The Interesting Antiquarian
Dairy Book Collections
(Kisah Menarik tempo Dulu)
Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA
Untuk mengenal dunia masa yang lalu sebagai informasi awal menempuh masa mendatang, anda perlu mengetahui kisah tentang situasi dunia yang lalu.
Untuk itu saya telah mengumpulkan berbagai kisah yang menarik berdasarkan catatan harian dari Euro,Africa,Timur Tengah,Asia,Australia,Latin amerika. Kisah ini dibagi dalm beberapa kategori yaitu
3.Kisah Dari Tiap benua
4.Kisah dari Abad ke-limabelas sampai delapan belas.
Kisah ini akan menjadi bahan baca yang menarik saat anda sedang menempul perjalanan yang jauh,atau saat tidak ada pekerjaan,saat lagi istirahat dipinggir pantai atau di pegunungan yang indah,meneman anda sebelum tidur dan sebagainya.
Semoga anda merasa senang membaca buku elektronik ini, simpan dengan mengkopi di I-Pod atau Book-pad anda sebagai penganti main games.
Jakarta februari 2012
Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA
To know the world of the past as the future taking the initial information, you need to know the story of the last world situations.
For that I have collected many interesting stories based on the diaries of the Euro, Africa, Middle East, Asia, Australia, Latin America. The story is divided into several categories namely preformance
3. From Each continent
4. the fifteenth to eighteen.century
This story will be interesting reading material while you’re on the long journey, or when there is no work, while again break off the coast or in the mountains are beautiful, will be your friend before bed and so on.
Hope you feel glad to read this electronic book, save it by copying the I-Pod or a Book-pad you as a substitute for playing games.
Jakarta February 2012
Dr. Iwan suwandy, MHA
Perlombaan ke Kutub Selatan
Seratus tahun yang lalu hari ini, Roald Amundsen Norwegia dan empat orang lain dalam timnya adalah penjelajah pertama yang mencapai Kutub Selatan. Sebuah partai Inggris yang dipimpin oleh Robert Falcon Scott, yang telah melakukan upaya, sebelumnya, namun tidak berhasil mencapai Kutub, tidak jauh di belakang, dan tiba sebulan kemudian. Namun, sedangkan pihak Norwegia kembali ke rumah, pihak Scott semua meninggal karena kedinginan dan kelaparan. Buku harian Scott dari ekspedisi terakhir adalah pertama kali diterbitkan pada tahun 1913, namun buku harian Amundsen baru saja baru ini telah diterbitkan dalam bahasa Inggris untuk pertama kalinya.
Amundsen lahir pada tahun 1872 dari sebuah keluarga pemilik kapal Norwegia dan kapten di Borge, 80km atau lebih selatan Oslo. Awalnya, ia memilih untuk belajar kedokteran atas desakan ibunya, meskipun menyerah pada usia 21 saat dia meninggal. Setelah lama terinspirasi oleh Norwegia Fridtjof besar explorer Nansen (lihat kayu apung Siberia tidak bisa berbohong), dia menjual buku-buku medis dan mengambil pekerjaan sebagai pelaut biasa. Dengan 1895, ia telah mendapatkan surat sebagai pasangan, dan oleh 1900 lisensi master-nya. Pengalaman pertama daerah kutub datang akhir 1890-an pada sebuah ekspedisi Belgia dengan Adrien de Gerlache.
Pada tahun 1903, Amundsen memimpin ekspedisi pertama yang berhasil melintasi Bacaan barat laut Kanada antara Samudra Atlantik dan Pasifik, meskipun tim harus selama-musim dingin tiga kali sebelum kembali ke rumah pada tahun 1906. Secara signifikan, selama waktu ini, Amundsen belajar berbagai keterampilan dari orang Eskimo asli, seperti penggunaan kereta luncur anjing dan memakai kulit binatang.
Amundsen direncanakan di samping pergi ke Kutub Utara, namun pada sidang tahun 1909 yang lain sudah mengklaim bahwa hadiah, ia diam-diam memutuskan untuk menata kembali ekspedisi yang akan datang itu – untuk Antartica. Mempekerjakan Fram tersebut, kapal yang sama digunakan oleh Fridtjof Nansen, Amundsen dan timnya tiba di Teluk Paus pada Januari 1911, dan membuat base camp. Lima dari mereka berangkat pada 20 Oktober ski menggunakan, empat kereta luncur, 52 anjing, dan kulit binatang mempekerjakan, bukan wol berat, untuk pakaian. Kurang dari dua bulan kemudian, mereka adalah yang pertama mencapai Kutub Selatan Geografis. Scott, sementara itu, dengan empat rekan mencapai Kutub lima minggu kemudian, dan kecewa telah kehilangan perlombaan. Semua lima dari mereka meninggal dalam perjalanan pulang. Jadi tragis nasib mereka, memang, bahwa cerita mereka telah menjadi jauh lebih terkenal itu Amundsen
Setelah usaha di Antartika, Amundsen mengembangkan bisnis pengiriman sukses, dan berangkat pada usaha lainnya menggunakan kapal baru, Maud. Sebuah ekspedisi, mulai tahun 1918, di mana ia direncanakan untuk membekukan Maud di tutup es di kutub dan pergeseran menuju Kutub Utara (seperti Nansen telah dilakukan dengan Fram) terbukti bermasalah, mahal dan akhirnya gagal.
Selanjutnya, Amundsen berfokus pada perjalanan udara untuk mencapai Kutub. Setelah usaha yang menjanjikan dengan menggunakan kapal terbang, dia, dan 15 orang lainnya (termasuk penerbangan Umberto Nobile insinyur Italia), berhasil terbang pesawat yang dari Spitsbergen ke Alaska dalam dua hari, melintasi Kutub, pada Mei 1926. Namun, tahun-tahun terakhir kehidupan Amundsen yang sakit hati oleh sengketa atas kredit untuk penerbangan. Dia meninggal pada tahun 1928 sementara pada sebuah misi untuk menyelamatkan Nobile yang telah jatuh sebuah pesawat kembali dari Kutub Utara.
Wikipedia dan situs web Museum Fram memiliki informasi lebih biografis. Dan The International Journal of Sejarah ilmiah telah briefing pada klaim bahwa Amundsen dan rekannya Wisting Oscar tidak hanya pertama ke Kutub Selatan, tetapi juga ke Kutub Utara.
Buku harian Scott dari naas ekspedisi diterbitkan (oleh Smith, Penatua & Co) sedini tahun 1913, dalam volume pertama Ekspedisi terakhir Scott. Ini tersedia secara bebas di Internet Archive. Namun, tidak sampai tahun lalu (2010) bahwa buku harian Amundsen ekspedisi Kutub Selatan adalah yang diterbitkan dalam bahasa Inggris, berkat Roland Huntford. Menurut Continuum penerbit, Huntford adalah ‘otoritas terkemuka di dunia pada ekspedisi kutub dan protagonis mereka. Bukunya – Race for Kutub Selatan: Ekspedisi Diaries The Scott dan Amundsen – berisi entri buku harian Amundsen bersama orang-orang dari Scott, dan juga Olav Bjaaland, salah satu rekan Amundsen.
“Pemotongan melalui hiruk-pikuk kontroversi peristiwa di jantung cerita, ‘Continuum berkata,’ Huntford menjalin narasi dari protagonis ‘rekening nasib mereka sendiri. Apa yang muncul adalah pemahaman baru tentang apa yang sebenarnya terjadi pada es dan account definitif Race ke Kutub Selatan. “
Berikut adalah masukan dari kedua Amundsen dan Scott buku harian tentang kedatangan mereka di Kutub Selatan. Satu per Amundsen diambil dari buku Huntford, sementara Scott entri diambil dari publikasi 1913. Perlu dicatat, meskipun, bahwa situs web British Library telah tersedia, sejak tahun lalu, foto-foto asli buku harian Scott 1911 Antartika.
Karena kesalahan, kalender Amundsen tidak dimasukkan kembali ketika Fram yang melintasi International Date Line, dan ketika kesalahan ditemukan Amundsen memutuskan akan terlalu sulit untuk merevisi semua buku harian dan entri log, sehingga ia terus tanggal kalender yang salah akan – maka ia benar-benar tiba di Kutub pada tanggal 14, meskipun buku hariannya tanggal itu tanggal 15. Håkon VII Raja Norwegia pada saat itu.
14 Desember 1911, Roald Amundsen
“Kamis 15 Decbr.
Jadi kami tiba, dan mampu menaikkan bendera kami di Kutub Selatan geografis – Vidda Raja Håkon VII. Syukur kepada Allah! Waktu itu 03:00 ketika hal ini terjadi. Cuaca adalah dari jenis terbaik ketika kami berangkat pagi ini, tetapi pada 10:00, itu mendung dan menyembunyikan matahari. Segar angin dari SE. Ski ini telah sebagian baik, sebagian buruk. Dataran – Raja H VII Vidda – memiliki tampilan yang sama – cukup falt dan tanpa apa yang disebut sastrugi. Matahari muncul kembali pada sore hari, dan sekarang kami banyak pergi keluar dan mengambil pengamatan tengah malam. Tentu kita tidak tepat pada titik yang disebut 90 °, tetapi setelah semua pengamatan kami yang sangat baik dan perhitungan mati kita harus sangat dekat. Kami tiba di sini dengan tiga kereta luncur dan 17 anjing. HH menempatkan satu turun hanya setelah kedatangan. ‘Hlege’ itu aus. Besok kami akan keluar dalam tiga arah ke wilayah lingkaran putaran Kutub. Kami telah makan perayaan kita – sepotong kecil daging segel masing-masing. Kami pergi dari sini besok lusa dengan dua kereta luncur. Kereta luncur ketiga akan pergi dari sini. Demikian juga kita akan meninggalkan tenda tiga laki-laki kecil (Ronne) dengan bendera Norwegia dan panji ditandai Fram. ‘
16 Januari 1912, Scott
‘[. . .] Setengah jam kemudian dia mendeteksi sebuah titik hitam di depan. Segera kami tahu bahwa ini tidak bisa menjadi fitur salju alami. Kami berbaris di, menemukan bahwa itu adalah bendera hitam diikat ke pembawa godam, dekat sisa-sisa kamp, kereta luncur ski trek dan trek pergi dan datang dan jejak kaki anjing yang jelas ‘- banyak anjing. Ini mengatakan kepada kami seluruh cerita. Norwegia telah mendahuluinya kami dan pertama di Kutub. Ini adalah kekecewaan yang mengerikan, dan saya sangat menyesal untuk panions com-setia. Banyak pikiran datang dan banyak diskusi yang telah kita miliki. Untuk besok kita harus berbaris ke Kutub dan kemudian mempercepat rumah dengan segenap kecepatan yang bisa kita kompas. Semua impian hari harus pergi, itu akan kembali melelahkan. [. . .] “
17 Januari 1912, Scott
“Camp 69. T. -22 ° pada mulai. Malam – 21 °. KUTUB itu. Ya, tetapi dalam keadaan yang sangat berbeda dari yang diharapkan. Kami memiliki hari yang mengerikan – menambah kekecewaan kami angin kepala 4 sampai 5, dengan suhu -22 °, dan sahabat bekerja di dengan kaki dan tangan dingin.
Kami berangkat pukul 7.30, tidak satupun dari kita memiliki banyak tidur setelah shock penemuan kami. Kami mengikuti trek kereta luncur Norwegia beberapa cara; sejauh yang kita buat di luar sana hanya dua orang. Pada sekitar tiga mil kami melewati dua tugu kecil. Kemudian mendung cuaca, dan trek yang semakin melayang dan jelas akan terlalu jauh ke barat, kami memutuskan untuk membuat langsung Kutub menurut perhitungan kita. Pada 12.30 Evans memiliki tangan dingin seperti kami berkemah untuk makan siang – yang sangat baik Kami telah berbaris 7,4 mil ‘akhir minggu satu.’. Lat. terlihat memberikan 89 ° ‘S3 37 “. Kami mulai keluar dan melakukan 6 1 / 2 mil karena selatan. Untuk malam sedikit Bowers adalah meletakkan dirinya keluar untuk mendapatkan pemandangan yang mengerikan dalam keadaan sulit, angin bertiup kencang, T. -21 °, dan ada yang lembab penasaran, merasa dingin di udara yang menggigil satu untuk tulang dalam waktu singkat . Kami telah turun lagi, saya pikir, tetapi ada terlihat menjadi naik di depan, jika tidak ada sangat sedikit yang berbeda dari monoton mengerikan hari terakhir. Tuhan Mahabesar! ini adalah tempat yang mengerikan dan mengerikan cukup bagi kita untuk memiliki bekerja keras untuk itu tanpa imbalan prioritas. Yah, itu adalah sesuatu yang telah sampai di sini, dan angin dapat menjadi teman kita untuk besok. Kami memiliki hoosh Polar lemak meskipun kami kecewa, dan merasa nyaman di dalam – menambahkan sebuah tongkat kecil cokelat dan rasa aneh dari rokok yang dibawa oleh Wilson. Sekarang untuk home run dan perjuangan putus asa. Saya heran jika kita bisa melakukannya. “
One hundred years ago today, the Norwegian Roald Amundsen and four others in his team were the first explorers to reach the South Pole. A British party led by Robert Falcon Scott, who had made a previous, but unsuccessful, attempt to reach the Pole, was not far behind, and arrived a month later. However, whereas the Norwegian party returned home, Scott’s party all died from cold and hunger. Scott’s diary of his last expedition was first published in 1913, but Amundsen’s diary has only just recently been published in English for the first time.
Amundsen was born in 1872 to a family of Norwegian shipowners and captains in Borge, 80km or so south of Oslo. Initially, he chose to study medicine at the urging of his mother, though gave up at the age of 21 when she died. Having long been inspired by the great Norwegian explorer Fridtjof Nansen (see Siberian driftwood cannot lie), he sold his medical books and took work as ordinary seaman. By 1895, he had obtained his papers as mate, and by 1900 his master’s license. His first experience of the polar regions came in the late 1890s on a Belgian expedition with Adrien de Gerlache.
In 1903, Amundsen led the first expedition to successfully traverse Canada’s Northwest Passage between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, though the team had to over-winter three times before returning home in 1906. Significantly, during this time, Amundsen learned various skills from the native Eskimos, such as the use of sledge dogs and the wearing of animal skins.
Amundsen planned next to go to the North Pole, but on hearing in 1909 that others had already claimed that prize, he secretly decided to reorganise his forthcoming expedition – to Antartica. Employing the Fram, the same vessel used by Fridtjof Nansen, Amundsen and his team arrived at the Bay of Whales in January 1911, and made a base camp. Five of them set off on 20 October using skis, four sledges, 52 dogs, and employing animal skins, rather than heavy wool, for clothing. Less than two months later, they were the first to reach the Geographic South Pole. Scott, meanwhile, with four colleagues reached the Pole five weeks later, and were bitterly disappointed to have lost the race. All five of them died on the return journey. So tragic was their fate, indeed, that their story has become far more famous that Amundsen’s
After his venture in Antartica, Amundsen developed a successful shipping business, and set out on more ventures using a new vessel, Maud. An expedition, starting in 1918, during which he planed to freeze the Maud in the polar ice cap and drift towards the North Pole (as Nansen had done with the Fram) proved troublesome, costly and ultimately unsuccessful.
Subsequently, Amundsen focused on air travel to reach the Pole. After a promising effort using flying boats, he, and 15 others (including the Italian aeronautical engineer Umberto Nobile), succeeded in flying an airship from Spitsbergen to Alaska in two days, crossing the Pole, in May 1926. However, the last years of Amundsen’s life were embittered by disputes over credit for the flight. He died in 1928 while on a mission to rescue Nobile who had crashed an airship returning from the North Pole.
Wikipedia and the Fram Museum website have more biographical information. And The International Journal of Scientific History has a briefing on the claim that Amundsen and his colleague Oscar Wisting were not only first to the South Pole, but also to the North Pole.
Scott’s diary of his ill-fated expedition was published (by Smith, Elder & Co) as early as 1913, in the first volume of Scott’s Last Expedition. This is freely available at Internet Archive. However, it was not until last year (2010) that Amundsen’s diary of his South Pole expedition was published in English, thanks to Roland Huntford. According to the publisher Continuum, Huntford is ‘the world’s foremost authority on the polar expeditions and their protagonists’. His book – Race for the South Pole: The Expedition Diaries of Scott and Amundsen – contains Amundsen’s diary entries alongside those of Scott, and also Olav Bjaaland, one of Amundsen’s colleagues.
‘Cutting through the welter of controversy to the events at the heart of the story,’ Continuum says, ‘Huntford weaves the narrative from the protagonists’ accounts of their own fate. What emerges is a whole new understanding of what really happened on the ice and the definitive account of the Race for the South Pole.’
Here are entries from both Amundsen’s and Scott’s diaries concerning their arrivals at the South Pole. The one by Amundsen is taken from Huntford’s book, while the Scott entries are taken from the 1913 publication. It is worth noting, though, that the British Library website has made available, since last year, photographs of Scott’s original 1911 Antarctic diary.
By mistake, Amundsen’s calender was not put back when the Fram crossed the International Date Line, and when the mistake was discovered Amundsen decided it would be too difficult to revise all the diary and log entries, and so he kept the wrong calendar dates going – hence he actually arrived at the Pole on the 14th, even though his diary dates it the 15th. Håkon VII was King of Norway at the time.
14 December 1911, Roald Amundsen
‘Thursday 15 Decbr.
So we arrived, and were able to raise our flag at the geographical South Pole – King Håkon VII’s Vidda. Thanks be to God! The time was 3pm when this happened. The weather was of the best kind when we set off this morning, but at 10am, it clouded over and hid the sun. Fresh breeze from the SE. The skiing has been partly good, partly bad. The plain – King H VII’s Vidda – has had the same appearance – quite falt and without what one might call sastrugi. The sun reappeared in the afternoon, and now we much go out and take a midnight observation. Naturally we are not exactly at the point called 90°, but after all our excellent observations and dead reckoning we must be very close. We arrived here with three sledges and 17 dogs. HH put one down just after arrival. ‘Hlege’ was worn out. Tomorrow we will go out in three directions to circle the area round the Pole. We have had our celebratory meal – a little piece of seal meat each. We leave here the day after tomorrow with two sledges. The third sledge will be left here. Likewise we will leave a little three man tent (Rønne) with the Norwegian flag and a pennant marked Fram.’
16 January 1912, Scott
‘[. . .] Half an hour later he detected a black speck ahead. Soon we knew that this could not be a natural snow feature. We marched on, found that it was a black flag tied to a sledge bearer; near by the remains of a camp; sledge tracks and ski tracks going and coming and the clear trace of dogs’ paws – many dogs. This told us the whole story. The Norwegians have forestalled us and are first at the Pole. It is a terrible disappointment, and I am very sorry for my loyal com- panions. Many thoughts come and much discussion have we had. To-morrow we must march on to the Pole and then hasten home with all the speed we can compass. All the day dreams must go; it will be a wearisome return. [. . .]’
17 January 1912, Scott
‘Camp 69. T. -22° at start. Night – 21°. The POLE. Yes, but under very different circumstances from those expected. We have had a horrible day – add to our disappointment a head wind 4 to 5, with a temperature -22°, and companions labouring on with cold feet and hands.
We started at 7.30, none of us having slept much after the shock of our discovery. We followed the Norwegian sledge tracks for some way; as far as we make out there are only two men. In about three miles we passed two small cairns. Then the weather overcast, and the tracks being increasingly drifted up and obviously going too far to the west, we decided to make straight for the Pole according to our calculations. At 12.30 Evans had such cold hands we camped for lunch – an excellent ‘week-end one.’ We had marched 7.4 miles. Lat. sight gave 89° S3’ 37”. We started out and did 6 1/2 miles due south. To-night little Bowers is laying himself out to get sights in terrible difficult circumstances; the wind is blowing hard, T. -21°, and there is that curious damp, cold feeling in the air which chills one to the bone in no time. We have been descending again, I think, but there looks to be a rise ahead; otherwise there is very little that is different from the awful monotony of past days. Great God! this is an awful place and terrible enough for us to have laboured to it without the reward of priority. Well, it is something to have got here, and the wind may be our friend to-morrow. We have had a fat Polar hoosh in spite of our chagrin, and feel comfortable inside – added a small stick of chocolate and the queer taste of a cigarette brought by Wilson. Now for the run home and a desperate struggle. I wonder if we can do it.’
Pearl Harbour buku harian
Hari ini menandai ulang tahun ke-60 dari serangan Jepang di Pearl Harbour yang membawa Amerika Serikat ke Perang Dunia Kedua. Sebuah ekstrak beberapa harian merekam acara tersedia secara online. East Carolina University memiliki salah satu koleksi terbaik dari sumber daya digital pada Pearl Harbour, editor Journal Sungai Skagit telah tersedia masuknya buku harian ayahnya, dan Brandon University telah halaman web menghormati salah satu dari profesor nya, yang adalah seorang mahasiswa di Hawaii pada hari naas itu. Pada tingkat politik, Sekretaris Perang Amerika Serikat pada saat buku harian, dan masukan dari ini telah digunakan untuk mendukung gagasan bahwa pemerintah AS dan Inggris mengetahui serangan sebelumnya, tetapi membiarkan hal itu terjadi sehingga untuk menarik Amerika Serikat dalam perang.
Pangkalan militer Amerika di Pearl Harbour di Hawaii diserang oleh Jepang pada pagi tanggal 7 Desember 1941. Tujuan Jepang adalah untuk menjaga Armada Pasifik AS dari campur dengan tindakan sendiri terhadap wilayah-wilayah luar negeri dari beberapa negara Eropa di Asia Tenggara. Beberapa 353 pejuang Jepang, pembom dan pesawat torpedo, diluncurkan dari enam kapal induk, menyebabkan kerusakan besar: 2.402 orang Amerika tewas dan 1.282 terluka; empat US perang tenggelam, dan empat lainnya rusak (enam dari delapan, bagaimanapun, dibesarkan dan / atau diperbaiki untuk layanan lebih lanjut); kapal lainnya, termasuk kapal penjelajah dan perusak, juga rusak; dan 188 pesawat hancur. Sebaliknya, kerugian Jepang, di personil dan perangkat keras, yang sangat ringan.
Agresi Jepang mengejutkan rakyat Amerika, yang sampai sekarang telah pro dan isolasi terhadap keterlibatan Amerika dalam perang di Eropa, dan itu dipimpin langsung – pada hari berikutnya – untuk sebuah deklarasi AS perang terhadap Jepang. Dukungan klandestin dari Inggris berubah menjadi aliansi yang aktif, dan dalam tiga hari lagi, Jerman dan Italia telah menyatakan perang terhadap Amerika Serikat dan sebaliknya. Untuk informasi lebih lanjut lihat Wikipedia atau BBC.
East Carolina University Joyner Perpustakaan memiliki pameran online memperingati 60 tahun serangan. Ini menyediakan akses ke sejumlah besar sumber daya digital, termasuk teks-teks resmi dan pribadi, biografi, dan gambar. Namun, ada sangat sedikit teks buku harian sebenarnya. Salah satunya ditulis oleh Robert Hailey di USS Indianapolis, dan lainnya oleh Louis P. Davis, Jr di USS Reid. Tidak ada informasi biografis tentang pelaut baik. Meskipun buku harian Davis ekstrak kadang-kadang membaca seolah-olah itu ditulis sementara tindakan itu terjadi, foto-foto halaman buku harian, di situs pameran, menunjukkan entri ditulis semua pada satu waktu.
Robert Hailey harian
7 Desember 1941
‘G.Q. [Umum Quarters] pada 0538 – bor rutin! Sesaat sebelum 0800 tidak ada. 1 Higgins perahu ditempatkan di atas samping setelah kami berlabuh tak jauh dari Johnson Apakah. Sebelum kapal lain bisa diletakkan di sisi atau trys dibuat kiriman diterima bahwa ID [Pearl Harbor] Apakah telah dibom oleh pesawat Jepang. Semua rencana untuk mendarat di Johnson Apakah. ditinggalkan. Kapal dan pesawat mengangkat kapal – tidak ada bahan bakar untuk 5 DMS bersama kami – saja ditetapkan untuk intersepsi kekuatan musuh selatan Hawaii – kekuatan-kekuatan ini melanjutkan dari selatan, terakhir dilaporkan di dekat Palmyra – 8 kapal besar dan satu sub Jap tenggelam oleh pesawat dari ID . – Dua operator yang terlibat di luar P.H. beberapa mil – Hickam – Ford Island – perumahan dekat Honolulu Pali dibom. – G.Q. sekitar tengah hari karena apa yang tampaknya menjadi sub – alarm palsu tetapi tidak bor. Perang telah dinyatakan – sekarang ada jauh lebih diperlukan dari kita semua.
Sore – berita, siaran berita dan “obat bius kabar angin” telah membuat hari yang sibuk. Divisi menempatkan secara perang penuh – semua peralatan kelebihan disimpan di bawah ini. Kami telah mengubah beberapa kali pertemuan – terutama dalam upaya untuk mencegat operator melarikan diri. P.H. tampaknya telah menderita parah, Hickam rusak parah – 350 orang tewas dalam sebuah barak dibom, minyak tank di ID Oklahoma terbakar terkena bom, adalah terbakar – tidak ada kata pada kerusakan-rumor lainnya juga rusak Honolulu.
Manila pasti dibom – Bangun & Guam pasti. Kondisi II sepanjang hari & malam – Semua orang senang tapi dengan hanya satu pikiran – senang untuk mendapatkan hal-hal berlangsung dan memiliki ketidakpastian. Tidak ada yang bisa memahami bagaimana serangan ini dieksekusi dan Jepang sudah begitu dekat – mengapa operator tidak tenggelam juga tidak dimengerti.
Antisipasi dengan apa yang kita kesempatan mungkin menghadapi kemudian dan mendapatkan mendera pada mereka-itu akan menjadi sensasi yang menyenangkan setelah aktivitas hari ini. ‘
Louis P. Davis, Jr ‘s diary
7 Desember 1941
‘Apakah damai reminicing di tempat tidur semalam. Apakah berkunjung ke pesta dengan Wilhmots di klub Field Officer Hickam. Beberapa jam alarm terdengar kata 0800 jadi saya menduga bahwa mereka harus mengujinya. Mendengar jeritan dari jalan “Davis, kita sedang attackd” Aku melompat berlari ke pintu ruang bersama. Saat aku naik pesawat Jepang berperut di atas Ford Pulau jelas menunjukkan matahari terbit di sayap itu. Dibuat direktur dalam tidak datar untuk mendapatkan menembak baterai. Saya perwira senior yang meriam kapal dan hanya satu yang tahu bagaimana bekerja direktur. Aku punya senapan mesin terjadi sekitar 0803. Sialan kunci pada majalah.
Apakah neraka yang waktu mendapatkan 5 “menembak. Tentang 0820 Aku punya mereka siap dengan amunisi. Selama waktu saya mendapatkan amunisi untuk 5 “baterai aku melihat Utah terbalik terbelakang dari kami. Kami DD kedua di Harbor untuk membuka dengan senapan mesin, pertama dengan 5 “Arizona terbakar keras. Kembali rusak. Raleigh adalah torpedo terbelakang dari kita cepat mendapatkan daftar yang buruk ke pelabuhan. Semua DDS menembak sekarang. Ini adalah bagian terpanas dari pelabuhan. Pesawat yang menyerang barat kita. “Semua senjata fw’d melatih 45” “Api ketika mendengar” senapan mesin Fw’d menembak terus. Beberapa Mesin peluru memantul melihat sisi off dari direktur dan tiang. Satu 6 “dari kepala saya sekelompok sekitar kaki jauhnya. Senang ini adalah hari keberuntungan saya.
Gun # 2 adalah menembak. Mesin senjata menghantam pesawat meledak api dan crash di bukit mati di depan kapal. Tidak ada yang terluka belum. Pelabuhan fw’d senapan mesin terbakar “Api sampai meledak” Johny sudah siap untuk mendapatkan berlangsung. Pesawat hanya terhubung dengan 5 “shell atas Curtiss. Tidak ada yang tersisa dari dirinya. 2 serangan awal harus hanya sekitar 0845. Tuhan itu dingin saja terhadap kurus troa [celana] Pesawat akan datang “Berikan padanya Semua senjata fw’d” Tally dua untuk kita hari ini; berharap dia kentang goreng di neraka mabuk tercepat yang pernah saya menyingkirkan dalam hidup saya. Yesus kita membutuhkan air dan semuanya dimatikan. Perbandingan menidurkan sekarang. Sekitar sepuluh pesawat ditembak jatuh selama kunjungan terakhir mereka dekat DDS. Kapal ini yakin bisa menembak.
Tinggi ketinggian bomber. Tidak ada daya direktur! Mesin telah diamankan Whitney tidak dapat pasokan cukup untuk 5 kapal. Tidak bisa mendekati mereka dengan kontrol lokal “Hentikan menembak” Keajaiban whats terjadi selama perang pada baris? Semua DDS di sini lebih aman. Cassen dan Downes, setengah lainnya divisi jam terbakar marah. Monaghan hanya tenggelam sub di pelabuhan. Pakaian saya sampai di sini. Harus 0945 California dan West Virginia yang tenggelam. Sub hanya torpedo Nevada. Dia membakar fw’d. Bertanya-tanya bagaimana Joe Taussig ini? Apakah begitu marah saya menangis. Pertama kali dalam beberapa tahun. Sialan laksamana dan jenderal bodoh. Mengunci semua hal baik yang kita amunisi amunisi senapan mesin kemarin berikat 200 rds 5 “dikeluarkan tidak ada korban 10.000 RDS 50 Cal. dikeluarkan satu senjata dibakar. “Potong semua kunci majalah.” Sialan hal yang baik tidak ada operator dan crusiers yang masuk
Hanya Helena slighlty rusak dan Raleigh Curtiss terkena bom belakang. Oklahoma hanya terbalik. Miskin S.O.B. ‘s
Kapten dan sisanya petugas kembali.
“Mr Sampai Davis tunggal. “1005 berlangsung” laporan Davis Bapak kepada petugas eksekutif “menangis Exec saya keluar untuk memotong kunci dari majalah. Kata saya bertindak terlalu cepat harus menunggu dan mencerminkan bodoh Terkutuk pertama duduk di rumah pada pantat gemuk kemudian keluar dan memberitahu kita semua basah dan memberi kita neraka bagi cara kita berjuang pertempuran. Ted mengatakan ia bergerak terlalu takut keluar. Berharap dia mendapatkan satu dalam usus Jadi hal yang besar akan tumpah seluruh dek.
“Mr Kapten Davis mengatakan kapal yang jelas untuk tindakan “Am lapar sekali. Tidak sarapan. Dilemparkan atas semua kayu dan kanvas, semua peralatan dek kelebihan dan di bawah. “Davis melapor kepada petugas Eksekutif” “Apa yang kaulakukan Anda bodoh”
“Kapten kapal perintah yang jelas untuk Sir tindakan.”
Berharap dia kentang goreng di neraka. Mereka pemboman Honolulu. Bisa melihat mereka dari kapal. Kami membentuk sampai menyerang 77 kapal perusak dan Detroit semua yang tersisa kekuatan pertempuran. Lulus Nevada di saluran pembakaran marah “aman dari kondisi menonton mengatur GQ tiga satu” Istirahat pada 1500 terakhir. Dari semua pengecut bodoh yang exec adalah yang terburuk. Ford akhirnya. Apakah lebih baik pertengahan tidur. Apa 5 hari kapal perang tenggelam 2 kapal penjelajah hit Agala Setengah tenggelam dari divisi kami tenggelam. Semua karena orang mencoba untuk anak-anak sendiri. ”
Victor Andrew Bourasaw adalah pelaut lain di Pearl Harbour pada hari penuh peristiwa. Dia lahir di Festus, Missouri, pada 1901, namun meninggalkan rumah di awal remaja untuk menambang boron dengan tangan di sungai Mississippi. Pada tahun 1922, ia bergabung dengan Angkatan Laut AS, dan, pada 1941, adalah seorang perwira kepala kecil pada perusak, USS Ramsay. Catatan harian berikut dapat ditemukan di situs web Sungai Skagit Journal diedit oleh putra Victor, Noel V Bourasaw.
7 Desember 1941
“Pagi ini pada beberapa menit sebelum Jepang mulai delapan serangan udara di Pearl Harbor dan Lapangan Hickam. Utah dan Raleigh ditabrak oleh torpedo yang diluncurkan oleh pesawat pembom torpedo dan menyelam. Bom dari semua jenis – pembakar, bahan peledak dan pecahan peluru tinggi – dijatuhkan. Hanggar-hanggar di Ford Island dan Hickam Lapangan yang dibakar dan semua staf pesawat membumi. Juga tangki minyak banyak yang dibakar, pembakaran selama dua hari dan malam.
Tentang 0815 kapal selam ditemukan dalam dari pelabuhan menuju belakang Medusa dan Curtis (dua tender perusak). Sebuah sarang perusak itu bersama dari Medusa, dan semuanya mengambil gambar panci di [sub itu] menara komando. Satu 3-inci kulit terkena busur dan merobeknya. Dia kemudian terendam dan muncul lagi. Para Monaghan, DD-354, telah mulai berlangsung dan membuat baginya, serudukan dan membiarkan pergi dua tuduhan mendalam. Sorakan perkasa naik dari awak kapal sekitar. Tentu saja dia tidak pernah muncul kembali sejak. Sayangnya Monaghan busur berlari ke pantai di Pulau Ford dan dia harus kembali kecepatan mesin penuh dan, pada saat itu, mengalami kesulitan mundur.
Awak Ramsay bertindak seperti veteran di bawah api. Setiap orang dengan rating terendah mengerjakan tugasnya dan melakukannya dengan baik. Bangga menjadi anggota kru seperti ini.
Para pesawat musuh, setelah menjatuhkan bom-bom mereka, kini giliran pemberondongan. Mereka yakin adalah tembakan gelandangan. Kami memberondong lima kali dan hanya memiliki satu lubang peluru untuk menunjukkan di kapal, melalui kereta api di dek terbang.
Itu mengerikan harus melalui bahwa air tertutup minyak di jalan keluar, melihat rekan-rekan kami berjuang di dalamnya dan tidak bisa membantu mereka. Kami melemparkan pelampung hidup dengan yang kita melihat bahwa salah satu yang dibutuhkan.
Kami menemukan kapal selam di luar menunggu. Kami menjatuhkan tuduhan mendalam seperti yang dilakukan para perusak lainnya. Pihak berwenang Angkatan Laut yakin bahwa kami punya empat kapal selam. Kapal selam jelas sedang menunggu kapal perang untuk keluar tapi tentu saja mereka tidak pernah melakukannya. Itu akan menjadi bunuh diri. Kami telah mendengar bahwa Virginia Barat dan Oklahoma rusak. Kita bisa melihat daftar Virginia Barat jauh saat kami meninggalkan pelabuhan. Semua pagi ini para perusak itu pelacakan sibuk turun selam, berdebar mereka dengan biaya kedalaman. Semua ini perusak pagi sibuk melacak bawah selam, berdebar mereka dengan biaya kedalaman.
Sore 7 Desember: Dua pukul, biaya kedalaman menjatuhkan. Kita harus mendapatkan beberapa karena ada biasanya gelembung dan minyak. 1430, tidak ada kata namun dari Tugas, Force One yang pergi untuk terlibat musuh. Masih menjatuhkan kaleng abu [biaya mendalam]. Sekarang dalam Kondisi Tiga pada 1500. Dua serangan udara cahaya pada Pearl pelabuhan antara tahun 2000 dan 2100. Sangat sedikit tidur malam ini awak. ”
Pada saat serangan Pearl Harbour, Robert W Brockway berusia 18 tahun dan seorang mahasiswa di University of Hawaii. Ayahnya berada di Army Air Corps, yang melayani di kru tanah, dan keluarga tinggal di tempat di Lapangan Hickam, di mana Robert diidentifikasi dengan tentara dari usia dini. Setelah dievakuasi, dia pergi ke Washington, DC untuk melanjutkan studinya. Ia menjabat sebagai menteri gereja sampai 1959, dan sebagai guru sesudahnya, pertama di Coventry Technical College di Inggris, kemudian di Universitas Southwestern Louisiana. Dari 1965, ia mengajar di Brandon University di Kanada, sebagai seorang profesor agama. Dia meninggal pada tahun 2001. Brandon Universitas memiliki website yang luas dalam memori Brockway, termasuk ekstrak dari buku harian Pearl Harbour nya (foto dan transkripsi).
7 Desember 1941
“Seperti yang saya tulis hari ini dari rumah Mr O ‘Sullivan yang sangat ramah menerima kami, kami telah mengalami serangan Jepang. Pagi ini pukul 8.00 pagi aku dibangunkan oleh booming keras. Percaya mereka untuk manuver aku membayar sedikit mengindahkan. Pada pergi ke luar, aku melihat stukas menyelam dan berputar-putar, tapi tetap tidak menghiraukan, sampai aku melihat Rising Sun di ujung sayap. Dengan maka hanggar depo berada di api dan bensin menyala. Kami pergi ke Burkes dan kemudian kembali ke rumah [?] – Semua orang mengatakan bahwa perang di. Kami kemudian mendapat Haltermanns di mobil kami dan Mr Willy dan aku bergegas Aiea ketinggian. Kami melihat pembawa dibakar ke tepi air. Fren [teman?] Di Hickam [Hickam Lapangan]. Kami menunggu di sana dan kemudian kembali. Sebagian besar pesawat kami telah dihancurkan. Kekuatan armada kami lumpuh. Radio baru saja diucapkan darurat militer. Pasukan kami seharusnya berurusan dengan duduk dalam [cepat terkoordinasi]. ‘
8 Desember 1941
“Seperti fajar datang setelah lelah lama menghabiskan nite cemas menunggu pembom Jepang yang tidak pernah datang, kami mendapat kertas yang menyatakan bahwa beberapa rekan-rekan dari Hickam 340 tewas. Salah satunya mungkin Tony Mariaschella sejak dia di 42d tersebut. Setelah menghabiskan uneventfully pagi Ibu, saya, Nyonya Haltermann dan Mr Wiley pergi ke lapangan [Hickam] dan mendapat sisa barang-barang kami. Inggris yang di dalamnya juga. Sebuah penerjun payung terserah kembali ke sini suatu tempat dan mereka tidak bisa menemukannya. Hickam Lapangan tampak memukul tapi tidak hancur. Rumah Purdin adalah memusnahkan keluar. Jadi beberapa teman ‘. ‘Auers semua kacau dalam. Mungkin kita tidak akan pernah pergi ke sana lagi. Pop di rumah sakit [ia berada di sana dengan keluhan tidak ditentukan pada saat serangan]. Pres. Roosevelt mendeklarasikan perang melawan Jepang hari ini. Di bawah hukum militer Habeas Corpus ditangguhkan. ‘
Akhirnya, perlu dicatat bahwa Menlu AS untuk Perang pada saat itu, Henry L Stimson, buku harian, dan bahwa ekstrak tertentu dari buku harian ini (lihat paragraf di bawah) telah digunakan berulang kali selama bertahun-tahun oleh mereka yang percaya ada persekongkolan – Pearl Harbour muka-pengetahuan teori konspirasi – yang melibatkan pejabat tinggi di AS dan Inggris yang mengetahui serangan itu di muka dan mungkin telah membiarkan hal itu terjadi sehingga memaksa Amerika dalam perang.
25 November 1941
“Kemudian pada jam 12 kami pergi ke Gedung Putih, di mana kami sampai hampir setengah dua. Pada pertemuan itu Hull, Knox, Marshall, Stark dan saya sendiri. Ada Presiden. . . membawa seluruhnya hubungan dengan Jepang. Dia dibesarkan acara bahwa kami mungkin akan diserang mungkin Senin depan, untuk Jepang terkenal untuk membuat sebuah serangan tanpa peringatan, dan pertanyaannya adalah apa yang harus kita lakukan. Pertanyaannya adalah berapa banyak kita harus manuver mereka ke posisi menembak tembakan pertama tanpa membiarkan terlalu banyak bahaya untuk diri kita sendiri. ”
Setelah serangan itu, Stimson menulis dalam buku hariannya: “Ketika pertama datang berita bahwa Jepang telah menyerang kita perasaan pertama saya lega bahwa. . . krisis telah datang dalam cara yang akan mempersatukan semua orang kita. Hal ini terus saya merasa dominan meskipun berita bencana yang cepat berkembang “(ini banyak dikutip sebagai tanggal 7 Desember 1941, tapi rasa kutipan tampaknya jauh kemudian, dan tanpa akses ke buku harian itu sendiri,. Saya tidak dapat memeriksa tanggal.)
Untuk lebih lanjut tentang topik ini, lihat Institut untuk artikel Tinjauan Sejarah oleh Charles dan David Irving Lutton, dan Srdja Trifkovic di Jaringan Teman Patriot Amerika. Irving, khususnya, memiliki banyak mengatakan tentang buku harian Stimson, mengklaim ada bukti untuk pasca-Pearl Harbour dan penghapusan revisi. Wikipedia, bagaimanapun, memiliki tampilan rinci dan baik direferensikan pada fakta.
Hun terbang di atas Hythe
Viking, bagian dari grup Penguin, baru saja menerbitkan catatan harian Rodney Foster, yang bertugas di Garda Depan selama Perang Dunia Kedua. Ia bangkit untuk menjadi besar dalam organisasi, tetapi mengundurkan diri beberapa bulan kemudian. Jurnal tersebut sangat jarang karena personel Garda Depan dilarang dari buku harian tetap. Namun, bertentangan dengan publisitas Penguin bahwa ini adalah buku harian Garda Depan pertama yang pernah ditemukan, saya percaya ada setidaknya satu lainnya.
Rodney Foster lahir di India pada tahun 1882 dalam keluarga tentara Inggris. Ia dididik di Inggris, dan kemudian memasuki Akademi Militer Kerajaan di Sandhurst pada tahun 1900. Tahun berikutnya ia ditugaskan di Angkatan Darat Inggris dan dikirim ke India, di mana ia menjabat untuk waktu di Perbatasan Utara-barat. Pada 1906, ia bergabung dengan Survei India dan bekerja sebagai surveyor dan kartografer.
Foster kembali sebentar ke Inggris pada tahun 1910 untuk menikah Phyllis Blaxland, seorang teman dari salah satu saudara perempuannya, dan mereka memiliki satu putri, Daphne. Meskipun ia bergabung dengan Angkatan Darat India selama Perang Dunia Pertama, naik ke pangkat letnan kolonel, dia tinggal dengan Survei India sampai pensiun pada tahun 1932, kembali di Inggris, untuk Saltwood, dekat Hythe di pantai Kent. Pada 1940 ia terdaftar dalam Home Guard, menjadi besar di tahun 1942 dengan 560 orang di bawah komandonya, meskipun ia mengundurkan diri beberapa bulan kemudian, frustrasi dengan organisasi di sekelilingnya. Dia meninggal pada tahun 1962.
Rincian ini sedikit biografi dapat ditemukan dalam pengantar Ronnie Scott dengan sebuah buku baru dari Viking – The Real ‘Dad Tentara’ – The Diaries Perang Letkol. Rodney Foster. Buku harian yang ditemukan, Viking mengatakan, dalam lelang, dan kemudian disunting oleh Ronnie Scott. Juga dalam pendahuluan, Scott mengatakan: ‘buku harian Rodney menawarkan wawasan yang sangat berharga ke Home Front selama Perang Dunia Kedua. Tidak hanya mereka detil kehidupan di Pojok Hellfire [hamparan Selat Inggris di daerah Dover dibom oleh Jerman], mereka jelas menggambarkan awal dan pengembangan Home Guard dari sudut pandang petugas melayani – sesuatu yang , sampai sekarang, belum pernah datang ke cahaya. Home Guard personil, terutama yang melayani di daerah yang paling rentan terhadap invasi, dilarang dari buku harian menjaga, dalam hal informasi di dalamnya bisa berguna atau nilai untuk penyerang. Jadi itu semua lebih luar biasa bahwa seperti sosok pendirian seperti Rodney harus mematahkan peraturan dengan cara ini. ‘
Viking membuat bermain besar link dengan Angkatan Darat Dad, sebuah TV BBC komedi seri yang pernah populer siaran pertama pada tahun 1968. Angkatan Darat Dad dari judul adalah Home kikuk Garda peleton, yang terletak di sebuah kota fiksi di pantai selatan Inggris (yaitu suatu tempat di sekitar Home Guard Foster). Menurut Viking: ‘Menulis dari balai desa, lumbung ditinggalkan, gereja-gereja dan petugas darurat’ messes, [Foster] catatan dengan kecerdasan yang unik dan kebijaksanaan rincian kehidupan keluarga sehari-hari selama perang: rutinitas domestik mantap oleh peringatan serangan udara, kejenakaan dari tentara yang ditempatkan di dekatnya mengambil setiap kesempatan untuk memperbaiki nasib mereka, kekuatan yang tenang dari sebuah komunitas kecil dihadapkan dengan kesulitan besar kemanusiaan ‘Nya’ dan bersinar perawatan melalui ‘, Viking menambahkan,’ bukti bangga. dengan semangat yang menentang Nazi dan memenangkan perang. ”
Buku harian Foster memang dokumen substansial dan catatan, dan buku Viking yang indah diproduksi dengan banyak ilustrasi oleh Foster sendiri, serta beberapa foto-foto yang relevan. Namun, Penguin mempromosikan buku ini sebagai ‘buku harian Home Guard pertama yang pernah ditemukan’. Bahkan lebih jauh untuk mengatakan bahwa ini ‘fakta’ telah diverifikasi oleh Imperial War Museum. Tapi apakah itu sebuah ‘fakta’? Sebuah buku harian yang disimpan oleh Charles Graves, seorang wartawan dan petugas Rumah Guard, selama perang itu diterbitkan sebagai Off Record oleh Hutchinson pada tahun 1942. Tidak banyak informasi tentang ini di internet, tapi lihat AbeBooks dan googlebooks.
Berikut adalah beberapa ekstrak dari The Diaries Perang Letkol. Rodney Foster.
5 November 1940
‘Frost di pagi hari dan hari yang cerah baik. Hun datang, melewati Folkestone, kembali kemudian dengan pejuang kita pada mereka. Di 10:30 setelah ledakan tembak aku melihat salah satu drop kita dari langit seperti daun yang jatuh kemudian pulih sendiri dan terhuyung ke Lympne. Jam 11:30 tiga Hun menyelam di dua dari lebih Pedlinge dan menjatuhkan bom. Dua jatuh di pegunungan, dan satu menghantam perempat Intendans dari Sekolah Small Arms. Hit berikutnya dan menghancurkan barikade sisi Jembatan Nelson di atas kanal, percikan kecil di dekat rumah-rumah dengan lumpur hitam kanal, dan yang terakhir jatuh pada Rumah Sakit Hill, Sandgate, membunuh tentara yg mengerjakan bangunan dari bagian di Jalan Hillcrest. Tak lama setelah itu, hujan turun. Dalam perjalanan saya sampai ke gunung penjaga aku melihat pemberondongan dari pantai Prancis di pembalasan atas penembakan Dover. Ini turun dalam ember saat aku meninggalkan pos dan aku basah kuyup. Jalan Hillcrest penuh truk, beberapa dukungan ke dalam ‘Choppings, dan ada kegiatan besar sepanjang malam mempersiapkan untuk memindahkan pistol besar. Jika pistol berjalan kita harus dapat kembali ke rumah. Hal ini tidak menyenangkan harus pergi sejauh ini di malam hari dan tidur di sebuah rumah dingin. ”
9 November 1940
‘Sebuah selatan-barat yang kuat angin kencang. Di pagi hari Kapten Fuller mengantarku ke Saltwood dan aku berjalan di seluruh desa mendistribusikan greatcoats. Sekitar 1 sore, dua Hun terbang di atas Hythe dan jatuh (beberapa mengatakan sepuluh) bom di Cheriton. Divisi di London hari ini dan meninggalkan sebuah Divisi baru yang masuk Jalan-jalan di mana-mana penuh dengan tentara dan truk dan bus dan ada pom-pom [AA senjata] keluar pada rentang, dalam jatah kita dan dalam Sandling menjaga terhadap menyelam-bomber. Alarm 18:00-10:30. Aku lagi basah kuyup pemasangan penjaga. Neville Chamberlain meninggal hari ini. ‘
7 Mei 1942
“Aku sudah keluar dari tempat tidur hanya setelah 6 pagi ketika sebuah pesawat meraung di atas atap rumah kami dan ada dua ledakan ke barat. Aku melihat seekor lalat hitam berhidung Hun atas kepalaku. Bagian lain terbang ke utara. Lalu aku melihat sepertiga dari Seabrook Road dan melihat bom meninggalkan rak nya. Ini jatuh di lapangan kriket Hythe. Bom pertama memotong Sandling Park House di setengah, dua lainnya jatuh di pohon. Sirene terdengar setelah itu semua berakhir! Orang Hun tidak melakukan memacu mesin. Aku begitu tertarik saya lupa memberitahu keluarga saya untuk pergi ke tempat yang aman. ”
Postscript (30 November): Penguin telah menanggapi poin saya tentang diary Foster tidak menjadi buku harian Depan Pengawal pertama seperti dengan menyalurkan informasi dari Shaun Sewell, yang dikreditkan dengan menemukan buku harian itu. Sewell mengatakan: ‘[Buku harian Graves] diterbitkan pada tahun 1942 dan hampir tidak bisa menjadi buku harian yang mencakup seluruh perang! Saya menduga [itu] bukan hari ke account hari dalam kehidupan Depan Guard, mungkin koleksi entri untuk propaganda perang. Saya pikir kertas yang dijatah dalam perang sehingga publikasi mungkin telah disensor dan sangat terbatas. ”
Israel Joan of Arc
Hannah Senesh mungkin telah 90 tahun hari ini, telah ia tinggal melewati usia 23 ketika ia dihukum karena pengkhianatan dan dieksekusi oleh regu tembak Jerman. Meskipun seorang Yahudi Hungaria yang telah beremigrasi ke Palestina, ia kembali ke Eropa untuk ambil bagian dalam rencana militer yang berbahaya untuk menyelamatkan orang Yahudi dari Hongaria. Dia membuat catatan harian yang ditulis indah dari usia 13 sampai hari kematiannya, dan, sampai hari ini, banyak dibaca di Israel, di mana dia adalah pahlawan nasional.
Hannah Szenes, sering-Inggris untuk Senesh, lahir di Budapest pada tanggal 17 Juli 1921, putri dari dramawan Bela Senesh (yang meninggal ketika Hannah sekitar enam) dan istrinya Katherine. Dia menulis drama untuk produksi sekolah, dan mengembangkan bakat yang cukup untuk puisi. Dia menghadiri sekolah tinggi Protestan yang diterima orang Yahudi, di mana salah satu gurunya adalah Kepala Rabbi Budapest, seorang Zionis bersemangat. Sebagai hasil dari pengaruhnya, ia bergabung dengan sebuah kelompok pemuda Zionis, dan kemudian pindah untuk belajar di sebuah sekolah pertanian di Palestina.
Pada tahun 1942, bagaimanapun, dengan perang berkecamuk, Senesh sangat ingin untuk kembali ke Eropa dan membantu rekan-rekan Yahudi. Dia bergabung dengan sekelompok penerjun payung relawan yang merupakan bagian dari rencana militer untuk menyelamatkan orang-orang Yahudi yang tersisa di Balkan dan Hungaria. Mereka mendarat di Yugoslavia, dan, dengan bantuan dari kelompok partisan, menyeberangi perbatasan Hungaria. Ada, bagaimanapun, ia ditangkap oleh Jerman, dipenjara, dan disiksa. Dia dihukum karena pengkhianatan, dan dieksekusi oleh regu tembak pada bulan November 1944 – di hanya 23 tahun. Informasi biografis lebih lanjut tersedia dari Wikipedia, Perempuan dalam situs Yudaisme dan Hannah Senesh Legacy Foundation.
Senesh mulai menulis buku harian berusia 13, dan terus, kadang-kadang sebentar-sebentar, sampai hari kematiannya. Buku hariannya pertama kali diterbitkan dalam bahasa Ibrani pada tahun 1946, ini, dan sajak-sajaknya, masih banyak dibaca saat ini di Israel, di mana dia adalah sesuatu dari pahlawan nasional (dan telah disebut Israel Joan of Arc). Buku harian pertama kali diterjemahkan dan diterbitkan dalam bahasa Inggris oleh Vallentine Mitchell pada tahun 1971, tapi sejak muncul di edisi lainnya dan bahasa. Pada tahun 2007, Lampu Yahudi diterbitkan Hannah Senesh: Hidup-Nya dan Diary, Edisi Lengkap Pertama, seperti yang diedit oleh Roberta Grossman. Beberapa edisi ini tersedia secara bebas untuk membaca di googlebooks.
Berikut adalah beberapa ekstrak.
7 September 1934
“Pagi ini kami mengunjungi makam Ayah. Betapa menyedihkan bahwa kita harus menjadi berkenalan dengan kuburan sehingga di awal kehidupan. Tapi aku merasa bahwa bahkan dari luar makam Ayah membantu kita, jika dengan cara lain daripada dengan namanya. Saya tidak berpikir dia bisa meninggalkan kita warisan yang lebih besar. ‘
4 Oktober 1935
“Mengerikan! Kemarin perang pecah antara Italia dan Abyssinia. Hampir semua orang takut akan campur tangan Inggris dan bahwa sebagai akibatnya akan ada perang di Eropa. Hanya berpikir tentang hal itu adalah mengerikan. Koran-koran sudah daftar mati. Saya tidak bisa memahami orang, seberapa cepat mereka lupa. Apakah mereka tidak tahu bahwa seluruh dunia masih mengerang dari kutuk Perang Dunia terakhir? Mengapa pembunuhan ini? Mengapa harus pemuda dikorbankan pada perancah berdarah ketika itu bisa memberikan begitu banyak yang baik dan indah kepada dunia jika hanya bisa diizinkan untuk menginjak jalan damai?
Sekarang tidak ada yang tersisa untuk dilakukan tetapi berdoa agar perang ini akan tetap menjadi satu lokal, dan berakhir secepat mungkin. Saya tidak bisa memahami Mussolini yang ingin mendapatkan koloni untuk Italia, tapi, setelah semua, Inggris harus puas dengan memiliki sepertiga dunia – mereka tidak membutuhkan semua itu. Dikatakan, bagaimanapun, bahwa mereka takut kehilangan rute mereka ke India. Sesungguhnya, politik adalah hal yang paling jelek di dunia.
Tapi untuk membicarakan hal-hal yang lebih spesifik. Salah satu teman Gyuri yang [Gyuri – kakaknya] adalah pacaran saya. Dia cukup berani untuk bertanya apakah saya akan pergi berjalan dengannya Minggu depan. Aku bilang aku akan, jika Gyuri ikut. Jika semuanya dia mengatakan saya adalah benar, maka saya merasa sangat menyesal untuk dia, ternyata dia tidak memiliki kehidupan keluarga yang layak. Ada sesuatu yang salah di sana, itu sudah pasti. ”
18 Juni 1936
‘. . . Ketika saya mulai menyimpan buku harian saya memutuskan saya akan menulis hanya tentang hal-hal indah dan serius, dan dalam keadaan terus-menerus tentang anak laki-laki, anak perempuan kebanyakan. Tapi tampaknya seolah-olah itu tidak mungkin untuk mengecualikan anak laki-laki dari kehidupan seorang gadis lima belas tahun, dan demi akurasi Saya harus mencatat perkembangan dari materi G..
Dia tidak puas dengan jawaban tersebut, tapi dimasukkan ke dalam sebuah buku yang saya pinjam dari dia. . . foto dirinya ditandatangani “Dengan Cinta Selamanya, G.” Saya tidak mengatakan sepatah kata pun tentang gambar. Sejak itu, setiap kali aku melihat dia (cukup sering) dia mandi saya dengan pujian, yang saya coba untuk menyikat. . . ”
14 Juni 1941
“Minggu ini saya berangkat ke Mesir. Saya seorang prajurit. Mengenai situasi pendaftaran saya, dan perasaan saya sehubungan dengan itu, dan dengan semua yang mengarah ke hal itu, saya tidak ingin menulis. Saya ingin percaya bahwa apa yang telah kulakukan, dan akan dilakukan, benar. Waktu akan memberitahu sisanya. ”
Mandi di Albert
Hari ini menandai peringatan ke-30 kematian Robert Lindsay Mackay, seorang tentara infantri di Perang Dunia Pertama, hadir di pertempuran Somme terkenal dan Ypres. Sementara dalam aksi, ia berhasil menyimpan catatan harian dekat kegiatan, dan ini, meskipun tidak dipublikasikan di media cetak, telah dibuat tersedia secara online oleh salah satu cucu-cucunya. Dari catatan khusus adalah entri tentang ‘MUD’ dan mengunjungi kota bernama Albert (di daerah Somme) untuk mandi.
Mackay lahir tahun 1896 di Glasgow dan belajar di universitas di sana. Selama perang, dia bertugas dengan resimen infanteri, Argyll & Sutherland 11 Highlanders, memegang tulisan Officer Signalling, Ajudan Asisten, dan Pejabat Peleton, akhirnya mencapai pangkat Letnan. Dia berjuang dalam Pertarungan itu, Somme Ypres dan Arras, dan dianugerahi Salib Militer dan Bar.
Setelah perang, Mackay dilatih sebagai dokter. Ia menikah Margaret McLellan, dan mereka memiliki empat anak. Pada tahun 1941, ia bergabung dengan tentara dan, dengan unit bedah saraf, telah diposting ke Timur Tengah. Sebelum akhir perang, ia juga diposting ke Normandia dan Utara Norwegia, untuk mengobati Rusia yang jatuh sakit saat tahanan Jerman. Ia pensiun pada tahun 1961, dan meninggal pada tanggal 2 Juli 1981. Informasi biografis lebih lanjut tersedia di situs Universitas Glasgow dan beberapa halaman web Mackay pohon keluarga.
Mackay hanya menulis buku harian selama Perang Dunia Pertama, dan kemudian bahkan tidak yakin mengapa dia melakukan itu. Pada tahun 1972 ia menulis catatan berikut kepada anak-anaknya: “Saya tidak cukup jelas mengapa saya menulis buku harian ini, hari demi hari, catatan berkelahi periode agresif. Aku tidak punya ambisi sastra atau militer. Orang tua saya tidak membacanya. Mungkin itu adalah untuk memberikan semacam alibi terus menerus, untuk mengingatkan saya di mana aku telah pergi, mungkin sebuah peringatan yang menarik jika saya gagal kembali. Seperti kue dari wajan panas, itu ditulis sebagai peristiwa terjadi, atau segera sesudahnya, dalam empat berlapis kulit cokelat kecil notebook, dan ketika perang berakhir ini berada dalam keadaan tidak berlangsung lama karena mereka kotor dan kotor, dan, di mana ditulis dengan pensil, tulisan itu memudar. Jadi, pada tahun 1919, saya menyalin isinya, langsung melepaskan, tanpa mengedit, menjadi dua besar buku-buku catatan, dan menghancurkan empat anak kecil. ”
Teks telah dibuat tersedia secara online oleh salah satu cucu Mackay, Bob Mackay, di Firstworldwar.com, dan pada halaman web sendiri. Berikut adalah beberapa entri.
12 September 1916
“Memerintahkan sampai dengan 11. Layanan Batalyon Argylls – salah satu yang paling saya dari semua ingin pergi. Kereta akan berangkat pukul 2 siang Kiri tepat pada 16:30, yang tidak buruk untuk kereta Prancis. Mencapai Albert di Front Somme sekitar 06:30 pada tanggal 13. – Jarak dari beberapa 70 – 80 mil dalam 28 jam – tidak buruk terjadi untuk kereta Prancis baik! Albert adalah di mana pertempuran terjadi mulai sekarang, jadi saya berharap untuk melihat sesuatu yang layak. Dilaporkan ke Ruang Rincian Tertib dari 11. Bn. yang mendengar hari berikutnya bahwa kami akan datang. Pergi bersama ke taman setelah teh untuk melihat formulir kami terbaru frightfulness tentang yang misterius hang, yaitu tangki. Mereka tidak digunakan melawan musuh belum.
Today marks the 60th anniversary of the attack by Japan on Pearl Harbour that brought the United States into the Second World War. A few diary extracts recording the event are available online. East Carolina University has one of the best collection of digital resources on Pearl Harbour; the editor of Skagit River Journal has made available the diary entry of his father; and Brandon University has web pages honouring one of its professors, who was a student in Hawaii on the fateful day. At the political level, the US Secretary of War at the time kept a diary, and entries from this have been used to support the idea that the US and British governments knew of the attack in advance but let it happen so as to draw the US into the war.
The American military base at Pearl Harbour on Hawaii was attacked by Japan during the morning of 7 December 1941. Japan’s aim was to keep the US Pacific Fleet from interfering with its own actions against the overseas territories of several European nations in Southeast Asia. Some 353 Japanese fighters, bombers and torpedo planes, launched from six aircraft carriers, caused huge damage: 2,402 Americans were killed and 1,282 wounded; four US battleships were sunk, and four others damaged (six of these eight, however, were raised and/or repaired for further service); other vessels, including cruisers and destroyers, were also damaged; and 188 aircraft were destroyed. By contrast, Japanese losses, in personnel and hardware, were very light.
The Japanese aggression shocked the American people, which hitherto had been pro isolation and against American involvement in the European war, and it led directly – on the following day – to a US declaration of war on Japan. Clandestine support of the UK turned into active alliance, and within three further days, Germany and Italy had declared war on the US and vice versa. For more information see Wikipedia or the BBC.
East Carolina University’s Joyner Library has an online exhibition commemorating the 60th anniversary of the attack. It provides access to a large number of digital resources, including official and personal texts, biographies, and pictures. However, there are very few actual diary texts. One was written by Robert Hailey on USS Indianapolis; and another by Louis P. Davis, Jr. on USS Reid. There is no biographical information about either sailor. Although Davis’s diary extract sometimes reads as though it was written while the action was happening, the photographs of the diary pages, on the exhibition website, suggest the entry was written all at one time.
Robert Hailey’s diary
7 December 1941
‘G.Q. [General Quarters] at 0538 – routine drill! Shortly before 0800 no. 1 Higgins boat was placed over the side after we had anchored just off Johnson Is. Before other boats could be placed over the side or any trys made dispatches were received that P.H. [Pearl Harbor] Had been bombed by Japanese planes. All plans for landing on Johnson Is. were abandoned. Boats and planes hoisted aboard – no fuel to the 5 DMS with us – course set for interception of enemy forces south of Hawaii – these forces proceeding from the south, last reported near Palmyra – 8 large ships and one Jap sub sunk by planes off PH. – two carriers engaged just outside P.H. several miles – Hickam – Ford Island – residential Honolulu near the Pali bombed. – G.Q. about noon because of what appeared to be a sub – false alarm but not a drill. War has been declared – now there is to be much required from us all.
Afternoon – dispatches, newscasts and “scuttlebutt dope” has kept the day a busy one. Division put on a full wartime basis – all excess gear stowed below. We have changed rendezvous several times – mostly in an effort to intercept the fleeing carriers. P.H. seems to have suffered severely, Hickam damaged badly – 350 men killed in a bombed barracks, oil tanks at P.H. afire Oklahoma hit by bomb, is afire – no word on other damage-rumors Honolulu also damaged.
Manilla definately bombed – Wake & Guam uncertain. Condition II throughout day & tonight – Everyone excited but with only one thought – glad to get things underway and have uncertainty over. No one can understand how this attack was executed and the Japs gotten so close – why carriers not sunk is also not understandable.
Anticipate with what the chance that we may encounter then and get a whack at them- it would be an enjoyable sensation after today’s activity.’
Louis P. Davis, Jr.’s diary
7 December 1941
‘Was peacefully reminicing in my bunk about last night. Had been to a party with the Wilhmots at the Hickam Field Officer’s club. Several alarm sounded the clock said 0800 so I surmised that they must be testing it. Heard a yell from passageway “Mr Davis, we are being attackd” I jumped up ran to the door of the Wardroom. As I went up a Japanese plane bellied up over Ford Island clearly showing the rising sun on it’s wings. Made the director in nothing flat to get battery firing. I am senior gunnery officer aboard and only one who knows how to work the director. I got the machine guns going about 0803. God damn locks on magazine.
Had a hell of a time getting 5” firing. About 0820 I got them ready with ammunition. During time I was getting ammunition for 5” battery I saw Utah capsize astern of us. We are second DD in Harbor to open up with machine guns, first with 5” Arizona is burning fiercely. Her back is broken. Raleigh is torpedoed astern of us Quickly gets bad list to port. All DDs are firing now. This is hottest part of harbor. Plane is attacking our west. “All guns fw’d train 45” “Fire when hearing” Fw’d machine guns are firing steadily. Several Machine seen bullets ricochet off sides of director and mast. One 6” from my head a bunch about a foot away. Glad this is my lucky day.
Gun #2 is firing. Machines guns hit planes burst into flame and crashes on hill dead ahead of ship. No one hurt yet. Port fw’d machine gun burning up “Fire until it blows up” Johny is getting ready to get underway. Plane just connected with 5” shell over Curtiss. Nothing left of him. 2nd attacks starting must be only about 0845. God it’s cold only have on skinny troa [trousers] Plane coming over “Give to him All guns fw’d” Tally two for us today; hope he fries in hell Quickest hangover I ever got rid of in my life. Jesus we need water and everything is shut off. Comparitive lull now. About ten planes shot down during their last visit near the DDs. These ships can sure shoot.
High altitude bomber. No power for director! Engines have been secured Whitney cannot supply enough for 5 ships. Cannot get near them with local control “Cease firing” Wonder whats happening over on battleship row? All DDs out here are safer. Cassen and Downes, other half of hour division burning furiously. Monaghan just sunk sub in harbor. My clothes got here. Must be 0945 California and West Virginia are sinking. Sub just torpedoed Nevada. She is burning fw’d. Wonder how Joe Taussig is? Am so mad am crying. First time in years. Damn dumb admirals and generals. Locking up all the ammunition Good thing we belted machine guns ammo yesterday 200 rds 5” expended no casualties 10,000 rds 50 Cal. expended one gun burned up. “Cut off all magazine locks.” God damn good thing no carriers and crusiers are in.
Only Helena is slighlty damaged and Raleigh Curtiss hit by bomb aft. Oklahoma just capsized. Poor S.O.B.’s
Captain and rest of officers returned.
“Mr. Davis single up.” 1005 under way “Mr Davis report to executive officer” Exec bawled me out for cutting locks off magazines. Says I act too quickly should wait and reflect first Goddamn fool sits home on his fat ass then comes out and tells we are all wet and gives us hell for the way we fought the battle. Ted says he was too scared move coming out. Hope he gets one in the gut So the big thing will spill all over the deck.
“Mr. Davis Captain says clear ship for action” Am hungry as hell. No breakfast. Thrown over all wood and canvas, all excess gear topside and below. “Mr Davis report to Executive officer” “What the hell are you doin you fool”
“Captain’s orders clear ship for action sir.”
Hope he fries in hell. They are bombing Honolulu. Can see them from ship. We are forming up to attack 77 destroyers and Detroit all that’s left of battle force. Passed Nevada in channel burning furiously “secure from GQ set condition three watch one” Rest at last its 1500. Of all the stupid cowards are exec is the worst. Ford at last. Have mid better get some sleep. What a day 5 battleships sunk 2 cruisers hit Agala sunk Half of our division sunk. All because people try to kid themselves.’
Victor Andrew Bourasaw was another sailor at Pearl Harbour on the eventful day. He was born in Festus, Missouri, in 1901, but left home in his early teens to mine boron by hand on the Mississippi river. In 1922, he joined the US Navy, and, in 1941, was a chief petty officer on the destroyer, USS Ramsay. The following diary entry can be found on the Skagit River Journal website edited by Victor’s son, Noel V Bourasaw.
7 December 1941
‘This morning at a few minutes before eight the Japanese began an air raid on Pearl Harbor and Hickam Field. The Utah and the Raleigh was hit by torpedoes launched by torpedo planes and dive bombers. Bombs of all kind – incendiary, shrapnel and high explosives – were dropped. The hangars on Ford Island and Hickam Field were set afire and all the grounded planes staffed. Also numerous oil tanks were set afire, burning for two days and nights.
About 0815 a submarine was discovered inside of the harbor astern of the Medusa and the Curtis (two destroyer tenders). A nest of destroyers were alongside of the Medusa, and all were taking pot shots at [the sub’s] conning tower. One 3-inch shell hit her bow and tore it off. She then submerged and reappeared again. The Monaghan, DD-354, had got under way and made for her, ramming her and letting go two depth charges. A mighty cheer went up from the crews of the ships around. Of course she has never reappeared since. Unfortunately the Monaghan ran her bow onto the beach on Ford Island and she had to back her engines full speed and, at that, had difficulty backing off.
The Ramsay crew acted like veterans under fire. Each man to the lowest rating did his duty and did it well. Am proud to be a member of a crew like this.
The enemy aircraft, having dropped their bombs, now turn to strafing. They sure are bum shots. We were strafed five times and have only one bullet hole to show on the ship, through the rail on the flying deck.
It was terrible to have to go through that oil-covered water on the way out, seeing our shipmates struggling in it and not being able to help them. We threw life buoys to the ones we saw that needed one.
We found submarines in wait outside. We dropped depth charges as did the other destroyers. The navy authorities are sure that we got four subs. The subs evidently were waiting for the battleships to come out but of course they never did. It would have been suicide. We have heard that the West Virginia and the Oklahoma were damaged. We could see the West Virginia listing considerably as we were leaving port. All this morning the destroyers were busy tracking down subs, pounding them with depth charges. All this morning destroyers are busy tracking down subs, pounding them with depth charges.
Afternoon 7 Dec: Two o’clock, dropping depth charges. We must be getting some for there are usually bubbles and oil. 1430, no word yet from Task Force One, who went to engage the enemy. Still dropping ash cans [depth charges]. Are now in Condition Three at 1500. Two light air attacks on Pearl harbor between 2000 and 2100. Very little sleep for the crew tonight.’
At the time of the Pearl Harbour raid, Robert W Brockway was 18 years old and a freshman at the University of Hawaii. His father was in the Army Air Corps, serving on a ground crew, and the family lived in quarters at Hickam Field, where Robert identified with the soldiers from an early age. After being evacuated, he went to Washington, D.C. to continue his studies. He served as a church minister until 1959, and as a teacher thereafter, first at Coventry Technical College in England, then at the University of Southwestern Louisiana. From 1965, he taught at Brandon University in Canada, as a professor of religion. He died in 2001. Brandon University has an extensive website in memory of Brockway, including extracts from his Pearl Harbour diary (photographs and transcriptions).
7 December 1941
‘As I write today from the home of Mr. O’ Sullivan who very kindly took us in, we have experienced a Japanese raid. This morning at 8:00 a.m. I was awakened by loud booming. Believing them to be maneuvers I paid little heed. On going outside, I saw stukas diving and circling, but still paid no heed, until I saw the Rising Sun on wing tips. By then the depot hangars were in flame and gasoline blazed. We went to Burkes [?] and then returned home – everyone telling me that war was on. We then got the Haltermanns in our car and Mr. Willy and I hurried up Aiea heights. We saw a carrier burned to the water edge. Fren [friends?] at Hickam [Hickam Field]. We waited there and then returned. Most of our planes had been destroyed. Our fleet force crippled. The radio had just pronounced martial law. Our forces are supposed to be dealing with the sit[uation].’
8 December 1941
‘As the dawn came after a long weary nite spent anxiously waiting for Japanese bombers which never came, we got the paper stating that some 340 fellows from Hickam were killed. One of them was probably Tony Mariaschella since he was in the 42d. After a morning spent uneventfully Mother, I, Mrs Haltermann and Mr. Wiley went to the field [Hickam] and got the remainder of our stuff. The British are in it too. A parachutist is up back here somewhere and they couldn’t find him. Hickam Field looked hit but not shattered. Purdin’s house is gutted out. So are several friends’. Auers’ all messed up inside. Probably we will never go there again. Pop is in the hospital [he was there with an unspecified complaint at the time of the raid]. Pres. Roosevelt declared war against Japan today. Under martial law Habeus Corpus is suspended.’
Finally, it’s worth noting that the US Secretary for War at the time, Henry L Stimson, kept a diary, and that certain extracts from this diary (see paragraph below) have been employed repeatedly over the years by those who believe there was a conspiracy – the Pearl Harbour advance-knowledge conspiracy theory – involving high officials in the US and UK who knew of the attack in advance and may have let it happen so as to force America into the war.
25 November 1941
‘Then at 12 o’clock we went to the White House, where we were until nearly half past one. At the meeting were Hull, Knox, Marshall, Stark and myself. There the President . . . brought up entirely the relations with the Japanese. He brought up the event that we were likely to be attacked perhaps next Monday, for the Japanese are notorious for making an attack without warning, and the question was what should we do. The question was how much we should maneuver them into the position of firing the first shot without allowing too much danger to ourselves.’
After the attack, Stimson wrote in his diary: ‘When the news first came that Japan had attacked us my first feeling was of relief that . . . a crisis had come in a way which would unite all our people. This continued to be my dominant feeling in spite of the news of catastrophes which quickly developed.’ (This is widely quoted as being dated 7 December 1941, but the sense of the quote seems much later, and without access to the diary itself, I cannot check the date.)
For more on this topic see Institute for Historical Review articles by Charles Lutton and David Irving; and Srdja Trifkovic on the American Patriot Friends Network. Irving, in particular, has a lot to say about Stimson’s diary, claiming there is evidence for post-Pearl Harbour deletions and revisions. Wikipedia, however, has a detailed and well-referenced look at the facts.
Viking, part of the Penguin group, has just published the diaries of Rodney Foster, who served in the Home Guard during the Second World War. He rose to become a major within the organisation but resigned a few months later. Such journals are very rare since Home Guard personnel were forbidden from keeping diaries. However, contrary to Penguin’s publicity that this is the first Home Guard diary ever discovered, I believe there is at least one other.
Rodney Foster was born in India in 1882 into a British army family. He was educated in England, and then entered the Royal Military College at Sandhurst in 1900. The following year he was commissioned in the British Army and was sent to India, where he served for a time on the North-west Frontier. In 1906, he joined the Survey of India and worked as a surveyor and cartographer.
Foster returned briefly to England in 1910 to marry Phyllis Blaxland, a friend of one of his sisters, and they had one daughter, Daphne. Although he rejoined the Indian Army during the First World War, rising to the rank of lieutenant-colonel, he stayed with the Survey of India until retiring in 1932, back in England, to Saltwood, near Hythe on the Kent coastline. In 1940 he enrolled in the Home Guard, becoming a major in 1942 with 560 men under his command, though he resigned a few months later, frustrated with the organisation around him. He died in 1962.
These few biographical details can be found in Ronnie Scott’s introduction to a new book from Viking – The Real ‘Dad’s Army’ – The War Diaries of Lt.Col. Rodney Foster. The diaries were discovered, Viking says, in an auction, and were then edited by Ronnie Scott. Also in the introduction, Scott says: ‘Rodney’s diaries offer an invaluable insight into the Home Front during the Second World War. Not only do they detail life on Hellfire Corner [a stretch of the English Channel in the Dover area heavily bombed by the Germans], they clearly depict the inception and development of the Home Guard from the point of view of a serving officer – something that, until now, had never come to light. Home Guard personnel, especially those serving in the areas most vulnerable to invasion, were forbidden from keeping diaries, in case the information in them could be of use or value to the invader. So it is all the more remarkable that such an establishment figure as Rodney should break the regulations in this way.’
Viking makes great play of the link with Dad’s Army, an ever popular BBC TV comedy series first broadcast in 1968. The Dad’s Army of the title was a bumbling Home Guard platoon, located in a fictional town on the south coast of England (i.e. somewhere in the vicinity of Foster’s Home Guard). According to Viking: ‘Writing from the village hall, abandoned barns, churches and makeshift officers’ messes, [Foster] records with a unique wit and wisdom the everyday details of family life during the war: the domestic routine dogged by air raid warnings, the antics of soldiers stationed nearby taking every chance to improve their lot, the quiet strength of a small community faced with great adversity.’ His ‘humanity and care shine through’, Viking adds, ‘proud testament to the spirit that defied the Nazis and won the war.’
Foster’s diary is indeed a substantial document and record, and the Viking book is beautifully produced with lots of illustrations by Foster himself, as well as some relevant photographs. However, Penguin is promoting the book as ‘the first Home Guard diary ever discovered’. It even goes so far as to say that this ‘fact’ has been verified by the Imperial War Museum. But is it a ‘fact’? A diary kept by Charles Graves, a journalist and Home Guard officer, during the war was published as Off the Record by Hutchinson in 1942. There is not much information about this on the internet, but see Abebooks and Googlebooks.
Here are several extracts from The War Diaries of Lt.Col. Rodney Foster.
5 November 1940
‘Frost in the morning and a fine sunny day. Huns came, passing over Folkestone, returning later with our fighters on them. At 10:30 am after a burst of firing I saw one of ours drop from the sky like a falling leaf then recover itself and stagger off to Lympne. At 11:30 am three Huns dived on the two from over Pedlinge and dropped bombs. Two fell on the Ranges, and one hit the quarters of the Quartermaster of the Small Arms School. The next hit and demolished the barricaded side of Nelson’s Bridge over the canal, spattering the small houses nearby with black canal mud, and the last fell on Hospital Hill, Sandgate, killing a Sapper from the section in Hillcrest Road. Shortly after, the rain came down. On my way up to mount the guard I saw the strafing of the French coast in retaliation for the shelling of Dover. It came down in buckets as I left the post and I was wet through. Hillcrest Road was full of lorries, some backing into the Choppings’, and there was great activity all night preparing to move the big gun. If the gun goes we ought to be able to return home. It is not pleasant having to go so far at night and sleep in a cold house.’
9 November 1940
‘A strong south-westerly gale. In morning Captain Fuller drove me up to Saltwood and I walked all over the village distributing greatcoats. About 1 o’clock, two Huns flew over Hythe and dropped (some say ten) bombs on Cheriton. The London Division leaves today and a new Division comes in. The roads everywhere were full of troops and lorries and buses and there were pom-poms [AA guns] out on the ranges, in our allotments and in Sandling guarding against dive-bombers. Alarm 6 pm to 10:30 pm. I again got soaked mounting the guard. Neville Chamberlain died today.’
7 May 1942
‘I was out of bed just after 6 am when a plane roared over our roof and there were two explosions to the west. I saw a black snub-nosed Hun fly over my head. Another flew part to the north. Then I saw a third over Seabrook Road and saw a bomb leave its rack. This fell on the Hythe cricket pitch. The first bomb cut Sandling Park House in half, the other two fell in trees. The siren sounded after it was all over! The Huns did no machine gunning. I was so interested I forgot to tell my family to go to safety.’
Postscript (30 November): Penguin has responded to my point about Foster’s diary not being the first such Home Guard diary by passing on information from Shaun Sewell, who is credited with finding the diary. Sewell says: ‘[The Graves diary] was published in 1942 and can hardly be a diary covering the entire war! I’m guessing [it] is not a day to day account of Home Guard life, perhaps a collection of entries for wartime propaganda. I think that paper was rationed in the war so publications might have been censored and very limited.’
Hannah Senesh might have been 90 years old today, had she lived past the age of 23 when she was convicted of treason and executed by a German firing squad. Although a Hungarian Jew that had emigrated to Palestine, she returned to Europe to take part in a dangerous military plan to rescue Jews from Hungary. She kept a beautifully-written diary from the age of 13 until the day of her death, and, to this day, it is widely read in Israel, where she is a national heroine.
Hannah Szenes, often anglicised to Senesh, was born in Budapest on 17 July 1921, the daughter of playwright Bela Senesh (who died when Hannah was about six) and his wife Katherine. She wrote plays for school productions, and developed a considerable talent for poetry. She attended a Protestant high school which accepted Jews, where one of her teachers was the Chief Rabbi of Budapest, an ardent Zionist. As a result of his influence, she joined a Zionist youth group, and then moved to study at an agricultural school in Palestine.
In 1942, however, with the war raging, Senesh was anxious to return to Europe and help her fellow Jews. She joined a group of volunteer parachutists who were part of a military plan to rescue remaining Jews in the Balkans and Hungary. They landed in Yugoslavia, and, with the aid of a partisan group, crossed the Hungarian border. There, however, she was captured by the Germans, imprisoned, and tortured. She was convicted of treason, and executed by a firing squad in November 1944 – at just 23 years of age. Further biographical information is available from Wikipedia, the Women in Judaism website and the Hannah Senesh Legacy Foundation.
Senesh started writing a diary aged 13, and continued, sometimes intermittently, until the day of her death. Her diary was first published in Hebrew in 1946; this, and her poems, are still widely read today in Israel, where she is something of a national heroine (and has been called Israel’s Joan of Arc). The diary was first translated and published in English by Vallentine Mitchell in 1971, but has since appeared in other editions and languages. In 2007, Jewish Lights published Hannah Senesh: Her Life and Diary, the First Complete Edition, as edited by Roberta Grossman. Some of this edition is freely available to read at Googlebooks.
Here are a few extracts.
7 September 1934
‘This morning we visited Daddy’s grave. How sad that we had to become acquainted with the cemetery so early in life. But I feel that even from beyond the grave Daddy is helping us, if in no other way than with his name. I don’t think he could have left us a greater legacy.’
4 October 1935
‘Horrible! Yesterday war broke out between Italy and Abyssinia. Almost everyone is frightened the British will intervene and that as a result there will be war in Europe. Just thinking about it is terrible. The papers are already listing the dead. I can’t understand people; how quickly they forget. Don’t they know that the whole world is still groaning from the curse of the last World War? Why this killing? Why must youth be sacrificed on a bloody scaffold when it could give so much that is good and beautiful to the world if it could just be allowed to tread peaceful roads?
Now there is nothing left to do but pray that this war will remain a local one, and end as quickly as possible. I can’t understand Mussolini wanting to acquire colonies for Italy, but, after all, the British ought to be satisfied with owning a third of the world – they don’t need all of it. It is said, however, that they are frightened of losing their route to India. Truly, politics is the ugliest thing in the world.
But to talk of more specific things. One of Gyuri’s friends [Gyuri – her brother] is courting me. He was bold enough to ask whether I would go walking with him next Sunday. I said I would, if Gyuri went along. If everything he told me is true, then I feel very sorry for him; evidently he doesn’t have a decent family life. There is something wrong there, that’s for sure.’
18 June 1936
‘. . . When I began keeping a diary I decided I would write only about beautiful and serious things, and under no circumstances constantly about boys, as most girls do. But it looks as if it’s not possible to exclude boys from the life of a fifteen-year-old girl, and for the sake of accuracy I must record the development of the G. matter.
He was not satisfied with my aforementioned answer, but put into a book I borrowed from him . . . a picture of himself autographed “With Love Forever, G.” I didn’t say a word about the picture. Ever since, whenever I see him (quite often) he showers me with compliments, which I try to brush off. . .’
14 June 1941
‘This week I leave for Egypt. I’m a soldier. Concerning the circumstances of my enlistment, and my feelings in connection with it, and with all that led up to it, I don’t want to write. I want to believe that what I’ve done, and will do, are right. Time will tell the rest.’
Today marks the 30th anniversary of the death of Robert Lindsay Mackay, an infantry soldier in the First World War, present at the famous battles of the Somme and Ypres. While in action, he managed to keep a near daily diary of his activities, and this, though not published in print, has been made available online by one of his grandchildren. Of particular note are entries about ‘MUD’ and visiting the town called Albert (in the Somme region) for a bath.
Mackay was born in 1896 in Glasgow and studied at the university there. During the war, he served with an infantry regiment, the 11th Argyll & Sutherland Highlanders, holding the posts of Signalling Officer, Assistant Adjutant, and Platoon Officer, eventually achieving the rank of Lieutenant. He fought in the Battles of the Somme, Ypres and Arras, and was awarded a Military Cross and Bar.
After the war, Mackay trained as a doctor. He married Margaret McLellan, and they had four children. In 1941, he rejoined the army and, with a neurosurgical unit, was posted to the Middle East. Before the end of the war, he was also posted to Normandy and Northern Norway, to treat Russians who had fallen sick while prisoners of the Germans. He retired in 1961, and died on 2 July 1981. Further biographical information is available on the University of Glasgow website and some Mackay family tree web pages.
Mackay only kept a diary during the First World War, and later on wasn’t even sure why he had done that. In 1972 he wrote the following note to his children: ‘I am not quite clear why I wrote this diary, day by day, a scrappy record of a scrappy period. I had no literary or military ambitions. My parents did not read it. Perhaps it was to provide a kind of continuous alibi, to remind me where I had been, perhaps an interesting memorial if I failed to return. Like cakes off a hot griddle, it was written as events occurred, or immediately thereafter, in four little brown leather-covered notebooks, and when the war ended these were in no state to last long for they were soiled and grubby, and, where written in pencil, the writing was fading. So, in 1919, I copied their contents, straight off, without editing, into two larger note-books, and destroyed the four little ones.’
12 September 1916
‘Ordered up to the 11th. Service Battalion Argylls – the one to which I most of all wanted to go. Train due to leave at 2 p.m. Left punctually at 4.30 p.m., which is not bad for a French train. Reached Albert on the Somme Front about 6.30 p.m. on the 13th. – a distance of some 70 – 80 miles in 28 hours – not bad going for a French train either! Albert is where the battle now going on began, so I hope to see something decent. Reported to the Details Orderly Room of the 11th. Bn. who heard next day that we were coming. Went along to a park after tea to see our latest form of frightfulness about which mystery hangs, namely, the tanks. They have not been used against the enemy yet. Heyworth (who joined with me) and I then went along to the Divisional Reinforcement Camp at Mericourt.’
14 September 1916
15 October 1916
‘Had a bath.’
16-17 October 1916
‘16th, 17th, and so on till the end – MUD, MUD, MUD!’
18 October 1916
‘Our ‘rest’ is now finished – when did it begin? Left Lozenge Wood, for Martinpuich.’
18 October 1916
‘Rotten ration party to take up to the Royal Scots. Bed 3 a.m. Half a bed is better than no bed at all!’
20 October 1916
‘Round the companies. The C.O. (MacNeil of Oban) got a mouldy haggis, which he ate all by himself. It came in a parcel labelled ‘CAKE’. He had kept it for three weeks!’
21 October 1916
‘Canadians on our left attack the ‘Quadrilateral’ and village of Pys. Partial success. Bombardment all night.’ Back to Martinpuich from the line. Frost came on us suddenly and played the mischief with the mens’ feet. Had to send a number to hospital.’
24 October 1916
‘Relieved by 7/8th. K.O.S.B. Back to Lozenge Wood. Roads heavy on way back. Got stuck in the mud.’
30 October 1916
‘Still at Bécourt, ‘X 27’ district, as bleak and as barren a place as the Western Hebrides. It is said that grass once grew here!’
31 October 1916
‘Front line again.’
2 November 1916
‘Chased by snipers. Relieved by 5th. Bn. Gloucesters, of 48th. Division.’
3 November 1916
‘Left Bécourt Dell for Albert and a bath.’
4 November 1916
‘Albert is knocked about in the most up-to-date fashion, in accordance with the most advanced ideas. There is not a pane of unbroken glass in the place. Every house, if not entirely demolished or with a gable or two missing, has a few holes in the roof, which help the ventilation and also assist materially in the disposal of surplus rain. Ye Gods! It is a funny life!
Albert Cathedral has been very badly smashed but the tower still remains with the figure of the Virgin and Child held out at right angles to it at the top and threatening to fall at any moment on the heads of countless people who pass below. It is commonly said that the War will not end until the Virgin falls. As the French don’t want it to fall (preferring to keep it as a monument of the Huns’ occupation of the place), what can we do?’
Goose Lane Editions, a Canadian publishing company founded in 1954 and said to be one of the country’s most exciting showcases of home-grown literary talent, has, in the last couple of years, published several intriguing diaries. Those of Tappan Adney record his wonderings in the New Brunswick wilderness, in particular with exquisite details of birds, birchbark canoes and a caribou hunt; while the diary of Robert Wyse describes, in all too gruesome detail, what life was like in a Japanese prisoner of war camp.
Adney was born in Ohio in 1868, but moved to New York as a teenager where he worked in a law office by day, while attending art classes by night. In 1887, he first went to Canada, with his sister, to stay for a few weeks with friends, the Sharp family, in Upper Woodstock, New Brunswick. However, having taken to the outdoor life there, he stayed on for nearly two years.
In 1897, Adney went back to Canada, this time to the west, lured to the Klondike Gold Rush as a special correspondent for Harper’s Weekly. He married Minnie Bell Sharp in 1899; and, in 1900, Harper published Adney’s photos and text in The Klondike Stampede. That same year, he returned to the north to record the gold rush in Nome, Alaska.
During the war, Adney joined the Canadian Expeditionary Force, and constructed scale models of fortifications for training purposes. In 1917, he became a Canadian citizen; and, after the war, he became widely known for his knowledge of decorative historical heraldry and the 3D shields he created for the Canadian provinces. He put forward a design for a Canadian national flag which won a competition but was not adopted; and he built more than 150 models of native canoes, now housed in Mariner’s Museum, Newport, Virginia.
As Adney grew older, Yukon News says, his behaviour and demeanour became more eccentric, to the point where he was seen shambling around Woodstock like a hobo. He died in 1950 in his tiny forest bungalow surrounded by notes, drawings and models. Further biographical information is available from Wikipedia, Michael Gates’s article in Yukon News, and Jim Wheaton’s web page.
As a young man, amazed by all he saw in Canada, Adney began filling notebooks with his diary jottings and other observations. He recorded, for example, the details of snowshoes, and birchbark canoes, and the native names for birds and animals. He also chronicled a caribou hunt on snowshoes in winter conditions, decades before woodland caribou became extinct in eastern Canada. Some of his notes were published, for the first time, last September by Goose Lane Editions, a New Brunswick-based publishing company, under the title The Travel Journals of Tappan Adney: 1887-1890.
Goose Lane Editions, established more than 50 years ago, describes itself as ‘a small, lively company’ and ‘Canada’s oldest independent publisher’ which ‘successfully combines a regional heart with a national profile to introduce readers to work by the best established and emerging authors.’
The Travel Journals of Tappan Adney: 1887-1890 was edited by C Ted Behne, another builder of model birchbark canoes and an Adney enthusiast. According to Goose Lane, the book is the first published version of Adney’s earliest two journals, though he would write three more before his last in 1896. Though beautifully produced and full of reproductions of Adney’s original sketches and early photographs, there are relatively few in-the-moment diary entries – the bulk of the text being more retrospective recordings of his journeys, observations and thoughts. Here, though, are a few dated entries from early on in the book.
4 July 1887
‘An excursion of the Natural History Society [from New York City] to Manawagonish Island in the Bay of Fundy off Saint John. Thirty of us went along in two small yachts. Manawagonish Island [is] a rocky island covered with dense, stunted spruce and a small clearing where some sheep were browsing. Dense fog swept in, enveloping all things with reeking, dripping moisture, shutting out all things but the tinkle of a sheep bell, the murmuring of the waves on the beach, and the voices of a few hardy birds. Strong, clear, like a flute in the hands of a master, the Hermit thrush – a pathos that is known to no other bird. There is no song of more pure beauty, and one must come here or listen in the early morn in some far New Brunswick wilderness, to hear this, the most beautiful of bird music. I found the nest, containing four blue-green eggs, on the ground, among the cool, damp mosses and luxuriant ferns. The fog was so thick we could hardly find our way back to the harbor.
5 July 1887
‘An early walk with Mr. Chamberlain and noted three new species of birds. It was marvelous to me how Chamberlain could identify from a single note that [which] would have escaped me altogether.’
6 July 1887
‘Mr. Chamberlain was to give a lecture before the Society and wanted some fresh birds, so I went out back of the city and found myself in wild woods. I poked about in a dense cedar swamp. The usual fog came in. I lost my bearings and walked in a circle until I remembered that the wind was probably constant. Then I took a course by the wind and got out. Thankfully, I got a crow for the lecture.’
8 July 1887
‘Took passage aboard a small side[-]wheel steamer, the David Weston for Fredericton up the river. Next morning, arrived at the capit[a]l. . . I sketched the curious wood boats, two-masted schooners with tremendous sheer forward, loaded on deck with deals so that the hull[s] of the boats were actually submerged, all but the high nose of the bow. They came down wing-and-wing under a northwest breeze. Going back, it is said they make better time than the steamer. Here at Fredericton were the booms with their enormous quantities of logs from up river.
There was a tall bank of sawdust several miles below the city, and I went there and found hundreds of Bank swallows nesting in the face of the heap, which was as hard and firm as a bank of sand. I got several sets of eggs.’
* * *
Another recent Goose Lane diary volume concerns Robert Wyse. He was born in 1900, in Newcastle, New Brunswick, into a prosperous family, one of six children. The family soon moved to Moncton, 100 miles or so south, but also in New Brunswick. Robert was too young to serve in the early years of First World War, but managed to sign up for the RAF in 1918 – though he did not see any action. Twenty years later, he left New Brunswick, partly to escape an unhappy marriage (from which he had one son, Robert) and travelled to England where he joined the RAF, and trained as a gunner. After a year, he switched to work as a flight controller; and then, with Squadron 232, he found himself in the Far East.
Following a mis-handled Allied campaign on Sumatra, and a retreat to Java, Wyse, along with many tens of thousands of Allied troops, was captured by Japanese forces. He spent over three years a prisoner of war before being liberated in the late summer of 1945. Thereafter, he was hospitalised before returning home in late 1946. He divorced his first wife, and married Laura Teakles with whom he had a daughter, Ruth. However, his health never fully recovered, and he died in 1967.
Although prisoners of war were forbidden to keep diaries, Wyse did write a journal during his incarceration, hiding it in a bamboo pole beside his bed, for over two years. When the practice became too dangerous, he buried his notes (just as others did, including the more famous diarist in the same camp, Laurens van der Post). After the war, he managed to arrange for his notes to be returned to Canada where he and Laura’s sister transcribed them to a typescript. The original notes no longer exist, but Jonathan F Vance, professor of history at the University of Western Ontario, edited the typscript (deleting passages added after the war) for publication by Goose Lane as Bamboo Cage – The P.O.W. Diary of Flight Lieutenant Robert Wyse, 1942‐1943.
This is, in fact, the 13th volume in a series of Goose Lane books for the New Brunswick Military Heritage Series. Initiated in 2000 by the Military and Strategic Studies Program of the University of New Brunswick, its purpose is to inform the public of ‘the remarkable military heritage of the province, and to stimulate further research, education and publication in the field’.
Here are a few extracts from Bamboo Cage.
1 September 1942
‘Hurried in to lorries at 10 a.m. and departed shortly after, no waiting around with the Japanese. Lovely drive through thickly populated country to Soerabaja, the largest sea port in Java. Our prison here is a former race course and fair grounds, thick concrete walls, sentry boxes at the four corners, and guards perpetually patrolling through the atap huts. Every Nippon guard seen even at a great distance must be saluted or bowed to, and one must stand rigidly at attention until they are out of sight. Another search of our meagre possessions on arrival, very thorough and much more of our stuff taken. Saw a small British flag being stamped on. About 1,000 British troops here already, about 3,000 Dutch, some Australian, American, and all other nationalities represented. Managed to get some bed space on some bamboo raised up from the ground, most of the troops on the ground here, but it is the dry season.’
2 September 1942
‘Practically no outside labour here. The camp is horribly dusty and dirty but fortunately there are a few showers. The bog holes are a seething mass of microbe life. Wing Commander Cave’s party went to Batavia in March and they are here now, many officers and men that I knew. P/O Shutes … offers 5 guilders for my lighter. Woodford advises me to keep it for a better price.’
3 September 1942
‘Getting used to it but this is pretty hard living. Food even worse than at Malang and not so good for a Westerner. Small piece [of] bread in the morning with a cup of tea, bread very heavy and soggy. Lunch, boiled rice. It is generally too well cooked, naturally with no sugar, salt, or milk. Supper, steamed rice, a small ladle of stew (so called), no fat, no sugar. With a cup of tea, no accessories. That’s all there is, there ain’t no more. At the canteen you can buy cigarettes only – understand they used to sell tea and coffee.’
4 September 1942
‘At noon today informed of another move, don’t know where but think old English to be sorted out and confined together. Trying to sell my lighter at any price, sorry I didn’t take the five guilders, am stone broke. The Nippons had allowed us to keep some of our English iron rations. Now the C.O. is giving us each a share. I had a share in a can of apples, a small spoonful, a half a can of bully beef and an eighth of a tin of potatoes – that, with my noontime ration, à la Dai Nippon, made one good bellyful. . .
There is damn-all charity between the British prisoners of war. Never in all my life have I seen such examples of selfishness. There was a riot over a case of corned beef, several boys injured. [Just] a spirit of ‘the hell with you, jack, I am looking after myself.’ Officers and men alike sit in front of others and fairly gloat over food that they have been able to purchase. When the capitulation came, huge impresses were handed out to officers for disbursement and the common good, [but] large sums of it remain in their own pockets and those of their friends. Tonight I sold a pair of socks, a gift, which I do not need, for 2; also a half cupful of petrol for 1. Our atap huts present a lively spectacle tonight as the Dutch come from all over to buy up the few remaining possessions of the English. I don’t know who wins. Our lads need the money for food, they certainly don’t need many clothes in this climate, but we have been at great pains to issue them with shirts and shorts to cover their nakedness, and the minute they get a new shirt off they go to see how many guilders they can get, guilders of course representing food.’
William Dyott, a soldier who served all over the world for the British army and faithfully kept a diary, was born exactly a quarter of a millennium ago today. He’s not well remembered – does not even have a Wikipedia entry for the moment! – but the published diary is available online and provides some extraordinary colourful descriptions of his experiences abroad, such as when he was sent to the West Indies to deal with a revolt by slaves.
Dyott was born in Staffordshire on 17 April 1761 into a well-off family, and was schooled privately before attending a military college near London. He joined the army in 1781, and served in Ireland, Nova Scotia (where he became friends with Prince William, later William IV), West Indies (to help quell a negro uprising influenced by French revolutionists) and Egypt. He rose rapidly through the ranks, becoming a lieutenant-colonel in 1795, a major-general in 1808, and a lieutenant-general in 1813, although by then he was no longer on active service. During his service he also travelled to Spain and The Netherlands, where he took part in the disastrous Walcheren Expedition.
For a short while, in 1804, Dyott took up duties as an aide-de-campe to George III, accompanying members of the royal family to the theatre, and playing cards with the queen and her daughters. He married Eleanor Thompson in 1806, and they had two sons and a daughter. However, she eloped with another man in 1814. A year earlier, he had inherited the family estates near Lichfield, and thenceforward became much concerned with agricultural policies. He was a local Justice of the Peace, and a neighbour/friend of Robert Peel. He died in 1847. There is a short biography of Dyott at the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (which requires a log in). Otherwise, though, more details are available online in the introduction to his diary.
From the age of 20 until the year before he died, Dyott kept a diary filling 16 volumes. This was edited by Reginald W Jeffery and published in two volumes by Archibald Constable in 1907 as Dyott’s Diary, 1781-1845: a selection from the journal of William Dyott, sometime general in the British army and aide-de-camp to His Majesty King George III. The full texts are available at Internet Archive.
Here are two extracts from Dyott’s time in the West Indies.
16 March 1796
‘Employed in burying the dead, and sending away the wounded by sea to St George’s. I never beheld such a sight as Post Royal Hill, etc. The number of dead bodies and the smell was dreadful. The side of the hill on which the enemy endeavoured to make their retreat was extremely steep and thickly covered with wood, and the only method of discovering the killed was from the smell. It was near a fortnight after the action that many bodies were found. Nine days after the post was taken a mulatto man was discovered in the woods that had been wounded in three places two shots through his thigh. The only thing he had tasted was water, but to the astonishment of everybody he recovered.
The negroes and people of colour can certainly suffer and endure far greater torture than white people. I have seen two or three instances of this kind that astonished me. One in particular at Hooks Bay. Two negroes were taken prisoners the day we got possession of the post, and in order to secure them they were forced into a sort of arched place something like what I have seen under steps made use of to tie up a dog. There was just room for the poor devils to creep in on their hands and knees and to lie down. After they had got in, two soldiers of the 29th regiment put the muzzles of their firelocks to the doorplace and fired at them. I ran to see what the firing was, but before I got to the place they had fired a second round. On reaching the spot I made a negro draw out these miserable victims of enraged brutality. One of them was mangled in a horrid manner. The other was shot through the hip, the body, and one thigh, and notwithstanding all, he was able to sit up and to answer a number of questions that were asked him respecting the enemy. The poor wretch held his hand on the wound in his thigh, as if that only was the place he suffered from. The thigh bone must have been shattered to pieces, as his leg and foot were turned under him. The miserable being was not suffered to continue long in his wretchedness, as one of his own colour came up and blew his brains out sans ceremonie. This account does no credit to the discipline of the army. I own I was most completely ashamed of the whole proceeding, and said all I could to the General of the necessity of making an example to put a stop to these acts of wanton cruelty, being certain that nothing leads to anarchy and confusion in an army so soon as suffering a soldier in any instance to trespass the bounds of strict regularity, or to permit him to be guilty of an act of cruelty or injustice.
During the night of the 26th the enemy set fire to their works on Pilot Hill and evacuated the post. This post was situated about two miles from Post Royal on the coast. There was a most unfortunate accident happened in Hooks Bay on the 26th. The Ponsburne East Indiaman, that had brought part of the reinforcement from Barbadoes, drove from her anchors and went to pieces in a very short time. All the hands were saved, but every article of stores, ammunition, etc., was lost. It was an awful sight seeing the power of the element dashing to atoms in the space of two hours so stately a production of man’s art. This with the loss of a schooner drove on shore made it necessary to retain the post at Madam Hooks longer than was intended to my very great annoy, as a great quantity of provisions, etc. etc., were drifted on shore, which it was thought proper to destroy to prevent it falling into the enemy’s hands.’
14 May 1796
‘A vessel with Spanish colours came close in with the land, as if she intended going into Hooks Bay. On the supposition of her having a reinforcement for the brigands on board from the island of Trinidad, a party was sent to oppose their landing, but the vessel did not run into the bay. My tent was, I believe, infested with every species of reptile the island produces: a scorpion, lizard, tarantula, land-crab, and centipede had been caught by my black boy, and the mice were innumerable. I was prevented bathing in consequence of what is called in the West Indies the prickly heat. It is an eruption that breaks out all over the body, and from the violent itching and prickly sensation it has got the above appellation. All new-comers to the West Indies are subject to it, and when it is out it is considered as a sign of health. Bathing, I was told, was liable to drive it in. Nothing can equal the extreme unpleasant sensation, and people sometimes scratch themselves to that degree as to occasion sores. About this time our part of the army was suffering in a most shameful manner for the want of numerable articles in which it stood much in need. Neither wine or medicine for the sick, and not a comfort of any one kind for the good duty soldier; salt pork, without either peas or rice, for a considerable time, and for three days nothing but hard, dry, bad biscuit for the whole army, officers and men. Two days without (the soldiers’ grand comfort) grog.’
Soldier, politician and spymaster, Sir William Brereton – perhaps best remembered for besieging Chester during the Civil War – died 350 years ago today. As a youngish man, he travelled abroad, and kept detailed and interesting notes of his journeys, sometimes of local military tactics.
Brereton was born at Handforth, Cheshire, but lost his father when only six. He was educated at Brasenose College, Oxford, and then, when 23, was created a baron by Charles I. A year later he was elected MP for Cheshire but relinquished his seat so as to travel – to Holland, Scotland and Ireland. He married twice, once to Susannah who died in 1637, leaving two sons and two daughters, and once to Cicely, who also bore him two daughters (according to the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography). A staunch Puritan he advocated major reform of the Anglican church.
Brereton was re-elected to Parliament in 1640, and opposed the King on policies in many areas. After the outbreak of civil war in 1642, he was appointed a major-general of Parliament’s forces. He is recorded to have had particular skills in the areas of espionage and siege warfare. His greatest triumph is said to be the siege and capture of Chester, which took over one year to complete.
Brereton was one of very few leaders allowed to retain his military command and his seat in Parliament after the Self-Denying Ordinance. With the war over, Brereton was rewarded with Eccleshall Castle and the tenancy of Croydon Palace, the former home of the Archbishop of Canterbury in 1652. He died on 7 April 1661, according to Wikipedia, and further biographical information is also available from the British Civil Wars website
During his travels, Brereton kept journals, and these were edited by Edward Hawkins and published by the Chetham Society in 1844 under the title, Travels in Holland, the United Provinces, England, Scotland and Ireland, 1634–1635. Parts of the diary were republished in North Country Diaries by the Surtees Society in 1915. Both volumes are freely available at Internet Archive.
It is said that Brereton learned warfaring tactics abroad, in Holland, and there is some evidence of this in his diary, such as when he notes: ‘Mr Goodier told me of a strange deliverance of this town besieged, wherein the famine and pestilence raging, the town not being able to hold out any longer, the country was drowned by drawing up their sluices and cutting the banks, and the night following the wall in one place, convenient for the enemies to enter, fell down and broke down (a great breach); the noise whereof and the sudden eruption of the water took such impression of fear, and occasioned the apprehension of some further danger by some further design; whereupon they broke up their siege, and left the town. For this strange preservation a solemn day of thanksgiving kept yearly in this city.’
Here is Brereton’s first diary entry in 1634 (taken from the 1844 volume), and this is followed by a long entry in 1635 (taken directly from University College Cork website which has the Irish parts of the journal online).
17 May 1634.
‘We departed from London by water; we came to Gravesend about eight of the clock In the evening; we came in a light-horseman [small boat]; took water about three clock in afternoon. A dainty cherry orchard of Captain Lord’s, planted three years ago, near unto Thames, not forty roods distant. The stocks one yard and a half high; prosper well; but I conceive the top will in a short time be disproportionable to the stock. Very many of the trees bear. It is three acres of ground; planted four hundred and forty-odd trees. An old cherry orchard near adjoining nothing well set: this year the cherries sold for £20: it is but an acre of ground: the grass reserved and excepted. A proper ship came from Middleborough on Saturday at noon, 17 May.
Stiff N.W. wind all Sunday; turned E. on 19 Monday morn. Passed by Gravesend on Monday about four. Captain Boare went from Gravesend on 15 May; went to Rotterdam; returned thither 20. Another ship came in twenty-four hours from Brill to Gravesend.
A delicate kiln to burn chalk lime; it is the Duke of Lenox, near Gravesend, upon the river side; it is made of brick, narrow at bottom, round, and wider at top; it is emptied always at the bottom; they hook out so much as is cold, until they pull out fire, and then cease. It is supplied with fire and chalk at top; one basket of sea-coals proportioned to eight of chalk; the fire extinguisheth not from one end of the year to the other. When it is kindled, fire is put to the bottom: it is sold for a groat, one hoop burnt. The pit is in the side of an hill, which is thirty yards high; one of the workmen fell (with whom I conferred) from top to bottom, not slain, but bruised and still sore. An horse stuck by the fore-legs, and held and cried out like a child, and stuck until he was helped up by men.’
21 July 1635
‘We went home about eight hour, and came to Ballihack, a poor little village on this side the passage over the river of Waterford, which here is the broadest passage said to be in Ireland, and a most rough, troubled passage when the wind is anything high. Here last day the boat, wherein my Lord of Kildare came over, was in danger to be run under water by carrying too much sail, and running foul upon the passage boat. Down this river come all the shipping for Waterford. Here we saw the Ninth Whelp lying at anchor, to guard the fleet which now is ready to go hence to Bristoll fair. Sir Beverley Newcombe is captain of her, and is now at Waterford. They say there are about fifty sail to go to St. James fair at Bristoll. The Irish here use a very presumptuous proverb and speech touching this passage. They always say they must be at Bristoll fair, they must have a wind to Bristoll fair, and indeed it is observed they never fail of a wind to Bristoll fair; yea, though the fair be begun, and the wind still averse, yet still do they retain their confident presumption of a wind. It is most safe here to hire a boat to pass over in, not with horses, which is rowed over with four oars. I paid for the hire of it 2s. This is a full mile over. The passage boat which carries your horses will not carry at one time more than two or three horses. Here is far better coming into the boat and landing than at Port Patricke, but less and worse boats. On Munster side is good lodging and accommodation.
This day we passed over the land of a gentleman whose name is [. . .]. He died about seven days ago of a gangrene; his fingers and hands, toes and feet, rotted off, joint by joint. He was but a young man, of above 1,000£ per annum, and married an old woman, a crabbed piece of flesh, who cheated him with a 1,000£ she brought him, for which he was arrested within three days after his marriage.
We came to Waterford about three hour, and baited at the King’s Head, at Mr Wardes, a good house, and a very complete gentleman-like host. This town is reputed one of the richest towns in Ireland. It stands upon a river (called Watterford River), which maintaineth a sufficiently deep and safe channel even to the very quay, which, indeed, is not only the best and most convenient quay which I found in Ireland, but it is as good a quay as I have known either in England or observed in all my travels. A ship of three hundred may come close to these quays. This quay is made all along the river side without the walls, and divers fair and convenient buttresses made about twenty yards long, which go towards the channel. I saw the river at a spring tide flow even with the top of this quay, and yet near the quay a ship of three hundred ton full loaden may float at a low water. Upon this river stand divers forts and castles which command it. At the mouth of the river is there a fort called Duncannon, wherein lieth my Lord Esmond’s company, consisting of fifty good, expert soldiers. Here is also a company of fifty soldiers, which are under the command of Sir George Flowre, an ancient knight. These are disposed of in the fort, which is placed without the gate towards Caricke, a pretty little hold, which stands on high and commands the town. There stands upon this river the Carick twelve mile, hence, and Clonmell about eight mile thence; hither (as I have heard) the river flows. There is, seated upon this river also Golden Bridge, and there is a passage by water from Cullen [?] and Limbrecke. This is no barred, but a most bold haven, in the mouth whereof is placed an eminent tower, a sea mark, to be discerned at a great distance; yet this river runs so crooked as without a W. or N.W. Hence went a great fleet to Bristoll fair, who stayed long here waiting for a wind.
This city is governed by a mayor, bailiffs, and twelve aldermen. Herein are seven churches; there have been many more. One of these, Christ Church, a cathedral; St. Patrick’s, Holy Ghost, St. Stephen’s, St. John – but none of these are in good repair, not the cathedral, nor indeed are there any churches almost to be found in good repair. Most of the inhabitants Irish, not above forty English, and not one of these Irish goes to church. This town trades much with England, France, and Spain, and that which gives much encouragement hereunto is the goodness of the haven.
This town double-walled, and the walls maintained in good repair. Here we saw women in a most impudent manner treading clothes with their feet; these were naked to the middle almost, for so high were their clothes tucked up about them. Here the women of better rank and quality wear long, high laced caps, turned up round about; these are mighty high; of this sort I gave William Dale money to buy me one. Here is a good, handsome market-place, and a most convenient prison that I ever saw for the women apart, and this is a great distance from the men’s prison. Herein dwells a judicious apothecary, who hath been bred at Antwerpe, and is a traveller; his name is (as I take it) Mr Jarvis Billiard, by whose directions and good advice I found much good, and through God’s mercy recovered from my sickness. After I had dined here, I went about four or five hour towards Caricke, where I stayed at a ferry about a mile from Waterford a whole hour for the boat, wherein we and our six horses were carried over together.
Hence to Caricke is accounted nine miles, good large ones, but very fair way, and very ready to find. We came to Caricke about nine hour. We lodged at the sign of the Three Cuts at Mr Croummer’s, where is a good neat woman. Here my disease increasing, I wanted good accommodation.
Here is my Lord of Ormond’s house, daintily seated on the river bank, which flows even to the walls of his house, which I went to see, and found in the outer court three or four hay-stacks, not far from the stable-door; this court is paved. There are also two other courts; the one a quadrangle. The house was built at twice. If his land were improved and well planted, it would yield him great revenue; for it is said he hath thirty-two manors and manor-houses, and eighteen abbeys. This town of Carick is seated upon the bank of a fine, pleasant, navigable river, but it is a most poor place, and the houses many quite ruinated, others much decayed; here is no trade at all. This hath been a town of strength and defence; it is walled about, and with as strong a wall, and that to walk upon, as is West Chester; the church in no good repair; nor any of the churches in this country, which argues their general disaffection unto religion. Here in this town is the poorest tavern I ever saw – a little low, thatched Irish house, not to be compared unto Jane Kelsall’s of the Green at Handforth. ‘Twixt Waterford and this town are many spacious sheep-pastures, and very fair large sheep as most in England; the greatest part of the land hereabouts is converted unto this use.’
Albania’s Greatest Friend: Aubrey Herbert and the Making of Modern Albania is being published today (at least according to Amazon’s website) by I B Tauris, a leading publisher of non-fiction books on history, politics and international relations. The book is based on the diaries and papers of Aubrey Herbert, a young aristocrat – said to be the inspiration for Sandy Arbuthnut, the fictional hero created by John Buchan – who travelled extensively to Albania before the First World War, and did much to help it become an independent nation. Some of Herbert’s First World War diaries are freely available online.
Herbert was born at Highclere, near Newbury, Berkshire, in 1880. He was the second son of the 4th Earl of Carnarvon, a landowner, British cabinet minister and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. After being schooled at Eton and studying history at Balliol College, Oxford, he became an (unpaid) honorary attaché in the diplomatic service, firstly in Tokyo and then in Constantinople. Subsequently, he travelled extensively, mostly in the Turkish provinces, learning to speak half a dozen languages. In particular he became a passionate advocate of Albanian independence, visiting the country many times.
In 1910, Herbert married Mary Vesey, daughter of Viscount de Vesci, and they would have four children, the youngest of whom married Eveyln Waugh. In 1911, Herbert became a Conservative Member of Parliament for the Yeovil Division of Somerset, a constituency which he held till his death. With the outbreak of the First World War, Herbert, despite poor eyesight, obtained a commission in the Irish Guards. He was wounded and taken prisoner in France, but escaped. Subsequently, he worked for military intelligence, involved in the Gallipoli Campaign, among others, and in negotiations with the Turks. In the last months of the war he was head of the English Mission attached to the Italian Army in Albania, and held the temporary rank of Lieutenant-Colonel.
Herbert was twice offered, unofficially, the throne of Albania, once before the war when he declined, and once after, when circumstances conspired against him. However, his efforts are considered to have helped Albania become an independent nation in 1913, and to its becoming a member of the League of Nations in 1920. He died young, from blood poisoning after a dental operation in 1923. Further biographical information is available at Wikipedia and a website about Exmoor National Park. It is widely assumed, says Wikipedia, that Herbert was the inspiration for the character Sandy Arbuthnot, a hero in several John Buchan novels.
While abroad, Herbert was an inveterate diary keeper, and some of his diary material has recently been collated and edited by Bejtullah Destani and Jason Tomes for Albania’s Greatest Friend: Aubrey Herbert and the Making of Modern Albania: Diaries and Papers 1904-1923. The book – which according to Amazon is due out today – is being published by I B Tauris.
Here is Tauris’s publicity for the book: ‘Impeccably aristocratic and eccentric in a uniquely English tradition, Aubrey Herbert was at first sight an incongruous champion of Albanian nationalism, to say the least. Tall, slender and slightly stooped, with a moustache and heavily lidded eyes, Herbert wore a monocle and had white patches in his hair caused by an attack of alopoecia in 1911. Within England – let alone abroad – he cut a colourful figure.
But Herbert was also an acclaimed linguist, intrepid traveller and an outspoken and independent thinker, who became enthralled by the Balkans on his first visit to the region in 1904 as honorary attache at the British Embassy in Constantinople. From that time until his death in 1923, he was indefatigable in campaigning for the Albanian cause. He returned frequently to the country and gained respect as an expert on the region, even being honoured with repeated requests that he assume the Albanian throne. Albania’s Greatest Friend charts Herbert’s involvement with Albania over the course of his life, in his own words, through his own extensive diaries and letters.
It paints an authoritative portrait not just of a remarkable Englishman but also sheds fresh light on the wider Albanian national movement and a fascinating period in European history.’
As early as 1919, though, Herbert had published Mons, Anzac & Kut (Hutchinson & Co) based on, and quoting from, his diaries, with an introduction by Desmond MacCarthy, a literary critic working for the New Statesman. The full text of this book is available online at the Great War Primary Documents Archive.
Here is Herbert’s own preface:
‘Journals, in the eyes of their author, usually require an introduction of some kind, which, often, may be conveniently forgotten. The reader is invited to turn to this one if, after persevering through the pages of the diary, he wishes to learn the reason of the abrupt changes and chances of war that befell the writer. They are explained by the fact that his eyesight did not allow him to pass the necessary medical tests. He was able, through some slight skill, to evade these obstacles in the first stage of the war; later, when England had settled down to routine, they defeated him, as far as the Western Front was concerned. He was fortunately compensated for this disadvantage by a certain knowledge of the East, that sent him in various capacities to different fronts, often at critical times. It was as an Interpreter that the writer went to France. After a brief imprisonment, it was as an Intelligence Officer that he went to Egypt, the Dardanelles and Mesopotamia.
The first diary was dictated in hospital from memory and rough notes made on the Retreat from Mons. For the writing of the second diary, idle hours were provided in the Dardanelles between times of furious action. The third diary, which deals with the fall of Kut, was written on the Fly boats of the River Tigris. [. . .]
This diary claims to be no more than a record of great and small events, a chronicle of events within certain limited horizons – a retreat, a siege and an attack. Writing was often hurried and difficult, and the diary was sometimes neglected for a period. If inaccuracies occur, the writer offers sincere apologies.’
And here are a few diary extracts, culled from the text in Mons, Anzac & Kut.
23 April 1915
‘I have just seen the most wonderful procession of ships I shall ever see. In the afternoon we left for the outer harbour. The wind was blowing; there was foam upon the sea and the air of the island was sparkling. With the band playing and flags flying, we steamed past the rest of the fleet. Cheers went from one end of the harbour to the other. Spring and summer met. Everybody felt it more than anything that had gone before.
After we had passed the fleet, the pageant of the fleet passed us. First the Queen Elizabeth, immense, beautiful lines, long, like a snake, straight as an arrow. This time there was silence. It was grim and very beautiful. We would rather have had the music and the cheers . . . This morning instructions were given to the officers and landing arrangements made. We leave at 1.30 to-night. The Australians are to land first. This they should do to-night. Then we land. . . Naval guns will have to cover our advance, and the men are to warned that the naval fire is very accurate. They will need some reassuring if the fire is just over their heads. The 29th land at Helles, the French in Asia near Troy. This is curious, as they can’t support us or we them. the Naval Division goes north and makes a demonstration . . . The general opinion is that very many boats must be sunk from the shore. Having got ashore, we go on to a rendezvous. We have no native guides. . . The politicians are very unpopular.’
25 April 1915
‘I got up at 6.30. Thoms, who shared my cabin, had been up earlier. There was a continuous roll of thunder from the south. Opposite to us the land rose steeply in cliffs and hills covered with the usual Mediterranean vegetation. The crackle of rifles sounded and ceased in turns. . . Orders were given to us to start at 8.30 a.m. . . The tows were punctual. . . We were ordered to take practically nothing but rations. I gave my sleeping-bag to Kyriakidis, the old Greek interpreter whom I had snatched from the Arcadia, and took my British warm and my Burberry. . . The tow was unpleasantly open to look at; there was naturally no shelter of any kind. We all packed in, and were towed across the shining sea towards the land fight. . . We could see some still figures lying on the beach to our left, one or two in front. Some bullets splashed round.
As we were all jumping into the sea to flounder ashore, I heard cries from the sergeant at the back of the tow. He said to me: “These two men refuse to go ashore.” I turned and saw Kristo Keresteji and Yanni of Ayo Strati with mesmerized eyes looking at plops tha the bullets made in the water, and with their minds evidently fixed on the Greek equivalent of “Home, Sweet Home.” They were, however, pushed in, and we all scrambled on to that unholy land. The word was then, I thought rather unnecessarily, passed that we were under fire.’
26 April 1915
‘At 5 o’clock yesterday our artillery began to land. It’s a very rough country; the Mediterranean macchia everywhere, and steep, winding valleys. We slept on a ledge a few feet above the beech . . . Firing went on all night. In the morning it was very cold, and we were all soaked. The Navy, it appeared, had landed us in the wrong place. This made the Army extremely angry, though as things turned out it was the one bright spot. Had we landed anywhere else, we should have been wiped out.’
28 April 1915
‘I got up at 4 a.m. this morning, after a fine, quiet night, and examined a Greek deserter from the Turkish Army. He said many would desert if they did not fear for their lives. The New Zealanders spare their prisoners.
Last night, while he was talking to me, Colonel C. was hit by a bit of shell on his hat. He stood quite still while a man might count three, wondering if he was hurt. He then stooped down and picked it up. At 8 p.m. last night there was furious shelling in the gully. Many men and mules hit. General Godley was in the Signalling Office, on the telephone, fairly under cover. I was outside with Pinwell, and got grazed, just avoiding the last burst. Their range is better. Before this they have been bursting the shrapnel too high. It was after 4 p.m. Their range improved so much. My dugout was shot through five minutes before I went there. So was Shaw’s . . .’
11 a.m. All firing except from Helles has ceased. Things look better. The most the men can do is to hang on. General Godley has been very fine. The men know it.
4.30 p.m. Turks suddenly reported to have mounted huge howitzer on our left flank, two or three miles away. We rushed all the ammunition off the beach, men working like ants, complete silence and furious work. We were absolutely enfiladed, and they could have pounded us, mules and machinery, to pulp, or driven us into the gully and up the hill, cutting us off from our water and at the same time attacking us with shrapnel. The ships came up and fired on the new gun, and proved either that it was a dummy or had moved, or had been knocked out. It was a cold, wet night.’
One of Britain’s early diarists, Walter Powell, was born 430 years ago this day. He appears to have been a reasonably successful businessman, acting as a steward for the Earl of Worcester, among other occupations. Though his diary – which covers half a century – is little more than a list of events, these are often surprisingly interesting, as when Powell records, during the Civil War, ‘Trowps deuouring my hay’.
Walter Powell was born on born 25 March 1581, into a Welsh family that claimed to be of Norman origin. He married Margaret Evans in 1604, and initially they lived in Llanarth but then moved to Llantilio in 1611. Powell worked as a steward for the Earl of Worcester, and for some other estates. He also leased a mill, it seems, for at least two decades.
Powell died in 1655 (or 1656 according to the modern dating system), and is remembered largely because he left behind a diary. This was edited by Joseph Bradney and published by John Wright, Bristol, in 1907 as The Diary of Walter Powell of Llantilio, Crossenny in the County of Monmouth, Gentleman, 1603-1654. It is largely made up of single line entries recording events, but does provide information on his family, farming and estate work, and makes brief references to the effects of the Civil War. The full text is available at Internet Archive.
In his introduction Bradney says: ‘It might be wished that [Powell] had said more about the Civil Wars, and, in particular, the siege of Raglan. On the 25th of May, 1646, a few days before the siege began, he was committed to prison in Raglan Castle for an offence he does not name. The siege began on the 3rd of June, and on the 8th of June, on account of his age, he was allowed by Lord Worcester to depart, the besiegers also permitting him to go home. . . During his absence his house in Penrhos had been plundered by the Parliamentary forces. Safe at home again he settled down to business as though no disturbances were taking place in the kingdom, his diary containing the usual notes as to lending money, collecting rents, and attending sessions.’
Bradney also makes this comment: ‘It is worthy of note that his daughter Anne, who was bom at the vicarage 23 May, 1611, married her husband John Watkins 11 June, 1621, she being therefore only slightly over 10 years of age. Her husband was baptized 2 June, 1609, so that he was but a trifle over 12 years old, both younge as the Diarist observes.’
Here are a few verbatim entries from Powell’s diary, from 1611, being exactly four centuries ago, and from 1645-1646, during the Civil War.
‘I removed from lanarth to the viccarage of lantilio gressenny to dwell 27 Apr.
and I had a graunt from mr Sterrell of the ffarme for 21 yeares 13 Maij.
My father fell sicke 5 Junij, & died 19 Junij
Sould the house & lands late Rosser d’d wayth to Wm Sr Hughe for 1ooli ijs 23 Jan’ij.
John Evans & my sister his wief came to liue togeather as man & wief 24 Jan’ij.’
‘this was the greatest yeare of ffruite that eu’ i saw. I made 50 hogsheades of sider of the tieth of both p’ishes.’
‘4 Apr’, Prince Rupert at Bergeveny
6 Apr’, received the sacram’t at lanarth
5 May, mr John Powell’s testam’t
15 May, Jo: Charles & Jane Wms maried.
24 May, Moore Jones was buried, Conisbye’s trowps deuouring my hay meadowes.
3 July, King Charles at Raglan & 10 July at Cardiff
18 July, the affray wth Grossem’t men for Stedda’s
19 July, I brought present to the kinge at Raglan
21 Julij, Howell Jones wief died & my children removed to lanvapley
2 Aug:, tieth demised to Rich: tho: d’d, & Phe’ d’d John.
1 Sept’, Rendevous at Perlleny, I was not there
2 sept’, siedge at hereff’ removed after 6 weekes
7 sept’. The king at Raglan againe
10 sept’, Bristow taken by the p’liam’t lost by Prince Rupert.
24 sept’, Edward John James Watkin died
2 octobr’, leeches vsed p’ Bray to me, & Chepstow was taken p’ p’hament.
13 & 14 octobr’, Washington at Bergeveny
20 octob’, my sonne Richard went to Bristow & 8 die was imprisoned at langely coming back.
24, my daughter margaret brought to bedd of her first sonne.
3 Novemb’, m’ris Bray at my house.
7 Novemb’, I myself removed to lyve in Penrose.
9 Novembr’, my daughter Blaunch died.
12 Novemb’, Elenor James widow buried
23 Novemb’, John Evans & An Young hurt at tregare
27, the p’liamt army at my house, Collonell Morgan coming from Gloucester towards Bergeveny.
12 decembr’, my wief removed to Penros to dwell.
18 decemb’, hereff’ taken p’ p’lam’t by Coll: Morgan.
19 decemb’, Valentine Jones lewis prison’ to Raglan.
17 Jan’ij, Tho: lewis my man’s father slayne.
16 m’cij, at Vske w’th maghen
14 m’cij, Collonell Charles P’ger2 at lanvapley to burne my hay.
19 m’che, I payd 28s at Raglan p’ muskett
23 m’cij, m’ris Nelson’s oxen plundered.
26 m’cij, hay burnt at lantilio by the souldiers of Monmoth.’
‘29 M’cij, I & my wief rec’ sacram’t at lanarth
1 Apr’, Tho: & Besse my serv’ts maried.
18, my sonne Richard abused at Grossemount by Bissley & Tho: Chr’; do’r Bray died.
10 May, Lucas hurt by Tho: James Jo: Howell.
17 May, I received the sacram’t at lanarth.
25 May, I was comitted prison’ at Raglan to the marshall of the Garison, where I remayned close till 8 Junij p’xo.
29 May, my house was plundered at Penros by the p’liament forces.
3 Junij, the siedge at Raglan began. Raglan yealded vpp 19 Augusti p’xo.
8 Junij, I was suffered to come out throughe the leaguer.
9 et 10 Julij, Wm loup at my house, & he allowed contribuc’on & quartering to Andr’ lewis & his sone.
sould black horse to Rich: Band 5li
21 Julij, at Vske contra g’ll’m p’ le taxac’ons
30 Julij, Goodrich castle taken for ye p’liamt
6 Aug., Gen’all ffayrfax came to the leaguer.
19 Aug:, Raglan Castle yealded vpp.
21 sept’, Charles came from Bristow to my house.
24 Sept’, I was at Sadlebow hill.’
It is 1942, and wounded are pouring into Palestine because the hospitals in Cairo are overflowing. The Countess of Ranfurly, whose husband is a prisoner of war in Italy, is helping at a Jerusalem hospital, being taught to shoot, and scribbling in her diary whenever possible. But she is also enjoying society. She confides in her diary, for example, how, dining with the Duke of Gloucester, she suggests the rubber shortage is worse for women than for men, and then, embarrassingly, is obliged to explain her point – ‘I said it may become difficult to obtain elastic girdles and that bras are very dependent on elastic, but I dodged mentioning needs further south.’ Weeks later corsets arrive in the post from India, from the Duke; and the Countess then tells her diary about how she fretted over the wording of a thank you telegram. The colourful Countess died ten years ago today.
Hermione Llewellyn was born in 1913, and brought up on her grandfather’s estate in Baglan, Wales, by apparently dysfunctional parents: her father was a gambler and her mother a manic depressive. They separated when Hermione was still a teenager. Her elder brother, whom she adored, was killed in an air crash. After studying secretarial skills, she went to Australia in 1937, and became the personal assistant to the Governor of New South Wales. There she met Daniel Knox, 6th Earl of Ranfurly.
Back in Britain, the couple met again and married in 1939. When her husband was called up for service in the army, Hermione broke the rules by travelling out to the Egypt to be with him; although, once there, she found if difficult to find work. She was expelled from the country, but returned secretly, only to suffer when her husband went missing. Nevertheless, she remained in the Middle East (becoming a favourite among the rich, royal and famous passing through); and Ranfurly’s cook/butler, a man named Whitaker, stayed with her. After three years in an Italian prison, Ranfurly eventually escaped and the couple were reunited. With the war over, Ranfurly worked in insurance, until Winston Churchill appointed him in 1953 to be Governor of Bahamas.
Horrified by the lack of education resources on the island, Hermione asked friends to send unwanted books. Thus, she was able to launch the Ranfurly Library Service in Nassau. The couple returned to Ranfurly’s Buckinghamshire estate in the late 1950s, where Ranfurly took up farming, and Hermione helped develop Book Aid International. By 1994, the charity had sent an estimated 15 million books to over 70 countries. She died on 11 February 2001. The Daily Telegraph’s obituary and Wikipedia have more biographical information, and the Bahamas Information Service reported, a few years later, that the couple’s only daughter, Lady Caroline Simmonds, had presented a new consignment of books to the Minister of Education.
For much of her life, starting aged only 5, Hermione kept a diary. On returning from the Bahamas, the writer Peter Fleming helped secure her a contract for publication of some extracts. However, she changed her mind about the project, and it was only much later, after the death of her husband in 1988, that she began again to edit the letters and diaries, partly with the help of her friend and neighbour Lord Carrington. Heinemann published them in 1994 – To War with Whitaker – The Wartime Diaries of the Countess of Ranfurly 1939-1945 – to much acclaim. The Daily Telegraph said the book was one of the ‘most delightful memoirs of recent times’.
In her introduction, the Countess says, ‘Since I was about five years old I have kept a diary. Though I am now eighty, most of these have survived my many adventures and travels and sometimes I glance at them to remember with laughter. . . My diaries, written mostly at night and always in haste, in nurseries, school rooms, cars, boats, aeroplanes and sometimes in loos, expose how we all arrive, helpless, innocent and ignorant; and then, as we step gingerly into the jungle, show how afraid, selfish, show-off and silly we often are. Mine also prove how lucky I have always been. Most of the creatures in my jungle have been extra special.’
Here are a few extracts from To War with Whitaker.
26 May 1942
‘Jerusalem: We had an official dinner for HRH Duke of Gloucester who is staying with us. He is visiting troops all over the Middle East and next month he is going to India. His itinerary is enough to give anyone a stroke. At dinner there was a discussion about the rubber shortage and, stupidly, I chipped in and said I thought this news was worse for the women than for men. HRH fixed me with an amused look and demanded that I explain exactly what I meant. I said it may become difficult to obtain elastic girdles and that bras are very dependent on elastic, but I dodged mentioning needs further south.’
26 June 1942
‘Wounded are pouring into Palestine because the hospitals in Egypt are overflowing. Each day between one and five I go down to a hospital in Jerusalem to help in the wards. I have no training so I do all the odd jobs such as washing soldiers, making beds and emptying things. Today I washed four heads which were full of sand. I am learning a lot about pain and courage and getting used to smells and sights. The soldiers make fun of everything and, even in the long ward where the serious cases are, no one ever grumbles. I cannot describe the courage of these men. Only when they ask me to help them to write home do I glimpse their real misery: some of them are so afraid their families will not want them back now they are changed. They call me ‘Sugar’.’
12 July 1942
‘While we were talking several people joined us and soon an argument began as to whether we can hold the Germans in Egypt and what will happen if we don’t. There was talk of evacuation which I still find rather a sore subject. ‘Lord Byron said women and cows should never run,’ I said. A little man who was standing nearby turned round – he had a red, rather belligerent face: ‘And what use would you be?’ he asked. Robin came to my rescue: She would fight with the rest of us,’ he said. ‘Can you shoot? the stranger asked me. I shook my head – I was beginning to feel foolish. Red Face glared: ‘Well,’ he said, ‘I like that bit about Lord Byron. I’ll teach you to shoot. Be at the police station on the Jaffa Road at six tomorrow.’ He stumped off before I could ask his name.’
13 July 1942
‘This evening I went straight from the hospital to the police station on the Jaffa Road. Red Face was waiting for me in a bare Arab room. I asked his name. ‘Call me Abercrombie,’ he said, ‘it’s as good as any other. Now sit down,’ he continued, ‘I shall tell you all I know. I was taught in America by “G” men and I am a bloody fine shot. Make the gun part of your arm. . . He showed me how to hold it easily in my hand, how to cock it and recock it without moving anything but my fingers and wrist. ‘Never pull the trigger,’ he said. ‘Your gun is like an orange in the palm of your hand. You must squeeze that orange.’ . . .
He took me over to the range. It was dark inside and after the stark Palestinian sun I could not see. ‘There are six dummy men in here,’ he said, ‘stay where you are and use your eyes. Kill them.’ He was unsparing. I shot with my right hand, with my left hand, and with both hands. I hated the noise and blinked my eyes. My wrist wobbled; my mind wobbled. He made me go on. Sometimes I shot in the dark. Sometimes he turned on the light. He bawled. I shot. ‘One, two. One, two. Now left. Now right. Now both together. Squeeze that orange. Keep your eyes open.’ Sweating and shy I plugged on, standing close-to and then far from his life-size dummies. After an hour he told me to return at the same time tomorrow.’
16 July 1942
‘A magnificent parcel, covered in tape and seals, arrived for me from India. Inside were two pairs of old-fashioned corsets with bones and laces. They were sent by HRH The Duke of Gloucester. Nick and I had an argument as to how one should thank one of the Royal Family for a present of corsets. Whichever way we put it looked disrespectful. Finally, we sent a telegram saying: ‘Reinforcements received. Positions now held. Most grateful thanks.’ ’
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