Protected: The Legend Of chinese Qing dynasty Kungfu Hero Wong Fei Hong

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Protected: THE ANCIENT CHINA NUMISMATIC HISTORY COLLECTIONS PART THREE

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Protected: THE ANCIENT CHINA NUMISMATIC HISTORY COLLECTIONS PART TWO

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THE ANCIENT CHINA NUMISMATIC HISTORY COLLECTIONS PART ONE

The Chinese Ancient Numismatic History collections

 

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Copyright@2012

Private Limited Edition In CD-ROM

FORWARD

I have collecting china numismatic including coins and papermoney7 from ancient to modern era almost 50 years, and starting to study the collections in 25 years. At first very difficult because during President Suharto era 1966-1998 forbidden to read and collected Chinese literatures but the china numismatic could found easily with cheapest price until 1988 after the open diplomatic relationship between Indonesia and China I can found a little informations.

Since the President Gus Dur Era the Chinese overseas origin or Tionghoa ethnic became the Indonesian Ethnic nationality in the years 2000 I can found some informations and I could study in legal.but the collection very difficult to find because many chese nationality visit Indonesia and they swept all the Chinese numismatic collections.

I have visit china three times, first in 2007 to south china from Hanoi to

 

 Nanning of Jiangsi autonom province by Bus and Train ,  in 2008 visit

 

Book store near my Hotel where I found Chinese coin catalogue

 

Native market like in Indonesia

 

 

 

 Xianmen with beautiful Gulangyu island, by bus to

 

 my grandpa homeland

 

 Chiangzhou city to find more info and look

 

 

 the amazing tallest pagoda Kai yuan with

 

 oldest turtle stone and

 

 

 

 

old village where my grandpa was born , from Xiamen by flight to

 

 Beijing by China Airlines to look

 

olympic games station,

 

 

With my wife Lily

 

 

forbidden city,

 

 great wall ,and at least in 2009 by flight and bus to

 

 

Guangzou(canton),Hangzou to

 

 

 

 

Guillin to look the amazing dancer on the river,

 

 

 

 

Shi ba sui water fall and

 

 

 

 

amazing crown cave.

I have write in e-book CD-ROM about this and upload the sample in my web blog with caption  the dr iwan Adventure in China.

I bought the first catalogue Krause in 1989, in 2008 the Chinese coin catalogue with Chinese character,in 2008 my son Anton bought the best coin catalogue that made more understand how to read the chine native script  and in the same years I found several numismatic catalogue at Guangzhou.

I am starting writing about Chinese numismatic in my old web blog hhtp://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com which visit by 80.000 collectors.

This day I just found very best information about Chinese numismatic collections,and with this informations my study finish and I have writing the amazing e-book in CD-ROOM about the report of my study with notification which coin ever found in Indonesia with mark @,this the first study ever report,and this informations will be the fact related to Chinese traded in Indonesia, the sample I upload in my other web blog hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.worpres.com which visit by 210.000 collectors from all over the world. The complete e.book in CD-ROM exist with full info and illustrations which made everyone can understand about the Chinese numismatic including the value ,but this only for premium member of the blog,that is why please subscribed via comment.

I understand that this study not complete,more info and correction still need,please send your comment,for that thanks very much.

Jakarta April 2012

 

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

 

 

 

 

 

 

THIS E-BOOK IN CD-ROM DEDICATED TO MY SON

 

 

 

ANTON JIMMI SUWANDY

WHO HAVE INTEREST OF THE COIN AND PAPER MONEY COLLECTIONS

 

 

 

 

DR IWAN NOTES

PLEASE REMEMBER THE MAR @ MEANS THE COIN FOUND IN Indonesia

 

which related with Chinese traded

with Indonesia,the earliest I found during Han Dynasty in Bali, many Chinese ancient cash coin found there because until 1952 the Chinese cast coin still used there.

 

@

The Chinese cast coin during Yuan dynasty not many found In Indonesia because after

 

 emperor Kublai khan sent the army to subdue

 

Java King Kartanegara  of Singosari due to he tattouge the face of Chinese emperor envoy Meng Chi at his face,and

 

 

Raden wijaya of Mojopahit  (Kertarajasa)sent back the Mongol army lead by Khausing cs back home no communication between china and Indonesia until the early Ming dynasty with admiral Zheng Ho visit Indonesia during

 

 emperor Hung wu and

 

 emperor Yongle, and then during Ming Dynasty the emperor forbidden to export Chinese coins which made no Ming cast coin found in Indonesia until Qing Dymasty ,due to the lack of coins,local. Indonesia kingdom produced their own cast coin like

@

@

 

 Aceh tin and gold dirham coin,

@

 

@

 

Palembang tin pitis coin,Bangka , Cheribon and West borneo Chinese marchant Tin Coin.

@

Bantam cast coin Also cast coin produced by

@

 

 VOC(Dutch east Indiea company) coins and

@

 EIC(British East Indie company ) coin.also

 

Portugeus Malacca  Tin coin

About this local cast coin just still in study and after finist will upload  in e-book CD-ROM later.I hope the new collections will found and the informations will be more complete.

 

INTRODUCTION

The chinese cultural collections consist many items like the sample below

CHINESE CULTURAL ITEMS

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18th Century Qing Dynasty gilded carved wood panel

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A second longer 18th Century Qing Dynasty gilded carved wood panel.

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Closeup of left side of the second panel

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Closeup of the right side of the second panel

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8″ Mid-19th Century Qing Dynasty engraved brass lock with hidden keyway

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In order to open the lock you must push down on a buttom on the opposite end while pulling out against the way you are pushing, this releases the lock bolt 1/2″ which allows you to turn the other end piece 90 degrees exposing the keyway. When the key is inserted the bolt opens the rest of the way. Purchased from a Chinese Government antique store.

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Qing Dynasty carved ivory dragon, you can see the ivory grain on the back.

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A string of 19 beautiful 18th Century Qing Dynasty ivory Buddha beads. The top bead represents Buddha and the other 18 each represent one of his disciples. Each ivory bead is 1 1/8″ in diameter with a scrimshaw likeness of Buddha and his disciples on one side and one of the sayings attributed to them on the opposite side in very tiny Chinese characters. The ivory has obtained a beautiful golden patina with age and the grain shows up wonderfully. The workmanship is absolutely superb. Purchased in Wuhan, Hubei Province from a Chinese Government antique store.

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Qing Dynasty sliding top carved bone box with scrimshaw scene, held together by brass pins.

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Qing Dynasty carved bone container with agate ring and scrimshaw scene on one side and Chinese characters on the opposite side.

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Qing Dynasty carved wood panel with a Phoenix

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Some detail on the left side of the carved panel.

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Some detail on the rigfht side of the carved panel.

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Qing Dynasty (1644-1911 A.D) carved wood Foo Dog, or Foo Lion. Foo Dogs are frequently found at the entrances to temples, gardens and homes as protection against evil spirits They are found as a male and female pair, the male having a ball under one foot and the female having a young pup. This example is a female. .

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Rather than purchase the usual tourist trinkets we decided to seek items with both historic and cultural significance that we hope will someday give our daughter some connection to, and understanding of, her Chinese heritage. We have purchased a variety of items from the Chinese Neolithic Period through the 1980s. Starting with stone and bone implements to 4,000 year old painted clay pots, we added numerous pottery items from different dynasties through the Qing Dynasty in the 1800s, to typify common goods. Other items include various bronze artifacts from the Shang Dynasty (1600 – 1100 BC) and Zhou Dynasty (1122-256 BC) through the Song Dynasty (926-1121 AD), of both a common household and military nature. We also obtained a variety of more than 200 old bronze, copper and silver coins beginning with the earliest bronze currency through the Chinese Republic of the 1930s, as well as paper money starting with 1912.. Other items include wood carvings, various old Buddhist items, fine porcelain, ivory and bone carvings. We are also collecting such daily use objects as old postage stamps and food, fuel and cloth rationing coupons from the 1950s through 1980s. Shown below is a sampling of our Chinese cultural items..

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Bronze Halberd, Zhou Dynasty (1122 – 256 B.C.)

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Bronze Arrowhead, Warring States Period (475 B.C.- 221 B.C.)

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Bronze Spearpoint, Han Dynasty (206 B.C.- 220 A.D.), Hubei Province

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Bronze Zodiac Charm, Song Dynasty (926-1121AD)

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Bronze Dragon Bridge Coin, 5th Century B.C.

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Bronze Dragon Bridge Coin, 5th Century BC

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Ming Hua Coin, Zhou Dynasty
          4th Century B.C.

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Rebel Shun Tian Moon / Yuan Bao Coin, Tang Dynasty (762 A.D.)

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Da Guan Tong Bao / Ten Cash Coin,      North Song Dynasty, 1101 A.D.

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Silk Road Silver Hao Han State Coin, 25-220 A.D.

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Kia Yuan Tong Bao Fu Coin Tang Dynasty 840 A.D.

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Zhi Zheng Tong Bao Ten Cash Coin,
        Yuan Dynasty, 1331 A.D.

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Guang Ding Yuan Bao Coin,
West Xia Dynasty, 1211 A.D.

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     Pincer Money,
Spring-Autumn Period,      (770 – 476- B.C.)

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Qian Heng Zong Bao lead coin, Five Dynasty Period, 934 A.D.

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Glazed Pottery Jar, Late Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644 A.D.

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Pottery Hu, Han Dynasty 206 B.C.-220 A.D.

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Pottery Jar, Han Dynasty (206 B.C.- 220 A.D.)

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Porcelain High Bottom Dish, Qing Dynasty 1700s

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Porcelain Spoons, Qing Dynasty 1700s

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Bronze Horse Bridle Bit, Warring States Period  (475-221 B.C.)

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Glazed Cake Stamp, Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368 A.D.)

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Bronze Ornaments, Warring States Period (475-221 B.C.)

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Porcelain Weight, Ming Dynasty            (1368-1644 A.D.)

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Cross Bow Trigger Mechanism, 2nd-3rd Century B.C.

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Cross Bow Trigger Mechanism, 2nd-3rd Century B.C.

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Cross Bow Dart, 2nd-3rd Century B.C.

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Bronze Ax Head, Han Dynasty
       (206 B.C.- 220 A.D.)

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Bronze Fish Coin ,12-8th century B.C.

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Qi Dao Wu Bai Key Coin
  Xin Dynasty 9-22 A.D.

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Bronze Mirror, Song Dynasty
          (926-1121 A.D.)

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Bridge Coin, Warring States, 475-221 B.C.

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San Zhu, Western Han Dynasty 140 B.C.

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Bronze Shell Money, Zhou Dynasty                    1100 B.C.

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Qing Dynasty Porcelain Plate, 1800s

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Chang Ming Pai Sui Silver Amulet, Qing Dynasty

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Pai Chia Sho Silver Amulet, Qing Dynasty

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Black Glazed Pottery Jar, Qing Dynasty, 1700s

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Carved Bone Shell Money, Zhou Dynasty                    (1122-256 B.C.)

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Bronze Decorated Mirror, Song Dynasty (926-1121 A.D.)

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Bronze Axe, Han Dynasty      (206 B.C.- 220 A.D.)

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Bronze Decorations, Warring States Period (475 B.C. – 221 B.C.)

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Glass Beads, Yuan Dynasty (1279 – 1368 A.D.)

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Bronze Buckle, Liao Dynasty (916 – 1125 A.D.)

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     Bronze Chisel
Warring States Period
(475 B.C.- 221 B.C.)

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Decorated Bronze Chariot Part, Warring States Period
                        (475 B.C.- 221 B.C.)

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Brass Lock & Key, Qing Dynasty, 1800s

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Glass Beads, Liao Dynasty (916 – 1125 A.D.)

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Glass Bead, Liao Dynasty (916 -1125 A.D.)

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Glass Bead, Liao Dynasty (916 -1125 A.D.)

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Glass Beads, Han Dynasty (206 B.C.- 220 A.D.)

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Glass Beads, Han Dynasty (206 B.C.- 220 A.D.)

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Silver Belt Ornament, Liao Dynasty (916-1125 A.D.)

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Cross Bow Dart, 2nd-3rd Century B.C.

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Decorated Silver Chopsticks, Qing Dynasty (1644-1911)

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Bronze Axe, Warring States Period (475 B.C.- 221 B.C.)

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Bronze Adze, Warring States
Period (475 B.C.- 221 B.C.)

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Bronze Belt Ornament, Liao Dynasty
             (916 – 1125 A.D.)

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Bronze Bell, Han Dynasty (206 B.C.- 220 A.D.)

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Bronze Bell, Warring States Period
  (475 – 221 B.C.) Hubei Province

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Bronze Armour Ornaments, Warring States Period
                        (475 – 221 B.C.)

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       Bronze Zhun
    (Pole Arm Foot),
Warring  States Period
      (475 – 221B.C.)
      Hubei Province

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Bronze Axe Head, Warring States Period
   (475 B.C.- 221 B.C.) Hubei Province

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Bronze Chariot Axle Hub, Warring States Period
                    (475 B.C.- 221 B.C.)

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Bronze Zhun (Pole Arm Foot)
    Warring States Period
     (475 B.C.- 221 B.C.)
         Hubei Province

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Wood Moon Cake Mold (Foo Dog), Qing Dynasty (1644 -1911 A.D.)

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Bronze Bell, Warring States Period
          (475 B.C.- 221 B.C.)

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Gold Earring, Liao Dynasty (916 – 1125 A.D.)

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Glass Bead, Liao Dynasty (916 – 1125 A.D.)

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Gold Bead, Liao Dynasty (916 – 1125 A.D.

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Glass Beads, Liao Dynasty (916 – 1125 A.D.)

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Glass Bead, Yuan Dynasty (1279 – 1368 A.D.)

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Painted Pottery Jar, Han Dynasty (206 B.C.- 220 A.D.)

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Bronze Axe Head, Warring States Period
              (475 B.C.- 221 B.C.)

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Bronze Chisel, Warring States Period
           (475 B.C.- 221 B.C.)

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Porcelain Plllow, Qing Dynasty, 1800s

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Glazed Pottery Cup, Song Dynasty 906 -1279 A.D.

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7 1/2″ Bronze Belt Hook, Han Dynasty (206 B.C.- 220 A.D.)

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        Bronze Chisel
  Warring States Period
   (475 B.C.- 221 B.C.)

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Bronze Belt Hook with Inlaid Silver Design, Han Dynasty 206 B.C.- 220 A.D.

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      Bronze Fork     
Warring States Period
  (475 B.C.- 221 B.C.)

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.Bronze Pole Arm Foot
Warring States Period
  (475 B.C.- 221 B.C.)
     Hubei Province

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Bronze Mirror with Grape & Fish Design        Tang Dynasty (618 – 906 A.D.)

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Bronze Mirror, Tang Dynasty ((618 – 907 A.D.)

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.Bronze Bracelet, Warring States Period 
(475 B.C.- 221 B.C.)

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Bronze Neck Ring, Laio Dynasty (916 – 1125 A.D.)

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Detail on Ivory Bead

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Text Detail on Ivory Bead

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Detail of Buddha and Two Disciples

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Detail of Six Disciples

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Cowrie Shell Money,  Approx. 2100 B.C.

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Feng Hua, Jin Dynasty (265 – 420 A.D.)

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Spade Coin, Zhou Dynasty

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Knife Money, Spring & Autumn Period (770 B.C.- 476 B.C.)

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3-Character Khife Money, Zhou Dynasty

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Qing Ning, Laio Dynasty (916 -1125 A.D.)

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1902 – 1906 Hunan Province 10 Cash Dragon Coin

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1902 – 1905 Hu-Peh (Hubei) Province 10 Cash Coin

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1909 – 1911 Hu-Peh (Hubei) Province Silver Coin

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1913 Szechuan Province 50 Cash Coin

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.1916 China Republic 1 Fen Coin

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1915 Kwangtung Province 1 Cent Coin

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1934 Manchuokuo 1 Fen Coin

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1938 Meng Chian 5 Chiao Coin

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1911 Empire 10 Cash Coin

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1937 East Hopei Province 1 Chiao Coin

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Shansi Provincial Bank, 1919

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Bank of Chihli Province, 1 Yuan

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Charhar Commercial Bank, 1 Yuan, 1933

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China Provincial Bank of Chihli, 1926

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China Provincial Bank of Chihli, 5 Yuan, 1926

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China Shansi Provincial Bank, 1 Yuan, 1930

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National Industrial Bank of China, 5 Yuan, 1931

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Manchuria Center Bank, 100 Yuan

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Bank of China, 5 Yuan, 1926

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Bank of China, Shanghai, 1 Yuan, 1935 (front & back)

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Bronze Chisel, Warring States Period (475 B.C.- 221 B.C.)

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.Bronze Chisel, Warring States Period (475 B.C.- 221 B.C.)

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Bronze Chariot Axle Hub, Warring States Period
                    (475 B.C.- 221 B.C.)

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Bank of Shantung, 5 Yuan, 1925

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Bronze Sword, Warring States Period (475 B.C.- 221 B.C.)

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Bronze Bell, Song Dynasty (906 – 1279 A.D.)

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Bronze Buckle, Han Dynasty (206 B.C.- 220 A.D.)

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Silver Duck, Qing Dynasty (1644 -1911)

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Silver Crane, Qing Dynasty (1644 -1911)

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Silver  Figure of Chinese Official, Qing Dynasty

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Silver Longevity Amulet, Qing Dynasty

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Silver Hairclip, Qing Dynasty (1644-1911)

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Silver Foo Dog, Qing Dynasty (1644-1911)

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Silver Ornament, Qing Dynasty (1644-1911)

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Silver Foo Dog, Qing Dynasty (1644-1911)

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Silver Hairpin
Qing Dynasty
( 1644-1911)

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Silver Hairpin Closeup

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Hairpin, Qing Dynasty (1644-1911)

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Silver Ornaments, Qing Dynasty (1644-1911)

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Bone Dice, Qing Dynasty           1644 – 1911

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Bone Dominos, Qing Dynasty (1644-1911)

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Bronze Mirror, Warring States Period 
(475 B.C.- 221 A.D.)

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Glass Bead, Dynasty Liao (916 -1125 A.D.)

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Carved Jade Bead, Han Dynasty (206 B.C.- 220 A.D.)

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Carved Jade, Han Dynasty (206 B.C.- 220 A.D.)

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Bronze Spoon, Western Zhou Dynasty (1100 – 770 B.C.)

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Bronze Pot, Han Dynasty (206 B.C.- 220 A.D.)

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Bronze Weapon, Shang Dynasty (1600 B.C.- 1100 B.C.)

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Bronze Weapon, Shang Dynasty (1600 B.C.- 1100 B.C.)

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Cross Bow Trigger Mechanism, Han Dynasty (206 A.D.- 220 A.D.)

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       Glazed Pottery Vase  Song Dynasty (906 – 1279 A.D.)

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Bronze Decorated Bangle, Han Dynasty (206 B.C.- 220 A.D.)

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2 Wood Moon Cake Molds, Qing Dynasty (1644 – 1911 A.D.)

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Jade Huang, Western Zhou Dynasty (1027 B.C.- 771 B.C.), Xianjing Province

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6″ Jade Double Dragon Bi, Han Dynasty (206 B.C.- 220 A.D.)
                              Xianjing Province

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7″ Jade Double Phoenix Round Pei, Yuan Dynasty                         (1279 – 1368 A.D).

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12.5″ Jade Huang, Qing Dynasty (1644 -1911)

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Opposite side of Jade Huang

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A jade bi is a round, flat piece of jade with a circular hole in the center. The ancient Chinese called the hole hao and the wide border around it rou, stipulating that the width of the rou must be at least twice the diameter of the hao. According to the Book of Zjou Rites, bi were used in sacrifices to Heaven
 
A jade huang is a semi-circular ornament used as pendants or in larger forms as wall decorations. Although primarily for decorative purposes, jade huang were used as ritual objects in court ceremonies, and during sacrifices and funerals.
 
A jade pei is a double huang in a circular pattern, and used for the same purpose, such as the example below..

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Hollow-Handle Pu with character Pu
  Zhou Dynasty 5th Century B.C.

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Rare MOP Gaming Counter Inscribed with Chinese Characters

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12-sided Plate, Qing Dynasty, Kangxi Period                         (1662 – 1722)              

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1920 Republic 10 Cash Coin

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Pottery Jar, Song Dynasty (906 – 1279 A.D.)

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Glazed Bowl, Song Dynasty (906 – 1279 A.D.)

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Porcelain Jarlet, Yuan Dynasty (1279 – 1368 A.D.)

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Glazed Jar with Chinese Character, late 1700s

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Neolithic Carved Bone Harpoon Point

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Neolithic Carved Ivory Amulet

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Neolithic Carved Antler Amulet

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Neolithic Carved Bone

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Glazed Jar, Tang Dynasty (618 – 906 A.D.)

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Glazed Tea Bowls, Tang Dynasty (618 – 906 A.D.)

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Neolithic Carved Bone

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          Bronze Jar with Lid
Han Dynasty (206 B.C.- 220 A.D.)

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Ivory Carving – Guanyin, Chinese
  Buddhist Goddess of Mercy
         Mid to Late 1800s          

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             Bronze Arrow Point
Shang Dynasty (1600 B.C.- 1100 B.C.)

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            Bronze Arrow Point
Shang Dynasty (1600 B.C.- 1100) B.C.

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Signed 7 1/2″ Ivory Dragon Carving
       Qing Dynasty Mid-1800s

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MOP Fretted Gaming Counter, ca. 1800 – 1840

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24″ gilded country scene wood carving with woman riding a water buffalo, Qing Dynasty

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Full set of 19 Ivory Beads

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Jade Carved Bead
   Han Dynasty

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Bone Artifacts, Yuan Dynasty

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Jade Bi, Huang and Pei

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Bronze Bangle, Song Dynasty (926 -1121 A.D.)

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Bronze Decorated Bangle, Song Dynasty (926 – 1121 A.D.)

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Bronze Decorated Bangle, Song Dynasty (926 – 1121 A.D.)

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Bronze Knife, Warring States Period (475 – 221 B.C.), Hubei Province

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Bronze Arrow Point, Late Spring & Autumn Period (770-456 BC)

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Bronze Arrow Point, Late Spring & Autumn Period (770-456 BC)

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               Bronze Arrow Point
Shang Dynasty, (1600 B.C.- 1100 B.C.)

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Bronze Arrow Point, Spring & Autumn Period (770 – 456 B.C.)

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Bronze Arrow Point, Spring & Autumn Period (770 – 456 B.C.)

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   Bronze Arrow Point
Spring & Autumn Period
       770 – 456 B.C.

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Bronze Arrow Point, Western Zhou Dynasty (1100 – 770 B.C.)

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   Bronze Arrow Point
Spring & Autumn Period
       770 – 456 B.C.

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Pottery Amphora – Siwa Culture
1300 – 1000 B.C. Gansu Province

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Celadon Spoons, Song Dynasty (906 -1279) A.D.)

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Bronze Arrow Point, Western Zhou Dynasty (1100 B.C.- 770 B.C.)

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Bronze Arrow Point, Early Spring & Autumn Period (770 B.C.- 456 B.C.)

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Pottery Jar, Han Dynasty 206 B.C.- 220 A.D.

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Underglaze Blue Minyao Bowl, Wanli Reign (1573-1620) Ming Dynasty

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Pottery Jar – Warring States Period
               475 -221 B.C.

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Glazed Pottery Vase
    Song Dynasty
    906 -1279 A.D.

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Glazed Pottery Granary – Song Dynasty
                 906 -1279 A.D.

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Hand carved deep relief ivory calling card case made in Canton, circa 1850-1870, from the height of the “Old China Trade”. Measures 4 9/16″ high.

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Cloisonne Dragon Bowl – late Qing Dynasty,Circa 1900

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Neolithic Pottery Jar, Majiayao Culture, Machang Phase                 3000 – 2000 B.C. Gansu Province

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10 1/2″ Ivory Carving of the 8 Immortals – Qing Dynasty (mid to late 1800s). Legendary Taoist Immortals, seven male and one female, are said to have originated  in the Han dynasty ( Western Han, 206 BC- 240 BC) .  The figures are recognizable by their attributes: Zhong Liquan with a fan; Zhang Guolao with a frog-shaped musical instrument; Lu Dongbin  with a sword and a fly-whisk; Cao Guojiu with a pair of tablets resembling castanets; Li Tieguai with an iron crutch; Han Xiangzi with a flute; Lan Caihe with a flower basket;  and He Xianggu with a lotus .

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The Ancient China numismatic  collections relatted to the history and culturalvery interesting because related with the the ancient china trading and communications with foreign country especially Asia country including Indonesia,look the collections below.

 

Ancient Chinese Cash Notes – the World’s First Paper Money – Part I

 

 

China has had a long and diversified numismatic history. From the dawn of antiquity onward, early Chinese traders used money in one form or another. It was not long after the Chinese invention of paper that the first paper money came into existence, making it the oldest paper money to be found in the world.

Part I discusses the evolution of the copper cash coin – the mainstay of the Chinese people for two thousand years – the invention of paper, the discovery of the use of paper money in China by Marco Polo and the various cash notes issued by the Tang, Liao, Sung, Hsia, Chin and Yuan dynasties.

 

Ancient Chinese Cash Notes – the World’s First Paper Money – Part II

 

 

Part II describes Ming dynasty paper money issues and identifies the coins depicted on the 1 kwan bank note of emperor Hung Wu (1378 A.D.)

 

Money of the Kingdom of Heavenly Peace

 

Few people, if asked today, could identify the Kingdom of Heavenly Peace, tell you where it was located, or how or why it came into existence. The Kingdom of Heavenly Peace, founded in 1850, started as a noble experiment with great promise, which soon turned into outright rebellion against the Chinese Empire. The movement went terribly wrong, ultimately claiming the lives of 25 million Chinese before government troops, aided by Western forces, restored order.

During their fifteen year civil war the T’ai P’ing rebels, as they were called, formed a government which included an army, a civilian civil service bureaucracy, treasury and even a postal system of their own. This article studies the money of the T’ai P’ing rebels including both coins and bank notes. Few specimens of either survive today. The coin issues are varied and interesting. The bank notes, although referenced in various old numismatic books, are completely unknown to Westerners, have never been cataloged, and to my knowledge appear here for the first time..

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ANCIENT CHINESE CASH COIN AND NOTES ’S

FIRST PAPER MONEY

PART I

 

INTRODUCTIONS

 

China has had a long and diversified numismatic history. From the dawn of antiquity onward, early Chinese traders used money in one form or another.look the picture of

 

 

Chinese trader at Bantam Indonesia in 14th century and

 

in Tibet and

 

 phillipine

 

Ancient Chinese paper money

 

 has always held a fascination for me partly because, without question, it is the world’s oldest.

 

Not only is the ornamental format of these ancient notes aesthetically pleasing , more importantly they represent an esoteric subject area into which few collectors have ventured.

 

We know of them not only through rare surviving specimens, but also through ancient Chinese works on numismatics.

 

These e-books occasionally illustrated the specimens under discussion, and in this way their history has been preserved down through the ages to the benefit of modern scholars.

 

 

 

 

In recent years

 

 

Chinese archeologists

 

 

 

 have had great success

 

 

in documenting archeological sites

 

 

in which ancient relics including

 

 

 

coins and paper money have been found.

 

The history of ancient Chinese paper money is, unfortunately, not a happy one.

 

Initially the notes were accepted as a great convenience, partially because they were backed by cash reserves. Over time the authorities greatly abused and misused the right of note issue, sometimes for personal gain, until the notes became so inflated the people would not accept them.

 

Paper notes were viewed by the peasantry as a form of

supplemental taxation, as the government ultimately refused to acknowledge responsibility for cashing them.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

By the mid-15th century

 

 a popular uprising was in the making.

 

 

To avoid rebellion,

 

the Ming emperor Jen Tsung

forbid further circulation of paper, thereby reverting to a specie economy. China did not have a paper currency again

 

 

 until 1853, when

 

 the Ch’ing emperor Hsien-feng re-authorized the issue of paper money to meet the escalating cost of suppressing

 

 

the T’ai-ping Rebellion.

 

 

 

 

The Evolution of Copper Cash

 

Cowrie shells

 

were the first items to be used in Chinese commerce.

 

Archeological excavation of ancient tombs has revealed their wide use as early as

 

the 16th century B.C.

 

These items, due to their small size and portability, proved more

popular than animal hides, jade and silk, bartered. These shells, originating in far off seas, were not native to China; hence they acquired a certain value of their own.

 

 

 

The ancient china cowries coins

 

 

used in trade eventually evolved

Into Bone

 

 

,

Clay heaven currency

 

and

bronze replicas.

 

 

 

It wasn’t until the end of the Chou dynasty (1000-400BC) that

 

 

 

the first metal currency was developed.

Read more info

 

CHINA, cowrie imitations and derivatives, including the bronze “ant-nose” coins
    Let’s call the stone and shell imitations, Shang-Zhou, c. 1400-900 BC in round numbers, and why not attribute the much more common bone imitations to early-middle Zhou, c. 1100-500 BC?  Of course if we knew what grave they were, uh, taken from, then we’d know, but we don’t.  The bronze “realistics” are probably contemporary with the bones or later.  The various “ant-nose” coins are c. 400-300 BC.

CCSL1) CHINA, cowrie & imitation lot:  6 pieces of cypraea moneta shells with filed backs, 6 imitations in white alabaster 12x17mm with 2 holes, & a teardrop shaped shell bead with a face carved on it & hole at pointy end, from unknown location in south-central China, 10 pcs total, $185.00
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CCS9) CHINA, white sandstone cowrie imitation, 26x17mm, $24.00

 

CCS10) CHINA, white sandstone cowrie imitation, bit of original red paint, $27.00 sold 7/18/2011
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CCS8) CHINA, translucent alabaster cowrie imitation, 35x22mm, cleft, hole, nice $35.00 sold
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CCS16) CHINA, alabaster cowrie imitation, 30x19mm, crude $31.00 sold 4/13/2010

 

CCS7) CHINA, stone cowrie imitations
a) coarse white sandstone, 31x26mm, $24.00 sold 7/18/2011
b) another, 29x24mm, $22.00 sold 4/13/2010
c) fine off-white sandstone, 19x15mm, $19.00 sold
d) another sandstone piece, $19.00 sold
e) translucent alabaster, 15x15mm, $33.00 sold
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CCS13) CHINA, marble cowrie imitation, 24x18mm, carved cleft & center hole, $35.00 sold 4/13/2010
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CCS14) CHINA, marble cowrie imitation, 28x22mm, $38.00 sold 7/18/2011
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 
 

CCS11) CHINA, cowrie imitation in fine white sandstone, 29x22mm, $24.00 sold 4/13/2010
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 
 

CCS12) CHINA, cowrie imitation in fine white sandstone, 31x21mm, 12mm thick, light chipping on back, $14.00 sold
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 

CCJ4) CHINA, jade cowries, ~32x18mm, nice, any of these at $85.00 each b is sold, I have several more unpictured.  They are quite beautiful, polished, special pieces
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 
 

CCJ3) CHINA, jade cowries, ~29x13mm, carved as a “bottom” on both sides, $85.00 each b sold
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 
 

CCJ-S2) CHINA, jade cowrie, 14x21mm, 2 holes, VF $120.00 sold
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

CCJ-S5) CHINA, jade cowrie, ~31x23mm, mottled whitish color, nicely made, $65.00  sold 7/18/2011
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 
 

CCJ-S6) CHINA, jade cowrie, ~25x23mm, $45.00 sold 7/18/2011
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 
 

CCJ-S9) CHINA, big jade cowrie, 50x31mm, 3 tiny holes, mottled tan & olive color with soft inclusions, $95.00 sold
Click picture for enlargement.  Several of these are available.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

CCJ-S7) CHINA, jade cowrie,  20x15mm, 2 tiny holes, highly polished white & tan, $90.00 sold 12/21/2009
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 

CCJ-S8) CHINA, jade cowrie, 20x14mm, 2 tiny holes, highly polished white with a bit of green, $70.00 This one sold, others available
Click picture for enlargement.  Several of this type are in stock.
 
 
 
 

CCJ-S3) CHINA, grayish jade cowrie, ~23x15mm, that’s a bit of carnelian in the cleft, $90.00 sold
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 

CCS4) CHINA, stone cowries from same batch as above, but these are soft soapstone or similar. Any of these @ $55.00 each.
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

CCS5) CHINA, stone cowrie, 19x14mm, $36.00 sold 4/13/2010
Click image for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 

CCS6) CHINA, stone cowrie, 24x16mm, $45.00 sold 4/13/2010
Click image for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 
 

CCS18) CHINA, soft stone cowrie, 1 big hole in back, 18x26mm, $35.00 sold
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

CCS15) CHINA, stone cowrie, soft, fine tan stuff, 29x18mm, $30.00 sold 7/18/2011
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

CCM2a) CHINA, cowries carved from mother of pearl with a hole at either end, @ $11.00 each sold

 

CCM1) CHINA, cowrie carved from giant clam or similar, 43x31mm, 2 holes, small edge chip on back, $35.00 sold 4/13/2010
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

CCM3) CHINA, cowrie imitations in mother of pearl
a-c) ~28x15mm, diamond shape, hole at top, no cleft, crude, @ $15.00 each a,b sold
d) sim., but with a cleft, $18.00 sold
e) similar, hole broken, $5.00 sold
g, h) similar but no iridescence, @ $12.00 each g sold
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 
 

CCM2) CHINA, cowrie imitations carved from mother of pearl
 a) ~25-30×12-16mm, diamond shape, hole at top, $21.00 sold
 b) sim., $15.00 sold 4/13/2010
 c, d, e) carved from shell, 23x15mm, diamond shape, cleft, chips, @ $5.00 each
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 

CFD2) CHINA, bone cowries, aa & ab have no holes for stringing, ba & bb have one hole @ $13.00 each, the rest have two holes, @ $11.50 each sold
Picture is actual size.
2008 I’ve acquired several more batches of these, mostly with 2 holes.  Buy an unpictured 2-hole type for $15.00.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

s8) CHINA, green glazed porcelain cowrie, ~30x18mm.  Several people have opined that these are funerary “Hell money,” and perhaps that is so.  Or then again, maybe not.  “F” $34.00 sold
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 

CCC-sc1) CHINA, clay cowries.  What else could these be but Hell money?
a) ~28x18mm, decent F $6.00
b) VG $3.00
c) sim., smaller F $6.00
d) VG $3.00
e) worn, chips $2.00
all sold as of 7/18/2011
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 

CFD3s9) CHINA, bronze shell, ~20x17mm, FD-3,
a) nice, $45.00
Picture is a sample.  You may or may not get it.
 b) crack, $12.50 sold 9/15/2010
 c) repaired, $10.00
 
 

CFD3v3) CHINA, bronze cowrie, FD-3v, gold plated hollow shell, almost all of gold plating remains, @ $120.00 EACH all of these are sold.  Ask me if I have any in stock.
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 

CFDH3) CHINA, bronze cowrie, FD-3v, 24x17mm, 4.9g, ridged & pierced cleft, thick & heavy, crusty, lightly chipped edges, VG $33.00 each sold 7/18/2011
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 

CHINA, ant-nose series, Coole= Tang Ban Liang, FD= “Jin?,” H1.4, FD-4, 2 triangles, no lines, 3.0g, VF $21.00 sold
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 

CYB4a) CHINA, bronze ant-nose series, Coole= Tang Ban Liang, FD= “Jin?,” S-unc. 15, FD-4 var., eyebrows above triangles, 2.8g, VG $15.00 sold
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 

CYB4b) CHINA, bronze ant-nose series, Coole= Tang Ban Liang, FD= “Jin?,” S-unc. 15, FD-4 var., eyebrows above triangles, 2.7g, VF $46.00 sold
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 

CYB4e) CHINA, bronze ant-nose series, Coole= Tang Ban Liang, FD= “Jin?,” S-unc. 15, FD-4 var., extra line below triangles, 4.43g, VF $43.00 sold 7/19/07
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 

CYB6a) CHINA, bronze ant-nose series, Tang Go Liu Zhu, FD-6, Coole-98+, S-unc.14, 2.97g, aXF $36.00 sold
Click picture for enlargement.
 

CYB6b) CHINA, bronze ant-nose series, Tang Go Liu Zhu, FD-6, Coole-98+, S-unc.14, 2.97g, aXF $27.00 sold 7/19/07
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 

CYB4e) CHINA, bronze ant-nose series, Tang Go Liu Zhu, FD-6, Coole-98+, S-unc.14, 0.9g, and made of lead, VF $40.00 sold 7/19/07
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 

CYBXa) CHINA, bronze ant-nose series, Jun, H1.12, FD-5, Coole-117+, 3.38g, VF $40.00 sold 7/19/07
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 

CYBXb) CHINA, bronze ant-nose series, Xin, FD-nl, Coole-123, S-nl, 4.71g, VG $70.00 sold
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 

CYBXc) CHINA, bronze ant-nose series, Xing, FD-nl, Coole-127, 3.89g, all of this type are crude, VG $48.00 sold
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 

CYBXd) CHINA, bronze ant-nose series, Qin (metal), FD-nl, Coole-129, 2.30g, VF $60.00 sold
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 

CYBXe) CHINA, bronze ant-nose series, Tao (kiln), FD-nl, Coole-nl, S-nl, like Coole-128 but different, 2.51g, aG $65.00 sold
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 

CYBXf) CHINA, bronze ant-nose series, unpublished (Yong?), 4.18g, F $180.00 sold

 
Ancient Chinese Coins

  

In the late Neolithic China, precious stones, brick tea, silk, and cowry shells were used as a medium of exchange. About 4000 years ago, Chinese coins were cast and widely circulated in the Zhou Dynasty . Ever since then, the cast coins became the most common form of ancient Chinese currency. After Qin’s unification of the country in 221 BC, the round coin with a central square hole superseded all previous types of cast metal coins. They circulated continuously till the Ming and Qing Dynasties (1368-1911), though the style varied with time. By the Song Dynasty (960-1279) paper notes had appeared and were used in the Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties (1279-1911). Silver coins appeared in the Daoguang reign of the Qing Dynasty, and minted silver and copper coins circulated in the Guangxu reign of the Qing Dynasty (1875-1908). The development of monetary system in ancient China has a close connection with the history of Chinese economy and politics.

 

Different ancient Chinese coins

Cowry shells
Cowry shells were used as the medium of exchange in the late Xia Dynasty (21st century BC). Those from the Shang Dynasty (16th century BC to 11th century BC) usually had teeth on one side and a hole for stringing on the flat polished other side. As natural cowries were limited in quantity, copies made of stone, other seashells, bone and bronze were also in circulation. Bronze replicas of cowries became the first Chinese cast coins.

Weighted metals
Smelted metal pieces without any denomination were used as money in commodity exchanges. They were valued according to the weight and material quality. Gold plates were used in the Chu State during the Warring States period (475- 221 BC).

Spade-shaped coins
Cast coins in the shape of a spade were developed in the early days of metal coin usage, and were still used sporadically until the early part of the Han Dynasty. In the beginning they had a hollow handle, but during the Warring States period (475-221 BC), the handle was solid.

Sword-shaped coins

Sword-shaped coins were a cast coin in a sword shape with a ring at the end of the handle.

Round coins
There are two types of cast round coins in ancient China: one with a round hole in the center like a ring, the other with a square hole in the center.

Minted coins
During the Guangxu reign period (1875-1908) of the Qing Dynasty, western coin minting technology was introduced into China. Zhang Zhidong, the governor-general of Guangdong and Guangxi regions, set up a mint in Guangzhou with some machines brought from Britain and made the first Chinese minted coins-silver and copper dollars-in the fifteenth year of Guangxu’s reign (1889).

Cowry-shaped bronze coins
Cowry-shaped bronze coins were cast in the Chu State during the Warring States period (475-221 BC). They usually had inscriptions of strange characters. One character, often seen, looks like an ant, another one like a monster’s face.

Gold coins
The Chu State was the first in ancient China to cast gold coins. Both have the stamped inscription “Ying Cheng.” Ying was the capital of the Chu State, and “Cheng” was read as “Yuan,” a metric unit of weight and was also used as the name of the money. So it was called “Yuan Jin” meaning gold coins. They were valued by their weight in circulation.

Spade-shaped coin

Among the spade-shaped coins, there is a rare type that has three round holes. It carries over 20 kinds of inscriptions on its face and a denomination of “Liang” (teal) or “Shi Er Zhu” (12 Zhu) on the back. It is the earliest Chinese coin with a determined denomination.

“Ban Liang” (half teal) coin
The Qin Ban Liang (half teal) coin, is round with a central square hole. It became the national legal currency after the first emperor united the country (221 BC). The denomination Ban Liang, refers to its weight, which equals 7.5 gram.

Wu Zhu coins
Wu Zhu (five Zhu) coins, weighing about 3 gram each, were cast in the Wudi reign period (140-135 BC) of the Han Dynasty. They were continuously used till the Sui Dynasty (581-618).

 

Xin Mang coins
As a result of four reformations of the monetary system by the Xin Mang government (9-23), the Wu Zhu coin system was abolished and a great variety of currency appeared in the country. The newly issued coins were odd-shaped ingots of silver, gold or bronze. The bronze coin inscriptions were especially fine.

Kai Yuan Tong Bao coins
In 621, the 4th year of Tang Emperor, Wude, Kai Yuan Tong Bao coins were formally issued and the former Wu Zhu coin system was abolished. As the major currency of the Tang Dynasty each Kai Yuan Tong Bao coin weighed one-tenth Liang. Tong Bao and Yuan Bao were other coins minted during this period.

 

Jiao Zi paper notes
In the early Song Dynasty iron coins were popularly used in Sichuan province. Because they were small in value and heavy to carry, merchants issued a paper note called Jiao Zi, the earliest paper note in the world.

 

Silver ingots
Since the Tang and Song dynasties (618-1279), silver had been used as money. It was cast in various forms, with ingots being the most common one.

 

 

 

 

CHINA, “Hell” money
    Perhaps you are familiar with the modern imitation paper money burned in Chinese funerals.  At some of these functions miniature papier mache models of cars, TV sets, etc. are also burned as part of the proceedings.  These modern versions are survivals of practices that began thousands of years ago with the interment of real objects, animals, and even people at the funeral.
    These things are “Hell” money.  Seems reasonable to assume that the cowries are late Zhou, perhaps 300 BC, when they were using cowries and cowrie imitations for money.  The others were described to me as “Han dynasty or later.”

CHINA, clay cowries, 3 different styles, VG-F @ $6.50 each sold 10/14/2009
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

CHINA, ZHOU Dynasty, 1122-255 BC, ant-nose series, “Jun,” H1.12, FD-5, clay, aVF $9.50 sold 6/7/2008 
 
 
 

CHINA, HAN Dynasty, c. 200 BC – 200 AD, clay funeral offerings.  I am advised that all of the following are from the general vicinity of Hangzhou:
CH2) clay cakes?
a) 38mm cross shape with floral design & 2 small holes, F-VF $18.00 sold
b) 38mm cross shape with floral design & 4 small holes, F-VF $18.00 sold Click image for enlargement.
 
 
 

CH3) 32mm unglazed circular flat thing with slightly coin-amulet design on square base, not sure what it represents, chip on base, otherwise F $14.00 sold 1/7/2008 
 
 
 
 

CH4b1) glazed plate of food, avg. 50-60mm dia., round things in “sauce,” from Hangzhou area, F-VF $24.00 sold 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

CH4b2) another, F-VF $24.00 sold 6/5/2009 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

CH4b3) another, F-VF $24.00 sold 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

CH4b4) same, few chips around edge, F-VF $20.00 sold I have some more of these, now $70.00 7/18/ 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

CH4b5) sim., but crescent shaped “slices,” edge chips, F-VF $22.00 sold 10/14/2009
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

CH4b6) ~65mm, round, unglazed, possibly represents a plate of noodles, aVF @ $25.00 each “a” sold 10/14/2009 
 
 
 
 
 
 

CH9) CHINA, c. 300 BC-500 AD, clay Hell money, ~45mm round, represents a plate of food, F $25.00 sold 6/5/2009 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

CHINA, rough clay lumps ~35mm diameter with 4 seal characters arranged in a square.  Supplier calls them “Ni Feng.”  I believe they’re seal impressions, token of attendance at the funeral or some such, F @ $15.00 each sold.
 
 

CSY6) CHINA, 19th c., lead sycee, 126g, lump shaped with flat face, 3 characters, crude F $68.00

 

CHINA, “Hell” money
    The offering of goods and money to the departed has been a feature of Chinese funerals since the beginning.  Clay cowries, clay food, probably most of the lead versions of cast coins, etc. are funerary.  Since paper money began about 1500 years ago imitation banknotes have been offered, usually, in latter centuries they are burned.  If you go to any oriental store anywhere in the world you will find packets of “joss paper” for sale.  There are thousands of different types made today.

229-49. CHINA, Hell note, 5000 yuan year 31 (1942) in style of Japanese puppet Federal Reserve Bank, rare WWII item,
 a) AU $20.00 sold
b) off center, AU $20.00 sold
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

HONG KONG, Hell note set of 8, same blue back on all of them, 1960s, AU-Unc, $3.00
Click picture for enlargement.

 

CHINA, a set from the Mongol Autonomous Region, acquired 1998, set of 10, Unc $6.50 a few of those are sold out & replaced with pieces from Thailand
Click picture for enlargement.
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

During the Warring States Period (400-200 BC)

 

 

. These “coins” resembled actual tools in everyday use, such as

 

 

spades,

 

 

hoes

 

and

 

 

 

knives.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Compare with ancient knife below

 

 

 

The prominent role agriculture played in the lives of

the ancient Chinese is reflected in the choice of the spade to represent civilization’s first metallic currency.

 

Bronze spades evolved from hollow-handled ones, which were

miniature replicas of the real thing, followed by

 

 

the smaller bronze “pu”

 

consisting of round-shouldered and square foot spades.

 

Everyone, whether or not they could read or write, instantly recognized the inherent value of a spade. Reducing the spade to a

miniature pu representing the actual tool, not only made them convenient to carry, but greatly facilitated trade.

 

 It was now possible to place a value on commodities: for example, ‘ten spades or two hoes for a sheep’ using coins to purchase necessities. In time, pu spades were supplanted by knife money. (Although some would argue that the knife came first.)

 

 

 

 

This form of coin was introduced by the kingdom of Ch’i, a

practically independent state under Chou. The earliest Ch’i knives were approximately seven inches long. The knife blade often carried inscriptions indicating its origin and trade value.

 

Later on, smaller knives, known as Ming knives made their appearance.

The term “Ming” when used in association with knife money is not to be confused with the Ming dynasty (1368-1644AD); rather these knives received their name from the town where they were made.

Eventually knife money evolved into round coins with center holes known as “pan-liangs” which were to become the prototype of all coins to follow.

The Chinese coinage system

The Western, Greek, coinage system

 

was based on precious metal coins

 

struck between two dies.

 In contrast, Chinese coins

 

were made from copper-alloy,

 

 and

 

were cast in moulds.

The Chinese tradition flourished until the early twentieth century, when it was replaced by the European system.

 

 

 

 

Before 1000 BC,

 

cowrie shells were used for payments, gifts and displays of wealth.

Later these were replaced by substitutes made out of

 

bone, bronze or jade. By the seventh century BC cloth and bronze tools such as hoes and knives were also being used as money. The first Chinese coins were produced when these objects were transformed into models representing their standardised value. ‘Spades’ and ‘knives’ were the standard currency in China until the second century BC.

   

Jade imitation
of cowrie shell,
10th-6th cent. BC.

Spade money,
6th-5th cent. BC.

Read more info

ANCIENT CHINESE COINAGE
700 BC TO 255 BC

 

This is a reference guide to

 

the cast coins of China from the Zhou Dynasty, including knife and spade coins,  a listing of examples we currently have available can be viewed.

 

Images represent the types and may be larger or smaller than the actual coins.

Read more info

Chinese Charms with Coin Inscriptions

 

The mythical power of the written Chinese language along with the authority of the Chinese empire have traditionally combined to make Chinese coins into something more than just a form of currency.

For this reason, people believed that by utilizing the inscriptions (legends) of certain Chinese coins, the power of charms would be further enhanced.

Some coin inscriptions are used on charms because they have an inherent auspicious meaning. For example, the inscription on the Liao Dynasty (916-1125 AD) qian qiu wan sui (千秋万岁) coin at the left expresses the hope for longevity with the meaning of “a thousand autumns and ten thousand years”.  This Liao Dynasty coin is described in more detail below.

Another example would be the zheng de (正德) reign title of Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 AD) Emperor Wu Zong.  Zheng de (正德) means “correct virtue”.  The inscription zheng de tong bao (正德通宝), meaning “currency of correct virtue”, became a very popular inscription on Chinese charms even though no actual coins with this inscription were ever cast by the government!  Please see the examples below.

Other Chinese coin inscriptions seem to have been used on charms because the coins were issued during a time of disunity and unrest which the Chinese people, unfortunately, have faced many times throughout their history.  Charms using the coin inscriptions of Wang Mang (7-23 AD), whose monetary reforms brought unprecedented disorder, belong to this category.  Several examples are illustrated in the section below.

Still other Chinese coin legends were used because of a perceived force in the metal used in the casting of the coins of that era, such as the Later Zhou Dynasty (951-960 AD) zhou yuan tong bao (周元通宝) charms.

Examples of these and other charms with coin inscriptions are discussed in more detail in the sections below.

Wang Mang

(7-23 AD)

Wang Mang usurped the throne in the year 7 AD and proceeded to institute a number of monetary reforms which became extremely unpopular.

One of the first coins Wang Mang introduced had the inscription da quan wu shi (大泉五十) and the coin with the colorful and heavy patina at the left is an example.  The character above the square hole is da (大) meaning “big”.  The character below the hole is quan (泉) which translates as “coin“.  The character on the right is wu (五) which means “five” (5).  The character on the left is shi (十) meaning “ten” (10).  The value is therefore 5 x 10 = 50.  The inscription thus means “large coin fifty”.  The coin was declared to be the equivalent of 50 of the Han Dynasty wu zhu (五铢) coins which were the prevailing currency up to this time.

The reverse side of this coin is blank.

The coin has a diameter of 31 mm and a weight of 9.3 grams.

The “coin” to the left is not to scale.

It is actually a charm that has the same inscription (da quan wu shi 大泉五十) and resembles the coin above.

It is very small and is certainly old, although it probably does not date to the time of Wang Mang.

Because of wear, the symbols on the reverse side are a little difficult to discern.  To the right of the square hole is a snake with its head at the top and cocked back.  To the left is a sword with its hilt at the top.  Above the hole is a tortoise with its head facing to the right, and below the hole are the seven stars of the Big Dipper constellation all connected together by a line.

The tortoise has a long life-span and the snake is one of the five poisons.  These two animals would eventually become entwined to become Xuanwu (玄武), also known as the Black Warrior.

The sword is a weapon able to cut through ignorance and slay evil spirits.

“Longevity” is the overall implied meaning of these symbols. (Please see Hidden Meaning of Chinese Charms for more detailed information.)

This charm has a diameter of only 19 mm weighs just 1.5 grams.

This is a very interesting da quan wu shi (大泉五十) coin. If you look carefully at the Chinese character shi (十), meaning “ten” (10) to the left of the square hole, you will notice that it has not one but three horizontal lines.  The Chinese character shi (十) for “ten” only has one horizontal line.  The additional horizontal lines seems to mean that the coin is not worth 5 x 10 = 50 coins,  but rather 5 x 30 = 150 coins!

 

 

Another characteristic of this coin is that the inscription is repeated on the reverse side thus making it a “double obverse” coin.

There seems to be some disagreement as to whether this specimen is actually a coin or a charm but I am treating it here as a charm.

The charm has a diameter of 25 mm and a weight of 8.2 grams.

 

Northern Zhou Dynasty

 (557-581 AD)

At the left is a Northern Zhou Dynasty coin cast in the year 574 AD during the reign of Emperor Wu.

The inscription is wu xing da bu (五行大布) which translates as “large coin of the five elements”.

The five elements consist of metal, wood, water, fire and water.

For a discussion of the five elements please see Charm Symbols: Star, Moon, Cloud and Dragon.

The reverse side of the coin is blank.

The coin has a diameter of 26 mm and weight of 3.7 grams.

This is a charm written in the same seal script and with the same inscription or legend (wu xing da bu 五行大布) as the coin above.

The reverse side displays the same four symbols, namely the snake, tortoise, sword and the Big Dipper constellation, as on the Wang Mang da quan wu shi (大泉五十) charm discussed above.

On this charm, however, the sword is on the right and the seven star Big Dipper constellation is on the left.

Above the square hole is the snake which is coiled with its head facing to the left.

The tortoise is below the square hole with its head also facing to the left.

The charm has a diameter of 24.5 mm and a weight of 3.7 grams.

This obverse side of this large charm is based on the same Northern Zhou Dynasty coin and uses the same seal script calligraphy.

If you observe closely, though, the character at the bottom is written differently.  Most experts still consider this character to be the same character 行 (xing) as on the Northern Zhou coin displayed above.

Others, however, believe that the character is actually 两 (liang) which was a unit of weight.  The liang was the same unit of weight used, for example, on the Qin Dynasty (221-207 BC) and Western Han Dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD) banliang (半两) or “half tael” coins.

The reverse side has the same four symbols in the same location as the smaller charm above.  The difference is that the snake is coiled differently and its head at the top facing right.

Also, the tortoise with its head on the right is now looking back towards the left.

The diameter of this charm is 32.5 mm and the weight is 7.3 grams.

 

 

 

 

Later Zhou Dynasty

 (951 – 960)

Following the fall of the great Tang Dynasty in 907, China experienced another period of turmoil and disunity known as the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms which lasted 907 – 960 AD.

Emperor Shi Zong of the Later Zhou issued his coinage patterned on that of the kai yuan tong bao (开元通宝) which had become the standard coin of the Tang Dynasty.

Emperor Shi Zong’s coin is displayed to the left.  The inscription reads zhou yuan tong bao (周元通宝) which translates as the “Zhou First Currency” and was cast during the years 951-960 AD.

The zhou yuan tong bao very quickly became a popular inscription used on Chinese charms.

The reason is because, beginning in the year 956, Emperor Shi Zong ordered that the bronze Buddha statues in the Buddhist temples, as well as the bronze items owned by the people, be turned in to the government so that they could be melted down and used to cast coins.  As a result, coins with this inscription are considered especially auspicious because they contain metal from Buddhist statues. 

This belief has carried over to the charms and amulets cast during the following centuries which display the same inscription.

The reverse side of the coin shows a “moon” between the square hole an the rim at the seven o’clock position.  For a discussion of the “moon” symbol please visit Charm Symbols: Star, Moon, Cloud and Dragon.

The coin has a diameter of 24 mm and a weight of 3.5 grams.

The obverse side of this charm closely resembles that of the coin above and the inscription, zhou yuan tong bao (周元通宝), is the same.

Although this charm is from a later period, charms with this Chinese coin inscription are very popular.

Because the actual coins with this inscription were cast using bronze from Buddhist statues, the Chinese believed that this was also true for charms and amulets with the same inscription even though they may have been cast in the following centuries.

The reverse side of this old charm has a dragon on the left and a phoenix on the right.

The two are facing each other with their heads at the bottom of the charm.

Charms with a dragon and phoenix are considered auspicious marriage charms.

For additional information on this theme, please visit Chinese Marriage Charms.

The diameter of the charm is 22.5 mm and the weight is 5.6 grams.

Like the charm above, the obverse side of this charm has the auspicious Chinese coin inscription zhou yuan tong bao (周元通宝).

This is the reverse side of the charm revealing that it is another phoenix and dragon marriage charm.

In this example, however, the phoenix is on the left and the dragon is on the right.  The two are facing each other with their heads at the top of the charm.

It is a little difficult to see but the wings of the phoenix are just to the left of the square hole.  The head is at the eleven o’clock position and the tail feathers are at the seven o’clock position.

The dragon is on the right with the tip of its mouth at the twelve o’clock position and a dot representing its left eye at the one o’clock position.  Its left front claw is just above the square hole.  The dragon’s body curves down the right side of the charm and its left rear claw is just below the central hole.  Its tail is almost touching the upper tail feather of the phoenix.
The charm has a diameter of 25 mm and a weight of 6.6 grams.

This is the obverse side of another ancient charm based on the zhou yuan tong bao (周元通宝) coin of the Later Zhou Dynasty.

Similar to the example above, the dragon is on the right and the phoenix is on the left.

The two mythical animals are sculpted in high relief and are facing each other with their heads at the top of the charm.

This charm has a diameter of 23.5 mm and a weight of 6.8 grams.

Song Dynasty

(960-1279)

The coin displayed at the left is an example of coins with the inscription tai ping tong bao (太平通宝) cast during the years 976-989 of the reign of Emperor Tai Zong (976-997) of the Northern Song Dynasty.

This was the first Song Dynasty coin inscribed with an imperial or reign title.

The reign title tai ping (太平) means “peace”.

This same inscription, tai ping tong bao (太平通宝), was also used on coins cast during the years 1854-1855 by the Shanghai Small Sword Society (xiao dao hui 小刀会) during the Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864).

The coin has a diameter of 24.8 mm and weighs 4 grams.

This is a charm based on the tai ping tong bao (太平通宝) coin of the Song Dynasty.

Tai ping, meaning “peace” or “great peace”, has always been a strong desire of a people and it is, therefore, an appropriate inscription for a charm.

This is an unusually well-made charm as evidenced by the fine crosshatch pattern seen in the character field.

The charm appears to be made of tin with, possibly, a silver wash.

The reverse side of the charm displays a number of auspicious symbols, some of which are difficult to identify.

At the top is a pair of interlocking diamond-shaped lozenges known as fang sheng (方胜).  The origin of this symbol is still unclear but it may represent the form of an ancient musical instrument.  Or, it may have been a head ornament worn in ancient times which symbolized victory.  There is also a legend that the Queen Mother of the West wore such as object to exorcise evil spirits.

Moving clockwise, the next symbol appears to be books tied with a ribbon or fillet possibly expressing the wish for sons to be successful in the imperial exams and obtaining an official government position.

The next symbol is a gourd also tied with a ribbon.  The gourd is popular symbol to ward off evil spirits and disease because its first character (hulu 葫芦) has the same pronunciation as to “protect” or “guard” (hu 护), and also for “blessing” (hu 祜). (Please see Gourd Charms.)

Unfortunately, corrosion obscures the symbols at the bottom and left of the square hole and these symbols remain unidentified.

Just to the left of the lozenges is a flaming pearl which represents riches and wealth.

This charm has a diameter of 26 mm and a weight of 3.3 grams.

Liao Dynasty

(916-1125)

 
At the left is a fairly rare coin charm from the Liao Dynasty.

According to historical records, Emperor Tai Zong (太宗) in the year 938 established the capital at Shang Jing (上京) and honored the event by casting commemorative coins with the auspicious inscription qian qiu wan sui (千秋万岁), which literally translates as a “thousand autumns and ten thousand years”, expressing the hope that the emperor and the dynasty would endure forever.

Most of these commemorative coins were presented as gifts or awards.  Some of the coins have also been found in the foundations of Liao Dynasty pagodas where they were presented as offerings by religious believers during the dedication of the religious buildings.

The reverse side displays an interesting set of three figures.

At the very top is a figure of a person kneeling with his right and left arms stretched out.

To the left of the square hole, and below the above figure’s right arm, is a person, perhaps a newborn child, bent forward and standing.

To the right of the hole, and below the top figure’s left arm, is a dragon.

This Liao Dynasty coin has a diameter of slightly greater than 25 mm and a weight of 6.8 grams.

Jin Dynasty

(1115-1234)

During the late Northern Song Dynasty, the Nuzhen (Jurchen, Jurched) (女真) nationality conquered most of north China and established their rule as the Jin Dynasty.

At first, they used coins of the Song and Liao dynasties but began to cast their own coinage in 1157.

The coin at the left, with the beautiful seal script calligraphy, has the inscription tai he zhong bao (泰和重宝).

The coin was cast during the years 1204-1209 of the reign of Emperor Zhang Zong (1190-1209) of the Jin Dynasty.

The diameter of the coin is 44.5 mm and the weight is 12.6 grams.

This is actually a charm based on the Jin Dynasty tai he zhong bao coin shown above.

Because tai he (泰和) can be variously translated as “peace and harmony” or “prosperity and harmony”, the coin became popular as a theme upon which to base charms and amulets.

Tai (泰) can also refer to tai shan (泰山), or Mt. T’ai, which is a famous and sacred mountain worshipped as a god.

The reverse side of the charm depicts two magpies with their long tail feathers.  The magpie above the square hole is actually upside down.  Its head is looking down and back to the right.

The magpie at the bottom has its head at the four o’clock position and is looking up and to left.

The two magpies are therefore looking directly at each other.

The magpie (xi que 喜鹊) symbolizes “happiness” because the first character xi is the same as the word “happy” (xi 喜).  Two magpies facing each other therefore represents “double happiness” (shuang xi 喜喜) and is a symbol of a happy marriage.

The reference to a happy marriage is based on the legend of two heavenly lovers, the Cowherd (Oxherd) and the Weaver Girl (Maiden), who are permitted to meet each other only once a year on the seventh day of the seventh month (known as qixi 七夕, the Double Seven, or Sisters Festival) by crossing a celestial river (the Milky Way) on a bridge made of magpies.

Also, a magpie shown upside down, as is the case here, means that happiness has “arrived” because the Chinese words for “upside down” (倒) and “arrived” (到) are both pronounced dao.

Located between the two magpies are plum branches.  In Chinese, one can say “there is a happy bird (magpie) on the tip of the plum branch” as xi shang mei shao (喜上梅稍).  This sounds exactly the same as saying xi shang mei shao (喜上眉稍), meaning “happiness up to one’s eyebrows”, which is a Chinese expression for “very happy”.

This charm has a diameter of 41 mm and a weight of 18.8 grams.

This is the obverse side of another charm based on the famous tai he zhong bao (泰和重宝) coin of the Jin Dynasty.

The reverse side of the charm has four lines radiating outward from the corners of the square hole and extending to the rim.

The Chinese refer to this characteristic as si chu (四出).  Si (四) means “four” and chu (出) means “going out”.

The implied meaning is that peace, prosperity and harmony should radiate in all directions.

The charm has a diameter of 41 mm and a weight of 22.3 grams.

Ming Dynasty

 (1368-1644)

This coin was cast during the reign of the first emperor of the Ming Dynasty.

The inscription is hong wu tong bao (洪武通宝) and was cast during the Hong Wu reign of Emperor Tai Zu (1368-1398).

You will notice that the hole is not in the usual shape of a four-sided square.  This particular specimen has an auspicious eight-sided hole known as a “flower” or “rosette” hole.

“Flower hole” coins were fairly common during the Northern Song and early Southern Song Dynasties but became very rare by the time of the Ming Dynasty.

A detailed discussion of these types of coins including many examples can be seen at Chinese Coins with Flower Holes.

This is a Chinese charm, modeled after the above Ming Dynasty coin, with the same inscription hong wu tong bao (洪武通宝).

The reverse side of the charm shows a boy riding an ox or water buffalo.

In this case, the “boy” is actually Emperor Tai Zu.

Emperor Tai Zu had a very humble early life and for a time was a shepherd boy.

You will notice that the boy is playing a flute which has the connotation of a care free life.

The flute is an old Daoist (Taoist) symbol which is associated with the Daoist Immortal Lan Caihe (蓝采和).

The flute is also an ancient Buddhist symbol used in meditation and is displayed on this charm to allude to the time when Emperor Tai Zu lived in a Buddhist monastery.

This type of charm became popular with the Chinese people because it represented the hope that a person could become successful despite being born into a peasant family.

Another hong wu tong bao charm which displays a number of symbols referring to Emperor Tai Zu’s life is discussed in detail at Buddhist Charms.

This charm has a diameter of 43 mm and a weight of 29.2 grams.

The inscription (legend) on this charm is zheng de tong bao (正德通宝).

Zheng De was the reign title (1505 – 1521 AD) of the Ming Dynasty Emperor Wu Zong.  While some claim that the government did cast a very small number of coins with this inscription, it is generally believed that no coins meant for circulation were ever cast by the government using the reign title zheng de.

Even though no legal tender coins were cast during this period, a fairly large number of charms with this inscription exist.  The reason is that zheng de has the auspicious meaning in Chinese of “correct virtue”, so the inscription translates as “currency of correct virtue”.

Many Chinese of the time also believed that Emperor Wu Zong was the reincarnation of a real dragon.

Ancient Chinese folklore says that zheng de was a “swimming” dragon.  The belief is that wearing a zheng de charm when you cross a river or sea will protect you from the danger of large waves.

The Chinese also love to gamble and there is an old Chinese superstition that says carrying a zheng de charm will bring you good luck at gambling.

It was believed that if a pregnant woman carried a zheng de charm in her hand both she and her child would be protected.

Zheng de charms were also given to children as a form of good luck money (yasuiqian 压岁钱) during the lunar New Year.

The zheng de charms were considered so lucky that there was this popular saying:

家有正德钱富贵万万年
(jia you zheng de qian fu gui wan wan nian)
“If a family has a zheng de coin, there will be riches and honor for ten thousand years”

It is a common theme with zheng de charms to have a dragon and phoenix.

The reverse side of this charm shows a wide-eyed dragon on the right with its head at the five o’clock position.  A lovely phoenix is on the left of the square hole with its head at the six o’clock position.

The dragon and phoenix paired together represent the ultimate union of a man and a woman.  Additional information on this subject can be found at Chinese Marriage Charms.

The charm has a diameter of 45 mm and weighs 14.5 grams.

This is another example of a very well-made zheng de tong bao (正德通宝) that would typically have been used as a marriage charm.

The reverse side of the charm displays a very ornate and finely detailed dragon on the right with its head at the two o’clock position.

An equally detailed phoenix is at the left of the center hole with its head at the eight o’clock position.

This is a large and heavy charm.

The diameter is 54 mm and the weight is 42.3 grams.

This is another example of a charm with the Chinese coin inscription zheng de tong bao (正德通宝).

The very broad outer rim displays a dragon on the left and a phoenix on the right.

The circular objects at the 12 o’clock and 6 o’clock positions are pearls.

The reverse side also has a very broad outer rim with the single Chinese character wen (文) above the square hole.

Wen (文) is the measure word used for counting Chinese cash coins.

It is interesting that this same character wen (文) can also mean the obverse side of a coin even though here it is displayed on the reverse side.

The diameter of this charm is 31.3 mm and the weight is 8.3 grams.

Coins were cast with the reign title Wan Li (万历) of Emperor Shen Zong during the years 1573-1620 of the Ming Dynasty.

At the left is a coin with the inscription wan li tong bao (万历通宝).

What is unusual about this coin is that there are four dots, with one dot between each of the Chinese characters.

Experts seem to be divided as to whether this is an official coin or a charm.

The character wan (万) means “ten thousand” and the character li (历) means “era” or “calendar”. The four dots are generally believed to represent stars (xing 星) or suns (ri 日).  The implied meaning is, therefore, light and brightness forever.

The reverse side of this coin or charm is blank although it has the same broad outer rim as that on the obverse.

The coin has a diameter of 24 mm and a weight of 3.4 grams.

 

 

 

Qing (Ch’ing) Dynasty

 (1644-1911)

This coin is a qian long tong bao (乾隆通宝) presumably cast during the 60 year reign (1736-1795) of Qing (Ch’ing) Dynasty Emperor Gao Zong.

The coin is very large and heavy.  In fact, it is much larger and heavier than any other qian long tong bao variety of coin with which I am familiar.

Also, the characters, such as the bottom portion of the bao (宝) and the radical portion of the tong (通), are written in a slightly different style from that of the other coins of this emperor.

The coin, however, is clearly old.

Because of its size, calligraphy and age, I have concluded that this “coin” is most probably a “charm”.

The reverse side reveals another interesting feature.

The Manchu characters indicate that the piece was cast at the Board of Revenue in Peking (Beijing).

However, the characters are rotated 90 degrees clockwise and the characters themselves are very large.

The intention may have been political but the meaning remains unclear. 

The charm has a diameter of almost 56 mm and a thickness of just over 3 mm.

In 1861, a few specimen coins for the reign title Qixiang were cast with the inscription qi xiang zhong bao (祺祥重宝).

The coin at the left is either one of these authentic pieces or an excellent copy.  If it is indeed a copy, then it is clearly a very old one.

Besides its rarity, coins or charms with the inscription qi xiang are considered auspicious because qi xiang (祺祥) means “lucky” or “of good omen”.

The top and bottom characters on the reverse side of this coin/charm are dang shi (当十) which translates as “Value Ten” and means that this coin was worth the equivalent of 10 cash coins.

The Manchu characters to the right and left of the square hole indicate that the coin was cast at the Board of Works in Peking (Beijing).

This coin/charm has a diameter of 35 mm and weight of 13.6 grams.

The charm to the left is quite small and shows considerable wear.

The inscription is guang xu tong bao (光绪通宝) and the obverse side looks exactly like a typical Qing (Ch’ing) Dynasty coin of Emperor De Zong (1875 – 1908 AD).

 

The reverse side reveals that it is actually a charm with the inscription read top to bottom and right to left as ding cai gui shou (丁财贵寿).

The translation is “May you acquire wealth, honor (high rank) and longevity”.

The charm is only 19.5 mm in diameter and weighs 4.7 grams.

 

 

INFORMATION NEEDED FOR
UNDERSTANDING EARLY CHINESE COINS

The coinage of early China is not well understood, although things have improved signficantly in recent years. This e-book  puts forward our observations and ideas that have evolved over time from many different sources, combining them with ideas put forward by other numismatists. Some of our theories will almost certainly eventually be proven wrong and will have to be revised (some already have been), and it is our hope to keep moving forward towards a genuine understanding of this complex series. We will be happy to hear from anyone who wishes to express their opinions on this subject, or can provide us with information that we are not aware of.


 

WHAT QUALIFIES AS A TRUE COIN

A true coin, as compared to a primitive money, must meet three criteria. First, it must bear the mark of the issuing authority. Secondly, it must contain an intrinsic value bearing some relationship to the circulating value, and while that intrinsic value can be less than the circulating value if it falls too far below the item becomes a token rather than a coin. The third it must have an understood denomination so that it need not be weighed at every transaction, otherwise it is only a bullion item.


 

ANCIENT RECORDS

Official ancient records are of little help in this series, as few survived

 

the Ch’in Dynasty’s attempt (ca. 221 BC)

 

to erase earlier history which included earlier writings.

Some records have survived are inscriptions on

 

bronze ritual vessels

 

indicating how they were paid for thus giving glimpses into the monetary system of the time, but in most cases the readings are subject to several interpretations with their true meanings uncertain.


 

MODERN RESEARCH
(19th century to recent)

Many books and articles about ancient Chinese coins have been published, but there is little agreement between them. It is likely no one researcher has the full truth, but reading them is still useful. Until recently

 

EARLY CHINESE COINAGE by WANG YU-CH’UAN (ANS Numismatic notes & Monographs #122, 1951, republished by Durst in 1980) was probably the most useful, but

 

 

CAST CHINESE COINS by David Hartill (Trafford Publishing, 2005) was far surpassed it and we highly recommend it to anyone that wants far more detail on this series than we intend to provide on this e-book


 

MODERN ARCHEOLOGY

 

Modern archeology is in its infancy in China, but rapidly improving. It provides significant new information on where the coins are found, and thus presumed to have been minted. But as yet there have not been enough documented excavations containing these types of coins, which can be accurately dated so as to help define the dates of the coins (usually the coins date the excavation). This is is changing and one day we will be able to define the dates of the various types more closely.

Read more

Great Leap Forward era backyard iron furnaces have been unearthed [via] and there is discussion about whether to preserve them as historical evidence, even a cultural heritage. The site is described thus

The backyard furnaces are located on the south slope of a hillside within

 

 the borders of Heiyaodong Village in Baiyin Mongolian Township,

 

Sunan Yugur Autonomous County.

They are situated in an east-west line and number 159 furnaces in total, most of which have crumbled. About fifty are still largely intact. The largest is 8 meters high and 14 meters in circumference; the smallest is 2.5 meters high and 2.7 meters around. Most are pagoda-shaped, with one or more chimneys. Their insides are lined with clay bricks. Some of the larger furnaces are dug into the hillside and have one or more arched entrances for feeding raw material, lighting the fire, or cleaning out slag, and multiple air vents are set into the floor. Some are made up of ten individual furnaces joined together. The whole group extends for a more than two kilometer  s, making for an impressive sight.

 

The furnaces were built in 1958 during the Great Leap Forward and ceased operating in 1960. Some of them were never put to use.

That last line captures what is, for me anyway, the essence of the GLF: an immense waste of effort, resources, lives. Wu Zuolai of the journal Theory and Criticism of Art and Literature writes:

People who experienced that time recall that whole forests were cut down to make charcoal to burn, bringing immense disaster to the environment. And because some areas were unable to produce acceptable steel, the people had to break apart their cooking pots and melt them down in the furnaces, and as a result, unusable lumps of iron were all that was produced. One unforeseen consequence was that real cultural heritage was plundered during the steel production campaign. The two-storey tower at

 

the famous Hangu Pass* was torn down,

and inscriptions accumulated over the course of two thousand years were destroyed.

 

Wuwei County,* Gansu, was an important

 

northwestern garrison in the Tang Dynasty, and its city wall, built of large bricks, towered for a thousand years. But those thousand-year-old bricks became part of the furnaces.

The past has become a memory and a historical lesson. But has the mentality of the Great Leap Forward been entirely eradicated? Faced with this massive cluster of iron smelters, we have much to reflect upon. Public, scientific, and democratic decision making must not be merely empty words but must be put into practice in every project.

Wu goes on to suggest a “small museum” on the site, and an oral history and records collecting project. Given that this is one of the landmark events of modern Chinese history, I would hope for that much, or more. But given that this is one of the landmark events in the failure of Maoist policy and rapid modernization, I have my doubts.

 


 

CALLIGRAPHY

 

Calligraphy forms evolved rapidly during the Zhou period, but many coins bear archaic calligraphy forms long out of fashion by the time the coins were cast. The same character can appear on two related issues in almost unrelated (to western eyes) forms, and in many cases these archaic characters cannot be translated with absolute certainty. Calligraphy style should be viewed as somewhat unreliable as a technique for dating the coins, and not used to override other evidence.

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History of Chinese Calligraphy

Since the creation of Chinese words in ancient times, Chinese calligraphy has existed in a rich myriad of scripts, many of which are still being practised today.  The following is a brief introduction to the evolution of the different types of scripts through the history of the Chinese civilisation.

Before the invention of paper, Chinese characters were recorded as engravings on different types of surfaces. 

 

The earliest recognized form of Chinese characters, known as Jiaguwen (甲骨文) or the Oracle Bone script, dated to

 

the Xia-Shang Dynasties era (1700 B.C.). 

The characters were found engraved on tortoise plastrons and animal bones (typically ox spatulas) which were mostly used for divination purposes in the imperial courts, hence its name.

Xia Dynasty (2200-1700 B.C.) and the Legendary Yellow Emperor of China


Emperor Shun The Xia (Hsia) dynasty began when Shun abdicated in favor of Emperor Yu,the legendary Yellow Emperor of China, from whom all other Chinese are believed to have descended. Venerated as the first emperor of China, Yu had thousands of concubines because he believed the more sex partners he had the longer he would live. He reputedly became immortal after he made love to a thousand young virgins. Yao, another mythical emperor who followed Yu, was famous for his benevolent rule and lifestyle of a simple farmer.

The oldest bronze vessels date back to the Xia dynasty. According to legend bronze was first cast 5,000 years ago by the Yellow Emperor, who cast nine bronze tripods to symbolize the nine provinces in his empire. Bronze metallurgy in China dates back to 2000 B.C., significantly later than in southeastern Europe, the Middle East and Southeast Asia, where it developed around 3600 B.C. to 3000 B.C.

Chinese astronomers in the Xia era were among the first to chart constellations and record supernovas. In 2296 B.C., Chinese astronomers observed a comet. They also developed a system of observation based on the equator and the poles that was not adopted by Europe until 4000 years later.

For a long time it was thought the Xia dynasty was legendary but in the last couple of decades evidence has surfaced that it really existed. A site near Erlitou in Henan Province dated to 2200 to 1700 B.C. is believed to have been a Xia capital. Archaeologists working there have found tombs filled with pottery, ornamental jade, clay irrigation pipes, and the world’s oldest ritual bronze vessels.

Xia Dynasty Archaeological Sites


Described by some as a Xia dynasty Tomb
but actually from a
A.D. 10th century Xia dynasty The Erlitou site near Yanshi city in Henan Province is thought by some historians and archeologists to have been the capital of the Xia dynasty. Excavations there have revealed palace building and tombs containing musical instruments and bronzes.

One of the most important finds from Erlitou is the Bronze Ornamental Plaque , a cast bronze and turquoise inlay that was unearthed in a tomb dated to 17th or 16th century B.C. Now housed in the Luoyang Museum, it features a foxlike animals that is thought to be a representation of a deity. Some speculate may have been worn as a breast plate and a symbol of divine authority.

Important Xia, Shang and Zhou archaeological sites include the newly-discovered Shang city ruins at Yanshi and Huanbei; the excavations of the Erlitou, Yinxu and Fenghao sites; new breakthrough discoveries at the cemeteries at the Liulihe site in Beijing, Qianzhangda in Tengzhou and Dadianzi in Inner Mongolia. Excavations at Shang and Zhou imperial cities such as the Yinxu ruins in Anyang, the Changan and Fenghao ruins in modern-day Xian, and the Eastern Zhou capital Wangcheng in Luoyang, which have helped archaeologists establish a chronology for the Xia, Shang and Zhou Dynasties.

 


Credit: http://baike.soso.com/v31430.htm

With the advent of the Bronze Age in the Zhou Dynasty (ca. 1046–256 B.C.), a more refined form of engraved script evolved from Jiaguwen.  Known as Jinwen (金文) or the Bronzeware script, this type of script was found on cast bronze vessels.  The Jinwen script boasted rounder strokes, unlike that of Jiaguwen which were long and narrow in form, and had sharp edges.  The stylistic difference between the two scripts was attributed to the finer and smoother bronzeware surface (as compared to animal bones).  Furthermore, given that the bronze vessels from this period were largely used for ceremonial and ritual purposes, more efforts were also put into embellishing the Chinese characters.

 

Credit: http://blog1.poco.cn/myBlogDetail-htx-id-4964841-userid-55616776-pri–n-0.xhtml

During this same period,

 

 

another form of script, Dazhuan (大篆) or the Greater Seal script, coexisted with Jinwen.  In fact, both Jinwen and Dazhuan are often regarded as sub-branches of each other since the two forms of characters overlapped.

In the early stages of Chinese civilization up till the Warring States period, different states and kingdoms had their own forms of Chinese characters.  It was not until

 

the Qin Dynasty (221 – 206 B.C.) when the Chinese empire was unified by

 

Emperor Qin Shihuangdi t

hat Chinese characters were standardized.  Pursuant to this development, a more elegant script, known as

 

Xiaozhuan (小篆) or the Lesser Seal script, was derived.  This script is recognized as the origin of the modern, unsimplified Chinese script which we see in use today in places such as Hong Kong, Taiwan and Malaysia.  Compared to the earlier scripts, Xiaozhuan characters are more stylized and less “pictographic”.  In fact, it is from Xiaozhuan script that Chinese characters start exhibiting the systematic and extensive use of radicals.

 

Credit: http://www.cc5000.com/zhishi/shufa/keshi.htm

 

However, the Xiaozhuan script was considered complex and cumbersome.  As a result,

Lishu () or the Scribe script, was created.  

 

As the name suggests,

 

this script was used by the court mandarins.  Its origin could be traced to the period of

 

 late Qin and

 

 

 

early Han Dynasties (206 B.C. – 220 A.D.) when court officials needed a fast and efficient script to record and process state matters.

The marked difference between this script and Xiaozhuan is that Lishu characters have less strokes and boast a more flowing style, and are therefore easily adaptable to calligraphy brushes.  In addition, Chinese characters were further standardized under the Lishu script to remove regional variations, and these characters are for the most part the same ones written today.  Hence, it is widely acknowledged that the Lishu script laid the foundation for present-day Chinese writing.

 

After the Lishu script, the evolution of Chinese calligraphy took on a cursive trend.

  Caoshu () or the Cursive script first appeared in the latter part of the Han era when calligraphers began to inject artistic styles into their writing.  Typically, the shape of the Chinese characters in the cursive script do not resemble the corresponding standard Lishu character as some strokes are either being merged or simply omitted.

 

Credit: http://chinese.qilu18.com/XDHY/03/12.htm

 

Kaishu () or the Formal script emerged at around the same time as Caoshu.  While very similar to Lishu, Kaishu contains serif-like (hook- or anchor-like) elements at the turn and end of each stroke.  This form of writing was being continually refined and standardized until the mid-Tang Dynasty (618-907 A.D.) when a uniform script was agreed upon.

 

Credit: http://www.szlnzx.com/edu/2010/4/20090602165457340.shtml

Meanwhile, also at the latter part of the Han Dynasty, a more cursive variant of Kaishu, known as Xingshu () or the Running script, also took shape.  Again, several strokes, especially sequential dots, are being merged, or two perpendicular strokes deliberately curved up.  Given its relatively simple and fast execution, Xingshu easily became the most popular script in use during its time.

 

Credit: http://www.wenhuacn.com/shufa/article.asp?classid=36&articleid=6886

 

Picking up Chinese Calligraphy

All newcomers to Chinese calligraphy are initiated through the basic brushstrokes in the formal and neat style of Kaishu.  The beginner learns by imitation through a template of strokes called tie, usually a reproduction of a manuscript by a renowned ancient calligrapher.  As the learner tries to reproduce each line and dot that forms each character, he is forced to examine and appreciate the proper way of writing and placing each stroke in the character.

 

Credit: http://www.997788.com/22304/search/155/6379641/

Notably, there is no fixed way of writing any character as the style and form would depend on the period of origin of the template.  For instance, if the learner picks up a Kaishu tie from the Tang Dynasty, the style which he learns will be more regimented than say, that from the Song Dynasty.  As one progresses in the mastery of Chinese calligraphy, one may choose to branch into practicing the other more demanding or stylistic scripts such Xingshu or Caoshu.  And with confidence and practice, the learner can also try to inject personal styles into the writing.

Appreciating Chinese Calligraphy

While there is no fixed set of rules or standards by which to judge or define beauty in Chinese calligraphy, enthusiasts usually refer to the following general points in their appreciation of calligraphy masterpieces.  A good calligraphy work would display a sublime balance of strength and gentleness behind the different strokes and the appropriate amount of ink used for each character.  Furthermore, the placement and alignment of each character across the piece of paper, thus making up the visual composition of the artwork, is just as important a factor in defining a masterpiece.


Jiaguwen

 

 

 


 

CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS

Understanding coinage of this period is almost impossible using the traditional classification systems with knife, spade, cowry imitation, and early round coins under the single heading of the Zhou Dynasty and thus giving the impression of a single complex currency system. Zhou was just the most powerful of several large states that existed side by side, each of which was responsible for a different type of coinage. Since we began building this website in 1997, more information about this has come to light and we are in the process of adding that information and restructuring the site to better show how the system worked.

WEIGHT STANDARDS

Ancient Chinese coins appear to have been issued at weights based on multiples of the shu. Dr. Woo has recently brought to our attention a group of Zhou Dynasty bronze weights on which the official weight of a shu was 0.65 grams, with 24 shu to a Liang of 15.6 grams. However, these are trade weights used to weight out goods to those standards, and when it comes to coins they do not translate directly to the expected weights of coins cast to related denominations.

Many Zhou period coins have characters indicating denominations Liangs, but when we weigh the coins they seen to average about 0.5 grams per shu (see Wang, Early Chinese Coins, pages 138-139) which is only about 77% of the official weight of a shu. This shows a seniorage system similar that to used in medieval Europe, where coins are made to a weight below their circulating value, with the profit made from the difference used to off-set the cost of minting, and sometimes show a small profit to the minting authority. So with respect to coins, a shu is roughly 0.5 grams and a Liang 12 grams.

The casting techniques used to mint Chinese coins did not allow exact weight control of individual coins, so the ancient mint masters were concerned with average weight of a large numbers of coins rather than the exact weight of each individual coin. To determine the intended weight standard of a particular series of coins one must average the weights a large numbers of specimens. We have noted certain trends within the standards of various types of coins, and at this point we believe the system can be summarized as follows :

Spades Coins are denominated in multiples of 6 shu with issues 72 shu or 3 Liang (36 grams), 48 shu or 2 Liang (24 grams), 24 shu or 1 Liang (12 grams) and 12 shu or 1/2 Liang (6 grams). Not all types were issued in all denominations but the denominations for each type will be discussed further down).

Knife Coins are denominated in a system based on multiples of 10 shu although the main denomination for thin knifes as 30 shu (about 15 grams). We have not yet examined enough of the Heavy Knifes of the State of Chi to work out there intended denominations, but will work on that later.

Early round coins With round holes seem to follow the knife money system based on multiples of 10 shu with most issued at 20 shu (10 grams).

Cowry imitation coins do not appear to have any typical weight standard, as the weights on them can very considerably. They were probably denominated as equivalent in value of an actual cowry shell, regardless of weight, but this is by no means certain.


 

DENOMINATION NAMES

Spade money had a variety of denominations, often multiple denominations circulated side by side, so we see some types with denominations names on them. While the weight standard is based on the Shu and the Liang, on the coins we see two names for this unit. Some do say “Liang” on them, but others have the character for “Jin” on them. It is important to understand that a JIN” is equivalent to a “LIANG”, and the only difference is in which term was used on what types.

As yet we have not determined a name for the intended denomination of Knife money, as none of them seem to have denomination marks on them. As there is appears to be only one denomination for them, there was no need to indicated it on them.

Round coins are much more complicated, because it depends on where they are from. Some were issued in spade issuing areas and are denominated in “Liang” or “Jin” just as the spades were. Others were issued in Knife issuing areas and like the knifes do not have a denomination indicated, although some have the character “HUA” which I believe simply means “money”. This is something that needs a lot more research.


 

MONETARY UNITS vs. WEIGHTS

The earlier coins were cast to weight standards in a direct relationship with the denominations, so if you weighted a coin at 12 grams it was almost certain a 1 Liang (or 1 Jin) denomination. During the Chin Dynasty, sometime around 250 BC, this changed and be begin to see coins issued with denomination marks that bare no relationship to the actual weight of the coin. This is best seen on the Ban liang (1/2 Liang) coins of the State of Chin which can vary in weight considerably but the earliest large diameter issues weigh at least 6 grams (and often significantly more), but the size and weight gradually declined and by the time they were last issued in the Han Dynasty are often seen at 3 grams or even less, but still with the Ban Liang denomination on them.

 

ZHOU DYNASTY
1122-255 BC

If the reader has not already done so, we recommend reading our comments above in order to understand a little about how this series of coins function as monetary units, before proceeding with this section.

“Zhou Dynasty” is the usual name for this period during which the early Chinese coins were made. It is technically accurate but does not best describe the political situation in China at the time, as China was composed a of independent feudal states which was also each it’s own Dynasty, which were loosely affiliated with the State of Zhou acting as a central hub of government. When the Zhou conquered Shang in about 1122 BC, they were very powerful and did ruled over the other states, but by 7th and 6th centuries BC Zhou had lost most of it’s real power and it’s position as the central hub of government was more as a figure head, with no genuine power over the others. Real power was split between the other feudal states, who were often at war with each other which is why this later Zhou period is also known as the period of the Warring States. This the period during which Chinese coinage first developed.

Some of these Warring States appear to have retained minting authority in their central governments, while others appear to have relegated it to the local level of cities or even clans. To some extend we can now sort to many of the major coin types as to which state issued it, although many issues remain uncertain. We are now in the process of re-organizing this page to better reflect this organization of the coins, and will continue to work on that as more information comes available. As this re-organization is not yet complete, some of what follows will seem more confusing than it will when we are finished.

The currency of the Zhou Dynasty can be divided into three basic periods.

The first, which will not be discussed in any significant detail on this list, is the pre-coinage period when various types of primitive money were used before coins were invented. Primitive money simply means objects used as mediums of exchange, which are not true coins. These can include things like farm tools (knifes, spades, etc), shells (cowry shells were popular for this) and things like bolts of cloth. Since use of coins begins in different parts of China at different times, there is no clear date as to when this ends, and to complicate things there is good evidence that coins did not totally displace primitive moneys as a medium of exchange until at least into the Han Dynasty period. In his work on early Chinese coinage, Wang Yu-Ch’uan discusses evidence of cowry shells as a form of currency as early as the late Shang Dynasty, and the exchange tables of Wang Mang in the early 1st century AD including many types of primitive money’s including things like tortoise shells.

The second period is a period of independent coinage, where each of the major states that made coins had a fairly unique form to them. Wang (per his map on page 254 of Early Chinese Coinage) maintains originated in different parts of China with spade money in the Shantung Peninsula and south of the Yellow River Valley, Knife money in the Yellow River Valley, and Cowry imitation money just north of the Yangtze river. His evidence for this appears to be generally sound, although his dating probably in-accurate, and things were more complex than that as the Spades and Knife money areas can be further subdivided into specific shapes of knifes and spades issued by specific states, which will be discussed in more detail below. This period probably starts in the 6th or 7th century BC, but not in all places at once. It was a gradual process to begin with, but ended much more abruptly some time in the 4th century BC.

The third is one of coinage unification, which appears to have happened some time around the middle of the 4th century BC. During this period, most of the spade making regions gave up their distinctive spade forms, and adopted minor variations of the thing 1/2 and 1 Jin flat foot spades. The knife making regions adopted minor variations on the “ming” knife forms. This is also the period during which the first round coins appear. These changes probably allowed for wider circulation of coinage, with coins from different states and cities being able to move freely through other regions where similar coins were being made and used. This period only ends when the Zhou dynast comes to an end around 255 BC.

 

THE PERIOD OF INDEPENDANT COINAGE.

 

COWRY AND COWRY IMITATION COINS OF THE STATE OF CHU.

By the Shang Dynasty and continuing into the Zhou Dynasty, actual cowry shells were used as a form of money but they fall more into the catagory of “primative money” than true coins. Their use far pre-dates the first true coins as shown by Wang on pages 64 and 65 of his book “Early Chinese Coinage” where he describes a bronze Tsun vessel bearing the inscription :

“LORD OF CHU, YUAN, HAD THIS PRECIOUS VESSEL MADE. HE USED FOURTEEN P’ENG OF COWRIES”. While this tells us cowry shells could be grouped together in a denomination known as a P’ENG and used to pay for things, the number or weight of cowries in a p’eng is not known. Further evidence indicating cowry shells were still a form of money in the first century AD can be seen where Wang Mang (AD 7-22) included cowry shells on his list of exchange rates between various currency objects.

 

  These very weather cowry shells came from a Shang Dynasty site. Note how the backs were broken, allowing them to be strung together, a feature often seen when cowery shells were as money by other cultures, even in fairly recent times.


valued at about $12.00 each

 

At some uncertain date, but probably early in the Zhou Dynasty period, carving imitations of cowry shells appear in various materials including bone, shell, and stone. There are also molding imitations of clay and bronze. It is likely cowry imitations arose from a shortage of actual shells, and may have been made and used over a long period of time. At this point, it does not appear to be possible to date them exactly.

 

   
The example on the left is carved from clam shell and the one on the right from bone. They clearly show lines carved into the undersides that mimic the groves one sees on the undersides of actual cowry shells, and are pierced for stringing. Not all carved examples will show these lines, especially those carved from stone, but most do. It is important to note that these are not inscribed with the mark of any issuing authority and thus must be considered a form of Primitive money rather than true coins.


valued at about $17.50 for bone         $25.00 for shell         $55.00 for stone

metal (bronze and lead) examples are worth more
but we do not have a current value on them.

Bone cowry imitations are commonly found stained green from burial with bronze, but I have not found any records of such excavated cowries that would tell us if this results from burial along side bronze coins, or possibly inside of bronze vessels, but I suspect burial in bronze vessels is the more likely explanation.

In the region between the Yellow and Yangtze rivers in the territory of the State of Chu, cowry imitations became even more stylized being cast in bronze with inscriptions that probably indicate an issuing authority. At that point they transform from a form of primitive money to a true coins.

 

  FD-4. Obverse : The character on these coins is traditionally read as a stylized form of “JIN”, but that is very questionable and it is more likely a form of “BEI” which means shell. Reverse : blank. This type is sometimes called GHOST FACE MONEY as the calligraphy does resemble a human face with two eyes, a nose and a month. This is by far the commonest type in this series. The size and weight very considerably, but in a recent lot of 20 we found an average weight of 2.05 grams ranging in length from 14 to 18.5 mm, but in other groups we have seen them as small as 10 mm.

VG   $15.00     F   $20.00     VF   $35.00

 

  FD-6. Obverse : The reading of this is uncertain but might be “GE LIU ZHU” (ZHU being the modern form of SHU) which would mean something like “each six shu”. This makes sense although only the heaviest examples weight the 3.0 grams that one would expect of a 6 shu coin. The calligraphy resembles the natural lines on the underside of a genuine cowry, which is probably intentional to indicate a value of a cowry, so here we have a clue that the value of a cowry shell may have been 6 shu when these coins were in use. This is the second commonest type in this series.

F   $42.50     VF   $65.00

 

  FD-5. Obverse : The reading of this is thought to be “JUN”. The specimen illustrated is 1.4 grams, and 10.7 x 17.3 mm. This is the third commonest type in this series, but significantly scarcer than the previous two.

F   $55.00     VF   $85.00

 

  Shanghi Enc p 4170. Obverse : The reading of this is probably “HSINGUN” meaning crossroads or going or to act. The specimen illustrated is 3.75 grams, and 13.0 x 18.9 mm. This is one of the very rare types.

VALUE NOT YET DETERMINED

 

These coins are commonly called “Ant-nose money” which derives from looking at these two common types together where the JIN (or BEI) appears to be a face with a prominent “NOSE”, and the bottom of the “Ge Liu Zhu” resembles an ant.

There are at least seven distinct types of these inscribed cowry imitation coins, but only the two above are common. Two others are scarce, and the remaining three rare to extremely rare. We will provide illustrations of other types should they become available. The dating of this series is as yet uncertain, but it is possible one of the types in this series were the first true coins of early China.

The State of Chu did not issue any larger bronze coins during this period, but did issue some very unusual gold coins in the form of square or round inscriptions stamped into 3 to 5 mm thick sheets of gold, which name various cities in the state of Chu. I have not yet owned one of these to image for this site, and there is very little actually known about when they were issued and how they were used.


 

HOLLOW HANDLED SPADES OF THE STATE OF ZHOU

The hollow handled spades of the Royal State of Zhou were probably the first true coins issued in China, at a time when Zhou was still the most powerful of the Warring states and formed the central government that controlled the other states during the Spring and Autumn period in the 6th and possibly 7th century BC. They are very close in form to the true spades used as primitive money slightly earlier, with a very shallow arch at the bottom and thus short pointed feet.

The date at which these first appear is very much in dispute. Wang mentions bronze vessels dating much earlier than 600 BC (possibly as early as 1000 BC) with dedications referring them having been paid for with “PU”, so he believed the first spade coins came for that very early date. The problem is “PU” is also the name for bolts of cloth which were probably and early form of primitive money in China, those dedications probably describe those vessels having been paid with bolts of cloth. The use of “PU” for the spades probably means the early large spades represented a value equal to a bolt of cloth, although this is by no means certain. “PU” later came to be a generic name for spade money.

 

 

Early Period Hollow Handle Spade

FD-98. H-2.12. Obverse: “BEI” as a single character at upper just slightly right of center. The specimen illustrated is 51.7 mm wide across the feet, 94.7 mm long, and 26.55 grams (roughly 24 shu or 2 Liang).


F   $450.00   VF   $750.00
(This value is for an intact specimen.)

Spades similar to the above, with many variations in character or characters on them, were probably issued for the origins of spade money under Zhou in the 6th or 7th century BC, down to the 5th century BC, with the inscriptions becoming more complex inscriptions as you move up in time.

 

 

Later Period Hollow Handle Spade

FD-23. Obverse: “WU”, a single character at the bottom slightly left of center. This appears to be the commonest variety of the hollow-handled spades. The specimen illustrated is 48.5 mm wide across the feet, 83.5 mm long, and 23.9 grams (about 48 shu or 2 liang)


F   $450.00   VF   $600.00

(The valuation is for an intact specimens.)

 

The Shanghai Encyclopedia lists about 500 variations of hollow handles spades (including both the States of Zhou and Zhao issues). While some of the inscriptions appear to be mint names, 500 is many times the number of potential minting authorities, and most are probably series marks within a limited number of mints. A few seem to be denomination marks, but most were probably codes to indicate indicated mints, mint masters, dates, or a combination of such things. The key to their meaning is probably lost forever. For a much more in depth discussion of these inscriptions in English, it would be best to refer to the book “Cast Coins of China” by David Hartill.

While the state of Zhou was powerful early on and issued a wide variety of these hollow handled spades (most of which are individually very rare types), they lost most of their power during this period, and it appears they may have stopped issuing coins in any sigificant numbers by the middle of the Warring States period, just as some of the other Warring state began to issue coins in large numbers and a wide variety of types.


 

POINTED FOOT SPADES OF STATE OF JIN AND ZHAO

The central but most northerly part of the Yellow River region was controlled by the State of Jin which later become the State of Zhao. We do not yet know the date at which this change occurred, and while it is certain the later coins of this region were issued by the State of Zhao, the earliest issues may have been under the state of Jin.

The earliest coins of this region were hollow handle spades somewhat similar to those of the State of Zhou, but with much longer, more pointed feet. These are probably contemporary with with the hollow handled spades the State of Zhou, most likely dating to either the middle or later part of that period. I suspect they are ca. 450 to 400 BC, and while this is by no means certain, an earlier date would require a large time gap between these and the later flat pointed foot spades, and that seems un-likely. Most examples of this type have no marks indicating an issuing authority, suggesting more a form a primitive money than a true coin, but a large hoard found in 1995 (see Hartill page 17) contained many examples with marks and those are true coins.

 

 

Early Hollow Handled Spade

Schjoth-43. No inscriptions to give any indication of a mint or issuing authority. 127.5 x 67 mm (widest point). 32.1 grams. The weight of this issue varies somewhat, with Schjoth’s specimen at 36.93 grams and Mitchiner’s at 39 grams, both of which were incomplete. But it would appears that the actual weight of bronze was intended to be about 36 grams, which is 72 shu or 3 Liang (3 Jin).


VF   $1850.00

(The price is for an intact specimen, and specimens with damaged feet would be much lower priced.)

 

The very long pointed feet, combined with the weakness at the attachment of the handle, make these very fragile. Their large size also would have made them somewhat impractical to carry around and use in general circulation. Most likely they were used for very specific purposes or large transactions, with general commerce still via the barter system. Probably by the end of the 5th century BC, and certainly by the mid-fourth century BC the State of Zhao redesigned it’s coins to the more practical flat pointed foot spades listed below.

There are two denominations commonly seen for the flat pointed foot spades, with the 1/2 Jin (ca. 6 grams) being far more common than the 1 Jin (ca. 12 grams) examples. The 1 jin examples are also far larger than the 1/2 jin, making the denominations easy to tell a part.

 

 

One Jin Flat Pointed Foot Spade

FD-120. H-3.78. This is a fairly large spade at 83.8 mm long and 45.0 mm across the widest point, 14.75 grams (slightly heavier than the intended 24 shu or 1 Jin). The inscriptions reads “JIN YANG” with JIN being a denomination mark, and Yang probably a reference to a mint.


VF   $1500.00

 

 

Half Jin Flat Pointed Foot Spade

FD-143 variety with obverse characters reversed. Obverse: “SHANGQIU”. Reverse: uncertain character. 53 x 30 mm. This specimen weighs 6.4 grams (appears to intend a 12 shu or 1/2 Liang (1/2 Jin) standard). The characters on these are in very low relief and do not come out well on the image.


gF   $125.00

 

  FD-124. Obverse: “JINYANG”. Reverse: uncertain character. 55 x 33 mm. This specimen weighs 6.5 grams (appears to intend a (appears to intend a 12 shu or 1/2 Liang (1/2 Jin) standard).


F   $115.00

There is a wide variety of these, and they are fairly common showing they were issued in fairly large numbers over a significant period of time. This is probably the time during which coins came into much more common use as a medium of exchange in general commerce, although it is very likely the barter system was still in wide spread use as well.

Hartill dates these to ca. 350 to 250 BC, which is contemporary with the thin square foot spades that we list further below under the heading of “THE PERIOD OF UNIFIED COINAGE”. A problem I see with this, is that these coin are very specific to the State of Zhao (earlier called the State of Jin) and do not seem to belong under that heading. Since Zhao issued many types of thin square foot spades in that period, I believe these flat pointed foot spades probably begin when Zhao stops issueing hollow handled spades some time around 400 BC, and end ever Zhao begain to issue square foot spades some time after 350 BC (they are sometimes found with square foot spades, but that does not mean they were not minted at an earlier period and just still circulating). Perhaps one day these dates can be narrowed down a little closer.


 

HEAVY FLAT SPADES OF THE STATE OF LIANG (Wei)

Around 400 BC flat spades revolutionized the spade currency. Unlike the hollow-handled spades which required a complex multi-piece mold with a casting core in the handle, the flat spades required only a simple two-piece mold, allowing for larger mintages in shorter periods of time. They were sturdy, easier to store and were cast in the three denominations of 1/2, 1 and 2 “jin”, making them very suitable for use in everyday transactions. Most of the the early issues name the city of Anyi which was the State of Liang capital early in this period. The later issues usually name the city of Liang to which the capital of the stater of Liang was moved later in the period. There are some very scarce types which name other cities. The denomination can be expressed either directly in jin, or as fractions of the LI with 100 to the LI equal a Jin. This is probably the period when coins came into common use over a wide area of China. Early flat foot spades were called “CH’IEN, which later became a generic term for all types of money.

 

  FD-300, H-3.3. (Value 1). Obverse: “AN YI YI JIN”, meaning Anyi 1 Jin. Reverse: “AN”. This is one of the few heavy spades with a character (mint mark??) on the reverse. The specimen illustrated is 55.0 x 35.3 mm, 12.31 grams.


F   $245.00   VF   $350.00

 

  S-1. FD-301 H-3.8. Obverse: “AN YI ER JIN”, meaning Anyi 2 Jin. This is one of the commonest heavy flat spades with a typical layout to the inscription. Average (3 specimens) 40.3 x 63.4 mm, 26.7 grams (the weights and sizes can very, and we recently weighed one at 32.4 grams)


F   $195.00   VF   $295.00

 

  FD-304, H-3.44. Shallow arch type. Obverse: “LIANG ZHENG BI BAI DANG LIE”, meaning “Liang regular coin 100 to a lie” (1 Jin). The specimen illustrated is 59.8 x 40.6 mm, 14.76 grams. These were issued from the State of Liang, probably late in the series after the Capital of the Liang state was moved from Anyi to a new city called Liang.


F   $325.00   VF   $450.00

 

  As FD-306 but the reverse is blank. Please note that this type is the same size as the others in this series, and it is only our image that is smaller. H-3.48. High arch type. Obverse: “LIANG ZHENG BI BAI DANG LIE”, meaning “Liang regular coin 100 to a lie” (1 Jin). The specimen illustrated is 57.2 x 34.5 mm, 13.9 grams. These were issued from the State of Liang, probably late in the series after the Capital of the Liang state was moved from Anyi to a new city called Liang.


F   $275.00   VF   $375.00

 

  FD-307. H-3.48. Obverse: “LIANG ZHENG JIN WU SHI(‘ER) DANG LEI”, meaning “Liang heavy Jin of 50 to a lie” (2 Jin). It was probably understood by the people who used these the “heavy Jin” indicuted a double Jin coin. The specimen illustrated is 38.8 x 58.0 mm, 22.62 grams. These very in size and weight somewhat. These were issued from the State of Liang.


F   $295.00   VF   $425.00

 

“AN-YI”

A mint designation. ANYI was a city in central China that was part of the Liang (Wei) dynasty during the 4th century BC but had been under the Ch’in dynasty earlier.

“LIANG”

A mint designation. LIANG was a city in the state of Liang (Wei) to which the capital was moved later in the 4th century BC.

“BAN JIN” or “ER BAI DANG LIE”

Denomination marks indicating a value of 1/2 Jin or 200 to the Lie.

“YI JIN” or “BAI DANG LIE”

Denomination marks indicating a value of 1 Jin or 100 to the Lei.

“ER JIN” or “WU SHI DANG LIE”

Denomination marks indicating a value of 2 Jin or 50 to the Lei.

 

There are a variety of other heavy flat arched foot spades that seem to be from the State of Liang which name cities other than Anyi or Liang. Some have simple inscriptions that just name the city but not the denomination, which others also include marks of denomination. At this point these are not well understood and it is possibly some of them are from other states (some might be from the state of Han), or exactly how they fit into the chronology of this series.

 

  FD-311, H-3.26. Obverse: “SHAN YANG”. Shan Yang is probably a city name somewhere in the States of Liang or Han. This is a slightly unusual type for a heavy square foot spade in that there is no denomination indicated, although this type is known in the three sizes for 2, 1 and 1/2 Jin. This specimen is the larger 2 Jin although at 58.2 x 40.5 mm, 16.64 grams, it is only slightly heavier than the 1 Jin coins from Anyi and Liang.


F   $750.00
VF   $1000.00

 

The evolution of spade forms is complex with many types and many lines of development to follow. This part of this site will take a long time to develop and for now only the most common types are included.

 

THE PERIOD OF UNIFIED COINAGE.

 


 

THIN SQUARE FOOT SPADES

It appears that around 350 BC, and continuing down to the end of the Zhou period in 255 BC, the currency of China begins to unify in form, and we see thinner square foot spades appearing in an extensive series bearing a variety of mint names, showing very similar coins were made accross a number of the Warring States, with only minor variations in form. At this point we are making no attempt to sort them out into their particular states of issue, although we might attempt to do so at some future date.

Most spades in this series weight between 5 and 7 grams, with some double unites in the 10 to 12 gram range, but the average is in the 6 gram range for the smaller examples and around 12 grams for the larger ones, showing they were issued with the intended denominations of 1/2 and 1 Jin. some large examples with sharp corners can weight as much as 14 gram, but it is not yet clear if they were intended to be 30 shu or if they are just heavier than average but intended at 24 shu (1 Jin).

 

 

“LARGE SPADE WITH EARS”

FD-286, H-3-173. Obverse: “YU JIN NEI”. YU may be a city name in either the state of Liang or Han, with JIN NEI probably means “metal money”. This is a very rare type of large spade with sharp corners (ears) at the top. This specimen was 57.6 x 42.0 mm, and 10.7 grams.


F   $1500.00
VF   $2450.00

 

 

SMALL SPADE WITH EARS

FD-282. Obverse: “GONG”. The specimen illustrated is 48 x 30 mm and weighs 5.4 grams.


F   $115.00     VF $175.00

 

These thin square foot spades with “ears” clearly belong to the same series as the coin below, but their exact relationship to the more common shape without “ears” is not yet certain. There are a few other types known with this configuration but different characters on them.

 

  S-13-23 variety. Obverse: “AN YANG”. An-yang probably a city name and may be the current Chang-te in Honan province, but this is not certain and there may have been a number of cities by that name at the time. Schjoth notes that prior to 257 BC An-yang was called Ning-hsin-chung. This is probably the most common square foot spade, and it exists at two weight standards with the regular one averaging about 6 grams, and a heavier averaging about 12 grams (usually weakly cast). We have also seen one at 15.99 grams which could be either a light triple standard or very heavy double standard.


SINGLE (ca. 6 grams) F   $55.00     VF   $75.00

DOUBLE (ca. 12 grams) F   $75.00     VF   $110.00

 

These thin square foot spades appear to come from a number of different mints, but very little variation in form and weight, which suggests a single central authority with the intent they could circulate freely between the different cities. We have noted that hoards often turn up with mixed types, which seems to support this theory.

The most likely central authority to have that much control would be the state of Ch’in, but only after they were well into the process of unifying China in the 3rd century BC. According to Schjoth, the Historical Records of Ssu-ma Chien state the city of An-yang received that name in the 50th year of Prince Chao Hsiang of Ch’in, which is 257 BC. An-yang spades are by far the most common type in this series, and if there were minted in that same An-yang (which is likely but not 100% certain) they have to be Ch’in period coins, possible providing us with a general time frame for the entire thin square foot spade series.

Wang (page 20) disputes this dating, indicating two cities named An-yang that pre-date 257 BC, suggesting these coins belong to one of those cities. Our current research has turned up only two other coins with the An-yang mint mark. The first is a round-shouldered round foot spade with three holes which Wang lists as a very late issue, and the second is a very rare heavy knife which Wang lists as a very early issue, but which we believe is actually a very late issue (note our discussion of heavy knifes below). If no further evidence for earlier coins of An-yang comes to light, and only coins of after 257 BC are known, we feel Schjoth’s interpretation is the more reasonable one.

 

  S-7-12 variety, “P’ING YANG”. This is a regular sized square foot spade and the second most common type.


F   $55.00     VF   $75.00

 

S-28-29, “CHAI-YANG”

F   $55.00     VF   $75.00

 

  S-31-33 variety, “CH’ENG YI”. The specimen illustrated is weakly cast on the top right character.


F   $47.50     VF   $65.00

 

S-36-37, “HSIANG-YUAN”

F   $55.00     VF   $75.00

 

  S-38. Obverse: “KUAN”. Kuan appears go be short for Kuan-chung in the Shansi area.


F   $55.00     VF   $75.00

 

The “KUAN” character also occurs on a pointed rounded-back knife (reference Shanghai Encyclopedia #2793 and 2794) indicating a possible connection between the two series.

 

 

FD-167. Obverse : “TAO-YANG” in seal script (some have read it as a seal script version of “AN-YANG”). Reverse : two character inscription that we have not yet translated. The specimen illustrated is 46.9 x 21.0 mm, 9.11 grams (seem to have been intended to circulate as a double unit).


VALUE NOT YET DETERMINED

 

 

As FD-167 but blank reverse. Obverse : “TAO-YANG” in seal script, but some have read it as a seal script version of “AN-YANG”. Reverse : blank.


F   $52.50

 

  FD-178, COOLE-1532. Obverse: “YIN PING”. This issue is smaller, more robust and has more well developed rims than usual, suggesting that it may be a late variation of the square foot spade.


VF   $120.00

 

  FD-209 variety (bottom right character slightly different style). Obverse: “LANG”. Some believe that the characters on this type should be read as “ZHENG”.


aVF   $115.00

 


 

SMALL SQUARE FOOT SPADES

 

  Reference: FD-178. Obverse : “PING YIN” (although some read it as YIN PING). Reverse : blank. A fairly small light weight type with the specimen illustrated on 38.0 x 24.0 mm (at the foot) and weighing 4.15 grams.


VF   $125.00

The calligraphy on this type is very similar to some of the early Han dynasty square holed round coins (see Schjoth #68), which along with a weight standard that does not fit with other Zhou and Ch’in period spades, suggests this may be a very late issue, possibly of the early Han Dynasty just after 200 BC.

 


 

LONG SQUARE FOOT SPADES

 

  Reference: FD-289. Obverse : The exact reading of the obverse inscription is in dispute, but may read “SHU BU DANG JIN” meaning “special spade valued at a Jin. Reverse : reads “SHI HUO” meaning “ten huo” with “huo” probably meaning an ant nose type coin. These spades are thick and robust with well developed rims all the way around, with a large round hole in the top. The specimen illustrated is 105 X 36.6 mm (at the foot) and weighs 35.55 grams.


VF   $975.00

 

These spade coins appear to be of fairly late date, probably during the very last years of the Zhou warring states period, into the Chin and possibly into the early Han period. They are found mostly in the area controlled by the State of Chu, but a few have been found in the area of the State of Han although those might have gotten there by trade. A few have been found buried with Ant Nose coins. They appear to the proto-type of the later Wang Mang Spades.

 

KNIFE COINS

The knife money of the Shantung Peninsula is far less complex than the spade money, but is still poorly understood. PLEASE NOTE THAT WE HAVE NOT YET UNIFIED OUR DISCUSSION OF KNIFE MONEY INTO OUR RE-ORGANIZATION OF THIS SITE. SOME OF THE KNIFE MONEY WILL LATER BE MOVED INTO THE DISCUSSION OF INDPENDANT COINAGE, AND OTHERS WILL UNDER THE HEADING OF UNIFIED COINAGE. THIS IS SOMETHING WE WILL BE WORKING ON IN THE NEAR FUTURE.

The monetary designation of knife money is “HOU”, derived from a character meaning “to change” or “to exchange in trade”. It is fairly easy to see how this meaning could become a denomination of money. Later, when the early round coins first appeared, the unit of “HOU” came to be used as a more general denomination.


 

POINTED KNIVES

We assume the pointed knifes, with a smooth curve down the back, are the earliest form of knife money. They have the closest style to genuine knives, and like the early hollow-handled spades often appear without inscriptions, although the inscriptions are normally weak or difficult to see on most specimens. The casting and calligraphy are similar to the hollow-handled spades. This leads us to believe they first appeared at about the time of the inscribed hollow-handled spades and overlap with the heavy flat spades, probably in the late 5th century BC.

Although most pointed knives look very similar, there are actually a number of distinctive variations in the blade shapes that are almost certainly different issues. At this point we cannot go into the details of this, but a some future date we will try to add more information about them. There is a very good listing of them in the Shanghai Encylopedia.

 

S-62 to 65 variety. The price is for an intact specimen, but these are often found with the tip broken. The one illustrated has a very clear character, which is unusual for these. The actual size of this specimen in about 160 mm, 15.6 grams. The prices are for examples with clear characters. Many examples have no visible or very weak characters and are worth about half.

F   $115.00     VF   $160.00

 

S-62 to 65 variety. This exact type is listed in the Shanghai Encyclopedia as #2733. The price is for an intact specimen, but these are often found with the tip broken. The actual size of this specimen in about 153 x 21.5 mm, 15.6 grams. The prices are for examples with clear characters. Many examples have no visible or very weak characters and are worth about half.

F   $115.00     VF   $160.00

 

We have not done much work on these yet, but it appears that the characters on them may be mint names. We have not noted any with indications of denomination, but based on 5 intact specimens we have recent weighed, they seem to average about 15.8 grams (high of 17.0 and low of 14.2 grams), indicating a probable standard 30 shu, about the same as the Ming Knives. This places them in the same denomination set as the mint knives and suggests these are the fore-runners of them. We recently had a specimen of SH-2772 that weighed 23.92 grams but we believe it was an anomaly.


 

MING KNIVES

The “Ming” knifes probably followed next, but they are still a bit of a mystery. The fabric is similar to common square-foot spades except that the inscriptions give no indications of mint names. All bear the character “Ming” on one side, which Wang (page 166) suggests is made up of the characters for “sun” and “moon”, meaning “bright”. These are by far the most common of all knife money and must have been cast in vast numbers, and are found over a wide area of Northern China and as far away as Northern Korea.

 

S-51-61, Ming type, obverse: “MING”. There are many different inscriptions that can occur on the reverse of these, which need much more study.

F   $25.00     VF   $45.00

 

Long ago we noted that there were two distinct shapes of ming knifes, the first of which has a distinctly angled back, and the second with a mildly curved back. The exact significance of this is uncertain, but it is possible that the mildly curved back varieties are the earliest, having evolved from the pointed curved back knifes. A partial hoard of these that we obtained recently, had both types well represented.

Wang (page 170) points out that the curved-back ming knifes can be further divided into two distinct inscription varieties. The first variety has a mint name and monetary designation on the reverse. The second variety has reverse inscriptions which do no appear to have a relationship to mints or denominations. It appears that these two varieties are probably roughly contemporary but from different districts.

All of the angle-back specimens have the second type of inscription without mint name or monetary designation.

Dating ming knifes is a little problematical, but we suspect that they appear in the very late Zhou, probably at the end of the 4th century BC and continue down to and possibly after the unification under the Ch’in.

The ming knifes that we have checked have an average weight of about 15-16 grams and it appears that the intended denomination may have been 30 shu. This is heavier than the pointed knifes, suggesting a new denomination system (see our discussion of weight standards). Unfortunately all of the specimens we have been able to check are of the angle-back variety and we do not yet know if the curved-back varieties fall into the same standard. We will investigate this soon.


 

STRAIGHT KNIVES

The more stylized straight knifes, with characters on one side may be contemporary with the later Ming knifes, probably ca. 300 to 250 BC. There are not as many variations on these as there are Ming knifes, and the characters on them normally indicated numbers and what may be mint names. This the series is not yet well understood and much more research is needed on this series.

 

  Hartill 4.68.Obverse : “Gan Dan Bi” which translates to “Gan Dan Coin”. Gan Dan is probably a mint name.Reverse : Blank.This specimen is 132.4 mm x 15.3 mm (longest and widest points), and 9.42 grams. The hole in the hands is distinctly almond shaped.F   $125.00     VF   $195.00 

 

FD-346 variety. Obverse: 2 characters. The hole in the handle is usually fairly small and sometimes almond shaped. The characters are generally weakly cast and difficult to make out.

F   $85.00     VF   $120.00


 

HEAVY KNIVES

The large heavy knifes may be the most misunderstood part of this series. In most early references they described as the earliest knife form, going back to before 600 BC, but this seems un-likely as they are a highly evolved form with fairly complex inscriptions, and must actually date very date in the series. In Hartill’s book (Cast Chinese Coins) he dates them to between 400 and 220 BC, which makes them fairly late in the knife money series. I personally suspect the dates might even have to be moved up a little on that, which I will discuss below. With the exception of the three-character Ch’i knifes, most heavy knifes are rare to extremely rare.

 

Ch’i Type Knife S-45-50. Obverse: Three characters reading “CH’I FA HUO” which loosely translates to “The authorized currency of Ch’i”. The reverse generally has a single character, but there are a number of different types known. The specimen shown is somewhat sharper than normal, but these usually are fairly nice.

F   $195.00     VF   $275.00

 

There is some variation in the weights of these, but they seem to average around 48 grams.

 

 

 

Ch’i Type Four Character Knife

FD-253. Obverse: Four characters reading “CH’I CHIH FA HUO” which loosely translates to “The genuine currency of Ch’i”.

Reverse: The reverse generally has a single character, but there are a number of different types known.

The specimen shown is typical with low relief characters, is 185 mm x 30 mm (longest and widest points), 27 mm across the ring handle and 33.95 grams.

 

F   $475.00     VF   $650.00

 

The dating of these coins will probably remain uncertain until archeological evidence can provide some answers, but the coins themselves do give us some clues.

We feel that it is significant no uninscribed, or even simple inscriptions are known for these forms as they are for the very early hollow-handle spades, pointed knifes and cowry imitations. As these heavy knifes first appear with full developed complex inscriptions including a mint name and indication of a monetary unit, it would seem they must dates later than those hollow-handled and heavy flat spades, almost certain later than 400 BC.

While rims are present on many ancient coins, they are usually low and thin, while these coins have thick and high rims for where there are no parallel on other knife and spade coins, with the closest thing seeming to to be the early round coins of “I” (a city in the Ch’i territory) which are certainly of a very late date and suggest they might even be later Chin or even early Han issues down to around 200 BC or possibly even slightly later. They also seem to be the most finely cast of all ancient Chinese knife and spade coins, but of the specimens that we have seen, none showed significant wear suggesting some purpose other than a general circulating coinage.

When we consider all these features of these coins, we are led to believe they may have been made for ceremonial purposes such as presentations or burial. This seems consistent with the use of the state mane of Ch’i as a “mint” designation, rather than one of the cities in Ch’i as is the usual pattern for knife and spade coins, and they may in fact have been were cast at a very late date, probably after 300 BC.

 

EARLY ROUND COINS

This is an area we have just begun to study. Most of the types are seldom encountered, and with the exception of four types we have handled very few of these coins. Wang (Early Chinese Coinage, pages 187 to 205) is the best study we have seen on these and much of our information is based on his work. Wang’s one fault is in not giving enough consideration to weight standards. Fortunately he has provided some information about weights, which we will attempt to interpret with respect to our own theories.

Early round coins can be divided into two major types. Those with round holes are found in areas associated with spade money. Square-hole types are found in areas associated with knife money. At this point, we believe that these two types evolved independently at different times.


 

ROUND-HOLED ROUND COINS

Early round coins with round holes can be divided into two major types. The first type are those with multiple-character inscriptions including both mint marks and monetary units, which share the following similarities with the heavy flat spades: 1) They occur in the two monetary units of liang and chin. 2) Similar style of the calligraphy. 3) Similar construction of the legends. 4) They are found in more than one denomination (1 and 1/2 liang and chin). 5) They never occur with any type of rims. This leads us to believe they evolved directly from these spades and are the earlier of the two types.

They differ from the spades in one important aspect. All the specimens we have been able to confirm fall into the weight system based on multiples of 10 shu with an average about 10 grams (20 shu) for the full units, and about 5 grams (10 shu) for the half units, while the heavy flat spades were cast to the weight standard based on multiples of 12 shu. This leads us to believe they we issued as a replacement for the heavy flat spades as the new weight system was adopted (see our discussion of the weight standards above). This suggests a date somewhere towards the end of the 4th century BC.

The second series of round-holed round coins are those with only a mint name, but no denomination. These are seen with either one-or two-character legends but in all other ways, including the weights, resemble the multi-character types. The use of only a mint name without monetary units is a characteristic shared with the square-foot spades which are cast to the same weight standard, in a close relationship between the two and suggest a date right around or just after 300 BC.

 

  FD-371, SH—, H—, S—. Obverse: “JI”. JI was a city in the state of Yan. This is a rarity of the highest order, and the only reference I have found it in is Fisher’s Dings where it is listed as “price not determined”. Average (1 specimen) 41.2 mm, 10.05 grams.

We can only guess at a value for something this rare, but probably somewhere in the $7500.00 range

There is dispute over this particular type. Until recently the only known example was that listed by Ding in his 1938 work, and we believe that specimen is in the Chinese national collections. Because of it’s rarity that specimen has been considered by many to be a fantasy issue. Recently this second specimen came to our attention and we can find no reason to believe it is not a genuine ancient example. But I am sure the controversy will continue.

 

  FD-372, SH-4074 variety, H-6.10. Obverse: “LISHI”. Li Shi was a city in the state of Zhao. The SH example had an extra star above the top character, but both of the FD examples and the Hartill example, have a single star as on this coin. RARE. Average (1 specimen) 34.8 mm, 3.50 grams.

XF   $2500.00

 

  FD-375 variety, SH-4058, H-6.6. Obverse: “CHANG YUAN YI JIN” meaning Chang yuan 1 Jin. Hartill notes that the reading is now through to be Qi Yuan, which was a city in the state of Liang. This is the most common of the multi-character early round coins with round holes, but is by no means a common coin. Average (1 specimen) 38.5 mm, 12.23 grams.

XF   $1750.00

 

  S-73, Obverse: “YUAN” as a single character on the right. Yuan was a city in the state of Liang. This is the most common of all round coins with round holes. Average (3 specimens) 42 mm (range 41.2 to 43 mm), 9.93 grams (range 8.8 to 10.7 grams).

F   $150.00     VF   $275.00

 

  S-75, Obverse: “KUNG” as a single character on the right. Kung or Gong was a city in the state of Liang. This is the second most common early round coin with round hole. Average (3 specimens) 42 mm (range 41.2 to 43 mm), 9.57 grams (range 8.7 to 10.5).

F   $475.00   VF   $650.00   XF   $950.00

 

With the exception of the mintmark-only Yuan and Kung types, round-holed coins are exceptionally rare and must have been cast in very limited quantities over a relatively short period of time. We have found good evidence that the Kung and Yuan types are contemporary with each other, and probably circulated side by side, because the Kung type illustrated above has the rather interesting feature of a Yuan type imprinted in the patination on the reverse, proving they were buried togeather in the same hoard. Click here for an image of that reverse imprint..

Our best interpretation of these coins is that they were a short-lived unsuccessful attempt to introduce round coins around 300 BC, but were rejected and replaced by square-foot spades.

Coins with Yuan and Kung mint marks provide us with an important clue to the sequence and dating of 4th and 3rd century BC coins. Kung issued heavy flat spades (ca. 12 grams, reference Shanghai Encyclopedia #1438, 1439), round coins with multiple-character inscriptions (ca. 10 grams, reference Wang plate LIII #3) and round coins with single-character inscriptions (ca. 10 grams, reference Schjoth-75). It is unlikely all three were issued at the same time, so we are probably looking at a sequence of issues which we believe occurred in the order listed. Yuan and Kung issued round coins with round holes and single-character inscriptions (ca. 10 grams, 42 mm), and Yuan also issued square-foot spades (ca. 5 grams, reference Schjoth-36, 37).

Taken together we get the following sequence: First, heavy flat spades. Second, a very short series of round-holed coins with mint and denomination marks. Third, another short series of round-holed coins with mint mark only. Fourth, the thin square-foot spades.

This is an idealized sequence as not all mints issued all of the types, and it is doubtful that they all changed types at the same times. Some smaller mints issued coins only occasionally and may not have been active during some of the stages. Other mints probably continued to issued heavy flat spades after others minted their first round coins, and then went straight to light square-foot spades without issuing any round coins.

We soon hope to do an in-depth study of early round coin weights. If any issue of these round-holed types turns up with a weight standard around 12 grams (24 shu), it would tie that issue more closely to the heavy flat spades and suggest an earlier date. If no heavy series is found, it would confirm these were issued as the various cities changed standards from multiples of 24 shu (12 grams) to multiples of 20 shu (10 grams), which we believe occurred about 300 BC (see our discussion of weight standards). (Please remember that the weight of any one specimen would prove nothing, as individual coins can vary considerably. Only the average weight of numbers of specimens of the same type is significant).


 

SQUARE-HOLED ROUND COINS

Early square-holed round coins seem to be found exclusively in areas associated with knife money. They come in two distinct series, the relatively common “MING” types that appear to be related to the ming knifes, and the much scarcer “I” series which seem to represent the issues of a single mint called “I”. The only inscriptions they have is their monetary designation of “HUO”, a character which has come to mean “knife money”, but which had also become a unit of denomination by the time these coins were issued.

Dating this series is difficult, although it is likely that they are much later than the round hole coins with which they have very little in common and are probably not related. It is possible, and for the “I” types even probable, that they were cast in the late Ch’in or Han periods and should not be included in this discussion of Zhou period coins. It is also likely that the earliest Pan Liang coins (currently discussed under the Ch’in Dynasty) predate the Ming and “I” round coins and should be included here.

The Ming Huo and the smaller Yi Huo coins appear to be derived from the Ming knifes, although it is not certain that even these two issues belong together.

 

  S-76. Round coin with square hole. Obverse: “MING HUO”. Reverse: blank. Average (3 specimens) 24 mm (they tend to be off round) and 2.48 grams.


F   $85.00     VF   $105.00     XF   $135.00

 

The Ming Huo are robust castings with slightly crude characters and no rims. There is little doubt the character “Ming” is the same as on the ming knifes, although the meaning is still a mystery. There has been debate over the character “HUO” on these, but Wang makes a good case for this reading. What is less clear is how “HUO” is meant to be interpreted. It may imply these coins were equivalent to a ming knife (or some implied fraction thereof), in which case they could have been issued alongside or just after the knife series, at the end of the Zhou period. “HUO” could also be meant as a monetary unit (as it clearly is on the Yi huo coins) in which case these were probably issued long after the ming knifes, probably during the early Han dynasty. This is something that will probably only be answered by the study of hoard evidence.

 

  S-77-8 variety. Early round coin with square hole Obverse: “YI-HUO” (one knife). Note the outer and inner rims. Average (11 specimens) 19 mm, 1.53 grams. These tend to be slightly weakly cast with rough surfaces.

F   $22.50     VF   $29.50     XF $45.00

 

At first glance the YI-HUO appear to be small versions of the MING-HUO coins and are listed that way in most numismatic references. However the Ming-Huo are completely rimless will the YI-HUO have a distinct outer and sometimes an inner rim. These rims, along with the inscription translating to “one knife” suggest these are a later issue of the Ming-Huo coinage at a lower weight standard. The rims show a strong similarity to the rimmed Pan Liang coins which appear to have been issued between 136 and 117 BC during the Han period and it is possible these are contemporary with that issue. “Yi Huo”, meaning “1 knife” and clearly shows “Huo” used as a monetary unit.

 

  S-68. Early round coin with square hole Obverse: “I SSU HUO” (I four Huo). Note the strongly developed outer and less developed inner rims. Average (2 specimen) 30 mm. 6.65 grams.

F   $195.00     VF   $295.00

 

This “I” series of square-holed round coins is very simple, being composed of a single basic type issued in the four denominations of 1, 2, 4 and 6 huo. Here again “HUO” is used as a monetary unit rather than a term for knife money. This is another series for which the dating is uncertain (somewhere between late Zhou and early Han) and we would be very interested in hearing the details of any hoard in which these are found alongside other coins.

 

Much of the current literature lists the character for “I” as a variation on the character “Pao” (money), to which it does have a strong resemblance. Wang (pages 188, 189) makes a convincing argument for the proper reading as the city name “I”, the ancient county seat of the county of Han in the state of Ch’i, a site just northwest of Shou-kuang in the northeast of Shantung province.

 

  LARGE BAN LIANG (over 38 mm). Obverse: “BAN LIANG”. Reverse : blank. These large specimens vary considerably in weight, from less than 8 grams to over 20 grams, but to date them this early they must be at least 38 mm. The value listed is for specimens over 38 mm, but in the 10 gram range, with heavier ones worth more.

VF   $145.00

 

It is fairly certain that the Ban Liang coinage was issued by the state of Chin, with the earliest Ban Liangs issued by Chin as one of the Warring States of the Zhou Dynasty period, probably about 300 BC. The size, weight, and casting characteristics of these very large examples suggest they are contemporary with the early round coins, with round holes from other states which are listed above. Ban Liangs of smaller size and lower weight were to become the principle coin of China later, after the Chin conquered the other Warring states to unify China during the 3rd century BC. Those coins will be discussed in the next section of this website under the Chin and Han dynasties.

 

 

During the third century BC, the round coin was introduced alongside the other types of money. It soon replaced the others as the sole type of money in China. These cast copper cash coins had a central square hole, so that they could be stacked on a stick or strung on a ribbon. The coins barely changed in appearance for 2000 years, until they were replaced with machine-struck coins in 1912.

   

Kingdom of Qin,
round coin,
3rd cent. BC.
© Fitzwilliam Museum

Wang Mang (AD 9-23),
50-cash coin.
© Fitzwilliam Museum

 

De Zong (1875-1908),
10 cash coin.
© Fitzwilliam Museum

 

 

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Ancient Chinese round coins

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The Catholic Mission in Papua History Collections

 

Pater Neijens

EDITED BY

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

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100 JAAR KATHOLIEKE KERK MERAUKE  1905 – 1950

 


The foundation of the mission Merauke

In 1884 and 1885 were England and Germany agree on the division of eastern New Guinea, with England and the southern part of Germany as a protectorate on the northern part took.

In 1896 the Dutch government finally sees the urgency in the introduction of effective governance, which is the establishment of administrative posts result, namely to Fakfak and Manokwari. At that time, the Governor of the English part of eastern New Guinea, Sir William McGregor complaints about the quick tours of the coastal population of the Dutch part of the English territory. It then mentioned that the accelerators’ Toegeri’s. Later they got the name ‘Kajakaja’ and finally, their own name: “Marindinezen.

In 1900, Mr. W. Kroesen, Assistant Resident of Fakfak, and sent to the south coast in 1902, at the mouth of the Marorivier the government post Merauke founded. There are one hundred and sixty soldiers and convicts with police stationed.

Mr. Kroesen was on his way to New Guinea English Catholic mission there to know, especially in the figure of Brother Henkelman. This gave him the address of his Congregation in Tilburg which the Apostolic Prefecture of Dutch New Guinea had been entrusted. The Prefect, Father Matthias Neijens ~ Langgoer stayed to the Kei Islands and through Tilburg received this invitation from Mr. Kroesen to Merauke to come. His invitation was a contribution to the formation of a new society, the responsibilities of the Board (to bring peace and order) could thrive.

Father Neijens (see figure), the events of 1904 as follows:

With both hands I grabbed the proposal from the government official to visit Merauke em there and try to establish a mission among the wild Kajakaja’s. But … come into contact and how to deal with that wild nature people, who are notorious for their love of murder, and whose language they do not understand? A language that only one word for word from headhunters who himself must listen and unlearn! Only two words of their language, I had accidentally vemomen: IGIS, this is the “name” and kaj, this is “good.” With that bit of language I would head up and the different villages. I informed Mr. Kroesen to the villages that I was going to come into contact with the savages, “Oh, that’s good, Prefect,” was the reply, “but I just can not let go. You know, those people can not be trusted: for two days they killed a Chinese. I will therefore give some soldiers, then you can safely ride the car. “

“I thank you for your bezergdheid, Resident, but you will not blame me, I do not choose your soldiers to go to those people. They will think I am a soldier eek: they shall receive me with suspicion and never will I as the consolations of thy people win. Again, Mr Assistant Resident, let me go alone, you will not worry for me. “

The assistant resident admitted, but warned me to be careful to have my life and reckless endangering. The equipment of the journey was soon ready. As a soldier of Chiristus armed myself not revolver, pistol or dagger, but was intentionally my long black went on to make me stand out from soldiers and other vreemdeiingen, took under one arm a box of bandages and dressings for wounds to connect under the other arm a box with beads and pulled bravely to the nearest village of the wild headhunters: Nowari.
After several quarters usually got the cabins in sight. Before the village were twenty or thirty Kajakaja’s lazily to the ground. Once they previously ‘unknown man’ there saw coming jumps all fierce and menacing and came towards me. At some paces they stopped and began this strange appearance with suspicious glances from side to take aile. I remained undaunted in the midst of that mess “animal people”; their whole naked body dripping with coconut oil, big pig teeth cessation by their misshapen nose, their arms and chest were draped with dirty objects in their hands, they had their bows and arrows or spear and knots. I did my best to show people that I had not come with hostile intentions:

I smiled and nodded kindly to the head, took leads of beads, waved it to them to to indicate that everything was for them and thus sought by gestures to show that I came as a friend.

One of the Kajakaja’s, certainly the bravest, was already ventured closer and finally to those strange white man to touch and when it ended well, wanted to show others that they were not afraid. The circle became closer and all had to even touch the visitor. Others drew chains to my big beard, and soon they were so vertrouweiijk that with their dirty hands in my beard came rooting, or me with wild eyes came to respect, under the cry of “so, so, so.” And I drew my but out of kindness, gave beads, and bowed and nodded his head and … alie had acquired friendship!

After that first encounter was so happy past and the general amazement and rejoicing had subsided, I knocked the nearest wild standing on the chest and said: “kaj” (good)! This salute was answered with a jump of joy, with exclamations of pleasure. Now I went along the entire row, knocked the people on the chest and said again: “kaj, kaj, kaj” They were all so good, good people. I pointed Vervoigens hand up and down at myself and wanted to omstaande and repeated: “kaj. kaj “(good). We are good for each other, so we are good friends … And the people jumping and shouting with delight!

Then I wrote one of the Kajakaja and asked “IGIS? IGIS? “(name?). Who had wanted so much sense to understand that I asked for his name. He said so his name. I had already finished my notebook and wrote that name: Wangeer. It understood that headhunters nothing of what was doing that sir running his hand over a white sheet was. In the following, I did exactly the same and so along the entire row. Now I began the names of my book to read. And every time a wanted to hear mention of the name, this was an outburst of joy and admiration!

But now my vocabulary was exhausted. What have done? I had noticed that my beard so great admiration had made reaching those wild people who have very little beard. I then took my beard in my hand, shook it once a good lot and asked again: “IGIS? IGIS? “Several gifts at once answer. Again I took my notebook, wrote that word “hos” and put behind it: beard. Then I felt my ears, my nose, my eyelids and asked again: “IGIS? IGIS? “I got a word to hear, wrote that on there and put the meaning behind. I took some sand, a stick, a little tame pig began to go to run, jump, pretend I drank, and slept like I always asked myself: “IGIS? IGIS? “My vocabulary began to rise.

Now one of the savages suddenly jumps forward and asks, “Wo IGIS?” That word “wo” I understood yet, but from the tone in which it was said, was that I wanted my name early. What could I reply? Neijens sounded so strange, my name Matthias equally so. So I would give my name but professional and powerful voice I replied, “missionary”. Allen had that name full of wonder and joy and they made them repeat: “misnorei”. “So, so misnorei” sounded from all sides. And all this was accompanied by whistling and shouting and jumping with delight and amazement.

I had said about fifty words in my booklet. I now took in handing out beads and with a friendly nod and Iaehen afseheid of my new friends and met the accepted terugtoeht to Merauke. I took the steamer to the Kei-ei] databases back to the first missionaries to reach, with untiring zeal and patience bun arduous task would begin.

Self, however, he went them one more time ahead in July 1905. Father Neijens writes:

“The June 28 I went to Surabaya ship and landed on July 6 in Merauke. Never has someone so piechtig Merauke ushered. Twenty Kajakaja’s standing on the pier found I had been in the lifeboat see steps and my long beard sighted and my black went, they recognized immediately the misnorei last year. They jumped for joy and cried out in fun. Others, upon hearing that wild cries, understood that Jets special had. Also they came flocking voile gallop and when I landed, I found myself surrounded by as many as fifty men and women, who together pushed to see me and the pleasure would have me by the hand to grasp and a minute of my beard pulling. She accompanied me to the house of the Assistant Resident, Mr. Kroesen, who was pleasantly surprised by this unexpected visit.

Mr. Kroesen is the sweetest for me and has promised me that he will spare nothing to help us in establishing our mission, which he expected so much good for the population. He gave me a house is abandoned where our missionaries may take up residence and where they can stay until their house is ready. Although I gladly would have liked a larger area, we will have enough for now to the seven or eight acres which Mr. Kroesen has given me. The location of betting site is excellent and as persons with an odds Kroesen life was declared, was the assistant resident give me any better ground. “

Pen drawing of H. Nollen, first settlement in Merauke

MSC-A group of international composition had been since the eighties found in a work area bet-eastern part of New Guinea, n.1. hand in Neu under German Pomerania and on Thursday Island, which was under English management. From that group now some Dutch missionaries called with the command to Merauke to leave. They were the fathers: Philip Braun, Henry Nollen brothers and Dion. van Roessel and Melchior Oomen.

The gouvemementsvaartuig The Falcon brought four missionaries to Merauke.

Father Braun writes:

The spring 10 August 1905, I arrived here. Now, we rocked enough. We constantly had a hard southeast wind, with the inevitable result of seasickness. Finally we are in Merauke, it is three o’clock in the morning. We are still a ten kilometers from the coast to the rich but shallow sea. At daylight dawning bet we look forward to all sides, eager to finally see our new place and see nothing. First bet in broad daylight with some effort we distinguish bet dirty yellow water over a dirt yellow stripe: that is bet country, the great New Guinea. The ship has not sailed tonight because the water is shallow and we must wait until the tide comes up. Then at eleven o’clock the anchor goes up and we steamed slowly to the entrance of Merauke. We are finally on the sandbar at the mouth of the river. The flat coastal stretches in unbroken line for us, a small miniature lighthouse interrupts the monotonous appearance of low wood and coconut trees. A very few wild fish in shallow water bet. Everything looks dead and extinct from. Until suddenly when turned in the river the entire settlement of Merauke before us.

Reason to Merauke (1900) [2]

It is not much, the future capital of southern New Guinea, but one is pleasantly surprised by something unbelievable beauties that few pans and some dozens of tin roofs there so suddenly for themselves to see that sad, just still deathly plain. At two o’clock we landed and after a short visit with Mr. Kroesen, we take our preliminary cottage us graciously ceded by him here in mind. It is small and very poor by European standards, but we are happy a1heel: provisionally we are under roof. The next day preoccupied with bet fresh hoot of our poor household mess. It is little that one has in Langgoer can give to us. Now we are doing everything a place to give the best we note that there are so many unfortunate missing a household to set up.

The Diary of Merauke tells bet following: Mr. Kroesen received the missionaries warmly, asked a bun available to home and because the water was always a problem, he showed them the next day, bring a large vessel. The commander and the commies were hospitable and helpful.

Literally writes Father Nollen:

Thanks to the good God who made us so successful here has led to our establishment and the affection of the whites has already assured, we may well continue for the glory of God and the salvation of souls.

“Except Mr. Kroesen,” says Father Braun,

“Here are a controller, a clerk, ‘n post-commies and Europeans than any of the staff of the government boat De Valk properly. They also have their home country. If you add this for another three European traders, then you know the whole population of Merauke what Europeans are concerned. Furthermore, bet here is full of Chinese and Irish Female from all countries in our Eastern. The occupation is a hundred native soldiers, commanded by a European instructor. And now you know Merauke on two peculiarities: first, the punishment of workers and secondly the natives. Our first encounter with the convicts was that they all our belongings from the pier to our house brought. I held my breath when I saw criminals disappear with our visages arrnzalige huisraadjes: there is certainly not a tenth of the right address, I thought. But bet it was very hard, everything was there. Now there are a whole lot working in our field to build a new home. During the week they labor for the Government and we see them in different places in their brown suit walking around. On Sundays they may labor for individuals to earn a few cents, which they can buy some snacks during the week. They work steadily and are submissive and polite. ”

Braun also gives his first impressions of the natives:

The natives are not eigeniijk residents of Merauke. They live pretty far from it. The first impression is that of onzeglijke, incredible dirt hero: a dunghill on a human body and face bruised the devil as we sometimes see displayed. “But they feel good bet to own and can not enough admire beauty in mirrors made when traders have bartered for some coconuts. When we first stepped ashore cutting, there were just across the river only wanted to in their dugouts, loaded with coconuts, which they knives, axes, beads and mirrors exchange. Until they got on their knees in mud. Further up, their naked body smeared with coconut oil, mixed with dirt and dyes alleriei voorai red and black. We have seen women who completely with river clay and rubbed on her skin had dried clay gave her a stunning appearance. This wear, except the children and old people, all long hair. On a couple of hairs is an extension of grass made it on their shoulders depends, yes, sommlgen, especially in young girls up to the knees. Thereby the whole wig smeared with the necessary clay and filth, especially red earth, so that if, for example in our betting house sit and lean against something, a dirty, oily spot indicates the place where she sat bebben. Moreover, they substantially built, large, very muscular and agile, they have an open face. “

Nollen sees it otherwise:

The first thing you will, from afar, is that the big guys are so beautiful, tall, muscular, well proportioned, firm face, more oval than round, a well-developed nose. The men are naked. Head and chest, however, they have beaten horribly. First the earlobes pierced and there are large rings, I believe the shaft of kasuarisveren. In each ear hang ten or twelve. The nostrils are also pierced and widened dangerously, so they wear bamboo sticks in my finger where I can easily by stabbing. Typically, however, they contribute rather pig tusks, or frightful kromrne krauwels of raptors. Threateningly forward curved points give something cheeky and schrikkelijks their visage. The bundles of hair extension prefixes may also be a defense to a possible unexpected blow to break, because we are here in bet land of headhunters.

 

De stichting van de missiepost Merauke

In 1884 en 1885 werden Engeland en Duitsland het eens over de verdeling van oost Nieuw-Guinea, waarbij Engeland het zuidelijke deel en Duitsland het noordelijke deel als protectoraat op zich nam.

In 1896 ziet de Nederlandse Regering eindelijk de urgentie in van de invoering van daadwerkelijk bestuur, hetgeen de vestiging van bestuursposten tot gevolg heeft, namelijk te Fakfak en te Manokwari. In die tijd heeft de Gouverneur van het Engelse deel van Oost-Nieuw-Guinea, Sir William McGregor klachten ingediend over de sneltochten van de kustbewoners van het Nederlandse gedeelte op het Engelse grondgebied. Men noemde toen die snellers de ‘Toegeri’s’. Later kregen zij de naam ‘Kajakaja’ en ten slotte hun eigen naam: ‘Marindinezen’.

In 1900 wordt de heer W. Kroesen, assistent-resident van Fakfak, naar deze zuidkust gezonden en in 1902 wordt aan de monding van de Marorivier de bestuurspost Merauke gesticht. Er worden honderdzestig militairen met politie en dwangarbeiders gestationeerd.

De heer Kroesen had op zijn tocht naar Engels Nieuw-Guinea aldaar de katholieke missie leren kennen, met name in de figuur van broeder Henkelman. Deze gaf hem het adres van zijn Congregatie in Tilburg waaraan de Apostolische Prefectuur van Nederlands Nieuw-Guinea was toevertrouwd. De Prefect, pater Matthias Neijens~ verbleef te Langgoer op de Kei-eilanden en via Tilburg ontving deze de uitnodiging van de heer Kroesen om naar Merauke te komen. Zijn uitnodiging betrof een bijdrage aan de vorming van een nieuwe maatschappij, waarin de taak van het Bestuur (orde en rust te brengen) zou kunnen gedijen.

Pater Neijens (zie afbeelding) heeft de gebeurtenissen in 1904 als volgt weergegeven:

Met beide handen greep ik het voorstel van de bestuursambtenaar aan em Merauke te bezoeken en te proberen daar een missiepost te vestigen onder de wilde Kajakaja’s.  Maar… hoe in aanraking te komen en om te gaan met die woeste natuurmensen, die berucht zijn om hun moordzucht, en wier taal men niet verstaat? Een taal, die men slechts woord voor woord van die koppensnellers zelf moet afluisteren en afleren! Slechts twee woordjes van hun taal had ik toevallig vemomen: igis, dit is “naam” en kaj, dit is “goed”. Met dat beetje taalkennis zou ik op pad gaan en de verschillende dorpen bezoeken. Ik verwittigde de heer Kroesen dat ik naar de dorpen zou gaan om in aanraking te komen met de wilden: “Oh, dat is goed, Prefect”, was het antwoord, “maar alleen mag ik U niet laten gaan. Gij weet wel, die mensen zijn niet te vertrouwen: voor twee dagen hebben zij nog een Chinees vermoord. Ik zal u daarom enige soldaten meegeven, dan kunt gij de tocht veilig wagen.”

“Ik dank u wel voor uw bezergdheid, Resident, maar u zal het mij niet kwalijk nemen, dat ik niet verkies met uw soldaten naar die mensen te gaan. Zij zullen denken, dat ik eek een soldaat ben; zij zullen mij dan met achterdocht ontvangen en nooit zal ik zo het vertreuwen van die mensen winnen. Nogmaals, mijnheer de assistent-resident, laat mij alleen gaan; maakt u niet bezorgd voor mij.”

De assistent-resident gaf toe, doch vermaande mij om toch vooral voorzichtig te zijn en mijn leven niet roekeloos in gevaar te brengen. De uitrusting van de tocht was spoedig klaar. Als soldaat van Chiristus wapende ik mij niet met revolver, pistool of dolk, maar deed opzettelijk mijn lange zwarte toog aan om mij te doen onderscheiden van soldaten en andere vreemdeiingen, nam onder de ene arm een kistje met verbandstoffen om wonden te kunnen verbinden, onder de andere arm een kistje met kraaltjes en trok moedig naar het dichtstbijgelegen dorp der wilde koppensnellers: Nowari.
Na enige kwartieren gaans kreeg ik de hutten in zicht. Vóór het dorp lagen een twintig a dertig Kajakaja’s lui tegen de grond. Zodra zij dien ‘onbekende mens’ daar zagen aankomen sprongen allen woest en dreigend op en kwamen naar mij toe. Op enige passen afstand bleven zij staan en begonnen die vreemde verschijning met wantrouwende blikken van aile kanten op te nemen. Ik bleef onverschrokken temidden van die troep ‘diermensen’; geheel hun naakte lichaam droop van de kokosolie; grote varkenstanden staken door hun misvormde neus; hun armen en borst waren omhangen met vieze voorwerpen en in hun handen hadden zij hun boog en pijlen, of lans en knots. Ik deed mijn best om die mensen te laten zien, dat ik niet gekomen was met vijandige bedoelingen:

Ik lachte en knikte vriendelijk met het hoofd, nam snoeren van kralen, zwaaide ermee naar hen toe om te kennen te geven dat alles voor hen was en trachtte aldus door gebaren te laten zien dat ik kwam als vriend.

Een van de Kajakaja’s, zeker de moedigste, kwam reeds dichterbij en waagde het eindelijk om die vreemde blanke mens aan te raken; en toen dit goed afliep, wilden de anderen tonen dat zij ook niet bang waren. De kring werd nauwer en allen moesten de bezoeker eens aanraken. Anderen trokken tens aan mijn grote baard en weldra werden zij zo vertrouweiijk, dat zij met hun vuile handen in mijn baard kwamen wroeten, of mij met wilde ogen kwamen aanzien, onder de uitroep van “so, so, so.” En ik putte mij maar uit in vriendelijkheid, gaf kraaltjes, en boog en knikte met het hoofd en… had alIe vriendschap verworven!

Nadat die eerste kennismaking zo gelukkig was afgeLopen en de algemene verwondering en het vreugdebetoon waren bedaard, klopte ik de dichtstbijstaande wilde op de borst en zei: “kaj” (goed)! Dit begroeten werd beantwoord met een springen van blijdschap, met uitroepingen van plezier. Nu ging ik de gehele rij langs, klopte de mensen op de borst en zei telkens: “kaj, kaj, kaj !“ Zij waren dus allen goed, goede mensen. Vervoigens wees ik met de hand op en neer, naar mezelf en naar de omstaande wilden en herhaalde: “kaj. kaj” (goed). Wij zijn goed voor elkaar, dus wij zijn goede vrienden… En de lui sprongen en schreeuwden van pret!

Daarop richtte ik mij tot een van de Kajakaja’s en vroeg “igis? igis?” (naam?). Die wilde had toch zoveel verstand om te begrijpen, dat ik naar zijn naam vroeg. Hij zei dus zijn naam. Ik had mijn notitieboekje reeds klaar en schreef die naam op: Wangeer. Daar begrepen die koppensnellers niets van, wat die mijnheer daar deed terwijl hij met zijn hand over een wit blaadje ging. Bij de volgende deed ik juist hetzelfde en zo de gehele rij langs. Nu begon ik de namen van mijn boekje af te lezen. En telkens als een wilde zich bij de naam hoorde noemen, was dit een uitbarsting van vreugde en bewondering!

Maar nu was ook mijn woordenschat uitgeput. Wat nu gedaan? Ik had bemerkt dat mijn baard zo geweldig de bewondering had gaande gemaakt van die wilde mensen die zelf slechts zeer weinig baard hebben. Ik nam dan mijn baard in mijn hand, schudde er eens flink mee en vroeg wederom: “igis? igis?” Verschillenden gaven tegelijk antwoord. Ik nam wederom mijn notitieboekje, schreef dat woord op “hos” en zette erachter: baard. Dan betastte ik mijn oren, mijn neus, mijn oogleden en vroeg telkens: “igis? igis?” Ik kreeg een woord te horen, schreef dat op en zette er de betekenis achter. Ik nam wat zand, een houtje, een klein tam varken, begon te gaan, te lopen, te springen, deed alsof ik dronk, alsof ik sliep en telkens vroeg ik: “igis? igis?” Mijn woordenschat begon toe te nemen.

Nu springt plotseling een van de wilden vooruit en vraagt: “Wo igis?” Dat woordje “wo” verstond ik nog niet, maar uit de toon, waarop dat gezegd werd, maakte ik op dat die wilde naar mijn naam vroeg. Wat zou ik antwoorden? Neijens klonk zo vreemd; mijn voornaam Matthias al evenzeer. Ik zou dus mijn beroepsnaam maar geven en met krachtige stem antwoordde ik: “missionaris”. Allen moesten die naam vol verwondering en blijdschap herhalen en zij maakten ervan: “misnorei”. ”So, so misnorei” klonk het van alle kanten. En dat alles ging gepaard met springen en fluiten en geschreeuw van pret en verbazing.

Ik had aldus ongeveer vijftig woordjes in mijn boekje staan. Ik nam nu onder het uitdelen van kraaltjes en met vriendelijk knikken en Iaehen afseheid van mijn nieuwe vrienden en aanvaardde voldaan de terugtoeht naar Merauke. Ik ging met de stoomboot naar de Kei-ei]anden terug om de eerste missionarissen te halen, die met onvermoeide ijver en geduld bun zware taak zouden beginnen.

Zelf echter ging hij hen nog een maal vooruit in juli 1905. Pater Neijens schrijft:

“De 28e Juni ging ik te Soerabaja scheep en landde de 6e Juli in Merauke. Nooit is iemand zo piechtig Merauke binnengeleid. Een twintigtal Kajakaja’s die zich op de pier bevonden, hadden mij in de sloep zien stappen en mijn lange baard ziende en mijn zwarte toog, herkenden zij dadelijk de misnorei van verleden jaar. Zij sprongen van blijdschap en schreeuwden het uit van pret. Anderen, bij het horen van die wilde kreten, begrepen dat er jets bijzonders moest zijn. Ook zij kwamen toegestroomd in voile galop en toen ik voet aan wal zette, zag ik mij omringd door wel een vijftigtal mannen en vrouwen, die elkander verdrongen om mij te zien en het genoegen wilden hebben mij bij de hand te vatten en eens eventjes aan mijn baard te trekken. Zij vergezelden mij tot aan de woning van de assistent-resident, de heer Kroesen, die aangenaam verrast was door dat geheel onverwacht bezoek.

De heer Kroesen is allerliefst voor mij geweest en heeft mij beloofd dat hij niets zal sparen om ons te helpen in het oprichten van onze Missie, waarvan hij zoveel goeds verwacht voor de bevolking. Hij heeft mij een staatswoning afgestaan waar onze missionarissen hun intrek kunnen nemen en waar zij kunnen blijven totdat hun huis gereed is. Ofschoon ik gaarne een groter terrein had willen hebben, zullen wij voorlopig genoeg hebben aan de zeven of acht hectare die de heer Kroesen mij heeft geschonken. De ligging van bet terrein is uitstekend en zoals personen die met Kroesen op een gespannen voet leven mij verklaarden, kon de assistent-resident mij geen beter terrein schenken.”

 

Pentekening van H. Nollen, eerste nederzetting in Merauke

Een MSC-groep van internationale samenstelling had reeds sinds de jaren tachtig een arbeidsterrein gevonden in bet oostelijk deel van Nieuw-Guinea, n.1. enerzijds in Neu Pommeren dat onder Duits en anderzijds op Thursday-Island dat onder Engels beheer stond. Uit die groep werden nu enkele Nederlandse missionarissen opgeroepen met de opdracht naar Merauke te vertrekken. Het waren de paters: Philip Braun, Henricus Nollen en de broeders Dion. van Roessel en Melchior Oomen.

Het gouvemementsvaartuig De Valk bracht de vier missionarissen naar Merauke.

Pater Braun schrijft:

De veertiende Augustus 1905 ben ik hier aangekomen. Nu, geschommeld hebben wij genoeg. Wij hadden voortdurend een harde zuidoostenwind tegen, met het onvermijdelijke gevolg van zeeziekte. Eindelijk zijn we dan in Merauke, het is drie uur ‘s nachts. We liggen echter nog een kilometer of tien uit de kust op de volle, maar ondiepe zee. Bij bet aanbrekende daglicht kijken we uit naar alle kanten, verlangend eindelijk onze nieuwe verblijfplaats te zien, en zien niets. Eerst bij bet volle daglicht onderscheiden wij met enige inspanning boven bet vuilgele water een vuilgele streep: dat is bet land, het heerlijke Nieuw-Guinea. Het schip is vannacht niet binnengevaren omdat het water ondiep is; wij moeten wachten tot de vloed komt opzetten. Dan om elf uur gaat het anker omhoog en langzaam stomen wij naar de ingang van Merauke. Wij zijn eindelijk over de zandbank in de monding van de rivier. De vlakke kust strekt zich in onafgebroken rechte lijn voor ons uit, een klein miniatuur vuurtorentje breekt alleen het eentonige uitzicht van laaghout en kokosbomen. Een heel enkele wilde vist in bet ondiepe water. Alles ziet er doods en uitgestorven uit. Tot plotseling bij het binnendraaien van de rivier de gehele nederzetting van Merauke voor ons ligt.

 

Rede te Merauke (1Reason to Merauke (1900) [2]

It is not much, the future capital of southern New Guinea, but one is pleasantly surprised by something unbelievable beauties that few pans and some dozens of tin roofs there so suddenly for themselves to see that sad, just still deathly plain. At two o’clock we landed and after a short visit with Mr. Kroesen, we take our preliminary cottage us graciously ceded by him here in mind. It is small and very poor by European standards, but we are happy a1heel: provisionally we are under roof. The next day preoccupied with bet fresh hoot of our poor household mess. It is little that one has in Langgoer can give to us. Now we are doing everything a place to give the best we note that there are so many unfortunate missing a household to set up.

The Diary of Merauke tells bet following: Mr. Kroesen received the missionaries warmly, asked a bun available to home and because the water was always a problem, he showed them the next day, bring a large vessel. The commander and the commies were hospitable and helpful.

Literally writes Father Nollen:

Thanks to the good God who made us so successful here has led to our establishment and the affection of the whites has already assured, we may well continue for the glory of God and the salvation of souls.

“Except Mr. Kroesen,” says Father Braun,

“Here are a controller, a clerk, ‘n post-commies and Europeans than any of the staff of the government boat De Valk properly. They also have their home country. If you add this for another three European traders, then you know the whole population of Merauke what Europeans are concerned. Furthermore, bet here is full of Chinese and Irish Female from all countries in our Eastern. The occupation is a hundred native soldiers, commanded by a European instructor. And now you know Merauke on two peculiarities: first, the punishment of workers and secondly the natives. Our first encounter with the convicts was that they all our belongings from the pier to our house brought. I held my breath when I saw criminals disappear with our visages arrnzalige huisraadjes: there is certainly not a tenth of the right address, I thought. But bet it was very hard, everything was there. Now there are a whole lot working in our field to build a new home. During the week they labor for the Government and we see them in different places in their brown suit walking around. On Sundays they may labor for individuals to earn a few cents, which they can buy some snacks during the week. They work steadily and are submissive and polite. ”

Braun also gives his first impressions of the natives:

The natives are not eigeniijk residents of Merauke. They live pretty far from it. The first impression is that of onzeglijke, incredible dirt hero: a dunghill on a human body and face bruised the devil as we sometimes see displayed. “But they feel good bet to own and can not enough admire beauty in mirrors made when traders have bartered for some coconuts. When we first stepped ashore cutting, there were just across the river only wanted to in their dugouts, loaded with coconuts, which they knives, axes, beads and mirrors exchange. Until they got on their knees in mud. Further up, their naked body smeared with coconut oil, mixed with dirt and dyes alleriei voorai red and black. We have seen women who completely with river clay and rubbed on her skin had dried clay gave her a stunning appearance. This wear, except the children and old people, all long hair. On a couple of hairs is an extension of grass made it on their shoulders depends, yes, sommlgen, especially in young girls up to the knees. Thereby the whole wig smeared with the necessary clay and filth, especially red earth, so that if, for example in our betting house sit and lean against something, a dirty, oily spot indicates the place where she sat bebben. Moreover, they substantially built, large, very muscular and agile, they have an open face. ”

Nollen sees it otherwise:

The first thing you will, from afar, is that the big guys are so beautiful, tall, muscular, well proportioned, firm face, more oval than round, a well-developed nose. The men are naked. Head and chest, however, they have beaten horribly. First the earlobes pierced and there are large rings, I believe the shaft of kasuarisveren. In each ear hang ten or twelve. The nostrils are also pierced and widened dangerously, so they wear bamboo sticks in my finger where I can easily by stabbing. Typically, however, they contribute rather pig tusks, or frightful kromrne krauwels of raptors. Threateningly forward curved points give something cheeky and schrikkelijks their visage. The bundles of hair extension prefixes may also be a defense to a possible unexpected blow to break, because we are here in bet land of headhunters.

A parsonage was built of native materaal and on October 3, 1905 in use

With the arrival on August 14, 1905 the first missionaries of the early history of the mission in Merauke, so this year 100 years ago.
 

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Merauke in 1908 by O.G.H. Heldring. Heldring was a geologist involved in exploration of southern New Guinea in 1907-1908. [2]

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Missionaries of the Sacred Heart

The monastic order of the Missionaries of the Sacred Heart to Bredaseweg 204, Tilburg known as Rooi Harten, was founded in 1854 by the French chaplain Jules Chevalier Issoudun. In 1882 they settled in Tilburg in the former cloth factory of the firm Schreppers at Veldhoven (Wilhelmina), and in 1890 the new convent on the Bredaseweg into use. The Rooi Harten were engaged in missionary work in the Pacific in Melanesia and Micronesia, in Brazil, in the Dutch East Indies and the Philippines.
Some Fathers of the Mission House has also made merit as an author: eg January Boelaars the Fathers (1915), Henri Geurtjens (1875-1957), Cees Meuwese (1906-1978) and Jan Verschueren (1905-1970) wrote about language, people and culture of New Guinea, Father Maurice Miller (1886-1969) wrote about saints’ lives, Father Dr P. Schreurs (1924) on the Philippines and Father Simon Peeters (1860-1941) wrote a history of the Mission House and a biography of Father Henri Rutten.

Mission House on the Bredaseweg around 1910 (RHC Coll Tilburg).

The establishment of a printing was closely associated with the expenditure of the Annals of Our Lady of the Sacred Heart and Almanac. The first issue of the Annals in 1883 was printed by the printing of the Steam RK Boys Orphanage, the second edition was printed in Mönchengladbach, from the fifth volume was Lutkie Burg & Crane ‘s-Hertogenbosch, the printer, and from the eighteenth year (1898) HPM Verlinden in Bergen op Zoom. Only the second song of the twentieth year (1902) and Almanac 1903 appear in the printer in the Mission House to be printed. It can be deduced that in 1902 the missionaries began his own printing business. The first presses were operated by the brothers in January Vriens and Jan Foppele, and later by Jan Bogaers Show and Piette. The present building of the printing was established in 1927. During World War II was the printing stopped. After the war the brothers January Vriens and M. Joosten the printer back on life. From 1957 withdrew French Kolsters as commercial director seemed more and more staff, he made the printing of a corporation in which the Provincial MSC acted as sole shareholder: the Printing and Publishing Heart of Brabant was born. Later the printing by the Tilburg typesetting Vorspel NV. That typesetter went bankrupt. Thereafter, the printing slowly rebuilt.

The Mission House has a monastery library of over 20,000 titles. It comprises two sections: on the ground floor is the more scientific, on the first floor we find the Gymnasium library, derived from the uplifted Apostolic School or minor seminary of the MSC congregation, and built between 1889 and 1960. The library was largely serving the teachers and other house residents, while students had their own school library. When the philosophical and theological training homes of the congregation (major seminary) also were concentrated in Tilburg, these are the libraries, with a larger file than the original house library, housed in the Mission House. An important part of the MSC library is included in that years ago of the Theological Faculty of Tilburg. The principal librarian of the MSC library is Father Piet Cools (1904-1973) was. He was also chairman of the Association of Dutch Monastic Libraries. The library has a significant collection of French literature, this has to do with the French origin of the congregation.

Literature: HN 22.6.1985, Ronald Peeters and Ed Painters, Catholic image in Tilburg, Tilburg, 1990, p. 78-79; communication Dr P. Schreurs M.S.C. 12.19.1991, M. MSC Joosten, “The history of our printing, in: CBE Chronicle, M.S.C. Tilburg, issue 20, 1983, p. 2-5.

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The missionary Congregations

It is in Merauke in 1905 (14 August) The first missionaries arrive: Members of the Congregation of the Missionaries of the Sacred Hart, to begin their missionary work.

The first missionaries came from Europe, the Europe of the nineteenth century. In this world that are economically and socially and which one was opened by the technique began to reach the earth, awoke at the instigation of the churches a whole new wave of missionary fervor, both the Mission and the Mission.

In France, where the de-Christianization of a universally accepted position unchurched hero and free morality had summoned the clergy experienced this mentality as “le mal modem. They sought the means to cure. One of them, Father Bear Jules Chevalier, founded in 1854 in Issoudun (near Bourges) a Congregation of priests and brothers: the Missionaries of the Sacred Heart ‘. He saw them as heralds of the Love that their contemporaries wished to re-ignite em Christ and love to give a Christian life. The motto that’s why he gave to his congregation was “Loved it everywhere H. Heart of Jesus … “.

After twenty-five years (1879) counted the Ccngregatie twenty-nine priests, five breeders and twenty-nine great-seminarians (including all two Dutch).

Around 1880 demanded the Masonic Government of the French Republic that the monks would apply for an official recognition, which would impose restrictions on their apostolate. The Missionaries of the Sacred Heart (MSC) fled to the Netherlands. Here they received from Msgr. Godschalk, bishop of ‘s-Hertogenbosch, his country residence, home Gerra, assigned (1881).

House Gerra was the training center, the neviciaat, headed by Father Ch. Piperon. When the first nevicen were professed and new postulants had been submitted, the house was too small and a disused textile factory in the city of Tilburg purchased. In addition to the novitiate and the higher studies there was also the Minor Seminary, called Apostclische School housed.

The first members of the Congregation had occurred because the devotion to the Blessed Heart of Jesus wanted to spread, especially in France. However, the founder of their congregation itself had also bet bet beginning mission work in foreign countries as one of the main tasks of the institute and given the younger generation looked with longing for the realization of this mission from ideal. The motto was still: ~ Loved it everywhere … “Another bet during his forced departure of people from France, which the very existence of betting institute put into question, asked Father Chevalier procurator in Rome to the Congregation as a candidate for a or other mission to contribute to the H. Steel. Cardinal Simeoni, Prefect of the Congregation of the Propaganda Fide, offered them the whole Pacific (Melanesia and Micronesia), with the mission head attention to the island of New Guinea.

Meanwhile in 1874 the Congregation of the Daughters of Our Lady of the Sacred Heart founded. The large exodus of members of both congregations to the Mission began. The first caravan traveled in 1881 with the adventurer Marquis de Rays, via Manila, Surabaya, Batavia and Singapore to Sydney. After thirteen months, they reached from there in northern New Guinea, the town of Port Breton, on the south coast of New Ireland was. Because they are nothing but ruins and graves found, they crossed the St. George’s Channel and began their mission work in New Britain.

In 1885 came two priests, three brothers and five sisters to bet-Thursday Island on the south coast of New Guinea. The nearby Yule Island they reached the mainland of New Guinea. This mission area had in 1910 after twenty-five years of work already twenty-three dead. Their average age was not above thirty-four years. “

 

 

Het is nog niet veel, de toekomstige hoofdstad van Zuid-Nieuw-Guinea, maar toch is men aangenaam verrast als door iets ongelooflijk schoons, die paar pannen- en enige tientallen zinken daken daar zo plotseling voor zich te zien, op die triestige, zoëven nog doodse vlakte. Om twee uur zijn wij aan wal en na een kort bezoek bij de heer Kroesen, nemen wij ons voorlopig huisje, ons zo welwillend door hem afgestaan even in ogenschouw. Het is klein en voor Europese begrippen erg armoedig, maar wij zijn er a1heel blij mee: voorlopig zijn we onder dak. De volgende dag wordt geheel in beslag genomen met bet versjouwen van ons armzalig rommeltje huisraad. Het is weinig dat men in Langgoer heeft kunnen afstaan voor ons. Nu we bezig zijn alles een plaatsje te geven, merken wij het best dat er nog zo jammer veel ontbreekt om een huishouden op te richten.

Het Dagboek van Merauke vertelt bet volgende: De heer Kroesen ontving de missionarissen hartelijk, stelde een woning tot bun beschikking en omdat de watervoorziening altijd een probleem was, liet hij hen de volgende dag een groot vat brengen. Ook de commandant en de commies waren gastvrij en hulpvaardig.

Letterlijk schrijft pater Nollen:

Dankzij de goede God, die ons hier zo voorspoedig heeft geleid en bij onze vestiging de genegenheid van de blanken reeds heeft verzekerd, mogen we hier voor goed blijven ter ere Gods en het heil van de zielen.

‘Behalve de heer Kroesen’, vertelt pater Braun,

‘zijn hier nog een controleur, een commies, ‘n post-commies en dan enige Europeanen die tot het personeel van de gouvernementsboot De Valk behoren. Zij ook hebben hun woning aan land. Reken daarbij nog een drietal Europese handelaars, dan ken je de hele bevolking van Merauke wat Europeanen betreft. Voorts wemelt bet hier van Chinezen en Maleiers uit alle landen van onze Oost. De bezetting bestaat uit een honderdtal inlandse soldaatjes, onder bevel van een Europese instructeur. En nu ken je Merauke op twee merkwaardigheden na: ten eerste de strafarbeiders en ten tweede de inboorlingen. Onze eerste kennismaking met de dwangarbeiders was dat zij ons hele boeltje van de pier naar onze woning brachten. Ik hield mijn hart vast toen ik die boeventronies zag verdwijnen met onze arrnzalige huisraadjes: daar komt zeker geen tiende van aan het goede adres, dacht ik. Maar bet viel erg hard mee: alles was er. Nu zijn er een hele partij bezig op ons terrein een nieuw huisje te bouwen. Door de week arbeiden zij voor de Regering en ziet men ze op verschillende plaatsen in hun bruine pakje rondlopen. ‘s Zondags mogen zij voor particulieren arbeiden om een paar centjes te verdienen, waarvan zij enige versnaperingen kunnen kopen gedurende de week. Ze werken gestadig aan en zijn onderdanig en beleefd.’

Braun geeft ook zijn eerste indrukken over de inboorlingen:

De inboorlingen zijn eigeniijk geen bewoners van Merauke. Zij wonen er tamelijk ver van af. De eerste indruk is die van onzeglijke, ongelooflijke vuilheld: een mesthoop op een mensenlichaam en het gezicht toegetakeld zoals men de duivel wel eens afgebeeld ziet. ‘Maar zij vinden bet mooi en kunnen zich aan eigen schoonheid niet genoeg bewonderen in spiegeltjes die zij bij de handelaars voor enige kokosnoten hebben geruild. Toen wij voor de eerste maai aan land stapten, kwamen er juist aan de overkant van de rivier enige wilden aan in hun uitgeholde boomstammen, volgeladen met kokosnoten, die zij voor messen, bijlen, kralen en die spiegeltjes ruilen. Tot over de knieën stapten zij door de modder. Verder omhoog, is hun spiernaakt lijf ingesmeerd met kokosolie, vermengd met vuil en alleriei kleurstoffen voorai rood en zwart. Vrouwen hebben wij gezien, die zich geheel met rivierklei ingesmeerd hadden en de op haar huid opgedroogde klei gaf haar een fantastisch uiterlijk. Daarbij dragen, behalve de kinderen en de oude lui, allen lange haren. Aan een paar haartjes wordt een verlenging van gras gemaakt, dat hun op de schouders afhangt, ja, bij sommlgen, vooral bij jonge meisjes tot aan de knieën. Daarbij wordt de hele pruik besmeerd met de nodige klei en vuiligheid, vooral rode aarde, zodat, als zij bijvoorbeeld bij ons in bet huis gaan zitten en ergens tegenaan leunen, een vuile, vette plek de plaats aanduidt waar zij gezeten bebben. Overigens zijn zij flink gebouwd, groot, sterk gespierd en lenig; zij hebben een open gelaat.’

Nollen ziet het al niet anders:

Het eerste wat u treft, al van verre, is dat het zo’n schone grote kerels zijn, hoog, gespierd, goed geproportioneerd, flink gezicht, meer ovaal dan rond, een goed ontwikkelde neus. De mannen lopen naakt. Hoofd en borst echter hebben zij afschuwelijk toegetakeld. Eerst zijn de oorlellen doorboord en daar hangen grote ringen in, Ik geloof van de schacht van kasuarisveren. In elk oor hangen er wel tien of twaalf. De neusvleugels hebben zij ook vervaarlijk doorboord en verwijd, zodat zij er bamboestokjes in dragen waar ik mijn vinger gemakkelijk kan doorsteken. Doorgaans echter dragen zij er liever varkensslagtanden in, of vervaarlijke kromrne krauwels van roofvogels. Die dreigend naar voren gekromde punten geven iets brutaals en schrikkelijks aan hun tronie. De bundels haarverlengsels zijn misschien ook een verweermiddel om een mogelijk onverwachte slag te breken, want wij zijn hier in bet land der koppensnellers.

Een pastorie werd gebouwd van inlands materaal en op 3 oktober 1905 in gebruik genomen

Met de komst op 14 augustus 1905 van de eerste missionarissen begin ook de geschiedenis van de missie in Merauke, Dit jaar dus 100 jaar geleden.
 


 

 

Merauke in 1908 door O.G.H. Heldring. Heldring was als geoloog betrokken bij de exploratie van Zuid Nieuw-Guinea in 1907-1908. [2]


Missionarissen van het H. Hart

De kloosterorde van de Missionarissen van het H. Hart aan de Bredaseweg 204, in Tilburg beter bekend als de Rooi Harten, is in 1854 gesticht door de Franse kapelaan Jules Chevalier te Issoudun. In 1882 vestigden zij zich in Tilburg in de voormalige lakenfabriek van de firma Schreppers aan de Veldhoven (Wilhelminapark), en in 1890 werd het nieuwe klooster aan de Bredaseweg in gebruik genomen. De Rooi Harten hielden zich bezig met het missiewerk in de Stille Zuidzee op Melanesië en Micronesië, in Brazilië, in Nederlands-Indië, en op de Filippijnen.
Een aantal paters van dit Missiehuis heeft zich ook als auteur verdienstelijk gemaakt: o.a. de paters Jan Boelaars (1915), Henri Geurtjens (1875-1957), Cees Meuwese (1906-1978) en Jan Verschueren (1905-1970) schreven over taal, volk en cultuur van Nieuw-Guinea, pater Maurits Molenaar (1886-1969) schreef over heiligenlevens, pater dr. P. Schreurs (1924) over de Filippijnen en pater Simon Peeters (1860-1941) schreef een geschiedschrijving over het Missiehuis en een biografie over pater Henri Rutten.

 

Missiehuis aan de Bredaseweg omstreeks 1910 (Coll. RHC Tilburg).

De oprichting van een eigen drukkerij hing nauw samen met de uitgaven van de Annalen van O.L. Vrouw van het H. Hart en de Almanak. Het eerste nummer van de Annalen werd in 1883 gedrukt bij de Stoomdrukkerij van het R.K. Jongensweeshuis, het tweede nummer werd in München-Gladbach gedrukt, vanaf de vijfde jaargang was Lutkie & Cranenburg te ‘s-Hertogenbosch de drukker, en vanaf de achttiende jaargang (1898) H.P.M. Verlinden te Bergen op Zoom. Pas het tweede nummer van de twintigste jaargang (1902) en de Almanak 1903 blijken in de eigen drukkerij van het Missiehuis gedrukt te zijn. Hieruit is af te leiden dat in 1902 de missionarissen een eigen drukkerij zijn begonnen. De eerste persen werden bediend door de broeders Jan Vriens en Jan Foppele, en later door Jan Bogaers en Toon Piëtte. Het huidige gebouw van de drukkerij kwam in 1927 tot stand. Gedurende de Tweede Wereldoorlog lag de drukkerij stil. Na de oorlog hebben de broeders Jan Vriens en M. Joosten de drukkerij weer leven in geblazen. Vanaf 1957 trok Frans Kolsters als commercieel-directeur steeds meer lekenpersoneel aan; hij maakte van de drukkerij een N.V., waarin de Provinciale M.S.C. als enige aandeelhouder optrad: de Drukkerij en Uitgeverij Hart van Brabant was geboren. Later werd de drukkerij door de Tilburgse zetterij Vorspel N.V. overgenomen. Die zetterij ging echter failliet. Daarna werd de drukkerij langzaam maar zeker weer opgebouwd.

Het Missiehuis bezit een kloosterbibliotheek met meer dan 20.000 titels. Ze bestaat uit twee afdelingen: op de begane grond zit de meer wetenschappelijke; op de eerste etage treffen we de gymnasiale bibliotheek aan, voortgekomen uit de opgeheven Apostolische School ofwel klein-seminarie van de M.S.C.-congregatie, en aangelegd tussen 1889 en 1960. De bibliotheek stond grotendeels ten dienste van de leraren en verdere huisbewoners, terwijl de studenten hun eigen schoolbibliotheek hadden. Toen de filosofische en theologische opleidingshuizen van de congregatie (groot-seminarie) eveneens in Tilburg werden geconcentreerd, zijn ook de bibliotheken hiervan, met een groter bestand dan de oorspronkelijke huisbibliotheek, in het Missiehuis ondergebracht. Een belangrijk deel van de M.S.C.-bibliotheek is jaren geleden opgenomen in die van de Theologische Faculteit Tilburg. De belangrijkste bibliothecaris van de M.S.C.-bibliotheek is wel pater dr. Piet Cools (1904-1973) geweest. Hij was onder meer voorzitter van de Vereniging voor Nederlandse Kloosterbibliotheken. De bibliotheek heeft een aanzienlijke collectie Franse literatuur; dit heeft te maken met de Franse oorsprong van de congregatie.

Literatuur: HN van 22-6-1985; Ronald Peeters en Ed Schilders, Katholiek Tilburg in beeld, Tilburg, 1990, p. 78-79; mededeling dr. P. Schreurs M.S.C. 19-12-1991; M. Joosten M.S.C., ‘De geschiedenis van onze drukkerij’, in: K.B.O. Kroniek, M.S.C. Tilburg, afl. 20, 1983, p. 2-5.


De missionerende Congregaties

Het is in Merauke dat in 1905 (14 augustus) de eerste missionarissen aankomen: de leden van de Congregatie van de Missionarissen van het H. Hart, om er hun missiewerk te beginnen.

Deze eerste missionarissen kwamen uit Europa, het Europa van de negentiende eeuw. In die wereld die economisch en sociaal opengegaan was en waarin men door de techniek de hele aarde begon te bereiken, ontwaakte op instigatie van de kerken een geheel nieuwe golf van missionair elan, zowel bij de Missie als bij de Zending.

In Frankrijk, waar de ontkerstening een algemeen aanvaarde situatie van onkerkelijkheld en vrije zedelijkheid had opgeroepen, beleefden de geestelijken deze mentaliteit als ‘le mal modeme’. Zij zochten naar de middelen om een genezing te bewerkstelligen. Eén van hen, de eerwaarde beer Jules Chevalier, stichtte in 1854 te Issoudun (bij Bourges) een Congregatie van priesters en broeders: de ‘Missionarissen van het H. Hart’. Hij zag hen als herauten van de Liefde die hun tijdgenoten wensten te ontvlammen em Christus wederliefde te geven en een christelijk leven te leiden. Het devies dat hij daarom aan zijn Congregatie meegaf luidde: ‘Bemind zij overal het H. Hart van Jezus…’.

Na vijfentwintig jaren (1879) telde de Ccngregatie negenentwintig paters, vijf breeders en negenentwintig groot-seminaristen (waaronder al twee Nederlanders).

Rond 1880 eiste de Maçonnieke Regering van de Franse Republiek dat de kloosterlingen een officiële erkenning zouden aanvragen, hetgeen hun Apostolaat beperkingen zou opleggen. De missionarissen van het H. Hart (MSC) weken uit naar Nederland. Hier kregen zij van mgr. Godschalk, bisschop van ‘s-Hertogenbosch, zijn eigen buitenverblijf, huize Gerra, toegewezen (1881).

Huize Gerra werd het vormingscentrum, het neviciaat, dat onder leiding staat van pater Ch. Piperon. Toen de eerste nevicen geprofest waren en nieuwe postulanten zich hadden aangemeld, werd het huis te klein en werd een afgedankte lakenfabriek in de stad Tilburg aangekocht. Naast het noviciaat en de hogere studies werd daar ook nog het Klein-Seminarie, de z.g. Apostclische School ondergebracht.

De eerste leden van de Congregatie waren ingetreden omdat zij de godsvrucht tot het H. Hart van Jezus wilden verspreiden, met name in Frankrijk. De stichter echter van hun Congregatie had zelf van bet begin af aan ook bet missiewerk in de vreemde landen als een van de voornaamste taken van zijn instituut gezien en de jongere garde zag met verlangen naar de verwezenlijking van dit missie-ideaal uit. Het devies was toch: ~Bemind zij overal…’ Nog tijdens bet gedwongen vertrek van zijn mensen uit Frankrijk, wat heel het bestaan van bet instituut op losse schroeven zette, vroeg pater Chevalier zijn procurator in Rome om de Congregatie als kandidaat voor een of andere missie voor te dragen bij de H. Steel. Kardinaal Simeoni, prefect van de Congregatio de Propaganda Fide, bood daarop de heel Zuidzee (Melanesië en Micronesië) aan, met de opdracht hoofdaandacht te schenken aan het eiland NieuwGuinea.

Intussen was in 1874 ook de Congregatie van de Dochters van O.L. Vrouw van het Heilige Hart gesticht. De grote uittocht van leden van beide Congregaties naar de Missie kon beginnen. De eerste karavaan reisde in 1881 met de avonturier Markies de Rays, via Manila, Soerabaja, Batavia en Singapore naar Sydney. Na dertien maanden bereikten zij van daaruit in noord Nieuw-Guinea het plaatsje Port Breton, dat aan de zuidkust van Nieuw Ierland lag. Omdat zij daar niets dan puinhopen en graven vonden, staken zij het Sint-Joriskanaal over en begonnen hun missiewerk op Nieuw Brittannië.

In 1885 kwamen er twee paters, drie broeders en vijf zusters naar bet Thursday-Island aan de zuidkust van Nieuw-Guinea. Via het nabijgelegen Yule-Island bereikte men het vasteland van Nieuw-Guinea. Dit missiegebied telde in 1910 na vijfentwintig jaar werk reeds drieentwintig overledenen. Hun gemiddelde leeftijd lag niet boven de vierendertig jaar.’

De stichting van de Apostolische Prefectuur van Nederlands Nieuw-Guinea

De westelijke helft van Nieuw-Guinea was een deel van Nederlands-Indië en voor de Regering bestond er voor heel Nederlands-Indië voor de katholieken slechts één erkende kerkrechtelijke autoriteit, n.l. het Apostolisch Vicariaat van Batavia (Djakarta).

De eerste missionarissen waren wereldheren (1808-1859). Daama werd het vicariaat toevertrouwd aan de Orde van de paters Jezuieten. Zij hadden op verschillende eilanden de zielzorg van aanwezige katholieken en de verkondiging van bet christelijk geloof aan de ‘heidenen’ op zich genomen.
Maar het was tegen het einde van de negentiende eeuw duidelijk geworden dat dit arbeidsveld veel te uitgebreid was voor bet personeelsbestand van deze ene Orde. Vanuit Europa meldden zich daarom andere Orden en Congregaties aan, die bereid waren om een deel van dit missieveld over te nemen. De MSC en met name de groep jongere Nederlandse leden, dacht nog steeds aan Nieuw-Guinea.
De Jezuieten waren in 1888 naar de Molukse eilanden gekomen en hadden bet missiewerk daar in gang gezet. De Missionarissen van het H. Hart verklaarden zich in 1896 bereid deze Missie (de Molukken en Nieuw-Guinea) over te nemen. Maar de Nederlandse Regering liet weten, dat zij geen tweede zelfstandig Apostolisch Vicariaat wenste te erkennen naast dat van Batavia. En de MSC zelf wenste niet als een onderafdeling van dat Jezuietisch Vicariaat ingezet te worden. Rome begreep de houding van de Nederlandse Regering niet, zodat de onderhandelingen geen vlot verloop hadden.
Het duurde zeven jaar voordat in 1902 de onderhandelingen tot resultaat hadden dat er een eigen Apostolische Prefectuur werd opgericht en erkend, nl. de Prefectuur van Nederlands Nieuw-Guinea. Pater M. Neijens werd benoemd tot de eerste Prefect. Met pater H. Geurtjens vertrok hij naar de Kei-eiianden waar zij de missie van de paters Jezuieten overnamen in 1903. Van daaruit vertrok men in 1905 naar Merauke.

 


 

Het Militair Exploratie-Detachement in Zuid-Nieuw-Guinea, 1907-1910 [2]

 

Het Militair Exploratie-Detachement in Zuid-Nieuw-Guinea, 1907-1910 [2


The missionary Congregations

It is in Merauke in 1905 (14 August) The first missionaries arrive: Members of the Congregation of the Missionaries of the Sacred Hart, to begin their missionary work.

The first missionaries came from Europe, the Europe of the nineteenth century. In this world that are economically and socially and which one was opened by the technique began to reach the earth, awoke at the instigation of the churches a whole new wave of missionary fervor, both the Mission and the Mission.

In France, where the de-Christianization of a universally accepted position unchurched hero and free morality had summoned the clergy experienced this mentality as “le mal modem. They sought the means to cure. One of them, Father Bear Jules Chevalier, founded in 1854 in Issoudun (near Bourges) a Congregation of priests and brothers: the Missionaries of the Sacred Heart ‘. He saw them as heralds of the Love that their contemporaries wished to re-ignite em Christ and love to give a Christian life. The motto that’s why he gave to his congregation was “Loved it everywhere H. Heart of Jesus … “.

After twenty-five years (1879) counted the Ccngregatie twenty-nine priests, five breeders and twenty-nine great-seminarians (including all two Dutch).

Around 1880 demanded the Masonic Government of the French Republic that the monks would apply for an official recognition, which would impose restrictions on their apostolate. The Missionaries of the Sacred Heart (MSC) fled to the Netherlands. Here they received from Msgr. Godschalk, bishop of ‘s-Hertogenbosch, his country residence, home Gerra, assigned (1881).

House Gerra was the training center, the neviciaat, headed by Father Ch. Piperon. When the first nevicen were professed and new postulants had been submitted, the house was too small and a disused textile factory in the city of Tilburg purchased. In addition to the novitiate and the higher studies there was also the Minor Seminary, called Apostclische School housed.

The first members of the Congregation had occurred because the devotion to the Blessed Heart of Jesus wanted to spread, especially in France. However, the founder of their congregation itself had also bet bet beginning mission work in foreign countries as one of the main tasks of the institute and given the younger generation looked with longing for the realization of this mission from ideal. The motto was still: ~ Loved it everywhere … “Another bet during his forced departure of people from France, which the very existence of betting institute put into question, asked Father Chevalier procurator in Rome to the Congregation as a candidate for a or other mission to contribute to the H. Steel. Cardinal Simeoni, Prefect of the Congregation of the Propaganda Fide, offered them the whole Pacific (Melanesia and Micronesia), with the mission head attention to the island of New Guinea.

Meanwhile in 1874 the Congregation of the Daughters of Our Lady of the Sacred Heart founded. The large exodus of members of both congregations to the Mission began. The first caravan traveled in 1881 with the adventurer Marquis de Rays, via Manila, Surabaya, Batavia and Singapore to Sydney. After thirteen months, they reached from there in northern New Guinea, the town of Port Breton, on the south coast of New Ireland was. Because they are nothing but ruins and graves found, they crossed the St. George’s Channel and began their mission work in New Britain.

In 1885 came two priests, three brothers and five sisters to bet-Thursday Island on the south coast of New Guinea. The nearby Yule Island they reached the mainland of New Guinea. This mission area had in 1910 after twenty-five years of work already twenty-three dead. Their average age was not above thirty-four years. “

The foundation of the Apostolic Prefecture of Dutch New Guinea

The western half of New Guinea was part of the Dutch East Indies and the Government was there for the whole Dutch East Indies to the Catholic church law recognized only one authority, namely the Apostolic Vicariate of Batavia (Jakarta).

The first missionaries were world men (1808-1859). Thereafter, the vicariate entrusted to the Order of the Jesuit Fathers. They were on different islands present the pastoral care of Catholics and the proclamation of Christian faith to bet the “Gentiles” has taken on.
But it was towards the end of the nineteenth century it became clear that this was far too extensive field work for bet workforce of this one Order. From Europe came forward so other Orders and Congregations, who were willing to be part of this mission field to take over. The MSC, in particular the Dutch group of younger members, was still thinking about New Guinea.
The Jesuits were in 1888 and came to the Moluccas had bet mission work there put in motion. The Missionaries of the Sacred Hart declared themselves prepared this Mission in 1896 (the Moluccas and New Guinea) to take over. But the Dutch Government announced that it no second independent Apostolic Vicariate wished to recognize that addition of Batavia. And wished the MSC itself not as a subdivision of that Jesuitical Vicariate to be deployed. Rome understood the attitude of the Dutch Government does not, so that the negotiations were not smooth.
It took seven years before the negotiations in 1902 result had there own Apostolic Prefecture was established and recognized, namely the Prefecture of Dutch New Guinea. Father M. Neijens was appointed the first Prefect. With Father H. Geurtjens he left the Kei eiianden where she became the mission of the Jesuit Fathers took over in 1903. From there, they left in 1905 to Merauke.

 
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The Military Exploration Detachment in southern New Guinea, 1907-1910 [2]

The Military Exploration Detachment in southern New Guinea, 1907-1910 [2

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Pioneers in the early days.
In the first years of the mission in Merauke, there have been many missionaries. Here is an overview, many of them their lives prematurely left the work they did.

Father M. Neijens, born in Heel (Limburg) 1868, MSC was in 1887, received his doctorate in theology in Rome, was ordained priest since 1896, taught at the Grand Seminary MSC Antwerp and Louvain, was appointed Prefect of the Apostolic Prefecture of Dutch New Guinea in 1903. He went to the Moluccas, together with Father H. Geurtjens and founded the Mission in New Guinea in 1905, there came on a visit in 1906, 1909 and 1914. Prefect as he came into conflict with the Provincial Executive of the MSC in the Netherlands. He resigned as Prefect in 1915, worked until 1921 in Merauke and thereafter on the Kei Islands, where he died in 1941.
 
Father H. Nollen, born in ‘s-Hertogenbosch 1870, MSC was in 1891, ordained priest in 1897, moved to Neu Pomerania (then German New Guinea) in 1897 and came thence to Merauke 1905. He was Superior of the MSC Langgoer (Boulder) 1910, succeeded Father Neijens as Prefect 1915 and returned after the appointment of Msgr. J. Aerts MSC Vicar of the Vicariate of Dutch New Guinea back to Neu Pomerania. He worked there until 1951. He died in Sydney, Australia, 1951.
 
Ph. Fr. Braun, born in Beverwijk 1872, MSC 1892, 1897 and ordained a priest verlrok Neu Pomerania. Hence he came to Merauke in 1905 and after a year moved to Boulder. He later left and Kei as MSC priest in America, where he died in 1916.
 
Brother D. van Roessel, born in Tilburg 1860, MSC 1889, went to Merauke, 1905, was moved to Boulder in 1906 and died Saumlaki (Tanirnbar), 1930.
 
Brother M. Oomen, born in Hoeven 1869, MSC was in 1897, came to Merauke, 1905, died there 1906.
 
Brother N. Hamers, born in Tilburg 1872, MSC 1896, went to Neu Pomerania and came to Merauke in 1906, went on leave to the Netherlands, where he died in 1913.
 
Father E. Cappers, Geldrop born in 1877, MSC was in 1897, ordained 1904, was given the job of deputy director of the Minor Seminary of Tilburg, asked to resign and went to Merauke in 1906. He moved to Boulder ill 1909, died in the internment Cimahi, 1945.
 
Brother G. Verhoeven, born in Gemert 1871, MSC 1901, went to Merauke in 1907 and died after a month there.
 
Brother J. Joosten, born in Deurne 1872, MSC 1898, went to Merauke 1907, worked there until 1922 and then to Boulder, where he was shot by the Japanese in 1942.
 
Brother G. Jeanson, born in Duisburg (Did.) 1874, MSC was in 1899, worked at Merauke from 1908-1911 and died in the internment Bojo, Ceiebes 1944.
 
Father J. van der Kooy, born in Rijswijk 1878, MSC was in 1899, ordained priest 1904. His first period ran from 1909-1915 Merauke, then he worked in Boulder until 1923. His second period in New Guinea lasted from 1923 until he died in 1953.
 
Father J. Viegen, born in Maastricht 1871, MSC 1892, ordained 1897, moved to Boulder, was Superior of the MSC until 1909, then came to Merauke, turned back to Kei 1915, moved to the Netherlands 1920, died there in 1936.
 
Father J. of Kolk, Wanroy born in 1879, MSC 1900, ordained priest 1908. He came to Merauke 1910, founded the station in 1915 and moved to Okaba Langgoer at Boulder, appointed Mission Superior. He went to Nederiand 1922, where he died in 1931.
 
Father P. Vertenten, born in Hamme Viaanderen (Beigie) 1884, MSC was in 1904, ordained priest 1909 and went to Merauke and joined Father Van de Kolk in Okaba. In 1915 he came in Merauke where he is the “Savior of the Kaja-kaya’s’ was (1921). He left in 1925 and was nominated for the Congo (Africa). He died in Wilrijk, Antwerp, in 1946.
 
Brother H. of Santvoort, born in Tilburg 1878, MSC was in 1902, came to Merauke in 1910, worked to Okaba (plantation) to 1915, from Merauke, he returned to the Netherlands and died in Tilburg in 1950.
 
It is these men that we were working in southern New Guinea. In order to understand their work is more useful to say about their person, their origin, the time from which they arose and their special religious formation.

With a single word to characterize it thus:

Nollen, the open shelf, filled with the idea of seifsupporting (cattle, gardens, plantation);
Braun, the frustrated, which ai soon be no more Papuans could see;
Brother Van Roessel, jack of all trades;
Hammers brother, the Builder;
Joosten brother, the gardener;
the brothers Oomen and Verhoeven, the first victims;
brother Jeanson, helper in all areas;
Cappers, wandering, narrator;
Van der Kooy, sick father;
Viegen, the ‘anthropologist’;
Van de Kolk, founder of Okaba;
Brother Van Santvoort, man of kopraproduktie;
Vertenten, the savior of Kajakaja’s,
Neijens, the first Prefect.

Allen – by Braun, Van der Kooy and after Jeanson – were Brabant and Limburg, with a Viaming: Vertenten. They worked and lived together, bijeengepiaatst by the monastic authorities, together in the distant solitude, together dedicated solely for one purpose: to bring the Faith to the ‘heathens’, working on their repentance and adhere to the necessary civilization … but laboring ais own personalities, different from talent, temperament and character.

What this means in everyday life hot knew is difficult to trace because they wrote only that they were generally in good health and were able to keep it pleasant in dealing with cobble together. So was the fact in the published ‘letters’, but lateral unpublished observations in letters to the government or our colleagues do also suspect that another more bearable sometimes very difficult must have been.

Father Henry Nollen left in 1891 to the Mission of Neu Pomerania in the former German New Guinea. Hence he came to Merauke in 1905. He arranges the first house, put a nursery and livestock on. When Oomen brother died, was working in his garden shed and not least, he writes:

The work on stapett. Brother Hammers can not do everything. Well help Paler Cappers and I was so good we can, but what the farm is concerned, which is now in the hands of three who does not know.

A month later he writes:

The farm life and the stable air do me good … When milking goats I have now received the manure kruien. I also mow al .. I visit my sheep, but now twice a week to every other day. My language remains so in arrears, but it will recover again. “

He leaves that to the Provincial Superior in Tilburg still hear and say there, that from that side came no word of consolation upon the death of brother Oomen. He attends wedding on foot and on horseback in the villages nearby, carefully studying the country and people, asks and obtains a camera, published in Anthropos.
But Van de Kolk says Nollen that extension does not dare to ask for things that others are interested also agreed to establish. Nollen complains that the shipments come from Tilburg not over, not according to demand and not well packed. He displays his “poverty” so violently that it will be explained later as lack of concern with the Prefect.
The ‘sufficient’ money, however, that he received from Kei, went on to the large-scale farming, against the wishes of the Prefect in which he had committed, however. From the Diary of Merauke that kept Nollen, and especially his letters, he emerges as a very pious man, who begs for prayers and sacrifices for the conversion of the people. Superior became (1910) and therefore transferred from Merauke to Langgoer, he soon returned to Boulder from Merauke to the establishment of a mission station “on the Bian River” to prepare.
When Father Neijens in 1915 resigned as Prefect and was asked, Nollen, wanted to nominate as a successor, he told himself not competent to consider. He believes not be able to “own body” level government officials to deal with, he knows no language. He assumes office as a ‘temporary’ period between the prospect that Rome was a Vicar Apostolic – a bishop – will appoint. During this period, Van de Kolk and become the ruler who was Nollen but a difficult man, short-tempered. In 1921, Nollen Merauke visiting once and this was a big disappointment for the founder, he then returns to his first mission, Neu Vorpommern, where he continues to run until 1951.

Father Philip Braun stayed only a year to Merauke: 1905-1906. He could not harden. Nollen wrote to the Provinciaai: “At Braun, I did not PEEI, which focuses little on the lazy,” Il est blasé. “‘But these Kei Braun was the administrator of the prefecture and it occurs in his letters to the Provincial know as a critical man who really dared tell where the shoe wrong.

Father Edward Cappers got a job after his ordination as assistant director of the Minor Seminary of Tilburg, asked to resign and went to Merauke in 1906. Nollen had looked to him to replace Braun. His many additional articles in the Annals and the Almanac witnesses of his frequent visits to the villages and a real can do with them what was going on. In Merauke himself was his door is always open for visits. He was after a year or three sick and went to the Kei eiianden.

Was short-lived stay of Oomen brother who died in 1906, brother of Verhoeven, died after a month of Merauke and Brother Van Roessel in 1906 moved to Boulder and died in Saumlaki, (Tanimbar).

Brother Hammers was the real brother of that time, prepared for every good work, self-conscious of his valuable contribution, but also full of admiration and reverence for the fathers. In the letter about his own work he says:

“It’s almost eleven o’clock … now able to cook and simmer everything, get some bread soaked in milk for a treat, for if the priests the whole morning in the blazing sun had run, they may act as extra.”

He built the new parish of Merauke and later church and home in Okaba and went on leave to the Netherlands.

Brother Joosten. We hear very little about him, he kept faith with the market garden until 1922. After his leave, he worked at Boulder and was Msgr. Aerts and companions shot by the Japanese.

Together with his brother stayed. Jeanson Merauke.

Two figures came back very own in 1909 to Merauke: Father J. Father Jos van der Kooy and Viegen.

Father Van der Kooy. This quiet man draws himself best in a letter to the Provincial in 1912:

About conversion work I can say very little. Ais we occasionally a soul in heaven rockers, we are at biij; regular Christian communities there is still no. There are two churches under construction, one for and one for Wendoe Jobar. I honor that church full of believers Jobar see will I lien law a year or older. The courage we lose fuel, we all know that first, especially of a mission is difficult and the Lord expects earnings not to success. 1k pray Lord for you. Reciprocally I also ask your prayers that God give me courage and strength to much for him werken.5

Jos Viegen worked during his years in Merauke (1909-1915) and to Jobar Wendoe. He showed a special interest in the life of the Marind.

Jan van de Kolk. In the archives of the MSC in Tilburg is a letter from the chaplain from Wanroy, the birthplace of Van de Kolk. The chaplain writes:

The undersigned certifies that he Josephus of John Kolk over five years, and acolyte had known that it always has been blameless in his moral and religious behavior ‘and the other children in modesty and piety has always excelled. His tendency to missionary life are truly profound piety and virtue and also are more than just construction to the study, give me confidence that by the good God to missionary was created.

During his final year of study in theology, he shows himself extremely modest and willing to do anything to his government that he would like to hear New Guinea would be appointed. From there already was a letter from Paler Nollen come asking for a ‘wise man’ and then all the name of Van de Kolk calls.

Cappers wrote to Van de Kolk a warning letter:

When you come, welcome hear!
But make it clear that you yourself first is not to much to baptize. The longer I am here, the more I see how deep, unfathomably deep, the people here have fallen men and women, their life is a series of unnatural immorality. Disgusting.

In Batavia on his way to Boulder, he hears his appointment to Merauke. After a journey of two fifty days he arrives there. His first impression:

Altogether it struck me so bad. The “City” has been seen at all in ten minutes. Fathers and brothers look healthy with huge beards. The livestock: a stallion, a mare and three young stallions, three dogs, two Dutch cows, a firm bull, two buffaloes, three calves, thirty chickens, twenty ducks.
The area is surrounded with barbed wire.
There are coconuts, plantains, vegetable garden is a part. Brother Joosten sells cabbage, milk, eggs.
The life suits me prime, but one must not dirty, frightened and not impatient. The days are all equal to each other. At five o’clock on: morning prayer, meditation, Mass, breakfast and then on horseback to ± three hours. After dinner, afternoon nap. On 8 December we even had a high mass. Hammers brother and I have sung without a book. He would love to have songs like ‘Gebenedijd Thee … “. Paler Nollen and brother Hammers would like to hear about it steered the museum. They speak very disparagingly about Tilburg. Brother Hammers says: ‘1 k damned if jets are sending. “” He has a lot of effort and thank you ever had or even heard of the stuff arrived. And this I ate more experienced: the missionaries are very sensitive and short-tempered. That seems to work climate. “

He leaves for Okaba. Merauke was founded as a government post in 1902 as a mission station in 1905. Van de Kolk writes after ten years, in 1912, a brief historical overview on the work of Directors and Mission. He concludes his story as follows:

Thus there could be during the first years of a regular mission work is little question, nor indeed the unfamiliarity with the difficult language, the distrustful and fearful attitude of the savages, their attachment to their own use and much more, made these first years to a major mission life without much consolation. But they persisted, by nursing the sick and the linking of wounds they soon won the hearts of the benevolent Marindinees, so much so that the missionary simply “the good man was called. But one will never be able to describe how much sacrifice, dedication, patience, patience, self-conquest and fatigue that repentance is the fruit. It is the pioneering work that knows no satisfaction unless: later other missionaries will come that will make a start with the sow and reap. “

Typical of his time that he found solace in the fact that the Shipment – fifty years earlier to work – even less results already achieved. He writes:

Can I make a little comparison? On the other side of New Guinea, in the north, half a century honor than the south came into contact with civilization was already in 1855 a Protestant mission was founded. Ds. Van Hasselt wrote on the silver celebration of the Shipment, “On the list of the baptisms of 5 Febr. 1855 to 5 Feb. 1880 are only twenty names. “Then we need not complain, and may our Lord thanks that after five years been a much more favorable results achieved and that we in the silver celebration of the Catholic Mission in Southern New Guinea most likely a satisfactory and success will definitely have to write. But there must be prayers and suffering for the poor heathen souls of South New Guinea.

In 1913, the Board acted vigorously against headhunting in 1914 against the hunting paradise. The First World War broke out. In 1915 moved to Van de Kolk Langgoer, appointed Mission Superior.

Father Vertenten went to Merauke and from there to Okaba in 1911. As ‘The Saviour of the Kajakaja’s’ is known (see below) as “colleague” he turns his optimism and his sociability the inspiring figure to have been in the small communauteitjes. He works, writes, draws, keeps out the conflict with the government and fight for the preservation of life of the Papuans for their salvation. He signs himself the best in his letter (1912) to the Provincial:

In February it was already a year since I arrived in Okaba. I have since the Capital (!) Merauke, not seen … Why a lot of walking home when the home is so good?
We have a small but very cozy local community. I am therefore the longer the better here. Certainly we miss here provisionally the consolation that other, more advanced missions, but we should not consider the first happy to be here who proclaim God’s name?! The conversion of such yolk takes time, but our forefathers were also hundreds of years before they were presentable Christians, who were not much better, probably worse than these people here. In any case the prospect that once again this nation will honor God and love that encourages us.
We have a small farm. From our banana gardens we have lots of fun. The store’s Kajakaja there hands in each other: we are even real people, they say. Our health leaves nothing to be desired, I have before me I never felt fresher and hotter. Here also we may our Lord bedariken law. “

Van de Kolk became Superior in 1915, writes about him in that year the annual report:

Vertenten: the missionary zeal that is perhaps the best preserved and healthy optimism despite everything! A jewel of a fellow that nobody can be better witnesses than me. Is happy to Neijens Father (now Merauke), will do its best of New Guinea still to what is possible. “

After his successful trip to Batavia in 1921 to write Vertenten Viegen:

I’ve been to Java, you know al .. We should thank our Lord law; work on New Guinea was too good in the cross planted to fail. Therefore we have always kept in good spirits with God’s grace. “

And over this entire group was Father Matthias Neijens, the first Apostotische Prefect. Geurtjens Father, with whom he had left the Motukken, draws him as follows:

That Father M. Neijens a man of stature was everyone had to admit who knew him. Of medium stature, but solidly built, he betrayed his movements and gestures that a substantial body resolute soul lived. That resolute willpower was always one of his most distinctive features. What he undertook he did thoroughly and properly and then there were no difficulties deter him capable. Thus he has great things in the mission accomplished and the most painful ordeal that he knew was that grim circumstances often unbridled zest taming. In particular, he felt need to tocb in a different way to blow off steam, and are not to take out work drive cures. Then he grabbed a sledgehammer and pounded hard rifstenen, who set up one or another building stood in the way. Dan was not too hot tropical sun. If a Titan he swung the sledgehammer, which neerbonkte hard rock heads that the pieces all around him snorden and the sweat gushed from the body. Stared with amazement the natives to Tuan, Tuan so strange for a moment and did ats posed powerhouse. “

Neijens was the founder of the Mission in Dutch South New Guinea, at the request of Mr. Kroesen, 1904. Although he was offered police escort, he went alone to visit from Merauke to the Papuans in their villages.

Witty is the piece that Vertenten writes about his dealings with Fr Neijens to Merauke:

Father Neijens was a highly educated and literate man, well aware of religion and science, art and literature. He was also a fascinating conversationalist. If he lets interesting read bad, he could also be lively about it. For a time he spoke a lot about ancient history: Egypt, Assyria etc. Now Neijens father had an extraordinary memory and I was wondering: how can all remember that guy? During his absence I accidentally put his hand on the source of his conversations lately: Histoire ancienne. And when he came back, I started telling him from the old days and now of course knew more than he. A twinkle in his eyes told me, you rascal!

 

 

.
 

 

DE PIONEERS IN DE EERSTE DAGEN.
In de eerste jaren van de missiepost in Merauke zijn er vele missionarissen geweest. Hierbij een overzicht, waarvan velen hun leven voortijdig verlieten bij het werk dat ze deden.

  • Pater M. Neijens, geboren te Heel (Limburg) 1868, werd MSC in 1887, promoveerde te Rome in de theologie, werd daar priester gewijd 1896, doceerde aan het Groot-Seminarie MSC te Antwerpen en Leuven, werd benoemd tot Prefect van de Apostolische Prefectuur van Nederlands Nieuw-Guinea in 1903. Hij vertrok naar de Molukken te zamen met pater H. Geurtjens en stichtte de Missie op Nieuw-Guinea in 1905, kwam daar op bezoek in 1906, 1909 en 1914. Als Prefect kwam hij in conflict met het Provinciaal Bestuur van de MSC in Nederland. Hij trad af als Prefect in 1915, werkte nog tot 1921 in Merauke en daama op de Kei-eilanden, waar hij stierf in 1941.
     
  • Pater H. Nollen, geboren te ‘s-Hertogenbosch 1870, werd MSC in 1891, priester gewijd in 1897, vertrok naar Neu Pommeren (toenmalig Duits Nieuw-Guinea) in 1897 en kwam vandaar naar Merauke 1905. Hij werd Overste van de MSC te Langgoer (Kei) 1910, volgde pater Neijens op als Prefect 1915 en keerde na de benoeming van mgr. J. Aerts MSC tot Vicaris van het Vicariaat Nederlands Nieuw-Guinea naar Neu Pommeren terug. Daar werkte hij tot 1951. Hij stierf te Sydney, Australië, 1951.
     
  • Pater Ph. Braun, geboren te Beverwijk 1872, werd MSC in 1892, priester gewijd 1897 en verlrok naar Neu Pommeren. Vandaar kwam hij naar Merauke in 1905 en werd na één jaar overgeplaatst naar Kei. Hij verliet later Kei en heeft als MSC-priester in Amerika gewerkt, waar hij stierf in 1916.
     
  • Broeder D. van Roessel, geboren te Tilburg 1860, werd MSC in 1889, vertrok naar Merauke 1905, werd overgeplaatst naar Kei 1906 en overleed te Saumlaki (Tanirnbar), 1930.
     
  • Broeder M. Oomen, geboren te Hoeven 1869, werd MSC in 1897, kwam naar Merauke 1905, overleed daar 1906.
     
  • Broeder N. Hamers, geboren te Tilburg 1872, werd MSC in 1896, vertrok naar Neu Pommeren en kwam naar Merauke in 1906, ging op verlof naar Nederland, waar hij stierf in 1913.
     
  • Pater E. Cappers, geboren te Geldrop 1877, werd MSC in 1897, priester gewijd 1904, kreeg de taak van onderdirecteur van het Klein-Seminarie te Tilburg, vroeg zelf ontslag en vertrok naar Merauke in 1906. Hij vertrok ziek naar Kei 1909, stierf in het interneringskamp Cimahi, 1945.
     
  • Broeder G. Verhoeven, geboren te Gemert 1871, werd MSC in 1901, vertrok naar Merauke in 1907 en stierf na een maand aldaar.
     
  • Broeder J. Joosten, geboren te Deurne 1872, werd MSC in 1898, vertrok naar Merauke 1907, werkte daar tot 1922 en daarna op Kei, waar hij door de Japanners werd doodgeschoten in 1942.
     
  • Broeder G. Jeanson, geboren te Duisburg (Did.) 1874, werd MSC in 1899, werkte te Merauke van 1908-1911 en stierf in het interneringskamp Bojo, Ceiebes 1944.
     
  • Pater J. van der Kooy, geboren te Rijswijk 1878, werd MSC in 1899, priester gewijd 1904. Zijn eerste periode te Merauke liep van 1909-1915, daarna werkte hij op Kei tot 1923. Zijn tweede periode op Nieuw-Guinea duurde van 1923 tot hij daar stierf in 1953.
     
  • Pater J. Viegen, geboren te Maastricht 1871, werd MSC in 1892, priester gewijd 1897, vertrok naar Kei, was er Overste van de MSC tot 1909, kwam toen naar Merauke, keerde naar Kei terug 1915, vertrok naar Nederland 1920, stierf daar in 1936.
     
  • Pater J. van de Kolk, geboren te Wanroy 1879, werd MSC in 1900, priester gewijd 1908. Hij kwam naar Merauke 1910, stichtte de statie Okaba en verhuisde in 1915 naar Langgoer op Kei, benoemd als Missie-Overste. Hij vertrok naar Nederiand 1922, waar hij stierf in 1931.
     
  • Pater P. Vertenten, geboren te Hamme in Viaanderen (Beigie) 1884, werd MSC in 1904, priester gewijd 1909 en vertrok naar Merauke en voegde zich bij pater Van de Kolk in Okaba. In 1915 kwam hij weer in Merauke waar hij de ‘Redder van de Kaja-kaja’s’ werd (1921). Hij vertrok in 1925 en werd benoemd voor de Kongo (Afrika). Hij stierf te Wilrijk, Antwerpen, in 1946.
     
  • Broeder H. van Santvoort, geboren te Tilburg 1878, werd MSC in 1902, kwam in 1910 naar Merauke, werkte te Okaba (plantage) tot 1915, vanuit Merauke keerde hij naar Nederland terug en stierf te Tilburg in 1950.
     

Het zijn deze mannen die wij aan het werk waren in Zuid-Nieuw-Guinea. Om hun werk te begrijpen is het nuttig meer te zeggen over hun persoon, over hun afkomst, over de tijd waaruit zij voortkwamen en over hun speciale religieuze vorming.

Met een enkel woord zijn zij aldus te karakteriseren:

Nollen, de openlegger, vervuld van de idee van seifsupporting (vee, tuinen, plantage);
Braun, de gefrustreerde, die ai spoedig geen Papoea meer kon zien;
broeder Van Roessel, manusje van alles;
broeder Hamers, de bouwheer;
broeder Joosten, de tuinman;
de broeders Oomen en Verhoeven, de eerste slachtoffers;
broeder Jeanson, helper op alle gebied;
Cappers, rondtrekkend, verteller;
Van der Kooy, ziekenvader;
Viegen, de ‘antropoloog’;
Van de Kolk, stichter van Okaba;
broeder Van Santvoort, man van de kopraproduktie;
Vertenten, de redder van de Kajakaja’s,
Neijens, de eerste Prefect.

Allen — op Braun, Van der Kooy en Jeanson na — waren Brabanders en Limburgers, met één Viaming: Vertenten. Zij werkten en leefden te zamen, bijeengepiaatst door de kloosteroverheid, samen in de verre eenzaamheid, samen zich inzettend voor het ene doel: het Geloof te brengen aan de ‘heidenen’, werkend aan hun bekering en aan de daarvoor nodige beschaving… maar wel arbeidend ais eigen persoonlijkheden, verschillend van talent, temperament en karakter.

Wat dit in het dagelijkse leven hetekende is moeilijk te achterhalen, want zij schreven alleen dat zij meestal goed gezond waren en het prettig wisten te houden in de omgang met eIkaar. Zo stond het namelijk in de gepubliceerde ‘brieven’, maar zijdelingse opmerkingen in niet gepubliceerde brieven aan de Overheid of confraters doen ons evenzeer vermoeden dat elkander steeds te verdragen ook wel eens heel moeilijk geweest moet zijn.

Pater Henricus Nollen vertrok in 1891 naar de Missie van Neu Pommeren in het toenmalige Duitse Nieuw-Guinea. Vandaar kwam hij naar Merauke in 1905. Hij regelt het eerste huis, zet een tuinderij en een veehouderij op. Toen broeder Oomen stierf, was het werken in tuin en stal hem niet te min. Hij schrijft:

Het werk stapett zich op. Broeder Hamers kan niet alles doen. Wel helpen paler Cappers en ik zo goed we kunnen, maar wat de boerderij aangaat, die komt nu in handen van drie die er niets van kennen.

Een maand later schrijft hij:

Het boerenleven en de stallucht doen me goed… Bij het geiten melken heb ik nu ook het mestkruien gekregen. Maaien doe ik ook al… Ik bezoek mijn schaapjes nu maar twee maal per week tegen anders iedere dag. Mijn taalkennis blijft zo ten achteren, maar dat zal ook weer bijkomen.’

Hij laat dat aan de Provinciale Overste in Tilburg wel horen en zegt erbij, dat er van die kant geen woord van troost was gekomen bij het overlijden van broeder Oomen. Hij bezoekt trouw te voet en te paard de dorpen in de nabijheid, bestudeert nauwkeurig land en volk, vraagt en verkrijgt een fototoestel, publiceert in Anthropos.
Maar Van de Kolk vertelt Nollen dat toestel niet te durven vragen om zaken die anderen interesseren ook eens te kunnen vastleggen. Nollen klaagt dat de zendingen uit Tilburg niet goed over komen, niet volgens de vraag en niet goed verpakt. Hij etaleert zijn ‘armoede’ zo hevig, dat dit later uitgelegd wordt als gebrek aan zorg bij de Prefect.
Het ‘voldoende’ geld echter, dat hij van Kei ontving, ging op aan de te groots opgezette veehouderij, tegen de wil van de Prefect in, die hem echter liet begaan. Uit het Dagboek van Merauke dat Nollen bijhield, en vooral ook uit zijn brieven, komt hij naar voren als een zeer vroom man, die smeekt om gebed en offers voor de bekering van de mensen. Overste geworden (1910) en daarom overgeplaatst van Merauke naar Langgoer, komt hij spoedig van Kei terug naar Merauke om de vestiging van een missiestatie “over de Bianrivier” voor te bereiden.
Toen pater Neijens in 1915 aftrad als Prefect en men hem, Nollen, wilde voordragen als de opvolger, liet hij horen zich niet bekwaam te achten. Hij meent niet in staat te zijn op ‘ambtenlijk’ niveau met regeringsfunctionarissen te kunnen omgaan, hij kent geen talen. Hij aanvaardt het ambt als ‘tijdelijke’ tussenperiode in het vooruitzicht dat Rome wel een Apostolische Vicaris — een bisschop — zal gaan benoemen. In die periode was Van de Kolk de Overste geworden en die vond Nollen maar een moeilijk mens, kort aangebonden. In 1921 bezoekt Nollen Merauke nog éénmaal en dit was een grote teleurstelling voor deze stichter; hij keert dan naar zijn eerste Missie, Neu Pommeren, terug, waar hij blijft werken tot 1951.

Pater Philippus Braun verbleef maar één jaar te Merauke: 1905-1906. Hij kon het er niet harden. Nollen schreef aan de Provinciaai: ‘Aan Braun heb ik niet veei, die houdt zich weinig met de lui op; “Il est blasé”.’ Maar deze Braun werd op Kei de administrator van de prefectuur en doet zich dan in zijn brieven aan de Provinciaal kennen als een kritisch man, die echt wel, durfde zeggen waar de schoen wrong.

Pater Eduard Cappers kreeg na zijn priesterwijding een taak als onderdirecteur van het Klein-Seminarie te Tilburg, vroeg zelf ontslag en vertrok naar Merauke in 1906. Nollen had naar hem uitgekeken om Braun te vervangen. Zijn vele artikeltjes in de Annalen en de Almanak getuigen van zijn veelvuldig bezoek aan de dorpen en van een echt mee kunnen doen met wat er gaande was. Ook in Merauke zelf stond zijn deur altijd open voor bezoek. Hij werd na een jaar of drie ziek en vertrok naar de Kei-eiianden.

Van korte duur was het verblijf van broeder Oomen die in 1906 overleed, van broeder Verhoeven, gestorven na een maand te Merauke en van broeder Van Roessel die in 1906 naar Kei vertrok en overleed te Saumlaki, (Tanimbar).

Broeder Hamers was de echte broeder van die tijd, tot elk goed werk bereid, zichzelf wel bewust van zijn waardevolle bijdrage, maar tegelijk vol bewondering en eerbied voor de paters. In de brief over zijn eigen werk zegt hij:

“Het is bijna elf uur… nu staat alles te koken en te pruttelen, gauw wat brood in melk geweekt voor een koekje, want als de paters de ganse morgen in de brandende zon gelopen hebben, mogen zij wet wat extra’s hebben.”

Hij bouwde de nieuwe pastorie van Merauke en later kerk en huis in Okaba en ging  op verlof naar Nederland.

Broeder Joosten. Wij horen heel weinig over hem; hij verzorgde trouw de tuinderij tot 1922. Na zijn verlof werkte hij op Kei en werd met mgr. Aerts en gezellen doodgeschoten door de Japanners.

Te zamen met hem verbleef broeder .Jeanson te Merauke.

Twee weer heel eigen figuren kwamen in 1909 naar Merauke: pater J. van der Kooy en pater Jos Viegen.

Pater Van der Kooy. Deze stille man tekent zichzelf het beste in een brief aan de Provinciaal in 1912:

Over ons bekeringswerk kan ik weinig zeggen. Ais we zo nu en dan een zieltje in de hemel wippen mogen we at biij zijn; van geregelde christengemeenten is nog geen sprake. Ook zijn twee kerkjes in aanbouw, een voor Wendoe en een voor Jobar. Eer dat ik dat kerkje van Jobar vol gelovigen zal zien, zal ik wet een jaar of lien ouder zijn. De moed verliezen we fuel; we weten dat alle begin, vooral van een missie, moeilijk is en Onze Lieve Heer rekent de verdiensten niet naar het succes. 1k bid Onze Lieve Heer voor u. Wederkerig vraag ik ook uw gebed opdat God mij moed en sterkte geve om veel voor Hem te werken.5

Jos Viegen werkte tijdens zijn jaren te Merauke (1909-1915) te Jobar en Wendoe. Hij toonde een heel bijzondere belangstelling voor de levensbeschouwing van de Marind.

Jan van de Kolk. In het Archief van de MSC in Tilburg ligt een brief van de kapelaan uit Wanroy, de geboorteplaats van Van de Kolk. De kapelaan schrijft:

De ondergetekende verklaart dat hij Johannes Josephus van de Kolk ruim vijf jaren heeft gekend en tot misdienaar heeft gehad, dat deze steeds onberispelijk is geweest in zijn zedelijk en godsdienstig gedrag en onder de overige kinderen in ingetogenheid en godsvrucht steeds heeft uitgemunt. Zijn neiging tot het missionarisleven, zijn werkelijk innige godsvrucht en deugd en tevens zijn meer dan gewone aanleg tot de studie, geven mij het vertrouwen dat hij door de goede God tot het missionarisleven is geroepen.

Tijdens zijn laatste studiejaar in de theologie laat hij zelf, uiterst bescheiden en tot alles bereid, aan zijn overheid horen dat hij graag voor Nieuw-Guinea benoemd zou worden. Van daar was reeds een brief van paler Nollen gekomen die vraagt om een ‘verstandig man’ en dan al de naam van Van de Kolk noemt.

Cappers schreef aan Van de Kolk een waarschuwende brief:

Als je komt, welkom hoor!
Doch maak het uzelf voorop duidelijk dat ge niet komt om er veel te dopen. Hoe langer ik hier ben, hoe meer ik zie hoe diep, onpeilbaar diep, de mensen hier gevallen zijn, mannen en vrouwen; hun leven is een aaneenschakeling van onnatuurlijke onzedelijkheid. Walgelijk.

In Batavia op doorreis naar Kei, hoort hij zijn benoeming voor Merauke. Na een reis van tweeenvijftig dagen arriveert hij daar. Zijn eerste indruk:

Alles te zamen viel het me erg mee. De “Stad” heeft men in tien minuten helemaal gezien. Paters en broeders zien er gezond uit met kolossale baarden. De veestapel: een hengst, een merrie en drie jonge hengsten, drie honden, twee Hollandse koeien, een ferme stier, twee karbouwen, drie kalveren, dertig kippen, twintig eenden.
Het terrein is omringd met prikkeldraad.
Er staan klappers, pisangs, een deel is moestuin. Broeder Joosten verkoopt kool, melk, eieren.
Het leventje bevalt me puik, maar men moet hier niet vies, bang en niet ongeduldig zijn. De dagen zijn hier alle aan elkaar gelijk. Om vijf uur op: morgengebed, meditatie, Mis, ontbijt en dan te paard tot ± drie uur. Daarna diner, middagdutje. Op 8 December hebben we zelfs Hoogmis gehad. Broeder Hamers en ik hebben gezongen zonder boek. Hij zou dolgraag de liedjes hebben zoals ‘Gebenedijd zijt Gij…’. Paler Nollen en broeder Hamers zouden graag eens iets horen over het gestuurde voor het museum. Zij spreken zeer ontmoedigend over Tilburg. Broeder Hamers zegt: ‘1k verdom het nog jets te sturen.’ ‘Hij heeft er veel moeite voor gedaan en nooit een dankje gekregen of zelfs niet vernomen dat de spullen aangekomen waren. En dit heb Ik at meer ondervonden: de missionarissen zijn zeer gevoelig en kort aangebonden. Dat schijnt het klimaat te bewerken.’

Hij vertrekt naar Okaba. Merauke werd gesticht als bestuurspost in 1902 en als missiepost in 1905. Van de Kolk schrijft na tien jaren, in 1912, een kort geschiedkundig overzicht over het werk van Bestuur en Missie. Hij besluit zijn verhaal als volgt:

Zodoende kon er gedurende de eerste jaren van een geregeld missiewerk nog weinig sprake zijn; trouwens de onbekendheid met de moeilijke taal, de wantrouwende en vreesachtige houding van de wilden, hun gehechtheid aan eigen gebruiken en zoveel meer, maakten deze eerste jaren tot een zwaar missieleven zonder veel troost. Maar men hield stand; door het verplegen van de zieken en het verbinden van wonden won men spoedig het goedige hart van de Marindinees, zozeer zelfs dat de missionaris gewoon ‘de goede man’ werd genoemd. Maar men zal nooit kunnen beschrijven van hoeveel opoffering, toewijding, geduld, lijdzaamheid, zelfoverwinning en vermoeienis die bekering de vrucht is. Het is het pionierswerk dat geen voldoening kent tenzij deze: later zullen andere missionarissen komen die een begin zullen kunnen maken met het zaaien en maaien.”

Typerend voor zijn tijd is dat hij troost vindt in het feit dat de Zending — al vijftig jaar eerder aan het werk — nog minder resultaat heeft geboekt. Hij schrijft:

Mag ik hier een kleine vergelijking maken? Aan de andere kant van NieuwGuinea, in het noorden, dat een halve eeuw eer dan het zuiden in aanraking kwam met de beschaving, werd reeds in 1855 een Protestantse missiepost gesticht. Ds. Van Hasselt schreef op het zilveren feest van die Zending: “Op de lijst van de dopelingen van 5 Febr. 1855 tot 5 Febr. 1880 komen slechts twintig namen voor.” Dan behoeven wij zeker niet te klagen en kunnen O.L. Heer danken dat we na vijf jaren reeds een veel gunstiger uitslag bereikten en dat we bij het zilveren feest van de Katholieke Missie op Zuid-Nieuw-Guinea allerwaarschijnlijkst een bevredigend en degelijk succes zullen te noteren hebben. Maar dan moet er gebeden en geleden worden voor de arme heidense zielen van ZuidNieuw-Guinea.

In 1913 trad het Bestuur krachtdadig op tegen het koppensnellen; in 1914 tegen de paradijsvogeljacht. De Eerste Wereldoorlog brak uit. In 1915 verhuisde Van de Kolk naar Langgoer, benoemd als Missie-Overste.

Pater Vertenten vertrok naar Merauke en van daar naar Okaba in 1911. Als ‘De Redder van de Kajakaja’s’ wordt bekend (zie verderop); als ‘confrater’ blijkt hij door zijn optimisme en zijn gezelligheid de bezielende figuur te zijn geweest in de kleine communauteitjes. Hij werkt, schrijft, tekent, houdt zich buiten het conflict met de Overheid en vecht voor het lijfsbehoud van de Papoea’ s omwille van hun heil. Hij tekent zichzelf het beste in zijn brief (1912) aan de Provinciaal:

In Februari was het reeds een jaar geleden dat ik in Okaba arriveerde. Ik heb sinds de Hoofdstad (!) Merauke, niet gezien… Waarom ook veel van huis lopen als het tehuis zo goed is?
Wij hebben hier een kleine, doch zeer gezellige communauteit. Ik ben dan ook hoe langer hoe liever hier. Zeker missen wij hier voorlopig de troost die andere, meer gevorderde missieposten geven, maar mogen wij ons niet gelukkig achten de eersten te zijn die hier Gods naam verkondigen?! De bekering van zulk een yolk vraagt veel tijd, maar onze voorvaderen deden er ook honderden jaren over eer zij presentabele christenen waren, die waren al niet veel beter, allicht slechter dan deze mensen hier. In alle geval het vooruitzicht dat eenmaal ook dit volk God eren en beminnen zal, dat bemoedigt ons.
Wij hebben hier een kleine boerderij. Van onze bananentuinen hebben wij veel plezier. De Kajakaja’s slaan er de handen voor in elkaar: wij zijn nog eens echte mensen, zeggen ze. Onze gezondheid laat niets te wensen over, Ik voor mij heb mij nooit frisser en heter gevoeld. Daar ook mogen wij O.L. Heer wet voor bedariken.’

Van de Kolk, Overste geworden in 1915, schrijft dat jaar over hem in het jaarrapport:

Vertenten: de missionaris die misschien het beste zijn ijver en gezond optimisme bewaard heeft ondanks alles! Een juweel van een Confrater, dat kan niemand beter getuigen dan ik. Is graag bij pater Neijens (nu te Merauke), zal zijn best doen om van Nieuw-Guinea nog te maken wat mogelijk is.’

Na zijn geslaagde reis naar Batavia in 1921 schrijft Vertenten aan Viegen:

Dat ik naar Java geweest ben, weet u al… Wij mogen O.L. Heer wet danken; het werk op Nieuw-Guinea was te goed in het kruis geplant om failliet te gaan. We hebben dan ook steeds met Gods genade goede moed gehouden.’

En boven deze hele groep stond pater Matthias Neijens, de eerste Apostotische Prefect. Pater Geurtjens, met wie hij naar de Motukken was vertrokken, tekent hem als volgt:

Dat pater dr. M. Neijens een man van formaat was zat iedereen toegeven die hem gekend heeft. Middelmatig van postuur, doch stevig gebouwd, verried hij in al zijn bewegingen en gebaren dat in dat lichaam een forse resolute ziel huisde. Die resolute wilskracht was steeds een zijner meest kenmerkende eigenschappen. Wat hij ondernam deed hij degelijk en grondig en dan waren geen moeilijkheden in staat hem af te schrikken. Daardoor heeft hij ook in de missie grote dingen tot stand gebracht en de pijnlijkste beproeving die hij kende was wel dat onverbiddelijke omstandigheden vaak zijn ongebreidelde werklust temden. Dan vooral gevoelde hij behoefte om tocb op een andere wijze stoom af te blazen en zijn niet in te houden werklust uit te kuren. Dan greep hij een zware voorhamer en beukte op de harde rifstenen, die het opzetten van een of ander gebouw in de weg stonden. Dan was geen tropenzon te heet. Als een Titaan zwaaide hij de moker, die neerbonkte op de harde rotskoppen dat de brokken in het rond snorden en hem het zweet van het lichaam gutste. Met stomme verbazing staarden dan de inlanders naar de toean, die voor een toean zo vreemd deed en even poseerde ats krachtpatser.’

Neijens werd de stichter van de Missie op Nederlands Zuid-Nieuw-Guinea, op verzoek van de heer Kroesen, 1904. Ofschoon hem politie-escorte werd aangeboden, ging hij alleen Merauke uit om op bezoek te gaan bij de Papoea’s in hun dorpen.

Geestig is het stukje dat Vertenten schrijft over zijn omgang met pater Neijens te Merauke:

Pater Neijens was een zeer ontwikkeld en belezen man, goed op de hoogte van godsdienst en wetenschap, kunst en letteren. Hij was bovendien een boeiend causeur. Als hij lets interessants gelezen bad, kon hij daar ook levendig over vertellen. Een tijd lang sprak hij veel over oude geschiedenis: Egypte, Assyrie enz. Nu had pater Neijens een buitengewoon geheugen en ik vroeg me verwonderd af: hoe kan die man dat allemaal onthouden? Tijdens zijn afwezigheid legde Ik toevallig de hand op de bron van zijn gesprekken uit de laatste tijd: Histoire ancienne. En toen hij terugkwam, begon ik hem te vertellen uit de oude tijd en wist er nu natuurlijk meer van dan hij. Een tinteling in zijn ogen zei me: jij deugniet!
 


Pionier bij de Marind-anim: Pater Petrus Vertenten

Op 3 oktober 1884 werd Petrus Vertenten geboren in Hamme, België. Na een eerste kennismaking met de Missionarissen van het Heilige Hart in 1898 in Borgerhout begon hij in de vijfde Latijnse. In zijn lectuur van de Annalen werd hij vooral geboeid door de verhalen van de Melseelse MSC’er Victor de Rijcke over Nieuw Guinea.

Dc studieuitslagen waren uitstekend. Petrus werd in Borgerhout lid van de Maria-Congregatie en was tijdens de vakantie te Hamme ook aktief in de Hamse studentenbond. Naast de gewone vorming was er ook ruim tijd en aandacht voor de kunstzinnige ontplooiing. Petrus werd secretaris van de toneel- en feestacademie “In Liefde Bloeyende” tijdens zijn vijfde en zesde studiejaar. Op het einde van zijn humaniora, in 1902-1903, maakten de leerlingen het vertrek mee van de paters Neijens en Geurtjens naar Nederlands Nieuw-Guinea, pas toegewezen gebied aan de msc.

In september 1903 startte Petrus Vertenten zijn noviciaat in Arnhem, wat op 4 oktober 1904 uitmondde in het uitspreken van zijn kloostergeloften. Als nieuwbakken Missionaris van het Heilig Hart startte de kloosterling Vertenten aan zijn filosofiestudie, onderbroken door teken- en schilderles van kunstschilder-academieleraar Bernard Janssen. In 1906 volgde dan de theologie. Nadat dit eerste jaar te Arnhem afgewerkt was geworden volgde er een korte vakantie te Hamme, waarna de theologie voortgezet werd te Leuven. Daar legde Petrus Vertenten op 4 oktober 1907 zijn eeuwige geloften af. Alhoewel hun opleiding niet aan de universiteit werd gegeven, waren er toch contacten met de studenten en dit leidde tot een lidmaatschap van de letterkundige club “Met Tijd en Vlijt”, waar Vertenten o.a. August Van Cauwelaert leerde kennen. In het tijdschrift van de Scholastieken werden de eerste bijdragen van Petrus Vertenten gepubliceerd, terwijl hij ook als illustrator optrad. De apostolische carrière wenkte ondertussen langzaam. Op 21 december 1907 ontving Petrus te Mechelen de kruinschering en de kleine wijdingen. Tijdens de verdere theologiestudie werd hij in december 1908 subdiaken gewijd, zes maand later tot diaken, wat uiteindelijk culmineerde op 21 december 1909 in de priesterwijding. Einde juli 1910 was de theologiestudie afgerond en wachtte Petrus Vertentcn op het antwoord van de provinciaal op zijn half jaar eerder gedane aanvraag voor de missie.

 

Petrus Vertenten werd door zijn provinciaal overste in juli 1910 benoemd om naar Nederlands Nieuw-Guinea te gaan. Na nog een korte vakantie te Hamme werd alles reisklaar gemaakt en op 15 september vertrokken vanuit het MSC-missiehuis te Tilburg vijf paters naar Nederlands Nieuw-Guinea. De reis ging over Leuven. Ass (via het nieuwe missieseminarie), Parijs naar Marseille, waar men scheep ginq met Ophir. Via het Suez-kanaal en Sri Lanka werd uiteindelijk Batavia bereikt. Na een rustpauze en een eerste de visu kennismaking met de typische plantengroei ging de groep missionarissen verder tot Soerabaja, waar men van boot wisselt. Via Ambon geraakt men in- Toeal, op de Kei-eilanden. Veel tijd om te vertoeven op het centrum van het aposto1ischi vicariaat van Nederlands Nieuw Guinea krijgt Petrus Vertenten die l0de november: 1910 niet, want om vier uur diende hij alleen verder te varen naar Nieuw-Guinea. Op 13 november 1910 stapte hij te Merauke, bij de Marorivier, aan land. Aangezien de accommodatie te Okaba, waar pater Van de Kolk en Broeder Hamers sinds augustus aan het werk waren, nog niet voltooid was, zou Vertenten te Merauke eerst de taal aanleren en de omgeving verkennen met zijn aanwezige confraters. Zijn eerste impressies aan het thuisfront na drie weken in Merauke:

“1k maak het nog steeds uitstekend. Dat kan ook moeilijk anders. 1k geloof niet dat ik ooit in mijn leven zooveel melk en pap gegeten heb als hier. Wij hebben hier koeien, verschillende en schoone ook… Ondertusschen leer ik de taal, schrijf de grammaire en de woordenboeken over ga met de Paters naar de dorpen van de wilden, soms voor twee of meer dagen, leg ‘s avonds sorns een visite af in de stad, iets wat elk nieuwaangekomen pastoor doen moet….. … en wat doe ik nog meer? rooken, brieven schrijven en hazen vangen” en muskieten wegslaan. Laatst ben ik met Pater Viegen naar Wendoe geweest, aan den anderen kant der Meraukerivier gelegen. Zoo wat twee en een half uur van hier. Van Wandoe uit gingen wij naar Koembe een dorp gelegen aan de rivier van denzelf den naam, ik heb daarover geschreven aan de studenten van het Klein-Liefdewerk. Misschien komt dat wel in de annalen.

Als ik met Pater van der Kooy meéga naar de dorpen aan dezen kant van de Meraukerivier ga ik altijd te paard. ‘t Grootste is het mijne, het heet “Lady”.

In Merauke, als gestichtte overheidspost, waren slechts weinig marindinezen aanwezig; hun dorpen lagen minstens een uur wandelen verder. Met nieuwjaar 1911 werden alle blanken bij de resident uitgenodigd voor de nieuwjaarsreeeptie, in totaal “nog geen twintig man”. De kennismaking met land en bevolking ging ondertussen door “dinsdag laatst was ik weer op marsch naar Wendoe met Pater Viegen. Aan dezen kant van de Meraukerivier gaat alles te paard, gaat ge naar Wendoe dan: alles te voet!

Nu is Wendoe niet zoo heel ver: twee uur, maar als er hooge zee staat, in den regentijd meestal dan kan men niet met het bootje naar ‘t zeestrand varen, men moet dan recht de rivier over en dan een uurtje door vette modder, waar de schoenen in vastzuigen, en door water; nu gingen wij er soms flink tot over de knieën in, maar ‘t had nu weinig of niet geregend, ‘t gebeurd meer, zie Pater Viegen, dat ge er tot de oksels in schiet… En ge moet er nog bij rekenen dat ge heel den tijd den weg moet zoeken.” 

Nieuw Guinea was wel sinds de l6de eeuw herhaaldelijk bezocht geworden door enkele explorators, maar er was geen enkele aanleiding om er ook effectief aan ontsluiting te gaan doen. Pas als een gevolg van de Europese scramble” voor koloniale gebieden in het laatste kwart van de 1 9de eeuw ging men ook dit ‘wit gebied verdelen. In november 1884 namen Duitsland en Groot-Brittannië bezit van het hun toegewezen dee! van Nieuw­Guinea. De Nederlanders hadden minder interesse in het hun toegemeten lands-deel. Pas in 1895 werd de grens met het Engels deel geregeld en in 1910 met de Duitsers. In 1902 werd de Neder­landse regeringspost Merauke opgericht als een antwoord op klachten van de Britse administratie te Port Moresby door de koppenjacht van de marindinezen op dorpen aan de andere kant van de grens. Het gebied werd eerst nog als een stief kind binnen Nederlands Indië bekeken, “a place for tours of punishment duty by delinquent civil servants and of exile for nationalist leaders”. De Marindinezen  hadden wel geprobeerd om ook deze post op te ruimen, maar de poe-anim (vreemdelingen, poe als klanknabootsing van een geweerschot) schoten de aanvallers uiteen en langzaam aan berustten zij in de b!anke aanwezigheid .

De inrichting van Merauke dient hierbij ook gezien te worden in de onafwendbare plicht voor het Neder­lands koloniaal bestuur om iets meer te inves­teren in zijn ge­biedsaanspraken gezien de Duitse, Engelse en zelfs Japanse belang­stelling.

Begin februari 1911 vertrok Petrus Vertenten naar zijn stand­plaats Okaba. Hij verwittigde de familie dat nieuws nu langer zou uitblijven: “ik zal niet meer in de gelegenheid zijn om aanstonds een brief te beantwoorden vermits de boot, die alleen in Merauke aanlegt, reeds verscheidene dagen weg is als wij in Okaba de correspondentie krijgen”. Hij kon ook zijn ervaringen van het eerste bijgewoonde feest meedelen, waarbij Petrus Vertenten zelfs een paar kinderen beschilderde.

Midden 1920 kon Petrus Vertenten mee met bestuursassistent Ch. D. Pelamonia voor een anderhalf maand durende patrouille-reis op de Koembe-rivier: “niets is misleidender dan de kaart van Z.N. Guinea met die vele kleine letters, die dorpsnamen en die vele grootere die volksstammen schijnen aan te geven. Om mij tot de Koembe te beperken: al die anim: sarou-anim, senam-anim, baad-anim enz. zijn geen verschillende stammen maar dorpen, letterlijk: menschen van savore (ca. 100), van senam (ca. 50) van baad (ca GO); dat klinkt heel anders dan: de stam der baad-anim enz”.

In zijn nieuwe standplaats begon onmiddellijk het werk. Naast het helpen van Broeder Van Santvoort diende Petrus Vertenten “geregeld Okaba, Mewi, Alakoe en Tawala (te) bezoeken, de zieken vooral de gewonden en koortsigen helpen, met de menschen praten en zien of er niemand gereed was de groote reis te ondernemen; die vooral moeten geholpen worden. In Mewi had ik het geluk een vrouwtje te doopen : Abomke. Ik gaf haar den naam van “Louise-Adolphine”. Een goed vrouwtje, vol goeden wil. Twee dagen later is zij gestorven. 1k schrijf dit uitvoerig aan Fr. Joos-Heyvaert, die mij gevraagd hadden iemand “Louise-Adolphine” te doopen”. “Vooreerst zal de eenige troost die wij van ons werk hebben wel zijn, dat wij de stervenden doopen. ‘t Zal nog een heel tijdje duren alvorens het eigenlijk bekeeringswerk een aanvang neemt. De menschen zijn hier te diep vervallen in allerlei dwaas bijgeloof en wat erger is en er moeilijker uit te krijgen zal zijn een zeer diepe zedeloosheid. Naar ‘t lichaam hebben zij niets te kort, maar hunne zielen vergaan van gebrek, en, ongelukkig genoeg, daar schijnen zij niet veel om te geven… Hadden wij de kinderen maar in onze macht! Zij houden veel van ons, nu reeds, die kinderen, dat is zeker, maar de meesten van nu zijn groot geworden midden in een zeer zondige om­geving, of liever allen, en de meesten zullen nog worden wat hunne ouders waren of zijn. Eerst moet een geslacht verdwijnen en dan zal onze werking dieper ingrijpen. De kinderen van nu zullen in ieder geval met andere gedachten opgroeien, al leven zij er niet naar. De meesten hebben er niets op tegen in stervensgevaar gedoopt te worden.”.

Pater Vertenten was ook een goed tekenaar. Hij heeft van zijn tijd in Nieuw Guinea een aantal prachtige tekeningen gemaakt.

                        
           Potloodtekening meisje Nkundostam                                  

            

               


De Dochters van O.L.Vrouw van het Heilige Hart
De Dochters van O.L.Vrouw van het H.Hart kwamen in 1920 naar de Kei-eilanden om de Franciscanessen van Heythuizen te vervangen. In 1928 vestigden de eerste zusters zich te Merauke, waar zij in de polikliniek werkten. De Dochters van O.L.Vrouw van het H.Hart namen ook de medische zorg voor de naburige dorpen op zich en begonnen een huishoudcursus voor meisjes in Merauke.
Papoea-meisjes leidden zij op tot verpleegkundigen en dorpsverzorgsters, die in de papoea-dorpen werkten als vroedvrouwen. Na de Tweede Wereldoorlog, in 1945, begonnen de zusters met schools onderwijs en een meisjesinternaat te Merauke.

Sinds 1949 waren de Dochters van O.L.Vrouw van het H.Hart werkzaam in het Mimika- (tot 1953) en Moejoe-gebied. In het Moejoe-gebied richtten zlj een meisjesinternaat op te Mindiptana (in 1949). De zusters stichtten een huishoudschool, werkten in het ziekenluis en namen de speciale zorg op zich voor meisjes die volgens de Moejoe-cultuur gedwongen werden om tweede vrouw (polygamie) te worden. In 1951 opende Mgr. H. Tillemans het noviciaat voor papoea-zusters en vertrouwde de leiding ervan toe aan de Dochters van O.L.Vrouw van het H.Hart. In oktober 1953 deden de eerste papoea-meisjes hun professie. Zij droegen de naam ‘Helpsters van Christus’.

In 1952 vestigden de Dochters van O.L.Vrouw van het H.Hart zich ook in het Mappigebied, te Kepi, waar een meisjesinternaat opgericht werd. In 1954 stichtten zij te Tanah-Merah eveneens een meisjesinternaat. Aan de huisgezinnen op het landbouwtrainingscentrum dat in 1956 te Kepi werd opgericht, gaven de zusters een cursus in hygiene en gezinszorg. Daarnaast gaven zij onderwijs aan katechisten op het katechistencentrum, dat in 1952 was opgericht. Hun taak was tevens de vorrning van lulponderwijzers en katholieke gezinnen. Sinds 1956 waren de Dodhters van O.L.Vrouw van het H.Hart werkzaam in het Asmatgebied (Agats) en sinds 1958 op het Frederik-Hendrik-eiland (Kimaam), waar zij meisjesinternaten stichten.

De Dochters van O.L.Vrouw van het H.Hart werkten aan de ontwikkeling van de jonge papoea-vrouw. Op de huishoudscholen der meisjesinternaten te Merauke, Mindiptana en Kepi kregen de papoea-meisjes onderwijs in voedings- en zwangerschapsleer. Het leerplan was aangepast aan de leefwijze in de kampong (= dorp).


Bij de voedingsleer werd onderwezen hoe het menu afgewisseld, hoe groente geplant en hoe een tuin aangelegd kon worden. De zusters introduceerden peulvruchten. Deze peulvruchten kwamen goed van pas als vervangende voeding voor zwangere Awjoe-vrouwen. Awjoe-vrouwen mochten namelijk niet van bepaalde vissoorten eten als ze zwanger waren. Zij geloofden dat er een gehandicapt kind geboren zou worden als zij dit gebod overtraden. Zwangere vrouwen en malariapatienten werden door de zusters naar de kliniek gestuurd. De papoea-meisjes leerden kleren naaien en wassen, en hoe ze matten konden vlechten. Hun werd onderwezen hoe ze langer houdbare en dus verkoopbare sagokoeken moesten bakken. De Dochters van O.L.Vrouw van het H.Hart introduceerden het koken in pannen in plaats van het roosteren van voedsel ingepakt in een blad in hete as.

 


Geurtjens M.S.C., p. Henri

Henri Geurtjens werd op 5 juni 1875 te Deurne geboren. Reeds op 15-jarige leeftijd kwam hij naar Tilburg om bij de paters van het H. Hart (M.S.C.), toen nog aan de Veldhoven (Wilhelminapark), te gaan studeren voor missionaris. Enkele jaren later vertrok hij naar Chesal-Benoît in Frankrijk, het moederland van de paters M.S.C., waar hij tot 1895 bleef, om vervolgens te Antwerpen zijn hogere studie voort te zetten. Op 5 augustus 1900 werd hij tot priester gewijd en in de daarop volgende jaren was hij leraar aan de opleidingsschool in Tilburg. Op 1 september 1903 werd hij als missionaris uitgezonden naar de Kei-eilanden; later werkte hij op Tanimbar en op Zuidwest-Irian Jaya (Nieuw-Guinea). Hij bleef daar tot 1920 en werd een groot kenner van de Keiese taal. 

 

Pater Henri Geurtjens M.S.C. (1875-1957) onder de 
Kaja Kaja’s (Coll. RHC Tilburg).

Pater Geurtjens publiceerde de boeken: Woordenlijst der Keieesche taal, Spraakkunst der Keieesche taal (1921), Keieesche legenden (1924) en Marindeneesch-Nederlandsch Woordenboek (1932). Van 1920 tot 1932 werkte hij onder de Papoea’s van Irian Jaya. Hij ontdekte daar verschillende onbekende stammen en gebieden en schreef daarover enkele boeken: Uit een vreemde wereld (1921), Onder de Kaja-Kaja’s van Zuid Nieuw-Guinea (Roermond-Maaseik, J.J. Romen & Zonen, 1933), Op zoek naar oermenschen (Roermond-Maaseik, J.J. Romen & Zonen, 1934), Zijn plaats onder de zon (Roermond-Maaseik, J.J. Romen & Zonen, 1941) en Oost is Oost en West is West (Utrecht, Spectrum, 1946).

                  

(Coll. Ronald Peeters, Tilburg).

Over de tocht met het gouvernements-stoomschip ‘De Zwaan’ op de Eilandenrivier op Zuid-Nieuw-Guinea in 1922, schreef hij in Op zoek naar oermenschen over zijn ontmoeting met de inlanders:

‘Lachen met de beenen

Eindelijk op een ietwat hoogere plaats langs den oever troffen we een aantal lui te samen. Daar werd gestopt en weldra doken nog verschillende kano’s op uit de naburige kreekjes. Ondanks ons aanhoudend gefleem van Savijo! Savijo! dat in hun taaltje ‘vriend’ moest beteekenen, bleven ze erg schuw en op een afstand, om bij de minste verdachte beweging onzerzijds als b.v. het richten van een fotolens, in het kreupelhout weg te springen. Maar toch kwamen ze weer spoedig zenuwachtig schuifelend en schoorvoetend terug, aangelokt door de bijlen en messen, die we voor hun begeerige oogen lieten schitteren. Om hun eigen vrees te bedriegen, deden ze overmoedig, net als de jongen, die fluit in ‘t donker. Ze stieten hooge schrille keelgeluiden uit: hih! hih! hih! lachten stuipachtig en flapperden daarbij op oerkomische manier krampachtig met de beenen. Deze eigenaardige gevoelsuiting namen we ook elders nog herhaaldelijk waar, zoodat ze onder ons alras bekend was als ‘kwispelstaarten of lachen met de beenen’.

Zijn laatste boek is Oost is Oost en West is West. In 1932 was hij naar Nederland teruggekeerd. Later in Tilburg werd hij in 1936 conservator van het juist opgerichte Nederlands Volkenkundig Missiemuseum aan de Paleisstraat. Vanaf 1934 werkte hij ook voor het woonwagenkamp. Dit woonwagenkamp ligt aan de naar hem (in 1960) genoemde Pater Geurtjensweg. Hij overleed te Tilburg op 22 december 1957.

Literatuur: GAT, Bevolkingsregisters, 1910/1920, deel 52 fol. 6; R.K. ‘Wie is wie ?’. Biografisch lexicon van bekende Nederlandsche Roomsch Katholieke tijdgenooten, Leiden, z.j., p. 46; Encycl. van Noord-Brabant, 2, 1985, p. 54-55; Ronald Peeters, De straten van Tilburg, Tilburg, 1987, p. 55.
 


Mgr. NICO VERHOEVEN

Mgr. Verhoeven is twee periodes in Indonesië geweest: vóór de oorlog als pionier in Nieuw-Guinea, nà de oorlog als bisschop in Celebes. Dit levert twee zeer verschillende verhalen op. Daartussen was hij in Nederland werkzaam in beleidsfuncties die hem op visitatie naar verschillende missiegebieden brachten; op dit punt is het interview echter kort.
In 1923 arriveerde hij in het tegenwoordige bisdom Merauke. Hij schildert de situatie die hij daar aantrof: de bevolking en hun gebruiken, de moeizame pogingen van de missie (onder meer de paters P. Vertenten MSC en J. Verschueren MSC) om openingen te scheppen in dit ontoegankelijke gebied, de samenwerking met het gouvernement in het bijeenbrengen van mensen in dorpen en het oprichten van ‘beschavingsschooltjes’.
Dan vertelt hij over zijn eigen werk als woudloper: pastorale werkzaamheden waren er weinig, het ging er vooral om uit te vinden waar mensen waren. Uitgebreid vertelt hij over zijn tochten, onder meer naar Boven-Digul waar de regering in 1926 een verbanningsoord oprichtte.
In 1950 bracht hij nog een bezoek aan dit gebied en constateerde veel veranderingen (‘van wild land naar beheerd land’). In 1947 werd hij benoemd tot apostolisch vicaris (later bisschop) van Manado. Zijn verslag over deze periode bevat drie hoofdonderwerpen: de priesteropleiding, Vaticanum II en de oecumene.
Wat het eerste onderwerp aangaat is er onder meer informatie over de (weder)opbouw en uitbreiding van de opleidingsinstituten, over het dilemma seculier of regulier en moeilijkheden met Rome daarover, over het studieprogramma en resultaten.
Vaticanum II krijgt eveneens veel aandacht: zijn eigen ervaringen in Rome, de samenwerking met het Nederlandse episcopaat, de rol van de Paus en een aantal curieleden enz.
Het derde onderwerp tenslotte gaat vooral over de Minahasa, waar het protestantisme traditioneel sterk aanwezig was; hier bespreekt hij onder meer de kwestie van de ‘dubbele zending’. Na de oorlog werden de relaties geleidelijk aan beter; hiervoor wordt een aantal redenen genoemd..[4]


“DOORLOPERS”

Het is in Nederland een modern woord – veel gebruikt. Doorlopers zijn kruiswoordraadsels, puzzels die doorlopen. Het is interessant, het geeft voldoening om zo’n “kruiswoordraadsel zonder zwarte vlakjes” op te lossen. Een mens kan er niet van slapen als je een woord niet kunt vinden en invullen –  je wilt en je moet het vinden! Want anders zit je ook vast met de volgende woorden die moeten doorlopen.

Als het wel lukt, dan kun je zo’n puzzel helemaal invullen. Dan is zo’n doorloper helemaal klaar, goed ingevuld!

In goed Nederlands kunnen we het woord “doorlopers” ook in een andere betekenis gebruiken – dikwijls gebruikten we dat woord in de missie van Nieuw-Guinea — nl. voor mensen die lopen, steeds maar doorlopen en die daarmee hun hele leven invullen: doorlopers — letterlijk, figuurlijk en geestelijk.

Op de onderstaande foto ziet u drie echte doorlopers nl. Piet Hoeboer, Kees Meuwese en Jan Verschueren, drie missionarissen van Nieuw-Guinea, drie echte pioniers. Ongetooflijk wat deze mannen hebben afgelopen in dat uitstrekte, barbaarse en moeilijke land: zij liepen altijd door, rechttijnig,doelbewust heel hun leven lang. Het is de moeite waard hen eens voor het voetlicht te plaatsen: zij waren gewone mensen, onvolmaakte mensen, maar ook charismatische missionarissen, juist omdat zij “doorlopers” waren.

 

Piet Hoeboer — de middelste op de foto — opende het Moejoegebied!   Kort gezegd!

Het betekende wel dat hij honderden kilometers moest lopen door onbekend en onbegaanbaar gebied waar geen wegen of paden waren. Hij woonde en werkte al enige tijd als pastoor in Moeting – een vooruitgeschoven plaatsje in het verre binnenland; na zorgvutdige navraag en berekening ging hij op tocht: onbekende bossen, eindeloze moerassen, onafzienbare waterplassen, dan weer een pad kappend door dichte bamboebossen — hij bleef in de goede richting met zijn kompas en zijn gidsen. Lopend dag na dag. Door het hoge water moest hij dagen omlopen – na veertien zware dagen raakte de mondvoorraad op –  hij liep door! Ze vingen een paar vissen, ze zochten naar knollen in het bos. Na negentien dagen kwamen zij in een verlaten tuintje waar bananenbomen waren geplant — ze plukten de bananen die nog groen en hard waren; als betaling — Piet was strikt eerlijk en rechtvaardig – hing hij zorgvuldig en droog verpakt wat tabak en een mes in de boom. Hij liep door en sterk vermagerd en hoekig – samen met zijn uitgeputte dragers- kwam hij aan bij het Moejoevolk. Hij is er gebteven, veertien jaar lang – voortdurend heen en weer trekkend- de mensen bijeenroepend uit hun boshutten om in dorpen te komen wonen waar hij een school opende.

Denkt u niet dat die Moejoemensen prettige en vriendelijke lui waren —integendeel – zij waren schuwe bosmensen, zij hidden zich verscholen in dat uitgestrekte en sombere regenwoud: angst voor etkaar, wraak, zwarte magic en andere lugubere praktij ken maakten hen tot sluipmoor­denaars en kannibalen. De ene moord riep de andere moord op: ketting­moorden! Piet Hoeboer doorzag dat systeem, hij zocht de mensen op, hij registreerde de namen van alle mensen die hij ontmoette in hun bos­huizen en die hij bij elkaar bracht: hij vormde meer dan dertig dorpen in tien jaar tijds: een catechist (of onderwijzer) bleef in dat dorp en hield de mensen bijeen! En Piet zou Piet niet zijn als hij niet — voortdurend heen en weer lopend van dorp tot dorp — met grote regetmaat en stiptheid zijn dorpen bezocht.

Hij bleef doorlopen en doorzetten — ook toen de Tweede Wereldoorlog uitbrak — die oorlog zelf bereikte hem niet, want hij zat te ver in het on­bekende binnenland, maar hij zat er wet ingesloten en afgesloten: zeer sober levend in eenzaamheid ging hij verder met zijn werk: hij begon in dat gebied zelf met een catechistenschool: de incest pientere en betrouw­bare jongens uit het Moejoegebied zelf werden verder gevormd tot “voorlopers” die hij dan in nieuw en pas gevorinde dorpen plaatste.

Alteen zo’n rechtlijnige single-fighter kon dit zware en opofferende werk aan en tot op de dag van vandaag wordt Piet Hoeboer door dit Moejoe­yolk genoemd: onze “Kambarim Taarep”.

Dat woord betekent: “onze Grote Man”, onze leider! Hij was ook hun dokter, die hun wonden verzorgde, die hielp bij moeilijke bevallingen, die zeer zorgvuldig en voorzichtig pillen en injecties gaf: hij was ook hun bouwheer die huizen, goede huizen, dorpen, scholen, kerken bouwde maar hij was bovenal hun pastoor, want hij leerde zijn Moejoe’ers dat God er was, dat God er was voor hen (zoals hij er was voor hen!): kort en hondig, duidelijk, zonder omwegen.

Maar deze missionaris die zo goed en rechtlijnig kon doorlopen was ook een knappe kop met veel initiatief. Dat kwam goed uit de verf toen Piet, na die zware jaren in de bossen van het verre binnenland, werd overgeplaatst naar de stad Merauke waar hij als secretaris van het bisdom aan de slag ging: hij zette dat pasopgerichte bisdom goed op poten — onverstoorbaar hardwerkend. En ondertussen ving hij de Papoea’s op die vanuit de donkere bossen naar het licht van “de stad” trokken. Met raad en raad hielp hij deze — pas-door-hem-ontdekte en door-hem-gedoopte —mensen om zich aan te passen aan dat nieuwe leven, hij voorzag het nijpende probleem van de urbanisatie.
Hij riep ze weer bij elkaar — en ditmaal kwamen ze graag naar hem toe, want hij was hun “Kambarim Taarep” — de grote, wijze man. Hij stichtte daar het dorp “De Vijf Klapperbomen” (Kelapa Lima) — hij bouwde daar een gemeenschaps­huis, een school, een kerk voor zijn mensen die, toen al, dreigden ten onder te gaan in de maalstroom van de stad. Piet Hoeboer trok de lijn weer door!

Hct is geen wonder dat deze man die in hart en nieren missionaris was, eenmaal terug in Nederland, zich maar moeilijk kon aanpassen aan de veranderde mentaliteit van kerk en samenleving; hij was nog altijd de doorloper in zijn geloof, in zijn priesterschap, in zijn omgang, in heel zijn persoonlijk leven. Voor zijn omgeving kwam hij hier in Nederland over als een rechtlijnig mens, soms te rechtlijning en cynisch, die zelfs zijn aangeboren hartelijkheid probeerde te verbergen: als men hem ging opzoeken dan gaf hij bij het afscheid een hand en met zijn andere hand terwijl hij zei: “Bedankt hoor, dat je gekomen bent!”.

In het klooster-bejaardenoord bleef hij zichzelf, ook toen hij oud en ziek werd. Zolang hij kon lopen maakte hij zijn toertje (wandeling) door de tuin: doorlopen!


 


Verschueren M.S.C. p. Jan

Pater Jan Verschueren M.S.C., geboren op 22 augustus 1905 te Oosterhout, kwam in 1931 als jong priester in Zuid-Irian Jaya (Nieuw-Guinea). Hij is er negenendertig jaar als missionaris gebleven, waardoor hij een enorme kennis had vergaard over de oude cultuur en gebruiken van het volk der Marind-anim, de Jéi-anim aan de Merauke-rivier, en de Janum-anim in het oosten van het land. Op 4 september 1948 ontdekte hij samen met pater Cees Meuwese M.S.C. een nieuwe rivier die de Koningin Julianarivier werd genoemd. Over deze tocht schreef hij, in samenwerking met pater Meuwese, het boek Nieuw Guinea uw naam is wildernis (Bussum, Brand, 1950). Hij beschreef de geschiedenis van de missies in Papua Nieuw-Guinea en Irian Jaya in deel I van Klein’s Nieuw-Guinea (1953). In 1960 schreef hij het essay A growing world: problems of the Catholic Mission in Oceania in Carmelus. Daarnaast leverde hij bijdragen in Nieuw-Guinea-Studiën en in Bijdragen van het Koninklijk Instituut van Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. Bij het schrijven van zijn boek Dema ontleende prof. dr. J. van Baal veel van zijn informatie aan gegevens van Verschueren.
Pater Jan Verschueren overleed op 28 juli 1970 te Djakarta.

Literatuur: Lit.: Prof. dr. J. van Baal, ‘In memoriam Pater Jan Verschueren’, in: De Brug (extern contactblad M.S.C.), december 1970, p. 22-29.
 


Meuwese M.S.C., p. Cees

Pater Cornelius Josephus Johannes Maria Meuwese M.S.C., geboren op 23 november 1906 te Tilburg, werd op 10 augustus 1933 tot priester gewijd en vertrok in 1934 als missionaris van het H. Hart naar de missie van Zuid-Irian Jaya (Nieuw-Guinea). Hij was eerst tweeën-eenhalf jaar in Babo werkzaam en hij werd in 1937 benoemd in het Mappi-gebied, van waaruit hij verschillende verkenningstochten maakte. Op 4 september 1948 ontdekte hij samen met pater Jan Verschueren M.S.C. een nieuwe rivier, die op 6 september 1948, de dag van de kroning van koningin Juliana, door de Nederlandse regering werd erkend en voortaan Koningin Julianarivier werd genoemd. Pater Cees Meuwese werkte 24 jaar onder de papoea’s als missionaris en als ontdekkingsreiziger en etnograaf. Hierover gaf hij vele lezingen en hij publiceerde er een aantal artikelen over in de Annalen van het Missiehuis Tilburg, in de Katholieke Illustratie, in Elseviers-weekblad en in Edele Brabant. Samen met pater Verschueren schreef hij het boek Nieuw Guinea uw naam is wildernis (Bussum, Brand, 1950), zo meldt het titelblad. Volgens Van Baal is Verschueren echter de eigenlijke schrijver geweest.
Hij overleed op 26 november 1978 te Tilburg.

 

Cees Meuwese M.S.C. (1906-1978) (coll. RHC Tilburg).

Literatuur: GAT, Bevolkingsregister 1910/1920, deel 83 fol. 100; GAT, Collectie bidprentjes; Onze eigen cultuur, Tilburg, uitg. van de Culturele Dienst, 1949, p. 49-50; prof. dr. J. van Baal, ‘In memoriam Pater Jan Verschueren’, in: De Brug (extern contactblad M.S.C.), december 1970, p. 22-29.


OPENING MAPPIGEBIED

De papoea’s van het Mappigebied zijn voornamlijk de Jahraj en Awjoe.
De Jahraj wonen aan de rechter- en de Awjoe aan de Iinkeroevers van de Mappirivier. De Jahraj-dorpen staan in de moerassige gebieden, terwijl de Awjoe zich vooral in de bossen gevestigd hebben.De papoea’s van de JabrajbevoLkingsgroep leefden in het stroomgebied van de rivieren Oba, Miwamon, Nambeomon en Bapei en in de heuvelgebieden daartussen.Vóór de Tweede Wereldoorlog woonden de Awjoe in metershoge boomhutten, omdat zij voortdurend werden aangevallen door de Jahraj.

Vanaf 1930 richtte het Nederlandse bestuur langs de Digoel enkele politieposten op om de Jahraj het koppensnellen te beletten. In 1937 opende pater C. Meuwese het Mappigebied, waarin de papoea’s van de Jahraj- en de Awjoebevolkingsgroepen woonden. Hij vestigde zich te Tanah-Merah.

In de eerste oorlogsjaren (1940 – 1942) deed pater P. Drabbe taalonderzoek zowel bij de Jahraj als bij de Awjoe. Hij vertaalde honderd verhalen uit de bijbel in hun talen. Voordat hij dit had gedaan, improviseerde pater C. Meuwese met behulp van zelfgemaakte taalaantekeningen. De Keiese goeroes gebruikten de taallijst van pater P. Drabbe als basis. Zij leerden de papoea-kinderen Maleis en hiervoor was een beperkte kennis van de Jahraj- en de Awjoe-talen noodzakelijk. Te Jatan organiseerde de missie in 1942 een groots doop- en vredesfeest tussen de papoea’s van de Jabraj- en de Awjoe-bevolkingsgroepen.

In 1946 verhuisde pater C. Meuwese van Tanah-Merah naar Kepi, dat sindsdien het centrum van het Mappigebied werd. Te Kepi werd (in 1948) een Voorschool opgericht. In 1948 ontdekten de paters C. Meuwese en J. Verschueren een rivier die zij de Koningin Julianarivier doopten. Langs deze rivier leefden papoea-bevolkingsgroepen die nog nooit met de buitenwereld contact hadden gehad. In oktober 1948 vierde de missie weer een doop- en vredesfeest tussen papoea’s van de Jabraj- en de Awjoe-bevotkingsgroepen. Dit werd echter in 1949 ‘achterhaald’, doordat de Jahraj een grote koppensneltocht hielden.

Van 1950 tot 1966 maakte pater dr. J. Boelaars studie van de cultuur der Jahraj. Dankzij dit onderzoek kon een proces tot acculturatie met succes op gang worden gebracht. In tegenstelling tot de Marind-anim kregen de Jahraj geen morele depressie. In 1951 werd ter gelegenheid van het bezoek van Mgr. H. Tillemans aan het Mappigebied eveneens een vredesfeest tussen de Jahraj en de Awjoe gehouden.

In 1952 kwamen de Dochters van O.L.Vrouw van het H.Hart naar het Mappigebied. Te Kepi (in 1952) en te Tanah-Merah (in 1954) richtten zij meisjesinternaten op. In 1952 werd er een kateehistencentrum geopend te Kepi. In 1955 werd in dezelfde plaats een voorlopersschool opgericht. De Broeders van O.L.Vrouw van Zeven Smarten zetten zich in 1956 ook in het Mappigebied neder. In hetzelfde jaar werd begonnen met het Welvaartsplan Mappi. Ter begeleiding van dit streekprojekt richtten de broeders (in 1956) een landbouwtrainingscentrum op.In 1959, na meer dan twintig jaar missie-invloed, maakten (ook gedoopte) Jahraj zich opeens weer schuldig aan koppensnellen. Er werden meer dan vijftig koppen gesneld.

LUST VAN KOMENDE EN GAANDE MISSIONARISSEN IN HET MAPPIGEBIED

The Daughters of the Sacred Heart of O.L.Vrouw
The Daughters of Our Lady of the Sacred Heart in 1920 came to the Kei Islands to the Franciscan Sisters of Heythuizen replacement. In 1928 established the first sisters to Merauke, where she worked in the clinic. The Daughters of Our Lady of the Sacred Heart took the medical care of the neighboring villages on its course and began housekeeping for girls in Merauke.
Papua girls they led on to village nurses and nurses, in the Papuan villages worked as midwives. After the Second World War, in 1945, the sisters started with a girl boarding school education and to Merauke.

Since 1949, the Daughters of Our Lady of the Sacred Heart working in the Mimika-(until 1953) and Muyu. In Muyu zlj a girl boarding school founded to Mindiptana (in 1949). The sisters founded a domestic science, worked in the louse ill and took special care for girls who are under the Muyu culture were forced to second wife (polygamy) should be. In 1951 opened Mgr. H. Tillmans the novitiate for papua sisters and trusted its leadership to the Daughters of Our Lady of the Sacred Heart. In October 1953 did the first Papuan girls their profession. They bore the name ‘Help esters of Christ. “

In 1952 established the Daughters of Our Lady of the Sacred Heart is also in the Mappigebied to Kepi, where a girls’ boarding school was founded. In 1954 they founded in Tanah Merah, also a girls’ boarding school. And to the families of the agricultural training center that was founded in 1956 in Kepi, the sisters gave a course in hygiene and family. In addition they gave to the education of catechists katechistencentrum, which was founded in 1952. Their task was also vorrning of lulponderwijzers and Catholic families. Since 1956 the Dodhters of Our Lady of the Sacred Heart working in the Asmatgebied (Agats) and since 1958 at the Frederik-Hendrik Island (Kimaam), where they found girl boarding schools.

The Daughters of Our Lady of the Sacred Heart worked on the development of the young Papuan woman. At the household of girl boarding schools in Merauke, and Kepi Mindiptana got the Papuan girls education in nutrition and pregnancy leather. The curriculum was adapted to the lifestyle in the kampong (village =).

The nutrition was taught how the menu varied, the vegetables planted and how a garden could be. The sisters introduced legumes. These pulses came in handy as a replacement Awjoe nutrition for pregnant women. Awjoe women were not of a certain fish eat if they were pregnant. They believed that a disabled child would be born if they violated this commandment. Pregnant women and malaria patients were the sisters sent to the clinic. The Papuan girls learned sewing and washing clothes, and how they could weave mats. They were taught how to last longer and therefore salable sago-cakes to bake. The Daughters of Our Lady of the Sacred Heart introduced the cooking pans instead of roasting food wrapped in a leaf in hot ashes.

 

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Geurtjens M.S.C., p. Henri

Henri Geurtjens was born June 5, 1875 in Deurne. Already at the age of 15 he moved to Tilburg to the Fathers of the Holy Heart (MSC), then the Veldhoven (Wilhelmina), to study for missionary. Some years later he left Chesal-Benoit in France, the motherland of the MSC Fathers, where he remained until 1895, then to Antwerp to pursue higher studies. On August 5, 1900 he was ordained a priest in the following years he taught at the School in Tilburg. On 1 September 1903 he was sent as a missionary to the Kei Islands, and later he worked at Southwest Tanimbar and Irian Jaya (New Guinea). He remained there until 1920 and was a great connoisseur of the Kai language.

 

Father Henri Geurtjens M.S.C. (1875-1957) under the
Kaja Kaja’s (RHC Coll Tilburg).

Father Geurtjens published the book: Glossary of Keieesche language, Grammar of Keieesche language (1921), Keieesche legends (1924) and Marindeneesch-Dutch Dictionary (1932). From 1920 to 1932 he worked among the Papuans of Irian Jaya. He found there several unknown tribes and territories and wrote about some books: A strange world (1921), Under the Kaja-Kaja of southern New Guinea (Roermond Maaseik, JJ Romen & Sons, 1933), In search of primitive man chen ( Roermond-Maaseik, JJ Romen & Sons, 1934), His Place in the Sun (Roermond-Maaseik, JJ Romen & Sons, 1941) and East is East and West is West (Utrecht, The Spectrum, 1946).

                  

(Coll Ronald Peeters, Tilburg).

About the walk with the government-steamer the Swan River on the South Island New Guinea in 1922, he wrote in looking for prehistoric man dominion over his encounter with the natives:

“Laughter in the legs

Finally a somewhat higher position along the shore we found a number of people together. It was stopped, and soon emerged, several canoes from the neighboring creeks. Despite our persistent gefleem of Savijo! Savijo! that in their lingo ‘friend’ was mean, they remained very shy and aloof, to the slightest suspicious movement on our part as eg the focus of a photographic lens in the underbrush jumping away. Yet soon they came shuffling nervously and reluctantly returned, lured by the axes and knives, which we did for their greedy eyes sparkle. In order to deceive their own fears, they did so recklessly, like the boy who whistles in the dark. She thrust high shrill throat sounds: HIH! HIH! HIH! laughed convulsively and flapped frantically taking on oerkomische way with the legs. This peculiar expression of feeling, we also repeated elsewhere still true, so she soon was known among us as “wagging his tail or laugh with the legs.

His latest book is East is East and West is West. In 1932 he returned to the Netherlands. Later in Tilburg in 1936 he became curator of the recently established Dutch Ethnography Museum on Mission Street Palace. From 1934 he also worked for the trailer park. This trailer park is on the to him (in 1960) said Father Geurtjensweg. He died in Tilburg on 22 December 1957.

Literature: GAT, Population Registers, 1910/1920, Part 52 fol. 6; R.K. “Who is who ‘. Biographical dictionary of famous Dutch Roman Catholic contemporaries, Leiden, nd, p. 46, Encycl. of North Brabant, 2, 1985, p. 54-55; Ronald Peeters, The streets of Tilburg, Tilburg, 1987, p. 55.
 

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Mgr. Nico Verhoeven
Mgr. Verhoeven has been two periods in Indonesia, before the war as pioneered in New Guinea, after the war as a bishop in Celebes. This produces two very different stories. In between he worked in management positions in the Netherlands to him on visitation to different mission areas brought, at this point the interview, however short.
In 1923 he arrived in the present Diocese of Merauke. He paints the situation that he encountered there: the people and their customs, the laborious efforts of the mission (including the fathers P. and J. Verschueren Vertenten MSC MSC) to create openings in this inaccessible region, cooperation with the government in bringing together people in villages and the creation of “civilization schools.
Then he tells about his own work as a woodsman: pastoral work were few, the main objective was to find out where people were. Advanced, he talks about his trips, including to Upper Digul where the government in 1926 founded a place of exile.
In 1950 he took a visit to this area and found many changes (of wild country to manage land). In 1947 he was appointed apostolic vicar (later bishop) of Manado. His report on this period covers three main topics: the seminary, Vatican II and ecumenism.
Regarding the first topic is concerned, among other information about the (re) construction and expansion of the educational institutions, secular or regular about the dilemma and difficulties with Rome about that, about the study and results.
Vatican II also receives much attention: his own experiences in Rome, the collaboration with the Dutch episcopate, the role of the Pope and curia a number of members, etc.
The third topic is mainly about the Minahasa finally, where Protestantism was traditionally strong presence, here he discusses include the issue of ‘dual mission’. After the war, relations gradually improved, this is a number of reasons .. [4]

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“Skates”

The Netherlands is a modern word – a lot. By Bishops are crosswords, puzzles completed. It is interesting, it gives satisfaction to such a “crossword puzzle without black patches” to solve. A man can not sleep if you can not find a word and fill in – you want and you should find! Otherwise you sit down with the following words to follow.

If you succeed, you can completely fill such a puzzle. Then some doorloper ready, properly completed!

In Dutch well can we use the word “by runners” in another sense, use – often we used that word in the mission of New Guinea – ie for people who walk, ever go through and with it their whole lives filling: by runners – literally, figuratively and spiritually.

The picture below shows three runners namely real by Piet Hoeboer, and Jan Kees Meuwese Verschueren, three missionaries from New Guinea, three real pioneers. Ongetooflijk what these men have in the past that stretched barbarous and difficult country: they were always, rechttijnig, purposefully throughout their lifetime. It is worthwhile for them once the spotlight places: they were ordinary people, imperfect people, but also charismatic missionaries, precisely because it “skates” were.

 

Piet Hoeboer – the middle in the picture – it opened Muyu! Short!

It meant that he had to walk hundreds of miles through unknown and inaccessible areas where no roads or paths were. He lived for some time as curate in Moeting – a forward place in the interior; after zorgvutdige inquiry and calculation, he went on tour: unknown forests, endless swamps, endless pools, then a path kappend through dense bamboo forest – he remained in the right direction with his compass and his guides. Running day after day. The high water had rounds for days – after two hard days hit the victuals – he walked by! They caught a few fish, they were looking for tubers in the woods. After nineteen days they came in a deserted garden, where banana trees were planted – they picked the bananas are still green and hard goods, as payment – Piet was strictly honest and fair – he hung carefully and dry packed some tobacco and a knife in the tree. He walked by and emaciated and angular – with its depleted carriers, he arrived at the Moejoevolk. He is gebteven, fourteen years – back and forth, pulling people out of their summoning boshutten to come and live in villages where he opened a school.

Do not you think that Moejoemensen nice and friendly people were, on the contrary – they were frightened forest people, they are hidden is hidden in that vast and gloomy forest: fear etkaar, revenge, black magic and other sinister practices do made them assassins and cannibals. One called the other murder murder: chain murders! Piet Hoeboer saw through that system, he sought the people, he recorded the names of all the people he met in their Boshuizen and he brought together: he was more than thirty villages in ten years: a catechist (or teacher) remained in that village and held the people together! And Piet Piet would not be if he did not – constantly walking back and forth from town to town – with great promptness regetmaat and villages.

He kept walking and persevere – even when the Second World War – the war itself reached him, because he was too far into the unknown interior, but he was law enclosed and sealed: very sober living in solitude, he continued his work : he began in that area itself with a school catechists: incest insightful and reliable boys from the Muyu themselves were further formed to “precursors” that he, in new and newly placed gevorinde villages.

Alteen a linear single-fighter could this hard and sacrificial work and to this day is Piet Hoeboer by this Moejoeyolk called our “Kambarim Taarep”.

That word means “our Great Man”, our leader! He was their doctor who cared for their wounds, which helped in difficult deliveries, being very careful and cautious pills and injections did: he was also the project owner who houses, good houses, villages, schools, churches built but above all he was their pastor because he taught his Moejoe’ers that God was there, that God was there for them (as he was there for them!): short and hondig, clear, without detours.

But this missionary who was so good and straight through was also a good head with plenty of initiative. That was good the paint when Peter, after the difficult years in the forests of the far interior, was transferred to the town of Merauke, where he served as secretary of the diocese went to work: he put that newly founded diocese well on legs – imperturbable hardworking . And meanwhile he caught the Papuans on the ice from the dark woods to the light of “the city” went. With advice and counsel, he helped this – just-discovered-by-him-and him-doped-people to adapt to that new life, he foresaw the urgent problem of urbanization.
He called them together again – and this time they came to like him because he was their “Kambarim Taarep” – the great, wise man. He founded the village as “The Five topper Trees” (Kelapa Lima) – he built a community center, a school, a church for people who, even then, threatened to perish in the maelstrom of the city. Piet Hoeboer drew the line again!

Hct is no wonder that this man who was a missionary at heart, once back in the Netherlands, but has had difficulty adapting to the changing mentality of church and society, he was still the doorloper in his faith in his priesthood, in his intercourse, throughout his personal life. For his environment, he came here in the Netherlands as a straight man, sometimes too rechtlijning and cynical, even his innate cordiality tried to hide if he went to see then he gave the parting hand and with his other hand while he said “Thank hear that you came”.

In the monastery he continued north-elderly themselves, even when he was old and sick. As long as he could walk he made his trip (walk) through the garden: complete!

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Verschueren M.S.C. p. John

Father Jan Verschueren MSC, born on August 22, 1905 in Oosterhout, came in 1931 as a young priest in southern Irian Jaya (New Guinea). He is thirty-nine years as a missionary remained, which he had amassed a vast knowledge about the ancient culture and customs of the people of Marind-anim, the Jei-anim to the Merauke River, and the Janum-anim in the east of the land. On September 4, 1948, he discovered together with Fr Cees Meuwese MSC a new river which was called the River Queen Juliana. On this trip he wrote in collaboration with Father Meuwese, the book is your name New Guinea wilderness (Bussum, Fire, 1950). He described the history of missions in Papua New Guinea and Irian Jaya in Part I of Klein’s New Guinea (1953). In 1960 he wrote the essay A growing world: problems of the Catholic Mission in Oceania in Carmelus. In addition, he made contributions in New Guinea Studies and Contributions of the Royal Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies. In writing his book Dema borrowed Prof. J. Baal much of his information to data from Verschueren.
Father Jan Verschueren died on July 28, 1970 in Jakarta.

Literature: Lit.: Prof. J. of Baal, “Obituary Father Jan Verschueren, in: The Bridge (external contact sheet MSC), december 1970, p. 22-29.
 

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Meuwese M.S.C., p. Cees

Father Cornelius Johannes Josephus Meuwese MSC Maria, born November 23, 1906 in Tilburg, on August 10, 1933 was ordained a priest in 1934 and went as a missionary of the Sacred Heart to the mission of South Irian Jaya (New Guinea). He had two first-half years working in Babo and in 1937 he was appointed to the Mappi area, from where he made several expeditions. On September 4, 1948, he discovered along with Father Jan Verschueren MSC a new river, on 6 September 1948, the day of the coronation of Queen Juliana, was recognized by the Dutch government and Queen Juliana now River was named. Father Cees Meuwese worked 24 years among the Papuans as a missionary and as an explorer and ethnographer. On this he gave many lectures and published a number of articles on the Annals of the Mission House Tilburg, in the Catholic Illustration, in Elsevier magazine and Noble-Brabant. Together with Father Verschueren he wrote the book New Guinea wilderness is your name (Bussum, Fire, 1950), reports the title page. According to Van Baal Verschueren, however the actual author was.
He died on November 26, 1978 in Tilburg.

 

Cees Meuwese M.S.C. (1906-1978) (coll. RHC Tilburg).

Literature: GAT, Census 1910/1920, part 83 fol. 100; GAT, Collection devotional, our own culture, Tilburg, ed. of the Cultural Services, 1949, p. 49-50; Prof. J. of Baal, “Obituary Father Jan Verschueren, in: The Bridge (external contact sheet MSC), december 1970, p. 22-29.

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OPENING MAPPIGEBIED

The Papuans of Mappigebied are dominated by the Jahraj and Awjoe.
The Jahraj live on the right and the Awjoe Iinkeroevers of Mappirivier. The Jahraj villages are in the swampy areas, while the Awjoe mainly located in the forests of the JabrajbevoLkingsgroep hebben.De Papuans living in the catchment of the river Oba, Miwamon, Nambeomon and Bapei and in the hill regions daartussen.Vóór World War II lived in the Awjoe meter high tree house, because they were constantly attacked by the Jahraj.

From 1930 founded the Dutch administration along the Digul several police posts in order to prevent Jahraj headhunting. Opened in 1937, Father C. Meuwese the Mappigebied which the Papuans of Jahraj and the Awjoebevolkingsgroepen lived. He settled in Tanah-Merah.

In the first war (1940 – 1942) was Father P. Drabbe language research in both the Jahraj as the Awjoe. He translated one hundred stories from the Bible in their languages. Before he had done this improvised Father C. Meuwese using homemade language notes. The Kai gurus used the language list of Father P. Drabbe base. They learned the Malay and Papuan children this was a limited knowledge of the Jahraj Awjoe and the languages required. For Jatan organized the mission in 1942, a grand celebration of baptism and peace between the Papuans of Jabraj and the Awjoe-populations.

In 1946, Father moved C. Meuwese Tanah Merah-to Kepi, which has since been the center of the Mappigebied. To Kepi was (in 1948) a Pre-School was founded. In 1948 discovered the fathers C. Meuwese and J. Verschueren a river which they christened the Queen Juliana River. Along this river papua-lived populations that have never had contact with the outside world had. In October 1948 celebrated another baptism mission and peace celebration between the Papuans and the Jabraj Awjoe-bevotkingsgroepen. However, this was in 1949 ‘obsolete’ because the Jahraj a large headhunting trip did.

From 1950 to 1966, Father J. Boelaars study of the culture of Jahraj. This research was a process of acculturation successfully be launched. Unlike Marind-anim Jahraj not got the moral depression. In 1951 on the occasion of the visit of Mgr. H. Tillmans at the Mappigebied also a peace between the party and the Jahraj Awjoe held.

In 1952 came the Daughters of Our Lady of the Sacred Heart to the Mappigebied. To Kepi (in 1952) and Tanah-Merah (in 1954) they founded on girl boarding. In 1952, a kateehistencentrum opened Kepi. In 1955 in the same place a predecessor school was founded. The Brothers of Our Lady of Seven Sorrows committed in 1956 in the Mappigebied down. In the same year began the Welfare Plan Mappi. To accompany this region brothers founded the project (in 1956) an agricultural training center op.In 1959, after more than twenty years of missionary influence, made (also baptized) Jahraj suddenly again guilty of headhunting. There were more than fifty heads rushed.

LIST OF MISSIONARIES IN THE coming and going MAPPIGEBIED

 

 

.
 

 

Paters M.S.C.

  • Pater M. Bennenbroek: 1959 – 1961 werkzaam te Edera; vertrok in 1961 naar Merauke.
     
  • Pater Dr. J. Boelaars: 1950 – 1966 adat-studie bij de Jahraj.
     
  • Pater Petr. Drabbe: 1939 – 1942 taalstudie bij de Jabraj en de Awjoe; 1946 – 1966 taalstudie in het Mappigebied, maar ook werkzaam te Merauke; vertrok in 1966 naar Nederland.
     
  • Pater Aug. van Dongen: 1960 – 1965 werkzaam te Aboge; vertrok in 1966 naar het gebied der Marind-anim.
     
  • Pater Wilh. van Dongen: 1953 – 1955; 1961 – 1963; 1965 – 1975; vertrok in 1975 naar het gebied der Marind-anim.
     
  • Mgr. Jac. van Duivenvoorde: 1961 – 1962 werkzaam te Tjitak; vertrok in 1962 naar Merauke.
     
  • Pater Joan. Geuskens: 1959 – 1978; vertrok in 1978 naar Merauke.
     
  • Pater Corn. Hendriks: 1957 – 1959 pastoor te Tanah-Merah; 1959- 1962 pastoor en schoolbeheerder te Kepi; 1962- 1964 ziek in Nederland; 1964 – 1969 pastoor en ressortleider te Kepi.
     
  • Pater Carol. Huiskamp: 1955 – 1961.
     
  • Pater Henr. Kemper: 1962 – 1964.
     
  • Pater Wilh. Lomnmertzen: 1955 – 1968 werkzaam te Arare.
     
  • Pater Corn. Meuwese: 1937 – 1962; vertrok in 1962 naar Nederland.
     
  • Pater Bern. van Oers: 1960 – 1975; vertrok in 1975 naar het Moejoegebied.
     
  • Pater Pater Hub. van Peij: 1962 – 1964 werkzaam te Getentiri; vertrok in 1965 naar Merauke.
     
  • Pater Joh. Ramaaker: 1959 – 1966; vertrok in 1967 naar het FrederikHendrik-eiland.
     
  • Pater Simon Schuur: 1953 – 1959.
     
  • Pater WiIh. Thieman: 1951 – 1958; 1961 – 1963 werkzaam te TanahMerah; vertrok in 1963 naar Merauke.
     
  • Pater Jos. Verhoeven: 1953.
     
  • Pater Joh. Verschueren: 1948 – 1953; vertrok in 1953 naar het gebied der Marind-anim.
     
  • Pater Tit. van de Vlugt: 1963 – 1967; vertrok in 1967 naar Okaba.
     
  • Pater Adr. Vriens: 1949 – 1959 werkzaam te Edera; vertrok in 1959 naar het gebied der Marind-anim.


 

Broeders M.S.C.

  • Broeder Ant. Galiart: 1931 – 1961 werkzaam te Tanah-Merah, maar tevens te Merauke en in het Mimikagebied.
     
  • Broeder Mar. Ariëns: 1946 – 1955 werkzaam in het Mappigebied, maar tevens bij de Marind-anim.
     
  • Broeder Ger. van Abswoude:1957 – ? werkzaam te Tanah-Merah, maar tevens in het Moejoe-gebied. 

Dochters van O.L. Vrouw van het H.Hart

  • Zuster Carolina van de 1954 – 1970 te Tanah-Merah Vrande: (onderwijs).
     
  • Zuster Gaudia van Woerkom:1952 – 1984 (huishouding).
     
  • Zuster Justina Hudepohl: 1952 – 1956 (ziekenzorg).
     
  • Zuster Jeanne Bullings: 1952 – ? (onderwijs). 

Broeders van O.L. Vrouw van Zeven Smarten

  • Broeder Xaverius van Roon:1950 – 1978 werkzaam in het Mappigebied, maar tevens te Merauke en in de Moejoe-streek (onderwijs).
     
  • Broeder Liborius Lauwers: 1950 – heden werkzaam in het Mappigebied, maar ook te Merauke en op het Frederik-Hendrik-eiland (landbouwcursus).
     
  • Broeder Cajetanus van de 1950 – heden werkzaam in het Pangaart: Mappigebied, maar tevens te Merauke (leraar houtbewerking).
     
  • Broeder Godefridus de 1952 – 1980 werkzaam in het Korte: Mappigebied, maar ook te Merauke en in de Moejoe-streek (onderwijs, transport binnenvaart).
     
  • Broeder Bernulph den 1961 – 1977 werkzaam in de Mappistreek, Dubbelden: maar tevens te Merauke en in bet Moejoe-gebied (leraar op de technische school).
     
  • Broeder Sarto Roelofs: 1961 – 1980 werkzaam in bet Mappigebied, maar ook te Merauke en in bet Moejoe-gebied (leraar).
     

Lekemissionaris

  • Herman de Vries: 1953 – 1966 (opbouwwerk).

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the end@copyright 2012

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