Indonesia Colonial Govenor General Historic collections(Gunermur Jendral Kompeni)

Indonesia Colonial Gouvenor General

Historic collections

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Copyright@Dr Iwan Suwandy 2012

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  Gouvenuer Gebernur Jenderal Indonesia Masa Kolonial Belanda  

Koleksi bersejarah

Dibuat Oleh

Dr Iwan suwandy, MHA

Copyright @ Dr Iwan Suwandy 2012

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Het Paleis het interieur van van de Gouverneur-Generaal di Nederlands Indië-di Buitenzorg

Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda
 

Daftar Gubernur Jenderal Hindia Belanda dan tahun-tahun pelayanan mereka

Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda mewakili pemerintahan Belanda di Hindia Belanda antara 1610 dan pengakuan Belanda kemerdekaan Indonesia pada tahun 1949.

Yang pertama Gubernur-Jenderal yang diangkat oleh Belanda East India Company (VOC). Setelah VOC resmi dibubarkan pada tahun 1800, [1] harta teritorial VOC dinasionalisasi di bawah Pemerintah Belanda sebagai Hindia Belanda, sebuah koloni Belanda. Gubernur-Jenderal ditunjuk oleh pemerintah Belanda.

Di bawah kendali Inggris periode (1811-1816), posisi setara adalah Letnan-Gubernur, di antaranya yang paling terkenal adalah Thomas Stamford Raffles. Antara 1942 dan 1945, sementara Hubertus Johannes van Mook nominal Gubernur Jenderal, daerah itu di bawah kontrol Jepang, dan diatur oleh urutan dua gubernur, di Jawa dan Sumatera. Setelah 1948 dalam negosiasi untuk kemerdekaan, posisi setara bernama Komisaris Tinggi Mahkota di Hindia Belanda.

Daftar Gubernur Jenderal
Perusahaan India Timur Belanda
 

Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda (1610-1709)

1610-1614: Pieter Both


Pieter Both
Artikel ini adalah tentang yang pertama Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda. Untuk gunung bernama setelah dia, melihat Pieter Both (gunung).

Pieter Both
 
  
Potret Pieter Both
 
1 Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda
 
Di kantor
19 Desember 1610 – 6 November 1614
 
Didahului oleh
 Tidak ada
 
Digantikan oleh
 Gerard Reynst
 
Pribadi rincian
 
Lahir
 1568
Amersfoort, Belanda Republik
 
Meninggal
 6 Maret 1615
Samudera Hindia (dekat Mauritius)
 

Pieter Both (1568, Amersfoort – 6 Maret 1615, Mauritius) adalah Gubernur Jenderal-pertama dari Hindia Belanda.

Tidak banyak yang diketahui dari awal tahun. Pada 1599, Keduanya sudah menjadi admiral di Perusahaan Baru, atau Brabant. Pada tahun itu, ia melakukan perjalanan ke Hindia Timur dengan empat kapal. Ketika Belanda baru didirikan East India Company membentuk pemerintah untuk Hindia Belanda, Pieter Both diundang untuk menjadi Gubernur Jenderal. Dia memegang posisi itu dari 19 Desember 1610 to 6 November 1614. Selama periode itu ia menyimpulkan kontrak dengan Maluku, menaklukkan Timor, dan mengusir Spanyol dari Tidore.

Setelah ia melepaskan jabatannya sebagai Gubernur Jenderal Gerard Reynst, ia berangkat ke Belanda dengan empat kapal. Dua kapal itu terdampar dekat Mauritius, dan Pieter Keduanya tenggelam.

Gunung tertinggi kedua Mauritius bernama Pieter Both setelah dia.

 

1614-1615: Gerard Reynst


Gerard Reynst
 

 

Potret Gerard Reynst

Gerard Reynst (Amsterdam, -? Jakarta, 7 Desember 1615) adalah seorang saudagar Belanda, ayah dari seorang kurator museum, dan kemudian yang kedua Gubernur Jenderal Hindia Belanda.

Biografi
Semua yang diketahui dari tahun-tahun awal adalah bahwa ia lahir di Amsterdam, putra Pieter Rijnst (1510-1574), boiler sabun, dan Sijverts Trijn. Pada 1599 ia menjadi pedagang dan pemilik kapal, serta pendiri-anggota dan administrator dari Nieuwe Compagnie atau Brabantsche yang, pada tahun 1600, menjadi Perusahaan Vereenighde Amsterdam. Perusahaan ini kemudian pada tahun 1602 bergabung ke Belanda East India Company (VOC).

Atas permintaan penatua di perguruan tinggi Heren XVII (17 pria), ia menjadi Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda pada 1613 dan meninggalkan dengan 9 kapal. Perjalanan berlangsung 18 bulan, setelah itu ia mengambil alih perintah dari Pieter Both. Dalam perjalanan, dia telah mengirimkan salah satu kapal ke Laut Merah untuk memulai hubungan perdagangan dengan orang Arab di sana. Ia meninggal lebih dari setahun setelah tiba, setelah tertangkap disentri sehingga dia bisa melakukan sedikit di sana, selain beberapa kegiatan kecil yang hanya sesekali berhasil.

 

1615-1619: Laurens Reael
Laurens Reael
 

 

Laurens Reael (1620 ca.)

Dr Laurens Reael (Amsterdam, 22 Oktober 1583 – Amsterdam, 21 Oktober 1637) adalah seorang karyawan dari VOC, Gubernur Jenderal Hindia Belanda pada 1616-1617 dan laksamana dari angkatan laut Belanda 1625-27.

[Sunting] Kehidupan awal
Laurens Reael adalah putra Laurens Jacobsz Reael, seorang pedagang di Amsterdam yang bernama setelah tanda atau batu atap pelana dari rumahnya / toko Di ruang Gouden Reael (“Di Real Emas”) dan seorang penyair amatir yang dikenal untuk menulis Geuzenliederen (lagu dari geuzen). Lingkungan Amsterdam Gouden Reael dinamai rumah kelahiran itu Laurens Reael, melalui gudang (1648) kemudian dari keluarga Reael pada Zandhoek yang berubah menjadi penginapan populer. Laurens Jr memiliki bakat akademis, yang mahir dalam matematika dan bahasa. Dia belajar hukum di Leiden, di mana ia tinggal di rumah Jacobus Arminius yang telah menikah kakak nya Lijsbet Reael tahun 1590. Laurens menerima gelar doktor pada 1608.

[Sunting] Hindia
Pada Mei 1611 ia meninggalkan sebagai commandeur dari empat kapal untuk Hindia Timur. Dia segera meniti karier untuk menjadi Gubernur Jenderal ketiga pada tahun 1616, di mana ia ditempatkan di kantor pusat VOC, pada waktu itu di Ternate di Maluku. Tahun itu ia secara pribadi bisa menyambut baik Joris van Spilbergen (Maret 30) dan Le Maire Schouten & (September 12) pada kedatangan masing-masing di Ternate dari Belanda melalui Selat Magellan dan Cape Horn. Dia tidak menyadari bahwa VOC telah memerintahkan kapal Le Maire Schouten & untuk menjadi disita untuk pelanggaran dugaan monopoli perdagangan ke Kepulauan Rempah.

Sudah setelah satu tahun, pada tanggal 31 Oktober 1617, Reael mengundurkan diri menyusul perselisihan dengan pimpinan VOC (XVII Lords) pada pengobatan kedua pesaing Inggris di Maluku dan orang-orang pribumi. Para ahli hukum Reael hanya akan mengambil tindakan melawan Inggris jika hukum internasional akan memungkinkan itu dan telah berulang kali memprotes terhadap serangan terhadap penduduk asli. Dia, seperti Laksamana Steven van der Haghen lokal, berpendapat bahwa tujuan VOC harus dicapai hanya melalui rute komersial dan diplomatik. Dalam laporan resmi kepada Staten Generaal dan Lords VOC XVII sekembalinya ke Belanda dia membuat poin ini lagi sangat jelas.

Ini akan mengambil bagaimanapun sampai 21 Maret 1619 sampai Jan jelas kurang damai Pieterszoon Coen akan menggantikannya sebagai Gubernur-Jenderal, sebelum waktu Reael yang telah berperang melawan Spanyol pada tahun 1617 di Teluk Manila, bahasa Inggris di Banten dan di Maluku, dan Kesultanan Mataram di Jepara di Jawa

 

1619-1623: Jan Pieterszoon Coen
Jan Pieterszoon Coen
Jan Pieterszoon Coen
 
  
Lahir
 8 Januari 1587 (1587/01/08)
Hoorn, Belanda, Republik Belanda
 
Meninggal
 21 September 1629 (1629/09/21) (umur 42)
Batavia, Belanda India Timur
 
Kebangsaan
 Belanda
 
Pendudukan
 Gubernur kolonial
 

Jan Pieterszoon Coen (8 Januari 1587 – 21 September 1629) adalah seorang petugas Belanda East India Company (VOC) pada awal abad ketujuh belas, memegang dua istilah sebagai Gubernur Jenderal-nya Hindia Belanda.

Dia sudah lama dianggap sebagai pahlawan nasional di Belanda, untuk memberikan dorongan yang mengatur VOC di jalan untuk dominasi di Hindia Belanda. Sebuah kutipan nya dari 1618 yang terkenal, “adalah Keputusasaan tidak, Anda tidak cadang musuh, karena Allah bersama kita”. Sejak paruh kedua abad ke-20 ia telah melihat dalam cahaya yang lebih kritis, karena beberapa orang sering melihat-Nya berarti kekerasan telah berlebihan.

Coen dikenal pada masanya pada rekening pemerintahan yang ketat dan kritik pedas dari orang-orang yang tidak berbagi pandangan, kadang-kadang diarahkan bahkan pada 17 Penguasa VOC (yang dia ditegur). Coen dikenal sangat ketat terhadap bawahan dan tanpa ampun kepada lawannya. Kesediaannya untuk menggunakan kekerasan untuk mendapatkan tujuannya adalah terlalu banyak bagi banyak orang, bahkan untuk waktu yang relatif kekerasan sejarah. Ketika Saartje Specx, seorang gadis yang telah dipercayakan untuk merawat, ditemukan di sebuah taman dalam pelukan seorang prajurit, Pieter Cortenhoeff, Coen menunjukkan belas kasihan sedikit dalam memiliki Cortenhoeff dipenggal. Specx hanya lolos dari hukuman mati karena tenggelam karena dia masih di bawah umur.

Selanjutnya tapi tindakan yang lebih luas yang dilakukan atas perintah Coen, yang diceritakan dalam seri televisi dokumenter BBC “Trail Spice” (episode 2: “Pala dan Cengkeh”) [1] Program ini juga berisi rincian tindakan nakal yang dilakukan oleh kehancuran. Belanda di kepulauan rempah-rempah Indonesia Timur, tujuan yang adalah untuk menciptakan kelangkaan hasil bumi untuk mempertahankan tingkat harga

 

1623-1627: Pieter de Carpentier
Pieter de Carpentier
Pieter de Carpentier (1586 atau 88 – 5 September 1659) adalah seorang administrator Belanda, atau Flemish, Perusahaan India Timur Belanda, dan yang menjabat sebagai Gubernur-Jenderal ada 1.623-1.627. Teluk Carpentaria di Australia utara yang bernama setelah dia.

 

 

Potret Pieter De Carpentier

Pieter de Carpentier lahir di Antwerp pada 1586 atau 1588, segera setelah pembentukan baru merdeka Republik Belanda (Republik Tujuh Serikat Belanda, atau Provinsi Serikat). Ia belajar filsafat di Leiden, dari 1603. Pada 1616 ia berlayar di kapal berlayar De Getrouwheid ke Indonesia. Di sana ia memiliki sejumlah fungsi, termasuk Direktur Jenderal Perdagangan, Anggota kepada Dewan Hindia, dan anggota Dewan Pertahanan. Dari 1 Februari 1623 sampai September 30, 1627 ia kelima Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda. Dia berpartisipasi dalam penaklukan Jakarta dan membantu membangun kota Batavia. Dia berbuat banyak untuk kota, termasuk mendirikan sekolah, Town Hall, dan Rumah Panti Asuhan pertama. Ia juga dirancang struktur gereja-gereja di kota itu.

Pada 12 November 1627 Pieter de Carpentier berlayar dari Hindia Timur sebagai Kepala Armada. Dia tiba di Belanda pada 3 Juni 1628, dengan lima kapal dagang kaya-sarat, dan ini, dikombinasikan dengan fakta bahwa Pemerintah baru saja berhasil melepaskan tiga kapal dari embargo dibebankan pada mereka oleh Inggris tahun sebelumnya, memimpin otoritas untuk menentukan untuk mengirim armada lain dari sebelas kapal ke Timur, yang Jenderal Jacob bintik itu untuk berlayar. Dua kapal dan kapal pesiar yang akan segera siap untuk berlayar, senat mengirim mereka ke Texel sehingga kehilangan waktu. Kapal ini adalah Batavia (di bawah Francisco Pelsaert) di Dordrecht (di bawah Isaac van Swaenswyck) dan Assendelft (di bawah Cornelis Vlack). Mereka meninggalkan Texel untuk tujuan mereka pada 28 Oktober 1628.

De Carpentier dibuat Anggota Dewan Belanda East India Company (VOC) pada Oktober 1629. Paman dari pihak ibu-Nya, Louis Delbeecque, telah menjadi salah satu penggagas VOC.

Pieter de Carpentier menikahi Maria Ravevelt di Middelburg pada tanggal 2 Maret 1630. Dia meninggal pada bulan September 1641 dan dimakamkan di dalam Westerkerk di Amsterdam. De Carpentier meninggal di Amsterdam pada tanggal 5 September 1659, dan juga dimakamkan di Westerkerk tersebut. Mereka memiliki tujuh anak.

Ketika Jan Carstenszoon (atau Carstensz) dan Willem van Coolsteerdt mendarat Pera dan Arnhem di pantai barat Semenanjung Cape York New Holland (sekarang Australia) pada tahun 1623, setelah penemuan pertama oleh Willem Janszoon di Duyfken di 1606, mereka kemudian bernama ‘Teluk Carpentaria’ setelah Gubernur Jenderal Pieter de Carpe

 

1627-1629: Jan Pieterszoon Coen
1629-1632: Jacques Specx
Jacques Specx
 

 

Jacques Specx

Jacques Specx (pengucapan Belanda: [ʒɑk spɛks]; Dordrecht, 1585 – Amsterdam, 22 Juli 1652). Adalah seorang saudagar Belanda, yang mendirikan perdagangan di Jepang dan Korea pada 1609 [1] [2] Jacques Specx menerima dukungan dari William Adams untuk memperoleh hak perdagangan ekstensif dari Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu pada tanggal 24 Agustus, 1609 yang memungkinkan dia untuk mendirikan sebuah pabrik perdagangan di Hirado pada tanggal 20 September 1609. Dia adalah gubernur sementara di Batavia antara 1629-1632. Ada Saartje Specx putrinya terlibat dalam skandal. Kembali ke rumah di Belanda Specx menjadi suatu seni-kolektor.

Belanda, yang, daripada “Nanban” disebut “Komo” (Jp:. “Rambut Merah” 红毛, menyala) oleh Jepang pertama tiba di Jepang pada tahun 1600, di papan ukuran rendah tersebut.

Pada 1605, dua awak Liefde yang dikirim ke Pattani oleh Tokugawa Ieyasu, untuk mengundang perdagangan Belanda ke Jepang. Para kepala pos perdagangan Belanda Pattani, Victor Sprinckel, ditolak atas dasar bahwa ia terlalu sibuk berurusan dengan oposisi Portugis di Asia Tenggara.

[Sunting] 1609 misi ke Jepang
Jacques Specx berlayar pada armada kapal yang meninggalkan sebelas Texel pada tahun 1607 di bawah komando Pieter Willemsz Verhoeff. Setelah tiba di Banten dua kapal yang dikirim untuk mendirikan hubungan dagang resmi pertama antara Belanda dan Jepang. [3]

 

 

“Perdagangan lulus” (Belanda: handelspas) yang dikeluarkan atas nama Tokugawa Ieyasu. Teks perintah: “kapal-kapal Belanda yang diizinkan untuk melakukan perjalanan ke Jepang, dan mereka dapat mendarat di pantai apapun, tanpa reserve Mulai sekarang peraturan ini harus diperhatikan, dan Belanda dibiarkan bebas untuk berlayar di mana mereka ingin seluruh Jepang Tidak ada pelanggaran.. kepada mereka akan diizinkan, seperti pada kesempatan sebelumnya “- tertanggal 24 Agustus 1609 (Keichō 14, hari 25 bulan ke-6), nb, yang goshuin (御 朱 印) mengidentifikasi ini sebagai dokumen resmi bantalan stempel merah sang shogun.

Kedua kapal Specx diperintahkan adalah De Griffioen (yang “Griffin”, 19 meriam) dan Roode Leeuw bertemu Pijlen (yang “singa merah dengan panah”, 400 ton, 26 meriam). Kapal-kapal tiba di Jepang pada tanggal 2 Juli 1609. [4]

Di antara para awak adalah pedagang Kepala Abraham van den Broeck dan Nicolaas Puyck dan di bawah-pedagang Jaques Specx.

Komposisi yang tepat dari delegasi adalah pasti, tetapi itu telah ditetapkan bahwa van den Broeck dan Puyck bepergian ke Pengadilan Shogunal, dan Melchior van Santvoort bertindak sebagai penerjemah misi. Santevoort tiba beberapa tahun sebelumnya naik kapal Belanda De Liefde. Dia telah membuktikan dirinya sebagai seorang pedagang di Nagasaki.

 

 

Kristus dalam badai di danau Genesareth; oleh Rembrandt (1633) 160 x 127cm. Pada tahun 1990 lukisan itu dicuri dari Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum dan belum pulih, melainkan milik Jacques Specx pada tahun 1651

Shogun diberikan Belanda akses ke semua port di Jepang, dan menegaskan hal ini dalam tindakan yang aman-melakukan, dicap dengan segel merah. (Inv.nr.1a.).

Pada September 1609 Dewan kapal memutuskan untuk menyewa rumah di Hirado pulau (sebelah barat pulau utama selatan Kiushu). Jacques Specx menjadi yang pertama “Opperhoofd” (Kepala) pabrik Perusahaan yang baru. [5]

Pada 1610, Specx mengirim kapal ke Korea. [6]

 

1632-1636: Hendrik Brouwer
Hendrik Brouwer
 

 

Potret Hendrik Brouwer

Hendrik Brouwer (musim semi 1581 – 7 Agustus 1643) adalah seorang penjelajah Belanda, Laksamana, dan administrator kolonial baik di Jepang dan Hindia Belanda.

Ia diperkirakan untuk pertama memiliki berlayar ke Hindia Timur untuk Belanda East India Company (VOC) pada 1606. Pada tahun 1610 ia pergi lagi ke Hindia, sekarang sebagai komandan dari tiga kapal. Pada perjalanan ini ia menciptakan Rute Brouwer, rute dari Afrika Selatan ke Jawa bahwa perjalanan mengurangi durasi dari tahun ke sekitar 6 bulan dengan mengambil keuntungan dari angin barat yang kuat di Forties Roaring (garis lintang antara 40 ° dan 50 ° selatan) . Sampai titik itu, Belanda telah mengikuti rute yang disalin dari Portugis melalui pantai Afrika, Mauritius, dan Srilanka. Dengan 1617, VOC diperlukan semua kapal mereka untuk mengambil rute Brouwer. [1]

Setelah kedatangannya pada tahun 1611 di Hindia Timur, ia dikirim ke Jepang untuk menggantikan Jacques Specx sementara sebagai opperhoofd di Dejima dari 28 Agustus 1612 untuk 6 Agustus 1614. [2] Selama waktu itu ia melakukan kunjungan ke pengadilan Jepang pada Edo. Pada 1613 ia melakukan perjalanan ke Siam yang meletakkan dasar untuk perdagangan Belanda dengan Siam.

Pada awal 1632, dia adalah bagian dari delegasi yang dikirim ke London untuk menyelesaikan perselisihan perdagangan antara perusahaan-perusahaan India Timur Inggris dan Belanda. Setelah itu ia meninggalkan untuk Hindia, dan pada tanggal 18 April tahun yang sama ia diangkat Gubernur Jenderal Hindia Timur, Jacques Specx lagi berikut, posisi yang dia pegang sampai 1 Januari 1636. Anthony van Diemen adalah asistennya selama seluruh periode, dan banyak dari eksplorasi Belanda ke Pasifik dilakukan di bawah komando Van Diemen yang diusulkan secara tertulis oleh Brouwer sebelum ia pergi.

Pada tahun 1642, VOC Belanda bergabung dengan Perusahaan Hindia Barat dalam mengorganisir sebuah ekspedisi ke Chili untuk mendirikan basis untuk emas diperdagangkan pada reruntuhan ditinggalkan Valdivia. Armada berlayar dari Belanda Brasil di mana Yohanes Maurice dari Nassau memberikan mereka dengan pasokan. Sementara pembulatan Cape Horn, ekspedisi menetapkan bahwa Staten Island bukan bagian dari tanah yang tidak diketahui Selatan. Setelah mendarat di Pulau Chiloe, Brouwer membuat perjanjian dengan Mapuche (kemudian dikenal sebagai Araucanians) untuk membantu dalam membangun pemukiman di Valdivia. Namun, pada 7 Agustus 1643 Hendrik meninggal (pada usia 62) sebelum tiba, dan digantikan oleh wakil laksamana nya Elias Herckman, yang mendarat di reruntuhan Valdivia pada tanggal 24 Agustus. Brouwer dimakamkan di pemukiman baru, yang bernama Herckman Brouwershaven setelah dia. Herckman dan anak buahnya menduduki lokasi hanya sampai 28 Oktober 1643. Setelah diberitahu bahwa Belanda telah berencana untuk kembali ke lokasi, penguasa Spanyol di Peru dikirim 1000 orang dalam dua puluh kapal (dan 2000 orang dengan tanah, yang tidak pernah berhasil) pada tahun 1644 untuk memukimkan Valdivia dan membentengi itu. Para prajurit Spanyol di garnisun baru disinterred dan membakar tubuh Brouwer. [3] [4]

 

1636-1645: Anthony van Diemen
Anthony van Diemen
.

Anthony van Diemen
 

Potret Anthony van Diemen
 
Lahir
 1593
Culemborg, Utrecht, Belanda Republik
 
Meninggal
 19 April 1645 (1645/4/19)
Batavia, Belanda India Timur
 
Kebangsaan
 Belanda
 
Pendudukan
 Explorer, gubernur kolonial
 

Anthony van Diemen (juga Antonie, Antonio, Anton, Antonius) (Culemborg, 1593 – Batavia, 19 April 1645), gubernur kolonial Belanda, lahir di Culemborg di Belanda, putra Meeus Anthonisz van Diemen [1] dan Christina Hoevenaar . Pada 1616 ia pindah ke Amsterdam, dengan harapan meningkatkan kekayaannya sebagai pedagang, dalam hal ini ia gagal dan dinyatakan bangkrut. Setelah setahun ia menjadi hamba dari Perusahaan India Timur Belanda dan berlayar ke Batavia (Jakarta), ibukota Hindia Belanda. Pada perjalanan keluar, ke Timur Indiaman Mauritius dia secara tidak sengaja pergi lebih ke selatan ke sebuah pantai yang tidak diketahui Australia. [2]

Gubernur Jan Pieterszoon Coen menemukan van Diemen menjadi pejabat berbakat dan 1626 dia adalah Direktur Jenderal Perdagangan dan anggota Dewan Hindia. Pada tahun 1630 ia menikah Maria van Aelst. Setahun kemudian dia kembali ke Belanda sebagai Laksamana di Deventer kapal. Pada tahun 1632 ia kembali ke Batavia dan pada 1635 ia ditunjuk Gubernur Jenderal Hindia Belanda, pengangkatannya diberlakukan pada 1 Januari 1636.

Van Diemen yang sembilan tahun sebagai Gubernur Jenderal yang berhasil dan penting untuk kedua koloni dan keberhasilan komersial dari East India Company. Dia mencurahkan banyak energinya untuk memperluas kekuatan perusahaan di seluruh Asia. Di bawah kekuasaannya pemerintahan Belanda didirikan di Ceylon (sekarang Sri Lanka).

Van Diemen diingat adalah terbaik untuk usahanya untuk mendorong eksplorasi “Great South Tanah”, Australia, sehingga dalam “pelayaran Belanda akhir dan paling ambisius abad ini” [3] Pelayaran pertama di bawah pemerintahan energik. Dilakukan dalam waktu tiga bulan kedatangannya di Batavia, mulai dari Cape York kapal-kapalnya untuk memetakan pantai diketahui, tetapi usaha itu berakhir dengan kegagalan, ketika komandan dibunuh oleh penduduk asli di New Guinea, dan kapal kembali. Pada 1639 dia ditugaskan dua perjalanan ke utara, untuk mencari “Kepulauan Emas dan Perak” bahwa laporan Spanyol ditempatkan di Pasifik Utara ke timur Jepang, dan dikirim Maarten Gerritsz Vries untuk mengeksplorasi pantai Korea dan “Tartaria”; ini, dua kembali tanpa hasil [4]. terpengaruh, Van Diemen ditunjuk Frans Visscher untuk menyusun rencana untuk penemuan baru. Visscher dipetakan tiga rute yang berbeda dan van Diemen memutuskan untuk mengirim Agustus 1642 Abel Janszoon Tasman, disertai dengan Visscher, mencari Tanah Great South, yang Tasman akan segera menjuluki “Nieuw Holland”.

Pada bulan November 1642, menuju ke timur dari Mauritius pada lintang 44 dan hilang pantai selatan Australia, Tasman melihat daratan (pantai barat pulau Tasmania), dan mengikuti pantai selatan memutar ke pantai timur. Tasman dikirim pesta darat di Blackman Bay, di Semenanjung Tasman, yang ditanam bendera dan ditemui beberapa penduduk asli. Percaya ia telah menemukan sebuah wilayah besar, Tasman menamakannya Tanah Van Diemen dalam menghormati pelindungnya [5]. Van Diemen juga diperingati di Van Diemen Teluk di pantai utara Australia.

Van Diemen menugaskan perjalanan jauh dari Tasman pada 1644.

Anthony van Diemen meninggal pada April 1645 di Batavia, Hindia Belanda. Perusahaan diberikan istrinya pensiun besar dan ia pensiun ke Belanda. Namanya diabadikan dalam nama titik barat Pulau Utara Selandia Baru, Cape Maria van Diemen, dinamakan dengan Tasman tahun 1643, dan oleh Maria Island di lepas pantai timur Tasmania.

 

1645-1650: Cornelis van der Lijn
Cornelis van der Lijn
 

 

Potret Cornelis van der Lijn [1]

Cornelis van der Lijn (1608 -? 27 Juli 1679) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda dari 1646 sampai 1650.

Awal karir
Van der Lijn lahir di Alkmaar, mungkin pada 1608. Dia pergi, pada 1627, sebagai Asisten (Belanda: asisten) ke Batavia, Hindia Belanda kapal Wapen van Hoorn. Dari 1632 to 18 Januari 1636 ia Akuntan Jenderal (Belanda: boekhouder-Generaal). Pada 1639 ia menjadi Konselor-Luar Biasa (Belanda: Raad ekstra-oridinair) kepada Dewan Hindia. Setahun kemudian ia diangkat Presiden Schepenrechtbank (pengadilan maritim, tapi dengan berbagai fungsi lainnya). Satu tahun lagi kemudian dia membuat Konselor penuh (Belanda: Raad ordinair) ia mengikuti Philips Lucasz (yang potret dilukis oleh Rembrandt [2]) sebagai Direktur-Jenderal Hindia.

Dewan Hindia
Sesaat sebelum kematiannya pada 19 April 1645, Gubernur Jenderal Antonio van Diemen dipanggil Dewan Hindia (12 April 1645) untuk membangun Cornelis van der Lijn sebagai penggantinya. Ini tidak sejalan dengan instruksi dari Seventeen Lords (XVII XVII), yang telah ditetapkan pada tahun 1617 bahwa segera setelah kematian seorang Gubernur-Jenderal, Dewan harus memilih sementara Gubernur Jenderal. Hanya setelah Seventeen Lords telah sepakat untuk pilihan akan pengangkatan mulai berlaku sebenarnya. Heren XVII pada keputusan pertama dibatalkan Van Diemen, tapi kemudian setelah itu bernama Cornelis yang sama van der Lijn sebagai penggantinya. Pada 10 Oktober 1646 ia diangkat oleh mereka sebagai Gubernur-Jenderal.

 

 

 

1650-1653: Carel Reyniersz
Carel Reyniersz
 

 

Potret Carel Reyniersz

Carel Reyniersz (1604-1653) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda dari 1650 sampai 1653.

Reyniersz (atau Reiniersz) lahir di Amsterdam pada tahun 1604 (atau mungkin 1602). Ia meninggalkan untuk Hindia tahun 1627 sebagai Upperbuyer (opperkoopman) pada Coromandel Belanda (Karnataka). Dia dipromosikan menjadi Gubernur Pantai Coromandel tahun 1635, meskipun ia telah dituduh terlibat dalam (dilarang) dagang swasta / pribadi. Pada tahun 1636 ia menjadi Konselor-luar biasa (extra-ordinair Raad) Dewan Hindia Belanda. Dia kembali ke Amsterdam sebagai Admiral armada kembali pada tahun 1638 dan didirikan dirinya sebagai seorang pedagang di sana. Namun, ia kehilangan seluruh kekayaannya, sehingga kiri lagi, kali ini kapal Salamander itu, untuk India pada tanggal 24 April 1645. Dia tiba di sana pada tanggal 3 Desember 1645. Tahun berikutnya, 1646, ia menjadi Konselor penuh Hindia.

Tugasnya dialokasikan adalah untuk melaksanakan kebijakan baru di Hindia. Yang paling penting, dia, sejauh mungkin untuk menghilangkan sumber-sumber persaingan. Dia mengambil tindakan terhadap perdagangan swasta dan untuk menangani dengan produksi terlalu banyak rempah-rempah dengan memiliki pohon ditebang. Reinier terjebak ketat untuk kebijakan ini, yang menyebabkan banyak konflik di Seram Barat, di mana penduduk tidak akan menerima kehancuran perkebunan mereka. Butuh waktu sampai 1658 untuk wilayah yang akan ditaklukkan.

Empat tahun setelah Reyniersz menjadi seorang Konselor, Gubernur Jenderal Cornelis van der Lijn menerima debit terhormat (sic) dan pada tanggal 26 April 1650, Reyniersz bernama penggantinya, tugas yang sangat nantikan. Empat tahun kemudian dia diberhentikan. Para gubernur dari perusahaan itu tidak senang dengan kelemahan pemerintahannya. Masih ada di Belanda surat pemecatan. Hal ini menunjukkan ia sedang dipecat karena ia tidak mampu untuk melaksanakan tugas kantor, terutama memelihara perdamaian. Surat itu tidak pernah dikirim, karena Reynier sudah ditulis ke Seventeen Lords (XVII XVII) meminta untuk dibebaskan dari kantornya dengan alasan kesehatan. Surat ini tiba tepat sebelum surat pemecatan yang akan dikirim. Para Seventeen Lords rela menyetujui permintaan, meskipun ia meninggal sebelum mereka mencapai respon dia, pada malam 18/19 Mei 1653. Ia dimakamkan di Batavia, Hindia Belanda dan berhasil sebagai Gubernur Jenderal oleh Joan Maetsuycker.

 

1653-1678: Joan Maetsuycker
Joan Maetsuycker
 

 

Joan Maetsuycker, Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda. Lukisan oleh Jacob Jansz. Coeman di Rijksmuseum

Joan Maetsuycker (14 Oktober 1606, Amsterdam – 24 Januari 1678, Batavia) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda 1653-1678.

Maetsuycker belajar hukum di Leuven, dan merupakan pengacara pertama di Den Haag, dan kemudian di Amsterdam. Dari 1636, ia tinggal di Hindia Belanda. Pada tahun 1646 ia menjadi Gubernur-Jendral Belanda pertama Ceylon, dan tujuh tahun kemudian, Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda. Dia tinggal di pos itu selama 25 tahun, yang merupakan periode terpanjang untuk Gubernur Jenderal. Koloni Belanda di Hindia berkembang di bawah Maetsuycker. Di bawah pemerintahannya, Portugis kehilangan Ceylon (1658), pantai Coromandel (1658) dan Malabar (1663); Makassar ditaklukkan (1667), pantai barat Sumatra diduduki, dan ekspedisi pertama ke pedalaman Jawa diadakan.

 

 

 

 

1678-1681: Rijckloff van Goens
Rijckloff van Goens
 

 

Potret Rijklof van Goens

Rijckloff van Goens (Rees, 24 Juni 1619 – Amsterdam, 14 November 1682) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda 1678-1681. Dia menulis panjang lebar tentang perjalanannya ke Sri Lanka dan India.

Tulisannya tentang kunjungan ke istana Sultan Agung dan para penerusnya referensi penting bagi sejarawan dari era Mataram di Jawa

 

 

 

 

 

1681-1684: Cornelis Speelman
Cornelis Speelman
Cornelis Speelman (2 Maret 1628 – 11 Januari 1684) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda 1681-1684.

 

 

Cornelis Speelman, mewakili sekitar 1800.

Cornelis Speelman Janzoon adalah putra seorang pedagang Rotterdam. Ia lahir pada tanggal 2 Maret 1628. Pada tahun ke-16, ia meninggalkan kapal Hillegersberg untuk India. Dia bekerja sebagai Asisten (asisten) dalam pelayanan Belanda East India Company (VOC). Pada tahun 1645 ia tiba di Batavia, Hindia Belanda. Dia menjadi pemegang buku (boekhouder) pada 1648 dan Underbuyer (onderkoopman) pada 1649. Dia menjadi Sekretaris (secretaris) kepada Dewan Hindia Belanda (Raad van Indië). Dia bepergian dengan duta besar Joan Cunaeus ke Persia tahun itu, dan menulis account dari perjalanan. Mereka diterima oleh Syah Abbas II dengan pesta besar. Bahkan sebelum perjalanannya berakhir, pada tahun 1652, ia dipromosikan untuk Pembeli (Koopman). Pada kedatangannya ke Batavia, ia ikut mendirikan pos di kantor pembukuan Jenderal (boekhouder-Generaal), ‘untuk siapa ia ditugasi untuk waktu yang lama, dan siapa ia berhasil tahun 1657. Sementara itu, ia telah menikah lima belas tahun Petronella Maria Wonderaer, putri ke-Receiver Umum (ontvanger-Generaal). Pada 1659 dia ditempatkan di jawab staf Perusahaan klerikal dan administrasi (kapitein de compagnie selama pennisten) di Batavia. Pada 1661, ia menjadi schepen van Batavia, (semacam anggota dewan kotapraja pasca terhubung dengan pemerintah lokal di sana).

Pada tanggal 12 Juni 1663, Cornelis Speelman diangkat Gubernur dan Direktur Belanda Coromandel, tetapi ditangguhkan oleh Seventeen Lords (XVII XVII), dituduh memiliki ilegal terlibat dalam perdagangan swasta. Dia telah membeli berlian untuk istrinya dan kemudian dijual kembali karena ia tidak menyukainya. Meskipun protes berat nya, pengadilan di Batavia ingin membuat contoh dari dia dan dia dijatuhi hukuman 15 bulan suspensi dan denda 3.000 gulden. Pada 1666, dia bernama Laksamana dan pengawas dari sebuah ekspedisi ke Makasar. Pada 18 November 1667, ia menyimpulkan Perjanjian yang disebut Bongaais. (Perjanjian Bonggaya [1]) Pada tahun yang sama, ia diangkat Komisaris (commissaris) dari Ambon, Banda dan Ternate. Akibatnya, dia menjadi Konselor-luar biasa (extra-ordinaris raad) kepada Dewan Hindia Belanda. Ia berkelana sekali lagi, pada 1669, sebagai laksamana lain ekspedisi ke Makassar di mana ia benar-benar menaklukkan kerajaan, menerima rantai emas dan medali di tahun ini pengakuan berikut.

Dia menjadi penuh Konselor Hindia pada tanggal 23 Maret 1671. Tahun berikutnya ia laksamana dari sebuah armada dikirim melawan Prancis. Pada bulan Desember 1676, dia memimpin sebuah ekspedisi ke Jawa Tengah, di mana penguasa Mataram dalam kesulitan dan ia diperlukan untuk mendukung aliansi dengan pangeran itu. Di Jawa Timur Pantai, ia pergi ke perang melawan apa yang disebut Toerana Djaja. Butuh beberapa waktu sebelum perdamaian didirikan kembali. Ia dipanggil kembali ke Batavia pada akhir 1677 dan pada 18 Januari 1678 bernama Konselor Pertama dan Direktur-Jenderal Hindia (Raad en Eerste Directeur van Indië-Generaal). Juga pada tahun itu ia diangkat Presiden dari College van Schepenen (hubungannya dengan pemerintah daerah) di Batavia. Pada 29 Oktober 1680 ia diangkat Gubernur Jenderal, sebuah pos dia mengambil pada tanggal 25 November 1681, berhasil Rijckloff van Goens.

Selama masa jabatan sebagai Gubernur Cornelis Speelman Jenderal, Sultan Ternate ditaklukkan. Dia menyerahkan semua tanahnya kerajaannya kepada Perusahaan. Speelman juga menaklukkan kota Banten. Cornelis Speelman meninggal pada 11 Januari 1684 di Istana di Batavia. Jenazahnya disertai dengan kebisingan yang besar dan kemegahan, yang tidak ada nyeri atau uang selamat. Ia dimakamkan di Kruiskerk untuk suara tembakan meriam dari 229. Dia diikuti sebagai Gubernur Jenderal oleh Johannes Camphuy

 

1684-1691: Johannes Camphuys
Johannes Camphuys
 

 

Potret Johannes Campuys

Johannes Camphuys (terdaftar sebagai Kamphuis, Centraal Bureau voor Genealogie) (Haarlem, 18 Juli 1634 – Batavia (Jakarta), 18 Juli 1695) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda 1684-1691 [1].

[Sunting] Jepang
Pada titik ini dalam sejarah Jepang, pos VOC tunggal (atau “pabrik”) adalah pulau Dejima terletak di di pelabuhan Nagasaki di pulau Kyushu bagian selatan. Camphuys tiga kali dikirim ke Jepang sebagai Opperhoofd atau pedagang kepala dan petugas dari pos perdagangan VOC. [2]

22 Oktober 1671-12 November 1672 [2]
29 October1673-19 Oktober 1674 [2]
7 November 1675-27 Oktober 1676 [2]
[Sunting] Legacy
Kehidupan Camphuys diperingati dalam nama jalan di lingkungan Lombok Utrecht, dan ia juga dikenang dalam nama sebuah jalan di Bezuidenhoutquarter Den Haag.

 

1691-1704: Willem van Outhoorn
Willem van Outhoorn
 

 

Willem van Outhoorn (4 Mei 1635 – 27 November 1720) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda 1691-1704. Ia lahir dan meninggal di Hindia Belanda.

[Sunting] Biografi
Willem van Outhoorn (atau Oudthoorn) lahir pada 4 Mei 1635 di Larike di Pulau Ambon di Indonesia. Ayahnya adalah seorang Belanda East India Company (VOC) Pembeli (Koopman) di sana. Ia dikirim ke Belanda untuk studi hukum di Universitas Leiden. Pada 28 November 1657 ia lulus dalam UU.

[Sunting] karir Pemerintah
Pada 1659 van Outhoorn kembali ke Hindia, bekerja sebagai Underbuyer (onderkoopman). Dia tetap di Timur selama sisa hidupnya. Bahkan perjalanan ke Banten dekatnya perjalanan terlalu jauh untuk dia. Pada tahun 1662 ia menjadi anggota Dewan Keadilan (Raad van Justitie) di Batavia. Pada 1672 ia menjadi Receiver Jenderal (ontvanger-Generaal), dan pada 1673 ia menjadi Wakil Presiden Dewan Kehakiman. Pada tahun 1678 dia didakwa dengan misi untuk Banten dan ia menjadi anggota luar biasa Dewan Hindia Belanda. Dia diangkat menjadi Konselor penuh, yang dikonfirmasi pada posting yang di 1681. Dia menjadi Presiden Dewan Kehakiman dalam 1682 dan pada tahun 1689 Presiden dari College van Heemraden (berurusan dengan real batas, jalan, dll). Pada tahun yang sama ia diangkat Konselor Pertama dan Direktur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda.

Het interieur van het Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië in Buitenzorg

Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies

 

List of Governors-General of the Dutch East Indies and their service years

The Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies represented the Dutch rule in the Dutch East Indies between 1610 and Dutch recognition of the independence of Indonesia in 1949.

The first Governors-General were appointed by the Dutch East India Company (VOC). After the VOC was formally dissolved in 1800,[1] the territorial possessions of the VOC were nationalised under the Dutch Government as the Dutch East Indies, a colony of the Netherlands. The Governors-General were appointed by the Dutch government.

Under the period of British control (1811-1816), the equivalent position was the Lieutenant-Governor, of whom the most notable is Thomas Stamford Raffles. Between 1942 and 1945, while Hubertus Johannes van Mook was the nominal Governor-General, the area was under Japanese control, and was governed by a two sequence of governors, in Java and Sumatra. After 1948 in negotiations for independence, the equivalent position was named High Commissioner of the Crown in the Dutch East Indies.

List of Governors-General

Dutch East India Company

 

Governors-General of the Dutch East Indies (1610–1709)

Pieter Both

This article is about the first Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. For the mountain named after him, see Pieter Both (mountain).

Pieter Both

 

Portrait of Pieter Both

1st Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies

In office
19 December 1610 – 6 November 1614

Preceded by

None

Succeeded by

Gerard Reynst

Personal details

Born

1568
Amersfoort, Dutch Republic

Died

6 March 1615
Indian Ocean (near Mauritius)

Pieter Both (1568, Amersfoort – 6 March 1615, Mauritius) was the first Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies.

Not much is known of his early years. In 1599, Both was already an admiral in the New, or Brabant Company. In that year, he traveled to the East Indies with four ships. When the newly founded Dutch East India Company set up a government for the Dutch East Indies, Pieter Both was invited to become the Governor-General. He held that position from 19 December 1610 to 6 November 1614. During that period he concluded contracts with the Moluccans, conquered Timor, and drove the Spaniards out of Tidore.

After he relinquished his position as Governor-General to Gerard Reynst, he left for the Netherlands with four ships. Two of the ships were shipwrecked near Mauritius, and Pieter Both drowned.

The second highest mountain of Mauritius is named Pieter Both after him.

 

Gerard Reynst

 

 

Portrait of Gerard Reynst

Gerard Reynst (Amsterdam, ? – Jakarta, 7 December 1615) was a Dutch merchant, father of a museum curator, and later the second Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies.

Biography

All that is known of his early years is that he was born in Amsterdam, the son of Pieter Rijnst (1510-1574), soap boiler, and Trijn Sijverts. In 1599 he became a merchant and ship-owner, as well as a founder-member and administrator of the Nieuwe or Brabantsche Compagnie which, in 1600, became the Vereenighde Company of Amsterdam. This company then in 1602 merged into the Dutch East India Company (VOC).

On the request of his elders in the college of the Heren XVII (17 men), he became Governor-general of the Dutch East Indies in 1613 and left with 9 ships. The trip lasted 18 months, after which he took over command from Pieter Both. On the way, he had already sent one of his ships to the Red Sea to start trade relations with the Arabs there. He died more than a year after arrival, having caught dysentery so that he could do little there, besides a few minor activities that were only intermittently successful.

 

Laurens Reael

 

 

Laurens Reael (ca. 1620)

Dr. Laurens Reael (Amsterdam, 22 October 1583 – Amsterdam, 21 October 1637) was an employee of the VOC, Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies in 1616-1617 and an admiral of the Dutch navy from 1625-27.

[edit] Early life

Laurens Reael was the son of Laurens Jacobsz Reael, a merchant in Amsterdam named after the sign or gable stone of his house/shop In den gouden Reael (“In the Golden Real“) and an amateur poet known for writing Geuzenliederen (songs of the geuzen). The Amsterdam neighborhood Gouden Reael is named after Laurens Reael’s birth house, via a later (1648) warehouse of the Reael family on the Zandhoek that turned into a popular inn. Laurens Jr. had academic talents, excelling in math and languages. He studied law in Leiden, where he lived in the house of Jacobus Arminius who had married his older sister Lijsbet Reael in 1590. Laurens received his doctorate in 1608.

[edit] East Indies

In May 1611 he left as commandeur of four ships for the East Indies. He quickly worked his way up to become the third Governor-General in 1616, where he was stationed at the VOC headquarters, at that time on Ternate in the Moluccas. That year he could personally welcome both Joris van Spilbergen (March 30) and Schouten & Le Maire (September 12) upon their respective arrivals at Ternate from Holland via the Strait of Magellan and Cape Horn. He was unaware that the VOC had ordered Schouten & Le Maire’s ships to be confiscated for alleged infringement of its monopoly of trade to the Spice Islands.

Already after a year, on October 31 1617, Reael resigned following a dispute with the VOC’s leadership (the Lords XVII) on the treatment of both the English competitors in the Moluccas and of the native people. The jurist Reael would only take action against the English if international law would allow that and had protested repeatedly against the incursions against the natives. He, like the local admiral Steven van der Haghen, was of the opinion that the VOC’s goals should be achieved solely via commercial and diplomatic routes. In his official report to the Staten Generaal and the VOC’s Lords XVII upon his return to Holland he made these points again very clear.

It would take however until March 21, 1619 until the decidedly less pacifistic Jan Pieterszoon Coen would replace him as Governor-General, before which time Reael had fought the Spanish in 1617 in the Bay of Manila, the English at Bantam and in the Mollucas, and the Mataram Sultanate at Japara on Java

 

Jan Pieterszoon Coen

Jan Pieterszoon Coen

 

Born

8 January 1587(1587-01-08)
Hoorn, Holland, Dutch Republic

Died

21 September 1629(1629-09-21) (aged 42)
Batavia, Dutch East India

Nationality

Dutch

Occupation

Colonial governor

Jan Pieterszoon Coen (8 January 1587 – 21 September 1629) was a officer of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in the early seventeenth century, holding two terms as its Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies.

He was long considered a national hero in the Netherlands, for providing the impulse that set the VOC on the path to dominance in the Dutch East Indies. A quote of his from 1618 is well known, “Despair not, spare your enemies not, for God is with us”. Since the latter half of the 20th century he has been looked at in a more critical light, as some people view his often violent means to have been excessive.

Coen was known in his time on account of strict governance and harsh criticism of people who did not share his views, at times directed even at the 17 Lords of the VOC (for which he was reprimanded). Coen was known to be strict towards subordinates and merciless to his opponents. His willingness to use violence to obtain his ends was too much for many, even for such a relatively violent period of history. When Saartje Specx, a girl whom he had been entrusted to care for, was found in a garden in the arms of a soldier, Pieter Cortenhoeff, Coen showed little mercy in having Cortenhoeff beheaded. Specx only escaped the death penalty by drowning because she was still under aged.

Further but more extensive actions perpetrated by order of Coen, are recounted in a BBC Television documentary series “The Spice Trail” (episode 2: “Nutmeg and Cloves”).[1] The program also contains details of wanton acts of destruction committed by the Dutch in the spice islands of Eastern Indonesia, the purpose of which was to create scarcity of natural produce in order to maintain price levels

 

Pieter de Carpentier

Pieter de Carpentier (1586 or 88 – 5 September 1659) was a Dutch, or Flemish, administrator of the Dutch East India Company, and who served as Governor-General there from 1623–1627. The Gulf of Carpentaria in northern Australia is named after him.

 

 

Portrait of Pieter De Carpentier

Pieter de Carpentier was born in Antwerp in 1586 or 1588, shortly after the formation of the newly-independent Dutch Republic (Republic of the Seven United Netherlands, or United Provinces). He studied philosophy in Leiden, from 1603. In 1616 he sailed on board the sailing vessel De Getrouwheid to Indonesia. There he had a number of functions, including Director-General of the Trade, Member to the Council of the Indies, and member of the Council of Defence. From February 1, 1623 to September 30, 1627 he was the fifth Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. He participated in the conquest of Jakarta and helped to build the town of Batavia. He did much for the town, including setting up a school, a Town Hall, and the first Orphanage Home. He also designed the structure of the churches in the town.

On 12 November 1627 Pieter de Carpentier sailed from the East Indies as Head of the Fleet. He arrived in Holland on 3 June 1628, with five richly-laden merchant ships, and this, combined with the fact that the Government had recently succeeded in releasing three ships from an embargo laid upon them by the English a year previously, led the authorities to determine to send another fleet of eleven ships to the East, with which General Jacob Specks was to sail. Two ships and a yacht being soon ready to sail, the senate sent them to Texel so as to lose no time. These vessels were the Batavia (under Francisco Pelsaert) the Dordrecht (under Isaac van Swaenswyck) and the Assendelft (under Cornelis Vlack). They left Texel for their destination on 28 October 1628.

De Carpentier was made Member of the Board of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in October 1629. His maternal uncle, Louis Delbeecque, had been one of the initiators of the VOC.

Pieter de Carpentier married Maria Ravevelt in Middelburg on 2 March 1630. She died in September 1641 and was buried on in the Westerkerk in Amsterdam. De Carpentier died in Amsterdam on 5 September 1659, and was also buried in the Westerkerk. They had seven children.

When Jan Carstenszoon (or Carstensz) and Willem van Coolsteerdt landed the Pera and the Arnhem on the west coast of Cape York Peninsula of New Holland (now Australia) in 1623, after the first discovery by Willem Janszoon in the Duyfken in 1606, they then named the ‘Gulf of Carpentaria‘ after the Governor-General, Pieter de Carpe

 

Jacques Specx

 

 

Jacques Specx

Jacques Specx (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈʒɑk ˈspɛks]; Dordrecht, 1585 – Amsterdam, 22 July 1652) was a Dutch merchant, who founded the trade on Japan and Korea in 1609.[1][2] Jacques Specx received the support of William Adams to obtain extensive trading rights from the Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu on August 24, 1609, which allowed him to establish a trading factory in Hirado on September 20, 1609. He was the interim governor in Batavia between 1629 – 1632. There his daughter Saartje Specx was involved in a scandal. Back home in Holland Specx became an art-collector.

The Dutch, who, rather than “Nanban” were called “Kōmō” (Jp:紅毛, lit. “Red Hair”) by the Japanese, first arrived in Japan in 1600, on board the Liefde.

In 1605, two of the Liefde’s crew were sent to Pattani by Tokugawa Ieyasu, to invite Dutch trade to Japan. The head of the Pattani Dutch trading post, Victor Sprinckel, refused on the ground that he was too busy dealing with Portuguese opposition in Southeast Asia.

[edit] 1609 mission to Japan

Jacques Specx sailed on a fleet of eleven ships that left Texel in 1607 under the command of Pieter Willemsz Verhoeff. After arriving in Bantam two ships which were dispatched to establish the first official trade relations between the Netherlands and Japan.[3]

 

 

The “trade pass” (Dutch: handelspas) issued in the name of Tokugawa Ieyasu. The text commands: “Dutch ships are allowed to travel to Japan, and they can disembark on any coast, without any reserve. From now on this regulation must be observed, and the Dutch left free to sail where they want throughout Japan. No offenses to them will be allowed, such as on previous occasions” – dated August 24, 1609 (Keichō 14, 25th day of the 6th month); n.b., the goshuin (御朱印) identifies this as an official document bearing the shogun’s scarlet seal.

The two ships Specx commanded were De Griffioen (the “Griffin”, 19 cannons) and Roode Leeuw met Pijlen (the “Red lion with arrows”, 400 tons, 26 cannons). The ships arrived in Japan on July 2, 1609.[4]

Among the crews were the Chief merchants Abraham van den Broeck and Nicolaas Puyck and the under-merchant Jaques Specx.

The exact composition of the delegation is uncertain; but it has been established that van den Broeck and Puyck traveled to the Shogunal Court, and Melchior van Santvoort acted as the mission’s interpreter. Santevoort had arrived a few years earlier aboard the Dutch ship De Liefde. He had established himself as a merchant in Nagasaki.

 

 

Christ in the storm on the lake Genesareth; by Rembrandt (1633) 160 x 127cm. In 1990 the painting was stolen from the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum and has not been recovered; it belonged to Jacques Specx in 1651

The Shogun granted the Dutch the access to all ports in Japan, and confirmed this in an act of safe-conduct, stamped with his red seal. (Inv.nr.1a.).

In September 1609 the ship’s Council decided to hire a house on Hirado island (west of the southern main island Kiushu). Jacques Specx became the first “Opperhoofd” (Chief) of the new Company’s factory.[5]

In 1610, Specx sent a ship to Korea.[6]

 

Hendrik Brouwer

 

 

Portrait of Hendrik Brouwer

Hendrik Brouwer (spring 1581 – August 7, 1643) was a Dutch explorer, admiral, and colonial administrator both in Japan and the Dutch East Indies.

He is thought to first have sailed to the East Indies for the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in 1606. In 1610 he left again to the Indies, now as commander of three ships. On this trip he devised the Brouwer Route, a route from South Africa to Java that reduced voyage duration from a year to about 6 months by taking advantage of the strong westerly winds in the Roaring Forties (the latitudes between 40° and 50° south). Up to that point, the Dutch had followed a route copied from the Portuguese via the coast of Africa, Mauritius and Ceylon. By 1617, the VOC required all their ships to take the Brouwer route.[1]

After his arrival in 1611 in the East Indies, he was sent to Japan to replace Jacques Specx temporarily as opperhoofd at Dejima from August 28, 1612 to August 6, 1614.[2] During that time he made a visit to the Japanese court at Edo. In 1613 he made a trip to Siam that laid the foundation for the Dutch trade with Siam.

Early in 1632, he was part of a delegation sent to London to solve trade disagreements between the British and Dutch East India companies. Afterwards he left for the Indies, and on April 18 of that same year he was appointed Governor-General of the East Indies, again following Jacques Specx, a position which he held until January 1, 1636. Anthony van Diemen was his assistant during this entire period, and many of the Dutch explorations into the Pacific carried out under Van Diemen’s command were suggested in writing by Brouwer before he left.

In 1642, the VOC joined the Dutch West Indies Company in organizing an expedition to Chile to establish a base for trading gold at the abandoned ruins of Valdivia. The fleet sailed from Dutch Brazil where John Maurice of Nassau provided them with supplies. While rounding Cape Horn, the expedition established that Staten Island was not part of the unknown Southern land. After landing on Chiloe Island, Brouwer made a pact with the Mapuche (then known as the Araucanians) to aid in establishing a resettlement at Valdivia. However, on August 7, 1643 Hendrik died (at the age of 62) before arriving, and was succeeded by his vice-admiral Elias Herckman, who landed at the ruins of Valdivia on August 24. Brouwer was buried in the new settlement, which Herckman named Brouwershaven after him. Herckman and his men occupied the location only until October 28, 1643. Having been told that the Dutch had plans to return to the location, the Spanish viceroy in Peru sent 1000 men in twenty ships (and 2000 men by land, who never made it) in 1644 to resettle Valdivia and fortify it. The Spanish soldiers in the new garrison disinterred and burned Brouwer’s body.[3][4]

 

Anthony van Diemen

.

Anthony van Diemen


Portrait of Anthony van Diemen

Born

1593
Culemborg, Utrecht, Dutch Republic

Died

19 April 1645(1645-04-19)
Batavia, Dutch East India

Nationality

Dutch

Occupation

Explorer, colonial governor

Anthony van Diemen (also Antonie, Antonio, Anton, Antonius) (Culemborg, 1593 – Batavia, 19 April 1645), Dutch colonial governor, was born in Culemborg in the Netherlands, the son of Meeus Anthonisz van Diemen[1] and Christina Hoevenaar. In 1616 he moved to Amsterdam, in hope of improving his fortune as a merchant; in this he failed and was declared bankrupt. After a year he became a servant of the Dutch East India Company and sailed to Batavia (Jakarta), capital of the Dutch East Indies. On the voyage out, to the East Indiaman Mauritius he inadvertently went more south to an unknown coast of Australia.[2]

Governor Jan Pieterszoon Coen found van Diemen to be a talented official and by 1626 he was Director-General of Commerce and member of the Council for the Indies. In 1630 he married Maria van Aelst. A year later he returned to the Netherlands as Admiral on the ship Deventer. In 1632 he returned to Batavia and in 1635 he was appointed Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies, his appointment taking effect on 1 January 1636.

Van Diemen’s nine years as Governor-General were successful and important for both the colony and the commercial success of the East India Company. He devoted much of his energy to expanding the power of the company throughout Asia. Under his rule Dutch power was established in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka).

Van Diemen is best remembered for his efforts to foster exploration of the “Great South Land”, Australia, resulting in “the final and most ambitious Dutch voyages of the century”.[3] The first voyage under his energetic administration was undertaken within three months of his arrival in Batavia; starting from Cape York its ships were to chart the unknown coasts, but the venture ended in failure, when its commander was killed by natives in New Guinea, and the ships returned. In 1639 he commissioned two voyages to the north, in search of the “Gold and Silver Islands” that Spanish reports placed in the North Pacific to the east of Japan, and sent Maarten Gerritsz Vries to explore the coasts of Korea and “Tartaria“; these, two returned fruitlessly.[4] Undeterred, Van Diemen appointed Frans Visscher to draw up a plan for new discoveries. Visscher mapped out three different routes and van Diemen decided in August 1642 to send Abel Janszoon Tasman, accompanied by Visscher, in search of the Great South Land, which Tasman would soon dub “Nieuw Holland“.

In November 1642, headed east from Mauritius on latitude 44 and missing the south coast of Australia, Tasman sighted land (the west coast of the island of Tasmania), and followed the southern coastline around to the east coast. Tasman sent a party ashore at Blackman Bay, on the Tasman Peninsula, who planted a flag and encountered a few of the native inhabitants. Believing he had found a large territory, Tasman named it Van Diemen’s Land in honour of his patron.[5] Van Diemen is also commemorated in Van Diemen Gulf on the coast of northern Australia.

Van Diemen commissioned a further voyage from Tasman in 1644.

Anthony van Diemen died in April 1645 in Batavia, Dutch East Indies. The company granted his wife a large pension and she retired to the Netherlands. Her name is perpetuated in the name of the westernmost point of the North Island of New Zealand, Cape Maria van Diemen, named by Tasman in 1643, and by Maria Island off the east coast of Tasmania.

 

Cornelis van der Lijn

 

 

Portrait of Cornelis van der Lijn [1]

Cornelis van der Lijn (1608? – 27 July 1679) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1646 until 1650.

Early career

Van der Lijn was born in Alkmaar, possibly in 1608. He went, in 1627, as Assistant (Dutch: assistent) to Batavia, Dutch East Indies aboard the Wapen van Hoorn. From 1632 to 18 January 1636 he was Accountant-General (Dutch: boekhouder-generaal). In 1639 he became Counsellor-Extraordinary (Dutch: Raad extra-oridinair) to the Council of the Indies. A year later he was appointed President of the Schepenrechtbank (a maritime court, but with various other functions). One further year later he was made a full Counsellor (Dutch: Raad ordinair) he followed Philips Lucasz (whose portrait was painted by Rembrandt [2]) as Director-General of the Indies.

Council of the Indies

Shortly before his death on 19 April 1645, Governor-General Antonio van Diemen called upon the Council of the Indies (12 April 1645) to establish Cornelis van der Lijn as his successor. This was not in line with the instructions of the Seventeen Lords (Heren XVII), who has laid down in 1617 that immediately after the death of a Governor-General, the Council should choose a provisional Governor-General. Only once the Seventeen Lords had agreed to the choice would the appointment come into actual force. The Heren XVII at first cancelled Van Diemen’s decision, but then afterwards named the very same Cornelis van der Lijn as his successor. On 10 October 1646 he was named by them as Governor-General.

 

 

 

Carel Reyniersz

 

 

Portrait of Carel Reyniersz

Carel Reyniersz (1604–1653) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1650 until 1653.

Reyniersz (or Reiniersz) was born in Amsterdam in 1604 (or perhaps 1602). He left for the Indies in 1627 as Upperbuyer (opperkoopman) on the Dutch Coromandel (Karnataka). He was promoted to Governor of the Coromandel Coast in 1635, even though he had been accused of engaging in (forbidden) private/personal trading. In 1636 he became Counsellor-extraordinary (Raad extra-ordinair) of the Dutch Council of the Indies. He returned to Amsterdam as Admiral of the returning fleet in 1638 and established himself as a merchant there. However, he lost his entire fortune, so left again, this time aboard the Salamander, for India on 24 April 1645. He arrived there on 3 December 1645. The following year, 1646, he became a full Counsellor of the Indies.

His allocated task was to carry out a new policy in the Indies. Most importantly, he was, as far as possible to eliminate sources of competition. He was to take action against private trading and to deal with too much production of spices by having trees cut down. Reinier stuck strictly to this policy, which lead to much conflict in West Ceram, where the population would not accept the destruction of their plantations. It took until 1658 for the area to be pacified.

Four years after Reyniersz become a Counsellor, Governor-General Cornelis van der Lijn received an honorable discharge (sic) and on 26 April 1650, Reyniersz was named his successor, a task he very much looked forward to. Four years later he was dismissed. The governors of the company were not pleased by the weakness of his rule. There still exists in the Netherlands his letter of dismissal. It indicates he was being dismissed because he had been unable to carry out the duties of his office, particularly maintaining peace. The letter was never sent, because Reynier had already written to the Seventeen Lords (Heren XVII) asking to be relieved of his office on health grounds. This letter arrived just before his dismissal letter was to be sent. The Seventeen Lords willingly agreed to his request, though he died before their response reached him, on the night of 18/19 May 1653. He was buried in Batavia, Dutch East Indies and was succeed as Governor-General by Joan Maetsuycker.

 

Joan Maetsuycker

 

 

Joan Maetsuycker, Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. Painting by Jacob Jansz. Coeman in the Rijksmuseum

Joan Maetsuycker (October 14, 1606, Amsterdam – January 24, 1678, Batavia) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1653 to 1678.

Maetsuycker studied law in Leuven, and was a lawyer first in The Hague, and later in Amsterdam. From 1636, he lived in the Dutch East Indies. In 1646 he became the first Dutch Governor-General of Ceylon, and seven years later, the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. He stayed on that post for 25 years, which is the longest period for any Governor-General. The Dutch colony in the Indies flourished under Maetsuycker. Under his rule, the Portuguese lost Ceylon (1658), the coast of Coromandel (1658) and Malabar (1663); Makassar was conquered (1667), the west coast of Sumatra was occupied, and the first expedition to the interior of Java was held.

 

 

 

 

Rijckloff van Goens

 

 

Portrait of Rijklof van Goens

Rijckloff van Goens (Rees, June 24, 1619 – Amsterdam, November 14, 1682) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1678-1681. He wrote extensively about his travels to Ceylon and India.

His writing about visits to the palaces of Sultan Agung and his successors are important references for historians of the Mataram era in Java

 

 

 

 

 

Cornelis Speelman

Cornelis Speelman (2 March 1628 – 11 January 1684) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1681 to 1684.

 

 

Cornelis Speelman, represented around 1800.

Cornelis Janzoon Speelman was the son of a Rotterdam merchant. He was born on 2 March 1628. In his 16th year, he left aboard the Hillegersberg for the India. He was employed as an Assistant (assistent) in the service of the Dutch East India Company (VOC). In 1645 he arrived in Batavia, Dutch East Indies. He became Bookkeeper (boekhouder) in 1648 and Underbuyer (onderkoopman) in 1649. He became Secretary (secretaris) to the Dutch Council of the Indies (Raad van Indië). He travelled with the ambassador Joan Cunaeus to Persia that year, and wrote an account of the voyage. They were received by the Shah Abbas II with great festivity. Even before his voyage came to an end, in 1652,he was promoted to Buyer (koopman). On his return to Batavia, he took up a post in the office of the Bookkeeper-General (boekhouder-generaal), ‘for whom he deputised for a long time, and whom he succeeded in 1657. Meanwhile, he had married the fifteen year-old Petronella Maria Wonderaer, daughter to the Receiver-General (ontvanger-generaal). In 1659 he was placed in charge of the Company’s clerical and administrative staff (kapitein over de compagnie pennisten) in Batavia. In 1661, he became schepen van Batavia, ( a sort of alderman post connected with local government there).

On 12 June 1663, Cornelis Speelman was appointed Governor and Director of Dutch Coromandel, but was suspended by the Seventeen Lords (Heren XVII), being accused of having illegally engaged in private trading. He had bought a diamond for his wife and later re-sold it because she had not liked it. Despite his strenuous protests, the court in Batavia wanted to make an example of him and he was sentenced to a 15 months suspension and a fine of 3,000 guilders. In 1666, he was named admiral and superintendent of an expedition to Makasar. On 18 November 1667, he concluded the so-called Bongaais Treaty. (Treaty of Bonggaya[1]) In the same year, he was named Commissioner (commissaris) of Amboina, Banda and Ternate. Consequently, he became Counsellor-extraordinary (raad extra-ordinaris) to the Dutch Council of the Indies. He travelled once again, in 1669, as admiral of another expedition to Makassar where he completely subjugated the kingdom, receiving a gold chain and medallion in recognition of this the following year.

He became a full Counsellor of the Indies on 23 March 1671. The following year he was admiral of a fleet sent against the French. In December 1676, he led an expedition to Central Java, where the ruler of Mataram was in difficulties and he needed to support the alliance with that prince. On Java’s East Coast, he went to war against the so-called Toerana Djaja. It took some time before peace was re-established. He was called back to Batavia at the end of 1677 and on 18 January 1678 named First Counsellor and Director-General of the Indies (Eerste Raad en Directeur-Generaal van Indië). Also in that year he was appointed President of the College van Schepenen (to do with local government) in Batavia. On 29 October 1680 he was named Governor-General, a post he took up on 25 November 1681, succeeding Rijckloff van Goens.

During the term of office of Cornelis Speelman as Governor-General, the Sultan of Ternate was conquered. He ceded all his lands of his kingdom to the Company. Speelman also subdued the city of Bantam. Cornelis Speelman died on 11 January 1684 in the Castle at Batavia. His funeral was accompanied with great noise and splendour, for which no pains or monies were spared. He was buried in the Kruiskerk to the noise of 229 cannon shots. He was followed as Governor-General by Johannes Camphuy

 

Johannes Camphuys

 

 

Portrait of Johannes Campuys

Johannes Camphuys (registered as Kamphuis, Centraal Bureau voor Genealogie) (Haarlem, July 18 1634 – Batavia (Jakarta), July 18 1695) was the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1684 to 1691.[1]

[edit] Japan

At this point in Japanese history, the sole VOC outpost (or “factory”) was situated on Dejima island in the harbor of Nagasaki on the southern island of Kyushu. Camphuys was three times sent to Japan as Opperhoofd or chief negotiant and officer of the VOC trading post.[2]

  • 22 October 1671–12 November 1672[2]
  • 29 October1673–19 October 1674[2]
  • 7 November 1675–27 October 1676[2]

[edit] Legacy

The life of Camphuys is commemorated in the name of a street in the Lombok neighbourhood of Utrecht; and he is also remembered in the name of a street in the Bezuidenhoutquarter of The Hague.

Willem van Outhoorn (4 Mei 1635 – 27 November 1720) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda 1691-1704. Ia lahir dan meninggal di Hindia Belanda.

[Sunting] Biografi
Willem van Outhoorn (atau Oudthoorn) lahir pada 4 Mei 1635 di Larike di Pulau Ambon di Indonesia. Ayahnya adalah seorang Belanda East India Company (VOC) Pembeli (Koopman) di sana. Ia dikirim ke Belanda untuk studi hukum di Universitas Leiden. Pada 28 November 1657 ia lulus dalam UU.

[Sunting] karir Pemerintah
Pada 1659 van Outhoorn kembali ke Hindia, bekerja sebagai Underbuyer (onderkoopman). Dia tetap di Timur selama sisa hidupnya. Bahkan perjalanan ke Banten dekatnya perjalanan terlalu jauh untuk dia. Pada tahun 1662 ia menjadi anggota Dewan Keadilan (Raad van Justitie) di Batavia. Pada 1672 ia menjadi Receiver Jenderal (ontvanger-Generaal), dan pada 1673 ia menjadi Wakil Presiden Dewan Kehakiman. Pada tahun 1678 dia didakwa dengan misi untuk Banten dan ia menjadi anggota luar biasa Dewan Hindia Belanda. Dia diangkat menjadi Konselor penuh, yang dikonfirmasi pada posting yang di 1681. Dia menjadi Presiden Dewan Kehakiman dalam 1682 dan pada tahun 1689 Presiden dari College van Heemraden (berurusan dengan real batas, jalan, dll). Pada tahun yang sama ia diangkat Konselor Pertama dan Direktur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda.

Pada 17 Desember 1690 van Outhoorn diangkat Gubernur Jenderal Hindia Belanda, mengambil alih dari Johannes Camphuys pada tanggal 24 September 1691. Setelah sepuluh tahun, Seventeen Lords (XVII XVII) yang diberikan keinginannya untuk menjadi terhormat dibebaskan dari tugas-tugasnya, tapi itu 15 Agustus 1704 sebelum dia bisa menyerahkan semua fungsi resmi ke penggantinya, Joan van Hoorn.

Dia meminta agar dia diizinkan untuk tetap berada di real nya hanya di luar Batavia. Permintaan seperti itu umumnya tidak diperbolehkan, karena takut akan mengganggu gubernur pensiun dengan karya penerus mereka. Namun, karena dia berada dalam kesehatan yang buruk dan lebih dari 70, dia diperbolehkan untuk tinggal. Ia meninggal pada usia 85 pada tanggal 27 November 1720.

Masa jabatannya tidak ditandai oleh perkembangan penting atau peristiwa. Pada akhir masa jabatannya, Amangkurat II Sultan Mataram meninggal. Karena VOC tidak mengakui anaknya sebagai penggantinya, perang panjang pecah sebelum Van Outshoorn meninggalkan kantor. Pada 1693 Perancis menyerbu Pondicherry. Selama waktu itu, berbagai upaya dilakukan untuk membangun penanaman kopi di Jawa. Panen pertama gagal karena banjir, tetapi panen berikutnya lebih berhasil.

Van Outhoorn bukan penguasa yang sangat kuat. Korupsi dan nepotisme, di mana dia juga terlibat, menjadi lebih mencolok selama waktu. Anak-di-hukum-Nya Joan van Hoorn, menikah dengan putrinya Susanna, mengikutinya sebagai Gubernur-Jenderal

 

1704-1709: Joan van Hoorn
Joan van Hoorn
 

 

Zijn portret pintu Cornelis de Bruijn.

Joan van Hoorn (1653-1711) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda dari 1704 sampai 1709.

Joan (atau Johan) van Hoorn lahir pada tanggal 16 November 1653, anak ke produsen mesiu Amsterdam kaya, Pieter van Hoorn Janszn dan istrinya Sara Bessels, cucu Gerard Reynst. Sebagai perdagangan mesiu tidak lagi melakukannya dengan baik, teman yang berpengaruh punya dia disebut sebagai Konselor-luar biasa (Raad extraordinair) kepada Dewan Hindia Belanda. Seluruh keluarga berangkat ke Hindia tahun 1663, termasuk Joan.

Pada tahun 1665, ketika ia masih hanya 12 tahun, Joan van Hoorn sudah U-asisten (Onder-asisten) di Perusahaan India Timur Belanda (VOC). Dari Juli 1666 sampai Januari 1668, ia menemani ayahnya di sebuah misi ke Cina, di mana ia diterima oleh Kaisar Kangxi. Setelah itu, Van Hoorn membuat kemajuan pesat dalam karirnya. Dia menjadi Asisten (asisten) pada 1671, Underbuyer (onderkoopman) pada tahun 1673, Pembeli (Koopman) dan Panitera Pertama untuk fungsi sekretaris umum di 1676. Dia dibuat Sekretaris Pemerintah Tinggi (Hoge Regering) Hindia pada 1678. Pada 11 Agustus 1682 dia menjadi Konselor-luar biasa Dewan Hindia. Pada tahun yang sama ia dikirim pada kunjungan ke Banten. Dia juga bernama Presiden Weeskamer tersebut (mengawasi perkebunan anak yatim, dll). Pada 1684, ia menjadi Presiden dari College van Heemraden (mencari setelah batas tanah, jalan, dll). Kunjungan lebih lanjut untuk Banten terjadi pada 1685, berikut ini yang dia bernama Konselor penuh (Raad ordinair) Hindia.

Pada 1691 Van Hoorn menikah Anna Struis. Mereka memiliki seorang putri, Petronella Wilhelmina. Dia kemudian menikah Jan Trip, anak Walikota. Sebuah pernikahan kemudian melihat Petronella menikah dengan Adolf Lubbert sangat kaya Torck, Tuhan Roozendael.

Van Hoorn menjadi Direktur Jenderal pada tahun 1691. Dalam posting ini, ia benar-benar menata ulang administrasi Perusahaan. Setelah kematian istrinya, ia menikah lagi, pada 1692, kali ini ke Susanna, putri kemudian Gubernur Jenderal van Outhoorn Willem. Dia sendiri bernama, pada tanggal 20 September 1701, sebagai Gubernur-Jenderal dalam suksesi kepada ayah mertuanya. Namun, ia menolak untuk menerima jabatan sampai tiga pejabat tinggi lainnya (Mattheus de Haan, Hendrick Zwaardecroon dan de Roo), dicalonkan oleh dia, dirawat di Pemerintah Agung Hindia. Dia melakukan ini karena ia tidak memiliki iman yang ada di Dewan. Para Seventeen Lords (XVII XVII) menyetujui permintaan ini dan pada tanggal 15 Agustus 1704, Joan van Hoorn menerima jabatan Gubernur Jenderal.

Tahun-tahun awal dari istilah Joan van Hoorn di kantor ditandai oleh perang kemudian mengamuk – Perang Suksesi Jawa Pertama (1704-1708). Pada awalnya Perusahaan ingin tetap keluar dari konflik, tetapi akhirnya mereka harus mengambil sisi. Pada tahun 1705, Joan van Hoorn menyimpulkan perjanjian dengan Mataram, yang menyerahkan Jawa Barat kepada Perusahaan. Joan van Hoorn bereksperimen dengan perkebunan kopi. Harga ditentukan oleh pedagang di Mocha sehingga untuk melakukan sesuatu tentang hal ini, Perusahaan mencoba penanaman kopi di daerah lain. Selanjutnya, ada ekspansi besar kopi tumbuh, terutama di dataran tinggi Priangan di dekat Batavia.

Pada tanggal 16 November 1706, setelah kematian Susanna, Van Hoorn kembali menikah, kali ini untuk Joanna Maria van Riebeeck, putri tertua maka Direktur Jenderal van Riebeeck Abraham. Dia juga janda dari Gerard de Heere, yang telah Konselor Hindia dan Gubernur Ceylon. Seorang putra lahir pada 2 Februari 1708, tapi dia meninggal tak lama sesudahnya.

Pada 2 Maret 1708, permintaan Joan van Hoorn untuk meninggalkan pos diberikan. Pada tanggal 30 Oktober 1709, ia menyerahkan posting untuk ayah mertuanya Abraham van Riebeeck nya. Meskipun permintaan lebih lanjut untuk tetap di Hindia, ia dipanggil kembali ke Belanda, sebagai Komandan armada kembali. Dia membeli sebuah rumah yang sangat menyenangkan di Herengracht di Amsterdam. Heren XVII disajikan dengan rantai emas dan medali. Dia meninggal enam bulan setelah kembali pada tanggal 21 Februari 1711. Ia dikuburkan di malam hari, karena kemudian fashion.

 

1709-1713: Abraham van Riebeeck
Abraham van Riebeeck (18 Oktober 1653 – 17 November 1713) adalah seorang Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda. Dia lahir di Cape Colony di Afrika Selatan, dan merupakan anak dari Jan van Riebeeck. Salah satu anak Abraham adalah Johanna Maria van Riebeeck (1679-1759), yang telah menikah pendahulunya Gubernur Jenderal, Joan van Hoorn. [1] Setelah ia menyelesaikan studi di Belanda pada 1676, ia masuk Belanda East India Company sebagai pedagang.
Dari 1709 sampai kematiannya pada tahun 1713, ia adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda. Dia adalah seorang penjelajah yang tajam, yang melakukan lebih kecil dan lebih besar beberapa pelayaran di Hindia
 

1713-1718: Christoffel van Swol
Christoffel van Swoll
Christoffel van Swoll (1663-12 November 1718) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda dari 17 November 1713 sampai kematiannya.

Ia lahir tahun 1663 di Amsterdam. Pada tanggal 19 Desember 1683, ia berangkat ke Batavia pada papan Anna Juffrouw sebagai asisten dalam pelayanan Perusahaan India Timur Belanda. Dia tiba di Batavia pada tanggal 19 Juni 1664 dan mulai bekerja di Sekretariat Jenderal. Dia dipromosikan secara teratur. Pada 1686 ia dipromosikan menjadi Akuntan, pada tahun 1690 untuk Clerk Pertama kepada Sekretariat Jenderal, dan di 1691 untuk Pembeli. Pada 1696, ia diangkat sebagai Sekretaris kepada Pemerintah Tinggi (de Hoge Regering). Pada 1700 ia menjadi ekstra-ordinair Raad (Atase luar biasa) dan Presiden dari College van Weesmeesteren (orpanage suatu). Pada 1701 dia bernama Raad van Indië ordinair (Atase Penuh Hindia). Pada tanggal 3 Mei 1703 ia menjadi Presiden dari College van Schepenen (anggota dewan) di Batavia. Setelah kematian Gubernur Jenderal Abraham van Riebeeck, Dewan (Raad) memilih van Swoll, oleh mayoritas tipis, sebagai Gubernur-Jenderal (pada tanggal 17 November 1713). Proposal ini dikirim ke 17 Penguasa Hindia (de Heren XVII) pada 18 Mei 1714 yang menegaskan janji di 1715, meskipun karakter kesulitannya. Kejujuran adalah faktor penentu dalam waktu-waktu korupsi dan maladministrasi.

Sebagai Gubernur Jenderal, ia menempatkan banyak energi ke dalam berurusan dengan perdagangan, swasta, atau tidak resmi. Dalam hal ini ia tidak benar-benar berhasil. Secara umum, tidak ada yang sangat luar biasa tentang waktunya di kantor. Dia tidak promotor besar pembangunan, seperti memperluas pertanian kopi. Dia juga terhadap memperluas wilayah Perseroan, karena ia pikir itu kemudian akan menjadi ungovernable.He tiba-tiba menjatuhkan harga Cina punya untuk teh oleh sepertiga. Hasilnya adalah bahwa perdagangan dalam teh (dan porselen) runtuh selama bertahun-tahun.

Empat tahun setelah penunjukan sementara sebagai Gubernur Jenderal, ia meninggal di Batavia pada tanggal 12 November 1718. Ia dimakamkan di Gereja Salib Suci (Kruiskerk). Penggantinya disebut sebagai Hendrick Zwaardecroon.

 

 

1718-1725: Hendrick Zwaardecroon
Hendrick Zwaardecroon
Hendrick Zwaardecroon atau Henricus (26 Januari 1667, Rotterdam – 12 Agustus 1728, Batavia, Hindia Belanda) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda dari 1718 sampai 1725.

[Sunting] Awal karir
Zwaardecroon kiri untuk Hindia Timur sebagai kadet kapal Purmer pada Desember 1684 dan tiba di Batavia pada bulan Oktober 1685. Selama perjalanan ia beberapa kali telah digunakan sebagai sekretaris Komisaris Jenderal Van Rheede, yang memungkinkan dia untuk membuat kemajuan cepat dalam karirnya dengan Belanda East India Company (VOC). Pada 1686 ia menjadi pemegang buku (boekhouder) dan kemudian Underbuyer (onderkoopman). Pada 1694, ia dipromosikan untuk Pembeli (Koopman) dan pada 1694 untuk Pembeli Senior (opperkoopman). Pada tahun yang sama ia diangkat menjadi Komandan (commandeur) di Jafnapatham di Ceylon. Dia Komisaris (commissaris) di Pantai Malabar dan bertindak Gubernur Ceylon pada 1697. Dia menjadi, pada tahun 1703, Sekretaris Pemerintah Hindia Tinggi (Hoge Regering) di Batavia, dan pada 1704, melalui pengaruh dari Gubernur Jenderal, Joan van Hoorn, anggota luar biasa Dewan Hindia Belanda (Raad van de Indië). Melalui keanggotaan itu, dan kemudian karena Gubernur Jenderal Christoffel van Swoll telah mencoba membuatnya dihapus dari Dewan, lebih disukai dengan promosi di tempat lain, butuh waktu sampai 1715 sebelum Seventeen Lords (XVII XVII) menamainya sebagai anggota penuh (gewoon tutup ).

[Sunting] Gubernur Jenderal Hindia Belanda
Hari setelah kematian Christoffel van Swoll, pada tanggal 12 November 1718, bernama Zwaardecroon Gubernur-Jenderal. Hanya pada tanggal 10 September 1720, dia menegaskan di posting ini. Pemberhentian Nya, oleh keinginannya sendiri, datang pada tanggal 16 Oktober 1724, meskipun ia menyerahkan kantor sebenarnya untuk Mattheus de Haan hanya pada tanggal 8 Juli 1725.

Selama masa jabatannya, Zwaardecroon harus berurusan dengan banyak kerusuhan di Batavia, termasuk pembakaran di dermaga dan serangan terhadap toko-toko mesiu. Ini Pieter kaya Eberveld, telah mewarisi beberapa tanah dari ayahnya. Pemerintah mengklaim bagian dari perkebunan ini. Eberveld merencanakan serangan terhadap Belanda tetapi beberapa budaknya memperingatkan pemerintah dan serangan itu digagalkan. Dia mengaku di rak dan dijatuhi hukuman mati, bersama dengan anggota komplotan lainnya. Rumahnya dihancurkan dan tembok didirikan di sekitar tempat itu berdiri [1] Kepalanya terjebak pada. Tombak dan melekat pada dinding. Sebuah batu dengan prasasti didirikan, menunjukkan bahwa tidak pernah lagi akan apa pun dibangun di tempat itu. [2] Hal itu hanya dihapus selama pendudukan Jepang (Perang Dunia II).

Zwaardecrood selalu memiliki minat besar dalam mengembangkan produk baru. Dia mendorong penanaman kopi di Priangan di Jawa sehingga produksi kopi tumbuh dengan cepat. Dari 1723, seluruh hasil panen harus diserahkan kepada Perusahaan. Kemudian Zwaardecroon memperkenalkan produksi sutera ke Jawa serta produksi pewarna sayuran. Produksi sutra tidak begitu sukses. Pada 1772 ia mendirikan kembali perdagangan teh Cina, yang telah terganggu.

Pada 1719, Paku Buwono I dari Kartasura di Jawa Timur meninggal dan digantikan oleh putranya, Amangkurat IV. Dua dari saudara-saudaranya tidak mengakui suksesi dan bangkit dalam pemberontakan, menyerang Kartasura. Ini adalah jijik oleh pasukan pendudukan Belanda, tetapi Zwaardecroon merasa dirinya terpaksa untuk mengirim lebih banyak pasukan ke Jawa Timur. Pemberontakan ditumpas oleh 1723, tapi butuh sampai 1752 sampai perdamaian dipulihkan nyata di daerah tersebut. (Perang Suksesi Jawa Kedua 1719-1723 [3]). Zwaardecroon mengambil tindakan terhadap pedagang swasta, dan dengan demikian mendapat hubungan yang lebih baik dengan pemegang saham atas Perusahaan lokal (Bewindhouders). Pada 1726, ia memiliki pelayan Perusahaan 26 dibawa ke Batavia pada tuduhan korupsi.

Zwaardecroon meninggal pada 12 Agustus 1738 di real di Kaduang dekat Batavia. Dia mengatakan dia merasa lebih di rumah dengan warga kota biasa, dan atas permintaannya ia tidak dikuburkan dengan pendahulunya sebagai Gubernur-Jenderal, tetapi di pemakaman Gereja Portugis Luar Tembok di Batavia (Portugis Buitenkerk) di Batavia, di mana nya makam masih dapat dikunjungi

 

1725-1729: Mattheus de Haan
Mattheus de Haan
Mattheus de Haan (1663 – 1729) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda 1725-1729. (Potret-Nya dapat dilihat di [1]).

Ia lahir di Dordrecht pada tahun 1663. Pada tanggal 26 Oktober 1671 ia meninggalkan untuk Hindia, di mana ayahnya telah appoined sebagai Underbuyer (onderkoopman) di Belanda East India Company (VOC). Dia kemudian cepat-cepat pergi melalui posting di tingkat lebih rendah dari organisasi yang dalam bahasa Belanda Suratte. Ada, pada 1676, ia diangkat menjadi Asisten Sementara (provisioneel asisten), dan pada 1681 ia menjadi asisten. Dia menjadi pemegang buku (boekhouder) pada 1683, dan, pada 1685, onderkoopman (Underbuyer / Undermerchant). Sepuluh tahun kemudian, pada 1695, ia dipromosikan untuk Pembeli / Merchant (Koopman). Tahun berikutnya ia harus pindah ke Batavia, untuk mengambil posting Pembeli Senior Kedua (Tweede opperkoopman) di kantor pusat Perseroan di sana. Dua tahun kemudian, pada tahun 1698, ia dipromosikan menjadi Senior Pembeli Pertama (Eerste opperkoopman). Dia menjadi Sekretaris (secretaris) kepada Pemerintah Tinggi Hindia pada tahun 1700 dan, pada 1702, Wakil Presiden Dewan Kehakiman. Dia membuat Konselor-luar biasa (Raad extraordinair) Dewan Hindia Belanda pada 1704. Dia kemudian ditunjuk sebagai Presiden College van Schepenen tahun 1705. Lima tahun kemudian, ia diangkat menjadi Konselor penuh Hindia dan pada tahun 1722 ia menjadi Direktur Jenderal. Pada 16 Oktober 1724 ia dinominasikan Gubernur Jenderal, mengambil alih dari Henrick Zwaardecroon pada tanggal 8 Juli 1725.

Karakteristik besar waktunya di kantor adalah dorongan oposisi Zwaardecroon nya budidaya sutra. Produksi kopi di wilayah Priangan de (fr Priangan: dataran tinggi Priangan di selatan Batavia) pergi sangat baik dan de Haan merasa bahwa ini akan mengakibatkan penurunan harga kopi di Eropa, sehingga ia menurunkan harga yang dibayarkan kepada para petani kopi . Tanggapan mereka adalah menebang beberapa perkebunan kopi. Ini bukanlah apa yang dimaksudkan, dan De Haan melarangnya. Sementara itu, ada kerusakan lebih lanjut berat untuk produksi kopi. Kopi dari Jawa pergi terutama ke Eropa. Mereka tidak pernah berhasil masuk ke pasar Asia. Kopi dari Mocha melepas sana, seperti halnya kopi Arab dari Inggris. Tidak ada tindakan yang diambil terhadap ini. Orang Inggris juga mulai memainkan peran yang lebih penting dalam kapas dan perdagangan teh.

Setelah istilah yang sangat biasa-biasa saja di kantor (De Haan memiliki semua hidupnya lebih tertarik pada istirahat dari dalam tindakan), Gubernur Jenderal meninggal, setelah terbaring sakit selama tiga hari, pada tanggal 1 Juni 1729. Ia dimakamkan di Batavia dan diikuti sebagai Gubernur-Jenderal oleh Diederik Durven.

 

1729-1732: Diederik Durven
Diederik Durven
 

 

Diederik Durven

Diederik Durven (lahir Delft, 1676, meninggal 26 Februari 1740) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda dari 1 Juni 1729 sampai 28 Mei 1732

Durven belajar hukum di Universitas Leiden di mana dia lulus pada 19 Juli 1702. Ia menjadi pembela di Delft pada 1704. Pada 1705, ia dinominasikan sebagai anggota Dewan Hakim di Batavia di Hindia. Dia berangkat ke Batavia pada “Grimmestein” pada 4 Januari 1706. Pada tahun 1706, ia tiba di Batavia. Setelah janji itu pada tahun 1720 kepada Dewan Hindia, ia dikirim, pada tahun 1722 dan 1723, untuk mengawasi emas dan perak-tambang di provinsi Parang. Selanjutnya, ia menjadi (tahun 1723) ketua College van Heemraden (yaitu papan drainase, sebanding dengan papan polder di Republik Belanda), yang bertanggung jawab untuk pengelolaan lahan di luar kota, termasuk pengawasan batas. Ia kemudian menjadi Presiden Dewan Kehakiman – pengadilan tertinggi Belanda di Asia. Pada 1729, Mattheus de Haan meninggal. Diederik Durven menggantikannya sebagai Gubernur-Jenderal sementara. Ini tidak berlangsung lama, sebagai Direksi Perusahaan India Timur sangat tidak sabar dari kecepatan perubahan di sana. Setelah kenakalan keuangan diduga, meskipun lebih mungkin sebagai kambing hitam, dia diberhentikan pada tanggal 9 Oktober 1731. Diederik Durven meninggal di Belanda pada tanggal 26 Februari 1740. Ia digantikan oleh Dirck van Cloon.

 

1732-1735: Dirk van Cloon
Dirck van Cloon
 

 

Dirck van Cloon sebagai Gubernur Jenderal Hindia

Dirck van Cloon (1684 – 10 Maret 1735) adalah Eurasia Gubernur Jenderal Hindia Belanda. Dia meninggal karena malaria pada usia 46.

Ia lahir di Batavia sekitar tahun 1684. Untuk pendidikan dan pelatihan ia dikirim ke Belanda. Dia lulus pada Hukum di Universitas Leiden pada tanggal 1 April 1707.

Dia kembali ia ke Batavia pada clipper ‘Donkervliet’ dan menghabiskan beberapa waktu di Belanda Coromandel. Dia antara lain menjadi penilik kabupaten di Sadraspatnam. Dia terlibat perkelahian dengan Gubernur Coromandel, Adriaan de Visser, yang menuduh Van Cloon memberikan barang-barang berkualitas buruk. Pemerintah di Batavia mengirim Van Cloon kembali ke Belanda, tetapi dia membujuk Direksi Belanda East India Company bahwa de Visser tidak bisa dipercaya. Van Cloon itu kembali dan ia berangkat ke Hindia pada 4 November 1719 di papan tulis ‘de van Huis te Assenburg’ sebagai Supercargo. Pada 1720, ia menjadi kepala distrik di Negapatnam. Pada 1723, ia menjadi Gubernur Coromandel Belanda. Pada 1724, ia kembali ke Batavia untuk memberikan nasihat kepada Gubernur Jenderal dan pada tahun 1730, ia menjadi “Raad-ordinair” (penasihat) dari Hindia.

Pada 9 Oktober 1731 Direksi Perusahaan India Timur Belanda yang bernama van Cloon Dirck Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia, yang dia sukses pada tanggal 28 Mei 1732, setelah Diederik Durven aib. Dengan 20 Desember 1733 van Cloon meminta untuk mengundurkan diri karena sakit. Dia meninggal di pos, bagaimanapun, dan itu tidak sampai setelah dia meninggal penggantinya mengambil alih. Van Cloon terlibat dalam off berdiri dengan Perusahaan India Timur baru lahir Swedia, tetapi ia diselesaikan itu secara damai. Kurang bahagia adalah sebuah pemberontakan dari pengangguran pekerja perkebunan gula Cina. Hal ini disebabkan oleh runtuhnya pasar gula, karena over-produksi dan penanganan pemerintah.

 

1735-1737: Abraham Patras
Abraham Patras
 

 

Gubernur Jenderal Abraham Patras

Abraham Patras (22 Mei 1671 – 3 Mei 1737) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda dari 11 Maret 1735 sampai 3 Mei 1737. Dia lahir di Grenoble dari keluarga Huguenot pengungsi Prancis. Pada 1685, keluarganya melarikan diri ke Belanda.

[Sunting] Awal karir
Patras pertama mengambil pekerjaan di kantor seorang pedagang di Amsterdam yang bernama Nathaniel Gauthier (a Huguenot sesama), tapi ia meninggalkan untuk Hindia kapal Hobree pada 4 Januari 1690, di mana ia digambarkan sebagai seorang prajurit dalam menggunakan cabang Enkhuizen dari Belanda East India Company. Pada 1691, ia mencari perubahan karir dan mendapat posting sementara sebagai agen di Batavia. Pada 1695 ia menjadi asisten / sekretaris administrasi perkebunan-manajemen Cina di Pulau Ambon. Pada 1698 ia dimasukkan ke dalam biaya anak-anak dan hal-hal perkawinan. Dia menikah pada tahun 1699 dengan putri seorang pejabat Dewan Yudisial di Ambon. Istrinya meninggal pada tanggal 16 Desember 1700. Putri satu-satunya juga meninggal muda.

[Sunting] Meningkatnya melalui jajaran
Patras dinominasikan untuk Dewan Kehakiman pada tahun 1700, dan pada tahun 1703, ia pergi untuk bekerja sebagai di bawah sekretaris (onderkoopman) untuk Gubernur Kepulauan Maluku. Pada 1707, ia menjadi Kepala (opperhoofd) dari pos perdagangan di Jambi, di mana markas besarnya diserang. Meskipun terluka parah di bagian belakang, ia selamat. Dia pedagang, kemudian Faktor Kepala di Palembang pada 1711. Pada 1717, ia dipromosikan menjadi Kepala Merchant (opperkoopman) dan pemegang Kantor (gezaghebber) dari pantai barat Sumatera. Itu adalah 1720 yang melihat dia dipromosikan menjadi Inspektur Jenderal Account untuk Hindia Belanda (visitateur-Generaal van Nederlands-Indië). Pada 1721, ia dikirim sebagai utusan ke Jambi. Pada 1722, ia diangkat deputee-pengawas barang masuk dan keluar dari kastil di Batavia. Pada 1724, ia mendapat posting yang sangat menguntungkan Kepala pos perdagangan Belanda Bengal. Pada 1731, ia diangkat sebagai anggota luar biasa (yaitu terkooptasi) dari Dewan Hindia.

[Sunting] Gubernur Jenderal
Pada 10 Maret 1735 pada kematian Gubernur Jenderal van Dirck Cloon, Patras sangat mengejutkan dinominasikan Gubernur Jenderal. Dia tidak pernah menjadi anggota penuh dari Dewan Hindia, jadi ini adalah pertama, dan itu disebabkan oleh dia tergelincir melalui sebagai calon kompromi menyusul kebuntuan dalam pemungutan suara. Dia tidak ingin mengambil posting dalam keadaan ini, tetapi setuju untuk melakukannya sampai calon yang lebih baik dapat ditemukan. Pada 11 Maret 1735 ia dinominasikan sementara Gubernur Jenderal, sebuah keputusan yang disetujui oleh Direksi dari Perusahaan India Timur.

Selama periode jabatannya yang singkat, tidak ada keputusan signifikan yang dibuat. Meskipun ia adalah seorang pemimpin yang kompeten dan telah membangun banyak pengetahuan praktis dari wilayah, usianya (pada 64) mungkin memastikan bahwa ia tidak sangat kuat Gubernur Jenderal.

Dia meninggal dua tahun setelah janji itu pada malam tanggal 3 Mei 1737. Ia dimakamkan di Batavia pada tanggal 6 Mei 1737. Dia adalah orang saleh dan baik hati yang telah menjalani kehidupan yang sangat sederhana. Gubernur-jenderal diambil alih oleh Adriaan Valckenier. \ \

 

 

 

1737-1741: Adriaan Valckenier
Adriaan Valckenier
 

 

Adriaan Valckenier

Adriaan Valckenier (6 Juni 1695, Amsterdam – 20 Juni 1751, Batavia, Hindia Belanda), adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda dari 3 Mei 1737 sampai 6 November 1741 dan terlibat dalam Pembantaian Cina 1740. Valckenier meninggal di penjara di Batavia.

[Sunting] Biografi
Ayah Valckenier, seorang anggota dewan kotapraja dan sekretaris di Amsterdam, adalah pejabat dari Perusahaan India Timur Belanda yang berbasis di Amsterdam. Ia adalah putra untuk Gillis Valckenier, salah satu bupati yang besar Amsterdam selama Golden Age kemudian Belanda. Pada tanggal 22 Oktober 1714, Adriaan kiri pada papan ‘Linschoten’ untuk menjadi asisten pembeli (onderkoopman) di Hindia Belanda, di mana ia tiba di 21 Juni, 1715 di Batavia.

Pada 1726, ia menjadi pedagang dan pembeli kepala (opperkoopman); pada tahun 1727 ia “Akuntan Umum” (boekhouder-Generaal) di Hindia Belanda, pada tahun 1730, ia pertama kali diangkat ke Dewan Hindia (Raad ekstra-oridinair) , dan, tahun 1733, sebagai “Penasehat” penuh. Pada 1736, ia membuat “Konselor Pertama” dan “Direktur Jenderal”, tetapi dipukuli sampai jabatan Gubernur Jenderal oleh Abraham Patras. Pada kematian terakhir itu, ia diangkat oleh Gubernur Jenderal Dewan Hindia pada tanggal 3 Mei 1737.

[Sunting] Pembantaian Cina 1740
Artikel utama: 1740 Batavia pembantaian

Ia selama Adriaan Valckenier aturan bahwa pembantaian terkenal Cina terjadi di Batavia (Pembantaian yang disebut Cina). Seorang Gubernur Jenderal sebelumnya (Henricus Zwaardecroon) telah mendorong banyak orang Cina untuk datang ke Batavia. Sesuatu antara 20% dan 50% dari populasi orang Cina. Mereka bekerja dalam pembangunan rumah dan benteng Batavia dan di perkebunan gula di luar kota. Banyak pedagang Cina juga mengambil, terkemuka jika (dari sudut pandang Belanda) ilegal, peran dalam perdagangan dengan Cina. Dari perdagangan gula 1725 mulai runtuh (sebagian karena persaingan dari Brazil). [Kutipan diperlukan] Pengangguran di pedesaan tumbuh, dan bersama dengan itu, kerusuhan. Ini menyebar ke Batavia sebagai pengangguran Cina meninggalkan desa untuk mencari pekerjaan atau bantuan makanan di sana. Pihak berwenang khawatir ini dan mulai mengeluarkan izin tinggal, dan membutuhkan orang-orang dengan izin untuk tinggal di daerah tertentu. Kerusuhan tumbuh pemberontakan skala penuh di pedesaan pada September 1740, ketika Belanda telah mengusulkan mengangkut menganggur Cina untuk koloni Belanda lainnya di Ceylon dan Afrika Selatan. Sebuah menyebarkan rumor bahwa mereka semua akan dibuang ke laut en rute, dan kerusuhan di pedesaan meledak

Pihak berwenang Belanda takut bahwa Cina dalam Batavia berkolaborasi dengan pemberontakan itu dan, selama 9 Oktober dan 10, pencarian brutal terbuat dari wilayah Cina, di mana ribuan tewas, seringkali setelah ditangkap. Ini “pembantaian” berlangsung tiga hari, diikuti oleh hari lebih banyak penjarahan dan pembakaran, tanpa upaya yang jelas pada bagian pemerintah untuk menghentikan kekerasan. Salah satu perkiraan adalah bahwa antara 5.000 dan 10.000 Cina (pria, wanita dan anak-anak) tewas secara total

 

1741-1743: Johannes Thedens
Johannes Thedens
 

 

Johannes Thedens (1680, Friedrichstadt – 19 Maret 1748, Batavia) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda dari 6 November 1741 sampai 28 Mei 1743.

Thedens, lahir di sebuah pemukiman besar Belanda di Schleswig-Holstein, berlayar pada 17 Desember 1697 sebagai seorang prajurit kapal””’Unie’ ke Hindia Belanda. Pada 1702 ia diangkat ke pos”’Asisten”’ di Perusahaan India Timur Belanda dan pada 1719, untuk”’Pembeli”’ (”’Koopman”’). Dia kemudian berkembang (antara 1723 dan 1725) atas melalui jajaran untuk”’Pembeli Kepala”’ (”’opperkoopman”’) kemudian”’Kepala Pos”’ (opperhoofd) di Deshima di Jepang. [ 1]

Pada 1731, ia dikooptasi untuk Dewan Hindia dan di 1736, ia menjadi anggota penuh (”’Raad-ordinair Indie”’). Pada 1740 ia diangkat oleh Direksi sebagai ‘Konselor Pertama dan Direktur Jenderal”’ a”Hindia. Pada tanggal 6 November 1741, setelah pemecatan Adriaan Valckenier, (yang ia ditangkap dan ditempatkan di penjara di kastil di Batavia), ia menjadi”’interim”’ Gubernur Jenderal. Dia melanjutkan di kantor sampai dengan 28 Mei 1743, dan mampu mengatasi pemberontakan Cina dan menempatkan perdagangan gula pada pijakan yang lebih baik. Ia digantikan oleh Gustaaf Willem Baron van Imhoff.

 

1743-1750: Gustaaf Willem baron van Imhoff
Gustaaf Willem van Imhoff
 

 

Gustaaf Willem van Imhoff

Gustaaf Willem, Baron van Imhoff (8 Agustus 1705 Leer-November 1, 1750) adalah Gubernur Ceylon dan kemudian Hindia Belanda bagi Belanda East India Company (VOC Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie-).

[Sunting] Awal tahun
Van Imhoff dilahirkan dalam sebuah keluarga aristokrat Frisian Timur. Ayahnya, Heinrich Wilhelm Freiherr von Imhoff, datang dari kota Leer di barat laut Jerman, beberapa kilometer dari perbatasan Belanda.

Pada 1725, Van Imhoff masuk ke dalam pelayanan Perusahaan India Timur Belanda di Batavia (Jakarta zaman modern), maka modal kolonial Hindia Belanda. Van Imhoff dipromosikan beberapa kali dalam perusahaan sebelum diangkat gubernur kolonial di Ceylon (modern-hari Sri Lanka) pada tanggal 23 Juli 1736.

[Sunting] Sri Lanka
Masa Van Imhoff sebagai Gubernur Ceylon mengakhiri kekacauan yang telah merasuki pemerintahan sebelumnya. Dia menjalin hubungan yang konstruktif dengan raja Kandy, Vira Narendra Sinha.

Raja Narendra menikah dengan seorang putri Tamil Madurai (Tamil Nadu, India), dan anak mereka, Sri Vijaya Rajasinha yang menggantikannya setelah kematian Narendra itu pada 24 Mei 1739, dipandang Tamil lebih dari Sinhala (kelompok etnis mayoritas di Ceylon). Imhoff prihatin tentang suksesi ini karena kontak yang lebih dekat antara orang Tamil dari Sri Lanka, di bawah Sri Vijaya Rajasinha, dan Tamil dari India Selatan mungkin membahayakan monopoli komersial Belanda East India Company. Dalam surat-suratnya, Van Imhoff menyatakan terkejut bahwa orang-orang Sinhala telah menerima seperti seorang raja, mengingat sikap angkuh mereka terhadap orang Tamil dari India. Namun, Van Imhoff melihat kesempatan yang menarik dalam peristiwa pergantian. Dia mengusulkan untuk Lords Seventeen (Heeren XVII, para direktur VOC) bahwa kerajaan Ceylon dibagi dalam dua, tetapi mereka menolak proposisi: perang akan terlalu mahal.

Meskipun produksi rempah-rempah yang menguntungkan, koloni itu selalu dalam keadaan defisit, karena keuntungannya yang dialokasikan untuk VOC pada umumnya, bukan untuk koloni itu sendiri. Praktek ini mencegah Gubernur dari menjadi terlalu boros dalam kebiasaan mereka, seperti yang terjadi di koloni lain.

[Sunting] Batavia
Pada tanggal 12 Maret 1740, Willem Mauritiz Bruininck diganti Van Imhoff sebagai Gubernur Ceylon dan Imhoff kembali ke Batavia, yang ia temukan dalam situasi genting. Gubernur Jenderal Adriaan Valckenier-percaya bahwa populasi Cina di Batavia daerah sekitarnya tumbuh terlalu besar. Dia berusaha untuk merelokasi penduduk ke Ceylon dan Cape Colony (Afrika Selatan), tetapi desas-desus menyatakan bahwa Belanda berencana untuk melemparkan orang-orang Cina kapal di tengah lautan memulai pemberontakan melawan VOC. Vackenier menanggapi dengan membantai sekitar 5000 Cina. Imhoff diperebutkan kebijakan yang brutal, yang menyebabkan penangkapan dan deportasi ke Belanda. Setelah kedatangannya, Lord Seventeen menamainya Gubernur Jenderal Hindia Belanda dan mengirimnya kembali ke Batavia.

En rute ke Batavia, Imhoff mengunjungi koloni Belanda di Cape Town, di Cape Colony, di mana ia menemukan bahwa warga menembus semakin jauh ke pedalaman dan kehilangan kontak dengan VOC. Imhoff diusulkan untuk meningkatkan pendidikan dan pekerjaan Gereja Protestan di koloni.

Pada bulan Mei 1743, Imhoff mulai masa jabatannya di Batavia yang berada di tengah-tengah perang. Para pangeran Jawa mengambil keuntungan dari situasi kacau berikut tindakan Valckenier untuk memulai perang melawan VOC. Imhoff berhasil membangun kembali perdamaian dan mulai beberapa reformasi. Ia mendirikan sebuah sekolah Latin, kantor pos pertama di Hindia Belanda, rumah sakit dan surat kabar. Dia juga mendirikan kota Buitenzorg dan menekan perdagangan opium. Pada 1746, Imhoff memulai tur Jawa untuk memeriksa kepemilikan perusahaan dan memutuskan beberapa reformasi kelembagaan.

Imhoff masa itu juga ditandai dengan bencana. Sebuah kapal, Hofwegen, disambar petir dan meledak di pelabuhan Batavia bersama dengan enam ton perak, berjumlah sekitar 600.000 florin Belanda.

Pada akhirnya, kebijakan progresif Imhoff membuatnya banyak musuh. Yang Imhoff ingin diplomasi dan kurangnya penghormatan terhadap adat setempat menyebabkan koloni untuk menjadi terlibat dalam perang ketiga suksesi Jawa. Dimasukkan ke dalam posisi tidak bisa dipertahankan oleh musuh-musuhnya, Imhoff ingin mengundurkan diri dari jabatannya, tetapi VOC tidak akan mengizinkannya. Imhoff dipaksa untuk tetap di kantor sampai kematiannya pada tahun 1750, yang datang untuk percaya bahwa sebagian besar karyanya telah dilakukan sia-sia.

Selama tinggal di Batavia, Imhoff tinggal di sebuah rumah kelas tinggi sekarang dikenal sebagai Toko Merah. [1

 

1750-1761: Yakub Mossel
Yakub Mossel
 

 

Yakub Mossel

Yakub Mossel (28 November 1704 – 15 Mei 1761) berubah dari seorang pelaut umum untuk menjadi Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda 1750-1761.

Dia kelahiran mulia, lahir di Enkhuizen. Ketika ia 15 ia meninggalkan sebagai pelaut berbadan sehat atas sebuah Fluyt (sejenis kapal kargo berlayar Belanda) disebut de Haringthuyn, menuju Hindia. Seperti keluarganya memiliki lambang, ia mampu memperoleh posisi istimewa, melalui Dirk van Cloon, dan dikirim ke Coromandel Belanda (1721). Pada 30 Maret 1730, ia menikah Adriana Appels, yang anak tiri empat belas tahun dari Adriaan van Pla, Gubernur Belanda Coromandel. Yakub Mossel bekerja dirinya akhirnya kepada Gubernur dan Direktur Belanda Coromandel.

 

 

Willem van Outhoorn

 

 

Willem van Outhoorn (4 May 1635 – 27 November 1720) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1691 to 1704. He was born and died in the Dutch East Indies.

[edit] Biography

Willem van Outhoorn (or Oudthoorn) was born on 4 May 1635 at Larike on Ambon Island in Indonesia. His father was a Dutch East India Company (VOC) Buyer (koopman) there. He was sent to the Netherlands to study Law at the University of Leiden. On 28 November 1657 he graduated in Law.

[edit] Government career

In 1659 van Outhoorn returned to the Indies, employed as Underbuyer (onderkoopman). He was to remain in the East for the rest of his life. Even a journey to nearby Bantam was a journey too far for him. In 1662 he became a member of the Council of Justice (Raad van Justitie) in Batavia. In 1672 he became Receiver-General (ontvanger-generaal), and in 1673 he became Vice-President of the Council of Justice. In 1678 he was charged with a mission to Bantam and he became an extraordinary member of the Dutch Council of the Indies. He was named a full Counsellor, being confirmed in that post in 1681. He became President of the Council of Justice in 1682 and in 1689 President of the College van Heemraden (dealing with estate boundaries, roads, etc.). That same year he was appointed First Counsellor and Director-General of the Dutch East Indies.

On 17 December 1690 van Outhoorn was appointed Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies, taking over from Johannes Camphuys on 24 September 1691. After ten years, the Seventeen Lords (Heren XVII) granted his wish to be honourably relieved of his duties, but it was 15 August 1704 before he could hand over all his official functions to his successor, Joan van Hoorn.

He requested that he be allowed to remain on his estate just outside Batavia. Such requests were generally not allowed, for fear that retired governors would interfere with the work of their successors. However, because he was in ill-health and was over 70, he was allowed to stay. He died at age 85 on 27 November 1720.

His term of office was not marked by many important developments or events. At the end of his term, Amangkurat II Sultan of Mataram died. As the VOC did not recognise his son as successor, a long war broke out just before Van Outshoorn left office. In 1693 the French overran Pondicherry. During his time, efforts were made to establish coffee growing in Java. The first harvest failed because of flooding, but the next harvest had more success.

Van Outhoorn was not a very strong ruler. Corruption and nepotism, in which he was also involved, became more blatant during his time. His son-in-law Joan van Hoorn, married to his daughter Susanna, followed him as Governor-General

 

Joan van Hoorn

 

 

Zijn portret door Cornelis de Bruijn.

Joan van Hoorn (1653–1711) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1704 until 1709.

Joan (or Johan) van Hoorn was born on 16 November 1653, son to the wealthy Amsterdam gunpowder manufacturer, Pieter Janszn van Hoorn and his wife Sara Bessels, a grandchild of Gerard Reynst. As the gunpowder trade was no longer doing so well, his influential friends got him named as Counsellor-extraordinary (Raad extraordinair) to the Dutch Council of the Indies. The whole family left for the Indies in 1663, including Joan.

In 1665, when he was still only 12 years old, Joan van Hoorn was already Under-assistant (onder-assistant) in the Dutch East India Company (VOC). From July 1666 until January 1668, he accompanied his father on a mission to China, where he was received by the Kangxi Emperor. Thereafter, Van Hoorn made rapid progress in his career. He became Assistant (assistent) in 1671, Underbuyer (onderkoopman) in 1673, Buyer (koopman) and First Clerk to the general secretarial function in 1676. He was made Secretary to the High Government (Hoge Regering) of the Indies in 1678. On 11 August 1682 he became Counsellor-extraordinary to the Council of the Indies. In that same year he was sent on a visit to Bantam. He was also named President of the Weeskamer (overseeing the estates of orphans, etc.). In 1684, he became President of the College van Heemraden (looking after land boundaries, roads, etc.). A further visit to Bantam took place in 1685, following which he was named full Counsellor (Raad ordinair) of the Indies.

In 1691 Van Hoorn married Anna Struis. They had a daughter, Petronella Wilhelmina. She later married Jan Trip, the Mayor’s son. A later marriage saw Petronella married to the extremely wealthy Lubbert Adolf Torck, Lord of Roozendael.

Van Hoorn became Director-General in 1691. In this post, he completely reorganised the Company’s administration. Following the death of his wife, he remarried, in 1692, this time to Susanna, the daughter of the then Governor-General Willem van Outhoorn. He himself was named, on 20 September 1701, as Governor-General in succession to his father-in-law. However, he declined to accept the post until three other high officials (Mattheus de Haan, Hendrick Zwaardecroon and de Roo), nominated by him, were admitted to the High Government of the Indies. He did this as he had no faith in the existing Council. The Seventeen Lords (Heren XVII) acceded to this demand and on 15 August 1704, Joan van Hoorn accepted the post of Governor General.

The early years of Joan van Hoorn’s term of office were marked by the war then raging – the First Javanese War of Succession (1704 – 1708) . At first the Company wanted to stay out of the conflict, but eventually they had to take sides. In 1705, Joan van Hoorn concluded an agreement with Mataram, which ceded West Java to the Company. Joan van Hoorn experimented with coffee plantation. Prices were determined by the merchants at Mocha so to do something about this, the Company tried growing coffee in other regions. Subsequently, there was great expansion of coffee growing, especially in the Priangan uplands near Batavia.

On 16 November 1706, following the death of Susanna, Van Hoorn re-married, this time to Joanna Maria van Riebeeck, oldest daughter of the then Director-General Abraham van Riebeeck. She was also the widow of Gerard de Heere, who had been Counsellor of the Indies and Governor of Ceylon. A son was born on 2 February 1708, but he died shortly afterwards.

On 2 March 1708, Joan van Hoorn’s request to leave post was granted. On 30 October 1709, he handed over the post to his father-in-law Abraham van Riebeeck. Despite his further request to remain in the Indies, he was recalled to the Netherlands, as Commander of the returning fleet. He bought a very pleasant house on the Herengracht in Amsterdam. The Heren XVII presented him with a gold chain and medallion. He died six months following his return on 21 February 1711. He was buried in the evening, as was then the fashion.

 

 

Christoffel van Swoll

Christoffel van Swoll (1663 – 12 November 1718) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 17 November 1713 until his death.

He was born in 1663 in Amsterdam. On 19 December 1683, he left for Batavia on board the Juffrouw Anna as an assistant in the service of the Dutch East India Company. He arrived in Batavia on 19 June 1664 and began working in the General Secretariat. He was regularly promoted. In 1686 he was promoted to Accountant, in 1690 to First Clerk to the General Secretariat, and in 1691 to Buyer. In 1696, he was appointed as Secretary to the High Government (de Hoge Regering). In 1700 he became Raad extra-ordinair (Counsellor extraordinary) and President of the College van Weesmeesteren (an orpanage). In 1701 he was named Raad ordinair van Indië (Full Counsellor of the Indies). On 3 May 1703 he became President of the College van Schepenen (Aldermen) at Batavia. Following the death of Governor-General Abraham van Riebeeck, the Council (Raad) chose van Swoll, by a slim majority, as Governor-General (on 17 November 1713). This proposal was sent to the 17 Lords of the Indies (de Heren XVII) on 18 May 1714 who confirmed his appointment in 1715, despite his difficulty character. His honesty was the deciding factor in those times of corruption and maladministration.

As Governor-General, he put a lot of energy into dealing with the private, or unofficial, trade. In this he was not really successful. In general, there was nothing particularly remarkable about his time in office. He was no great promoter of development, such as extending coffee farming. He was also against extending the territory of the Company, because he thought it would then become ungovernable.He suddenly dropped the price the Chinese got for tea by a third. The result was that the trade in tea (and porcelain) collapsed for years.

Four years after his provisional appointment as Governor-General, he died in Batavia on 12 November 1718. He was buried in the Church of the Holy Cross (Kruiskerk). His successor was named as Hendrick Zwaardecroon.

 

 

Hendrick Zwaardecroon

Hendrick or Henricus Zwaardecroon (26 January 1667, Rotterdam – 12 August 1728, Batavia, Dutch East Indies) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1718 until 1725.

[edit] Early career

Zwaardecroon left for the East Indies as a midshipman aboard the Purmer in December 1684 and arrived in Batavia in October 1685. During the trip he had several times been employed as secretary to Commissioner-General Van Rheede, which enabled him to make quick progress in his career with the Dutch East India Company (VOC). In 1686 he became Bookkeeper (boekhouder) and subsequently Underbuyer (onderkoopman). In 1694, he was promoted to Buyer (koopman) and in 1694 to Senior Buyer (opperkoopman). In the same year he was appointed Commander (commandeur) in Jafnapatham in Ceylon. He was Commissioner (commissaris) on the Malabar Coast and acting Governor of Ceylon in 1697. He became, in 1703, Secretary to the High Government of the Indies (Hoge Regering) in Batavia, and in 1704, through the influence of the Governor-General, Joan van Hoorn, an extraordinary member of the Dutch Council of the Indies (Raad van de Indië). Through that membership, and later because the Governor-General Christoffel van Swoll had been trying to get him removed from the Council, preferably by promotion elsewhere, it took until 1715 before the Seventeen Lords (Heren XVII) named him as full member (gewoon lid).

[edit] Governor-general of the Dutch East Indies

The day after the death of Christoffel van Swoll, on 12 November 1718, Zwaardecroon was named Governor-General. Only on 10 September 1720, was he confirmed in this post. His dismissal, by his own desire, came on 16 October 1724, though he handed the actual office to Mattheus de Haan only on 8 July 1725.

During his term of office, Zwaardecroon had to deal with a lot of unrest in Batavia, including arson in the dockyards and an attack on the gunpowder stores. The wealthy Pieter Eberveld, had inherited some land from his father. The government laid claim to a part of this estate. Eberveld planned an attack on the Dutchmen but some of his slaves warned the government and the attack was thwarted. He confessed on the rack and was condemned to death, along with other plotters. His house was destroyed and a wall erected around where it had stood.[1] His head was stuck on a lance and attached to the wall. A stone with an inscription was erected, indicating that never again would anything be built on that spot. [2] It was only removed during the Japanese occupation (World War II).

Zwaardecrood had always had a great interest in developing new products. He encouraged coffee-planting in Priangan in Java so that coffee production grew quickly. From 1723, the whole of the harvest had to be delivered to the Company. Then Zwaardecroon introduced silk production into Java as well as the production of vegetable dyes. Silk production was not so successful. In 1772 he re-established the Chinese tea trade, which had been disrupted.

In 1719, Pakubuwono I of Kartasura in East Java died and was succeeded by his son, Amangkurat IV. Two of his brothers did not recognise his succession and rose in revolt, attacking Kartasura. This was repulsed by the Dutch occupying troops, but Zwaardecroon felt himself compelled to send more troops to East Java. The revolt was put down by 1723, but it took until 1752 until real peace was restored in the area. (Second Javanese War of Succession 1719 – 1723 [3]). Zwaardecroon took action against private traders, and thus got better relations with local Company top shareholders (Bewindhouders). In 1726, he had 26 Company servants brought to Batavia on charges of corruption.

Zwaardecroon died on 12 August 1738 in his estate at Kaduang near Batavia. He said he felt more at home with ordinary townsfolk, and so at his request he was not buried with his predecessors as Governor-General, but in the graveyard of the Portuguese Church Outside the Walls at Batavia (Portuguese Buitenkerk) in Batavia, where his grave can still be visited

 

Mattheus de Haan

Mattheus de Haan (1663 – 1729) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1725 to 1729. (His portrait can be seen at [1]).

He was born in Dordrecht in 1663. On 26 October 1671 he left for the Indies, where his father had been appoined as Underbuyer (onderkoopman) in the Dutch East India Company (VOC). He then quickly went through posts in the lower levels of that organisation in Dutch Suratte. There, in 1676, he was made Provisional Assistant (provisioneel assistent), and in 1681 he became assistent. He became Bookkeeper (boekhouder) in 1683, and, in 1685, onderkoopman (Underbuyer/Undermerchant). Ten years later, in 1695, he was promoted to Buyer/Merchant (koopman). The next year he had to move to Batavia, to take up the post of Second Senior Buyer (tweede opperkoopman) in the Company’s headquarters there. Two years later, in 1698, he was promoted to First Senior Buyer (eerste opperkoopman). He became Secretary (secretaris) to the High Government of the Indies in 1700 and, in 1702, Vice-President of the Council of Justice. He was made a Counsellor-extraordinary (Raad extraordinair) of the Dutch Council of the Indies in 1704. He was then appointed President of the College van Schepenen in 1705. Five years later, he was made full Counsellor of the Indies and in 1722 he became Director-General. On 16 October 1724 he was nominated Governor-General, taking over from Henrick Zwaardecroon on 8 July 1725.

Characteristic of his time in office was his opposition Zwaardecroon’s encouragement of silk cultivation. Coffee production in the de Preanger region (the Priangan fr:Priangan uplands to the south of Batavia) went enormously well and de Haan felt that this would lead to a decline in coffee prices in Europe, so he lowered the prices paid to the coffee farmers. Their response was to chop down some of the coffee plantations. This was not what was intended, and De Haan forbade it. Meanwhile, there was further heavy damage to the production of coffee. Coffee from Java went mainly to Europe. They never managed to get into the Asian market. Coffee from Mocha took off there, as did the Arabic coffee of the English. No action was taken against this. The English also began to play a more important role in the cotton and tea trade.

Following a very unremarkable term in office (De Haan had all his life been more interested in repose than in action), the Governor-General died, after lying ill for three days, on 1 June 1729. He was buried in Batavia and was followed as Governor-General by Diederik Durven.

 

Diederik Durven

 

 

Diederik Durven

Diederik Durven (born Delft, 1676, died 26 February 1740) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1 June 1729 until 28 May 1732

Durven studied Law at Leiden University where he graduated in 19 July 1702. He became an advocate in Delft in 1704. In 1705, he was nominated as a member of the Council of Justice at Batavia in the Indies. He left for Batavia on the “Grimmestein” on the 4 January 1706. In 1706, he arrived in Batavia. After his appointment in 1720 to the Council of the Indies, he was sent, in 1722 and 1723, to supervise the gold- and silver-mines in Parang province. Subsequently, he became(in 1723) chairman of the College van Heemraden (i.e. drainage board, comparable to a polder board in the Dutch Republic), which was responsible for the management of land outside the city, including supervision of boundaries. He later become President of the Council of Justice – the supreme court of Dutch Asia. In 1729, Mattheus de Haan died. Diederik Durven succeeded him as provisional Governor-General. This did not last long, as the Directors of the East India Company were very impatient of the speed of change there. Following alleged financial misbehaviour, though more probably as a scapegoat, he was dismissed on 9 October 1731. Diederik Durven died in the Netherlands on 26 February 1740. He was succeeded by Dirck van Cloon.

 

Dirck van Cloon

 

 

Dirck van Cloon as Governor General of the Indies

Dirck van Cloon (1684 – 10 March 1735) was Eurasian Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. He died of malaria at the age of 46.

He was born in Batavia sometime in 1684. For his education and training he was sent to the Netherlands. He graduated in Law at Leiden University on 1 April 1707.

He returned he to Batavia on the clipperDonkervliet’ and spent some time in Dutch Coromandel. He was among other things a district overseer in Sadraspatnam. He got into a fight with the governor of Coromandel, Adriaan de Visser, who accused Van Cloon of delivering bad quality goods. The government in Batavia sent Van Cloon back to the Netherlands, but he persuaded the Directors of the Dutch East India Company that de Visser was not to be trusted. Van Cloon was reinstated and he left for the Indies on 4 November 1719 on board the ‘van de Huis te Assenburg’ as Supercargo. In 1720, he became district chief at Negapatnam. In 1723, he became Governor of Dutch Coromandel. In 1724, he returned to Batavia to advise the Governor-General and in 1730, he became “Raad-ordinair” (chief advisor) of the Indies.

On the 9th of October 1731 the Directors of the Dutch East India Company named Dirck van Cloon Governor-General of the Indies, to which he succeed on 28 May 1732, following the disgrace of Diederik Durven. By 20 December 1733 van Cloon was asking to resign because of sickness. He died in post, however, and it was not until after he had died that his successor took over. Van Cloon was involved in a stand-off with the nascent Swedish East India Company, but he resolved it amicably. Less happy was an insurrection of unemployed Chinese sugar plantation workers. This was caused by the collapse of the sugar market, due to over-production and government mishandling.

 

Abraham Patras

 

 

Governor General Abraham Patras

Abraham Patras (22 May 1671 – 3 May 1737) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 11 March 1735 until 3 May 1737. He was born in Grenoble of a refugee French Huguenot family. In 1685, his family fled to the Netherlands.

[edit] Early career

Patras first took a job in the offices of an Amsterdam merchant named Nathaniël Gauthier (a fellow Huguenot), but he left for the Indies aboard the Hobree on 4 January 1690, where he is described as a soldier in the employ of the Enkhuizen branch of the Dutch East India Company. In 1691, he sought a change of career and got a temporary post as an agent in Batavia. In 1695 he became assistant/secretary to the Chinese estates-management administration in Ambon Island. In 1698 he was put in charge of children and matrimonial matters. He married in 1699 to a daughter of an official of the Judicial Council in Ambon. His wife died on the 16 December 1700. His only daughter also died young.

[edit] Rising through the ranks

Patras was nominated to the Council of Justice in 1700, and in 1703, he went to work as under-secretary (onderkoopman) for the Governor of the Moluccas Islands. In 1707, he became the Head (opperhoofd) of the trading post at Jambi, where his headquarters were attacked. Although severely wounded in the back, he survived. He was merchant, then Chief Factor in Palembang in 1711. In 1717, he was promoted to Chief Merchant (opperkoopman) and Office holder (gezaghebber) of the west coast of Sumatra. It was 1720 that saw him promoted to Inspector General of Accounts for the Dutch East Indies (visitateur-generaal van Nederlands-Indië). In 1721, he was sent as an envoy to Jambi. In 1722, he was appointed deputee-overseer of goods coming in and out of the castle at Batavia. In 1724, he got the very lucrative post of Head of the Dutch Bengal trading post. In 1731, he was appointed as extraordinary (i.e. co-opted) member of the Council of the Indies.

[edit] Governor-General

On the 10 March 1735 on the death of Governor-General Dirck van Cloon, Patras very surprisingly was nominated Governor-General. He had never been a full member of the Council of the Indies, so this was a first, and was caused by him slipping through as a compromise candidate following a stalemate in the voting. He was not keen to take on the post in these circumstances, but agreed to do so until a better candidate could be found. On 11 March 1735 he was nominated interim Governor-General, a decision which was approved by the Directors of the East India Company.

During his short period of office, no significant decisions were made. Although he was a competent leader and had built up a great deal of practical knowledge of the territories, his age (at 64) probably ensured that he was not a very powerful Governor-General.

He died two years after his appointment during the night of 3 May 1737. He was buried in Batavia on 6 May 1737. He was a pious and good-hearted man who had lived a very modest life. The governor-generalship was taken over by Adriaan Valckenier.\\

 

 

 

Adriaan Valckenier

 

 

Adriaan Valckenier

Adriaan Valckenier (6 June 1695, Amsterdam – 20 June 1751, Batavia, Dutch East Indies), was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 3 May 1737 until 6 November 1741 and involved in the Chinese Massacre of 1740. Valckenier died in a prison in Batavia.

[edit] Biography

Valckenier’s father, an alderman and secretary in Amsterdam, was an official of the Dutch East India Company based in Amsterdam. He was the son to Gillis Valckenier, one of the great regents of Amsterdam during the later Dutch Golden Age. On 22 October 1714, Adriaan left on board the ‘Linschoten’ to be assistant buyer (onderkoopman) in the Dutch East Indies, where he arrived on 21 June 1715 at Batavia.

In 1726, he became merchant and chief buyer (opperkoopman); in 1727 he was “Accountant General” (boekhouder-generaal) of the Dutch Indies; in 1730, he was first appointed to the Council of the Indies (Raad extra-oridinair), and, in 1733, as a full “Councillor”. In 1736, he was made “First Councillor” and “Director-General”, but was beaten to the post of Governor General by Abraham Patras. On the latter’s death, he was named Governor General by the Council of the Indies on 3 May 1737.

[edit] The Chinese Massacre of 1740

Main article: 1740 Batavia massacre

It was during the rule of Adriaan Valckenier that the notorious slaughter of Chinese took place in Batavia (the so-called Chinese Massacre). A previous Governor General (Henricus Zwaardecroon) had encouraged many Chinese to come to Batavia. Something between 20% and 50% of the population were Chinese. They worked in the construction of the houses and fortifications of Batavia and on the sugar plantations outside the city. Many Chinese merchants also took a leading, if (from the Dutch point of view) illegal, role in the trade with China. From 1725 the sugar trade began to collapse (partly because of competition from Brazil).[citation needed] Unemployment in the countryside grew, and along with that, unrest. This spread to Batavia as unemployed Chinese left the countryside to seek work or food relief there. The authorities were alarmed at this and began issuing residence permits, and requiring those with permits to live in specific areas. Unrest grew to a full scale insurrection in the countryside in September 1740, when the Dutch had suggested transporting unemployed Chinese to other Dutch colonies in Ceylon and South Africa. A rumour spread that they would all be thrown overboard en route, and riots in the countryside exploded

The Dutch authorities were afraid that the Chinese within Batavia were collaborating with the insurrection and, over the 9 and 10 October, brutal searches were made of Chinese areas, in which many thousands were killed, often after having been arrested. This “massacre” lasted three days, followed by many more days of looting and arson, with no obvious attempt on the government’s part to stop the violence. One estimate is that between 5,000 and 10,000 Chinese (men, women and children) were killed in total

 

Johannes Thedens

 

 

Johannes Thedens (1680, Friedrichstadt – 19 March 1748, Batavia) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 6 November 1741 until 28 May 1743.

Thedens, born in a largely Dutch settlement in Schleswig-Holstein, sailed on 17 December 1697 as a soldier aboard the ‘’’Unie’’’ to the Dutch East Indies. In 1702 he was appointed to the post of ‘’’Assistant’’’ in the Dutch East India Company and in 1719, to ‘’’Buyer’’’ (‘’’koopman’’’). He then progressed (between 1723 and 1725) up through the ranks to ‘’’Chief Buyer’’’ (‘’’opperkoopman’’’) then ‘’’Head of Post’’’ (opperhoofd) at Deshima in Japan.[1]

In 1731, he was co-opted to the Council of the Indies and in 1736, he was made a full member (‘’’Raad-ordinair of Indie’’’). In 1740 he was appointed by the Directors as a ‘’’First Councillor and Director General’’’ of the Indies. On 6 November 1741, following the dismissal of Adriaan Valckenier, (whom he had arrested and placed in prison in the castle at Batavia), he became ‘’’interim’’’ Governor General . He continued in office up to 28 May 1743, and was able to overcome the Chinese insurrection and put the sugar trade on a better footing. He was succeeded by Gustaaf Willem baron van Imhoff.

 

Gustaaf Willem van Imhoff

 

 

Gustaaf Willem van Imhoff

Gustaaf Willem, Baron van Imhoff (August 8, 1705 Leer–November 1, 1750) was the governor of Ceylon and then the Dutch East Indies for the Dutch East India Company (VOC-Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie).

[edit] Early years

Van Imhoff was born into an East Frisian aristocratic family. His father, Wilhelm Heinrich Freiherr von Imhoff, came from the town of Leer in northwestern Germany, a few kilometers from the Dutch border.

In 1725, Van Imhoff entered into the service of the Dutch East India Company in Batavia (modern-day Jakarta), then colonial capital of the Dutch East Indies. Van Imhoff was promoted several times within the company before being appointed colonial governor in Ceylon (Modern-day Sri Lanka) on July 23, 1736.

[edit] Ceylon

Van Imhoff’s tenure as governor of Ceylon put an end to the chaos that had pervaded the previous administration. He established constructive relations with the king of Kandy, Vira Narendra Sinha.

King Narendra was married to a Tamil princess of Madurai (Tamil Nadu, India), and their child, Sri Vijaya Rajasinha who succeeded him after Narendra’s death on May 24, 1739, was seen to be more Tamil than Sinhalese (the majority ethnic group in Ceylon). Imhoff was concerned about this succession because closer contact between the Tamils of Ceylon, under Sri Vijaya Rajasinha, and the Tamils of south India might endanger the Dutch East India Company’s commercial monopoly. In his letters, Van Imhoff expressed his surprise that the Sinhalese people had accepted such a king, considering their haughty attitude towards the Tamils of India. However, Van Imhoff saw an interesting opportunity in this turn of events. He proposed to the Lords Seventeen (Heeren XVII, the directors of the VOC) that the kingdom of Ceylon be divided in two, but they rejected the proposition: a war would be too costly.

Despite the profitable production of spices, the colony was always in a state of deficit because its profits were allotted to the VOC in general, not to the colony itself. This practice prevented the Governors from becoming too extravagant in their habits, as was the case in other colonies.

[edit] Batavia

On March 12, 1740, Willem Mauritiz Bruininck replaced Van Imhoff as governor of Ceylon and Imhoff returned to Batavia, which he found in a precarious situation. Governor-General Adriaan Valckenier believed that the Chinese population in the area surrounding Batavia had grown too large. He attempted to relocate the population to Ceylon and the Cape Colony (South Africa), but a rumor alleging that the Dutch were planning to throw Chinese people overboard in the middle of the ocean started an insurrection against the VOC. Vackenier responded by massacring approximately 5000 Chinese. Imhoff contested this brutal policy, which led to his arrest and deportation to the Netherlands. Upon his arrival, the Lords Seventeen named him governor-general of the Dutch East Indies and sent him back to Batavia.

En route to Batavia, Imhoff visited the Dutch colony in Cape Town, in the Cape Colony, where he discovered that the citizens were penetrating farther and farther into the interior and were losing contact with the VOC. Imhoff proposed to improve education and the work of the Protestant Church in the colony.

In May 1743, Imhoff began his tenure in Batavia which was in the midst of a war. The Javanese princes took advantage of the chaotic situation following Valckenier’s actions to begin a war against the VOC. Imhoff succeeded in reestablishing the peace and began several reforms. He founded a Latin school, the first post offices in the Dutch East Indies, a hospital and a newspaper. He also founded the city of Buitenzorg and suppressed the opium trade. In 1746, Imhoff embarked on a tour of Java to inspect the company’s holdings and decided on several institutional reforms.

Imhoff’s tenure was also marked by catastrophe. A ship, the Hofwegen, was struck by lightning and exploded in the port of Batavia along with six tons of silver, totalling around 600,000 Dutch florins.

Ultimately, Imhoff’s progressive policies made him many enemies. Imhoff’s want of diplomacy and his lack of respect for local customs caused the colony to become embroiled in the third war of Javanese succession. Put in an untenable position by his enemies, Imhoff wanted to resign from his post, but the VOC would not allow it. Imhoff was forced to remain in office until his death in 1750, having come to believe that most of his work had been done in vain.

During his stay in Batavia, Imhoff stayed in a high-class residence today known as Toko Merah.[1

 

Jacob Mossel

 

 

Jacob Mossel

Jacob Mossel (28 November 1704 – 15 May 1761) went from being a common sailor to become Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1750 to 1761.

He was of noble birth, born in Enkhuizen. When he was 15 he left as an able-bodied seaman aboard a Fluyt (a type of Dutch sailing cargo vessel) called de Haringthuyn, bound for the Indies. As his family had a coat of arms, he was able to obtain a privileged position, through Dirk van Cloon, and was sent to the Dutch Coromandel (1721). On the 30th of March 1730, he married Adriana Appels, the fourteen-year old stepdaughter of Adriaan van Pla, Governor of Dutch Coromandel. Jacob Mossel worked himself up finally to Governor and Director of Dutch Coromandel. In 1740 he got the title of Counsellor-extraordinary of the Indies and in 1742 he became a member of the Dutch Council of the Indies (Raad van Indië) in Batavia/Jakarta. In 1745, he became the first Director of the Amfioensociëteit, which tried to regulate its monopoly of the trade in opium. In 1747, he was named as the Director-General (the second highest post in the Dutch East Indies). When in 1750, Gustaaf Willem van Imhoff died, Mossel succeeded him as Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. He remained in post until his own death in 1761.

Jacob Mossel ruled the Indies during a period in which things got steadily worse for the Dutch East India Company. He made may economies and he ended the war in Bantam Province,recognising that his predecessor had handled things badly. The Dutch were threatened by the expansion of the British East India Company. In the battle for Bengal, Mossel lost to the British. Mossel was a supporter of the policy to allow private entrepreneurs to trade for themselves in the territory of the Indies. This concerned small scale trading in which the Company could make no profit. Following that, Batavia/Jakarta underwent a period of growth, which, because of his successors tax regulations, came to nothing. The Company was plagued by corruption and self-interest among its office holders. Jacob Mossel was also involved in this. His great fortune could not in any case have been put together from his official salary. The initiatives he took against corruption were not very effective. To curb exaggerated displays of wealth, in 1754 he brought in a so-called “Regulation against pomp and splendour“, which tried to lay down exactly what wealth an officer could display. These details went from the number of buttonholes they could have to the size of their houses. Of course, the regulations did not apply to himself, and there was great feasting at his daughter’s wedding. After his death at Batavia/Jakarta, from a wasting disease, he was given a magnificent funeral

 

 

Petrus Albertus van der Parra

Petrus Albertus van der Parra (29 September 1714 – 28 December 1775) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 15 May 1761 to 28 December 1775. (See portrait at [1])

[edit] Biography

Petrus Albertus van der Parra was born in Colombo, the son of a Secretary to the government of Ceylon. His great-grandfather had come to India and the family had lived there ever since. In 1728, he began his career at fourteen years old. As everyone had to start as a soldier, he began as a “soldaat van de penne“, then became an “assistent” in 1731, and “boekhouder” (bookkeeper) in 1732. He had to move house in 1736 to take up a new job as “onderkoopman” (underbuyer/undermerchant), and at the same time “collectionist” (collector) and “boekhouder” to the General Secretary at Batavia/Jakarta. He became “koopman” (buyer/merchant) and “geheimschrijver” (secrets secretary) in 1739. He became Second Secretary to the High Government (Hoge Regering), becoming First Secretary in 1747. He became Counsellor-extraordinary of the Indies later that year (November) and in 1751 became a regular Counsellor. In 1752 he became President of the College van Heemraden (in charge of estate boundaries, roads, etc.). He was later a member of the “Schepenbank” (the local government and court in Batavia), a Regent (a board member) of the hospital and in 1755 he became First Counsellor and Director-General (Eerste Raad en Directeur-Generaal)

On 15 May 1761, following the death of Jacob Mossel he became Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. Confirmation of his appointment by the Heren XVII (the Seventeen Lords, who controlled the Dutch East India Company) came in 1762. He held a lavish inauguration on his birthday on 29 September. Subsequently, his birthday was a national holiday in the Indies. During his time as Governor-General, he overthrew the Prince of Kandy, in Ceylon, though with difficulty, and he conquered the sultanate of Siak in Sumatra. Contracts were entered into with various regional leaders in Bima, Soembawa, Dompo, Tambora, Sangar and Papekat. Apart from that, the rule of Van der Parra can be called weak. He favoured his friends and gave out well-paid posts if he could get anything in return for them. It was said he was a typical colonial ruler, idle, grumpy but generous to those who fawned upon him and recognised his greatness. It was a golden time for the preachers in Batavia, who got gifts, translations of the New Testament and scholarships from Van der Parra. They worshipped and eulogised him. Although the Heren XVII knew about his behaviour, as five Counsellors had written to them about his pretentions to kingly behaviour, they did nothing about it.

In 1770, Captain James Cook had to ask for his help to proceed on his journeys on HMS Endeavour (See s:Captain Cook’s Journal, First Voyage/Chapter 9). At the end of the 19th Century, a steamship, trading to the Indies, was named after him. ([2])

After over fourteen years in power, he died on 28 September 1775 in Weltevreden, the imposing palace built for him outside Batavia/Jakarta. (See images at [3] and [4]). He apparently left a great deal of his fortune to the widows of Colombo and a smaller part to the poor of Batavia ([5]) He was followed as Governor by Jeremias van Riemsdijk

 

 

Petrus Albertus van der Parra
Petrus Albertus van der Parra (29 September 1714 – 28 Desember 1775) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda dari 15 Mei 1761 to 28 Desember 1775. (Lihat foto di [1])

[Sunting] Biografi
Petrus Albertus van der Parra lahir di Kolombo, anak seorang Sekretaris kepada pemerintah Srilanka. Kakek buyutnya datang ke India dan keluarga pernah tinggal di sana sejak itu. Pada 1728, ia memulai karirnya di empat belas tahun. Seperti semua orang harus mulai sebagai seorang prajurit, ia mulai sebagai “van de penne soldaat”, kemudian menjadi “asisten” di 1731, dan “boekhouder” (pembukuan) pada 1732. Dia harus pindah rumah tahun 1736 untuk mengambil pekerjaan baru sebagai “onderkoopman” (underbuyer / undermerchant), dan pada saat yang sama “collectionist” (kolektor) dan “boekhouder” kepada Sekretaris Jenderal di Batavia / Jakarta. Ia menjadi “Koopman” (pembeli / pedagang) dan “geheimschrijver” (rahasia sekretaris) pada 1739. Dia menjadi Sekretaris Kedua kepada Pemerintah Tinggi (Hoge Regering), menjadi Sekretaris Pertama pada tahun 1747. Dia menjadi Konselor-luar biasa Hindia akhir tahun (November) dan pada 1751 menjadi Konselor biasa. Pada 1752 ia menjadi Presiden dari College van Heemraden (yang bertanggung jawab atas batas-batas perkebunan, jalan, dll). Ia kemudian menjadi anggota dari “Schepenbank” (pemerintah daerah dan pengadilan di Batavia), Bupati (anggota dewan) dari rumah sakit dan pada tahun 1755 ia menjadi Konselor Pertama dan Direktur Jenderal (Eerste Raad en Directeur-Generaal)

Pada tanggal 15 Mei 1761, setelah kematian Yakub Mossel ia menjadi Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda. Konfirmasi pengangkatannya oleh Heren XVII (yang Seventeen Lords, yang menguasai Belanda East India Company) datang pada tahun 1762. Dia mengadakan pelantikan mewah pada hari ulang tahunnya pada tanggal 29 September. Selanjutnya, ulang tahunnya adalah hari libur nasional di Hindia. Selama waktunya sebagai Gubernur Jenderal, ia menggulingkan Pangeran Kandy, di Ceylon, meskipun dengan kesulitan, dan ia menaklukkan Kesultanan Siak di Sumatra. Kontrak yang dimasukkan ke dalam dengan para pemimpin berbagai daerah di Bima, Soembawa, Dompo, Tambora, Sangar dan Papekat. Selain itu, aturan Van der Parra dapat disebut lemah. Dia disukai teman-temannya dan memberi tahu bergaji posting jika ia bisa mendapatkan imbalan apa pun untuk mereka. Konon ia adalah penguasa kolonial yang khas, menganggur, galak tapi murah hati kepada orang-orang yang fawned kepadanya dan diakui kebesarannya. Ini adalah waktu emas bagi para pengkhotbah di Batavia, yang mendapat hadiah, terjemahan Perjanjian Baru dan beasiswa dari Van der Parra. Mereka menyembah dan memuji dia. Meskipun Heren XVII tahu tentang perilaku, seperti lima Konselor telah ditulis untuk mereka tentang pretensi untuk raja perilaku, mereka tidak melakukan apa pun tentang hal itu.

Pada tahun 1770, Kapten James Cook harus meminta bantuan untuk melanjutkan pada perjalanan pada HMS Endeavour (Lihat s: Journal Kapten Cook, Voyage Pertama / Bab 9). Pada akhir abad ke-19, kapal uap, perdagangan ke Hindia, bernama setelah dia. ([2])

Setelah lebih dari empat belas tahun berkuasa, ia meninggal pada tanggal 28 September 1775 di Weltevreden, istana megah dibangun untuknya di luar Batavia / Jakarta. (Lihat gambar di [3] dan [4]). Ia tampaknya meninggalkan banyak kekayaannya untuk para janda dari Kolombo dan bagian yang lebih kecil kepada orang miskin Batavia ([5]) Dia diikuti sebagai Gubernur Jeremias van Riemsdijk oleh

1775-1777: Jeremias van Riemsdijk
Jeremias van Riemsdijk
Jeremias van Riemsdijk (18 Oktober 1712 – 3 Oktober 1777) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda, dari 28 Desember 1775 to 3 Oktober 1777.

Jeremias van Riemsdijk lahir pada 18 Oktober 1712 di Utrecht, putra untuk Scipio van Riemsdijk, menteri Bunnik dekat Houten, dan Johanna Bogaert. Ia masuk ke dalam layanan dengan Perusahaan India Timur Belanda sebagai seorang sersan meninggalkan untuk Hindia, kapal van de Proostwijk, pada 25 Februari 1735. Sangat lama setelah kedatangannya di Batavia / Jakarta pada tanggal 14 September 1735, ia masuk dinas (sebagai lawan dari militer) sipil. Jeremias adalah kemenakan masa depan Gubernur Jenderal Adriaan Valckenier-(1737-1741), yang pada waktu itu masih menjadi anggota Dewan Hindia. H karena itu bisa berharap untuk membuat kemajuan pesat dalam karirnya. Pada tahun 1736 ia menjadi onderkoopman (underbuyer / undermerchant), pada tahun 1738 Koopman (pembeli / pedagang), tahun 1740 Tweede opperkoopman (upperbuyer kedua / uppermerchant) dan di 1742 Eerste opperkoopman (upperbuyer pertama / uppermerchant) di markas kastil di Batavia / Jakarta. Pada 1743 ia menjadi kepala (kapitein) dari perusahaan staf administrasi / menulis (pennisten) dan pada bulan Oktober Jeremias van Riemsdijk bernama Konselor-luar biasa (extra-ordinaier Raad) kepada Dewan Hindia. Pada 1759 ia diangkat Presiden van Sekolah Weesmeesters (berurusan dengan urusan anak yatim, anak di bawah umur, dll). Pada 15 Oktober 1760 ia diangkat Konselor biasa (Raad ordinair) dan pada 17 Agustus 1764 Direktur Jenderal.

Pada tanggal 28 Desember 1775, setelah kematian Petrus Albertus van der Parra, Van Riemsdijk dipilih sebagai Gubernur Jenderal. Dia punya pada saat lima pernikahan, untuk wanita Eurasia terkemuka. Dia telah belajar banyak dari sebelas tahun dia telah bekerja dengan pendahulunya, yang besar nafsu untuk uang yang telah diperoleh. Selama masa jabatannya di kantor, ada kekurangan kapal dan personil kapal. Masalah ini dipecahkan dengan bantuan dari tanah air. Namun, tak lama setelah gubernur telah dimulai, Jeremias van Riemsdijk meninggal di Batavia / Jakarta. Dia diikuti sebagai Gubernur-Jenderal oleh Reynier de Klerck

1777-1780: Reinier de Klerk
Reynier de Klerck
Reynier de Klerck (atau Reinier de Klerck) (1710-1780) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda dari 9 Oktober 1778 sampai 1 September 1780.

Tanggal de Klerk yang lahir tidak diketahui tetapi ia dibaptis pada 19 November 1710 di Middelburg. Dia bekerja sebagai taruna kapal Kamer van Zeeland, kapal perang, yang tugasnya adalah untuk melindungi kapal kargo rute pulang terikat. Dia membuat dua perjalanan ke India sebagai pelaut dalam pelayanan Perusahaan India Timur Belanda. Pada bulan Desember 1730, ia meninggalkan secara permanen untuk India kapal t Vliegend Hert.

Antara 1735 dan 1737 ia adalah pilot atas sebuah kapal kecil yang diperdagangkan ke sana kemari antara Batavia dan Padang. Pada 1737 ia menjadi seorang akuntan (boekhouder) dengan Perusahaan India Timur Belanda, dan begitu mulai baginya kehidupan di darat. Pada tahun 1738, ia onderkoopman dan penduduk (underbuyer / undermerchant dan penduduk) di Lampung. Pada 1741 dia adalah seorang sekretaris dengan tentara di Jawa. Pada 1742 ia menjadi Kepala di Surabaya dan pada 1744 administrateur en koopmand Eerste (pembeli / pedagang dan administrator pertama) di Semarang. Pada 1747, dia bernama opperkoopmand en Tweede bestuurder (upperbuyer / uppermerchant dan kedua bertanggung jawab) dari Pantai Timur Laut Jawa. Pada 1748 ia menjadi Gubernur dan Direktur Banda. Dia pindah ke Batavia / Jakarta pada 1754 ketika ia menjadi presiden dari College van der Boedelmeesteren en Andere Chinesche onchristelijke sterfhuizen (yang tampak setelah Cina dan lainnya non-Kristen fasilitas pemakaman) untuk Batavia. Pada bulan Oktober 1754, Reynier de Klerck dipasang sebagai Konselor-luar biasa dari Hindia, dan pada tahun 1762 diangkat sebagai Konselor di Dewan Hindia Belanda. Pada 1775 ia menjadi Direktur Jenderal bertindak, yang bernama aktual Direktur Jenderal pada tahun 1776.

Pada tanggal 4 Oktober 1777, sehari setelah kematian Gubernur Jenderal Jeremias van Riemsdijk, ia dengan suara bulat terpilih sebagai Gubernur Jenderal. Dia mengambil fungsi resmi pasca satu tahun kemudian, 9 Oktober 1778. Reynier de Klerck adalah seorang gubernur pekerja keras. Dia adalah seorang pembaharu yang kuat, yang bagaimanapun tidak bisa menyadari semua ide-idenya. Dia sangat berkomitmen untuk membawa kebudayaan Belanda ke Hindia. Jadi ia ingin mengganti Portugueseand Melayu dengan Belanda dalam sistem pendidikan. Namun upaya itu gagal karena penduduk setempat tidak menginginkan ini. Selama masa jabatannya, kejadian penting yang terjadi. Sebuah konflik di Sulawesi dibawa ke Gowa berakhir dengan pendudukan, sementara Sultan Banten Landak dan Batjan memberi jalan kepada Perusahaan India Timur Belanda. Untuk melestarikan monopoli rempah-rempah, para Pangeran Tidore dan Batjan yang dicopot dan dikirim ke pengasingan ke Batavia. Mereka digantikan oleh boneka Perusahaan.

Masa jabatan van de Klerck Reynier tidak berlangsung lama, karena ia meninggal pada 1 September 1780 di Molenvliet dekat Batavia. Dia diikuti sebagai gubernur Arnold oleh Willem Alting.

Rumah Reynier de Klerck di Batavia lama masih dapat dilihat, sebagai Museum Arsip Nasional di Jalan Gajah Mada, Jakarta.

1780-1796: Willem Arnold Alting
Willem Arnold Alting
 

Portret van Willem Alting uit (Tischbein, 1788)

Willem Arnold Alting (1724 – 1800) adalah Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda dari 1780 sampai 1797.

Alting lahir di Groningen pada 11 November 1724. Ia belajar di kota kelahirannya dan lulus dalam hukum.

Dia meninggalkan pada 18 Oktober 1750 untuk Hindia di papan Middelburg de sebagai onderkoopman (underbuyer / undermerchant) untuk Belanda East India Company (VOC). Ia menghabiskan sisa hidupnya di Hindia. Pada 1754 ia menjadi Koopman (pembeli / pedagang) dan Sekretaris Pertama 1759 kepada pemerintah. Pada tahun 1763 ia menjadi Konselor-luar biasa (Buitengewoon Raad) dan pada tahun 1772 Konselor penuh (Raad ordinaris). Pada 1777 ia menjadi Pertama Konselor (Eerste Raad) bernama Direktur Jenderal.

Dari Maret 1780 ia bertindak Gubernur Jenderal, karena penyakit dari pendahulunya, Reynier de Klerck. Setelah kematian de Klerck, pada 1 September 1780 ia dipilih oleh Dewan Hindia Belanda sebagai Gubernur-Jenderal sementara. Dia membawa pada fungsi ini selama tujuh belas tahun.

De Klerck yang ingin membawa penggunaan Belanda ke dalam sistem pendidikan, tetapi Alting dicabut ini pada 1786, sehingga Melayu dan Portugis sekali lagi digunakan. Jangka Alting dari kantor ditandai dengan penurunan tajam dari Perusahaan India Timur Belanda dan kekuasaan di Hindia. Tiga bulan setelah dia posting, Belanda berperang dengan Inggris (1780 – 1784) dan sebagian besar wilayah Perusahaan India Timur Belanda diduduki oleh Inggris. Pemerintah di Batavia / Jakarta tidak, secara keseluruhan, menawarkan banyak perlawanan. Dengan Damai Paris (1784), Inggris memperoleh hak untuk perdagangan tanpa hambatan di Hindia Timur. Belanda harus menyerahkan Negapatam di India kepada Inggris. Citra Belanda di mata para penguasa lokal secara menyeluruh hancur.

Dari Belanda, tiga Komisaris Jenderal yang dikirim untuk bekerja dengan Alting untuk membenahi. Di perjalanan, salah satu dari mereka meninggal dan Alting berhasil mendapatkan anak-dalam-hukum-Nya Yohanes Siberg untuk mengambil tempatnya. Para Alting / Siberg duo didominasi Komisi dan, dari laporan dari salah satu Komisaris lainnya, tampaknya mereka bekerja sangat keras dalam kepentingan mereka sendiri. Komisi biaya banyak uang, tetapi membawa perbaikan. Pada 1795, menjadi dikenal di Batavia / Jakarta bahwa tanah air mereka (sementara itu telah menjadi Republik Batavia) sekali lagi berperang dengan Inggris.

Pada 17 Februari 1797, Willem Arnold Alting mengundurkan diri sebagai Gubernur-Jenderal dan Komisaris Jenderal dan menyerahkan pos kepada Pieter Gerardus van Overstraten. Alting tetap sebagai warga negara biasa, tanpa posisi resmi, tinggal di tanah miliknya di Kampung Melajoe dekat Batavia / Jakarta. Ia meninggal di sana pada 7 Juni 1800

 
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Jeremias van Riemsdijk

Jeremias van Riemsdijk (18 October 1712 – 3 October 1777) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies, from 28 December 1775 to 3 October 1777.

Jeremias van Riemsdijk was born on 18 October 1712 in Utrecht, the son to Scipio van Riemsdijk, the minister of Bunnik near Houten, and Johanna Bogaert. He entered into service with the Dutch East India Company as a sergeant left for the Indies, aboard the van de Proostwijk, on 25 February 1735. Very shortly after his arrival in Batavia/Jakarta on 14 September 1735, he entered the civil (as opposed to military) service. Jeremias was the nephew of the future Governor-General Adriaan Valckenier (1737-1741), who at the time was still a member of the Council of the Indies. H could therefore expect to make rapid progress in his career. In 1736 he became onderkoopman (underbuyer/undermerchant), in 1738 koopman (buyer/merchant), in 1740 tweede opperkoopman (second upperbuyer/uppermerchant) and in 1742 eerste opperkoopman (first upperbuyer/uppermerchant) in the castle headquarters at Batavia/Jakarta. In 1743 he became the chief (kapitein) of the company of clerical/writing staff (pennisten) and in October Jeremias van Riemsdijk was named Counsellor-extraordinary (Raad extra-ordinaier) to the Council of the Indies. In 1759 he was appointed President of the College van Weesmeesters (dealing with the affairs of orphans, minors, etc.). On 15 October 1760 he was named ordinary Counsellor (Raad ordinair) and on 17 August 1764 Director-General.

On 28 December 1775, following the death of Petrus Albertus van der Parra, Van Riemsdijk was chosen as Governor-General. He had had at the time five marriages, to leading Eurasian ladies. He had learned a lot from the eleven years he had worked with his predecessor, whose great appetite for money he had acquired. During his term in office, there was a shortage of ships and ship personnel. This problem was solved with help from the homeland. However, shortly after his governorship had begun, Jeremias van Riemsdijk died in Batavia/Jakarta. He was followed as Governor-General by Reynier de Klerck

 

Reynier de Klerck

Reynier de Klerck (or Reinier de Klerck) (1710 – 1780) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 9 October 1778 until 1 September 1780.

De Klerk’s date of birth is not known but he was baptised on 19 November 1710 in Middelburg. He worked as midshipman aboard the Kamer van Zeeland, a warship, whose duty was to protect the routes of homeward bound cargo ships. He made two trips to India as a sailor in the service of the Dutch East India Company. In December 1730, he left permanently for India aboard the t Vliegend Hert.

Between 1735 and 1737 he was the pilot aboard a small ship which traded to and fro between Batavia and Padang. In 1737 he became an accountant (boekhouder) with the Dutch East India Company, and so began for him a life on land. In 1738, he was onderkoopman and resident (underbuyer/undermerchant and resident) in Lampung. In 1741 he was a secretary with the army on Java. In 1742 he became Chief in Surabaya and in 1744 koopmand en eerste administrateur (buyer/merchant and first administrator) in Semarang. In 1747, he was named opperkoopmand en tweede bestuurder (upperbuyer/uppermerchant and second in charge) of Java’s Northeast Coast. In 1748 he became Governor and Director of Banda. He moved to Batavia/Jakarta in 1754 when he was made president of the College van Boedelmeesteren der Chinesche en andere onchristelijke sterfhuizen (which looked after Chinese and other non-Christian burial facilities) for Batavia. In October 1754, Reynier de Klerck was installed as Counsellor-extraordinary of the Indies, and in 1762 was appointed as Counsellor in the Dutch Council of the Indies. In 1775 he became acting Director-General, being named actual Director-General in 1776.

On 4 October 1777, the day after the death of Governor-General Jeremias van Riemsdijk, he was unanimously chosen as Governor-General. He took up the official functions of the post one year later, 9 October 1778. Reynier de Klerck was a hardworking governor. He was a powerful reformer, who however could not realise all his ideas. He was very committed to bringing Dutch culture to the Indies. Thus he wanted to replace Portugueseand Malay with Dutch in the education system. His endeavours failed however because the local population did not want this. During his term of office, few important happenings occurred. A conflict in the Celebes was brought to an end by occupying Gowa, while the Sultan of Bantam Landak and Batjan gave way to the Dutch East India Company. To preserve the spice monopoly, the Princes of Tidore and Batjan were deposed and sent into exile to Batavia. They were replaced by puppets of the Company.

The term of office of van Reynier de Klerck did not last long, for he died on 1 September 1780 in Molenvliet near Batavia. He was followed as governor by Willem Arnold Alting.

Reynier de Klerck’s house in old Batavia can still be seen, as the National Archives Museum on Jalan Gajah Mada, Jakarta.

 

Willem Arnold Alting

 

 

Portret van Willem Alting uit (Tischbein, 1788)

Willem Arnold Alting (1724 – 1800) was Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1780 until 1797.

Alting was born in Groningen on 11 November 1724. He studied in his hometown and graduated in law.

He left on 18 October 1750 for the Indies on board the de Middelburg as an onderkoopman (underbuyer/undermerchant) for the Dutch East India Company (VOC). He spent the rest of his life in the Indies. In 1754 he became koopman (buyer/merchant) and in 1759 First Secretary to the government. In 1763 he became Counsellor-extraordinary (Buitengewoon Raad) and in 1772 full Counsellor (Raad ordinaris). In 1777 he became First Counsellor (Eerste Raad) was named Director-General.

From March 1780 he was acting Governor-General, because of the sickness of his predecessor, Reynier de Klerck. Following the death of de Klerck, on 1 September 1780 he was chosen by the Dutch Council of the Indies as provisional Governor-General. He carried on this function for seventeen years.

De Klerck had wanted to bring the use of Dutch into the educational system, but Alting revoked this in 1786, so that Malay and Portuguese were once again used. Alting’s term of office was marked by a steep decline of the Dutch East India Company and its power in the Indies. Three months after he took up post, the Netherlands went to war with Britain (1780 – 1784) and a great part of the territory of the Dutch East India Company was occupied by the British. The government in Batavia/Jakarta did not, on the whole, offer much resistance. By the Peace of Paris (1784), Britain obtained the right to unhindered trade in the East Indies. The Dutch had to cede Negapatam in India to the British. The image of the Dutch in the eyes of the local rulers was thoroughly shattered.

From the Netherlands, three Commissioners-General were sent to work with Alting to reorganise. On the way there, one of them died and Alting managed to get his son-in-law Johannes Siberg to take his place. The Alting/Siberg duo dominated the Commission and, from the reports of one of the other Commissioners, it seems they worked very hard in their own interests. The Commission cost a lot of money but brought no improvement. In 1795, it became known in Batavia/Jakarta that their homeland (in the meantime having become the Batavian Republic) was once again at war with Britain.

On 17 February 1797, Willem Arnold Alting resigned as Governor-General and Commissioner-General and handed the post over to Pieter Gerardus van Overstraten. Alting remained as an ordinary citizen, without official position, living on his estate at Kampong Melajoe near Batavia/Jakarta. He died there on 7 June 1800

the end @copyright dr Iwan suwandy 2012

Koleksi Sejarah Jalur Sutera(The Silk Road Historic collections)

Koleksi Sejarah

Jalur sutra


 
Di
susun Oleh
Dr Iwan Suwandy, MHA
edisi Pribadi  terbatas E-Book dalam  CD-ROM
Copyright @ Dr iwan 2012

Silk Road History Collection
 
Compiled by
Dr. Iwan Suwandy, MHA
Private limited edition E-Book on CD-ROM
Copyright @ Dr Iwan 2012

Introduction
 
Map
 
Pilgrims and tourists
 

International Dunhuang Project: Silk Road
IDP
is an international collaboration to make information and images of all manuscripts, paintings, textiles and artifacts from Dunhuang and archaeological sites of the Eastern Silk Road freely available on the Internet and to encourage their use through education and research programs.
IDP partner institutions that both provide data to and act as a host for multilingual web sites and databases are:
• The British Library, London Directorate of refugees (English Version)
• National Library of China, Beijing (Chinese version)
• Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, St Petersburg (Russian version)
• Ryukoku University, Kyoto (Japanese version)
• Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Science and Humanities (German version)
• The Dunhuang Academy, Dunhuang (Chinese version)
• Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Paris (French version)
• Research Institute for Korean Studies, Seoul (Korea version)
Major partners providing data IDP include:
• Library of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest
• The British Museum, London
• The Victoria & Albert Museum, London
• Asian Art Museum, Berlin
• Guimet Museum in Paris
Many other collaborating institutions IDP provides data and work on projects together.
 
IDP Field Trip 2011
IDP member British team recently traveled to Xinjiang to visit ancient sites and Karadong Niya. In collaboration with the Xinjiang Institute of Archaeology and local guide IDP spent time documenting the site. We are working to make this material available on the IDP database as soon as possible but general photography trips can already be seen on our Flickr group page and some Audioboos can be heard here.
The photo above was taken at home Kaysar Mahmut, guard Niya site in the village of Askan ax. It shows him (third from left) with family members, IDP and the British team at the Xinjiang Institute of Archaeology.
New manuscripts from the Library of Royal Copenhagen in IDP
16 Dunhuang manuscripts in 14 reels are now available on the IDP. Donated by Arthur Bollerup Sørensen (1880-1932) in 1915, contains a collection of Taoist texts and texts believed to be unique. MSS 12 and 16 have colophons.
See the online catalog or search for a ‘Hold = Det Kongelige Bibliotek Institute on our Advanced Search page.
IDP News Issue No. 36-37
IDP News Issue No. 36-37, Winter / Spring 2010-11
This issue includes the launch of Seoul IDP website featuring a keynote address by Professor Mair and articles from scholars Korea.
In this issue we also report on the links developed with institutions in Afghanistan to create a resource that held at the British Library is accessible by all

indonesian version


Perkenalan
 
Peta
 
Peziarah dan wisatawan
 

Proyek International Dunhuang: Jalan Sutra
IDP
adalah  kerjasama internasional untuk membuat informasi dan gambar dari semua manuskrip, lukisan, tekstil dan artefak dari Dunhuang dan situs arkeologi dari Jalan Sutra Timur tersedia secara bebas di Internet dan untuk mendorong penggunaan mereka melalui program pendidikan dan penelitian.
IDP lembaga mitra yang baik memberikan data untuk dan bertindak sebagai host untuk situs web multibahasa dan database adalah:
• The British Library, London Direktorat pengungsi (Versi Inggris)
• Perpustakaan Nasional Cina, Beijing (versi Cina)
• Lembaga Manuskrip Oriental, St Petersburg (versi Rusia)
• Ryukoku University, Kyoto (versi Jepang)
• Akademi Berlin-Brandenburg Sains dan Humaniora (versi Jerman)
• Para Dunhuang Akademi, Dunhuang (versi Cina)
• Bibliothèque Nationale de Perancis, Paris (Prancis versi)
• Penelitian Institut Studi Korea, Seoul (Korea versi)
Mayor mitra IDP menyediakan data meliputi:
• Perpustakaan Akademi Ilmu Pengetahuan Hungaria, Budapest
• Para British Museum, London
• The Victoria & Albert Museum, London
• Museum Seni Asia, Berlin
• Museum Guimet di Paris
Banyak lembaga berkolaborasi lainnya IDP menyediakan data dan bekerja pada proyek-proyek bersama.
 
IDP Field Trip 2011
Anggota IDP tim Inggris baru saja bepergian ke Xinjiang untuk mengunjungi situs-situs kuno Niya dan Karadong. Bekerja sama dengan Institut Xinjiang Arkeologi dan pemandu lokal IDP menghabiskan waktu mendokumentasikan situs. Kami bekerja untuk membuat bahan ini tersedia di database IDP sesegera mungkin tapi fotografi umum perjalanan sudah dapat dilihat pada halaman grup Flickr kami dan beberapa Audioboos dapat didengar di sini.
Foto di atas diambil di rumah Kaysar Mahmut, penjaga situs Niya, di desa Kapak Askan. Ini menunjukkan dia (ketiga dari kiri) dengan anggota keluarganya, IDP tim Inggris dan Institut Arkeologi di Xinjiang.
Naskah baru dari Perpustakaan Royal Kopenhagen pada IDP
16 naskah Dunhuang di 14 gulungan yang sekarang tersedia di IDP. Disumbangkan oleh Arthur Bollerup Sørensen (1880-1932) pada tahun 1915, koleksi naskah Taois berisi dan teks diyakini menjadi unik. MSS 12 dan 16 memiliki kolofon.
Lihat katalog online atau cari ‘Memegang = Det Kongelige Bibliotek Institute pada halaman Pencarian Lanjutan kami.
IDP Berita Edisi No 36-37
IDP Berita Edisi No 36-37, Winter / Spring 2010-11
Masalah ini meliputi peluncuran situs web Seoul IDP menampilkan pidato utama oleh Profesor Mair dan artikel dari ulama Korea.
Dalam edisi ini kami juga melaporkan pada link yang dikembangkan dengan lembaga-lembaga di Afghanistan untuk membuat sumber daya yang diselenggarakan di British Library diakses oleh semua

 British Exploration in Central Asia
 
British Exploration in Central Asia began in the wake of the Game of the 19th century, when Britain and Russia have been competing for political control of this arena. With the then-British empire in India and the Russian empire controlling the Central Asian steppes, each hoping to prevent other graining control and intelligence on the ground between. Throughout the 19th century spy sent to gather intelligence and draw a map, often at personal risk. But towards the end of the century, interest broadened to include areas of geography, flora and fauna.
British in India used locals as spies and surveyors, ‘intellectuals’ as the first official

 -I-Hameed Mohamed.

 He reached the Taklamakan in 1863 and,

 in his report, wrote the sand-buried ancient city. He died on the way back and the British surveyor William Johnson, who investigated his death, his own journey started in 1865.

 He visited one such devastation near Khotan and wrote in his report that he believes there is more. This in turn encourages the interest of Thomas Douglas Forsyth in 1870 was sent to visit a short ruler of an independent Chinese Turkestan, Yakub Beg. Jacob Beg proved absent and elusive, and so on Forsyth went on a mission repeat three years later. Presentation to the Royal Geographical Society says more than the cities and discover buried artifacts from them, including the figure of the Buddha which he had dated in the tenth century. Report published (Forsyth_1875) contains early photographs of the area (Photo OIOC 997).
In 1889 a local treasure hunters found the manuscript in the south of the site cache Kucha on the northern Silk Road, and then sold some local scholars, Haji Ghulam Qadir. In turn, one bought from him by the Indian Army intelligence officer, Lieutenant Bower, who sent fifty-one folios of birch bark in a language unknown to the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Here studied by AFR (Rudolph) Hoernle, Head of Calcutta Madrasah and respected scholar of Indo-Aryan languages. Hoernle soon realized the importance of the manuscript, which contains the texts of some Buddhist Sanskrit, and he later wrote that the discovery and publication of ‘starting the modern movement throughout the archaeological exploration of the East Turkestan. “
From 1893, Hoernle’s instigation, the Political Officer at Gilgit, Chitral, Kashgar and Leh told to get whatever manuscripts they could find and sent them to Hoernle should be outlined. This forms what is known as the Hoernle Collection, or the British Collection of Antiquities from Central Asia, now in the British Library. By 1899, when Hoernle published the first part of the report on the collection (Hoernle_1899), it includes more than 500 coins, many seals, terracottas, in addition to more than 100 fragments of manuscripts in various scripts and languages ​​known and two unknown languages: Khotanese and Tocharian. This collection is also, however, including manuscripts and woodblock prints in recognizable script. It’s all been sent to him at Calcutta by George Macartney, the British representative in Kashgar and Stuart Godfrey, Assistant Resident in Kashmir.

George Macartney and forgery Early
 
In 1890

an expedition led by Francis Younghusband and sponsored by the British government to set up bases in Central Asia China arrived in Kashgar. Younghusband negotiated with the Chinese authorities to establish the British Consul there, but they initially refused and in 1891 the expedition set off, all except the young Chinese interpreter Scotland, George Macartney. He left behind to act as an unofficial representative. He has a Russian partner, Mr Petrovski, who had been in Kashgar since 1882 and got the status of the consul. Macartney had to wait until 1909.
 
In 1896

 Macartney was approached by a man called Islam Akhun Khotanese manuscripts found that offer purportedly from ancient sites in the desert. He bought it and sent them to India where Hoernle started working on trying to decipher an unknown script – which at first glance like India Brahmi – and language. Hoernle including some in the preliminary report in 1897 and gave a full report in 1899. In both he is considering whether the manuscripts were forged but rejected the idea, though he could not understand them. However, others are not convinced. In April 1901, Stein track Akhun Islam in Khotan and questioned him closely. Islam Akhun finally admitted that he and his colleagues have made this ‘old books’ own. Stein broke the news to Hoernle (then retired) on return to England.
 
Fortunately, Stein returned with further texts in another language then-unknown (Khotanese), who later described Hoernle, scientific honor, so be saved. Blockprints forged manuscripts and preserved in the British Library (Or.13873 and Or.13873/58). An IDP project on counterfeiting my site will go live in 2006.
Macartney in Kashgar continued until 1918 and during that time other manuscripts acquired and found, mostly sold to him by local residents. Most are now in the British Library and British Museum collection (see below). Consul succeeded, such as George Sherriff, Frederick Williamson and Sir Clarmont Skrine also acquire manuscripts and artifacts. Sir Percy Sykes also keeps a record of photography.
Marc Aurel Stein (1862-1943)
 
Publication of Bower manuscript (Hoernle_1893),

 Akhun find news about Islam and Swedish explorers report, Sven Hedin, encourage, Hungarian Marc Aurel Stein, to organize an expedition to Chinese Central Asia in 1900. Stein, a scholar of Indo-Iranian, has been working in Lahore in British India since 1887 and soon after applied for British citizenship. In 1898 he moved to Calcutta to work Hoernle, on the recommendation of this scholar (though he returned to Lahore after only one year). Between 1900 and 1930 he made four expeditions to Chinese Central Asia, conducting excavations along the southern Silk Road, at Dunhuang and Turfan, and surveys, and surveys enthnographical photographing.
Born in Hungary in 1862, Stein has studied Persian and Sanskrit in Austria and Germany and was later studied and worked in England and India, all in pursuit of its primary purpose to explore the ancient trade route from Central Asia. He had read about the campaigns of Alexander the Great as a kid, and then the journey of Xuanzang and Marco Polo. He was particularly interested in the cultural meeting – Iran, India, Turkey, and China – along the Southern Silk Road.
In the first eleven months of the expedition (1900-1901), Stein concentrates on site Khotan, Niya, Miran and Loulan. He published a full expedition report (Stein_1907) and more popular account of his journey (Stein_1903), along with several papers (see bibliography).
 
Stein’s second expedition (1906-8)

bring it back to a previously visited and new sites from the southern Silk Road where he carried out further excavations, before moving to the east to Dunhuang in order to study and explore the Han dynasty-defense to the north of the city. He then visited the Mogao cave site southeast of the city, where he obtained the material from the Library Cave. He traveled to the northern Silk Road, stopping briefly at Turfan site but does not do any excavation. She made the dangerous north-south across the Taklamakan in order to make the time to dig deeper in the ruins near Khotan, and ending with a survey expedition in the Kunlun Mountains. Here he lost his beloved pony fatigue and several toes to frostbite. A popular account followed several years later (Stein_1912) but the full expedition report in five volumes, complete with maps and plates (Stein_1921) take a few more years to complete (see bibliography).
 

 

The third expedition even longer, lasting 1913-1916

 and took back to Stein southern Silk Road sites, to Dunhuang and further east, and from there to the excavations at the site near Turfan on the northern Silk Road, especially Astana and Bezeklik. He went to Kashgar along the northern route, but then, rather than returning directly to India, he crossed the Pamirs, following the border of Afghanistan and then moved to the west of Sistan in Iran where he carried out further excavations. Although he published a full report of the expedition a few years later (innermost Asia), he did not publish his popular account of this expedition, but, in 1933, producing an account of all his three expeditions.
 
Although Stein managed to cover two thousand miles in the fourth expedition (1930-1) and visiting the site a favorite of many, the expedition was cut short as Stein heard a plan to confiscate his passport. Find some friends were taken by the authorities in Kashgar and this is his last visit to Central Asia China Stein. He made four expeditions to Iran and Iraq in the years that followed, conducted a survey of air defense in the Roman Near East, following in the footsteps of Alexander the Great in Central Asia and eventually died in Kabul for a year to plan a tour of the archaeological Afghanistan.
Stein’s original material is divided between London (British Museum, India Office Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum) and India, whose government has also provided sponsorship for the first three expeditions. In 1982, the majority of London’s manuscripts and photographs have been transferred to the British Library, where they remain, with the British Museum houses a collection of paintings, sculptures, coins and other artifacts. Victoria and Albert Museum holds textiles.
Murals, paintings, artifacts and manuscripts sent to India is now mainly in the National Museum, New Delhi. There is a smaller collection of the first expedition in the Indian Museum, Calcutta and in Pakistan at the Oriental Museum, Lahore.
Stein papers, including his expedition diaries, letters, account books etc. mostly placed in the Department of Western Manuscripts Bodleian Library, Oxford.
For details of other collections of Stein material in the UK, see the Handbook to the Stein Collections in the UK, produced by Helen Wang of the British Museum (Wang 1999). It will soon be available online.
Sir Aurel Stein Collection at the Library of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, including many photographs, personal documents, some finding, and libraries, have been cataloged (Apor_2002 and Apor_2007).

Collection:
 Content and Access
England holds a collection of about 50,000, painting manuscripts and artifacts from China’s Central Asia, as well as thousands of historical photographs, mostly from the first three Central Asian expeditions Aurel Stein. Most of Stein’s finding of the second and third expedition was held at the National Museum of India, New Delhi. Library of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in Budapest holds a lot of photographers expedition Stein, personal documents and some manuscripts. Bodleian Library, Oxford, has a large collection of Stein papers. British Library has the papers relating to Macartney, Hoernle, Stein and England in Central Asia. There are other smaller collections in several other British institutions.

 

1. British Library
1.1 Stein Collection
 
British Library Stein collection contains more than 45,000 manuscripts and documents printed on paper, wood and other materials in many languages, including Chinese, Tibetan, Sanskrit, Tangut, Khotanese, Kuchean, Sogdian, Uighur, Turkish and Mongolian. Some manuscripts contain more than one language; some unreadable. This collection also includes several paintings on hemp and paper, a small collection of fragments of textiles, and artefacts such as sutra wrappers, paper cuts and pastes brushes, along with more than 10,000 prints, negatives and lantern slides taken by Stein in India, Pakistan, Chinese Central Asia , Iran, Iraq and Jordan, dating from 1890 until 1938.
1.2 Other Central Asia Collection
Apart from the Stein collection, British Library manuscripts include Central Asia collected by the Government of India, commonly referred to as the Hoernle Collection. It includes 22 items sent to Hoernle to decipher in Calcutta between 1895 and 1899. They finally deposited in the British Museum in 1902 after the publication of its report (1899 and 1901). 10 further deliveries (number 142-44, 147-52, and 156) continue to be collected for him after retirement in 1899 and forwarded to him in England for examination. Overall Hoernle collection contains more than 2000 Sanskrit, 1200 Tocharian and Khotanese about 250 items in addition to some in Chinese, Persian, and Uighur.
Hoernle died in 1918, but the Government of India continued to collect manuscripts and artifacts albeit in a smaller scale. Small but important collection that was transferred to the British Museum by the successor Macartney in Kashgar, namely Nicholas Fitzmaurice, George Sherriff, Frederick Williamson, and Clarmont Skrine.
Skrine’s photo (OIOC 920 photos) and paper are also in the British Library. Photographs of Central Asia in the European APAC Private Papers can be found in the online photo catalog, and papers in the online catalog of personal papers, both available online through the India Office Select Materials Catalog. There is also the relevant papers and documents in the Western manuscripts and manuscript IOL and records department at the British Library.

1.3 Access to the Collection British Library
 
A few selected items from the collections of the British Library manuscripts on display in the John Ritblat Gallery is free and open throughout the week. These items are changed regularly to avoid over exposure to light. In addition, the Diamond Sutra is printed is available in digital form on the ‘Turning the Pages’ computer screens at the same gallery, on CD and online. There are many catalogs (see bibliography) and most of the manuscripts have been microfilmed. Non-Buddhist Chinese Dunhuang manuscripts have been published in 14 volumes of facsimile by the Sichuan People’s Publishing. In order to protect the native will suffer from too much handling, scholars are expected to consult the microfilm, facsimile or digital images first. If still required, the manuscript can be accessed on request scholar in APAC Reading Room, but the relevant curator should be contacted well in advance of your visit. Some manuscripts are too fragile to be seen and curators have to check all text in advance. If you do not give sufficient notice is not possible to see the manuscript.
 
To gain access to the APAC Reading Room you will first need a ticket reader ‘(click here for details).
Click here to get the full details of the access is Stein.
The photos are available for viewing in the Prints and Pictures Reading Room by appointment and also searched on APAC photographic database (although this does not have a current picture).
Click here to get details of the British Library locations and opening hours.

2. British Museum
2.1 Stein Collection
 
British Museum Stein Collection of Chinese Central Asia consists of nearly 400 paintings from Dunhuang, some textiles, several thousand artifacts from various sites, including architectural features, terracotta sculptures, and more than four thousand coins. The museum also has a collection of Stein material from the expedition to Iran and Iraq.
2.1 Access to the British Museum Collection
Stein collection of Chinese materials from Central Asia in the permanent display at the Hotung Gallery at the Museum consists of four cases containing a selection of archaeological findings by Stein. There are no paintings, works on paper, or textiles are on display because the light coming through the windows on both sides of the Hotung Gallery. This, however, can be viewed by appointment at the Space Studies where there is a registration card available from any object in the collection of Stein and visitors are entitled to look through these cards and then ask for objects not on display in the Gallery to take to them at any given time in the study (which can be one or two days then, depending on availability Museum Assistant).
Looking at Dunhuang paintings, which are on display in Stein space and can not be removed, must be by prior arrangement with the curator and Assistant Museum. Most of the paintings and artifacts have been reproduced in three volumes, (Whitfield 1982-5). High quality digital images of paintings and artifacts options can be accessed on the screen in Space Studies and the British Museum website. Contact the Department of Asia for more details.
 
Some of the coins collected by Stein on display permanently at the HSBC Money Gallery (Gallery 68). They are not on the screen that was placed in the Department of Coins and Medals – they are available to visitors at the Space Studies department by appointment. Initial list of coins that are found in Appendix three major reports Stein. For the revised and more detailed studies of the coin, see Wang, 2004.
Click here for information about the coin.
Click here to get details of the location of the British Museum and opening hours.
3. Victoria and Albert Museum
3.1 Stein Collection
A few items are on display in the public gallery and the rest are available for study by prior arrangement with the curator in the department of the Far East ..
4. Other Stein Collection
Go to more information about the Stein Collection at the National Museum, New Delhi.
5. Other Central Asian Collections in the UK
The following libraries in the UK contains a collection of archival and photographic Traveler Central Asia, in addition to working papers of the scholars who have worked in the area:
• Ancient India and Iran Trust
• Royal Geographical Society
• Royal Society Asia
• Royal Society for Asian Affairs
• University of Cambridge and the constituent colleges
• University of Cambridge Museum of Archaeology & Anthropology
• University of Oxford, Bodleian Library
Collection: In the IDP
British Library, British Museum and V & A collection of all be digital as part of the IDP.
1. British Library
As of the end of 2008, more than 100,000 images representing more than 20,000 items from the British Library are available online. It is planned that 80% of the material will be available in 2013 subject to funding. A summary is given below shows the breakdown by language.
Number of Scripts by Language / Script on refugees in the UK on 23/01/2012
Language (s) / script (s) Number of text / blockprints Number digitized
‘Phags-pa 2 2
Arab 2 2
Avestan 0 0
Bactrian 0 0
Brahmi 7581 7281
China 21 161 13 661
English 61 60
forged 24 24
France 10 10
Gandhari 351 351
Germany 1 1
Gupta 9 5
Judeo-Persian 1 1
Kharosthi 370 370
KHOTANESE 2252 1871
Kitan 0 0
Linear Kitan Script 0 0
Kok Turk 7 5
Manichaean Middle Persian 14 12
Mongolia 2 2
Nagari 0 0
New Persian 0 0
not applicable 6 6
not identified 250 242
Old Turkey 0 0
Nutmeg 0 0
Parthian 0 0
Pehlevi 5 5
Sanskrit 6040 5924
Siddham 0 0
Sogdian 97 49
Syriac 0 0
Tangut 1110 670
Tibet 7015 3500
Tocharian 1275 1231
Tumshuqese 5 0
Turkey 1 0
Uighur 252 173
Zhang-zhung 0 0
The number 40 948 28 578 *
* Note, the total awarded represents the number of manuscripts and digital texts and not the number of columns for a number of manuscripts containing more than one language and script
In addition, eight thousand photographs have been digitized Stein.
2. British Museum
Almost all the paintings British Museum Stein is now online, along with a selection of artifacts. Funds are being sought to digitize the rest of this. Coin collection is not currently part of the IDP despite the ongoing discussion.
3. V & A
All 700 V & A textile is now online on IDP.
4. Other Collections
Stein Photographs from the Library of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences are being digitized and made available online.
Refugees currently in discussions with the National Museum, New Delhi about start a digitization program.

Bibliography
Andrews_1920
Andrews, Fred. H., Stein, Aurel, I think China’s Ancient Silk excavated by Sir Aurel Stein at Damaged Sites in Central Asia. London: Bernard Quaritch, 1920.
Andrews_1922
Andrews, Fred. H., Stein, Aurel, I think China’s Ancient Silk excavated by Sir Aurel Stein at Damaged Sites in Central Asia. London: Bernard Quaritch, 1920.
Apor_2007
Apor, Eva (ed.), Wang, Helen (ed.), Falconer, John, Karteszi, Agnes, Kelecsenyi, Agnes, Russell-Smith, Lilla, Supplement to the Catalogue of Sir Aurel Stein Collection at the Library of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences Library, 2007.
Bailey_1945
Bailey, H. W., Text Khotanese. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1945-1963.
Bailey_1960
Bailey, Harold W. (Ed.), Emmerich, RE (ed.), Saka documents. London: Percy Lund Humphries, 1960.
Bailey_1964
Bailey, Harold W. (Ed.), Saka Documents III. London: Percy Lund, Humphries, 1964.
Bailey_1968
Bailey, Harold W., Saka documents: Volume Text. London: Percy Lund, Humphries, 1968.
Barnett_1903
Barnett, LD, ‘Early Notification Tibetan Manuscripts in the Stein Collection’. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1903): 109-114.
Dabbs_1963
Dabbs, Jack A., History of Discovery and Exploration of Chinese Turkestan. The Hague: Mouton, 1963.
Deasy_1901
Deasy, Captain HHPl, In Tibet and Chinese Turkestan. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1901.
Forsyth_1875
Giles, Lionel, Report of Mission to Yarkhund in 1873, under the Command Sir TD Forsyth, with Historical and Geographical Information Regarding Assets of the Amir of Yarkhund. Calcutta: Ministry of Foreign Affairs Press, 1875.
Giles_1928
Giles, Lionel, “Chinese Inscriptions and Records’. In Stein_1928.
Grinstead_1963
Grinstead, Eric, Title Index Catalog of Tunhuang China descriptive text in the British Museum. London: The British Museum, 1963.
Hartmann_1992
Hartmann, Jens-Uwe, Wille, Klaus, “Die nordturkistanischen Sanskrit-der Sammlung Handschriften Hoernle ‘. In Sanskrit-texte aus dem buddhistischen Canons: Neuentdeckungen und Neueditionen. Göttingen: Vandebhoeck & Ruprecht, 1992.
Hoernle_1897
Hoernle, AFR, ‘Three Ancient Manuscript Collection more information from Central Asia “. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 66 (1897): 213-60.
Hoernle_1902
.. Hoernle, AF Rudolf, Facsimile Reproduction Mss Weber, section IX, and Macartney MSS, set 1 with Roman TransliterationCalcutta:, 1902.
Hopkirk_1980
Hopkirk, Peter, Devils Affairs of the Silk Road: Search for the Lost Cities and Treasures of Chinese Central Asia. London: John Murray, 1980.
Macdonald_1978
Macdonald, Ariane, Imaeda, Yoshiro, Choix de documents tibétains à la Bibliothèque nationale save the full nominal quelques manuscrits India et de l’Office du British Museum. Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale, 1978.
Maspero_1953
Maspero, Henri, Les Documents de la Chinois Troisieme Sir Aurel Stein’s Expedition de en Asie Centrale. London: Trustees of the British Museum, 1953.
Michaelson_1999
Michaelson, Carol, Gilded Dragon. buried Treasures from the Golden Age of China. London: British Museum Press, 1999.
Rong_1998
Rong Xinjiang, ‘The importance of the history of Chinese fragments from Dunhuang in the British Library’. British Library Journal 24. 1 (Spring 1998): 78-89.
Sims Williams_1976
Sims-Williams, Nicholas, ‘The Sogdian Fragments of the British Library’. Indo-Iranian Journal 18 (1976): 43-82.
Stein_1901
Stein, M. Aurel, early reports about the journey of archaeological and topographical exploration in Chinese Turkestan. London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1901.
Stein_1903
Stein, M. Aurel, Sand-buried ruins of Khotan, a personal narrative of the journey of archaeological and geographical exploration in Chinese Turkestan. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1903.
Stein_1912
Stein, M. Aurel, the ruins of Desert Cathay: Personal Narrative Explorations in Central Asia and western China. London: Macmillan, 1912.
Stein_1914
Stein, M. Aurel, Guidelines for an exhibition of paintings, manuscripts and other archaeological objects collected by Sir Aurel Stein in Chinese Turkestan. London: British Museum, 1914.
Stein_1933
Stein, M. Aurel, On Ancient Central-Asian tracks: brief narrative of three expeditions in innermost Asia and north-western China. London: Macmillan & Co., 1933.
Takeuchi_1997
Takeuchi Tsuguhito, Old Tibetan manuscript from East Turkestan in the Stein Collection of the British Library. Tokyo: Center for East Asian Cultural Studies for Unesco, The Toyo fraud & Council of the British Library, 1997.
Takeuchi_1998
Takeuchi Tsuguhito, Old Tibetan manuscript from East Turkestan in the Stein Collection of the British Library. Tokyo and London: Center for East Asian Cultural Studies for UNESCO and the British Library, 1997-98.
Thomas_1935
Thomas, FW, Tibetan literary texts and documents concerning Chinese Turkestan. London: Royal Asiatic Society, 1935-1963.
Waley_1931
Waley, Arthur, A Catalogue of Paintings recovered by Sir Aurel Stein Tunhuang. London: Trustees of the British Museum, 1931.
Walker_1995
Walker, Annabel, Aurel Stein: Pioneer of the Silk Road. London: John Murray, 1995.
Wang_2004b
Wang, Helen, “Sir Aurel Stein Catalog of Papers in the British Museum Central Archives’. In Wang_2004.
Whitfield_1983
Whitfield, Roderick, “Buddhist Paintings from Dunhuang in the Aurel Stein Collection. ‘Orientation 14. 3 (1983): 14-28.
Whitfield_1985
Whitfield, Roderick, The Art of Central Asia: Stein Collection at the British Museum. Tokyo: Kodansha International Ltd., 1982-5.
Whitfield_1998
Whitfield, Roderick, ‘Four unpublished paintings of Dunhuang in the British Library Oriental collection. “British Library Journal 24. 1 (1998): 90-97.
Whitfield_nd
‘Indian Connection in Dunhuang art: painting silk Famous Photos Stein Collection, London and New Delhi Whitfield, Roderick,. In Zamponi_etal_nd.

Exploration and Excavation of China in Central Asia China
Officials were exiled to the western region of China during the Qing dynasty (1644-1911) prepared the accounts in a row, the public language and topography of the area (now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region and Gansu provinces). This continues the tradition of local gazeteers, manufactured throughout China, and the chapter on ‘the west’ which has become part of the official history of many Chinese dynasties since Hanshu (Han History).
Military Governor Songyun 松筠 (in office 1802-9) used exiles for the compilation of gazeteer Xinjiang. Prominent among them is Tingkai 汪廷楷 Wang, Qi Yunshi 祁韵士 (1751-1815: exile 1805-9) and Xu Song 徐松 (1781 to 1848: sequestered 1813), Qi is also writing a history of border areas. Xu continued journey of exploration in 1815-16 to gather information for a project in which he visited the site in the Dunhuang Buddhist cave inscriptions and inscriptions record regarding the establishment of the site. He also noted other ancient sites. Xu published several works, including notes on the chapters in the western region and Xiyu shuidao Hanshu 西域 水道 记 ji (Waterways of Western Region). (Waley-Cohen, 1991).
 
Xu Song in Xinjiang produces poetry books, literary creatures other traditional activities for the exiled Chinese literatus. Urumqi poems 级 昀 of Ji Yun (1724-1805: exile 1768) and diaries and poems from Hong Liangji 洪亮吉 (1746 to 1809: sequestered 1799) provide useful information first hand in the region. Xu Naigu continued in this tradition, wrote “An Ode to the Thousand Buddha Caves poems for posting to Dunhuang in 1831-4.
Xiaowan 蒋孝琬 Jiang (Jiang Siye, d. 1922), originally from Hunan, are not sequestered, but posted to Xinjiang in 1883. He acted as a translator, secretary and companion on the second expedition Aurel Stein, 1906-8 (see British collections). Jiang previously served as private secretary to government officials and have the experience necessary Stein.

 

French Explorations in Central Asia
 
During the 19th century,

France mounted a growing number of expeditions to various parts of Asia, from Vietnam to the Himalayas. This expedition began as largely geographical exploration and scientific community, forging new routes in uncharted territory and collecting botanical and geological samples. The travelers face many difficulties, including pain, freezing temperatures and hostility from some locals, including bandits.

indonesian version

Explorasi Inggris di  Asia Tengah
 
Eksplorasi Inggris di Asia Tengah mulai di bangun dari Game abad ke-19 Besar, ketika Inggris dan Rusia telah bersaing untuk kontrol politik dari arena ini. Dengan kerajaan kemudian-Inggris di India dan kekaisaran Rusia mengendalikan stepa Asia Tengah, masing-masing berharap untuk mencegah kontrol kembang kayu lainnya dan intelijen tentang tanah antara. Sepanjang abad ke-19 mata-mata dikirim untuk mengumpulkan intelijen dan menggambar peta, sering pada risiko pribadi. Tapi menjelang akhir abad ke-kepentingan diperluas untuk mencakup wilayah geografi, flora dan fauna.
Inggris di India digunakan penduduk setempat sebagai mata-mata dan surveyor, ‘cendekiawan’ yang resmi seperti pertama

 Mohamed-i-Hameed.

 Dia mencapai Taklamakan di tahun 1863 dan,

 dalam laporannya, menulis terkubur pasir-kota kuno. Dia meninggal dalam perjalanan kembali dan surveyor Inggris William Johnson, yang menyelidiki kematiannya, memulai perjalanan sendiri pada tahun 1865.

 Ia mengunjungi salah satu kehancuran seperti dekat Khotan dan menulis dalam laporannya bahwa ia percaya ada lebih banyak. Hal ini pada gilirannya mendorong kepentingan Thomas Douglas Forsyth yang pada 1870 dikirim untuk mengunjungi penguasa singkat dari Turkestan Cina independen, Yakub Beg. Yakub Beg terbukti absen dan sukar dipahami dan sebagainya Forsyth pergi pada misi ulangi tiga tahun kemudian. Presentasinya ke Royal Geographical Society mengatakan lebih dari kota-kota terkubur dan menemukan artefak dari mereka, termasuk sosok Buddha yang kemudian dia telah tanggal pada abad kesepuluh. Laporan yang diterbitkan (Forsyth_1875) berisi foto-foto awal daerah (OIOC Foto 997).
Pada tahun 1889 pemburu harta karun lokal menemukan cache naskah di selatan situs Kucha di Jalan Sutra utara dan kemudian dijual beberapa sarjana lokal, Haji Ghulam Qadir. Pada gilirannya, satu dibeli dari dia oleh perwira intelijen Angkatan Darat India, Letnan Bower, yang mengirim lima puluh satu folio dari kulit kayu birch dalam bahasa yang tidak diketahui oleh Asiatic Society of Bengal. Di sini dipelajari oleh AFR (Rudolph) Hoernle, Kepala Calcutta madrasah dan sarjana dihormati bahasa Indo-Arya. Hoernle segera menyadari pentingnya naskah, yang berisi teks-teks Buddhis Sansekerta beberapa, dan dia kemudian menulis bahwa penemuan dan publikasi ‘memulai gerakan modern seluruh eksplorasi arkeologi dari Turkestan Timur. ”
Dari 1893, atas anjuran Hoernle itu, Petugas Politik di Gilgit, Chitral, Kashgar dan Leh diperintahkan untuk mendapatkan apa pun naskah yang bisa mereka temukan dan mengirim mereka ke Hoernle harus diuraikan. Ini membentuk apa yang dikenal sebagai Koleksi Hoernle, atau Inggris Koleksi Barang Antik dari Asia Tengah, sekarang di British Library. Dengan 1899, ketika Hoernle menerbitkan bagian pertama dari laporan pada koleksi (Hoernle_1899), itu termasuk lebih dari 500 koin, banyak segel, terracottas, selain lebih dari 100 fragmen besar manuskrip dalam berbagai skrip dikenal dan bahasa serta dua bahasa yang tidak diketahui: Khotanese dan Tocharian. Koleksi ini juga, bagaimanapun, termasuk manuskrip dan woodblock cetakan dalam skrip dikenali. Ini semua telah dikirim kepadanya di Calcutta oleh George Macartney, wakil Inggris di Kashgar dan Stuart Godfrey, Asisten Residen di Kashmir.

George Macartney dan pemalsuan Awal
 
Pada tahun 1890

sebuah ekspedisi yang dipimpin oleh Francis Younghusband dan disponsori oleh pemerintah Inggris untuk mendirikan basis di Asia Tengah Cina tiba di Kashgar. Younghusband dinegosiasikan dengan pihak berwenang Cina untuk mendirikan Konsul Inggris di sana tapi mereka awalnya menolak dan pada tahun 1891 ekspedisi berangkat, semua kecuali penerjemah muda Cina Skotlandia, George Macartney. Dia ditinggalkan untuk bertindak sebagai perwakilan tidak resmi. Dia memiliki mitra Rusia, Mr Petrovski, yang telah di Kashgar sejak 1882 dan mendapat status Konsul. Macartney harus menunggu sampai 1909.
 
Pada tahun 1896

 Macartney didekati oleh seorang pria Khotanese disebut Islam Akhun yang menawarkan naskah menemukan yang dikatakan berasal dari situs-situs kuno di padang pasir. Dia membeli ini dan mengirim mereka ke India di mana Hoernle mulai bekerja pada mencoba untuk menguraikan naskah yang tidak diketahui – yang pada pandangan pertama mirip India Brahmi – dan bahasa. Hoernle termasuk beberapa dalam laporan pendahuluan pada tahun 1897 dan memberikan laporan lengkap pada 1899. Dalam kedua dia mempertimbangkan apakah naskah yang dipalsukan namun menolak gagasan itu, meskipun ia tidak bisa memahami mereka. Namun, lain tidak yakin. Pada bulan April 1901, Stein melacak Islam Akhun di Khotan dan menanyainya erat. Islam Akhun akhirnya mengakui bahwa ia dan rekan telah membuat ini ‘buku-buku lama’ sendiri. Stein menyampaikan kabar untuk Hoernle (saat itu pensiun) pada kembali ke Inggris.
 
Untungnya, Stein kembali dengan naskah lebih lanjut dalam bahasa lain kemudian-tidak diketahui (Khotanese), yang kemudian diuraikan Hoernle, kehormatan ilmiah sehingga diselamatkan. Manuskrip ditempa dan blockprints yang diawetkan dalam koleksi British Library (Or.13873 dan Or.13873/58). Sebuah proyek IDP saya situs di pemalsuan akan ditayangkan pada tahun 2006.
Macartney berlanjut di Kashgar sampai 1918 dan selama waktu naskah-naskah lainnya yang diperoleh dan menemukan, sebagian besar dijual kepadanya oleh penduduk setempat. Sebagian besar kini di Perpustakaan Inggris dan British Museum koleksi (lihat di bawah). Konsul berhasil, seperti George Sherriff, Frederick Williamson dan Sir Clarmont Skrine juga memperoleh manuskrip dan artefak. Sir Percy Sykes juga menyimpan catatan fotografi.
Marc Aurel Stein (1862-1943)
 
Publikasi naskah Bower (Hoernle_1893),

 berita tentang menemukan Islam Akhun dan laporan penjelajah Swedia, Sven Hedin, mendorong, Hungaria Marc Aurel Stein, untuk mengatur sebuah ekspedisi ke Cina Asia Tengah pada tahun 1900. Stein, seorang sarjana Indo-Iran, telah bekerja di Lahore di British India sejak 1887 dan segera setelah diterapkan untuk kewarganegaraan Inggris. Pada tahun 1898 ia pindah ke Calcutta untuk berhasil Hoernle, pada rekomendasi ini sarjana (meskipun ia kembali ke Lahore setelah hanya satu tahun). Antara 1900 dan 1930 ia melakukan empat ekspedisi ke Cina Asia Tengah, melakukan penggalian sepanjang seluruh Jalan Sutra Selatan, di Dunhuang dan Turfan, serta survei, dan survei enthnographical memotret.
Lahir di Hungaria pada 1862, Stein telah mempelajari Persia dan bahasa Sansekerta di Austria dan Jerman dan telah kemudian belajar dan bekerja di Inggris dan India, semua dalam mengejar tujuan utamanya untuk menjelajahi rute perdagangan kuno dari Asia Tengah. La pernah membaca tentang kampanye Alexander Agung sebagai seorang anak, dan kemudian dari Xuanzang dan perjalanan Marco Polo. Dia khususnya tertarik pada pertemuan budaya – Iran, India, Turki, dan Cina – sepanjang Jalan Sutra Selatan.
Dalam sebelas bulan pertama ekspedisi (1900-1901), Stein berkonsentrasi pada situs Khotan, Niya, Miran dan Loulan. Dia dipublikasikan sebuah laporan ekspedisi penuh (Stein_1907) dan account lebih populer dari perjalanannya (Stein_1903), bersama dengan beberapa makalah (lihat bibliografi).
 
Ekspedisi kedua Stein (1906-8)

membawanya kembali ke yang sebelumnya dikunjungi dan situs-situs baru dari Jalan Sutra selatan dimana dia melakukan penggalian lebih lanjut, sebelum bergerak ke arah timur ke Dunhuang dalam rangka untuk mempelajari dan menggali pada dinasti Han-pertahanan ke utara kota. Ia kemudian mengunjungi gua Mogao situs tenggara dari kota, di mana ia memperoleh bahan dari Gua Perpustakaan. Ia bepergian ke Jalan Sutra utara, berhenti sebentar di situs Turfan tetapi tidak melakukan apapun penggalian. Dia membuat berbahaya utara-selatan melintasi Taklamakan dalam rangka untuk membuat waktu untuk menggali lebih dekat reruntuhan di Khotan, dan mengakhiri ekspedisi dengan survei di Pegunungan Kunlun. Di sini ia kehilangan kuda poni kesayangannya kelelahan dan beberapa jari kakinya untuk radang dingin. Sebuah account populer diikuti beberapa tahun kemudian (Stein_1912) tetapi laporan ekspedisi penuh dalam lima jilid, lengkap dengan peta dan piring (Stein_1921) mengambil beberapa tahun lagi untuk menyelesaikan (lihat bibliografi).
 

 

Ekspedisi ketiga bahkan lebih lama, tahan 1913-1916

 dan mengambil Stein kembali ke situs Silk Road selatan, ke Dunhuang dan lebih ke timur, dan dari situ ke penggalian di situs dekat Turfan di Jalan Sutra utara, terutama Astana dan Bezeklik. Dia pergi ke Kashgar di sepanjang rute utara tapi kemudian, daripada kembali langsung ke India, ia menyeberangi Pamir, mengikuti perbatasan Afghanistan dan kemudian pindah ke Sistan di Iran barat dimana dia melakukan penggalian lebih lanjut. Meskipun ia menerbitkan sebuah laporan lengkap dari ekspedisi beberapa tahun kemudian (Asia terdalam), ia tidak mempublikasikan account populer ekspedisi ini, tetapi, pada tahun 1933, menghasilkan sebuah akun dari semua nya tiga ekspedisi.
 
Meskipun Stein berhasil untuk menutupi dua ribu mil dalam ekspedisi keempat (1930-1) dan mengunjungi situs favorit banyak, ekspedisi dipotong pendek sebagai Stein mendengar rencana untuk menyita paspornya. Menemukan beberapa temannya dibawa oleh pihak berwenang di Kashgar dan ini adalah kunjungan terakhir Stein ke Asia Tengah Cina. Dia melakukan empat ekspedisi ke Iran dan Irak di tahun-tahun berikutnya, dilakukan survei udara pertahanan Romawi di Timur Dekat, mengikuti jejak Alexander Agung di Asia Tengah dan akhirnya meninggal di Kabul merencanakan tur selama setahun arkeologi Afghanistan.
Bahan asli Stein dibagi antara London (British Museum, India Kantor Perpustakaan dan Museum Victoria dan Albert) dan India, yang pemerintahnya juga telah menyediakan sponsor untuk pertama tiga ekspedisi. Pada tahun 1982, mayoritas manuskrip London dan foto-foto telah dipindahkan ke British Library, di mana mereka tetap, dengan perumahan British Museum koleksi lukisan, patung, koin dan artefak lainnya. Museum Victoria dan Albert memegang tekstil.
Mural, lukisan, artefak dan naskah dikirim ke India sekarang terutama di Museum Nasional, New Delhi. Ada koleksi lebih kecil dari ekspedisi pertama di Museum India, Calcutta dan di Pakistan di Museum Oriental, Lahore.
Makalah Stein, termasuk buku harian ekspedisinya, surat, akun buku dll sebagian besar ditempatkan di Departemen Manuskrip Barat Perpustakaan Bodleian, Oxford.
Untuk rincian koleksi lainnya dari bahan Stein di Inggris, lihat Buku Pegangan ke Koleksi Stein di Inggris, yang diproduksi oleh Helen Wang dari British Museum (Wang 1999). Ini akan segera tersedia secara online.
Koleksi Sir Aurel Stein di Perpustakaan Akademi Ilmu Pengetahuan Hungaria, termasuk banyak foto, dokumen pribadi, beberapa menemukan, dan perpustakaan, telah katalog (Apor_2002 dan Apor_2007).

Koleksi:
 Isi dan Akses

Inggris memegang koleksi sekitar 50.000, lukisan manuskrip dan artefak dari Cina Asia Tengah, serta ribuan foto sejarah, sebagian besar berasal dari tiga ekspedisi pertama Asia Tengah Aurel Stein. Sebagian besar Stein menemukan dari ekspedisi kedua dan ketiga diadakan di Museum Nasional India, New Delhi. Perpustakaan Akademi Ilmu Pengetahuan Hungaria di Budapest memegang banyak fotografer ekspedisi Stein, dokumen pribadi dan beberapa naskah. Perpustakaan Bodleian, Oxford, memiliki koleksi besar makalah Stein. Perpustakaan Inggris memiliki makalah yang berkaitan dengan Macartney, Hoernle, Stein dan Inggris di Asia Tengah. Ada koleksi lainnya yang lebih kecil di beberapa lembaga Inggris lainnya.

 

1. British Library
1.1 Stein Koleksi
 
Koleksi British Library Stein berisi lebih dari 45.000 manuskrip dan dokumen yang dicetak pada kertas, kayu dan bahan lainnya dalam banyak bahasa, termasuk Cina, Tibet, Sansekerta, Tangut, Khotanese, Kuchean, Sogdian, Uighur, Turki dan Mongolia. Beberapa manuskrip berisi lebih dari satu bahasa; beberapa terbaca. Koleksi ini juga mencakup beberapa lukisan pada rami dan kertas, koleksi kecil fragmen tekstil, dan artefak seperti pembungkus Sutra, potongan kertas dan sikat pasta, bersama dengan lebih dari 10.000 cetakan, negatif dan slide lentera diambil oleh Stein di India, Pakistan, cina Asia Tengah, Iran, Irak dan Yordania, berasal dari tahun 1890 hingga 1938.
1.2 Lain Asia Koleksi Tengah
Selain dari koleksi Stein, British Library mencakup manuskrip Asia Tengah dikumpulkan oleh Pemerintah India, biasanya disebut sebagai Koleksi Hoernle. Ini termasuk 22 kiriman dikirim ke Hoernle untuk menguraikan di Calcutta antara 1895 dan 1899. Mereka akhirnya disimpan di British Museum pada tahun 1902 setelah penerbitan Laporan nya (1899 dan 1901). 10 pengiriman lebih lanjut (nomor 142-44, 147-52, dan 156) terus dikumpulkan untuk dirinya setelah pensiun pada 1899 dan diteruskan kepadanya di Inggris untuk pemeriksaan. Secara keseluruhan koleksi Hoernle berisi lebih dari 2000 bahasa Sansekerta, 1200 Tocharian dan sekitar 250 item Khotanese selain beberapa di Cina, Persia dan Uighur.
Hoernle meninggal pada tahun 1918, namun Pemerintah India terus mengumpulkan manuskrip dan artefak meskipun dalam skala yang lebih kecil. Koleksi kecil tapi penting yang dipindahkan ke British Museum oleh penerus Macartney di Kashgar, yaitu Nicholas Fitzmaurice, George Sherriff, Frederick Williamson, dan Clarmont Skrine.
Foto Skrine itu (OIOC 920 Foto) dan kertas juga di British Library. Foto-foto dari Asia Tengah dalam Makalah APAC Eropa Swasta dapat ditemukan dalam katalog foto online, dan makalah dalam katalog koran online pribadi, online baik yang tersedia melalui Katalog Kantor India Pilih Bahan. Ada juga makalah yang relevan dan dokumen dalam manuskrip Barat dan manuskrip IOL dan departemen catatan di Perpustakaan Inggris.

1.3 Akses ke Koleksi British Library
 
Sebuah beberapa item yang dipilih dari koleksi naskah British Library yang dipajang di Galeri Ritblat Yohanes yang bebas dan terbuka sepanjang minggu. Barang-barang ini diubah secara teratur untuk menghindari over terkena cahaya. Selain itu, Sutra Intan dicetak tersedia dalam bentuk digital pada ‘Turning Halaman’ layar komputer di galeri yang sama, pada CD dan online. Ada banyak katalog (lihat bibliografi) dan sebagian besar naskah telah microfilmed. Non-Buddhis naskah Dunhuang Cina telah diterbitkan dalam 14 volume faksimili oleh Penerbit Sichuan Rakyat. Dalam rangka untuk melindungi asli yang akan menderita terlalu banyak penanganan, ulama diharapkan untuk berkonsultasi dengan mikrofilm, faksimil atau gambar digital pertama. Jika masih diperlukan, manuskrip dapat diakses berdasarkan permintaan sarjana di Ruang Baca APAC, tapi kurator yang relevan harus dihubungi baik sebelum kunjungan Anda. Beberapa manuskrip terlalu rapuh untuk dilihat dan kurator harus memeriksa semua naskah di muka. Jika Anda tidak memberikan pemberitahuan yang cukup maka tidak mungkin untuk melihat naskah.
 
Untuk mendapatkan akses ke Ruang Baca APAC pertama anda perlu tiket pembaca ‘(klik di sini untuk rincian).
Klik di sini untuk mendapatkan rincian lengkap tentang akses ke naskah Stein.
Foto-foto yang tersedia untuk dilihat di Cetakan dan Gambar Ruang Baca dengan perjanjian dan juga dicari pada database fotografi APAC (meskipun ini tidak memiliki gambar saat ini).
Klik di sini untuk mendapatkan rincian lokasi Perpustakaan Inggris dan jam buka.

2. British Museum
2.1 Stein Koleksi
 
Koleksi Museum Inggris Stein dari Cina Asia Tengah terdiri dari hampir 400 lukisan dari Dunhuang, beberapa tekstil, beberapa ribu artefak dari berbagai situs, termasuk fitur arsitektur, patung terakota, dan lebih dari empat ribu koin. Museum ini juga memiliki koleksi materi Stein dari ekspedisi ke Iran dan Irak.
2.1 Akses ke Koleksi Museum Inggris
Koleksi Stein materi dari Cina Asia Tengah di layar permanen di Galeri Hotung di Museum terdiri dari empat kasus yang mengandung pilihan temuan arkeologis oleh Stein. Tidak ada lukisan, karya-karya di atas kertas, atau tekstil yang dipajang karena cahaya yang datang melalui jendela di kedua sisi Galeri Hotung. Ini, bagaimanapun, dapat dilihat dengan perjanjian di Ruang Studi mana ada pendaftaran kartu yang tersedia dari setiap objek dalam koleksi Stein dan pengunjung berhak melihat melalui kartu ini dan kemudian meminta untuk benda tidak pada tampilan dalam Galeri untuk dibawa ke mereka pada waktu tertentu di ruang Studi (yang bisa satu atau dua hari maka, tergantung pada ketersediaan Asisten Museum).
Melihat lukisan Dunhuang, yang berada di layar di ruang Stein dan tidak dapat dihapus, harus dengan pengaturan sebelumnya dengan kurator dan Asisten Museum. Sebagian besar lukisan dan artefak telah direproduksi dalam tiga volume, (Whitfield 1982-5). Gambar berkualitas tinggi digital dari lukisan dan pilihan artefak dapat diakses di layar di Ruang Studi dan di situs British Museum. Hubungi Departemen Asia untuk rincian lebih lanjut.
 
Beberapa dari koin yang dikumpulkan oleh Stein yang dipajang permanen di Galeri Uang HSBC (galeri 68). Mereka tidak pada layar yang ditempatkan di Departemen Koin dan Medali – mereka yang tersedia untuk pengunjung di Ruang Studi departemen oleh janji. Daftar awal dari koin yang ditemukan dalam Lampiran tiga Stein laporan utama. Untuk studi direvisi dan lebih rinci dari koin, lihat Wang 2004.
Klik di sini untuk informasi tentang koin.
Klik di sini untuk mendapatkan rincian lokasi British Museum dan jam buka.
3. Museum Victoria dan Albert
3.1 Stein Koleksi
Sebuah beberapa item yang dipajang di galeri publik dan sisanya yang tersedia untuk studi dengan pengaturan sebelumnya dengan kurator di departemen Timur Jauh ..
4. Stein Lainnya Koleksi
Buka informasi lebih lanjut tentang Stein Koleksi di Museum Nasional, New Delhi.
5. Lain Asia Koleksi Tengah di Inggris
Library berikut di Inggris berisi koleksi arsip dan fotografi dari wisatawan Asia Tengah, di samping kertas kerja para sarjana yang telah bekerja di daerah tersebut:
• India dan Iran Kuno Kepercayaan
• Royal Society Geografis
• Masyarakat Kerajaan Asia
• Royal Society untuk Urusan Asia
• Universitas Cambridge dan perguruan tinggi konstituen
• Universitas Cambridge Museum Arkeologi & Antropologi
• Universitas Oxford, Perpustakaan Bodleian
Koleksi: Pada IDP
Perpustakaan Inggris, British Museum dan V & A koleksi semua menjadi digital sebagai bagian dari IDP.
1. British Library
Sampai dengan akhir 2008, lebih dari 100.000 gambar yang mewakili lebih dari 20.000 item dari British Library yang tersedia secara online. Hal ini direncanakan bahwa 80% dari material akan tersedia pada tahun 2013 tunduk pada pendanaan. Sebuah ringkasan diberikan di bawah ini menunjukkan rincian dengan bahasa.
Jumlah Naskah oleh Bahasa / Script pada pengungsi di Inggris pada 23/01/2012
Bahasa (s) / Script (s) Jumlah naskah / blockprints Nomor Digitised
‘Phags-pa 2 2
Arab 2 2
Avestan 0 0
Bactrian 0 0
Brahmi 7581 7281
Cina 21.161 13.661
Bahasa Inggris 61 60
ditempa 24 24
Prancis 10 10
Gandari 351 351
Jerman 1 1
Gupta 9 5
Yahudi-Persia 1 1
Kharosthi 370 370
Khotanese 2252 1871
Kitan 0 0
Kitan Linear Script 0 0
Kok Turki 7 5
Manichaean Tengah Persia 14 12
Mongolia 2 2
Nagari 0 0
Baru Persia 0 0
tidak berlaku 6 6
tidak diidentifikasi 250 242
Lama Turki 0 0
Pala 0 0
Parthia 0 0
Pehlevi 5 5
Sanskerta 6040 5924
Siddham 0 0
Sogdian 97 49
Siria 0 0
Tangut 1110 670
Tibet 7015 3500
Tocharian 1275 1231
Tumshuqese 5 0
Turki 1 0
Uighur 252 173
Zhang-zhung 0 0
Jumlah 40.948 28.578 *
* Catatan, total diberikan mewakili jumlah manuskrip dan naskah digital dan bukan merupakan jumlah dari kolom karena beberapa naskah berisi lebih dari satu bahasa dan aksara
Selain itu, delapan ribu foto Stein telah didigitalkan.
2. British Museum
Hampir semua lukisan British Museum Stein sekarang online, bersama dengan pilihan artefak. Dana sedang dicari untuk mendigitalkan sisa ini. Koleksi koin saat ini bukan bagian dari IDP meskipun diskusi berlangsung.
3. V & A
Semua 700 V & A tekstil sekarang online di IDP.
4. Lainnya Koleksi
Foto-foto Stein dari Perpustakaan dari Hongaria Academy of Sciences sedang didigitalkan dan dibuat tersedia secara online.
Pengungsi saat ini dalam diskusi dengan Museum Nasional, New Delhi tentang memulai program digitalisasi.

Bibliografi
Andrews_1920
Andrews, Fred. H., Stein, Aurel, Sutra Kuno Kupikir Cina digali oleh Sir Aurel Stein di Situs Rusak di Asia Tengah. Jakarta: Bernard Quaritch, 1920.
Andrews_1922
Andrews, Fred. H., Stein, Aurel, Sutra Kuno Kupikir Cina digali oleh Sir Aurel Stein di Situs Rusak di Asia Tengah. Jakarta: Bernard Quaritch, 1920.
Apor_2007
Apor, Eva (ed.), Wang, Helen (ed.), Falconer, John, Karteszi, Agnes, Kelecsenyi, Agnes, Russell-Smith, Lilla, Tambahan Katalog dari Koleksi Sir Aurel Stein di Perpustakaan Hungaria Academy of Sciences. Budapest: Perpustakaan Hongaria Academy of Sciences, 2007.
Bailey_1945
Bailey, H. W., Teks Khotanese. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1945-1963.
Bailey_1960
Bailey, Harold W. (ed.), Emmerick, RE (ed.), Saka Dokumen. Jakarta: Percy Lund Humphries, 1960.
Bailey_1964
Bailey, Harold W. (ed.), Saka Dokumen III. Jakarta: Percy Lund, Humphries, 1964.
Bailey_1968
Bailey, Harold W., Saka Dokumen: Volume Teks. Jakarta: Percy Lund, Humphries, 1968.
Barnett_1903
Barnett, LD, ‘Awal Pemberitahuan Manuscripts Tibet di Koleksi Stein’. Jurnal Royal Asiatic Society (1903): 109-114.
Dabbs_1963
Dabbs, Jack A., Sejarah Discovery dan Eksplorasi Turkestan Cina. Den Haag: Mouton, 1963.
Deasy_1901
Deasy, Kapten HHPl, Di Tibet dan Cina Turkistan. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1901.
Forsyth_1875
Giles, Lionel, Laporan dari Misi untuk Yarkhund pada tahun 1873, Sir bawah Komando TD Forsyth, dengan Informasi Sejarah dan Geografis Mengenai Harta dari Amir dari Yarkhund. Calcutta: Departemen Luar Negeri Tekan, 1875.
Giles_1928
Giles, Lionel, “Prasasti Cina dan Records ‘. Dalam Stein_1928.
Grinstead_1963
Grinstead, Eric, Judul Index Katalog deskriptif Naskah Cina dari Tunhuang di British Museum. Jakarta: The British Museum, 1963.
Hartmann_1992
Hartmann, Jens-Uwe, Wille, Klaus, “Die nordturkistanischen bahasa Sansekerta-Handschriften Sammlung der Hoernle ‘. Dalam bahasa Sansekerta-texte aus dem buddhistischen Kanon: Neuentdeckungen und Neueditionen. Göttingen: Vandebhoeck & Ruprecht, 1992.
Hoernle_1897
Hoernle, AFR, ‘Tiga Koleksi Naskah Kuno lebih lanjut dari Asia Tengah “. Jurnal dari Asiatic Society of Bengal 66 (1897): 213-60.
Hoernle_1902
.. Hoernle, AF Rudolf, Reproduksi Faksimili Weber Mss, bagian IX dan Macartney Mss, set 1 dengan Roman TransliterationCalcutta:, 1902.
Hopkirk_1980
Hopkirk, Petrus, Devils Negeri Jalan Sutra: Pencarian untuk Kota Hilang dan Treasures Asia Tengah Cina. London: John Murray, 1980.
Macdonald_1978
Macdonald, Ariane, Imaeda, Yoshiro, Choix de dokumen tibétains menghemat à la Bibliothèque nationale nominal lengkap quelques manuscrits de l’India et du Kantor British Museum. Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale, 1978.
Maspero_1953
Maspero, Henri, Les Dokumen Chinois de la Troisieme Ekspedisi de Sir Aurel Stein en Asie Centrale. Jakarta: Pengawas dari British Museum, 1953.
Michaelson_1999
Michaelson, Carol, Gilded Naga. terkubur Treasures dari Usia Emas China. London: British Museum Pers, 1999.
Rong_1998
Rong, Xinjiang, ‘Pentingnya sejarah fragmen Cina dari Dunhuang di British Library’. British Library Journal 24. 1 (Musim Semi 1998): 78-89.
Sims-Williams_1976
Sims-Williams, Nicholas, ‘The Fragmen Sogdian dari British Library’. Indo-Iran Journal 18 (1976): 43-82.
Stein_1901
Stein, M. Aurel, laporan awal tentang perjalanan eksplorasi arkeologi dan topografi di Turkestan Cina. Jakarta: Eyre dan Spottiswoode, 1901.
Stein_1903
Stein, M. Aurel, Pasir-terkubur reruntuhan Khotan, narasi pribadi dari perjalanan eksplorasi arkeologi dan geografis di Turkestan Cina. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1903.
Stein_1912
Stein, M. Aurel, reruntuhan Gurun Cathay: Narasi Pribadi Explorasi di Asia Tengah dan China barat. London: Macmillan, 1912.
Stein_1914
Stein, M. Aurel, Panduan untuk sebuah pameran lukisan, manuskrip dan benda-benda arkeologi lainnya yang dikumpulkan oleh Sir Aurel Stein dalam bahasa Cina Turkistan. Jakarta: British Museum, 1914.
Stein_1933
Stein, M. Aurel, Di Tengah-Asia Kuno trek: narasi singkat dari tiga ekspedisi di Asia terdalam dan utara-barat Cina. London: Macmillan & Co, 1933.
Takeuchi_1997
Takeuchi Tsuguhito, Lama Tibet Naskah dari Turkestan Timur di Koleksi Stein dari British Library. Tokyo: Pusat Studi Timur Asian Cultural untuk UNESCO, The Toyo penipuan & Dewan Perpustakaan Inggris, 1997.
Takeuchi_1998
Takeuchi Tsuguhito, Lama Tibet Naskah dari Turkestan Timur di Koleksi Stein dari British Library. Tokyo dan London: Pusat Studi Budaya Timur Asia untuk UNESCO dan Perpustakaan Inggris, 1997-98.
Thomas_1935
Thomas, FW, teks-teks sastra Tibet dan dokumen tentang Turkistan Cina. London: Royal Asiatic Society, 1935-1963.
Waley_1931
Waley, Arthur, Sebuah Katalog Lukisan dipulihkan dari Tunhuang oleh Sir Aurel Stein. Jakarta: Pengawas dari Museum Inggris, 1931.
Walker_1995
Walker, Annabel, Aurel Stein: Pioneer dari Jalan Sutra. London: John Murray, 1995.
Wang_2004b
Wang, Helen, “Katalog dari Sir Aurel Stein Makalah di British Museum Arsip Tengah ‘. Dalam Wang_2004.
Whitfield_1983
Whitfield, Roderick, “Buddha Lukisan dari Dunhuang di Koleksi Stein Aurel ‘. Orientasi 14. 3 (1983): 14-28.
Whitfield_1985
Whitfield, Roderick, The Art of Asia Tengah: Koleksi Stein di British Museum. Tokyo: Kodansha International Ltd, 1982-5.
Whitfield_1998
Whitfield, Roderick, “Empat lukisan tidak dipublikasikan dari Dunhuang di koleksi Oriental British Library ‘. Perpustakaan British Journal 24. 1 (1998): 90-97.
Whitfield_nd
‘Koneksi India dalam seni Dunhuang: lukisan sutra Foto Terkenal di Koleksi Stein, London dan New Delhi Whitfield, Roderick,. Dalam Zamponi_etal_nd.

Eksplorasi dan Penggalian Cina  di Asia Tengah Cina
Pejabat diasingkan ke wilayah barat Cina selama dinasti Qing (1644-1911) menyediakan rekening berturut-turut, masyarakat bahasa dan topografi wilayah (sekarang Otonom Uighur Xinjiang dan Gansu Daerah provinsi). Hal ini melanjutkan tradisi gazeteers lokal, diproduksi di seluruh China, dan bab pada ‘wilayah barat’ yang telah menjadi bagian dari banyak sejarah resmi dinasti Cina sejak Hanshu (Sejarah Han).
Gubernur Militer Songyun
松筠 (di kantor 1802-9) yang digunakan orang-orang buangan untuk kompilasi dari gazeteer Xinjiang. Menonjol di antara mereka adalah Wang Tingkai 汪廷楷, Qi Yunshi 祁韵士 (1751-1815: diasingkan 1805-9) dan Xu Lagu 徐松 (1781-1848: diasingkan 1813), Qi juga menulis sejarah dari daerah perbatasan. Xu melanjutkan perjalanan eksplorasi di 1815-16 mengumpulkan informasi untuk proyek di mana ia mengunjungi situs Buddhis gua di Dunhuang dan prasasti prasasti mencatat tentang pendirian situs. Dia juga mencatat situs-situs kuno lainnya. Xu menerbitkan beberapa karya, termasuk catatan pada bab wilayah barat di Hanshu dan Xiyu shuidao ji 西域 水道 (Waterways dari Wilayah Barat). (Waley-Cohen, 1991).
 
Xu Lagu menghasilkan buku puisi di Xinjiang, sastra makhluk lain aktivitas tradisional untuk diasingkan Cina literatus. Puisi-puisi Urumqi dari Ji Yun
(1724-1805: diasingkan 1768) dan buku harian dan puisi dari Hong Liangji 洪亮吉 (1746-1809: diasingkan 1799) memberikan informasi yang berguna tangan pertama di wilayah tersebut. Xu Naigu dilanjutkan dalam tradisi ini, menulis “Sebuah Ode untuk Seribu Gua Buddha puisi selama postingan ke Dunhuang di 1831-4.
Jiang Xiaowan
蒋孝琬 (Jiang Siye, d. 1922), awalnya dari Hunan, tidak diasingkan, tapi diposting ke Xinjiang pada tahun 1883. Dia bertindak sebagai penerjemah, sekretaris dan pendamping pada ekspedisi kedua Aurel Stein, 1906-8 (lihat koleksi Inggris). Jiang menjabat sebelumnya sebagai sekretaris pribadi kepada pejabat pemerintah dan memiliki pengalaman yang diperlukan Stein.

Explorasi Perancis di Asia Tengah
 
Selama abad ke-19,

Prancis dipasang semakin banyak ekspedisi ke berbagai daerah Asia, dari Vietnam ke Himalaya. Ekspedisi ini mulai eksplorasi umumnya hanya bersifat geografis dan ilmiah, penempaan rute baru di wilayah yang belum dipetakan dan mengumpulkan sampel botani dan geologi. Para pelancong menghadapi banyak kesulitan, termasuk sakit, suhu beku dan permusuhan dari beberapa penduduk setempat, termasuk bandit. Sebagai abad berkembang, ekspedisi menjadi semakin multi-disiplin dan melebar fokus mereka untuk menyertakan dimensi budaya dari peradaban saat ini dan sebelumnya. Sebuah jumlah besar temuan secara teratur dikirim kembali ke Paris untuk penelitian, sehingga memperluas dan mengkonsolidasikan tubuh tumbuh pengetahuan dalam botani, geologi, topografi, kartografi, etnografi, arkeologi dan linguistik. Penjelajah ini (beberapa di antaranya disebutkan dalam beberapa paragraf berikutnya) membuka jalan bagi penggalian Silk Road oleh Paul Pelliot dan lain-lain pada pergantian abad ke-20.
Para penjelajah abad ke-19 termasuk ahli geologi dan ilmuwan alam Victor Jacquemont (1801-1832), orang Prancis pertama untuk melakukan perjalanan secara ekstensif di India di bawah kekuasaan Inggris. Dari 1828 sampai kematiannya di Bombay pada tahun 1832, Jacquemont melintasi seluruh sub-benua, termasuk bagian-bagian terpencil di Himalaya. Ia mencatat secara rinci flora, fauna dan iklim daerah yang ia kunjungi; menemukan beberapa spesies baru tanaman dan mamalia, dan korespondensi dan publikasi anumerta yang sangat berpengaruh dalam komunitas ilmiah di Prancis.


Pada tahun 1840-an,

 Kristen (Katolik) misionaris Évariste Huc (1813-1860) dan Joseph Gabet (1808-1853) masuk Mongolia dan Tibet, menyamar sebagai biksu, dan pada tahun 1846 mereka tiba di ibukota Tibet, Lhasa, kemudian dianggap sebagai batas ke asing . Huc adalah seorang pembicara Cina yang pernah belajar agama Buddha. Dia membuat beberapa catatan selama perjalanan yang menuntut tetapi kemudian menulis beberapa volume yang mencapai sukses besar di Prancis populer dan seterusnya.


Sebelum akhir abad kesembilan belas,

 Gabriel Bonvalot (1853-1933) dan sponsornya Pangeran Orleans telah melakukan perjalanan ke Hanoi melalui tangguh Turkestan Cina dan Tibet (1889-1891), membuat pengamatan topografi dan zoologi. Jules de Rhins Dutreuil (1846-1894) telah dipetakan Vietnam dan, dengan Fernand Grenard (1866 -?), Telah melakukan perjalanan (1890-1894) rute yang sulit dan sering baru melalui Khotan, Cina Turkestan, Mongolia dan Tibet. De Rhins dibunuh di Tibet pada tahun 1894 namun Grenard kembali dengan koleksi spektakuler spesimen geologi dan arkeologi, foto dan peta, serta data astrologi, barometric dan lainnya yang kemudian diterbitkan Grenard ekstensif.
Pada pergantian abad ke-20, Prancis berdiri di samping, Inggris Rusia, Jerman dan Amerika: semua berebut pengaruh di Asia. Pada tahun 1900, pemberontakan Boxer terhadap pengaruh Barat dan Kristen menarik pasukan asing, wartawan dan petualang ke Peking. Di antara mereka adalah pejuang muda Perancis Pelliot Paulus yang kembali sebagai seorang sarjana hanya empat tahun kemudian.
Paulus Pelliot Ekspedisi
 
1901

melihat pembentukan di Vietnam dari École française d’Orient Ekstrim (EFEO), untuk penelitian warisan kawasan arkeologi dan linguistik. Paulus Pelliot ahli kebudayaan Cina (1878-1945) adalah pada staf dan, pada 1905, ia dipilih oleh politisi Perancis dan cendekiawan untuk memimpin ekspedisi ke oasis Kucha dan Dunhuang.
Pelliot fasih berbicara bahasa daerah Cina dan beberapa mengambil tanggung jawab untuk arkeologi dalam ekspedisi tersebut, aspek sejarah dan linguistik. Ia disertai oleh tentara dokter Louis Vaillant, bertanggung jawab untuk topografi, astronomi dan sejarah alam, dan fotografer Charles Nouette. Mereka meninggalkan Paris pada tanggal 15 Juni 1906, bepergian selama sepuluh hari dengan kereta api sejauh Tashkent. Dari sana mereka melanjutkan dengan kereta api lokal untuk Andizhan, di mana mereka mulai mempersiapkan ekspedisi mereka, dan pada tanggal 11 Agustus mereka berangkat dengan 2 cossacks dan 30 kuda. Mereka melakukan perjalanan di atas punggung kuda selama lebih dari dua tahun.
Tujuan pertama mereka, pada akhir Agustus 1906, itu Kashgar, sudah dikunjungi pada bulan Juni oleh Aurel Stein. Selama enam minggu penggalian di Kashgar, Pelliot manuskrip yang dikumpulkan dari tiga gua-gua dan reruntuhan Tegurman. Sementara di sana, dia belajar bahwa gua-gua Buddha di Kucha sudah dikunjungi beberapa bulan sebelumnya, oleh Jerman, Jepang dan Rusia. Pada tanggal 18 Oktober, ekspedisi perjalanan 300 kilometer ke arah timur dari Kashgar dan setelah dua minggu mencapai reruntuhan kota biara Tumshuk, sudah digali oleh Sven Hedin, di mana Pelliot menemukan sebuah tempat Buddhis yang belum ditemukan sebelumnya. Pada tanggal 15 Desember, mereka terus Kucha, tiba pada 2 Januari 1907. Melewati Buddha tetap sudah dikunjungi oleh orang lain, Pelliot terkonsentrasi awalnya (16 Maret-22 Mei 1907) di Duldur-aqur, ke selatan Kucha, dekat Kumtura, di mana temuan termasuk 200 fragmen di Cina serta manuskrip pertama dalam naskah Brahmi , semua yang tersisa dari perpustakaan biara. Di daerah Subashi, utara-timur Kucha (10 Juni-24 Juli), Pelliot mengumpulkan fragmen lebih banyak, termasuk kayu poplar 208 fragmen dalam bahasa Sansekerta (Udarnavarga). Saldirang menghasilkan izin karavan dan woodslips tertulis dalam bahasa hilang Kuchean (Tocharian B atau Tocharian Barat).
Setelah delapan bulan di Kucha, ekspedisi menekan melalui Urumqi ke Dunhuang, di mana mereka tetap dari 12 Februari – 7 Juni 1908. Dari 27 Februari-27 Mei, mereka berkemah di Mogao dan menjelajahi 500 atau sehingga gua-gua, “Gua Seribu Buddha”, berisi lukisan dari abad ke-4 dan seterusnya. Stein telah menjadi barat pertama yang mengunjungi gua ini tetapi tidak dilaksanakan setiap penelitian yang luas memiliki terkonsentrasi terutama di Perpustakaan Gua (Gua 17). Pelliot dan Nouette mengatur tentang mendokumentasikan gua Mogao dan isi secara rinci sistematis, membuat catatan fotografi dan ditulis komprehensif. Pada tanggal 3 Maret, mereka diizinkan untuk memasuki gua perpustakaan di mana mereka menemukan puluhan ribu naskah dalam bahasa Cina, Tibet, Sansekerta dan Uighur, serta lukisan besar di atas sutra, rami dan kertas. Pelliot diizinkan untuk menghabiskan tiga minggu penuh di gua perpustakaan, bekerja tanpa lelah untuk memeriksa melalui ribuan gulungan. Dia memilih berbagai teks-teks keagamaan, sekuler dan lokal yang dinilai mengandung informasi baru atau untuk kepentingan linguistik. Dia juga mengumpulkan patung-patung dan lukisan-lukisan pada sutra.
Pada Juni 1908

ekspedisi berangkat lagi, mencapai Xian pada tanggal 28 September 1908. Di sana, mereka menghabiskan waktu sebulan temuan mereka mengorganisir dan menyiapkan mereka untuk transportasi ke Peking dan seterusnya ke Paris. Setelah hampir 2 tahun di atas kuda, mereka sekarang dapat melakukan perjalanan dengan kereta api, dari Zhengzhou ke Peking. Vaillant dan Nouette kembali segera ke Paris, melalui laut, dengan temuan dalam ekspedisi tersebut dikemas dalam peti, sementara Pelliot tinggal di Peking di mana dia disajikan beberapa naskah, disimpan untuk tujuan tersebut, para sarjana Cina. Sebagai hasil dari dunia ilmiah Cina di Beijing menjadi sadar akan pentingnya perpustakaan gua Dunhuang menemukan dan mendirikan sebuah komite yang melobi pemerintah untuk mengirim wakil untuk mengambil sisa isi gua (lihat Koleksi China). Pelliot dilanjutkan dengan penelitian di Beijing dan sebelum kembali ke Perancis ia membeli total 30.000 buku yang membentuk perpustakaan studi regional.
Setelah di Paris, buku dan naskah dikirim ke Bibliotheque Nationale dan temuan lain (patung, lukisan-lukisan, benda-benda dan lebih dari 200 lukisan dan spanduk) disimpan di Louvre, di mana beberapa dipamerkan sebelum dipindahkan ke Musée Guimet pada tahun 1945 -46. Museum Sejarah Alam Prancis menerima spesimen termasuk 800 tanaman, 200 burung, mamalia, serangga dan spesimen geologi.
Beberapa waktu setelah ia kembali ke Paris pada tahun 1909, Pelliot mulai membuat inventarisasi awal dari naskah bahasa Cina, selesai pada 1920 dan diterbitkan dalam bahasa Cina pada tahun 1923. Dia juga menerbitkan banyak artikel dan penelitian, yang tetap berwibawa, termasuk di Manicheanism dan Nestorianisme di Cina. Rekan Pelliot bekerja di Tibet dan bahasa lainnya. Ini adalah pekerjaan melelahkan dan lambat dan persediaan itu tidak selesai sampai 1932 (oleh Naba Toshida). Penyusunan katalog deskriptif dari koleksi Cina dimulai pada 1952 dan sekarang hampir selesai, semua kecuali satu volume telah diterbitkan. Marcel Lalou yang ‘Inventaire des manuscrits tibétains’ diterbitkan pada tahun 1939 dan, pada tahun yang sama, 30.000 buku dibawa kembali oleh Pelliot adalah katalog. Banyak pekerjaan katalogisasi juga telah dilakukan pada Sansekerta, Uighur dan koleksi naskah lain di BNF tersebut. Dari bahan lainnya, semua patung, lukisan dan foto telah katalog dan banyak yang telah diterbitkan.


Isi dan Akses
 
Para 30.000 buku dan semua naskah dibawa kembali oleh Pelliot, tetap dalam koleksi Bibliothèque Nationale de Prancis, dengan bahan lain di Guimet Musée, yang juga memegang seluruh koleksi foto-foto Nouette dari ekspedisi dan buku harian Pelliot dan arsip lainnya .
1. Bibliotheque Nationale de Perancis (BNF)
1.1 BNF koleksi
Koleksi naskah datang terutama dari Gua Dunhuang Perpustakaan dan berisi teks sekuler banyak: dasar bagi perkembangan sejarah ekonomi, sosial dan hukum dari Cina abad pertengahan. Selain itu, BNF memegang sekitar 100 koin (abad 7 dan 8), dari oasis Kucha. Koleksi Pelliot di BNF dibagi dengan beberapa bahasa ke dalam fonds (koleksi):
• Pelliot Tibet, terbesar, dengan 4.174 item
• Pelliot Cina, terbesar kedua, dengan sekitar 3.000 gulungan (termasuk beberapa manuskrip) ditambah booklet, concertinas, lukisan Buddha dan woodblock cetakan dan sekitar 700 fragmen
• Pelliot Sansekerta mengandung hampir 4.000 fragmen
• Pelliot Kuchean (Tocharian), dengan sekitar 2.000 woodslips dan fragmen kertas
• Pelliot Sogdian
• Pelliot Uighur
• Pelliot Khotanais
• Pelliot Xixia (Tangut), dengan beberapa ratus item, sebagian besar woodblock cetakan
• Pelliot penyelam

1,2 BNF akses
Koleksi Pelliot seluruh bertempat di gedung BNF aslinya dikenal sebagai Richelieu, terletak di dekat Louvre di pusat kota Paris. Semua naskah telah microfilmed (dan saat ini sedang didigitalkan) karena mereka terlalu rapuh untuk menampilkan dan dapat ditangani hanya jarang. 30.000 Pelliot itu buku ini juga di Richelieu, bersama dengan 100 koin.
Untuk rincian jam lokasi dan membuka, klik di sini (informasi pratiques).
Untuk mendapatkan akses ke ruang baca di Richelieu, adalah penting untuk menjadi pembaca.
Klik di sini untuk rincian tentang bagaimana mendapatkan kartu pembaca untuk situs Richelieu.
Pembaca dapat mengajukan izin untuk melihat manuskrip atau mikrofilm melalui e-mail departemen naskah oriental

2. Musée Guimet
2,1 koleksi Musée Guimet
Para Guimet memegang lukisan dari Dunhuang dan artefak termasuk patung, lukisan dan spanduk dari situs Silk Road berbagai. Beberapa ini adalah pada tampilan permanen di galeri. Mereka telah direproduksi dalam dua volume: Les seni de l’Asie centrale: La koleksi Du Musee Guimet Pelliot (Kodansha). Para Guimet juga diawetkan ribuan piring kaca dari foto Nouette itu, ribuan koin dari ekspedisi, dan notebook rinci Pelliot di mana ia konon menemukan dan mencatat setiap setiap prasasti disaksikan.

2,2 Musée Guimet akses
Museum ini buka 10,00-18,00, setiap hari kecuali hari Selasa. Untuk informasi lebih lanjut dan rincian kontak, Kunjungi website Musée Guimet.

Koleksi Perancis pada Situs IDP
Para BNF dan Guimet Musée adalah anggota pendiri pengungsi. Sebagian besar materi mereka sekarang telah didigitalkan dan diharapkan akan segera tersedia secara online.
Jumlah Naskah oleh Bahasa / Script pada pengungsi di Prancis pada 23/01/2012
Bahasa (s) / Script (s) Jumlah naskah / blockprints Nomor Digitised
‘Phags-pa 0 0
Arabic 0 0
Avestan 0 0
Bactrian 0 0
Brahmi 0 0
Cina 4014 4013
Bahasa Inggris 0 0
ditempa 0 0
Perancis 0 0
Gandari 0 0
Jerman 0 0
Gupta 0 0
Yahudi-Persia 1 1
Kharosthi 0 0
Khotanese 66 66
Kitan 0 0
Kitan Linear Script 0 0
Kok Turki 0 0
Manichaean Tengah Persia 0 0
Mongolia 0 0
Nagari 0 0
Baru Persia 0 0
tidak berlaku 0 0
tidak teridentifikasi 0 0
Lama Turki 0 0
Pala 0 0
Parthia 0 0
Pehlevi 0 0
Sansekerta 13 13
Siddham 0 0
Sogdian 44 44
Siria 0 0
Tangut 0 0
Tibet 4456 3809
Tocharian 0 0
Tumshuqese 0 0
Turki 0 0
Uighur 20 20
Zhang-zhung 0 0
Jumlah 8.548 7.900 *
* Catatan, total diberikan mewakili jumlah manuskrip dan naskah digital dan bukan merupakan jumlah dari kolom karena beberapa naskah berisi lebih dari satu bahasa dan aksara

Bibliografi
Benveniste_1940
Benveniste, Emile, Textes sogdiens edites, traduits et commentes. Misi en Asie Pelliot Centrale. Paris: P Geuthner, 1940.
Cocheteux_Takahashi_1995
Cocheteux, Marie-Perancis (ed.), Takahashi, Agnès (ed.), Sérinde, Terre de Bouddha. Dix Siècle d’art sur la route de la soie. Paris: RMN, 1995.
Finot_1935
Musee Louis-Finot, Pascalis, Claude, La koleksi tibetaine: Musee Louis Finot / par Claude Pascalis .. Hanoi: Ecole francaise d’Extreme-Orient, 1935.
Henderson_1986
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Katalog des manuscrits Chinois de Touen-Houang (Fonds Pelliot Chinois), vol. Aku: no. 2001-2500. Paris: Bibliotheque Nationale, 1970.
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Katalog des manuscrits Chinois de Touen-Houang (Fonds Pelliot Chinois de la Bibliothèque nationale), vol. III: no. 3001-3500. Paris: Fondation Singer-Polignac, 1983ParisFondation Singer-Polignac1983.
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Ekspedisi Para Turfan Jerman
Pada akhir abad kesembilan belas,

laporan oleh wisatawan Eropa dan cendekiawan tentang penemuan-penemuan dan menemukan sepanjang Jalan Sutra membangkitkan minat dari Jerman untuk studi budaya yang tidak diketahui. Keputusan untuk melakukan ekspedisi mereka sendiri untuk Turkestan Timur diambil segera setelah presentasi teks sensasional menemukan dari daerah di Kongres internasional kedua belas orientalis di Roma pada tahun 1899.
Namun, ekspedisi yang direncanakan oleh Albert Grünwedel, direktur Departemen India dari Museum für Völkerkunde, ditunda sampai September 1902 karena terbukti sulit untuk mencari dukungan keuangan yang diperlukan.

 Akhirnya, pada 11 Agustus 1902

ekspedisi dimulai dengan dana sebesar 40.000 tanda yang terdiri dari dana publik museum untuk seperempat dari jumlah, sumbangan oleh industrialis Krupp dan sponsor Yakobus Simon, dan kontribusi oleh ‘etnologis Bantuan Komite Berlin; (Ethnologisches Hilfskommitee Berlin). Tim ekspedisi terdiri dari Albert Grünwedel sebagai direktur, Georg Orientalis Huth dan teknisi museum, Theodor Bartus, mantan seorang pelaut.

 Ekspedisi ini mencapai tujuan yang dipilih, oasis Turfan, pada awal Desember 1902.

 Turfan adalah untuk meminjamkan namanya ke empat ekspedisi Jerman dan koleksi yang terdiri dari penemuan mereka, meskipun penyelidikan dan penggalian juga dilakukan di daerah-daerah tetangga. Grünwedel menganggap hal itu sebagai tugas utama untuk dokumen situs hancur ditemukan oleh mereka dengan rencana akurat dan untuk menunjukkan benda-benda seni-pada ini. Karya dan hasil dari ekspedisi pertama, yang memiliki izin dari otoritas Cina dan dukungan dari para penguasa Uighur lokal, dijelaskan dalam Bericht nya über archäologische Arbeiten di Idikutschari und im Umgebung Musim Dingin 1902-1903

[Laporan pada pekerjaan arkeologi di Idikutshari dan sekitarnya pada musim dingin 1902-1093], yang muncul pada tahun 1905.
 
Yang menakjubkan hasil dan penemuan dari ekspedisi pertama menyebabkan persetujuan untuk kelanjutan dari pekerjaan dengan bagian Jerman baru-didirikan untuk studi Asia Tengah, dipandu oleh H. Pischel dan H. Lüders. Karena tiga berikutnya ekspedisi yang didanai oleh negara, ekspedisi kedua juga disebut sebagai ‘Pertama Kerajaan Prusia Turfan ekspedisi’. Albert von Le Coq, kolaborator ilmiah di museum, diberikan biaya dari dan bersama-sama dengan Bartus dia bekerja di oasis Turfan dari November 1904 sampai Desember 1905.

 


Ekspedisi ketiga,

 kembali di bawah kepemimpinan Grünwedel, dimulai dengan kedatangannya di Kashgar pada bulan Desember 1905. Kedua ekspedisi bergabung dan ekspedisi ketiga berlangsung sampai Juni 1907.

 Di tengah tahun 1906

Le Coq, dikepung oleh penyakit, ditetapkan pada perjalanan pulang. Grünwedel dan Bartus terus bekerja, yang sekarang untuk pertama kalinya diperluas ke oasis di sebelah barat Turfan, termasuk Kïzïl dengan kompleks luas dari gua-gua Buddha. Laporan pada ekspedisi kedua dan ketiga Gründwedel yang Altbuddhistische Kultstätten di Chinesisch-Turkistan (1912) dan populer buku Le Coq yang Auf Hellas Spuren di Ostturkistan (1926).


Ekspedisi akhir dan keempat mulai pada bulan Juni 1913

dan selesai pada Februari 1914 tidak lama sebelum pecahnya Perang Dunia Pertama. Di bawah kepemimpinan Le Coq dan terutama melanjutkan bekerja di bidang Kucha dimulai selama ekspedisi ketiga. Le Coq menerbitkan sebuah laporan tentang perjalanan di Tanah und Von Leuten di Ostturkistan pada tahun 1928.

 

 

 

Dalam buku-buku berikut Le Coq disajikan evaluasi ilmiah tentang penemuan:
• Chotscho (1913)
• Bilderatlas Kunst und zur Kulturgeschichte Mittelasiens (1925)
• Die Buddhistische Spätantike di Mittelasien Vol 1-5; jilid 6-7 bekerjasama dengan Ernst Waldschmidt (1922-1933)
• Lihat daftar pustaka
Para Turfan Jerman Ekspedisi
1 Ekspedisi (Desember 1902-April 1903).
• Pemimpin: Prof A. Grünwedel; Peserta: Dr G. Huth, Th. Bartus.
• Rute: Yining-Urumqi-Turfan Oasis (Karakhoja, Bezeklik, Sengim, Toyuk (November 1902-Maret 1903) [lukisan, patung, Mir. / Uig. / Np manuskrip dari Manichaean di Man. / Uig. / Runes. , Ind / Cin. / Tang teks]) -. Silk Road utara (Toksun-Kharashahr-Kucha-reruntuhan dekat Kumtura [lukisan] – Kizil-Aqsu-Tumshuk-Maralbashi-Kashgar).
• Menemukan: 46 krat.
Ekspedisi 2 November 1904-Desember 1905).
• Pemimpin: Dr A. Le Coq v.; Peserta: Th. Bartus.
• Rute: Urumqi-Turfan Oasis (Karakhoja dan sekitarnya, Yarkhoto (Nov.1904-Aug.1905); Hami (Agustus 1905); Turfan) – Silk Road utara-Kashgar (Oktober 1905, ada bersatu dalam Desember dengan ekspedisi 3).
• Menemukan: 103 peti, terutama lukisan (Bezeklik), tidak begitu banyak teks (Kristus. teks dalam Syr, Sogd, Mp, Uig; Buddh teks…..).
3 Ekspedisi (Desember 1905-April 1907 – Juni 1906 sampai bersatu dengan ekspedisi 2).
• Pemimpin: Prof A. Grünwedel; Peserta: A. Le Coq v., H. Pohrt, Th. Bartus.
• Rute: Kashgar-Tumshuk (Januari 1906)-Kizil-Kucha-Kumtura (Febr. 1906, candi dari gua-gua [lukisan])-kuil gua-gua di Kizil, Kirish (Februari-Mei 1906) [lukisan]), – Korla / kompleks candi dan gua-gua Shorchuk [lukisan, Buddh. teks]-Turfan Oasis (Juli 1906)-Urumqi-Hami-Toyuk (Januari 1907)-Shorchuk (Februari / Maret 1907)-Turfan, kembali perjalanan melalui Urumqi (April 1907).
• Menemukan: 118 krat.
4 Ekspedisi (Juni 1913-Februari 1914).
• Pemimpin: Dr A. Le Coq v.; Peserta: Th. Bartus.
• Rute: Kashgar-Kucha, Kizil (Juni-September 1913)-Kirish, Simsim-Kumtura (November 1913)-Tumshuk (Desember 1913-Jan 1914.) – Kashgar.
• Menemukan: 156 peti masing-masing dengan sekitar 75 – 80 kilogram (dalam teks-teks tertentu di Sakan dan bahasa Sansekerta dari Tumshuk).
Benda-benda dari empat Ekspedisi Turfan Jerman pertama kali disimpan di Departemen India Museum etnologis, tetapi, setelah berdirinya Museum Seni India (Museum für Indische Kunst) di tahun 1963 mereka dipindahkan ke koleksi-koleksi tersebut di mana mereka sekarang tetap (di Berlin-Dahlem).
Pada tahun 1914

(atas perintah Kementerian yang bertanggung jawab untuk Pendidikan)

Rusia ExplorasI Rusia di Cina Asia Tengah


Ekspansi Rusia ke Turkistan (Tashkent, Samarkand dan luar) pada 1860-an,

 dirangsang baik Rusia dan kepentingan internasional yang lebih luas di Asia Tengah dan memberi Rusia dan sekutu-sekutunya yang berguna titik akses ke wilayah penting geopolitik meningkat.

 

Pemerintah Rusia telah membentuk reputasi untuk mendukung penyelidikan ilmiah dan berbagi hasilnya dengan ulama di seluruh dunia melalui Geographical Society Rusia (RGS),

 

 didirikan pada tahun 1845

 oleh ilmuwan dan penjelajah yang sudah berpengalaman dalam eksplorasi dari Kutub Utara ke Asia.

Dari 1860-an,

 mulai RGS untuk memulai ekspedisi ke Asia Tengah, untuk memetakan daerah, memfasilitasi perdagangan, memperoleh informasi strategis dan mendapatkan pengaruh politik, sementara juga menambahkan untuk beasiswa di bidang botani, zoologi, entomologi, geografi, etnografi dan arkeologi . Para RGS berkolaborasi dengan lembaga-lembaga Rusia lainnya dan individu yang berkaitan dengan pendanaan dan pelaporan dan, sebagai akibatnya, sejumlah ekspedisi Rusia dipetak-petak daerah antara 1870 dan 1920.
Pada 1860-an dan 1870-an,

 ekspedisi oleh Przhevalsky (di bawah), Ioann-Albert Regel, dan lain-lain, cenderung untuk fokus pada kartografi, botani dan zoologi, tetapi juga mulai melaporkan temuan arkeologi. Regel dijelaskan kuil hancur dan relik Buddha di daerah Turfan, pada tahun 1878.

 Grigory Nikolaevich Potanin, yang memimpin ekspedisi ke wilayah empat antara 1876 dan 1892 survei puluhan ribu mil dan mengumpulkan tanaman, burung dan mamalia spesimen, reruntuhan juga dijelaskan di padang pasir. Lainnya, seperti MM Berezovsky dan Koslov (di bawah) mengambil bagian dalam ekspedisi botani oleh Potanin, Przhevalsky dan lain-lain dan kemudian melanjutkan untuk melakukan penelitian arkeologi.


Soldier, geografi dan naturalis Nikolai Mikhailovich Przhevalsky (1839-1888)

yang dipimpin empat ekspedisi utama antara 1870 dan 1885, melintasi gurun Gobi untuk beberapa kali Tibet, serta menyeberang Taklamakan dari utara ke selatan. Dia juga mengunjungi Dunhuang dan gua-gua Mogao dan melaporkan menemukan pasir terkubur reruntuhan di Lop Nor. Przhevalsky meninggal pada 1888 di kaki bukit Tianshan pada awal ekspedisi kelima, yang terus tanpa dia. Prestasinya termasuk pemetaan luas dan transfer dari ratusan spesimen botani dan zoologi ke St Petersburg, termasuk spesies baru. Przhevalsky terutama dicatat hari ini untuk menemukan populasi unta liar Bactrian dan berkembang biak unik dari kuda liar Mongolia, bernama setelah dia.

Tulisan-tulisannya meliputi Mongolia: Para Negara Tangut (1875-6) dan Dari Kulja: Di Tian Shan ke Lob-Nor (1878).

 

 Lebih kontroversial adalah buku terakhirnya, yang mengusulkan aneksasi Rusia dan kolonisasi barat Cina, Mongolia dan Tibet (lihat IDP Berita 27).
Przhevalsky pekerjaan itu dilanjutkan oleh muridnya Pyotr Kuzmich Kozlov (1863-1935), yang telah mengambil bagian dalam lalu Przhevalsky dua ekspedisi dan yang kemudian berpartisipasi dalam setidaknya enam ekspedisi. Ekspedisi pertama Kozlov yang independen, (1899-1901) membawanya menyeberangi gurun Gobi ke hulu Yangtse dan sungai Mekong, survei lebih dari 6.000 mil untuk RGS. Temuan kembali ke St Petersburg dari perjalanan ini termasuk sampel 2.000 tahun tekstil Bactrian.
 
Selama 1907-09 ekspedisinya,

 Kozlov mungkin membuat kontribusi terbesar bagi arkeologi Rusia Silk Road, ketika ia menggali, kuno terkubur pasir-kota Kharakhoto (kemudian digali oleh Aurel Stein: juga melihat IDP Berita 2) yang telah dihancurkan oleh Ghenghis Khan di 1227.

Temuan Kozlov sudah termasuk ratusan patung Buddha dan lukisan yang ia difoto dan direkam. Dia juga menemukan ribuan manuskrip dan xylographs dalam bahasa yang sebelumnya tidak diketahui Tangut, yang ia mengambil ke St Petersburg. Koslov yang Kharakhoto

Temuan ini dijelaskan dalam bukunya Mongolia dan Amdo dan Kota Mati dari Khara-Khoto (1923).

 

Dalam ekspedisi terakhirnya ke Mongolia dan Tibet (1923-1926),

Kozlov menemukan sejumlah kuburan kerajaan Xiongnu.
Pada tahun 1898, sepuluh tahun sebelum penemuan Tangut Koslov itu, Turfan dikunjungi oleh sebuah ekspedisi di bawah arahan Dimitri Aleksandrovich Klementz (1848-1914), Penjaga di Museum Antropologi dan Etnografi (Kunstkamera) di St Petersburg. Ekspedisi ini didanai oleh Akademi Ilmu Pengetahuan Rusia. Klementz, didampingi oleh istri botani nya, EN Klementz, adalah yang pertama untuk melakukan penggalian arkeologis di Jalan Sutra utara. Temuan signifikan yang dibuat sekitar Karakhoja, Astana dan Yarkhoto, termasuk Uighur Lama, Cina dan naskah Sansekerta, fragmen lukisan dan benda-benda rahasia. Klementz berbagi penemuan dengan Grünwedel (lihat Koleksi Jerman) yang meluncurkan Turfan ekspedisi pertamanya sebagai hasilnya. Dalam semangat kerja sama internasional, temuan itu juga dilaporkan ke Kongres Internasional ke-12 orientalis di Roma pada tahun 1899, oleh Vasilii Vasilievich Radlov (1837-1918) dan Sergei Fedorovich Oldenburg (di bawah). Ini dan penemuan Stein (lihat Koleksi Inggris) lebih merangsang kepentingan internasional dalam memperoleh dan meneliti barang antik dari Asia Tengah. Di Rusia, Tengah Internasional dan Asosiasi Studi Asia Timur didirikan, untuk melakukan eksplorasi etnografis dan arkeologi. Komite Rusia untuk Tengah dan Studi Asia Timur di bawah perlindungan Kaisar Rusia menjadi inti dari Asosiasi, dengan Radlov sebagai ketua dan Oldenburg sebagai wakil ketua. Menyatakan tujuannya adalah untuk “mengirim ekspedisi untuk mempelajari orang-monumen budaya dan bangsa-bangsa Asia kuno yang bisa menjelaskan pada hubungan kebudayaan kuno antara peradaban besar yang berbeda, dan memberikan bantuan kepada semua ekspedisi internasional”. Komite, di bawah yurisdiksi Departemen Luar Negeri, memiliki hak untuk mengirim perwakilan ke situs eksplorasi, untuk mengatur ekspedisi dan menerbitkan buletin di Rusia dan Prancis.


Pada tahun 1900 Klementz, Oldenburg dan Nikolai Veselovsky (1848-1918)

disajikan ‘catatan pada organisasi sebuah ekspedisi arkeologi ke Tarim Basin’ mereka, di mana mereka menunjukkan bahwa pembangunan ekonomi dan komersial dari daerah akan memerlukan kerusakan serius bagi para arkeologi tetap di daerah tersebut.
Sergei Fedorovich Oldenburg (1863-1934) lulus dari Universitas St Petersburg pada 1885 dengan utama dalam penelitian India. Setelah pelatihan lebih lanjut di Perancis, Inggris dan Jerman, ia mengambil sebuah pos mengajar di St Petersburg University di tahun 1889. Pada bulan Desember 1916, tepat sebelum revolusi Februari 1917, Oldenburg diangkat direktur Museum Asia di St Petersburg dan ketika museum direorganisasi menjadi Institut Studi Oriental, ia menjadi direktur pertamanya pada 4 April 1930. Setelah revolusi 1917 ia diangkat menteri pendidikan di pemerintahan sementara. Pesan lainnya Nya termasuk Sekretaris Tetap Akademi Ilmu Pengetahuan Uni Soviet (1904-1929) dan editor Bibliotheca Buddhica seri (1897-1934). Penelitian ini berkisar di Oldenburg sejarah budaya dan agama di India abad pertengahan, sejarah seni Buddha, teks-teks sastra, dan cerita rakyat dan seni Asia Tengah. Sebuah wilayah tertentu dari bunga adalah Serindia, wilayah yang luas Tengah dan Asia Timur termasuk Tibet, Mongolia dan China barat laut. Studi Terpadu budaya Serindian membentuk fokus utama dari dua ekspedisi arkeologi di Oldenburg (1909-1910 dan 1914-1915), dikenal sebagai Turkestan ekspedisi Rusia.
 
Ekspedisi Oldenburg yang pertama Rusia Turkestan  (1909-1910)

 

 diselenggarakan oleh Komite Rusia untuk Tengah dan Studi Asia Timur, pada saat temuan Inggris, Perancis dan Jerman ekspedisi ke wilayah ini tetap tidak dipublikasikan, selain dari sebagian kecil dari ekspedisi Grünwedel yang temuan (lihat Koleksi Jerman), dan pertama ekspedisi Stein laporan (lihat Koleksi Inggris). Oleh karena itu Oldenburg berkonsultasi Grünwedel dan Pelliot (lihat Koleksi Prancis) untuk rincian penelitian terbaru mereka, sebelum merencanakan rute sendiri dan tujuan.

 

 Ekspedisi meninggalkan St Petersburg pada 5 Juni 1909 dengan Oldenburg sebagai direktur,

 

 artis-fotografer Samuil Martynovich Dudin (1863-1929); (lihat di bawah dan artikel oleh Menshikov di IDP Berita 14), insinyur pertambangan Dmitri Arsenievich Smirnov dan arkeolog Vladimir Ivanovich Kamensky dan Simson Petrovich Petrenko. Sayangnya dua arkeolog yang dilanda oleh penyakit dan harus kembali ke Rusia dari Urumqi. Dari St Petersburg, tim bepergian dengan kereta api sejauh Omsk dan kemudian dilanjutkan dengan kapal uap untuk Semipalatinsk di mana mereka mengumpulkan peralatan diteruskan dari St Petersburg. Dari sini mereka berangkat ke Chuguchak di tarantasses (kereta yang ditarik kuda).

 

Sesampainya di Chuguchak pada 22 Juni

, mereka terlibat seorang penerjemah, Bosuk Temirovich Khokho dari Hami, dan terus ke Urumqi dan Karashahr dengan pengantin Bisambai, masak Zakari dan dua cossacks Romanov dan Silantiev.


Pada tanggal 22 Agustus

 ekspedisi mulai menggali di dekat Shikchin Karashahr, menjelajahi reruntuhan kota monastik. Di daerah Turfan mereka terus bekerja di Yarkhoto, Karakhoja, Taizan, Kurutka, Tallikbulak, Sassikbulak, Sengim-agiz, Bezeklik, Murtuk, Chikkankul, Toyukmazar, Sirkip dan ngarai Lamjin.

 

Pada tanggal 19 Desember

Oldenburg mencapai Kucha mana ia menjelajahi berbagai situs, termasuk kuil gua, sekitar Ming-teng-ata, Subashi, Simsim, Kirish, Kizil, Kumtura, Torgalyk-akyp dan Koneshahr. Metode Oldenburg adalah untuk mengambil foto yang jelas dan tepat dan kompilasi data yang luas dalam mengejar hasil arkeologi.
Pada tahun 1910

Temuan  ekspedisi  dipresentasikan ke Museum Antropologi dan Etnologi di Akademi Ilmu Pengetahuan Rusia di St Petersburg, di mana mereka sebentar katalog.

 

Dalam 1931-32

 mereka dipindahkan ke Negara Hermitage Museum di mana bagian dari koleksi telah di layar sejak tahun 1935.

 Koleksinya meliputi

mural, lukisan, terracottas, sekitar seratus naskah (terutama fragmen dalam Brahmi script), fotografi, dan sketsa-peta situs arkeologi dan lainnya.


Laporan ekspedisi singkat Oldenburg itu diterbitkan di 1914

 (Ольденбург С. Ф. Русская Туркестанская экспедиция 1909-10 г .. Краткий предварительный отчет C 53 таблицами, 1. Планом вне текста и 73 рисунками и планами в тексте по фотографиям и рисункам художника С.М Дудина и планам инженера Д. А. Смирнова СПб.., 1914)..
Kedua Rusia Oldenburg yang Turkistan ekspedisi (1914-1915) termasuk artis VS Bikenberg, topographer NA Smirnov, fotografer BF Romberg, tujuh Kazakhstan penjaga, penerjemah Cina dan fotografer yang sama, Dudin, seperti pada ekspedisi pertama. Ekspedisi ini bertujuan untuk membuat peta yang tepat dari gua Mogao di Dunhuang, termasuk setiap tingkat dan lintas-dan longitudinal bagian, untuk mengambil gambar dan salinan dari objek yang paling penting dan untuk membuat deskripsi rinci tentang gua.

 

 Ekspedisi meninggalkan St Petersburg pada 20 Mei 1914,

 dengan rute Chuguchak-Gucheng-Urumqi-Anxi-Hami-Qianfodong – yang terakhir ini adalah ‘gua dari seribu Buddha’ di Mogao, dekat Dunhuang.

 

Pada 20 Agustus 1914

 

mereka mencapai tujuan akhir mereka. Setelah pemeriksaan singkat dari gua itu memutuskan untuk tidak memberi nomor mereka, tapi untuk mengikuti penomoran Pelliot itu. Hanya tiga gua tetap tidak terdaftar oleh Pelliot (karena mereka yang digali setelah kunjungannya) dan ini yang ditunjuk oleh Oldenburg: A, B dan C.

 

 eksplorasi menyeluruh dari gua-gua Mogao dimulai pada 24 Agustus dan berakhir pada 25 November 1914.

 

Tim Oldenburg yang digunakan huruf dan angka untuk mengidentifikasi masing-masing patung dan lukisan dan membuat catatan rinci dari setiap item melalui foto-foto, rencana, sketsa dan catatan. Mereka menemukan banyak fragmen dari artefak dan manuskrip kuno, yang semuanya dengan hati-hati dikumpulkan oleh Oldenburg yang juga membeli lebih dari 300 gulungan dari masyarakat setempat. Pada perjalanan kembali dari Dunhuang, mengunjungi kembali situs Oldenburg banyak sekitar oase Turfan yang telah dieksplorasi selama ekspedisi pertamanya.

 

Pada tanggal 1 September 1915

fragmen, sering kusut atau terjebak bersama-sama, kadang-kadang dengan loess dan tanah liat, itu dimasukkan ke dalam paket dan karung dan menyerahkan ke Museum Asia di St Petersburg (di atas), sekarang Institut Naskah Oriental (IOM) dan bagian dari Akademi Ilmu Pengetahuan Rusia. Oldenburg koleksi dari Dunhuang manuskrip dan fragmen dari kelima abad kesebelas masih bertempat hari ini di IOM di St Petersburg. Koleksi ini berisi lebih dari 19.000 item termasuk fragmen kecil.

 Banyak fragmen dari Mogao memiliki tepi dibakar sebagai akibat dari kebakaran dimulai di gua-gua Dunhuang oleh orang-orang berlindung di sana selama berabad-abad. Catatan, sketsa dan foto-foto dari ekspedisi yang diberikan deskripsi hanya tersedia dari gua-gua sampai 1957, ketika Xie Zhiliu menerbitkan katalog nya (Dunhuang yishu xulu (Katalog seni di Dunhuang), Shanghai chubanshe, Shanghai, 1957).


Ekspedisi Rusia lainnya

 dipimpin oleh KGE Mannerheim (lihat Koleksi Lain-lain: Koleksi Finlandia) dan Sergei Efimovich Malov (1880-1957) yang membuat perjalanan penelitian dua (1909-1911 dan 1913-1914) untuk mempelajari bahasa dan budaya Uighur, Lobnorians dan salars. Malov kemudian memberikan gambaran pertama dari masyarakat Turki.
Perwakilan diplomatik juga aktif terlibat dalam mengumpulkan artefak arkeologi dan budaya.

 

 Kepala di antara ini adalah Nikolai Fyodorovich Petrovski (1837-1908), Konsul Jenderal Rusia di Kashgar selama dua puluh satu tahun sejak 1882. Petrovski adalah seorang tokoh berpengaruh di kawasan itu, bermain tuan rumah untuk ekspedisi seperti Sven Hedin (Koleksi Swedia) dan Aurel Stein (Koleksi Inggris) dan membantu dengan pengaturan perjalanan mereka. Dia mengumpulkan koleksi signifikan manuskrip dan benda seni, membeli dari penduduk setempat serta melakukan penelitian sendiri arkeologi nya. Dia khususnya tertarik pada wilayah dari Kashgar ke Kucha dan Khotan, dan segitiga yang dibentuk oleh Kashgar, Khotan dan Leh ke selatan. Seperti Inggris, George rekan nya Macartney (lihat Koleksi Inggris), Petrovski membeli naskah dan buku dicetak di naskah yang tidak diketahui yang kemudian diketahui sebagai pemalsuan.
Paragraf berikut, pada Koleksi di Institut Manuskrip Oriental, memberikan rincian lebih lanjut dari koleksi yang dibuat oleh perwakilan Rusia di Asia Tengah.

Koleksi: Isi dan Akses


1. Koleksi di Institute of Oriental Naskah (IOM), St Petersburg
 
Institut Naskah Oriental (IOM) dari Akademi Ilmu Pengetahuan Rusia di St Petersburg, memegang sejumlah besar manuskrip dari Asia Tengah, dalam bahasa termasuk Cina, Sansekerta, Tibet, Mongolia, Tangut, Tocharian, Uighur, Khotanese dan Saka. Koleksi Petrovski berisi terutama Saka dan bahasa Sansekerta (Brahmi) naskah, ditambah sejumlah dokumen Tocharian. Pengumpulan NN Krotkov, Konsul Rusia di Urumqi dan Kuldja, berisi teks terutama Uighur dan beberapa fragmen awal kayu-mencetak buku dari 9 hingga 14 abad. Koleksi Berezovsky, penomoran item 1876, ditandai oleh informasi yang tepat tentang asal dari setiap item. Selain itu, IOM memegang koleksi Lavrov IP, Sekretaris Konsulat Rusia di Kashgar pada awal abad kedua puluh; AI Kokhanovsky, petugas medis di Konsulat Rusia di Urumqi, AA Dyakov, Konsul di Kuldja, dan dari Malov. Arsip orientalis di IOM memegang dokumen, surat-surat pribadi dan peta dari beberapa ekspedisi Rusia ke Asia Tengah, termasuk yang Klementz, Malov dan Oldenburg.

1.1      Koleksi Tangut di IOM
IOM memegang koleksi Tangut unik, dibawa kembali dari Kharakhoto oleh ekspedisi Kozlov itu. Kozlov temuan itu awalnya disimpan di museum Kaisar Alexander III (Museum Rusia), sampai mereka dipindahkan ke Museum Asia (sekarang IOM) pada tahun 1911. Koleksi ini terdiri terutama dari manuskrip dan buku cetak tua dalam bahasa mati dari orang-orang Tangut yang pada abad ke-10 mendirikan negara Xixia di masa kini-hari barat laut Cina. Ada juga sejumlah besar manuskrip Cina di antara bahan-bahan. Inventarisasi naskah-naskah Cina dimulai oleh Aleksei Ivanovich Ivanov (1878-1937), Paulus Pelliot (yang mengunjungi Rusia pada tahun 1910) dan Vasilii Mikhailovich Alekseev (1881-1951). Pekerjaan dilanjutkan oleh Nikolai Aleksandrovich Nevsky (1892-1934) dan Konstantin Konstantinovich Flug (1893-1942). Penjelasan lengkap dari bagian Cina koleksi diterbitkan oleh Lev Nikolaevich Menshikov (1926-2005) [Меньшиков Л.Н. Описание китайской части коллекции из Хара-Хото. (Фонд П. К. Козлова). Прил. сост. Л.И. Чугуевский. М, 1984.]. Menurut Menshikov, ada sekitar 660 manuskrip Cina dan buku cetak dalam koleksi Tangut IOM, kebanyakan dari mereka Buddhis. Koleksi ini juga berisi studi sejarah, klasik Konfusius, bekerja Taois, kamus, belles-letters, ukiran dan cetakan. Profesor Evgenii Ivanovich Kytchanov terus bekerja pada bahan Tangut dan telah menerbitkan sejumlah katalog dan terjemahan selama beberapa dekade. Profesor Ksenia Kepping (1937-2002) juga bekerja pada dokumen dan menerbitkan beberapa artikel.


1.2 Koleksi Dunhuang di IOM
Koleksi Oldenburg adalah dibagi antara IOM dan Hermitage Negara (bawah), dengan manuskrip dari ekspedisi kedua yang terdiri sebagian besar dari koleksi Dunhuang di IOM. Koleksi ini juga mencakup sekitar tiga puluh naskah dari ekspedisi Khotanese Malov itu (1909-1910) dan 183 naskah yang dikumpulkan oleh Krotkov. Ada total sekitar 19.000 item dalam koleksi Dunhuang IOM, termasuk 365 gulungan dan sejumlah besar fragmen dan naskah kecil. Sebagian besar naskah yang Buddha dan hanya 900 yang sekuler.
Studi koleksi dimulai pada akhir 1920-an, dengan bekerja dengan peneliti Kano Jepang Naoki. Selama tahun 1930, katalog dan deskripsi bahan Dunhuang dimulai oleh Flug, yang menerbitkan sejumlah artikel tentang naskah Buddhis dan non-Buddhis yang paling penting. Pada tahun 1950, pekerjaan itu dilanjutkan oleh sebuah kelompok riset kecil dari empat ulama: VS Kolokolov (1896-1979), Menshikov, VS Spirin dan SA Shkolyar. Dengan 1957 ketika Menshikov diangkat menjadi kepala kelompok Dunhuang, hanya 3.640 item dalam koleksi telah diinventarisasi (2.000 oleh Flug dan 1.640 MP Volkova). Sisa koleksi tetap disimpan sebagai telah tiba, dalam lima paket, satu kotak dan satu tas. Oleh karena itu perlu untuk menghilangkan kotoran loess dan lainnya dan melaksanakan konservasi dan bekerja katalogisasi, sebelum pengumpulan bisa dijelaskan dan dipelajari. Kemudian, MI Vorobyova-Desyatovskaya, IS Gurevich, IT Zograf, AS Martinov dan BL Smirnov bergabung dengan kelompok riset. Usaha bersama mereka menghasilkan publikasi Deskripsi katalog Manuscripts Cina di Koleksi Dunhuang di Institut Rakyat Asia yang diterbitkan dalam 2 volume pada tahun 1963 dan 1967. Katalog diorganisir menjadi 2.954 entri deskriptif, diatur dalam bagian tematis. Pada tahun 1999 Shanghai Klasik Publishing House katalog ini dikeluarkan dalam bahasa Cina dan di 1994-2000 itu diterbitkan 17 volume faksimili dari naskah Dunhuang Cina dalam koleksi IOM. Antara 1960 dan 1980-an, katalog dan deskripsi koleksi dilanjutkan oleh Menshikov, Irena Kwong Lai Anda dan LI Chuguevsky (1926-2000).


1.3 Akses ke Institut Manuskrip Oriental, St Petersburg


Untuk mendapatkan akses ke IOM, perlu untuk memberikan surat rekomendasi dari universitas asal Anda, museum, atau lembaga lain.
Jam buka ruang baca di Novo-Mikhailosky Istana (Dvortsovaya Naberezhnaya, N 18) adalah 10,00-18,00 Senin-Jumat, ditutup Sabtu dan Minggu.
Item yang dipilih dari koleksi yang dipamerkan. Ijin terlebih dahulu harus diperoleh sebelum barang-barang ini dapat dilihat.
Departemen Naskah dan Dokumen dari IOM memiliki persediaan penuh dan kartu (kertas) katalog untuk koleksi Dunhuang, ditambah dua jilid menggambarkan koleksi, 17 volume dari edisi faksimili Dunhuang Dokumen Diadakan di Rusia dan mikrofilm dari sebagian besar koleksi. Dalam rangka untuk melindungi dokumen asli, sarjana diharapkan untuk berkonsultasi dengan fax, mikrofilm atau gambar digital pertama. Naskah asli dapat dilihat hanya luar biasa, dengan permintaan khusus. Dalam kasus naskah rapuh, izin untuk melihat dapat ditolak.
Untuk informasi lebih lanjut lihat website Institut Manuskrip Oriental ‘.

2. Koleksi di Negara Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg


Hermitage Negara juga memiliki artefak yang dikumpulkan oleh berbagai ekspedisi Asia Tengah dalam abad keduapuluh kesembilan belas dan awal, dari Dunhuang, Bezeklik, Kucha, Shikshin, Toyukmazar, Kumtura, Sassikbulak, Khotan, Kharakhoto, dll


2.1 Para Oldenburg Koleksi di Negara Hermitage
 
Negara Hermitage Museum memegang artefak dan temuan arkeologi dari dua ekspedisi Oldenburg, termasuk spanduk Buddha dan rami banner-puncak (66 item); fragmen lukisan pada sutra Buddhis (137 item); fragmen lukisan Buddha di atas kertas (43 item); mural (24); tekstil (38); fragmen manuskrip (8). Pada tahun 1910 mural, tekstil, dan lukisan dari ekspedisi pertama Oldenburg dipresentasikan ke Museum Antropologi dan Etnologi (Kunstkamera) dari Akademi Ilmu Pengetahuan Rusia dan 1931-1932 mereka dipindahkan ke Pertapaan, di mana bagian dari koleksi telah di layar sejak tahun 1935. Selain itu, sejak 1950-an, 71 artefak dari IOM di St Petersburg (di atas) telah dipinjamkan ke Pertapaan Negara. Seluruh koleksi itu dikembalikan, sebelum menjadi katalog dan dipelajari oleh NV Dyakonova, ML Rudova-Pchelina dan Menshikov. Item yang dipilih yang kini dipajang permanen.
Arsip besar ekspedisi Oldenburg, termasuk buku hariannya, peta, dokumen dan 2000 foto, juga sebagian besar di Hermitage, meskipun sebagian tetap di IOM. Setelah kematian Oldenburg adalah istrinya EG Oldenburg terorganisir dan mengetik semua dokumen, termasuk catatan-catatan lapangannya yang telah sangat sulit untuk menguraikan. Para naskah penuh deskripsi Oldenburg tentang gua di Dunhuang terdiri dari enam notebook dan 834 halaman. EG Oldenburg juga meninjau semua pelat fotografi dari ekspedisi Turkistan Rusia di koleksi Hermitage Negara, mengidentifikasi mereka dengan perbandingan dengan deskripsi Oldenburg tertulis dari gua-gua dan memasukkan referensi fotografi yang relevan di akhir setiap notebook. Artefak dan dokumen ekspedisi kedua Turkistan Oldenburg ini diterbitkan dalam enam volume oleh Shanghai Klasik Publishing House.


2.2 Akses ke koleksi Asia Tengah Negara

 

Hermitage Museum
Negara Hermitage Museum, di Dvortsovaya Naberezhnaya, N 34, terbuka untuk pengunjung 10,00-18,00 setiap hari kecuali Senin.
Terpilih mural, patung dan lukisan Buddha di sutra dan kertas dari koleksi Klementz, Berezovsky dan Oldenburg yang dipajang permanen di Herrmitage. Ini termasuk patung Buddha dan penguburan, kapal, dan lukisan mural, dari Turfan, Sassikbulak, Toyukmazar, Shikcin, Kumtura dan Khotan. Item dari Dunhuang (artefak, foto, gambar dan peta) juga dipajang, di ruang terpisah. Sebagian dari koleksi Asia Tengah dalam penyimpanan di Hermitage.
Untuk informasi lebih lanjut hubungi website Hermitage.

3. Koleksi di Rusia Masyarakat Arsip Geografis, St Petersburg
Arsip Geographical Society Rusia didirikan pada 1845.

 

 Ini adalah sumber daya penelitian yang unik, yang mengandung lebih dari 60.000 file yang mengandung materi etnografis 13.000, termasuk di Asia Tengah. Di antara bahan ini catatan perjalanan, diagram, foto, peta dan benda-benda etnografi dari ekspedisi Przhevalsky, Potanin, Koslov dan lain-lain.
Untuk informasi lebih lanjut, konsultasikan Society Arsip situs Rusia Geografis (bahasa Rusia saja).

Koleksi: di IDP

Koleksi Dunhuang di Institute of Oriental Naskah (IOM) di St Petersburg sedang digital sebagai bagian dari IDP. Pekerjaan dimulai pada tanggal 1 Januari 2004 dan gulungan Buddha (dengan pressmark Fn) yang sekarang menjadi tersedia secara online. Digitalisasi dari fragmen akan mengikuti. Sebuah ringkasan diberikan di bawah ini menunjukkan rincian dengan bahasa.
Jumlah Naskah oleh Bahasa / Script pada pengungsi di Rusia pada 23/01/2012
Bahasa (s) / Script (s) Jumlah naskah / blockprints Nomor Digitised
‘Phags-pa 0 0
Arabic 0 0
Avestan 0 0
Bactrian 0 0
Brahmi 1 0
Cina 2584 285
Bahasa Inggris 0 0
ditempa 0 0
Perancis 0 0
Gandari 0 0
Jerman 0 0
Gupta 0 0
Yahudi-Persia 0 0
Kharosthi 0 0
Khotanese 0 0
Kitan 0 0
Kitan Linear Script 0 0
Kok Turki 0 0
Manichaean Tengah Persia 0 0
Mongolia 0 0
Nagari 0 0
Baru Persia 0 0
tidak berlaku 0 0
tidak teridentifikasi 0 0
Lama Turki 0 0
Pala 0 0
Parthia 0 0
Pehlevi 0 0
Sansekerta 2 0
Siddham 0 0
Sogdian 0 0
Siria 0 0
Tangut 4320 48
Tibet 3 0
Tocharian 0 0
Tumshuqese 0 0
Turki 0 0
Uighur 2 0
Zhang-zhung 0 0
Jumlah * 6910 334
* Catatan, total diberikan mewakili jumlah manuskrip dan naskah digital dan bukan merupakan jumlah dari kolom karena beberapa naskah berisi lebih dari satu bahasa dan aksara

Bibliografi
Dabbs_1963
Dabbs, Jack A., Sejarah Discovery dan Eksplorasi Turkestan Cina. Den Haag: Mouton, 1963.
Emmerick_1993a
Emmerick, Ronald E., Vorob’ëva-Desjatovskayja, Margarita I., Saka Dokumen VII: St Petersburg Koleksi. Jakarta: Sekolah Studi Oriental dan Afrika atas nama Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum, 1993.
Emmerick_1995
Emmerick, Ronald E., Vorob’ëva-Desjatovsk, Saka Dokumen Teks Volume III. Jakarta: Sekolah Studi Oriental dan Afrika atas nama Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum, 1995.
Hopkirk_1980
Hopkirk, Petrus, Devils Negeri Jalan Sutra: Pencarian untuk Kota Hilang dan Treasures Asia Tengah Cina. London: John Murray, 1980.
Menshikov_1963
Menshikov, L. N., Bianvėn o vėimotsze. Bianvėn “Desiat blagikh znameniĭ.” Neizvestnye rukopisi bianvėn iz Dunkhuanskogo Fonda Instituta narodov Azii. Moskow: Izd-vo vostochnoĭ literatury, 1963.
Menshikov_1972
Menshikov, LN, Bianvėn o vozdaianii za milosti: rukopis iz dunkhuanskogo Fonda Instituta vostokovedeniia. Moskow: Izd-vo “Nauka,” Glav. merah. vostochnoĭ menyala-ry, 1972.
Menshikov_1984
Menshikov, LN, Bianvėn po lotosovoĭ sutre: rukopisi faksimile. Moskow: Izd-vo “Nauka,” Glav. merah. vostochnoĭ menyala-ry, 1984.
Menshikov_1984a
Menshikov, LN, Opisanie kitaĭskoĭ chasti kollektsii iz Khara-Khoto (suka PK Kozlova). Moskow: Izd-vo “Nauka,” Glav. merah. vostochnoĭ menyala-ry, 1984.
Nikitin_1995
Nikitin, AB, ‘Sasania koin dalam koleksi Museum of Fine Arts, Moskow’. Peradaban Kuno dari Scythia ke Siberia 2 / 1 (1995): 71-91.
Oldenburg_1914
Oldenburg, SF, Russkaia Turkestanskaia Ekspeditsiia 1909-1910. Saint Petersburg: Goda 1909-1910, 1914.
Przhevalsky_1876
Przhevalsky, NM, Mongolia Negara Tangut Dan kesunyian Dari Utara Tibet Menjadi Sebuah Narasi Dari Tiga Tahun Perjalanan Di Timur Tinggi Asia. Jakarta:, 1876.
Przhevalsky_1879
Przhevalsky, NM, Dari Kulja: Di Tian Shan ke Lob-Nor. Jakarta:, 1879.
Savitsky_1984
Savitsky, S. Lev, ‘Tunhuang Tibet di Koleksi Manuskrip Institut Leningrad dari Oriental Studie’. collections_ru.
Savitsky_1991
Savitsky, Lev, Opisanie tibetiskikh svitkov iz dunkhuana v sobranii instituta vostokovedeniia a. Moskow:, 1991collections_ru.
Tchuguevskogo_1983
Tchuguevskogo, LI, Kitaiskie Dokumenti iz Dun’khuna: Vipusk 1. Cina Doucments dari Dunhuang, Bagian 1. Moskow:, 1983.
Vorobyova-Desyatovskaya_1992
Vorobyoba-Desyatovskaya, M., ‘Koleksi Leningrad dari Dokumen Bisnis Sakish dan Masalah Investigasi Teks Asia Tengah’. Dalam Cadonna_1992.
Xie_1955
Xie Zhiliu, Dunhuang yishu xulu. Shanghai: Shanghai chubanshe, 1955.
Xie_Zhiliu_1955
Xie Zhiliu, Dunhuang yishu xulu. Shanghai: Shanghai chubanshe, 1955.

 


Sejarah Koleksi Korea


Sejarah Koleksi Tengah Asia Korea dapat ditelusuri

kembali ke abad ketiga Masehi. Artefak dari Asia Tengah, yang sebagian besar dikumpulkan oleh raja-raja dari Dinasti Silla (57 SM-935), telah ditemukan di makam Silla.

 Namun, mayoritas Koleksi Korea terdiri dari item yang ditemukan oleh tiga Otani Kozui yang ekspedisi ke Asia Tengah 1902-1914 (lihat Koleksi Jepang).

 

Para Koleksi Otani dipegang oleh Ryukoku University, Museum Nasional Tokyo, Kyoto Museum Nasional, Museum Lüshun, Museum Nasional China, Perpustakaan Nasional Cina, dan Museum Nasional Korea.
 
Setelah pensiun dari Otani, Kepala Biara Biara 22 Hongwanji Nishi, Fusanosuke Kuhara, seorang pengusaha zaibatsu, membeli tempat tinggal Otani, para Niraku Villa, dan artefak sejarah. Kuhara memberikan artefak ini untuk Terauchi Masatake, teman lama dan Gubernur-Jenderal Joseon. Pemerintah Joseon Jenderal Art Museum dipamerkan secara permanen mereka di Sujeongjeon, Istana Gyeongbok, yang merupakan titik awal dari Koleksi Otani dan kepemilikan Korea artefak Asia Tengah.


Dalam lampiran Records baru dari Dunia Barat,

 koleksi buku harian oleh anggota ekspedisi Otani, daftar barang digali dari Asia Tengah yang diselenggarakan oleh Pemerintah Joseon Jenderal Museum Seni disertakan. Daftar itu diperkirakan ditulis ketika Kuhara menyumbangkan item ke Gubernur Jenderal Joseon. Saat ini, di samping daftar ini, Museum Nasional Korea memiliki dokumen yang menunjukkan bahwa Fusanosuke Kuhara menyumbangkan artefak kepada Jenderal Terauchi Masatake.

 

 

 


Pameran dan Pelestarian Artefak dari Asia Tengah
Pameran artefak Asia Tengah dalam Sujeongjeon dimulai pada 1916 dan berlanjut sampai 15 Agustus 1945 ketika Korea dibebaskan dari kekuasaan kolonial Jepang karena akhir Perang Dunia II.

 

Museum Nasional dibuka di tahun yang sama setelah mengambil alih Museum Seni Umum Pemerintah Joseon.

 

 Khawatir tentang bahaya kebakaran yang ditimbulkan dengan artefak di gedung kayu, orang termasuk Dr Chewon Kim, direktur pertama museum, dan Sherman Lee, seorang penasihat sipil untuk Jenderal Douglas MacArthur dan ahli seni Asia, memindahkan seluruh koleksi untuk ruang penyimpanan di gedung tahan api hanya museum.
Sejak itu, artefak harus tinggal di gudang selama beberapa dekade, tapi ini terbukti beruntung dalam jangka panjang.

 

 Tak lama setelah akhir Perang Dunia II, Perang Korea (25 Juni 1950-Juli 27,1953) pecah,

 

menciptakan tragedi terburuk dalam sejarah modern Korea. Selama waktu ini, tidak ada yang pergi tanpa cedera – bahkan mumi, dianggap unik, dan dari penggalian di Asia Tengah, rusak oleh pengeboman pada pertengahan September. Untungnya, bagaimanapun, sebagian besar koleksi sudah aman dilindungi di tengah-tengah perang.
 
Upaya oleh otoritas dari Museum Nasional memainkan peranan besar dalam pelestarian artefak, dan banyak dari barang-barang dipindahkan ke Universitas Nasional Pusan ​​Museum selama perang.

 

 Sejak itu, artefak itu kemudian dibawa kembali ke Museum Nasional yang baru dibangun Korea (Folk Museum Nasional saat ini) pada bulan Oktober 1974.
Setelah itu, artefak Asia Tengah umumnya tertutup untuk umum, tetapi kadang-kadang dipamerkan di bagian sampai tahun 1986.

 

Pada bulan Agustus 1972,

 museum diperluas dan dibuka kembali di Istana Gyeongbok membuka ‘Galeri Oriental’ dan ditampilkan produk budaya asing yang diadakan oleh museum. Dalam ruang pameran khusus, 45 item dari Asia Tengah termasuk gerabah, tanah liat angka, mural, dan artefak lainnya dipamerkan. Namun, potongan-potongan dimasukkan ke dalam penyimpanan lagi karena pengurangan ruang tampilan museum pada tahun 1996.

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Business Line Pagodas for miles: Ruins at the ancient Buddhist site of Bagan in Myanmar. – Photo: Aditi De

the land of the golden smile.

At the heart of Myanmar lies a golden smile. Last month, we glimpsed it on the glorious Buddha images across the land. But the smile equally lit up our young guide in Yangon, as it did children at play among the famed Bagan ruins.

The days since our return have been packed with positive political news from Myanmar. Cause for celebration? Not yet. Because sub-texts shadowed our six days in the country, yet unspoilt by mass tourism, making it difficult to share our experience in high-definition black-and-white.

Burma (renamed Myanmar in 1989) shares borders with China, Laos, India, Bangladesh and Thailand. It has been my dream destination since I was a child. I’d read of fabled royalty decked in rubies and jade, of the Mon civilisation, of the Bagan kingdom dating back to 1057. I knew Myanmar had natural resources such as petroleum, timber, lead and coal.

I was aware of how the military junta had ruled since a 1962 military coup. But since March 2011, Myanmar has been a unitary presidential republic, led by former general Thein Sein. Its administrative capital shifted from Yangon to Naypyidaw, 320 km north, in November 2005.

We fly into Yangon from India. The first impressions are clean streets, disciplined people, and crumbling colonial buildings reminiscent of north Kolkata. Right-hand driven, ancient Nissans and Toyotas rattle past our bus. We see little evidence of littering, road rage, or the traffic chaos of Bengaluru.

What’s Yangon’s population? Few at bustling Bogyoke Aung San Market know for sure. Myanmar’s last official census was held in 1983. Guesstimates say 16 million live in the former capital, out of 58-80 million across Myanmar.

In the footsteps of karma-driven locals, we seek solace at the 2,500-year-old golden Shwedagon pagoda, which soars almost 100 metres above Yangon. Its history? Burmese merchants Tapussa and Bhallika visited the Buddha shortly after he attained enlightenment. He gave them eight hairs from his head, which they gifted to their king at Okkalapa (now Yangon.) He enshrined these relics in a 20-metre pagoda. Since the 14th century, the pagoda had been rebuilt several times. It dazzles at night with a ceremonial vane and bud, bejewelled with 3,154 golden bells and 79,569 diamonds.

Monks chant, drums roll, lamps flare and dim as a procession winds past various lamp-lit shrines, heralding the full moon. Smiling gently, beatific worshippers offer lotus blossoms and squares of gold leaf with reverence.

It was at the Shwedagon that Aung San Suu Kyi, the global face of Myanmar, made her first public speech on August 26, 1988, to an audience estimated at between 30,000 and a million, catapulting her into history. Standing by its monument to martyred students from 1988, I tune into another tale — of a struggle for a three-year Myanmar passport.

Amidst the smiling Buddhas, tucking into green tea salad, or learning of age-old thanaka cosmetic paste, we cue in to proliferating child trafficking and human rights abuses. Our bus cannot pause for a moment outside 54 University Avenue, Nobel laureate Suu Kyi’s residence. We are forbidden to record images of the army or the police.

Do shadows constantly mask facts? It is tough to tell in this nation of 85 per cent Therawada Buddhists. In historic 41 sq km Bagan in central Myanmar, on the banks of the Ayeyarwaddy river, 500 km north of Yangon, we glimpse the ancient capital of Burman and Mon rulers between the 10th and 13th centuries.

Bagan’s green landscape is dotted with 2,217 temples, pagodas, stupas and ruins, the largest Buddhist site globally. Following a devastating earthquake in 1975, UNESCO has restored over 200 monuments. India sent in over $20 million worth of conservation aid. But UNESCO has refused to recognise Bagan as a world heritage site, citing government restoration as unscientific.

Ananda Phaya, built in 1105 AD by King Kyanzittha, is one of Bagan’s four surviving temples. At its entrance, vendors sell local crafts — including lacquerware, sand paintings, and woven longyis. They include children of four or six, peddling their own drawings on ruled notebook pages. “Only $1,” they plead, hungry-eyed, “only 1,000 kyat.” The temple houses four giant gold-covered Buddhas facing the cardinal directions, architecturally fusing Mon and Indian styles. Eight monks, locals say, told their king of how they meditated in the Himalayan Nandamula Cave temple. With the aid of Indian artisans, they replicated the symmetry of Bengal and Orissa architecture. Later, the king executed the monks to ensure no future copies. Within the temple, niches celebrate Buddha’s life in stone. Jataka scenes are embossed on terracotta tiles. In the plains around, hardy Israeli desert trees ensure that bird droppings do not ruin the restoration.

But post-dusk in wondrous Bagan, its buggies drawn by horses of Assamese origin, pitch darkness falls over the local town of Nyaung-U and its 12,000 inhabitants. Though our hotel has 24/7 air-conditioning and dial-up Internet access, reality bites. A small village nearby has just three LED lights. The town’s lone hospital, constructed by the Russians decades ago, boasts of two doctors and a dentist. Monks ensure justice, in lieu of its single lawyer. The elderly refuse hospitalisation, fearing that the generator heralds the god of death. Around Bagan, most people — whether scholars, waiters or puppeteers — earn daily wages, according to reliable sources.

But some are visibly more equal than others. A general’s son-in-law has built a dissonant convention centre amidst the ruins, while another general has constructed a ‘duplicate’ palace to perpetuate his own glory. All because Bagan was once the ‘Land of Victory.’

These truths, however, blur on the idyllic freshwater Inle Lake in Shan State, 22 km long, 11 km wide, and 1,328 metres above sea level. Birds skim the water at shoulder-level as our five-seater motorised boat propels us towards our hotel on stilts. Over 254 recorded bird species thrive in these protected wetlands.

From the 18 surrounding villages, traditional fishermen bypass weeds and water hyacinth to snare carp. They stand upright on one leg, the other wrapped around an oar. Floating gardens of lake-bottom weeds, anchored by bamboo poles, bob with the tide, rich with tomatoes. Often crouched twenty to a boat, villagers paddle by.

Whether Intha, Shan or other ethnicities, smiles greet us. At the Five Buddha Temple with its gold-leaf wrapped, feature-blurred statues. At the world’s only lotus silk handloom centre. At the floating market where flexi-tailed lucky fish ear-rings are a good bargain. At the once submerged Inn Dein pagoda complex. Or even from the briefly glimpsed brass-hooped, long-necked Padaung tribal women.

Reflecting on Myanmar as we glide over Inle, I wind back to a chance encounter on a Yangon Airways flight. With Eindra, a young woman of Burmese origin, whose family relocated to the US three generations ago. Her US-born 50-plus parents, both professionals, now yearn to return to Myanmar, to spend their golden years with their extended family.

Perhaps their lens on Myanmar is double-faced. Like the south-facing Kassapa Buddha at the Ananda Phaya. Solemnly meditative from one angle; from another, he smiles, reassuring worshippers that all sadness must pass. He seems in sync with the beautiful, tolerant people of Myanmar. For theirs is indisputably the land of the golden smile.

 

 

  1. 1.     The Golden Hinta Flag tiin ko ai, kum 1300 an 1500
  2. 2.     tian lo hmang ii.

 

2. Flag of Third Burmese Empire under Konbaung dynasty tiin ko ai,

 kumpibawipa Kung Bawng san ai hmanghnak thantar ii. (1752 – 1885)

 

3. Flag of British Burma as a colony of British India tiin ko ai,

British acuzah in kawlram khiah lo uk teng lai fangin,

British India acuzah kuthnia ah a umh teng, (1824 – 1939) kum sawng hmanghnak thantar ii.

 

4. Flag of British Burma, as a separate colony tiin ko ai, British

acuzah in Kawlram khiah a tumce niuin a kuthnia ah a uk teng, (1939 – 1943)

tian hmanghnak thantar ii.

 

5. Flag of the State of Burma tiin ko ai, 1943 an 1945

tian hmanghnak thantar ii.

 

6. Simplified flag of the State of Burma tiin ko ai, 1945

kum ah hmanghnak thantar ii.

 

7. Flag of British Burma tiin ko ai, 1945 an 1948

tian hmanghnak thantar ii.

 

8. Flag of the Union of Burma tiin ko ai, 1948 an 1974

 tian hmanghnak thantar ii.

 

 

9. 1974 an 1988

 tian khiah, Flag of the Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma tiin ko ai, 1988 an 2010 tian khiah Flag of the Union of Myanmar tiin kohnak thantar ii.

 

10. October 21, 2010

 fangin, Kawlram acuzah in thantar a thar thlenghnak ii.

 

 

Changing face of Myanmar

This year — December 2: US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton concludes a 3-day visit to Myanmar, where she met both Aung San Syu Kyi and General Thein Sein. She carried letters to both from President Barack Obama. This is the first major US political move in a country isolated for over 50 years.

November 18: Suu Kyi-led National League for Democracy (NLD) decides to contest all 48 seats in the forthcoming by-elections.

November 17: The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) clears Myanmar to chair the bloc in 2014, as a reward for recent reforms.

November 16: Suu Kyi meets President Thein Sein to press for the release of 6,300 political dissidents as promised by the State media. Only 200 are set free.

2010 — Military-backed Union Solidarity and Development Party (USDP) wins the first election in 20 years. The National League for Democracy, headed by Suu Kyi, boycotts poll.

November 6: Suu Kyi released from house arrest. The Nobel peace laureate has spent 15 years and 19 days of the last two decades in detention.

2007 — Military junta crushes peaceful demonstrations led by monks and students. Thousands imprisoned.

1988 — Over 3,000 shot dead during student demonstrations in Rangoon. Thousands arrested.

1962 — General Ne Win stages a coup. Myanmar has been under various types of military rule since then.

1948 — Burma gains independence from the British.

July 19, 1947 — Bogyoke Aung San (Suu Kyi’s father) assassinated in the Yangon Secretariat, along with six other ministers.

Fast facts

Tourist season: November to February

Currency: Kyats. Approximately $100 = 76,000 kyat. A local meal costs about 3,000 kyats (less than Rs 200).

Internal airlines: Yangon Airways, Air Bagan, Air Mandalay, among others. Airport security lax. But good in-flight service.

Local special foods: Green tea salad. Mohinga (fish soup).

Main tourist sites: Yangon, Mandalay, Inle Lake, Bagan, Pindaya caves.

Tested travel agency: Mya Thiri Travels, Yangon. myathiri@myanmar.com.mm

Warning: Credit cards, Internet and international mobiles do not work. Local handsets/ SIM cards can be hired at the airport for $50 each

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

History of Myanmar

While both the names Bama and Myanma

historically referred only to the main ethnic Burmese group, the Burmese governments in the post-independence period instituted a difference in meaning between Myanmar and Bamar in the official Burmese language.

The name Myanma/Myanmar was expanded to include all citizens of the country, while the name Bama/Bamar kept its original meaning, referring to the Burmese people. Both are in widespread use colloquially.

 Most people still use Bamar/Myanmar interchangeably to refer to the country, depending on the context. But officially the country is now called Myanmar.

the key historical dates.

The earliest archaeological evidence of civilisation in the Irrawaddy valley dates to about 1500 BC. People in the region were turning copper into bronze, growing rice, and domesticating chickens and pigs; they were among the first people in the world to do so.

Prehistory of Burma

Various human species had lived in the region now known as Burma as early as 750,000 years ago. They were replaced by or probably mixed with[1] Homo sapiens—the only surviving human species today.[2] However, evidences for the earliest human settlements in Burma are not yet discovered. Current archeological evidence dates the settlements at about 11,000 BC in the caves of Padah-Lin, which depicts Neolithic culture.[3] They further advanced to Bronze Age and to Iron age around 1,200 BC. These indigenous people, together with later migrating peoples formed mainstream of present day Burmese civilization.

The more recent migrations occurred during the third or fourth millennium BCE to last millennium BC.[4] Pyu, Mon, Rakhine came from various parts of South Asia. They brought cultural diffusions among indigenous people and resided in different parts of Burma—with Pyu at the center, Mon at the South, and Rakhine at the west.

By about 1500 BC, ironworks were in existence in the Irrawaddy Valley followed by Iron age which began around 1200 BC.[5] About 500 BC, a rice-growing population was living in a densely settled various systems of small cities and large villages in the valleys of Upper Myanmar.[3] But Urban age probably did not emerge till the last century BC when advances in irrigation systems and the building of canals allowed for year long agriculture and the consolidation of settlements.[5] From the 2nd century BC to founding of Pagan Dynasty in 11th century AD, these peoples traded with India and dynasities of China including Han and Qin. These trades brought Buddhism and coinage which further spread to other South East Asian countries.[4]

 

 

Homo Erectus

Pre-migration preiod

Homo erectus began to settle in Burma in 75,000 BC before the arrival of Homo sapiens from Africa. However, archaeological evidences of Homo sapiens before the 11th millennium are not yet discovered. The pre-migration period of Burma, spans from 11,000 BC to 4,000 BC before the mass migrations of Pyu, Mon and Arakanese people from India and Tibet. This era is characterized by Stone age culture which later advanced to Bronze and Iron age cultures. The cave ritual system, which later used for Buddhist caves, is believed to have rooted in earliest civilization of this era. The effect can be seen today in many Buddhism ritual caves across Burma.[4]

Timeline

Date

Event

750,000- 275,000 years B.P.

Lower Palaeolithic men of early Anyathian culture (Homo erectus) lived along the bank of the Ayeyawaddy river.

275,000-25,000 years B.P.

Lower Palaeolithic men of late Anyathian culture

11,000 BC

Upper Palaeolithic men (Homo Sapiens) live in Badah-lin caves which situated in Ywagan township in southern Shan States.

7,000 – 2,000 BC

Neolithic men live in central Myanmar, Kachin State, Shan States, Mon State, Taninthayi Region, and along the bank of the Chindwin and Ayeyarwaddy rivers.

1500 BC

Earliest evidence of copper and bronze works, rice growing, domesticating chickens and pigs in Irrawaddy valley[6]

500 BC

Iron-working settlements south of present day Mandalay[6]

100 BC

Pyu people enter the Irrawaddy valley from north

 

 

Mesolithic blade in Shinma-daung Area Central Myanmar

 

 

Neolithic paintings found inside Padah-Lin Caves. Radiocarbon dated up to 13,000 years ago

Mesolithic age

Roughly polished stone implements of various sizes are often found in the Shan States of eastern Burma.[4][7] Pebble tools, including choppers and chopping tools, are found in the Pleistocene terrace deposits of the Irrawaddy Valley of Upper Myanmar.[4] These complexes are collectively known as the Anyathians, thus, the culture is called the Anyathian culture. The Early Anyathian is characterized by single-edged core implements made on natural fragments of fossil wood and silicified tuff, which are associated with crude flake implements. However, domestications and polishing of stones, which are possible signs of Neolithic culture, are not known until the discovery of Padah Lin caves in Southern Shan State.[8]

Neolithic age

Three caves located near Taunggyi at the edge of the Shan Plateau, depict the Neolithic age when farming, domestication, and polished stone tools first appeared. [4]

They are dated between 11,000 to 6,000 BC.

 The most significant of these is the Padah-Lin cave where over 1,600 of stones and cave paintings have been uncovered.[9] These paintings lie from ten to twelve feet above the floor level depicting figures in red ochre of two human hands, a fish, bulls, bisons, a deer and probably the hind of an elephant.[10] The paintings indicate that the cave was probably used for religious ritual. If so, these caves could be one of the earliest sites used for worshiping in Burma. The use of caves for religious purposes continued into later periods. Thus, Buddhist Burmese use of cave worshiping originates from the earlier Animist period.[4]

Bronze age

 

 

Tool transitions from late Stone age to early Bronze Age, and finally to Iron age

The finding of bronze axes at Nyaunggan located in Shwebo township

suggests that Bronze Age of Burma began around 1500 BC in parallel with the earlier stages of Southeast Asian bronze production.[11]

 

 This period spans from 1500 to 1000 BC

 during which knowledge of the smelting and casting of copper and tin seems to have spread rapidly along the Neolithic exchange routes.[12]

Another site is the area of Taungthaman,

 near Irrawaddy River within the walls of the 18th century capital, Amarapura, was occupied from the late Neolithic through the early iron age, around the middle of the first millennium BC.[4] Small trades, barters as well as Animism had already begun in this age.

Iron age

Bronze and iron age cultures were found to be overlapping in Burma.[4] In this era, wealth was accumulating due to agriculture and to access to the copper resources of the Shan hills, the semi-precious stone and iron resources of the Mount Popa Plateau, and the salt resources of Halin. This wealth is evident in grave items bought from Chinese kingdoms.[3] A notable characteristics of the people of this era is that they buried their dead together with decorative ceramics and common household objects such as bowls and spoons.

Beikthano
The ruins lies some 20 km west of Taungdwingyi is not easily recognized by casual passers-by but the elderly local people remember that the fort walls stood much higher than now about half a century ago before the bricks were quarried for building roads and rail tracks. The excavations, though limited to twenty-five selected sites during six open seasons, reveal that the cultural equipment of the site is essentially Pyu in character.

Masonry structures with massive walls constructed of large sized bricks, un-inscribed silver coins bearing symbols of prosperity and good-luck, burial urns of plain and exquisite designs, beads of clay and semi precious stones, decorated domestic pottery, iron nails and bosses are among the finds which reveal convincing cultural links between Beikthano and the established Pyu site of Srikshetra. The burial urns are definite evidence of cultural relationship between Beikthano on the one hand and Srikshetra and Hanlin on the other. Innumerable urns unearthed at Srikshetra are of the same character as those from Beikthano as regards the contents and manner of burials. The antiquity of Beikthano is vouched by the recovery of un-inscribed coins or medals known Pyu coins. Though the number recovered by excavation is quite few, surface finds were also made by the local people from time to time. From these specimens it appears that not only the predominant type found at Srikshetra but also the type peculiar to Hanlin occurs at this site. In Myanmar these types of un-inscribed coins could be definitely attributed as one of the chief characteristics of Pyu culture.

Hanlin
An ancient site where Pyu culture flourished as early as the 2nd century A.D. It is located 17 km southeast of Shwebo. The located residents after coming across objects of antiquarian interest such as gold, silver and bronze objects, utensils, mirrors, coins and ornaments, which are usually melted down. Unlike Srikshetra or Beikthano where Hindu or Buddhist religions influenced with image worship, no traces could be found at Hanlin. Another interesting factor that prevailed at Hanlin indicates the practice of burial of corporeal remains as also burial of cremated remains in urns was in vogue. The brick-walled city complex is two miles long and a mile wide.

Tagaung
The Glass Palace Chronicle says that Myanmar history starts in Tagaung, some 300 years before the birth of Buddha [850 BC]. Situates 200 km up river north of Mandalay. But then it is quite a civilized period, with cities, kings, farmers, workers and festivals. Tagaung still exit as a big village and can be reached by river way from Mandalay.

Hmawza
The ancient site of Srikestra lies 8 km north-east of Pyay in the village of Hmawza. It dates to the early Pyu kingdom that ruled the surrounding area from the 5th to 9th century AD. By the old palace site stands a small museum and a map of the area. Inside the museum is a collection of artifacts colleted from Thayekhittaya excavations, including royal funerary urns, stone relief’s, a couple of bodhisattvas, statues of the Hindu deities Tara Devi, Vishnu and Lakshmi and several 6th century Buddha images, tile fragments, terracotta votive tablets and silver coins minted in the kingdom etc.

Padalin Cave
Situates in the Panlaung reserved forest area in Ywangan township in Taunggyi district at precisely latitude 21º61½´N and longitude 96º18´E. The distance to Padahlin from Nyaunggyat village is four miles whereas from Yebok it is only a mile away. The caves lie in the jungle-clad mountains and are situated at a height of 1000 ft above sea level. The terrain is rough and rugged. Being limestone caves the interior abounds in stalagmites and stalactites.

The excavation at Padhlin yielded a horde of artifacts and other finds. Innumerable stone implements, hundreds of animal bone fragments, a few human fossils, shells of land mollusks, charcoal pieces, mounds of clay, etc were discovered. The stone implements and the fauna remains testify the age of Padahlin to be Neolithic. Together with these priceless treasures several cave paintings from the depths of prehistory were also brought to light. Let us take a glimpse at these paintings found on the walls of Padahlin.

The mural paintings done in a linear and compact fashion adorn the walls of Padahlin. They were drawn at a height of 10 to 12 feet above floor level in the smaller eastern cave. They were painted in the middle part of the wall which divides the rocks. The drawings of these cave dwellers numbered about a dozen images. They were all done in red ochre circles in the open palm, a huge fish, a deer, bisons, bulls followed at their heels by a calf, a human skull? and probably the rear part of an elephant. On the high cavern ceiling they drew the sun between two converging irregular lines.

From the few paintings found at Padahlin one might well argue that the artist had a fine eye for detail. They also had a gifted hand and creative capacity. These paintings seem to have been their act of lateral thinking. Otherwise stated it must never been the outward manifestation of their thoughts- a feat rather rare for their time. They were remarkably talented souls.

Like the paintings at Padahlin the cave drawings at Lascaux in France, (which has been called “the Sistine chaple of prehistoric art)” and Altamira in Spain also portrayed human hands and more or less similar animals. Painted handprints of early men are also seen on the walls of the Cosquer cave on the French Riviera. Again images of human hands, some in red, others in black pigment were found recently in the Chauvet limestone cave near Avignon, France.

Unlike the Padahlin and Lascaux cave paintings, the Paleolithic cave drawing at Chauvet pullulates with images of predatory and dangerous species such as cave bears, panthers, lions, wooly rhinoceroses and hyenas. But like the Laxcaux and Cyhauvet cavern images the preponderance of animal figures over human form is discernible at Padahlin.

Though open to conjecture the general consensus is that the legacy of cave paintings at Padahlin must surely have been more than what was found in 1968. It might be surmised that the elements, the deposition of calcium carbonate on the walls and the acid smoke emitted from the fire used for cooking and warming themselves must have obliterated and destroyed a great part of the treasure trove.

Whatever the case may be it is evident that our forebears of Pakahlin and the prehistoric ancestors of Europe had used the large cave walls of their time as big doodling sheets. On these vast expanses they had left their visual reflections. It was most thoughtful of them to leave their art in permanent places – the walls of their respective caverns. Despite the similarities and differences in representing art, these Homo Sapiens had definitely left their prehistoric possessions in the sands of time.

Nyaunggan
The Bronze-Age culture heritage site is located near Nyaunggan Village, Budalin Township, Sagaing Division, about 50 km from Monywar. The site is situated on a crater of a dormant volcano, which is about 4 miles northeast of the famous Twintaung. There are 5 excavation sites so far, where you can find burial mounds of our ancestors. In these excavation sites human skeletal remains were found together with pots of various size and shapes, stone rings, beads, socket bronze axes and some animal bones. This is an extraordinary prehistoric culture, which was found as the missing link between Stone Age and Iron Age culture, and the first discovery of a Bronze-age Burial site in Myanmar.

By 500 BCE,

iron-working settlements emerged in an area south of present-day Mandalay.

Bronze-decorated coffins and burial sites filled with earthenware remains have been excavated. Archaeological evidence at Samon Valley south of Mandalay suggests rice-growing settlements that traded with China between 500 BC and 200 CE

Chapter I: Prehistoric and Animist Periods


 

A. Prehistoric Sites

 

1. Introduction

 

As infrequent archaeological excavations have slowly revealed pieces of Burma’s past, a better but still incomplete understanding of Burma’s prehistory has slowly emerged.  Scant archaeological evidence suggests that cultures existed in Burma as early as 11,000 BC,

long before the more recent Burmese migrations that occurred after the 8th century AD. 

The conventional western divisions of prehistory into the Old Stone Age, New Stone Age

and the Iron or Metal Age are difficult to apply in Burma because there is considerable overlap between these periods.

 In Burma,

most indications of early settlement have been found in the central dry zone, where scattered sites appear in close proximity to the Irrawaddy River. Surprisingly, the artifacts from these early cultures resemble those from neighboring areas in Southeast Asia as well as India. Although these sites are situated in fertile areas, archaeological evidence indicates that these early people were not yet familiar with agricultural methods.

 

The Anyathian, Burma’s Stone Age, existed at a time thought to parallel the lower

and middle Paleolithic in Europe.

At least six  kinds of stone hand tools have been discovered in the fourteen sites associated with this period. 

This assemblage of stone tools in conjunction with additional archaeological evidence indicates that these people lived by hunting animals and gathering wild fruits, vegetables and root crops.

 

The Neolithic or New Stone Age,

when plants and animals were first domesticated and polished stone tools appeared, is evidenced in Burma by three caves located near Taunggyi at the edge of the Shan plateau that are dated to 10000 to 6000 BC. 

The most complex of these, the Padhalin cave, contains wall paintings of animals,

not unlike those found in the Neolithic caves at Altimira, Spain or Lascaux, France.

These paintings may be interpreted as an indication that the cave was used as a site for religious ritual. Thus, caves were among the earliest sites used for Buddhist worship in Burma.

This is of importance because the use of caves for religious purposes continued into later periods and may be seen as a “bridge” between the earlier non-Burmese, Animist period

and the later Buddhist period.

Numerous caves around the ancient city of Pagan have been outfitted with Buddha images or have been incorporated into early temples such as Kyauk Ku Umin or Thamiwhet and Hmyatha Umin.

 

 

Thamiwhet Umin, Nyaung-o, Pagan

 

Buddha image erected inside Thamiwet Umin

 

A Buddhist temple is referred to as a cave, whether it is naturally formed or,

as is most often the case, architecturally constructed.

The Burmese word for cave is “gu” and has been continually used to refer to Buddhist temples.  It is frequently incorporated into the name of a temple, for example

 Shwe Gu Kyi or Penatha Gu. Also, until the twelfth century, temple interiors were intentionally dimly lit. This effect was achieved by installing permanent stone or brick lattices in all the relatively small windows. (The Burmese ethnic group has been credited with building their temples with larger, unobstructed windows and thereby creating more brightly-lit interiors – a transition that is seen in the temples of the Pagan Period).

 

By the second half of the first millennium BC a new developmental phase

began in the dry zone of Burma. Referred to as the early Bronze – Iron Age,

 these cultures shared practices and methods of production with various neighboring areas. 

Burial methods

 resemble those of Thailand and Cambodia. 

Iron working technology most likely came from India or other parts of Southeast Asia, and ceramic forms and decoration correspond to those of the bronze –

iron Age levels at Ban Chiang in northern Thailand and at Samrong Sen in Cambodia.  Numerous beads have been recovered that stylistically resemble those imported from Andrha Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in India.

 

2. Prehistoric: Early man at Taungthaman

 

The site of Taungthaman is located near the 19th century city of Mandalay,

 on an alluvial terrace of the Irrawaddy River within the walls of

the 18th century capital, Amarapura, and was occupied from the late Neolithic

through the early iron age, around the middle of the first millennium BC.

Many artifacts have been uncovered at Taungthaman such as sophisticated stone tools, intricate ceramic wares, and primitive iron metallurgy. 

Many of these objects would have been acquired from the prosperity gained through industrious farming and trade. 

When burying their dead, their new affluence encouraged these people to include

among the grave goods fine decorative ceramics produced by specialized potter artisans as well as the more common household objects such as bowls and spoons. 

Human and animal figures discovered at Taungthaman in the 1970’s are thought to have been used for religious practices. If this is so, these artifacts represent the oldest of their kind found in Burma. Although no building in permanent material was discovered at Taungthaman, the excavations uncovered a pattern of post-holes that are the results of buildings having been supported on wooden pilings.

 

 

The mighty bend in the Irrawaddy inhabited since prehistoric times

 

Capitols of Burma

 

Taugthaman area in annual flood

 

Stone bracelet from Taungthaman

 

Stone hoe? from Taungthaman

 
 

 

 
       

 

 

 

My insatiable thirst for ancient ornamental crafts keeps me traveling to various parts of the country to visit ancient sites and likely sources, looking happily over this little thing and that. It was on one such trip to Mandalay checking up a source that I first noticed a small, dice- shaped bead among other artifacts. At first, my attention was drawn to the other, more familiar items but when my eyes fell on the unusual bead I was startled. It was a rectangular, hollow gold piece with auspicious Pyu symbols measuring 8.10 x 8.76 x 11.77 mm and weighing 1.5 gm.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

When I looked closer, I found boreholes in each of the center of a lotus blossom on opposite sides, formed with repousee and chasing work. On the remaining four sides are the symbols of Srivasta (The Holy House), Bhaddha- pith a (The Throne), Sankha (The conch shell), and the twin-fish. The symbols are set within decorative designs, so they stood out from other representations of the symbols. From what I could find out the origin of the bead was Halin, an ancient Pyu city in Upper Myanmar.

I was fascinated with this bead, and from then on, I started looking out for more of the same style. I gathered that a few others have been unearthed but there are not many around. I also tried to find references to the dice-shaped beads in archaeology journals and papers, particularly those with symbols. No such references have been found. I made a vow to myself, there and then, that someday I would write about these fascinating beads.

The gold dice bead with symbols of conch shell, twin-
fish, Sirivatsa, and Bhaddapitha.

The gold dice bead with symbols of conch shell, Sirivatsa,
twin fish and other auspicious symbols.

Therefore, I started look- ing for more dice beads on my .survey trips. It was not until months later that I came across another one, from Myinmu. It is similar to the first one in shape and use of symbols but slightly bigger. The setting of the symbols is also different but both can definitely be identified as Pyu origin. The third bead found from Halin is similar to the first two in style but a bit smaller. Here, the wheel replaced the twin-fish symbol. It is also a little heavier since more gold was used, It could be termed as semi-solid.

The gold dice bead with symbols of conch shell, Srivatsa,
Bhaddapitha, and twin fish.

I began to wonder whether there would be any other variations in style since the three were quite similar. To my delight, a collector friend happened to find a gilded dice bead from Hmaw Zar, ! measuring 7.86 x 7.56 x 10.26 mm and weighing 3.4 gm. Hmaw Zar used to be part of srikestra, the famous ancient Pyu kingdom. This bead is gilded bronze. Engraved in single lines on the four faces are the symbols, srivasta, Bhaddhapitha, the twin-fish, and the swastika. Some flat gold beads were also un- earthed from the area. Most of them are rectangular with the usual Pyu symbols fabri- cated with gold wire and granulation.

Apart from the gold dice beads with symbols, some with images of animals such as elephants, lions, bulls, horse, and the garuda bird, have been found from Halin, Ayardaw near Halin, and Hmawzar in Sriksetra.

   

From that time on dice beads started coming my way. My collector friends informed me whenever they got hold of what they called my “babies”, A friend from Mawlamyaing luckily managed to obtain some solid gold beads with Pyu symbols, Srivasta, Bhaddhapitha, conch shell, swast\ka, or the twin fish from the Suvanabhummi site, Suvanabhummi is the early Mon kingdom contemporary to that of the Pyu. In addition to the usual symbols, new ones are seen such as a cross and dots, a human figure, wheel, and an auspicious symbol that resembles a zedi surrounded by dots. Compared with those found in Upper Myanmar, they are very small. However, up to that time, I assumed from the use of Pyu symbols that dice beads were Pyu innovations. The said symbols might have an auspicious significance and they are somewhat like Pyu symbols on most of the deco- rative ornaments, coins, personal items, and even pottery. Coins and other personal items bearing Pyu marks are known to have spread to as far as Oc-Eo in Southern Vietnam.

   

 

 

It was fortunate in a way that I was somewhat too busy with my other obligations to get around to writing about these exotic beads until 2003. Had I been able to do so, I would have provided faulty information. I was flabbergasted when in 2003 an incredible found was made in Taung-tha-man Neolithic site: a terracotta dice bead. This bead is about 8 x 6 x 6 cm with boreholes through the center of a lotus blossom on opposite sides. On the other four sides are the images of a seated male, a seated female; a male lion, and a female lion.

The designs were most probably punched into the clay. It dawned upon me that these prehistoric people must be the innovators of the dice beads that fascinate me no end and that the Pyu people were the modifiers. This find of a terracotta dice bead left me in awe and wonder at the unique expressions of aesthetic notions, creativity, and resourcefulness of our ancestors.

 

Thauangthaman Village

After you cross U Bein’s bridge you will come to the village of Taungtaman. Here it seemed like the main industry was cutting and drying palm leaves and bamboo. There are also a few boat drivers. I didn’t see any weaving mills as the area has a lot of them but the people probably walk to Amarapura if they hold one of those jobs. There are some old Payas that were being rebuilt in the area too.

 

 

3. Transition to Pre-Pagan Period

 

From the limited information available at present, the evolution of these early prehistoric cultures into the later Mon and Pyu societies is not well understood,

although the late Iron Age coincided with the rise of Pyu culture and

 the creation of the first cities in Burma. 

 However, there is ample evidence that by the fifth century AD,

the Mon as well as the Pyu peoples had adopted the Indianized cultural life then widely practiced throughout mainland Southeast Asia which included elements of both Hinduism (Brahamanism) as well as aspects of Theravada, Mahayana, and Tantric Buddhism.

 


Bibliography- Prehistoric Period

 

Aung Thaw,

‘The “Neolithic Culture of the Padah-lin Caves”, Asian Perspectives, 14 (1971), pp. 123-133.

 

Ba Maw, “Research on Early Man in Myanmar”, Myanmar Historical Research Journal, no.1 (November 1995), pp. 213-220.

 

Bob Hudson, “The Nyaungyan ‘Goddesses': Some Unusual Bronze Grave Goods from Upper Burma”, TAASA Review, vol 10, no 2 (June 2002), pp. 4 –7.

 

William Solheim, “New Light on a Forgotten Past”, National Geographic, vol 139, No. 3 (March 1971), pp. 330-339.


 

B. Animism and the Arts

 

1. Animism

 

Animism is a generic term used to describe the myriad religious beliefs and practices that have been utilized in small-scale human societies since the beginning of the prehistoric era and is the earliest identifiable form of religion found in Burma.  This is not an unexpected occurrence because animist beliefs and practices have been found among early human societies in almost every country of the world.  Animism is a belief that spirits exist and may live in all things, sentient and non-sentient. The world is thought to be animated by all sorts of spirits that may intervene negatively or positively in the affairs of men.  Although spirits may live in all things, every object does not harbor a spirit.   If there were a spirit in everything, the daily activities of mankind would be seriously disrupted because a spirit would have to be addressed or placated at every step in a day’s activities.  Spirits by their very nature are thought to be normally invisible and to assume visible form only on rare occasion. Therefore, it is a challenge for anyone to contact a specific spirit and be absolutely sure that the correct spirit was contacted and was present. Therefore, throughout the world, spirits are often assigned a contact point where they may be enticed for consultation.  Salient features of the landscape often become the “home” of a spirit by assignment.  Spirits are thought to live, for example, on the highest peak in a mountain range or at the odd bend in the creek but not in every stone or drop of water. If a landscape is devoid of a salient feature, such as is the case with a flat rice field, one is created by assignment such as building a simple shrine in the northeast corner of the field. That the spirits have a recognized “home” is important since the relevant spirit or spirits must be located and consulted before important decisions are made or an activity undertaken.  Location as well as “presence” is of vital importance in animism because the spirit must be agreeably enticed to the location so that the request will meet with a positive response. A home or locus for consulting ancestor spirits is often created in animist societies by carving a generic but gendered human image and wrapping it in a garment or with possessions identified with the deceased. Gifts of all kinds, often of luxury goods, are ritually presented to the image when it may be wrapped in any of the deceased individual’s possessions.

 

In virtually all societies that practice animism, there are three broad categories of spirits: Spirits of the Ancestors, Spirits of the Locale or Environment (often referred to as genie of the soil) and Spirits of Nature or Natural Phenomenon. Those individuals who were important in this life, such as patriarchs, matriarchs, clan leaders, political leaders, or chiefs, are honored after their death because it is believed that if they were powerful in this life then they will be powerful in the afterlife and consequently they should be consulted. Security for the living is achieved and maintained by consulting these important ancestor spirits to receive advice on major decisions and assistance to bring them to fruition.

 

Spirits of the locale or environment include, for example, the spirit of the mountain, the waterfall, the great tree or of each plot of land. In inhabited areas in Burma and especially within villages or towns, almost every large tree has a spirit shelf on which food and drink is placed to please the spirit and thus assure its blessings. The small wayside shrines, typically containing no images that are found along thoroughfares as well as in remote locations throughout Burma are dedicated to the spirit(s) of that area, that tract of land or that city plot.

 

The Spirits of Natural Phenomenon are consulted as needed. These include the sun, moon, storms, hurricanes, typhoons, winds and earthquakes. These spirits represent the uncertainty of the world; that which is beyond the understanding and complete control of the living.

 

Animism is typically practiced through rituals that are performed by a specially trained practitioner who serves as an intermediary between a person or group and the spirit to be consulted. The term shaman – the word used for such an individual in tribes living along the American Northwest Coast – is today widely employed by academics to identify such individuals wherever they appear in the world. This practitioner is called to perform a ritual at an auspicious location in which he entices the appropriate spirit or spirits to appear and cooperate by flatteringly calling them by name, performing their favorite music or songs, recounting their good deeds and offering them the things that they enjoyed when alive, such as food, drink (frequently alcohol), or things that have an appealing fragrance such as flowers or incense. These “objects of enticement” are considered by outsiders to be the Arts of Animism. Since animist rituals often do not require an image, these arts frequently consist of the objects used for enticement such as fine textiles, fine basketry or fine ceramics. Typically these items are the best available, expensive, newly made for the ceremony, or at least refurbished since it would be offensive to offer old clothing or stale food to a respected individual. Once the shaman is convinced the desired spirit is present and in an agreeable mood, he goes into trance and consults with the spirit concerning the critical matter at hand.  He then comes out of trance and shares the wishes of the spirit(s) with his client(s).

 

There are typically three categories of questions that are asked: those that involve the security of the group or person; the fertility of humans, livestock and crops; and the health of the group or the individual.  All three categories of questions have to do with everyday life, the here and now, and unlike the “Great Religions”, little attention is focused on the afterlife.

 

The practitioners of animism, the shaman or mediums, do not belong to an organized clergy but, instead, learn the rituals and the practices of animism by having been an apprentice or an acolyte to another shaman.  The specialized task of the shaman requires them to communicate with spirits, whether male or female, while in a trance. Consequently, an individual of ambiguous gender is well suited to speak intimately with spirits of either gender. Therefore, shaman tends to be either effeminate males or masculine females who at their will are capable of going into trance.

 

In Burma, animism has developed into the cult of the Thirty-Seven Nats or spirits. Its spirit practitioners, known as nat ka daws, are almost always of ambiguous gender, and are thought to be married to a particular spirit or nat.  Despite their physical appearance and costume, however, they may be heterosexual with a wife and family, heterosexual transvestites, or homosexual. Being a shaman is most often a well-respected profession because the shaman performs the functions of both a doctor and a minister, is often paid in gold or cash, and is often unmarried with the time and money to care for their aging parents. Shamans who combine their profession with prostitution lose the respect of their clients – a universal conflict and outcome.  The reputation of Burmese nat-ka-daws has been generally damaged by this conflict.

 

 

Nat images in Nat shrine, Shwezigon Stupa, Pagan

 

Nat images in Nat shrine, Shwezigon Stupa, Pagan

 

Animism, a generic term for the Small Religions, is a substratum of beliefs out of which the Great Religions have developed. It is a useful term to describe all of the small religions that vary greatly in the specifics of their practice.  However, there are general characteristics that are easily recognized.  Since animism is based upon the worship of individuals who once lived in addition to spirits that dwell in specific environmental locations, there are a myriad number of spirits. These spirits change in name and function in different physical environments. Consequently, the names of the spirits change from valley to valley, from one village to another or from one small group to the next.  The worship of numerous spirits differs markedly from the great religions, which usually have one all encompassing god or a limited pantheon of gods. By comparison, in Burma and Thailand there is a spirit attached to every parcel of land.

 

Since Animism is typically practiced by non-literate groups of people, a written record of their theology or literature doesn’t exist.  Practices or beliefs are passed down orally from shaman to apprentice.  Since it is important for the shaman to preserve the correct order in which chants and genealogies must be recited, shaman in several societies have independently invented what scholars have come to refer to as “memory boards”. These are boards on which there are a series of symbols or marks that assist in proper recollection and recitation. These boards have been found in many small-scale societies including those in Southeast Asia, particularly in Borneo and as far away as Easter Island. These boards, although often undecipherable to the uninitiated, are important because they are examples of the first form of writing.

 

Art objects used in animism are typically made of perishable materials. The images are often of wood, cane, feathers, leather, and other materials such as unfired clay that easily disintegrate.  Due to humidity, bacteria, and the foraging of animals and insects, these art forms do not last for long periods. Art forms made of perishable materials are suitable for animist ritual since the animist aesthetic places importance on the new and beautiful because the end goal is to please and attract the spirits.  The sentiment here is that attractive gifts should be new and not secondhand. Therefore, old images that have been used previously are frequently repainted, re-dressed or made anew.  At times, the “art objects” are discarded after a ritual since the objects have served their purpose of attracting the spirit and the spirit by its very nature of being a spirit can not take the objects away.

 

Animist art obects are created in almost any form. The images may be anthropomorphic, or just an uncut slab of rock. The object may be adorned or unadorned.

 

In Burma, the major Animist spirits were transformed into the Pantheon of the 37 Nats during the Pagan Period. The earliest known images of the brother and sister nats, Min Mahagiri and his Sister, who lead the pantheon, were painted on two planks hewn from a their sacred tree that had been thrown into the Irrawaddy and had floated down the Irrawaddy to Pagan.

 

 

Min Mahagiri in nat shrine, Shwezigon, Pagan

 

Mahagiri’s Sister, Shwemyethna, Princess Golden Face in nat shrine, Shwezigon Stupa, Pagan

 

2. Bronze Drums – An Animist Art Form

 

The use and manufacture of bronze drums is the oldest continuous art tradition in Southeast Asia. It began some time before the 6th century BC in northern Vietnam and later spread to other areas such as Burma, Thailand, Indonesia and China. The Karen adopted the use of bronze drums at some time prior to their 8th century migration from Yunnan into Burma where they settled and continue to live in the low mountains along the Burma – Thailand border. During a long period of adoption and transfer, the drum type was progressively altered from that found in northern Vietnam (Dong Son or Heger Type I) to produce a separate Karen type (Heger Type III). In 1904, Franz Heger developed a categorization for the four types of bronze drums found in Southeast Asia that is still in use today.

 

 

Heger’s four drum types

 

The Karen Drum Type or Heger Type III

 

The vibrating tympanum is made of bronze and is cast as a continuous piece with the cylinder.  Distinguishing features of the Karen type include a less bulbous cylinder so that the cylinder profile is continuous rather than being divided into three distinct parts. Type III has a markedly protruding lip, unlike the earlier Dong Son drums. The decoration of the tympanum continues the tradition of the Dong Son drums in having a star shaped motif at its center with concentric circles of small, two-dimensional motifs extending to the outer perimeter.

 

 

Tympanum of a Karen Bronze Drum

 

Complete Tympanum of a Karen Drum

 

Detail of Tympanum of a Karen Drum

 

Detail of Tympanum of a Karen Drum

 

In Burma the drums are known as frog drums (pha-si), after the images of frogs that invariably appear at four equidistant points around the circumference of the tympanum.

 

 

Frog on Tympanum of a Karen Drum

 

A Karen innovation was the addition of three-dimensional figures to one side of the cylinder so that insects and animals, but never humans, are often represented descending the trunk of a stylized tree.

 

 

Stylized tree with snails and elephants

 

Detail of stylized tree with snails and elephants

 

Detail showing a complex arrangement of snails, elephants, trees squirrels and other animals.

 

The frogs on the tympanum vary from one to three and, when appearing in multiples, are stacked atop each other. The number of frogs in each stack on the tympanum usually corresponds to the number of figures on the cylinder such as elephants or snails. The numerous changes of motif in the two- and three-dimensional ornamentation of the drums have been used to establish a relative chronology for the development of the Karen drum type over approximately one thousand years.

The Karens speak several languages that linguists have had difficulty classifying.  Karen groups often speak different languages, some of which are not mutually intelligible.  Hence, the Karen peoples are an exception to the basic assumption that an ethnic group can be defined by the fact that all its members can converse in a single tongue. There are at least three major cultural and linguistic divisions among the Karen: the Karreni or the Red Karen, who cast the bronze drums, the Pwo Karen, and the Sgaw Karen, as well as a number of other splinter groups who have scattered into the mountains below the Shan Plateau.

 

 

Two Red Karen Women

 

A Sgaw Woman

 

Two Sgaw Karen couples

 

These hillside people practice swidden or slash-and-burn agriculture and speak a language that is very different than that of the lowland Burmese.  The practice of slash-and-burn agriculture consists of burning the forests and then using the ashes from the burnt timber as fertilizer for the fields.

 

 

A swidden field ready for planting

 

Broadcasting rice in swidden field

 

 

The fertilizer lasts for only several years, never more than six, and at that time the Karen must pack and move everything to a new site where a different section of the forest is burned.  A number of hillside groups practice slash-and-burn agriculture and periodically move through each other’s hereditary territory to new lands.  These people move back and forth across the Thai border with little regard for the national boundary.  Slash-and-burn agriculture is perilous in that after the forest is burned, seeds must be planted and then rains must occur quickly and consistently until the plants are well established.  If this does not happen, the plants will wither and die or insects and animals will eat the seeds.  It is not unusual for the Karen to be forced to plant four times in order to reap a single harvest.  For the Karen, the bronze drums perform a vital service in inducing the spirits to bring the rains. When there is a drought, the Karens take the drums into the fields where they are played to make the frogs croak because the Karens believe that if the frogs croak, it is sign that rain will surely fall. Therefore, the drums are also known as “Karen Rain Drums”

 

Bronze drums were used among the Karen as a device to assure prosperity by inducing the spirits to bring rain, by taking the spirit of the dead into the after-fife and by assembling groups including the ancestor spirits for funerals, marriages and house-entering ceremonies. The drums were used to entice the spirits of the ancestors to attend important occasions and during some rituals the drums were the loci or seat of the spirit.

 

It appears that the oldest use of the drums by the Karen was to accompany the protracted funeral rituals performed for important individuals. The drums were played during the various funeral events and then, among some groups, small bits of the drum were cut away and placed in the hand of the deceased to accompany the spirit into the afterlife.  It appears that the drums were never used as containers for secondary burial because there is no instance where Type III drums have been unearthed or found with human remains inside. The drums are considered so potent and powerful that they would disrupt the daily activities of a household so when not in use, they were placed in the forest or in caves, away from human habitation.  They were also kept in rice barns where when turned upside down they became containers for seed rice; a practice that was thought to improve the fertility of the rice. Also, since the drums are made of bronze, they helped to deter predations by scavengers such as rats or mice.

 

When played, the drums were strung up by a cord to a tree limb or a house beam so that the tympanum hung at approximately a forty-five degree angle.

 

 

Karen drum being played

 

The musician placed his big toe in the lower set of lugs to stabilize the drum while striking the tympanum with a padded mallet. Three different tones may be produced if the tympanum is struck at the center, edge, and midpoint.  The cylinder was also struck but with long strips of stiff bamboo that produces a sound like a snare drum. The drums were not tuned to a single scale but had individualized sounds, hence they could be used effectively as a signal to summon a specific group to assemble. It is said that a good drum when struck could be heard for up to ten miles in the mountains. The drums were played continuously for long periods of time since the Karen believe that the tonal quality of a drum cannot be properly judged until it is played for several hours.

 

The drums were a form of currency that could be traded for slaves, goods or services and were often used in marriage exchanges. They were also a symbol of status, and no Karen could be considered wealthy without one.  By the late nineteenth century, some important families owned as many as thirty. The failure to return a borrowed drum often led to internecine disputes among the Karen.

 

a. Animist Drums and Buddhism

 

Although the drums were cast primarily for use by groups of non-Buddhist hill people, they were used by the Buddhist kings of Burma and Thailand as musical instruments to be played at court and as appropriate gifts to Buddhist temples and monasteries. The first known record of the Karen drum in Burma is found in an inscription of the Mon king Manuha at Thaton, dated 1056 AD.  The word for drum in this inscription occurs in a list of musical instruments played at court and is the compound  pham klo: pham is Mon while klo is Karen.  The ritual use of Karen drums in lowland royal courts and monasteries continued during the centuries that followed and is an important instance of inversion of the direction in which cultural influences usually flow from the lowlands to the hills.

 

b. Casting the drums

 

The town of Nwe Daung, 15 km south of Loikaw, capital of Kayah (formerly Karenni) State, is the only recorded casting site in Burma. Shan craftsmen made drums there for the Karens from approximately 1820 until the town burned in 1889.  Karen drums were cast by the lost wax technique; a characteritic that sets them apart from the other bronze drum types that were made with moulds. A five metal formula was used to create the alloy consisting of copper, tin, zinc, silver and gold. Most of the material in the drums is tin and copper with only traces of silver and gold. The Karen made several attempts in the first quarter of the twentieth century to revive the casting of drums but none were successful.

 

 

Karen drums casting – 1923

 

During the late 19th century, non-Karen hill people, attracted to the area by the prospect of work with British teak loggers, bought large numbers of Karen drums and transported them to Thailand and Laos. Consequently, their owners frequently incorrectly identify their drums as being indigenous to these countries.

 


Bibliography – Animism and the Arts

 

F. Heger,  Alte Metalltromeln aus Sudest-Asie (Leipzig, 1902).

 

H. I. Marshall, The Karen People of Burma: A Study in Anthropology and Ethnology (Columbus, 1922).

 

H. I. Marshall, “Karen Bronze Drums”, Journal of the Burma Research Society, xix (1929), pp. 1-14.

 

Richard M. Cooler, “The Use of Karen Bronze Drums in the Royal Courts and Buddhist Temples of Burma and Thailand: A Continuing Mon Tradition?”, Papers from a Conference on Thai Studies in Honor of William J. Gedney  (Michigan Papers on South and Southeast Asia, No 25, Ann Arbor, 1986) pp. 107-20.

 

Richard M. Cooler, The Karen Bronze Drums of Burma: Types, Iconography, Manufacture, and Use (Leiden, 1994).

 

 

Migrations

Main article: Migration period of ancient Burma

Thayekhittaya (Sri Ksetra

The mass migrations occurred during

the third or fourth millennium BCE to last millennium BC.

[4] Pyu, Mon, Rakhine came from various parts of South Asia. They brought cultural diffusions

among indigenous people and resided in different parts of Burma—with

Pyu at the center,

 Mon at the South, and Rakhine at the west.

 

 

As early as 6th century,

Early civilisation in Myanmar dates back to the 1st century

with archaeological evidence of

 Pyu (a Tibetan ethnic group) Kingdoms in

, Beithano (Visnu)

and Hanlin

 

The Pyu went on to found settlements

 throughout the plains region centered around the confluence of the Irrawaddy

and Chindwin rivers that has been inhabited since the Paleolithic age.[13]

 

 another people called the Mon began to enter the present-day Lower Burma

from the Mon kingdoms of Haribhunjaya and Dvaravati in modern-day Thailand.

 By the mid 9th century,

 the Mon had founded at least two small kingdoms (or large city-states) centered around Pegu and Thaton.

Pre-Pagan period

The Pre-Pagan period is the era when recent immigrants began to mix with indigenous peoples. This era is characterized by Urban age when the city states began to be established. Most notable ancient cities were founded by Pyu and Mons during this era.

 

Pyu

Main article: Pyu city states

Pyu city states’ (Burmese: ပျူ မြို့ပြ နိုင်ငံများ) were a group of city-states that existed from c. 2nd century BCE to late 9th century CE in present-day Upper Burma (Myanmar). The city-states were founded as part of the southward migration by the Tibeto-Burman-speaking Pyu, the earliest inhabitants of Burma of whom records are extant.[14] The thousand-year period, often referred to as the Pyu millennium, linked the bronze age to the beginning of the classical states period when the Pagan Dynasty emerged in the late 9th century.

The city-states—five major walled cities and several smaller towns have been excavated—were all located in the three main irrigated regions of Upper Burma: the Mu valley, the Kyaukse plains and Minbu region, around the confluence of the Irrawaddy and Chindwin rivers. Part of an overland trade route between China and India, the Pyu realm gradually expanded south. Halin, founded in the 1st century CE at the northern edge of Upper Burma, was the largest and most important city until around the 7th or 8th century when it was superseded by Sri Ksetra (near modern Pyay) at the southern edge. Twice as large as Halin, Sri Ksetra was the largest and most influential Pyu center.[14]

The Pyu culture was heavily influenced by trade with India, importing Buddhism as well as other cultural, architectural and political concepts, which would have an enduring influence on later Burmese culture and political organization.[15] The Pyu calendar, based on the Buddhist calendar, later became the Burmese calendar. Latest scholarship, though yet not settled, suggests that the Pyu script, based on the Indian Brahmi script, may have been the source of the Burmese script.

The millennium-old civilization came crashing down in the 9th century when the city-states were destroyed by repeated invasions from the Kingdom of Nanzhao. The Mranma (Burmans), who came down with the Nanzhao, set up a garrison town at Pagan (Bagan) at the confluence of Irrawaddy and Chindwin. Pyu settlements remained in Upper Burma for the next three centuries but the Pyu gradually were absorbed into the expanding Pagan Empire. The Pyu language still existed until the late 12th century. By the 13th century, the Pyu had assumed the Burman ethnicity. The histories/legends of the Pyu were also incorporated to those of the Burmans.[15]

[edit] Mon

Main article: Mon kingdoms

The earliest external reference to a Mon kingdom in Lower Burma was in 844-848 by Arab geographers.[16] The Mon practiced Theravada Buddhism. The kingdoms were prosperous from trade. The Kingdom of Thaton is widely considered to be the fabled kingdom of Suvarnabhumi (or Golden Land), referred to by the tradesmen of Indian Ocean.

Pagan Kingdom

The Burmans who had come down with the early 9th Nanzhao raids of the Pyu states remained in Upper Burma. Trickles of Burman migrations into the upper Irrawaddy valley might have begun as early as the 7th century.[17] More recent research indicates that the people of Nanzhao were Tibeto-Burman, and that the Burmans entered the Irrawaddy valley en masse in the 830s.) In 849, fourteen years after the last Nanzhao raid, Pagan was founded as a fortified settlement along a strategic location on the Irrawaddy near the confluence of the Irrawaddy and its main tributary the Chindwin.[18] It may have been designed to help the Nanzhao pacify the surrounding country side.[19] Over the next two hundred years, the small principality gradually grew to include its immediate surrounding areas— to about 200 miles north to south and 80 miles from east to west by Anawrahta‘s ascension in 1044.[20]

 

.

 As early as the 6th century,

people called the Mon began to enter from the Mon kingdoms of Haribhunjaya and Dvaravati in modern-day Myanmar. By the mid 9th century, the Mon had founded at least two small kingdoms (or

large city-states) centred around Pegu and Thaton.

In the 11th Century,

the First Empire was founded by King Anawrahta as the Bagan Empire,

 which lasted until the late 13th century when the Mongols invaded them. After the fall of Bagan, the Mongols left the hot Irrawaddy valley but the Kingdom was irreparably broken up into several small kingdoms.

 

 

Ancient Pagodas of Bagan

By the mid-14th century,

 the country had become organised along four major power centres: Upper Myanmar, Lower Myanmar, the Shan States and Arakan. There were the Ava Kingdom (1364–1555), the Hanthawaddy Pegu Kingdom (1287–1539) founded by King Bayintnaung, the Shan States (1287–1557) and the Arakan (1287–1784). Hanthawaddy was the most powerful and prosperous kingdom of all post-Pagan kingdoms. Under a string of gifted monarchs, the kingdom enjoyed a long golden age, profiting from foreign commerce. The kingdom, with a flourishing Mon language and culture, became a centre of commerce and Theravada Buddhism.

The Toungoo Dynasty

(1486–1752))
Toungoo, led by its ambitious king Tabinshwehti and General Bayinnaung, reunified the small kingdoms that had existed since the fall of the Bagan Empire, and founded the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia. However the overextended empire unravelled soon after Bayinnaung’s death in 1581. Siam declared independence in 1584 and went to war with Burma until 1605. Bayinnaung’s son, Nyaungyan, immediately began the reunification effort, successfully restoring central authority over Upper Burma and Shan States by 1605. Except for a few occasional rebellions and an external war – Burma defeated Siam’s attempt to take Lan Na and Martaban in 1662–64 – the kingdom was largely at peace for the rest of the 17th century. The kingdom entered a gradual decline, and the authority of the “palace kings” deteriorated rapidly in the 1720s.

 

 

 

The Konbaung Dynasty

(1752–1885)

was founded by

king Alaungpaya.

 

 

Burma british colonial

In 1885

the British captured the country to develop its empire. They give Burma full independence in 1948. The military took over power in 1962.

The Burma Unique Collections”

April 15, 2010 by uniquecollection

UCM: THE BURMA UNIQUE COLLECTIONS
UCM-uniquecollection.wordpress.com CyberMuseum
@cpyright Dr Iwan S.2010.
A. THE ILLUSTRATION OF BURMA UNIQUE COLLECTIONS

I.ANCIENT BURMA COLLECTIONS

1.ANCIENT BURMA FIGURINES

 

2.ANCIENT BURMA JAR FOUND IN INDONESIA

 

 

2. ANCIENT BURMA TEMPLE

 

 

II. BRITISH RULE BURMA
During this time Burma was the province ogf British Clony India, that is why British India stamps and revenue used at Burma.
The revenue sheet collections were during King Edward and king George, please the native Burma help me to translate the ccument because were writing in native language.
The Bristh India stamps used in Burma, was found nly from three city, Rangon, Moulmen and Mutiyana from Queen Victria until King George
(Mutiyana in Burma , Nepal other country ? please comment, during this time als used in anther country like Tibet,Nepal,Bhutan, and Aden, the cllectors wh have this stamps please share with us via comment)

(1) REVENUE SHEET HISTORY

(

2) POSTAL HISTORY

 

 

 

III. BRITSH COLONY BURMA COLLECTIONS
(1) British Colony Burma flag

 

(2) Vintage Military Picture

 

(3) Vintage Native Picture

 

2. BRITISH COLONY BURMA POSTAL HISTORY
(1) Dr iwan S.collections

(2) Mr Konrad collections

 

 

(

b) Union of Burma postally used Cover

 

new info the collections of Mr Konrad

 

THE DAI NIPPON OCCUPATION BURMA
1.Dai Nippon Occupation Burma Postal History

2.THE RARE DN BURMA POW CAMP CARD
(1) DUTCH SOLDIER AT MOULMEIN CAMP SENT THE DAI NIPPON MOULMEIN POW CAR VIA COURIER TO HIS WIFE TO HIS WIFE VIA BATAVIA (JAKARTA)
He told that he was in god health and asking about his children. His wife stayed at Soerabaja, During Dai Nippon Occupation the Indonesian citizen who merried expatriat didnot put in the POW camp.
Look at two very rare collections :
(1) Dai Nippon Moulmein POW Card sent to Batavia(Jakarta)
(2) His wife Dai Nippon Java ID issued by Dai Nippon Military government at Soerabia.

 

Moulmein POW Camp

 

Moulmein POW Card

 

POW card caption

 

 

Health info

 

Mr Romeijn handsigned

 

Front of POW card

 

[

(2) DAI NIPPON DUTCH POW MOULMEIN BURMA WIFE DAI NIPPON JAVA ID AT SURABAIA INDONESIA.

 

DaiNipponBurmaPOW wife ID

 

Dai Nippon POW Card

 

Ex POW Burma collections

 

 

The POW at Moulmein Camp

(3)THE BRIDGE ON THE RIVER KWAI FILM POSTER

 

The Movies Poster 1957

(4) THE PICTURE OF THE BRIDGE ON THE RIVER KWAI WERE MANY DAI NIPPON MOULMEIN POW WORK TO BUILD THAT BRIDGE
this famous bridge later became at theme of the very popular film with the famous song theme the Elephent Walk and also look at the picture of the POW camp..

 

The Bridge Of River Kwai

The bridge of river Kwai stamps

(5) DAI NIPPON BURMA POSTAL HISTORY 1943
AND 1944

 

Dai Nippon Burma 1943

 

Dai Nippon Burma 1944

THE UNION OF BURMA UNIQUE COLLECTIONS

1. GENERAL BA MAW THE FIRST MYANMAR PRIME MENISTRY PROFILE PICTURE

 

 

Ba Maw

(2) THE MYANMAR HEROS AUNG SAN PICTURE

 

 

Aung San

3. THE POSTAL HISTORY UNION OF BURMA
Union of Burma in native language overprint the British colony Burma stamps, revenue sheet and definif stamps.

 

 

UoBurma Rev.Sheet 1960

4.THE SECOND UNION OF BURMA (NOW MYANMAR)PRIME MENISTRYPROFILE PICTURE U NU.

 

U Nu

 

UOB flag

 

 

UnionOfBurma stamps

5. THE THIRD PRIME MENISTRY PROFILE PICTURE SAW MUANG

 

Saw Muang

6. THE FOURTH PRIME MENISTRY PROFILE NE WIN

 

Gen. Ne Win

7. THE DAUGHTER OFAUNG SAN,SYUU KYI, VINTAGE PROFILE PICTURE

 

Vintage A.S.Syuu Kyi

 

 

Postal Used Union of Myanmar

II. THE CHROLOGIC HISTORIC COLLECTIONS OF BURMA

THE BURMA UNIQUE COLLECTIONS
UCM-uniquecollection.wrdpress.com CyberMuseum
@copyright Dr Iwan S.2010

A.The Ancient Burma
Burma was a Buddhist Mnarchy in the Middle age
1.1st century BC
The Pyu arrived in Burma
2.6th Century AD
The Mon Kingdom of Dvaravati
3. 9th Century AD
The Bamr(Burman) people migrated from the China-Tibet brder region into the valley of Ayeyarwady.
4. Small Kingdom in Burma between 11th -14th century AD
(1) The Kingdom of Pagan (1044-1287)
(2) The Shan state at Arakan (1287-1539)
(3) The kingdom of Ava (1364-1555)
5. The Kingdomof Toungod(1531-1752)
6. The Konbuang Dinasty (1752-1885)

B. British In Burma
1. 1824
Britain Through three wars gained lower Burma 1n this year.
2.1884
(1)In this year Upper Burma also gained by Britain and administered them as part of India .
(2) During Burma as the province of India with capital Rangoon, the British Colony India Stamps were used in Burma :
(a) 19th century
l the Queen Victoria stamps of British colony India were used with CDS Rangoon and Moulmein . (look at the Map where that famous city situated)
(b)20th century
The King Edward and The King George stamps of British Colony India were used in Burma , CDS Rangoon and Mutiyana ( Burma or other countries city ? please India collectors comment)
(this collections found at Padang west sumatra and Jakarta)

3. 1936,
The second University student strike in this year was triggered by the expulsin of Aung San ,leader of RUSU(Ragn University Student Union)

4.1937
(1)The British separated Burma from India and Granted the British Colony Burma and Burma became a self-governing under the British Commenwealth. and Ba Maw was pointed to be the first prime Menistry.

(2) the British Colony Burma stamps issued in this year, overprint Burma on British colony India King Edward Stamps (look at the illustration.)

5.1938
In this year ‘The 1300 year Revlution’(named by the Burmese calender year) led by the Buddish Monk, a wafe of strike and protest that started frm the oil fields of central Burma. In Rangoon Student protest were charged by the British mounted Police Wielding Baton and killing a Rangon University student called Aung Kyaw in Mandalay and Plice shoot int a crowded of protester.

6.1939
(1)Aung San cofounded the PRP(People Revolutionary Party) and he als instrumental in founding the Freedm Clc by forginf aan Alliance of the Dobama(Plitically active monk), and Ba Maw Poor Man Party.
After the Dobama organization called for a National uprising, an arrest warrant was issue formany of the organization leader including Aung san , he escaped to China.
(2) Ba Maw succeeded by Prime menistry U Saw until 1940.
(3) The British Colony Burma issued the Burma King George Stamps.(look at the illustration)
(4) The king Edward and King George of The British colony India revenue sheet without verprint still used in Rangoon Burma in 1939 and 1940.
(5) The rare postally homemade cover send from Malacca (straits settlement with King Edward stamps to Rangoon Burma, and then used as document with native Burma language handswritten document (Please the native Burma collectors help to translate)
(All the Burma cover and revenue sheet were found at Kunming South China in 2007-including the Dai Nippon revenue sheet )

C. Burma During Pacific War (WW II)

1.1942
(1)January 1942
(a)Prime Menister U Saw was arrest by British Burma Government for communicated with Dai Nippon Milutary Administration in South East Asia and Aung San announced the formation of BIa-Burma Independent Army in order to anticipation of the Dai Nippon invasin of Burma in this year.
(b) In 1942 te Dai Nippon had win large territoriest in Asia in small cost. also in Burma they had strategic , The Dai Nippon Military administration had promise eventual ‘Independence’ to Burma only if this country became co-operative satellite states. Japanese attamps to win over the mass of Burmese people same with ther Asia people to support the war against against their frmer colonial masters was almost totally a failure. The great majrity of he ordinary people did not see the conflict as their war.

(2) Simultaneous with the invation of Malaya, another Dai Nippon Army crossed from Thailand in to Burma and by the end of April 1942 hade driven the weak British Forces into India and
Burma was overrun by Dai Nippon Military Administration.

(3)September 1942
The first Prisoner Of War (POW) arrived at THanbyuzayat (65 kmm from Moulmein), via Molemein . (known as The Dai Nippon Burma Moulmein POW Camp) and established as a POW base camp.
From this POW camp the Prisoner sent to Nong Platuh ,359 km suth of Thanbyuzwat , where the build the famous bridge across the Mae Kong river from Nong Platuh Burma to Tamarakan Thailand because in 1957 , made the film base on the original story The Bridge on The River Kwai (the rename of the Mae kong River in 1960)
The Bridge on the Rver Tamarakan was the Train Crossing wooden bridge which spanned the mae Kong River (rename Kwai Yai River in 1960), the building of the bridge begun in October 1942 using prisoner of War labour .
Please look the collections related with this Moulmen POW Camp and the Bridge on the river Kwai (Moulmen POW card from te Dutch Soldier to his wife in Surania via Batavia Indonesia, and the Dai Nippon ID card of His wife issued by The Dai Nippon Surabaia -Shi.)

(4)The Rare Dai Nippon Burma Collections 1942
(a)The rare Burma Revenue sheet collections with the Burma emblem two Swords used in Burma with the native Burma language handwritten (please native Burma collectors to translate this rare dcument)
(b)The Postally used cover with Dai Nippon Native Burma Bird emblem overprint the king George of British Colony Burma CDS special comemorative stamped in japanese kaji character date 8.12.2602(1942). send from Japanese Special Service Post Burma to Mr Thanan Clark office of BDOM Military camp Rangoon Burma( I think this original CTO-phillatelic cretions covers)
Also look at the off cover of the same stamps collections.
(The very rare Prison of War from Moulmen Camp Burma card was send by the Dutch Soldier to his Wife via his family at Batavia (Jakarta) and the Dai Nippon Soerabaia -Shi ID card of his wife (the complete infrmation read below, and look at illustrations of that very rare cllections)

2. 1943

(1)Feb.1943
The Bride of River kwai was completed and operational by early February 1943.
(2) Dai Nippon Military Postal Office issued Engraved printing Dai Nippon Burma definitif stamps (look the illustrations)

(3)In this year,when the Japanese declared, in theory ‘Independent’ , the BDA was renamed BNA-Burma National Army, the Ba Maw declared head of State, and his Cabinet included Aung San as War Menister.

3. 1944
(1)Aung San began negtiation with Thakin (communist leader) and Bi Swe(Socialist leader) for the Formatin of the AFO-anti Frascis Peple Freedm Leaguae.
Thakin and Tin Swe made contact with the exile Colonial Government in Simla India. There were infrmal contact between AFO and the Allies between 1944 and 1945.

4. 1945
(1) March,27th 1945
In this day, BNA rose up in a countryside rebellion against the Dai Nippon Army (this day celebrated as The Resistance Day). then Aung San and other subsequence began negtiation with the commender in Chief British allied forces Lord Munbatten and officially join the Allies as PDF-Patriotic Burmese Forces.
(2) June 1945
Both the wooden and the adjescent steel bridge of River Kwai were subjected to numerous air raids between Jan and June 1945. POW labour was used to repaired the woden bridge in each occassion.Tamarakan is 50 km north of Nong Platuh, 5km north of Kanchanabuty, and 359 km south of THanbyuzwat were the Dai Nippon Moulmein POW camp was located.
Total grave at the Thanbyuzayat or moulmein Camp 3771, 15o8 British including 27 unknwn grave, 1335 Australian and 621 Dutch.May be one of the grave was the Dutch soldier who sent the Moulmei PW card to his wife,who knows I never vist this area (I have a tobacco metal box with the incised of the Moulmen camp,may be the owner as the POW labour in the bridge of River Kwai, I didnot installed the illustrations because I am afraid smeone will made repro, the rare box was found in Jakarta in 1995 , this one of the POW who still alive back to Indonesia and after he died his tobacco box was threw ut by his familily because they didnot understand the meaning f incised info on tha box the date and year he insiced from batavia,singapore and Moulmein POW – and back to Batavia, may be one day I will made an exhibitions of this rae collection together with the pOW Card and the DN ID card -dr Iwan S.)

(3)July 1945
British Troops were fighting in Burma and the Japanese were fanatically resisting the advance of Americans on the Island approached to their homeland. The war was expected to last many mre monts,unitil the atmic bomb in August 1945 reveald its awesome power and unexpectedly ended the fighting

(I have found The very rare collection of Dai Nippon Military administrations Collections related with the Dai nippon military administration java indonesia in 1943. This collection belong of The Native Indonesian who stayed at Surabaya (found at Jakarta) consist two very rare collections :
(a) The Imperial Japanese Army Prisorner of War at Camp War Prisoner Camp at Moulmein Burma postcard send by military courier without stamps, from the Dutch POW Romeyn M(AX) nationality Nederlander,rank Landstorm Soldaat to his wife Mevr.(MRS) E.F.C Romeyn adress P/A Fam L.Linn Salimba 15 B Batavia Centrum Java, Mrs Romey live at Soerabaja-look her Dai nippon ID card.
(b) Dai Nippon yellow ID Card of Mrs EFC Romeyn with handstamped revenue F 80.- (for women, for Man F100.-)
The Form in Japanese and Indonesian Language.
(b1)The front side :
(aa) Name: Nj.Romeyn-Berrety,Emma Frederike Clementine ( I think she was Java Indonesia-Euro race
(bb) Adress: Kaliboetoeh 183, Serabaja Shi (city)
(cc) status : have merried with four children
(b2) The Backside in Japanese and Indonesian language with Dai Nippon Official red double circle stamped Pendaftaran Rakjat Soerabaia-Shi.

Caption : PERHATIAN
Orang jang terseboet diatas dinjatakan, bahwa telah bersoempah kesetiaan pada tentara Nippon, serta soedah masoek daftar penduduk bangsa asing
1.Soerat Keterangan ini haroes senatiasa dibawa, oentoek memboektikan, bahwa ia telah bersoempah kesetiaan pada tentara Nippon,serta soedah masoek daftar pendoedoek bangsa asing.
2.Soerat keterangan ini soepaja dijaga djangan sampai kotor atau hilang, sebab serat keterangan adalah perloe boeat psir ataupoen partikelir.
3.Djikalau ada perbahan apa-apa tentang hal jang tertoelisn disoerat keterangan ite haroes dengan segera memberi tahe tentang perobahan ite kepada kantor jang memberi soerat keterangan itoe.
4.Momer,tanggal dan tempat keterangan ite haroes ditjatat agar moedah dioeresnja kalau serat keterangan hares diberikan lagi atau lain-lain.
5.Djikalau soerat keterangan itoe hilang haroes segera memberi tahoe hal itoe kepada kantor jang doelooe memberikan soerat keterangan terseboet dan minta soerat keterangan baroe dengan membajar ongkos jang soedah ditetapkan.)

D. Burma After the WW II

1. 1947
(1)January,27th 1947
The negotiation for Burmese Independent which were concluded succeesfully in Londn as the Aung San-Atlee Agreement.
(2) April 1947
The popularity of The AFPFL now dominated by Aung San and the Socialist was eventually confirmed when it won overhelm Victory in the April 1947 constituent Assembly Election.
(3) July,9th.1947
U Saw , a conservative pre war prime Menister of Burma,engineer the ASSASINATION OF AUNG SAN and several members f his cabinet this day (later this day commenorative as the Martyr Days)

2.1948
(1)In January,4th.1948 Union of Burma became Independent outside the Commnwealth by treaty and a member of the UN in this year.
The constitution which went into effect in 1948 created a parliamentary democracy
(2)No sooner after had independence come to Burma,than internal disruption threatened to plunge the country into chaos, The British had left behind a demcratic constitution modelled on Westminster, which proved unsuitable for a country so under-develped and so disorganised. At the time of Independence, Burma was led by U Nu,an oustanding plitician who manage to maintain constitrutional democracy intact fr ten years until 1958.
(3) Union Of Burma Postal ffice in this year issue the Overprint Union of Burma in native language on British Colony Burma stamps
(look at the stamps illustratin, only overprint on King Goerge British colony Burma 2 rupee Stamps,( I have the highest value 10 rupee but I keep on the bank deposit box afraid will broken if made the picture.)

21957
In this year the film :The bridge n The River Kwai was produced by the film directr David Lean, and this film have seven academy award including the best Actr Alec Guiness, best Picture, Best Director, Best Screenply, and Best Cinematography.(lok at the poster of that film)

3.1958
Union of Burma provided for nationalization of certain industries and in this year political crisis, Gen. Ne Win tookover the Government from Premier U Nu.

3.1960
Election were held in this year and the union party headed by U NU won a large majority, he again became premier in April 1960.

4.1962
(1)Political and economic problems continiu and the government was again taken over by Gen. Ne Win.
(2) March,2nd.1962
Gen.Ne Win set up a revolutionary Council with himself as chief of state.

5. 1972
Gen. Ne Win setting aside the constitution in this year and he became premier. The Ne Win government pursued a socialistic program and Nationalized nearlly all f Industry and trade which had been controlled by Indian and China minorities. It continued a neutralist foreign policy and isolated the nation from most freign policy.

6.1974
On January,4th,1974 a new constiturion aimed making Burma a Socialist Republic under one party rule, was adptred, Ne Win continuede as premier.

7.1975
Recurrent problems facing the governmentvhave been the need to stimulate production,rebellions staged by Chinese-backed Communist frces and pressures from groups seeking greater autonomy for local ethnic groups. Communist guerillas ecame more active after the communist victories in Indochina in 1975.

8. 1987
The patient peple of Burma, who a suffered for twenty-five years from the Burmese road to socialism, began to give vent to their frustrations in largely studen led riots in Rangoon in September 1987.

9. 1988
The seventy year old General Ne Win decided to mve to the sidelines and resigned in this year amid signs of military disaffection. Reform were promised, it looked as if Burma would more out of her-self imposed isolation and darkness. But just a month later, in September 1988, the military took over and general Saw Maung emerged at the head of a junta. The restoration of law and order marked the beginnings of a repression against students and dissidents, brutal even by Burmese standards.

10.1989
(1)In this year the name of Burma was changed to Myanmar, a transliteration of the English’Burma’ into Burmese.
(2) In this year , placed under house arrest the most likely leaders of any oppsition, including Aung San Suu Kyi, the daughter of Aung San (who played a crucial role at the birth of the Burmese independence) and wife of an English Lectrured at Oxford. Syuu Kyi had returned in her native land to lead a new party,the Natinal League for Democracy. It was her criticim of Ne Win and her call for justice and democracy that led to her arrest.

11. 1990
But to the chagrin of the junta, which had fielded its own front party , the National Unity party, the National League dor democracy gained aclear and outright victory at 1990 election.winning a huge majority in the Assembly. The military junta had no intention of bowing to this verdict.

12. 1991
In this year, Aung San Suu Kyi remained under arrest, and the military declared that they would release her only if she leaves the country and her adherence in her principles she was awarded the Noble Peace Price in this year. (still until now during the junta leader Tan Swee, she still under house arrest, why ? I donnot understand.look at Ta Swee and Suu Kyi. vintage photo 1989)

Koleksi Sejarah Umat Manusia (The History Of The Mankind :) Introduction

 

History Of The Mankind

Collections

 

Created by

Dr Iwan Suwandy

Private limited editon E-Book In CD_ROM

Copyright@Dr Iwan 2012

PREFACE

In order to save the Human Heritage, I write E-BOOK in CD-ROM about the history of the Mankind with illustrated with the rare picture,postal and other historic collections

Jakarta,January 2012

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

THIS E-BOOK DEDICATED TO MY SON ALBERT SUWANDY ST,GEA

indonesian version

KOLEKSI SEJARAH UMAT MANUSIA
 

DiSUSUN OLEH 

Dr Iwan Suwandy

Edisi pribadi Terbatas  E-Book  dalam CD_ROM

Copyright @ Dr Iwan 2012

PENGANTAR

Untuk menglestarikan  Warisan Umat Manusia, saya menulis E-BOOK di CD-ROM tentang sejarah Manusia dengan diilustrasikan dengan koleksi langka gambar , filateli dan koleksi bersejarah lainnya

Jakarta, Januari 2012

Dr Iwan Suwandy, MHA

E-BOOK INI SAYA DEDIKASIKAN UNTUK PUTRA SAYA 

 Albert SUWANDY ST, GEA

Perkenalan

Periode Tersier
65 Juta Tahun Lalu – 1,8 Juta Tahun yang Lalu
 

Periode waktu ini dimulai dengan bencana yang membunuh dinosaurus, sekitar 65 juta tahun yang lalu (mya), dan memungkinkan munculnya mamalia. Mereka menyebutnya “usia mamalia”, tetapi hanya dengan mudah bisa dinobatkan sebagai “umur tanaman berbunga” atau “usia serangga”.

Selama waktu ini, benua terus menjauh, dan 60 mya California berlari ke Amerika Utara, menciptakan Pegunungan Rocky.
55 mya India menabrak Asia, dan memberi kami Himalaya.
30 mya jatuh Afrika ke Eropa dan Alpen lahir.

6-8 mya hominid pertama (Catatan:. “Hominid” tidak perlu berarti ‘manusia’) berevolusi.
Dengan 2,5 orang mya yang menggunakan alat batu, dan kami masuk ke dalam sejarah manusia Paleolitik.

Tersier berakhir dengan pendinginan planet yang menyebabkan zaman es besar terakhir, sekitar 1,8 mya.

Periode Tersier
Dari Kidipede, ini adalah gambaran yang bagus di tingkat anak-anak ‘- dan apa-yang-kau-tahu -!? Memiliki gambar binatang favorit saya di atasnya!

Periode Tersier
Dari Fosil-Fakta-dan-Mencari, yang kami telah memanfaatkan sebagai salah satu teks utama kami, ini referensi mereka untuk Periode Tersier.

Bumi Bencana Masa Lalu: Zaman Es terakhir
Ini akan membawa Anda ke serangkaian klip video menjelaskan Zaman Es.

 

Para Woolly Mammoth

Zaman Es
Snowball Bumi?

oleh NationalGeographic | video info

132.509 views | 376 ratings

Para ilmuwan berpikir mungkin ada waktu di mana bumi benar-benar tertutup oleh gletser. Bola Salju Bumi: Sel 8 April 8P et / pt: http://channel.nationalgeographic.com/channel/nakedscience/?source=4003

dikuratori konten dari YouTube

Terkait Kegiatan & Eksperimen
Untuk mendampingi Segmen Tersier
 

ammoths Zaman Es
Ini adalah aktivitas ruang kelas yang disampaikan oleh Nova, karena menengah ke-atas nilai. Anda harus mampu beradaptasi itu sesuai aktivitas homeschool.

Ice Age Hidup
Sumber daya ini dari Lembaga Penelitian paleontologi dan dibagi menjadi tiga rentang usia.

Iceberg Ilmu
Ini adalah download PDF. Ini mengeksplorasi kepadatan gunung es, dan dapat disesuaikan dengan usia yang berbeda jika diperlukan.

Pencarian untuk Es dan Salju
Menggunakan database Bumi Gambar (Space Shuttle gambar) dan peta dunia, siswa mengidentifikasi tempat-tempat di bumi di mana ada es dan salju, dan kemudian membuat tabel yang menunjukkan di mana mereka menemukan informasi, dan lokasi geografis dari salju dan es. Dari Dunia Pendidikan.

Membuat Perjalanan Multimedia
Siswa mengambil perjalanan melalui suara suara menjelajahi tempat-tempat yang mereka kunjungi. Mereka kemudian penelitian beberapa tempat yang mereka kunjungi dan menulis account fiktif perjalanan mereka. Disampaikan oleh Dunia Pendidikan.

Badai salju & Halaman Salju Tema
Banyak sumber daya yang berkaitan dengan badai salju, salju, gletser, longsor, dan banyak lagi. Seharusnya ada sesuatu di sini untuk mendapatkan Anda pergi dan berjalan.

Studi Tambahan Gambar untuk Anda
 

Tersier Periode Mamalia

Tersier Periode Mamalia

Batu-Umur Peralatan

Manusia Paleolitik

Kuarter Ice Age

Manusia Paleolitik

Venus dari Willendorf: Idols mencerminkan ide bersalin dan kesuburan.

Paleolitik Mastodon Berburu

Paleolitik Clan

Seni Paleolitik

definitely a Hominid.” wf=”Ardipithicus, aka: Ardi–our oldest known ancestor, who was neither human nor ape, but definitely a Hominid.” xf=”Ardipithicus, alias: Ardi – nenek moyang tertua yang dikenal kita, yang tidak manusia atau kera, tetapi jelas Hominid sebuah. “>Ardipithicus, alias: Ardi – nenek moyang tertua yang dikenal kita, yang tidak manusia atau kera, tetapi <i> jelas </ i> Hominid sebuah.

Para Kuarter
1,8 Juta Tahun Lalu melalui Hadir
 

Pada saat ini, orang di Afrika sudah menggunakan alat-alat batu. Ada beberapa zaman es, sekitar setiap 40.000 tahun. Ada topi es besar di masing-masing kutub; dan mamalia besar, seperti harimau bertaring tajam, mammoth dan mastodon, nenek moyang kuda kecil, dan serigala.

800.000 tahun yang lalu orang-orang mulai menggunakan api untuk memasak makanan mereka, yang mereka kebanyakan untuk mengais.
400.000 tahun yang lalu setidaknya ada dua kelompok orang: Neanderthal, dan Homo sapiens.
350.000 tahun yang lalu Neanderthal telah meninggalkan Afrika dan tinggal di Asia Barat dan Eropa.
75.000 tahun yang lalu orang-orang mulai mengenakan pakaian.

60.000 tahun yang lalu, mungkin dipaksa oleh iklim pada akhir zaman es, beberapa orang meninggalkan Afrika. Mereka bepergian di sepanjang pantai Asia Selatan ke India, dan kemudian ke Australia. Sebuah kemudian orang kecil lainnya pindah dari Afrika, juga; ke Asia Barat, kemudian ke Eropa dan Asia Tengah, dan China. Orang-orang ini tinggal bersama manusia Neanderthal selama beberapa waktu, tetapi dengan 30.000 tahun yang lalu semua Neanderthal telah mati.

12.000 tahun yang lalu, pada akhir zaman es terakhir, iklim yang lebih hangat, dan basah, dari apa yang sekarang ini. Semuanya tumbuh dengan baik di kondisi seperti itu. Mamalia besar seperti Sabor bergigi Macan, mammoth, dan mastodon mati. Di Amerika Utara kuda, unta, dan cheetah mati juga. Beberapa orang menggunakan tanah-jembatan yang muncul, untuk menyeberang dari Asia ke Amerika Utara.

Karena iklim yang hangat, basah, ada banyak makanan di Asia Barat, dan beberapa pemburu-pengumpul nomaden menetap di satu tempat dan segera mulai pertanian. Begitu orang di Asia Barat menjadi petani menetap mereka bisa memberi makan banyak lebih banyak orang, dan penduduk mulai tumbuh.

6.000 tahun yang lalu ada orang-orang yang tinggal di kota-kota di Asia Barat, Cina, Amerika Selatan, India, Afrika, Eropa, Amerika Utara, dan Australia.

Hari ini lebih dari setengah orang di dunia hidup di kota.

Periode Kuarter
Ini adalah fosil-Fakta-dan-teks referensi Menemukan penampilan hominid pertama.

Periode Kuarter
Dari National Geographic: selalu sumber daya yang besar.

Paleontologi & Fosil
 

Banyak orang memiliki kesan bahwa paleontologi adalah studi tentang fosil, namun sebenarnya, jauh lebih dari itu. Ini adalah studi tentang apakah fosil memberitahu kita tentang ekologi dari masa lalu. Ini menggabungkan pengetahuan tentang biologi, geologi, ekologi, antropologi, arkeologi, dan ilmu komputer, untuk memahami proses yang telah menyebabkan evolusi dan kehancuran dari berbagai jenis organisme sejak kehidupan pertama kali dimulai.

Paleontologi dibagi menjadi subdisiplin:

· Micropaleontology: Studi fosil umumnya mikroskopis, terlepas dari kelompok yang milik.
· Paleobotani: Studi tanaman fosil, biasanya mencakup studi fosil ganggang dan jamur, selain lahan fawnas.
· Palynology: Belajar serbuk sari dan spora, baik hidup maupun fosil, diproduksi oleh tumbuhan darat dan protista.
· Avertebrata Paleontologi: Studi fosil hewan invertebrata, seperti moluska, echinodermata, dan lain-lain.
· Paleontologi Vertebrata: Studi fosil vertebrata, mamalia ikan primitif.
· Manusia Paleontologi (Paleoantropologi): Studi tentang manusia prasejarah dan proto-manusia fosil.
· Taphonomy: Mempelajari proses pembusukan, pelestarian, dan pembentukan fosil umum.
· Ichnology: Studi trek fosil, jejak, dan jejak kaki.
· Paleoecology: Studi ekologi dan iklim dari masa lalu, seperti yang diungkapkan baik oleh fosil dan metode lainnya.

Paleontologi
Dari ology Museum Sejarah Alam Amerika, sebuah website yang bagus untuk anak-anak, dengan banyak untuk belajar tentang paleontologi dan fosil, melalui permainan, wisata virtual, dan kegiatan. Tapi Anda tidak perlu mengambil kata saya untuk itu!

Paleontologi Sumber Daya
Ini adalah daftar panjang dari sumber daya untuk teliti.

Fosil Koleksi Dunia
Ini adalah panjang – PANJANG daftar link tentang paleontologi, fosil, dan pendidikan

Fosil, Rocks, dan Waktu
Ini dari USGS.

Menemukan Fosil
Ini adalah ditulis besar dan dirancang untuk individu dan keluarga dari semua tingkat pengalaman.
Bagaimana Fosil-fosil tanggal
Menemukan Ardi – Bagaimana Old Apakah Ardi?

Terkait Kegiatan & Eksperimen
Untuk mendampingi Segmen Paleontologi
Bagaimana Fosil Formulir
Ada beberapa kegiatan disajikan di sini untuk Anda
Trilobite Masker
Hal ini diarahkan untuk K-4 siswa
Geologi dan Paleontologic Cookbook
Lain sumber daya yang besar harus menyenangkan untuk menyertakan beberapa resep baru atau eksperimental dalam nama pendidikan!

Membuat Fosil Amber Goreng
Lain resep terbaik untuk menambah Cookbook Paleontolog Anda ‘.

Belajar Dari Catatan Fosil
Ini adalah daftar seluruh kegiatan; harus ada sesuatu yang berharga untuk rencana pelajaran Anda!

Penemuan Pendidikan

Pelajaran rencana dan sumber daya untuk studi Sejarah Kuno, dari Pendidikan Discovery.

Bumi Sumber Daya Sejarah Pendidikan

Ini adalah daftar panjang sejarah kuno bumi-link sumber daya pendidikan yang saya datang di, aku tidak punya waktu lagi untuk sepenuhnya mengeksplorasi, tapi ada sedikit pun untuk menjadi sejumlah sumber daya yang berguna di suatu tempat di semua itu!

Geologi dan Paleontologic Cookbook

Ini benar-benar rapi! Dengan makanan penutup, makanan pembuka, dan delectables, Anda yakin untuk membuat kesan yang besar pada murid-murid Anda!

Panduan Arkeologi Sejarah Manusia

Tentang informasi yang umumnya akurat, dan, terbaik dari semua, sejumlah link untuk membantu dalam pencarian Anda. Ini sangat bagus, karena untuk setiap zaman mereka memiliki beberapa link lebih selain blurbs singkat tentang periode waktu. Ini perlu klik.

Arkeologi
Arkeologi adalah studi ilmiah tentang budaya manusia masa lalu dan perilaku, dari asal-usul manusia hingga saat ini. Arkeologi penelitian terakhir perilaku manusia melalui pemeriksaan bahan sisa-sisa masyarakat manusia sebelumnya. Ini tetap termasuk fosil (tulang diawetkan) dari manusia, tetap makanan, reruntuhan bangunan, dan manusia artefak-barang seperti alat-alat, tembikar, dan perhiasan. Dari studi mereka, para arkeolog berusaha untuk merekonstruksi cara hidup masa lalu. Arkeologi merupakan bidang penting dari antropologi, yang merupakan studi yang luas dari kebudayaan manusia dan biologi. Arkeolog berkonsentrasi studi mereka pada masyarakat masa lalu dan perubahan dalam masyarakat-masyarakat selama jangka waktu yang sangat panjang.

Arkeologi
 rencana pelajaran, cerita, power-point presentasi, dan banyak lagi. Tapi Anda tidak perlu mengambil kata saya untuk itu!

Antropologi di Internet
Smithsonian Institute telah mengumpulkan sebuah perpustakaan sumber daya arkeologi untuk guru dan siswa.

Arkeologi
Sebuah sumber daya yang mencakup daftar istilah, rencana pelajaran, dan banyak lagi.

Antropologi Virtual Library
Sebuah daftar lengkap dari link di bawah setiap pembagian Anthropiology.

Arkeologi:
Studi Humanityheologists adalah Dedicated Orang!
Arkeolog

Merekonstruksi catatan budaya punah, terutama budaya belum melek huruf: Studi, mengklasifikasikan, dan menginterpretasikan artefak, fitur arsitektur, dan jenis struktur ditemukan oleh penggalian dalam rangka untuk menentukan usia dan identitas budaya. Menetapkan urutan kronologis perkembangan budaya masing-masing dari sederhana ke tingkat lebih maju. Dapat mengkhususkan diri dalam studi periode melek peradaban besar di Timur Dekat dan Tengah dan ditunjuk arkeolog, Klasik. Dapat mengkhususkan diri dalam studi sejarah Columbus masa lalu dari Amerika dan akan ditunjuk arkeolog Sejarah.

Terkait Kegiatan dan Eksperimen
Untuk mendampingi Segmen Arkeologi
Menganalisis Artefak
Dari Meja Referensi

Kotak Sepatu Arkeologi
Lain baik tangan-aktivitas dari Meja Referensi
Pelajaran Rencana Arkeologi
Setengah lusin-pelajaran rencana

Decoding Masa Lalu
Berikut adalah tiga rencana pelajaran rinci, dengan printables menyertainya.

Sejarah adalah panduan untuk navigasi di masa yang sukar. Sejarah adalah siapa kita dan mengapa kita adalah cara kita.
 

Dave Einsel / Getty Images

Zaman Batu (dikenal para ahli sebagai era Paleolitik) dalam prasejarah manusia adalah nama yang diberikan untuk periode antara sekitar 2,5 juta dan 20.000 tahun yang lalu. Ini dimulai dengan perilaku seperti manusia awal pembuatan alat batu mentah, dan berakhir dengan berburu manusia sepenuhnya modern dan masyarakat mengumpulkan

Ardipithicus

Relatif Manusia Tertua Ditemukan
Pertama Hominid
Para ilmuwan percaya

silsilah manusia dipisahkan dari yang dari primata kadang antara enam dan delapan juta tahun yang lalu.

 Hominid pertama diyakini telah turun dari pohon dan tinggal di Afrika Savannah.

Baru-baru ini ditemukan bahwa keyakinan yang palsu. Bukti fosil ditarik dari Bad Lands dari Ethiopia (diyakini sebagai buaian manusia) telah menunjukkan kepada kita bahwa hominid pertama sebenarnya adalah arboreal – mereka tinggal di pohon! Dan sama sekali tidak harus orang-orang hominid awal menjadi bingung dengan manusia hari ini, kita telah berevolusi dari waktu ke waktu dan ada spesies yang berbeda dari hominid sebelum manusia seperti yang kita kenal saat ini, muncul menjadi ada.

Seluruh periode dapat secara luas diklasifikasikan sebagai

Zaman Batu, Lembah Indus, Neolitik-Chalcolithic, Megalithic-awal periode bersejarah Bersejarah dan Akhir.

¤ Zaman Batu

Zaman Batu di India dimulai dengan Paleolitik dan berakhir setelah Mesolithic (Zaman Batu Tengah). Para Paleolitik tanggal kembali ke era geologi Pleistosen Tengah. Situs Paleolitik berlimpah di Semenanjung India, dan ditemukan lebih menonjol di Pallavaram di Tamil Nadu, Hunsgi di Karnataka, Kuliana di Orissa, Didwana di Rajasthan, dan Bhimbetka di Madhya Pradesh.

Situs Mesolithic jauh lebih banyak daripada yang Paleolitik, dan berlokasi di seluruh negeri. Identik dengan berburu maju, memancing, dan makanan-mengumpulkan ekonomi, Mesolithic biasanya sesuai dengan Holosen pasca-Pleistosen atau awal langsung (sekitar 10.000 tahun yang lalu) periode. Awal pembuangan orang mati, dan pembentukan masyarakat band yang juga ditandai tingkat periode ini. Lukisan-lukisan batu yang menggambarkan adegan awal berburu dan ritual warisan masa yang paling luar biasa.

Zaman Neolitik ¤-Chalcolithic

Fase Neolitik-Chalcolithic yang mengikuti budaya Mesolithic, ditandai oleh kemajuan yang luar biasa dalam teknik pertanian, dan domestikasi hewan, sehingga meletakkan dasar yang kokoh bagi kehidupan pedesaan India. Pial-oleskan rumah menjamur selama beberapa desa pemukiman selama milenium SM 3 dan 2 Inamgaon dan Walki di Maharashtra, Navdatoli di Madhya Pradesh, Ahar, Balathal dan Gilund di timur Rajasthan, Budhihal, Sangankalur, Maski dan Brahmagiri di Karnataka, di barat Utnur Andhra Pradesh, Golbai di Orissa, Pandu-RAJAR-Dhibi di Bengal Barat, Chirand di Bihar dan Burzoham di Kashmir telah mengungkapkan fase Neolitik-Chalcolithic yang berbeda di India. Penggalian yang sedang berlangsung di Balathal dekat Udaipur di Rajasthan telah mengejutkan menghasilkan desa yang paling awal dikenal di India sejauh ini (tanggal radiokarbon-4.000 SM).

¤ Peradaban Lembah Indus

Sementara Neolitik-Chalcolithic situs India tidak cukup matang untuk diberi label sebagai peradaban, sekitar waktu yang sama, di atas sungai Indus dan lembah-lembah di barat laut Ghaggar India yang berbatasan dengan Pakistan, dan di Kutch dan Saurashtra di Gujarat, berkembang sebuah peradaban yang disebut untuk hari ini sebagai Peradaban Lembah Indus. Ini diperpanjang di area yang jauh lebih besar daripada peradaban lain yang sezaman. Beberapa yang terkenal Indus di India termasuk kota Dholavira, Kalibangan, Lothal, Surkotda dan Rakhigari.

¤ Situs Arkeologi Di India – Perencanaan Marvelous

Fitur yang paling menonjol dari Peradaban Lembah Indus adalah unik kotanya perencanaan dengan baik diatur jalanan, hampir selalu berorientasi sepanjang arah mata angin. Rumah-rumah terbuat dari batu bata lumpur atau baik kiln bata berbahan bakar ukuran diatur. Sebuah rumah rata-rata terdiri dari sebuah halaman sekitar yang dibangun kamar untuk tinggal di dan melaksanakan berbagai kegiatan rumah tangga.

¤ ini Konstruksi Kota

Sebuah kota Indus terdiri dari dua bagian, benteng dan kota yang lebih rendah, masing-masing dengan benteng masing-masing. Benteng itu bangunan monumental seperti Bath Lumbung Besar dan Assembly Hall.

¤ Bukti Ekonomi beradab

Agro-pastoralisme adalah andalan ekonomi peradaban. Selain itu, masyarakat pesisir juga dimanfaatkan berbagai kehidupan laut untuk subsisten mereka. Bukti untuk efek ini telah ditemukan di Kuntasi di Gujarat. Peradaban Lembah Indus juga sangat berpengalaman dalam membuat kerajinan manik-manik, keramik dan shell.

¤ Its Berkembang Dagang

Indus Lembah Peradaban dikenal untuk perdagangan, baik domestik dan asing, sistem bobot dan ukuran, naskah ditulis dan keyakinan agama. Peradaban menurun dengan 1700 SM, dan menyebabkan pertumbuhan pemukiman beberapa terfragmentasi di India Utara di dataran atas dari Sungai Gangga.
Kolektif disebut sebagai Budaya Ware Painted Gray, beberapa pemukiman penting telah digali di Ahichchatra, Hastinapura (baik di barat Uttar Pradesh) dan Purana Quilas di Delhi. Penggalian ditujukan untuk mengidentifikasi daerah-daerah yang disebutkan dalam epos besar Hindu, Mahabharata dan Ramayana.

¤ Megalitik Tahap

Pada saat Ware pemukiman Dicat Gray di utara, India Selatan melihat dominasi Budaya Megalitik. Monolit yang sederhana, sekelompok lingkaran batu atau Dolmen biasanya mencirikan sebuah situs megalitik. Agro-pastoral komunitas ini didirikan untuk memperingati baik penguburan atau untuk menggambarkan sebuah situs pemakaman yang sebenarnya. Di Kerala, megalitikum, adalah objek batu berbentuk jamur dikenal sebagai Topikal atau Kodekal.

Penggalian dilakukan di sejumlah situs megalitik telah mengungkapkan sejumlah besar artefak, menunjukkan ekonomi pastoral, perang dan perdagangan rudimenter dan pertukaran antara pemukiman.

Beberapa situs megalitik menonjol dari India Selatan yang ditemukan di Brahmagiri, Maski dan Rajan Kalur di Karnataka, Bhagimari di Maharashtraand utara dan selatan kabupaten Arcot di Tamil Nadu. Menariknya, tradisi Megalitik terus di daerah-daerah suku tertentu, terutama di kalangan Gadabas Orissa, Gonds dari Bastar, dan Bodosof timur laut India, yang masih tegak menhir (monolit) sebagai simbol peringatan untuk almarhum.

¤ Tahap Kedua Urbanisasi

Antara waktu Buddha (abad 6 SM) dan aturan dari Guptas (abad 4), selama sekitar 800 tahun, seluruh India untuk pertama kalinya mengalami transformasi paling mendalam.
Perubahan sosial, kerangka politik dan ekonomi (periode ini disebut sebagai Urbanisasi Kedua) yang pertama kali berevolusi di dataran Gangga di utara dalam konteks Buddhisme (untuk lebih lanjut, lihat Agama), secara bertahap bergeser ke seluruh negeri. Pergeseran ini membuka jaringan rute perdagangan internal dan luar negeri dengan implikasi, melihat pengenalan mata uang, dan menyaksikan berkembangnya berbagai seni dan kerajinan, termasuk keramik.

Penggalian di Kosambi, Saranath, dan Hastinapura di Uttar Pradesh, Vaishali, Rajagriha dan Bodhgaya di Bihar, Chandraketugarh di Bengal, Sisupalgarh di Orissa, Dharanikota di Andhra Pradesh, Arikamedu dekat Pondicherry, Nevasa di Maharashtra dan Vidisa di Madhya Pradesh telah mengungkapkan kota-kota benteng kencan kembali ke periode ini.

¤ Buddhis Tahap

Kota-kota awal berusaha untuk menciptakan alam semesta secara mikrokosmis, dengan benteng outsized besar yang melayani tujuan perlindungan simbolis. Buddhisme menikmati patronase yang luas dari penduduk perkotaan, termasuk raja dan pedagang, yang dibangun kuil banyak (Sanchi Saranath, Ajanta, Kaneheri, Amravati, Sanati dan Lalitgiri) melalui sumbangan populer dan kolektif. Berkat patronase kerajaan, Jainisme (untuk lebih lanjut, lihat Agama) juga menemukan pijakan di daerah tertentu. Untuk menyebutkan contoh, Khandagiri-Udayagiri di Orissa dan Mathura dekat Delhi terkenal akan Jaina indah mereka (yang berkaitan dengan Jainisme) monumen.

¤ ini Konstruksi Candi

Dalam era berikutnya, selama periode yang menandai berakhirnya Buddhisme sebagai kekuatan agama di India, penekanan bergeser untuk pembangunan kuil Brahmanical dengan gaya yang berbeda daerah seperti Nagara dan Kalinga di utara dan timur, dan Dravida dan Besara di selatan. Jainisme terus menjadi populer di saku tertentu, dan beberapa monumen terbaik dapat ditemukan di Sravanabelagola di Karnataka, dan Ellora di Maharashtra.

¤ Zaman Batu

Zaman Batu di India dimulai dengan Paleolitik

dan berakhir setelah Mesolithic (Zaman Batu Tengah). Para Paleolitik tanggal kembali ke era geologi Pleistosen Tengah. Situs Paleolitik berlimpah di Semenanjung India, dan ditemukan lebih menonjol di Pallavaram di Tamil Nadu, Hunsgi di Karnataka, Kuliana di Orissa, Didwana di Rajasthan, dan Bhimbetka di Madhya Pradesh.

Alat Dan Zaman Batu

Salah satu kemajuan yang paling penting dalam sejarah manusia adalah pengembangan dan penggunaan alat. Alat diperbolehkan hominid menjadi tuan dari lingkungan mereka, untuk berburu, untuk membangun, dan untuk melakukan tugas-tugas penting yang membuat hidup lebih mudah bagi mereka. Alat pertama terbuat dari batu. Dengan demikian, sejarawan mengacu pada periode waktu sebelum sejarah ditulis sebagai zaman batu.

Sejarawan membagi zaman batu ke dalam tiga periode yang berbeda, berdasarkan pada kecanggihan dan metode desain alat. Periode tersebut pertama adalah disebut sebagai Paleolitik atau Zaman Batu Lama. Zaman Batu Tua dimulai sekitar 2 juta tahun yang lalu dengan pengembangan alat pertama dengan Homo habilis, dan berlangsung sampai sekitar 12.000 tahun yang lalu.

Zaman Batu Tengah Mesolithic atau dimulai sekitar 12.000 tahun yang lalu, dan terus melalui sekitar 8.000 tahun yang lalu. Para Neolitik atau New Age Batu berlangsung dari 8.000 tahun sampai sekitar 5.000 tahun yang lalu

Batu Umur / Paleolitik Timelinr

Paleolitik Umur
alias: Zaman Batu
Zaman Paleolitik, atau Zaman Batu Tua, adalah era prasejarah dibedakan oleh perkembangan alat-alat batu pertama, dan mencakup sekitar 99% dari sejarah teknologi manusia. Ini meluas dari pengenalan alat-alat batu oleh hominid seperti Homo habilis 2,5 atau 2.6mya, pengenalan pertanian dan akhir Pleistosen sekitar 12.000 BP.

Selama Paleolitik, manusia dikelompokkan bersama dalam masyarakat kecil seperti band, dan hidup dari dengan mengumpulkan tanaman dan berburu binatang liar atau memulung. Paleolitik ditandai dengan penggunaan alat-alat batu knapped, meskipun pada saat manusia juga digunakan kayu dan alat-alat tulang. Komoditas organik lain diadaptasi untuk digunakan sebagai alat, termasuk serat kulit dan sayuran, namun, karena sifat mereka, ini belum diawetkan untuk setiap gelar besar. Penggabungan artefak dari era Paleolitik dikenal sebagai Paleoliths. Manusia secara bertahap berevolusi dari anggota awal dari genus Homo seperti sebagai Homo habilis – yang menggunakan alat-alat batu sederhana – menjadi sepenuhnya perilaku manusia modern dan anatomis (Homo sapiens sapiens) selama era Paleolitik. Selama akhir Paleolitik, khususnya Tengah dan atau Paleolitik Atas, manusia mulai memproduksi karya-karya awal seni dan terlibat dalam perilaku keagamaan dan spiritual seperti pemakaman dan ritual. Iklim selama Paleolitik terdiri dari satu set periode glasial dan interglasial di mana iklim berkala berfluktuasi antara suhu hangat dan dingin.

Paleolitik Istilah ini diciptakan oleh arkeolog John Lubbock pada tahun 1865. Ini berasal dari bahasa Yunani:; “. Zaman Batu Tua” Palaios “lama” dan Lithos, “batu”, secara harfiah berarti “usia tua dari batu” atau

Seni Paleolitik
Gua-Lukisan
 

Seni dari periode waktu yang intriguity, memberikan kita sekilas ke dalam pikiran orang-orang lalu panjang. Saya pikir gambar-gambar ini berbicara kepada kita semua pada beberapa tingkat naluriah dan primitif.

Seni Paleolitik
Umumnya, About.com menyediakan sumber daya yang layak, dan mereka pergi ke detail tentang asal-usul seni gua dari usia Paleolitik, dan dunia di sekitar manusia purba selama waktu ini.

Gua Lascaux
Ini adalah tur virtual dari gua-gua Lascaux, sumber daya luar biasa yang disediakan oleh pemerintah Perancis. Gua ini tertutup untuk umum, tetapi Anda dapat membayangkan diri Anda di dalam dengan tur online.

Periode Mesolithic
alias: Epipaleolithic
 

Epipaleolithic berarti “Paleolitik atas akhir” dan mengacu pada industri yang terjadi pada akhir akhir glaciation (10.000 BP), yang muncul untuk menggabungkan teknologi ke dalam Mesolithic. Selama waktu periode komunitas pertanian mulai didirikan, manusia berburu dan memancing, dan orang-orang mulai menjinakkan hewan dan ternak. Perubahan iklim melibatkan pemanasan global cepat planet ini, yang mengubah habitat hewan dan mengangkat permukaan air laut

Budaya di seluruh dunia

telah hematit digunakan untuk membuat pigmen merah oker sejak Paleolitik (Batu Zaman). Di bawah ini adalah oker merah (dan karbon hitam) wisent (bison Eropa) di Gua Altamira, Spanyol.

Hal yang rapi tentang oker adalah bahwa analisis geokimia sering dapat mengidentifikasi asal (di mana ia ditambang) dari pigmen – misalnya: Iriate, E., et al. 2009. Asal dan Karakterisasi geokimia dari ochres Merah dari Bustillo Tito dan Castillo Monte Gua (Spanyol Utara). Archaeometry 51: 231-251.

Gua singa, di Swaziland, Afrika selatan, adalah salah satu tambang tertua oker hematit yang kita tahu telah tanggal kembali ke 43.000 tahun. Perempuan Afrika selatan masih menggunakan oker untuk mempercantik diri (wanita di bawah ini dari suku Himba Namibia).

Pigmen Ochre adalah umum di Dunia Baru juga. Batupasir merah dari wilayah Dataran Tinggi Colorado merah karena hematit dan digunakan sebagai pigmen oleh Anasazi dan penduduk asli Amerika lainnya. Para pictograph di bawah ini adalah dari Galeri Agung yang mendalam di Taman Nasional Canyonlands Utah (Aku cinta gambar ini -???? Apa yang mereka Hantu Dukun Kachina-seperti dewa).

Saya masih memiliki beberapa sepasang kaus kaki putih bernoda sebelumnya merah dari tanah merah Utah dari hiking di Moab di Taman Nasional Arches.

Kuning oker, di sisi lain, adalah bentuk pada besi terhidrasi (III) hidroksida (FeO (OH) • nH2O). Ini biasanya disebut limonit namun limonit bukan nama mineral benar (meskipun itu biasanya digunakan oleh ahli geologi). Limonit sebenarnya merupakan campuran dari mineral hidroksida besi yang berbeda yang biasanya terbentuk ketika air kaya zat besi pertemuan oksigen atmosfer (dan biasanya dibantu oleh bakteri pengikat Fe) – maka nama “rawa besi” untuk deposit sedimen mineral ini.

Besi bog ini pernah menjadi bijih besi penting di Eropa Utara untuk orang-orang seperti Viking (inilah sebuah situs web yang menarik tentang ini). Ini juga digunakan sebagai pigmen cat. Di bawah ini adalah kura-kura oker kuning dan merah dari Taman Nasional Kakadu, Australia.

Roweromaniak

Pra-Tembikar Neolitik (disingkat PPN) adalah nama yang diberikan kepada orang-orang yang paling awal domestikasi tanaman dan tinggal di pertanian masyarakat di kawasan Mediterania timur dan Timur Dekat. Budaya PPN berisi sebagian besar atribut kita berpikir tentang Neolitik – kecuali tembikar, yang tidak digunakan di wilayah sampai ca. 5500 SM

english version

 

INTRODUCTIONS

 

The Tertiary Period

65 Million Years Ago–1.8 Million Years Ago

 

This time period begin with the catastrophe that killed the dinosaurs, approximately 65 million years ago(mya), and allowed for the rise of mammals. They call it “the age of mammals”, but it just as easily could have been named the “age of flowering plants” or the “age of insects”.

During this time, continents continued to drift apart, and 60 mya California ran into North America, creating the Rocky Mountains.
55 mya India crashed into Asia, and gave us the Himalayas.
30 mya Africa crashed into Europe and the Alps were born.

6-8 mya the first hominids (Note: ‘hominid’ does not necessary mean ‘human’.) evolved.
By 2.5 mya people were using stone tools, and we entered Paleolithic human history.

The Tertiary ended with the planet’s cooling causing the last big ice age, about 1.8 mya.

Tertiary Period
From the Kidipede, this is a nice overview on a kids’ level–and what-do-you-know?!–it has a picture of my favorite animal on it!

The Tertiary Period
From Fossils-Facts-and-Finds, which we’ve been utilizing as one of our main texts, this it their reference to the Tertiary Period.

Earth’s Catastrophic Past: The Last Ice Age
This will lead you to a series of video clips explaining the Ice Age.

 

The Woolly Mammoth

The Ice Age

Snowball Earth?

by NationalGeographic | video info


376 ratings | 132,509 views

Scientists think there may have been a time where Earth was completely covered by glaciers. Snow Ball Earth : TUES APRIL 8 8P et/pt : http://channel.nationalgeographic.com/channel/nakedscience/?source=4003

curated content from YouTube

Related Activities & Experiments

To Accompany the Tertiary Segment

 

ammoths of the Ice Age
This is a classroom activity presented by Nova; for middle-to-upper grades. You should be able to adapt it to suit a homeschool activity.

Ice Age Life
These resources are from the Paleontological Research Institution and divided into three age ranges.

Iceberg Science
This is a PDF download. It explores iceberg density, and can be tailored to suit different ages if necessary.

Search for Ice and Snow
Using an Earth Image database (Space Shuttle images) and world map, students identify places on Earth where there is ice and snow, and then create a table showing where they found the information, and the geographic location of the snow and ice. From Education World.

Creating a Multimedia Journey
Students take a journey through sound exploring the sounds of the places they visit. They then research some of the places they visit and write a fictional account of their journey. Presented by Education World.

Blizzards & Snow Theme Page
Numerous resources relating to blizzards, snow, glaciers, avalanches, and more. There ought to be something here to get you off and running.

Images to Supplement Your Studies

 

Tertiary-Period Mammal

Tertiary-Period Mammal

Stone-Age Tools

Paleolithic Man

Quaternary Ice Age

Paleolithic Man

Venus from Willendorf:Idols reflecting the idea of maternity and fertility.

Paleolithic Mastodon Hunt

Paleolithic Clan

Paleolithic Art

Ardipithicus, aka: Ardi–our oldest known ancestor, who was neither human nor ape, but <i>definitely</i> a Hominid.

The Quaternary

1.8 Million Years Ago through the Present

 

By this time, people in Africa were already using stone tools. There were a number of ice ages, about every 40,000 years. There were big ice caps at each of the poles; and big mammals, like the saber-toothed tigers, mammoths and mastodons, small ancestors of horses, and wolves.

800,000 years ago people began using fire to cook their food, which they mostly foraged for.
400,000 years ago there were at least two groups of people: the Neanderthals, and Homo Sapiens.
350,000 years ago the Neanderthals had left Africa and were living in West Asia and Europe.
75,000 years ago people had begun to wear clothes.

60,000 years ago, probably compelled by the climate at the end of an ice age, some people left Africa. They traveled along the coast of South Asia into India, and then on to Australia. A little later other people moved out of Africa, too; into West Asia, then into Europe and Central Asia, and China. These people lived alongside the Neanderthals for a time, but by 30,000 years ago all of the Neanderthals had died out.

12,000 years ago, at the end of the most recent ice age, the climate was warmer, and wetter, than what it is today. Everything grew well in such conditions. Large mammals like the Sabor-Toothed Tigers, Mammoths, and Mastodons died out. In North America horses, camels, and cheetahs died out, too. Some peoples used the land-bridge that appeared, to cross over from Asia into North America.

Because of the warmer, wetter climate, there was plenty of food in West Asia, and some nomadic hunter-gatherers settled in one place and soon began farming. Once people in West Asia became settled farmers they could feed lots more people, and the population began to grow.

6,000 years ago there were people living in cities in West Asia, China, South America, India, Africa, Europe, North America, and Australia.

Today more than half the people in the world live in cities.

The Quaternary Period
This is Fossil-Facts-and-Finds text reference of the appearance of the first hominids.

Quaternary Period
From National Geographic: always a great resource.

Paleontology & Fossils

 

Many people have the impression that paleontology is the study of fossils, but actually, it is much more than that. It is the study of what fossils tell us about the ecologies of the past. It incorporates knowledge of biology, geology, ecology, anthropology, archeology, and computer science, to understand the processes that have led to the evolution and destruction of the different types of organisms since life first began.

PALEONTOLOGY IS DIVIDED INTO SUBDISCIPLINES:

  • ·  Micropaleontology: The study of generally microscopic fossils, regardless of the group the belong to.
  • ·  Paleobotany: The study of fossil plants; typically includes the study of fossil algae and fungi, in addition to land-fawnas.
  • ·  Palynology: Studying pollen and spores, both living and fossilized, produced by land plants and protists.
  • ·  Invertebrate Paleontology: The study of invertebrate animal fossils, like mollusks, echinoderms, and others.
  • ·  Vertebrate Paleontology: Study of vertebrate fossils, primitive fishes to mammals.
  • ·  Human Paleontology (Paleoanthropology): The study of prehistoric human and proto-human fossils.
  • ·  Taphonomy: Studying the processes of decay, preservation, and the general formation of fossils.
  • ·  Ichnology: The study of fossil tracks, trails, and footprints.
  • ·  Paleoecology: The study of the ecology and climate of the past, as revealed both by fossils and other methods. 


    Paleontology

    From the American Natural History Museum’s Ology, a great site for kids, with lots to learn about paleontology and fossils, through games, virtual tours, and activities. But you don’t have to take my word for it!
     


    Paleontology Resources

    This is a long list of resources for your perusal.
    Fossil Collections of the World


    This is a long–LONG list of links regarding paleontology, fossils, and education
    Fossils, Rocks, and Time


    This from USGS.
    Discovering Fossils


    This is a great  written and designed for individuals and families of all levels of experience.

How Fossils are Dated

Discovering Ardi – How Old Is Ardi?  

Related Activities & Experiments

To Accompany the Paleontology Segment

How Fossils Form
There are several activities presented here for you
Trilobite Masks

This is geared toward K-4 students
Geologic and Paleontologic Cookbook

Another great resource  should be fun to include some new or experimental recipes in the name of education!

Make Edible Amber Fossils
Another great recipe to add to your Paleontologists’ Cookbook.

Learning From the Fossil Record
This is a whole list of activities; there should be something valuable for your lesson plans!

Discovery Education

Lesson plans and resources for study of Ancient History, from Discovery Education.

Earth History Educational Resource

This is a long list of ancient earth-history educational resource links that I came across; I haven’t had time yet to fully explore it, but there aught to be a number of useful resources somewhere in all of it!

Geologic and Paleontologic Cookbook

This is really neat! With desserts, appetizers, and delectables, you’re sure to make a big impression on your pupils!

Archaeological Guide to Human History

About generally accurate information, and, best of all, numerous links to assist in your searches. This is particularly nice, because for each era they have several more links in addition to short blurbs regarding the time period. It’s worth a click. 

Archaeology

Archeology is the scientific study of past human culture and behavior, from the origins of humans to the present. Archaeology studies past human behavior through the examination of material remains of previous human societies. These remains include the fossils (preserved bones) of humans, food remains, the ruins of buildings, and human artifacts-items such as tools, pottery, and jewelry. From their studies, archaeologists attempt to reconstruct past ways of life. Archaeology is an important field of anthropology, which is the broad study of human culture and biology. Archaeologists concentrate their studies on past societies and changes in those societies over extremely long periods of time.

Archaeology
 lesson plans, stories, power-point presentations, and more. But you don’t have to take my word for it!

Anthropology on the Internet
The Smithsonian Institute has put together a library of archaeology resources for teachers and students.

Archeology
A resource that includes a glossary of terms, lesson plans, and more.

 

Anthropology Virtual Library
A comprehensive listing of links under every subdivision of Anthropiology.

 

Archaeology:

The Study of Humanityheologists are Dedicated People!

Archeologists

 

Reconstructs record of extinct cultures, especially preliterate cultures: Studies, classifies, and interprets artifacts, architectural features, and types of structures recovered by excavation in order to determine age and cultural identity. Establishes chronological sequence of development of each culture from simpler to more advanced levels. May specialize in study of literate periods of major civilizations in Near and Middle East and be designated Archeologist, Classical. May specialize in study of past Columbian history of the Americas and be designated Historical Archeologist.

 

Related Activities and Experiments

To Accompany the Archaeology Segment 

Analyzing Artifacts
From the  Reference Desk

Shoe Box Archaeology
Another good hands-on activity from the  Reference Desk
Archaeology Lesson Plans

Half-a-dozen lesson plans

Decoding the Past
Here are three detailed lesson plans, with accompanying printables.

History is a guide to navigation in perilous times. History is who we are and why we are the way we are.
 

Dave Einsel / Getty Images

The Stone Age (known to scholars as the Paleolithic era) in human prehistory is the name given to the period between about 2.5 million and 20,000 years ago. It begins with the earliest human-like behaviors of crude stone tool manufacture, and ends with fully modern human hunting and gathering societies 

Ardipithicus

Human’s Oldest Relative Found

The First Hominids

Scientists believe

the human lineage split from that of the primate sometime between six and eight million years ago.

 The first hominids were believed to have come down from the trees and lived on the African Savannah.

Recently is was discovered that that belief was false. The fossil evidence pulled from the Bad Lands of Ethiopia (believed to be the cradle of man) has shown us that the first hominids actually were arboreal–they lived in trees! And in no way should those early hominids be confused with the humans of today; we have evolved over time and there were many different species of hominids before man as we know him today, came into existence.

The entire period can be broadly classified as

Stone Age, Indus Valley, Neolithic-Chalcolithic, Megalithic-Early Historic and Late Historic periods.

¤ The Stone Age

The Stone Age in India begins with the Paleolithic and terminates after the Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age). The Paleolithic dates back to the geological era of Middle Pleistocene. Paleolithic sites abound in Peninsular India, and are found more prominently at Pallavaram in Tamil Nadu, Hunsgi in Karnataka, Kuliana in Orissa, Didwana in Rajasthan, and
Bhimbetka in Madhya Pradesh.

The Mesolithic sites far outnumber the Paleolithic ones, and are located all over the country. Synonymous with the advanced hunting, fishing, and food-gathering economy, Mesolithic usually corresponds to the immediate post-Pleistocene or early Holocene (about 10,000 years ago) period. The beginning of the disposal of dead, and the formation of band level society also characterised this period. The early rock paintings depicting hunting and ritual scenes are the period’s most remarkable legacies.

¤ The Neolithic-Chalcolithic Age

The Neolithic-Chalcolithic phase that followed the Mesolithic culture, was marked by remarkable progress in the techniques of agriculture, and domestication of animals, thus laying down a firm foundation for India’s rural life.  Wattle-dab houses mushroomed over several village settlements during the 3rd and 2nd millennium B.C. Inamgaon and Walki in Maharashtra, Navdatoli in Madhya Pradesh, Ahar, Balathal and Gilund in eastern Rajasthan, Budhihal, Sangankalur, Maski and Brahmagiri in Karnataka, Utnur in western Andhra Pradesh, Golbai in Orissa, Pandu-Rajar-Dhibi in West Bengal, Chirand in Bihar and Burzoham in Kashmir have revealed a distinct Neolithic-Chalcolithic phase in India. The ongoing excavation at Balathal near Udaipur in Rajasthan has surprisingly yielded the earliest known village in India so far (radiocarbon-dated 4,000 B.C.).

 

¤ Indus Valley Civilisation

While the Neolithic-Chalcolithic sites of India were not matured enough to be labelled as civilisations, around the same time, over the Indus and Ghaggar river valleys in northwest India bordering Pakistan, and in Kutch and Saurashtra in Gujarat, flourished a civilisation that is referred to today as the Indus Valley Civilisation. It extended over an area that was much larger than any of the other civilisations that were its contemporaries. Some well-known Indus cities in India include Dholavira, Kalibangan, Lothal, Surkotda and Rakhigari.

¤ Archaeological Sites In India – Marvelous Planning

The most outstanding feature of the Indus Valley Civilisation was its unique town planning with well-regulated streets, oriented almost invariably along the cardinal directions. The houses were made of either mud bricks or kiln-fired bricks of regulated sizes. An average house consisted of a courtyard around which rooms were constructed to live in and carry out various household activities.

¤ The Construction of Towns

An Indus town consisted of two parts, the citadel and the lower town, each with their respective fortifications. The citadel had monumental buildings like the Great Bath the Granary and the Assembly Hall.

¤ Evidence of Civilized Economy

Agro-pastoralism was the mainstay of the civilisation’s economy. Besides, coastal communities also exploited a wide range of marine life for their subsistence. Ample evidence to this effect has been found in Kuntasi in Gujarat. The Indus Valley Civilisation was also very well versed in the craft of bead making, ceramics and shell.

¤ Its Flourishing Trade

The Indus Valley Civilisation was known for its trade, both domestic and foreign, its system of weights and measures, its written script and religious beliefs. The civilisation declined by 1700 B.C., and led to the growth of several fragmented settlements in North India in the upper plains of the River Ganges.
Collectively termed as the Painted Gray Ware Culture, some of its important settlements have been excavated at Ahichchatra, Hastinapura (both in western Uttar Pradesh) and Purana Quilas in Delhi. The excavations were aimed at identifying areas mentioned in the great Hindu epics, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana.

¤ Megalithic Phase

At the time of the Painted Gray Ware settlements in the north, South India saw the predominance of the Megalithic Culture. Simple monoliths, a cluster of stone circles or dolmens usually characterise a megalithic site. Agro-pastoral communities erected these either to commemorate a burial or to depict an actual burial site. In Kerala, the megaliths, are mushroom-shaped stone objects known as Topikal or Kodekal.

Excavations conducted in a number of megalithic sites have revealed a substantial amount of artifacts, indicative of a pastoral economy, warfare and rudimentary trade and exchange between settlements.

Some prominent megalithic sites of South India are found at Brahmagiri, Maski and Rajan Kalur in Karnataka, Bhagimari in Maharashtraand the north and south Arcot districts in Tamil Nadu. Interestingly, the Megalithic tradition has continued in certain tribal areas, especially among the Gadabas of Orissa, Gonds of Bastar, and the Bodosof northeast India, who still erect menhirs (monoliths) as commemorative symbols for the deceased.

¤ Second Urbanisation Phase

Between the time of the Buddha (6th century B.C.) and the rule of the Guptas (4th century A.D.), for about 800 years, the whole of India for the first time underwent a most profound transformation.
The changing social, political and economic framework (the period is termed as the Second Urbanisation) that had first evolved in the plains of the Ganges in the north within the context of Buddhism (for more, see Religion), gradually shifted to the rest of the country. The shift opened up a network of internal and overseas trade routes with far reaching implications, saw the introduction of currency, and witnessed a flourishing of numerous arts and crafts, including ceramics.

Excavations at Kosambi, Saranath, and Hastinapura in Uttar Pradesh, Vaishali, Rajagriha and Bodhgaya in Bihar, Chandraketugarh in Bengal, Sisupalgarh in Orissa, Dharanikota in Andhra Pradesh, Arikamedu near Pondicherry, Nevasa in Maharashtra and Vidisa in Madhya Pradesh have revealed fortified cities dating back to this period.

¤ The Buddhist Phase

The early cities attempted to recreate the universe in a microcosmic manner, with large outsized ramparts that served the purpose of symbolic protection. Buddhism enjoyed wide patronage from urban dwellers, including kings and merchants, who constructed numerous shrines (Sanchi Saranath, Ajanta, Kaneheri, Amravati, Sanati and Lalitgiri) through popular and collective donations. Thanks to royal patronage,Jainism (for more, see Religion) also found a foothold in certain areas. To cite examples, Khandagiri-Udayagiri in Orissa and Mathura near Delhi are noted for their splendid Jaina (pertaining to Jainism)monuments.

¤ The Construction of Temples

In the subsequent eras, during the period marking the end of Buddhism as a religious force in India, the emphasis shifted to the construction of Brahmanical temples with distinct regional styles such as the Nagara and Kalinga in the north and the east, and the Dravida and Besara in the south. Jainism continued to be popular in certain pockets, and some of its finest monuments can be found at Sravanabelagola in Karnataka, and Ellora in Maharashtra.

¤ The Stone Age

The Stone Age in India begins with the Paleolithic

and terminates after the Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age). The Paleolithic dates back to the geological era of Middle Pleistocene. Paleolithic sites abound in Peninsular India, and are found more prominently at Pallavaram in Tamil Nadu, Hunsgi in Karnataka, Kuliana in Orissa, Didwana in Rajasthan, and Bhimbetka in Madhya Pradesh.

Tools And The Stone Age

One of the most important advancements in human history was the development and use of tools. Tools allowed hominids to become the masters of their environments, to hunt, to build, and to perform important tasks that made life easier for them. The first tools were made out of stone. Thus, historians refer to the period of time before written history as the stone age.

Historians divide the stone age into three different periods, based on the sophistication and methods of tool design. The first such period is referred to as the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age. The Old Stone Age began about 2 million years ago with the development of the first tools by Homo Habilis, and lasted until around 12,000 years ago.

The Mesolithic or Middle Stone Age began around 12,000 years ago, and continued through about 8,000 years ago. The Neolithic or New Stone Age lasted from 8,000 years until around 5,000 years ago

Stone Age/Paleolithic Timelinr

The Paleolithic Age

aka: The Stone Age

The Paleolithic Age, or Old Stone Age, is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of the first stone tools, and covers roughly 99% of human technological history. It extends from the introduction of stone tools by hominids such as Homo habilis 2.5 or 2.6mya, to the introduction of agriculture and the end of the Pleistocene around 12,000 BP.

During the Paleolithic, humans grouped together in small societies such as bands, and subsisted by gathering plants and hunting or scavenging wild animals. The Paleolithic is characterized by the use of knapped stone tools, although at the time humans also used wood and bone tools. Other organic commodities were adapted for use as tools, including leather and vegetable fibers; however, due to their nature, these have not been preserved to any great degree. Surviving artifacts of the Paleolithic era are known as Paleoliths. Humankind gradually evolved from early members of the genus Homo such as Homo habilis – who used simple stone tools – into fully behaviorally and anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens sapiens) during the Paleolithic era. During the end of the Paleolithic, specifically the Middle and or Upper Paleolithic, humans began to produce the earliest works of art and engage in religious and spiritual behavior such as burial and ritual. The climate during the Paleolithic consisted of a set of glacial and interglacial periods in which the climate periodically fluctuated between warm and cool temperatures.

The term Paleolithic was coined by archaeologist John Lubbock in 1865. It derives from Greek: palaios “old”; and lithos, “stone”, literally meaning “old age of the stone” or “Old Stone Age.”

Paleolithic Art

Cave-Painting

 

Art from this time-period is intriguity, it gives us a glimpse into the minds of long ago people. I think these images speak to all of us on some instinctive and primal level.

Paleolithic Art
Generally, About.com provides decent resources, and they go into detail about the origins of cave art from the paleolithic age, and the world around early man during this time.

The Cave of Lascaux
This is a virtual tour of the caves of Lascaux, a wonderful resource provided by the French government. These caves are closed to the public, but you can imagine yourself inside with this online tour.

The Mesolithic Period

aka: Epipaleolithic

 

Epipaleolithic means “final upper Paleolithic” and refers to industries occurring at the end of the final glaciation (10,000BP), which appears to merge technologically into the Mesolithic. During this time period farming communities began to be established, humans hunted and fished, and people began to domesticate animals and livestock. Climatic changes involved the rapid global warming of the planet, which changed animal habitats and raised sea levels

Cultures around the world

have used hematite to make red ochre pigment since the Paleolithic (Stone Age).  Below is a red ochre (and carbon black) wisent (European bison) in Altamira Cave, Spain.

The neat thing about ochre is that geochemical analysis can often identify the provenance (where it was mined) of the pigment – for example: Iriate, E., et al. 2009. The Origin and Geochemical Characterization of Red Ochres from the Tito Bustillo and Monte Castillo Caves (Northern Spain). Archaeometry 51: 231-251.

Lion Cave, in Swaziland, southern Africa, is one of the oldest hematite ochre mines we know of having been dated back to 43,000 years old.  Women is southern Africa still use ochre to beautify themselves (the woman below is from the Himba tribe of Namibia).

Ochre pigment is common in the New World as well.  The red sandstones of the Colorado Plateau region are red because of hematite and were used as pigment by the Anasazi and other Native Americans.  The pictograph below is from the Grand Gallery deep in Canyonlands National Park of Utah (I love this picture – what are they?  Ghosts?  Shamans? Kachina-like gods?).

I still have a few pair of formerly white socks stained red from Utah red dirt from hiking around Moab in Arches National Park.

Yellow ochre, on the other hand, is a form on hydrated iron(III) hydroxide (FeO(OH) • nH2O).  It’s usually called limonite but limonite is not a true mineral name (although it’s commonly used by geologists).  Limonite is actually a mixture of different iron hydroxide minerals which typically form when iron-rich water encounters atmospheric oxygen (and typically helped along by Fe-fixing bacteria) – hence the name “bog iron” for sedimentary deposits of this mineral.

Bog iron was once an important ore of iron in Northern Europe for people like the Vikings (here’s an interesting web site about this).  It was also used as a paint pigment.  Below is a yellow and red ochre turtle from Kakadu National Park, Australia.

Roweromaniak

The Pre-Pottery Neolithic (abbreviated PPN) is the name given to the people who domesticated the earliest plants and lived in farming communities in the Levant and Near East. The PPN culture contained most of the attributes we think of Neolithic–except pottery, which was not used in the region until ca. 5500 BC

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2012

The Adventure Of IBN BATTUTA Historic Collections

 

Ibn battuta

Historic collections

 

Created by

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Private limited E-Book in CD-ROM edition

Copyright @ Dr Iwan 2012

THIS THE SAMPLE OF e-book WITHOUT ILLUSTRATUIONS, THE COMPLETE cd-rom EXIST ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER,PLEASE SUBSCRIBE VIA COMMENT.

 references

     

        Ibn Battuta stayed in Fathabad, a suburb of Bukhara, where there was a large zaviya and a mausoleum, which struck him by its dimensions, near the tomb of a sacred hermit Saif at-Din al-Baharzi. The Sheikh of the zaviya invited Ibn Battuta to his place, as well as all notables of the city, and ‘…reciters read the holy Koran in their pleasant voices, while the preacher made a sermon. They sang wonderful songs in Turkic and Persian. That was the most wonderful night of all nights.’ There is nothing like these lively details retained in the memory of an inquisitive and well-wishing person! And there are a lot of such excerpts in the manuscript, that is why the book is considered a masterpiece of rihla – geographic description of a country a traveller saw with his own eyes. Biographies of historical personalities often contain data that cannot be found in other sources.

        The next city Ibn Battuta visited was Samarkand. ‘It is one of the largest and most beautiful cities,’ Ibn Battuta writes, and remarks with bitterness that ‘most of Samarkand was turned into a shambles.’ The traveler could not but admire the beautiful mausoleums of the Shah-in-Zinda ensemble. He made special mention of a Muslim sanctity – the tomb of Sheikh Kusan ibn-Abbas of whom a legend says that he is Prophet Mukhammad’s cousin. ‘Over the grave is erected a dome on four supports, each of them flanked with twin marble columns of green, black, white and red colours. The walls of the mausoleum are decorated with multicoloured gilded inlay; its roof is covered with lead; the tomb is made of inlaid ebony, with silver-studded corners, and three silver lamps are hung inside. The floor of the mausoleum is covered with wool and cotton carpets…’

        From Samarkand the Moroccan traveler set his feet to Termez, which was a large city for that time, with beautiful buildings and market-places and an abundance of orchards and vineyards. Ibn Battuta pointed out some curious details of local everyday life. ‘In the baths city dwellers wash their heads with sour milk,’ he recalls. ‘Each bathhouse attendant has a lot of jugs filled with sour milk. Everyone who comes to the baths pours some milk into a small bowl and washes his head. This milk freshens the hair and makes it soft…’

        Of great importance for historians are Ibn Battuta’s data on the movement of sarbedars, which started in Khorasan in the 1330s as an expression of social and political protest of representatives of the middle class against the policy of Mongolian invaders. In 1365 the sarbedars headed an uprising in Samarkand and won. Their independent state existed in Khorasan from 1337 through 1381. They had their own army, minted their own coins, and abolished some taxes imposed by the Mongols. Meanwhile, there is practically no evidence of eyewitnesses about this movement in written sources

Abu Abdallah ibn Battuta was born in 1304 in Tangier, Morocco, across the Strait of Gibraltar from Spain. He came from a Muslim family of legal scholars and judges. Like them, he studied the Sharia, the sacred law of the Muslims based on the Koran and the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad. This prepared him to become a qadi, a Muslim judge.

Because of the gold trade, several successive empires arose in West Africa south of the Sahara. The Empire of Mali took over this area in the early 1200s and soon adopted Islam as its official religion. Mali included many different African peoples as well as Arab and Berber immigrants. Its gold financed a strong army of bowmen and an armored cavalry. But the real source of Mali’s success was its flourishing commerce with Muslim merchants and caravan traders. Africans traded gold, ivory, hides, and slaves for Arab and Berber salt, cloth, paper, and horses. The peak of Mali power and wealth took place under Mansa Musa and his successor, Mansa Sulayman whom Ibn Battuta met on his journey

 

Timbuktu was founded around 1100 as a market town bordering the Sahara. Almost from the beginning, it seems to have been a Muslim town. It was self-governing until Mansa Musa annexed it without bloodshed to the Mali Empire in 1325. Even after that, the city continued running its own affairs with little control from the Mali kings. Black African farmers and river people as well as white Arab and Berber merchants populated the city, making it an ethnically mixed settlement. It became known as a place open to newcomers and a city of refuge

 

 

 

ANCIENT MECCA

 

Ibn Battuta’s Journey to the Hajj
Ibn Battuta arrived to southeren china in 1346
1325

At age 21, Ibn Battuta left his parents to go on a hajj. This was a pilgrimage to Mecca, the holy city of Islam. After traveling across North Africa to Egypt, he took a detour through Palestine and Syria.

After Ibn Battuta studied for a while in Mecca, he left in 1328 to make his way down the Red Sea. He boarded a trading ship and sailed halfway down the east coast of Africa. Muslim merchants had established trading ports in East Africa, mainly to trade for African gold. Ibn Battuta next traveled north through the Middle East and Persia to Russia and then eastward into Central Asia

 

Ibn Battuta had decided to cross the sea and take the longer route to reach India. He spent about a month or more in Sinope waiting for a favorable wind to take him and his companions to the Crimean peninsula.

The ship’s captain, for some reason, decided to launch into the open sea and make a straight course for the Crimea instead of keeping close to the coasts. A storm had hit them three nights later, nearly blowing back to Sinope. The storm passed a few days later, and Ibn and his companions disembarked somewhere along the rural Crimean coast, not in a port. In al-Qiram, he traveled under the imperial escort of Tuluktemur to Azak. Near Azak, he was able to meet with Ozbeg khan, who was currently not at New Saray. Ibn Battuta was amazed by how women were treated in Mongol states. He had met with one of Ozbeg’s khatuns, or wives, and later joined her on a journey to Constantinople where she gave birth to her child. Apparently, she was the daughter of Andronicus III. After a month, he reached Astrakhan, and after finding out Ozbeg returned to New Saray, he set off once again. Ibn Battuta found the capital city “of boundless size” and “choked with its inhabitants.” From New Saray, he traveled south to Sarachik and traveled parts of Khawrzim, Transoxiana, and possibly Khurasan.

Ibn Battuta decided to travel from Anatolia to India by taking an alternative route across the Black Sea and the Central Asian Steppe. Along the route Ibn witnessed a high amount of violence and storms. For example, at the port of Kerch, he saw people trying to signal his ship not to dock and feared there may have been pirates. The following quote was during a violent storm experienced on the Black Sea:

We were in the sore of straits and destruction visibly before our eyes. I was in the cabin along with a man named Abu Bakr, and I bade him to go up on deck to observe the state of the sea. He did so and came back to me in the cabin saying to me “I commend you to God.”

Customs under Mongol and Turkish rule were immensely different from his hometown. In Persia, Ibn traveled under the mahalla of the Mongol King to al-Qiram and took a 700 mile wagon journey with the imperial court under the supervision of guides. Over the next year, Ibn traveled across Turkey in two and four wheeled carts. In May 1332 he had the privelege of traveling with the Ozbeg khan. He realized women were treated different under Mongol Rule. Mongol women had freedom, respect, and were near equal to men, which was different than the customs of Arab countries. Islamic customs were also different. In 1332-1333, Ibn traveled through: Astrakhan, New Saray, Sarachik, Ugench, Bukhara, Nakhshab, Samarkand, Tirmidh, Balkh, Qunduz, Charikar, and Kabul before arriving in Ghazna. He may have also taken a detour west from Balkh. From Ghazna Ibn moved southward in the company of merchants and arrived in India with 4,000 horses. They traveled through the Sulayman Mountains through the Khyber pass. On September 12, 1333 he reached the Indus River. Ibn Battuta was about to become a servant to Muhammad Tughluq at the court of Delhi.

 

Ibn Battuta crossed the Black Sea to Kaffa. There was only one mosque in the town since most of the people were Christians and Ibn Battuta was not very happy when the church bell rang. When he got ot al-Qiram he heard some good news. He could make the 700 mile trip to the Volga River with the King of the Golden Horde. So he bought 3 caravans and rushed to catch up to the king. Soon they caught up to the Khan, Ozbeg, and Ibn Battuta met with him an described the treatment of the women. He also described the food eaten by these Turks and was shocked about the fact that they drank an alchoholic drink called buza, he reminds me of Dr. Drew whenever he shows such disapproval to the drinks and drugs of a region. When they reached Astrakan it was discovered that the 3rd wife of the Khan was pregnant. So she was given permisssion to go and visit her father in Constantinople and Ibn Battuta got permission to go with her. Ibn Battuta stayed in Constantinople for a month and got to meet the emperor, Andronicus lll. Ibn Battuta was returning to the steps when a teribble winter was beginning. They traveled north from Astrakan to meet the Khan at New Saray. Ibn Battuta left New Saray heading in the direction of India, passing ruins of places attacked by Mongols along the way

After crossing the Black Sea and being continuously hit by severe storms, Ibn Battuta reached the central Asian Steppe. The Golden Horde khan, Ozbeg Khan had already proposed Islam as the main religion for the entire state, and Ibn was quite delighted. He described the Khan as one of “the seven kings who are great and mighty kings of the world”. He also met Princess Bayalun, the khan’s 3rd ranking wife, who had experienced the same feeling of “homesickness” as she was from Byzantium. From region to region, he learned more about the differences of Islam which were very unlike the practices he observed in his hometown. Ibn Battuta also managed to stay in Constantinople for a while and got plenty of gifts… (why do the people he meets keep giving him so much FREE stuff!?!)

Ibn Battuta eventually arrived in Hindu Kush after a 3-4 month journey. As he ends his stay in the Central Asian Steppes, so did the first part of the Rihla, signifying an important transition in his career. Though, he still has a lot more to explore….

 

Ibn Battuta visits the Steppes of Central Asia, homeland of the Turkish and the Mongols. It is here that he learns of the differences in the religion of Islam by region. The Muslims of Russia and modern-day Mongolia observe different religious practices for the month of Ramadan (A month of fasting during daylight hours) and praying towards Mecca 5 times a day. These differences occur because they are farther North and the daytime is much longer. We also find that, once again, Ibn Battuta is lucky to be travelling at the time he has chosen to do so. The Golden Horde Khanate had just recently chosen Islam as the state religion and so a large influx of scholars, qadis and jurists had filled the newly constructed Mosques and provided for a comfortable stay in the cities of Astrakhan and New Saray.

 

Ibn Battuta sailed west into the Mediterranean bound for Anatolia. He was attempting to go to India, but was sailing in the wrong direction. After not finding a translator in Jidda, he travelled down the Nile to Cairo. While in Cairo he met a legal scholar who he would remain friends with for years. They travelled through the mountains and boarded a ship to Alanya and Antalya. In Antalya, Ibn made the mistake of confusing a shaykh of the Akhis as a poor man. The fityan organization or Akhis were a group who provided hospitalitiy to travelers. He was “greatly astonished at their generosity and innate nobility”. They may be important throughout the coming chapters. While crossing the Sakarya River, Ibn’s Turkish horsewomen guide and her servent fell from their horses and were washed downstream. The women was rescued, but her servant died. While in a Turcoman village, Ibn hired another guide, but the man fled with money and left Ibn and his party in the snow.  While in Mudurnu, Ibn realized he needed an interpretor who spoke Arabic. He hired a local educated man, but the man proved to be a theif and attempted to steal and sell anything he could get his hands on. They were forced to continue using his services to get through the mountains. To add to Ibn’s misfortune, his slave girl almost drowned crossing another river. Luckily, Ibn finally arrived at Kastamonu. From there he traveled northeast into the Pontic.

After his third pilgrimage to Mecca, Ibn Battuta couild not stop thinking about getting a high paying job under the Sultan of Delhi. So he went to Jidd in search of a guide who could speak Persian and knew India well. But his search in India was not a success, so he traveled back to Egypt and went with a caravan to Damascus. From there he traveled, by Geonoese trading ship, to Alanya. While pleased with the Turks hospitality and faith, Ibn Battuta was suprised that “they eat hashish, and think no harm of it.” From Alanya he traveled to Antaliya which he described as ” one of the most attractive towns seen anywhere.” In every town that he trveled to Ibn Battuta was greeted heartily, lavished with gifts, and recommded to someone he could stay with in the next town. After getting to Sinop, the port in the Black Sea, it was decided that he would travel into the steppe lands. The Land of the Golden Horde

 

After returning to Mecca from his travels along the coast of Eastern Africa Ibn Battuta decided to set out for India a second time. Once again, however he became side tracked and ventured Northward, visiting the Nile valley in Egypt and Palestine once again, but then continuing farther North into Anatolia (Modern-Day Turkey). After sailing from Palestine to the Southern coast of Anatolia he travelled to many of the in-land cities there before winding up at Sinop, a town on the Black Sea. He sailed to Kerch in the Northern Black Sea and then travelled to Kaffa, Sudak, al-Qiram, and then on a long land route to Constantinople and back. Ibn Battuta ends his travels in this chapter at the city of Kastamonu, where he enjoyed feasting and staying with other scholars.

Then, riding northeastward into the Pontic, he crossed one of the high passes and descended through the dense forests of the northen slopes, the Black Sea and the land of the Golden Horde before him.

There seemed to be a lot of confusion on Ibn Battuta’s exact itinerary through Anatolia. No one seems to be sure which way he went after leaving Egridir, although logic would suggest that he continues eastward over the Sultan Daghlari mountains to Konya at the southwestern edge of the central plateau and arriving there sometime around early January 1331. The most interesting part in the book I found was when Ibn Battuta was introduced to the fityan associations of Anatolia, the institution that would later see to him through more than 25 different towns and cities. The fityan were a group of unmarried young men representing generally the artisan classes of Anatolian towns. Their purpose was essentially “the social one of providing a structure of solidarity and mutual aid in the urban environment.” Their code of conduct went by the name of futuwwa. They expressed the qualities of nobility, honesty, loyalty, and courage. Each association had a distinctive costume, and members met regularly in their lodges or their own homes. Ibn Battuta was “greatly astonished at their generosity and innate nobility.”

 

Ibn Battuta, yet again returned to Mecca to make his third pilgrimage. Although nobody knows how long he stayed there or what else he did, we know that it’s where he decided to actually go to India. He learns that the Sultan of Delhi was inviting many Muslim scholars and his first step was to find a guide, or more likely a translator who knew how to speak Persian. Unfortunate nobody to guide to India.

He ventured back to the Nile Valley (Egypt) and Palestine and finally continuing on to Anatolia. He visited the cities of Alanya, and Anatilya thereafter. Among the people that he meeted were other Muslim scholars that greeted him with food and shelter. Finally, he arrived at the port of Sinop in the Black Sea, where his next stop would be the steppes.

 indonesian version

Tahun Ibnu Batutah lahir
Feb 24, 1304
Abu Abdallah ibn Battuta dilahirkan di 1304 di Tangier, Maroko, melintasi Selat Gibraltar dari Spanyol. Dia datang dari keluarga Muslim sarjana hukum dan hakim. Seperti mereka, ia mempelajari Syariah, hukum suci umat Islam berdasarkan Al-Quran dan ajaran Nabi Muhammad. Ini menyiapkan dirinya untuk menjadi kadi, seorang hakim Muslim.

 
Ibnu Battua bertemu perjalanannya

Karena perdagangan emas, kerajaan berturut-turut muncul beberapa di Afrika Barat selatan Sahara. Kekaisaran Mali mengambil alih wilayah ini pada 1200 awal dan segera mengadopsi Islam sebagai agama resmi. Mali termasuk banyak orang Afrika yang berbeda serta imigran Arab dan Berber. Emas membiayai tentara yang kuat dari para pemanah dan kavaleri lapis baja.

Namun sumber nyata dari keberhasilan Mali

adalah perdagangan berkembang dengan pedagang Muslim dan pedagang karavan. Afrika diperdagangkan emas, gading, kulit, dan budak bagi Arab Berber dan garam, kain, kertas, dan kuda. Puncak kekuasaan dan kekayaan Mali berlangsung di bawah Mansa Musa dan penggantinya, Mansa Sulaiman yang Ibn Batutah bertemu di perjalanan

Timbuktu didirikan sekitar 1100 sebagai sebuah kota pasar yang berbatasan dengan Sahara.
1325
Timbuktu didirikan sekitar 1100 sebagai sebuah kota pasar yang berbatasan dengan Sahara. Hampir dari awal, tampaknya telah menjadi kota muslim. Itu adalah pemerintahan sendiri sampai Mansa Musa mencaploknya tanpa pertumpahan darah ke Kekaisaran Mali di 1325. Bahkan setelah itu, kota terus menjalankan urusan sendiri dengan sedikit kontrol dari raja-raja Mali. Petani Afrika hitam dan orang-orang sungai serta pedagang Arab dan Berber putih penduduk kota, sehingga penyelesaian etnis campuran. Ini dikenal sebagai tempat terbuka untuk pendatang baru dan kota perlindungan

KUNO Mekah

Ibnu Batutah Perjalanan ke Haji
Ibnu Batutah datang untuk southeren cina tahun 1346
1325

Pada usia 21, Ibnu Batutah meninggalkan orang tuanya untuk pergi pada haji. Ini adalah ziarah ke Mekah, kota suci Islam. Setelah bepergian di Afrika Utara ke Mesir, ia mengambil jalan memutar melalui Palestina dan Suriah.

Ibnu Batutah daun Mekkah untuk membuat jalan ke Laut Merah
1328
Setelah Ibnu Batutah belajar untuk sementara waktu di Mekah, ia meninggalkan di 1328 untuk membuat jalan nya ke Laut Merah. Dia naik kapal perdagangan dan berlayar di tengah pantai timur Afrika. Pedagang Muslim telah mendirikan pelabuhan dagang di Afrika Timur, terutama untuk perdagangan untuk emas di Afrika. Ibnu Batutah berikutnya perjalanan ke utara melalui Timur Tengah dan Persia ke Rusia dan kemudian ke timur ke Asia Tengah

Ibnu Batutah telah memutuskan untuk menyeberangi laut dan mengambil rute yang lebih panjang untuk mencapai India. Dia menghabiskan sekitar satu bulan atau lebih di Sinope menunggu angin yang menguntungkan untuk mengambil dia dan teman-temannya ke Semenanjung Krimea.

Kapten kapal, untuk beberapa alasan, memutuskan untuk meluncurkan ke laut terbuka dan membuat kursus langsung Krimea bukannya menjaga dekat dengan pantai. Badai telah memukul mereka tiga malam kemudian, hampir meniup kembali ke Sinope. Badai berlalu beberapa hari kemudian, dan Ibnu dan teman-temannya turun di suatu tempat di sepanjang pantai Krimea pedesaan, bukan di port. Dalam al-Qiram, ia melakukan perjalanan di bawah pengawalan kekaisaran Tuluktemur untuk Azak. Dekat Azak, ia dapat bertemu dengan Ozbeg khan, yang saat ini tidak di Saray Baru. Ibnu Batutah kagum dengan bagaimana wanita diperlakukan di negara Mongol. Dia telah bertemu dengan salah satu khatuns Ozbeg, atau istri, dan kemudian bergabung dengannya dalam perjalanan ke Konstantinopel di mana ia melahirkan anaknya. Rupanya, dia adalah putri Andronikus III. Setelah sebulan, ia mencapai Astrakhan, dan setelah mencari tahu Ozbeg kembali ke New Saray, ia berangkat sekali lagi. Ibnu Batutah menemukan ibukota “ukuran tak terbatas” dan “tercekik dengan penghuninya.” Dari Saray Baru, ia melakukan perjalanan ke selatan untuk Sarachik dan melakukan perjalanan bagian Khawrzim, Transoxiana, dan mungkin Khurasan.

 Stepa ini
Ibnu Batutah memutuskan untuk melakukan perjalanan dari Anatolia ke India dengan mengambil rute alternatif menyeberangi Laut Hitam dan Asia Tengah Steppe. Sepanjang rute Ibnu menyaksikan sejumlah kekerasan yang tinggi dan badai. Sebagai contoh, di pelabuhan Kerch, ia melihat orang yang mencoba untuk sinyal kapalnya ke dermaga dan tidak takut mungkin ada bajak laut. Kutipan berikut ini selama badai kekerasan yang dialami di Laut Hitam:

Kami berada di selat dan sakit dari kehancuran tampak di depan mata kita. Saya berada di kabin bersama dengan seorang pria bernama Abu Bakar, dan aku menyuruhnya untuk naik di dek untuk mengamati keadaan laut. Ia melakukannya dan kembali ke saya dalam kabin berkata kepadaku “Aku memuji kita kepada Allah.”

Bea bawah kekuasaan Mongol dan Turki sangat berbeda dari kota kelahirannya. Di Persia, Ibnu perjalanan bawah Mahalla Raja Mongol ke al-Qiram dan mengambil perjalanan 700 mil gerobak dengan istana kekaisaran di bawah pengawasan panduan. Selama tahun berikutnya, Ibnu perjalanan melintasi Turki dalam dua dan empat roda gerobak. Pada Mei 1332 ia memiliki hak istimewa untuk bepergian dengan Ozbeg khan. Dia menyadari perempuan diperlakukan berbeda di bawah Peraturan Mongol. Mongol wanita memiliki kebebasan, rasa hormat, dan berada di dekat setara dengan laki-laki, yang berbeda dari kebiasaan negara-negara Arab. Pabean Islam juga berbeda. Pada 1332-1333, Ibnu perjalanan melalui: Astrakhan, Baru Saray, Sarachik, Ugench, Bukhara, Nakhsyab, Samarkand, Tirmidh, Balkh, Qunduz, Charikar, dan Kabul sebelum tiba di Ghazna. Dia mungkin juga mengambil jalan memutar dari Balkh barat. Dari Ghazna Ibnu pindah selatan di perusahaan pedagang dan tiba di India dengan 4.000 kuda. Mereka melakukan perjalanan melalui Pegunungan Sulaiman melalui Khyber lulus. Pada September 12, 1333 ia mencapai Sungai Indus. Ibnu Batutah akan menjadi hamba kepada Muhammad Tughluq di pengadilan Delhi.

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Stepa ini
Ibnu Batutah menyeberangi Laut Hitam ke Kaffa. Hanya ada satu masjid di kota karena sebagian besar orang Kristen dan Ibnu Batutah tidak terlalu senang ketika lonceng gereja berbunyi. Ketika dia ot al-Qiram ia mendengar beberapa kabar baik. Dia bisa melakukan perjalanan 700 mil ke Sungai Volga dengan Raja Horde Emas. Jadi dia membeli 3 karavan dan bergegas untuk mengejar raja. Segera mereka terjebak ke Khan, Ozbeg, dan Ibnu Batutah bertemu dengan dia sebuah menggambarkan perlakuan terhadap perempuan. Dia juga menggambarkan makanan yang dimakan oleh Turki dan terkejut tentang fakta bahwa mereka minum minuman beralkohol yang disebut buza, dia mengingatkan saya pada Dr Drew setiap kali dia menunjukkan ketidaksetujuan tersebut untuk minuman dan obat-obatan suatu daerah. Ketika mereka sampai Astrakan ditemukan bahwa istri ke-3 Khan sedang hamil. Jadi dia diberi permisssion untuk pergi dan mengunjungi ayahnya di Konstantinopel dan Ibnu Batutah mendapat izin untuk pergi bersamanya. Ibnu Batutah tinggal di Konstantinopel selama satu bulan dan harus memenuhi kaisar, Andronikus III. Ibnu Batutah adalah kembali ke langkah ketika musim dingin teribble mulai. Mereka melakukan perjalanan ke utara dari Astrakan untuk memenuhi Khan di New Saray. Ibnu Batutah meninggalkan Saray Baru menuju ke arah India, melewati reruntuhan tempat diserang oleh bangsa Mongol di sepanjang jalan

Stepa ini
Setelah menyeberangi Laut Hitam dan yang terus menerus dilanda badai parah, Ibnu Batutah mencapai Steppe Asia Tengah. Golden Horde khan, Ozbeg Khan sudah mengusulkan Islam sebagai agama utama untuk seluruh negara bagian, dan Ibnu cukup senang. Dia menggambarkan Khan sebagai salah satu “tujuh raja yang hebat dan raja dunia”. Ia juga bertemu Putri Bayalun, istri peringkat 3 khan, yang pernah mengalami perasaan yang sama dari “kerinduan” karena dia dari Byzantium. Dari daerah ke daerah, ia belajar lebih banyak tentang perbedaan Islam yang sangat berbeda dengan praktek yang diamati di kota kelahirannya. Ibnu Batutah juga berhasil untuk tinggal di Konstantinopel untuk sementara waktu dan mendapat banyak hadiah … (mengapa orang-orang yang bertemu tetap memberikan begitu banyak barang GRATIS?!!)

Ibnu Batutah akhirnya tiba di Hindu Kush setelah perjalanan 3-4 bulan. Saat ia berakhir tinggal di padang Stepa Asia Tengah, begitu pula bagian pertama dari Rihla tersebut, menandakan sebuah transisi penting dalam kariernya. Meskipun, ia masih memiliki lebih banyak untuk mengeksplorasi ….

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Stepa ini
 

Ibnu Batutah mengunjungi stepa Asia Tengah, tanah air dari Turki dan Mongol. Di sinilah ia belajar dari perbedaan dalam agama Islam menurut wilayah. Kaum Muslim Rusia dan Mongolia modern mengamati praktik-praktik keagamaan yang berbeda selama bulan Ramadhan (bulan puasa Sebuah selama siang hari) dan berdoa menuju Mekah 5 kali sehari. Perbedaan ini terjadi karena mereka lebih jauh Utara dan siang hari jauh lebih panjang. Kami juga menemukan bahwa, sekali lagi, Ibn Batutah yang beruntung bisa bepergian pada saat ia telah memilih untuk melakukannya. Para Khanate Golden Horde baru-baru ini memilih Islam sebagai agama negara dan sehingga gelombang besar ulama, qadi dan ahli hukum telah memenuhi Masjid yang baru dibangun dan disediakan untuk tinggal yang nyaman di kota-kota Astrakhan dan New Saray.

Anatolia
 

Ibnu Batutah berlayar ke Mediterania barat menuju Anatolia. Dia mencoba untuk pergi ke India, tapi berlayar ke arah yang salah. Setelah tidak menemukan penerjemah di Jedah, ia pergi ke Sungai Nil ke Kairo. Sementara di Kairo ia bertemu seorang sarjana hukum yang ia akan tetap berteman dengan selama bertahun-tahun. Mereka melakukan perjalanan melalui pegunungan dan naik kapal ke Alanya dan Antalya. Di Antalya, Ibnu membuat kesalahan dengan membingungkan seorang syekh dari Akhis sebagai orang miskin. Organisasi fityan atau Akhis adalah kelompok yang memberikan hospitalitiy untuk wisatawan. Dia “sangat takjub kemurahan hati mereka dan bangsawan bawaan”. Mereka mungkin penting di seluruh bab-bab berikutnya. Sementara menyeberangi Sungai Sakarya, Turki horsewomen Ibnu membimbing dan servent dia jatuh dari kuda-kuda mereka dan dicuci hilir. Para wanita itu diselamatkan, tetapi pelayannya meninggal. Sementara di sebuah desa Turcoman, Ibnu menyewa panduan yang lain, tapi pria itu melarikan diri dengan Ibnu uang dan kiri dan partainya di salju. Sementara di Mudurnu, Ibnu menyadari bahwa ia membutuhkan sebuah interpretor yang berbicara bahasa Arab. Dia menyewa seorang pria berpendidikan lokal, tetapi pria itu terbukti menjadi pencuri dan mencoba untuk mencuri dan menjual apapun yang dia bisa mendapatkan tangannya. Mereka dipaksa untuk terus menggunakan jasanya untuk melewati pegunungan. Untuk menambah kemalangan Ibnu, gadis budak nyaris tenggelam menyeberang sungai lain. Untungnya, Ibnu akhirnya tiba di Kastamonu. Dari sana ia pergi ke timur laut Pontic tersebut.

Anatolia
Setelah ziarah ke Mekah ketiga, Ibnu Batutah couild tidak berhenti berpikir tentang mendapatkan pekerjaan dengan gaji tinggi di bawah Sultan Delhi. Jadi dia pergi ke Jidd mencari pemandu yang dapat berbicara Persia dan India juga tahu. Namun pencarian di India tidak sukses, sehingga ia bepergian kembali ke Mesir dan pergi dengan karavan ke Damaskus. Dari sana ia pergi, dengan kapal dagang Geonoese, ke Alanya. Sementara senang dengan Turki perhotelan dan iman, Ibnu Batutah terkejut bahwa “mereka makan ganja, dan berpikir tidak ada salahnya itu.” Dari Alanya ia pergi ke Antaliya yang dia digambarkan sebagai Dalam setiap “salah satu kota paling menarik dilihat di mana saja.” kota yang dia trveled Ibnu Batutah disambut sungguh-sungguh, mencurahkan dengan hadiah, dan recommded kepada seseorang ia bisa tinggal bersama di kota berikutnya. Setelah sampai ke Sinop, pelabuhan di Laut Hitam, maka diputuskan bahwa ia akan bepergian ke tanah padang rumput. Tanah Horde Emas

 Anatolia
 

Setelah kembali ke Mekkah dari perjalanan sepanjang pantai Afrika Timur Ibnu Batutah memutuskan untuk berangkat ke India untuk kedua kalinya. Sekali lagi, namun ia menjadi sisi dilacak dan berani utara, mengunjungi lembah Nil di Mesir dan Palestina sekali lagi, tetapi kemudian terus jauh ke Utara Anatolia (Turki modern-hari). Setelah berlayar dari Palestina ke daerah pantai selatan Anatolia ia berkunjung ke banyak kota di-tanah di sana sebelum penutupan di Sinop, sebuah kota di Laut Hitam. Dia berlayar ke Kerch di Laut Hitam Utara dan kemudian pergi ke Kaffa, Sudak, al-Qiram, dan kemudian pada sebuah rute darat yang panjang dan kembali ke Konstantinopel. Ibnu Batutah berakhir perjalanannya di bab ini di kota Kastamonu, di mana ia menikmati pesta dan tinggal dengan penerima beasiswa lainnya.

Kemudian, naik ke timur laut Pontic, ia melintasi salah satu melewati tinggi dan turun melalui hutan lebat dari lereng utara, Laut Hitam dan tanah Horde Emas di hadapannya.

 Anatolia
Tampaknya ada banyak kebingungan pada jadwal yang tepat Ibnu Batutah melalui Anatolia. Tidak seorang pun tampaknya untuk memastikan arah mana ia pergi setelah meninggalkan Egridir, meskipun logika akan menunjukkan bahwa ia terus ke timur selama Daghlari Sultan pegunungan ke Konya di tepi barat daya dataran tinggi pusat dan tiba di sana pada sekitar awal Januari 1331. Bagian yang paling menarik dalam buku ini saya temukan adalah ketika Ibnu Batutah diperkenalkan kepada asosiasi fityan Anatolia, lembaga yang kemudian akan melihat kepadanya melalui lebih dari 25 kota yang berbeda dan kota. Para fityan adalah sekelompok pemuda yang belum menikah umumnya mewakili kelas tukang kota Anatolia. Tujuan mereka adalah dasarnya “satu sosial menyediakan struktur solidaritas dan saling membantu di lingkungan perkotaan.” Kode etik mereka pergi dengan nama futuwwa. Mereka menyatakan kualitas bangsawan, kejujuran, kesetiaan, dan keberanian. Setiap asosiasi memiliki kostum khas, dan anggota bertemu secara teratur di loge mereka atau rumah mereka sendiri. Ibnu Batutah adalah “sangat heran pada kemurahan hati mereka dan bangsawan bawaan.”

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 Anatolia
 

Ibnu Batutah, lagi-lagi kembali ke Mekkah untuk berziarah ketiga. Meskipun tidak ada yang tahu berapa lama ia tinggal di sana atau apa lagi yang dia lakukan, kita tahu bahwa itu tempat ia memutuskan untuk benar-benar pergi ke India. Dia belajar bahwa Sultan Delhi mengundang cendekiawan Muslim dan langkah pertamanya adalah menemukan panduan, atau lebih mungkin seorang penerjemah yang tahu bagaimana berbicara Persia. Disayangkan tidak ada untuk membimbing ke India.

Ia memberanikan diri kembali ke Lembah Nil (Mesir) dan Palestina dan akhirnya melanjutkan ke Anatolia. Ia mengunjungi kota-kota Alanya, dan Anatilya setelahnya. Di antara orang-orang bahwa dia adalah sarjana muslim meeted lain yang menyambutnya dengan makanan dan tempat berlindung. Akhirnya, ia tiba di pelabuhan Sinop di Laut Hitam, di mana berhenti berikutnya akan menjadi padang rumput.

1333

Ibnu Batutah mencapai India
1333
Ibnu Batutah sampai di India pada 1333. Sultan muslim (raja) memerintah sebagian dari India. Sekarang, banyak yang mendengar tentang Ibnu Batutah dan perjalanannya. Sultan Delhi menyambut dia dengan hadiah dan uang, suatu bentuk keramahan bahwa ia datang ke harapkan dari para penguasa yang ia kunjungi. Ketenaran telah membuatnya mendapatkan kekayaan. Dia tidak lagi pergi sendirian, tapi dengan pelayan dan harem. Sultan juga membuatnya menjadi kadi, seorang hakim Muslim. Dia diadakan ini selama beberapa tahun. Ketika pemberontakan meletus, namun, sultan menjadi curiga banyak di sekitarnya, bahkan Ibnu Batutah. Ibnu Batutah sempat ditangkap. Ketika dirilis, ia melarikan diri Delhi. Tapi sultan memanggilnya kembali. Banyak kejutan Ibn Bathuthah itu, sultan menunjuk dia sebagai duta kepada kaisar Cina

1333

 

Ibn Battuta reached India in 1333. Muslim sultans (kings) ruled most of India. By now, many had heard of Ibn Battuta and his travels. The sultan of Delhi welcomed him with gifts and money, a form of hospitality that he came to expect from the rulers he visited. His fame had earned him wealth. He no longer traveled alone, but with servants and a harem. The sultan also made him a qadi, a Muslim judge. He held this post for several years. When a rebellion broke out, however, the sultan grew suspicious of many around him, even of Ibn Battuta. Ibn Battuta was briefly arrested. When released, he fled Delhi. But the sultan called him back. Much to Ibn Battuta’s surprise, the sultan appointed him as his ambassador to the emperor of China

 

 

In 1333

the Moor, Abu Abdullah Ibn Battuta (1304-1377)

described Samarkand

as “one of the largest and most perfectly beautiful cities in the world.” [1] For the nineteenth century poet, James Elroy Flecker, Samarkand was on a par with Heaven: “Death has no repose warmer and deeper than that Orient sand.” [2] Many others, including Keats, Milton, and Oscar Wilde, have also written about its charms – a spectacular oasis in the desert plains.

From a long history of invasion and a crucial position on the East/West trade routes emerged a city fit for kings – its name derives from Cimes-quinte, literally ‘great town’. Arguably, Samarkand’s most renowned ruler was the Turko-Mongol warrior Tamerlane (1336-1405) or Timur the Lame , who rebuilt the city on the Zarafshan River after the Mongols had largely destroyed it during its capture under Ghengis Khan in 1221. Tamerlane made the city the seat of his considerable power. His successor, Shah Rukh, moved his capital to Herat leaving his son Ulugh Bek to rule Samarkand.

If Tamerlane’s legacy in Asia was a vast empire, in Samarkand it was architecture to reflect such might and magnificence. As an old Arab proverb remarks on one of the buildings “if you want to know about us, observe our buildings.” [3] Principle among these was the Bibi Khanum Mosque, which is still standing, and was to be grander than anything Tamerlane had seen during his conquests. It was built between 1399 and 1404 by 600 slaves and 100 elephants from India, and 200 architects, artists, master craftsmen and masons. It was declared that “its dome would have been unique had it not been for the heavens, its portal would have been unique if it were not for the Milky Way.” [4] Another example of such architecture is the Taj Mahal in Agra, built by Shah Jahnon who himself was a Timurid.

 

Tamerlane

Samarkand also boasted a population fit for such a capital. Tamerlane brought captives from every land he conquered. “From Damascus he brought weavers of silk, and men who made bows, glass and earthenware… From Turkey he brought archers, masons, and silversmiths.” [5] There were also stone-masons from Azerbaijan, Isfahan and Delhi and mosaic-workers from Shiraz, all in such numbers that “the city was not large enough to hold them.” [6]

The population was reported to be over half a million, and netting half the commerce of Asia – such as leather, wool, linen, spices, silk, precious stones, fruit, hounds, horses and even leopards and lions. This was because the city was positioned at the heart of the Great Silk Road, a trading network running from Europe to Japan. The stops along the way, including Samarkand, were points of contact, not just for trade, but also for ideas, philosophies, knowledge and opinions.

 

Tamerlane’s descendants shared his love of creation, if not his love of war and conquest, and under the Timurid dynasty this part of Asia experienced a period of Muslim learning in the arts and sciences. It was noted that “from the time of Adam until this day no age, period, cycle or moment can be indicated in which people enjoyed such peace and tranquility.” [7]

The city was invaded by the Uzbeks in 1447, and again 50 years later, when they stayed to set up a new Turkic dynasty. Samarkand’s modern-day fate was sealed by the Russian invasion in 1868. Following the collapse of the Soviet empire in 1990 the city now stands as the second major city of Uzbekistan.

[1] Umid World

[2] from the poem, The Golden Journey to Samarkand by James Elroy Flecker, available on-line.

[3] Cited by Lisa Golombek, lecture, University of Victoria, 25 February 1988, Oxus Communications

[4] Virtourist.com

[5] ‘Narrative of the Embassy of Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo to the Court of Timour at Samarcand AD 1403-6′, New York: Burt Franklin p171

The Golden Road to Samarkand.

Mural, Samarkand,

 

  • 1342

Ib Battuta set sail for China in 1342, but was shipwrecked. He eventually arrived by sea in southern China in 1346. This was about a half-century after Marco Polo had left China

Ibn Battuta arrived in Tangier late in 1349
1349

Ibn Battuta arrived in Tangier late in 1349. He had been away from home for 24 years. He learned that his mother had died of the plague a few months earlier, and his father had died years before

Ibn Battuta left the Mali capital early in 1353, heading down the Niger River for Timbuktu. This city of about 10,000 people was never a military stronghold or seat of a king. Instead, its fame rested on its reputation as a city of scholars


p

After visiting with the qadi, scholars, and merchants of Timbuktu, Ibn Battuta joined a caravan going north to Morocco. He arrived home early in 1354. This ended his travels to foreign lands. Altogether, he covered about 75,000 miles in 29 years, meeting with 60 rulers in Asia and Africa. He probably had several wives. (Islamic law permitted a man up to four wives at once

IBN BATTUTA  OF MOROCCO

From Wikipedia

 

Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Abdullah Al Lawati Al Tanji Ibn Battuta

Full name Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Abdullah Al Lawati Al Tanji Ibn Battuta Born February, 1304 Tangier, Morocco Died 1368 or 1369

Ibn Battuta was a Moroccan Berber Muslim scholar and traveller who is known for the account of his travels and excursions called the Rihla (Voyage) in Arabic. His journeys lasted for a period of nearly thirty years and covered almost the entirety of the known Islamic world and beyond, extending from North Africa, West Africa, Southern Europe and Eastern Europe in the West, to the Middle East, Indian subcontinent, Central Asia, Southeast Asia and China in the East, a distance readily surpassing that of his predecessors and his near-contemporary Marco Polo. With this extensive account of his journey, Ibn Battuta is often considered as one of the greatest travellers ever.

A 13th century book illustration produced in Baghdad by al-Wasiti showing a group of pilgrims on a Hajj. All that is known about Ibn Battuta’s life comes from the autobiographical information included in the account of his travels. Ibn Battuta was born into a family of Islamic legal scholars in Tangier, Morocco, on February 24, 1304 during the time of the Marinid dynasty.[2] As a young man he would have studied the Sunni Maliki “school” of Muslim law which was dominant in North Africa at the time.[3] In June 1325, when he was twenty one years old, Ibn Battuta set off from his hometown on a hajj (pilgrimage) to Mecca, a journey that would take 16 months, but he would not see Morocco again for 24 years. His journey to Mecca was by land, and followed the North African coast crossing the sultanates of Abd al-Wadid and Hafsid. His route passed through Tlemcen, Béjaïa and then to Tunis where he stayed for two months. He usually chose to join a caravan to reduce the risk of being attacked. In the town of Sfax, he got married for the first of several occasions on his journeys. In the early spring of 1326, after a journey of over 3,500 km (2,200 mi), Ibn Battuta arrived at the port of Alexandria, then part of the Bahri Mamluk empire.

He spent several weeks visiting the sites and then headed inland to Cairo, a large important city and capital of the Mamluk kingdom, where he stayed for about a month. Within Mamluk territory, travelling was relatively safe and he embarked on the first of his many detours. Three commonly used routes existed to Mecca, and Ibn Battuta chose the least-travelled: a journey up the Nile valley, then east to the Red Sea port of Aydhab.[4] However, upon approaching the town he was forced to turn back due to a local rebellion. Returning to Cairo, Ibn Battuta took a second side trip to Damascus (then controlled by the Mamluks), having encountered a holy man during his first trip who prophesied that he would only reach Mecca after a journey through Syria. An additional advantage to the side journey was that other holy places lay along the route—Hebron, Jerusalem, and Bethlehem—and the Mamluk authorities made great efforts to keep the routes safe for pilgrims. After spending the Muslim month of Ramadan in Damascus, he joined up with a caravan travelling the 1,500 km (930 mi) from Damascus to Medina, burial place of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. After 4 days in the town, he journeyed on to Mecca. There he completed the usual rituals of a Muslim pilgrim, and having graduated to the status of al-Hajji, faced his return home but instead decided to continue journeying. His next destination was the Ilkhanate situated in modern-day Iraq and Iran. Iraq and Persia

An interactive display about Ibn Battuta in Ibn Battuta Mall in Dubai, United Arab Emirates On 17 November 1326, after a month in Mecca, Ibn Battuta joined a large caravan of pilgrims returning across the Arabian Peninsula to Iraq.[5] The caravan first went north to Medina and then, travelling at night, headed northeastwards across the Nejd plateau to Najaf, a journey lasting approximately 44 days. In Najaf he visited the mausoleum of Ali (Ali ibn Abi Talib), the fourth Rashidun (rightly guided Caliph), and son-in-law of Muhammad, a site venerated particularly by the Shi’a community. At this point, instead of continuing on to Baghdad with the caravan, Ibn Battuta started a 6 month detour that took him into Persia. From Najaf he journeyed to Wasit and then south following the Tigris to Basra. His next destination was the town of Esfahan across the Zagros Mountains in Persia. From there he headed south to Shiraz, a large flourishing city which had been spared the destruction wrought by the Mongol invasion on many more northerly towns. Finally, he headed back across the mountains to Baghdad arriving there in June 1327. Parts of the city were in ruins as it had been heavily damaged by the army of Hulagu Khan. In Baghdad he found that Abu Sa’id, the last Mongol ruler of the unified Ilkhanid state was leaving the city and heading north with a large retinue. Ibn Battuta travelled with the royal caravan for a while, then turned north to Tabriz on the Silk Road. It had been the first major city in the region to open its gates to the Mongols and had become an important trading centre after most of its nearby rivals were razed. On returning again to Baghdad, probably in July, he took an excursion northwards following the Tigris, visiting Mosul, then Cizre and Mardin, both in modern Turkey. On returning to Mosul he joined a “feeder” caravan of pilgrims heading south for Baghdad where they met up with the main caravan that crossed the Arabian Desert to Mecca. Ibn Battuta was ill with diarrhea on this crossing and arrived back in Mecca weak and exhausted for his second hajj. East Africa

Ibn Battuta then stayed for some time in Mecca. He suggests in the Rihla that he remained in the town for three years: from September 1327 until autumn 1330. However, because of problems with the chronology, commentators have suggested that he may have spent only one year and left after the hajj of 1328.[6] Leaving Mecca after the hajj in 1328 (or 1330) he made his way to the port of Jeddah on the coast of the Red Sea and from there caught a series of boats down the coast. His progress was slow as the vessels had to beat against the south easterly winds. Arriving in the Yemen he visited Zabid, and then the highland town of Ta’izz where he met the Rasulid Malik (king) Mujahid Nur al-Din Ali. Ibn Battuta also mentions visiting Sana’a, but whether he actually did is doubtful.[7] It is more likely that he went directly from Ta’izz to the port of Aden, arriving at around the beginning of 1329 (or 1331).[8] Aden was an important transit centre in the trade between India and Europe. In Aden, he embarked on a ship heading first to Zeila on the African shore of the Gulf of Aden and then on around Cape Guardafui and down the East African coast. Spending about a week in each of his destinations, he visited Mogadishu, Mombasa, Zanzibar, and Kilwa, among others. With the change of the monsoon, he returned by ship to Arabia and visited Oman and the Strait of Hormuz. He then returned to Mecca for the hajj of 1330 (or 1332). Byzantine Empire, Golden Horde, Anatolia, Central Asia and India

After spending another year in Mecca, Ibn Battuta resolved to seek employment with the Muslim Sultan of Delhi, Muhammad bin Tughluq. Needing a guide and translator for his journey, he set off in 1330 (or 1332) to Anatolia, then under the control of the Seljuqs, to join up with one of the caravans that went from there to India. A sea voyage from the Syrian port of Latakia on a Genoese ship landed him in Alanya on the southern coast of modern-day Turkey. From Alanya he travelled by land to Konya and then to Sinope on the Black Sea coast.[9] Crossing the Black Sea, Ibn Battuta landed in Caffa (now Feodosiya), in the Crimea, and entered the lands of the Golden Horde. He bought a wagon and fortuitously was able to join the caravan of Ozbeg, the Golden Horde’s Khan, on a journey as far as Astrakhan on the Volga River. Upon reaching Astrakhan, the Khan allowed one of his pregnant wives, Princess Bayalun, supposedly an illegitimate daughter of Byzantine Emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos, to return to her home city of Constantinople to give birth. Ibn Battuta talked his way into this expedition, his first beyond the boundaries of the Islamic world.[10] Arriving in Constantinople towards the end of 1332 (or 1334), he met the Byzantine emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos and saw the outside of the great church of Hagia Sophia. After a month in the city, he retraced his route to Astrakhan, then continued past the Caspian and Aral Seas to Bukhara and Samarkand. From there, he journeyed south to Afghanistan, the mountain passes of which he used to cross into India.[11] The Delhi Sultanate was a new addition to Dar al-Islam, and Sultan Muhammad bin Tughluq had resolved to import as many Muslim scholars and other functionaries as possible to consolidate his rule. On the strength of his years of study while in Mecca, Ibn Battuta was employed as a qazi (“judge”) by the sultan. Tughlaq was erratic even by the standards of the time, and Ibn Battuta veered between living the high life of a trusted subordinate, and being under suspicion for a variety of treasons against the government. Eventually he resolved to leave on the pretext of taking another hajj, but the Sultan asked him to become his ambassador to Yuan Dynasty China. Given the opportunity to both get away from the Sultan and visit new lands, Ibn Battuta took the opportunity. Southeast Asia and China

En route to the coast, he and his party were attacked by Hindus,[12] and, separated from the others, he was robbed and nearly lost his life.[13] Nevertheless, he managed to catch up with his group within ten days and continued the journey to Khambhat (Cambay). From there, they sailed to Kozhikode (Calicut) (two centuries later, Vasco da Gama also landed at the same place). However, while Ibn Battuta visited a mosque on shore, a storm came up, and one of the ships of his expedition were sunk.[14] The other then sailed away without him and ended up being seized by a local king in Sumatra a few months later. Fearful of returning to Delhi as a failure, he stayed for a time in the south of India under the protection of Jamal-ud-Din. Jamal-ud-Din was ruler of a small but powerful Nawayath sultanate on the banks of the Sharavathi River on the Arabian Sea coast. This place is presently known as Hosapattana and is located in the Honavar tehsil of Uttara Kannada district. When the sultanate was overthrown, it became necessary for Ibn Battuta to leave India altogether. He resolved to carry on to China, with a detour near the beginning of the journey to the Maldives. He spent nine months in the Maldive Islands, much longer than he had intended. As a qadi, his skills were highly desirable in these formerly Buddhist islands that had been recently converted to Islam, and he was half-bribed, half-kidnapped into staying.

Appointed chief judge and marrying into the royal family of Omar I, he became embroiled in local politics and ended up leaving after wearing out his welcome by imposing strict judgments in the laissez-faire island kingdom. In the Rihla he mentions his dismay at the local women going about with no clothing above the waist, and remarking his criticism of this practice, but being ignored by the locals. From there, he carried on to Sri Lanka for a visit to Adam’s Peak (Sri Pada). Setting sail from Sri Lanka, his ship nearly sank in a storm, then the ship that rescued him was attacked by pirates. Stranded on shore, Ibn Battuta once again worked his way back to Kozhikode, from where he then sailed to the Maldives again before getting on board a Chinese junk and trying once again to get to the Mongol Yuan Dynasty China. This time he succeeded, reaching in quick succession Chittagong, Sumatra, Vietnam, the Philippines and then finally Quanzhou in Fujian Province, China. From there, he went north to Hangzhou, not far from modern-day Shanghai. He also described travelling further north, through the Grand Canal to Beijing, although it is considered unlikely that he actually did so.[15] Return home and the Black Death

Returning to Quanzhou, Ibn Battuta decided to return home to Morocco. Returning to Calicut(Kozhikode now) once again, he considered throwing himself at the mercy of Muhammed Tughlaq but thought better of it and decided to carry on to Mecca. Returning via Hormuz and the Ilkhanate, he saw that the state had dissolved into civil war with Abu Sa’id having died since his previous trip there. Returning to Damascus with the intention of retracing the route of his first hajj, he learned that his father had died. Death was the theme of the next year or so, for the Black Death had begun, and Ibn Battuta was on hand as it spread through Syria, Palestine, and Arabia. After reaching Mecca, he decided to return to Morocco, nearly a quarter century after leaving it. During the trip he made one last detour to Sardinia, then returned to Tangier to discover that his mother had also died, a few months before. Andalus and North Africa

After a few days in Tangier, Ibn Battuta set out for a trip to al-Andalus—Muslim Iberia. Alfonso XI of Castile and León was threatening the conquest of Gibraltar, and Ibn Battuta joined up with a group of Muslims leaving Tangier with the intention of defending the port. By the time he arrived, the Black Death had killed Alfonso, and the threat had receded, so Ibn Battuta decided to visit for pleasure instead. He travelled through Valencia and ended up in Granada. Leaving al-Andalus, he decided to travel through one of the few parts of the Muslim world that he had never explored: Morocco. On his return home, he stopped for a while in Marrakech, which was nearly a ghost town after the recent plague and the transfer of the capital to Fez. Once more he returned to Tangier, and once more he moved on. Two years before his own first visit to Cairo, the Malian Mansa (king of kings) Musa had passed through the same city on his own hajj and had caused a sensation with his extravagant riches—West Africa contained vast quantities of gold, previously unknown to the rest of the world. While Ibn Battuta never mentions this specifically, hearing of this during his own trip could have planted a seed in his mind, for he decided to set out and visit the Muslim kingdom on the far side of the Sahara desert. The Sahara Desert to Mali and Timbuktu

A 13th century book illustration produced in Baghdad by al-Wasiti showing a slave-market in the town of Zabid in Yemen. In the autumn of 1351, Ibn Battuta left Fes and made his way to the town of Sijilmasa on the northern edge of the Sahara desert in present day Morocco.[16] There he bought some camels and stayed for four months. He set out again with a caravan in February 1352 and after 25 days, arrived at the salt mines of Taghaza which were situated in the bed of a dry salt lake. The buildings were constructed from slabs of salt by slaves of the Masufa tribe, who cut the salt in thick slabs for transport by camel. Taghaza was a commercial centre and awash with Malian gold, though Ibn Battuta did not have a favourable impression of the place: the water was brackish and the place was plagued with flies. After a 10 day stay in Taghaza the caravan set out for the oasis of Tasarahla (probably Bir al-Ksaib)[17] where it stopped for 3 days to prepare for the last and most difficult leg of the journey across a vast sand desert. From Tasarahla a Masufa scout was sent ahead to the oasis town of Oualata to arrange for a party to bring water a distance of four days travel to meet the thirsty caravan. Oualata was the southern terminus of the trans-Saharan trade route and had recently become part of the Mali Empire. Altogether, the caravan took two months to cross the 1,600 km (990 mi) of desert from Sijilmasa.[18] From there, he travelled southwest along a river he believed to be the Nile (it was actually the Niger River) until he reached the capital of the Mali Empire.[19] There he met Mansa Suleyman, king since 1341. Dubious about the miserly hospitality of the king, he nevertheless stayed for eight months. Ibn Battuta disapproved that female slaves, servants and even the daughters of the sultan went about completely naked. He left the capital in February and journeyed overland by camel to Timbuktu.[20] Though in the next two centuries it would become the most important city in the region, at the time it was small and unimpressive, and Ibn Battuta soon moved on by boat to Gao where he spent a month. While at the oasis of Takedda on his journey back across the desert, he received a message from the Sultan of Morocco commanding him to return home. He set off for Sijilmasa in September 1353 accompanying a large caravan transporting 600 black female slaves. He arrived back in Morocco early in 1354. The Rihla

After returning home from his travels in 1354 and at the instigation of the Sultan of Morocco, Abu Inan Faris, Ibn Battuta dictated an account of his journeys to Ibn Juzayy, a scholar whom he had met previously in Granada. The account, recorded by Ibn Juzayy and interspersed with the latter’s own comments, is the only source of information on his adventures. The title of the manuscript may be translated as A Gift to Those Who Contemplate the Wonders of Cities and the Marvels of Travelling but is often simply referred to as the Rihla or “The Journey”. There is no indication that Ibn Battuta made any notes during his 29 years of travelling, so, when he came to dictate an account of his adventures, he had to rely on his memory and to make use of manuscripts produced by earlier travellers. When describing Damascus, Mecca, Medina and some other places in the Middle East, Ibn Juzayy clearly copied passages from the 12th century account by Ibn Jubayr.[21] Similarly, most of Ibn Juzayy’s descriptions of places in Palestine were copied from an account by the 13th century traveller Muhammad al-Abdari.[22]

House in the Medina of Tangier perhaps lodging Ibn Battuta’s grave.

Western Orientalists do not believe that Ibn Battuta visited all the places that he described and argue that in order to provide a comprehensive description of places in the Muslim world Ibn Battuta relied on hearsay evidence and made use of accounts by earlier travellers. For example, it is considered very unlikely that Ibn Battuta made a trip up the Volga River from New Sarai to visit Bolghar[23] and there are serious doubts about a number of other journeys such as his trip to Sana’a in Yemen,[24] his journey from Balkh to Bistam in Khorasan[25] and his trip around Anatolia.[26] Some orientalists have also questioned whether he really visited China.[27] Nevertheless, whilst apparently fictional in places, the Rihla provides an important account of many areas of the world in the 14th century. Ibn Battuta often experienced culture shock in regions he visited where local customs of recently converted peoples did not fit his orthodox Muslim background. Among Turks and Mongols, he was astonished at the way women behaved (he remarked that on seeing a Turkish couple, and noting the woman’s freedom of speech, he had assumed that the man was the woman’s servant, but he was in fact her husband) and he felt that dress customs in the Maldives, and some sub-Saharan regions in Africa were too revealing. After the completion of the Rihla in 1355, little is known about Ibn Battuta’s life. He was appointed a judge in Morocco and died in 1368 or 1369.[28] For centuries his book was obscure, even within the Muslim world, but in the early 1800s extracts were published in German and English based on manuscripts discovered in the Middle East containing abridged versions of Ibn Juzayy’s Arabic text. When French forces occupied Algeria in the 1830’s they discovered five manuscripts in Constantine including two that contained more complete versions of the text.[29] These manuscripts were brought back to the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris and studied by the French scholars, Charles Defrémery and Beniamino Sanguinetti. Beginning in 1853, they published a series of four volumes containing the Arabic text, extensive notes and a translation into French.[30] Defrémery and Sanguinetti’s printed text has now been translated into many other languages. Ibn Battuta has grown in fame and is now a well-known figure.

 

Places visited by Ibn Battuta

 

. Ibn Battuta travelled almost 75,000 miles in his lifetime. Here is a list of places he visited. Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia Tangier Fes Marrakech Tlemcen (Tilimsan) Miliana Algiers Djurdjura Mountains Béjaïa Constantine – Named as Qusantînah. Annaba – Also called Bona. Tunis – At that time, Abu Yahya (son of Abu Zajaria) was the sultan of Tunis. Sousse – Also called Susah. Sfax Gabès Libya Tripoli Mamluk Empire Cairo Alexandria Jerusalem Bethlehem Hebron Damascus Latakia Egypt Syria Arabian Peninsula Medina – Visited the tomb of Prophet Muhammad. Jeddah – A major port for pilgrims to Mecca. Mecca – Performed the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca. Rabigh – city north of Jeddah on the Red Sea. Oman Dhofar Bahrain Al-Hasa Strait of Hormuz Yemen Qatif Byzantine Empire and Eastern Europe Konya Antalya Bulgaria Azov Kazan Volga River Constantinople Central Asia Khwarezm and Khorasan (now Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Eastern Iran and Afghanistan) Bukhara and Samarqand Pashtun areas of eastern Afghanistan and Pakistan) India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh Punjab region (now in Pakistan and northern India) Delhi Uttar Pradesh Deccan Konkan Coast Kozhikode Malabar Coromandel Coast- In India. Bengal now Bangladesh and West Bengal Brahmaputra River in Bangladesh visited the area on his way to China. Meghna River near Dhaka Sylhet met Muslim saint Hazrat Shah Jalal Yamani, commonly known as Shah Jalal. China Quanzhou – as he called in his book the city of donkeys Hangzhou — Ibn Battuta referred to this city in his book as “Madinat Alkhansa”.

He also mentioned that it was the largest city in the world at that time; it took him three days to walk across the city. Beijing – Ibn Battuta mentioned in his journey to Beijing how neat the city was. Other places in Asia Burma (Myanmar) Maldives Sri Lanka – Known to the Arabs of his time as Serendip. Sumatra Malay Peninsula Malaysia Philippines – Ibn Battuta visited the Kingdom of Sultan Tawalisi, Tawi-Tawi, the country’s southernmost province. Somalia and East Africa Mogadishu Berbera Kilwa Mombasa Mali West Africa Timbuktu Gao Takedda Mauritania Oualata (Walata) During most of his journey in the Mali Empire, Ibn Battuta travelled with a retinue that included slaves, most of whom carried goods for trade but would also be traded as slaves. On the return from Takedda to Morocco, his caravan transported 600 female slaves, suggesting that slavery was a substantial part of the commercial activity of the empire.[31]

Popular culture

Ibn Battuta was depicted in the 2009 Hollywood film Ninja Assassin. Ibn Batuta pehen ke joota is a popular Hindi nursery rhyme from the 1970s, written by the poet Sarveshwar Dayal Saxena.[32] Ibn-E-Batuta is a song from the 2010 Bollywood film Ishqiya, titled after Ibn Batuta. See also

Geography in medieval Islam

List of explorers Ibn Battuta Mall in Dubai Ibn Battuta (crater), the lunar landmark Xuanzang, Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveller, and translator, who travelled around the same region of the Silk Road and India. Evliya Çelebi Way Journey to Mecca (2009 film) Benjamin of Tudela

Notes

^ Nehru, Jawaharlal (1989). Glimpses of World History. Oxford University Press. pp. 752. ISBN 0195613236.. After outlining the extensive route of Ibn Battuta’s Journey, Nehru notes: “This is a record of travel which is rare enough today with our many conveniences…. In any event, Ibn Battuta must be amongst the great travellers of all time.”

^ Dunn 2005, p. 19 ^ Dunn 2005, p. 22

^ Aydhad was a port situated on the west coast of the Red Sea at 22°19’51? N 36°29’25? E. See Peacock,

David; Peacock, Andrew (2008), “The enigma of ‘Aydhab: a medieval Islamic port on the Red Sea coast”, International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 37: 32–48, doi: 10.1111/j. 1095-9270.2007.00172. x

^ Dunn 2005, pp. 89-103

^ Ibn Battuta states that he stayed in Mecca for the hajj of 1327, 1328, 1329 and 1330 but gives comparatively little information on his stay. After the hajj of 1330 he left for East Africa, arriving back again in Mecca before the 1332 hajj. He states that he then left for India and arrived at the Indus river on 12 September 1333; however, although he does not specify exact dates, the description of his complex itinerary and the clues in the text to the chronology suggest that this journey to India lasted around three years. He must have therefore either left Mecca two years earlier than stated or arrived in India two years later. The problems with the chronology are discussed by Gibb 1962, pp. 528-537 Vol. 2, Hrbek 1962 and Dunn 2005, pp. 132-133.

^ Dunn 2005, pp. 115-116, 134 ^ Gibb 1962, p. 373 Vol. 2 ^ Dunn 2005, pp. 137-156 ^ Dunn 2005, pp. 169-171 ^ Dunn 2005, pp. 171-178 ^ Dunn 2005, p. 215

^ Gibb & Beckingham 1994, pp. 773-782 Vol. 4; Dunn 2005, pp. 213-217

^ Gibb & Beckingham 1994, pp. 814-815 Vol. 4 ^ Dunn 2005, pp. 259-261

^ Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1853, p. 376 Vol. 4; Levtzion & Hopkins 2000, p. 282; Dunn 2005, p. 295

^ Levtzion & Hopkins 2000, p. 457. Bir al-Ksaib (also Bir Ounane or El Gçaib) is in northern Mali at 21°17’33? N 5°37’30? W. The oasis is 265 km (165 mi) south of Taghaza and 470 km (290 mi) north of Oualata.

^ Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1853, p. 385 Vol. 4; Levtzion & Hopkins 2000, p. 284; Dunn 2005, p. 298

^ Ibn Battuta’s itinerary is uncertain as the location of the capital of the Mali Empire is not known.

^ Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1853, p. 430 Vol. 4; Levtzion & Hopkins 2000, p. 299; Gibb & Beckingham 1994, pp. 969-970 Vol. 4; Dunn 2005, p. 304

^ Dunn 2005, pp. 313-314 ^ Dunn 2005, pp. 63-64

^ Dunn 2005, p. 179 ^ Dunn 2005, p. 134 Note 17 ^ Dunn 2005, p. 180 Note 3

^ Dunn 2005, p. 157 Note 13

^ Dunn 2005, p. 253 and 262 Note 20

^ Gibb 1958, p. ix Vol. 1; Dunn 2005, p. 318

^ Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1853, p. xx

^ Defrémery & Sanguinetti 1853-1858 ^ Candice Goucher, Charles LeGuin, and Linda Walton, Trade, Transport, Temples, and Tribute: The Economics of Power, in In the Balance: Themes in Global History
(Boston: McGraw-Hill, 1998)

^ Jyothi Prabhakar (4 February 2010). “Why credit for Ibn-e-Batuta asks Gulzar”. The Times of India. Retrieved 2010-03-14.

References

Defrémery, C.; Sanguinetti, B. R. trans. and eds. (1853-1858), Voyages d’Ibn Batoutah (Arabic and French text) 4 vols., Paris: Société Asiatic. Google books: Volume 1, Volume 2, Volume 3, Volume 4.

Dunn, Ross E. (2005), The Adventures of Ibn Battuta, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-24385-4. First published in 1986, ISBN 0-520-05771-6.

Gibb, H. A. R. trans. (1929), Ibn Battuta Travels in Asia and Africa (selections), London: Routledge. Reissued several times. Extracts are available on the Fordham University site.

Gibb, H. A. R.; Beckingham, C. F. trans. and eds. (1958, 1962, 1971, 1994, 2000), The Travels of Ibn Ba?? u? a, A. D. 1325–1354 (full text) 4 vols. + index, London: Hakluyt Society, ISBN 978-0904180374.

Hrbek, Ivan (1962), “The chronology of Ibn Battuta’s travels”, Archiv Orientalni 30: 409–486.

Levtzion, Nehemia; Hopkins, John F. P., eds. (2000), Corpus of Early Arabic Sources for West Africa, New York, NY: Marcus Weiner Press, ISBN 1-55876-241-8. First published in 1981. Pages 279-304 contain Ibn Battuta’s account of his visit to West Africa.

Mackintosh-Smith, Tim (ed.) (2003), The Travels of Ibn Battutah, Picador, ISBN 0-330-41879-3.

Further reading

Gordon, Stewart. 2008. When Asia was the World: Traveling Merchants, Scholars, Warriors, and Monks who created the “Riches of the East.” Da Capo Press, Perseus Books. ISBN 0-306-81556-7. External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Ibn Battuta

A Tangerine in Delhi — Saudi Aramco World article by Tim Mackintosh-Smith (March/April 2006).

The Longest Hajj: The Journeys of Ibn Battuta — Saudi Aramco World article by Douglas Bullis (July/August 2000).

Google Books — link to a 2004 reissue of Gibb’s 1929 translation.

Ibn Battuta — educational site of Harcourt School Publishers.

The Adventures of Ibn Battuta — excerpts from the book by Ross Dunn on the San Francisco Unified School District site. French text from Defrémery and Sanguinetti (1853–1858) with an introduction and footnotes by Stéphane Yérasimos published in 1982: Volume 1, Volume 2, Volume 3.

 

bn Battuta first set foot in a boat in 1330. He was 27 years old and already an experienced and resourceful traveler. The boat was a jalba, one of the notorious Red Sea craft described more than a millennium earlier in The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, made of planks sewn together with coir and waterproofed with shark oil.

 

This detail is from a 1598 painting in the manuscript of the “Baburnama,” and it shows the walls of Gwalior. NATIONAL MUSEUM, DELHI / JEAN-LOUIS NOU / AKG-IMAGES

He was in Jiddah, about to embark for Yemen and possibly one of the Gujarati ports beyond, for he had already heard that the Muslim ruler of Delhi was recruiting learned men to help with the administration of his sultanate. His companion, Mansur, urged Ibn Battuta to join him in his own jalba, but Ibn Battuta declined: “I did so because his jalba was also loaded with a number of camels, and since I had never before made a sea voyage, this terrified me.”

He was right to be worried. After two days’ sail, the wind shifted and the little fleet was driven off course. A storm rose, waves broke over the gunwales, and the passengers were seasick. The boats were finally beached not in Yemen but on the opposite shore, on the African coast between ‘Aydhab and Suakin.

The travelers hired camels and made their way south through the desert to the little island of Suakin, in the center of a deep bay surrounded by coral reefs. The ruler was Zayd ibn Abi Numayy, son of the governor of Makkah and, as it happened, brother of Ibn Battuta’s traveling companion. Their return trip across the Red Sea took six days, for although the distance is short, the lateral crossing of the Red Sea can be extremely difficult unless the winds are right.

The travelers made their way inland. Ta‘izz was the capital of Yemen and the residence of the sultan of the governing dynasty, the Rasulids, a Turkish military elite like many other dynasties of the time. Later, Ibn Battuta would find that court ceremonies here resembled those of Delhi, “but I don’t know whether the sultans of India copied the sultans of Yemen, or the sultans of Yemen copied those of India.”

Ibn Battuta next went to Aden, at the time the largest and richest of all the emporia on the Indian Ocean. “It is a big city,” he says, “but no crops, trees or water are found there; during the rainy season water is collected in reservoirs. These lie some distance from the town and the Bedouin often cut the road and prevent the townspeople from reaching them unless they are bribed with money and pieces of cloth…. It is the port for the merchants of India.” He goes on to list the Indian ports whose ships called, all on the west coast of India.

If Aden was as rich as Ibn Battuta says, how could the inhabitants allow the Bedouin to cut them off from their water supply? Though the traveler notes this almost in passing, it tells us something about the nature of the ruling dynasties of the 14th-century world.

Quite simply, the Rasulids of Yemen, the Mamluks of Egypt and Syria and the Delhi sultans all ruled vast dominions with too few troops. Control of their hinterlands, the spaces between major cities, was almost impossible. Even at the best of times, the ruler’s authority weakened as distance from the capital increased.

These military dynasties, whose efficacy lay in their “otherness,” had constantly to purchase new members in order to perpetuate themselves. Saladin, the founder of the Ayyubid Dynasty that ruled Egypt and Syria (and, briefly, Yemen), was a Kurd, and the sultans of Delhi and the Rasulids of Yemen were Turks, linguistically and culturally alien to the people they ruled.

The extreme example of this is the Mamluk Dynasty of Egypt, composed of Turco-Mongols and Circassians. Only slaves purchased in Central Asia or the Caucasus, usually as children, were allowed to join the ranks of the ruling caste. They were put through a rigorous course of training in the martial arts, at the completion of which they were granted their freedom.

After visiting Aden, Ibn Battuta sailed in 1331 to the East African coast, where he found another kind of state—port cities that might almost be called merchant republics. Mogadishu, now in Somalia, was the first he visited: “Mogadishu is a very large town. The people are merchants and very rich. They own large herds of camels…and also sheep. Here they manufacture the textiles called after the name of the town; these are of superior quality and are exported to Egypt and other places.”

 

As soon as he was settled in Mogadishu, the sultan sent him two small welcoming gifts: a plate of betel leaves and areca nuts, and a vial of Damascus rosewater. The first was the ritual welcoming gift of India, a custom that had spread to East Africa, and the rosewater from Damascus was to rinse his hands—another indication of far-flung commercial contact. The ceremonial meal that followed makes a similar, if more elaborate, point:

They eat rice cooked with ghee, which is served on a large wooden platter. On top they set dishes of kushan. These are relishes, composed of chicken, meat, fish and vegetables. In one dish they serve green bananas in fresh milk, in another yogurt with pickled lemon, bunches of pepper pickled in vinegar and salt, green ginger and mangoes. These are like apples, but with a pit. They are very sweet when ripe, but when immature are acid like lemons; they pickle the unripe mangoes in vinegar. They eat a mouthful of rice, then some of the salted and pickled relishes.

The Indian influence on this meal is obvious, but it has been adapted to local tastes. The rice and pepper would have been imported, but the mangoes were probably now grown locally, as was another Indian fruit, the jammun or jambul (Eugenia jambolana, java plum), which he encountered in Mombasa. Bananas also came to East Africa from India, perhaps as early as the 10th century. Although Ibn Battuta does not mention it, the meal was almost certainly served in Chinese bowls, much prized all along the East African coast. Special niches were built into the walls of dwellings in order to display the finer pieces.

After Mogadishu, Ibn Battuta sailed further south to Mombasa and Kilwa, both important trading cities. The wealth of these cities was later to strike the Portuguese, for it was based on the export not only of gold, but also of iron, which was sent to India, worked into steel, then re-exported to the Middle East. Ivory and tortoise-shell were other valuable exports. From Kilwa Ibn Battuta sailed to Dhufar, on the coast of the Arabian Peninsula, now in Oman. This was the Incense Coast of classical times. Millet and barley, he reports, were grown near the town, irrigated from deep wells, and rice was imported from India.

The people of Dhufar are traders and have no other means of livelihood. When a ship arrives from India, the sultan’s slaves go out to meet it in little boats, taking a full set of robes for the owner and captain, as well as for the kirani, the ship’s accountant…. Everyone on board is granted hospitality for three days; when the three days are up, they are fed in the sultan’s residence. The people do this in order to win the friendship of the ship-owners. They wear cotton clothes imported from India, fastening a length of cloth around their waist in place of trousers….They manufacture silk, cotton and linen cloth of excellent quality.

The fact that a local manufacturing industry was based on imported raw materials shows how regular shipping must have been, and how Indian Ocean traffic was not just in high-value, low-bulk items like spices. Textiles were always the bread and butter of the Indian Ocean trade, their production involving many ancillary techniques and employing thousands.

Bananas and betel, both of Indian origin, were cultivated in irrigated plantations on the outskirts of Dhufar. Since remote antiquity, southern Arabia, with its maritime links to India and Ethiopia, had been the corridor for plant introductions from both East and West. Durum wheat, sorghum, cotton, sugarcane, taro, indigo, oranges, lemons and many other plants had traveled this way. Some, like wheat and sorghum, returned from India in improved varieties and were then widely diffused in Africa and Europe.

 

From top: From Aden, at the farthest western reach of the Indian Ocean and one of the richest emporia of its time, Ibn Battuta sailed down the east coast of Africa. Among his ports of call was Mombasa (center), known for exports of gold and iron. He traveled as far south as Kilwa, still well north of Sofala, the most distant Arab port on the coast (lower). The progression from Aden’s cosmopolitan bustle to Sofala’s isolation is easily seen in these colored engravings from the late 16th century. BRAUN AND HOGENBERG, CIVITATES ORBIS TERRARUM, 1572 (3)

After visiting Oman, Ibn Battuta sailed across the Gulf to Hormuz. Until 1300, Hormuz had been located on the mainland. But in that year the ruler moved to the island of Jarun for greater security. “New Hormuz” was appallingly hot and dependent on the mainland for food, fuel and water, but it was strategically placed, controlling both sides of the Gulf at its narrowest point. It was “a big handsome city with excellent markets, for it is the port of India and Sind. Indian goods are exported from here to the two Iraqs, Fars and Khurasan.” Later, Hormuz would grow to rival Aden as the western hub of Indian Ocean commerce, replacing earlier Gulf emporia like Siraf, Kish and Suhar.

On September 12, 1333, after a two-year detour through Iran, Anatolia and Central Asia, Ibn Battuta finally stood on the banks of the Indus River, the western border of the domain of Muhammad Shah II, Sultan of Delhi.

To discourage casual visitors, each person wanting to enter India had to sign a statement in front of a notary swearing that he would remain forever. He also had to bring a substantial gift for the sultan—there were agents at the border who would advance money to travelers for this purpose—in order to demonstrate the seriousness of the immigrant’s intentions; when he presented his gifts in Delhi, the newcomer would receive many times their value in reciprocal gifts from the sultan. This exchange cemented a bond with tacitly understood mutual obligations.

Ibn Battuta was advanced money by an Iraqi merchant from Tikrit and bought 30 horses and a camel-load of arrows. These were acceptable gifts for a ruler engaged in enlarging his domains, and Ibn Battuta’s prudent investment was rewarded with the post of chief jurist (qadi) of Delhi at an annual salary of 12,000 dirhams—the revenues of two villages—and a lump-sum sweetener of 12,000 dinars. Overnight, the obscure Moroccan law student became a rich man.

Two years later, famine broke out in the sultan’s territories and lasted for seven years, leading to widespread rebellion. Ibn Battuta saw that the Delhi sultanate was unraveling and applied for permission to make the pilgrimage to Makkah, the only politic way of leaving the sultan’s service. At the last minute, the sultan asked him instead to lead 15 Chinese envoys and several shiploads of gifts to the Mongol Yuan emperor Toghon Temur. Ibn Battuta leapt at the chance for a graceful exit from a difficult situation combined with the opportunity to visit a new country.

The official delegation set out in the late summer of 1341 for the port of Cambay. It was attacked on the way by Hindu marauders, showing Muhammad Shah’s tenous hold on the countryside. Ibn Battuta was captured, escaped and rejoined his party. In Cambay he found a port whose wealth was based on the export of the finest cotton textiles in India, produced in the villages of Gujarat.

The mission met the sea captain and shipowner Ibrahim, who owned six ships. They must have been large, for into one of them, the Jakar, they loaded 70 horses, gifts for the Chinese emperor. They loaded 30 other horses, together with their own mounts, into the Manurt. Ibn Battuta embarked in the Jakar, along with 50 bowmen and 50 Abyssinian warriors: “They are the lords of this sea, for even if there is only one of them in a ship, pirates and Hindus think twice about attacking.”

As they sailed down the west coast of India, Ibn Battuta counted 12 semi-autonomous states, each of which owed its existence to the Indian Ocean trade. Whether the rulers were Muslim or Hindu, commerce was largely in the hands of Muslim merchants of the most varied origins. The rajas of these little states collected a percentage from every transaction and in return allowed the merchant communities freedom of worship.

 

How far into China Ibn Battuta traveled during his few months there is debatable. He claimed he reached Beijing, but his description of it is uncharacteristically thin. This painting from the early 15th century shows the houses of Kinsai, China, with characteristically curved roofs and bridges over canals. BIBLIOTHEQUE NATIONALE / ARCHIVES CHARMET / BRIDGEMAN ART LIBRARY (BOUCICAUT MASTER)

The richest towns of all were along the Malabar coast, the main source of the pepper that commanded such high prices in the markets of China, Alexandria and Venice but also of the teak used for building ships. The romance of the spice trade often obscures the fact that the bulk of Indian Ocean shipping was devoted to cargoes like rice, hardwoods, tin, iron ore, horses, weapons, textiles and other essential commodities.

When the little fleet reached Calicut, there were 13 junks anchored in the harbor, into which their cargo was transferred for the voyage to China. Their construction fascinated Ibn Battuta, who was especially struck by the self-contained compartments into which the hull was divided to minimize the danger of sinking. The junks had large cabins in which a number of people could travel in comfort, with private bathrooms and even stewards. A large junk could carry a crew of 1000, he wrote. This seems incredible, and scholars hotly debate the question of the size of medieval junks.

That night, a storm arose. Two large junks into which everything had been loaded put to sea, only to run aground and be smashed to pieces. Most of the passengers drowned, and the gifts for the Chinese emperor sank to the bottom.

Ibn Battuta escaped, for he had gone ashore to attend Friday prayers in the mosque. A small junk, called a kakam, with his wife aboard, also put to sea. With no possessions but his prayer rug and 10 dinars, Ibn Battuta set off on foot for Quilon, 300 kilometers (180 mi) down the coast, where he was told her ship was bound. There, he found no sign of the kakam. He later learned it had been captured by ships from Sumatra and that his wife was dead and all his possessions lost. Ibn Battuta nevertheless decided to continue to China on his own. After multiple stops and multiple mishaps, he reached Sonargaon, in today’s Bangladesh, where he bought passage on a junk for Sumatra.

Samudra, the port on the northern coast of Sumatra that has lent the island its name, was the first outpost of Islam in the huge Hindu–Buddhist area of what is now the Indonesian archipelago; it was the model for the Malay-speaking Muslim principalities which, over the next 300 years, were to spring up there.

The ruler of Samudra, Al-Malik al-Zahir, sent Ibn Battuta on to Guangzhou, the city Marco Polo called Zaitun, in a junk outfitted at his own expense. He set sail in April 1346 as soon as the southwest monsoon began to blow.

China at the time was ruled by the Mongol Yuan Dynasty, whose most famous ruler had been Kubilai Khan, who ruled during the years Marco Polo traveled in China. Although not Muslim, the Yuan relied heavily on Muslim officials and military advisors and encouraged Muslim trade. It was under the Yuan that Muslim merchants established themselves at key nodes along the rivers and canals of the empire. This harnessing of the hugely productive Chinese economy to the overseas maritime routes stimulated the growth of the new Muslim principalities in the Indonesian archipelago and the establishment there of Chinese merchant communities. Malaya and Indonesia became the turntable through which Chinese manufactures were distributed to the West.

Though Ibn Battuta was impressed with China, particularly with paper money and the quality of Chinese silks and porcelain, it was the only country he ever visited that affected him with culture shock. “Every time I left my house, I saw reprehensible things. I was so disturbed that I stayed home most of the time, only going out when necessary.” Yet at the same time, he opined, “China is the safest and pleasantest country in the world for the traveler.”

His account of travels within China lacks the characteristic detail that makes the rest of Ibn Battuta’s travels so entertaining, and his trips to Hang-chou and what is now Beijing are so vaguely described as to raise the suspicion that they are invented. His stay was brief, and by December 1346 he was back in Quilon, en route to his native Morocco.

 

Ibn Battuta

Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Abdullah al-Lawati al-Tanji ibn Battuta
أبو عبد الله محمد ابن عبد الله اللواتي الطنجي بن بطوطة


Ibn Battuta

Born

February, 1304
Tangier, Morocco

Died

1369
Morocco

Ethnicity

Berber

Occupation

Islamic scholar/Explorer

Religion

Sunni Maliki

Abū ‘Abd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Baṭūṭah (Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد ابن بطوطة‎), or simply Ibn Battuta, also known as Shams ad–Din[1] (February 25, 1304–1368 or 1369), was a Muslim Moroccan explorer, known for his extensive travels published in the Rihla (literally, “The Journey”). Over a period of thirty years, he visited most of the known Islamic world, including North Africa, the Horn of Africa, West Africa, Southern Europe and Eastern Europe in the West, to the Middle East, South Asia, Central Asia, Southeast Asia and China in the East, a distance surpassing his near-contemporary Marco Polo. Ibn Battuta is considered one of the greatest travellers of all time.[2] He journeyed more than 75,000 miles (121,000 km), a figure unsurpassed by any individual explorer until the coming of the Steam Age some 450 years later.[1]

 

Early life and his first hajj

 

 

A 13th century book illustration produced in Baghdad by al-Wasiti showing a group of pilgrims on a Hajj.

The Rihla supplies biographical background. Ibn Battuta was born into a Berber family of Islamic legal scholars in Tangier, Morocco, on 25 February 1304, during the reign of the Marinid dynasty.[3] As a young man he would have studied at a Sunni Maliki madhhab, (Islamic jurisprudence school), the dominant form of education in North Africa at that time.[4] In June 1325, at the age of twenty-one, Ibn Battuta set off from his hometown on a hajj, or pilgrimage, to Mecca, a journey that would take sixteen months. He would not see Morocco again for twenty-four years.

“I set out alone, finding no companion to cheer the way with friendly intercourse, and no party of travellers with whom to associate myself. Swayed by an overmastering impulse within me, and a long-cherished desire to visit those glorious sanctuaries, I resolved to quit all my friends and tear myself away from my home. As my parents were still alive, it weighed grievously upon me to part from them, and both they and I were afflicted with sorrow.”[5]

He travelled to Mecca overland, following the North African coast across the sultanates of Abd al-Wadid and Hafsid. The route took him through Tlemcen, Béjaïa and then Tunis where he stayed for two months.[6] For safety, Ibn Battuta usually joined a caravan to reduce the risk of an attack by wandering Arab bedouin. He took a bride in the town of Sfax, the first in a series of marriages that would feature in his travels.[7]

In the early spring of 1326, after a journey of over 3,500 km (2,200 mi), Ibn Battuta arrived at the port of Alexandria, then part of the Bahri Mamluk empire.[8] He spent several weeks visiting sites in the area then headed inland to Cairo, the capital of the Mamluk Sultanate and even at that time an important large city. After spending about a month in Cairo,[9] he embarked on the first of many detours within the relative safety of Mamluk territory. Of the three usual routes to Mecca, Ibn Battuta chose the least-travelled, which involved a journey up the Nile valley, then east to the Red Sea port of Aydhab,[10] Upon approaching the town however, a local rebellion forced him to turn back.[11]

Ibn Battuta returned to Cairo and took a second side trip, this time to Mamluk-controlled Damascus. During his first trip he had encountered a holy man, Shaykh Abul Hasan al Shadili, who prophesied that he would only reach Mecca by travelling through Syria. The diversion held an added advantage; due to the holy places that lay along the way, including Hebron, Jerusalem, and Bethlehem, the Mamluk authorities spared no efforts in keeping the route safe for pilgrims. Without this help many travelers would be robbed and murdered.

After spending the Muslim month of Ramadan in Damascus, he joined a caravan travelling the 1,500 km (930 mi) south to Medina, burial place of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. After four days in the town, he journeyed on to Mecca where completing his pilgrimage he took the honorific status of El-Hajji. Rather than return home, Ibn Battuta instead decided to continue on, choosing as his next destination the Ilkhanate, a Mongol Khanate, to the northeast.

Iraq and Persia

 

 

An interactive display about Ibn Battuta in Ibn Battuta Mall in Dubai, United Arab Emirates

On 17 November 1326, following a month spent in Mecca, Ibn Battuta joined a large caravan of pilgrims returning to Iraq across the Arabian Peninsula.[12] The group headed north to Medina and then, travelling at night, turned northeast across the Nejd plateau to Najaf, on a journey that lasted about two weeks. In Najaf he visited the mausoleum of Ali ibn Abi Talib (Ali), the first Shi’a Imam, a site venerated by the Shi’a community to this day.

Then, instead of continuing on to Baghdad with the caravan, Ibn Battuta started a six-month detour that took him into Persia. From Najaf he journeyed to Wasit then followed the river Tigris south to Basra. His next destination was the town of Esfahān across the Zagros Mountains in Persia. He then headed south to Shiraz, a large flourishing city spared the destruction wrought by Mongol invaders on many more northerly towns. Finally, he returned across the mountains to Baghdad, arriving there in June 1327.[13] Parts of the city were still ruined from the damage inflicted by Hulago Khan’s invading army in 1255.

In Baghdad he found Abu Sa’id, the last Mongol ruler of the unified Ilkhanate, leaving the city and heading north with a large retinue.[14] Ibn Battuta joined the royal caravan for a while, then turned north on the Silk Road to Tabriz, the first major city in the region to open its gates to the Mongols and by then an important trading centre as most of its nearby rivals had been razed by the Mongol invaders.

Ibn Battuta left again for Baghdad, probably in July, but first took an excursion northwards along the river Tigris, visiting Mosul, Cizre and Mardin, in modern day Iraq and Turkey. Once back in Mosul, he joined a “feeder” caravan of pilgrims heading south to Baghdad where they would meet up with the main caravan that crossed the Arabian Desert to Mecca. Ill with diarrhea, he arrived in the city weak and exhausted for his second hajj.[15]

Arabian peninsula

Ibn Battuta remained in Mecca for some time (the Rihla suggests about three years, from September 1327 until autumn 1330). Problems with chronology however, lead commentators to suggest that he may have left after the 1328 hajj.[16]

After the hajj in either 1328 or 1330, he made his way to the port of Jeddah on the Red Sea coast. From there he followed the coast in a series of boats making slow progress against the prevailing south-easterly winds. Once in the Yemen he visited Zabīd and later the highland town of Ta’izz, where he met the Rasulid dynasty king (Malik) Mujahid Nur al-Din Ali. Ibn Battuta also mentions visiting Sana’a, but whether he actually did so is doubtful.[17] In all likelihood, he went directly from Ta’izz to the important trading port of Aden, arriving around the beginning of 1329 or 1331.[18]

Somalia

 

 

The port and waterfront of Zeila.

From Aden, Ibn Battuta embarked on a ship heading for Zeila on the coast of Somalia. He then moved on to Cape Guardafui further down the Somalia seaboard, spending about a week in each location. Later he would visit Mogadishu, the then pre-eminent city of the “Land of the Berbers” (بلد البربر Bilad al Barbar, the medieval Arabic term for the Horn of Africa).[19][20][21]

When he arrived in 1331, Mogadishu stood at the zenith of its prosperity. Ibn Battuta described it as “an exceedingly large city” with many rich merchants, noted for its high quality fabric that was exported to other countries including Egypt.[22][23] He added that the city was ruled by a Somali Sultan, originally from Berbera in northern Somalia, who spoke both Somali (referred to as Mogadishan, the Benadir dialect of Somali) and Arabic with equal fluency.[24][25] The Sultan also had a retinue of wazirs (ministers), legal experts, commanders, royal eunuchs, and assorted hangers-on at his beck and call.[24]

Swahili Coast

 

 

The Great Mosque of Kilwa Kisiwani, made of Coral Stones is the largest Mosque of its kind.

Battuta continued by ship south to the Swahili Coast, a region then known in Arabic as the Bilad al-Zanj (“Land of the Zanj“),[26] with an overnight stop at the island town of Mombasa.[27] Although relatively small at the time, Mombasa would become important in the following century.[28] After a journey along the coast, Ibn Battuta next arrived in the island town of Kilwa in present day Tanzania,[29] which had become an important transit centre of the gold trade.[30] He described the city as “one of the most beautiful and well-constructed towns in the world”.[31]

Ibn Battuta recorded his visit to the Kilwa Sultanate in 1330, and commented favorably on the humility and religion of its ruler, Sultan al-Hasan ibn Sulaiman, a descendant of the legendary Ali ibn al-Hassan Shirazi. He further wrote that the authority of the Sultan extended from Malindi in the north to Inhambane in the south and was particularly impressed by the planning of the city, believing it to be the reason for Kilwa’s success along the coast. From this period date the construction of the Palace of Husuni Kubwa and a significant extension to the Great Mosque of Kilwa, which was made of Coral Stones the largest Mosque of its kind. With a change in the monsoon winds, Ibn Battuta sailed back to Arabia, first to Oman and the Strait of Hormuz then on to Mecca for the hajj of 1330 (or 1332).

Byzantine Empire, Golden Horde, Anatolia, Central Asia and India

 

Andronikos III Palaiologos

After spending another year in Mecca, Ibn Battuta decided to seek employment with the Muslim Sultan of Delhi, Muhammad bin Tughluq. In 1330 (or 1332), in need of a guide and translator for his journey, he set off for the Seljuq controlled territory of Anatolia to join one of the caravans that went from there to India. From the Syrian port of Latakia, a Genoese ship took him to Alanya on the southern coast of modern-day Turkey. He then travelled overland to Konya and afterwards to Sinope on the Black Sea coast.[32]

From Sinope he took a sea route to Crimea, arriving so in the Golden Horde realm. He went to port town of Azov, where he met with emir of the Khan, then to the large and rich city of Majar. He left Majar to meet with Uzbeg Khan traveling court (horde), which was in the time near Beshtau mountain. From there he made a journey to Bolghar, which became the northernmost point he reached, and noted its unusually (for subtropics dweller) short nights in summer. Then he returned to Khan’s court and with it moved to Astrakhan.

When they reached Astrakhan, Uzbeg Khan had just given permission for one of his pregnant wives, Princess Bayalun, a daughter of Byzantine Emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos, to return to her home city of Constantinople to give birth. Ibn Battuta talked his way into this expedition, which would be his first beyond the boundaries of the Islamic world.[33]

Arriving in Constantinople towards the end of 1332 (or 1334), he met the Byzantine emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos. He visited the great church of Hagia Sophia and spoke with a Christian Orthodox priest about his travels in the city of Jerusalem. After a month in the city, Ibn Battuta returned to Astrakhan, then arrived in the capital city Sarai al-Jadid and reported his travelling account to Sultatn Mohammad Uzbek. Thereafter he continued past the Caspian and Aral Seas to Bukhara and Samarkand. From there, he journeyed south to Afghanistan, then crossed into India via the mountain passes of the Hindu Kush. In the Rihla he mentions these mountains and the history of the range.[34]

Muhammad Ibn Tughluq was renowned as the wealthiest man in the Muslim World at that time. He patronised various scholars, sufis, Qadis, Viziers and other functionaries in order to consolidate his rule. As with Mamluk Egypt, the Tughlaq Dynasty was a rare vestigial example of Muslim rule in Asia after the Mongol Invasion. On the strength of his years of study in Mecca, Ibn Battuta was appointed a Qadi, or judge, by the Sultan. He found it difficult to enforce Islamic laws beyond the Sultan’s court in Delhi due to lack of Islamic appeal in India.[35]

From the Rajput Kingdom of Sarsatti, he visited Hansi in India, describing it as “among the most beautiful cities, the best constructed and the most populated; it is surrounded with a strong wall, and its founder is said to be one of the great infidel kings, called Tara”.[36] Upon his arrival in Sindh, Ibn Battuta mentions the Indian Rhinoceros that lived on the banks of the Indus River.

The Sultan was erratic even by the standards of the time, and for six years Ibn Battuta veered between living the high life of a trusted subordinate, and falling under suspicion of treason for a variety of offences. His plan to leave on the pretext of taking another hajj was stymied by the Sultan who asked him to instead become his ambassador to Yuan Dynasty China. Given the opportunity to get away from the Sultan and visit new lands, he readily accepted.

India, Sri Lanka, Maldives and China

 

 

Tomb of Muhammad ibn Tughluq in Delhi. Ibn Battuta served as a Qadi for 6 years during Tughluq’s reign

En route to the coast at the start of his journey to China, Ibn Battuta and his party were attacked by a group of Hindus.[37] Separated from his companions, he was robbed and nearly lost his life.[38] Despite this setback, within ten days he had caught up with his group and continued on to Khambhat in the Indian state of Gujarat. From there, they sailed to Kozhikode (Calicut), where Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama would land two centuries later. While Ibn Battuta visited a mosque on shore, a storm arose, and one of the ships of his expedition was sunk.[39] The other ship then sailed without him only to be seized by a local Sumatran king a few months later .

Afraid to return to Delhi and be seen as a failure, he stayed for a time in southern India under the protection of Jamal-ud-Din, ruler of the small but powerful Nawayath sultanate on the banks of the Sharavathi River next to the Arabian Sea. This area is today known as Hosapattana and lies in the Honavar administrative district of Uttara Kannada. Following the overthrow of the sultanate, Ibn Battuta had no choice but to leave India. Although determined to continue the journey to China, he first took a detour to visit the Maldive Islands.

 

 

A view of an island in the Maldives.

He spent nine months on the islands, much longer than he had intended. As a Chief Qadi, his skills were highly desirable in the formerly Buddhist nation that had recently converted to Islam. Half-kidnapped into staying, he became chief judge and married into the royal family of Omar I. He became embroiled in local politics and left when his strict judgments in the laissez-faire island kingdom began to chafe with its rulers. In the Rihla he mentions his dismay at the local women going about with no clothing above the waist, and the locals taking no notice when he complained.[40] From the Maldives, he carried on to Sri Lanka and visited Sri Pada and Tenavarai temple.

Ibn Battuta’s ship almost sank on embarking from Sri Lanka, only for the vessel that came to his rescue to suffer an attack by pirates. Stranded on shore, he worked his way back to Kozhikode, from where he returned to the Maldives and boarded a Chinese junk, still intending to reach China and take up his ambassadorial post.

He reached the port of Chittagong in modern-day Bangladesh intending to travel to Sylhet. Ibn Battuta went further north into Assam, then turned around and continued with his original plan.

In the year 1346 Ibn Battuta travelled on to Sumatra Indonesia where he notes in his travel log, that the ruler of Samudera Pasai was a Muslim, who performs his religious duties in his utmost zeal. The madh’hab he observed was Imam Shafi’i with the similar customs he had seen in coastal India especially among the Mappila Muslim (who were also the followers of Imam Shafi’i).[41] Ibn Battuta then sailed to Malacca, Vietnam, the Philippines and finally Quanzhou in Fujian Province, China.

 

 

Ibn Battuta arrived in the Chinese port city of Quanzhou, also known as Zaytun).

On arriving in China in the year 1345, one of the first things he notes is the local artists and their mastery in making portraitures of newly arrived foreigners. Ibn Battuta also mentions Chinese cuisine and its usage of animals such as frogs. While in Quanzhou he ascended the “Mount of the Hermit” and briefly visited a well-known Taoist monk. From there, he went north to Hangzhou, which he describes it as one of the largest cities he has ever seen,[42] and he noted its charm, describes the city sat on a beautiful lake and is surrounded by gentle green hills.[43] During his stay at Hangzhou, he was particularly impressed by the large number of well-crafted and well-painted Chinese wooden ships with colored sails and silk awnings assembling in the canals later he attends a banquet of the Yuan Mongol administrator of the city named Qurtai, who according to Ibn Battuta, was very fond of the skills of local Chinese conjurers.[44] He also described traveling further north, through the Grand Canal to Beijing, but as he neared the capital an internal power struggle among the Yuan Mongols erupted, causing Ibn Battuta and his Hui guides to return to the south coast. On boarding a Chinese Junk heading for Southeast Asia, Ibn Battuta was unfairly charged a hefty sum by the crew and lost much of what he had collected during his stay in China.[45] Ibn Battuta also reported “the rampart of Yajuj and Majuj” was “sixty days’ travel” from the city of Zeitun (Quanzhou);[46] Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb notes that Ibn Battuta believed that Great Wall of China was built by Dhul-Qarnayn to contain Gog and Magog as mentioned in the Quran.[46]

Return home and the Black Death

After returning to Quanzhou in 1346, Ibn Battuta began his journey back to Morocco.[47] In Kozhikode, he once again considered throwing himself at the mercy of Muhammad bin Tughluk, but thought better of it and decided to carry on to Mecca. On his way to Basra he passed through the Strait of Hormuz, where he learned that Abu Sa’id, last ruler of the Ilkhanate Dynasty had died in Persia. Abu Sa’id’s territories had subsequently collapsed due to a fierce civil war between the Persians and Mongols.[48]

In 1348, Ibn Battuta arrived in Damascus with the intention of retracing the route of his first hajj. He then learned that his father had died 15 years earlier[49] and death became the dominant theme for the next year or so. The Black Death had struck, and he was on hand as it spread through Syria, Palestine, and Arabia. After reaching Mecca, he decided to return to Morocco, nearly a quarter of a century after leaving home.[50] On the way he made one last detour to Sardinia, then in 1349 returned to Tangier by way of Fez, only to discover that his mother had also died a few months before.[51]

Al-Andalus and North Africa

 

 

Ibn Battuta visited the Emirate of Granada, which was the final vestige of the Muladi populace in Al-Andalus.

After a few days in Tangier, Ibn Battuta set out for a trip to the Moor controlled territory of al-Andalus on the Iberian Peninsula. King Alfonso XI of Castile and León had threatened to attack Gibraltar, so in 1350 Ibn Battuta joined a group of Muslims leaving Tangier with the intention of defending the port.[52] By the time he arrived, the Black Death had killed Alfonso and the threat of invasion had receded, so he turned the trip into a sight-seeing tour, traveling through Valencia and ending up in Granada.[53]

Following his departure from al-Andalus, he decided to travel through Morocco, one of the few parts of the Muslim world that he had never explored. On his return home, he stopped for a while in Marrakech, which was almost a ghost town following the recent plague and the transfer of the capital to Fez.[54]

Once more Ibn Battuta returned to Tangier, but only stayed for a short while. In 1324, two years before his first visit to Cairo, the West African Malian Mansa, or king of kings, Musa had passed through the same city on his own hajj and caused a sensation with a display of extravagant riches brought from his gold-rich homeland. Although Ibn Battuta never mentioned this visit specifically, when he heard the story it may have planted a seed in his mind as he then decided to cross the Sahara and visit the Muslim kingdoms on its far side.

The Sahara to Mali and Timbuktu

 

 

Ibn Battuta mentions the well built homes, city planning and water preservation systems in the city of Oualata, a crucial town in the trans-Saharan trade.

In the autumn of 1351, Ibn Battuta left Fes and made his way to the town of Sijilmasa on the northern edge of the Sahara in present-day Morocco.[55] There he bought a number of camels and stayed for four months. He set out again with a caravan in February 1352 and after 25 days, arrived at the dry salt-lake bed of Taghaza with its salt mines. All of the local buildings were made from slabs of salt by slaves of the Masufa tribe, who cut the salt in thick slabs for transport by camel. Taghaza was a commercial centre and awash with Malian gold, though Ibn Battuta did not form a favourable impression of the place, recording that it was plagued by flies and the water was brackish.

After a ten-day stay in Taghaza, the caravan set out for the oasis of Tasarahla (probably Bir al-Ksaib)[56] where it stopped for three days in preparation for the last and most difficult leg of the journey across the vast desert. From Tasarahla, a Masufa scout was sent ahead to the oasis town of Oualata, where he arranged for water to be transported a distance of four days travel where it would meet the thirsty caravan. Oualata was the southern terminus of the trans-Saharan trade route and had recently become part of the Mali Empire. Altogether, the caravan took two months to cross the 1,600 km (990 mi) of desert from Sijilmasa.[57]

From there, Ibn Battuta travelled southwest along a river he believed to be the Nile (it was actually the river Niger), until he reached the capital of the Mali Empire.[58] There he met Mansa Suleyman, king since 1341. Dubious about the miserly hospitality of the king, he nevertheless stayed for eight months. Ibn Battuta disapproved of the fact that female slaves, servants and even the daughters of the sultan went about completely naked.[59] He left the capital in February and journeyed overland by camel to Timbuktu.[60] Though in the next two centuries it would become the most important city in the region, at that time it was a small and growing city there Ibn Battuta was acquainted by a local Malian merchant named Abu Bakr Ibn Yaqub, together they ventured around Timbuktu and sailed to Gao, it was during their travels that Ibn Battuta first encounters the Hippopotamus, which was feared among the local boatmen because it drowned or killed local inhabitants, however Ibn Battuta also mentions an ingenious trick used by locals that allowed them to hunt Hippopotamus for both their flesh and hides.[44] Ibn Battuta is known to have sailed by boat to Gao where he spent a month learning about its inhabitants and geography. While at the oasis of Takedda on his journey back across the desert, he received a message from the Sultan of Morocco commanding him to return home. He set off for Sijilmasa in September 1353 accompanying a large caravan transporting 600 black female slaves and arrived back in Morocco early in 1354.

The Rihla

Main article: Rihla

After returning home from his travels in 1354, and at the instigation of the Sultan of Morocco, Abu Inan Faris, Ibn Battuta dictated an account of his journeys to Ibn Juzayy, a scholar whom he had previously met in Granada. The account is the only source for Ibn Battuta’s adventures. The full title of the manuscript تحفة الأنظار في غرائب الأمصار وعجائب الأسفار may be translated as A Gift to Those Who Contemplate the Wonders of Cities and the Marvels of Travelling but is often simply referred to as the Rihla الرحلة, or “The Journey”.

 

 

House in the Medina of Tangier, possible site of Ibn Battuta’s grave

There is no indication that Ibn Battuta made any notes during his twenty-nine year of travels. When he came to dictate an account of them, he had to rely on memory and manuscripts produced by earlier travellers. When describing Damascus, Mecca, Medina and some other places in the Middle East, Ibn Juzayy clearly copied passages from the 12th-century account by Ibn Jubayr.[61] Similarly, most of Ibn Juzayy’s descriptions of places in Palestine were copied from an account by the 13th-century traveller Muhammad al-Abdari.[62]

 

Handmade oil painting reproduction of Ibn Battuta in Egypt, a painting by Hippolyte Leon Benett.

Western Orientalists do not believe that Ibn Battuta visited all the places he described and argue that in order to provide a comprehensive description of places in the Muslim world, he relied on hearsay evidence and made use of accounts by earlier travellers. For example, it is considered very unlikely that Ibn Battuta made a trip up the Volga River from New Sarai to visit Bolghar[63] and there are serious doubts about a number of other journeys such as his trip to Sana’a in Yemen,[64] his journey from Balkh to Bistam in Khorasan[65] and his trip around Anatolia.[66] Some orientalists have also questioned whether he really visited China.[67] Nevertheless, while apparently fictional in places, the Rihla provides an important account of much of the 14th-century world.

Ibn Battuta often experienced culture shock in regions he visited where the local customs of recently converted peoples did not fit in with his orthodox Muslim background. Among the Turks and Mongols, he was astonished at the way women behaved, remarking that on seeing a Turkish couple, and noting the woman’s freedom of speech, he had assumed that the man was the woman’s servant, but he was in fact her husband. He also felt that dress customs in the Maldives, and some sub-Saharan regions in Africa were too revealing.

After the completion of the Rihla in 1355, little is known about Ibn Battuta’s life. He was appointed a judge in Morocco and died in 1368 or 1369.[68]

For centuries his book was obscure, even within the Muslim world, but in the early 19th century extracts were published in German and English based on manuscripts discovered in the Middle East containing abridged versions of Ibn Juzayy’s Arabic text. During the French occupation of Algeria in the 1830s, five manuscripts were discovered in Constantine, including two that contained more complete versions of the text.[69] These manuscripts were brought back to the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris and studied by the French scholars Charles Defrémery and Beniamino Sanguinetti. Beginning in 1853, they published a series of four volumes containing the Arabic text, extensive notes and a translation into French.[70] Defrémery and Sanguinetti’s printed text has now been translated into many other languages while Ibn Battuta has grown in reputation and is now a well-known figure.

indonesian version

Pada 1333

orang Moor, Abu Abdullah Ibnu Batutah (1304-1377)

dijelaskan Samarkand

sebagai “salah satu kota terbesar dan paling sempurna indah di dunia.” [1] Untuk penyair abad kesembilan belas, James Elroy menodai, Samarkand adalah setara dengan Surga: “Kematian tidak memiliki istirahat lebih hangat dan lebih dalam dari itu pasir Orient.” [2] Banyak orang lain, termasuk Keats, Milton, dan Oscar Wilde, juga menulis tentang pesona nya – sebuah oase yang spektakuler di dataran gurun.

Dari sejarah panjang invasi dan posisi penting di Timur / Barat muncul rute perdagangan cocok kota untuk raja – namanya berasal dari Cimes-quinte, harfiah ‘kota besar’. Diperdebatkan, penguasa Samarkand yang paling terkenal adalah prajurit Mongol Turko-Timurleng (1336-1405) atau Timur yang Pincang, yang membangun kembali kota di Sungai Zarafshan setelah sebagian besar telah dihancurkan Mongol selama menangkap di bawah Ghengis Khan di 1221. Timurleng membuat kota kursi kekuasaan yang cukup besar itu. Penggantinya, Shah Rukh, memindahkan ibukotanya ke Herat meninggalkan anaknya Ulugh Bek untuk memerintah Samarkand.

Jika warisan Timurleng di Asia adalah sebuah kerajaan yang luas, di Samarkand itu mungkin mencerminkan arsitektur tersebut dan kemegahan. Sebagai ucapan pepatah lama Arab di salah satu gedung “jika Anda ingin tahu tentang kami, mengamati gedung-gedung kami.” [3] Prinsip antaranya adalah Bibi Khanum Masjid, yang masih berdiri, dan harus megah dari apa Timurleng telah terlihat selama penaklukan. Dibangun antara 1399 dan 1404 oleh 600 budak dan 100 gajah dari India, dan 200 arsitek, seniman, master pengrajin dan tukang batu. Ini menyatakan bahwa “kubah akan menjadi unik kalau bukan untuk langit, portal akan menjadi unik jika bukan karena Bima Sakti.” [4] Contoh lain dari arsitektur tersebut adalah Taj Mahal di Agra, dibangun oleh Shah Jahnon yang dirinya adalah seorang Timurid.

 

Timurleng
Samarkand juga membanggakan populasi cocok untuk seperti modal. Timurleng membawa tawanan dari setiap tanah yang ditaklukkan. “Dari Damaskus ia membawa penenun sutra, dan pria yang membuat busur, kaca dan gerabah … Dari Turki ia membawa pemanah, tukang batu, dan perak.” [5] Ada juga batu-tukang batu dari Azerbaijan, Isfahan dan Delhi dan mosaik-pekerja dari Syiraz, semua angka tersebut bahwa “kota itu tidak cukup besar untuk menahan mereka.” [6]

Penduduk dilaporkan lebih dari setengah juta, dan jaring setengah perdagangan di Asia – seperti kulit, wol, linen, rempah-rempah, sutra, batu mulia, buah, anjing, kuda dan bahkan macan tutul dan singa. Ini karena kota itu diposisikan di jantung Jalan Sutera Besar, jaringan perdagangan berjalan dari Eropa ke Jepang. Berhenti di sepanjang jalan, termasuk Samarkand, adalah titik kontak, tidak hanya untuk perdagangan, tetapi juga untuk ide-ide, filosofi, pengetahuan dan pendapat.

 

Keturunan Timurleng berbagi cintanya penciptaan, jika tidak cintanya perang dan penaklukan, dan di bawah dinasti Timurid bagian Asia ini mengalami masa belajar Islam dalam seni dan ilmu. Telah dicatat bahwa “dari zaman Adam sampai hari ini tidak usia, periode, siklus atau saat dapat ditunjukkan di mana orang menikmati damai dan ketenangan.” [7]

Kota itu diserbu oleh Uzbek tahun 1447, dan lagi 50 tahun kemudian, ketika mereka tinggal untuk mendirikan sebuah dinasti Turki baru. Modern nasib Samarkand itu disegel oleh invasi Rusia pada tahun 1868. Setelah runtuhnya imperium Soviet pada tahun 1990 kota sekarang berdiri sebagai kota besar kedua dari Uzbekistan.

[1] Umid Dunia

[2] dari puisi, Perjalanan Emas ke Samarkand oleh James Elroy menodai, tersedia on-line.

[3] Dikutip oleh Lisa Golombek, kuliah, Universitas Victoria, 25 Februari 1988, Oxus Komunikasi

[4] Virtourist.com

[5] ‘Narasi dari Kedutaan Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo ke Pengadilan Timour di Samarcand 1403-6 AD’, New York: Burt Franklin p171

Jalan Emas ke Samarkand.

Mural, Samarkand,

 

 

1342
Ib Batutah berlayar untuk China di 1342, tapi terdampar. Dia akhirnya tiba lewat laut di China selatan pada 1346. Ini adalah sekitar satu abad setengah setelah Marco Polo telah meninggalkan Cina

Ibnu Batutah tiba di Tangier pada akhir 1349
1349

Ibnu Batutah tiba di Tangier pada akhir 1349. Dia telah pergi dari rumah selama 24 tahun. Dia belajar bahwa ibunya telah meninggal karena wabah beberapa bulan sebelumnya, dan ayahnya telah meninggal beberapa tahun sebelumnya

Ibnu Batutah meninggalkan ibukota Mali
1353
Ibnu Batutah meninggalkan ibukota Mali di awal 1353, pos menyusuri Sungai Niger untuk Timbuktu. Kota ini sekitar 10.000 orang tidak pernah menjadi benteng militer atau kursi raja. Sebaliknya, ketenaran beristirahat pada reputasinya sebagai kota sarjana

p

Ibnu Batutah bergabung dengan kafilah ke utara ke Maroko.
1354
Setelah mengunjungi dengan kadi, ulama, dan pedagang dari Timbuktu, Ibnu Batutah bergabung dengan kafilah ke utara ke Maroko. Dia tiba di rumah pada awal 1354. Ini berakhir perjalanannya ke negara asing. Secara keseluruhan, ia menutupi sekitar 75.000 mil dalam 29 tahun, pertemuan dengan 60 penguasa di Asia dan Afrika. Dia mungkin memiliki beberapa istri. (Hukum Islam diperbolehkan seorang pria hingga empat istri sekaligus

Ibn Batutah Maroko
 
Dari Wikipedia
 

Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Abdullah Al Lawati Al Tanji Ibn Batutah

Nama lengkap Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Abdullah Al Lawati Al Tanji Ibn Battuta Lahir Februari, 1304 Tangier, Maroko Meninggal 1368 atau 1369

Ibnu Batutah adalah Berber Maroko sarjana muslim dan wisatawan yang dikenal untuk kepentingan perjalanan dan wisata yang disebut Rihla (Voyage) dalam bahasa Arab. Perjalanan-Nya berlangsung selama hampir tiga puluh tahun dan hampir mencakup keseluruhan dari dunia Islam dikenal dan seterusnya, membentang dari Afrika Utara, Afrika Barat, Eropa Selatan dan Eropa Timur di Barat, ke Timur Tengah, benua India, Asia Tengah , Asia Tenggara dan Cina di Timur, jarak yang mudah melampaui pendahulunya dan dekat-kontemporer Marco Polo. Dengan account ini luas perjalanannya, Ibnu Batutah sering dianggap sebagai salah satu wisatawan terbesar yang pernah.

Sebuah ilustrasi buku abad ke-13 yang diproduksi di Baghdad oleh al-Washiti menunjukkan sekelompok peziarah pada haji. Semua yang diketahui tentang kehidupan Ibnu Batutah datang dari informasi autobiografi termasuk dalam rekening perjalanannya. Ibnu Batutah dilahirkan dalam sebuah keluarga sarjana hukum Islam di Tangier, Maroko, pada 24 Februari 1304 pada masa dinasti Marinid [2]. Sebagai seorang pemuda dia akan mempelajari Sunni Maliki “sekolah” hukum Islam yang dominan di Afrika Utara pada waktu itu [3] Pada bulan Juni 1325, ketika ia berusia dua puluh satu tahun, Ibnu Batutah berangkat dari kampung halamannya pada haji (ziarah) ke Mekkah, sebuah perjalanan yang akan mengambil 16 bulan,. tapi dia tidak akan melihat lagi Maroko selama 24 tahun. Perjalanan ke Mekah adalah dengan tanah, dan diikuti pantai Afrika Utara menyeberangi kesultanan Abd al-Wadid dan Hafsid. Rutenya melewati Tlemcen, Bejaia dan kemudian ke Tunis di mana dia tinggal selama dua bulan. Dia biasanya memilih untuk bergabung dengan kafilah untuk mengurangi risiko diserang. Di kota Sfax, ia menikah untuk yang pertama dari beberapa kesempatan dalam perjalanannya. Pada awal musim semi 1326, setelah perjalanan lebih dari 3.500 km (2.200 mil), Ibnu Batutah tiba di pelabuhan Alexandria, kemudian bagian dari kerajaan Mamluk Bahri.

Ia menghabiskan beberapa minggu mengunjungi situs dan kemudian menuju pedalaman ke Kairo, sebuah kota penting besar dan ibukota kerajaan Mamluk, di mana dia tinggal selama sekitar sebulan. Dalam wilayah Mamluk, perjalanan relatif aman dan ia memulai yang pertama dari sekian banyak jalan memutar. Tiga rute yang biasa digunakan ada ke Mekkah, dan Ibnu Batutah memilih paling-perjalanan:. Sebuah perjalanan ke lembah Nil, kemudian timur ke pelabuhan Laut Merah Aydhab [4] Namun, setelah mendekati kota ia dipaksa untuk kembali karena untuk pemberontakan lokal. Kembali ke Kairo, Ibnu Battuta mengambil sisi perjalanan kedua untuk Damaskus (kemudian dikendalikan oleh Mamluk), memiliki ditemui orang suci selama perjalanan pertamanya yang meramalkan bahwa ia hanya akan mencapai Mekah setelah perjalanan melalui Suriah. Keuntungan tambahan untuk perjalanan sisi adalah bahwa tempat-tempat suci lainnya tergeletak di sepanjang rute-Hebron, Yerusalem, dan Betlehem dan penguasa Mamluk melakukan upaya besar untuk menjaga rute aman bagi peziarah. Setelah menghabiskan bulan Ramadhan di Damaskus, ia bergabung dengan sebuah kafilah perjalanan 1.500 km (930 mil) dari Damaskus ke Madinah, tempat pemakaman Nabi Muhammad Islam. Setelah 4 hari di kota, ia melanjutkan perjalanan ke Mekah. Di sana ia menyelesaikan ritual biasa peziarah Muslim, dan setelah lulus dengan status al-Haji, dihadapkan kembali ke rumah tapi malah memutuskan untuk melanjutkan perjalanan. Tujuan berikutnya adalah Ilkhanate terletak di zaman modern Irak dan Iran. Irak dan Persia

Sebuah layar interaktif tentang Ibnu Batutah Ibnu Battuta di Mall di Dubai, Uni Emirat Arab Pada 17 November 1326, setelah sebulan di Mekah, Ibnu Batutah bergabung dengan kafilah besar peziarah kembali di Semenanjung Arab ke Irak [5]. Yang pertama kafilah pergi utara ke Madinah dan kemudian, bepergian di malam hari, menuju ke timur laut di dataran tinggi Najd ke Najaf, perjalanan berlangsung sekitar 44 hari. Di Najaf ia mengunjungi makam Ali (Ali bin Abi Thalib), yang Rasyidin keempat (Khalifah yang mendapat petunjuk), dan anak-dalam-hukum Muhammad, sebuah situs dihormati terutama oleh komunitas Syiah. Pada titik ini, bukan melanjutkan ke Baghdad dengan karavan, Ibnu Batutah memulai memutar 6 bulan yang membawanya ke Persia. Dari Najaf dia melakukan perjalanan ke Wasit dan lalu ke selatan berikut Tigris ke Basra. Tujuan berikutnya adalah kota Esfahan di Pegunungan Zagros di Persia. Dari sana ia menuju selatan ke Shiraz, sebuah kota berkembang besar yang telah luput dari kehancuran yang ditimbulkan oleh invasi Mongol di utara kota yang lebih banyak. Akhirnya, ia kembali melintasi pegunungan ke Baghdad tiba di sana pada Juni 1327. Bagian kota itu dalam reruntuhan sebagai sudah rusak berat oleh tentara Hulagu Khan. Di Baghdad ia menemukan bahwa Abu Sa’id, penguasa Mongol terakhir dari negara Ilkhanid bersatu meninggalkan kota dan menuju utara dengan rombongan besar. Ibnu Batutah bepergian dengan kafilah kerajaan untuk sementara waktu, kemudian berbelok ke utara ke Tabriz di Jalur Sutra. Ini telah menjadi kota besar pertama di wilayah ini untuk membuka gerbang kepada Mongol dan telah menjadi pusat perdagangan penting setelah sebagian besar dari saingan dekatnya yang dihancurkan. Pada kembali lagi ke Baghdad, mungkin pada bulan Juli, ia mengambil perjalanan berikut Tigris utara, mengunjungi Mosul, kemudian Cizre dan Mardin, baik di Turki modern. Pada kembali ke Mosul ia bergabung dengan sebuah “pengumpan” kafilah peziarah menuju selatan Baghdad di mana mereka bertemu dengan kafilah utama yang melintasi Gurun Arab ke Mekkah. Ibnu Batutah sakit dengan diare pada persimpangan ini dan tiba kembali di Mekkah lemah dan habis untuk nya haji kedua. Afrika Timur

Ibnu Batutah kemudian tinggal untuk beberapa waktu di Mekah. Dia menyarankan dalam Rihla bahwa dia tetap di kota ini selama tiga tahun: dari September 1327 sampai musim gugur 1330. Namun, karena masalah dengan kronologi, komentator telah menyarankan bahwa ia mungkin telah menghabiskan hanya satu tahun dan meninggalkan setelah haji dari 1328 [6] Meninggalkan Mekkah setelah haji di 1328 (atau 1330) dia berjalan ke pelabuhan. Jeddah di pantai Laut Merah dan dari sana menangkap serangkaian perahu di pantai. Kemajuannya lambat sebagai kapal harus mengalahkan melawan angin timur selatan. Tiba di Yaman ia mengunjungi Zabid, dan kemudian kota dataran tinggi Ta’izz mana ia bertemu dengan Malik Rasulid (raja) Mujahid Nuruddin Ali. Ibnu Batutah juga menyebutkan mengunjungi Sana’a, tapi apakah dia benar-benar diragukan [7]. Hal ini lebih mungkin bahwa ia pergi langsung dari Ta’izz ke pelabuhan Aden, tiba di sekitar awal 1329 (atau 1331). [8] Aden merupakan pusat transit yang penting dalam perdagangan antara India dan Eropa. Di Aden, ia memulai sebuah kapal pos pertama untuk Zeila di pantai Afrika Teluk Aden dan kemudian pada sekitar Cape Guardafui dan ke bawah pantai Afrika Timur. Menghabiskan sekitar seminggu di setiap tujuan, ia mengunjungi Mogadishu, Mombasa, Zanzibar, dan Kilwa, antara lain. Dengan perubahan musim hujan, dia kembali dengan kapal ke Arabia dan mengunjungi Oman dan Selat Hormuz. Dia kemudian kembali ke Mekkah untuk haji dari 1330 (atau 1332). Kekaisaran Bizantium, Golden Horde, Anatolia, Asia Tengah dan India

Setelah menghabiskan satu tahun lagi di Mekah, Ibnu Batutah memutuskan untuk mencari pekerjaan dengan Sultan Delhi Muslim, Muhammad bin Tughluq. Membutuhkan panduan dan penerjemah bagi perjalanannya, ia berangkat pada 1330 (atau 1332) ke Anatolia, kemudian di bawah kendali Saljuk, untuk bergabung dengan salah satu kafilah yang pergi dari sana ke India. Sebuah perjalanan laut dari pelabuhan Suriah Latakia di kapal Genoa mendarat dia di Alanya di pantai selatan Turki modern. Dari Alanya ia melakukan perjalanan darat ke Konya dan kemudian ke Sinope di pantai Laut Hitam [9] Menyeberangi Laut Hitam, Ibnu Batutah mendarat di Caffa (sekarang Feodosiya), di Krimea,. Dan memasuki tanah Horde Emas. Dia membeli gerobak dan kebetulan bisa bergabung dengan kafilah Ozbeg, Golden Horde Khan, dalam perjalanan sejauh Astrakhan di Sungai Volga. Setelah mencapai Astrakhan, Khan mengizinkan salah satu dari istri hamil, Putri Bayalun, konon merupakan anak tidak sah dari Kaisar Bizantium Andronikos III Palaiologos, untuk kembali ke rumahnya kota Konstantinopel untuk melahirkan. Ibnu Batutah berbicara jalan ke ekspedisi ini, pertama melampaui batas-batas dunia Islam. [10] Sesampainya di Konstantinopel pada akhir 1332 (atau 1334), ia bertemu dengan kaisar Bizantium Andronikos III Palaiologos dan melihat bagian luar yang besar gereja Hagia Sophia. Setelah satu bulan di kota, ia menelusuri kembali rute ke Astrakhan, kemudian dilanjutkan melewati Laut Kaspia dan Aral ke Bukhara dan Samarkand. Dari sana, dia melakukan perjalanan ke Afghanistan selatan, gunung melewati yang ia gunakan untuk menyeberang ke India. [11] Kesultanan Delhi tambahan baru ke Dar al-Islam, dan Sultan Muhammad bin Tughluq telah memutuskan untuk mengimpor sarjana Muslim sebanyak dan fungsionaris lain mungkin untuk mengkonsolidasikan kekuasaannya. Pada kekuatan dari tahun-tahun studi, sementara di Mekkah, Ibnu Batutah dipekerjakan sebagai kadi (“hakim”) oleh sultan. Tughlaq tidak menentu bahkan oleh standar waktu, dan Ibnu Batutah berbelok antara hidup hidup yang tinggi dari seorang bawahan terpercaya, dan berada di bawah kecurigaan untuk berbagai treasons terhadap pemerintah. Akhirnya ia memutuskan untuk meninggalkan dengan alasan mengambil haji yang lain, tetapi Sultan memintanya untuk menjadi duta untuk Dinasti Yuan Cina. Diberi kesempatan untuk baik pergi dari Sultan dan mengunjungi tanah baru, Ibnu Batutah mengambil kesempatan. Asia Tenggara dan Cina

En rute ke pantai, ia dan partainya diserang oleh orang Hindu, [12] dan, dipisahkan dari yang lain, dia dirampok dan hampir kehilangan nyawanya. [13] Namun demikian, ia berhasil mengejar ketinggalan dengan kelompoknya dalam waktu sepuluh hari dan melanjutkan perjalanan ke Khambhat (Cambay). Dari sana, mereka berlayar ke Kozhikode (Calicut) (dua abad kemudian, Vasco da Gama juga mendarat di tempat yang sama). Namun, sementara Ibnu Batutah mengunjungi sebuah masjid di pantai, badai datang, dan salah satu kapal ekspedisi tenggelam. [14] Yang lainnya kemudian berlayar pergi tanpa dia dan akhirnya disita oleh seorang raja lokal di Sumatera beberapa bulan kemudian. Takut kembali ke Delhi sebagai kegagalan, ia tinggal selama beberapa waktu di selatan India di bawah perlindungan Jamal-ud-Din. Jamal-ud-Din penguasa kesultanan Nawayath kecil tapi kuat di tepi Sungai Sharavathi di pantai Laut Arab. Tempat ini sekarang dikenal sebagai Hosapattana dan terletak di Tehsil Honavar dari Uttara Kannada kabupaten. Ketika kesultanan digulingkan, menjadi perlu bagi Ibnu Batutah meninggalkan India sama sekali. Dia memutuskan untuk melanjutkan ke Cina, dengan jalan memutar dekat awal perjalanan ke Maladewa. Dia menghabiskan sembilan bulan di Kepulauan Maldive, lebih lama daripada yang ia dimaksudkan. Sebagai kadi, keterampilan yang sangat diinginkan di pulau-pulau sebelumnya Buddha yang baru saja masuk Islam, dan ia setengah-menyuap, setengah diculik ke tinggal.

the end@copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2012

THE ORIGINAL STORY OF RAMAYANA-KISAH ASLI RAMAYANA

 

INTRODUCTION

RAMAYANA

 

Ramayana is the great theme of Valmiki

 

l.

 It consists of seven books or chapters namely BalaKand, AyodhyaKand, AranyaKand, KiskindhaKand, SundaraKand, YudhaKand and UttaraKand

 containing

tales of King Dasaratha’s court, the birth and boyhood of Rama and his brethren, his marriage with Sita – daughter of Janaka, his voluntary exile, the result of Kaikeyi’s guile and Dasaratha’s rash vow, the dwelling together of Rama and Sita in the great central Indian forest, her abduction by Ravana, the expedition to Lanka and the overthrow of the ravisher, and the life at Ayodhya after the return of the reunited pair.

Thus the structure of Srimad Valmiki Ramayana is arranged into Seven Kaandas or Books, and they are:

  1. 1.      Bala Kanda ( Book of Youth) [92 Pictures]
  2. 2.      Ayodhya Kanda (Book of Ayodhya) [137 Pictures]
  3. 3.      Aranya Kanda (Book of Forest ) [92 Pictures]
  4. 4.      Kishkindha Kanda (The Empire of Holy Monkeys) [92 Pictures]
  5. 5.      Sundara Kanda ( Book of Beauty ) [92 Pictures]
  6. 6.      Yuddha Kanda ( Book of War ) [137 Pictures]
  7. 7.      Uttara Kanda (Book of return to Ayodhya) [137 Pictures]

Once I wrote a letter to one scientist (the doctor in history, professor), the leading world specialist on learning of folklore, and asked him to comment likeness of myths and legends of different people and some myths with geologic events.

He replied to me that legends, all without exception, are fiction (“superstition and fiction of a devil” – the citation from a medieval text of times of inquisition) and there are no truth crumbs in them. I don’t want to denominate the name of this scientist not to discredit him.

Nevertheless, I can not also hide my surprise as such people can become leading experts on folklore learning. Most likely, they compound a skeleton of “committees on a struggle with a pseudo science”.
One of the main functions of which is a struggle with the true knowledge.
Reading and re-reading various miraculously escaped destruction during deluges, earthquakes, conflagrations, fires of inquisition and other natural disasters and acts of conscientious annihilation by people ancient books you strike every time, how much complete and deep they disclose (unveil) at times many thousand-year (and may be, and many million-year) wisdom.

 To take for example one of the most ancient books in the world – the old Indian “Rigveda” existing on the most conservative estimates from II millenary BC. The “Rigveda” speaks that the Earth had earlier bilayer atmosphere – the upper sky with water reserves “Svah” and being under it airspace “Bhuvah”, below which there was earth “Bhuh” (about the same – existence over an air layer (shell) or the “vault of heaven” or the “rakaya” the second, water-steam layer (shell) or the “waters which over vault of heaven” – is written in the Genesis of the Old testament), The “Rigveda” also narrates about various inhabitants of the previous Earth, their repeated destruction, occupation of our planet by space aggressors – asuras ( daityas and danavas), and also how they maped out a near-earth orbit and earth, deserted before their appearence (the grandparent of all danavas Vayshvanara “has measured spaciousnesses [of lands], Possessed by perfect strength of mind, he measured light space of heaven”).
Not a bit smaller revelations are given in the Book of Enoch (IV-I century BC) in the basis of which the knowledge was laid received by the biblical patriarch Enoch during his travelling into heaven. The Book of Enoch was considered rather authoritative both in the Old Testament, and in the New Testament epochs, though was not canonical the major portion of the Christian era under not absolutely clear reason of absence of evidences of its antiquity (more possible, because of shocking by its unlikeliness data) – now it is canonical only in the Ethiopian Church.
The Book of Enoch, which the Lord in the Highest ordered to save up to pass “the wise of people; because in them (the Pentateuch of Enoch) are the feast of the mind, the source of wisdom and the river of knowledge”, also speaks about any mysterious race of guards which in time immemorials descended from heavens to the Earth and carried out its mapping (apparently, maps of P. Reis, O.Fineaus, H. Ahmed, G. Merkator, F. Bousher and others are the copies of maps of that time), about the giants inhabited the Earth, about the anger granted on them by God, about the punishment of antediluvian mankind and about many other mysterious and inexplicable things.
The Book of Giants and the Book of Jubilees (reached our time in fragments which, according to Milik and some other scientists learning Qumran manuscripts, are the constituent parts of the Pentateuch of Enoch) – other vivid examples of the description of life of antediluvian mankind.
The analogous information is hidden in “Cabbala” books (Zohar, Tikuney Zohar, etc.).
Less shocking, but, in spite of this, turn traditional scientific conceptions about the world and an origin and evolution of mankind, knowledge are contained in canonical books of Jews, christians and Moslems the Torah, the Old testament and the Koran.
The detailed information about the main periods of evolution of the Earth, former mankinds, global catastrophes and also descriptions of catastrophes themselves are contained in rewrited by the Latin letters at the time of the Conquista ancient Aztec codes of Chimalpopoko (“the Legend about Suns” and “the Annals of Kuautitlan”), Florentine, Vatican A, Telleriano-Remensis, Rios, Ishtlilshochitl and others.
Many Shumerian-Babylonian, Egyptian, Chinese, Korean, Japanese and other ancient texts and oral legends of different people (living from Tierra del Fuego to Greenland and from California to Australia and New Zealand) narrate about a time when there was no moon in the sky, when above land two suns shone simultaneously, when the sun rised in the north and set in the south, when our planet was cleaved on parts by gigantic clefts, when it was covered by huge surges of deluges reaching tops of the highest mounts…
In many texts and legends strange multiarm, many-headed, two-bodied, single-eyed and other beings describe which formerly wandered on the earth surface…
Perhaps, the most important source of knowledge about the world and mankind (at least, they have produced such impression on me) are Old Indian epic poems the “Mahabharata”, the “Ramayana”, having similar content Puranas, the sacred book of Zoroastrians the “Avesta” and, certainly, the Sacred book of maya-kiche with surprising history “Popol-Vuh”, which narrate about previous mankinds, their destructions, long and wearisome life of far grandparents of maya in subterranean settlement Tulan-Chimostok (when there were impenetrable darkness on the Earth and terrible frosts), and also describe “old people” and speak about making (creation) of “new people”, similar to white gods, which were bereaved by them in the sequel of their extrasensory capacities and clairvoyance…
In the final part of “Popol-Vuh” it is told about termination of the period of darkness and Exodus (outcome) of far grandparents of maya from Tulan – Chimostok and settlement by them the South and the North Americas. To reach the Central and the North America, far grandparents of maya had to be necessary to cross a sea. Regarding that modern subterranean mazes stretching under a considerable parts of Ecuador, Peru, Bolivias, Chile and Argentina and having thousand kilometers in length were Tulan-Chimostok, and the sea between the North and the South America had disappeared approximately 5,3-5,5 million years ago, most likely, the information contained in “Popol-Vuh” unambiguously indicates that far grandparents of maya lived underground before this time.
Means, more than 5,5 million years ago there was also a period of darkness Chamak-Pacha in the end of which white god Vira Kocha had come to the South America. And if to regard furthermore that according to legends of the South American Indians, the megalithic city of Tiahuanaco in Bolivia lied in ruins at that time, it means that stated by H. Bellamy in the work “Built before the flood. The Problem of the Tiahuanaco ruins” and by me in the book “ The Earth before the flood – the world of sorcerers and werewolves” the supposition that megaliths of the South America and the Temple mount in Jerusalem had been builted much million years ago, very much near to true.
It is only necessary to read correctly ancient legends, to draw an analogies betwen them and geologic data and, the main, not to be frightened of an incredible, shocking antiquity of many events, described in legends. For example, that at the time of life of heroes of the “Ramayana” (written earlier II-III century of century BC) the ancient empire of rakshasas with capital of Lanka (according to different data the modern Shri Lanka or Brazil) was covered with snow and ice in winter. And it could not be after 12 thousand years ago…
I have told you about all these, that you can be convinced that to receive the true knowledge about the world and mankind history is impossible without comprehensive learning of the inheritance of the past. Some examples (it is in many times more them in the books) from the “Rigveda”, the Book of Enoch, “Popol-Vuh”,

the “Ramayana” I have just given .

 But still more greater source of wisdom, in my opinion,

is the “Mahabharata”.

It contains the detailed story how people appeared on the Earth, what reasonable beings wandered on land before appearence of people and how they looked, and also it speaks about those times, when seas were inhabited by marine monsters with whales or more in size – tymingils, swallowed them tjamitymingils, similar to gigantic crocodiles makaras, devouring them gigantic seabirds…
The “Mahabharata” (III-I millenaries BC) describes in detail episodes of settlement of the Earth by space aggressors, their struggle with native inhabitants of our planet, Earth’ destructions and perishing of previous mankinds during global catastrophes, the account of which is counted from those times when the earth surface teemed by orthograde, four-footed, winged and creeping dragons and snakes (Mesozoic era)… It is only necessary to manage to read far messages of the past correctly.
That is why I persistently call upon to learn children from a school bench to all these invaluable wells of wisdom which contain much more truthful information about our past, than modern textbooks on ancient history.
That is why I call upon to join together efforts of geologists, historians, ethnographers and other specialists to manage to decode the wisdom recorded in ancient legends and to prepare universal specialists on natural sciences.
And now I give you an opportunity to read some major fragments of ancient manuscripts which throw light on our true history. And for that you can easier detect their hidden sence, I supplement these fragments with my commentings (you can and not read them). I very much hope that you will also read my books in which I have carried out the comparative analisis of folklore and geologic data. I hope, for the first time in the world, therefore reconstructed by me history of mankind frightens by an incredible antiquity. Though about approximately the same time of settlement of the Earth N.K.Roerich also wrote, and he as no one else, possessed by many knowledge of Devoted.

According to the Vedic system, the history of the Earth was devided on the Satya-Yuga (Golden Age), the Treta-Yuga, the Dvapara-Yuga and Kali-Yuga, and duration of human life was changed from 100 000 years in the Satya-Yuga till 10 000 years in the Treta-Yuga, 1 000 years in the Dvapara-Yuga and, at last, 100 years in Kali-Yuga. According to the Indian legends, improbably ancient knowledge having in the Veda (perhaps, in the “Mahabharata” too) had been brought to people by immortal nagas (under other data, by gangharvas).

 

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INDONESIAN VERSION

 Ramayana Balakanda

Kitab Rama muda yang ajaib rincian kelahiran Rama, kehidupan awal di Ayodhya, membunuh tentang roh hutan pada permintaan Vishvamitra dan pernikahannya dengan Sita.

Narada tiba di Walmiki yang Hermitage

Walmiki bertanya Narada “Wahai orang bijak, apakah ada orang yang memiliki karakter tercela, adalah berani, jujur ​​tanpa kemarahan atau kecemburuan di dunia ini Beritahu saya tentang dia jika ada semacam jiwa besar.? Narada menjawab” Sulit untuk menemukan seperti seseorang, tetapi ada satu lahir di rumah Ikshvaku itu. Namanya Rama “. Narada kemudian mulai menceritakan kisah Rama untuk Walmiki.

Setelah menceritakan kisah Rama, Narada pergi Deva Loka

Sage Walmiki pergi untuk menawarkan persembahanmu tengah hari di Sungai Tamasa. Sepasang burung Krauncha menarik perhatiannya di sekitarnya dingin. Pada saat pasangan itu kawin, seorang pemburu yang ditujukan pada mereka panahnya dan dikirim itu. Ini menusuk jantung burung laki-laki. Burung betina mulai menangis untuk pasangannya sekarat. Ini pindah jantung jenis Walmiki membacakan Puisi pertama di dunia “Manishada …..

Brahma Komando

Ketika Walmiki kembali ke pertapaannya mengingat ledakan spontan Poesy, Brahma, Sang Pencipta, terwujud dan memerintahkan dia untuk menyusun cerita Rama dalam meter Anustup “Semoga itu buku pertama dan mungkin itu berlangsung selama sebagai The Kalpa berlangsung” kata Brahma

Visi Walmiki

Dengan berkat-berkat dari Sang Pencipta, bijak Valmiki yang ditawarkan terdiri doa dan duduk di kursi yang terbuat dari rumput kusa. Raja Dasaratha, istri nya, anak-anak, pasangan mereka, pembuangan Rama, Sita dan Lakshmana, pembantaian Rahwana datang sebagai visi untuk Walmiki. Valmiki sehingga meletakkan cerita Rama untuk anak cucu.

Walmiki menyusun Ramayana

Sage terdiri Walmiki Ramayana di 24.000 slokas dalam 500 sargas dan enam Cantos. Para kusa kembar dan Lava mendapatkan mereka dengan jantung. Mereka suara musik manis dan dipentaskan sebelum para narapidana dari pertapaan. Rama membawa mereka ke pengadilan untuk membacakan cerita.

Raja-raja dari Dinasti Ikshvaku

Di antara raja-raja yang memerintah bumi ini, itu Ikshvaku adalah terbesar. Dari Manu untuk Sagara mereka memerintah bumi dengan keriangan yang tidak merata. Di antara mereka Rama adalah permata mahkota. Kerajaan Kosala adalah di tepi sungai dan Sarayu modal adalah Ayodhya dibangun oleh Vaivaswata Manu. Di pusat kota adalah istana Raja

Besar Raya

Raja yang membawa kemuliaan ke kota Ayodhya dan Kosala Kerajaan itu Dasaratha. Ia membunuh beberapa musuh pria yang diundang dari keberanian dan sarjana untuk tinggal di kotanya. Orang-orang menjalani kehidupan puas dan benar.

Mampu Raja

Imam kepala kerajaan itu Vasistha dan Vamadeva. Raja Dasaratha memerintah efisien dengan bantuan dari delapan menteri yang dipimpin oleh Sumanta. Sumanta yang paling dekat dengan Dasaratha dan berhak bahkan untuk memasuki apartemen perempuan kerajaan.

Info lebih lanjut Ishavaku

SEJARAH Ksatria
Ksatria () adalah salah satu dari empat varna (tatanan sosial) dalam agama Hindu. Ini merupakan perintah militer dan memerintah dari sistem tradisional Hindu Veda-sosial sebagaimana digariskan oleh Veda dan Hukum Manu. Tuhan Rama, Krishna, Sang Buddha dan Tuhan Mahavira semua milik tatanan sosial ini.

Awalnya dalam masyarakat Veda kuno, posisi ini dicapai pada manfaat dari bakat seseorang (guna), perilaku (karma), dan alam (swabhava). Literatur Veda awal terdaftar ksatria (pemegang k atra,? Atau otoritas) sebagai peringkat pertama dalam, maka Brahmana (pendeta dan guru hukum), berikutnya Vaisya (pedagang-pedagang), dan akhirnya Sudra (pengrajin dan buruh ). Gerakan individu dan kelompok dari satu kelas ke yang lain, baik ke atas dan ke bawah, tidak jarang, kenaikan dalam status bahkan ke peringkat ksatria adalah hadiah diakui untuk pelayanan yang memuaskan untuk para penguasa hari [1] Selama bertahun-tahun. menjadi turun-temurun. Di zaman modern, varna ksatria termasuk kelas luas kelompok kasta, berbeda jauh dalam status dan fungsi tetapi dipersatukan oleh klaim mereka untuk pemerintahan, mengejar perang, atau kepemilikan tanah.

Legenda bahwa Ksatria, dengan pengecualian dari Ikshvakus, dihancurkan oleh Parasurama, keenam reinkarnasi Wisnu, sebagai hukuman atas tirani mereka dianggap oleh beberapa sarjana untuk merefleksikan perjuangan panjang untuk supremasi antara imam dan penguasa yang berakhir dengan kemenangan untuk mantan. Pada akhir era Veda, para Brahmana yang tertinggi, dan ksatria yang telah jatuh ke tempat kedua. Teks-teks seperti Manusm ti (sebuah buku Hindu hukum)? Dan sebagian dharmashastras lainnya (karya yurisprudensi) laporan kemenangan Brahman, tetapi teks-teks epik sering menawarkan account yang berbeda, dan kemungkinan bahwa dalam realitas sosial penguasa biasanya peringkat pertama . Representasi persisten dari dewa (terutama Wisnu, Kresna, dan Rama) sebagai penguasa menggarisbawahi titik, seperti halnya seri rumit peran ritual dan hak istimewa yang berkaitan dengan raja-raja melalui sebagian besar sejarah Hindu [2].. Dengan munculnya Buddhisme, Ksatria kembali posisi mereka sebagai yang pertama dari empat varna. Pembunuhan kaisar Maurya terakhir Brhadrata oleh-Nya Brahmana umum Pusyamitra Sunga, dan penurunan selanjutnya Buddhisme di India, ditandai supremasi Brahmana sekali lagi di India Timur. India Barat tetap menjadi kubu klan ksatria sebagaimana ditunjukkan oleh Rajputana dan ksatria kerajaan kuat yang memerintah dari Ujjain sampai ke serbuan Islam menyebabkan kejatuhan Ksatria Chauhan di Delhi.

Ikshvaku dinasti keturunan

 

Para daftar raja-raja Ik v?? Ku atau Aik? V? Ka dinasti ditemukan dalam Ramayana, Mahabharata, Harivamsha dan Purana. Tapi dua daftar ditemukan dalam Ramayana bervariasi secara signifikan dengan semua daftar lainnya. Para Raghuvamsha dari Kalidasa juga menyebutkan nama-nama dari beberapa raja-raja dinasti ini [3]. [4] [5]

 

 

 

 

 

IKSHVAKUS
Silsilah dari dinasti Ikshvaku seperti yang disebutkan dalam Ramayana (i.69.17-32 dan ii.102.4-29) [6] adalah sebagai berikut:

Brahma menciptakan 10 Prajapatis, salah satunya adalah Marichi.
Kashyapa adalah putra Marichi dan Kala. Kashyapa dianggap sebagai bapak manusia.
Vivasvan atau Surya adalah putra Kashyapa dan Aditi.
Vaivasvata Manu, awalnya Satyavrata, Kaisar kemudian dari Dravida adalah anak dari Vivasvan. Ia dianggap sebagai penguasa pertama milik dinasti Ikshvaku.
Ikshvaku adalah putra dari Vaivasvata Manu.
Kukshi adalah putra Ikshvaku
Vikukshi adalah putra Kukshi
Bana adalah putra Vikukshi
Anaranya adalah anak dari Bana
Prithu adalah putra Anaranya
Trishanku adalah putra Prithu
Dhundhumara adalah putra Trishanku
Yuvanashva adalah putra Dhundhumara
Mandhata adalah putra Yuvanashva
Susandhi adalah putra Mandhata
Dhruvasandhi dan Presenajit adalah anak-anak Susandhi
Bharata adalah putra Dhruvasandhi
Bahu (Asita) adalah putra Bharata
Sagara adalah putra Bahu
Asamanja adalah anak dari Sagara
Amsumanta (Ansuman) adalah anak dari Asamanja
Dileepa adalah putra Amsumanta
Bhagiratha adalah putra Dilipa
Kakustha adalah putra Bhagiratha
Raghu adalah putra Kakushta. Klan Raghuvamsha dimulai dengan Raghu
Pravriddha adalah sone dari Raghu
Shankhana adalah putra Pravriddha
Sudarshana adalah putra Shankhana
Agnivarna adalah putra Sudarshana
Shighra adalah putra Agnivarna
Maru adalah putra Shighra
Prashushruka adalah putra Maru
Ambarisha adalah putra Prashushruka
Nahusha adalah putra Ambarisha
Yayati adalah putra Nahusha
Nabhaga adalah putra Yayati
Aja adalah putra Nabhaga
Dasharatha adalah putra Aja
Rama, Lakshmana, Bharata dan Shatrughna adalah putra Dasaratha
Lava dan Kusha adalah putra dari Rama
Purana memberikan daftar silsilah dari Kusha untuk Brihadbala, yang dibunuh oleh Abimanyu dalam perang Mahabharata. Daftar ini dikuatkan oleh Raghuvamsha sampai Agnivarna [7]:

Atithi, anak Kusha
Nishadha, anak Atithi
Nala, putra Nishadha
Nabhas, anak Nala
Pundarika, yang Nabhas anak
Kshemadhanvan, anak Pundarika
Devanika, anak Kshemadhanvan
Ahinagu, anak Davanika
Paripatra, anak Ahinagu
Dala (atau Bala), putra Ahinagu
Uktha, anak Dala
Vajranabha, anak Uktha
Shankhana, anak Vajranabha
Vyushitashva, anak Shankhana
Vishvasaha, anak Vyushitashva
Hiranyanabha, anak Vishvasaha
Pushya, anak Hiranyanabha
Dhruvasandhi, anak Pushya
Agnivarna, anak Dhruvasandhi
Shighra, anak Agnivarna
Maru, anak Shighra
Prasushruta, anak Maru
Susandhi, anak Prasushruta
Amarsha dan Sahasvant, anak-anak Susandhi
Vishrutavant, anak Amarsha
Brihadbala, anak Vishrutavant.
Namun, Nepal dan Bauddhists melanjutkan dinasti lebih lanjut.

Lineage Descrepencies
Dari 2 sumber yang tercantum di atas, ada perbedaan yang perlu diselesaikan untuk akurasi data di atas. Berikut ini adalah daftar descrepencies:

Walmiki Ramayana menyatakan bahwa Prthu adalah putra Anaranya dan ayah dari Trisanku. Ramakatha Rasavahini merindukan Prthu dan menyatakan bahwa ayah Anaranya Trisanku
Walmiki Ramayana menyatakan bahwa Presenjit adalah ayah dari Bharatha sementara Ramakatha Rasavahini statest Daivasandhi sebagai bapak Bharatha
Walmiki Ramayana menyatakan bahwa Sankhana adalah putra Pravardha dan anak Sankhana adalah Sudarsana. Ramakatha Rasavahini merindukan menyebutkan Sankhana dan atribut Sudarsana sebagai anak Pravardha
Seeghraga disebutkan sebagai putra Agnivarna & ayah Maru di Ramakatha Rasavahini. Walmiki Ramayana tidak menyebut Seeghraga dan menyatakan bahwa ayah Maru adalah Agnivarna
Ikshvaku dinasti dalam tradisi Jaina
Dinasti Ikshvaku memiliki tempat yang signifikan dalam tradisi Jaina, seperti 22 Tirthankaras lahir di rumah kerajaan. Yang pertama Tirthankara Rishavadeva adalah putra Raja Ikshvaku Nabhi. Para Tirthankara kedua, Ajitanatha, putra Raja Ikshvaku Jitashatru adalah sepupu dari Sagara

Andhra Ikshvakus
Para Ikshvakus Andhra adalah salah satu dinasti yang berkuasa awal Andhra Pradesh. Mereka memerintah negara timur Andhra sepanjang sungai Krishna selama paruh akhir abad kedua Masehi [8]. Modal mereka adalah Vijayapuri (Nagarjunakonda). Beberapa ahli telah mengusulkan bahwa dinasti ini adalah terkait dengan Ikshvakus kuno mitologi Hindu. Rama Ramayana, yang dianggap sebagai inkarnasi dari Wisnu milik garis Ikshvaku. Menurut mitologi Hindu, Ikshvaku, yang adalah ayah dari Manu dan Kukshi, adalah pendiri dinasti Suryavanshi, memerintah dari Ayodhya pada saat dimulainya Treta Yuga dari. Namun tidak ada bukti langsung yang menunjukkan bahwa Ikshvakus Andhra yang terkait dengan Ikshvakus mitologis.

Bukti arkeologis telah menyarankan bahwa Ikshvakus Andhra segera menggantikan Satavahanas di lembah sungai Krishna. Ikshvakus telah meninggalkan prasasti di Nagarjunakonda, Jaggayyapeta, Amaravati dan Bhattiprolu.

Sastra Bukti Andhra Ikshvakus untuk Ikshvakus
Sebuah puisi Kannada Dharmamrita menyatakan bahwa Ikshvakus bagian Andhra adalah keturunan dari Ikshvakus terkenal India utara. Para ulama oriental seperti Buhler dan Rapson mengungkapkan pandangan bahwa Ikshvakus utara mungkin telah bermigrasi ke selatan. Menurut Purana Vayu, Manu, patriark besar India kuno memiliki sembilan putra di antaranya Ikshvaku adalah sulung. Modalnya adalah Ayodhya. Dia memiliki seratus anak, dan Vikushi tertua menggantikan ayahnya sebagai penguasa Ayodhya. Dari sisanya, lima puluh anak-anak didirikan kerajaan kecil di India Utara. Empat puluh delapan dari anak-anaknya bermigrasi ke selatan dan mengukir kerajaan untuk diri mereka sendiri.

Literatur Buddhis mengacu pada penetrasi Ikshvakus ke India Selatan dan menyatakan bahwa mereka mendirikan Asmaka, Mulaka dan kerajaan lainnya. Ksatria ini duduk di selatan dan mendirikan kerajaan-kerajaan kecil di sana. Jain literatur juga mengacu pada eksodus pangeran India utara ke selatan. Dalam Dharmamrita referensi dibuat bahwa selama masa hidup Tirthankara 12, seorang pangeran bernama Yasodhara yang berasal dari keluarga Ikshvaku berasal dari kerajaan Angga untuk Vengi di selatan. Kami diberitahu bahwa pangeran itu begitu terkesan dengan keindahan wilayah tersebut, dan kesuburan tanah bahwa ia membuat rumah permanen dan mendirikan sebuah kota yang bernama Pratipalpura. Hal ini diyakini bahwa Pratipalapura adalah Bhattiprolu modern, sebuah kota di Distrik Guntur [kutipan diperlukan]. Prasasti juga telah ditemukan di lembah Nagarjunakonda dan pada Jaggayyapeta dan Bhattiprolu menyinggung hal ini.

Etimologi

Dalam bahasa Sansekerta, itu berasal dari k? Atra, yang berarti “kekuasaan, kekuasaan, pemerintah” dari akar k?? “Untuk memerintah, mengatur, memiliki”. Lama Persia xs? Ya iya (“Kaisar”) dan XSA?? Ra (“alam”) yang terkait dengan itu, seperti kata-kata Persia baru S h (“Kaisar”) dan Sahr (“kota”,? “Alam” ). Kata Thai untuk “raja”, kasat, dan kata Melayu untuk “ksatria” atau “prajurit”, kesatria atau satria, yang juga berasal dari itu. Istilah menunjukkan status aristokrat.

Pada awal peradaban Veda, kasta ksatria disebut r janya atau? Kšatr? Ya. Yang pertama adalah bentuk sifat dari r Januari “penguasa, raja” dari akar r?? J “untuk memerintah”, serumpun untuk bahasa Latin rex “raja”, Reich Jerman “kerajaan / wilayah”, dan Thailand Racha “raja “. Di Persia, wakil raja, atau “kshatrapa”, adalah gubernur, atau “pelindung”, provinsi Kekaisaran Persia.

Kudus Prajurit
Tuhan Sri Rama (tengah) bersama istrinya Sita, saudara – Laksmana dan Hanuman pemuja. Rama dan Lakshmana selalu terbukti siap untuk berperang, dengan busur dan anak panah, seperti yang ksatria mereka untuk melawan. Rama adalah seorang ksatria dari garis keturunan Suryavanshi. Dia dianggap sebagai

inkarnasi Dewa Wisnu

 

Tuhan Sri Krishna dengan Radha. Krishna, seorang ksatria dengan kelahiran keturunan Chandravanshi, Ia dianggap inkarnasi lain Dewa Wisnu. Dalam Bhagavad Gita Arjuna ia mengajar tentang tugas Ksatria.

Seorang penguasa Hindu terikat oleh kitab-kitab suci untuk memerintah sebagai Raja Dharma (Hanya Aturan), dengan tugas utama yang melindungi rakyatnya dan ternak.

Rig Veda menyatakan:
praja arya jyotiragrah ‘. RV, VII. 33.17

Masyarakat yang dipimpin Arya yang dipimpin oleh cahaya Ilahi. Raja Rama Ayodhya dianggap yang terbesar dari Dharma-Raja-Raja:

arya Sarva samascaiva sadaiva priyadarsanah

Seorang Arya yang bekerja untuk kesetaraan semua, itu sayang kepada semua orang. Rama juga dianggap sebagai avatar Wisnu.

Ramayana menyatakan:
Seperti Manu raja kuno, ayah dari ra manusia

Dasaratha memerintah umat-Nya dengan kasih karunia seorang ayah.

Aswamedha

Tetapi Raja memiliki satu kekhawatiran. Dia keturunan. Jadi ia memikirkan melakukan pengorbanan Aswamedha yang mungkin memberinya anak laki-laki. Dia memanggil Menteri Sumanta dan kepala-imam dan pemimpin Vasistha Brahmana lainnya. Mereka mengangguk dan memberkatinya. Pengaturan dibuat untuk Yaga di tepi Sarayu

Menginginkan anak

Sumanta menyarankan raja untuk melakukan bukan pengorbanan Putreshthi. Hal ini telah diresepkan oleh Sanatkumara bijak. “Untuk melakukan ini Rishyasringa Yaga adalah orang yang tepat”, kata Sumanta Dasaratha.

Menarik Rishyasringa

Rishyasringa adalah anak dari Vibhandaka dan cucu dari Sage Kasyapa. Lahir di hutan, ia tahu apa-apa kecuali lingkungannya, api HOMA dan ayahnya. Angga negara diperintah oleh Raja Romapada. Dia membawa Rishyasringa dengan membujuk dia dengan bantuan gadis-gadis penari ketika hujan gagal tanah. Ketika Rishyasringa menginjakkan kaki di negeri ini, hujan deras dan kelaparan itu lenyap. Jadi, raja Romapada memberikan putrinya kepadanya dalam pernikahan dan Rishyasringa tinggal di mewah di istana.

Di Ayodhya

Raja Dasaratha meminta Romapada untuk membantu dan membawa Rishyasringa dan istrinya Santa Ayodhya

Sacrificial Kuda

Pada musim semi Dasaratha mulai Yaga dan kurban kuda didirikan perjalanan di seluruh kerajaan beberapa.

Yaga Dimulai

Setahun berlalu dan Raja Dasaratha melanjutkan dengan Yaga yang diresepkan.

Kembalinya Kuda

Pengorbanan kuda kembali. Pilar-pilar pengorbanan telah diukir dan burung-burung yang ditentukan, Ular dan kuda korban diikat kepada mereka. Ratu mengelilingi kuda dan ditebang dengan pedang emas. Anggota badan kuda itu ditawarkan kepada korban api

Dewa Tiba

Rishyasringa dilakukan pengorbanan Putrakamesthi. Dewa-dewa dan orang bijak tiba. Pertama yang datang adalah Brahma. Mereka meminta bantuan dari Brahma untuk membunuh Raja Rahwana. Brahma mengatakan “Rahwana telah memperoleh keuntungan dari saya yang melindungi dia dari kematian di tangan itu Deva, Danava itu, yaksha dan ghandharvas. Tapi dia bisa dibunuh oleh manusia. Jadi ia akan ……… “

Deva itu permohonan

Mereka mendesak Wisnu untuk mengambil inkarnasi manusia dan membunuh Rahwana. Dia setuju untuk dilahirkan di rumah Dasaratha.

Emas Kapal

Sebagai korban Putrakamesthi akan berakhir, ada muncul sosok luar biasa yang membawa emas dari kapal api HOMA. Dia menawarkan Raja Dasaratha puding nasi dan susu yang disiapkan oleh Deva “Let ratu Anda bagian dari hal itu dan mereka akan memiliki anak”, purusha Yagna diperintahkan.

Sacrificial makanan

Dasaratha ditawarkan setengah puding suci bagi Kausalyaa ratu, setengah dari setengah tersisa untuk ratu Kaikayi. Sisanya ia dibuat menjadi dua bagian dan menawarkan mereka untuk ratu Sumitra. Tiga ratu, setelah mengambil bagian puding dikandung.

Kelahiran Vanaras

Tuhan memerintahkan para Deva Brahma untuk pergi ke bumi lahir sebagai Vanaras. Oleh karena itu, dengan perintah Sugriwa Brahma lahir dari Sun, Vali Indira dan Hanuman dari dewa angin Vayu. Mereka untuk membantu Rama

Kelahiran Rama

Enam musim dan 12 bulan terakhir dan pada hari kesembilan dari bulan waxing Rama lahir Kausalyaa. Kaikayi melahirkan Bharatha dan Sumitra untuk Lakshmana anak laki-laki Kembar dan satrughna. Kelahiran mereka dirayakan oleh warga Ayodhya dengan keangkuhan dan penuh semangat.

Vishwamitra tiba

Dasaratha mulai berpikir tentang pernikahan mereka sebagai anak-anak tumbuh menjadi pemuda. Kemudian datang bijak Vishwamitra kepada raja dan berkata ‘oh, raja besar, saya melakukan kurban dan dua iblis yang mengganggu itu. Jadi mengirim Rama untuk melindungi situs pengorbanan. Aku akan menjaganya dan ia akan menjadi cahaya dari dinasti Ikshvaku.

Dasaratha yang Dilema

Dasaratha menjawab “Oh bijak besar, anak saya hampir enam belas tahun usia Bagaimana ia bisa menghadapi sihir setan dari Rakshasas?. Aku akan datang untuk membantu Anda sebagai gantinya. Tapi yang dua Rakshasas Yaga menghalangi Anda”. Ketika Vishwamitra mengatakan kepadanya bahwa mereka Mareecha dan Subahu dan mereka dikirim oleh Raja Rahwana dinasti Pulastya yang bijak.

Dasaratha sangat terkejut dan berkata “o bijak bahkan aku tidak bisa menghadapi Rahwana, Bagaimana ini anak muda melawan dia?”

Vishwamitra sangat marah mendengar jawabannya.

Vasistha nasihat

Sage Vasistha campur: “O, bagus raja ini Vishwamitra mampu membunuh semua setan dengan dirinya Dia hanya ingin membantu anak Anda melakukan perbuatan yang besar Jadi, kirim Rama dengan dia dan menjaga janji Anda…”

Belajar Eja

Dasaratha Rama dan Lakshmana menempatkan dalam perawatan Vishwamitra itu. Mereka berjalan menuju Sungai Sarayu dan setelah berendam di dalamnya, Rama diajarkan dua mantra ‘Bala dan Atibala’ oleh Vishwamitra, “mantra ini akan terus kelaparan dan kelelahan menjauh dari Anda” katanya kepada Rama.

Mereka beristirahat malam itu di tepi selatan Sungai.

Pembunuhan Manmadha

Saat fajar, mereka terbangun di tempat tidur yang terbuat dari rumput. Setelah wudhu pagi, mereka melanjutkan perjalanan mereka dan terlihat di mana Tuhan Siwa Sthanvashrama dilakukan penebusan dosa dan Manmatha berubah menjadi abu.

Mereka beristirahat di sana untuk malam. Kisah Tataka

Mereka menyeberangi Sungai Gangga dan memasuki hutan. Viswamitra mengatakan kepada mereka bagaimana tempat itu pernah berkembang dan kemudian ditinggalkan karena setan-Tataka.
“Dia Yakshini Wanita dapat mengambil bentuk dia keinginan dan memiliki kekuatan seribu gajah.. Dia menikah dengan Sunanda dan melahirkan setan Mareecha. Bunuhlah dan membuat tempat ini aman” katanya kepada Rama.

Rama Keraguan

Rama bertanya, “Mereka mengatakan Yaksha yang lemah dan ini Tataka adalah seorang wanita Bagaimana dia mendapatkan kekuatan seribu gajah itu?.”
Dia lahir dari yaksha bernama Suketu dan memperoleh kekuatannya melalui anugerah dari Brahma. Sunanda meninggal dan Tataka dan Mareecha menjadi setan-setan menyusul kutukan oleh Agasthya bijak.

“Bunuhlah dia untuk keselamatan sapi dan Brahmana Anda sendiri dapat membunuhnya.. Untuk perlindungan orang yang Anda tidak perlu ragu untuk membunuhnya meskipun dia adalah seorang wanita” perintahnya.

Kematian Tataka

“Jadi yang harus saya”, kata Rama dan menarik string busur. Suaranya bergema di seluruh hutan dan Tataki bergegas ke arah itu. Gerakan terangkat badai debu dan kegelapan turun. Ada hujan batu dari dia dan Rama menciptakan barikade dengan panah.
Saat matahari terbenam bijak mengatakan Rama “Ketika malam tiba kekuatannya akan tumbuh berlipat ganda Jadi membunuh. Sekarang”. Rama mengirimkan sebuah panah yang menusuk hatinya dan dia jatuh mati seperti pohon raksasa.

Senjata Baru

Mereka menghabiskan malam itu di hutan. Di pagi hari Viswamitra diajarkan Rama penggunaan Brahma perkasa, Narayana dan Astras lainnya. Selain pengiriman Rama mereka juga diajarkan penarikan mereka.

Menuju Siddhasrama

Mereka melanjutkan perjalanan mereka dan mencapai medan berbukit dan terlihat sebuah pertapaan yang dikenal sebagai Siddhasrama.

Cerita Hermitage

“Ini adalah di mana sekali Vishnu melanjutkan penebusan dosa dan kemudian ia tinggal di sini sekarang saya tinggal di sini.. Ini adalah di mana Anda harus membunuh setan”, kata Rama Viswamitra.

Mereka beristirahat sementara dan bijak melanjutkan ritualnya. Rama dan Lakshmana sedang terjaga sepanjang malam menunggu setan.

Hermitage Diserang
Jadi yang menghabiskan waktu lima hari dan malam. Pada pagi hari keenam sebagai kurban sedang berlangsung ada ledakan besar di atas seolah-olah langit telah meledak. Pertapaan dikelilingi oleh kebakaran. Mareecha dan Subahu menutupi langit dengan awan gelap.
Darah menghujani di situs korban. Senjata yang bertujuan untuk Mareecha mengirimnya seratus yojana jauhnya ke laut tapi Subahu tewas. Mengorbankan menyimpulkan tanpa gangguan. Perjalanan ke Mithila

Keesokan harinya beberapa narapidana dari pertapaan menyarankan bahwa Rama dan Lakshmana menemani mereka ke kota Mithila mana raja Janak adalah melakukan pengorbanan. “Ada sebuah busur indah ada berbakat oleh Tuhan Siwa untuk Devarata penguasa Mithila setelah pengorbanan seorang pun telah mampu string yang busur. Anda bisa melihatnya di sana.”.
Jadi disertai dengan Viswamitra mereka berangkat Mithila.

100 Dauhters

Viswamitra mengatakan Rama sejarah Mithila demikian: “pikir Brahma – anak kusa mendarat di bumi dari Brahmaloka dan menikahi putri Vidabha raja Mereka memiliki empat anak Kusambu, Kusanabha, Adhurtharajas dan Vasu Vasu membangun kota Girivrajapura Sungai yang mengalir dari… lima gunung sekitar adalah Sona. Hal ini juga dikenal sebagai Magadha.
Kusanabha memiliki seratus anak perempuan keindahan indah. Ketika mereka sedang bermain di taman satu hari Allah Angin Vayu bernafsu untuk mereka dan mendesak mereka untuk menikah dengannya. Mereka menolak permohonan itu dan Allah Vayu mengutuk mereka untuk menjadi jelek dan dwarf

Mengangkat Kutukan

Kusanabha membujuk penguasa kota Kampilya untuk menikahi mereka. Dengan sentuhannya mereka kehilangan keburukan mereka.

Kerinduan untuk Putra

Ketika semua ratus putrinya pergi dengan suami mereka, Kusanabha merasa kesepian dan merindukan seorang anak. Jadi, dia melakukan Putrakameshthi dan memperoleh seorang putra. Dia adalah Raja Gadhi “Akulah putra Gadhi dan dengan demikian kemudian dikenal sebagai Gadheya kata Viswamitra dan juga Kausika karena aku lahir di keluarga kusa”..
Viswamitra melanjutkan ceritanya “Saya mencapai Satyavathi kakak Swarga tubuh dan kembali ke bumi sebagai sungai Kausiki di Himalaya.

Asal Gangga
Rama mendesak Viswamitra menceritakan asal usul Gangga “adalah Repositori dari permata dan tujuh mineral Raja Himavanta.. Ia menikah Manorama. Mereka dikaruniai dua putri cantik Gangga dan Uma. Atas permintaan Deva, Himavanta membawa Gangga untuk Devaloka. uma dilakukan penebusan dosa yang berkepanjangan dan menikah Maheswara. Dia menjadi Rudrani “kata Viswamitra.

Siwa Benih

Viswamitra kemudian menceritakan kisah Parvati Rama: “Untuk melahirkan seorang putra Siwa dan Parvati larut dalam kenikmatan suami-istri ketika benih Siwa jatuh di bumi Segera menguap dalam api dan menjadi bukit putih Parwati mengutuk bumi dan Deva untuk mengambil.. benih dan wasting.
Dalam perjalanan waktu bukit tumbuh menjadi sebuah hutan lebat. Ada di padang gurun dilahirkan Kartikeya.

Enam berwajah Allah

Dewa api, Agni ditransfer ke benih Siwa Gangga dan dia menjadi hamil. Dia tidak tahan panas benih dan dibatalkan itu di kaki Himalaya. Dari ini, dihasilkan tujuh mineral. Dari sana muncul anak dengan enam wajah dan keindahan indah.
Ia dibesarkan oleh enam Kruttikas. Jadi, dia dikenal sebagai Kartikeya. Dia juga dikenal sebagai Shanmuka karena ia memiliki enam kepala. Allah Agni membuatnya komandan-in-chief dari tentara para dewa.

Kaisar putra Sagara

Vishwamitra mengatakan “Setelah Raja Sagara memerintah Ayodhya Dia punya dua istri, kesini dan Smati.. Tapi mereka tidak punya anak. Raja Sagara berdoa bijak Bhrigu untuk dua anak. Bhrigu mengatakan kepadanya bahwa istrinya sulung akan memiliki satu anak laki-laki dan 60.000 anak kedua.

Menggali bumi

Sagara dimulai pengorbanan Aswamedha. Dia mengutus besar-anaknya Ansumanta dengan kuda kurban dan anak itu kembali dengan itu dihalangi.

Ketika pengorbanan itu berlangsung Indira mencuri kuda suci. 60.000 putra Sagara pergi mencari itu menggali bumi turun ke dunia bawah

Kapila yang Wrath

Ketika mereka pergi menggali di arah utara-timur mereka menemukan Wisnu dalam bentuk bijak Kapila dan kuda kurban di sisinya. Mereka mengira dia pencuri kuda dan menyerangnya. Kapila mengubah mereka menjadi abu.

Upaya untuk menurunkan Gangga

Tidak dapat melacak 60.000 putranya Sagara dikirim Ansumanta untuk menemukan mereka. Ansumanta menemukan abu mereka dan menawarkan mereka upeti ia mencari air ketika Garuda muncul dan mengatakan kepadanya bahwa jika Gangga mengalir di atas abu mereka pamannya akan mencapai keselamatan.

Ansumanta mengambil kembali kuda kurban dan menceritakan cerita kakeknya. Sementara itu, Sagara gagal tanpa mampu membawa Gangga ke bumi.

Bhagiratha itu upaya

Setelah kematian Sagara itu, Ansumanta menggantikannya sebagai raja Ayodhya. Ia digantikan oleh putranya Dilipa dan Dilipa diikuti oleh Bhagiratha anaknya. Bhagiratha pergi pada penebusan dosa berkepanjangan untuk anak dan untuk membawa Gangga ke bumi.

Brahma muncul dan mengatakan kepadanya “Bhagiratha, Anda dapat memiliki anak Anda Tapi untuk Gangga turun ke bumi hanya Tuhan Siva dapat berisi kekuatan dia jatuh dari langit.. Jadi berdoa kepadanya”.

Turunnya Gangga

Siva terwujud Bhagiratha mengandung Gangga. Dia menanggung Gangga di panen dan dia bersembunyi di sana. Tidak menemukan di mana saja dia pergi lagi Bhagiratha penitensi untuk menyenangkan Dewa Siwa. Siva merilis Gangga ke danau Bindu. Dari sana Gangga turun sebagai Tujuh Streaming perkasa. Salah satu dari mereka mengikuti Bhagiratha itu kereta.

Membasahi dengan Ashes

Dia mengantarnya melalui abu leluhurnya dan dengan demikian mereka mencapai keselamatan pada akhirnya.

Jhanu tegukan Gangga

Kemudian Bhagiratha berpaling keretanya menuju pertapaan bijak Jhanu dan berhenti di sana. Namun Gangga perkasa mengikutinya tidak bisa berhenti di situ tiba-tiba dan mencuci pertapaan pergi. Sage Jhanu berbalik marah dan mengambil seluruh Gangga dalam satu tegukan di mulutnya. Bhagiratha meminta dia untuk melepaskan dirinya demi dunia dan Jhanu melakukannya dengan telinganya.

Dia lagi mengikuti Bhagiratha ke laut dan kemudian ke dunia bawah.

Samudera Sakti berputar

Dalam usia Krita putra Diti itu yang perkasa dan putra Aditi itu adalah benar. Ketika lautan susu bergejolak Amrita dihasilkan.
Ada sebuah perjuangan tentang berbagi antara Deva dan Danavas. Dewa Wisnu muncul dalam pakaian Mohini dan didistribusikan di antara Deva. Ada pertempuran sengit mengikutinya antara Deva dan Daityas yang kemudian dibunuh.

Indra pemotongan sampai embrio yang

Diti meratapi kematian semua putranya Dia mendesak Kasyapa menganugerahkan kepadanya seorang putra yang bisa rendah hati Indira. Kasyapa memintanya untuk mengamati penitensi ketat.
Satu siang Diti dizzed off dengan kepala dan kaki memutar sisi yang salah dan rambut diikat. Indira memasuki rahimnya dan memotong embrio menjadi tujuh bagian.

Indira keluar dan memohon dia untuk memaafkannya. “Para Anak di dalam rahim Anda adalah musuh saya. Apakah tidak tepat untuk seorang raja untuk membunuh musuhnya? “Ia bertanya dan mencari maaf padanya.

Kelahiran Maruts

Diti meratapi mutilasi embrio. ‘Buatlah ini tujuh segmen dari penguasa embrio dimutilasi dari angin di tujuh dunia. Dan membiarkan mereka dikenal sebagai ‘Maruts, ia mendesak Indira. Indira menghibur dan setuju untuk ini.

Tempat di mana Diti diamati penebusan dosa menjadi Visalapattana mana Raama, Lakshmana dan Vishwamitra menerima perhotelan yang diberikan oleh Raja Ikshvaku Sumati.

Indira itu kesombongan

Keesokan paginya mereka melanjutkan perjalanan mereka menuju Mithala. Dalam perjalanan, mereka menemukan pertapaan sepi bijak Gautama. Vishwamitra meriwayatkan kisah ‘Ahalya Ketika Gautama, berangkat wudhu Indira memasuki tempat tinggalnya dalam penyamaran dan dikawinkan dengan Ahalya. Pada kedatangannya Gautama menemukan kebenaran dan mengutuk kehilangan testisnya. Indira demikian menjadi impoten. Dia juga mengutuk Ahalya untuk tetap statis, debu naik tanpa makanan dan air dan bahwa ia akan ditebus dari penderitaan dengan sentuhan kaki Anda”Jadi untuk mengatakan Gautama meninggalkan Himalaya.

Ahalya Ditebus

Manas Indira dilengkapi dengan testis kambing. Ahalya menunggu kedatangan Rama. Dengan debu dari kaki Rama Ahalya ditebus dari penderitaan dan Gautama kembali ke pertapaannya.

Rama tiba di Mithila

Didampingi oleh penghuni pertapaan, dan Rama dan Lakshmana, Viswamitra masuk Mithila. Sage Raja Janaka maju untuk menyambut mereka. Viswamitra Rama dan Lakshmana diperkenalkan untuk Janaka.

Kisah Viswamitra

Sage Gautama Satananda anak diriwayatkan Rama, kisah Viswamitra. ‘Viswamitra telah menjadi Raja besar. Setelah setelah mengunjungi pertapaan-pertapaan berbagai Viswamitra pergi ke bijak “Vasistha katanya.

Sapi heran Sabala

“Vasistha mendesak raja untuk menerima perhotelan Viswamitra nya bersama dengan pasukannya.” Kata Satananda Rama. “Vasistha memiliki sapi Sabala ‘yang bisa memberi makan sejumlah orang.”

Viswamitra yang Keserakahan

“Setelah partaken dari makanan lezat, Viswamitra dan rombongannya terkejut dengan perbuatan Wonderous sapi ‘. Satananda melanjutkan. ‘Raja Viswamitra menawarkan satu sapi lakh dalam pertukaran Sabala tapi Vasistha menolak’.

Sabala yang Plea

Ada pada Viswamitra memerintahkan anak buahnya untuk mengambil sapi ajaib dengan kekuatan, Satananda kata. “Sapi itu meminta Vasistha untuk memungkinkan dia melawan raja dan orang-orangnya ‘.

Pria raja Dibunuh

Satananda berkata ‘bijak menyetujui dan sapi yang dihasilkan ribuan tentara dari anggota tubuhnya dan laki-laki membunuh Vishwamitra itu. “

Seratus Pangeran dibunuh

Satananda melanjutkan ‘Kemudian Vishwamitra dan seratus putranya Vasistha menyerang dimana bijak memandang mereka dalam kemarahan. Seratus anak-anak raja itu berubah menjadi abu. Raja Vishwamitra berada di kerugian untuk mengetahui apa yang harus dilakukan. Ia menyerahkan kerajaannya ke tunggal, hidup putra dan terus melakukan penitensi untuk menyenangkan Tuhan Siwa. Siva diberikan kepadanya beberapa anugerah dan senjata. ‘Vishwamitra menjadi sombong dan murka-Nya terhadap Vasistha pertapaan. Dia menghancurkannya. “Kata Satananda Rama.

Viswamitra dipermalukan

“Sage Viswamitra marah Dia membalas dengan membuat semua senjata dikirim oleh Viswamitra impoten.. Akhirnya Viswamitra mengutus Brahmastra paling ampuh yang Vasistha segera mengambil di dalam tubuh-Nya dalam satu tegukan.”

ENGLISH VERSION 

RAMAYAN Balakanda

Book of the young Rama which details the miraculous birth of Rama, his early life in Ayodhya, his slaying of the demons of the forest at the request of Vishvamitra and his wedding with Sita.

Narada arriving at Valmiki’s Hermitage 

Valmiki asked Narada “O sage, is there a person who has an impeccable character, is courageous, honest without anger or jealousy in this world? Tell me about him if there is such a great soul. Narada replied ” It is difficult to find such a person but there is one born in the house of Ikshvaku’s. His name is Rama”. Narada then began narrating the story of Rama to Valmiki.

Having narrated the story of Rama, Narada left for Deva Loka 

Sage Valmiki went to offer midday oblations in the Tamasa River. A pair of Krauncha birds attracted his attention in the cool surroundings. At a time when the pair was mating, a hunter aimed his arrow at them and dispatched it. It pierced the heart of the male bird. The female bird began crying for her dying mate. This moved the kind heart of Valmiki to recite The first poem of the world “Manishada….. 

Brahma’s Command 

When Valmiki returned to his hermitage recalling the spontaneous outburst of Poesy, Brahma, the Creator, materialised and ordered him to compose the story of Rama in the Anustup metre ” May it be the first book and may it last as long as The Kalpa lasts” said Brahma

Valmiki’s vision 

With the blessings of the Creator, sage Valmiki offered prayers and sat composed on a seat made of Kusa grass. King Dasaratha , his consorts, sons, their spouses, the banishment of Rama, Sita and Lakshmana, the Slaying of Ravana came as a vision to Valmiki. Valmiki thus put down the story of Rama for posterity. 

Valmiki composes Ramayana 

Sage Valmiki composed the Ramayana in 24,000 slokas in 500 sargas and six cantos. The twins Kusa and Lava got them by heart. They were of sweet musical voice and staged it before the inmates of the hermitage. Rama got them to the court to recite the story.

Kings of the Ikshvaku Dynasty 

Among the kings that ruled this earth, the Ikshvaku’s were the greatest. From Manu to Sagara they ruled the earth with unequal gaiety. Among them Rama was the crown jewel. The Kingdom of Kosala was on the banks of Sarayu river and its capital was Ayodhya built by Vaivaswata Manu. In the center of the city was the King’s palace

Great Kingdom 

The king who brought glory to the city of Ayodhya and Kosala Kingdom was Dasaratha. He slew several enemies and invited men of valor and scholars to live in his city. The people led contented and righteous lives. 

Able King 

The head priests of the kingdom were Vasistha and Vamadeva. King Dasaratha ruled efficiently with the help of eight ministers who were headed by Sumanta. Sumanta was closest to Dasaratha and was entitled even to enter the apartments of royal women. 

More info Ishavaku 

HISTORY OF KSHATRIYAS

Kshatriya () is one of the four varnas (social orders) in Hinduism. It constitutes the military and ruling order of the traditional Vedic-Hindu social system as outlined by the Vedas and the Laws of Manu. Lord Rama, Lord Krishna, Lord Buddha and Lord Mahavira all belonged to this social order.

Initially in ancient Vedic society, this position was achieved on the merits of a person’s aptitude (guna), conduct (karma), and nature (swabhava). The earliest Vedic literature listed the Kshatriya (holders of k?atra, or authority) as first in rank, then the Brahmins (priests and teachers of law), next the Vaisya (merchant-traders), and finally the Sudra (artisans and labourers). Movements of individuals and groups from one class to another, both upward and downward, were not uncommon; a rise in status even to the rank of Kshatriya was a recognized reward for outstanding service to the rulers of the day.[1] Over the years it became hereditary. In modern times, the Kshatriya varna includes a broad class of caste groups, differing considerably in status and function but united by their claims to rulership, the pursuit of war, or the possession of land.

The legend that the Kshatriyas, with the exception of the Ikshvakus, were destroyed by Parasurama, the sixth reincarnation of Vishnu, as a punishment for their tyranny is thought by some scholars to reflect a long struggle for supremacy between priests and rulers that ended in victory for the former. By the end of the Vedic era, the Brahmins were supreme, and the Kshatriya had fallen to second place. Texts such as the Manusm?ti (a book of Hindu law) and most other dharmashastras (works of jurisprudence) report a Brahman victory, but epic texts often offer a different account, and it is likely that in social reality rulers have usually ranked first. The persistent representation of deities (especially Vishnu, Krishna, and Rama) as rulers underscores the point, as does the elaborate series of ritual roles and privileges pertaining to kings through most of Hindu history.[2]. With the rise of Buddhism, Kshatriyas regained their position as first of the four varnas. The murder of the last Maurya emperor Brhadrata by his Brahmin general Pusyamitra Sunga, and the subsequent decline of Buddhism in India, marked Brahmin supremacy once more in Eastern India. Western India remained a stronghold of Kshatriya clans as epitomized by Rajputana and the powerful Kshatriya empire that ruled from Ujjain right up to the Islamic incursions led to a downfall of the Chauhan Kshatriyas in Delhi. 

Ikshvaku dynasty lineage

 

The lists of kings of Ik?v?ku or Aik?v?ka dynasty are found in the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, the Harivamsha and the Puranas. But the two lists found in the Ramayana vary significantly with all other lists. The Raghuvamsha of Kalidasa also mentions the names of some of the kings of this dynasty.[3][4][5]

 

 

 

 

 

IKSHVAKUS

The genealogy of the Ikshvaku dynasty as mentioned in the Ramayana (i.69.17-32 and ii.102.4-29)[6] is as follows:

  • Brahma created 10 Prajapatis, one of whom was Marichi.
  • Kashyapa is the son of Marichi and Kala. Kashyapa is regarded as the father of humanity.
  • Vivasvan or Surya is the son of Kashyapa and Aditi.
  • Vaivasvata Manu, originally Satyavrata, the then Emperor of Dravida is the son of Vivasvan. He is regarded as the first ruler belonging to the Ikshvaku dynasty.
  • Ikshvaku is the son of Vaivasvata Manu.
  • Kukshi is the son of Ikshvaku
  • Vikukshi is the son of Kukshi
  • Bana is the son of Vikukshi
  • Anaranya is the son of Bana
  • Prithu is the son of Anaranya
  • Trishanku is the son of Prithu
  • Dhundhumara is the son of Trishanku
  • Yuvanashva is the son of Dhundhumara
  • Mandhata is the son of Yuvanashva
  • Susandhi is the son of Mandhata
  • Dhruvasandhi and Presenajit are the sons of Susandhi
  • Bharata is the son of Dhruvasandhi
  • Bahu (Asita) is the son of Bharata
  • Sagara is the son of Bahu
  • Asamanja is the son of Sagara
  • Amsumanta (Ansuman) is the son of Asamanja
  • Dileepa is the son of Amsumanta
  • Bhagiratha is the son of Dilipa
  • Kakustha is the son of Bhagiratha
  • Raghu is the son of Kakushta. The clan of Raghuvamsha started with Raghu
  • Pravriddha is the sone of Raghu
  • Shankhana is the son of Pravriddha
  • Sudarshana is the son of Shankhana
  • Agnivarna is the son of Sudarshana
  • Shighra is the son of Agnivarna
  • Maru is the son of Shighra
  • Prashushruka is the son of Maru
  • Ambarisha is the son of Prashushruka
  • Nahusha is the son of Ambarisha
  • Yayati is the son of Nahusha
  • Nabhaga is the son of Yayati
  • Aja is the son of Nabhaga
  • Dasharatha is the son of Aja
  • Rama, Lakshmana, Bharata and Shatrughna are the sons of Dasaratha
  • Lava and Kusha are the sons of Rama

The Puranas provide a genealogical list from Kusha to Brihadbala, who was killed by Abhimanyu in the Mahabharata war. This list is corroborated by the Raghuvamsha till Agnivarna[7]:

  • Atithi, the son of Kusha
  • Nishadha, the son of Atithi
  • Nala, the son of Nishadha
  • Nabhas, the son of Nala
  • Pundarika, the son Nabhas
  • Kshemadhanvan, the son of Pundarika
  • Devanika, the son of Kshemadhanvan
  • Ahinagu, the son of Davanika
  • Paripatra, the son of Ahinagu
  • Dala (or Bala), the son of Ahinagu
  • Uktha, the son of Dala
  • Vajranabha, the son of Uktha
  • Shankhana, the son of Vajranabha
  • Vyushitashva, the son of Shankhana
  • Vishvasaha, the son of Vyushitashva
  • Hiranyanabha, the son of Vishvasaha
  • Pushya, the son of Hiranyanabha
  • Dhruvasandhi, the son of Pushya
  • Agnivarna, the son of Dhruvasandhi
  • Shighra, the son of Agnivarna
  • Maru, the son of Shighra
  • Prasushruta, the son of Maru
  • Susandhi, the son of Prasushruta
  • Amarsha and Sahasvant, the sons of Susandhi
  • Vishrutavant, the son of Amarsha
  • Brihadbala, the son of Vishrutavant.

However, the Nepalese and Bauddhists continue the dynasty further.

Lineage Descrepencies

From the 2 sources listed above, there are differences which needs to be resolved for accuracy of above data. The following is the list of descrepencies:

  • Valmiki Ramayana states that Prthu is the son of Anaranya and father of Trisanku. Ramakatha Rasavahini misses Prthu and states that Anaranya fathered Trisanku
  • Valmiki Ramayana states that Presenjit is the father of Bharatha while Ramakatha Rasavahini statest Daivasandhi as the father of Bharatha
  • Valmiki Ramayana states that Sankhana is the son of Pravardha and Sankhana’s son was Sudarsana. Ramakatha Rasavahini misses mentioning Sankhana and attributes Sudarsana as the son of Pravardha
  • Seeghraga is mentioned as the son of Agnivarna & father of Maru in Ramakatha Rasavahini. Valmiki Ramayana does not mention Seeghraga and states that Maru’s father was Agnivarna

Ikshvaku dynasty in Jaina tradition

The Ikshvaku dynasty has a significant place in Jaina tradition, as 22 Tirthankaras were born in this royal house. The first Tirthankara Rishavadeva was son of Ikshvaku King Nabhi. The second Tirthankara, Ajitanatha, son of Ikshvaku King Jitashatru was cousin of Sagara

Andhra Ikshvakus

The Andhra Ikshvakus were one of the earliest ruling dynasties of Andhra Pradesh. They ruled the eastern Andhra country along the Krishna river during the later half of the second century CE.[8] Their capital was Vijayapuri (Nagarjunakonda). Some scholars have suggested that this dynasty was related to the ancient Ikshvakus of Hindu mythology. Rama of Ramayana, who is considered as the incarnation of Vishnu belonged to the line of Ikshvaku. According to Hindu mythology, Ikshvaku, who was the Manu and father of Kukshi, was the founder of the Suryavanshi dynasty, reigning from Ayodhya at the commencement of the Treta Yuga. There is however no direct evidence to suggest that the Andhra Ikshvakus were related to the mythological Ikshvakus.

Archaeological evidence has suggested that the Andhra Ikshvakus immediately succeeded the Satavahanas in the Krishna river valley. Ikshvakus have left inscriptions at Nagarjunakonda, Jaggayyapeta, Amaravati and Bhattiprolu.

Literary Evidence of Andhra Ikshvakus to Ikshvakus

A Kannada poem Dharmamrita states that the Ikshvakus of Andhra were the descendents of the renowned Ikshvakus of northern India. The oriental scholars like Buhler and Rapson expressed the view that the northern Ikshvakus might have migrated south. According to the Vayu Purana, Manu, the great patriarch of ancient India had nine sons of whom Ikshvaku was the eldest. His capital was Ayodhya. He had one hundred sons, and the eldest Vikushi succeeded his father as the ruler of Ayodhya. Of the rest, fifty sons founded small principalities in Northern India. Forty eight of his sons migrated to the south and carved out kingdoms for themselves.

Buddhist literature refers to the penetration of the Ikshvakus into South India and declares that they founded the Asmaka, Mulaka and other principalities. These Kshatriyas settled down in the south and established small kingdoms there . Jain literature also refers to the exodus of northern Indian princes to the south. In Dharmamrita a reference was made that during the lifetime of the 12th Tirthankara, a prince named Yasodhara hailing from the Ikshvaku family came from the Anga kingdom to Vengi in the south. We are informed that the prince was so impressed with beauty of the region, and the fertility of the soil that he made it his permanent home and founded a city called Pratipalpura. It is believed that Pratipalapura is the modern Bhattiprolu, a town in Guntur District.[citation needed] Inscriptions have also been discovered in the Nagarjunakonda valley and at Jaggayyapeta and Bhattiprolu alluding to this.

Etymology

In Sanskrit, it is derived from k?atra, meaning “dominion, power, government” from a root k?? “to rule, govern, possess”. Old Persian xš?ya?iya (“emperor”) and xša?ra (“realm”) are related to it, as are the New Persian words š?h (“emperor”) and šahr (“city”, “realm”). The Thai word for “king”, kasat, and the Malay word for “knight” or “warrior”, kesatria or satria, are also derived from it. The term denotes aristocratic status.

In the early Vedic civilization, the warrior caste was called r?janya or kšatr?ya. The former was an adjectival form of r?jan “ruler, king” from a root r?j “to rule”, cognate to the Latin rex “king”, the German Reich “empire/realm”, and the Thai racha “king”. In Persia, the satraps, or “kshatrapa”, were the governors, or “protectors”, of the Persian Empire’s provinces. 

Holy Warrior 

Lord Sri Rama (center) with wife Sita, brother– Lakshmana and devotee Hanuman. Rama and Lakshmana are always shown to be ready for battle, with bow and arrow, as it is their Kshatriya to fight. Rama was a Kshatriya of Suryavanshi lineage. He is considered an

incarnation of Lord Vishnu

 

Lord Sri Krishna with Radha. Krishna, a Kshatriya by birth of Chandravanshi lineage, He is considered another incarnation of Lord Vishnu. In the Bhagavad Gita he taught Arjuna about the duty of a Kshatriya.

A Hindu ruler was bound by the holy scriptures to govern as a Dharma-Raja (Just Rule), with the main duties being protection of his subjects and livestock.

  • The Rig Veda states:

praja arya jyotiragrah’. RV, VII. 33.17

People ruled by Aryans are led by the Divine light. King Rama of Ayodhya is considered the greatest of the Dharma-Rajas:

arya sarva samascaiva sadaiva priyadarsanah

An Aryan who worked for the equality of all, was dear to everyone. Rama is also considered an avatar of Vishnu.

Like the ancient monarch Manu, father of the human ra

Dasaratha ruled his people with a father’s loving grace.

 

Aswamedha 

But the King had one worry. He had no offspring. So he thought of performing the Aswamedha sacrifice which might give him sons. He summoned Minister Sumanta and head-priest Vasistha and other Brahmin leaders. They nodded and blessed him. Arrangements were made for the yaga on the banks of Sarayu

Desiring sons 

Sumanta advised the king to perform instead the Putreshthi sacrifice. This had been prescribed by sage Sanatkumara. ” For conducting this yaga Rishyasringa is the right person “, Sumanta told Dasaratha.

Enticing Rishyasringa 

Rishyasringa was the son of Vibhandaka and grandson of Sage Kasyapa. Born in the forest, he had known nothing except his surroundings, the homa fire and his father. Anga country was ruled by King Romapada. He brought Rishyasringa by enticing him with the help of dancing girls when rains failed the land. When Rishyasringa set his foot in the country, it rained copiously and the famine vanished. So, king Romapada gave his daughter to him in marriage and Rishyasringa was living in luxury at the palace. 

In Ayodhya 

King Dasaratha appealed to Romapada for help and brought Rishyasringa and his wife Santa to Ayodhya

Sacrificial Horse 

In the spring season Dasaratha began the yaga and the sacrificial horse was set on its journey across several kingdoms. 

Yaga Begins 

A year passed and King Dasaratha went on with the yaga as prescribed.

Return of the Horse 

The sacrificial horse returned. The sacrificial pillars had been carved and the prescribed birds, Serpents and the sacrificial horse were tied to them. The queens circumambulated the horse and felled it with golden swords. The limbs of the horse were offered to the sacrificial fire

Gods Arrive 

Rishyasringa conducted the Putrakamesthi sacrifice. Gods and sages arrived. First to arrive was Brahma. They sought the help of Brahma to slay King Ravana. Brahma said “Ravana had obtained a boon from me that protects him from death at the hands of the Deva’s, Danava’s, Yaksha’s and ghandharvas. but he can be killed by a human being. So he shall………” 

Deva’s plea 

They urged Vishnu to take a human incarnation and kill Ravana. He consented to be born in the house of Dasaratha. 

Golden Vessel 

As the Putrakamesthi sacrifice was coming to an end, there emerged a magnificent figure carrying a golden vessel from the homa fire. He offered King Dasaratha the rice-and-milk pudding prepared by the Deva’s”Let your queens partake of it and they shall have children”, the Yagna purusha commanded.

Sacrificial food 

Dasaratha offered half the sacred pudding to the queen Kausalya, half of the remaining half to queen Kaikayi. The remainder he made into two halves and offered them to queen Sumitra. The three queens, after partaking of the pudding conceived. 

Birth of the Vanaras 

Lord Brahma commanded the Deva’s to go to earth be born as Vanaras. Accordingly, by the command of Brahma Sugriva was born of Sun, Vali of Indira and Hanuman of the wind-god Vayu. They were to help Rama 

Birth of Rama 

Six seasons and 12 months past and on the ninth day of the waxing moon Rama was born to Kausalya. Kaikayi gave birth to Bharatha and Sumitra to Twin boys Lakshmana and satrughna. Their birth was celebrated by the citizens of Ayodhya with great pomp and gusto.

Vishwamitra arrives 

Dasaratha began thinking about their marriages as the boys grew up into youths. Then came sage Vishwamitra to the king and said ‘oh, great king, I am performing a sacrifice and two demons are disturbing it. So send Rama to protect the sacrificial site. I shall look after him and he shall become the light of the Ikshvaku dynasty.

Dasaratha’s Dilemma 

Dasaratha replied ” Oh great sage, My son is hardly sixteen years of age. How can he face the vicious magic of the Rakshasas? I shall come to help you instead. But who are the two Rakshasas obstructing your Yaga”. When Vishwamitra told him that they were Mareecha and Subahu and they were sent by King Ravana of sage Pulastya’s dynasty.

Dasaratha was aghast and said ” o sage even I cannot face Ravana, How can this young boy fight him?’

Vishwamitra was furious hearing the answer.

Vasistha’s advice 

Sage Vasistha intervened: ” O, great king this Vishwamitra is capable of slaying all the demons by himself. He only wants to help your son do great deeds. So, send Rama with him and keep your promise.”

Learning Spell 

Dasaratha put Rama and Lakshmana in Vishwamitra’s care. They proceeded towards the Sarayu River and after bathing in it, Rama was taught the two spells ‘ Bala and Atibala’ by Vishwamitra, ” These spells will keep hunger and fatigue away from you ” he told Rama.

They rested that night on the southern bank of the River.

Slaying of Manmadha 

At dawn they woke up on the beds made of grass. After the morning ablutions, they resumed their journey and sighted the Sthanvashrama where Lord Shiva performed penance and Manmatha was turned into ashes.

They rested there for the night. Story of Tataka 

They crossed the Ganges and entered a forest. Viswamitra told them how the place once flourished and was later deserted because of a demon-Tataka.
“She is a Yakshini. She can take any shape she desires and has the strength of a thousand elephants. She married Sunanda and gave birth to demon Mareecha. Slay her and make this place safe” he told Rama.

Rama’s Doubt 

Rama asked ” They say Yakshas are weaklings and this Tataka is a woman. How did she obtain the strength of a thousand elephants then?”
She was born to a Yaksha named Suketu and obtained her strength through a boon from Brahma. Sunanda died and Tataka and Mareecha became demons following a curse by sage Agasthya.

“Slay her for the safety of cows and Brahmins. You alone can kill her. For the protection of people you need not hesitate to kill her even though she is a woman” he commanded.

Death of Tataka 

“So shall I “, said Rama and pulled the bow string. Its sound reverberated in the whole forest and Tataki rushed towards it. Her movement raised a dust storm and darkness descended. There was a hail of stones from her and Rama created a barricade with his arrows.
As the sun was setting the sage told Rama ” When night falls her strength will grow manifold. So slay her now”. Rama dispatched an arrow that pierced her heart and she fell dead like a giant tree.
 

New Weapons 

They spent that night in the forest. In the morning Viswamitra taught Rama the use of mighty Brahma, Narayana and other Astras. Besides their dispatch Rama was also taught their withdrawal.

Towards Siddhasrama 

They continued their journey and reached a hilly terrain and sighted a hermitage known as Siddhasrama.

Story of The Hermitage 

“This was where once Lord Vishnu went on penance and later he lived here. I now live here. This is where you have to slay the demons”, Viswamitra told Rama.

They rested a while and the sage resumed his rituals. Rama and Lakshmana were awake the whole night waiting for the demons. 

Hermitage Attacked 

Thus were spent five days and nights. On the sixth day morning as the sacrifice was in progress there was a big bang above as if the sky had exploded. The hermitage was surrounded by fires. Mareecha and Subahu covered the sky with dark clouds.
Blood rained on the sacrificial site. The weapon aimed at Mareecha sent him a hundred yojanas into the sea but Subahu was killed. The sacrifice concluded without interruption.
Journey to Mithila 

The next day some inmates of the hermitage suggested that Rama and Lakshmana accompany them to the city of Mithila where king Janak was performing a sacrifice. ” There is a wonderful bow there gifted by Lord Siva to Mithila’s ruler Devarata after a sacrifice. No one has been able to string that bow. You can see it there”.
So accompanied by Viswamitra they left for Mithila.

100 Dauhters 

Viswamitra told Rama the history of Mithila thus: “Brahma’s thought – child Kusa landed on earth from Brahmaloka and married Vidabha king’s daughter. They had four sons Kusambu, Kusanabha, Adhurtharajas and Vasu. Vasu built the city of Girivrajapura. The river flowing from the five mountains around is Sona. It is also known as Magadha.
Kusanabha had a hundred daughters of exquisite beauty. When they were playing in the garden one day God of Wind Vayu lusted for them and urged them to marry him. They rejected his plea and God Vayu cursed them to become ugly and dwarfs
 

Curse Lifted 

Kusanabha persuaded the ruler of the city of Kampilya to marry them. By his touch they lost their ugliness. 

Yearning for a Son 

When all his hundred daughters left with their husbands, Kusanabha felt lonely and yearned for a son. So, he performed a Putrakameshthi and obtained a son. He was King Gadhi.” I am the son of Gadhi and thus came to be known as Gadheya said Viswamitra and also Kausika for I was born in the family of Kusa”.
Viswamitra continued his story ” My elder sister Satyavathi attained swarga bodily and returned to earth as river Kausiki in the Himalayas.
 

Origin of Ganga 

Rama urged Viswamitra to tell him the origin of Ganga.” Repository of the gems and the seven minerals is King Himavanta. He married Manorama. They had two beautiful daughters Ganga and Uma. Upon the request of the Devas, Himavanta brought Ganga to Devaloka. Uma performed prolonged penance and married Maheswara. She became Rudrani ” said Viswamitra.

Siva’s Seed

Viswamitra then narrated the story of Parvati to Rama: “To beget a son Siva and Parvati indulged in conjugal pleasure when the seed of Siva fell on earth. It soon evaporated in fire and became the white hill. Parvati cursed earth and the Devas for taking the seed and wasting it.
In course of time the hill grew into a dense forest. There in the bulrushes was born Kartikeya.

Six-faced God

God of fire, Agni transferred Siva’s seed into Ganga and she became pregnant. She could not bear the heat of the seed and aborted it at the foot of the Himalayas. From this, were generated the seven minerals. From there emerged a child with six faces and exquisite beauty.
He was brought up by six Kruttikas. So, he is known as Kartikeya. He is also known as Shanmuka for he has six heads. God Agni made him the commander-in-chief of the army of the devas.

Emperor Sagara’s sons

Vishwamitra said ” Once King Sagara ruled Ayodhya. He had two wives , Kesini and Smati. But they had no children. King Sagara prayed sage Bhrigu for two sons. Bhrigu told him that his eldest wife would have one son and the second 60,000 sons.

Digging the earth

Sagara commenced the Aswamedha sacrifice. He dispatched his grand -son Ansumanta with sacrificial horse and the boy returned with it unhampered.

When the sacrifice was in progress Indira stole the holy horse. Sagara’s 60,000 sons went in search of it digging the earth down to the nether world

Kapila’s Wrath 

When they went digging in the north-eastern direction they found Vishnu in the form of sage Kapila and the sacrificial horse by his side. They mistook him for the horse thief and attacked him. Kapila turned them into ashes.

Bid to bring down Ganga

Unable to trace his 60,000 sons Sagara sent Ansumanta to find them. Ansumanta found their ashes and to offer them tribute he searched for water when Garuda appeared and told him that if Ganga flowed over their ashes his uncles would attain salvation.

Ansumanta took back the sacrificial horse and narrated the story to his grandfather. Meanwhile, Sagara failed without being able to bring Ganga to earth.

Bhagiratha’s effort

After Sagara’s death, Ansumanta succeeded him as king of Ayodhya. He was succeeded by his son Dilipa and Dilipa was followed by his son Bhagiratha. Bhagiratha went on a prolonged penance for a son and to bring Ganga to earth.

Brahma appeared and told him “Bhagiratha, you can have your son . But as to Ganga descending to earth only Lord Siva can contain the force of her fall from heaven. So pray to him”.

Descent of Ganga 

Siva materialised Bhagiratha to contain Ganga. He bore Ganga in his crop and she hid there. Not finding her anywhere Bhagiratha again went on penance to please Siva. Siva released Ganga into the Bindu lake. From there Ganga came down as Seven mighty Streams. One of them followed Bhagiratha’s chariot.

Drenching the Ashes 

He drove her through the ashes of his ancestors and they thus attained salvation at last.

Jhanu Gulps Ganga

Then Bhagiratha turned his chariot towards the hermitage of sage Jhanu and stopped there. But the mighty Ganga following him could not stop there suddenly and washed the hermitage away. Sage Jhanu turned furious and took the entire Ganga in one gulp in his mouth. Bhagiratha pleaded with him to release her for the sake of the world and Jhanu did so with his ears.

She again followed Bhagiratha into the sea and then to the nether world.

Churning the Milky Ocean 

In the Krita age Diti’s sons were mighty and Aditi’s sons were righteous. When the ocean of milk was churned Amrita was generated.
There was a fight over sharing it between Devas and Danavas. Lord Vishnu turned up in the garb of Mohini and distributed it among the Devas. There was a fierce battle following it between the Devas and the Daityas in which the later were slain.

Indra cuts up the Embryo

Diti lamented over the death of all her sons She urged Kasyapa to bestow him a son who could humble Indira. Kasyapa asked her to observe penance strictly.
One noon Diti dizzed off with her head and feet turned the wrong side and hair untied. Indira entered her womb and cut the embryo into seven pieces.

Indira came out and pleaded with her to forgive him. ‘ The Child in your womb is my enemy. Is it not right for a king to kill his enemy? ‘ he asked and sought her forgiveness.

Birth of Maruts 

Diti lamented over the mutilation of the embryo. ‘ Make these seven segments of the mutilated embryo lords of the winds in the seven worlds. And let them be known as Maruts’, she urged Indira. Indira consoled her and agreed to this .


The place where Diti observed penance became Visalapattana where Rama, Lakshmana and Vishwamitra accepted the hospitality provided by the Ikshvaku King Sumati.

Indira’s Conceit

Next morning they resumed their journey towards Mithala. On the way, they came across the deserted hermitage of sage Gautama. Vishwamitra narrated the story of Ahalya ‘ When Gautama , set out for ablutions Indira entered his abode in disguise and mated with Ahalya. On his return Gautama found out the truth and cursed to lose his testes. Indira thus became impotent. He also cursed Ahalya to remain static , dust ridden without food and water and that she would be redeemed of her plight with the touch of your foot ‘‘ So saying Gautama left for Himalayas. 

Ahalya Redeemed

The manas fitted Indira with the testes of a goat. Ahalya waited for the arrival of Rama. With the dust from Rama’s feet Ahalya was redeemed of her plight and Gautama returned to his hermitage.

Rama arrives in Mithila 

Accompanied by the inmates of the hermitage , and Rama and Lakshmana , Viswamitra entered Mithila. Sage King Janaka came forward to greet them. Viswamitra introduced Rama and Lakshmana to Janaka.

Viswamitra’s Story 

Sage Gautama’s son Satananda narrated to Rama , the story of Viswamitra. ‘ Viswamitra had been a mighty King. Once after visiting various hermitages Viswamitra went into the of sage Vasistha ‘ he said.

Wonder Cow Sabala 

” Vasistha urged king Viswamitra to accept his hospitality along with his army.’ Satananda told Rama. ‘ Vasistha had a cow ‘Sabala’ which could feed any number of people.’

Viswamitra’s Greed 

‘ Having partaken of the delicious food , Viswamitra and his entourage were surprised at the wonderous deeds of the cow’. Satananda continued. ‘ King Viswamitra offered one lakh cows in exchange of Sabala but Vasistha refused’.

Sabala’s Plea 

There upon Viswamitra ordered his men to take away the magic cow by force , Satananda said. ‘ The cow appealed to Vasistha to allow her to resist the king and his men’.

King’s Men Slain 

Satananda said ‘ the sage consented and the cow generated thousands upon thousands of soldiers from her limbs and slew Vishwamitra’s men.’

Hundred Princes killed

Satananda went on ‘Then Vishwamitra and his hundred sons attacked Vasistha whereupon the sage looked at them in anger. The hundred sons of the king were turned into ashes. King Vishwamitra was at a loss to know what to do. He handed over his kingdom to a lone , surviving son and went on doing penance to please Lord Siva. Siva bestowed him several boons and weapons . ‘ Vishwamitra became arrogant and turned his wrath towards Vasistha’s hermitage . He destroyed it.’ Satananda told Rama.

Viswamitra Humiliated 

“Sage Viswamitra was furious. He retaliated by making all the weapons dispatched by Viswamitra impotent. Finally Viswamitra dispatched the most potent Brahmastra which Vasistha promptly took inside his body in a gulp.” ” The Devas intervened and urged Vasistha to contain the potent weapon within himself. Vasistha was pacified. Viswamitra felt humiliated.

Vishwamitra’s penance 

Satananda continued ” Oh Rama, defeated and forlorn Viswamitra went southwards along with his wife to attain Brahma-hood. There he did sustained penance. Then Brahma materialised before him and made him a sage King. But Viswamitra was disheartened that he could not attain Brahma-hood. So, he intensified his penance.

Trisanku’s strange wish 

During Vishwamitra’s penance Trisanku was the ruler of the Ikshavaku Dynasty. He had a strange wish of reaching Swarga bodily. So, he approached Vasistha to suggest him a suitable sacrifice to fulfill his wish. ” But Vasistha told him that his wish was impossible to fulfill” Satananda continued his narration. 

Vasistha’s Curse 

Then King Trisanku approached the sons of Vasistha. They also said “it is not possible”. King Trisanku grew angry and said he would dismiss Vasistha as the royal priest. In retaliation the sons of Vasistha cursed him to become an untouchable.

Trisanku approaches Viswamitra

By morning Trisanku lost all his regal looks and became an untouchable. Even his ministers began to avoid him, Satananda told Rama. Trisanku approached Vishwamitra to show him a way to falafel his wish.

Viswamitra helps Trisanku 

Satananda continued the story thus: ” Viswamitra pitied Trisanku’s plight and offered to help him.” He summoned priests from all corners but Vasisthas refused the invitation. Viswamitra cursed them to have several lowly births”.

Trisanku dispatched to heaven 

With the help of other priests Viswamitra conducted the sacrifice. But the Devas rejected his summons to partake of the sacrificial offerings. ” Undaunted Viswamitra through the power of his penance sent Trisanku bodily towards heaven”.

Trisanku pushed back

” When Trisanku reached heaven Indra refused him entry. You have the curse of the guru on your head.

You can’t enter heaven. Go back. He ordered and the Devas pushed Trisanku head earthwards”.

Trisanku halted midway 

The falling Trisanku shouted for help from Viswamitra. The sage stopped him midway and created a heaven for him. The Devas consented to this arrangement and till today, Trisanku lies there between heaven and earth” Satananda told Rama. 

Sacrificial beast stolen 

When Ayodhya was ruled by king Ambarisha, during a sacrifice by him the sacrificial beast was stolen by Indra. When the beast could not be traced, Ambarisha paid one lakh cows to sage Ruchika and bought his son. 

Two magic spells 

When Ambarisha was bringing back Sunassepa with him they rested for sometime on the way . Sunassepa felt thirsty and went in search of water and reached Vishwamitra’s abode. Sunassepa urged Viswamitra to show him a way by which he can be left alive but Ambarisha would gain the fruits of the sacrifice.

Viswamitra revealed to him two magical spells and told him to recite them when he was tied to the sacrificial post.

Sunassepa saved

Sunassepa returned to Ambarisha and they resumed their journey. Sunassepa escaped death with the help of the two magical spells.

Menaka entices Viswamitra 

When Viswamitra resumed his penance to obtain the status of Brahmarishi, celestial dancer Menaka came to disturb his concentration.

Taken in by Menaka’s charms Viswamitra cohabited with her for ten years. Then repenting his lapse he went back into penance with renewed determination.

Rambha cursed 

Feeling his seat threatened by Vishwamitra’s penance. Indra sent another celestial dancer Rambha to disturb it. This time aware of the machinations of Indra , Vishwamitra grew angry and cursed her to turn into rock.But repenting that he had not gained control over anger he renewed his penance.

Indra begs for food

Viswamitra went on with his penance undaunted. One day at lunch time, Indra came to him in the guise of a brahmin and sought food.
The sage offered him all the available food depriving himself. Concluding that by then Viswamitra had gained control over all the emotions, the Devas approached Brahma and urged him to grant the sage the status of Brahmarishi.

Brahmarishi 

Brahma granted Viswamitra the rank of “Brahmarishi” but the sage sought such recognition from Vasistha also where upon Vasistha arrived there and granted him his desire”, said Satananda to Rama and concluded the story of Viswamitra.

Bow of Siva 

On the second day of their arrival in Mithila, Janaka showed Rama the mighty bow of Siva. He said ” This bow was given to the sixth king of our dynasty devarata by Siva. When I was ploughing a field to perform a sacrifice I found a female child in the earth. She has now attained puberty. I offer her in marriage to whoever can string the bow of Siva. So far nobody could do it”.

Rama breaks the bow 

King Janaka caused the box containing the bow brought to their presence by 5,000 able bodied men. Rama lifted the bow from the box effortlessly and stringed it. When he was engaging an arrow the bow broke. Janaka offered his foster daughter Sita and dispatched his ministers to king Dasaratha to obtain his consent.

Dasaratha Invited 

Janaka’s ministers traveled for full three days and on the fourth reached Ayodhya. Dasaratha was overjoyed at the news they brought.

Emissaries Honored

King Dasaratha conferred with Vasistha and Vamadeva and honored the emissaries suitably. 

Dasaratha leaves for Mithila 

The next day with all his kin, ministers and servants Dasaratha started in chariots towards Mithila.
Vasistha,Vamadeva, Jabali , Markandeya and others were dispatched in advance.

Janaka greets Dasaratha 

Four days later, the royal entourage reached Mithila, to a grand welcome from king Janaka and his men. Janaka asked king Dasaratha for permission to the wedding. Dasaratha replied ” O king , you are the giver and we are here to receive happily”. This pleased Janaka immensely.

Janaka’s brother arrives

Janaka concluded his sacrifice and summoned Satananda to make arrangements to bring his brother.
Kusadhwaja who was ruling the city of Sankasya. Emissaries brought him with them.

Dasaratha invited to court 

Janaka sent his minister Sudama to invite Dasaratha to his court. When the royal guests arrived Vasistha suggested that along with the wedding of Rama and Sita, Janaka’s daughter Urmila should be offered to Lakshmana.

Marriages fixed 

Janaka then introduced brother Kusadhwaja to Dasaratha , Vasistha and others. Kusadhwaja bowed to all of them. Both the weddings were fixed under ” Uttara Phalguni ” star two days later.

Festivities

Aided by Viswamitra and Satananda , Vasistha conducted the marriage rituals.

Viswamitra leaves 

The next day Viswamitra took leave of all the royal guests and hosts and proceeded towards the Himalayas to resume his penance. 

ILL -MENS 

Accompanied by his four sons and daughters-in-law and the royal treasures gifted by Janaka, Dasaratha turned towards home. On the way Dasaratha was disturbed by several ill-omens but Vasistha consoled him.
They encountered a giant holding bow and arrow and an axe. He was the slayer of the Kshatriya race,Parasurama. He stared at Rama red-eyed.

Encounter with Parasurama 

Parasurama challenged Rama ” The bow you broke was aged and brittle. I have this bow of Vishnu. If you are a true Kshatriya string this bow. Then we shall battle hand-to-hand”. 

Parasurama Retreats 

Rama strung the bow effortlessly . Seeing this Parasurama praised his might and said “you are god.
I gifted this earth to Kasyapa long ago. So, before nightfall , I must leave for the Mahendra Hill.
 

Do not impede my movement ” and left.

Rama’s Rule 

Rama gifted the bow and arrows to God Varian and the entourage reached Ayodhya safe. The newly weds were greeted by their mothers with great love and affection.

Rama began ruling Ayodhya guided by his father.

Some time later Bharata left for Girivraja with his maternal Uncle

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رامائن Balakanda

نوجوان رام رام کی چمتکاری پیدائش کی تفصیلات ، ایودھیا میں ان کی ابتدائی زندگی ، Vishvamitra کی درخواست میں جنگل کے راکشسوں کے ان کے قتل اور سیتا کے ساتھ اس کی شادی کی کتاب.

Narada والمیک آشرم پر پہنچنے

والمیک Narada “بابا O ، وہاں ایک شخص ہے جو ایک معصوم کردار ہے ، بہادر ہے ، اس دنیا میں غصہ یا حسد کے بغیر ایماندار اس کے بارے میں مجھے بتاو اگر وہاں اس طرح کی ایک عظیم روح ہے Narada.؟ جواب دیا” پوچھا تلاش کیجیے اس طرح کرنے کے لئے یہ مشکل ہے ایک شخص لیکن Ikshvaku کے گھر میں ایک پیدا ہوتا ہے. اس کا نام رام ہے “Narada تو والمیک کے لئے رام کی کہانی بیان کرنا شروع کیا..

رام کی کہانی بیان کرتے ، Narada دیوا Loka کے لئے روانہ

بابا والمیک Tamasa دریا میں دوپہر oblations کرنے کی پیشکش کی گئی تھی. Krauncha پرندوں کی ایک جوڑی ڈاؤن لوڈ ، اتارنا ماحول میں ان کی توجہ اپنی طرف مبذول کرالی ہے. ایک ایسے وقت میں جب جوڑی ملن تھا ، ایک شکاری نے ان پر ان کے تیر کا مقصد اور اس روانہ. یہ مرد پرندوں کے دل میں چھید. عورت برڈ اس کے مرنے کے ساتھی کے لئے رونا شروع کر دیا. یہ والمیک کی قسم دل میں دنیا کی پہلی نظم “Manishada پڑھنے منتقل کر دیا گیا…..

برہما کمان

جب والمیک نے ان کے Poesy ، برہما ، خالق کی بے دھماکہ کا ذکر کرتے ہوئے کٹی ، materialized واپس آئے اور اس کو حکم دیا کہ وہ Anustup میٹر میں رام کی کہانی کا معاہدہ “کی پہلی کتاب ہے اور جب تک کہ اس نے گزشتہ جیسا کہ کلپ رہتا ہے ہو سکتا ہے” برہما نے کہا کہ

والمیک نقطہ نظر

خالق کے مجزوب کے ساتھ ، بابا والمیک نے نماز کی پیشکش کی اور بیٹھ Kusa گھاس کی بنائی گئی ایک سیٹ پر مشتمل ہے. کنگ Dasaratha ، ان کے consorts ، بیٹوں ، ان کے اہل خانہ ، رام ، سیتا ، اور Lakshmana کے نرواسن ، راون کے قتل والمیک کے لئے ایک نقطہ نظر کے طور پر آیا ہے. والمیک اس طرح ذیل میں اولاد کے لئے رام کی کہانی ہے.

والمیک composes رامائن

بابا والمیک مشتمل 500 sargas اور چھ cantos میں 24،000 slokas میں رامائن ہے. جڑواں بچوں Kusa اور اضافی انہیں دل کی طرف سے ملا. وہ میٹھی موسیقی کی آواز کے تھے اور آشرم کے قیدیوں سے اس سے پہلے کہ منچن کیا. رام انہیں عدالت میں کہانی کی تلاوت کرنے کے لئے.

Ikshvaku خاندان کے بادشاہ

بادشاہ کے کہ اس زمین نے فیصلہ دیا کے علاوہ ، Ikshvaku کی سب سے بڑی تھے. مخ سے Sagara کرنے کے لئے وہ اسمان اللاس سے زمین نے فیصلہ دیا ہے. ان میں رام تاج گہنا گیا تھا. Kosala کی ریاست Sarayu دریا کے کنارے پر تھا اور اس کی دارالحکومت ایودھیا Vaivaswata مخ کی طرف سے بنایا گیا تھا. شہر کے مرکز میں بادشاہ کا محل تھا

عظیم سلطنت

بادشاہ ہے جو ایودھیا اور Kosala برطانیہ کے شہر کو عما لایا Dasaratha تھا. انہوں نے کئی چکر دشمنوں اور شوری اور علماء کرام کی مدعو مرد اپنے شہر میں رہتے ہیں. لوگوں کو مطمئن اور صالح زندگی کی قیادت کی.

قادر بادشاہ

اور ریاست کے سربراہ یاجکوں کو Vasistha اور Vamadeva تھے. شاہ Dasaratha آٹھ وزراء جو Sumanta کی سربراہی میں کی مدد کے ساتھ موثر انداز میں فیصلہ دیا. Sumanta Dasaratha کے قریب کیا گیا تھا اور بھی مستحق ہے شاہی خواتین کے اپارٹمنٹ میں داخل کرنے کے لئے.

مزید ہیں info Ishavaku

کشتری OF تاریخ
کشتری () ہندو مت میں چار varnas (سماجی احکامات) میں سے ایک ہے. یہ روایتی ویدک ہندو سماجی نظام کی فوجی اور حکمران آرڈر تشکیل کے طور پر ویدوں اور مخ کے قوانین کی طرف سے بیان کردہ. سب میں بھگوان رام ، بھگوان کرشن ، بھگوان بدھ اور رب مہاویر اس سماجی نظام سے تعلق رکھتے تھے.

شروع میں قدیم ویدک معاشرے میں ، اس کی حیثیت ایک شخص (گنا) ابیورتی ، طرز عمل (کرما) ، اور فطرت (swabhava) کے امتیازات وخصوصیات پر حاصل کیا گیا. جلد سے جلد ویدک ادب کی درجہ بندی میں پہلے کے طور پر درج کشتری (K atra ،؟ یا اتھارٹی کے حامل) ، پھر اگلے برہمن (پادریوں اور قانون کے اساتذہ) ، Vaisya (مرچنٹ تاجروں) ، اور آخر میں Sudra (کاریگروں اور مزدوروں ). افراد اور گروہوں کی ایک کلاس سے ایک اور کی تحریکیں ، دونوں اضافہ اور گرنے کا ، غیر معمولی نہیں تھے. حیثیت میں بھی کشتری کے عہدے پر اضافہ [1] سالوں کے دوران بقایا کی خدمت کے لئے تسلیم شدہ دن کے حکمرانوں کے لئے اجر یہ موروثی بن گیا. جدید دور میں ، کشتری حروف ذات کے گروپوں کے ایک وسیع طبقے شامل ہیں ، حیثیت اور تقریب لیکن ریاست ہائے متحدہ میں rulership کرنے کے لئے ان کا دعوی ہے ، جنگ کے حصول ، یا زمین کا قبضہ کی طرف سے کافی مختلف ہے.

علامات کہ Ikshvakus کی رعایت کے ساتھ کشتریوں ، ، ان کے ظلم کے لئے ایک سزا کے طور پر Parasurama ، وشنو کا چھٹا تناسخ ، کی طرف سے تباہ کیا گیا پادریوں اور حکمرانوں کے درمیان بالادستی کے لئے ایک طویل جدوجہد ہے جو فتح میں ختم ہو گئی کی عکاسی کرنے کے لئے بعض علماء کے قول کی طرف سے سوچا ہے سابق کے لئے. ویدک زمانے کے آخر تک ، برہمن سپریم تھے ، اور کشتری دوسری جگہ سے گر گیا تھا. Manusm TI (ہندو قانون کی کتاب ہے)؟ اور سب سے زیادہ دیگر dharmashastras (فقہ کے کاموں) کے طور پر سرخیوں کی شکل میں ایک براہمن فتح رپورٹ ، لیکن مہاکاوی نصوص کو اکثر ایک مختلف اکاؤنٹ پیش کرتے ہیں ، اور اس بات کا امکان ہے کہ عام طور پر سماجی حقیقت حکمرانوں میں پہلا درجہ ہے . دیوتاوں کے حکمرانوں کے طور پر مستقل نمائندگی پوائنٹ (خاص طور پر وشنو ، کرشنا ، اور رام) مرتب ، رسم کے کردار اور استحقاق کے وسیع سیریز کے طور پر ہندو تاریخ کی سب سے زیادہ کے ذریعے راجاوں کے کرتا متعلق [2]. بدھ مت کے اضافہ کے ساتھ ، کشتری کے پہلے چار varnas کے طور پر اپنی پوزیشن میں آ گیا. ان کے برہمن جنرل Pusyamitra Sunga ، اور بھارت میں بدھ مت کے بعد کمی کی طرف سے گزشتہ موریا سمراٹ Brhadrata کے قتل ، مشرقی پاکستان میں ایک بار پھر برہمن بالادستی نشان زد. مغربی بھارت کشتری گٹوں کے گڑھ کے طور پر راجپوتانا اور اججین سے فیصلہ دیا دہلی میں چوہان کشتری کے خاتمے کے قیادت میں اسلامی مداخلت کے حق طاقتور کشتری سلطنت کی طرف سے پرتیک رہے.

Ikshvaku راجونش کی وجہ سے

Ik V؟ جامعہ کراچی یا Aik؟ V؟ کا راجونش کے بادشاہ کی فہرست میں رامائن ، مہا بھارت ، Harivamsha اور پرانوں میں پائے جاتے ہیں. لیکن رامائن میں پایا دو فہرستوں دیگر تمام فہرستوں کے ساتھ نمایاں طور پر مختلف ہوتی ہیں. Kalidasa کے Raghuvamsha نے بھی کچھ اس خاندان کے بادشاہ کے نام کا ذکر [3] [4] [5]

IKSHVAKUS
Ikshvaku راجونش کی ونشاولی جیسا کہ رامائن میں بھی ہے (i.69.17 32 اور ii.102.4 29) [6] کے طور پر مندرجہ ذیل ہے :

برہما 10 Prajapatis ، جن میں سے ایک کی Marichi تھا پیدا کیا.
Kashyapa Marichi اور کالا کے بیٹے ہے. Kashyapa انسانیت کے والد کے طور پر مانا جاتا ہے.
Vivasvan یا سوریا Kashyapa اور ادتی کے بیٹے ہیں.
Vaivasvata مخ ، اصل میں Satyavrata ، ڈراوڈ کے اس وقت کے شہنشاہ Vivasvan کا بیٹا ہے. انہوں نے Ikshvaku راجونش سے تعلق رکھنے والے پہلے حکمران کے طور پر مانا جاتا ہے.
Ikshvaku Vaivasvata مخ کا بیٹا ہے.
Kukshi Ikshvaku کے بیٹے کا ہے
Vikukshi Kukshi کے بیٹے کا ہے
Bana Vikukshi کے بیٹے کا ہے
Anaranya Bana کے بیٹے کا ہے
Prithu Anaranya کے بیٹے کا ہے
Trishanku Prithu کے بیٹے کا ہے
Dhundhumara Trishanku کے بیٹے کا ہے
Yuvanashva Dhundhumara کے بیٹے کا ہے
منداتا Yuvanashva کے بیٹے کا ہے
Susandhi منداتا کے بیٹے کا ہے
Dhruvasandhi اور Presenajit Susandhi کے بیٹے ہیں
بھرت Dhruvasandhi کے بیٹے کا ہے
باہو (Asita) بھرت کا بیٹا ہے
Sagara بہو کے بیٹے ہے
Asamanja Sagara کے بیٹے کا ہے
Amsumanta (Ansuman) Asamanja کا بیٹا ہے
Dileepa Amsumanta کے بیٹے کا ہے
Bhagiratha Dilipa کے بیٹے کا ہے
Kakustha Bhagiratha کے بیٹے کا ہے
رگھو Kakushta کے بیٹے ہے. Raghuvamsha کی کلان رگھو کے ساتھ شروع ہوا
Pravriddha رگھو کی sone ہے
Shankhana Pravriddha کے بیٹے کا ہے
Sudarshana Shankhana کے بیٹے کا ہے
Agnivarna Sudarshana کے بیٹے کا ہے
Shighra Agnivarna کے بیٹے کا ہے
مارو Shighra کے بیٹے کا ہے
Prashushruka مارو کے بیٹے ہے
Ambarisha Prashushruka کے بیٹے کا ہے
Nahusha Ambarisha کے بیٹے کا ہے
Yayati Nahusha کے بیٹے کا ہے
Nabhaga Yayati کے بیٹے کا ہے
Aja Nabhaga کے بیٹے کا ہے
Dasharatha Aja کے بیٹے کا ہے
رام ، Lakshmana ، بھرت ، اور Shatrughna Dasaratha کے بیٹے ہیں
اضافی اور Kusha رام کے بیٹے ہیں
پرانوں Kusha سے Brihadbala ، جو مہا بھارت جنگ میں ابمنیو کی طرف سے ہلاک ہو گیا تھا ایک نسبی فہرست فراہم. اس فہرست Agnivarna تک Raghuvamsha کی طرف سے تصدیق [7] :

Atithi ، Kusha کے بیٹے
Nishadha ، Atithi کے بیٹے
نالا ، Nishadha کے بیٹے
Nabhas ، نالا کے بیٹے
Pundarika ، بیٹے Nabhas
Kshemadhanvan ، Pundarika کے بیٹے
Devanika ، Kshemadhanvan کے بیٹے
Ahinagu ، Davanika کے بیٹے
Paripatra ، Ahinagu کے بیٹے
Dala (یا بالا) ، Ahinagu کے بیٹے
Uktha ، Dala کے بیٹے
Vajranabha ، Uktha کے بیٹے
Shankhana ، Vajranabha کے بیٹے
Vyushitashva ، Shankhana کے بیٹے
Vishvasaha ، Vyushitashva کے بیٹے
Hiranyanabha ، Vishvasaha کے بیٹے
Pushya ، Hiranyanabha کے بیٹے
Dhruvasandhi ، Pushya کے بیٹے
Agnivarna ، Dhruvasandhi کے بیٹے
Shighra ، Agnivarna کے بیٹے
مارو ، Shighra کے بیٹے
Prasushruta ، مارو کے بیٹے
Susandhi ، Prasushruta کے بیٹے
Amarsha اور Sahasvant Susandhi کے بیٹوں
Vishrutavant ، Amarsha کے بیٹے
Brihadbala ، Vishrutavant کے بیٹے.
تاہم ، نیپالی اور Bauddhists راجونش مزید جاری رہے.

نسل Descrepencies
2 مندرجہ بالا ذرائع سے اختلافات ہیں جو مندرجہ بالا اعداد و شمار کی درستگی کے لئے حل کرنے کی ضرورت ہے. مندرجہ ذیل descrepencies کی فہرست اس طرح ہے :

والمیک ریاستوں رامائن کہ Prthu Trisanku Anaranya اور والد کے بیٹے ہیں. Ramakatha Rasavahini Prthu اور ریاستوں کو یاد کرتا ہے کہ Anaranya Trisanku پیما
والمیک ریاستوں نے رامائن کہ Presenjit Ramakatha Rasavahini statest Daivasandhi جبکہ Bharatha کے والد کے طور پر Bharatha کا باپ ہے
والمیک ریاستوں رامائن کہ Sankhana Pravardha کا بیٹا ہے اور Sankhana بیٹے سدرشن تھا. Ramakatha Rasavahini Pravardha کے بیٹے کے طور پر Sankhana اور صفات سدرشن کے ذکر سے یاد کرتا ہے
Seeghraga Ramakatha Rasavahini میں مارو کی Agnivarna اور والد کے بیٹے کے طور پر ذکر ہے. والمیک رامائن Seeghraga اور ریاستوں ہے کہ مارو والد Agnivarna تھا کا ذکر نہیں ہے
Jaina روایت میں Ikshvaku راجونش
Ikshvaku راجونش Jaina روایت میں ایک اہم جگہ ہے ، کے طور پر 22 Tirthankaras شاہی کے اس گھر میں پیدا ہوئے تھے. پہلی Tirthankara Rishavadeva Ikshvaku بادشاہ Nabhi کے بیٹے تھے. دوسری Tirthankara ، Ajitanatha ، Ikshvaku بادشاہ Jitashatru کے بیٹے Sagara کی چچازاد بہن کے تھی

آندھرا Ikshvakus
آندھرا Ikshvakus آندھرا پردیش کی قدیم ترین حکمران خاندانوں میں سے ایک تھے. انہوں نے دوسری صدی عیسوی کے بعد نصف کے دوران کرشنا دریا کے ساتھ ساتھ مشرقی آندھرا ملک نے فیصلہ دیا [8].. ان کا سرمایہ (شہارجنکونڈا) Vijayapuri بعض اہل علم نے تجویز دی ہے کہ اس راجونش ہندو پران کے قدیم Ikshvakus سے متعلق کیا گیا ہے. رامائن کے رام ، جو سمجھا جاتا ہے کے طور پر وشنو کے اوتار Ikshvaku کی لائن سے تعلق رکھتے تھے. ہندو پورانیک ، Ikshvaku ، مخ اور Kukshi کا باپ تھا ، کے مطابق سوریونشی خاندان کے بانی تھا ، Treta زمانے کے آغاز میں ایودھیا سے راج کر. تاہم تجویز ہے کہ آندھرا Ikshvakus پورانیک Ikshvakus سے متعلق تھے براہ راست کوئی ثبوت ہے.

پراتتو ثبوت نے تجویز دی ہے کہ آندھرا Ikshvakus فوری طور پر کرشنا دریا کی وادی میں Satavahanas میں کامیاب ہوگیا ہے. Ikshvakus شہارجنکونڈا ، Jaggayyapeta ، امراوتی اور Bhattiprolu پر شلالیھ چھوڑ دیا ہے.

آندھرا Ikshvakus کے ادب Ikshvakus دلائل سے یہ ثابت ہے
کہ کناڈا کے ایک نظم Dharmamrita ریاستوں آندھرا کے Ikshvakus شمالی بھارت کے مشہور Ikshvakus کی اولاد تھے. Buhler اور Rapson طرح مشرقی کہ شمالی Ikshvakus کو جنوب میں ہجرت کر سکتے ہیں میں علماء کرام کا اظہار کیا. ہوا پران کے مطابق ، مخ ، قدیم ہندوستان کے عظیم پیٹرآرک جن Ikshvaku سب سے بڑی تھا نو بیٹوں کا تھا. اس کا دارالحکومت ایودھیا تھا. انہوں نے ایک سو بیٹے ہوتے ، اور سب سے بڑی Vikushi ایودھیا کے حکمران کے طور پر اپنے والد میں کامیاب ہوگیا. آرام کی ، شمالی بھارت میں پچاس بیٹوں چھوٹے principalities کی بنیاد رکھی. چالیس اپنے بیٹوں کی آٹھ جنوب میں ہجرت کی ہے اور اپنے لئے ریاستوں میں کھدی ہوئی.

بدھ مت ادب جنوبی بھارت میں Ikshvakus کے دخول سے مراد ہے اور وانی ہے کہ وہ Asmaka ، Mulaka اور دیگر principalities قائم ہے. جنوب میں یہ کشتری آباد اور چھوٹے ریاستوں میں وہاں قائم ہے. جین ادب نے بھی جنوب میں شمالی بھارتی شہزادے کے پلاین سے مراد ہے. Dharmamrita میں نے ایک حوالہ دیا گیا تھا کہ 12th Tirthankara ، ایک کا نام Yasodhara Ikshvaku خاندان سے تعلق رکھنے والے پرنس کے زندگی بھر کے دوران جنوب میں Anga ریاست سے Vengi کرنے کے لئے آئے. ہمیں باخبر کیا ہے کہ پرنس خطے کی خوبصورتی سے متاثر تھا ، اور مٹی کی ارورتا کہ وہ یہ اس کا مستقل گھر ہے ، اور Pratipalpura نامی شہر کی بنیاد رکھی ہیں. یہ خیال کیا جاتا ہے کہ Pratipalapura جدید Bhattiprolu ، گنٹور ضلع میں ایک شہر ہے [ورژن کی ضرورت ہے].. شلالیھ بھی کیا گیا ہے شہارجنکونڈا وادی میں اور Jaggayyapeta اور Bhattiprolu اس alluding دریافت

Etymology

سنسکرت میں ، کشمیر atra؟ سے ماخوذ ہے “بادشاہی ، طاقت ، حکومت کی” جڑ کشمیر سے مطلب؟؟ “حکمرانی حکومت ، اہل”. پرانا فارسی xš؟ پھر iya (“سمراٹ”) اور xša؟ رضی اللہ عنہ (“دائرے”) سے متعلق ہیں ، کے طور پر نئے فارسی الفاظ ہیں ایچ ایس (“سمراٹ”) اور šahr (“شہر” ، “دائرے”؟ ). تھائی لفظ ، “بادشاہ” ، kasat ، اور “نائٹ” یا “یودقا” ، kesatria یا satria کے لئے مالے لفظ کے لئے بھی اس سے ماخوذ ہیں. اصطلاح کلین درجہ ظاہر کرنا.

ابتدائی ویدک تہذیب میں ، یودقا ذات ر janya یا kšatr؟ کہا جاتا تھا پھر؟ سابق نے ر کی ایک adjectival شکل تھی جنوری کی جڑ ر سے “حکمران ، بادشاہ” J “حکمرانی” ہے ، لاطینی ریکس “بادشاہ” ، جرمن ریخ “سلطنت / دائرے” کرنے کے لئے cognate ، اور تھائی racha بادشاہ “؟؟ “. فارس میں ، satraps ، یا “kshatrapa” ، گورنروں ، یا فارسی سلطنت کے صوبوں کے “محافظ” ، تھے.

حضور یودقا
رب سری رام کی بیوی سیتا ، بھائی کے ساتھ (درمیان میں) — Lakshmana اور بکت ہنخمین. رام اور Lakshmana ہمیشہ دخش اور تیر کے ساتھ جنگ ​​کے لئے تیار ہے ، ظاہر کئے گئے ہیں ، جیسا کہ یہ ان کے کشتری سے لڑنے کے لیے. رام سوریونشی خاندان کا ایک کشتری تھا. وہ ایک سمجھا جاتا ہے

بھگوان وشنو کے اوتار

رب سری کرشنا رادا کے ساتھ. کرشنا ، Chandravanshi نسل کی پیدائش کی طرف سے ایک کشتری ، انہوں نے بھگوان وشنو کے دوسرے اوتار تصور کیا جاتا ہے. بھگوت گیتا میں وہ ایک کشتری کی ذمہ داری کے بارے میں ارجن سکھایا.

ایک ہندو حکمران ایک مذہب کے راجہ (بس اصول) کے طور پر حکومت کرنے کے لئے مقدس صحیفوں کی طرف سے ان کے مضامین اور مویشیوں کے تحفظ کے کیا جا رہا ہے میں اہم فرائض کے ساتھ پابند کیا گیا تھا ،.

رگ وید کے ریاستوں :
praja آریایی jyotiragrah ‘. آر وی ، VII. 33،17

آریوں کی حکومت لوگوں نے نور الہی کی قیادت میں ہیں. ایودھیا کے بادشاہ رام دھرم راجاوں کا سب سے بڑا تصور کیا جاتا ہے :

آریا دکھائے samascaiva sadaiva priyadarsanah

ایک آرین جو سب کی برابری کے لئے کام کیا ، ہر کسی کو عزیز تھا. رام نے بھی وشنو کے اوتار تصور کیا جاتا ہے.

رامائن ریاستوں :
قدیم بادشاہ نے مخ ، انسانی رضی اللہ عنہ کے والد کی طرح

Dasaratha نے ایک باپ کی محبت کرنے فضل کے ساتھ اپنی قوم کے لوگوں نے فیصلہ دیا.

Aswamedha

لیکن بادشاہ ایک ہی فکر تھی. انہوں نے کوئی اولاد نہیں تھی. تو انہوں نے Aswamedha قربانی ہے جو اسے بیٹوں کو دے سکتا ہے کارکردگی کا مظاہرہ کر کے میں سوچا ہے. انہوں نے وزیر Sumanta اور Vasistha اہم پجاری اور دیگر برہمن کے رہنماؤں کی طلبی کی تاریخ. وہ nodded اور اس آشیش دی. انتظامات Sarayu کے بینکوں پر yaga کے لئے کئے گئے تھے

خواہش بیٹوں

Sumanta بادشاہ کو مشورہ دیا کہ وہ بجائے Putreshthi قربانی انجام. یہ تھا بابا Sanatkumara کی طرف سے مشروع کیا گیا ہے ہے. “اس yaga Rishyasringa کو منظم کرنے کے لئے صحیح شخص ہے” ، Sumanta Dasaratha کو بتایا.

Enticing Rishyasringa

Rishyasringa بابا Kasyapa Vibhandaka اور پوتے کا بیٹا تھا. جنگل میں پیدا ہوا ، وہ ان کے ارد گرد ، ہوما کی آگ اور ان کے والد کے سوا کچھ بھی نہیں معلوم ہوتا. Anga ملک بادشاہ Romapada کی حکومت تھی. انہوں نے لڑکیوں کے رقص جب بارش نے زمین میں ناکام رہے کی مدد سے اس enticing Rishyasringa لایا. جب Rishyasringa ملک میں ان کے پاؤں مقرر کرتے ہیں ، یہ copiously بارش اور اکال کے غایب ہو گئی. تو ، بادشاہ Romapada اس سے شادی میں ان کی بیٹی دی اور Rishyasringa محل میں عیش و آرام کی میں رہتا تھا.

ایودھیا میں

کنگ Dasaratha نے مدد کے لیے Romapada سے اپیل کی اور ایودھیا Rishyasringa اور اس کی بیوی سانتا لایا

قربانی ہارس

موسم بہار کے موسم میں Dasaratha yaga شروع ہوا تھا اور قربانی کے گھوڑے کی کئی ریاستوں بھر میں اس کے سفر پر قائم کیا گیا تھا.

Yaga شروع

ایک سال گزر چکا ہے اور شاہ Dasaratha yaga کے ساتھ گئے کے طور پر مشروع ہے.

ہارس کی واپسی

قربانی کے گھوڑے لوٹ آئے. قربانی کے ستون تھے نککاشیدار گیا ہے اور مشروع پرندے ، سانپ اور قربانی کے گھوڑے ان سے منسلک تھے. رانیاں گھوڑے circumambulated اور سونے کی تلوار کے ساتھ اس felled. گھوڑے کے اعضاء قربانی آگ کی پیشکش کی گئی

خدا کی آمد

Rishyasringa Putrakamesthi قربانی نے سرانجام دیئے. خدا اور sages میں پہنچے. سب سے پہلے آنے برہم تھا. وہ برہما کے قتل کنگ راون کے لئے مدد طلب کی. برہما نے کہا کہ “راون نے مجھ سے ایک وردان ہے کہ دیوا ہے کے ہاتھوں موت سے اس کی حفاظت کرتا ہے حاصل تھا ، Danava ، Yaksha اور ghandharvas. لیکن وہ ایک انسان کی طرف سے قتل کیا جا سکتا ہے. تو وہ کرے گا……… ”

دیوا کی درخواست

وہ وشنو پر زور دیا کہ وہ ایک انسانی اوتار لے اور راون کو مارنے ہے. انہوں نے Dasaratha کے گھر میں پیدا ہونے رضامندی.

گولڈن برتن

Putrakamesthi قربانی کا خاتمہ کرنے کے لئے آ رہا تھا ، وہاں ایک شاندار ہوما آگ سے ایک سونے کا برتن لے کر شخصیت ابھر کر سامنے آئے. انہوں نے بادشاہ Dasaratha دیوا “آپ کی رانیاں اس کا حصہ لینا ہیں اور وہ بچوں کو ہو گا” کی طرف سے تیار چاول دودھ اور پڈنگ کی پیشکش کی ، یشتھ مرد کا حکم.

قربانی کھانے

Dasaratha نے رانی Kausalya ، رانی Kaikayi باقی نصف نصف نصف مقدس کی کھیر کی پیشکش کی ہے. باقی وہ دو حصوں میں بنا دیا اور رانی Sumitra ان کی پیشکش کی ہے. تین رانیاں ، پڈنگ کے حصہ لینا بعد حاملہ ہوئی.

Vanaras کی پیدائش

رب برہما کا حکم دیوا زمین پر جانے کے لئے Vanaras کے طور پر پیدا ہونے. تدنسار ، برہما Sugriva کی کمان کی طرف سے سورج کی پیدا ، ہوا ہوا خدا کی اندرا اور ہنخمین کے ولی کو کی گئی. انہوں نے رام کی مدد کے لئے تھے

رام کی پیدائش

چھ ماضی اور waxing چاند رام کے نویں دن پر موسم اور 12 ماہ Kausalya پیدا ہوا تھا. Kaikayi Bharatha اور Sumitra ٹوئن لڑکوں Lakshmana اور satrughna کو جنم دیا. دوبام اور جوش کے ساتھ ایودھیا کے شہریوں کی طرف سے ان کی پیدائش منایا گیا.

Vishwamitra پہنچ گئے

Dasaratha نے ان شادیوں کے بارے میں سوچ شروع کے طور پر لڑکوں کے نوجوانوں میں پلی بڑھی. تب بادشاہ نے بابا Vishwamitra آئے اور کہا کہ ‘اوہ ، عظیم بادشاہ ، میں نے ایک قربانی کارکردگی کا مظاہرہ کر رہا ہوں اور دو راکشسوں پریشان کر رہے ہو. تو رام قربانی سائٹ کی حفاظت کرنے کے لئے بھیج. میں اس کی دیکھ بھال اور انہوں نے Ikshvaku خاندان کے روشنی ہو گی.

Dasaratha مشکوک

Dasaratha نے جواب دیا “اوہ عظیم بابا ، میرا بیٹا بمشکل ہی سولہ سال کی عمر کا ہے وہ Rakshasas کے شیطانی جادو کا سامنا کس طرح کر سکتے ہیں؟ میں آپ کی بجائے مدد آئے گی.. لیکن جو دو Rakshasas آپ کی Yaga رکاوٹ ہیں”. جب Vishwamitra نے انہیں بتایا کہ وہ Mareecha اور Subahu تھے اور وہ بابا ہے Pulastya کے خاندان کے بادشاہ راون کی طرف سے بھیجے گئے تھے.

Dasaratha aghast تھا اور کہا کہ “اے بابا میں بھی راون کا سامنا نہیں کر سکتے ، اس نوجوان لڑکے نے اسے کس طرح لڑ سکتے ہیں؟’

Vishwamitra غصے جواب سماعت تھا.

Vasistha مشورہ

بابا Vasistha مداخلت ہے : “O ، عظیم بادشاہ اس Vishwamitra خود تمام راکشسوں کو قتل کرنے کے قابل ہے وہ صرف مدد آپ کے بیٹے بڑے بڑے کاموں چاہتی ہے تو ، اس کے ساتھ رام بھیجیں گے اور اپنا وعدہ…”

سیکھنا ہجے

Dasaratha Vishwamitra کی دیکھ بھال میں رام اور Lakshmana ڈال دیا. وہ Sarayu دریا کی طرف روانہ کیا اور اس میں غسل کے بعد ، رام Vishwamitra کی طرف سے دو منتر ‘بالا اور Atibala’ پڑھائی جاتی تھی ، “یہ منتر بھوک اور تھکاوٹ کو رکھنے کے تم سے دور کرے گا” انہوں نے رام کو بتایا.

وہ دریا کے جنوبی کنارے پر اس رات کو آرام.

Manmadha کا قتل

طلوع فجر میں وہ گھاس کا بنا بستر پر اٹھی. صبح ablutions کے بعد ، انہوں نے اپنا سفر دوبارہ شروع کیا اور Sthanvashrama جہاں بھگوان شو تپسیا کارکردگی کا مظاہرہ کیا اور Manmatha راکھ میں تبدیل کر دیا گیا دیکھے.

انہوں نے رات کے لئے وہاں آرام کیا. کہانی Tataka کی

انہوں نے گنگا کو پار کر اور ایک جنگل میں داخل ہے. Viswamitra نے ان کو بتایا کہ کس طرح جگہ ایک بار فلا کیا گیا تھا اور بعد میں کیونکہ ایک دانو Tataka ویران ہے.
“وہ ایک Yakshini یہ ہے کہ وہ کسی بھی شکل ہے وہ خواہشات اور ایک ہزار ہاتھیوں کی طاقت لے جا سکتے ہیں.. وہ Sunanda سے شادی کی اور دانو Mareecha کو جنم دیا. اس کے قتل اور اس جگہ کو محفوظ بنانے کے” انہوں نے رام کو بتایا.

رام شک

رام سے پوچھا “ان کا کہنا ہے کہ Yakshas weaklings ہیں اور اس Tataka ایک عورت ہے ، وہ ایک ہزار ہاتھیوں کی طاقت کو کس طرح تو کیا حاصل؟.”
وہ ایک Yaksha نام Suketu پیدا ہوئے تھے اور برہما سے ایک وردان کے ذریعے اس کی طاقت حاصل کی. Sunanda مر گیا اور Tataka اور Mareecha بابا Agasthya کی طرف سے لعنت کی مندرجہ ذیل راکشس بن گئے.

“اسے گایوں اور برہمن کی حفاظت کے لئے قتل تم اکیلے اسے مار کر سکتے ہیں لوگوں کو آپ کی ضرورت ہے اس کے باوجود وہ ایک عورت ہے جان سے مارنے کی سنکوچ نہیں کی تحفظ کے لئے..” وہ حکم.

Tataka کی موت

“تو میں جائے گا” ، رام نے کہا کہ اور دخش سٹرنگ ھیںچا. اس reverberated کے پورے جنگل اور Tataki میں آواز کو اس کی طرف پہنچ گئے. ان کی تحریک دھول کے طوفان کو اٹھایا اور اندھیرے نزول. اس سے پتھروں کی ایک ولوں تھا اور رام نے ان کے تیر کے ساتھ ایک barricade پیدا.
طور پر سورج کی ترتیب تھا بابا رام کو بتایا کہ “جب رات آتا ہے اس کی طاقت کئی گنا بڑھ جائیں گے تو اس کے. قتل اب”. رام نے ایک تیر اس کے دل میں چھید روانہ کیا اور وہ ایک بڑا درخت کی طرح ہلاک ہو گئے.

نئے ہتھیاروں

انہوں نے جنگل میں نے اس رات بسر کی. صبح میں Viswamitra رام طاقتور برہما ، ناراین اور دیگر Astras کے استعمال سکھایا. اس کے علاوہ ان کے ڈسپیچ رام نے بھی ان کی واپسی سکھایا گیا تھا.

Siddhasrama کی طرف

انہوں نے اپنا سفر جاری رکھا اور ایک پہاڑی تک پہنچ گئی اور Siddhasrama کے نام سے جانا جاتا ایک کٹیا دیکھے.

کہانی کٹیا کے

“یہ تھا ایک بار جہاں بھگوان وشنو تپسیا پر گئے اور بعد میں وہ یہاں رہتے تھے اب میں یہاں رہنا.. یہ ہے جہاں آپ راکشسوں کو قتل کرنا ہے” ، Viswamitra راما کو بتایا کہ.

وہ تھوڑی دیر آرام کیا اور بابا اس کے رسومات کا سلسلہ دوبارہ شروع. رام اور Lakshmana جاگ پوری رات راکشسوں کے لئے انتظار کر رہے تھے.

آشرم پر حملہ
اس طرح پانچ دن اور رات خرچ کئے گئے. چھٹے دن صبح کے طور پر قربانی کی ترقی میں تھا جیسے آسمان پھٹا تھا اوپر ایک بڑا دھماکہ تھا. آشرم کو آگ کی طرف سے گھیر لیا گیا تھا. Mareecha اور Subahu سیاہ بادلوں کے ساتھ آسمان کا احاطہ کرتا ہے.
خون قربانی سائٹ پر بارش. Mareecha پر مقصد ہتھیار اس کے لئے ایک سو yojanas سمندر میں بھیجا لیکن Subahu ہلاک ہو گیا تھا. قربانی کو بغیر کسی رکاوٹ کے یہ نتیجہ اخذ کیا ہے. متلا کے لئے سفر

اگلے دن کٹیا کے کچھ قیدیوں کو تجویز دی ہے کہ رام اور Lakshmana ان متلا کے شہر جہاں بادشاہ پیرنٹ قربانی کارکردگی کا مظاہرہ کر رہا تھا ساتھ. “ایک شاندار بھگوان شو کی طرف سے وہاں قربانی کے بعد متلا حکمران Devarata کو تحفے میں دیا دخش ہے کوئی سٹرنگ کرنے کے قابل رہا ہے کہ. دخش آپ وہاں دیکھ سکتے ہیں.”.
تو Viswamitra کے ساتھ وہ متلا کے لئے چھوڑ دیا.

100 Dauhters

Viswamitra رام متلا کی تاریخ اس طرح بتایا : “برہما نے سوچا تھا — بچے Kusa Brahmaloka سے زمین پر پہنچے اور Vidabha بادشاہ کی بیٹی سے شادی کی انہوں نے چار بیٹوں Kusambu ، Kusanabha ، Adhurtharajas اور Vasu Vasu Girivrajapura کے شہر کی تعمیر دریا سے بہہ رہی ہیں… تقریبا پانچ پہاڑوں سونا ہے یہ بھی Magadha کے طور پر جانا جاتا ہے..
Kusanabha شاندار خوبصورتی کی ایک سو بیٹیوں تھا. جب وہ باغ میں کھیل رہے تھے ایک دن پون ہوا خدا نے ان کے لئے lusted اور ان پر زور دیا کہ وہ اس سے شادی کرنے کے لئے. انہوں نے اس درخواست کو مسترد کر دیا اور خدا ہوا ان پر لعنت بدسورت بن اور dwarfs

لعنت اٹھا لیا

Kusanabha Kampilya کے شہر کے حکمران قائل کیا ان سے شادی کرنے کے لئے. ان کے رابطے کی طرف سے وہ ان کے بدسورتی کھو دیا.

ایک بیٹے کے لئے تڑپ

جب ان کے تمام سو بیٹیوں کو اپنے اپنے شوہر کے ساتھ چھوڑ دیا ، Kusanabha تنہا محسوس کیا اور ایک بیٹے کے لئے yearned. تو ، وہ ایک Putrakameshthi کارکردگی کا مظاہرہ کیا اور ایک بیٹے کو حاصل ہے. انہوں نے بادشاہ Gadhi تھا “میں Gadhi کا بیٹا ہوں ، اس طرح کے طور پر Gadheya Viswamitra نے کہا ہے کہ اور بھی Kausika کے لئے میں Kusa کے خاندان میں پیدا ہوئے نام سے جانا گیا”..
Viswamitra اپنی کہانی جاری رکھی “میری بڑی بہن Satyavathi swarga جسمانی حاصل کیا اور دریا ہمالی میں Kausiki کے طور پر زمین پر واپس آئے.

گنگا کے نکالنے
رام Viswamitra پر زور دیا کہ وہ اس سے گنگا کا اصل کہنا “جواہرات اور سات افروز معدنیات کی ذخیرہ کنگ Himavanta ہے ، وہ منورما سے شادی کی… انہوں نے دو خوبصورت بیٹیوں گنگا اور اوما تھا. Devas کی درخواست پر ، Himavanta Devaloka گنگا لایا. اما طویل تپسیا کارکردگی کا مظاہرہ کیا اور Maheswara شادی کر لی. وہ Rudrani بن گیا “Viswamitra نے کہا.

شو بیجوں

Viswamitra تو پاروتی کی کہانی کو رام کرنے کے لئے روایت کیا ہے : “ایک بیٹا شو اور پاروتی ویواہیک خوشی میں ملوث جب شو کا بیج زمین پر گر گیا پیدا کرنے کے لئے جلد ہی آگ میں بخارات بن کر اڑ اور سفید پہاڑی بن گیا پاروتی لینے کے لئے زمین اور Devas لعنت.. بیجوں اور اسے برباد کر.
وقت کے دوران میں پہاڑی نے ایک گھنے جنگل میں اضافہ ہوا. bulrushes میں Kartikeya پیدا کر دیا گیا تھا.

چھ کا سامنا کرنا پڑا خدا

آگ کے خدا ، آگ گنگا میں شو کے بیج منتقل کیا اور وہ حاملہ ہوئی. وہ بیج کی گرمی برداشت نہیں کریں گے اور ہمالی کے دامن میں اسقاط حمل کر سکتے ہیں. اس سے ، سات افروز معدنیات پیدا کیا گیا. وہاں سے چھ چہروں اور شاندار خوبصورتی کے ساتھ ایک بچے ابھر کر سامنے آئے.
انہوں نے چھ Kruttikas کی طرف سے لایا گیا تھا. تو ، وہ Kartikeya کے طور پر جانا جاتا ہے. انہوں نے Shanmuka کے طور پر بھی جانا جاتا ہے وہ چھ سر ہے. خدا آگ اس devas کی فوج کے کمانڈر کے سربراہ بنا دیا.

شہنشاہ ہے Sagara بیٹوں

Vishwamitra نے کہا کہ “ایک بار جب بادشاہ Sagara ایودھیا فیصلہ دیا انہوں نے دو بیویاں ، Kesini اور Smati تھا لیکن وہ کوئی بچے نہیں تھے… کنگ Sagara دو بیٹوں کے لئے بابا Bhrigu دعا کی. Bhrigu نے اس کو بتایا کہ ان کی سب سے بڑی بیوی سے ایک بیٹا اور دوسری 60،000 بیٹوں ہوگا.

زمین کھودنے

Sagara Aswamedha قربانی شروع. انہوں نے قربانی کے گھوڑے کے ساتھ ان کے Ansumanta گرینڈ بیٹے کو روانہ کیا اور لڑکے واپس آئے کے ساتھ unhampered.

جب قربانی پیش رفت اندرا میں مقدس گھوڑے چرا لیا. Sagara 60،000 بیٹے نے اس کی تلاش میں گئے تھے زمین nether دنیا کے لئے کھدائی نیچے

کپلا غضب

وہ شمال مشرقی سمت وہ بابا کپلا کی فارم اور ان کی پارٹی کی طرف سے قربانی گھوڑے میں وشنو پایا میں جب کھدائی گئے تھے. انہوں نے اس گھوڑے کی چور سمجھ لیا اور اس پر حملہ کیا. کپلا ان راکھ میں بدل گیا.

نیچے گنگا لانے بولی

ان کی 60،000 بیٹوں Sagara کو ٹریس کرنے کے قابل نہیں Ansumanta ان کو تلاش کرنے کے لئے بھیجا. Ansumanta نے ان کی راکھ ملے اور انہیں خراج تحسین پیش جب گروڑ ظاہر اور اس سے کہا تھا کہ اگر گنگا کو ان کی راکھ بہہ اس کے چچا نجات حاصل کرے گی انہوں نے پانی کی تلاش میں پیش کرتے ہیں.

Ansumanta قربانی کے گھوڑے کو واپس لیا اور ان کے دادا کو کہانی بیان کرتے. دریں اثنا ، Sagara زمین پر گنگا لانے کے قابل ہونے کے بغیر ناکام رہے.

Bhagiratha کوشش

Sagara موت کے بعد ، Ansumanta اس ایودھیا کے بادشاہ کے طور پر کامیاب. انہوں نے ان کے بیٹے Dilipa اور Dilipa کی طرف سے کامیاب کے بعد ان کے بیٹے Bhagiratha کی طرف سے کیا گیا تھا. Bhagiratha ایک بیٹے کے لیے ایک طویل تپسیا پر گئے اور زمین پر گنگا لانے.

برہما شائع کیا اور اس سے کہا تھا کہ “Bhagiratha ، آپ اپنے بیٹے کو ہو سکتا ہے لیکن جیسا کہ گنگا زمین پر اترتے صرف بھگوان شو سے آسمان سے اس زوال کی طاقت پر مشتمل ہوسکتا ہے تو اس سے دعا..”.

گنگا کا نزول

شو Bhagiratha materialized گنگا کی روک تھام کے لئے. اس نے اپنی فصل میں گنگا بور اور وہ وہاں چھپا دیا تھا. اسے کہیں Bhagiratha نہیں کی تلاش دوبارہ تپسیا پر گئے شو کو خوش کرنے کے لئے. شو Bindu جھیل میں گنگا جاری. وہاں سے گنگا سات طاقتور اسٹریمز کے طور پر نیچے آ گئی. ان میں سے ایک ہے Bhagiratha رت کے بعد.

ایشز Drenching

اس نے اسے اپنے پتروں کی راھ کے ذریعے باہر دھکیل دیا اور وہ اس طرح آخر میں نجات حاصل کی.

Jhanu Gulps گنگا

اس وقت Bhagiratha بابا Jhanu کی کٹیا کی طرف اس کے رت میں بھی تبدیل کر دیا اور وہاں روک دیا. لیکن طاقتور اس کا پیچھا کر گنگا وہاں نہیں روک اچانک سکے اور آشرم میں بہہ. بابا Jhanu غصے کر دیا اور ایک نگلنا میں اس کے منہ میں پورے گنگا لیا. Bhagiratha اس کے ساتھ کی التجا کی اس دنیا کے لئے جاری کرنے اور اس کے کان کے ساتھ Jhanu نے ایسا ہی کیا.

اس نے پھر nether دنیا اور اس کے بعد سمندر میں Bhagiratha کے بعد.

دودیا اوقیانوس منتن

Krita کی عمر میں Diti بیٹوں طاقتور تھے اور ادتی بیٹوں صالح تھے. جب دودھ کے سمندر churned تھا امرتا پیدا کر دیا گیا تھا.
Devas اور Danavas کے درمیان اشتراک پر جھگڑا ہوا تھا. بھگوان وشنو موہنی کی آڑ میں کر دیا اور Devas کے درمیان تقسیم. ایک شدید لڑائی ہے جس میں بعد میں مارے گئے تھے Devas اور Daityas کے درمیان یہ مندرجہ ذیل تھا.

اندرا جنین کو کاٹتا ہے

Diti اس کے تمام بیٹوں کی موت پر افسوس کا اظہار کیا وہ Kasyapa پر زور دیا کہ وہ اس کے ایک بیٹا جو اندرا نمر کر سکتا دے. Kasyapa اس تپسیا سختی سے عمل کرنے کے لئے کہا.
اس کے سر کے ساتھ ایک دوپہر Diti dizzed اور پاؤں غلط طرف کر دیا اور بال کھل. اندرا نے اس کے پیٹ میں داخل کیا اور سات ٹکڑوں میں برانن کاٹا.

اندرا باہر آیا اور اس کے ساتھ اس کو معاف کرنے کی التجا. ‘تمہارے پیٹ میں بچہ میری دشمن ہے. کیا یہ ان کے دشمن کو قتل کرنے کے لئے بادشاہ کے لئے صحیح نہیں ہے؟ ‘وہ کہا گیا ہے اور اس کی بخشش کی کوشش کی ہے.

Maruts کی پیدائش

Diti برانن کے ویئتیکرن پر افسوس کا اظہار کیا. ‘سات دنیا میں ہواؤں کی مسخ برانن پربووں کا ان سات طبقات کریں. اور انہیں Maruts ‘جانا جا ، وہ اندرا پر زور دیا کہ. اندرا نے اس سے سکون اور اس کے کرنے پر اتفاق کیا ہے.

جگہ ہے جہاں Diti تپسیا کا مشاہدہ Visalapattana جہاں رام Lakshmana ، اور Vishwamitra Ikshvaku بادشاہ Sumati کی طرف سے فراہم کی مہمان نوازی کو قبول بن گیا.

اندرا اکڑ

اگلی صبح وہ Mithala کی طرف ان کا سفر دوبارہ شروع کر دیا ہے. ویسے پر ، وہ بابا کے ویران کٹیا بھر گوتم آیا. Vishwamitra Ahalya ‘کی کہانی ہے جب گوتم ، ablutions اندرا چھپانے میں ان کی رہائش گاہ میں داخل کے لئے مقرر اور Ahalya ساتھ میٹیڈ روایت کیا ہے. ان کی واپسی پر گوتم سچ مل گیا اور ان کے testes کھو لعنت ہے. اندرا اس طرح نامرد بن گیا. تو انہوں نے یہ بھی Ahalya لعنت رہے جامد دھول خوراک اور پانی کے بغیر اور یہ کہ وہ آپ کے پاؤں کے رابطے کے ساتھ اس کی حالت زار کا لیا جائے گا لبریز ”کہہ گوتم ہمالی کے لئے چھوڑ دیا.

Ahalya لیا

مانس نے ایک بکری کی testes کے ساتھ اندرا نصب. Ahalya رام کی آمد کے لیے انتظار کر رہے تھے. ہے رام کے پاؤں سے دھول کے ساتھ اس حالت زار کے Ahalya چھڑایا گیا تھا اور گوتم ان کے آشرم واپس.

رام متلا میں پہنچ گئے

Viswamitra متلا میں داخل ، کٹیا ، اور رام اور Lakshmana کے قیدیوں کے ہمراہ. بابا بادشاہ Janaka آگے ان کا استقبال کرنے کے لئے آیا تھا. Viswamitra Janaka رام اور Lakshmana کو متعارف کرایا.

ہے Viswamitra کی کہانی

بابا گوتم بیٹے Satananda رام ، Viswamitra کی کہانی کی روایت ہے. ‘Viswamitra ایک طاقتور بادشاہ رہا تھا. مختلف hermitages کے دورے کے بعد ایک بار Viswamitra بابا Vasistha ‘انہوں نے کہا کہ میں چلی گئی.

حیرت گای Sabala

“Vasistha بادشاہ Viswamitra پر زور دیا کہ وہ اپنی فوج کے ساتھ ان کی مہمان نوازی کو قبول کرنے ہے.’ Satananda راما کو بتایا. ‘Vasistha ایک گائے’ Sabala ‘جو لوگوں کی کسی بھی تعداد میں فیڈ ہو سکتا ہے.’

Viswamitra لالچ

سوادج کھانا کے partaken ، Viswamitra اور ان کے قافلے گائے wonderous اعمال پر حیران تھے ‘. Satananda جاری رہا. کنگ Viswamitra Sabala کے تبادلے میں ایک لاکھ گایوں کی پیشکش کی لیکن Vasistha سے انکار کر دیا ‘.

Sabala پلی

، Satananda نے کہا کہ وہاں پر Viswamitra نے ان کے مردوں کو طاقت کے ذریعے جادو گائے چھین لینے کا حکم دیا. ‘گائے Vasistha سے اپیل کی کہ اس کے بادشاہ اور اس کے آدمیوں کی مزاحمت کرنے کی اجازت’ ہے.

کنگ مرد مقتول

Satananda نے کہا کہ ‘بابا رضامندی اور گائے ہزاروں اس کے اعضاء اور چکر ہے Vishwamitra مردوں سے فوجیوں پر ہزاروں کی تعداد میں پیدا کیا.’

سو شہزادے ہلاک

Satananda ‘پھر Vishwamitra اور ان کے سو بیٹوں Vasistha پر حملہ whereupon بابا نے غصے میں ان کی طرف دیکھ گئے. بادشاہ کے سو بیٹوں کو راکھ میں بدل گیا. کنگ Vishwamitra جانتے ہو کیا کرنا نقصان پر تھا. انہوں نے اس ریاست پر ایک واحد دیا ، بیٹا زندہ بچ جانے والے اور رب شو کو خوش کرنے کے لئے تپسیا کر رہے پر چلا گیا. شو اسے کئی boons اور ہتھیاروں سے نوازا. ‘Vishwamitra تکبر بن گیا اور Vasistha کٹیا کی طرف ان کے غیض و غضب کر دیا. انہوں نے اس کو تباہ کر دیا. ‘Satananda راما کو بتایا کہ.

Viswamitra خفیف

“بابا Viswamitra غصے میں تھا انہوں نے Viswamitra کی طرف روانہ تمام ہتھیاروں نپوبسک بنانے کی طرف سے جوابی کارروائی آخر Viswamitra سب سے قوی Brahmastra سے ، جس Vasistha کی فوری طور پر ایک نگلنا میں اس کے جسم کے اندر لیا روانہ کیا…”

original version

.RAMAYAN Balakanda

યુવાન કે જે રામ ના ચમત્કારિક જન્મ વિગતો, તેની અયોધ્યા શરૂઆતમાં જીવન, Vishvamitra ની અરજી પર તેના વન દાનવો ઓફ કાનુની કતલ અને સીતા સાથે તેમના લગ્ન રમા ચોપડે.

માતાનો વાલ્મિકિ સંન્યાસાશ્રમ ખાતે Narada પહોંચ્યા

વાલ્મિકિ Narada “ઓ ઋષિ, એક વ્યકિત જે દોષરહિત પાત્ર છે ત્યાં છે, હિંમતવાન છે, અથવા આ વિશ્વમાં ક્રોધ ઈર્ષ્યા વગર પ્રમાણિક મને તેના વિશે કહો જો ત્યાં આવા મહાન આત્મા છે?. Narada જવાબ આપ્યો” કહેવામાં તે મુશ્કેલ છે, જેમ કે શોધવા વ્યક્તિ પરંતુ Ikshvaku ના ઘરમાં એક જન્મ છે. તેનું નામ રામ Narada પછી વાલ્મિકિ માટે રમા વાર્તા narrating શરૂ કર્યું છે. “.

રાખવાથી રમા વાર્તા વર્ણન, Narada દેવો Loka માટે ડાબી

સેજ વાલ્મિકિ માટે Tamasa નદી midday oblations ઓફર હતી. Krauncha પક્ષીઓ એક જોડી એ ઠંડી આસપાસના તેમના ધ્યાન ખેંચ્યું. એક સમયે જ્યારે જોડ સમાગમ હતી સમયે, એક પારધી તેમને તેમના તીર કરવાનો અને તેને dispatched. તે પુરુષ પક્ષી હૃદય વીંધેલા. મહિલા પક્ષી તેના મૃત્યુ માટે માટે રડતી શરૂ કર્યું હતું. આ વાલ્મિકિ જે પ્રકારનું હૃદય વિશ્વના પ્રથમ કવિતા પાઠ કરવો છે “Manishada ખસેડવામાં …..

માતાનો બ્રહ્મા આદેશ

જ્યારે વાલ્મિકી તેના કાવ્યરચના, બ્રહ્મા, સર્જક ના સ્વયંસ્ફુરિત ધડાકો પાછું બોલાવવું સંન્યાસાશ્રમ, ભૌતિક પરત કરવાનો આદેશ આપ્યો છે અને તેને માટે Anustup મીટર માં રમા વાર્તા કંપોઝ “તે પ્રથમ પુસ્તક હોઈ શકે અને તે લાંબા સમય સુધી છેલ્લા શકે તરીકે કલ્પ ચાલે” બ્રહ્મા જણાવ્યું હતું કે,

માતાનો વાલ્મિકિ દ્રષ્ટિ

સર્જક ના આશીર્વાદ સાથે, ઋષિ વાલ્મિકી પ્રાર્થના ઓફર અને શનિ એક Kusa ઘાસ બનાવવામાં સીટ પર બનેલા હોય છે. કિંગ Dasaratha, તેના consorts, પુત્રો, તેમના પતિ કે પત્નિ, રામ સીતા અને લક્ષ્મણ ની દેશવટો, રાવણ ના કાનુની કતલ વાલ્મિકિ માટે દ્રષ્ટિ હતી. વાલ્મિકિ આમ નીચે વંશજો માટે રમા વાર્તા મૂકે છે.

વાલ્મિકી રામાયણ બનેલું

સેજ વાલ્મિકિ બનેલા આ 500 sargas અને છ cantos માં 24,000 slokas માં રામાયણ. આ જોડિયા Kusa અને લાવા તેમને હૃદય હતો. તેઓ મીઠી સંગીતવાદ્યો વૉઇસ હતા અને તે સંન્યાસાશ્રમ ની કેદીઓ પહેલાં હતું. રમા તેમને કોર્ટમાં મળી વાર્તા પાઠ કરવો.

આ Ikshvaku વંશ કિંગ્સ

રાજાઓના કે આ પૃથ્વી પર શાસન કર્યું, તે પૈકી Ikshvaku માતાનો મહાન હતા. મનુ પ્રતિ સાગર માટે તેઓ અસમાન gaiety સાથે પૃથ્વી પર શાસન કર્યું. તેમને પૈકી રમા તાજ રત્ન હતું. Kosala ઓફ કિંગડમ Sarayu નદી બેંકો પર હતી અને તેની રાજધાની અયોધ્યા Vaivaswata મનુ દ્વારા બાંધવામાં આવી હતી. શહેરના કેન્દ્રમાં માં માતાનો કિંગ મહેલ હતો

ગ્રેટ કિંગડમ

રાજા જે અયોધ્યા અને Kosala કિંગડમ ઓફ શહેરમાં ખ્યાતિ લાવવામાં Dasaratha હતી. માર્યા ઘણા દુશ્મનો તે અને બહાદુરી અને વિદ્વાન આમંત્રિત પુરુષો પોતાના શહેર રહેવા માટે. લોકો સુખી અને પ્રામાણિક જીવન હતી.

સમર્થ કિંગ

કિંગડમ ઓફ ધ હેડ પાદરીઓ Vasistha અને Vamadeva હતા. કિંગ Dasaratha આઠ મંત્રીઓ જે Sumanta વડા હતા ની મદદ સાથે અસરકારક રીતે શાસન કર્યું. Sumanta Dasaratha નજીકનું હતો અને પણ ઉમેદવારી શાહી સ્ત્રીઓ એપાર્ટમેન્ટ્સ દાખલ કરો.

વધુ માહિતી Ishavaku

ક્ષત્રિયોના ઇતિહાસ
(ક્ષત્રિય) એક હિંદુ ચાર વર્ણ (સામાજિક ઓર્ડર) છે. તે પરંપરાગત વૈદિક-હિન્દૂ સામાજિક સિસ્ટમ લશ્કરી અને શાસક ક્રમમાં રચના તરીકે વેદ અને મનુ ના કાયદા દ્વારા દર્શાવ્યો હતો. ભગવાન રામ, ભગવાન કૃષ્ણ, ભગવાન બુદ્ધ અને ભગવાન મહાવીરે આ સામાજિક ઓર્ડર belonged.

પ્રાચીન વૈદિક સમાજમાં શરૂઆતમાં, આ સ્થિતિમાં એક વ્યક્તિ (ગુના) અભિરુચિ, આચાર (કર્મ), અને પ્રકૃતિ (swabhava) ની ગુણવત્તા પર હાંસલ કરવામાં આવી હતી. પ્રારંભિક વૈદિક સાહિત્યના ક્રમ પ્રથમ તરીકે ક્ષત્રિય (કે atra?, અથવા સત્તા ધારકોને) યાદી થયેલ હોય, તો પછી (પાદરીઓ અને કાયદો શિક્ષકો) આગામી બ્રાહ્મણો માટે, (વેપારી વેપારીઓ) વૈશ્ય, અને છેલ્લે Sudra (કસબીઓ અને કામદારો ). વ્યક્તિઓ અને જૂથો એક વર્ગ બીજી મુવમેન્ટ્સ, બંને ઉપર અને નીચે, અસામાન્ય ન હતી;. પરિસ્થિતિ માં પણ ક્ષત્રિય ક્રમ વધારો એક માન્યતા બાકી સેવા માટે [1] વર્ષો દિવસ શાસકો માટે ઈનામ હતું તે વંશપરંપરાગત બન્યા. આધુનિક સમયમાં, ક્ષત્રિય વર્ણ જાતિ જૂથો વ્યાપક વર્ગ સમાવેશ કરે છે, સ્થિતિ અને કાર્ય પરંતુ યુનાઇટેડ નોંધપાત્ર rulership તેમના દાવા, યુદ્ધ અનુસરણ, અથવા જમીનની કબજો દ્વારા અલગ.

આ દંતકથા છે કે Ikshvakus અપવાદ સાથે ક્ષત્રિયોના, તેમનો સામનો પરશુરામથી થયો, વિષ્ણુ ની છઠ્ઠી પુનર્જન્મ, તેમના દ્વારા જુલમ માટે સજા નાશ હતા કેટલાક વિદ્વાનો દ્વારા માનવામાં આવે છે માટે પાદરીઓ અને શાસકો વચ્ચે સર્વોપરિતા માટે લાંબા સંઘર્ષ કે વિજય અંત પ્રતિબિંબ ભૂતપૂર્વ છે. વૈદિક યુગ અંત સુધીમાં, બ્રાહ્મણો સર્વોચ્ચ હતા, અને ક્ષત્રિય બીજા સ્થાને ઘટી હતી. આ Manusm (હિન્દૂ કાયદાનું પુસ્તક)? સસ્પિશિયન અને મોટા ભાગના અન્ય dharmashastras (ન્યાયશાસ્ત્ર કામ) જેવા ગ્રંથોમાં એક બ્રાહ્મણ વિજય અહેવાલ, પરંતુ મહાકાવ્ય ગ્રંથો ઘણીવાર અલગ અલગ એકાઉન્ટ ઓફર, અને તે સંભવિત છે કે સામાજિક રિયાલિટી શાસકો સામાન્ય રીતે પ્રથમ ક્રમે છે . દેવતાઓ ની સ્થાયી શાસકો તરીકે (ખાસ કરીને વિષ્ણુ, કૃષ્ણ, અને રમા) પ્રતિનિધિત્વ બિંદુ underscores, કારણ કે ધાર્મિક ભૂમિકાઓ અને વિશેષાધિકારો ની વિસ્તૃત શ્રેણીમાં હિન્દૂ ઇતિહાસ સૌથી મારફતે નથી રાજાઓ લગતી. [2]. બોદ્ધ ધર્મ ઉદય સાથે, ક્ષત્રિયોના ચાર વર્ણ પ્રથમ તેમના સ્થાને મેળવ્યો હતો. તેમના બ્રાહ્મણ સામાન્ય Pusyamitra સુંગા, ભારત અને બોદ્ધ ધર્મ ના અનુગામી ઘટાડો દ્વારા છેલ્લા મૌર્ય સમ્રાટ Brhadrata ની હત્યા, પૂર્વ ભારતમાં બ્રાહ્મણ સર્વોપરિતા વધુ એક વખત ચિહ્નિત થયેલ. પશ્ચિમ ભારત ક્ષત્રિય સમૂહો એક ગઢ તરીકે રાજપૂતાના અને શક્તિશાળી ક્ષત્રિય સામ્રાજ્ય કે ઉજ્જૈન થી જમણે શાસન ઇસ્લામિક દિલ્હીમાં ચૌહાણ ક્ષત્રિયોના એક પતન તરફ દોરી આક્રમણ કરવા દ્વારા epitomized રહ્યું છે.

Ikshvaku વંશ વંશ

ઇક વિરુદ્ધ? કુ અથવા Aik? વિરુદ્ધ? કા સામ્રાજ્ય રાજાઓ આ યાદીઓ રામાયણ, મહાભારત, હરિવંશ કે અને પુરાણોમાં જોવા મળે છે. પરંતુ બે રામાયણ મળી યાદીઓ અન્ય બધી યાદીઓ સાથે નોંધપાત્ર અલગ અલગ છે. કાલિદાસ ના Raghuvamsha પણ આ રાજવંશ રાજાઓના કેટલાક નામો ઉલ્લેખ. [3] [4] [5]

IKSHVAKUS
આ Ikshvaku વંશ ના વંશાવળી તરીકે રામાયણ માં ઉલ્લેખ (i.69.17-32 અને ii.102.4-29) [6] નીચે પ્રમાણે છે:

બ્રહ્મા 10 Prajapatis, જેમાંથી એક Marichi સર્જન કરવામાં આવ્યું.
Kashyapa Marichi અને કાલા પુત્ર છે. Kashyapa માનવતાની પિતા તરીકે ગણવામાં આવે છે.
Vivasvan અથવા સુર્યા Kashyapa અને અદિતિ પુત્ર છે.
Vaivasvata મનુ, મૂળ Satyavrata, દ્રવિડ ની પછી સમ્રાટ Vivasvan પુત્ર છે. તેમણે પ્રથમ Ikshvaku વંશ સાથે સંકળાયેલા શાસક તરીકે ગણવામાં આવે છે.
Ikshvaku Vaivasvata મનુ પુત્ર છે.
Kukshi Ikshvaku પુત્ર છે
Vikukshi Kukshi પુત્ર છે
બના Vikukshi પુત્ર છે
Anaranya બના પુત્ર છે
Prithu Anaranya પુત્ર છે
Trishanku Prithu પુત્ર છે
Dhundhumara Trishanku પુત્ર છે
Yuvanashva Dhundhumara પુત્ર છે
Mandhata Yuvanashva પુત્ર છે
Susandhi Mandhata પુત્ર છે
Dhruvasandhi અને Presenajit Susandhi ના પુત્રો છે
ભારત Dhruvasandhi પુત્ર છે
બહુ (Asita) ભારત પુત્ર છે
સાગર બહુ પુત્ર છે
Asamanja સાગર પુત્ર છે
Amsumanta (Ansuman) Asamanja પુત્ર છે
Dileepa Amsumanta પુત્ર છે
Bhagiratha Dilipa પુત્ર છે
Kakustha Bhagiratha પુત્ર છે
રઘુ Kakushta પુત્ર છે. Raghuvamsha આ સમૂહનો રઘુ સાથે શરૂ
Pravriddha રઘુ ના સોને છે
Shankhana Pravriddha પુત્ર છે
Sudarshana Shankhana પુત્ર છે
Agnivarna Sudarshana પુત્ર છે
Shighra Agnivarna પુત્ર છે
મારું Shighra પુત્ર છે
Prashushruka મારું પુત્ર છે
Ambarisha Prashushruka પુત્ર છે
Nahusha Ambarisha પુત્ર છે
Yayati Nahusha પુત્ર છે
Nabhaga Yayati પુત્ર છે
Aja Nabhaga પુત્ર છે
દશરથ Aja પુત્ર છે
રામ, લક્ષ્મણ ભારત અને Shatrughna Dasaratha ના પુત્રો છે
લાવા અને Kusha રામ ના પુત્રો છે
આ પુરાણ Kusha માંથી Brihadbala, જે અભિમન્યુ દ્વારા મહાભારતના યુદ્ધમાં માર્યા હતી વંશાવળી યાદી પૂરી પાડે છે. આ યાદી Raghuvamsha દ્વારા Agnivarna સુધી corroborated છે [7]:

Atithi, Kusha પુત્ર
Nishadha, Atithi પુત્ર
નાળાં, Nishadha પુત્ર
Nabhas, નાળાં પુત્ર
Pundarika, પુત્ર Nabhas
Kshemadhanvan, Pundarika પુત્ર
Devanika, Kshemadhanvan પુત્ર
Ahinagu, Davanika પુત્ર
Paripatra, Ahinagu પુત્ર
(અથવા બાલા) Dala, Ahinagu પુત્ર
Uktha, Dala પુત્ર
Vajranabha, Uktha પુત્ર
Shankhana, Vajranabha પુત્ર
Vyushitashva, Shankhana પુત્ર
Vishvasaha, Vyushitashva પુત્ર
Hiranyanabha, Vishvasaha પુત્ર
Pushya, Hiranyanabha પુત્ર
Dhruvasandhi, Pushya પુત્ર
Agnivarna, Dhruvasandhi પુત્ર
Shighra, Agnivarna પુત્ર
મારું, Shighra પુત્ર
Prasushruta, મારું પુત્ર
Susandhi, Prasushruta પુત્ર
Amarsha અને Sahasvant, Susandhi ના પુત્રો
Vishrutavant, Amarsha પુત્ર
Brihadbala, Vishrutavant પુત્ર.
જો કે, નેપાળી અને Bauddhists એ વંશ આગળ ચાલુ રાખો.

વંશાવલિ Descrepencies
આ 2 ઉપર યાદી થયેલ સ્રોતો પ્રતિ, ત્યાં તફાવતો કે જે ઉપર માહિતી ચોકસાઇ માટે ઉકેલાઈ જરૂર છે. નીચેના descrepencies યાદી છે:

વાલ્મિકિ રાજ્યો રામાયણ કે Prthu Anaranya અને Trisanku પિતા પુત્ર છે. Ramakatha Rasavahini Prthu અને રાજ્યો કોઈ રન નોંધાયો નહીં કે Anaranya Trisanku fathered
વાલ્મિકિ રાજ્યો રામાયણ કે Presenjit Bharatha ના પિતા તરીકે Ramakatha Rasavahini statest Daivasandhi જ્યારે Bharatha ના પિતા છે
વાલ્મિકિ રાજ્યો રામાયણ કે Sankhana Pravardha પુત્ર છે અને Sankhana પુત્ર Sudarsana હતી. Ramakatha Rasavahini Pravardha પુત્ર તરીકે Sankhana અને લક્ષણો Sudarsana નોંધ્યું કોઈ રન નોંધાયો નહીં
Seeghraga Ramakatha Rasavahini માં Agnivarna અને મારું પિતા પુત્ર તરીકે ઉલ્લેખ છે. વાલ્મિકી રામાયણ Seeghraga અને રાજ્યો કે મારું પિતા Agnivarna ન હતું ઉલ્લેખ નથી
Jaina પરંપરા Ikshvaku વંશ
આ Ikshvaku વંશ પરંપરા Jaina નોંધપાત્ર સ્થળ છે, કારણ કે 22 તિર્થંકર આ શાહી ઘરમાં જન્મ થયા હતા. પ્રથમ તીર્થંકર Rishavadeva Ikshvaku કિંગ નાભિ પુત્ર હતો. બીજા તીર્થંકર, Ajitanatha, Ikshvaku કિંગ Jitashatru પુત્ર સાગર પિતરાઈ હતી

આંધ્ર Ikshvakus
આંધ્ર Ikshvakus એક પ્રારંભિક આંધ્ર પ્રદેશ ના શાસક વંશ હતા. તેઓ કૃષ્ણ નદી સાથે બીજી સદી ની પાછળથી અડધા દરમિયાન પૂર્વ આંધ્ર દેશમાં શાસન. [8] તેમની મૂડી Vijayapuri (Nagarjunakonda) હતા. કેટલાક વિદ્વાનો સૂચવ્યું છે કે આ રાજવંશ હિન્દૂ પૌરાણિક પ્રાચીન Ikshvakus સંબંધિત હતી. રામાયણ ના રમા, જેમણે તરીકે વિષ્ણુ ના અવતાર Ikshvaku ના વાક્ય belonged ગણવામાં આવે છે. હિન્દૂ પૌરાણિક, Ikshvaku, જે મનુ અને Kukshi પિતા હતો, મુજબ સુર્યવંશી વંશ ના સ્થાપક હતો, Treta યુગ ની શરૂઆત પર અયોધ્યા માંથી તાજ ધારણ કર્યો હોવાથી. ત્યાં જોકે કોઈ સીધો માટે સૂચવે છે કે આંધ્ર Ikshvakus દંતકથાની Ikshvakus સાથે સંબંધિત હતી પુરાવા છે.

પુરાતત્વીય પુરાવા સૂચવ્યું છે કે આંધ્ર Ikshvakus તરત જ કૃષ્ણ નદી ખીણ માં સતવાહન સફળ. Ikshvakus Nagarjunakonda, Jaggayyapeta, Amaravati અને Bhattiprolu ખાતે શિલાલેખ બાકી છે.

આંધ્ર Ikshvakus ની સાહિત્યિક Ikshvakus પુરાવા
એક કન્નડા કવિતા Dharmamrita જણાવે છે કે આંધ્ર ની Ikshvakus ઉત્તર ભારત પ્રખ્યાત Ikshvakus ના descendents હતા. Buhler અને Rapson જેમ પ્રાચ્ય વિદ્વાનો જોવા કે ઉત્તર Ikshvakus દક્ષિણ સ્થળાંતર હોઇ શકે વ્યક્ત કરી હતી. વાયુ પુરાણ અનુસાર, મનુ, પ્રાચીન ભારત મહાન પૂર્વજ Ikshvaku જેમને સૌથી મોટા હતી નવ પુત્રો હતા. તેમની મૂડી અયોધ્યા હતી. તેમણે એક સો પુત્રો હતા, અને સૌથી મોટા Vikushi અયોધ્યા ના શાસક તરીકે તેમના પિતા સફળ. બાકીના, પચાસ પુત્રો ઉત્તર ભારતમાં નાના હુકુમત સ્થાપના કરી હતી. ચાલીસરંગો તેમના પુત્રો આઠ દક્ષિણ સ્થળાંતર અને પોતાને માટે રજવાડાઓ કોતરવામાં.

બુદ્ધ સાહિત્યમાં દક્ષિણ ભારત માં Ikshvakus ના ઘૂંસપેંઠ સંદર્ભ લે છે અને જાહેર કર્યું કે તેઓ Asmaka, Mulaka અને અન્ય હુકુમત સ્થાપના કરી હતી. આ ક્ષત્રિયોના દક્ષિણ ડાઉન સ્થાયી અને નાના રજવાડાઓ ત્યાં સ્થાપના કરી. જૈન સાહિત્યમાં પણ ઉત્તર ભારતીય રાજકુમારો ઓફ ધ દક્ષિણ હિજરત સંદર્ભ લે છે. Dharmamrita ફૂટ સંદર્ભ કરવામાં આવ્યું હતું કે 12 તીર્થંકર, એક Yasodhara એ Ikshvaku કુટુંબ માંથી સંપ્રદાયમાંથી નામ રાજકુમાર ના જીવનકાળ દરમ્યાન દક્ષિણ માં અંગ સામ્રાજ્ય Vengi આવ્યો હતો. અમે જાણ છે કે રાજકુમાર જેથી પ્રદેશમાં સુંદરતા સાથે જ પ્રભાવિત થયો હતો, અને માટી ની પ્રજનન કે તે તેની કાયમી ઘર કરી અને Pratipalpura કહેવાય શહેર સ્થાપના કરી હતી. એવું માનવામાં આવે છે કે Pratipalapura આધુનિક Bhattiprolu, ગુંટુર જિલ્લા એક શહેર છે [સંદર્ભ આપો]. શિલાલેખો પણ Nagarjunakonda ખીણ અને Jaggayyapeta અને Bhattiprolu આ alluding નથી શોધ કરવામાં આવી છે.

વ્યુત્પત્તિશાસ્ત્ર

સંસ્કૃત, તે k-atra? પરથી આવ્યો છે, “આધિપત્ય, પાવર, સરકારી” રુટ k-અર્થ? “નિયમ સરકાર, ધરાવે છે.” જુની ફારસી xš યા? (“સમ્રાટ”) iya અને xša? રા? (“ક્ષેત્ર”) તે સંબંધિત છે, કારણ કે નવી ફારસી શબ્દો ઓ (“સમ્રાટ”) h, અને šahr? (“શહેર”, “ક્ષેત્ર” ). “રાજા”, kasat, અને “ઘોડો” અથવા “યોદ્ધા”, kesatria અથવા satria માટે મલય શબ્દ માટે શબ્દ થાઈ, પણ તે ઉતરી આવેલા છે. શબ્દ કુલીન પરિસ્થિતિ સૂચવે છે.

પ્રારંભિક વૈદિક સંસ્કૃતિ માં, યોદ્ધા જાતિ આર જાણ્યા? અથવા kšatr યા તરીકે ઓળખાતું હતું. ભૂતપૂર્વ R એક વિશેષણયુક્ત ફોર્મ Jan “શાસક રાજા” રુટ આર હતો? જ “કરવા માટે નિયમ”, લેટિન રેક્સ “રાજા”, જર્મન રીક “સામ્રાજ્ય / ક્ષેત્ર” માટે સગોત્ર છે, અને થાઈ racha “રાજા “. પર્શિયામાં માં, satraps, અથવા “kshatrapa” માં, રાજ્યપાલોના, અથવા ફારસી માતાનો સામ્રાજ્ય પ્રાંતો “સંરક્ષક” હતા.

પવિત્ર વોરિયર
પત્ની સીતા, ભાઇ સાથે ભગવાન શ્રી (કેન્દ્રમાં) રામ – લક્ષ્મણ અને ભક્ત હનુમાન. રમા અને લક્ષ્મણ હંમેશા યુદ્ધ માટે ધનુષ્ય અને તીર સાથે તૈયાર કરી શકાય બતાવવામાં આવે છે, કારણ કે તે તેમના ક્ષત્રિય છે લડવા. રામ સૂર્યવંશી ક્ષત્રિય વંશ એક હતી. તેઓ ગણવામાં આવે છે

ભગવાન વિષ્ણુ ના અવતાર

રાધા સાથે ભગવાન શ્રી કૃષ્ણ. કૃષ્ણ, Chandravanshi વંશની જન્મ દ્વારા ક્ષત્રિય, તેઓ ભગવાન વિષ્ણુને અન્ય અવતાર માનવામાં આવે છે. ભગવદ્ ગીતા માં તેમણે એક ક્ષત્રિય ની ફરજ વિશે અર્જુન શીખવવામાં આવે છે.

એક હિન્દૂ શાસક પવિત્ર કરવા માટે ધર્મ-રાજા (જસ્ટ નિયમ) તરીકે શાસન ગ્રંથો દ્વારા બંધાયેલ હતી મુખ્ય તેના વિષયો અને પશુધન રક્ષણ રહી ફરજો છે.

ઋગવેદ સ્ટેટ્સ:
નમે પ્રજા નમે jyotiragrah આર્ય ‘. આરવી, vii. 33,17

આર્યો દ્વારા શાસિત લોકો દૈવી પ્રકાશ આગેવાની છે. અયોધ્યા રાજા રામ કે ધર્મ-રાજાઓએ મહાન ગણવામાં આવે છે:

આર્ય સર્વ samascaiva sadaiva priyadarsanah

એક આર્યન જે તમામ સમાનતા માટે કામ કર્યું હતું, દરેકને ડિયર હતી. રમા પણ વિષ્ણુ એક અવતાર માનવામાં આવે છે.

રામાયણ સ્ટેટ્સ:
પ્રાચીન રાજા મનુ, માનવ રા પિતા જેમ

Dasaratha એક પિતા પ્રેમાળ ગ્રેસ સાથે તેમના લોકો પર શાસન કર્યું.

Aswamedha

પરંતુ રાજા એક ચિંતા હતી. તેમણે કોઈ સંતાન હતા. તેથી તેમણે Aswamedha બલિદાન જે તેને પુત્રો આપી શકે રહ્યા વિચાર. તેમણે મંત્રી Sumanta અને હેડ પાદરી Vasistha અને અન્ય બ્રાહ્મણ નેતાઓ સમન્સ. તેઓ nodded અને તેને ધન્ય. જોગવાઇઓ yaga માટે Sarayu ની બેન્કો પર કરવામાં આવી હતી

Desiring પુત્રો

Sumanta રાજા સલાહ આપી બદલે Putreshthi બલિદાન કરે છે. આ ઋષિ Sanatkumara દ્વારા સૂચવવામાં આવી હતી. , Sumanta “આ yaga Rishyasringa કરવા માટે જમણી વ્યક્તિ છે” Dasaratha જણાવ્યું હતું.

પ્રલોભક Rishyasringa

Rishyasringa Vibhandaka અને સેજ Kasyapa ના પૌત્ર પુત્ર હતો. જંગલ માં જન્મેલા, તેમણે આસપાસના માટે, homa આગ અને તેના પિતા સિવાય કંઈ જાણીતી હતી. અંગ દેશમાં કિંગ Romapada શાસન હતું. તેણે કન્યા નૃત્ય ત્યારે વરસાદ જમીન નિષ્ફળ ની મદદ સાથે પ્રલોભક દ્વારા Rishyasringa હતા. જ્યારે Rishyasringa દેશમાં તેના પગ સુયોજિત કરો, તો તે ખૂબ rained અને દુષ્કાળ અદ્રશ્ય થઇ. તેથી, રાજા Romapada તેમને લગ્ન તેમની પુત્રી અને આપ્યો Rishyasringa વૈભવી માં પેલેસ ખાતે વસવાટ કરો છો હતી.

અયોધ્યા ફૂટ

કિંગ Dasaratha મદદ માટે Romapada અપીલ અને અયોધ્યા માટે Rishyasringa અને તેની પત્ની સાંતા લાવ્યા

બલિદાન હોર્સ

વસંત સિઝનમાં ફૂટ Dasaratha એ yaga શરૂ કર્યું અને બલિદાન ઘોડો કેટલાક રજવાડાં તેના સમગ્ર પ્રવાસ પર સુયોજિત કરવામાં આવી હતી.

Yaga બિગીન્સ

એક વર્ષ પસાર અને કિંગ Dasaratha એ yaga પર ગયા તરીકે આપવામાં આવે છે.

ઘોડો ઓફ વળતર

આ યજ્ઞ ઘોડો પાછા ફર્યા. આ યજ્ઞ આધારસ્તંભ કોતરવામાં આવ્યો હતો અને નિયત પક્ષીઓ, સાપ અને બલિદાન ઘોડો તેમને બાંધી હતી. આ રાણીઓ કે ઘોડો circumambulated અને તે સોનેરી તલવારો સાથે felled. આ ઘોડો ઓફ અંગો યજ્ઞ આગ ઓફર કરવામાં આવી હતી

ગોડ્સ આગમન

Rishyasringa એ Putrakamesthi બલિદાન આયોજન કર્યું હતું. દેવતાઓ અને મુનિઓની પહોંચ્યા. માટે આવો પ્રથમ બ્રહ્મા હતી. તેઓ slay કિંગ રાવણ માટે બ્રહ્મા મદદ માંગી. બ્રહ્મા કહ્યું “રાવણ મને એક વિનંતી કે દેવો ના હાથમાં ખાતે મૃત્યુ તેમને રક્ષણ મેળવી હતી, Danava છે, Yaksha અને ghandharvas. પરંતુ તે મનુષ્ય દ્વારા હત્યા કરી શકાય છે. તેથી તેમણે રહેશે ……… ”

માતાનો દેવો કેફિયત

તેઓ વિષ્ણુ વિનંતી માટે માનવ અવતાર લે છે અને રાવણ મારી નાખે છે. તેમણે Dasaratha હાઉસ ઓફ માં જન્મ સહમતિ.

ગોલ્ડન વેસલ

જેમ જેમ Putrakamesthi બલિદાન અંત આવતા હતા, ત્યાં ભવ્ય એ homa આગ માંથી સોનેરી વહાણ વહન આકૃતિ ઉભરી આવ્યા હતા. તેમણે કિંગ Dasaratha તે ડાંગર અને-દૂધ માતાનો દેવો “ચાલો તમારા રાણીઓ તે લઇ અને તેઓ બાળકો હોય નહિ” દ્વારા તૈયાર પુડિંગ ઓફર માટે, Yagna purusha આદેશ.

બલિદાન ખોરાક

Dasaratha રાણી Kausalya, બાકીના રાણી Kaikayi માટે અડધા અડધા કરવા માટે અડધા પવિત્ર પુડિંગ ઓફર કરે છે. બાકીના તેમણે બે છિદ્ર કર્યા અને તેમને રાણી Sumitra માટે ઓફર કરે છે. ત્રણ રાણીઓ, આ કલમો ઓફ partaking પછી જોવામાં.

આ Vanaras જન્મ

ભગવાન બ્રહ્મા આદેશ એ દેવો માટે પૃથ્વી પર જાઓ શકાય Vanaras તરીકે જન્મ છે. તદનુસાર, બ્રહ્મા Sugriva ની આદેશ દ્વારા સન ઓફ જન્મ થયો હતો, ઈન્દિરા અને પવન દેવ વાયુ ઓફ હનુમાન ઓફ વળી. તેઓ રામ મદદ હતા

રામ જન્મ

છ ભૂતકાળમાં અને વધતો ચંદ્ર રમા જે નવમી દિવસે અને ૠતુઓ 12 મહિના Kausalya માટે થયો હતો. Kaikayi Bharatha અને Sumitra જન્મ ટ્વીન છોકરાઓ લક્ષ્મણ અને satrughna આપ્યો. તેમની જન્મ અયોધ્યા ની નાગરિકો દ્વારા મહાન ઠાઠમાઠ અને ઉલ્લાસ સાથે ઉજવણી કરવામાં આવી હતી.

Vishwamitra આવે

Dasaratha તેમના લગ્ન વિશે વિચારવાનો શરૂ કર્યું તરીકે છોકરાઓ યુવાનો માં અપ થયો હતો. પછી રાજા ઋષિ Vishwamitra આવ્યા હતા અને ‘જણાવ્યું હતું કે ઓહ, મહાન રાજા, હું એક બલિદાન રહ્યા છું અને બે રાક્ષસો તેને ખલેલ પહોંચાડી રહ્યાં છે. તેથી રામ મોકલવા માટે યજ્ઞ સાઇટ રક્ષા કરે છે. હું તેને સંભાળ અને તે Ikshvaku વંશ પ્રકાશ બની રહેશે રહેશે.

માતાનો Dasaratha ડાઇલેમા

Dasaratha જવાબ આપ્યો, “ઓહ મહાન ઋષિ, મારો પુત્ર ભાગ્યે જ આવે છે વય સોળ વર્ષના તેમણે Rakshasas ના નીતિભ્રષ્ટ જાદુ કેવી રીતે સામનો કરી શકે છે.? હું તો તમે તેની જગ્યાએ મદદ આવશે. પરંતુ બે તમારા Yaga ખલેલ પહોંચાડવા Rakshasas કોણ છે”. જ્યારે Vishwamitra તેમને જણાવ્યું હતું કે તેઓ Mareecha અને Subahu હતા અને તેઓ ઋષિ માતાનો Pulastya વંશ રાજા રાવણ દ્વારા મોકલવામાં આવ્યા હતા.

Dasaratha દિગ્મૂઢ હતી અને જણાવ્યું હતું કે “ઓ ઋષિ પણ હું રાવણ નથી સામનો કરી શકે છે, આ યુવાન છોકરા તેને કેવી રીતે લડાઈ કરી શકો છો? ‘

Vishwamitra જવાબ સુનાવણી ક્રોધાયમાન હતો.

માતાનો Vasistha સલાહ

સેજ Vasistha દરમિયાનગીરી: “ઓ, મહાન રાજા આ Vishwamitra પોતે દ્વારા તમામ દાનવો કાનુની કતલ માટે સક્ષમ છે કે તેણે માત્ર મદદ કરવા માટે તમારો પુત્ર મહાન કાર્યો નથી ઇચ્છે છે, તેથી તેમની સાથે રામ મોકલી અને તમારા વચન રાખો…”

શીખવી સ્પેલ

Dasaratha માતાનો Vishwamitra સંભાળ રામ અને લક્ષ્મણ મૂકે છે. તેમણે રામ તેઓ Sarayu નદી તરફ આવતી અને તે સ્નાન કર્યા પછી, રમા Vishwamitra દ્વારા બે મંત્રોની ‘બાલા અને Atibala’ શીખવવામાં આવ્યું હતું, “આ સમય ભૂખ અને થાક તમે દૂર રાખવા પડશે” કહ્યું હતું.

તેઓ નદીના દક્ષિણ બેન્ક પર રાત્રે શકાતું હતું.

Manmadha ઓફ કાનુની કતલ

પરોઢ સમયે તેઓ ઘાસ બનાવવામાં પથારી પર woke. સવારે ablutions પછી, તેઓ તેમના પ્રવાસ શરૂ કરે છે અને Sthanvashrama જ્યાં ભગવાન શિવે તપશ્ચર્યાને કરવામાં અને Manmatha રાખ માં ચાલુ હતી બુદ્ધિનું.

તેઓ રાત્રે ત્યાં શકાતું હતું. Tataka ઓફ સ્ટોરી

તેઓ ગંગા ઓળંગી અને વન દાખલ થયો હતો. Viswamitra તેમને કહ્યું હતું કે કેવી રીતે સ્થળ એકવાર વિકાસ થયો હતો અને પાછળથી એક રાક્ષસ-Tataka કારણે ઉજ્જડ.
તેમણે રામ “તેણીએ Yakshini છે તે કોઇ આકાર તેમણે ઇચ્છાઓ અને હજાર હાથી ની તાકાત છે લઈ શકે છે.. તેમણે સુનંદા લગ્ન અને રાક્ષસ Mareecha જન્મ આપ્યો હતો. તેના Slay અને આ સ્થળ સુરક્ષિત બનાવવા” કહ્યું હતું.

માતાનો રમા શંકા

રમા પૂછવામાં “તેઓ કહે છે Yakshas weaklings છે અને આ Tataka એક સ્ત્રી છે તે હજાર હાથી ની તાકાત કેવી રીતે કર્યું પછી મેળવો.?”
તેણીએ Yaksha નામ સુકેતુ માટે થયો હતો અને બ્રહ્મા પાસેથી વરદાન મારફતે તેના તાકાત મેળવવામાં આવે છે. સુનંદા મૃત્યુ થયું હતું અને Tataka અને Mareecha ઋષિ Agasthya દ્વારા શાપ નીચેના દાનવો બન્યા.

“તેના ગાય અને બ્રાહ્મણોને સલામતી માટે Slay તમે એકલા તેના મારી શકે છે.. લોકો તમને તેના મારવા છતાં પણ તે સ્ત્રી છે અચકાવું કરવાની જરૂર નથી રક્ષણ માટે” તે આદેશ.

Tataka મૃત્યુ

, રામ “તેથી મને રહેશે જણાવ્યું હતું કે” અને પણછ ખેંચાય. તેની સમગ્ર જંગલ અને Tataki માં reverberated સાઉન્ડ તે તરફ દોડી આવ્યા હતા. તેમની ચળવળ આંધી ઉછેર અને અંધકાર ઉતરી. ત્યાં તેના પરથી પત્થરો એક કરા હતી અને રમા તેના તીર સાથે આડશ બનાવી.
જેમ સૂર્ય સુયોજિત હતી ઋષિ રામ કહ્યું “જ્યારે રાત્રે જાય તેના મજબૂતાઇ મેનીફોલ્ડ વૃદ્ધિ કરશે તેથી. તેના હવે slay”. રામ એક તીર કે તેના હૃદય વીંધેલા dispatched અને તે એક વિશાળ વૃક્ષ જેવી મૃત હતો.

નવી શસ્ત્ર

તેઓ વન કે રાત્રે હતા. સવારે ફૂટ Viswamitra રમા શકિતશાળી બ્રહ્મા, નારાયણ અને અન્ય Astras ઉપયોગ શીખવવામાં આવે છે. ઉપરાંત તેમના રવાનગી રમા પણ તેમના ખસી શીખવવામાં આવી હતી.

Siddhasrama તરફ

તેઓ તેમના પ્રવાસ ચાલુ છે અને ડુંગરાળ ભૂપ્રદેશ પહોંચી અને Siddhasrama તરીકે ઓળખાય છે સંન્યાસાશ્રમ બુદ્ધિનું.

આ સંન્યાસાશ્રમ ની સ્ટોરી

“આ એક વાર જ્યાં ભગવાન વિષ્ણુ તપશ્ચર્યાને હતી અને બાદમાં તેમણે અહીં જીવતા હતા હવે હું અહીં છે.. આ એ જગ્યા છે જ્યાં તમે દાનવો slay છે”, Viswamitra રમા જણાવ્યું હતું.

તેઓ જ્યારે શકાતું અને ઋષિ તેની વિધિ શરૂ કર્યુ. રમા અને લક્ષ્મણ જાગવું સમગ્ર દાનવો માટે રાહ જોઈ રહ્યું રાત્રે હતા.

એકાંતવાસ હુમલો
આમ પાંચ દિવસ અને રાત્રિ ખર્ચવામાં આવ્યા હતા. છઠ્ઠા દિવસે સવારે તરીકે બલિદાન પ્રગતિ કરવામાં આવી હતી ત્યાં તો આકાશ ફેલાય હતી ઉપર મહાવિસ્ફોટ હતી. આ સંન્યાસાશ્રમ આગ દ્વારા ઘેરી લીધો હતો. Mareecha અને Subahu શ્યામ વાદળો સાથે આકાશમાં આવરી લે છે.
બ્લડ યજ્ઞ સાઇટ પર rained. આ Mareecha ખાતે કરવાનો શસ્ત્ર તેમને સમુદ્ર એક સો yojanas મોકલવામાં પરંતુ Subahu હત્યા કરવામાં આવી હતી. આ બલિદાન ઇન્ટ્રપ્શન વગર નિષ્કર્ષ. Mithila માટે જર્ની

આગળના દિવસે સંન્યાસાશ્રમ કેટલાક કેદીઓ સૂચવ્યું કે રામ અને લક્ષ્મણ તેમને Mithila શહેર છે જ્યાં રાજા Janak એક બલિદાન રહ્યા હતા ભેગી. “એક અદ્ભુત ત્યાં ભગવાન શિવ દ્વારા માતાનો Mithila એક બલિદાન પછી શાસક Devarata માટે પ્રતિભાશાળી નમન છે. કોઈ એક શબ્દમાળા માટે સક્ષમ કરવામાં આવી છે નમન કરું છું. કે તમે તેને ત્યાં જોઈ શકે છે.”
તેથી Viswamitra દ્વારા સાથે તેઓ Mithila માટે છોડી દીધી હતી.

100 Dauhters

Viswamitra રમા Mithila ઇતિહાસ કહ્યું આમ: “માતાનો બ્રહ્મા વિચાર – બાળક Kusa Brahmaloka માંથી પૃથ્વી પર જમીન અને Vidabha માતાનો રાજાની પુત્રી લગ્ન તેઓ ચાર Kusambu, Kusanabha, Adhurtharajas અને વાસુ પુત્રો હતા વાસુ Girivrajapura શહેરમાં આંતરિક નદી માંથી વહેતા… આશરે પાંચ પર્વતો સોના છે તે પણ મગધ તરીકે ઓળખાય છે..
Kusanabha ઉત્કૃષ્ટ સુંદરતા સો પુત્રીઓ હતી. જ્યારે તેઓ બગીચો માં ચાલતા હતા એક દિવસ પવન વાયુ ઓફ ગોડ તેમને માટે lusted અને તેમને વિનંતી કરી તેમને લગ્ન. તેઓ તેમના કેફિયત નકારી અને ભગવાન વાયુ તેમને શાપિત માટે બિહામણું બને છે અને dwarfs

ઉઠાવી કર્સ

Kusanabha Kampilya ના શહેર શાસક સમજાવ્યા તેમને લગ્ન. તેમના સંપર્કમાં સુધીમાં તેઓ તેમના ugliness ગુમાવી.

એક પુત્ર માટે Yearning

જ્યારે તેમના તમામ સો દીકરીઓ તેમના પતિના સાથે છોડી, Kusanabha લોનલી અનુભવાય છે અને એક પુત્ર માટે yearned. તેથી, તે Putrakameshthi કરવામાં અને એક પુત્ર મેળવવામાં આવે છે. તેમણે કિંગ Gadhi હતી. “હું Gadhi પુત્ર છું અને આમ તરીકે Gadheya Viswamitra અને જણાવ્યું હતું પણ Kausika માટે હું Kusa ના કુટુંબ માં જન્મ થયો હતો જાણીતા હતા.”
મારા મોટા બહેન Satyavathi swarga શારીરિક Viswamitra તેમની વાર્તા ચાલુ “પ્રાપ્ત અને હિમાલય માં નદી Kausiki તરીકે પૃથ્વી પર પાછા ફર્યા.

ગંગા ના વંશજ
રમા Viswamitra વિનંતી કરી તેને ગંગા મૂળ કહેવું કે “જેમ્સ અને સાત ખનિજો રીપોઝીટરી કિંગ Himavanta છે.. તેમણે મનોરમા પરણ્યા હતા. તેઓ બે સુંદર દીકરીઓ ગંગા અને ઉમા હતી છે. Devas ની અરજી પર, Himavanta Devaloka માટે ગંગા હતા. Viswamitra જણાવ્યું હતું કે, ઉમા લાંબા તપશ્ચર્યાને કરવામાં અને મહેશ્વર લગ્ન તેમણે Rudrani બની ગયું છે. “.

માતાનો શિવ બીજ

Viswamitra પછી રમા માટે પાર્વતી વાર્તા વર્ણન: “કરવા માટે એક પુત્ર શિવ અને પાર્વતી દાંપત્ય આનંદ આકર્ષણ જ્યારે શિવ ના બીજ પૃથ્વી પર પડી ઉપજાવવું તે તરત આગ બાષ્પીભવન થાય છે અને સફેદ હિલ બની પાર્વતી લેવા માટે પૃથ્વી અને Devas શાપિત.. બીજ અને તે વ્યય.
સમય કોર્સ માં પહાડી એક ગાઢ જંગલ માં થયો હતો. ત્યાં bulrushes માં Kartikeya જન્મ થયો હતો.

છ સામનો ભગવાન

આગ ભગવાન, અગ્નિ ગંગા માં માતાનો શિવ બીજ ટ્રાન્સફર અને તે ગર્ભવતી બની હતી. તે બીજ ની ગરમી ન રીંછ અને તે હિમાલય ના પગ પર દાબી દેવામાં શકે છે. આ પ્રતિ સાત ખનીજ પેદા કરવામાં આવ્યા હતા. ત્યાંથી છ ફલક અને ઉત્કૃષ્ટ સુંદરતા સાથે એક બાળક ઉભરી આવ્યા હતા.
તેમણે છ Kruttikas દ્વારા લાવવામાં આવી હતી. તેથી, તેમણે Kartikeya તરીકે ઓળખાય છે. પણ તેમણે Shanmuka તરીકે ઓળખાય છે માટે તેમણે છ હેડ છે. ભગવાન અગ્નિ તેમને એ devas ની સેના કમાન્ડર – ઇન – ચીફ હતી.

સમ્રાટ માતાનો સાગર પુત્રો

Vishwamitra જણાવ્યું હતું કે “એકવાર કિંગ સાગર અયોધ્યા શાસન તેમણે બે પત્નીઓ, Kesini અને Smati હતી.. પરંતુ તેઓ કોઈ બાળકો હતા. કિંગ સાગર બે પુત્રો માટે ઋષિ Bhrigu પ્રાર્થના. Bhrigu તેમને જણાવ્યું હતું કે તેમના સૌથી મોટા પત્ની એક પુત્ર અને બીજા 60,000 પુત્રો છે.

પૃથ્વી ખોદવું

સાગર એ Aswamedha બલિદાન કર્યું. તેમણે યજ્ઞ ઘોડા સાથે તેમના ભવ્ય-પુત્ર Ansumanta dispatched અને છોકરો પાછો સાથે unhampered.

જ્યારે બલિદાન પ્રગતિ ઈન્દિરા હતી પવિત્ર ઘોડો ચોરી કરે છે. માતાનો સાગર 60,000 પુત્રો તે શોધ ગયા પૃથ્વી ખોદવું એ નીચેનું વિશ્વમાં ડાઉન

માતાનો Kapila ક્રોધ

જ્યારે તેઓ દિશા ઉત્તર પૂર્વીય તેઓ ઋષિ Kapila સ્વરૂપમાં અને તેના બાજુ દ્વારા યજ્ઞ ઘોડો માં વિષ્ણુ મળી ખોદવું હતી. તેઓ તેમને ઘોડા ચોર માટે mistook અને તેને હુમલો કર્યો. Kapila તેમને રાખ માં આવ્યું છે.

નીચે ગંગા લાવવા બિડ

તેના 60,000 પુત્રો સાગર ટ્રેસ કરવામાં અક્ષમ Ansumanta મોકલવામાં તેમને શોધો. Ansumanta તેમની રાખ મળી અને ઓફર તેમને શ્રદ્ધાંજલિ તેમણે પાણી માટે શોધી જ્યારે Garuda દેખાયા અને તેને કહ્યું હતું કે જો ગંગા પર તેમની રાખ કીર્તી તેમના કાકાઓ મોક્ષ પ્રાપ્તિ થશે.

Ansumanta પાછા બલિદાન ઘોડો લીધો હતો અને તેના દાદા વાર્તા વર્ણન. દરમિયાન, સાગર માટે પૃથ્વી ગંગા લાવવા સક્ષમ રહી વિના નિષ્ફળ.

માતાનો Bhagiratha પ્રયાસ

માતાનો સાગર મૃત્યુ પછી, Ansumanta તેને અયોધ્યા રાજા તરીકે સફળ. તેમણે પોતાના પુત્ર Dilipa અને Dilipa દ્વારા સફળ હતી તેના પુત્ર Bhagiratha અનુસરતા હતી. Bhagiratha પુત્ર માટે લાંબા તપશ્ચર્યાને પર ગયા અને પૃથ્વી ગંગા લાવે છે.

બ્રહ્મા દેખાયા અને તેને કહ્યું હતું કે “Bhagiratha, તો તમે તમારા પુત્ર કરી શકાય છે પરંતુ ગંગા પૃથ્વી પર ઉતરતા જ ભગવાન શિવ સ્વર્ગ તેમના પતન બળ સમાવી શકે છે.. તેથી તેને માટે પ્રાર્થના”.

ગંગા વંશના

શિવ Bhagiratha ભૌતિક માટે ગંગા સમાવે છે. તેમણે પાક ગંગા બોર અને તે ત્યાં hid. શોધવામાં તેના ક્યાંય Bhagiratha નથી ફરીથી તપશ્ચર્યાને ગયો શિવ કરો. શિવ એ બિંદુ સરોવર માં ગંગા પ્રકાશિત થયેલ છે. ત્યાંથી ગંગા સાત શકિતશાળી સ્ટ્રીમ્સ તરીકે આવી હતી. એક તેમને ના Bhagiratha રથ છે.

આ ઈંગ્લેન્ડ ભીંજવી નાખનારું

તેમણે તેના પૂર્વજો રાખ મારફતે તેમાં લઈ જાય છે અને તેઓ આમ છેલ્લા અંતે મોક્ષ પ્રાપ્ત કરી હતી.

Jhanu Gulps ગંગા

પછી Bhagiratha ઋષિ Jhanu ના એકાંતવાસ તરફ તેમના રથ ચાલુ છે અને ત્યાં અટકી. પરંતુ તેને નીચેના શકિતશાળી ગંગા ત્યાં અચાનક બંધ અને સંન્યાસાશ્રમ દૂર ધોવાઇ શકે છે. સેજ Jhanu ક્રોધાયમાન ચાલુ છે અને એક મોટો કોળિયો તેમના મોં માં સમગ્ર ગંગા લીધો હતો. Bhagiratha તેમની સાથે pleaded માટે તેના વિશ્વની સુરક્ષા માટે પ્રકાશન અને Jhanu તેના કાન સાથે જેથી હતી.

તેમણે ફરીથી દરિયાઈ અને નીચેનું વિશ્વમાં પછી પ્રવેશ Bhagiratha છે.

આકાશ ગંગાની મહાસાગર વલોણાનું

આ Krita વય માં Diti પુત્રો શકિતશાળી હતી અને અદિતિ પુત્રો પ્રામાણિક હતા. જ્યારે દૂધ સમુદ્રમાં churned હતી અમૃતા પેદા કરવામાં આવી હતી.
ત્યાં તે Devas અને Danavas વચ્ચે શેરિંગ પર લડાઈ હતી. ભગવાન વિષ્ણુ મોહિની ના લાક્ષણિક મુદ્રા માં ચાલુ છે અને તે Devas વચ્ચે વહેંચાયેલી છે. એક ભીષણ તે Devas અને Daityas જે પાછળથી તેમનાં હતા વચ્ચે નીચેના યુદ્ધ હતું.

ઈન્દ્ર અપ ગર્ભ નહીં

Diti તેની તમામ પુત્રો મૃત્યુ પર દુખ વ્યક્ત કર્યું તે Kasyapa વિનંતી કરી તેમને એક પુત્ર જે નમ્ર ઈન્દિરા શકે રાખી મૂકવું. Kasyapa તેના તપશ્ચર્યાને અવલોકન કરવા માટે સખત કહ્યું.
એક મધ્યાહન Diti તેના માથા સાથે બંધ dizzed અને પગ ખોટી બાજુ ચાલુ અને વાળ untied. ઈન્દિરા તેના ગર્ભાશયની દાખલ અને સાત ટુકડાઓ માં ગર્ભ નહીં.

ઈન્દિરા બહાર આવ્યા હતા અને તેના સાથે pleaded તેને ક્ષમા. ‘તમારા ગર્ભાશયની માં બાળ મારા દુશ્મન છે. તે પોતાના દુશ્મન મારી રાજા માટે યોગ્ય નથી? ‘તે પૂછવામાં અને તેમના માફી માંગી.

Maruts જન્મ

Diti એ ગર્ભ ના અંગછેદન પર દુખ વ્યક્ત કર્યું. ‘સાત વિશ્વોની માં પવન ની ફાટેલી ગર્ભ ઉમરાવો આ સાત સેગમેન્ટો બનાવો. દો અને તેમને Maruts ‘તરીકે ઓળખાય છે હોઇ શકે છે, તેમણે ઈન્દિરા વિનંતી કરી હતી. ઈન્દિરા પોતાની consoled અને આ માટે સહમત થયા.

આ સ્થળ જ્યાં Diti તપશ્ચર્યાને અવલોકન Visalapattana જ્યાં રામ લક્ષ્મણ, અને Vishwamitra એ Ikshvaku કિંગ સુમતિ દ્વારા પૂરી પાડવામાં આવેલ હોસ્પિટાલિટી સ્વીકારવામાં બન્યા.

માતાનો ઈન્દિરા ઘમંડ

આગલી સવારે તેઓ Mithala તરફ તેમના પ્રવાસ શરૂ કર્યો. માર્ગ પર, તેઓ ઋષિ ની ઉજ્જડ સંન્યાસાશ્રમ સમગ્ર ગૌતમ આવ્યા હતા. Vishwamitra Ahalya ‘ની વાર્તા જ્યારે ગૌતમ, ablutions ઈન્દિરા વેશપલટો તેમના ઘર દાખલ કરવા માટે સેટ આઉટ અને Ahalya સાથે mated વર્ણન. તેના પાછી ગૌતમ આઉટ સત્ય મળી અને તેના સ્વાદો ગુમાવી શાપિત. ઈન્દિરા આમ અસહાય બની હતી. પણ તેમણે Ahalya શાપિત રહેવા માટે સ્ટેટિક ધૂળ, ખોરાક અને પાણી વગર અને તે તમારા પગ ના સંપર્કમાં સાથે તેના દુર્દશા ઓફ redeemed આવશે કે માંદગીથી”તેથી કહીને ગૌતમ હિમાલય માટે છોડી દીધી હતી.

Ahalya Redeemed

આ માનસમાં એક બકરી ના સ્વાદો સાથે ઈન્દિરા ફીટ. Ahalya રામ ના આગમન માટે waited. માતાનો રામ પગ પરથી ધૂળ સાથે Ahalya તેના દુર્દશા ઓફ redeemed હતી અને ગૌતમ તેના સંન્યાસાશ્રમ પાછા ફર્યા.

રમા Mithila માં આવે

આ સંન્યાસાશ્રમ, અને રામ અને લક્ષ્મણ ની કેદીઓ દ્વારા વડપણ, Viswamitra Mithila દાખલ થયો હતો. સેજ કિંગ Janaka આગળ આવી તેમને નમસ્કાર. Viswamitra Janaka માટે રામ અને લક્ષ્મણ રજૂ કરી હતી.

માતાનો Viswamitra સ્ટોરી

સેજ ગૌતમ પુત્ર Satananda રામ, Viswamitra વાર્તા માટે વર્ણન છે. ‘Viswamitra એક શકિતશાળી રાજા હતો. એકવાર વિવિધ hermitages મુલાકાત પછી Viswamitra ઋષિ Vasistha ‘ની તેમણે કહ્યું હતું કે આવી હતી.

વન્ડર ગાય Sabala

“Vasistha રાજા Viswamitra વિનંતી કરી પોતાના લશ્કર સાથે તેમના હોસ્પિટાલિટી સ્વીકારે છે. ‘Satananda રમા કહ્યું.’ Vasistha એક ગાય ‘Sabala’ છે, જે લોકો કોઈપણ સંખ્યાની ફીડ શકે હતી. ‘

માતાનો Viswamitra લોભ

‘રાખવાથી તે સ્વાદિષ્ટ ખોરાક partaken, Viswamitra અને તેના મંડળ ગાય ના wonderous કાર્યો પર આશ્ચર્ય હતા. Satananda ચાલુ રાખ્યું. ‘કિંગ Viswamitra Sabala વિનિમય માં એક લાખ ગાય ઓફર પરંતુ Vasistha ઇનકાર કર્યો હતો.

માતાનો Sabala કેફિયત

ત્યાં પર Viswamitra તેમના માણસો દૂર લેવા માટે દબાણ દ્વારા જાદુ ગાય કરવાનો આદેશ આપ્યો, Satananda જણાવ્યું હતું. ‘ધ ગાય Vasistha અપીલ કરવા માટે તેના રાજા અને તેના માણસો પ્રતિકાર કરવા માટે પરવાનગી આપે.

માતાનો કિંગ મેન હત્યા કરાયેલા

Satananda જણાવ્યું હતું કે, ‘ઋષિ સહમતિ અને ગાય તેના અંગો અને માર્યા માતાનો Vishwamitra પુરૂ