
1836
  
With Brush and Palette on the Barricades
 

The Revolution of 1830

 
  
  
 Ah that great week in Paris! The courage for freedom that wafted through here has, of course, overturned the night-lights so that the red curtains on some thrones have caught fire and the gold crowns have grown hot under the glow of the night-caps. But the old catch poles are already bringing up the dowsing buckets and sniffing about all the more vigilantly.
Heinrich Heine, English Fragments, November 1830

 
  
  
 see also: “Between Two Revolutions” (From David to Delacroix)

 
  
  
 
Victor Hugo stayed at home. Busy researching for his novel, The Hunchback of Notre Dame, he did not wish to leave his wife alone, who had given birth to a daughter just four days before. The young Alexandre Dumas, on the other hand — later to achieve world renown for his swashbuckling The Count of Monte Cristo — bravely shouldered a double-barrelled musket, ready to risk his life for freedom with thousands of students, merchants, workers and actors.
Paris was once again on the brink of a revolution. The streets were full of agitated citizens confronting the royal guards with pistols and wooden cudgels, rifles and knives. The cause of the uproar was the citizens’ fear that the old system of royal oppression, which had been abolished, was on the rise again. As early as 1814 the royal house of Bourbon had regained its former power. Lotus XVIII, younger brother to Louis XVI, who had been executed during the Revolution, had been summoned from exile to rule France after the fall of Napoleon. Moderate and cautious, he had pursued liberal policies, combining the modern feeling for liberty with the principles of the ancien regime. When Louis XVIII died in 1824, Charles X, the youngest of the three brothers, had himself crowned at Reims with medieval pomp and circumstance. Forward-looking contemporaries found him both reactionary and foolish. Desirous of reviving pre-Revolutionary France, he intended to restore the ancient titles and privileges to the aristocracy as well as one billion francs in reparations for the property lost by the nobility during the Revolution. After Charles X issued a series of repressive decrees on 25 July 1830, abolishing freedom of the press, dissolving the legislature and depriving the majority of citizens of suffrage, things came to a head. On 28 July 1830 revolt broke out not far from Eugene Delacroix’s studio. While mercenaries deployed by Charles X fought their way through the narrow streets, supporters of the revolutionaries hurled furniture, wash-tubs, rooting tiles and tool chests down on them from windows, finally dumping entire cartloads of melons on the heads of the advancing royal troops to stop their progress. The street battles raged for three days. Painter and caricaturist Honore Daumier suffered a sabre-slash across his face during the fighting. On 3 August 1830 the citizens were victorious, forcing Charles X to abdicate and flee into exile.
 Delacroix, who had observed the revolt at a safe distance, took up his brushes and palette. In a letter to his brother written in October 1830, he confessed: “Although I didn’t fight, I’ll at least paint for our country!” And the result was Liberty Leading the People, the archetype of the Revolution.

 
  
  Eugene Delacroix
(1798-1863)
Liberty leading the People (28 July 1830)
1830
  
  The Old World Towed by the New
 

The beginnings of the modern age

 
  
 
 The devilish little steamship puffed out an odious and ghost-like stream of smoke, glowing red and ominous, while behind it the brave old ship followed at a slow pace, sad and majestic, marked by the sign of Death.
Adapted from William Makepeace Thackeray, after 1839

 
  
A forerunner to the inventions of James Watt
 
  
 
 She had served her country well and now her
day was past, and England mourned. The fighting “Temeraire”, as John Ruskin and other Englishman had called her, was the symbol of heroism at sea. When the British and French fleets clashed at Trafalgar on 21 October 1805, the Temeraire was the second ship of the English line. Although Admiral Nelson, the commander of the British fleet, died of a gunshot wound on the deck of her sister ship, the “Victory”, he had carried the day. Outnumbered by six ships, his fleet of twenty-seven had trounced the French. The Temeraire played an important part in the victory at Trafalgar, which was to assure British supremacy at sea for another century. She had decoyed French fire, which was aimed at Nelson and the flagship, away from the Victory and had captured a prize. At the end of the battle, as a contemporary records, she was almost hidden between two French ships secured to her mainmast and her anchor.

Some thirty years later, Joseph Mallord William Turner  was deeply moved watching the gallant old ship being towed from Sheerness to the breakers yard at Deptford. However, the brilliant painter of atmospheric effects and moods was not just thinking of farewells. He was also looking forward to new beginnings. In 1765, ten years before Turner was born, James Watt had triggered the Industrial Revolution in England by inventing the steam engine. Turner was fascinated by the marvels of technology that were emerging all around him. He was among the first to paint pictures, dramatically experimental ones, of modern means of transportation, such as trains and steamships. Both the magnificence and the threatening aspect of such inventions are revealed in his paintings of them. An observer might find symbolism in the Temeraire’s last voyage: the tugboat towing her under steam representing the New Order and all its ambivalence, the sailing vessel the Old — already transfigured in memory.

 
  
Joseph Mallord William Turner
(1775—1851)
The Fighting Temeraire Tugged to Her Last Berth to Be Broken Up
1858
The National Gallery, London
 
  
Joseph Mallord William Turner
(1775—1851)
Rain, Steam and Speed The Great Western Railway
  
Stark Naked
 

The women’s baths

 
  
 
 I believe, in the whole, there were two hundred women…. The first sofas were covered with cushions and rich carpets, on which sat the ladies; and on the second, their slaves behind them,…. all being in the state of nature, that is, in plain English, stark naked…. There were many amongst them as exactly proportioned as ever any goddess was drawn by the pencil of… Titian,.. I was charmed by their civility and beauty… Tis no less than death for a man to be found in one of these places.
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Letter to Elizabeth Rich on her experiences in the women’s baths at Sophia, dated 1 April 1717

 
  
Jean-Leon Gerome
Turkish Bath
  
 
  
Jean-Leon Gerome
Turkish Bath
  
 
  
Jean-Leon Gerome
Turkish Bath
  
 
  
Jean-Leon Gerome
The Teaser of the Narghile
  
 
  
Jean-Leon Gerome
Turkish Bath
  
 
  
Jean-Leon Gerome
Nude Woman
  
 
  
Jean-Leon Gerome
A Bath, Woman Bathing Her Feet
  
 
  
Jean-Leon Gerome
A Bath, Woman Bathing Her Feet
 
  
 
 Although the Minoans and later the ancient Greeks had bathtubs, it was the Romans who made bathing popular. The epitome of Roman civilisation, Roman therme, or baths, were luxurious and spacious. Pools, walls and even floors were heated. Splendid examples of urban architecture, therme were places where men bathed, had manicures and pedicures, took steam baths and did gymnastic exercises. They were a focal point of social and political activity. Romans are known to have made momentous decisions whilst steaming in the baths or strolling about in sandals and towels. With the fall of the Roman empire, this glorious bath culture disappeared from the European scene. What later replaced it was certainly on a much more modest scale. Medieval Nuremberg, for instance, boasted a total of thirteen public “bathing rooms” in which huge wooden tubs were filled with hot water. There were also sometimes steam baths and resting rooms heated by tiled stoves. Such baths were not just venues for promoting body culture; they were also used as surgeries: teeth were pulled, blood was let, cupping-glasses were applied to the backs and chests of those with colds and minor operations were performed. Bathing rooms were frowned on by the Church owing to the voluptuous pleasures enjoyed in them. “Bath attendants” were licentious women who are said to have been the reason why King Wenceslas IV of Bohemia visited the bathing establishments of Prague, his capital, more frequently than was good for his sensitive skin. In the Near East, on the other hand, the ancient bath culture survived because going to a hammam (bath) is prescribed by Islam. Inspired by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu’s account of her travels in the region, the French painter Jean-Auguste Dominique Ingres painted the women’s section of a Turkish bathhouse. The celebrated master was eighty-three years old when he added the crowning touch to his oeuvre by depicting a Turkish bath scene. Ingres made hundreds of preliminary sketches for the painting before presenting it to Prince Charles-Louis-Napoleon in December 1859. Only a few weeks later, however, the painting was returned to Ingres, allegedly because the prince’s wife, Eugenie de Montijo, was scandalised by the naked ladies depicted so sensuously in this remarkable work. When Turkish Bath was exhibited in a second, essentially unchanged version, the nudes were what brought the painting widespread public acclaim. Critics praised it as a “tryst with Oriental coquetry” or, rather crudely, as a “feast of carnal delights” and a “still life of sensual pleasures”. It certainly had an impact on Picasso and other artists, who admired it both for its composition and formal idiom. After this masterpiece, Ingreswas no longer thought of as a “bloodless exponent of Neoclassicism”. From now on he was a groundbreaking “revolutionary”.
 
  

Jean-Auguste Dominique Ingres
(1780—1867)
Turkish Bath
1863
 
  
   
Eros Awakes to a Storm of Indignation
 
Paris and the “Salon des Refuses”

 
  
 
  
 
  
Edouard Manet
(1832—1883)
Le Dejeuner sur I’herbe
1863
Musee d’Orsay, Paris
  
A Look that Kills
 

Antiquity and the Industrial Age

 
  
 
 But Perseus, with the snake-haired monster’s head. That famous spoil, in triumph made his way On rustling pinions through the balmy air And, as he hovered over Libya’s sands, The blood-drops from the Gorgon’s head dripped down. The spattered desert gave them life as snakes. Smooth snakes of many kinds, and so that land Still swarms with deadly serpents to this day.
Ovid, Metamorphoses, (IV. 617-24), AD 1-8

 
  

Benvenuto Cellini
Perseus with the Head of Medusa
1554
 
 
Peter Paul Rubens
Tete de Meduse
1618
 
 

Arnold Bocklin
Medusa
 
  

 
 
 
Even Odysseus was afraid of Medusa. This crafty Greek hero broke off his stay in the Underworld because he was afraid of being confronted by the decapitated head of the monster, whose glance turned anyone who saw her into stone. According to the Greek poet Hesiod (c. 800 ВС), who undertook to organise the myths of the ancient Greek gods in Theogony, Medusa was one of the three Gorgon sisters who dwelled beyond the Mediterranean in the far West, which is where mythology located the powers of evil to be. Due to their odious appearance and the fatal effect which they had on all who saw them, the Gorgons, like the goddesses of revenge, were the horror figures of antiquity. They contemptuously mocked everyone by sticking out their tongues and were hideous to behold: round faces with baleful eyes and hair and belts made of hissing snakes. The ancients thought these sisters were immortal, except for Medusa.
Therefore, Perseus, one of Zeus’s numerous offspring, was charged with killing her. He cunningly reached the home of the Gorgons and, along the way, assembled the necessary tools: a helmet that made him invisible, winged shoes that let him glide above the ground and a curved sword with which he eventually decapitated the sleeping Medusa. After he succeeded in killing her, Perseus put the ghastly head into a bag as a trophy for safe keeping, where, however, it did not remain for long. On his way home from the Gorgons, he fell in love with the beautiful Andromeda in Ethiopia and defeated a sea monster in order to save her. It was then that he felt he simply had to show his beloved the head of Medusa — though only the reflection of it in water — to prove his heroism and divine descent, which obliged him to battle evil.

Intrigued by this ancient myth in the late nineteenth century, the English painter Edward Coley Burne-Jones executed a Perseus cycle which concluded with a work entitled The Baleful Head. Originally intended for a church, the painter may have viewed Perseus as a forerunner to the Christian dragon-slayer St George, and the idyllic and tranquil garden scene as a symbol of the desire for a perfect world, free of evil and the taint of industrialism, which was rapidly growing in the nineteenth century. Burne-Jones grew up in the industrial city of Birmingham at a time when the slums were increasing. His contemporary, William Morris, a writer and critic, stated in a 1891 lecture that artists in industrial society had to “look back” for inspiration: “When an artist has really a very keen sense of beauty, I venture to think that he can not literally represent an event that takes place in modern life. He must add something or other to qualify or soften the ugliness and sordidness of the surroundings of life in our generation.” Against a background of retrogressive aestheticism, Burne-Jones formulated the following creed: “I mean by a picture a beautiful romantic dream, of something that never was, never will be — in a light better than any that ever shone — in a land no one can define or remember, only desire and the forms divinely beautiful.” Perhaps The Baleful Head represents a visionary prescription for dealing with a world out of control.

 
  
Edward Coley Burne-Jones
(1833-1898)
The Baleful Head
1887
 
  
The Heat of a Summer’s Day
 

Anyone for a swim?

 
  
 
 The summer spreads far and wide, despotic, colourless, heavy – as if a king with nothing better to do had inflicted the pains of death – in the white-hot glare of heaven which tightly ensnares you, and yawns. Liberated, Man left his work and rested.
Paul Verlaine, Allegoria, 1884

 
  
 
 In Bathers at Asnieresnot a cloud disturbs the relentless blue sky. The air and water shimmer in the oppressive heat, and motionless stillness smoulders. Only the boy in the water seems to be making a sound. Is he imitating the boat siren, as has been suggested by some art historians? Or is he shouting to a friend further out in the river?
Seurat was always a painter of summertime and summer light. He often travelled to the countryside to sketch men and women harvesting gram, peasants mowing fields with scythes, and labourers paving roads. Born in Paris in 1859, Seurat was one of the greatest painters of Post-Impressionism: his work shows the mark of the Impressionists’ fascination with light but he took their ideas in a new direction. He developed a painting technique called Pointillism which relied on the optical mixing of colours. When a work was seen from a distance, the small dots of colour which made up the painting, blended together to create a lively, painterly surface.

It was summer when the poet Gustave Kahn visited the artist in his cramped studio in Boulevard de Clichy. Seurat was in the process of completing a painting, and Kahn observed that he “worked so energetically, despite the oppressive heat and humidity, that by the end of the day the artist was thinner than when he began”. Seurat was a loner, an extremely serious and taciturn person. The artist Edgar Degas used to call him “the solicitor” because he was always formally dressed and wore a top hat. At the same time every evening “the solicitor” could be seen leaving his flat, striding purposefully towards the Boulevard Magenta to die with his parents.

Seurat enjoyed spending time at the waterfront and was a frequent visitor to the wooded island of La Grande Jatte on the Seine, a popular outing destination for the Paris bourgeoisie. His excursions took him as far as Asnieres-sur-Seine, located about five kilometres north-west of Paris. During Seurat’s lifetime, factory smokestacks already marked the Asnieres skyline, as can be seen in Bathers at Asnieres, and it was far from an ideal place to bathe. As long ago as 14 February 1790, when the royal medical Counsellor Boncerf tested the water he was overcome by a “biting, pungent alkaline stench that impaired his respiratory system to such an extent that his throat and tongue swelled mightily”. Until recently the Parisians’ “favourite wench” was so polluted with sulphur and other toxic waste that, at a depth of one metre, divers were unable to see their hands when held directly in front of their eyes. For several years now the waste from the vast city is treated in modern sewage plants and there are hopes that Parisians might one day be able to bathe again in the Seine — enjoying it more than they did when Seurat was alive.

 
  
Georges Seurat
(1859—1891)
Bathers at Asnieres
1883
 
  
   
“I Think Gauguin Is Sick of Me”
 
How Vincent van Gogh lost part of his ear

 
  
 
 There is a lot of strife to strive against There is a lot of suffering to suffer And many prayers to pray -But at the end of it all is peace.
Vincent van Gogh, from a sermon in Isleworth, October 1878

 
  
  Paul Gauguin, Les Miserables, 1888, Rijksmuseum Vincent van Gogh, Amsterdam
   
  Van Gogh left school without finishing, quit an apprenticeship and was a disaster as an itinerant preacher. He then became a painter and — as it seemed to most of those who knew him — was as unsuccessful at this as he had been at everything else, depending on his brother Theo who was an art dealer for money and becoming an out-of-control alcoholic, who spent his evenings in whorehouses. One episode of apparent madness led to his commitment. When he was discharged he shot himself: he died at the age of thirty-seven, a passionate and dreamy man.
Other painters admired him. Claude Monet thought Van Gogh’s pictures were the best at the March 1890 “Salon des Independants”, and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec challenged an acquaintance to a duel for mocking Van Gogh’s work. Yet Van Gogh was never able to make a living as a painter. The only picture he is known to have sold during his lifetime was Red Vineyard at Aries.

One episode has come to symbolise Van Gogh’s life lived between hallucination and creative frenzy. In 1888 he moved from Paris to Aries in Provence, attracted by the southern light and the intense colours. There he shared a little yellow house with Paul Gauguin, who was already a successful painter. But Gauguin soon found that he liked neither Aries nor Van Gogh. On December 23 they quarrelled worse than ever: Gauguin felt threatened and left to spend the night at an inn. When he returned the following morning, there was a throng of spectators in front of the house, which was spattered with blood. Gauguin was arrested. It turned out that Van Gogh had returned at night alone and had cut off his own ear lobe with a razor. Then he had gone to a brothel, where he had presented the ear lobe, wrapped in newspaper, to a prostitute named Rachel: “Truly I say unto you, you will think of me.” Emile Bernard, a staunch supporter of Van Gogh, admitted publicly that his friend was mad.

Van Gogh was sent to an asylum, where he painted Self-Portrait with Bandaged Ear which reveals the state he was in. He, who had always said he wanted to bring the sun to suffering people by painting in brilliant colours, appears as a shadow of what he had once been. When Van Gogh was young, Camille Pissarro had said: “This man will either go mad or he’ll leave all the rest of us far behind.” Rather than “either-or”, he should have said “bothand”.

 
  
Vincent Van Gogh
(1853—1890)
Self-Portrait with Bandaged Ear
1889
 
  
Paris: A City of Extremes
 

Chansons and cabaret

 
  
 
  
At the heart of Montmartre: The Moulin Rouge
 
  
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Outrageous and lascivious: Chilperic (Mlle Marcelle Lender Dansant le Pas du Bolero), 1896
 
  
 
  
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
(1864—1901)
Les Ambassadeurs, Aristide Bruant
1892
Coloured lithograph, posrer
  
“I Painted the Clouds like Real Blood”
 

The shadows of a bleak childhood

 
  
 
 One evening I was walking along a street, tired and ill, with two friends: the city and the fjord lay below us. The sun was setting and the clouds turned blood red. Then I heard the colours of nature scream -and that shrill cry echoed over the fjord.
Edvard Munch, From My Diary, 1929

 
  
  Edvard Munch, Death in the Sick-Room, 1893
   
  Edvard Munch had a hard life. A doctor’s son, he had a bleak childhood in Oslo. “My home was the home of illness, agony and death”, he was to write in his memoirs. His mother died of tuberculosis at the age of thirty, leaving behind four children. Edvard was only six at the time. In her letter of farewell she wrote: “And now, my dear children, my sweet little ones, I say farewell to you. Your father will be able to tell you about how to get to Heaven better than I can. I’ll be there waiting for you all.” A pious woman who accepted her fate, all she could do was to hope for joy in the world to come — certainly not a legacy likely to inspire happiness and a zest for living in her children. Until he was thirteen, every time Edvard had a fever he was convinced that he was going to die. Influenced by his mother’s negative way of viewing things, he vowed never to look forward to anything again. His father, at heart a good man, was distressing to his children. A sister of Munch’s had already died of tuberculosis and, after the death of his beloved wife, Munch’s father took refuge in fanatical pietism, forcing a strict regimen of prayer on his children.
When he was older, Edvard argued incessantly with his father, while a second sister became a religious fanatic who was eventually declared insane.

From around 1889 onwards, Edvard became increasingly depressive, suffering from occasional fits of terror. Yet, by the age of seventeen, he had discovered another language with which to express his feelings of desperation: painting. It promised relief, consolation and hope. In a state of feverish excitement, he concluded that “the curse on mankind has become the undertone of my art — and my paintings pages in my diary”. His visits to Paris and Berlin proved to be a great inspiration and, at the age of twenty-eight, he painted The Scream — an archetype of human experience on canvas. All the terrors of human existence seem to concentrate in the face, twisted with fear. Like so many other paintings of his, The Scream is, as Edvard Munch said himself, “a bitterly earnest scene — and a child of sleepless nights, which have taken their toll in blood and nerves”.

 
  
Edvard Munch
(1863—1944)
The Scream
1895
  
The Power of Nature
 

In the shadow of Mont Sainte-Victoire

 
  
 
 On the afternoon of 15 October 1906, the clouds had finally lifted after a thunder storm lasting many hours. A broad beam of light illuminated the rising ground between the Chemin des Lauves and the rugged Mont Sainte-Victoire Range. The country road was deserted. Only a horse-drawn cart was trundling on its way to Aix-en-Provence. Suddenly it was forced to a halt: a dark figure with dirty, wet clothing lay across the road: Pere Cezanne.
Kurt Leonhard, Cezanne, 1966

 
  
  Paul Cezanne, Still Life with Apples and Oranges
   
 
 He was not dead but unconscious. The two men eventually managed to hoist him up on to their cart and take him to his residence in town, where they left him in the care of his landlady, Mme Bremond. The first thing he is said to have asked on regaining consciousness was whether the sun was shining again. He wanted to go back out of doors to finish the painting he was working on when it had started to rain. However, the artist was never able to finish it. Paul Cezanne, in his youth a friend of Emile Zola’s, died seven days later. All his life he had been regarded as sickly: “Without painting he would have been nothing but a shy, introspective psychopath incapable of living a normal life — this is the image his family and the people of Aix seem to have had of him”, thus one of Cezanne’s many biographers. Some of the painter’s eccentricities have been recorded and range from nervous irritability and a phobia of physical contact, to paranoia. Cezanne went through phases of deep depression followed by manic periods during which he grandly over-estimated himself and his abilities. Then he would write about his celebrated former colleagues in Paris, such as Manet or Renoir: “Compared to me, all my compatriots are idiots”. Painting was the only thing that kept the unpredictable Provencal, whose world was as unsteady as a damaged ship floundering in heavy seas, on a fairly even keel.
Cezanne preferred to paint out of doors. However, because he could not bear having anyone look over his shoulder while he was painting, he fled town and sought the solitude of nature in the surrounding countryside. Cezanne was obsessed with Mont Sainte-Victoire. He drew and painted more than sixty versions of this massive limestone escarpment, which looms a thousand metres above the flat country fifteen kilometres east of Aix. Here, he was alone and could forget all his troubles with the municipal authorities, who, he felt, had ruined the city with pavements, hideous promenades and gas lights. A further advantage of the mountains was that they were serenely static. Always squabbling with someone about something when he was not painting, Cezanne concentrated so hard on his still lifes that the fruit was invariably rotten before he had finished. It once took him 115 sittings to complete a portrait and he was known to have burst into a terrible rage at sitters who altered their expression. It was ideal for him that the face of Mont Sainte-Victoire only changed with the varying light and the seasons of the year. The “Sacred Mountain of Provence”, as Mont Sainte-Victoire is sometimes called, became the leitmotif of Cezanne’s work. Under its shadow began and ended the life of a painter who hardly exchanged a word with others, yet stirred the world with his groundbreaking pictorial language.

 
  
Paul Cezanne
(1839-1906)
Mont Sainte-Victoire
 
  
Paul Cezanne
(1839-1906)
Mont Sainte-Victoire
 
  
Paul Cezanne
(1839-1906)
Mont Sainte-Victoire
  
I Couldn’t Care Less!
 

Another Eden in the South Seas

 
  
 
  
 
  
Paul Gauguin
(1848—1903)
Where are we? Who are we? Where are we going?
1897
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
  
   
Freezing Every Gesture
 
Light and effects

 
  
 
 I speak of the past, for it seems to me that everything is growing older in me – except my heart. And even my heart has something artificial about it. The dancers have sewn it into a pink silk sachet, slightly faded pink silk, like their ballet slippers.
Edgar Degas, letter to the sculptor Albert Bartholome, 17 January 1886

 
  
 
 Built between 1862 and 1865 near the Madeleine, the Paris Opera — then, the world’s largest opera house — covers an area of 11,000 square metres. Behind an exuberant facade, decorated with allegorical figures, the auditorium seats 2,200. The artist Edgar Degas, who lived three streets away near rue Le Peletier, did not require a season ticket. By the 1860s, this witty and entertaining painter, who could also be stubbornly intransigent when he so desired, had discovered ballet as his genre. Because he knew several members of the orchestra, he had access to the sacrosanct world backstage. Nearly every day the Frenchman sat on or behind the stage. Early on he had become interested in motifs drawn from urban life, painting workaday scenes of women ironing, passers-by in the streets and men in bars, as well as the pleasures of the Parisian racecourse or circus scenes. However, Degas, who was the son of an aristocratic banker of Italian descent and a New Orleans Creole, found artistes and prostitutes common but intriguing. What the Moulin Rouge was to Toulouse-Lautrec, the rehearsal room with its ballerinas was to Degas.
In those days the Pans Opera Ballet — not to mention more illustrious names — was waning in the firmament of the Parisian cultural scene. Choreographers were running out of ideas and the public was not satisfied with what the Opera Ballet had to offer. But the quality of the productions was of no consequence to Degas, who was concerned with movement, speed and the enchantment of ballet. In his paintings, he captured the elegance and delicate grace of ballet with an unprecedented keenness of observation. Tragically, by 1870, his eyesight was beginning to fail. As if to record as much as he could on canvas before it was too late, Degas painted ever more feverishly to freeze every gesture, every pose of his ballerinas: dancing on points, performing pas de deux or taking their curtain call, their tutus a froth of effervescence. He was even more fascinated by what went on behind the scenes. The pictures in which he captured ballerinas pulling up their tights, or fiddling with the laces of their slippers, are like snapshots taken by a hidden camera. He was not above depicting the darker side of dancing: ballerinas at the bar rubbing their ankles because they hurt or resting their heads on their arms in sheer exhaustion. Degas knew how to make even such moments of weariness enchanting. He introduced yet another first to painting: the effects of modern lighting. He was the first painter to study and exploit the effects of the mixture of natural and artificial light, like that of the setting sun and gas lanterns. The result was a painted twilight as it had never been seen before.

 
  
Edgar Degas
(1834—1917)
Behind the Scenes
1898
  
A New World Stage
 

Fin-de-siecle in Vienna

 
  
 
 I love those first timid caresses,
half questioning, yet already
     half trusting,
they crackle with red sparks
     of seduction
and shoot sheaves of gold
     into the fiery night.
Stefan Zweig, from Silver Strings, 1901

 
  
  In 1900 Vienna was the glittering hub of the
Austro-Hungarian Empire and the world capital of Fin-de-siecle culture. Tradition reigned supreme in the city of waltzes and coffeehouses. Mozart, Beethoven and Schubert, the immortal three in music, had lived here. Since the Habsburgs had made it their capital centuries before, all the currents of European culture and civilisation converged in Vienna. A harmony of contrasts, ”It was lovely to live here”, wrote Stefan Zweig, “for, unconsciously, every person in the city became a sophisticate, a cosmopolitan”. The charm of turn-of-the-century Vienna worked its magic on poets and authors, musicians and artists; the city was full of famous faces such as Hugo von Hofmannsthal, Arnold Schonberg and Gustav Mahler, who all adored it. Yet, an era was drawing to a close, overshadowed by the decline of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Still elegant, the boulevards of Vienna were growing shabby. The clouds of war were gathering on the horizon. The flower of Viennese Jugendstil was in late bloom and the golden age was fading.

Gustav Klimt was regarded as the leading Viennese painter of his day. A goldsmith’s son, he founded the “Vienna Secession” in defiance of academic painting. As eclectic as the city itself, Klimt’s aesthetic embraced such superficially disparate elements as jin-ie-swclt elegance and sensuousness and Byzantine icons and mosaics. Moreover, he incorporated elements of East Asian and ancient Egyptian art in his work. He lavishly bestowed symbolic ornament and decoration on his works, making the surfaces of his pictures glitter with the colours of jewels — cornflower sapphires and amethysts, alexandntes and pearls on a rich gold ground.

Influenced by the writings of his fellow Viennese, Sigmund Freud, Klimt painted sensuous and sumptuous pictures, which aroused the ire of the critics. His work was condemned as “obscene”, yet, all he did was revel in luxury and beauty with a suggestion of the physical pleasures in life, freed from the constraints of nineteenth-century inhibitions. His masterpiece, The Kiss, is a celebration of beauty and eroticism. Some might view it as a manifesto of decadence. In retrospect, Klimt’s oeuvre seems to reflect one of the last dreams of innocence before the horrors of war set in.

 
  
GustavKlimt
(1862—1918)
The Kiss
1907
  
   
Hewn with an Axe
 
Delight in distortion

 
  
 
 You remember, don’t you, that the picture was at first called The Brothel at Avignon. And do you know why? Avignon is a name that is linked to my life in Barcelona. There I lived only a few steps away from the Calle d’Avignon. That is where I always used to buy my paper and paints under the gaze of prostitutes.
Pablo Picasso, Word and Confessions, 1954

 
  
 
 The newborn baby was blue and made no sound. The midwife thought it was dead, but not Don Salvador, both its uncle and doctor, who was reading his newspaper in the next room. He had the presence of mind to blow a whiff of cigar smoke into the face of the nearly suffocated baby. It began to draw in breaths of air and to scream. Thus Pablo Picassoencountered and conquered death in the first moments of his Ions life. What would there be left for him to fear? The world admired his impressive vitality, his passion for sheer hard work and the overwhelming self-confidence displayed by the brilliant artist, who had exhibited his first picture by the time he was fourteen. Picasso, who lived to be nearly ninety-two, was celebrated for his talent all his life. At the age of eighteen in Barcelona, he used to meet the city’s intellectual avant-garde in the “The Four Cats”, an artists’ cafe. The youngest of the artists who frequented the cafe, he was soon the most popular: “He exerted such a powerful charisma that he became the leader of the entire group”, related a contemporary.
In 1904 Picasso moved to Pans. He is said to have burned drawings to keep the stove ablaze — and to have painted the walls of his empty room with furniture. All this may be the stuff of legends, but it does reflect the conditions in which he lived at that time. Because he had broken with academic convention, preferring instead to paint the down-and-out, clowns and prostitutes, he had to struggle to earn his livelihood in his youth. Even among friends his work remained controversial. The biggest scandal caused by the young firebrand erupted over the painting entitled Les Demoiselles d’Avignon. Not long before its completion, he had visited HenriMatisse and, in his flat, had picked up the first African sculpture he had ever seen. “He didn’t put it down all evening. And when I arrived at his studio the next morning, the floor was covered with sheets of paper. They all bore the same motif: the head of a black woman. The same woman then emerged on his canvases; sometimes there were two of them, sometimes three. Suddenly there was Les Demoiselles A’Avignon, a picture as big as a wall”, recalls the poet Max Jacob.

The writers and artists of the nineteenth century had depicted distant lands as being like paradise, exotically transfiguring and glamourising reality. Picasso, on the other hand, was interested solely in the aesthetics of exoticism. His defiance of convention in Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, which was decried as being “aggressively erotic”, set off shock waves. Contemporaries thought the figures’ faces looked “as if they had been hewn with an axe”. Construed as the artists homage to the shrill world of deformation and deconstructed myth, it was widely interpreted as a general attack on the ideals of European art. In retrospect, however, this picture, with its synchronicity of different perspectives, represents the beginning of a new era for painting — a break with the past and a challenge for the future.

 
  
Pablo Picasso
(1881—1973)
Les Demoiselles d’Avignon
1907
  
The Calming Effect of Colour
 

The blue of the Cote d’Azur

 
  
 
 What I dream of is an art of balance, of purity and serenity devoid of troubling or disturbing subject matter… like a comforting influence, mental relief-something like a good armchair in which one rests from physical fatigue.
Henri Matisse, A Painter’s Notes, 1908

 
  
 
BRASSAI: Matisse and his model, 1939
   
  The French artist HenriMatisse delighted in painting the blue of his beloved Cote d’Azur, the green umbrella pines and the rows of elegant white villas lining the coast. He revelled in capturing the essence of leisurely life on canvas: men playing boules in the shade of the trees, people relaxing and enjoying quiet, carefree days in the sun, yachts bobbmg on a gentle swellin the harbour accompanied by the balmy breezes of the mistral. Colours, for him, were like the harmony of music. He was convinced that contemplating sunlit colours induced profound inner calm. In Dance he explores the calming effect of colour. This is not the only occasion on which he consciously acted as a painterly pastor, a priest of the easel, who exuded an almost religious feeling for life. In 1908 he expressed the hope that people might find peace and tranquillity in his paintings. He loved life’s sensuous pleasures, the beauty of the models who sat for him and the lushness of nature. Painting was his way of sharing his own zest for life with others from all walks of life. He certainly succeeded. The Italian painter Renato Guttuso called Matisse’s work a “feast for the senses” and “a design for a paradise-like world”. With the joyous serenity depicted in his paintings, Matisse superbly “exemplified a love of life and trust in its beauty”. The French writer Louis Aragon, like Matisse a member of the French Communist Party, raved about the artists work. His paintings showed “the victorious smile of our times, since mankind has begun to turn away from darkness and, with just this smile, triumphantly confronts the days that are for ever bright and peaceful”. In Matisse’s paintings the sun is almost always shining and the people he portrays appear carefree. The lightness of being also imbues the five men and women suspended in dreamy abandon between heaven and earth in Dance. Later, Matisse designed sets and costumes for Sergei Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes in Paris, for he also loved ballet. Dance represented life and rhythm, sparkling with vitality and the freshness of youth. In 1905 Matisse is said to have watched Catalan fishermen dancing the Sardana, an old round dance with abrupt changes of beat and tempo, on the beach at Collioure. Perhaps the memory of this scene is lent expression in Dance. Although Matissefrequented the Paris cafe, Moulin de la Galette, where people danced on Sunday afternoons, he was not sufficiently inspired by the ambience there to paint it. What most likely captured his imagination at the Paris cafe were the intriguing steps of the farandole, an ancient Provencal dance, whose insistent rhythms seem to have underscored his painting.
 
  
HenriMatisse
(1869-1954)
Dance
1909
  
   
Blue Horses and Yellow Cows
 

Munich in 1911: The art capital

 
  
 
 The Blue Rider is here – a lovely sentence, five words -nothing but stars. I’m now thinking like the moon. Am dwelling in the clouds, especially in the evenings when no one else is in the streets…. My eyes hurt as if your sweet horse had kicked up a cloud of dust. Come to me, you and your spouse, Blue Rider, that I may love you.
The lyric poet Else Lasker-Schuler in a letter to Franz Marc, 9 December 1912

 
  
  Vasily Kandinsky, final design for the cover of the Blue Rider almanac, 1911
   
 
 In 1911 a full tankard of beer in the Bavarian royal capital of Munich cost 30 pfennigs. In those days the city on the bar boasted cultural attractions on a scale that dwarfed the “Oktober Fest”. Thomas Mann was writing Death in Venice in his flat in Schwabmg, the artistic and cultural hub of Munich. Bruno Walter was conducting the world premiere of Gustav Mahler’s Songs of the Earth at the Conservatory. Munich gleamed as the centre of the arts. As the lyric poet Else Lasker-Schuler remarked:
“Munich is like paradise…. Listening to friends playing the accordion; strolling past the windows of the reverent old stores; old masters, tasteful jewellery, wild weapons from the tombs of biblical potentates, and everywhere the blue eyes of King Ludwig!… One can muse so effortlessly in Munich, and recline in comfort on well-upholstered memories. Here it feels good to be oneself.”

However, even the disgruntled Munich of conventional wisdom found plenty to jolt it out of its stolidity. A performance staged by the nude dancer Via-Villany made the chamois tufts that Bavarian men wear on their loden hats wag with indignation. In a former shop in Tuerken Strasse two men could be seen through the window painting decidedly offensive pictures. One of them, Franz Marc, was defiantly brandishing the picture of a horse — painted blue! Loud protests were heard. The police who rushed to the scene had no legal right to make the painters stop what they were doing so they contented themselves with patrolling the area around the shop to keep public wrath from erupting. Marc and his colleague Vasily Kandinsky were committed to encouraging a dialogue between painting, literature and music with the purpose of “radically widening the bounds of expressive creativity”. In 1912 they published an almanac that caused a sensation. It contained nineteen articles and quoted passages, three musical scores and 141 reproductions of pictures, including folk art and children’s paintings and drawings, “primitive, Roman and Gothic art”, “twentieth-century art” and Egyptian shadow-play figures. By bringing together this jumbled mixture of artworks they hoped to encourage other artists to venture in new directions. The almanac bore the title “Blauer Reiter” (Blue Rider). “We thought up the name round the coffee table in the shade of Marc’s garden”, Kandinsky said, adding: “We both loved blue, Marc — horses, and I — riders. The name came of its own accord”. Soon afterwards, the Blue Rider had their first exhibition. Never tightly organised, the group consisted of a circle of artists around Marc and Kandinsky. Marc found animals “purer” than human beings. In his work, blue stood for masculinity, astrmgency and intellect. The horse was the attribute of the popular saints Martin and George, who as celestial riders conquered evil and materialism. Marc and Kandinsky contrived to emulate them in art. The Blue Rider did not last long; it dissolved in 1916 after Franz Marc was killed in action at Verdun.

 
  
Franz Marc
(1880—1916)
Blue Horse I
1911
  
Painting Music
 

From the visible world to an abstract symphony of colours

 
  
  The sun is melting Moscow down to a mere speck which, like a tuba gone mad, is making the whole inner being, the whole soul vibrate…. It is only the final chord of the symphony that heightens colours to their most vivid…. Pink, purple, yellow, white, pistachio-green, flaming red houses, churches – each a song unto itself – the shrill green lawn, the deep drone of the trees…. Painting this hour, I thought, would represent the artist’s most unlikely and loftiest happiness.
Wassily Kandinsky, 1912, in Collected Writings 1,1980

 
  
 
 The colours of Moscow: St Basil’s Cathedral on Reel Square
 
  
 
 One evening in 1910 Vasily Kandinskyentered his Munich studio, noticed a canvas that had been accidentally hung upside down and was enraptured. He had suddenly comprehended that this was a picture “of extraordinary beauty, glowing with an inner radiance”. At that time, as the Russian emigre would say later, he had, in a flash of insight, understood what abstraction really meant. In connection with art, “abstraction” did not mean “anything that could be perceived by the senses; it meant trying to represent the intellectual content of something”.This did not mean depicting a couple embracing, for instance, but instead expressing their feelings of joy, love and security solely by means of a non-representational approach.
The discussion waxed loud and long as to who had been the first to paint an abstract picture and who should therefore be regarded as the founder of abstract painting. All his life, Kandinsky would remain convinced that the honour should have gone to him. Today it is a well-known fact that other artists, such as Hans Schmithals, painted abstract pictures before Kandinsky did. Nevertheless, Kandinsky deserves full credit for the pioneering way he allowed colour and form to become autonomous in his compositions.

Kandinsky had refused a university chair in law to become a painter. His progress towards abstraction was long and arduous. At the beginning of his artistic career, any type of painting that did not correspond to reality left him bewildered. At the age of thirty he saw an exhibition of French Impressionists in Moscow and stood for hours before Monet’s Haystack, jotting down notes: “It was only when I read the catalogue that I realised it was a haystack. I couldn’t pick it out. I was embarrassed about not being able to do so. I also felt that the painter had no right to paint so indistinctly. I numbly sensed that the real subject of the painting was missing.” Then Kandinsky became more familiar with the painting and noted happily “that the picture not only seizes one, it imprints itself indelibly on one’s memory to hover, always unexpectedly, before one’s eyes in all its detail…. Painting has assumed magic-al power and magnificence. Unconsciously, however, the subject has been discredited as an unavoidable element of the picture. I had the general impression that a tiny particle of my sundrenched fairy-tale Moscow already had an existence of its own on canvas.” Despite his allegiance to abstraction, Kandinsky drew his inspiration solely from the visible world, starting with carvings on Russian peasants’ houses and extending to African masks and Upper Bavarian votive tablets. It was not his aim to represent nothingness with his abstract renderings; he endeavoured to reveal the primal chaos from which the creative force emerged, the force that once formed the world. Composition Vll, Kandinsky’s most important work from the period before the First World War, does not attest to destruction, but carries the message of a creative beginning.

 
  
Vasily Kandinsky
(1866-1944)
Composicion VI
  
   
Down the Garden Path
 
Water-lilies at Giverny

 
  
 
 When the water-lilies in the garden carry us from the surface of the water to the wandering clouds of infinite space, we take leave of the earth – and even its heavens – to enjoy the highest harmony of things, which lies beyond our little planet.
Georges Clemenceau, Claude Monet, 1929

 
  
  The former French president and statesman Georges Clemenceau described one of the water-lily pictures painted by his friend Claude Monet as “a water-meadow covered with flowers and leaves, ignited by the torch of the sun and glittering in the play of light between the sky and the surface of the water”. Clemenceau had successfully coordinated French political and military efforts towards the end of the First World War and made a major contribution to the Allied victory. He raved about Monet’s water-lily pictures calling them a “revelation”. Between 1915 and 1924 he made it possible for Monet to paint eight enormous water-lily murals on the walls of the Orangerie in the Tuileries as a gift to the nation. Despite such encouragement, however, Claude Monet was not surrounded by distinguished promoters and patrons from the outset. On the contrary, his work entitled Impression, soleil levant inspired the critic Louis Leroy to coin the derogatory term “Impressionists” for an entire group of painters whose work he did not like. For decades Monet was almost destitute. Not until art dealer Theo van Gogh, Vincent’s brother, managed to sell one of his paintings for 10,350 Francs — then an almost unheard of price for a work of contemporary art — was Claude Monetable to live fairly comfortably. Already middle-aged, he began to reap the fruits of his success.
Monet was even able to make a life-long dream come true. For seven years he had rented a country house in Giverny; now he was able to buy it and lay out a garden of flowers and shrubs. In 1895 and 1896 he successfully negotiated the purchase of several neighbouring plots of land — including a pond — which he planted with a profusion of weeping willows, irises, rhododendrons and water-lilies. An avid landscape gardener, he was inspired by Japanese woodcuts, which were by now sought after on the European art market, especially in France and England. Monet was so fond of his estate that his chief preoccupation for the remaining thirty-six years of his life was painting views of his gardens. As a young man he had always painted out of doors to capture the light and atmosphere and the interplay of colour and reflection. The six gardeners Monet employed in old age took care of his paradise, leaving him free to paint it and touch up the paintings in his studio. Water-lilies were his obsession: between 1903 and 1908 he painted forty-eight pictures of them, which he exhibited in Paris in 1909. He sought eternity in painting, or so his fleeting glimpse of it would seem to intimate.

 
  
Claude Monet
(1840—1926)
Water-Lilies
 
  
Claude Monet
(1840—1926)
Water-Lilies
 
  
Claude Monet
(1840—1926)
Water-Lilies
 
  
Claude Monet
(1840—1926)
Water-Lilies
 
  
Claude Monet
(1840—1926)
Water-Lilies
 
  
Claude Monet
(1840—1926)
Water-Lilies
  
Giorgio de Chirico and World War I

 
  
 
 I for my part believe that a place that paralyzes and freezes the brightness of noonday hides more secrets than a dark room in which someone is holding a seance.
Giorgio de Chirico, in a letter to a friend, January 1919

 
  
Giorgio de Chirico
Self-Portrait, 1924 
A possible source of inspiration? The arcades bordering the palace
gardens in Munich where Giorgio de Chirico studied between 1906-09
 
  
 
 
Seldom had spring brought forth more flowers than in 1914: the days were blue and soft and the air balmy. Inhabitants of the European capitals enjoyed the coffeehouses and parks. At seaside resorts crowds danced under chestnut trees to the strains of promenade concerts. And in their offices the diplomats were calculating and worrying. In the Balkans the vital interests of the Austrian, Russian and Turkish Empires were balanced: but it was an unstable balance and many nationalists were convinced that their nation would benefit from its overthrow. When the Austrian Archduke was assassinated in Sarajevo by a Slav nationalist the Austrian government calculated that it was then or never for their interests in the Balkans. Encouraged by their German allies, who believed that a war with the French was nearly inevitable and that Germany’s chances were better in 1914 than they would be in 1918, the Austrians issued the Serbs a humiliating ultimatum. But the Russians had appointed themselves the protectors of the Serbs and were closely allied to the French. No one knew how seriously the British took their alliance to the French….
The pressure rose slowly at first, but then rapidly. The levy of a war tax on one side was answered with the lengthening of the term of military service on the other; partial mobilization on one side was answered on the other by full mobilization. The German commanders were convinced that to prevail against France and Russia they would have to destroy France quickly before the slow Russians could assemble their armies. But that meant they had to strike first: they could not allow the Russians to mobilise. Human will seemed powerless in the face of unfolding events, long-determined plans, strategic necessities, the requirements of national prestige — for the most terrifying thing about this, the most bloody war Europe had ever known, was that no one had wanted it.

In Paris the twenty-six-year-old painter Giorgio de Chirico was filled with the sense of the meaninglessness and madness of life.

The son of an Italian railway engineer, he was born in Greece and grew up familiar with ancient legends, with myth, tragedy and a strong sense of fate. He believed in signs and in predestination, magical places and the astrology and studied ancient Greek religion. He was also a student of Nietzsche and Schopenhauer.

De Chirico’s feelings about the senselessness and terror of his time were worked through these symbols and ideas. He was one of the most truly “disturbing” of modern painters. De Chirico conjures up menacing Italian piazzas which seem to conceal the key to a looming catastrophe. His colonnade-lmed facades seem to be the surface of an isolated world; to reflect the hot light of a shuttered noon. The purpose of his “Metaphysical Painting” was to reveal invisible forces, fears, emotions and shadows concealed behind the world of visible things. He played with allusions and like the ancients delighted in riddles and enigmas, such as the Sphinx, the oracle at Delphi and the Sybilline Books. What is the significance of the painting of 1914, Mystery and Melancholy of a Street? Could it signify anonymity, the solitude and menace of a great city? The work seems to evoke a mood which many of us have sensed before, of doom and evil, and of the senseless and unavoidable, bearing down on us. It is difficult for us not to see the work as a prophecy of what at the time was called “The Great War”.

 
  
Giorgio de Chirico
(1888—1978)
Mystery and Melancholy of a Street
1914

 
  
The Poetic Nude
 

Absinthe and transfiguration

 
  
 
 Wouldn’t you like to rest? With these words her gestures assumed a new softness so that I trembled in the innermost fiber of my being as if to a voice never heard and indefinable. She felt me, and over her eyes descended a heavy veil and I fell on my knees and with my eager hand on her body, she stood up, her body taut and quivering like a living harp.
Gabriele d’Annunzio, Infermezzo, V 111-117 (1883)

 
 
 
 Plagued by misfortunes: Modigliani’s Self-Portrait of 1919, and his wife Jeanne Hebuterne, 1918
 
 
 
 His name stood for scandal. Amedeo Modigliani was a wild aesthete after the manner of his time. He loved Nietzsche, Baudelaire, Oscar Wilde and Gabnele D’Annunzio, smoked hashish, drank absinthe, danced naked on the tables of third-rate cafes, fought with the police and spent many an odd night locked up. He is supposed to have been intimate with many waitresses, painter’s models and prostitutes. Once a model schoolboy, he was also tubercular and the English writer Beatrice Hastings left him when he decided to find his happiness and health in alcohol and drugs. She was fed up with getting up early every day to write the articles and poetry that put food on their table — while he slept until noon.
The young Italian, who had moved to Paris in 1910, forgot her soon enough. He met the love of his life at Mardi Gras: a girl fourteen years younger than himself, Jeanne Hebuterne. Friends warned him to keep away from her because she came from a family which had sired celebrated clerics. Her parents would find him a disgusting character. But Modigliani was not to be deterred. The tragic aesthete who, despite the excesses of his Paris life, still retained at thirty-three the beauty of his youth, had fallen deeply in love. He found in her the incarnation of the “lady with the swan-like neck” whom he had painted many hundreds of times. It was love at first sight for both of them and the power of love removed all obstacles. Jeanne defied her family to be Modigliani’s permanent model. His fame grew, chiefly due to the series of paintings of which Nude with Necklace is one. The critic Francis Carco wrote in 1919 on the series: “Animal suppleness, waiting motionless in abandonment of self, in delicious languor, has never been more tellingly interpreted by a painter.” Others praised Modigliani’s poetic nudes as “hymns to a sensitive beauty”.

The elegiac melancholy of these paintings reflects the tragedy and uncertainty of their creator’s own life. For the first time he had enough money to live on, yet his health was collapsing. He died of meningitis on 24 January 1920. He was thirty-six and an incurable alcoholic. Jeanne Hebuterne, who was nearly nine months pregnant, committed suicide the following morning by jumping out of a window of her parents’ fifth-floor flat.

see also: Nude in Art of the 20th century. “The Second Temple of Beauty”

 
 
Amedeo Modigliani
(1884-1920)
Nude with Necklace
1917
 
The Fiddler on the Roof
 

Folklore, music and persecution

 
 
 
 Airy beings in flight as transient phenomena are at the heart of Marc Chagall’s lyrical interpretation of Sholem Aleichem. The Jew floating over the rooftops is anywhere but on firm ground. And he proves that he is an acrobat solely by surviving nimbly in a world in which he is not at home. He is a strange creature who lives in books and dreams. In order to survive, he is always inventing new fantasies and dreams of riches and power so he doesn’t perceive the wretchedness and hopelessness of his situation.
Avram Kampf, Chagall in the Moscow Yiddish Theatre, 1991

 
 
 
 Poster for Fiddler on the Roof, for the world premiere in New York City, 1964
 
 
 
 Marc Chagall’s painting of a melancholy violinist has become world famous as “the fiddler on the roof”. The musical of that name, adapted from a set of tales by the Russian Jewish writer Sholem Aleichem, premiered on 22 September 1964 at the Imperial Theater in New York City and was sold-out to theatres for years. The story is set in Anatevka, a little Jewish shtetl in the Russian Ukraine, shortly before the revolutionary turmoils of 1905. Tevye, a milkman who owns a lame nag, lives together with his wife Golde and their five daughters in a cramped peasant cottage; they live in bitter poverty and constant fear of pogroms. Yet Tevye drives a desperate but quick-witted bargain with God and turns the tables on tragedy by the sheer volubility of his wit.
As Maurice Samuel wrote: “Life pets the better of him but he comes off better in debate with it.” At first Tevye has something to hold on to: “Without tradition our lives would be just as insecure as the fiddler up there on the roof.” But then nothing turns out the way one expects. His daughters refuse to let their father choose their husbands and marry as they please. Heartbreaking scenes, being disowned by their father and the depths of despair are the consequences. An edict of the Tsar’s puts an end to it all. Tevye and his wife Golde are rejected by their daughters. Denied the descendants they long for, they and all the other Jews of Anatevka are expelled from their homes.

Chagall was born in 1887, the son of a Jewish fishmonger in Liozno near the White Russian provincial capital of Vitebsk. His early life was remarkably like that which is enacted in the musical. At the age of thirty-three he had his first experience of scene painting and directing plays at the Moscow Yiddish Theatre.

In 1941 he emigrated — like Sholem Aleichem had twenty-five years earlier — to the United States, where he again worked in the theatre.

The musical Fiddler on the Roof goes back to a pre-Surrealist image of Chagall’s. It was 1920 when he first painted this image on the wall of the auditorium of the Moscow Yiddish Theatre as a symbolic representation for music. Thus Chagall’s colourful, opulent realm of motifs, nurtured in the soil of Jewish myth and Russian folklore, was transformed into theatre. And this theatrical reality recalls the centuries-old fate of a people who have always been driven from place to place. In the face of such hardship, often the only thing left to fall back on is faith together with irony, humanity and wit.

 
 
Marc Chagall
(1887-1985)
The Fiddler, 1913; Green Violinist, 1924
 
 

The destiny of a woman painter

 
 
 
 Diego. Beginning
Diego. Builder
Diego, my child
Diego, my bridegroom
Diego. Painter
Diego, my lover
Diego, my husband
Diego, my friend
Diego, my father Diego, my mother
Diego, my son
Diego. I
Diego. Universe.
Diversity in unity.
Why do I call him my Diego?
He never was, nor will he ever be, mine.
He is his own.
Frida Kahlo, from a diary entry  
 
Frida Kahlo, Frida; The Two Fridas, 1939
 
 
 
 The Mexican painter Diego Rivera was working on a mural when a gifted young painter came by to show him some of her work. The twenty-one-year-old Frieda Kahlo (who later changed the spelling of her name to Frida) was of multicultural descent, with a German father and a Mexican mother. She wanted to know what Rivera thought of her work. A friend of Pablo Picasso’s, Rivera had lived in Paris (1911—192т) and later returned to Mexico, becoming one the most important artists of the Social Realist movement. He told Kahlo that he found her work to be expressive, sensuous and of a style distinctly her own. Rivera later said that it was immediately obvious to him that this woman was exceptionally talented. He advised her to continue painting and visited her frequently. They fell in love. In 1929 Kahlo married Rivera, who was twenty-one years her senior. The “delicate dove and fat frog” were now a pair although their life together was tempestuous. The first strains of their marriage became apparent during a three-year stay in the United States. Rivera was fascinated by the country and its people but Kahlo soon had enough of the Americans. After their return to Mexico, Rivera engaged in several extramarital affairs. In 1935 he fell in love with Kahlo’s sister Cristina, who had been his model for two murals. Deeply hurt, Kahlo left Rivera, revenging herself on him by having affairs of her own with men and women. In 1939 Kahlo and Riveradivorced. However, they were still drawn to each other and remarried a year later in San Francisco.
The way Kahlo remembered her first wedding is captured in Frieda and Diego Rivera. All her paintings similarly reflect the events of her stormy life, which was overshadowed not only by her unhappy marriage. Kahlo was dogged by ill health all her life. In 1913 polio left her with a crippled right foot which later had to be amputated. In 1925 fate struck again when she was riding a bus that collided with a tram and Kahlo sustained serious injuries to her lower abdomen and spine, forcing her to wear a corrective corset. These illnesses and misfortunes wore heavily upon her and she made her own psychological and physical pain the subject of many of her works. Stylistically she was influenced by Mexican folk art, particularly votive paintings. While she was a professor at the La Esmeralda Art School, she talked more about personal feelings than about art with her students. With her health declining rapidly, she wanted to commit suicide — “only Diego keeps me from doing it”. Kahlo died a week after her forty-seventh birthday and her last diary entry reads: “I await the end joyfully. And I hope never to return.”
 

see also: Frida Kahlo “Frida – The Life in Self-Portraits”

 
 

 
 
Diego Rivera and Frieda Kahlo, 1932

Frieda Kahlo
(1907—1954)
Frieda and Diego Rivera
1931
 
The Paranoid-Critical Camembert
 

Into the subconscious with Salvador Dali

 
 
 
 You can be sure that my famous soft watches are nothing other than the affectionate, extravagant, lonely, paranoid-critical Camembert of time and space.
Salvador Dali, The Conquest of the Irrational, 1935

 
 
 
 Salvador Dali
Gala and Salvador Dali
 
 
 
 A ghost which can be used as a table, a skull copulating with a concert grand piano, fried eggs riding or a mournful mirror: the world that appears in Salvador Dali’s pictures is certainly bizarre. He has been criticised for this, frequently and severely- He was regarded as neurotic, perverse and mad. One of the more harmless epithets applied to him “an erotomaniac eccentric”. None of this bothered him in the least.
At twenty-five, the eccentric Catalonian fell in love with Elena Diakonova. He called her “Gala” and, no less scandalous than he, she shared the rest of his life. He found ingenious ways of wooing her: he cut his best shirt so short that his navel showed, turned his trousers inside out, died the hairs m his armpits bright blue and smeared his body with a mixture of fishpaste, goat dung and aspic. Just before Gala entered the house, he washed off the stinking mess, changed his clothes and collapsed at her feet, laughing hysterically. She found him repulsive, but by the end of that year she vowed: “My little boy! We’ll never leave each other!”

Dali – a boy who never grew up. Spoilt by his permissive mother, he conducted sadistic experiments, and his school reports were so bad that, as a biographer relates, his parents were devastated. However, all these ploys safeguarded his boundless creativity, which drew on an inexhaustible imagination, from outside intervention. He became one of the great visionaries of the Surrealist movement and modern painting.

Influenced by Freudian psychology and inspired by his own subconscious, he captured the irrational world of his dreams, visions and hallucinations on canvas with meticulous objectivity. Making a fetish of detail, he wrote books about everything he was doing and created ballet sets and film scenarios teeming with his grotesque motifs. Dali was certainly a self-obsessed megalomaniac and a choleric one at that. He was both an anarchist and an admirer of monarchy, and has been accused of having fascist tendencies. He publicly proclaimed his right to be insane. Yet he is supposed to have drawn on mundane reality for at least some of his inspiration. The story has it that he painted The Persistence of Memory after having eaten Camembert.

 
 
Salvador Dali
(1904—1989)
The Persistence of Memory
1931
 
Man’s Inhumanity to Man
 

Europe in turmoil

 
 
  The painting which I did after the defeat of the Republicans was L’ange du foyer (Fireside angel). This is, of course, an ironic title for a clumsy figure devastating everything that gets in its way. At the time, this was my impression of what was happening in the world, and I think I was right.
Max Ernst, from his writings, 1948

 
 
 
 The scene of destruction: The Basque town of Guernica у Luno after the bombing of 26 April 1937
 
 
  Sergeant Yoldi was appalled: “There was nothing to be heard but the crackle and roar of flames. No one spoke and even the cattle trotting aimlessly through the streets made no noise. We were all dumb with horror. I had known Guernica before the war — there was nothing left of it. It had been a little town with red-roofed, white-walled houses. Now its streets were strewn with charred animal carcasses.” On 26 April 1937, just twenty-four hours before Sergeant Yoldi arrived in Guernica, the town had been bombed by the German Condor Legion. This became the most famous of the Spanish Civil War atrocities, horrifying a world which had not yet grown used to air attacks on defenceless cities. The war began in July 1936, when General Francisco- Franco led a revolt against the Spanish Republic. The Spanish Left had won a parliamentary majority but was unable to restrain those among them who were deter-mined that their turn in power should be used to destroy the Right. Franco’s revolt became a civil war, and Franco received the support of Mussolini’s Italy and Hitler’s Germany, which went so far as to send troops — using the Spanish war to try out new weapons and tactics. The Republicans were supported by volunteers from all over the world, as well as by Stalin’s Soviet Union. Horrifying and sadistic atrocities were committed by both sides — Pablo Picasso, who was a Spaniard, made Guernica the subject of one of his most famous paintings. After Franco’s victory the German painter Max Ernst created his spectral L’ange du foyer(Fireside angel), an apocalyptic monster bursting with destructive energy, a King-Kong-like Angel of Death spreading fear and terror.
Ernst was born in 1891 at Bruhl near Cologne, and as a painter he was quite “degenerate”: or this is how he was described by the propagandists of the Third Reich. In 1921 Ernst moved to Pans, where he threw himself into sculpture, print-making and film as well as painting. There he became a participant in the French Dada movement, a short-lived movement from 1916 to about 1922 which declared that all established values, morals and aesthetics had been rendered meaningless by the catastrophe of the World War I. Later, in 1924, Ernst became a member of the Surrealist movement which followed Dada and was considered one of its most innovative members. The Surrealists still touted the importance of chance in their work, as did the Dadaists, but added to it more control and theories borrowed from psychoanalysis, emphasising the subconscious and the importance of dream imagery.

In 1937, the year he painted L’ange du foyer, Ernst learned that the National Socialists had confiscated his early work, which he had left behind m Germany. It was soon destroyed in the National Socialist effort to “purify” German art. We may suppose, then, that when he painted this work, Spain was not the only thing worrying him. When World War II began, the French interned Ernst at Aix-en-Provence as an “enemy alien”, but friends interceded for him. He was released and ordered to leave France. He went to the United States of America with the help of the art connoisseur and collector Peggy Guggenheim, who he later married.

 
 
Max Ernst
(1891—1976)
L’ange du foyer (Fireside angel)
1937
 
 
Max Ernst
(1891—1976)
L’ange du foyer (Fireside angel)
 
The Silent Observer
 

An American dream

 

Florence Nightingale Historic collections

Florence Nightingale

Historic Collections

 

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Copyright@2012

 

 

Introduction

 

Florence Nightingal

e’s London

 

A wartime letter from nursing heroine Florence Nightingale to a soldier’s grieving sister has been publicly unveiled for the first time.

In the poignant note, Miss Nightingale – known as the Lady with the Lamp – informs Crimean soldier Gunner Evans’ sister of the ‘sad certainty’ of his death.

‘I have never had so painful and unsatisfactory a letter to write,’ the message reads.

Biography

Florence Nightingale

 
 
 
Florence Nightingale
Born 12 May 1820(1820-05-12)
Florence, Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Died 13 August 1910(1910-08-13) (aged 90)
Park Lane, London, United Kingdom
Known for Pioneering modern nursing
 
Profession Nurse and Statistician
Institutions Selimiye Barracks, Scutari
Specialism Hospital hygiene and sanitation
Signature

Florence Nightingale OM, RRC (play /ˈflɒrəns ˈntɨŋɡl/; historically [ˈflɒɾəns]; 12 May 1820 – 13 August 1910) was a celebrated English nurse, writer and statistician. She came to prominence for her pioneering work in nursing during the Crimean War, where she tended to wounded soldiers. She was dubbed “The Lady with the Lamp” after her habit of making rounds at night. An Anglican, Nightingale believed that God had called her to be a nurse.

Nightingale laid the foundation of professional nursing with the establishment, in 1860, of her nursing school at St Thomas’ Hospital in London, the first secular nursing school in the world, now part of King’s College London. The Nightingale Pledge taken by new nurses was named in her honour, and the annual International Nurses Day is celebrated around the world on her birthday.

[edit] Biography

[edit] Early life

Embley Park, now a school, was one of the family homes of William Nightingale

Florence Nightingale was born into a rich, upper-class, well-connected British family at the Villa Colombaia,[1] near the Porta Romana at Bellosguardo in Florence, Italy, and was named after the city of her birth. Florence’s older sister Frances Parthenope had similarly been named after her place of birth, Parthenopolis, a Greek settlement now part of the city of Naples.

Her parents were William Edward Nightingale, born William Edward Shore (1794–1874) and Frances (“Fanny”) Nightingale née Smith (1789–1880). William’s mother Mary née Evans was the niece of one Peter Nightingale, under the terms of whose will William inherited his estate Lea Hurst in Derbyshire, and assumed the name and arms of Nightingale. Fanny’s father (Florence’s maternal grandfather) was the abolitionist and Unitarian William Smith. (For family trees, see here.)

Inspired by what she took as a call from God in February 1837 while at Embley Park, Florence announced her decision to enter nursing in 1844, despite the intense anger and distress of her mother and sister. In this, she rebelled against the expected role for a woman of her status, which was to become a wife and mother. Nightingale worked hard to educate herself in the art and science of nursing, in spite of opposition from her family and the restrictive societal code for affluent young English women. Nightingale was courted by politician and poet Richard Monckton Milnes, 1st Baron Houghton, but she rejected him, convinced that marriage would interfere with her ability to follow her calling to nursing.

Florence Nightingale, circa 1858

In Rome in 1847, she met Sidney Herbert, a brilliant politician who had been Secretary at War (1845–1846), a position he would hold again during the Crimean War. Herbert was on his honeymoon; he and Nightingale became lifelong close friends. Herbert and his wife were instrumental in facilitating Nightingale’s nursing work in the Crimea, and she became a key adviser to him in his political career, though she was accused by some of having hastened Herbert’s death from Bright’s Disease in 1861 because of the pressure her programme of reform placed on him.

Nightingale also much later had strong relations with Benjamin Jowett, who may have wanted to marry her.

Nightingale continued her travels (now with Charles and Selina Bracebridge) as far as Greece and Egypt. Her writings on Egypt in particular are testimony to her learning, literary skill and philosophy of life. Sailing up the Nile as far as Abu Simbel in January 1850, she wrote

“I don’t think I ever saw anything which affected me much more than this.” And, considering the temple: “Sublime in the highest style of intellectual beauty, intellect without effort, without suffering… not a feature is correct – but the whole effect is more expressive of spiritual grandeur than anything I could have imagined. It makes the impression upon one that thousands of voices do, uniting in one unanimous simultaneous feeling of enthusiasm or emotion, which is said to overcome the strongest man.”

At Thebes she wrote of being “called to God” while a week later near Cairo she wrote in her diary (as distinct from her far longer letters that her elder sister Parthenope was to print after her return): “God called me in the morning and asked me would I do good for him alone without reputation.”[2] Later in 1850, she visited the Lutheran religious community at Kaiserswerth-am-Rhein in Germany, where she observed Pastor Theodor Fliedner and the deaconesses working for the sick and the deprived. She regarded the experience as a turning point in her life, and issued her findings anonymously in 1851; The Institution of Kaiserswerth on the Rhine, for the Practical Training of Deaconesses, etc. was her first published work;[3] she also received four months of medical training at the institute which formed the basis for her later care.

On 22 August 1853, Nightingale took the post of superintendent at the Institute for the Care of Sick Gentlewomen in Upper Harley Street, London, a position she held until October 1854.[4] Her father had given her an annual income of £500 (roughly £40,000/US$65,000 in present terms), which allowed her to live comfortably and to pursue her career.

[edit] Crimean War

A print of the jewel awarded to Nightingale by Queen Victoria, for her services to the soldiers in the war

A tinted lithograph by William Simpson illustrating conditions of the sick and injured in Balaklava

A ward of the hospital at Scutari where Nightingale worked, from an 1856 lithograph

Florence Nightingale’s most famous contribution came during the Crimean War, which became her central focus when reports began to filter back to Britain about the horrific conditions for the wounded. On 21 October 1854, she and a staff of 38 women volunteer nurses, trained by Nightingale and including her aunt Mai Smith,[5] were sent (under the authorisation of Sidney Herbert) to the Ottoman Empire, about 295 nautical miles (546 km; 339 mi) across the Black Sea from Balaklava in the Crimea, where the main British camp was based.

Nightingale arrived early in November 1854 at Selimiye Barracks in Scutari (modern-day Üsküdar in Istanbul). She and her nurses found wounded soldiers being badly cared for by overworked medical staff in the face of official indifference. Medicines were in short supply, hygiene was being neglected, and mass infections were common, many of them fatal. There was no equipment to process food for the patients.

After Nightingale sent a plea to The Times for the government to produce a solution to the poor condition of the facilities, the British Government commissioned Isambard Kingdom Brunel to design a prefabricated hospital, which could be built in England and shipped to the Dardanelles. The result was Renkioi Hospital, a civilian facility which under the management of Dr Edmund Alexander Parkes had a death rate less than 1/10th that of Scutari.[6]

At the beginning of the 20th century, it was asserted that Nightingale reduced the death rate from 42% to 2% either by making improvements in hygiene herself or by calling for the Sanitary Commission. The 1911 first edition of the Dictionary of National Biography made this claim, but the second edition in 2001 did not. However, death rates did not drop: they began to rise. The death count was the highest of all hospitals in the region. During her first winter at Scutari, 4,077 soldiers died there. Ten times more soldiers died from illnesses such as typhus, typhoid, cholera and dysentery than from battle wounds. Conditions at the temporary barracks hospital were so fatal to the patients because of overcrowding and the hospital’s defective sewers and lack of ventilation. A Sanitary Commission had to be sent out by the British government to Scutari in March 1855, almost six months after Florence Nightingale had arrived, and effected flushing out the sewers and improvements to ventilation.[7] Death rates were sharply reduced. During the war she did not recognise hygiene as the predominant cause of death, and she never claimed credit for helping to reduce the death rate.[8]

Nightingale continued believing the death rates were due to poor nutrition and supplies and overworking of the soldiers. It was not until after she returned to Britain and began collecting evidence before the Royal Commission on the Health of the Army that she came to believe that most of the soldiers at the hospital were killed by poor living conditions. This experience influenced her later career, when she advocated sanitary living conditions as of great importance. Consequently, she reduced deaths in the army during peacetime and turned attention to the sanitary design of hospitals.

[edit] The Lady with the Lamp

During the Crimean war, Florence Nightingale gained the nickname “The Lady with the Lamp”, deriving from a phrase in a report in The Times:

She is a ‘ministering angel’ without any exaggeration in these hospitals, and as her slender form glides quietly along each corridor, every poor fellow’s face softens with gratitude at the sight of her. When all the medical officers have retired for the night and silence and darkness have settled down upon those miles of prostrate sick, she may be observed alone, with a little lamp in her hand, making her solitary rounds.[9]

“Nightingale receiving the Wounded at Scutari”, a portrait by Jerry Barrett

The phrase was further popularised by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow‘s 1857 poem “Santa Filomena”:[10]

Lo! in that house of misery
A lady with a lamp I see
Pass through the glimmering gloom,
And flit from room to room.

[edit] Later career

While she was in the Crimea, on 29 November 1855, a public meeting to give recognition to Florence Nightingale for her work in the war led to the establishment of the Nightingale Fund for the training of nurses. There was an outpouring of generous donations. Sidney Herbert served as honorary secretary of the fund, and the Duke of Cambridge was chairman. Nightingale was considered a pioneer in the concept of medical tourism as well, on the basis of her letters from 1856 in which she wrote of spas in the Ottoman Empire, detailing the health conditions, physical descriptions, dietary information, and other vitally important details of patients whom she directed there (where treatment was significantly less expensive than in Switzerland). It may be assumed[citation needed] she was directing patients of meagre means to affordable treatment.

By 1859 Nightingale had £45,000 at her disposal from the Nightingale Fund to set up the Nightingale Training School at St. Thomas’ Hospital on 9 July 1860. (It is now called the Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery and is part of King’s College London.) The first trained Nightingale nurses began work on 16 May 1865 at the Liverpool Workhouse Infirmary. She also campaigned and raised funds for the Royal Buckinghamshire Hospital in Aylesbury, near her family home.

Nightingale wrote Notes on Nursing, which was published in 1859, a slim 136-page book that served as the cornerstone of the curriculum at the Nightingale School and other nursing schools established, though it was written specifically for the education of those nursing at home. Nightingale wrote “Every day sanitary knowledge, or the knowledge of nursing, or in other words, of how to put the constitution in such a state as that it will have no disease, or that it can recover from disease, takes a higher place. It is recognised as the knowledge which every one ought to have – distinct from medical knowledge, which only a profession can have”.[11]

Notes on Nursing also sold well to the general reading public and is considered a classic introduction to nursing. Nightingale spent the rest of her life promoting the establishment and development of the nursing profession and organizing it into its modern form. In the introduction to the 1974 edition, Joan Quixley of the Nightingale School of Nursing wrote: “The book was the first of its kind ever to be written. It appeared at a time when the simple rules of health were only beginning to be known, when its topics were of vital importance not only for the well-being and recovery of patients, when hospitals were riddled with infection, when nurses were still mainly regarded as ignorant, uneducated persons. The book has, inevitably, its place in the history of nursing, for it was written by the founder of modern nursing”.[12]

Nightingale was an advocate for the improvement of care and conditions in the military and civilian hospitals in Britain. Among her popular books are Notes on Hospitals, which deals with the correlation of sanitary techniques to medical facilities; Notes on Nursing, which was the most valued nursing textbook of the day; Notes on Matters Affecting the Health, Efficiency and Hospital Administration of the British Army.

As Mark Bostridge has recently demonstrated, one of Nightingale’s signal achievements was the introduction of trained nurses into the workhouse system in England and Ireland from the 1860s onwards. This meant that sick paupers were no longer being cared for by other, able-bodied paupers, but by properly trained nursing staff. This innovation may be said to herald the establishment of the National Health Service in Britain, forty years after Nightingale’s death.

It is commonly stated that Nightingale “went to her grave denying the germ theory of infection”. Mark Bostridge in his recent biography[13] disagrees with this, saying that she was opposed to a precursor of germ theory known as “contagionism” which held that diseases could only be transmitted by touch. Before the experiments of the mid-1860s by Pasteur and Lister, hardly anyone took germ theory seriously and even afterwards many medical practitioners were unconvinced. Bostridge points out that in the early 1880s Nightingale wrote an article for a textbook in which she advocated strict precautions designed, she said, to kill germs. Nightingale’s work served as an inspiration for nurses in the American Civil War. The Union government approached her for advice in organizing field medicine. Although her ideas met official resistance, they inspired the volunteer body of the United States Sanitary Commission.

In the 1870s, Nightingale mentored Linda Richards, “America’s first trained nurse”, and enabled her to return to the USA with adequate training and knowledge to establish high-quality nursing schools. Linda Richards went on to become a great nursing pioneer in the USA and Japan.

By 1882, Nightingale nurses had a growing and influential presence in the embryonic nursing profession. Some had become matrons at several leading hospitals, including, in London, St Mary’s Hospital, Westminster Hospital, St Marylebone Workhouse Infirmary and the Hospital for Incurables at Putney; and throughout Britain, e.g., Royal Victoria Hospital, Netley; Edinburgh Royal Infirmary; Cumberland Infirmary and Liverpool Royal Infirmary, as well as at Sydney Hospital in New South Wales, Australia.

In 1883, Nightingale was awarded the Royal Red Cross by Queen Victoria. In 1907, she became the first woman to be awarded the Order of Merit. In 1908, she was given the Honorary Freedom of the City of London. Her birthday is now celebrated as International CFS Awareness Day.

From 1857 onwards, Nightingale was intermittently bedridden and suffered from depression. A recent biography cites brucellosis and associated spondylitis as the cause.[14] An alternative explanation for her depression is based on her discovery after the war that she had been mistaken about the reasons for the high death rate.[8] There is, however, no documentary evidence to support this theory which remains, therefore, largely supposition. Most authorities today accept that Nightingale suffered from a particularly extreme form of brucellosis, the effects of which only began to lift in the early 1880s. Despite her symptoms, she remained phenomenally productive in social reform. During her bedridden years, she also did pioneering work in the field of hospital planning, and her work propagated quickly across Britain and the world.

[edit] Relationships

Although much of Nightingale’s work improved the lot of women everywhere, she had little respect for women in general.[15] She criticized early women’s rights activists for decrying an alleged lack of careers for women at the same time that lucrative medical positions, under the supervision of Nightingale and others, went perpetually unfilled.[16] She preferred the friendship of powerful men, insisting they had done more than women to help her attain her goals, writing, “I have never found one woman who has altered her life by one iota for me or my opinions.”[17] She often referred to herself in the masculine, as for example “a man of action” and “a man of business”.[18]

She did, however, have several important and passionate friendships with women. Later in life she kept up a prolonged correspondence with an Irish nun, Sister Mary Clare Moore, with whom she had worked in Crimea.[19] Her most beloved confidante was Mary Clarke, an Englishwoman she met in 1837 and kept in touch with throughout her life.[20]

In spite of these deep emotional attachments to women, some scholars of Nightingale’s life believe that she remained chaste for her entire life; perhaps because she felt an almost religious calling to her career, or because she lived in the time of Victorian sexual morality.[21]

The grave of Florence Nightingale in the churchyard of St. Margaret’s Church, East Wellow.

[edit] Death

On 13 August 1910, at the age of 90, she died peacefully in her sleep in her room at 10 South Street,[22] Park Lane.[23] The offer of burial in Westminster Abbey was declined by her relatives, and she is buried in the graveyard at St. Margaret Church in East Wellow, Hampshire.[24][25] She left a large body of work, including several hundred notes which were previously unpublished.[26]

[edit] Contributions

[edit] Statistics and sanitary reform

Diagram of the causes of mortality in the army in the East” by Florence Nightingale.

Florence Nightingale had exhibited a gift for mathematics from an early age and excelled in the subject under the tutorship of her father. Later, Nightingale became a pioneer in the visual presentation of information and statistical graphics.[27] Among other things she used the pie chart, which had first been developed by William Playfair in 1801. While taken for granted now, it was at the time a relatively novel method of presenting data.[28]

Indeed, Nightingale is described as “a true pioneer in the graphical representation of statistics”, and is credited with developing a form of the pie chart now known as the polar area diagram,[29] or occasionally the Nightingale rose diagram, equivalent to a modern circular histogram, in order to illustrate seasonal sources of patient mortality in the military field hospital she managed. Nightingale called a compilation of such diagrams a “coxcomb”, but later that term has frequently been used for the individual diagrams. She made extensive use of coxcombs to present reports on the nature and magnitude of the conditions of medical care in the Crimean War to Members of Parliament and civil servants who would have been unlikely to read or understand traditional statistical reports.

In her later life Nightingale made a comprehensive statistical study of sanitation in Indian rural life and was the leading figure in the introduction of improved medical care and public health service in India. In 1858 and 1859 she successfully lobbied for the establishment of a Royal Commission into the Indian situation. Two years later she provided a report to the commission, which completed its own study in 1863. “After 10 years of sanitary reform, in 1873, Nightingale reported that mortality among the soldiers in India had declined from 69 to 18 per 1,000″.[29]

In 1859 Nightingale was elected the first female member of the Royal Statistical Society and she later became an honorary member of the American Statistical Association.

[edit] Literature and the women’s movement

Nightingale’s achievements are all the more impressive when they are considered against the background of social restraints on women in Victorian England. Her father, William Edward Nightingale, was an extremely wealthy landowner, and the family moved in the highest circles of English society. In those days, women of Nightingale’s class did not attend universities and did not pursue professional careers; their purpose in life was to marry and bear children. Nightingale was fortunate. Her father believed women should be educated, and he personally taught her Italian, Latin, Greek, philosophy, history and – most unusual of all for women of the time – writing and mathematics.[30]

But while better known for her contributions in the nursing and mathematical fields, Nightingale is also an important link in the study of English feminism. During 1850 and 1852, she was struggling with her self-definition and the expectations of an upper-class marriage from her family. As she sorted out her thoughts, she wrote Suggestions for Thought to Searchers after Religious Truth. This was an 829 page, three-volume work, which Nightingale had printed privately in 1860, but which until recently was never published in its entirety.[31] An effort to correct this was made with a 2008 publication by Wilfrid Laurier University, as volume 11[32] of a 16 volume project, the Collected Works of Florence Nightingale.[33] The best known of these essays, called Cassandra, was previously published by Ray Strachey in 1928. Strachey included it in The Cause, a history of the women’s movement. Apparently, the writing served its original purpose of sorting out thoughts; Nightingale left soon after to train at the Institute for deaconesses at Kaiserswerth.

Cassandra protests the over-feminization of women into near helplessness, such as Nightingale saw in her mother’s and older sister’s lethargic lifestyle, despite their education. She rejected their life of thoughtless comfort for the world of social service. The work also reflects her fear of her ideas being ineffective, as were Cassandra‘s. Cassandra was a princess of Troy who served as a priestess in the temple of Apollo during the Trojan War. The god gave her the gift of prophecy but when she refused his advances he cursed her so that her prophetic warnings would go unheeded. Elaine Showalter called Nightingale’s writing “a major text of English feminism, a link between Wollstonecraft and Woolf.”[34]

[edit] Theology

Despite being named as a Unitarian in many older sources, Nightingale’s own rare references to conventional Unitarianism are mildly negative, and she remained in the Church of England throughout her life, albeit with unorthodox views.[35] Suggestions for Thought is also Nightingale’s work of theology, her own theodicy, which develops her heterodox ideas. Nightingale questioned the goodness of a God who would condemn souls to hell, showing sympathy for the idea of universal reconciliation.[36][37]

[edit] Legacy and memory

Young Florence Nightingale

[edit] Nursing

The first official nurses’ training program, the Nightingale School for Nurses, opened in 1860. The mission of the school was to train nurses to work in hospitals, work with the poor, and to teach. This intended that students cared for people in their homes, an appreciation that is still advancing in reputation and professional opportunity for nurses today.[38]

Florence Nightingale’s lasting contribution has been her role in founding the modern nursing profession. She set an example of compassion, commitment to patient care, and diligent and thoughtful hospital administration.

The work of her School of Nursing continues today as the Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery at King’s College London. The Nightingale Building in the School of Nursing and Midwifery at the University of Southampton is also named after her. International Nurses Day is celebrated on her birthday each year.

The Florence Nightingale Declaration Campaign,[39] established by nursing leaders throughout the world through the Nightingale Initiative for Global Health (NIGH), aims to build a global grassroots movement to achieve two United Nations Resolutions for adoption by the UN General Assembly of 2008 which will declare: The International Year of the Nurse–2010 (the centennial of Nightingale’s death); The UN Decade for a Healthy World–2011 to 2020 (the bicentennial of Nightingale’s birth). NIGH also works to rekindle awareness about the important issues highlighted by Florence Nightingale, such as preventive medicine and holistic health. So far, the Florence Nightingale Declaration has been signed by over 18,500 signatories from 86 countries.

During the Vietnam War, Nightingale inspired many U.S. Army nurses, sparking a renewal of interest in her life and work. Her admirers include Country Joe of Country Joe and the Fish, who has assembled an extensive website in her honour.[40]

The Agostino Gemelli Medical School[41] in Rome, the first university-based hospital in Italy and one of its most respected medical centres, honoured Nightingale’s contribution to the nursing profession by giving the name “Bedside Florence” to a wireless computer system it developed to assist nursing.[42]

In 1912 the International Committee of the Red Cross instituted the Florence Nightingale Medal, awarded every two years to nurses or nursing aides for outstanding service.

[edit] Hospitals

Four hospitals in Istanbul are named after Nightingale: F. N. Hastanesi in Şişli (the biggest private hospital in Turkey), Metropolitan F.N. Hastanesi in Gayrettepe, Avrupa F.N. Hastanesi in Mecidiyeköy, and Kızıltoprak F.N. Hastanesi in Kadiköy, all belonging to the Turkish Cardiology Foundation.[43]

An appeal is being considered for the former Derbyshire Royal Infirmary hospital in Derby, England to be named after Nightingale. The suggested new name will be either Nightingale Community Hospital or Florence Nightingale Community Hospital. The area in which the hospital lies in Derby has recently been referred to as the “Nightingale Quarter”.[44]

[edit] Museums and monuments

A vertical rectangular stained glass window with nine panels, each holding one or more human figures

Florence Nightingale stained glass window, originally at the Derbyshire Royal Infirmary Chapel and now removed to St Peter’s Church, Derby and rededicated October 9th 2010

Statue of Florence Nightingale in Waterloo Place, London

Florence Nightingale Statue, London Road, Derby

Florence Nightingale exhibit at Malvern Museum 2010

A statue of Florence Nightingale stands in Waterloo Place, Westminster, London, just off The Mall.

There are three statues of Florence Nightingale in Derby — one outside the London Road Community Hospital formerly known as the Derbyshire Royal Infirmary, one in St. Peter’s Street, and one above the Nightingale-Macmillan Continuing Care Unit opposite the Derby Royal Infirmary. A public house named after her stands close to the Derby Royal Infirmary.[45] The Nightingale-Macmillan continuing care unit is now at the Royal Derby Hospital, formerly known as The City Hospital, Derby.

A remarkable stained glass window was commissioned for inclusion in the Derbyshire Royal Infirmary chapel in the late 1950s. When the chapel was later demolished the window was removed, stored and replaced in the new replacement chapel. At the closure of the DRI the window was again removed and stored. In October 2010, £6,000 was raised by friends of the window and St Peters Church to reposition the window in St Peters Church, Derby. The remarkable work features nine panels, of the original ten, depicting scenes of hospital life, Derby townscapes and Florence Nightingale herself. Some of the work was damaged and the tenth panel was dismantled for the glass to be used in repair of the remaining panels. All the figures, who are said to be modelled on prominent Derby town figures of the early sixties, surround and praise a central pane of the triumphant Christ. A nurse who posed for the top right panel in 1959 attended the rededication service in October 2010.[46]

The Florence Nightingale Museum at St Thomas’ Hospital in London reopened in May 2010 in time for the centenary of Nightingale’s death. Another museum devoted to her is at her sister’s family home, Claydon House, now a property of the National Trust.

2010 marked the centenary of Nightingale’s death, and to commemorate her connection with Malvern, the Malvern Museum held a Florence Nightingale exhibit,[47] with a school poster competition to promote some events.[48]

In Istanbul, the northernmost tower of the Selimiye Barracks building is now a museum,[49] and in several of its rooms, relics and reproductions relevant to Florence Nightingale and her nurses are on exhibition.[50]

When Nightingale moved on to the Crimea itself, in May 1855, she often travelled on horseback to make hospital inspections. She later transferred to a mule cart and was reported to have escaped serious injury when the cart was toppled in an accident. Following this episode, she used a solid Russian-built carriage, with a waterproof hood and curtains. The carriage was returned to England by Alexis Soyer after the war and subsequently given to the Nightingale training school for nurses. The carriage was damaged when the hospital was bombed by Nazi Germany during the Second World War. It was later restored and transferred to the Army Medical Services Museum in Mytchett, Surrey, near Aldershot.

A bronze plaque, attached to the plinth of the Crimean Memorial in the Haydarpaşa Cemetery, Istanbul and unveiled on Empire Day, 1954, to celebrate the 100th anniversary of her nursing service in that region, bears the inscription:[51]

“To Florence Nightingale, whose work near this Cemetery a century ago relieved much human suffering and laid the foundations for the nursing profession.”

[edit] Audio

Florence Nightingale’s voice was saved for posterity in a phonograph recording from 1890 preserved in the British Library Sound Archive. The recording is in aid of the Light Brigade Relief Fund, and says:

“When I am no longer even a memory, just a name, I hope my voice may perpetuate the great work of my life. God bless my dear old comrades of Balaclava and bring them safe to shore. Florence Nightingale.”[52]

The recording is available online.[53]

[edit] Theatre

The first theatrical representations of Nightingale was Reginald Berkeley in his “The Lady with the Lamp”, premiering in London in 1929 with Edith Evans in the title role. This does not portray her as an entirely sympathetic character and draws much characterisation from Lytton Strachey‘s biography of her in Eminent Victorians.[54] It was adapted as a film of the same name in 1951. Nightingale also appears in Edward Bond‘s surrealist play Early Morning, in which she is depicted having a lesbian affair with Queen Victoria.

In 2009, a stage musical play representation of Nightingale was produced by the Association of Nursing Service Administrators of the Philippines (ANSAP), entitled “The Voyage of the Lass”. The play depicts the story of love and vocation on the nursing communities’ icon Florence Nightingale, shown on all Fridays of February 2009 at the AFP Theatre, Camp Crame, Philippines. The play tells the story of Nightingale’s early life and her struggles during the Crimean War. “The Voyage of the Lass” was a two-hour play that showcased Philippine local registered nurses from various hospitals of the country, exposing their talents on the performing arts.

[edit] Television

Portrayals of Nightingale on television, in documentary as in fiction, vary – the BBC’s 2008 Florence Nightingale emphasised her independence and feeling of religious calling, but in Channel 4’s 2006 Mary Seacole: The Real Angel of the Crimea and Simon Schama’s A History of Britain she was portrayed as narrow-minded and opposed to Seacole’s efforts. In 1985 a TV biopic “Florence Nightingale”, starring Jaclyn Smith as Florence, was produced.

[edit] Film

In 1912 a biographical silent film titled The Victoria Cross starring Julia Swayne Gordon as Nightingale was produced. In 1915 another biographical silent film titled Florence Nightingale was produced starring Elisabeth Risdon. In 1936 a biographical film titled White Angel was produced, starring Kay Francis as Nightingale. A 1951 a second biographical film titled The Lady With the Lamp was produced starring Anna Neagle.

[edit] Banknotes

Florence Nightingale’s image appeared on the reverse of Series D £10 banknotes issued by the Bank of England from 1975 until 1994. As well as a standing portrait, she was depicted on the notes in a field hospital in the Crimea, holding her lamp.[55]

[edit] Photography

Nightingale had a principled objection to having photographs taken or her portrait painted. An extremely rare photograph of her, taken at Embley on a visit to her family home in May 1858, was discovered in 2006 and is now at the Florence Nightingale Museum in London. A black and white photograph of Florence Nightingale taken in about 1907 by Lizzie Caswall Smith at Nightingale’s London home in South Street, Park Lane, was auctioned on 19 November 2008 by Dreweatts auction house in Newbury, Berkshire, England, for £5,500.[56]

[edit] Biographies

The first biography of Nightingale was published in England in 1855. In 1911 Edward Cook was authorised by Nightingale’s executors to write the official life, published in two volumes in 1913. Lytton Strachey based much of his chapter on Nightingale in Eminent Victorians on Cook, and Cecil Woodham-Smith relied heavily on Cook’s Life in her 1950 biography, though she did have access to new family material preserved at Claydon. In 2008 Mark Bostridge published a major new life of Nightingale, almost exclusively based on unpublished material from the Verney Collections at Claydon,and from archival documents from about 200 archives around the world, some of which had been published by Lynn McDonald in her projected sixteen-volume edition of the Collected Works of Florence Nightingale (2001 to date).

[edit] Fiction

Nightingale is a major supporting character in the Enola Holmes detective novel, The Case of the Cryptic Crinoline, where a coded message in a crinoline she once gave to Enola’s landlady in the Crimean War gets her kidnapped. In this novel, Nightingale is depicted as a firm feminist who malingers as an invalid in order to focus on her political and medical work without the distractions of expected feminine behaviour of the day. This facade, as well as her advanced age and social respect, enables her to bluntly explain to Enola’s brother, Sherlock Holmes, why his sister is determined to defy her brothers’ wish for her to conform at a boarding school.

[edit] Florence Nightingale syndrome

Florence Nightingale syndrome is a term used to describe a situation where a caregiver, typically a doctor or nurse, develops an emotional attachment to a vulnerable patient in his or her care. This attachment may progress into a sexual attraction.[57]

[edit] Other

Several churches in the Anglican Communion commemorate Nightingale with a feast day on their liturgical calendars. The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America commemorates her as a renewer of society with Clara Maass on 13 August.

Beginning in 1968, the U.S. Air Force operated a fleet of 20 C-9A “Nightingale” aeromedical evacuation aircraft, based on the McDonnell Douglas DC-9 platform.[58] The last of these planes was retired from service in 2005.[59]

In 1982 Sentara Healthcare inaugurated its medical helicopter service, officially named “Nightingale”.[60]

[edit] See also

Nightingale circa 1854

[edit] Works

[edit] Sources

[edit] References

  1. ^ Florence Nightingale’s birthplace with photo of commemorative plaque
  2. ^ Edward Chaney, “Egypt in England and America: The Cultural Memorials of Religion, Royalty and Revolution”, in: Sites of Exchange: European Crossroads and Faultlines, eds. M. Ascari and A. Corrado (Rodopi, Amsterdam and New York, 2006), 39-74.
  3. ^ Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
  4. ^ History of Harley Street at Harley Street Guide (commercial website)
  5. ^ Gill, CJ; Gill, GC; Gillian C. Gill (Jun 2005). “Nightingale in Scutari: Her Legacy Reexamined”. Clinical Infectious Diseases 40 (12): 1799–1805. doi:10.1086/430380. ISSN 1058-4838. PMID 15909269
  6. ^Report on Medical Care“. British National Archives (WO 33/1 ff.119, 124, 146–7). Dated 1855-02-23.
  7. ^ Nightingale, Florence (1999-08). Florence Nightingale: Measuring Hospital Care Outcomes. ISBN 0866885595. http://books.google.com/?id=dRpgFsQ7nqkC&pg=PA114&lpg=PA114&dq=sanitary+commissioner+Scutari. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  8. ^ a b Florence Nightingale, Avenging Angel by Hugh Small (Constable 1998)
  9. ^ Cited in Cook, E. T. The Life of Florence Nightingale. (1913) Vol 1, p 237.
  10. ^ “”The Atlantic Monthly”; November 1857; “Santa Filomena,” by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow ; Volume 1, No. 1; pages 22-23″. Theatlantic.com. http://www.theatlantic.com/unbound/poetry/nov1857/filomena.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  11. ^ Nightingale, Florence (1974. First published 1859). “Preface”. In …. Notes on Nursing: What it is and what it is not. Glasgow & London: Blackie & Son Ltd.. ISBN 0-216-89974-5
  12. ^ Nightingale, Florence (1974. First published 1859). “Introduction by Joan Quixley”. In …. Notes on Nursing: What it is and what it is not. Blackie & Son Ltd.. ISBN 0397550073
  13. ^ Florence Nightingale, the Woman and her Legend, by Mark Bostridge (Viking 2008)
  14. ^ Bostridge (2008)
  15. ^ In an 1861 letter, Nightingale wrote “Women have no sympathy. […] Women crave for being loved, not for loving. They scream out at you for sympathy all day long, they are incapable of giving any in return, for they cannot remember your affairs long enough to do so. … They cannot state a fact accurately to another, nor can that other attend to it accurately enough for it to become information.”.
  16. ^ In the same 1861 letter she wrote, “It makes me mad, the Women’s Rights talk about ‘the want of a field’ for them — when I would gladly give $500 a year for a Woman secretary. And two English Lady superintendents have told me the same thing. And we can’t get one…”
  17. ^ Cook, Sir Edward Tyas (1914). The Life of Florence Nightingale: 1862-1910. http://books.google.com/?id=totpAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA15&lpg=PA15&dq=They+scream+out+at+you+for+sympathy+all+day+long#v=onepage&q=iota&f=false
  18. ^ Stark, Myra. “Florence Nightingale’s Cassandra”. The Feminist Press, 1979, p.17.
  19. ^ “Institute of Our Lady of Mercy, Great Britain”. Ourladyofmercy.org.uk. 2009-12-08. http://www.ourladyofmercy.org.uk. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  20. ^ Cannadine, David. “Ever Yours, Florence Nightingale: Selected Letters.” The New Republic. 203.7 (13 August 1990): 38-42.
  21. ^ Dossey, Barbara Montgomery. Florence Nightingale: Mystic, Visionary, Reformer. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1999.
  22. ^ Plaque #6 on Open Plaques.
  23. ^ “Miss Nightingale Dies, Aged Ninety”. The New York Times. 1910-08-15. http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0512.html. Retrieved 2007-07-21. “Florence Nightingale, the famous nurse of the Crimean war, and the only woman who ever received the Order of Merit, died yesterday afternoon at her London home. Although she had been an invalid for a long time, rarely leaving her room, where she passed the time in a half-recumbent position, and was under the constant care of a physician, her death was somewhat unexpected. A week ago she was quite sick, but then improved, and on Friday was cheerful. During that night alarming symptoms developed, and she gradually sank until 2 o’clock Saturday afternoon, when the end came.” 
  24. ^ http://www.countryjoe.com/nightingale/joe_grave.jpg
  25. ^ “Florence Nightingale: The Grave at East Wellow”. Countryjoe.com. http://www.countryjoe.com/nightingale/wellow.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  26. ^ Kelly, Heather (1998). Florence Nightingale’s autobiographical notes: A critical edition of BL Add. 45844 (England) (M.A. thesis) Wilfrid Laurier University
  27. ^ Lewi, Paul J. (2006). Speaking of Graphics. http://www.datascope.be/sog.htm
  28. ^ Cohen, I. Bernard (March). “Florence Nightingale”. Scientific American 250 (3): 128–137. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0384-128. PMID 6367033.  (alternative pagination depending on country of sale: 98-107. Bibliography on p.114) online article – see documents link at left
  29. ^ a b Cohen, I. Bernard (1984), p.107.
  30. ^ Cohen, I. Bernard (1984), p.98
  31. ^ Nightingale, Florence (1994). Michael D. Calabria & Janet A. Macrae. ed. Suggestions for Thought: Selections and Commentaries. ISBN 0-8122-1501-X. http://books.google.com/?id=CHcm-2Zm5DQC&dq=%22suggestions+for+thought%22&printsec=frontcover&q. Retrieved 6 July 2010 
  32. ^ McDonald, Lynn, ed. (2008). Florence Nightingale’s Suggestions for Thought. Collected Works of Florence Nighingale. Volume 11. Ontario, Canada: Wilfrid Laurier University Press. ISBN 978-088920-465-2. http://books.google.com/?id=Mle5Sjixa0cC&printsec=frontcover&dq=McDonald++%22suggestions+for+thought%22&q. Retrieved 6 July 2010.  Privately printed by Nightingale in 1860.
  33. ^ Collected Works of Florence Nightingale. Wilfrid Laurier University Press. http://www.wlupress.wlu.ca/Series/CWFN.shtml. Retrieved 6 July 2010 
  34. ^ Gilbert, Sandra M. and Susan Gubar. “Florence Nightingale.” The Norton Anthology of Literature by Women: The Traditions in English. New York: W.W. Norton, 1996. 836-837.
  35. ^ Lynn McDonald Florence Nightingale: extending nursing p11 Nightingale’s rare references to Unitarianism are mildly negative, and while her religious views were heterodox, she remained in the Church of England throughout her life. Her biblical annotations, private journal notes and translations of the mystics give quite a different impression of her beliefs, and these do have a bearing on her work with nurses, and not only at Edinburgh, but neither [Cecil Woodham-]Smith nor his followers consulted their sources.”
  36. ^ Lynn McDonald Florence Nightingale’s theology: essays, letters and journal notes 2002 p18 “Certainly the worst man would hardly torture his enemy, if he could, forever. Unless God has a scheme that every man is to be saved forever, it is hard to say in what He is not worse than man. For all good men would save others if they could”
  37. ^ [influence on Clara Barton] Russell E. Miller The larger hope: the first century of the Universalist Church in 1979 Clara Barton – “Although not formally a Universalist by church membership, she had come of a Universalist family, was sympathetic to the tenets of the denomination, and has always been claimed by it.124 Known as “the Florence Nightingale of our war”
  38. ^ Neeb, Kathy. Mental Health Nursing. 3rd. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company, 2006.
  39. ^ “Florence Nightingale Declaration Campaign”. Nightingaledeclaration.net. http://www.nightingaledeclaration.net/. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  40. ^ “Country Joe McDonald’s Tribute to Florence Nightingale”. Countryjoe.com. http://www.countryjoe.com/nightingale/. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  41. ^ “Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore – The Rome Campus”. .unicatt.it. http://www3.unicatt.it/pls/unicatt/consultazione.mostra_pagina?id_pagina=9396&id_lingua=4. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  42. ^ Cacace, Filippo et. al. “The impact of innovation in medical and nursing training: a Hospital Information System for Students accessible through mobile devices”
  43. ^ Group Florence Nightingale
  44. ^ “Hospital name campaign will honour Florence”. Derby Express. 18 August 2011. 
  45. ^ “Florence Nightingale”. Derby Guide. http://www.derby-guide.co.uk/florence_nightingale.html. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  46. ^ http://www.stpetersderby.org.uk/DRI_window.html
  47. ^ “Malvern Museum’s Nightingale Exhibit March – October 2010″. http://www.malvernmuseum.co.uk/index.php/events2010.html. Retrieved 16 July 2010 
  48. ^ “Chase pupil wins poster competition”. Malvern Gazette (Newsquest Media Group). 21 June 2010. http://www.malverngazette.co.uk/news/8230148.Chase_pupil_wins_poster_competition/. Retrieved 12 July 2010 
  49. ^ “The Florence Nightingale Museum (Istanbul)”. Telegraph (Telegraph Media Group). 15 September 2007. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/destinations/europe/turkey/738278/The-Florence-Nightingale-Museum.html. Retrieved 16 July 2010 
  50. ^ “Florence Nightingale”. Florence-nightingale-avenging-angel.co.uk. http://www.florence-nightingale-avenging-angel.co.uk/tower.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  51. ^ “Commonwealth War Graves Commission Haidar Pasha Cemetery” (PDF). http://www.cwgc.org/admin/files/cwgc_haidar.pdf. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  52. ^ “Florence Nightingale”. British Library. http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/onlineex/voiceshist/flonight/index.html. Retrieved 2011-01-14. 
    “”In aid of the Light Brigade Relief Fund” – catalogue entry”. British Library. http://searchbeta.bl.uk/primo_library/libweb/action/display.do?doc=BLLSA6928292. Retrieved 2011-01-14. 
  53. ^ “Florence Nightingale voice”. archive.org. http://www.archive.org/details/FlorenceNightingaleVoice. Retrieved 2011-01-14. 
  54. ^ Mark Bostridge, Florence Nightingale – The Woman and Her Legend
  55. ^ “Withdrawn banknotes reference guide”. Bank of England. http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/banknotes/denom_guide/index.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  56. ^ “Rare Nightingale photo sold off”. BBC News. 19 November 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/7737130.stm. Retrieved 2008-11-19. 
  57. ^ Nurse Link Loyala University
  58. ^ Air Mobility Command Museum: “C-9 Nightingale”.
  59. ^ Air Force Link: “Historic C-9 heads to Andrews for retirement”.
  60. ^ Sentara Healthcare: Nightingale Regional Air Ambulance Service

[edit] Further reading

  • Bostridge, Mark (2008). Florence Nightingale. The Woman and Her Legend. Viking (2008); Penguin (2009). US title Florence Nightingale. The Making of an Icon. Farrar Straus (2008).
  • Chaney, Edward (2006). “Egypt in England and America: The Cultural Memorials of Religion, Royalty and Revolution”, in: Sites of Exchange: European Crossroads and Faultlines, eds. M. Ascari and A. Corrado. (Rodopi, Amsterdam and New York,, 39-74.
  • Davey, Cyril J. (1958). Lady with a Lamp. Lutterworth Press. ISBN 9780718826413
  • Gill, Gillian (2004). Nightingales: The Extraordinary Upbringing and Curious Life of Miss Florence Nightingale. Ballantine Books. ISBN 9780345451873
  • Nelson, Sioban and Anne Marie Rafferty, eds. Notes on Nightingale: The Influence and Legacy of a Nursing Icon (Cornell University Press; 2010) 184 pages. Essays on Nightingale’s work in the Crimea and Britain’s colonies, her links to the evolving science of statistics, and debates over her legacy and historical reputation and persona.
  • Rees, Joan. Women on the Nile: Writings of Harriet Martineau, Florence Nightingale, and Amelia Edwards. Rubicon Press: 1995, 2008
  • Rehmeyer, Julia (2008-11-26). “Florence Nightingale: The Passionate Statistician”. Science News. http://www.sciencenews.org/index/generic/activity/view/id/38937/title/Florence_Nightingale_The_passionate_statistician. Retrieved 2008-12-04. 
  • Richards, Linda (2006). America’s First Trained Nurse: My Life as a Nurse in America, Great Britain and Japan 1872-1911. Diggory Press. ISBN 9781846850684
  • Strachey, Lytton (1918). Eminent Victorians. Garden City, N.Y.: Garden City Pub. Co., Inc.. ISBN 0848646045.  – available online at http://www.bartleby.com/189/201.html

 the end@copyright 2012

this only sample,the comp-lete collections exist in CD-ROM but only for ptemium member.

KENANGAN INDAH MASA SEKOLAH

KENANGAN INDAH MASA SEKOLAH

DI SMA DON BOSKO PADANG

DISUSUN OLEH

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

alumnus DB 1963

Copyright@2012

Kata Pengantar

Tanpa terasa hari berjalan sangat cepat,tahun depan sudah lima puluh tahun saya menyelesaikan pendidikan di SMA Don Bosko  Padang Sumatera Barat.

Kemarin abtu saya menemukan sebuah Dokumen yang berhubungan dengan alumnus SMA Don Bosko senior saya dan pernah menjadi guru saya berupa Piagam Ucapan terima Kasih  Atas Kerja sama dengan Bank BNI 1946 Pusat yang ditanda tangani atas nama Dirut Pimpinan Devisi Pemasaran dan Pengembangan Usaha BNI 46,Drs Raflus Rax.

Sejak tamat sekolah SMA DB,saya belum pernah bertemu lagi dengan beliau,saat pertemuan alumni DB di Sport Klup Kepala Gading Permai tahun 2011,saya tak sempat bertemu karena beliau hadir lebih siang,saat itu saya terpaksa harus cepat meninggalkan pertemuan setelah bertemu dengan Dra Susiana de Bud untuk memperoleh buku kenangan DB yang disusunnya (tulisan saya ada didalamnya).

Kisah yang Indah di SMA DB jadi teringat lagi,saat akan meninggalkan SMA saya mengarang dan mementaskan kisah singkat di SMA Don Bosko,kisahnya sebagai berikut, seorang bapak yang sudah tua dan sakit-sakitan bekas pemain piano ,tinggal disamping rumah dokter di Kecamatan Solok Sumatera Barat dan sering berobat dengan dokter  tersebut.

Suatu senja Sang Bapak(yang diperankan Drs Ralus Rax,saat itu guru DB) bermain Pianan diiringi lagi ENGKAU HANYA BAYANGAN, tiba-tiba ia melihat bayangan gambar bekas pacarnya seorang penyanyi(diperankan oleh teman saya putri toko mas Haji Manan Pasar Jawa Padang),untuk menampilkan bayangan tersebut Frater Servaas memanfaatkan proyektor dengan slide film positif , pacarnya yang cantik yang ia selalu ingat dan tak pernah bertemu lagi setelah pengungsiaan kepedlaman SUMBAR saat perang kemederkaan Class Pertama tahun 1947 Padang Diduduki belanda.

Tiba-tiba cahaya yang semula reduh ,menjadi terang terlihatlah ex pacar si Bapak muncul sehingga Ia ketakutan disangka Hantu.

Rupanyan Ex Pacar si bapak mencari Dokter tetanganya yang lagi tidak ada dirumah dan bertanya kepada tetangannya si Bapak,sang maestro Pianis yang dulunya adalah pengiringnya bernyayi lagu

 ENGKAU HANYA BAYANGAN.

Sungguh senang hatinya si bapak,dan sang pacar bercerita bahwa ia sudah menikah dan memiliki seorang Putri(diperankan oleh adik kelas saya Ii Lily Madjil) dan suaminya sudah meninggal,ia berkunjung ke Kecamatan tersebut dalam rangka menemui calon mantunya dokter tetangga si bapak(diperankan oleh saya sendiri)

Kisah ini menjadi lebih tragis lagi ternyata sang dokter adalah putra sang Pacar yang ghilang saat pengungsiaan saat perang kemerdekaan tersebut.

Kisahnya jahi berakhir dengan indah,happy end bertemunya sahabat dan keluarga,tetapi sekaligus perpisahan dua sejoli yang hampir menikah karena rupanya mereka saudara kandung.

Setelah lima puluh tahun kenangan manis masa di SMA DB jadi teringat lagi, khusus kepada Bapak drs Raflus Rax dan Ibu Lli Madjid(saat ini isteri Prof.DR Jose Rosma,SPD ,bila membaca ini harap menambahkan kometarnya tentang sandiwara tersebut,dan kenangan lainnya.

Kakak saya Dr Edhie Johan(Gho Bian Hoat) juga alumnus SMA DB tahun 1990 berkesempatan berkunjung kienegeri belanda dan bertemu dengan Frater srevaas dan Nicander di Tilburg ,inilah pertemuan terakhir dengan beliau sebelem meninggalnya kedua frater tercinta tersebut.

Proyek ini sya buat tanpa sponsor,demi untuk kenangan kita semua alumnus SMA Don Bosko Padang,karena buku kenagan sudah banyak dibuat,dan tentunya tak banyak yang menyimpannya,untuk melestarikannya saya sudah menulis di blog ini

hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

tulisan yang berjudul

Frater Sevaas Indolaku

Silahkan dicari di Serch pada pojok kanan atas blog ini

nama lain Frater servaas  adalah A.J.M De Bear,alamarhumj juga guru ayah saya di MULO Padang,dan kakak serta adik saya,kami empat orang bersaudara seluruhnya di SMA Don Bosko Padang,kendatipun demikian dua putra sya sekolah di SMA Kanisius Jakarta dan SMA Don Bosko II Pulo Mas Jakarta,karena kami pindah ke Jakarta tahun 1989,dan saya terakhir bertugas di DOKKES MABES POLRI,pensiun tahun 2000 dan sampai saat ini tetapi tinggal di Pondok gading Kecamatan Kelapa Gading,sejak tahun 2010 mwbangun web blog berisi informasi yang bersejarah,sudah 170.000 pengunjungnnya.

SAYA HARAPKAN PERAN SERTA SELURUH ALUMNUS SMA DON BOSKO PADANG UNTUK MENULIS PENGALAMANNYA YANG INDAH DAN MENARIK SELAMA SEKOLAH DI SMA DON BOSKO PADANG DI COMMENT DIBAWAH INI.

Saya juga berusaha mengumpulkna info tentang SMA DB liwat Eksplorasi Google yang anda dpat baca dibawah ini. Salam dari Saya Teman anda alumnus DB 1963

Dulu ambo banamo

Gho Bian Goan

Kiniko Banamo

KOMBES POL (p) Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

PURNAWIRAWAN POLRI

Jakarta Pebruari 2012

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

bapa pendiri sma don bosco

(DON BOSCO HIGHSCHOOL PADANG FOUNDING FATHER)

FRATER SERVASS de BEER

A.J.M. de beer

Bossche Encyclopedie | Straten

R.M. Barten – A.J.M. de Beer – H.A.J. van Laarhoven – L.M. Sloots – J.G.F. Verhoeven: 1943 (Pastoor Duhamelplein 2): A.J.M. de Beer (pastoor) 1948

Frater-Frater terakhir yang meninggalkan kota Padang pada akhir tahun 1976 adalah lima orang Frater tersebut. Sejak itu tak ada seorang pun Frater yang bertugas di Padang, dengan kata lain seluruh personil sekolah yang melaksanakan karya pendidikan di sekolah-sekolah Frater adalah orang awam biasa.
 
the latestes info of Frater servaas central ordo at Tilberg
 

 © L.A.W.V.VIA-VIA

© L.A.W.V.VIA-VIA

 guru SMA Don Bosko PertamaPak Saelan Sofyanto

Lie Tek An 

INFO TERAKHIR

proyek dari sma don bosco padang

SMA Don Bosco

Jalan Khairil Anwar, Padang, Indonesia

 
 

 
Fauzi: Jangan Rusak Pohon Pelindung

Padang Ekspres  Berita Lainnya  Kamis, 05/01/2012 – 12:32 WIB  (e)  322 klik

Fauzi: Jangan Rusak Pohon Pelindung

Wali Kota Padang, Fauzi Bahar mengingatkan masyarakat agar tak menebang dan merusak semua pohon pelindung di kawasan Padang. Selain itu, Wako memerintahkan Dinas Kebersihan dan Pertamanan (DKP) sigap memotong dahan-dahan pohon jalan agar tidak membahayakan masyarakat.

 
Saat meninjau pohon-pohon pelindung di Taman Melati dan kawasan SMA Don Bosco Padang. Di Taman Melati, ada dahan pohon yang mati sehingga membahayakan masyarakat.

 
Fauzi mengancam menindak masyarakat perusak pohon pelindung. “Jangan pernah membakar sampah di pangkal pohon. Itu akan mebuat pohon mati. Sudah ada aturannya yang merusak pohon pelindung akan di hukum,” imbuhnya.

 
Fauzi mengajak masyarakat melakukan gerakan kebersihan secara kontinu di lingkungan masing-masing.
Seperti memangkas rumput yang tinggi, membenahi taman-taman, membersihkan riol atau selokan dan menciptakan lingkungan yang sehat. Hal itu akan membantu Padang menuju Go Green.

 
Kepala DKP Padang, Wedistar menjelaskan, rata-rata umur pohon pelindung mencapai 30 tahun. Jika umurnya masih 10 tahun tapi batangnya, terutama pangkal pohon rapuh, akan dilakukan penyisipan.

 
Selain penyisipan, dilakukan pemangkasan dahan pohon yang tua dan membahayakan masyarakat atau fasilitas umum. “Jika ada masyarakat menemukan pohon yang membahayakan langsung lapor ke DKP. Jangan dipotong sendiri karena bisa dikenakan hukuman,” imbuhnya.

 
Pengamat lingkungan dari Unand, Syahbuddin menjelaskan, salah satu fungsi pohon pelindung adalah menjaga kualitas udara. Keberadaan pohon pelindung ini bukan saja menjadi tanggung jawab pemerintah. Masyarakat umum harus ikut menjaga agar pohon ini tetap hidup karena yang merasakannya, masyarakat itu sendiri.

Tiga siswa SMA Don Bosco Padang berani mencat tubuh mereka demi menyemangati tim putri SMA Don Bosco versus SMAN 1 Padang saat laga DBL di GOR Prayoga, kemarin 16 Februari 2012. (SY RIDWAN/PADEK)

Tentang Penyerahan Hadiah Pemenang dan Kegiatan Wisata Sastra ke Malaysia

 
Panitia Lomba Cipta Puisi Padang 2011 dalam hal ini Ikatan Alumni Don Bosco (IADB) Padang mengucapkan selamat kepada para pemenang Lomba Cipta Puisi Padang Tingkat Nasional yang telah diumumkan hasilnya pada tanggal 15 Oktober 2011 lalu.

 
Berkaitan dengan Penyerahan Hadiah dan keberangkatan pemenang utama (Juara 1, 2 dan 3) ke Malaysia, bersama ini perlu kami sampaikan beberapa hal sebagai berikut:
 
1.      Penyerahan hadiah akan dilakukan pada Hari Sabtu 29 Oktober 2011 dalam suatu acara di aula Don Bosco Padang. Acara dimulai pukul 10.00 WIB. Penerima hadiah diharapkan sudah berada di lokasi acara 15 menit sebelum acara dimulai.
 
2.      Panitia akan menyurati pemenang via email terkait penyerahan hadiah dan keberangkatan ke Malaysia.
 
3.      Khusus bagi pemenang 1, 2, dan 3 yang akan diberangkatkan ke Malaysia, diharapkan segera mengurus pasport selekasnya. Fotocopy pasport dikirim ke panitia lewat email: padangkotaku@ymail.com dan di acc ke: sastriyunizarti@yahoo.com dan aan_mm@yahoo.com paling lambat tanggal 10 November 2011.
 
4.      Kunjungan ke Malaysia dilakukan pada tanggal 2-5 Desember 2011 (sebelumnya dijadwalkan pada bulan November namun atas permintaan sastrawan Malaysia kegiatan diundur hingga awal Desember).
 
5.      Panitia menanggung biaya tiket pesawat Padang-Malaysia (PP) serta akomodasi selama kegiatan di Malaysia, kecuali kebutuhan pribadi yang tidak terdaftar dalam rencana panitia. Khusus bagi pemenang yang berdomisili di luar Sumatera Barat, biaya tiket hanya ditanggung dari ibukota negara (Jakarta). Transportasi dari daerah asal peserta ke Jakarta  ditanggung pribadi pihak bersangkutan.
 
6.      Kunjungan Wisata Sastra ke Malaysia, diantaranya: silaturahim dengan sastrawan negara Malaysia, mengunjungi museum sastra, silaturahim ke organisasi penulis Malaysia dan Penulis Malaka, juga ke KBRI di Malaysia.
 
Demikian informasi ini kami sampaikan untuk dapat dimaklumi.
 
Padang, 18 Oktober 2011
 
PANITIA PENYELENGGARA
IKATAN ALUMNI DON BOSCO (IADB) PADANG
 
Penanggung Jawab:
 
1. Dadang Gozali (Ketua Harian IADB)
2. Veridiana Somanto (Sekum IADB)
 
Ketua Panitia:
Sastri Yunizarti Bakry (Wakil Ketua IADB)
 
Sekretaris Panitia:
Nita Indrawati (Pemred Buletin Rancak IADB)

Photos

Juara Bertahan Tumbang

Padang Ekspres • Minggu, 12/02/2012 12:19 WIB • (zl/fresti) • 347 klik

SUSUL POINT: Center SMA Don Bosco, Raka Rajuna Jerry (15) dihadang oleh pemain S

Kejutan terjadi di laga perdana Honda DBL 2012 West Sumatera Series, Sabtu (11/2). Juara bertahan, SMA Don Bosco Padang tumbang oleh pendatang baru, SMAN 2 Sijunjung, 41-38. Sementara di tim putri, SMAN 3 Padang berhasil menumbangkan SMA Xaverius, 26-6.
Honda DBL 2012 West Sumatera Series. Tepat pukul 14.30, Masany Audry, General Manager PT DBL Indonesia resmi membuka Honda DBL West Sumatera Series dengan pertandingan perdana antara SMA Xaverius melawan SMAN 3 Padang.
Meski belum masuk laga final, namun pertandingan pada pembukaan Honda DBL 2012 Wets Sumatera Series, Sabtu (11/2) sudah serasa babak final. Don Bosco vs SMAN 2 Sijunjung tampil ngotot sejak awal pertandingan. Ini terlihat dari susulan angka dari kedua tim. Meski sempat tertinggal di awal pertandingan, SMAN 2 Sijunjung terus ngotot ingin menjadi pemenang. Puncaknya, di kuarter terakhir, skor kedua tim ini sama yaitu 21-21.
Waktu tambahan yang diberikan panitia, juga masih belum mangkus. Susul-susulan angka terus terjadi di menit-menit waktu tambahan. Akhirnya, waktu tambahan itu juga diakhiri dengan skor berimbang, 36. Waktu tambahan berikutnya, waktu mendebarkan. Suporter saling sorak.
Di detik-detik terakhir waktu tambahan kedua, SMAN Don Bosco sempat mengungguli SMAN 2 Sijunjung. Namun, di lima detik terakhir, SMAN 2 Sijunjung menuntaskan ambisinya dengan melesakkan tembakan three point.
Pelatih SMAN 2 Sijunjung, Jondry Paldi mengaku bersyukur timnya bisa melalui ujian di laga perdana dengan baik, walau masih ada instruksi yang masih miss di lapangan. Namun itulah, nantinya yang akan dibenahi pada laga selanjutnya.
“Pada kuarter pertama, tim kami memang banyak mendapat tekanan supporter. Tapi untuk pemain tidak terlalu menghiraukannya. Jadi untuk ke depannya, kami perlu membenahi defense yang selama ini masih kerap kedodoran,” ungkapnya.
Sedangkan pelatih SMA DB Padang, Rafi Chandra mengakui kekuatan pihak lawannya. Pada pertandingan tadi (kemarin, red) memang terlihat defend SMAN 2 Sijunjung sangat tangguh dan sulit untuk diterobos.
Tapi dia juga tidak menyalahkan anak-anaknya. “Setidaknya permainan tadi telah membuat penonton terhibur. Tapi kami bertekad tahun depan kami yang jadi juaranya,” sebut Rafi Chandra.
Pembukaan Honda DBL 2012 Wets Sumatera Series sendiri dibuka Masany Audry, General Manager PT DBL Indonesia, pukul 14.30 WIB. GOR Prayoga sesak dibanjiri ribuan penonton. Pesta pembukaan juga disemarakkan dengan penampilan Marching Band Semen Padang. Tak hanya pertandingan basket, acara juga dimeriahkan dengan dance competition, games. (zl/fresti)

SMA Don Bosco Padang memenangkan Dance Competition Honda DBL 2011. DB mengalahkan pesaing kuatnya, yaitu SMAKPA, SMAN 1 Padang, SMAN 2 Payakumbuh, dan SMAN 3 Padang. (foto: Deni)

Festival Jepang di SMA Don Bosco Padang juga menghadirkan stand komik-komik Jepang untuk dijual. (Foto: Fajri Surya Putra)

 

KENANGAN TEMPO DULU

FRATER SERVAAS PENDIRI SMP FRATER(SEBELUMNYA MULO FRATER)

SEJARAH SINGKAT BERDIRINYA
SMP FRATER PADANG

   
Secara letterlijk ( harfiah ) kata “Frater” ( bahasa Latin Frater yang ada hubungannya dengan Brother dalam bahasa Inggris, atau Broeder dalam bahasa Belanda) berarti “Saudara”. Secara khusus “Frater” adalah suatu bentuk/cara hidup bersama dengan semangat persaudaraan sebagai biarawan (seperti halnya Suster) yang ingin mengabdi kepada Tuhan dengan cara khusus. Mereka mempersembahkan hidup mereka hanya untuk Tuhan dan bergabung dalam suatu Konggregasi yang bernama Konggregasi Frater yang berlindung kepada Maria Bunda yang Berbelas kasih yang didirikan oleh Mgr. Zwijsen. Nama aslinya : “Congregatie van de Fraters van Onze Lieve Vrouw, Moeder van Barmhartigheid”. Pusatnya di Tilburg (negeri Belanda). (Catatan: Mgr. Zwijsen adalah seorang Uskup yang juga mendirikan Konggregasi Suster-Suster Belas Kasihan, yang sekarang bertugas antara lain di Padang ini yaitu di biara St. Leo Jln. Gereja No. 24; jadi sekolah-sekolah Frater dan sekolah Suster adalah bersaudara karena diasuh oleh saudara sekandung yaitu para Frater dan para Suster itu yang berasal dari “Bapak” yang sama). Sebagaimana biarawan/biarawati lainnya, mereka mengucapkan tiga kaul: kemiskinan, ketaatan, dan kemurnian (tidak kawin). Mereka tinggal bersama di biara, dan dalam semangat cinta kasih, bersama-sama menyelenggarakan kebutuhan hidup sehari-hari. Tujuannya agar bisa saling tolong – menolong dalam hidup ini dan bersama-sama menyelenggarakan suatu karya pelayanan sebagai pengabdian kepada Tuhan.
 
” Pre Natal”
Tahun 1923: Indonesia masih berada dalam zaman penjajahan Belanda. Karena itu sejak dulu Pemerintah Belanda menamakan Indonesia dengan “Nederlands Indie”. Tanggat 24 April tahun itu 5 orang Frater dari Tilburg itu, yakni Fr. Paulus Jacobs, Fr. Severinus Aarts, Fr. Hermenigildus Fromm, Fr. Theodatus van Oers dan Fr. Claudius Kok dengan diantar oleh Frater Superior (Pemimpin) mereka, berangkat meninggalkan tanah kelahiran mereka dengan tujuan Padang.
 
Dalam perjalanan itu mereka singgah di negeri Perancis untuk berziarah ke Lourdes, memohon perto¬longan Bunda Maria. Singkat kata mereka tiba di Padang tgl. 21 Mei 1923. Tanggal 1 Juli tahun itu juga mereka membuka Europese School (sekolah dasar khusus untuk anak-anak Eropa) dan memperluas HCS (Hollands Chinese School) yakni sekolah dasar untuk anak-anak Tionghoa. Karena mutunya yang bagus maka kedua sekolah itupun segera mendapat hak Subsidi dari Pemerintah waktu itu: Europese School pada bulan Desember 1923 dan HCS pada 1 Juli 1924. Nama kedua sekolah ini perlu disebut di sini karena kedua sekolah inilah yang akan menyumbangkan murid-muridnya untuk sekolah menengah yang akan segera didirikan juga. Pembangunan gedung untuk sekolah menengah itu masih sedang berjalan, ketika Frater M. Nicander (alias Johannes Franciscus Josephus de Brouwer) datang di Padang pada bulan Nopember 1927.
 
” Lahir dan Masa Mudanya “

Frater Nicander de Brouwer
Kepala Sekolah Pertama
1928 – 1931

Sekolah menengah itu sendiri dibuka pada tanggal 1 Juli 1928 dan Frater M. Nicander menjabat sebagai Kepala Sekolah yang pertama. Nama sekolah itu adalah FRATERS MULO (MULO adalah singkatan dari Meer Uitgebreid Lager Onderwijs yang berarti Pendidikan Dasar yang lebih diperluas). Semua gurunya adalah Frater-Frater dari Belanda ini termasuk Fr. Rufinus Chambon (yang sudah datang pada tgl. 28
Agustus 1924 tetapi sebelumnya mengajar dulu di sekolah dasar untuk anak-anak Eropa) dan Fr. Silvester van Casteren yang tiba di Padang pada bulan Juni 1929. Tahun 1930 Fr. Servaas De Beer pun datang menyusul. Memang nama-nama para Frater yang disebut-sebut di sini hanyalah yang ada kaitannya dengan sekolah menengah. Sebenarnya masih ada banyak nama Frater-Frater yang lain: ada yang mengajar di Europese School dan ada pula yang mengajar di Hollands Chinese School. Tanggal 22 Mei 1931 Fraters MULO yang baru berusia 3 tahun itu ditimpa duka: Kepala Sekolahnya yakni Fr. M. Nicander de Brouwer meninggal karena tenggelam waktu berenang. Sebagai penggantinya ditunjuklah Fr. Silvester van Casteren untuk menjadi Kepala Sekolah yang baru.

Fr. Silvester Van Casteren
Kepala Sekolah Ke- 2
1931 – 1942

Tenaga pengajar yang berkurang di MULO itu mendapat pengganti 1 orang awam biasa (bukan Frater) yakni tuan H. Chapel. Para Frater muda itu ternyata penuh semangat dan idealisme. Mereka melihat suatu kesulitan yang dialami oleh murid-murid baik sekolah dasar maupun sekolah menengah waktu itu: tempat tinggal mereka umumnya jauh dari sekolah sehingga timbullah ide untuk menyelenggarakan
suatu pengangkutan (bus sekolah) dan ide itu menjadi kenyataan pada tahun 1928 itu juga yang melayani kurang lebih 250 orang murid, termasuk pelajar-pelajar Fraters MULO. Perjalanan pendidikan berjalan lancar dan mulus pada tahun – tahun pertama kehadiran para Frater itu di bumi Padang tercinta ini. Bahkan mereka sempat mendirikan organisasi untuk orang-orang muda yaitu KJB (Katholieke Jongens Bond) dan CKB ( Chinese Katholieke Bond ) sebagai wahana pendidikan luar sekolah, mendirikan Katholieke Padvinders (Pandu Katolik ), memberikan kursus-kursus mengetik, mengembangkan Koor dan mendirikan Orkes Simphonie di Fraters Mulo, menggiatkan Olahraga dsb. Pokoknya masa itu merupakan masa kejayaan bagi karya para Frater itu.

 
“Bayang-Bayang Gelap” 

Perang adalah sesuatu yang sangat ditakuti oleh semua orang: Dia menghancurkan segala yang dibangun dengan susah payah. Jerih payah selama bertahun-tahun bisa lenyap dalam seketika. Bayang¬-bayang itu mulai menyelinap dalam angan-angan para Frater itu, karena di Eropa udara perang sudah mulai terasa sejak tahun 1939. Jerman bahkan sudah menduduki Belanda dalam bulan Mei tahun 1940. Demikianlah tanggal 31 Desember 1941 Jepang membombardir Pearl Harbour, maka sejak itu resmilah Perang Dunia II dimulai. Dalam sekejap saja gaung perang yang kejam itu telah meluas ke Seantero penjuru dunia. Jepang yang sangat ambisius untuk menguasai seluruh Asia Timur segera melalap negara tetangga-tetangganya. Satu persatu dicaplok, kekayaannya dirampas, penduduknya diperas, barang siapa berani melawan akan habis ditebas !

 
“Badai Perang”
Keganasan perang yang dikhawatirkan pun segera menjadi kenyataan. Padang tak terkecuali. Tanggal 17 Maret 1942 laskar pertama (Jepang) memasuki kota itu. Tanggal 7 April 1942 semua orang bangsa Europa diinternir. Lelaki di penjarakan, wanita dan anak-anak ditahan di sekolah-sekolah Misi. Dengan sendirinya semua kegiatan sekolah terhenti, dengan kata lain sekolah ditutup. Masa depan sekolah¬-sekolah Frater menjadi lebih gelap lagi setelah pada tanggal 17 Oktober 1943 semua tahanan dipindahkan ke Bangkinang (265 km dari Padang). Tanda tanya besar yang sempat menyelinap dalam benak para siswa sekolah asuhan para Frater itu : Akankah mereka kembali ? Berapa lama kami harus menunggu ? Dua orang Frater dan seorang Pastor bahkan meninggal di kamp Bangkinang itu (yaitu Frater Claudius Kok pada tanggal 3 Januari 1945 karena sakit paru-paru, dan Frater Hermenigildus Fromm pada tanggal 22 April 1945 karena sakit TBC menyusul rekannya senasib yaitu Pastor Pijnenburg). Bukan hanya itu : pada bulan April 1945 dalam kurun waktu 30 hari saja telah jatuh 60 korban lagi. Seakan-akan tamatlah riwayat sekolah-sekolah Frater yang mereka rintis dengan susah payah itu. Namun, jika benih yang para Frater tanamkan itu adalah benih kebaikan, (apalagi ditambah dengan telah gugurnya beberapa orang Frater sebagai syuhada) maka yang tumbuh adalah buah kebaikan juga. Maka (tentu juga berkat doa para Frater itu), pada tanggal 22 Juni 1945 ada berita gembira dari Residen, bahwa perang telah berakhir dan Jepang menyerah ! Walaupun kebebasan penuh baru mereka reguk sebulan kemudian waktu mereka meninggalkan Bangkinang kembali ke Padang pada tanggal 23 September 1945. Jumlah anggota rombongan pertama ada 25 orang termasuk wanita dan anak-anak. Termasuk di dalamnya: Fr. Paulus, Fr. Silvester, Fr. Anycetus, Fr. Avitus, Fr. Sevaas dan Fr. Ernestus. Tetapi mereka belum bisa menempati rumah Frater yang mereka tinggalkan, karena masih diduduki tentara Jepang. Buat sementara mereka ditempatkan di rumah sekitar rumah sakit militer, dan bertugas sebagai perawat korban perang. Ke-6 Frater lainnya menyusul datang pada bulan September yaitu: Fr. Angelo, Fr. Liberatus, Fr. Severinus, Fr. Domitianus, Fr. Monulf dan Fr. Gonzaga. Para Frater yang baru datang ini menemukan biara mereka dalam keadaan yang menyedihkan dan tak dapat dipakai sama sekali. Sebenarnya para Frater telah siap untuk memulai lagi karya pendidikan mereka tetapi terpaksa dibatalkan lagi karena dilarang oleh komando militer Inggris. Maka para Frater pun meninggalkan Padang untuk menjalani cuti pemulihan kesehatan. Antara Mei 1946 sampai Nopember 1947 tak ada seorang Frater pun di Padang.
 
 
 

“Kelahiran yang Kedua”

 

Fr. M. Servaas de Beer
Kepala Sekolah ke- 3
1948 – 1949

Fr. M. Erich Versantvoort
Kepala Sekolah Ke- 4
1949 – 1976

Baru pada Akhir Nopember 1947 kembalilah: Fr. Servaas, Fr. Ernestus, Fr. Sylvester, dan Fr. Angelo. Segera mereka buka 5 kelas sekolah peralihan yang disebut Herstel school, yaitu sekolah dengan kenaikan kelas sekali setengah tahun, sedang kelas I sekolah biasa. Bahasa pengantar masih Bahasa Belanda.
Dalam beberapa bulan saja sekolah tersebut berkembang menjadi 9 kelas. Tenaga gurunya 4 orang Frater ditambah 4 wanita yang sudah berkeluarga dan Meneer Hein Lim Keng Soei. Awal tahun pelajaran 1948 sekolah dasar memakai bahasa Indonesia dan sekolah menengah dimulai kembali dengan 1 (satu) kelas dibawah pimpinan Fr. Servaas.
Mulai saat itu nama sekolah diubah dari Fraters MULO menjadi SMP Frater. Fr. Ranulfo datang pada bulan Nopember 1948 dan Fr. Erich pada bulan Agustus 1949. Sebagian ruang kelas waktu itu masih diduduki oleh tentara Belanda. Tenaga Frater yang ada pada saat itu tidak cukup untuk menghadapi perkembangan di masa depan. Maka datanglah lagi tenaga tambahan baru yaitu : Fr. M. Gonzaga, Fr.M. Reinoldus dan Fr. M. Nicander. Tahun 1954 Fr. Servaas mendirikan SMA Don Bosco yang langsung beliau pimpin.

Tahun 1951 ada pergeseran penting di bidang pelayanan pastoral Gereja di Keuskupan Padang yaitu dengan datangnya para imam Xaverian mengantikan imam-imam Kapusin yang pindah ke Sumatera Utara. Beberapa di antara mereka yang pernah mengajar di SMP Frater adalah Pastor G. Cocconcelli SX dan Pastor Michelle Galli SX.

 
“Menatap Masa Depan”
Konggregasi Frater menyadari, bahwa mereka pun mesti mempersiapkan tenaga-tenaga baru untuk melanjutkan karya yang sudah dimulai ini. Maka pendidikan calon Frater pun diusahakan. Pada tahun 60-an usaha ini telah mulai membuahkan hasil. Yang pertama-tama datang di Padang adalah Fr. Fransiskus Simbolon pada tahun 1961, kemudian Fr. Martinus Waoma I. pada tahun 1964, selanjutnya Fr. Gerardus Hutapea pada tahun 1964 serta Fr. Gerardus Manurung pada tahun 1966; tetapi tak seorangpun dari keempat Frater itu yang ditempatkan di SMP Frater.
Sementara itu di Europa terjadi semacam perubahan drastis yang tidak menguntungkan di bidang mentalitas/ keagamaan. Hal ini tentu saja membawa dampak buruk bagi perkembangan panggilan, sehingga Frater-Frater yang pindah atau meninggal tak dapat diganti: tahun 1953 Fr. Gonzaga meninggal; tahun 1958 Fr. Ranulfo pindah ke Medan; tahun 1960 Fr. Avitus pindah ke Balige; tahun 1962 Fr. Angelo meninggal; tahun 1963 Fr. M. Reinoldus berangkat (kembali) ke Belanda. Walaupun tenaga Frater ditambah lagi tahun 1971 dengan 2 orang tenaga baru yaitu Fr. Johan van Roosmalen untuk SMA Don Bosco dan Fr. Andre de Veer untuk SMP Frater, namun kejayaan masa lalu di mana “Fraterhuis” pernah dihuni oleh 25 orang Frater sulit diharapkan untuk terulang kembali. Kemungkinan ini telah diantisipasi oleh para Frater, sehingga sejak lama Frater telah mulai mengambil tenaga-tenaga awam untuk berkarya bersama Frater-Frater ini dalam rangka kaderisasi dan persiapan penyerahan tongkat estafet.
Untuk menjaga agar sekolah-sekolah jangan sampai jalan sendiri-sendiri tanpa koordinasi, Keuskupan Padang mengambil langkah penting yaitu mendirikan suatu yayasan pendidikan Katolik yang akan bertanggung jawab mengkoordinasikan seluruh gerak dan usaha pendidikan di Keuskupan Padang ini, yaitu Yayasan Prayoga. Hal itu terjadi pada tahun 1962. Dengan hadirnya Yayasan ini maka “nasib” sekolah-sekolah yang ada menjadi lebih terjamin. Bahkan Yayasan ini berhasil mendirikan beberapa Sekolah baru.
 
“Berita Buruk” 
Pada saat “berita buruk” datang pada tahun 1976 tenaga Frater yang tinggal adalah 5 orang : Fr. Servaas de Beer, Fr. Nicander de Kok, Fr. Erich Versantvoort, Fr. Johan van Roosmalen dan Fr. Andre de Veer. “Berita Buruk” yang dimaksudkan ini ialah datangnya suatu keputusan dari Pimpinan Pusat Konggregasi Frater bahwa berhubung dengan sangat terbatasnya tenaga Frater, maka beberapa pelayanan-¬pelayanan terpaksa harus ditinggalkan l diserahkan, termasuk karya pendidikan di Padang. Maka sungguh pun dengan berat hati, para Frater yang sudah mengikatkan diri pada kaul ketaatan itu mau tidak mau harus mematuhi keputusan itu. Frater-Frater terakhir yang meninggalkan kota Padang pada akhir tahun 1976 adalah lima orang Frater tersebut. Sejak itu tak ada seorang pun Frater yang bertugas di Padang, dengan kata lain seluruh personil sekolah yang melaksanakan karya pendidikan di sekolah-sekolah Frater adalah orang awam biasa.
 
“Era Baru” 
Bp. Antonius Sudjana
Kepala Sekolah ke-5 & 8
1977-1987
1994 – 1996

Bp. Faoziduhu Mendrova
Kepala Sekolah ke-6
1978-1987

Maka masa sesudah 1976 adalah merupakan era baru bagi sekolah – sekolah Katolik di Padang khususnya sekolah-sekolah yang selama ini dipimpin oleh para Frater. Pimpinan SMP Frater diserahkan dari tangan Frater Erich kepada Bp. Antonius Sudjana pada bulan Desember 1976. Dialah awam pertama yang menjadi Kepala SMP Frater.
Menjadi tugas Yayasan beserta para penerus Frater itulah untuk meneruskan dan mengembangkan sekolah, dengan tidak meninggalkan ciri-ciri khusus yang dituntut dari sekolah Katolik, sebagaimana telah ditunjukkan oleh para Frater, pendahulu mereka: kejujuran, suka kerja keras, memandang sesama sebagai saudara. Ini merupakan pekerjaan yang tidak mudah, mengingat guru-guru maupun pimpinan sekolah adalah tenaga-tenaga awam non-biarawan yang relatif lebih membutuhkan bimbingan dari Yayasan dibandingkan tenaga-tenaga dari kalangan Frater yang adalah biarawan-biarawan dengan keunggulan-keunggulannya baik dipandang dari segi integritas, moral maupun mental spiritual dan sosial psikologis. Pertukaran pimpinan dari biarawan kepada non-biarawan membawa perubahan suasana yang cukup terasa.
Ada semacam nilai plus pada zaman Frater yang sekarang tidak begitu nampak lagi. Kaderisasi calon pimpinan belum mendapat porsi yang cukup pada saat pergantian pimpinan harus terjadi. Sebagai penyesuaian dengan peraturan Pemerintah yang berlaku pada saat itu, maka pada tahun 1978 Pengurus Yayasan mengangkat Bp. F. Mendrova menjadi Kepala Sekolah Extern, sedang Bp. A. Sudjana menjadi Kepala Sekolah Intern.
Jadi SMP Frater saat itu dipimpin oleh dua orang Kepala Sekolah. Duet jabatan Pimpinan Sekolah ini berlangsung sampai akhir Desember 1987. Selanjutnya mulai 1-1-1988 s/d 31-7-1994 sekolah ini dipimpin oleh Bp. H. Walidi. Bp. A. Sudjana kembali lagi memimpin SMP Frater dari 1-8-1994 s/d 31-7-1996.
 
“Perkembangan Era Pasca Frater”

Bp. Heriberfus Walidi
Kapala Sekolah ke-7
1988-1994

Bp. Drs. B. Suhardjono
Kepala Sekolah ke-9
1996 – 1998

Bersamaan dengan berangkatnya para Frater itu, terjadi pula perkembangan baru yaitu berupa kian menyusutnya subsidi Pemerintah, baik di segi tenaga maupun dana, yang bukan tak mungkin pada suatu ketika akan hilang sama sekali. Sementara itu harus diakui bahwa sekolah-sekolah Negeri maju dengan sangat pesatnya baik di bidang sarana, kualitas tenaga pendidik maupun siswa-siswinya, manajemennya, dan lain-lainnya, yang didukung dengan dana yang semakin besar; sehingga merupakan suatu alternatif pilihan yang semakin kuat bagi tamatan-tamatan sekolah dasar. Sekarang ini dirasakan bahwa baik kuantitas maupun kualitas masukan calon-calon siswa berangsur turun karena tamatan SD pun mengalami masalah yang sama secara drastis. Kalau dulu sekolah ini terpaksa menolak calon murid karena lokal penuh, maka sekarang yang diterima hanya pas, sehingga tak perlu ada seleksi. Padahal masyarakat tetap menuntut sekolah ini menghasilkan kualitas lulusan yang prima seperti dulu-dulu. Maka solusinya ialah dari para guru dituntut kerja keras, keuletan dan kreatifitas yang lebih dari sebelumnya.
Bp. Drs. B. Suhardjono
Kepala Sekolah ke-10
1998– 2000
 

GURUKU ,IDOLAKU DAN PANUTANKU :” ALM.FRATER SERVAAS TERCINTA”

ALMARHUM FRATER SERVAAS ADALAH SUPERHEROKU.

DISUSUN OLEH Dr IWAN S. BERDASARKAN PENGALAMAN&KOLEKSI PRIBADI TERKAIT FRATER SERVAAS SEBAGAI KENANG-KENANGAN ATAS JASANYA KEPADA PENDIDIKAN DIINDONESIA

*ill c-001

 Cyber e-book edisi pribadi khusus Untuk keluarega Besar alumni dan                                                                           ex Guru,  serta murid SMA Don Bosco Padang

JAKARTA @Hak Cipta Dr IWAN S 2010

*ill c-oo1 Frater Servaas dirumah Dr IWAN S di Padang tahun 1964

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KATA PENGANTAR

SAYA TULIS BUKU ELEKTRONIK DUNIA MAYA INI SEBAGAI KENANG-KENANG DAN RASA HORMA SERTA TERIMA KASIH KEPADA GURU,IDOLA DAN PANUTAN SAYA ALMARHUM FRATER SERVAAS , YANG NAMA ASLINYA A.J.M de BEER, SEORANG PUTRA BELANDA  YANG MEMBAKTIKAN HAMPIR SELURUH HIDUPNYA DI KOTA PADANG GUNA MENINGKATKAN KECERDASAN BANGSA DAN MEMBERIKAN CONTOH BEKTI YANG LUAR BIASA, SEHINGGA MANTAN GURU DAN PANUTAN SAYA TELAH MEMPENGARUHI ARAH HIDUP SAYA SECARA PRIBADI.

KELUARGA BESAR SAYA, MULAI PAPA  DJOHAN UTAMA(G.T.BO) NAMA SEKOLAH JOHN GHO,KAKAK SAYA Dr EDHIE DJOHAN UTAMA SpMK(G.B.HOAT)*ILL  p-001 2009 dengan mama saya anna TGL

*ill-P-001 2009

,ELINA  WIDYONO(G.S.KIM),SAYA SENDIRI DrIWAN SUWANDY,MHA (G.B.GOAN)*ILL p-002 telihat juga dibelakang Oom Fons the ayahnya  almumni DB Dr Anton Tedja, dan adik ibu saya tante lines

*ill p-002 saya dan kakak G.S.Kim 1962

 DAN ADIK SAYA Dr ERLITA LIANNY(G.S.LIAN) ADALAH MURID FRATER SERVAAS.

FRATER SERVAAS SELAIN GURU JUGA SAHABAT DEKAT AYAH SAYA, DAN SAYA SENDIRI SECARA PRIBADI, TANPA FRATER SERVAAS KELUARGA BESAR GHO TIDAK AKAN BERHASIL MENEMPUH KEHIDUPAN SEPERTI SAAT INI, SELURUH SEPUPU SAYA YANG JUMLAH SANGAT BANYAK  JUGA MURID FRATER SERVAAS SEPERTI Dr ANTON TEJA DENGAN DUA SAUDARANYA , Ir ANDRIE FIRGO, DAN LIMA SAUDARANYA, GHO SOEI ING DENGAN DELAPAN SAUDARANYA, Dra JENNY UTAMA DENGAN TIGA SAUDARANYA, GHO SOEI GIN DENGAN DELAPAN SAUDARANYA, JUGA ISTERI SAYA LILY WIJAYA AMdPK,SKM,MM(O.S.LIE) DENGAN SELURUH SAUDARANYA Ir ADIWIJAYA(O.H.TIANG),Dra OEI SOAN TJIOK, Ir ASWIN WIJAYA TERMASUK SELURUH SUADAR SEPUPUNYA MULAI DARI ORANG TUANYA PIET PHOA SERTA ANAK-ANAKNYA DAN MANTUNYA ANTARA LAIN LIE TEK IN ADIKKNYA LIE TEK AN DAN ISTERINYA Dra MAK SENG KIOE, DAN AMSIH BANYAK LAGI BILA DIURUT DAPAT EMEMNUHI HAMPIR LIMA HALAMAN BUKU ELEKTRONIK INI.

FRATER SERVAAS SEBAGAI SAHABAT DAN TEMAN SEPROFESI FRATER SERVAAS DIBIDANG PERCETAKAN SEHINGGA BILA ADA MESIN BARU YANG DIIMPOR DARI GERMAN ,FRATER SERVAAS MEMBANTU AYAH SAYA UNTUK MEMASANG DAN MERAWAT MESIN CETAK SEPERTI HEIDELBERG SERTA MERAWATNYA BILA ADA KERUSAKAN, KARENA HUBUNAGN ITU SAYA  MENGETAHUI BANYAK KEHIDUPAN PRIBADI FRATER SERVAAS, SELAIN ITU JUGA FRATER SERVAAS SAYA SAYA MASIH SEKOLAH BANYAK MEMBERIKAN TELADAN DNA INFORMASI YANG  MEMBUAT SAYA DAPAT HIDUP SEPERTI SAAT INI, ANAK-ANAK SAYA  HANYA SAMPAI SMP FRATER KARENA IKUT SYA PINDAH KEJAKARTA KARENA MELANJUTKAN PENDIDIKAN S2 DAN PINDAK KEJAKARTA TAHUN 1989 KARENA PINDAH TUGAS, OLEH KARENA ITU SAYA TULIS BUKU ELEKTRONIK INI UNTUK KEDUA PUTRA SAYA YANG SATU SMA DI KANISIUS DAN MELANJUTKAN STUDI DI ITB ALBERT SUWANDY,ST DAN PUTRA BUNGSU ANTON JIMMI SUWANDY ,ST SMA DI SMA DONBOSCO DUA PULO MAS DAN MEPEROLEH PBUD(pmdk)  STUDI TANPA TESTING DAN PEMBAYARAN UANG MUKA DI UGM DI FAK.TEHNIK MESIN UGM JOGJA AGAR MEREKA MENGETAHUI JASA FRATER SERVAAS YANG SANGAT BERPENGARUH TERHADAP JALAN HIDUP MEREKA.

BUKU ELEKTRONIK DUNIA MAYA INI DITULIS SELURUHNYA DALAM HURUF BESAR AGAR ALUMNI DAN EX GURU YANG BERHUBUNGAN LANGSUNG DENGAN FRATER SERVAAS SUDAH MULAI TUA RENTA DENGAN MATANYA TENTUNYA SANGAT SULIT MEMBACA TULISAN DENGAN HURUF NORMAL BIASA,SEPERTI PAK SOFJANTO CS,DAN ALUMNI SMA DON BOSCO PERTAMA ANGKATAN 1955-1956 SEPERTI LIE GOAN SENG EX KETUA ISDB.KIE BAN, Dr TIONG KIM, Drs.SJARIF ALI MSc EX KETUA ISDB DENGAN NYONYA DARI JEPANG,Dr TIONG lIANG, SAHABAT KAKAK SAYA LIE OEN KIAT SAAT INI DI USA PENGUSAHA SPBU , KELUARGA ALMARHUM GHAN KENG SAN DI CANADA DAN MASIH BANYAK LAGI.

SAYA HARAP BAGI KELUARGA BESAR ALUMNI SMA DON BOSCO PADANG YANG MEMILIKI KOLEKSI , YANG  BERHUBUNGAN DENGAN GURU KITA FRATER SERVAAS HARAP BERKENAN MENGIRIMKAN PHOTO YANG BERSANGUTAN KE FACEBOOK SAYA Iwan Suwandy ,AGAR DAPAT SAYA ADD  DI BLOG INTERNET iwansuwandy.wordpress.com, SEBELUMNYA BANYAK TERIMA KASIH.

SAYA MENYADARI BUKU ELEKTRONIK DUNIA MAYA INI TIDAK SEMPURNA DAN MASIH BANYAK KEKURANGAN DAN KESALAHAN TATA BAHASA DAN SEBAGAINYA, SEHINGGA DENGAN SANGAT SENANG MENERIMA KRITIK,SARAN DAN TAMBAHAN INFORMASI LIWAT COMMENT ATAU FACEBOOK SAYA AGAR DAPAT DIKOREKSI DAN DILENGKAPKAN SESEMPURNA MUNGKIN.PRAKARSA IKATAN ALUMNI DB MEMBUAT BUKU KENANGAN FRATER SERVAAS DIEDIT OLEH SIAN DE BUD SERTA KOMENTARNYA TERHADAP TULSIANINI

SAYA MENGHATURKAN SALUT TERHADAP KATANYA TULISAN INI MENGALIR BEGITU SAJA,YAH ITULAH SUARA HATI SAYA , IA TELAH MENGHUBUNGGI SAYA ,DAN SAYA TELAH MEMBERIKAN BEBERAPA KESAN SERTA MENYARANKAN IA MELIHAT  BUKU ELEKTRONIK INI UNTUK DAPAT MEMPEROLEH TAMBAHAN INFORMASI,BEBERAPA INFO SECARA SINGKAT UNTUK SELANJUTNYA DAPAT MELIHAT DI BLOG SAYA,

FRATER SERVAAS DALAM MEMBANGUN CITRA BANGSA INDONESIA DIBIDANG PENDIUDKAN ,SAYA MENGUSULKAN AGAR GUBERNUR SUMATERA BARAT MENGANUGERAHKAN BELIAU BINTANG JASA PAHLAWAN PENDIIKAN BAIK DARI DAERAH MAUPUN PUSAT ATAS  USULAN DAERAH, MALAH SAYA USULAKAN ALMARHUN DIANUGERAHKAN AWARD -PENGHARGAAN DARI GRAMEDIA KARENA AUYONG PENGKUN (P.K.OYONG) ADALAH MURID BELIAU DAN  ALMARMUH P.K.OYONG PERNAH BELAJAR DAN BEKERJA PADA SURAT KABAR KONG PO(SIANR0 BERBAHSA BELANDA YANG DICETAK DIPERCETAKAN VOLHARDING,YANG LOKASINYA DI GEDUNG SANTU YUSUF PONDOK PADANG YANG DIPIMPIN OLEH FRATER SERVAAS. SAYA HARAP DENGAN USULAN DAERAH DAN PT.GRAMEDIA PIMPINAN YAKOB OETAMA,SAHAT BAIK PAMAN SYA ALMARHUM Drs ANTON RAHMAT ABDISA  SEHINGGA MENTERI PENDIDIKAN NASIONAL RI. BERKENAN MENGUSULAN AGAR FRATER SERVAAS DIANUGERAHKAN BINTAN PAHLAWA  PEDINDIKAN RI KARENA JASA BELIAU DAN FRATER SERVAAS PERNAH MENJADI WARGA NEGARA RI HAMPIR SELURUH HIDUPNYA,HANYA KARENA USUR KEMBALI KE NEGERI BELANDAN DAN KEMBALI MENJADI WARGA NEGARA BELANDA.

TERAKHIR SAYA MENGUCAPKAN TERIMA KASIH KEPADA SEGALA PIHAK YANG TELAH MENDUKUNG DAN MEMBANTU SAYA SEHINGGA BUKU ELEKTRONIK DUNIA MAYA INI DAPAT. TERWUJUD, DAN MOHON MAAF DAN BERSABAR KARENA SAYA TERPAKSA MENGINSTALL INFO DAN INFORMASI SECARA TAHAP-BERTAHAP KARENA SAYA KERJAKAN SENDIRI TANPA ADA YANG MEMBANTU,MAKLUM KONDISI SAYA SUDAH MULAI RENTA.

SALAM DARI PENULIS

 

Dr IWAN S.

angkatan DB 9

Senin, Desember 31, 2007

Jurni ketemu temen SMA Don Bosco Padang

 
Tangled Lights
Foto-foto ini aku masukkan ke Blogger kita supaya terekam semua aktivitas DB-9 menjelang akhir tahun 2007. Foto berasal dari kiriman bos Dyat melalui milis DB-9.
Jurni, Min, dan Jun difasilitasi Bos Dyat ke Bandung anjangsana ke rumah Adiwarti yang baru baralek baru-baru ini…….
Di foto itu mereka sedang santap siang rupanya bersama pak Suhardi suami Adek. Aku ga ikutan acara ini, karena ado pula acara baralek bosku (dulu) di Jogya dan Solo. Present
Juzarni Nazar, Rosminiar Roestam, Jurni Djalil, Adiwarti, Pak Suhardi dan Khairul (anaknya Min) Heart GlassesPersahabatan itu memang indah

Senin, Desember 17, 2007

 



Reuni Akbar 2008 – 50 Tahun SMA Don Bosco Padang – Juli 2008 Apr 12, ’08 9:44 PM
for everyone
Start:      Jul 1, ’08 10:00p
End:      Jul 31, ’08
Location:      Padang

MyHotComments.com
MyHotComments

Johanes Julinar nama lahirnya Lie Tiong Sui, alumni 1976, adalah Ketua Reuni Akbar 2008, kakaknya Syahrial Lincoln (Lie Tiong San), alumni 1967.Waktu di Padang tinggal di Kampung Nias, dekat rumah si Gapuk (Hong Lian).
Kita perlu memberikan dukungan untuk menyukseskan Reuni Akbar Juli yad. Angkatan 1976 sebagai penyelenggara, namun semua alumni perlu partisipasi, Karena alumni DB milik kita bersama.
Berita dari Shian

ALUMNI SMA DON BOSCO PADANG

Bersilaturrahmi untuk Kontribusi Almamater

Selasa, 05/07/2011 12:01 WIB

klik untuk melihat foto

 

padangmedia.com – YOGYAKARTA – Kalau biasanya setiap kegiatan reuni dilaksanakan di lokasi sekolah itu berada untuk bernostalgia, tetapi SMA Don Bosco Padang memilih melakukan kegiatan alumni di Yogyakarta.

“Kita bukannya mengabaikan Padang sebagai lokasi sekolah kita, tetapi kegiatan ini kita lakukan untuk bersilaturrahmi lebih merekat kebersamaan antara alumni khususnya angkatan kita dengan keluarga masing-masing. Jadi kita gelar liburan bersama. Kebetulan ada sejumlah alumni yang berdomisili di Yogyakarta,” ungkap Iswandi Said, Alumni tahun 80 SMA Don Bosco Padang, kepada padangmedia.com, Senin (4/7)

Menurut Wandi, kegiatan yang dilakukan secara rutin dalam kurun lima tahun belakangan memang dilaksanakan berpindah-pindah. Saat peringatan 50 tahun SMA Don Bosco Padang beberapa tahun lalu, mereka ikut bereuni di Padang, kemudian di Jakarta dan tahun ini di Yogyakarta. Yang terpenting dalam hal ini adalah kebersamaan. “Karena di sekolah dulu, kami sangat merasakan nilai kebersamaan yang ditanamkan kepala sekolah dan lingkungan. Meski sekolah Katolik, waktu itu kita tidak melihat perbedaan baik dari sisis agama, suku, bangsa ataupun status sosial dan pangkat. Disana benar-benar beragam, tetapi kebersamaan sangat kental,” ucap ketua angkatan 77 ini.

Kegiatan alumni angkatan ini ditaambahkannya bukan sekedar bertemu-temu teman lama, tetapi juga melakukan penggalangan dana untuk diberikan sebagai kontribusi pada sekolah. Kadang dengan setengah memaksa, pengurus menodong anggota untuk menambah kas kelompok.

“Ada juga teman-teman yang memberikan sumbangan khusus yang kita manfaatkan untuk sekolah. Minggu lalu kita baru saja memberikan sumbanagn 11 set komputer untuk sekolah, satunya untuk sekretariat Alumni,” jelas Wandi. Sebelumnya, angkatan ini juga ikut memberikan dukungan ketika gempa melanda Padang tahun 2009 lalu.

Jika dinilai dalam jumlah, tambahnya, masih belum seberapa dibanding sumbangan alumni yang lebih senior dan sudah mapan . Tetapi yang penting kepedulian alumni terhadap perkembangan sekolah. Begitu juga dengan kegiatan reunian, bukan hanya sekedar berlibur bersama, tetapi juga disisipkan acara ceramah atau pencerahan. “Pada malam terakhir kita mengundang seorang pakar untuk memberikan pencerahan. Materinya kita yang pilih. Topik dalam pertemuan kali ini tentang bagaimana mengendalikan emosi , kesabaran dan selalu berpikir positif. Bagaimanapun, kalau umur sudah semakin bertambah, emosi suka kurang terkendali,” paparnya lagi.

Untuk mendatang, rencananya, alumni secara berkala akan melakukan kegiatan berbagi pengalaman dengan siswa-siswa untuk memberikan motivasi. Jadwalnya disesuaikan dengan anak-anak menjelang akhir tahun ajaran.

Kegiatan yang digelar dari tanggal 1 – 4 Juli itu diikuti oleh sekitar 40 orang alumni angkatan 77 dari berbagai kelas yang ada di berbagai daerah seperti Padang, Pekanbaru, Batam, Jakarta, Bandung, Yogyakarta, Surabaya, dan Balikpapan. (nit)

alumni DB 9

Tji Kiong, Moh Room, Sornaly Edy & Su Fang....semakin makmur aja mereka ber-empat ini

Tji Kiong, Moh Room, Sornaly Edy & Su Fang….semakin makmur aja mereka ber-empat ini

Anyone can see this photo

Uploaded on Nov 23, 2007

 

Elvi....gue Eryck Cuan, elu jangan sampaikan kesiapapun ya...bahwa gue sudah lama memendam rasa suka ama elu sejak SMA...(plong deh hati gue)

Elvi….gue Eryck Cuan, elu jangan sampaikan kesiapapun ya…bahwa gue sudah lama memendam rasa suka ama elu sejak SMA…(plong deh hati gue)

Anyone can see this photo

 

Kim2, Hailiwan, Sarnelly, Susanti, Siok Li & Chandra......sstt...ke 4 cewek ini dulunya pernah merebut hati ke 2 pria dibelakang itu, namun tak satupun berhasil !

Kim2, Hailiwan, Sarnelly, Susanti, Siok Li & Chandra……sstt…ke 4 cewek ini dulunya pernah merebut hati ke 2 pria dibelakang itu, namun tak satupun berhasil !

Anyone can see this photo

Uploaded on Nov 23, 2007

 

......., Eng Suan, Minah, Teressia Wong, Netty Azari Mellywati, Astrida, Siuli Ramli & Henny Cu Ung

……., Eng Suan, Minah, Teressia Wong, Netty Azari Mellywati, Astrida, Siuli Ramli & Henny Cu Ung

Anyone can see this photo

Uploaded on Nov 23, 2007

 

Parlin...parlin...semakin tua, elu semakin laku aja dimata Ce Ce Su Fang, Ce Ce Henny & Ce Ce Astrida

Parlin…parlin…semakin tua, elu semakin laku aja dimata Ce Ce Su Fang, Ce Ce Henny & Ce Ce Astrida

Uploaded on Nov 23, 2007

 

Senyum mu palsu Liang....elu enak aja tinggalin gue !

Senyum mu palsu Liang….elu enak aja tinggalin gue !

Anyone can see this photo

Uploaded on Nov 23, 2007

 

Sarnelly, jangan pelototin gue seperti itu dong....cepatan isi buku tamu....

Sarnelly, jangan pelototin gue seperti itu dong….cepatan isi buku tamu….

Uploaded on Nov 23, 2007

 

Suasana Reuni para Ibu Ibu Arisan.....lihat tuh si Engeline...nggakak gitu...

Suasana Reuni para Ibu Ibu Arisan…..lihat tuh si Engeline…nggakak gitu…

Anyone can see this photo

Uploaded on Nov 23, 2007

 

Reuni mantan penghuni ABT : Susanti & Sarnelly

Reuni mantan penghuni ABT : Susanti & Sarnelly

Anyone can see this photo

Uploaded on Nov 23, 2007

 

Sarnelly....dulu disebut Fang Bulek, sekarang Fang apa ya...?

Sarnelly….dulu disebut Fang Bulek, sekarang Fang apa ya…?

Uploaded on Nov 23, 2007

 

Lamo tak basuo, sekali basuo ado di kandang kudo..he..he..

Lamo tak basuo, sekali basuo ado di kandang kudo..he..he..

Uploaded on Nov 23, 2007

 

Backdrop Acara Reuni 20 tahun SMA Don Bosco Padang angk 87

Backdrop Acara Reuni 20 tahun SMA Don Bosco Padang angk 87

Anyone can see this photo

Uploaded on Nov 23, 2007

 

Sepasang kekasih yang tidak pernah jadi kekasih

Sepasang kekasih yang tidak pernah jadi kekasih

Uploaded on Nov 22, 2007

 

Yenny Agustin & Bony Putra : Pasangan yg paling cute

Yenny Agustin & Bony Putra : Pasangan yg paling cute

 

Uploaded on Nov 22, 2007

 

Tiaaannn & Yanthie Zainal : Pasangan kelas "Berat" !

Tiaaannn & Yanthie Zainal : Pasangan kelas “Berat” !

Anyone can see this photo

Uploaded on Nov 22, 2007

 

Gue tidak berubah...dari dulu s/d sekarang tetap kurus

Gue tidak berubah…dari dulu s/d sekarang tetap kurus

Anyone can see this photo

Uploaded on Nov 22, 2007

 

Kiong....ingat istri & anak anak dirumah ya..

Kiong….ingat istri & anak anak dirumah ya..

Anyone can see this photo

Uploaded on Nov 22, 2007

 

Ernie Monas, Astrida, Tak Kong & Cong Cik...lagi di Aula DB

Ernie Monas, Astrida, Tak Kong & Cong Cik…lagi di Aula DB

ALUMNI DB  TRAVELLING

Thursday, May 31, 2007
Toronto n China town…
 

Left…Toronto town…one is biggest town in Canada…taken from The CN Towel…
 
Right…is China Town nya Canada…dimana= China Town pasti sama ya gambarannya..kyk di Singapur juga ada tuh dinding nya gt…( Kiaw sekeluarga tuh dgn hasil karyanya dgn Monthy…hehe 2 cewek manis pemberian Tuhan ).
Good luck selalu deh teman=…enjoy ur life ya…
 
For Suan n Giok Bie…tks for your sharing pictures ya…ketemu lgi tahun depan siapa tau kalian make another trip lagi…khabar khabari ya…( heheh kyk di TV aja…).
Kalian bisa kasih comment tuh, di shouted box…
 
Last but not least…these are the last part of Canada Trip…
 
 
Resume…
Canada is really beautifull country…i have seen from my Canadian friends…many fantastic places..like another famous..is The Frozen River..which always freeze for the whole year…
n also so many Salmon Fish overthere..
 
So Canada is the best choice also for visiting….for who like travelling…
 
Jadi mari rame= nabung yooooookkkk….
 
 
 
posted by rosni @ 11:35 AM   0 comments
 
 
another pictures…
 

These are another ….
 
Wah…keren & kompak juga action kamu n Way ..ya Bie.. kayak pemain sky beneran deh…sayang ketauan boong nya..krn ngak pake sky shoes nya..alias papan seluncurnya hahah
 
Suan dgn anggun nya…( Anggun = Anggota Ragunan loh heheh )..
 
 
 
 
posted by rosni @ 11:30 AM   0 comments
 
 
Tulip Flower n Toronto Town
 


These are another….

 
 
posted by rosni @ 11:27 AM   0 comments
 
 
Thousand Island..n Monthy’s House
 

Wow…really fabulous view…
Thousand Island…
 
Mungkin dari sini nama cream salad Thousand Island kali ya ..heheh
 
Right…is Monthy and Kiaw’s house…wah rumahnya gede n cantik bok…( ternyata orang gedongan juga ya kawan kita tuh disana ..gile loe…)boleh numpang lagi ngak Kiaw..kalo kita datang nanti..heheh
 
 
 
posted by rosni @ 10:55 AM   0 comments
 
 
Emerald Lake n Niagara US
 

Bie…wah foto kalian yg disini keren buanget loh…boleh tuh di gedein..gantung di dinding..buat nakut=in maling hahah…canda oi…, tapi aku serius keren buanget…latar belakang ama org nya matching deh…
 
Right…is..Niagara US…near/close to the main road..
 
posted by rosni @ 10:50 AM   0 comments
 
 
Niagara Duet…
 

Left..is connection bridge ..between US n Canada.. with Bie n Suan ‘s picture….( wah disini kalian kayak Aliens biru deh…)
 
Right…Niagara duet…left…Niagara US…n right Niaraga Canada…
 
posted by rosni @ 10:41 AM   0 comments
 
 
Whistler n Butchart Garden
 

Left is…Whistler…is the place for playing sky..
Right…Butchart Garden..near to the Niagara location…so nice..i luv it…muuuuuccchhh
 
posted by rosni @ 10:13 AM   0 comments
 
 
Lake Louise n Suan picture
 

This is..katanya…Louise Lake view…
Wah kalo aku kesana…bisa= ngak ingat pulang loh…enak tuh u camping…ampe beku…heheh
 
and Right..is Susanti Gozali ..nan cantik …e..ngomong= dia ini dulunya ex model n singer loh di Don Bosco …
 
Suan…apa km ngak nyanyi pula di Louis Lake itu…? biar salju nya mencair…heheh
Waduh cantik sekali ya..man teman…aku pengen deh kesana…
 
posted by rosni @ 10:01 AM   0 comments
 
 
Giok Bie n Way,Kiaw n Monty , Suan …
 


Here they are the lucky persons..who can do/have trip to Canada…( aku aja belum oi…abis duitnya belum kering heheh ).

 
Left…Monthy ( Kiaw’s husby ), Way (Giok Bie’s husby ) n Suan…background ..is Toronto town..
 
Aawas..jangan nyemplung pula kalian di Niagara itu ..( ntar kalian pikir sama pula ama Air Terjun 7 tingkat yg di Bungus Padang tuh heheh ).
 
posted by rosni @ 9:48 AM   0 comments
 
 
My friends trip to Canada
 

I just got some best pictures from my old friends…( ex SMA Don Bosco )…who travelling to Canada .
They the lucky persons are Giok Bie n Way ( husby )..n Suan…to visit Kiaw n Monty fam.who are (also ex Don Bosco )..already stay at Toronto- Canada.
So these are some of the best view of them…jangan ngences ya…
Bagi kita yg belum punya duit…ya udah deh ..liat foto= ini aja dulu…

Wah tool ” add image ” nya lagi bermasalah nih…ya udah satu gmbr ini aja dulu ya…
Kata mereka ..bhw ternyata Air Terjun Niagara itu ada 2 biji, satu di belahan negara Amerika..dan satu lg di belahan negara Canada…jadi perbatasan ke 2 negara adalah di Air terjun Niagara ini…
Nah yg ini adalah foto nya Air Terjun Niagara miliknya Canada..lebh bagus..krn bentuk nya lengkung kayak Tapak Kuda gicu loh…

Ayok…kumpulin duit seribu sehr u kesana yok…( kapan perginya ya kalo seribu sehari hahah ).

 
posted by rosni @ 9:06 AM   0 comments
 
Monday, May 28, 2007
Pinguin n Rock Coast
 

To get the Nicest Rock Coast overview…we rent the helicopter…
So really fantastic…even the view…n the felling ..to fly over above it…
 
We also can see the small n big pinguin…,but we must wait..at the beach…till sun set/down..n the Pinguins will come slowly..n slowly..
But many of us..couldn’t stand longer to wait…cause the weather at the beach so cool…escply..the evening…
 
The way back from the ocean beach..sometime we can meet some of the small Pinguins…wow..so cute…i would like to catch them…n bring them home for Pet….but not allow..yet
 
posted by rosni @ 4:16 PM   0 comments
 
 
Nov 2003 – visited to Australia
 

Almost forgotten….4 years ago…we visited Australia.. me ,Brian n papi.
 
The Rock Coast is really fantastic…really unforgotten beach..nothing compare…
Many Indonesian students overthere…
But i dont like the weather…almost same like Indonesia..sun shine..so bright…uhhh..i really dont like…burning my skin…
 
posted by rosni @ 4:08 PM   0 comments
 
 
Michi ‘s Graduation
 

Below…Michi’s graduation…at Economic from Bandung.
Above… Sister fam at Valley Resto…Bandung…the famous resto in Bandung ..nowadays.
 
 
 
posted by rosni @ 3:41 PM   0 comments
 
 
Kota Bunga at Jakarta Puncak
 

These are nice pictures at Kota Bunga n Cibubur …with my son ..n sister family…couple years ago
 
Middle ..Ricky,Michi n Vincen.
Above …me, Michi n sister n sister in law…
Below…with sister famly..

 
 
posted by rosni @ 3:32 PM   0 comments
 
 
Bangkok memories
 


These are some memories at Bangkok couple years ago…

 
 
posted by rosni @ 3:15 PM   0 comments
 
 
My AIG LIFE group
 

 

This is my currently profession.. is AIG LIFE …almost 8 years..running this job..
I got many experience n advantage …
Yulie in the midlle with the white blous is….our boss at Pekanbaru Angency.

Right…is my name card..with our Agentcy Prestige…

 
posted by rosni @ 2:36 PM   0 comments
 
 
My former bisniss
 

These were my former bisniss at Pekanbaru…
Running own bisniss..give us special experience..that u cant get from the school..
But nowadays…running lady’s bisnis…like salon n butik..n ect..not give much profit..
 
I also have joint partner ..another salon at Pekanbaru .
Since i moved to Jakarta..so all of my former bisnis ..closed already..
Below…Mira n Nini ..are my best friends at Pku..also my brother Cin..who running this Children Butik.
 
Above….my joint parnert…Yulie n Vina ..at Celullar Phone…
I have no pictures for our saloon…
 
 
posted by rosni @ 2:05 PM   0 comments
 
 
Albert n Papi at German..
 

 

Left …is Albert almost 13 years ago…when he was in the college at German…

He looks like a Korean Movie star heheh
Daddy still slim..n handsome…
Backgorund picture is Rhein River…the famous river at German….

 
posted by rosni @ 1:54 PM   0 comments
 
 
Highest Mountain n Graduation
 

Left…was…the dangerous n so proud experienced for us…We were from The REMAPALA DON BOSCO on 1983...can survive to climb The Highest Mountain at Sumatera …we call The Kerinci Volcano Mountain…its about 4500 m..high…
 
Right also…the best n really valued time in my life…My Accountant Academy Graduation..from Andalas University…at my home town…Padang.
Beside me ..is my Lovely Mom..n only one beloved sister…
Thanks mom n dad..to let me grow into beautifull n mature woman…
Tks for everything that you have given to me…till now…God also blessing u..both my parents…
For my dad who past away couple years ago..always pray for u night n day…so u will be sit n be son of our Father Lord in Heaven…sure that ,cause u were really lovely n good father for us.n also as human being..nobody can replace n compare u….bye dad..
 
posted by rosni @ 1:07 PM   0 comments
 
 
Padang n Sukabumi’s view
 

Finally this week i will move to new aprt ..but still same tower…
 
So i found my old pictures…some have good memory for me…so i ll share now..
Above…is at Sukabumi…so nice n so friendly …cause we can climb till at the top of the Small Niagara at Indonesia ( hahah ).Left n right below…are the view of the Ocean at Sikuai Padang town…my hometown.
So we can see..Indonesia also has many fantastic places…n view…
 
 
 
posted by rosni @ 12:20 PM   0 comments
 
Tuesday, May 22, 2007
Her pet…at Bandung
 

Right …her partner collection..her pet…
Left ..Herlina’s pets in Batam
 
 
 
 
posted by rosni @ 1:53 PM   0 comments
 
 
Visited Bandung ..
 

Couple months ago..me n Herlina visited her business partner in Bandung.
Her friend brought us to her villa in Kota Bunga – Bandung…
 
Left…her husband Bonsai collections…….so many, so..cute n prestigious..plant…
Right…Herlina n background view..from the 2 nd floor villa..
 
 
posted by rosni @ 1:04 PM   0 comments
 
 
View..- Canada n San Fr.
 

dear…u see how ..so nice n amazing our world..
 
 
Left…..view at Canada..one of the place that i still not yet visite…
 
Right…view of Golden Bridge at San Fransisco…
 
 
 
posted by rosni @ 12:53 PM   0 comments
 
 
View at Europe
 

 

These are the best..

 
posted by rosni @ 12:47 PM   0 comments
 
 
View around the world
 

Friends…no idea to share now…so just showing ..the nicest view that i have ever seen…these pictures at South Africa…
 
Ok…nice to see..the greates creation by our Lord..tks Lord for our life…
 
Left…created by Lord…
Right…home made by people at Lost City Hotel in South Africa..

komentar

 

 

the end@copyright 2012

 

Kumpulan Kisah Tempo Dulu Tentang Kebiasaan Jelek Para Pria

Perilaku Jelek & Kitab Kotor : Samuel Pepys


Meskipun sulit untuk membayangkan di era internet, buku kotor adalah penemuan yang relatif baru. Dalam London 1660-an dari penulis buku harian / pemerintah administrator Samuel Pepys, (itu Samuel ke kiri, dilukis oleh John Hayls di 1666), mereka masih menemukan sangat banyak hal yang baru. Yang ia menemukan secara tidak sengaja pada penjual buku setempat adalah dalam bahasa Prancis. L’escholle des Filles (“Sekolah Wanita Muda”) ditulis dalam apa yang menjadi format kotor-buku klasik: seorang wanita, tua berpengalaman menjelaskan Kehidupan, Cinta, & Pria untuk seorang pemula muda, dan melakukannya dengan eksplisit, titillating bahasa. Kau tahu, Playboy Advisor.

Ketika Samuel pertama membaca  buku itu, ia berpikir dari judul yang mungkin menjadi bacaan bagi isterinya untuk  belajar  bahasa Perancis . Sekilas balik halaman, namun dengan cepat berubah pikiran. Tapi mari kita Samuel menjelaskan, dalam tiga kutipan dari Buku Harian terkenal:

13 Januari 1668: “…. saya berhenti di penjual buku Martin, di mana saya melihat buku Perancis yang saya berpikir untuk memiliki untuk istri saya untuk menerjemahkan, yang disebut L’escholle des Filles, tetapi ketika saya datang untuk melihat ke dalamnya , itu adalah buku, paling mesum cabul yang pernah saya lihat, lebih buruk dari Puttana Errante [sebuah buku terkenal 16 c erotis Italia..] -. sehingga saya malu membaca di dalamnya “

8 Februari 1668: Dari situ pergi ke Strand ke penjual buku saya, dan ada tinggal satu jam dan membeli buku itu, menganggur nakal, L’escholle des Filles, yang saya telah membeli di dataran mengikat (menghindari pembelian lebih baik terikat) karena Saya menyelesaikan, begitu aku telah membacanya, membakarnya, sehingga tidak dapat berdiri dalam daftar buku-buku saya, juga di antara mereka, aib mereka jika harus ditemukan.

9 Februari 1668: Hari Tuhan. Up, dan di kamar saya semua pagi hari dan di kantor, melakukan bisnis dan juga membaca sedikit dari L’des escholle Filles, yang merupakan buku cabul perkasa, tetapi belum tidak salah bagi seorang pria mabuk sekali untuk membaca lebih untuk menginformasikan dirinya dalam kejahatan dunia …. [sore itu] saya ke kamar saya, dimana saya membaca de L’escholle Filles buku cabul, tapi apa saya tidak salah Maha membaca demi informasi [ini berikutnya adalah Sam singkatan sendiri, tetapi Anda dapat mengetahui maksudnya tanpa kesulitan terlalu banyak] tapi itu tusukan hazer butir saya berdiri selama itu, dan una vez untuk melepaskan energi negatif, dan setelah saya melakukan [itu] buku, saya membakarnya, bahwa mungkin tidak berada di antara buku-buku saya untuk malu saya, dan sebagainya pada malam hari untuk makan malam dan kemudian tidur.

Sejarawan modern mengatakan bahwa ini adalah referensi awal untuk sebuah buku erotis dalam bahasa Inggris. Oh, Samuel. . . .

Berperilaku Buruk: Boswell mendapat bertepuk

Meskipun pemotongan kejam saya, ini masih lebih lama dari pos biasa. Tapi sulit untuk mendapatkan gambaran penuh sebaliknya. Untuk versi lengkap, pergi sini dan gulir ke bawah.

Selasa 18 Januari 1763
Hari ini aku mulai merasa alarm tidak akuntabel kejahatan tak terduga: sedikit panas di anggota tubuh saya suci untuk Cupid, sangat mirip gejala distemper bahwa dengan yang Venus, ketika salib, membawanya ke kepalanya untuk wabah votaries nya. Tapi kemudian saya jalankan tidak ada risiko. Saya pernah bergabung dengan tidak ada wanita tapi Louisa, dan yakin dia tidak bisa memiliki hal semacam itu. . .

Kamis 20 Januari
Aku membuka kasus sedih saya untuk Douglas, yang pada memeriksa bagian, menyatakan saya mendapat infeksi dan jelas bahwa wanita yang memberikannya saya tidak bisa tidak tahu itu. .
Saya kemudian pergi ke Louisa. Dengan alamat yang sangat baik aku melanjutkan wawancara ini, sama seperti gambar berikut, saya percaya, akan membuat muncul. . . . .

Boswell. Madam, saya tidak memiliki hubungan dengan wanita mana pun tetapi Anda dua bulan. Saya dengan dokter bedah saya pagi ini, yang menyatakan saya telah mendapat infeksi yang kuat, dan bahwa dia dari siapa Aku sudah tidak bisa tahu tentang itu. Madam, hal seperti itu dalam hal ini lebih buruk dari dari seorang wanita kota, sebagai darinya Anda mungkin mengharapkannya. Anda telah menggunakan saya sangat sakit. . . .

LOUISA. Pak, Aku akan mengaku kepada anda bahwa sekitar tiga tahun lalu saya sangat buruk. Tapi untuk lima belas bulan saya telah cukup baik. Saya menghimbau ALLAH SWT bahwa saya berbicara benar, dan untuk enam bulan saya harus melakukan dengan siapapun kecuali diri Anda sendiri.

Boswell. Tapi dengan GD, Madam, saya telah dengan tidak ada tetapi Anda, dan di sini saya sangat buruk.

LOUISA. Nah, Pak, dengan sumpah khidmat yang sama saya memprotes bahwa saya tahu tentang itu.

Boswell. Madam, saya ingin banyak untuk percaya. Tapi saya sendiri saya tidak bisa percaya pada kesempatan ini keajaiban.

LOUISA. Pak, saya tidak bisa mengatakan lebih banyak untuk Anda. Tapi Anda akan meninggalkan saya dalam penderitaan terbesar. Aku akan kehilangan harga diri Anda. Aku akan terluka menurut pendapat semua orang, dan dalam keadaan saya.

Boswell (untuk dirinya). Apa iblis apakah menolak cinta bingung maksud dengan disakiti dalam keadaan dia? Ini adalah licik grossest. Tapi aku tidak akan memperhatikan hal itu. – Madam, untuk pendapat semua orang, Anda tidak perlu takut. Aku akan bercanda dan mengatakan bahwa saya tidak pernah membanggakan wanita nikmat. Tapi aku memberikan kata-kata saya kehormatan bahwa Anda tidak akan ditemukan.

LOUISA. Sir, ini menjadi lebih murah hati dari yang saya bisa harapkan.

Selama percakapan ini saya benar-benar berperilaku dengan ketenangan jantan dan martabat sopan yang tidak bisa gagal untuk menginspirasi kekaguman, dan ia tampak pucat seperti abu dan bergetar dan tersendat. . . . Saya benar-benar bingung pada perilakunya. Ada hampir tidak kemungkinan bahwa dia bisa menjadi bersalah atas kejahatan pengenaan mengerikan. Namun asseverations positifnya benar-benar terkejut saya. Dia kemungkinan besar pelacur dissembling paling sempurna.

Dari Boswell London Journal, 1762-1763
Oleh James Boswell

 
Pria Berperilaku Buruk: Scrope Davies


“Ketika istilah Prapaskah dari 1808 di Cambridge mulai, Byron tidak bisa kembali karena utang-utangnya. Scrope [Davies] memilih untuk tidak melakukannya dan kedua sahabat terjun ke kehidupan disipasi di London. Dalam hal Byron itu terutama . melacur dan perjudian; dalam perjudian Scrope dan minum Dalam karyanya “Pikiran Terpisah ‘Byron ingat salah satu prestasi Scropes lebih penting:

Suatu malam, Scrope Davies di sebuah rumah game … menjadi mabuk seperti biasanya adalah pada jam Tengah Malam, dan kehilangan uang, berada di mengabulkan doa sia-sia oleh teman-temannya, satu derajat kurang mabuk dari dirinya, untuk datang atau pulang. Dalam keputusasaan, dia ditinggalkan untuk dirinya, dan setan-setan dari kotak dadu.

Hari berikutnya, yang dikunjungi, sekitar dua jam dengan beberapa teman saja bangkit dengan sakit kepala parah dan kantong kosong (yang telah meninggalkan dia kalah di empat atau lima pagi), dia ditemukan dalam tidur nyenyak, tanpa  topi malam , dan tidak terlalu dibebani dengan tempat tidur-cloathes: a Chamber-pot berdiri di samping ranjang-sisinya, penuh-penuh – Catatan Bank! won semua, Tuhan tahu bagaimana, dan penuh sesak, Scrope tahu tidak di mana, tetapi ada mereka, semua catatan yang sah baik, dan untuk jumlah beberapa ribu pound “.

T.A.J. Burnett, The Rise & Fall of a Dandy Kabupaten: Kehidupan dan Times of Scrope Berdmore Davies

 

Pria Berperilaku Buruk: Sir Charles Sedley


Buku saya yang terbaru telah ditetapkan dalam Restorasi Inggris, pada masa pemerintahan Raja Charles II (1660-1685). Ini adalah waktu yang sangat baik untuk tuan-tuan yang sangat buruk, ketika hampir setiap kelebihan dapat dijelaskan jika memiliki judul, atau setidaknya berteman dengan Raja.

Sir Charles Sedley (1639-1701) adalah seorang kaya yang memiliki koneksi baronet yang menulis drama jenaka dan puisi, bermain tenis dengan Raja, mencoba-coba diplomasi, dan akhirnya menjadi seorang politikus terhormat di House of Commons.

Dia tampak tidak berbahaya cukup, kiri, tapi tahun 1663, ia terkenal karena sering menjadi “retoris mabuk”, dan juga untuk salah satu contoh sangat buruk dari yang buruk-boy-dom, jadi memalukan bahwa Samuel Johnson masih sputtering di atasnya abad kemudian :

Sir Charles Sedley, [Tuhan Buckhurst], dan Sir Thomas Ogle, mabuk di COCK [a kedai terkenal] di Jalan Busur, dengan Covent Garden, dan pergi ke balkon memperkenalkan  diri kepada rakyat bawah dalam postur yang sangat tidak senonoh. Akhirnya, karena mereka tumbuh lebih hangat, Sedley berdiri sebagainya telanjang, dan mengkuliahi rakyat dalam bahasa profan tersebut, sehingga  pemuka umum terbangun marah ; kerumunan mencoba untuk memaksa membuka pintu, dan yang jijik, melaju  dengan lemparan batu, dan pecah jendela rumah. Untuk pelanggaran ini, [tiga pria] yang didakwa, dan Sedley didenda £ 500 …. Sedley dipekerjakan [temannya Harry] Killigrew untuk mendapatkan pengampunan dari Raja, tetapi (menandai persahabatan keji!) Mereka meminta denda bagi dirinya dan dituntut ke jumlah uang yg kecil sekali lalu.

Untuk jujur jauh lebih menceritakan ini frat-rumah bergaya shenanigans, lihat entri buku harian Samuel Pepys ini – gulir ke bawah ke penjelasan pertama, dan berpegang pada cangkir kopi Anda.

original article

Though it’s hard to imagine in the internet age, dirty books are a relatively new invention. In the 1660s London of diarist/government administrator Samuel Pepys, (that’s Samuel to the left, painted by John Hayls in 1666), they’re still very much a novelty. The one he finds by accident in his local bookseller is in French. L’escholle des Filles (“The School for Young Women”) is written in what becomes a classic dirty-book format: an older, experienced woman explains Life, Love, & Men to a young newbie, and does it in explicit, titillating language. You know, Playboy Advisor.

When Samuel first comes across the book, he thinks from the title that it might be an edifying read for his French-speaking wife. A glance through the pages, however, quickly changes his mind. But let’s have Samuel explain, in three excerpt from his famous Diary:

January 13, 1668: “….stopped at Martin’s my bookseller, where I saw the French book which I did think to have had for my wife to translate, called L’escholle des Filles, but when I came to look into it, it is the most bawdy, lewd book that ever I saw, rather worse than Puttana Errante [an infamous 16th. c. Italian erotic book] – so that I was ashamed of reading in it.”

February 8, 1668: Thence away to the Strand to my bookseller’s, and there stayed an hour and bought that idle, roguish book, L’escholle des Filles, which I have bought in plain binding (avoiding the buying of it better bound) because I resolve, as soon as I have read it, to burn it, that it may not stand in the list of my books, nor among them, to disgrace them if it should be found.

February 9, 1668: Lord’s Day. Up, and at my chamber all the morning and in the office, doing business and also reading a little of L’escholle des Filles, which is a mighty lewd book, but yet not amiss for a sober man once to read over to inform himself in the villainy of the world….[later that afternoon] I to my chamber, where I did read through L’escholle de Filles a lewd book, but what doth me no wrong to read for information sake [this next is Sam’s own shorthand, but you can figure out his meaning without too much difficulty] but it did hazer my prick para stand all the while, and una vez to decharge; and after I had done [the book], I burned it, that it might not be among my books to my shame; and so at night to supper and then to bed.

Modern historians say that this is the earliest reference to an erotic book in the English language. Oh, Samuel. . . .

Behaving Badly: Boswell gets the clap
Despite my ruthless cutting, this is still longer than my usual post. But it’s hard to get the full picture otherwise. For the complete version, go here and scroll down.

Tuesday 18 January 1763
I this day began to feel an unaccountable alarm of unexpected evil: a little heat in the members of my body sacred to Cupid, very like a symptom of that distemper with which Venus, when cross, takes it into her head to plague her votaries. But then I had run no risks. I had been with no woman but Louisa, and sure she could not have such a thing . . .

Thursday 20 January
I opened my sad case to Douglas, who upon examining the parts, declared I had got an evident infection and that the woman who gave it me could not but know of it . . . .

I then went to Louisa. With excellent address did I carry on this interview, as the following scene, I trust, will make appear. . . . .

BOSWELL. Madam, I have had no connection with any woman but you these two months. I was with my surgeon this morning, who declared I had got a strong infection, and that she from whom I had it could not be ignorant of it. Madam, such a thing in this case is worse than from a woman of the town, as from her you may expect it. You have used me very ill . . . .

LOUISA. Sir, I will confess to you that about three years ago I was very bad. But for these fifteen months I have been quite well. I appeal to GOD Almighty that I am speaking true; and for these six months I have had to do with no man but yourself.

BOSWELL. But by G-D, Madam, I have been with none but you, and here am I very bad.

LOUISA. Well, Sir, by the same solemn oath I protest that I was ignorant of it.

BOSWELL. Madam, I wish much to believe you. But I own I cannot upon this occasion believe a miracle.

LOUISA. Sir, I cannot say more to you. But you will leave me in the greatest misery. I shall lose your esteem. I shall be hurt in the opinion of everybody, and in my circumstances.

BOSWELL (to himself). What the devil does the confounded jilt mean by being hurt in her circumstances? This is the grossest cunning. But I won’t take notice of that at all. — Madam, as to the opinion of everybody, you need not be afraid. I was going to joke and say that I never boast of a lady’s favours. But I give you my word of honour that you shall not be discovered.

LOUISA. Sir, this is being more generous than I could expect.

During all this conversation I really behaved with a manly composure and polite dignity that could not fail to inspire an awe, and she was pale as ashes and trembled and faltered . . . . I was really confounded at her behaviour. There is scarcely a possibility that she could be innocent of the crime of horrid imposition. And yet her positive asseverations really stunned me. She is in all probability a most consummate dissembling whore.

From Boswell’s London Journal, 1762-1763
By James Boswell

 

“When the Lent term of 1808 at Cambridge began, Byron was unable to return by reason of his debts. Scrope [Davies] chose not to do so and the two friends plunged into a life of dissipation in London. In Byron’s case it was chiefly whoring and gambling; in Scrope’s gambling and drinking. In his ‘Detached Thoughts’ Byron recalled one of Scropes more noteworthy achievements:

One night, Scrope Davies at a gaming house…being tipsy as he usually was at the Midnight hour, and having lost monies, was in vain intreated by his friends, one degree less intoxicated than himself, to come or go home. In despair, he was left to himself, and to the demons of the dice-box. Next day, being visited, about two of the Clock by some friends just risen with a severe headache and empty pockets (who had left him losing at four or five in the morning), he was found in a sound sleep, without a night-cap, and not particularly encumbered with bed-cloathes: a Chamber-pot stood by his bed-side, brim-full of–Bank Notes! all won, God knows how, and crammed, Scrope knew not where; but there they were, all good legitimate notes, and to the amount of some thousand pounds.”

T.A.J. Burnett, The Rise & Fall of a Regency Dandy: The Life and Times of Scrope Berdmore Davies

 

My most recent books have been set in Restoration England, during the reign of King Charles II (1660-1685.) This was a very good time for very bad gentlemen, when just about any excess could be explained away if one had a title, or at least was friends with the King.

Sir Charles Sedley (1639-1701) was a wealthy, well-connected baronet who wrote witty plays and poetry, played tennis with the King, dabbled in diplomacy, and eventually became a respectable politician in the House of Commons. He looks innocuous enough, left, but in 1663, he was best known for often being “rhetorically drunk”, and also for one particularly bad example of bad-boy-dom, so scandalous that Samuel Johnson was still sputtering over it a century later:

Sir Charles Sedley, [Lord Buckhurst], and Sir Thomas Ogle, got drunk at the Cock [a notorious tavern] in Bow Street, by Covent Garden, and going into the balcony exposed themselves to the populace below in very indecent postures. At last, as they grew warmer, Sedley stood forth naked, and harangued the populace in such profane language, that the publick indignation was awakened; the crowd attempted to force the door, and being repulsed, drove at the performers with stones, and broke the windows of the house.  For this misdemeanour, [the three gentlemen] were indicted, and Sedley was fined five hundred pounds….Sedley employed [his friend Harry] Killigrew to procure a remission from the King, but (mark the friendship of the dissolute!) they begged the fine for themselves, and exacted it to the last groat.

For a far more frank telling of these frat-house-style shenanigans, see Samuel Pepys’s diary entry – scroll down to the first annotation, and hold on to your coffee cup.

the end ,more story exist but only for premium member,please subscribed via comment.

The Mexico Historic Collections

The Mexico Historic Collections

1800-1900

 

Created by

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Copyright@2012

THIS THE SAMPLE OF E-BOOK IN CD-ROM NOT COMPLETE ILLUSTRATIONS,THE COMPLETE CD EXIST BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER,PLEASE SUBSCRIBED VIA COMMENT.

 Introduction

rthe history of Mexico

pre 1800

The Spanish Conquest

    Mesoamerica on the Eve of the Conquest

The first mainland explorations were followed by a phase of inland expeditions and conquest. The Spanish crown extended the Reconquista effort, completed in Spain in 1492, to non-Catholic people in new territories. In 1502 on the coast of present day Colombia, near the Gulf of Urabá, Spanish explorers led by Vasco Núñez de Balboa explored and conquered the area near the Atrato River. The conquest was of the Chibchan speaking nations, mainly the Muisca and Tairona indigenous people that lived here. The Spanish founded San Sebastian de Uraba in 1509—abandoned within the year, and in 1510 the first permanent Spanish mainland settlement in America, Santa María la Antigua del Darién.[11]

Hernán Cortés y Moctezuma meet

There is a difference in the ‘Spanish conquest of Mexico’ between the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire and the Spanish conquest of Yucatán. The former is conquest of the campaign, led by Hernán Cortés from 1519–21 and his Tlaxcala and other ‘indigenous peoples’ allied against the Mexica/Aztec empire. The Spanish conquest of Yucatán is the much longer campaign, from 1551–1697, against the Maya peoples of the Maya civilization in the Yucatán Peninsula of present day Mexico and northern Central America. The day Hernán Cortés landed ashore at present day Veracruz, April 22, 1519, marks the beginning of 300 years of Spanish hegemony over the region.

The Aftermath

Tenochtitlan, the Aztecs, and the Tlaxcalteca

Tenochtitlan had been almost totally destroyed by fire and cannon shots. Those Aztecs who survived were forbidden to live in the city and the surrounding isles, and they went to live in Tlatelolco.

Cortés imprisoned the royal families of the valley. To prevent another revolt, he personally tortured and killed Cuauhtémoc, the last Aztec Emperor; Coanacoch, the King of Texcoco, and Tetlepanquetzal, King of Tlacopan.

The Spanish had no intentions of turning over Tenochtitlan to the Tlaxcalteca. While Tlaxcalteca troops continued to help the Spaniards, and Tlaxcala received better treatment than other indigenous nations, the Spanish eventually disowned the treaty. Forty years after the conquest, the Tlaxcalteca had to pay the same tribute as any other indigenous community.

  • Political. Apparently, Cortes favored maintaining the political structure of the Aztecs, subject to relatively minor changes.
  • Religious. Cortes immediately banned human sacrifice throughout the conquered empire. Evangelization began in the mid-1520s and continued in the 1530s. Many of the evangelists learned the native languages and recorded aspects of native culture, providing a principal source for our knowledge about them. By 1560, more than 800 clergy were working to convert Indians in New Spain.

    “The Torture of Cuauhtémoc”, a 19th century painting by Leandro Izaguirre.

    By 1580, the number grew to 1,500 in 1580 and by 1650, to 3,000.

  • Economics … .

 Analysis of the Defeat

Military Tactics. The Alliance’s use of ambush during indigenous ceremonies allowed the Spanish to avoid fighting the best Aztec warriors in direct armed battle, such as during The Feast of Huitzilopochtli.

Smallpox and its Toll. Smallpox (Variola major and Variola minor) began to spread in Mesoamerica immediately after the arrival of Europeans. The indigenous peoples, who had no immunity to it, eventually died in the hundreds of thousands. A third of all the natives of the Valley of Mexico succumbed to it within six months of the arrival of the Spanish.

The Colonial Period (1521-1810)

Main article: Colonial Mexico

The capture of Tenochtitlan marked the beginning of a 300-year-long colonial period, during which Mexico was known as “New Spain“.

Period of the Conquest (1521–1650)

New Spain in 1803.

Contrary to a widespread misconception, Spain did not conquer all of the Aztec Empire when Cortes took Tenochtitlan. It required another two centuries to complete the conquest: rebellions broke out within the old Empire and wars continued with other native peoples.

After the fall of Tenochtitlan, it took decades of sporadic warfare to subdue the rest of Mesoamerica. Particularly fierce was the Chichimeca War (1576–1606) in the north.

A statue of a Chichimeca Warrior in the city of Queretaro

Economics. The Council of Indies and the mendicant establishments, which arose in Mesoamerica as early as 1524, labored to generate capital for the crown of Spain and convert the Indian populations to Catholicism. During this period and the following Colonial periods the sponsorship of mendicant friars and a process of religious syncretism combined the Pre-Hispanic cultures with Spanish socio-religious tradition. The resulting hodgepodge of culture was a pluriethnic State that relied on the “repartimiento“, a system of peasant “Republic of Indians” labor that carried out any necessary work. Thus, the existing feudal system of pre-Hispanic Mesoamerican culture was replaced by the encomienda feudal-style system of Spain, probably adapted to the pre-Hispanic tradition. This in turn was finally replaced by a debt-based inscription of labor that led to widespread revitalization movements and prompted the revolution that ended colonial New Spain.

Evolution of the Race. During the three centuries of colonial rule, less than 700,000 Spaniards, most of them men, settled in Mexico. The settlers intermarried with indigenous women, fathering the mixed race (mestizo) descendents who today constitute the majority of Mexico’s population.

The Colonial Period (1650–1810)

A representation of a Mestizo, in a Pintura de Castas from Mexico during the Spanish colonial period. The painting’s caption states “Spanish and Indian produce Mestizo”.

During this period, Mexico was part of the much larger Viceroyalty of New Spain, which included Cuba, Puerto Rico, Central America as far south as Costa Rica, the southwestern United States, and the Philippines. Spain during the 16th Century focused its energies on areas with dense populations that had produced Pre-Columbian civilizations, since these areas could provide the settlers with a disciplined labor force and a population to catechize. Territories populated by nomadic peoples were harder to conquer, and though the Spanish did explore a good part of North America, seeking the fabled “El Dorado”, they made no concerted effort to settle the northern desert regions in what is now the United States until the 17th Century.

Colonial law was in many ways destructive. No administrative office was open to any Mexican native, even those of pure Spanish blood. From an economic point of view, New Spain was administered principally for the benefit of Spain. For instance, the cultivation of grapes and olives, which grew particularly well in certain areas of the country, was banned out of fear that the harvest would compete with Spain’s. Only two ports, morever, were open to foreign trade—Vera Cruz on the Atlantic and Acapulco on the Pacific. In fact, foreigners had to obtain a special permit from the Royal government to enter Mexico, and few Mexicans were permitted to travel abroad. Education was discouraged, and few books were available.

 

Santa Anna

19th Century Mexico (1807–1910)
  • Map from 1829 showing Mexico and Guatemala.

  • Map of Mexico, 1847.

 

 

 

c.1785. Campeche – Guatemala . Front / Franca Canobas + Stline. Dated as per time that postmaster Canobas was in charge

£100

 

 

c.1800-1806. Mexico – Guatemala . 2 interesting usages E fronts / officials, one with 33 reales arrival Guatemala charge numeral (unique) (I).

£100

 

 

1802 (10 Oct). Veracruz – Spain. EL. / Nueva España / GRS / Arrival crown “V” (alencia). Endorsed. Navio St º Domingo. Very rare complete letter. VF (I).

£100

 

1804 (2 Aug)

. EARLIEST KNOWN LETTER TO USA . Campeche – Philadelphia / USA . EL. Full text. Red Baltimore cds + ship “Minerva”. In 1802, the Minerva, a ship owned by Crowninshield and Nathaniel West, was the first Salem vessel to circumnavigate the globe.

Only recorded letter to USA during colonial Mexico . According to 1799 ship date, the captain collected 2 cents USA + inland rate Baltimore – 12 1/2c. = 14 1/2c. Outstanding historical exhibition rarity. (I). During colonial times, mail to foreign countries was forbidden. See extended article in chapter. Mexican Maritime mail Encyclopedia by Heath – Schimmer + illustration on page 17.

£2.000

 

ship minerva

 

 

Mexican Independence and the 19th Century

(1807-1910)

 
c.1808. Mexico city – Nueva Guatemala. Front / Franco Mexico / mns “V(iva) F(ernando) 7º” (xxx/RR). Superb rarity of the rare “Viva Fernando VII” slogan on mail to Guatemala (I).

£100

   

 

 

 

c.1808. DF – Madrid . E. Dated by correspondence information double line FRANCO / MEXICO + “X” indicating no maritime charge (the recipient was a Royal officer). Exceptionally rare seldom seen in Mexican Maritime mail (mostly only from Peru ) (I).

£125

 

 

 

 

 

1809 (20 March). Campeche – Canary Isl. Via Veracruz . EL full text double line slanted NUEVA ESPAÑA (xx) + mns 7r. Return trip of America would sail via Cadiz , while on going from Spain was all transited in The Canary Isl. VF. Scarce town maritime origin, specially since it is full text letter (I).

£120

 

 

 

1809 (20 July). Veracruz – Spain. EL full text mns “Navio de Su Majestad San Leandro” + “Nueva / España” in grey ink + air rs 7. XF Scarce complete maritime letter (I).

£10

 

 

1809 (17 Nov). Veracruz – Cadiz / Spain. EL full text black washy NUEVA / ESPAÑA + fragata Concepcion + red 7rs. Arrival XF (I).

£7

 

 

1814 (15 May). Veracruz / Spain . EL full text mns “Fragata Oriente” (Military ship) + double red line “NUEVA / ESPAÑA (x/xx) straight letters type. Mns 7rs charge. Scarce complete letter (I).

£30

 

 

1815 (25 Nov). Veracruz – Spain. EL full text. Red dots boxed NUEVA / ESPAÑA + 7 rs mns. Fragata Christina / 2ª via. VF (I).

£60

 

 

c.1816. Yucatan / Merida – Madrid . Maritime letter front double line “PROVINCIA / DE YUCATAN ” + 7rs + dissinfection slit. V scarce mark in all forms (I).

£40

 

1819 (25 Sept). Veracruz – UK (7 Feb 20). EL fwded in Havana by Grey Fernandez and Bocker. Arrival cds. Mns. Charge on front. Displays great. Outstanding early colonial mail to UK (I).

£250

 

 

1819 (c.Nov,

as per text). An early British mail ship sailing. A 4-page letter (first two pages missing) sent to Mr Vetch in London (possibly a Company Secretary) describing problems and conditions for miners at the British-owned mines at Vila Grande and Mineral del Monte ( Pachuca district), ending on a hopeful note. There is no indication of any forwarding agent or of the ship on which the letter was carried, but it did receive a “Franco Veracruz ” cancel (in red) (VC7-6) in use between 1821 and 1831. It received the backstamp FPO JU 20 1828 on arrival on London , with in manuscript 9/- to pay (this was four times the basic rate for correspondence from Mexico . This letter would have been carried on the Tyrian packet, leaving Vera Cruz on 30 April 1828, and arriving in Falmouth on 18 June.

£50

 

c.1820 (correspondence date). Veracruz – Madrid. E. Double red “Franco en /Veracruz” (xxx) + Fragata Constitucion Spanish Gunboat named after 1812 Cadiz Liberal declaration. VF mark in maritime usage (I

£60

 

 After Independence (1821-1846)

 Empire or Republic?

Further information: First Mexican Republic

Political Developments in the South and North

1822 (4 April).

 Fort  of SAN JUAN DE ULLOA – Spain . Via Habana. EL dated Veracruz, but at this time being the only remaining colonial outpost San Juan, carried by ship Aquiles, INDIAS denoting Cuban transit + 7 reales arrival Spanish boat arrival. Dissinfection slits. VF and rarity cover, only one other complete letter and a front recorded from this last post. (I).

£350-500

 

c.1822.

Villa de Albarado – Spain. E boxed town (xxx) + mns “Correo Voluntario / o 1er Barco” + 7 rs arrival charge. At this time Veracruz was under siege from Fort San Juan de Ulloa. Rarity maritime town usage illustrated MMM page 22 (I).

£350-500

 

1823 (4 Nov).

Mexico – USA – UK .

Earliest US forwarded mail from Mexico EL with text from an Italian firm in Mexico City to London, carried by an unknown sailing ship, without markings (possibly by a passenger on board) to New York, where the forwarding agents, Bayard & Cº sent it on to the hanker, Frederick Huth, in London. Docketed arrival date 22 Jan 1824 ie 79 days or about 3 1/2 months en route. Possibly the earliest known letter after Mexican independence to have been sent from Mexico City to the USA . Le Roy Bayard & Cº were forwarding agents in New York between 1822 and 1825 (Rowe, 1973 edition, section 121). The letter left Vera Cruz just a month after the installation of Guadalupe Victoria, Mexico´s first President, in October 1823. According to the British Consul there, 123 small American vessels came to Vera Cruz in 1823, mostly bringing British goods originally imported into the USA . One of these vessels would have carried letters out of the mail on the return journey to the US .

£200

 

 

 

1825 (23 July).

MexicoDF -UK(8 Dec, 1825)

 FIRST OUTGOING MAIL AFTER LEGATION ESTABLISHMENT. VIA British Consular Agency, which pad just opened at spring 1825. EL carried by the “Jasper” sailed Vera Cruz August 1825 withFalmoutharrival on 8 Dec (ie 3 months route) (III

£400

 

 

1826 (3 Sept).

Guatemala – France . The COLONIAL OAXACA – DF – VERACRUZ postal route. E. Stline “Guatemala”, mns “Por Veracruz ” postal endorsement with Colonies / Bordeaux . Latest known date of this extraordinary route, which was the one during Colonial times, during which about 10-12 covers are recorded, one other post independence known showing this route, which we sold several years ago. The British Belize route opened  inmediately after. Superb example that shows exceptionally well. (VI).

£1.400

 

1827 (13 Nov).

S. Luis Potosi – Portugal. EL fwded via UK / Falmouth via Thomas Rogers (fwding agent on front). Extraordinary rare early transatlantic destination, earliest to Portugal by 39 years. (Other being a Maximilian period cover) also Porsmouth ship letter “on front” and Falmouth packet cds depart on reverse (Feb 13/28) (III).

£300

 

The federalists asked Gen. Antonio López de Santa Anna to overthrow Bustamante; he did, declaring General Manuel Gómez Pedraza (who won the electoral vote in 1828) as president. Elections were held, and Santa Anna took office in 1832.

Constantly changing political beliefs, as president (he served as president 11 times),[12] in 1834, Santa Anna abrogated the federal constitution, causing insurgencies in the southeastern state of Yucatán and the northernmost portion of the northern state of Coahuila y Tejas. Both areas sought independence from the central government. Negotiations and the presence of Santa Anna’s army brought Yucatán to recognize Mexican sovereignty, Santa Anna’s army turned to the northern rebellion. The inhabitants of Tejas, calling themselves Texans and led mainly by relatively recently arrived English-speaking settlers, declared independence from Mexico at Washington-on-the-Brazos on 2 March 1836, giving birth to the Republic of Texas. At the Battle of San Jacinto on April 21, 1836, Texan militias defeated the Mexican army and captured General Santa Anna.

In 1845,

 the U.S. Congress ratified Texas’ petition for statehood.

 Central America

Central America, which at the time of Independence was still part of the Viceroyalty, broke away freely and in a pacific way from Mexico during 1822 and 1823 and formed the short-lived United Provinces of Central America.

The northern states grew increasingly isolated, economically and politically, due to prolonged Comanche raids and attacks. New Mexico in particular had been gravitating toward Comancheria. In the 1820s, when the United States began to exert influence over the region, New Mexico had already begun to question its loyalty to Mexico. By the time of the Mexican-American War, the Comanches had raided and pillaged large portions of northern Mexico, resulting in sustained impoverishment, political fragmentation, and general frustration at the inability—or unwillingness—of the Mexican government to discipline the Comanches.[13]

Texas

A sprawling complex of buildings with low walls sits in a shallow valley overlooked by rolling hills.

The Fall of the Alamo, painted by Theodore Gentilz in 1844, depicts the Alamo complex from the south. The Low Barracks, the chapel, and the wooden palisade connecting them are in the foreground.

Soon after achieving independence, the Mexican government, in an effort to populate its northern territories, awarded extensive land grants in Coahuila y Tejas to thousands of families from the United States, on condition that the settlers convert to Catholicism and become Mexican citizens. The Mexican government also forbade the importation of slaves. These conditions were largely ignored. A key factor in the decision to allow Americans in was the belief that they would a) protect northern Mexico from Comanche attacks and b) buffer the northern states against U.S. westward expansion. The policy failed on both counts: the Americans tended to settle far from the Comanche raiding zones and used the Mexican government’s failure to suppress the raids as a pretext for declaring independence.[13]

The Texas Revolution or Texas War of Independence was a military conflict between Mexico and settlers in the Texas portion of the Mexican state Coahuila y Tejas.

The painting “Surrender of Santa Anna” by William Huddle shows the Mexican president and general surrendering to a wounded Sam Houston

The war lasted from October 2, 1835 to April 21, 1836. However, a war at sea between Mexico and Texas would continue into the 1840s. Animosity between the Mexican government and the American settlers in Texas, as well as many Texas residents of Mexican ancestry, began with the Siete Leyes of 1835, when Mexican President and General Antonio López de Santa Anna abolished the federal Constitution of 1824 and proclaimed the more centralizing 1835 constitution in its place.

War began in Texas on October 2, 1835, with the Battle of Gonzales. Early Texian Army successes at La Bahia and San Antonio were soon met with crushing defeat at the same locations a few months later. The war ended at the Battle of San Jacinto where General Sam Houston led the Texian Army to victory over a portion of the Mexican Army under Santa Anna, who was captured shortly after the battle. The conclusion of the war resulted in the creation of the Republic of Texas in 1836.

[edit] The Terms of Surrender

The war ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which stipulated that a) Mexico must sell its northern territories to the United States for US $15 million; b) the United States would protect the property rights of Mexicans living in the ceded territories; and c) the United States would assume $3.25 million in debt owed by Mexico to U.S. citizens.

[edit] Analysis of the Defeat

American occupation of Mexico City

The Mexican-American War was independent Mexico’s first encounter with a large, well-organized and -equipped army. After having won two wars against Spain and, France, Mexico was overwhelmed by the number of European countries that wanted to colonize the American continent

The primary reason for Mexico’s defeat was its problematic internal situation, which led to a lack of unity and organization for a successful defense.

[edit] The Gadsen Purchase

The United States had not realized when it was negotiating the Treaty of Hidalgo that a much easier railroad route to California lay slightly south of the Gila River, which the treaty designated part of the border between the two countries. In 1853, President Santa Anna sold off the Gadsden Strip to the US for $5 million. This loss of still more territory provoked considerable outrage among the Mexican populace, but Santa Anna claimed that he needed money to rebuild the army from the war. In the end, he squandered most of it. The Southern Pacific Railroad, the second transcontinental railroad to California, was built through this purchased land in 1881.

[edit] The Struggle for Liberal Reform (1855-1872)

Main article: La Reforma

La Reforma was a period halfway through the 19th century in the history of Mexico that was characterized by liberal reforms and the transformation of Mexico into a nation state. A new generation of political figures came to power who were shocked at the ease by which Mexico had lost to the United States in 1848. Notable liberal politicians in the reform period include Benito Juárez, Juan Álvarez, Ignacio Comonfort, Miguel Lerdo de Tejada, Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada, Melchor Ocampo, José María Iglesias and Santos Degollado. The Reforma is usually considered to have begun with the overthrowing and removal of Antonio López de Santa Anna in the Revolution of Ayutla in 1855. There is less consensus about the ending point of the Reforma. Common dates are 1861, after the liberal victory in the Reform War, 1867, after the republican victory of the French intervention in Mexico and 1876 after the Rebellion of Tuxtepec in which Porfirio Díaz overthrew president Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada.

[edit] Santa Anna and Benito Juarez

In 1855, the Liberal Party overthrew Santa Anna during the Revolution of Ayutla. The moderate Liberal Ignacio Comonfort became president. The Moderados tried to find a middle ground between the nation’s liberals and conservatives.

[edit] The 1857 Constitution

During Comonfort’s presidency, the Constitution of 1857 was drafted creating the Second Federal Republic of Mexico. The new constitution retained most of the Roman Catholic Church‘s Colonial-era privileges and revenues. Up to this point, the Church controlled most education in Mexico in addition to large tracts of land and also sent considerable sums of money back to Rome. The 1857 constitution granted religious freedom, stating only that the Catholic Church was the favored faith. Such reforms were unacceptable to the leadership of the clergy and the conservatives. Comonfort and members of his administration were excommunicated, and a revolt broke out.

[edit] The War of Reform

The revolt led to the War of Reform (December 1857 to January 1861), which grew increasingly bloody as it progressed and polarized the nation’s politics. Many Moderates, convinced that the Catholic Church’s political power had to be curbed, came over to the side of the Liberals. For some time, the Liberals and Conservatives simultaneously administered separate governments, the Conservatives from Mexico City and the Liberals from Veracruz. The war ended with a Liberal victory, and liberal President Benito Juárez moved his administration to Mexico City.

[edit] French Intervention and the Second Mexican Empire (1861-1867)

Portrait of Maximilian I of Mexico, by Franz Xaver Winterhalter

In the 1860s, the country was again invaded, this time by France, which installed the Habsburg Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian of Austria as Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico, with support from the Roman Catholic clergy, conservative elements of the upper class, and some indigenous communities. Although the French suffered an initial defeat (the Battle of Puebla–now commemorated as the Cinco de Mayo holiday), they eventually defeated the Mexican army and set Maximilian on the throne.

The Mexican-French monarchy set up administration in Mexico City, governing from the National Palace. Maximilian’s consort was Empress Carlota of Mexico. The Imperial couple chose as their home Chapultepec Castle.

The Imperial couple noticed how the people of Mexico (and especially the Indians) were treated, and wanted to ensure their human rights. They were interested in a Mexico for the Mexicans, and did not share the views of Napoleon III, who was interested in exploiting the rich mines in the northwest of the country.

Benito Juárez, President of Mexico (1861–1863 and 1867–1872)

Maximilian was a liberal: he favored the establishment of a limited monarchy, one that would share its powers with a democratically elected congress. This was too liberal to please Mexico’s Conservatives, while the liberals refused to accept a monarch, leaving Maximilian with few enthusiastic allies within Mexico. President Benito Juárez kept the federal government functioning during the French intervention that put Maximilian in power.

After taking power, Maximilian also received a letter from Rome requesting full restoration of church privileges in Mexico, but he declared that the Mexican people and not outsiders would decide this.

Meanwhile, the Mexican expedition was unpopular with the French public as it was both expensive and seemed to produce little if any value for France. Finally in the spring of 1865, with the Civil War over, the United States demanded the withdrawal of French troops from Mexico, which the latter quietly complied with.

In mid-1867, following repeated losses in battle to the Republican Army and ever decreasing support from Napoleon III, Maximilian was captured and executed by Juárez’s soldiers. From then on, Juárez remained in office until his death in 1872.

 

1831 (2 Aug). DF – UK . EL full text carried via Tampico packet “Spey” dep 25 Aug 31, mail offloaded at New Orleans 3 Sept 31. Fred Frey & Cº for a faster transatlantic trip / ship letter Liverpool / London 14 Oct 1831 / 1sh 7d due. Exceptional routing (Westpex 88 U$ 250) (III).

£100

 

1831 (6 Nov). Soto La Marina – UK. EL. Red FRANCO EN / LA MARINA. Rated at 3/2d postage due by Messrs Huth the bankers, as addressees. On the reverse, the Liverpool Ship letter marking, and in red, the London receiving mark, 30 January 1832, showing three months in route. This letter would have been carried on the packet sailing ship “Calypso” which left Vera Cruz on 30 November 1831, arriving at Falmouth on 18 January. 1842. Superb exhibition item.

£200

 

1832 (11 Jan) ( Tepic ) – San Blas – Tampico – Falmouth – Glasgow . E fwded twice at San Blas and Tampico with green ” MEXICO ” ornamental Falmouth green pmk of the packet. Probably cancel by the “Lapwing”. Extraordinary document. Illustrated MMM color plate 1 (III).

£350

 

1832 (18 Feb).MEXICO-USA- BRITISH MAIL.Mexico City-UK. Letter cover from William de Drusina in Mexico City to the banker Frederick Huth in London, docketed 18 Jan and to be sent via Philadelphia, showing the forwarder in mss as Hagerdorn, Leupold & Cº, dated 10 March, and on the reverse a crowed circle “Ship Letter, London” dated 23 April 1832 and Unpaid oval mark in red 2A Noon 2 with the same date. This is aLondonmark (British Postmarks, Fig 29, Alcock andHollandnº 154), and a large 8 on the front suggest that there was 8d to pay. The letter cover was 95 days en route. The “Ship Letter London” mark appears on p 230 of Alcock & Holland´s “British Postmarks, 1960 and is Fig898 in their 1935 handbook. An exceptional routing seen at this early period only

 

1832 (5 Sept). FRENCH MAILS. Mexico City – France / Bordeaux (8 Feb 1833). EL full text. Prepaid “Franco hasta el Puerto” (in red) to Veracruz – Postage not specified transported per paquebot du Mexique Balguerie et fils “Le Jean-Pierre” the ship sailed to Marseille due to a cholera epidemic in Bordeaux. The letter was dissinfected “Purifee a Marseille” and sent overland to Bordeaux . “Taxes de voie de mer” (seamail charges) 15 decimes per 7,5 gram total postage due changed from 42 to 71 decimes. French cancels (in black) boxed ” Bordeaux paq reg” and ” pays d´outremer”. Exhibition rarity. Illustrated and studied at MMM page 100 (VI).

£280

 

 

 

 

 

1836 (1 July). DF -Netherlands. Letter fromMexico CitytoAmsterdam, marked Per BM Packet Reindeer viaFalmouth. On the reverse theLondonreceipt marking 19 Aug 1836, and theAmsterdamreceipt marking 21 Aug together with a Dutch inscription “Engeland… (indecipherable), all in red. The sum of 8/8d (in ms) postage due was charged inLondon, and a further 179 inAmsterdam. The letter was 7 1/2 weeks in transit. The Reindeer sailed from Vera Cruz on 3 July and arrived inFalmouthon 17 Aug 1836. Scarce early destruction + British Conection (III

 

1837 (18 Aug). Rancho Santa Rita / near Matamoros – USA. EL. With full contains posted at “PUERTO DE / MATAMOROS” (xxx/RRR) + Franco endorsed on reverse “per Goleta COMANCHA” / Captain Breda PP. Via NO Oct 2 + ship (both blue). Historical text reads: the letter reports the hardships of ranching: “…the comanches and other indian tribes are hostile and make it impossible to harvest … the preparations of the Mexican armee to attack Texas are not completed due to lack of horses, artillery and ammunition … hostilities can not be expected before spring …” illustrated MMM page 137 (VIII

£250

 

1837 (29 Aug). DF – UK. EL. Drusina & G.J. Martinez Mexico City 29 Aug 1837. Gold finch packet left Vera Cruz on 1 Sept 1837 and arrived on 5 Nov. Postmarked Mexico City 30 Aug – per Goldfinch packet received London 7 nov 1837 – postage £ 2.1.0. Staggering transportation payment for a Mexican British mail system payment, the highest we are aware. (Schimmer 87 U$ 1,200!) (III).

 

1838 (10 Aug). Zacatecas – FRANCE. FIRST FRENCH – MEXICAN WAR / PASTRY WAR (named after its origin for a local French citizen dispute). Letter contains fascinating historical account. Very few letters survived of this period. French consul in Zacatecas / fwded by A. Montluc + British packet STAR dep 2 Sept 38 Tampico / Falmouth 10ct. Illustrated MMM page 45 with extensive article (III).

 

1840 (14 Feb). Double letter sheet from the firm of James Chabot inTampicoto the bankers, Rothschild & Sons, inLondon. This was carried by the British gun brig “Reindeer” serving as a mail carrier for the British post office packet station in England at Falmouth. The letter is dated by the sender as 16 Feb 1840, two years before the establishment of a British postal agency at the Consulate inTampico. It bears a red star control mark, which is known as an inspector´s mark, imposed by the GPO in London on the arrival and departure of some overseas mail after checking that the ratings had been correct. The letter itself was forwarded by A.Montluc, a French merchant who acted as principal forwarding agent inTampicoat the time. The manuscript 2/3 represents the collect charge imposed by the GPO inLondonon arrival. On the back of the cover is the GPO receipt mark dated 17 April 1840, showing that the letter was en route for a total of 61 days

 

1840 (7 Sept). Zacatecas – France / Le Havre. EL. Carried. By British packet and docketed as received on 4 Dec. The route used “pr Packet” (in red mss on the front) was by the sailing packet “Skylark” from Tampico to Cove in Ireland, “COVE SHIPLETTER” marking with Cove cds of 28 Nov on arrival, together with a 1/6d seamail charge differing from the standard 2/3d rate. InLondonthe letter received the square arrival mark in red date 5nº29 40, similar to Alcock and Holland´s Fig 445, and was then cancelled in red in bothCalaisandParis3 Dec, with the Havre cancel the following day. 27 decimes postage due to pay, 57 days en route. Most unusual routing (III).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1841 (24 July). Colotlan ( Guadalajara ) – France. EL / FRANCO en COLOTLAN / (xxx) with another letter enclosed, marked “Via Vera Cruz” and carried by an unknown French ship with a “PD” marking in red to Diehoud “near Argenzac Department” in the Correze. No rate mark. The letter was given an “Outremer Pauillac” (ie Bordeaux ) cancel dated “9 October”, and backstamped with the transit markings of Bordeaux , Beaulieu, Tulle. Three months in transit. XF item (IV).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1843 (8 March). British MAIL with DOUBLE FORWARDING AGENTS. A letter cover to London from Uhde & Pini in Mazatlan on the Pacific coast, dated 8 March 1843, and apparently carried out of the mail across the country to Mexico City , where it was forwarded to Vera Cruz on 23 March by the agents Sengstack & Schütte. On arrival, it was cancelled “Franqueado Vera Cruz” by the Mexican post office (very faint) and forwarded again via the British Consulate (cds “Vera Cruz 29 March”) by the agent Brunner & Büsing, marked “per Royal Mail Steam Packet”. On arrival in London , it received the datemerk “11 May 1843″ in red; the standard rate of 2/3d for a single letter was marked and paid by the addressee, Messrs Huth. 54 days en route. This example of a double, or possibly triple, forwarding agent involved, is illustrated on page 371 of “Mexican Maritime Mail”. Illustrated MMM page 371 with extensive chapter search. RMSP Thames departed Veracruz 27 March 1843. Displays excellent (III).

 

 

1844 (17 July). Mazatlan – UK . Forwarding agents via British Mail. E endorsed Sengstock Schütte / Mexico DF 22 Aug 1844 / fwded / to Brünner & Büssing at the Mexican P.O. in Veracruz , were posted and handed to Veracruz BPO. Per RMSP Severn, departed Veracruz 1 Sept 1844. Scarce double forwading + double post office (Mexican + British). Displays well opened. Signed Schimmer (III).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The War With the United States of America (1846-1853)

Main article: Mexican-American War

The Mexican–American War was an armed conflict between the United States and Mexico from 1846 to 1848 in the wake of the 1845 U.S. annexation of Texas, which Mexico considered part of its territory despite the 1836 Texas Revolution. American forces invaded and conquered New Mexico, California, and parts of what is currently northern Mexico; meanwhile, the American Navy conducted a blockade, and took several garrisons on the Pacific coast of Mexico—largely what is now California, but also farther south. Another American army captured Mexico City, which forced Mexico to agree to the sale of its northern territories to the U.S. American territorial expansion to the Pacific coast was the goal of President James K. Polk, the leader of the Democratic Party.[14] However, the war was highly controversial in the U.S., with the Whig Party and anti-slavery elements strongly opposed. Heavy American casualties and high monetary cost were also criticized. The major consequence of the war was the forced Mexican Cession of the territories of Alta California and New Mexico to the U.S. in exchange for $18 million. In addition, the United States forgave debt owed by the Mexican government to U.S. citizens. Mexico accepted the Rio Grande as its national border, and the loss of Texas. Meanwhile gold was discovered in California, which immediately became an international magnet for the California Gold Rush.

 Santa Anna, Again

Santa Anna was Mexico’s leader during the conflict with Texas. Santa Anna was in and out of power again during the Mexican-American War. After Texas joined the Union in 1846, the U.S. government sent troops to Texas to secure the territory, subsequently ignoring Mexico’s demands for withdrawal. Mexico saw this as intervention in its internal affairs.

[edit] The Mexican-American War (1846–1848)

The Brown Bess the Mexican army’s basic weapon during the Mexican-American War

In response to a Mexican attack on Fort Texas (subsequently renamed Fort Brown), the U.S. Congress declared war on May 13, 1846; Mexico followed suit on 23 May. Thus began the Mexican–American War, which took place in two phases: the western (aimed at securing California) and Central Mexico (aimed at capturing Mexico City) campaigns. The California campaign was brief and involved mostly skirmishes: the main Mexican resistance came from the Californios, and no side fielded more than 700 men in any fighting. The United States completed its occupation of California by January 1847.

The Mexico City Campaign

The amphibious assault on Veracruz

 

1846 (27 June)

. Colotlan – France. EL. With departure Mexico P.O. “FRANCO / COLOTLAN” (xxx/RR) + 4. ViaVeracruz- Habana carried by Spanish Boat / Habana 26 AGO 46 where handed to British P.O. /Havana(2 Sept) for transatlantic crossing viaUKowards. Extraordinary (IV

 

In March 1847,

 U.S. President James K. Polk sent an army of 12,000 volunteer and regular soldiers under General Winfield Scott to the port of Veracruz. The 70 ships of the invading forces arrived at the city on 7 March and began a naval bombombardment. After landing his men, horses, and supplies, Scott began the Siege of Veracruz. The city (at that time still walled) was defended by Mexican General Juan Morales with 3,400 men. Veracruz replied as best it could with artillery to the bombardment from land and sea, but the city walls were reduced. After 12 days, the Mexicans surrendered. By far the greatest number of casualties on the U.S. side was due to yellow fever, which significantly reduced the number of active American troops.[citation needed]

Scott marched west with 8,500 men, while Santa Anna entrenched with artillery and 12,000 troops on the main road halfway to Mexico City (the Battle of Cerro Gordo Cerro ). Santa Anna’s guns were trained on the road, but Scott sent 2,600 mounted dragoons ahead, and Mexican artillery prematurely fired on them, revealing their positions. Armed with this vital information, Scott ordered his troops to trek through the rough terrain to the north, setting up his artillery on the high ground and flanking Santa Anna. Although aware of the positions of U.S. troops, the Mexican army was unprepared for the ensuing onslaught and was routed.

A painting of the American assault on the Chapultapec castle.

Scott pushed on to Puebla, Mexico’s second largest city, which capitulated without resistance on 1 May—the citizens were hostile to Santa Anna. After the Battle of Chapultepec (13 September 1847), Mexico City was occupied; Scott became its military governor. Many other parts of Mexico were also occupied.

Some Mexican units fought with distinction. One of the justly commemorated units was a group of six young Military College cadets (now considered Mexican national heroes). These cadets fought to the death defending their college during the Battle of Chapultepec. Another group revered by Mexicans was the Batallón de San Patricio, a unit composed of hundreds of mostly Irish-born American deserters who fought under Mexican command until the overwhelming defeat at the Battle of Churubusco (20 August 1847). Most of the San Patricios were killed; many of those taken prisoner were court-martialled as traitors and executed at Chapultepec.

1848 (28 July). Mexico City – USA / New Orleans . Via Veracruz . Not back stamped. EL. Full text written on a sheet of REVENUE PAPER “Sello tercero – CUATRO REALES” for the year 1846-7. Text reports about condition in Mexico City and the senders intention to claim land along the Rio Grande (in English), very interesting as it happens during US Mexican war.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1848 (16 Oct). BRITISH + FRENCH Maritime mail Exchange / MAIL toItaly. This wrapper, sent by a British packet ship on October 16, 1848 from Vera Cruz at the standard seamail rate of 2/3d to a forwarding agent in London, Heath, Furse & Cº (see cachet on reverse) was to be forwarded to an Italian addressee, “Don Andres Pracaida”  at “Carrara”. On arrival inLondon, it received the GPO mark “NL 23 no2 1848″ and on the front theLondoncds showing “Paid 23 Nov, 1848″ and on the front theLondoncds showing “Paid 23 Nov, 1848″. Heath, Furse crossed out their name and address, and after apparently paying £ 1.3.0 to the GPO (see notation in red) presumably to cover the postal cost to Italy, put the letter back into the London mail where it received the striking “Returned from” marking against the “Paid cds Originally marked “par France” (in the left hand bottom corner). Sent from London via Boulagne (with the standard French cancel for British mail dated “24 Nov”) it was given, in red, the scarce “PF” in oval (see Hafinger “Monographie der Franzoesischen Briefmarke” Val.I, p20) strike signifying “Port Payé jusqu” ala Frontiereand on crossing the frontier into Savoy also had a 10 decimes postage due to France superimposed in manuscript. At that point it was given an Italian marking “Via di Pt Beauvoisin” and on arriving inLuccareceived on the reverse the town cancel dated “1 Dec 1848″. Thereafter there are no markings, but the mss inscription “Iconosciuto” on the reverse suggests that the letter was never delivered. The letter was at least 76 days in transit. The nº 30 at the top right hand corner is probably a letter file number placed on it by the forwarding agent inLondonat the same time as the payment for forwarding was noted in red. Per RMSP “Teviot” departed Vera Cruz 18 October 1848. Veracruz BPO reverse. Exceptional postal history item (III) + (VI

 

 

 

 

1848 (12 Dec). Tequache / Yucatan – USA / NO. EL. With text oval FRANCO / MERIDA . With “ship / 6 cents” (xx). Addressed to the French Consul. VF. Rare maritime origin area. Illustrated MMM page 214 (VIII).

 

1848 (12 Dec). Tequache / Yucatan – USA / NO. EL. With text oval FRANCO / MERIDA . With “ship / 6 cents” (xx). Addressed to the French Consul. VF. Rare maritime origin area. Illustrated MMM page 214 (VIII).

 

 

 

1849 (1 Aug). Veracruz – USA. EL. Veracruz paid crown circle (xxx). ViaMobile/ Ala. Red cds + “ship / 12″ oval mark. RMSPtrentdepVeracruz16 Aug 49. Lovely condition item +USAdestination for the crown circle (very scarce) EX Everett Earl. lllustrated MMM page 53 (VIII

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1849 (27 Sept). MEXICO BRITISH CONSULAR LEGATION postal cachet to USA . DF – USA . EL. Docketed “27 September” and bearing “Mexico City” cancel in red, the circular seal mark of the British Consulate in Mexico City”, and the “Crown in Circle” “Paid at Vera Cruz” cancel of the British consular postal agency there, together with the Consulates cds dated “Oct 17 1849″ and impression of the British “extraordinario” courier, Rafael Veraza, from Mexico City to Vera Cruz, and thence by the RMSP packet ship to Mobile on its inward run from England via Vera Cruz. In Mobile, it received the post office handstamp in blue dated “28 October” and “Ship” before being sent on to Philadelphia, arriving there on 16 Nov, ie 50 days en route. The letter was rated at 1/-, in mns on the front, by way of British sea charges, with 10 cents to pay in blue as the US rate. Per RMSP “Teviot” departed Vera Cruz 18 Oct 1849. ONLY USAGE of British Consular cachet to US that we´ve been seen (VIII).

 

 

 

1849 (27 Nov). Tampico – USA. British TAMPICO crown circle in red. EL. Sta.Anna Tamaulipas Mexican postal mark, red BPO Tampico + British charge to USA. Per RMSP ” Clyde ” departed 17 Jan. Superb condition. Ex – Everell Earl (1981 – 1,000 U$). Illustrated MMM page 53-50 (VIII).

 

1849 (14 Dec). Mexico DF – UK. EL. Via Acapulco (13 Jan 1850). “Test” letter to try a new mail route via Acapulco and Panama . During 1848-9. Traffic strips in the American Pacific Coast increased enormously due to the Gold rush of California . This letter tried to benefit of that. Extraordinary. Proper charges / Panama + British. Illustrated MMM page 241. (III).

 

1849 816 Dec). USA – BRITISH MAIL. Veracruz – UK. Via ALABAMA. E. Carried out of the mail and posted by forwarder J. Bell & Cº at mobile, Alabama 24 Dec (oval blue mark) – Via Halifax to London. 5 cents US Inland, 16 cents packet and 3 cents British inland charges = 24 cents 1/- collected from recipient. Exceptional routing the only we´ve seen having such a conecting point on transatlantic mail. Arrives London 22 Jan 50. Illustrated MMM page 56.

 

 

 

 

1850 

The political aftermath of the war raised the slavery issue in the U.S., leading to intense debates that pointed to civil war;

the Compromise of 1850 provided a brief respite.

 

1851 (8 March).

 Queretaro – USA. EL. Full text.FranklinB. Walton, MD 8 MArch 1851 -Queretaro”3″ (reales) “Franco” – inland rate prepaid (all in red) ship rate of 1851: unpaid ship under3,000 miles7 cents. Scarce combination of Mexican + US postal administration

 

1851 (22 March).

Acapulco – USA / Mass. EL. Written on board US steamer ” Oregon ” via Panama . California gold rush time period 40 cts paid in full. Illustrated MMM page 244 (VIII).

 

1852 (2 Jan).

Tepic – USA / NY. Albany . Envelope red “Franqueado / en Tepia” (xxx) + “4” charge on reverse. Via N.O. + ship 7. (1851 ship rate for less than 2,000 miles 2 cents + Inland 5 cents). Via Veracruz. VF. Illustrated MMM page 243 (VIII).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1852 (9 Jan).

 Puebla – Cadiz (1 Feb). Via Veracruz – Habana. Spanish mail ship “5” reales blue Habana + 7 rs red Spain modified from a 5 rs (to include Cuban charge) EL full contains. V interesting (II).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1852 (2 Sept)

. Guadalajara – FRANCE. EL full text “Franqueado / Guadalajara” cds Mexico post administration to Veracruz BPO / 4rs internal prepayment. Via British mail + red “Art 13″ box. Unusual systems combinations. VF + a rarity out of this early maritime mail.

 

1852 (29 Sept).

Veracruz – Tampico . EL. With the cds of the British postal agency in Vera Cruz, this letter, which was first cancelled at the Mexican post office there and then given the British “Crown in Circle” “Paid at Vera Cruz” cancel was carried by the RMSP steamer “Dee” to Tampico, which sailed that day. 1/ – shown as paid by the sender. An excellent strike and appealing cover (IV).

 

c.1852. Acapulco (?)

 – Veracruz. E. With mns endorsement “Por vapor” Turbide de Orleans el 11 de Mayo, stline ACAPULCO (xxx/RR) + “3”. The route is obscure, but in John Heath´s opinion this cover was posted by a ship captain atAcapulcoforVeracruz. Xtraord. rare preph postmark + postal history ite (XI

 

1853 (11 Aug).

 Puerto de Mazatlan to France. EL. Por el paquete Ingles. With a fullMazatlancancel in red + FRANCO in wreath, the letter was apparently charged “6” (reales) to reach theportofVera Cruzwhich may have been paid there. Backstamped with the cds of the British postal agency at the Consulate in Vera Cruz dated “4 September”, a London transit receiving mark in red, a Paris cancel dated “4 October” and a Bordeaux cancel of 9 October, this letter was apparently redirected to an address at Valence, with the postage due increased from 34 decimes to 42. Two months en route. Excellent. (IV

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1853 (25 Oct).

MEXICAN MAIL AND INLAND COMPANY. DF -Pueblacolor beautiful embossed illustrated paddle steamer envelope front / carried by Mexican postal administration. Addressed to James C.Curran c/o A.Blumenknow the only postally used cover recorded of this line. One of the greatest classic Mexican maritime rarities. Illustrated MMM color plate 5 (VIII

£500

 

 

1854 (23rd March).

 Zacatecas -FRANCEPANAMABPO ROUTING DISRUPTION. Rarity for its routing from BPO atEast Mexican Coast,Panama/Veracruz. Per RMSP “Teviot” departed Vera Cruz 4 April 1854. EL with Zacatecas cancel Yag-Bash Z5-7 (used only in 1854) and marked as 4 reales paid, to be sent “Por el Vapor de Vera Cruz” with the backstamped cds of the British postal agency in Vera Cruz dated 4 April, and in red “Panama Transit” followed by the Loncon transit mark dated 29 Apr and the Anglo – French Calais exchange cancel of 30 April, being then delivered via Paris on 2 May Panama transit. 21 decimes to pay in postage due. The interesting and most unusual mark suggest that as the letter was likely to miss the regular British packet boat which was due to leave Tampico for Southampton on 30 March, it was taken instead to the port of Mazatlan on the Pacific coast and then shipped to Panama, taken across the isthmus by rail to the port of Chagres where a British packet could have brought it up to Vera Cruz just in time to catch the RMSP “Teviot” which departed on 4 April. The total journey time on this section of the route would have been 12 days, and it is known that British firms using Gulf ports at the time did in fact contemplate using the route in transit viaPanama(see p 240 of Mexican Maritime Mail), althought not in general successfully. This may have been an exception; and it is interesting to note that for some reason on arriving in Calais, the letter was not given the usual Anglo-French GB accountancy tray marking, but only the mns 21 d

ecimes to pay by way of postage due arrival

 

1854 (21 May).

USA Steamer Antilope / off SAN DIEGO / California – NY. Carried by Mexican West Coast steamer. “PAID / STD” + oval “PAID / CITY / 24 JT Exp Post”. Via Adam Express. Envelope with full contains mentioning S. Diego and SF Excellent transcontinental crossing + A E Cº (VIII).

 

1854 (22 July).

 Zacatecas – France. EL oval illustr FRANCO / ZACATECAS. Via Veracruz BPO. Censored by RMSP ” Solent ” dep 4 Aug 54. Red “Colonies / Art 13″ + charges. Excellent usage. (IV).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1854. Fresnillo – FRANCE . Entire from Fresnillo in the State of Zacatecas (Yag/Bash 57 and 57A) addressed to Señor Domingo Sescosse at Lanasoro (Pont Majours) near Bayonne , Lower Pyrenees, France, and dated 19 July 1854. Inscribed “Francia”, “por Vera Cruz”, “En el paquete Ing(les)” and por Bayonne, and on the reverse flap a 4 reales domestic postage due rate marking, it received the cds of the British postal agency in Vera Cruz on 4 Aug 1854, the London marking 29 Aug 1854, the Angl Amb Calais marking (very faint under FRANCO), the red boxed “Colonies & Art 13″ at Calais, and cancels at Paris, Ustariz (twice), Salies de Bearn (twice), and Bayonne on 30 Aug, 1st and 2nd September, and 3 Sept respectively, with in manuscript 15 decimes to be paid by addressee as postage due. The letter was 45 + days in transit. Scarce combination of mail systems. Per RMSP “Solent” departed Vera Cruz 4 Aug 1854.

 

 

 

 

1854 (24 Nov). Mineral dela Luz/ Gjto – France. E. With double ring pmk “MINERAL DELA LUZ/ FRANCO” (xxx/RRR), discovery copy, with Yag – Bash GN45, recorded but not illustrated, “7” via BPO Veracruz. Per RMSP “Treviot” departedVeracruz5 Dec 54. Exceptional transatlantic diff post office pmks comb cover

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

c.1854. Front of a cover to the Cashier of the New Orleans Canal Company, eith reverse flap showing a strike “Attakapakas Packet – J.J. Labartine Rio Grande” handstamp in red ie transferred at Rio Grande from Mexico with, in red, oval “Paid F.A.Dentzel” – Agent P.O. – New Orleans. A maritime cover only in the sense that the letter crossed the Rio Grande (VIII).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1855 (22 June). Zacatecas – France. EL / FRANCO EN ZACATECAS / double line + 6. Via BPO Veracruz, per RMSP “Wye” dep 5 July 55 / Colonies Artº 13 accontancy marky. VF (IV).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1855 (20 Oct). Aguascalientes – France . EL. Boxed dated town name + Franco (both xxx). Via BPO Veracruz / 3 Nov 55 / RMSP Solent . 43 days transit VF transatlantic. Town mpk usage (IV).

 

1856 (19 Feb). Puebla – USA. EL full text Puebla ds + Franco boxes red NO cds + steamship 10. 2 reales for domestic prepayment shown on reverse. Displays well opened. Scarce overseas combination of diff postal administrations. VF

 

1856 (23 May). La Luz / Gjto – France. E. Double ring “FRANCO EN LA LUZ ” / mns date + Colonies Artº 18 (xxx/RR) the scarce type for use only during 1856. Carried via Veracruz / BPO / 4 june 56 by RMSP “Type”. Exceptional good condition (IV).

 

 

1856 (2 July).MexicoCity -FRANCE-GERMANY.EL. British Consular Postal AgencyVeracruz2 July 1856 instruction: “per Royal mail steam packet” London Transit 1 Au 56 -Calaisexchange office accountancy tray “Colonies Art. 18″ 15 decimes postage due assessed. Per RMSP “Conway” departed Vera Cruz 5 July 1856. Addressed had moved, the letter was forwarded to the Hamburg Thurn & Taxis post office 4/8/1856. 222 Pfennig (Hamburgcurrency 1 mark= 192 Pfennig) postage due. A very scarce combination usage of Veracruz BPO with red Colonies Art 18. Illustrated MMM page 298

 

 

1857 (2 Feb). DF – Veracruz . EXTRAORDINARIO mail with DOS REALES. Docketed Julio F. Uhink Mexico City 2 Feb 1857. Instruction P.Extraordinario. EL full text fkd 25 1856 issue. It is assumed that all mail transported by the British Courier Service paid double postage. Single letters to Vera Cruz should have been charged with 4 – not 2 reales. The letter was delivered in Veracruz 3 Feb confirming the use of the courier service. Apparently the only known example.

 

1857 (27 April). Colima – DF. EL. Fkd 2rs 1856 issue. As per Karl Schimmer quoted a letter of great postal history importance text “The steamers of the PMSS Cº propose touching the port of Manzanillo once a month, both on their voyage from Panama and San Francisco…” “You may therefore expect on or about the 23rd of each month the steamer fromPanamabound to this port and on or about the 25th of each month, the steamer thence forPanama”. “We will presume this arrangement will be most desirable to you, as it will prevent your treasures for either place remaining long in Manzanillo…”. K. Schimmer 1992 U$ 1,200). Illustrated MMM page 246 with 3 pages of extensive article dedicated (VIII

 

1858 (2 Aug). DF – France. E. Fkd 1856 2rs deep green, name + cds via BPO Veracruz / RMSP “Solent” / 4 Aug 58. VF 2rs. 1st issue overseas scarce usage as single franking (IV

 

1859 (27 July). Hermosillo – Guaymas. E fkd 1856 1rl yellow vertical strip of three, Hermosillo district name + double line “Franco en / Hermocillo” cancel cover. Scarce district + rare low value multiple on cover. F-VF.

 

1859 (19 Oct). EXTRAORDINARIO del 19 Oct 59. DF – USA / New Orleans . The special courier mail. Letter front fkd 1856 issue 4rs green + 8 reales lilac horiz pair all large margins, tied cds. New Orleans cds + STEAMSHIP circular cachet. High manuscript 40 cts (US) for US arrival charge. Ex Michael Hart. Mepsi Cert (+ 9178). Outstanding Mexican maritime item. Illustrated MMM page 63 (VIII).

 

1860 (13 March).Hermosillo- Guaymas. EL full text fkd 1856 single 2 rs intense green,Hermosillodistrict name + double strightline cancel. XF

 

1860 (5 May). Hermosillo – Guaymas. EL fkd 1856 2rs green (x2) Hermosillo district name, “Franco en / Hermocillo” tied cancels. Most aesthetic appealing i

 

1860 (23 Nov). DF – Veracruz . SERVICIO EXTRAORDINARIO / BRITISH COURIER SERVICE DF – VERACRUZ – DF. Docketed DF 1 Sept 60. Double normal postage 6rs E. Fkd 2rs + 4 rs 1856, distr name, cds. Endorsed “por el extraordinario del paquete ingles”. 6rs scarce rate for extraordinario (normally 4 or 8rs) (IV).

 

1860 (28 Dec). Mexico City – Germany . 28 Dec 1860. Letter from Watermeyer Kaufman in Mexico City to Limbach, near Chemnitz in Germany, via Vera Cruz, where it would have been carried by RMS “Clyde” leaving on 30 Dec for Havana, with onward carriage by an unknown ship to New Orleans (date cancel, 11 Jan), with 30 cents to pay. The Vera Cruz cancel is  postdated 31 Dec. In New Orleans it was forwarded by “Reichard & Cº”, (an unrecorded forwarding agent, with mns in red) marked on 10 Jan by first steamer (17 days previous to short term Louisiana Independence days). On arrival in New York (“New York Br Pkt, with cancel dated 16 Jan) it was carried to England on the maiden voyage of the Cunard ship S>S>Australasian (Known from blue pencil marking). On being carried onward to Germany , it received a dated backstamp ” Aachen ” (?29,1) and “Ausgabe” (ie delivery) marking placed over a “Sieglar” cancel.

 

1862 (12 Feb). DF -Puebla. EL full text fkd 1861 8rs black / pink, no district name, good margins, tied cds (Yv 11B as complete stamp on cover 3,500 euros). Most scarce single fkg on commercial small envelope

 

1862 (27 Dec). DF – France. EL. Fkd 1861 2rs name / grill cancel + Franco Mexico oval. Via BPO / Veracruz / RMSP Conway / 1 Jan 63 + British exchange pmks. Also cancelling French “8” mark. VF scarce overseas usage (IV).

 

c.1862-3. BAJA CALIFORNIA – USA / S. Francisco. Official mail. Stampless. E. / Superior Court of 1st Instance of theBaja Californiaterritory to the Mexican consul in SF. US “Collect” blue box 4cts / modified of 6. One of 4 recorded marks, earliest postmark ofMexicorarest postal district area (VIII). Red oval “Estafeta de / Baja California” (xx/RRRR

 

1863 (15 Jan). Hermocillo – Guaymas Crespo. Postal archive E fkd 1861 8rs black / pink. Cuadrisect, uncancelled but correct date and genuine as all this correspondence. VF.

 

1863 (11 June). Puebla – Veracruz. Por Extraordinario + sello negro. Smashing E docketed inside + mns “3rs” on reverse to show higher rate for this service. Cancel Schatzkes / Schimmer 155-50/3, used atPueblain 1861. Outstanding usage of this service with sello negro provisional

 

1863 (16 July). DF – FRANCE. Envelope fkd 1861 8rs green horiz pair, good margins, grill cancels, blue octagonal French Consular + mns postal charges. Carried by F. Packet “FLORIDE” / 16 July 63. Via St Nazaire. Ex – Dreyfuss collection (VI).

 

1863 (12 Sept). DF – VERACRUZ. Por EXTRAORDINARIO del PAQUETE FRANCES. E fkd 1861 4rs red / yellow, huge margins, name + cds. Important cover which exposures some of the controversy of the “EXTRAORDINARIO” special double rate courierMexico-Veracruz, which suppously was to cover British packet conection. Also exceptional with this stamp, one other recorded as per collector notes. Illustrated MMM pag 63 (VI

 

1863 (26 Oct).Tampico-France. EL. Discussing the French occupation ofMexico Cityand the effect on trade due to a French ban on exports. By way of the Tampico post office, this letter was passed to the British postal agency there and given a cds (in red) of 2 October before being sent pr RMS (steamer) on the packet ship “Trent” which left on 28 October. Together with the London receiving mark, the letter was given the standard Anglo-French GB accountancy mark at Calais on 30 Nov, with 16 decimes postage due to pay. Scarce diff mail systems combination

 

1863 (30 Oct). An extraordinary E. of the FRENCH EXPEDITIONARY ARMY. Red “CORS EXP. MEXIQUE V. ANGL / 30 OCT 63″ (red cds on front (xx) applied by the quarter of a French Army unit in the Caribbean . Posted at the British Consular Post Office Cartagena 2 Nov 63 on reverse trip as unpaid letter reaching London 30 Nov and the British exchange office the same day. Delivered in Paris 1 Dec (V).

 

c.1864-67. Envelope from “Estafeta de Baja California” oval red pmk (xxx/RRRR), ie Cabo San Lucas, to San Francisco, in red, marked “Paid” in ms. This area was not under French control, so was not supplied with stamps. YB SS 41A and 41AB (the “25” is part damaged). One of 4 recorded covers with this rare postmark. A Mexican classic rarity. Illustrated MMM.

 

1864 (24 Feb). FRENCH ARMY INTERVENTION / EXTRAORDINARIO Br. SERVICE / Orizava – Veracruz . Exceptional entire telegraph letter full text addressed to the British acting consul in Veracruz with original Telegraph Orizaba / Mexico / Veracruz . The consul to use the EXTRAORDINARIO special service of the British Packet to forward the mail for Mr Walsh man and the Minister of France. Cover carried by Diligencias Generales / Orizava (stage coach mark). Outstanding exhibition historical letter, both for the French Army Occupation and the extraordinario British Packet service, proving the usage of this service by the French Army. The importance of the British Courier Veraza of the extraordinario British Packet Service is documented in the Telegraph forwarded by stage coach service from Orizava to the British Consul in Veracruz . It has to be assumed the telegraph lines between Mexico City and Orizava were interrupted due to Guerrilla activities against the French Army. Veraza was obviously trust worthy to carry the French diplomatic mail and correspondence of the French Comander-in-Chief. See illustrated article in MMM page 65 (IV-VI).

 

1864 (9 March). Morelia – Acambarco. E fkd 1861. 4rs black / yellow vertically bisected, border margin + district name, tied cross pen cancel. VF.

 

1864 (April). DF – France. Env fkd 1861 1 real black / green vertical strip of three, name / cds. Via BPO / Veracruz / 2 May 54 – RMSP Conway via Tampico – St Thomas. Anglo French charges + exchange marks. A fine very scarce multiple overseas usage (IV).

 

1864 (26 April).Puebla-Spain. EL. Fkd 1861 2rs, dish name + stline town date cancel. Via BPO Veracruz / RMSP Conway via Tampico – St Thomas – London. Spanish red “4rs” arrival charge. Mns. “Por el extraordinario del paquete ingles” / British organized courier service Mexico City to Veracruz, handed in transit Puebla). Excellent appealing overseas usage

 

1864 (May). Tuspan – France. E. Oval “Correos / Franco / Tuspan” marked “Por el paquete Ingles” and cancelled by the rare Schatzkes / Schimmer 580 “Sello Negro” (“Correos Franco Tuxpan”) a small port a few miles south of Tampico. For exceptional reasons, probably due to the French naval occupation of Tampico at the time being cut off by land from Mexico City, or would appear that the packet ship RMS “Clyde” either on its way up to Tampico from Vera Cruz on 28 May 1864, or on its way back on 30 May, must have put in to Tuxpan to collect mail from the interior. With the London arrival mark in red (on the back) dated 28 June, and the usual “GB 1F 60c” Calais exchange office tray on the same day, the cover was cancelled in Paris the following day and arrived at Bordeaux on the next day, 30 June. The reason for the use of the “Sello Negro” at Tuxpan was presumably because the consignment 61-1864 of Eagle stamps from Mexico City intended for Huejutla (of which Tuxpan was a sub-office) had to bypass that town as it was then in Republican hands, and would not have reached Tuxpan by the end of May, leaving Mexico City only on 25 May.

 

1864 (14 June). DF – France. Envelope fkd 4rs Eagle name only, FIRST PERIOD, cds + blue consular cachet + MEXIQUE / LOUSIANE on front. Charged 24 decimes arrival for 3 weight units of 7,5 grams . Illustrated MMM page 123 (VI)

 

1864 (18 June). Tuspan – France. MEXICO – CUBA – ST THOMAS – UK – FRANCE. EL. / oval “Correos / Franco / TUXPAN” (xxx) + “FRANCO” oval of Habana / Spanish Cuba. On reverse St Thomas BPO (29 July 64). Via London . Franco / British exchange marks. Mail description at US civil war period via Habana. Text refers to Maximilian arrival (in French) “which gives us all who do not live by Revolution great confidence in the restoration of peace”. Exceptional transit routing (IV).

 

1864 (26 Oct).Mazatlan- Guaymas. Sello negro + maritime. West Coast Maritime ship link. Letter cover docketed as sent on 26 October 1864, but with a datedMazatlancancel dated 23 Nov and the merchant´s cachet of Echenique Pena inMazatlanof the same date, before the letter was sent coastwise by boat to Guaymas, where it was received on 29 Nov. A faint1 inred on the cover front suggest that this was the maritime rate, instead of the normal 2 reales payable for such a journey. XF appearance

 

1864 (11 Dec). Orizava -USA(21 Jan 65). DISRUPTED VIA SPANISH CUBA DURING US CIVIL WAR + BPO Crowned paid circle. EL. Full text oval cancel of the Vera Cruz post offic, and a very late usage of the British Vice Consulate´s “Crowned Circle” “Paid at Veracruz” together with the postal agency´s cds 1 Jan 64 (!). A British seamail charge of 1/-, in red crayon, was imposed, followed by “Franco” in oval used as a transit marking by the British postal agency in Havana, and then a US NY steamship 10 marking for postage due of 10 cents due on arrival, on the front. This letter was probably carried by an RMSP ship from Vera Cruz toHavana, and then, to judge from the typical squiggle in blue crayon on the front, by a ship of the short-lived Mexico-American Line, absorbed in 1867 by the Alexander Line, toNew York. It is an example of the use of the British packet service between Mexico and Cuba, by agreement with US Post Office, to carry mail for the US during the American Civil War period from 1863 to 1866 (see pp 159/160 of “Mexican Maritime Mail”). The 2 marking on the front is probably the rate imposed by the Orizava post office, in the absence of stamps, for the inland postage due for a slightly heavier than standard rate for a letter (with an enclosure) to Vera Cruz. RMSP “Solent” left Veracruz 1 Jan 65 arriving Habana 5 Jan

 

1865 (11 March). DF -Spain. EL fkd Eagle 4rs fourth period district name, 45-1865 (1,000 stamps sent) via unscheduled French steamer. Spanish 4 reales collected. VF item (VI

 

1865 (16 March). Güichapa – Durango. E fkd. SECOND PERIOD 2rs eagles district name, 156-1864, tied “Franqueado en /San Juandel Rio” + mns date (100 sent). Lovely usage

 

1865 (8 Sept). Pilar -Durango. E fkd FOURTH PERIOD 2 rs eagle,Durangoname, 22-65 + 93-65 (800 sent) tied superb double boxed “FRANCO / GAVILANES” + mns date. Gorgeous appealing item

 

1865 (23 Sept). 23 September 1865. An “official” letter dated 23 September from Mexico City to France , with the front and back cachet of the Ministry for Economy, Trade, Industry and Colonisation, addressed apparently to a private individual at Preulin par Livry, Moselle . Anglo – French Exchange Office in Calais , and the boxed “GB 1 Fr 60c” dated 30 October, and dated backstamps of Paris , Nantua, Strasbourg , and Nivelles “8” decimes postage due. Carried by the RMSP “Eider” which left Vera Cruz for St Thomas on 2 October. Exceptionally appealing.

 

1865 (12 Oct). DF – France. Envelope fkd 4rs Eagle fourth period district name + 157-1865, cds + French Consular cachet + proper transits. On reverse Veracruz octagonal paquebot / nº2 / packet ” FRANCE ” Holcombe cert (VI).

 

1865 (9 Nov). MEXICO – CUBA  – USA – FRANCE. Laguna Terminos – France. Via Habana fwding agent. US CIVIL WAR derouted via Cuba mail period, Merdi Olea y Cordova / Havana green cachet reverse, over “NY French Packet / Dec 8″ (xx/RR). Very scarce transit mark + red octagonal “ETAT UNIS / Pq Fr” for transatlantic crossing. Charges VF + scarce transit marks

 

1866 (2 Jan). A cover originating from Tampico (see letter heading inside) carried out of the mails to Vera Cruz by the Spanish (Compania Transatlantica Español” ship “Barcelona”, where the forwarding agent H.D´Oleire y Cia affixed a 2 reales Eagle 196-1865 stamp and sent it on to Guanajuato. Only one other maritime mail cover is known carried by the Spanish line between Mexican ports (see “Mexican Maritime Mail” p.28) (III).

 

1866 (27 Jan). Tampico – Veracruz . EL. fkd Eagle 2 rs Tampico name, 200-1865, cds via BPO / red 1sh British Consulate had no stamps available at that time. Carried by RMSP Elder left Tampico 30 Jan, arrising the following day (incorrectly docketed as ship arrived 29 Jan. Posted the same day at The Mexican Post Office. Fine and scarce usage (III).

 

1866 (28 Jan).Mexico City-Russia, via forwarding agent atSt Petersburg. Merchants handstamp “Leffmann y GutheilMexico1095″ unpaid per British mail steamer – 1/3d dueMexicotoLondon”ausEnglandperAachen3/3/B Franco” “72” (silbergroschen)(in magenta).No StPetersburgreceiving postmark. RMSP “Eider” left Vera Cruz on 1 Feb forSt Thomas. Addressed to the famous discoverer of troy Heinrich Schliemann. Very rare destination maill. During Maximilian French Intervention, Rusia andMexicohad diplomatic exchanged ambassador relations

 

1866 (13 March). FRENCH EXPEDITIONARY FORCE. Ban A. Mexico – ALVARADO Port. A local fkd envelope 20 cts blue cds with stamp used twice (Postal frand). Addressed to a French navy officer on board of French cruisier  ” La Tempete “. Item carried by Mexican regular mail as per “FRANCO / MEXICO ” cds alongside. Signed Calves. Extraordinary rare usage / MAR 14 (VI).

 

Benito Juarez and the Restoration of the Republic (1867-1872)

In 1867, the republic was restored and Juárez reelected; he continued to implement his reforms.

1867 (7 June). Leon – France . SELLO NEGRO / PROVISIONAL. Stampless env “Leon / Franco” (xxx) + “2” on reverse. Carried via Texas / Brownsville at the time of Maximilian execution and expell of remaining foreign presence. Mns due 15c as unpaid US to France onwards via NY as unpaid US mail + British transatlantic crossing. Outstanding overseas sello negro usage and a unique route due to historic circumstances (VIII).

 

1867 (28 Oct). Puebla – France. Sello Negro provisional. EL. Full text “Franco” cancel and by “Packet Anglais”. Carried by the RMSP “Danube” which left Vera Cruz on 2 Nov 1867 and arrived atSt Thomason 12 Nov where it would have been transshipped toEngland; there are no postal agency markings from Vera Cruz, which is unusual. With aLondontransit marking in red, the letter received the Anglo-French rate marking GB 1F60c on 5 Dec, aPariscancel the same day and aBordeauxcancel the following day. 10 centimes postage due. Very rare maritime sello negro usage.

 

1867 (14 Dec). Veracruz – France . E. Fkd Trance 40 cent (x3 strip + single, anchor cancels). Avoidance of the Mexican Post Office Veracruz . Veracruz / Pq nº2 on reverse + French Consulate Postal Agency the same day the packet Fr. Nº2 ” France ” sailed from Veracruz 14 Dec 67, did not stop at St. Thomas due to an epidemic. Reached St. Nazaire 14 Jan 1868. 1 franc 60 cents paid to destination (VI).

 

1867. Guadalajara – Atoyac. E fkd 1rl green + 2rs pink imperf. provisional. Some reinforcement edge but a useful scarce item.

 

1868 (5 June). Cover docketed inside 5 June 1868, addressed to Cadiz from Tampico (where the French postal agency had closed), and sent to Vera Cruz carried out of the mails by a Line F ship (Salles) without markings. Given by the French Consulate in Vera Cruz an “anchor” lozenge cancel on a French 80 centime laureate Napoleon stamp on 13 June (Salles p. 177 last sentence), a “Port of Call” cachet de ligne “Vera Cruz Paq. Fr B. No.2″ marking (Salles Pt. IV p.95 I.437) with a 400 rarity value and a boxed “PP” (Partial Payment) in red, the cover arrived in Bordeaux (see backstamp) on 9 July. On being sent on to Cadiz (See backstamp on 14 July), it received a “4R”eales postage due to pay. From September 1866, mail handled by the French Consulates postal agencies no longer bore the name of the ship carrier. The 7 1/2 in mns at top left could represent a standard weight postage due of 7,5 grams (see p 299 of Mexican Maritime Mail).

 

1869 (22 Feb). Guanajuato – St THOMAS – FRANCE . E. Docketed Guanajuato 22 Feb 1869 – received Paris 30 March. Carried out of the mail and posted at St Thomas 14 March – by British Service via London 29 March to the ambulatory exchange office Calais the same day accountancy tray “1F60c” – French postage due 10 decimes. Carried by RMSP “Tyne” leaving Vera Cruz on 3 MArch 1869 for St Thomas . Most unusual route and origin on St Thomas BPO.

 

1869 (29 June). Mexico City – Spain / Vitoria . EL full text franked with a perforated 50c 1-69 Mexico City of the 1868 issue and dated “29 June 1869″ inside at the letterhead. The cover bears a double rate of postage for the route from Mexico City to Vera Cruz, possibly because it was carried by the British Legation´s “Foreign Extraordinario” courier. The cover has no markings from the British postal agency in Vera Cruz so would probably have been put directly on board the British packet steamer leaving on 3 July by the Vera Cruz postmaster. Backstamped with the London arrival mark “30 July” “69”, the cover arrived in Spain two days later, and was given the Victoria cancel “2 Aug 69″ with 4 r(eales) postage due to pay, a remarkably quick delivery. There is no sign of any British maritime charge, presumably because the GPO´s instruction in 1863 to put mail for Spain in the bag without charge still applied. RMSP “Tamar” left Vera Cruz on 3 July 1869 for St Thomas . VF cover (III).

 

1869. Mexico City – Germany. E fkd 1869 50c perf Mexico name, 1-69, cds. Inland postage prepaid per instruction “Via New York” – transit marking ” New York direct Jul 26″ Hamburg receiving marking on reverse. S.S.Alemania of the “Hapag” line sailed from New York 20 July 1869 and arrived at Hamburg 3 Aug 1869. Postage due 7 Groschen (blue crayon) (VII).

 

1869 (27 July).Tampico-FRANCE. Via British mail. Sello negro.Tampico27 July 1869 (Schatzakes 1581) – “Via Southampton” toLe Havreon reverse side transit cancelsLondon30 Aug – Paris 30 Aout.Le Havrereceiving postmark 31 Aout – 4 Franc postage due. Carried by RMSP “Tyne” leavingTampicoon 29 July 1869 via Vera Cruz forSt Thomas

 

1870 (April). Mexico City – Spain / Guadalajara / Torija. Envelope fkd 1868-72 25c blue / San Luis Potosi / 5-70, used in DF / cds. Carried by SPANISH MAIL Habana – Cadiz (3 May 1870 cds on reverse) very scarce at this period of Spain insurrection. 8 reales postage due at arrival. Addressed to a remote area in ancestral Castilla (II).

 

1870 (2 Sept). Veracruz – Puebla (3 Sept). Extraordinario Service of the British packet (?) EL full text fkd 1868 50c imperf no period and 25c imperf with period, Veracruz name, 2-70, Veracruz cds with endorsement “extraordinario”. M Rogers sale (1999). Letter makes reference to the Franco-Prussian War: “At the hour of this letter Paris must be under siege by 400,000 Germans, and the French Republic has been recognized by Switzerland , Spain and the Unites States . Napoleon has surrendered to the King of Prussia in order to save himself from insults and the Empress and her child have fled in time to England . VF (III).

 In 1871,

BENITO JUAREZ was elected a second time,

much to the dismay of his opponents within the Liberal party, who considered reelection to be somewhat undemocratic. Juárez died one year later and was succeeded by Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada. Part of Juarez’s reforms included fully secularizing the country. The Catholic Church was barred from owning property aside from houses of worship and monasteries, and education and marriage were put in the hands of the state. 

1871 (27 Jan).

Elgin – Mexico . Registered fkd en (half part flap reverse gone fkd 4d + 1sh (x3), registered Edinburgh + London . Arrival charge. 7 reales + fwded via Erdhard Watson at Veracruz . Most scarce high rate pre UPU registered incoming into Mexico item.

 

1871 (27 Aug).

 Tampico – Veracruz . Combination mixed franking cover EL franked SG 43 4d Plate 12 tied by “c63″ British postal agency cancel with the cds dated “27 Aug 1871″, together with a 12c 39-71 for the domestic Mexican rate cancelled by the Mexican post office, and merchant´s cachet “D. Camacho” in blue. This letter would have been carried to Vera Cruz by the RMSP Corsica which left Tampico on 29 Aug, arriving in Vera Cruz the following day. VF (III).

 

1872 (13 Feb).

 Puebla – France. E. Fkd 1868 25c x2, Puebla name 4-72, cds. Indicating carriage from there to Vera Cruz, addressed “Paquete Francais”, posted on 17 Feb on the Vera Cruz French steamship, and sent finally to Miranda. Department of Gers, with the Gers receipt cancel on the reverse, dated 17 March 1872, 12 decimes due, as shown in manuscript on the front (VI).

 

1872 (June).

 DF -UK. Official m ail /Mexico- DIRECCION GENERAL DE CORREOS / recorded but unseen before. Stampless env carried Mexican mail toVeracruzwhere by French pqbt red ds 18-June-72 “Nouveau Monde” sailed to St Nazaire (16 July)London(17 July). Anglo French “GB/2F20″ exchange Convention + 1sh arrival. Excellent appeal. Ex-Wolfers (1983) (VI

 

1872 (June).

DF – UK . Official m ail / Mexico – DIRECCION GENERAL DE CORREOS / recorded but unseen before. Stampless env carried Mexican mail to Veracruz where by French pqbt red ds 18-June-72 “Nouveau Monde” sailed to St Nazaire (16 July) London (17 July). Anglo French “GB/2F20″ exchange Convention + 1sh arrival. Excellent appeal. Ex-Wolfers (1983) (VI).

 

1872 (3 Oct).

Mexico City – USA / NY. E fkd 1872 50c yellow perforated, district name + 1-72, cds + NY Steamship cds alongside. Carried by US ship. Scarce perf stamp on Maritime mail. Fine.

 

1873 (8 March).

Acapulco – S. Francisco / USA. EL. Backstamped “Carried 20 March” with a 25c 2-72 stamp to cover the domestic rate (filing crease). This received the San Francisco cancel of March 19, with 3 cents postage due to pay, and the striking “Steam Acapulco” which was normally used only to cancel US embossed stamps on such envelopes (VII).

 

1873 (28 April).

Tlacotalpam – FRANCE. Via British Mail. EL full text. franked with a pair of 12 centavos imperforate, 1872-4 issue name, 50-73. Tlacotalpam cds. “28 Apr 1873″ and on the front the “GB1F60c” box tray of the Calais Exchange Office dated “29 May”. On the reverse, theLondontransit marking “28 May” in red and theBordeauxarrival marking cancels of 28 and 29 May. 12 decimes postage. Fine cover (III

 

1874.

 Hormiguera mining (ANTS mining)

, Triunfo / BAJA Cal. – USA / JF. Wells Fargo & Cº. Express from La Paz , BC . Via Steamer 29 Aug 74 env with orange WF Express tren illustrated / La Paz , BC label applied on reverse. Effective 1 July 1863 ship letters for delivery within the USA were charged with double local rate plus 2 cents for the Captain. According to Jack Greenberg THE ONLY RECORDED LA PAZ BC WELLS FARGO LABEL. Great rarity. Illustrated MMM page 283 (VIII).

 

1874 (13 Jan).

Liverpool -MEXICO/ Guanajuato. Wrapper fkd 1d + “1”/2 real Mexican tax due for printed matters applied atVeracruz. Very scarce pmk

 

1874 (20 Enero).

 Campeche – Cuba. Fkd env 10c + 50c. 5-74 district name APPLIED WHILE STAMP ALREADY IN COVER, cds, boxed red “NOT PAID”. Carried by “City of Mexico” / Prepayment to the Caribbe was mandatory. Letter ended as DLO / NY. Excellent usage (V

 

1875 (Feb).

Acapulco-USA/ CA – S Fcº. 10c green stat env, distric name, oval blue cds. Mexican inland prepaid, 3 cents US seamail charges + SF / Advertised + DLD. VF scarce town usage + maritime (VIII

 

1875.

DF – Switzerland (21 Apr 75). Via NY – BELGIUM / OSTENDE. Fkd env 25c blue 1-73, cds. “NY / British transit 7 Apr” (xxx/R) + 7 cents due transit + stline VIA OSTENDE. A lovely transited item before Berna Convention in Excellent condition (VIII).

 

1875 (17 May)

.Veracruz-Italy. E. Fkd 10c black 1874, 50-75 via St Nazaire. The French paquet “Ville de Brest” nº4 sailed 15 Mai 1875 fromVeracruz. Boxed “F*56″ represents the Franco-Italian exchange agreement of 1869.Francereceived 10 decimes credit.Italycharged 1 lire postage due. A lovely combination of stamps, marks and cancels cover illustrated MMM page 309 (VI

 

1875 (30 July)

.Acapulco- Tepia. E fkd 10c + 25c.Acapulconame / 2-74, blue ds. Carried via West Coast Pacific local steamer / Via San Blas. Ex – Strauss, Schimmer. VF

 

1875 (18 Oct).

COMBINATION FRANKING MEXICO – FRANCE . Veracruz – Cuba . EL. 10c black Veracruz name 50-75 oval blue ds + France 15c oriz STRIP OF FOUR. French Consular cachet, pp + “3” arrival Spanish Cuban charge. Carried French paquet “Ville de Bordeaux / 19 Oct 75″. Extraordinary combination usage of the scarce 15c. On reverse ligne B / 19 Oct 75 + arrival cds. Signed E Aguirre / Mexico . Great rarity. Illustrated MMM page 118 (VI).

 

1875 (22 Oct).

Silao / Guanajuato – FRANCE – ARGENTINA . Env fkd 25c distr name / 52-75 + PORTE DE MAR, originally intended to pay French routing via New York against sender´s instruction “paquete Frances” Porte de Mar postage would have been unnecessary, since American contract ships were not reimbursed. Addressee had moved to Argentina , but the letter was not forwarded without prepayment of postage. The Porte de Mar stamp was partially torn off before the forwarding address was added. Exceptional postal history item. Ex – Schimmer (VI + VIII) illustrated MMM page 314.

  The Porfiriato (1876-1911)

 Order, Progress, and Dictatorship

Porfirio Díaz, President of Mexico, (1876-1911)

In 1876, Lerdo was reelected, defeating Porfirio Díaz. Díaz rebelled against the government with the proclamation of the Plan de Tuxtepec, in which he opposed reelection, in 1876. Díaz managed to overthrow Lerdo, who fled the country, and was named president.

Díaz became the new president. Thus began a period of more than 30 years (1876–1911) during which Díaz was Mexico’s strong man. This period of relative prosperity and peace is known as the Porfiriato. During this period, the country’s infrastructure improved greatly, thanks to increased foreign investment and a strong, stable central government. Increased tax revenues and better administration brought many improvements, including the development of a national health service, better communications network, investment in infrastructure, and development of a national educational system. Under Díaz, the population increased to 16 million and life expectancy reached 60 years. Illiteracy diminished greatly, approaching levels of France and Italy. However, the period was also characterized by social inequality and discontent among the working classes.

1903. Slogan on the banner reads: “The Constitution has died” (La Constitución ha muerto).

Foreign capital helped build Mexico into an industrial and mining power, but the wealth did not trickle down to the masses who remained in abject poverty. Much of the nation’s infrastructure was owned by foreigners, and Britain once contemplated running its navy off of Mexican oil. By 1900, it was obvious to all concerned that Mexico was an economic satellite of the United States and little more than a source of raw materials for the great powers.

Slavery had been abolished in 1824, 1835, and 1857, but in the 1880s it was estimated that thousands (especially in the south of the country) were still held in bondage. Some farmers were paid laborers, but most were little more than serfs on great estates. Disease and starvation were commonplace on the plantations, and working conditions little better in the cities. All attempts at unionization were quickly suppressed, and injured workers were frequently thrown out into the street to die. Those too old and/or incapacitated to work were reduced to beggary. Periodic protests were suppressed with force.

[edit] The Mexican Revolution (1910-1929)

[edit] First Phase: The Constitution of 1917 (1910-1921)

[edit] The Election of 1910

In 1910, the 80-year-old Díaz decided to hold an election for another term; he thought he had long since eliminated any serious opposition. However, Francisco I. Madero, an academic from a rich family, decided to run against him and quickly gathered popular support, despite his arrest and imprisonment by Díaz.

Indians with Madero’s army

Leaders of the 1910 revolt pose for a photo after the First Battle of Juárez. Present are José María Pino Suárez, Venustiano Carranza, Francisco I. Madero (and his father), Pascual Orozco, Pancho Villa, Gustavo Madero, Raul Madero, Abraham González, and Giuseppe Garibaldi Jr.

When the official election results were announced, it was declared that Díaz had won reelection almost unanimously, with Madero receiving only a few hundred votes in the entire country. This fraud by the Porfiriato was too blatant for the public to swallow, and riots broke out. On November 20, 1910, Madero prepared a document known as the Plan de San Luis Potosí, in which he called the Mexican people to take up weapons and fight against the Díaz government. Madero managed to flee prison, escaping to San Antonio, Texas, where he began preparations for the overthrow of Díaz—an action today regarded as the start of the Mexican Revolution.

Diaz attempted to use the army to suppress the revolts, but most of the ranking generals were old men close to his own age and they did not act swiftly or with sufficient energy to stem the chaos.

Revolutionary force—led by, among others, Emiliano Zapata in the South, Pancho Villa and Pascual Orozco in the North, and Venustiano Carranza–defeated the Federal Army, and Díaz resigned in 1911 for the “sake of the peace of the nation.” He went into exile in France, where he died in 1915 at the age of 85.

[edit] Violent Disagreements (1911–1920)

Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata. Villa is sitting in the presidential throne in the Palacio Nacional at the left.

The revolutionary leaders had many different objectives; revolutionary figures varied from liberals such as Madero to radicals such as Emiliano Zapata and Pancho Villa. As a consequence, it proved impossible to reach agreement on how to organize the government that emerged from the triumphant first phase of the revolution. This standoff over political principles lead quickly to a struggle for control of the government, a violent conflict that lasted more than 20 years. Although this period is usually referred to as part of the Mexican Revolution, it might also be termed a civil war. Presidents Francisco I. Madero (1913), Venustiano Carranza (1920), and former revolutionary leaders Emiliano Zapata (1919) and Pancho Villa (1923) all were assassinated during this period.

Victoriano Huerta

Following the resignation of Díaz and a brief reactionary intercourse, Madero was elected president in 1911, only to be ousted and killed in 1913 by Victoriano Huerta, one of Diaz’ generals. This coup had the support of the U.S. ambassador to Mexico, Henry Lane Wilson, but not that of U.S. President-elect Woodrow Wilson. Huerta’s brutality soon lost him domestic support, and the Wilson Administration actively opposed his regime, for example by the naval bombardment of Veracruz.

In 1915, Huerta was overthrown by Venustiano Carranza, a former revolutionary general. Carranza promulgated a new constitution on February 5, 1917. The Mexican Constitution of 1917 still governs Mexico.

President Carranza in La Cañada, Querétaro, January 22, 1916.

On 19 January 1917, telegram (Zimmermann Telegram) was forwarded from Germany to Mexico proposing military action should the United States declare war against Germany. The offer included material aid to Mexico to assist in the reclamation of territory lost during the Mexican-American War, specifically the American states of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona. Carranza consulted with his generals about this, and was told there was no realistic possibility of retaking Mexico’s former territories. The nation could not rely on Europe (then engulfed in World War I) for military aid, and the United States was the only major armaments manufacturer in the Western Hemisphere. There was also the difficulties of subduing and assimilating the Anglo population of the Southwest.

Carranza formally declined Zimmermann‘s proposals on 14 April, by which time the United States had declared war on Germany.

Carranza was assassinated in 1919 during an internal feud among his former supporters over who would replace him as president.

[edit] Obregon and Liberalization (1921–1926)

Mexican civilians revolt against the Federal Government.

In 1920, Álvaro Obregón, one of Carranza’s allies who had plotted against him, became president. His government managed to accommodate all elements of Mexican society except the most reactionary clergy and landlords; as a result, he was able to successfully catalyze social liberalization, particularly in curbing the role of the Catholic Church, improving education, and taking steps toward instituting women’s civil rights.

While the Mexican Revolution may have subsided after 1920, armed struggle continued. The most widespread conflict was the fight between those favoring separation of Church and State and those favoring supremacy of the Roman Catholic Church. This fight developed into an armed uprising by supporters of the Church–“la Guerra Cristera.”

It is estimated that between 1910 and 1921, 900,000 people died.

[edit] Second Phase: The Cristero War (1926-1929)

Main article: Cristero War

The Cristero War of 1926 to 1929 was an uprising and counter-revolution against the Mexican government of the time, set off by religious persecution of Christians, especially Roman Catholics,[15] and specifically the strict enforcement of the anti-clerical provisions of the Mexican Constitution of 1917 and the expansion of further anti-clerical laws. After a period of peaceful resistance, a number of skirmishes took place in 1926. The formal rebellions began on January 2, 1927,[16] with the rebels calling themselves Cristeros because they felt they were fighting for Christ himself. Just as the Cristeros began to hold their own against the federal forces, the rebellion was ended by diplomatic means, brokered by the US Ambassador Dwight Whitney Morrow.

Secular/Religious

Cristeros (Catholic rebels) hung in Jalisco

In 1926, an armed conflict in the form of a popular uprising broke out against the anti-Catholic\anti-clerical Mexican government, set off specifically by the anti-clerical provisions of the Mexican Constitution of 1917. Discontent over the provisions had been simmering for years. The conflict is known as the Cristero War. A number of articles of the 1917 Constitution were at issue: a) Article 5 (outlawing monastic religious orders); b) Article 24 (forbidding public worship outside of church buildings); and c) Article 27 (restricting religious organizations’ rights to own property). Finally, Article 130 took away basic civil rights of the clergy: priests and religious leaders were prevented from wearing their habits, were denied the right to vote, and were not permitted to comment on public affairs in the press.

The Cristero War was eventually resolved diplomatically, largely with the help of the U.S. Ambassador, Dwight Whitney Morrow. The conflict claimed 90,000 lives: 56,882 on the federal side, 30,000 Cristeros, and civilians and Cristeros killed in anticlerical raids after the war’s end. As promised in the diplomatic resolution, the laws considered offensive by the Cristeros remained on the books, but the federal government made no organized attempt to enforce them. Nonetheless, persecution of Catholic priests continued in several localities, fueled by local officials’ interpretation of the law.[17]

1876 (18 July). COMBINATION FRANKINGMEXICO-FRANCE.Veracruz-Spain. Fragment of a circular mailed 18 July 1876 fromVeracruzno complete “Circular” (printed matter) of the period is recorded. Mexico 5c “50  76″ “Veracruz” cancel “Franco Veracruz” and France 15 cent tied by “1 Mexique 1″ and “Veracruz paq Fr B nº4″ paquebot “St. Naz

 

1876. Mexico City – MARTINIQUE / Fort France / Caribbean Isl. Env fkd 25c blue 1-76, distr name. Addressed to the French Agencie General transatlantique / factor 1st class apparently missinterpreted as France , crossed out, ended DLO. Unique destination (IX).

 

1876 (12 Jan). COMBINATION FRANKINGMEXICO-FRANCE.Veracruz-Spain/Cadiz. EL. FkdMexico10c blackVeracruzname, 50-76, cds +France25 cts blue (x8, strip of 4 + 2 pairs) anchor cancels. French consular cachet. Arrival 1 peseta 20 centimos blue charge collected as mail coming from non Berna convention. Carried by Ville de St Nazaire, sailedVeracruz18 Jan 76. Dropped anchored St Nazaire 13 Feb 76.Santander/ Spain French maritime sea mail return entry 15 Feb 76. Outstanding exhibition maritime item. 25c stamp is a rarity used fromMexico, being this the largest usage of this stamp in all Americas French Post Offices. Illustrated MMM color plate 4 (VI

 

1876 (24 Jan). Laguna de Terminos to Agde, France 28/II. Via USA to the exchange office Calais “Etats-Unis V. Angl. Amb Cal C” 27 Fevr 76 3x 35 = FR 1,05 postage due assessed, but since the addressee, a member of the French brig “Henriette” could not be found, the letter was returned to the Mexican deadletter office (entry #395). XF (VIII).

 

1876. Tampico – FRANCE. Via USA  / New Orleans – NY. Env fkd 10c. Tampico, 40 – 76, ds. VF appealing item (VIII).

 

1876 (29 March). Puebla – FRANCE . EL with mns instruction “via inglesa”. With a 25 centavos stamp to pay for the cost of postage to Vera Cruz, the letter was probably carried to New Orleans by one of the Alexander line´s contract ships, receiving the New Orleans transit marking dated 12 April, and the standard “SHIP” in blue for maritime mail, and a 35 cents charge against the French forwarding agent. By rail to New York (transit mark dated 18 April) it would appear to have been carried by a French ship to France (see blue octagonal dated 29 April), being delivered against postage due of 1 Fr 05 centimes. ” Brest 2″, “Etats unis”, paq Fr, MMM, p 388, fig 22. Very fine cover in excellent condition (VI).

 

1876 (May).Puebla-BAHAMAS, British Caribbe. Env fkd 25c blue,Pueblaname, 34-76, blue oval ds. Insufficiently fkd, ended DLO rate as American packet. Exceptional pre UPU destination.

 

1876. DF – FRANCE – and return to Mexico . Double transatlantic crossing via USA , before Berna convention. Fkd env with multitud of transits / endorsements. Carried ontwards by American contract steamer to New Orleans . British transatlantic crossing and all backwards. Great postal history item (VIII).

 

1876 (29 May). DF – USA. EL. Via Habana. With the large blue cachet of the Mexican Consulate inHavana, the letter carries the blue squiggle typical of mail carried on its circular journey between Mexican and US ports by the Alexander Line. TheNew Yorkcds showing 5 cents postage due is dated 13 June ie 15 days in transit. VF (VIII

 

1877. Porte de Mar Mixed fkd usage, 1874 5c + 10c (2)Lagos+ 10c blue cds, applied on same side of cover. Lovely exhibition item. Ex – Schimmer

 

1877 (22 Feb). Zacatecas – France. Printed matter fkd single 5c brown, Zacatecas distr name, 51-76, red oval ds + Porte de Mar 2c, Zacatecas name, also tied red oval ds, display superb opened. According to regulations, this to pay Maritime transit. Via British steamer T + 15 decimes French due. The only recorded PRINTED MATTER PORTE DE MAR usage. Outstanding pre UPU Mexican party. Ex – Heiman (1961), Ameripex 86 (U$ 2,000!). Illustrated MMM page 365 (IX).

 

1877 (18 May). Mexico City – USA / NY. MEXICO – FRANCE COMBINATION franking. Envelope fkd Mexico 25c blue, district name, 1-77, tied cds + Mexico Porte de Mar 25c on reverse for the maritime postage as per 1st rate regulation (traces of contemporany cancels, never supp to be cancelled) and France Sage 30c horiz pair not Mexican French consular cachet + “T” / due 10 cts at arrival in NY. On reverse ligne B / Paq fr nº4 of the French Caribbean conections. Exceptional combination usage. French stamps paid the Interamerican Caribbean part of voyage as Mexico was not yet part of The Berna Convention at this time as a third com. Mail carried by a member to another of the signed founders. Superb French and Mexico maritime item. Extensive studied by Karl Schimmer in his Porte de Mar original publication which formed part of his original collection (IX).

 

1877 (18 May). Veracruz – France . FRANCE 75 cents Sage issue single franking usage from Mexico . Envelope, cancelled French consular cachet, also alongside, carried mns “per Ville Bordeaux”. On reverse “Ligne B/ paq Fr B-nº4″. Sailed Veracruz . 18 May 55. Nazaire 12 June. Declared insufficient and 12 decimes p due were assesed at arrival. Extraordinary single franking usage, the only we have been in all American French Post Offices before UPU (VI).

 

1877 (July). DF – Switzerland . Env fkd 25c blue, 1-77, dow name cds + Porte de Mar 10c. On reverse, full margins, tied by red London cds transit. Displays great open. The cover tax + 1,10 Swiss cents as maritime payment to third countries was not accepted. Exceptional good condition. Illustrated MMM pg 364 (IX).

 

1877 (17 Sept). DF – Germany . Env fkd 25c, name, 1-75, carried French pqbt via St Nazaire. Via Paris / Estranger 17 Oct blue cds. 80c French claim transit fee for mail transported from NON 1,10 mark postage due. Berna Convention countries by Signing parties to other members (very scarce pmk). On reverse mns anotation “present from John Heath (1996) to K.Schimmer”. Exceptional (VI).

 

1877 (24 Dec). COMBINATION FRANKING MEXICO – FRANCE . EL fkd 10c black, 50-77 + Veracruz name, cds + France 40c orange horiz pair, consular cachet. Carried by “Ville de Paris” French packet, sailed 24 Dec 77. Arrival “3” charge. Signed Calves + Aguirre. Fine and rare comb (VI).

 

1878.Tampico-France. E fkd 10c black, name district, 1478, oval blue ds. ViaNew Orleans/ T-35 centimes applied by theUSexchange office / 1f05 p due collected. XF. Lovely item + routing signed Schimmer

 

1878 (31 March). Veracruz – France. EL. Fkd 10c + 50c / 378 + distr name, cds, “T” + 3,30 French charge = 2sh 6d. Postage due Fr. 5,10 = 4sh. Via England to France – without “Porte de Mar” accouning. Veracruz 1 April 1878 with instruction “Via Southampton” to Bordeaux local rate 60 centavos (Weight between 1 1/4 and 1 1/2 ounces). “Porte de Mar” charges paid directly by the Veracruz postmaster to the postal agent of the British Consulate Veracruz. Exceptional high franking. Illustrated MMM page 363. Signed J. Bash and Schimmer (IX

 

1878 (31 March). Veracruz – France. EL. Fkd 10c + 50c / 378 + distr name, cds, “T” + 3,30 French charge = 2sh 6d. Postage due Fr. 5,10 = 4sh. Via England to France – without “Porte de Mar” accouning. Veracruz 1 April 1878 with instruction “Via Southampton” to Bordeaux local rate 60 centavos (Weight between 1 1/4 and 1 1/2 ounces). “Porte de Mar” charges paid directly by the Veracruz postmaster to the postal agent of the British Consulate Veracruz. Exceptional high franking. Illustrated MMM page 363. Signed J. Bash and Schimmer (IX).

 

1879 (12 Jan). Veracruz – FRANCE. EL. Fkd 10c orange 378 + district name + cds + ANGLETERRE red entry cds, with 5c Porte de Mar horiz pair, Veracruz illustr name (not necessary as per regulations, but ramdonly applied), tied by diff cancellation traces + wax seal. Carried by Royal British Steam Packet. As per F. Schimmer Porte de Mar census, the only recorded with district name Veracruz Porte de Mar cover. One stamp part torn for arrival, but complete. Exceptional item. Illustrated MMM page 366. Signed K.Schimmer (IX).

 

1879 (7 April). Mexico City to Frankfurt, Germany formula card (HG 21) bearing a 2 centavos “Foreign mail” Juarez stamp without overprint (Sc 124a) tied by a red rhomboid of dots showing a Vera Cruz cds and a “Franco Mexico” cds transit cancel. Very scarce / addressed to the French Consul (IX).

 

1979 (30 July). DF – Spain / Barcelona. E. Fkd 5c orange foreign issue, tied blue dots, cork + Porte de Mar 10c on reverse, tied red date cancel. Via England / British mail. Signed Karl Schimmer and maritimed in his record of Do Mar issue as one of five in existence. Mandatory prepayment to foreign destinations with P. Mar became obsolete at the introduction of the foreign issue (IX).

 

1880 (18 Aug). Veracruz – Germany. Tied formula card (vert filing crease not affecting stamp), fkd 2c Suarez foreign issue, 379, cds, French Octagonal “Pq Fr nº1 / Veracruz”. Via St Nazaire / “Ville de Brest”. Germany HAMBURG / date box Poeseldorf (13 Sept) alongside (V

 

1880. Noria – USA. Envelope. Posted at Noria (de los Azuna) (sin 36/1) “AGENCIA DEL CORREO DE NORIA” – No “Foreign mail” stamps available 5c stamp – overprint “Mazatlan” “2779” applied at Mazatlan special “Foreign mail” cancel and “Correos Mazatlan 22 Set 1880″ (in magenta) via San Francisco. New York 4 Nov and Port Byron 5 Nov. Lovely cover and a rarity. Signed Schimmer (VIII).

 

1880 (9 Nov). Oaxaca – France / Paris. Env fkd and a 10 centavos Juarez foreign issue, Oaxaca name, 2379 with the French octagonal maritime marking “Vera Cruz B Paq Fr nº2″ in red dated 20 Nov 1880. Cover marked “Por Vapeur Francais”!. Scarce maritime usage in this issue from this district. F-VF (VI).

 

1880 (9 Nov). Oaxaca – France / Paris. Env fkd and a 10 centavos Juarez foreign issue, Oaxaca name, 2379 with the French octagonal maritime marking “Vera Cruz B Paq Fr nº2″ in red dated 20 Nov 1880. Cover marked “Por Vapeur Francais”!. Scarce maritime usage in this issue from this district. F-VF (VI

 

1881 (11 April)- SL Potosi – Austria. Rose salmon formula card, 2c 1779 “Franco en S.L. Potosi 11 Abril” (in red!) ./. Wien receiving postmark (without date). Ex – Rudy Groth. VF (VI

 

1881 (30 Sept). Chihuahua – USA / NY. Env fkd 1c + 2c (x2) foreign issue, distr name, 3981, tied dots corks. On reverse handstamp “J.Burns Mine de Camuchin Batupilas”. XF. Arrival ds (IX).

 

c.1882. Gral. Bravo / Monterrey – Matamoros. Triple print Hidalgo embossed stationery env, 2582 + district name, oval name town cancel. VF + Scarce usage

 

1882 (21 May). DF – FRANCE. Env fkd 2c + 10c foreign issue, 5183 consignt name district, both cancelled “T” mark / tied + red French pqbt. “Por Barcelonette”. Signed Schimmer. VF. Scarce stamps + cancel (IX).

 

1882 (17 July). DF – Cuba (13 June) (Month error). AN EARLY UPU rate COVER usage. Envelope bearing two 6 centavos “Small Numerals” stamps sent from Mexico City to Havana, Cuba, and cancelled “Union Postal Universal Mexico” in an oval dated “17 July 1882″. In his article in Mexicana on p32 of the January 1990 issue, Richard Daffner stated that though these supplemental stamps, intended solely for maritime mail, should have issued on 1 July 1882, the earliest known copy dates from August of that year. This example is evidently the first known, and predates Daffner´s comment. It is thus the first Mexican stamp known of this denomination to have covered both the inland and maritime rate, as required by the universal Postal Union of 1878. The envelope is marked “Isla de Cuba” and “Vapor Mendes Nunes” a steamship not hitherto recorded as a mail carrier, but may have belonged to the Compania Transatlantica (antes A Lopez y Cia) Barcelona, which had a contract with the Spanish Government in 1881 to carry mail between Havana and Mexican ports, (pp 29/30 of “Mexican maritime Mail”).

 

1882 (30 Oct). DF – Italy. Reg fkd env foreign issues mixed combination 6c numeral with 18c brown, both 5482, tied by a dotted handstamp, together with a circular “Union Postal” cancel dated 30 October 1882, and various transit markings. According to “Mexican Maritime Mail”, p.351, the 6 centavos “small numerals” only carry the 83 date overprint, whereas this copy is overprinted 6282, registered letters are described there as “very scarce”. Lovely exhibition item (IX).

 

1883 (17 Aug). Guaymas – USA / JF. Wells Fargo & Cº stat env with aditional 2c x3 foreign issue, no district name, consignment number 483, oval red ds. VF and scarce. Ex-Sothebys 82 (VIII).

 

1883 (9 Oct). DF – FRANCE. Env fkd 6c lilac numeral foreign issue horiz strip of 4, d name, 5483, tied “8 / buzones Mexico” + “PARIS / ETRANGER” blue cds. Via NY. Signed Schimmer. Lovely multiple usage + rare cancel (IX).

 

1884 (6 April). Sinoquipa. Huepac / Sonora – FRANCE, fwded to Italy. Envelope fkd 6c numeral foreign issue horiz pair 483, no name, oval violet cachet + alongside mns dated, also tied blue “PARIS / Etranger” cds. Via Nogales(railway) to NY. On reverse “Munroe & Cº/ PARIS” blue oval dated fwding agent cachet. Lovely item (IX

 

1884 (5 May). Muzquis / Sonora State – Switzerland. Late 1874 issue usage accepted for FOREIGN MAIL. Env fkd 4c orange (x3), tied Villa de Muzquis + oval “Franco / en Muzquis 5 – May – 84″. Via NY. Outstanding exhibition maritime rarity. Illustrated MMM color plate / (VIII

 

1886 (28 Dec). Monterrey – FRANCE. Registr fkd env incl 10c large numeral (x2) oval ds. Via Laredo, NY, Paris (9 Jan 87). Arrival red “Paris / chargements” cds on front + Special boxed CERTIFICACION A MONTERREY (xx). VF + scarce (X

 

1887 (1 June). La Paz , Baja California – Mexico City (9 July). 10c lilac. Wells Fargo stat env used from BAJA. Routed via Guaymas – Benton – El Paso – Texas. Superb internationaly transited Mexican internal item, as at this time mail was most conveniently routed so and accepted. Ex – Everett Earl. Exceptional rarity (VIII).

 

1887 (2 Nov). DF – Switzerland. Registered fkd env 20c Medalion + 10c large numeral perf 5, vert lilac, tied blue oval ds + labels. Very fine scarce MIXED ISSUES COMBINATION + maritime usage (X).

 

1887 (16 Nov). Registered letter cover from Mazatlan on the Pacific coast to Modena, Italy, franked by four 10 centavos black-lilac numeral stamps of the 1886 issue perf 5, vertical lines with cork cancels “Certificacion a Mazatlan el 16 Nov 1887, Nogales, Arizona”, below the oval “Mazatlan” cancel in red. There is also a “United States of America New York Exchange” numbered label affixed over the stamps. Backstamped “New York 12,2,1887 Regy Div”, with a dated circle above, and a “Modano-Torino 13 D C 87″ (ie 13 Dec 1887) receipt marking there. VF scarce overseas item (X).

 

1888 (20 July).Veracruz-UK. Registr multifkd env. 3c Medalion + 1, 2, 4 and 10 horiz lines, large numeral issue. 3 diff reg labels + sent via Eagle. Pass,Texas, NY.Londonarrival (16 Aug) colorful COMBINATION of diff issues (X

 

1889 (8 Dic). Out of mail to Cuba – Posted in Habana to Germany. Registr Servicio Postal Mexicano stat env 5c with 10c + 20c. Cuba Spanish stamps. Proper transits NY (12 Dec) and Braunchweig (28 Dec). Lovely usage exceptionally rare (X).

 

1890 (1 Nov). DF – Austria. Official Foreign office registered env fkd 12c Medalion vertical pair + 6c large numeral. Via NY + 2 red wax Correos Mexico seals on reveal. Scarce value stamps combination issues (X).

 

1891 (29 April). Rio Verde / SLP – Germany. 10c SNM regsitered stat env + 10c large numeral adtl with distintive Double Entry PRINT. Fine and appealing

 

1891 (11 June). Merida / Yucatan – FRANCE (1 July) – TUNIS. Serv Postal Mex. 5c stat front only, sent registr with adtl 5 diff large numeral stamps, fwded “R” in circle positioned around. Via Progreso + French Railroad Franco British Calais (X).

 

1891. Guanajuato – NY – Chicago. Express Wells Fargo 5c stat env used overseas + USA 2cts added and cancelled in transit / NY truly exceptional and VF (X).

 

1892. Palizada / Campeche – NY / USA. Registered 10c SNM stat env + 5c adtl, “grill PALIZADA” cachet (xxx/R) + registr box alongside superb

 

1894. Zacatecas – ARGENTINA . Wells Fargo 20c / ovptd 30c stationery envelope. Registered AR + 2 adtl. Via NY. Outstanding rarity. According to Schimmer, the only W. Fargo stat cover to South America with AR service (VIII).

 

1894 (21 Aug). Durango – Germany . Registr 1c green large complete wrapper + 1c + 10c adtls. Via Piedras Negras + 2 reg labels incl NY transit – Laredo . Exceptionally fine and rare (X).

 

1894 (20 Oct). Guaymas – USA / CAL. Wells Fargo stat env 5c, stline “GUAYMAS MEX” (railway cancels?) on reverse messenger hand stamp. The letter probably carried by WF service only, nor Mex or US Postal Service (VIII).

 

1902. MEXICO – PANAMA – WELLS FARGO. Coatzacoalcos – Puerto Mexico – Colon – Panama. WF stat env late issue (much scarcer used) taxed 12 1/2c with Colombia 10c / violet Colon cds POSTAGE DUE applied at arrival. Mns via NY. Exceptional combination stat, illustrated on MMM encyclopedia page 290 and extensively studied. Great exhibition item. Ex – David Warman (VIII).

 

1916. Barrilito issue. Selection of 17 diff overprinted ESSAY in diff colors, full O.G. Light hinge. Exceedingly rare

the end @ copyright 2012

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tips stamps investmen(investasi Prangko)

 Tips Investasi:

prangko Kolombia 1919-20 pos  udara

 (C1-10)

Pada tahun 1919 dan ’20, Kolombia mengeluarkan prangko pos udara pertama, sebelas pertama (C1, C2-10) sangat langka. C1, yang 200 diterbitkan, dimaksudkan untuk penerbangan eksperimental dari Baranquilla ke Puerto Kolombia. 160 digunakan, dan banyak dari perangko yang tetap rusak. C2-10, yang dihasilkan oleh Compania Colombiana de Navegacion Aérea, dimasukkan Art Deco gaya desain yang menggambarkan motif penerbangan berbagai, dan hanya 100 dari masing-masing perangko dikeluarkan.

Tak satu pun dari perangko tampaknya murah, sebagai katalog paling antara

$ 2.750 – $ 5.500 dan -.. Dengan pengecualian C7 ($ 10.000 -. Untuk tidak digunakan). Pembelian salah satu prangko harus dilakukan tergantung pada expertization. Meskipun priciness jelas mereka, mereka semua terlalu undervalued, terutama mengingat prospek pertumbuhan di pasar cap Amerika Latin pada umumnya, dan di Kolombia pada khususnya. Mereka masing-masing setidaknya sebagai langka seperti yang tertera AS Inverted Jenny, tetapi mungkin bisa didapat untuk 1% atau kurang dari harga.

Sebuah bangsa dari 45 juta orang, Kolombia telah diganggu oleh dekade konflik bersenjata internal yang serius, perdagangan narkoba, korupsi, dan ketidakadilan pendapatan kotor, namun tetap disiksa sampai pertumbuhan PDB tahunan rata-rata mengesankan 5,5% selama 5 tahun terakhir. Selain itu, sampai kegagalan keuangan global menurunkan target pertumbuhan GDP menjadi 3% pada tahun 2009, sudah mantap percepatan, dari 2% pada tahun 2003 menjadi 8% pada tahun 2008. Baru-baru ini, pemerintah, bersenjata lengkap oleh AS, telah menerapkan kebijakan ganda menggabungkan tekanan militer dengan negosiasi untuk mengatasi berbagai faksi gerilya di dalam negeri. Hal ini tampaknya telah bekerja untuk beberapa hal, seperti jumlah pemberontak telah dibelah dua, dan jumlah pembunuhan dan penculikan berkurang drastis. Sementara beberapa berpendapat bahwa pemerintah Kolombia masih benar-benar korup, dan telah melanggar hak asasi manusia dan didukung pasukan pembunuh paramiliter untuk mencapai perdamaian relatif, mungkin bahwa ini adalah par untuk kursus, mengingat sejarah bangsa. Tantangan utama yang dihadapi negara akan bahwa dari berbagi lebih banyak kekayaan dengan mayoritas penduduk sehingga dapat mengembangkan lebih merupakan kelas menengah dan pusat politik. Jika tidak, akan berpindah ke kekacauan yang tidak stabil.

In 1919 and ’20, Colombia issued its first airmail stamps, the first eleven of which (C1, C2-10) are extremely scarce. C1, of which 200 were issued, was intended for an experimental flight from Baranquilla to Puerto Colombia. 160 were used, and many of the stamps which remain are defective. C2-10, produced by the Compania Colombiana de Navegacion Aerea, incorporated Art Deco-style designs illustrating various flight motifs, and only 100 of each of these stamps was issued.


None of these stamps seems inexpensive, as most catalog between

$2,750.- and $5,500.- with the exception of C7 ($ 10,000.- for unused). Purchase of any of these stamps should be made conditional on expertization. Despite their apparent priciness, they are all grossly undervalued, especially given the prospects for growth in the Latin American stamp market in general, and Colombia’s in particular. They are each at least as rare as the U.S. Inverted Jenny stamp, but may be had for 1% or less of its price.

 

A nation of 45 million people, Colombia has been plagued by decades of serious internal armed conflict, drug trafficking, corruption, and gross inequities of income, but has nevertheless racked up impressive annual GDP growth averaging 5.5% over the last 5 years. Moreover, until the global financial fiasco cut its GDP growth to 3% in 2009, it had been steadily accelerating, from 2% in 2003 to 8% in 2008. Recently, the government, armed to the teeth by the U.S., has applied a dual policy of combining military pressure with negotiations to cope with the various guerrilla factions within the country. This seems to have worked to some extent, as the number of insurgents has been halved, and the number of homicides and kidnappings drastically reduced. While some argue that the Colombian government is still utterly corrupt, and has violated human rights and supported paramilitary death squads in order to achieve relative peace, it may be that this is par for the course, given the nation’s history. The main challenge that the country faces will be that of sharing more of the wealth with the majority of the population so as to develop more of a middle class and political center. Otherwise, it will devolve into an unstable mess.

 Tips  Investasi  prangko  Lebanon 1956 PBB 10th Anniversary (Scott # C221-22, C222Note)


Pada Januari 1956, Libanon mengeluarkan serangkaian perangko dan lembaran suvenir memperingati HUT ke-10 Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa (Scott # C221-22, C222Note). Hanya 15.000 set dan 4.000 lembar souvenir diterbitkan. Scott ’10 menghargai mereka yang tidak terpakai pada $ 11,75 dan $ 90,00, masing-masing. Keduanya menarik, dan tidak jelas yang merupakan tawar-menawar yang lebih baik, karena ada kemungkinan bahwa proporsi yang jauh lebih besar dari set yang digunakan sebagai ongkos kirim dan dibuang daripada yang lembaran suvenir.

Perangko Lebanon populer di kalangan kolektor Koloni Timur Tengah dan Perancis. Selain itu, sebagai topikal PBB, masalah ini memiliki daya tarik seluruh dunia, yang seharusnya meningkat dengan PBB secara bertahap memperoleh kredibilitas sebagai lembaga yang efektif untuk menangani masalah global.

Lebanon, negara sebesar 4,2 juta orang, memiliki pertumbuhan PDB diabaikan selama 5 tahun terakhir akibat perang Hizbullah dengan Israel, dominasi Suriah, dan perselisihan internal. Namun demikian, saya yakin bahwa pada akhirnya akan kembali ke kemakmuran sebagai berbagai faksi di kawasan ini belajar bagaimana bergaul, dan kembali Beirut untuk keunggulan mantan sebagai “Paris dari Timur Tengah.”

  Tips Investasi: prangko St Pierre dan Miquelon 1885-86 Biaya tambahan (Scott # 1 –

Para Kolektivitas Wilayah St Pierre dan Miquelon, sisa hanya kekaisaran kolonial mantan Perancis di Amerika Utara, terdiri dari dua kelompok kecil dari pulau-pulau di lepas pantai Newfoundland. Dari perspektif investasi filateli, ada hal yang menarik karena perangko nya yang populer di Kanada dan di kalangan kolektor Koloni Perancis – baik pasar berkembang. Perangko scarcest St Pierre dan Miquelon ada dalam dua kelompok luas: biaya tambahan abad 19 dan overprints, dan 1941-42 “Perancis Libre” overprints.

Seperti semua overprints, beberapa prangko telah dipalsukan pada satu waktu atau lainnya, jadi saya sarankan bahwa stampselectors fokus hanya pada mereka yang patut mendapatkan expertized.

Perangko pertama dari koloni itu biaya tambahan primitif. Saya telah terdaftar yang lebih baik, bersama dengan jumlah pencetakan mereka (bila diketahui) dan Nilai Scott Katalog ’10 untuk digunakan, di bawah ini:

– 1885 05C di Vermilion 40c pada jerami (Scott # 1; 4.000, $ 140 -.)

– 1885 05C pada 35c Black pada kuning (Scott # 4; 1.500, $ 140 -.)

– 1885 05C pada 75c Carmine pada mawar (Scott # 5; 1.800, $ 375 -.)

– 1885 25c pada 1fr Hijau Perunggu pada jerami, biaya tambahan ketik ‘c’ (Scott # 7; 340; $ 13.000 -.)

– 1885 25c pada 1fr Hijau Perunggu pada jerami; biaya tambahan ketik ‘d’ (Scott # 8; 300; $ 2.500 -.)

– 1885 5c pada 2c Brown pada penggemar (Scott # 9; sangat jarang, $ 6.500 -.)

– 1885 5c pada Claret 4c pada lavender (Scott # 10; 900, $ 500 -.)

– 5c 1886 Hitam (Scott # 12; Langka; $ 1.350 -.)

– 1886 10c Hitam (Scott # 13; Langka; $ 1.450 -.)

– 1886 15c Hitam (Scott # 14; Langka, $ 1.300 -.)

– 1891 15c 35c di Black pada jeruk, biaya tambahan ketik ‘e’ (Scott # 16; 850;. 675 $ -)

– 1891 15c 35c di Black pada jeruk, biaya tambahan tipe ‘f’ (Scott # 17; 850, $ 2.000 -.)

– 1891 15c pada Red 40c di atas jerami, biaya tambahan ketik ‘e’ (Scott # 18; 5.000, $ 110 -.)

Beberapa lebih baik masalah abad ke-19 lainnya, dan “Perancis Libre” overprints, akan dibahas dalam artikel mendatang.

 
 
 
 
 

In January of 1956, Lebanon issued a set of stamps and a souvenir sheet commemorating the 10th Anniversary of the United Nations (Scott #C221-22, C222Note). Only 15,000 sets and 4,000 souvenir sheets were issued. Scott ’10 values them unused at $ 11.75 and $ 90.00, respectively. Both are attractive, and it is unclear which represents the better bargain, because it is likely that a far greater proportion of the sets were used as postage and discarded than were the souvenir sheets.


Stamps of Lebanon are popular among collectors of the Mideast and French Colonies. Furthermore, as a UN Topical, this issue has worldwide appeal, which should increase as the UN gradually gains credibility as an effective institution for dealing with global problems.

Lebanon, a nation of 4.2 million people, has had negligible GDP growth over the last 5 years due to Hezbollah’s war with Israel, Syrian domination, and internal strife. Nevertheless, I am confident that it will eventually return to prosperity as the various factions within the region learn how to get along, and Beirut returns to its former preeminence as the “Paris of the Middle East.”

 Stamp Investment Tip: St. Pierre and Miquelon 1885-86 Surcharges (Scott #1-

The Territorial Collectivity of St. Pierre and Miquelon, the only remnant of the former French colonial empire in North America, is comprised of two small groups of islands off the coast of Newfoundland. From a philatelic investment perspective, it is of interest because its stamps are popular in Canada and among collectors of French Colonies – both growing markets. The scarcest stamps of St. Pierre and Miquelon exist within two broad groups: the 19th century surcharges and overprints, and the 1941-42 “France Libre” overprints.

 

As with all overprints, some of these stamps have been faked at one time or another, so I recommend that stampselectors focus only on those which are worth getting expertized.

 

The first stamps of the colony were primitive surcharges. I’ve listed the better ones, along with their printing quantities (when known) and Scott ’10 Catalog Values for unused, below:

 

– 1885 05c on 40c Vermilion on straw (Scott #1; 4,000; $ 140.- )

– 1885 05c on 35c Black on yellow (Scott #4; 1,500; $ 140.-)

– 1885 05c on 75c Carmine on rose (Scott #5; 1,800; $ 375.-)

– 1885 25c on 1fr Bronze Green on straw, surcharge type ‘c’ (Scott #7; 340; $ 13,000.-)

– 1885 25c on 1fr Bronze Green on straw; surcharge type ‘d’ (Scott #8; 300; $ 2,500.-)

– 1885 5c on 2c Brown on buff (Scott #9; extremely rare; $ 6,500.-)

– 1885 5c on 4c Claret on lavender (Scott #10; 900; $ 500.-)

– 1886 5c Black (Scott #12; Rare; $ 1,350.-)

– 1886 10c Black (Scott #13; Rare; $ 1,450.-)

– 1886 15c Black (Scott #14; Rare; $ 1,300.-)

– 1891 15c on 35c Black on orange, surcharge type ‘e’ (Scott #16; 850; $ 675.-)

– 1891 15c on 35c Black on orange, surcharge type ‘f’ (Scott #17; 850; $ 2,000.-)

– 1891 15c on 40c Red on straw, surcharge type ‘e’ (Scott #18; 5,000; $ 110.-)

 

Some of the other better 19th century issues, and the “France Libre” overprints, will be dealt with in future articles.

 

Before Australia issued its first stamps as a self-governing dominion in 1913, it was divided into six British colonies, each of which issued their own stamps. In 1900, Queensland issued a set of two semi-postals (Scott #B1-2) to aid disabled Queensland volunteers and dependants of those volunteers who lost their lives fighting in the Boer War. Only 6,500 of #B1 and 4,020 of #B2 were issued, and Scott ’10 prices them unused at $ 200.-and $ 525.-, respectively.

 

I favor all better stamps of Australia and Australian States, and believe that those issues which are the most undervalued, based upon their scarcity, will tend to increase the most over time.

 

Australia is a prosperous nation of 22 million people and a diverse economy, with thriving service, agricultural, and mining sectors. Annual GDP growth has average 3.6% over the past 15 years. Recently, there has been considerable growth in mining and petroleum extraction, in part due to increased exports to the resource-hungry Chinese market. It is likely that Australia’s stamp collecting population will grow significantly as the nation ages. The percentage of Australians over 60 is projected to rise from 16% in 2000 to 24.8% in 2025, and 28.2% in 2050.

 

When purchasing these stamps, note that the centering of this issue is often mediocre. Try to select examples which are centered Fine or better.

 

In 1921, the Netherlands, and its main colony, the Netherlands Indies, both issued Marine Insurance Stamps (Scott #GY1-7, in both cases). These stamps were used to pay for a very unusual type of insured mail. Letters bearing the stamps were placed in safes mounted on the decks of ships en route between Netherlands and Netherlands East Indies. The safes were buoyant and were equipped with flares and bells. In the event that the ship sank, the safe would float off and the flares and bells would activate, hopefully leading to the recovery of the safe and its contents. Only 5,216 of the Netherlands set were issued, and 4,127 of the Netherlands Indies set, and Scott ’10 prices them unused at $ 605.- ($1,500.- for NH) and $ 186.90, respectively.

 

Both sets should do well, although the Netherlands Indies set is “sexier,” as it may potentially appeal to a dual market in both the Netherlands and Indonesia. With about 16.6 million people, the Netherlands is the 16th largest economy in the world, and its annual GDP growth has averaged about 2.5% over the last 5 years. Indonesia is a developing, though still poor, country of 230 million people, with an annual GDP growth rate hovering around 5%-6%. Like most emerging market nations, it faces challenges which will have to be addressed, including corruption and major inequities in the distribution of income.

 

Furthermore, global aging trends in both countries should bolster the population of serious stamp collectors in both countries in the coming decades. The Netherlands’ population of citizens age 60+ is projected to rise from 18.3% in 2000 to 32.8% in 2050, while Indonesia’s 60+ age group is expected to almost triple, from 7.6% to 22.3%.

From 1909 to late 1911 China occupied Tibet and the Dalai Lama and his Government fled to India. For approximately two years, five Chinese Post Offices operated in Central Tibet and a Chinese Post Office at Chambo (Eastern Tibet) was open in 1913 and 1914.

Initially, the post office used regular stamps of Imperial China, but in 1911 a set of eleven stamps (surcharged in three languages) was introduced for Tibet (Scott #1-11). The set is very scarce and almost never sold complete. As the purchase of any overprinted stamp entails the risk of buying a fake, I recommend purchase of only those stamps in the set (including the two rare varieties) which are costly enough to justify obtaining expertization. I’ve listed these, along with printing quantities (when known) and Scott ’10 Catalog Values for unused, below:

-1911 3p on 1c Ocher, inverted surcharge (Scott #1a; Very Rare; Scott ’10 CV= $ 3,500.-)
-1911 3a on 16c Olive Green, large “S” in “Annas” (Scott #6a; Rare; Scott ’10 CV= $1,250.-)
-1911 12a on 50c Yellow Green (Scott #9; 12,000; Scott ’10 CV= $ 175.- )
-1911 1r on $1 Red and Pale Rose (Scott #10; 4,800; Scott ’10 CV = $ 475.- )
-1911 2r on $2 Red and Yellow (Scott #11; 3,704; Scott ’10 CV= $ 900.- )

The dispute between China and Tibet over the matter of Tibet’s sovereignty has been ongoing for centuries, and it was following the issuance of these stamps that Tibet regained some of its autonomy and began issuing its own stamps in 1912.

I am confident that the Offices in Tibet stamps will do very well over time, mostly due to continued growth in demand for stamps of China. Interest in Tibet and its stamps may also help to push them higher.

Those readers who are on Facebook are welcome to join the “StampSelectors” group. To find it, simply enter “StampSelectors” in Facebook’s search box, and then click on the search symbol ( a magnifying glass) to the right of the box. The group will focus upon philatelic investing, the stamp market, and practical matters regarding buying and selling stamps. It will also offer the opportunity to comment upon this blog, get under the author’s skin, and suggest future stamp investment tips.

In 1934-35, Mexico issued a rather unremarkable set of three stamps reprising the Coat of Arms/Biplane design of 1929-34 (Scott #C62-64). The set would be of little interest to investors, were it not for a color error, the 20c Slate (Scott #C62a), of which only 180 were issued. The normal 20c Olive Green (Scott #C62), is extremely common (Scott 2010 as unused = 35c), but Scott ’10 values the error at $ 500.- (both unused and used).

Taking into account the risks of mistaking a gray shade of the common olive green stamp for the slate error, or of purchasing a chemically induced color changeling, this stamp should be purchased conditional on obtaining expertization, optimally from M.E.P.S.I..

Given that caveat, however, the error is grossly undervalued, but will not remain so. It is priced at about 1/1,000th the value of an Inverted Jenny (U.S. Sc. #C3a), but is about half as rare (assuming that all of the 180 error stamps issued still exist). As the Inverted Jenny is one of the most famous errors in the world, however, perhaps this is not a fair comparison. The 20c Slate Color Error had a slightly lower printing than the U.S. 1893 4c Columbian Blue Color Error (Scott #233a), yet cats. at about 1/40th of the Columbian’s value. To give some perspective on this, imagine a fantastical worst-case scenario, in which all 180 of C62a were to come on the market at once. They would probably be purchased for somewhat less than their full Scott value of
$ 90,000 ($ 500.- X 180) – less than a minor Mexican drug cartel makes on a slow day. The ludicrously low current valuation for this rarity is unsustainable.

With a population of about 109 million, Mexico has experienced consistent annual GDP growth of between 3 and 5%. It has a diverse and developing economy, but modernization remains a slow and uneven process, and current challenges include addressing income inequality and corruption, upgrading the infrastructure, and reforming tax and labor laws. Stamps of Mexico are popular among collectors in the U.S. as well as in Mexico, and those who wish to learn more about Mexican stamps should consider joining the Mexico Elmhurst Philatelic Society International (M.E.P.S.I.). MEPSI provides many useful services for collectors of Mexico, including expertizing Mexican stamps.

Romania issued three semi-postal sets honoring the Boy Scouts from 1934-36, all of which are worth accumulating. Worldwide membership of the Boy Scouts is estimated at 25 million, and Scouting topicals are extremely popular internationally. Wikipedia has an excellent article on Scouting Memorabilia Collecting, for those interested in the subject.

The three sets, issued in modest quantities, are an excellent way to play the growth of both Romania’s economy and interest in Scouting Topicals. I’ve listed them, along with their quantities issued and Scott ’10 Catalog Values forunused, below:

-1934 Boy Scout Mamaii Jamboree (Scott #B44-49; 50,000; $ 40.00)

-1935 5th Anniv. of Accession of King Carol I-Boy Scouts (Scott #B50-54; 50,000; $ 26.50)

– 1936 Brasov Boy Scout Jamboree (Scott #B63-65; 60,000; $ 28.50 )

A nation of 22 million people with a GDP per capita of $ 12,285.- (about 46% of the EU average), Romania is considered an upper-middle income country. Romania’s main exports are clothing and textiles, industrial machinery, electrical and electronic equipment, metallurgical products, raw materials, cars, military equipment, software, pharmaceuticals, fine chemicals, and agricultural products. GDP growth has been high, averaging about 7% over the last five years.

complete info exist.but only for premium member and also info of rare stamps e-book in CD-ROM which also for premium member only,subscribed via comment

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