The Indonesia Historic Collections Pre Colonial Era(Before 1586)

Pre-Dutch colonial era

Early history

Indian scholars have written about Dwipantara or Dwipa Javanese Hindu kingdom in Java and Sumatra around 200 BC. Initial physical evidence that the date is from the 5th century the two kingdoms patterned Hinduism: Kingdom of West Java Tarumanagara master and the Kingdom of Kutai in coastal Mahakam River, Kalimantan. In 425 Buddhism reached the area.

When Europe entered the Renaissance, the archipelago has had inherited thousands of years old civilizations with the two great kingdoms of Sriwijaya in Sumatra and Majapahit in Java, plus dozens of small kingdoms which often becomes a more powerful neighbor vazal or connected to each other in a kind of bond trading ( such as in Maluku).

Hindu-Buddhist kingdom
History of Nusantara in the era of Hindu-Buddhist kingdom
Inscription of King Purnawarman monuments of Taruma

In the 4th century until the 7th century in the region of West Java, there are Hindu-Buddhist kingdom that is patterned Tarumanagara kingdom, followed by the Sundanese kingdom until the 16th century. During the 7th century until the 14th century, Buddhist kingdom of Srivijaya in Sumatra growing rapidly. Explorers Chinese I Ching visited the capital of Palembang around the year 670. At the height of glory, the Srivijaya controlled as far as West Java and the Malay Peninsula. The 14th century also witnessed the rise of a Hindu kingdom in East Java, Majapahit. Majapahit Patih between the years 1331 to 1364, Gajah Mada managed to obtain power over the territory that is now mostly Indonesia and almost all the Malay Peninsula. The legacy of the Gajah Mada, including codification of law and in Javanese culture, as seen in the epic Rama

400: Indian Immigrants to the Hindu king of the kingdom of Kutai, forming the first Hindu kingdoms in the archipelago. Yupa and Lesong Stone Inscription by King Mulawarman mark era of history.
 525: Tribe Malays who have got the influence of India introduced the system of the kingdom to the Austronesian peoples in the valley of the river Tabalong Maanyan tribes and hill tribes so that the establishment of the Kingdom Tanjungpuri / Nan Sarunai kingdom centered in the Cape.
 600: Some Proto Maanyan Dayak tribes migrated to Madagascar.
 700: Effect of the kingdom of Srivijaya Malay and marked the discovery of the Buddha statue and a stone inscribed alphabet Dipamkara Pallawa “siddha” from the 7th century in the Amas river, South Kalimantan.
 745: Arrival of Islam in the archipelago was first marked in the invention Batu Nisan Sandai Sandai, Ketapang territory of the Kingdom Tanjungpura bertarikh 127 Hijri (745 AD).
 1076: Kingdom of Bulungan Bulungan centered in the region until the year 1156.
 1156: Kingdom Centre Bulungan move to the coast, in the Kayan River area until 1216.
 1222: The establishment of the Kingdom of Singhasari, one is the Kingdom Bakulapura province in southwestern Borneo.
 1292: Queen The Return Nata Pali I ruled the Kingdom of Hedgehog, West Kalimantan.
 1293: The establishment of the Kingdom of Majapahit in the long run influence covers the whole of Borneo.
 1300: Supreme Deity Aji Batara Sakti Kukar I became King until the year 1325. He established his kingdom at the Stone Edge is now called the Kutai Lama.
 1318: Odorico da Pordenone visited an Italian explorer of Borneo.
 1325: Aji Batara Supreme Majesty became King Nira Kukar II until the year 1360.
 1340: Patih Gumantar Mempawah ruled in the kingdom.
 1360: Emperor Sultan Aji Kukar III became King until the year 1420. Even though the king had not embraced Islam, from his title suggests is the emergence of Islamic influence.
 1362: Nan Sarunai Usak Java, repeated attacks by Marajampahit (Majapahit) against the Kingdom of Nan Sarunai / Royal Kuripan led away to the hill tribe hill tribe Maanyan Meratus and withdrew to the area occupied by the tribe Lawangan.
 1365: Nagarakretagama mpu Prapanca composed by mentioning the countries in Nusa Tanjungnagara which is under the protection of Majapahit under the duke of Gajah Mada countries Kapuas, Katingan, Sampit, City of Linga, the City Waringin, Sambas, Lawai, Kadandangan, Landa, Samadang , Tirem, sobbed, Barune, Kalka, Saludung, Solot, Sand, Barito, Sawaku, Tabalong, Cape Kutei and Tanjungpura Malano on the island. [5]
[Edit] Age of Early Islamic Empire
 1383: The title of Awang Alak Betatar Aji became Sultan of Brunei I through the year 1402.
 1385: Dara Juanti, King Sintang to-9 proposed by the duke of Logender from Majapahit.
 1387: Empire State was founded by Ampu Jatmika Dipa from Keling (South India), but according to Veerbek (1889:10) Keling is Majapahit in the southwest province of Kadiri.
 1394: Kingdom of Tidung Pimping centered in the west and the Yellow Land until the year 1557
 1400: Baddit Dipattung, King Berau I with the central government in Lati River, Powder Mountain, Berau.
 1405: King of Puni from western Borneo arrived in China and requested that the area to send tribute to China is no longer to Java. This king died in China. Until the year 1425 Puni relationship with China began to rare. [6]
 1407: Settlement Hanafi Muslim Hui Chinese first established in Sambas. [7]
 1408: Pateh Berbai II became the Sultan of Brunei until the year 1425.
 1420: Aji King Mandarsyah Kukar IV became King until the year 1475. Islam arrived in the Kutai during his reign was brought by Mr. parangan riding.
 1425: Sharif Ali, a son of Sultan of Brunei who came from Mecca III was crowned as the Sultan of Brunei until the year 1432.
 1429: Bhre Tanjungpura held by Manggalawardhani Dyah Suragharini [= hold dear Princess Bubble?] Daughter of Bhre Tumapel II (= brother Suhita) power until the year 1464.
 1431: The city became the center of the Kingdom Tanjungpura Sukadana until the year 1724 since the government Tunjung Coral Prince (1431-1450).
 1432: Duke Agong IV becomes Sultan of Brunei until the year 1485.
 1441: A Muslim’s death with tombstones of andesitic rocks found in the Sacred Seven, District Ketapang Arab writing bertarikh year 1363 Saka or 1441 AD Tombstone shapes derived from the last century Majapahit.
 1472: title of Prince Raden Ismahayana Dipati Old Cape Coral became King of Hedgehogs until 1542.
 1475: The establishment of the Sultanate of Borneo Demak sphere of influence reaches as Tanjungpura, Lawai and Banjarmasin.Aji Tumenggung Bayabaya Prince was crowned King of Paser Kukar V until the year 1545.
 1478: Maharaja titled Raden Breech Sekar Sari Kaburungan became King of Daha State based on the Nagara. Islam came during his reign, because his son married a daughter of Sunan Giri.
 1485: Sultan Bolkiah of Brunei becomes V until the year 1524.
[Edit] Coming of Age of Early Europeans
 1504: Between the years 1504 to 1507, Ludovico He Varthema an Italian explorer visiting Borneo. [8]
 1516: Princess Paser Petung became ruler until 1567. Paser the first ruler of this comes from Kuripan (State Daha).
 1518: Lorenzo de Gomez visited the island of Borneo [9]
 1519: Prince and Duke in Lawai Tanjungpura subject to Pati Unus.
 1520: Magalhaens visiting Borneo. [10] Prince of Indian descent founded the Empire State Daha Sultanate Banjarmasin Banjar and became the first king who holds the Sultan. [11]
 1524: Abdul Kahar VI became Sultan of Brunei until the year 1530.
 1526: On September 24 Suriansyah, I embraced Islam Sultan Banjar is celebrated as the Day Banjarmasin City. The newly established Kingdom of escape from the Empire State for the support of the Sultanate of Demak Daha. [11]
 1530: The relationship of friendship and Brunei Portuguese [12]
 1533: Saiful Rizal became the Sultan of Brunei VII until the year 1581.
 1538: Kingdom of Tanjungpura led by Panembahan Kelang (1538-1550)
 1545: Aji King of Crown Majesty Nature Kukar VI became King until the year 1610, the first ruler who embraced Islam Kutai.
 1546: King Demak III Sultan Trenggana (Ka Tung lo) attacked the eastern island of Java. [13] Effect of dominion to Borneo. He received tributes from Sutan Banjarmasin.
 1550: Sultan Rahmatullah became Banjar II until the year 1570. After the collapse of Demak, New York no longer send a tribute to the government in Java.
 1557: Degree Rasyd Amiril Datoe Radja Laoet Tidung ruled the kingdom until the year 1571 located in the Tarakan Pamusian East region.
 1567: Aji Mas Indra became the ruler Paser regent until 1607.
 1570: Sultan Banjar Hidayatullah I to III to the year 1595. In his administration, Mataram attack Banjarmasin and charming Crown Prince Ratu Bagus in Tuban.
 1571: Amiril Pengiran Tidung Dipati I served the King until the year 1613.
 1581: Shah became Sultan of Brunei Brunei VIII until the year 1582.
 1582: Muhammad Hasan became the Sultan of Brunei IX until year 1598.

4th Century

The Tarumanagara inscriptions of the 4th century AD are the earliest evidence of Hindu influence in Java.

The Tarumanagara inscriptions of the 4th century AD are the earliest evidence of Hindu influence in Java

The earliest recorded mention of Jakarta is as a port of origin that can be traced to a Hindu settlement as early as the 4th century.

The Jakarta area was part of the fourth century Indianized kingdom of Tarumanagara


Tarumanagara or Taruma Kingdom or just Taruma is an early Sundanese Indianized kingdom, whose fifth-century ruler, Purnavarman, produced the earliest known inscriptions on Java island…

. In AD 397, King Purnawarman established Sunda Pura as a new capital city for the kingdom, located at the northern coast of Java. Purnawarman left seven memorial stones across the area with inscriptions bearing his name, including the present-day

Kingdom of Tarumanegara – the 5th century AD


Tarumanegara kingdom located in the valley of the river Cisadane, Bogor, West Java. King of the Kingdom’s largest Tarumanegara is Punawarman. Evidence of existence can be known from 7 Tarumanegara inscription written in letters Pallawa and Sanskrit. The inscription is: 1. Monument inscription, found in Cilincing, Jakarta. Contains the excavation of the river Gomati 11 kilometers in length, and finalized within 21 days.2. Kebon Kopi inscriptions, found in Bogor, contains a painting of an elephant foot.3. Ciaruteun inscription, found on the banks of the river Cisadane, Bogor, contains pictures of King Punawarman feet which is considered as the feet of Lord
Dynasty of Tarumanagara.
Tarumanagara Kingdom start in 358. when it first start it was a vassal of Salakanagara. Rajadirajaguru Jayasingawarman is Tarumanagara First king. The earliest known written records of Tarumanagara existence are inscribed monument stones. Inscribed stone is called prasasti in Indonesian language. A prasasti located in a river bed of Caiaruteun river, called Prasasti Ciaruteun, from the fifth century AD, written in Wengi letters (used in the Indian Pallava period) and in Sanskrit language, reports the most famous king of Tarumanagara:

This is the print of the foot soles of the very honorable Purnawarman, the king of Tarumanagara who is very brave and control the world, as those of God Wisnu.

Purnawarman is Tarumanagara most famous kings. Another Prasasti about him is
Prasasti Jambu

The name of the king who is famous of faithfully executing his duties and who is incomparable (peerless) is Sri Purnawarman who reigns Taruma. His armour cannot be penetrated by the arrows of his enemies. The prints of the foot soles belong to him who was always successful to destroy the fortresses of his enemies, and was always charitable and gave honorable receptions to those who are loyal to him and hostile to his enemies.

List of Tarumanagara Kings:

  1. Rajadirajaguru Jayasingawarman
  2. Dharmayawarman
  3. Purnawarman
  4. Wisnuwarman
  5. Indrawarman
  6. Candrawarman
  7. Suryawarman
  8. Kertawarman
  9. Linggawarman
  10. Tarusbawa
The First Indianized KingdomsKnowledge of the early Indonesian Kingdoms of the Classical or Hindu period is very shadowy -gleaned solely from old stone inscriptions and vague references in ancient Chinese, Indian and Classical texts. The island of Java, for example, was mentioned in the Ramayana (as Yawadwipa), and in the Alnagest of Ptolemy (as yabadiou). However the first specific references to Indonesian rulers and kingdom are found in written Chinese sources and Sanskrit stone inscriptions dating from the- early 5th Century.The stone inscriprions written in the south-lndian Pallawa script). were issued by lndonesian rulers in two different areas of the archipelago- Kutei on the eastern coast of Kalimantan and Tarumanegara on the Citarum River in West Java (near Bogor). Both rulers were Hindus whose power seems to have derived from a combination of wet-rice agriculture and maritime trade.Also. in the early 5th Century. there is the interesting figure of Fa Hsien. a Chinese Buddhist monk who journeyed to India to obtain Buddhist scriptures and was then shipwrecked on Java on his way home. In his memoirs (translated into English by James Ledge as, Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms), Fa Hsien note that there were many Brahmans and heretics on Java, but that the Budhist Dharma there was not worth mentioning. His comment highlight a fascinating feature of Indianized Indonesia-that while some early kingdom were mainly Hindu, others were primarily Buddhist. As time went on the distinction became increasingly blurred.Another fact of life for the Hinduized states of lndonesia was that their power depended greatly on control of the maritime trade. It appears that Tarumanegara in West Java first controlled the trade for two centuries orr more, but that at the end of the 7th Century a new Buddhist kingdom based in Palembang took over the vital Malacca and Sunda Straits. The kingdom was Sriwijaya and it ruled these seas throughout the next 600 years.
Footprints of Purnawarman
(From the mid 5th Century, inscription and footprints of Purnawarman –
Hindu ruler of Taruma Negara in West Java)
Sriwijaya and the P’o-ssu TradeThe kingdom of Sriwijaya left behind no magnificent temples or monuments because it was a thalassic (maritime) kingdom that relied for its existence not on agriculture, but on control of the trade. Most of its citizens were therefore sailors who lived on boats, as do many of coastal Malay orang laut (sea people) now. Knowledge of Sriwijaya is consequently very sketchy, and the kingdom was not even identified by scholars until 1918. Four stone inscriptions in Old Malay, several in Sanskrit and a handful of statues and bronze icons are all that remain of one of the most powerful maritime empires in history.Prof O.W. Wolters has speculated that Sriwijaya rose to prominence as a result of a substitution of some Sumatran aromatics for expensive Middle Eastern frankincense and myrrh-the so-colled P’o-ssu (Persian) goods then being shipped to China in great quantities.Be that as it may, Sriwijaya was also located in extremely strategic position and is said to have developed large ships of between 400 and 600 tons. These were by far the largest ships in the world at this time, and they appear to have achieved regular direct sailings to India and China by at least the late 8th Century.It is significant that the P’o-ssu trade consisted mainly of incense and other rare substances used by Buddhist in China. Sriwijaya’s rulers were also Buddhist,and a passing Chinese monk by the name of I-Ching stopped here for several months to study and copy Buddhist texts. There he found a thousand Buddhist monks and noted that it was a meeting place for traders from all over the world.Through Sriwijaya, controlled all coastal ports on either side of the Malacca and Sunda straits (eastern Sumatra, western Java and the Malay peninsula), none of these areas was suitable for wet-rice agriculture. The nearest such area was in central Java, and from the early 8th Century onward, great Indianized kingdoms established them-selved here. They first supplied Sriwijaya with rice and later began to compete with her for a share of the maritime trade.Borobudur Relief
(Temple relief from Borobudur)


Wayang Kulit
(The so-called wayang-kulit style of temple sculpture of Candi Jago)
7th century

7th century


Srivijaya, also written Sri Vijaya or Sriwijaya, was a powerful ancient Malay empire based on the island of Sumatra, modern day Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia. The earliest solid proof of its existence dates from the 7th century; a Chinese monk, I-Tsing, wrote that he visited…

 ruled Sumatra, the Malay peninsula, and western Java (Sunda

7th century


  sīlĕnˈdrä, name of a dynasty in Indonesia and SE Asia. The dynasty appeared in central Java in the 7th cent. and had consolidated its position by the mid-8th cent. The Sailendras, who adopted Buddhism, extended their power over the Sumatran domains of Sri Vijaya and the Malay Peninsula and exerted influence in Siam and Indochina. After their eclipse in Java (late 9th cent.), they retained control of Sri Vijaya, with important centers at Palembang (their capital) and in Kedah and Patani on the Malayan Peninsula. The Sailendra power was badly shaken by the Chola war of the 11th cent., but endured in some form until the Javanese invasion of Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula in the 13th cent.


Sunda Kingdom
The Sunda Kingdom was a Hindu kingdom located on the western part of Java from 669 ,Sunda KingdomSunda kingdom was founded by Tarusbawa in Sundanese Caka 591 (669 M).
Before standing as an independent kingdom, Sunda was Tarumanagara vassal. Tarumanagara the last king, Sri Maharaja Linggawarman Atmahariwangsa Panunggalan Tirthabumi (reigned only for three years, 666-669 AD), was married to Dewi Ganggasari from Indraprahasta. From Ganggasari, he has two children, both girls. Dewi Manasih, her eldest daughter, married to Tarusbawa of Sunda, while the second, Sobakancana, married with Dapuntahyang Sri Janayasa, who later founded the kingdom of Srivijaya. After Linggawarman died, power transfered to Tarusbawa. This led Galuh ruler, Wretikandayun (612-702) rebel, separated from Tarumanagara, and establish an independent kingdom Galuh. Also wanted to continue Tarusbawa Tarumanagara kingdom, and then transferred power to Sunda, Cipakancilan upstream in the area where the river Ciliwung and Cisadane rivers and adjacent rows, near Bogor today. While Tarumanagara changed to subordinates. He was crowned as the king of Sunda on Radite Pon, 9 Suklapaksa, Yista month, year 519 Saka (approximately 669 AD May 18). Sunda and Galuh borders, with a limit of Citarum river (Sunda in the west, east Galuh).

  1. Tarusbawa (669 – 723)
  2. Harisdarma, atawa Sanjaya (723 – 732)
  3. Tamperan Barmawijaya (732 – 739)
  4. Rakeyan Banga (739 – 766)
  5. Rakeyan Medang Prabu Hulukujang (766 – 783)
  6. Prabu Gilingwesi (783 – 795)
  7. Pucukbumi Darmeswara (795 – 819)
  8. Rakeyan Wuwus Prabu Gajah Kulon (819 – 891)
  9. Prabu Darmaraksa (891 – 895)
  10. Windusakti Prabu Déwageng (895 – 913)
  11. Rakeyan Kamuning Gading Prabu Pucukwesi (913 – 916)
  12. Rakeyan Jayagiri (916 – 942)
  13. Atmayadarma Hariwangsa (942 – 954)
  14. Limbur Kancana (954 – 964)
  15. Munding Ganawirya (964 – 973)
  16. Rakeyan Wulung Gadung (973 – 989)
  17. Brajawisésa (989 – 1012)
  18. Déwa Sanghyang (1012 – 1019)
  19. Sanghyang Ageng (1019 – 1030)
  20. Sri Jayabupati (Detya Maharaja, 1030 – 1042)
  21. Darmaraja (Sang Mokténg Winduraja, 1042 – 1065)
  22. Langlangbumi (Sang Mokténg Kerta, 1065 – 1155)
  23. Rakeyan Jayagiri Prabu Ménakluhur (1155 – 1157)
  24. Darmakusuma (Sang Mokténg Winduraja, 1157 – 1175)
  25. Darmasiksa Prabu Sanghyang Wisnu (1175 – 1297)
  26. Ragasuci (Sang Mokténg Taman, 1297 – 1303)
  27. Citraganda (Sang Mokténg Tanjung, 1303 – 1311)
  28. Prabu Linggadéwata (1311-1333)
  29. Prabu Ajiguna Linggawisésa (1333-1340)
  30. Prabu Ragamulya Luhurprabawa (1340-1350)
  31. Prabu Maharaja Linggabuanawisésa ( called Sri Baduga Maharaja in carita Babad, that fallen in Bubat Incident. 1350-1357)
  32. Prabu Bunisora (1357-1371)
  33. Prabu Niskalawastukancana (1371-1475)
  34. Prabu Susuktunggal (1475-1482)
  35. Jayadéwata (Sri Baduga Maharaja or Prabu Siliwangi, Sunda-Galuh unifier. 1482-1521)
  36. Prabu Surawisésa (1521-1535)
  37. Prabu Déwatabuanawisésa (1535-1543)
  38. Prabu Sakti (1543-1551)
  39. Prabu Nilakéndra (1551-1567)
  40. Prabu Ragamulya atau Prabu Suryakancana (1567-1579)

 In about 650,

Tarumanagara kingdom was attacked and defeated by Srivijaya (a kingdom established in Sumatra island in 500). Then, Tarumanegara’s influence on its small kingdoms began to decline.
In 669, Tarusbawa inherited Tarumanagara crown. Tarusbawa was the last king of Tarumanagara. This is in line with Chinese chronicles mentioning that a messenger of Tarumanagara last visited China in 669. Tarusbawa indeed sent his messenger advising his enthronement to Chinese king in 669. Because the influence of Tarumanagara in Tarusbawa era declined as a result of severance by its vassal states as well as due to the attacks by Srivijaya, he wished to return the greatness of the kingdom as was in the era of Purnawarman controlling the kingdoms from Sunda Pura. Hence, in 670, he changed name Tarumanagara to be Sunda.
This event was made as a reason by king Wretikandayun (Monarchic founder of Galuh) to dissociate the small kingdom from the power of Tarumanagara and asked King Tarusbawa to divide Tarumanagara territory into two parts. Galuh got a support from Kalingga kingdom (the first kingdom in Java island) to separate from Tarumanagara because Galuh and Kalingga had made an alliance through dynastic marriage; a son of King Wretikandayun married Parwati (a daughter of Queen Sima) from Kalingga and Sana alias Bratasenawa alias Sena (a grandson of King Wretikandayun) married Sanaha (a granddaughter of Queen Sima). In a weak position and wishing to avoid civil war, the young King Tarusbawa accepted the request of old King Wretikandayun. In 670, Tarumanagara was divided into two kingdoms: Sunda Kingdom and Galuh Kingdom with the Citarum river as the boundary. Then Galuh Kingdom comprised many vassal kingdoms which covered areas of present-day West and present-day Central Java Provinces.
King Tarusbawa then established a new capital of his kingdom near the Cipakancilan river upstream which centuries later became the city of Pakuan Pajajaran (or shortly called Pakuan or Pajajaran). King Tarusbawa becomes the ancestor of Sunda kings.

8th century

 The earliest dated inscription in Indonesia in which the dynastic name Sailendra appears is the Kalasan inscription of central Java, dated 778 AD, which commemorates the establishment of a Buddhist shrine for the Buddhist goddess Tara.[2]

The name also appears in several other inscriptions like the Kelurak inscription (782) and the Karangtengah (824). Outside Indonesia, the name Sailendra is to be found in the Ligor inscription (775) on the Malay peninsula and the mid-9th century Nalanda inscription.[2]


8th century

Plaosan temple


The statue of Durga Mahisasuramardini in northern cella of Shiva temple, Prambanan temple complex in Central Java. Also called Durga Loro Jonggrang
Candi (pronounced /ˈtʃandiː/) are commonly refer to Hindu and Buddhist temples
or sanctuaries in Indonesia, most of which were built from the 8th to the 15th centuries.
 However, ancient non-religious structures such as gates, habitation remnants, or pool and bathplaces are often also called as “candi”…The term “candi” itself derived from Candika one of the manifestation of the goddess Durga as the goddess of death.[Soekmono, Dr R. (1973). Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2. Yogyakarta, Indonesia: Penerbit Kanisius. pp. 81.] This suggested in ancient Indonesia the “candi” has mortuary function as well as attributed with the afterlife. The association of the name “candi”, candika or durga with Hindu-Buddhist temples is unknown in India and other Indonesia’s Southeast Asian neighbours such as Cambodia, Thailand, or Burma.
 The historians suggested that temples of ancient Java also used to store the ashes of cremated deceased kings or royalties. This is also in-line with buddhist concept of stupa as the structure to store buddhist relicts including the ashes and remnants of holy buddhist priest or the buddhist king, the patron of buddhism. The statue of god stored inside the garbhagriha (main chamber) of the temple often modelled after the deceased king and considered as deified self of the king portrayed as Vishnu or Shiva.The Prambanan compound also known as Loro Jonggrang complex, named after the popular legend of Loro Jonggrang. There are 237 temples in this Shivaite temple complex, either big or small…The middle zone consists of four rows of 224 individual small shrines. There are great numbers of these temples, but most of them are still in ruins and only some have been reconstructed. These concentric rows of temples were made in identical design. Each row towards the center is slightly elevated. These shrines are called “Candi Perwara” guardian or complementary temples, the additional buildings of the main temple. Some believed it was offered to the king as a sign of submission. The Perwara are arranged in four rows around the central temples, some believed it has something to do with four castes, made according to the rank of the people allowed to enter them; the row nearest to the central compound was accessible to the priests only, the other three were reserved for the nobles, the knights, and the simple people respectively. While another believed that the four rows of Perwara has nothing to do with four castes, it just simply made as meditation place for priests and as worship place for devotees.


9th century

The Sailendras and the Sanjayas

From the beginning, a tension developed in central Java between competing Buddhist and Hindu ruling families. The first central-Javanese temples and inscriptions, dating from 732 A.D., were the work of a Hindu ruler by the name of Sanjaya.Very soon thereafter, however, a Budhist line of kings known as the Sailendras (Lords of the Mountain) seem to have comefrom the north coast of Java to impose their rule over Sanjaya and his descendants.

The Sailendras maintained close relations with Sriwijaya (both rulers were Buddhist) and ruled Java for about 100 years. During this relatively short period they constructed the magnificent Buddhist monuments of Borobudur, Mendut, Kalasan, Sewu and many others in the shadow of majestic Mt. Merapi. Still now this area is blessed with unusually fertile soils, and already in ancient times it must have supported a vast population, who all participated in the erection of these state monuments.

The decline of the Sailendras begand around 830 A.D. culminating with their ouster, in 856 A.D., by a descendant of Sanjaya. Apparently the Sanjayan line of kings ruled continuously over outlying areas of the realm as vassals of the Sailendras, and during this time they built many Hindus temples in remote areas of Java such as the Dieng Plateau and Mt. Ungaran (south of Semarang). Around 850 A.D., a prince of Sanjaya dynasty, Rakai Pikatan, married a Sailendran princess and seized control of central Java. The Sailendras fled to Sriwijaya, where they prospered and successfully blocked all Javanese shipping in the South China Sea for more than a century.

Sailendras in Sumatra

After 824, there are no more references to the Sailendra house in the Javanese ephigraphic record. Around 860 the name re-appears in the Nalanda inscription in India. According to the text, the local king had granted ‘Balaputra, the king of Suvarna-dvipa’ (Sumatra) the revenues of 5 villages to a Buddhist monastery near Bodh Gaya. Balaputra was styled a descendant from the Sailendra dynasty and grandson of the king of Java.[14]

From Sumatra, the Sailendras also maintained overseas relations with the Chola kingdom in India, as shown by several south Indian inscriptions. 


Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula

During the 8th century,

an important distinction began to develop between two geo-political zones in the western archipelago. On the one hand, the Strait of Melaka (Malacca) began to develop as a key control point on the India–China trade route and a state called Srivijaya, based on the southern Sumatra city of Palembang, emerged as the first great power in the region. On the other hand, the island of Java, with its fertile soils and growing population, became a key centre of military power and cultural influence in the region.

Srivijaya’s location, well south of the mouth of the Melaka Strait, does not appear to be the most suitable site for controlling trade, but this disadvantage was offset by the kingdom’s access via the Musi River to a large hinterland in southern Sumatra, which supplied food, forest products and gold. Because of the rhythm of the monsoons in maritime Southeast Asia, traders moving between India and China generally needed to spend a season in port somewhere near the strait to wait for winds favourable for the onward journey.

Likely extent of Srivijaya’s maritime empire

The power of the ruler of Srivijaya rested on three distinct bases: the courtiers of the capital, who managed the port facilities which made Srivijaya an attractive destination, the chiefs of the interior communities, who supplied produce, trade goods and probably labour to the city, and the orang laut, or people of the sea, semi-piratical people whose homes were aboard small, fast vessels which sheltered amongst the numerous islands and inlets of the Sumatra coast. These seafarers played a crucial role in forcing ships to call at Srivijaya whether they wished to or not, and they were also the means by which the ruler of Srivijaya kept at least a broad suzerainty over potential rivals along the coast. Successive rulers of Srivijaya also appear to have cultivated a relationship with China by sending regular tribute missions and making other gestures of respect for Chinese emperors. This relationship may have assisted the activities of Srivijaya traders in the ports of China. Wealth from trade was used to support a sophisticated civilization, one in which Chinese monks came to study Buddhism and whose scholars were known for their mathematical expertise.

In the 11th century, Srivijaya went into abrupt decline, particularly as a result of destructive raids from Java in 992 and from the Chola rulers of southern India in 1025. Shortly thereafter the empire’s capital appears to have moved from Palembang to Jambi (Melayu), though the reasons for this move are not clear. From about this time, however, Srivijaya appears to have ceased to be the dominant power in the region.

Although Jambi inherited some of the authority of Srivijaya, the balance of power in Sumatra and the peninsula shifted dramatically in the 12th and 13th centuries. On the northern coast of Sumatra, several small trading states, Aru, Tamiang, Perlak, Pasai, Samudra and Lamuri now came to prominence. These states were the first in Indonesia to convert to Islam, Perlak probably being the earliest in about 1290. In central Sumatra, the Buddhist kingdom of the Minangkabau, sometimes called Pagarruyung after its capital, emerged in about 1250 and extended its hegemony down into the coastal regions facing the strait. Palembang and Jambi, however, declined in importance, though they remained significant regional ports. Late in the 13th century, both became the target of Javanese expansionism, when king Kertanegara of Singhasari launched what was called the pamalayu expedition.

Sumatra and the Malay peninsula, 13th century

Kertanegara appears to have attacked Jambi in 1275, and his quarrel with Kublai Khan a few years later was partly over who was to receive tribute from Palembang.

On the Malay Peninsula, too, numerous small states emerged, notably Kedah, which had had a long history as one of Srivijaya’s less tractable vassals. The most northerly of the peninsular states, Tambralinga and Langkasuka, however, found themselves under increasing pressure in this era from the Thai state of Sukhotai and its successor Ayutthaya. There is even some evidence of a seaborne raid on Jambi by forces from Ayutthaya at the end of the 13th century.

The civil war in Java which ended Kertanegara’s rule, and the Mongol invasion which followed, ended Javanese intervention in Sumatra for some decades. By the middle of the 14th century, however, the Javanese empire of Majapahit claimed suzerainty over the whole of Sumatra and over the peninsula as far north as Langkasuka. It is unlikely that this suzerainty translated anywhere into direct rule from Java, but local Sumatran courts, especially in the southern half of the island, certainly paid homage to Majapahit and modelled the ceremony and culture in their own courts on the greater splendour of the Javanese capital.

Majapahit’s most important rival for influence in Sumatra may have been the Minangkabau kingdom, which evidently included Jambi and other east-coast ports in its sphere of influence in the middle of the century. Minangkabau itself, however, was claimed by Majapahit as a vassal and its greatest ruler, Adityavarman, may have been part-Javanese.

In about 1377, the ruler of Jambi apparently asserted his independence from Java and sought formal investiture by the Chinese emperor. Majapahit reacted brutally: the envoys sent from China to conduct the ceremony were waylaid and killed, and Javanese forces attacked and sacked Jambi itself. Palembang suffered a similar fate about a decade later. Believing that the death of the Majapahit king Hayam Wuruk gave an opportunity for greater independence, the ruler of Palembang repudiated Javanese domination in 1389. In retaliation his city was destroyed, and the administration of what remained came into the hands of local Chinese merchants.

Airlangga’s kingdom, 11th century

Out of this defeat, however, emerged the reign of Airlangga, founder of Java’s first empire. Reputedly the son of a Balinese king and a Javanese princess, he was able to bring east and central Java, as well as Bali, under a relatively united regime, though this probably meant that he was able to keep up a sustained intimidation of regional lords, rather than that he ruled closely. His capital was at Kahuripan in the lower reaches of the Brantas and his seaport, Hujung Galah, was probably close to the site of modern Surabaya. On his deathbed in 1049, Airlangga divided his kingdom between his two sons, one taking the lower reaches of the Brantas as ruler of a kingdom known as Janggala, the other establishing a new capital in Panjalu (later Kediri) and ruling a kingdom called Daha. Hardly any information on either kingdom has survived, but two hundred years later, when records are once more available, the division was still politically significant.

By the early 13th century, Kediri had conquered Janggala, but in 1222, Kediri itself was overthrown by a usurper, Ken Angrok, who established his capital at Singhasari. Singhasari’s greatest ruler was Kertanegara, who presided over a time of rapid development in Javanese culture.


Majapahit’s empire on Java

Kertanegara’s assertiveness brought him into conflict with the new Mongol rulers of China, who objected to his attempts to establish hegemony over the southern approaches to the Melaka Strait. The Mongol emperor Kublai Khan then sent envoys to Java to demand Kertanegara’s formal submission; he responded by mutilating and sending them back. The angry Khan then sent a military expedition to punish the Javanese, but by the time it arrived Kertanegara had been killed in a rebellion. In a piece of deft diplomacy, Kertanegara’s son-in-law, Kertarajasa, enlisted the help of the Mongol troops to overthrow the usurper before turning on the Mongols and driving them out in 1293. The empire which he founded, Majapahit, became the most powerful of all the early Javanese kingdoms. The 14th century chronicle, Nagarakertagama (now known as the Desawarnyana), gives a detailed insight into life in Majapahit.

Majapahit reached the pinnacle of its power under the rule of Rajasanagara (r. 1350–89), better known as Hayam Wuruk, and his prime minister, Gajah Mada, who held office from about 1331 until his death in 1364. Under their joint rule, Majapahit seems to have been particularly successful in establishing closer royal rule in the Brantas valley, by means of royal charters on land and other productive resources such as ferries. These charters diverted taxation income from local elites to the royal treasury and enabled the king to pay for a network of roads which made communication within the region easier. The capital city itself reflected the ruler’s wealth, with high, thick walls of brick, spacious pavilions and abundant flowers.

Majapahit’s overseas empire

After the death of Hayam Wuruk in 1389, Majapahit went into decline. Its influence abroad contracted and it was wracked by civil war and succession disputes at home. Little is known of Javanese history in the 15th century. Majapahit is traditionally said to have fallen in 1478, but the state seems to have survived in attenuated form until about the 1530s. Hindu-Buddhist states such as Pengging, Kediri and Balambangan emerged within the former territory of Majapahit, but none was able to recreate its dominion, even in eastern Java.

Instead power shifted to trading city-states of the north coast, notably Demak, which had converted to Islam in the late 15th century. The struggle of Muslim Demak and its coastal allies with the Hindu-Buddhist states of the interior possibly had some elements of religious war, but at stake was also the question of whether Java’s growing role in international trade could pull the centre of Javanese power away from the interior and to the coast.

Sumatra and the Malay peninsula, 14th century

The port city of Melaka, founded by Parameswara or his descendants, quickly rose to be the most powerful state in the region. Abundant fresh water, a deep harbour and control of the narrowest part of the strait gave it an immediate advantage in attracting traders. So too did its ruler’s careful strategy of providing excellent facilities for merchants. Specially appointed shahbandar, or harbour-lords, maintained the warehouses, policed transactions and settled disputes between the dozens of trading communities in the city. Melaka’s main trading rival, the northern Sumatra state of Samudra-Pasai, was never able to match these advantages. Melaka’s ruler also inherited from his Palembang forebears a close relationship with the orang laut, the semi-piratical sea people who had been the basis of Srivijaya’s navy.

Melaka also benefited from the decline of Majapahit, from a lull in the southward expansion of the Thai, and from a close relationship with the Chinese empire. Under the Yung-lo emperor, China briefly abandoned its hostility to trade and sought out reliable allies as trading partners in South and Southeast Asia. Melaka was the most favoured of these allies.

At the height of its power, Melaka was one of the great cities of the world and the largest city in Southeast Asia. Melaka’s empire was never extensive – with its control of the strait it had no need for a far-flung empire – but its influence as a glittering centre of culture stretched far beyond its immediate environment. This reputation was its downfall, for it was a major target of the European interlopers into Southeast Asia in the early 16th century, and it fell to an attack by the Portuguese admiral Alfonso d’Albuquerque in 1511.

Sumatra and the Malay peninsula, 15th century

Melaka under the Portuguese never recovered the prosperity it had enjoyed under its sultans. Many Muslim traders now consciously avoided it, and the Portuguese themselves were less interested than their predecessors in the needs of foreign traders. As a result, Melaka lost its pre-eminence as an entrepot in the region.

One of the greatest beneficiaries of Melaka’s fall was the small kingdom of Aceh, at the far northern tip of Sumatra. Many traders and scholars who fled from Melaka after the fall settled in Aceh, which now began to displace Samudra-Pasai as the principal power on the north Sumatra coast. Seeking to take over the mantle of Melaka, Aceh’s first sultan, Ali Mughayat Syah, began a series of campaigns which took the influence of Aceh down the Sumatra coasts as far as Gasip (Siak) in the east and Tiku and Pariaman in the west.

Across the strait, meanwhile, the sultan of Melaka had fled into the interior of the peninsula immediately after the Portuguese conquest, but he eventually settled on the island of Bintan in the Riau archipelago. There, close to some of the largest communities of seafaring nomads, he hoped to marshal his forces to recover the city. The Portuguese, however, pursued him, destroying his new capital in 1526 and driving him to seek refuge in Kampar in Sumatra. His son eventually re-established a kingdom in Johor in about 1530.

For the remainder of the 16th century, Aceh, Johor and the Portuguese fought a three-way contest for dominance in the strait. The Portuguese never extended their territorial control beyond Melaka, but their fleets were a potent force along the coasts. Johor exercised a broad hegemony over the peninsula and over the opposite shore of Sumatra, but raids from Aceh made its tenure uncertain.

Sumatra and the Malay peninsula, 16th century

The contest between Aceh and Johor revived during the first half of the 17th century, when Acehnese power grew once again under Sultan Iskandar Muda. Aceh dominated the western coast of Sumatra and challenged Johor on the peninsula and in the strait. After Iskandar’s death in 1636, Acehnese influence began to contract, partly because Johor had found a new ally in the Dutch East Indies Company (VOC). The two joined forces in 1641 to drive the Portuguese from Melaka, and the Dutch then brokered a peace between Johor and Aceh which allowed Johor to recover its influence in Pahang.

In southern Sumatra, the arrival of Portuguese and later other European traders stimulated a massive expansion in the production of pepper. The most southerly pepper-producing region of Lampung was conquered by the western Java state of Banten in the second half of the 16th century and Banten’s influence also stretched up the west coast as far as Bengkulu. Further north on the east coast, pepper became the basis for a revival of the Palembang and Jambi regions, which had been the heart of Srivijaya. This prosperity, however, attracted the attention of the expansionist Javanese state of Mataram, which laid a general claim to Palembang in 1625 and sent a fleet in 1641–42 to force both Palembang and Jambi to become vassals of Java.


10th Century 


Although the rise of the Sailendra’s occurred in Kedu Plain in the Javanese heartland, their origin has been the subject of discussion.[3] Apart from Java itself; an earlier homeland in Sumatra, India or Cambodia has been suggested.


According to Majumdar; an Indian scholar, Sailendra dynasty that established themself in Indonesian archipleago, either the one that ruled Srivijaya or the ruler of Medang (Java) was originated from Kalinga (Southern India) [4]. This opinion also shared by Nilakanta Sastri and Moens. Moens further describes; Sailendra was originated in India and established themself in Palembang before the arrival of Dapunta Hiyang. In 683, Sailendra family moved to Java because being pushed by Dapunta Hiyang and his troops.[5]


In 1934, the French scholar Coedes proposed a relation with the Funan kingdom in Cambodia. Coedes believed that the Funanese rulers used similar sounding ‘mountainlord’ titles, but several Cambodia specialists have discounted this. They hold there is no historical evidence for such titles in the Funan period.[6]


Other scholars hold that the Buddhist kingdom of Srivijaya was involved in the rise of the dynasty in Java.[7] Supporters of this connection emphasize the shared Mahayana patronage; the intermarriages and the Ligor inscription. Also the fact that some of Sailendra’s inscriptions were written in old Malay, which suggested Srivijaya or Sumatran connections.


Another theory suggested that Sailendra was a native Javanese dynasty, and there was no such things as Sanjaya dynasty since Sri Sanjaya and his offsprings belongs to Sailendra family that initially the Shivaist ruler of Mataram Kingdom.[8] The association of Sailendra with Mahayana Buddhism began after the conversion Panaraban or Panangkaran to Buddhism. This theory based on Carita Parahyangan that mention about the ailing King Sanjaya ordered his son, Rakai Panaraban or Panangkaran, to convert to buddhism, because their Shivaistic faith was feared by the people, and in favour to the more pacifist buddhist faith.

Sailendras in Java



Borobudur, the largest Buddhist structure in the world.

The Sailendra rulers maintained cordial relations, including marriage alliances with the Srivijaya kingdom in Sumatra. For instance, Samaratungga married Dewi Tara, a daughter of Srivijayan maharaja Dharmasetu. The mutual alliance between the two kingdoms ensured that Srivijaya had no need to fear the emergence of a Javanese rival and that the Sailendra had access to the international market.

Karangtengah inscription dated 824 mentioned about the sima (tax free) lands awarded by Çrī Kahulunan (Pramodhawardhani, daughter of Samaratungga) to ensure the funding and maintenance of a Kamūlān called Bhūmisambhāra.[9] Kamūlān itself from the word mula which means ‘the place of origin’, a sacred building to honor the ancestors. This findings suggested that either the ancestors of the Sailendras were originated from Central Java, or as the sign that Sailendra have established their holds on Java. Casparis suggested that Bhūmi Sambhāra Bhudhāra which in Sanskrit means “The mountain of combined virtues of the ten stages of Boddhisattvahood“, was the original name of Borobudur.[10]

The received version holds that the Sailendra dynasty existed next to the Sanjaya dynasty in Java. Much of the period was characterized by peaceful co-existence and cooperation but towards the middle of the 9th century relations had deteriorated. Around 852 the Sanjaya ruler Pikatan had defeated Balaputra, the offspring of the Sailendra monarch Samaratunga and princess Tara. This ended the Sailendra presence in Java and Balaputra retreated to the Srivijaya kingdom in Sumatra, where he became the paramount ruler.[11]

Sailendras in Bali

Sri Kesari Warmadewa was said to be a Buddhist king of the Sailendra Dynasty, leading a military expedition,[12] to establishing a Mahayana Buddhist government in Bali.[13] In 914, he left a record of his endeavour in the Belanjong pillar in Sanur in Bali.

10th century
They Mysterious Move to East JavaRakai Pikatan commemorated his victory by erecting the splendid temple complex at Prambanan, which can be considered a Hindu counterpart of Buddhist Borobudur. Both are terraced an ancestor sanctuaries, highly elaborate versions of those constructed by Indonesian rulers in prehistoric times.

A succession of Hindu kings ruled in central Java, then suddenly the capital was transferred to east java around 930 A.D. No satisfactory explanation has been given for this move, though a number of factors might account for it.

As mentioned before, the Sailendran kings, once installed at Sriwijaya, were successful in shutting off the vital overseas trade from Java’s north coast, and may even have been threatening to re-invade central Java. An eruption of Mt. Merapi at about this time may also have closed the roads to the north coastal ports and covered much of central Java in volcanic ash. A partially completed temple has been unearthed at Sambisar, near Prambanan, from under five metres of volcanic debris. Then, too there is the possibility of epidemics and of mass migrations to the more fertile lands of East Java.

Whatever the reason for the move, and eastern javanese empire prospered in the 10th Century and actually attacked and occupied Sriwijaya for two years 990-1 A.D. Sriwijaya retaliated a quarter of a century later with a huge seaborne force that destroyed the Javanese capital, killed the ruler King Dharmawangsa, and splintered the realm into numerous petty fiefdoms. It took nearly 20 years for the next great king, Airlangga, to fully restore the empire.

Airlangga was King Dharmawangsa’s nephew and he succeded to the throne in 1019 after the Sriwijayan forces had departed. With the help of loyal followers and advisors he reconquered the realm and restored its prosperity. He is best known, though, as a patron of the arts and as an ascete. Under his rule the Indian classics were translated from Sanskrit into Javanese, thus marking the flowering of indigenous Javanese arts.

Shrotly before his death in 1049, Airlangga changed his name and became an ascetic without, however, abdicating. To appease the ambitions of his two sons he then divided his empire into two equal halves, Kediri and Janggala(or Daha and Koripan). Kediri became the more powerful of the two, and it is remembered now as the source of numerous works of Old Javanese literature-mainly adaptations of the Indian epics in a Javanese poetic form known as the kekawin.

Sculpture of Ken Dedes
(A sculpture of Ken Dedes, the wife of Ken Arok, representing her as a goddess)
Singhasari and MajapahitIn subsequent centuries Java prospered as never before. The rulers of successive east Javan empires were able to combine the benefits of a strong agricultural economy with income from a lucrative overseas trade. In the process, the Javanesse became the master shipbuilders and mariners of Southeast Asia.
11th century
An 11th century inscription mentioned the grant of revenues to a local Buddhist sanctuary, built in 1005 by the king of the Srivijaya. In spite the relations were initially fairly cordial, hostilities had broken out in 1025.[15] Nevertheless, amity was re-established between the two states, before the end of the 11th century. In 1090 a new charter was granted to the old Buddhist sanctuary (it is the last known inscription with a reference to the Sailendras).
13th Century  
The first, the Pararaton (Book of Kings), tells of the founding of the Singhasari dynasty by Ken Arok in 1222.Ken Arok was an adventurer who managed to marry the beautiful Ken Dedes (heir to the throne of Janggala) after murdering her husband. As ruler of Janggala he next revolted against his sovereign, the ruler of Kediri with the full support of clergy, and set up his new capital at Singhasari, near present-day Malang.
13th Century
The Pararaton goes on to tell of Ken Arok’s successors, particularly of the last king of the Singhasari line, Kertanegara. . Kertanegara was an extraordinary figure, a scholar as well as a statesman, who belonged to the Tantric Bhairawa sect of Buddhism.
In 1275 and again in 1291
Kertanegara  sent successful naval expeditions against Sriwijaya thus wresting control of the increasingly important maritime trade.
Kertanegara  was eventually murdered in 1292 by the king of Kediri
So powerful did become, in fact, that Kublai Khan, the Mongol emperor of China sent ambassador, a gesture which so enraged the great Khan that in 1293 he sent a powerful fleet to Java to avenge the insult.
The fleet landed only to discover that Kartanegara had already died at the hands of Jayakatwang, one of his vassals.The Chinese remained on Javanese soil for about a year just long enough to defeat the muderous Jayakatwang. Battles raged back and forth across the Brantas valley for many months, eventually producing victory for Kertanegara’s son-in-low, Wijaya, and his Chinese allies. In the end Wijaya entrapped the Mongol generals and chased the foreign troops back to their ships. The Chinese fleet returned to China, and its commanders were severely punished by the great Khan for their failure to subdue Java.Wijaya married four of Kertanegara’s daughters and established a new capital in 1294 on the bank of the Brantas River between Kediri and the sea (near present-day Trowulan). This was an area known for its pahit (bitter) maja fruits, and the new kingdom became known as Majapahit. The capital citu was constructed entirely of red bricks, only the foundations of which now remain. Aerial photographs reveal that the city had an extensive system of canals and barges were probably used to transport rice and other trade goods down the river from Majapahit to the seaport as the mouth of the Brantas.

After the power of Tarumanagara declined, its territories, including Sunda Pura, became part of the Kingdom of Sunda. According to the Chinese source, Chu-fan-chi, written circa 1200, Chou Ju-kua in the early 13th Century,

14th Century
During the 14th Century, at the height of the Majapahit Empire,
they controlled the sea lanes throughout the Indonesian archipelago as well as to faraway India and China.

Despite this, our knowledge of the two great empires of the 13th and 14th centuries, Singasari and Majapahit, would be very sparse were it not for two Old Javanese texts dating from the 14th Century.

 the majapahit empire:The Majapahit Empire was an Indianized kingdom based in eastern Java from 1293 to around 1500. Its greatest ruler was Hayam Wuruk, whose reign from 1350 to 1389 marked the empire’s peak when it dominated other kingdoms in southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, Bali, and the Philippines.The Majapahit was the last of the great Hindu empires of the Malay archipelago. It was preceded by the Srivijayan kingdom, based in Palembang on the island of Sumatra.The founder of the Majapahit Empire, Kertarajasa or Prince (Raden) Wijaya, was the son-in-law of Kertanegara, the last ruler of the Singhasari kingdom, also based in Java.
After Singhasari drove Srivijaya out of Java altogether in 1290, the rising power of Singhasari came to the attention of Kublai Khan in China and he sent emissaries demanding tribute. Kertanegara, last ruler of the Singhasari kingdom, refused to pay tribute and the Khan sent a massive 1000 ship expedition which arrived off the coast of Java in 1293.By that time, a rebel from Kediri, Jayakatwang had usurped and killed Kertanagara.
The Majapahit founder,
after a brief exile in the favor of the Regent (Bupati) Arya Wiraraja of Madura, allied himself with the Mongols against Jayakatwang and, once Jayakatwang was destroyed, turned and forced his Mongol allies to withdraw from the isle after he launched a surprise attack. The huge Mongol Army in confusion had to withdraw as they were in hostile land and it was the last time for the monsoon sea-wind to depart for home, otherwise, they would have had to wait for another six months on a totally hostile island.
 Then, Wijaya ascended the throne as the first king of Majapahit on 1293 AD.
In the Lands of Tarik he built a strong hold, and the capital was named Majapahit also, after the bitter (pahit) maja fruit, a sort of tree which grew in abundance in that area. His formal name was Kertarajasa Jayawarddhana. But the newborn empire was not without challenge. Some of his most trusted men, including Ranggalawe, Sora, and Nambi set several rebellion against the king, but they all died in misery. It was suspected that mahapati Halayudha set the conspiracy to overthrow all of his opponents in order to gain the highest position in the government. But following the death of the last rebel Kuti, mahapati was captured and jailed for his tricks, and was sentenced to death. Wijaya himself died in 1309 AD.He was succeeded by his son, Jayanegara, whose mother was a Malayu princess. Jayanegara was not a good king since he had shown some immoral behaviors such as willing to take his own step-sisters as his wives. He was entitled Kala Gemet, or “weak villain”. Jayanegara was murdered by his surgeon on 1328 AD. He should have been succeeded by his stepmother, Rajapatni who retired from court to be come a nun in Buddhist monastery, Therefore she appointed her daughther, Tribhuwana as a queen of Majapahit to rule under her auspices.During Tribhuwana’s rule Majapahit grew to be a great kingdom and famous on all the seas of the Archipelago and a broad. Tribhuwana ruled until the death of her mother in 1350 AD. Then her son Hayam Wuruk ascended the throne. (1)Gajah Mada, an ambitious Majapahit prime minister and regent from 1331 to 1364, extended the empire’s rule to include most of present day Indonesia.
 A few years after Gajah Madah’s death,
the Majapahit navy captured Palembang, putting an end to the Srivijayan kingdom. Gajah Mada’s other renown general was Adityawarman, known for his conquest in Minangkabau. By the fourteenth century, Sunda Kelapa became a major trading port for the kingdom.
Prambanan Temple in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Prambanan Temple in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Until the end of the 15th century, Hinduism was the predominant religion in the islands of Java and Sumatra. Hinduism is said to have spread to these islands as early as the first century AD.

. Hinduism flourished in these Indonesian islands until the arrival of Islam in the 14th century. Indonesia is today the most populous Muslim-majority nation, with 86.1% Muslims (2000 census) and 3% Hindus. However, there is a self-conscious Hindu revival movement emerging from the Javanese society with constant reference to the famous Javanese prophecies of Sabdapalon and Jayabhaya.

It is interesting to note that the ancient Indian Sanskrit epic, Ramayana, makes a mention of these islands. After the abduction of Sita from the Panchavati forest, Rama and Lakshmana go in search of her. They meet

The fight between Vali and Sugreeva
The fight between Vali and Sugreeva

Hanuman and Sugreeva near the vicinity of the mountain Rishyamukha. Rama helps Sugreeva by killing his elder brother Vali and making him the king of Kishkinda. In return of Rama’s help, Sugreeva and the Vanaras agree to find Sita. Sugreeva orders Niila, his commander to assemble the troops. He orders Vinata, a mighty vanara warrior to search the Eastern side for Sita. While doing so he describes the islands of South East Asia.

In Kishkindha Kanda of Valmiki Ramayana, chapter 40 verses 30, 31 and 32, the islands of Java and Sumatra are said to have been described by Sugreeva:

yatnavanto yava dviipam sapta raajya upashobhitam |
suvarNa ruupyakam dviipam suvarNa aakara maNDitam
|| 4-40-30

yava dviipam atikramya shishiro naama parvataH |
divam spR^ishati shR^ingeNa deva daanava sevitaH
|| 4-40-31
eteSaam giri durgeSu prapaateSu vaneSu ca
maargadhvam sahitaaH sarve raama patniim yashasviniim
|| 4-40-32

“You strive hard in the island of Yava, which will be splendorous with seven kingdoms, like that even in Golden and Silver islands that are enwreathed with gold-mines, in and around Yava islands. On crossing over Yava Island, there is a mountain named Shishira, which touches heaven with its peak, and which gods and demons adore. You shall collectively rake through all the impassable mountains, waterfalls, and forests in these islands for the glorious wife of Rama.”

The islands of Yava mentioned in the above verses are said to be the modern day Java islands. The Golden and Silver islands refer to Sumatra which was earlier known as Swarnadwīpa (Island of Gold). The seven kingdoms may refer to the Indonesian archipelago. This clearly indicates the knowledge of geography of regions beyond the Bharata khand by the ancient Hindus. This also suggests that people of ancient Bharat have travelled to these lands and back.

The Indonesian archipelagoThe Indonesian archipelago

Before the arrival of Hinduism in the early first century AD, the native people of Indonesian Archipelago are said to have been practicing an indigenous belief system common to Austronesian people. The indigenous spiritual concepts were fused with Hinduism which evolved into Javanese Hinduism. Many of the ancient Indonesian kingdoms followed Hinduism. The most famous are the Mataram, Kediri and Singhasari kingdoms. The archipelagic empire of Majapahit which ruled between 1293 and 1500 was the most powerful last major empire in Indonesian history.

King Brawijaya V of the Majapahit Empire is said to have converted to Islam in 1478 thus ending the Hindu empire. He is said to have been cursed by his priest Sabdapalon for converting to Islam. Sabdapalon promised to come back after 500 years, at the time of political corruption and natural disaster to bring back the Javanese Hinduism. The first modern Hindu temples are said to have been completed on these islands during 1978 (Pura Agung Blambangan temple). Mass conversions, back to Hinduism, have also said to have occurred in the region during this time and the eruption of Mt. Semeru, around this time, are taken as signs of the prophecy of Sabdapalon being completed.

Another prophecy, well-known throughout Java and Indonesia, is the Ramalan (or Jangka) Jayabaya. Ratu Joyaboyo (Jayabhaya) was the king of Widarba (a thousand cities) who is noted for the prophecy where he said “The Javanese would be ruled by whites for 3 centuries and by yellow dwarfs for the life span of a maize plant prior to the return of the Ratu Adil: whose name must contain at least one syllable of the Javanese Noto Negoro.” When Japan occupied Java and the surrounding islands during the Second World War in 1942, the Indonesians are said to have come out in the streets dancing, welcoming the Japanese as a sign of the Jayabhaya prophecy. Later, when Japan granted independence to Indonesia in 1945, most of the Javanese believed the Jayabhaya prophecy had been realized.

Wooden Garuda sculpture from Indonesia

Many Javanese appear to have retained aspects of their indigenous and Hindu traditions through the centuries of Islamic influence, under the banner of ‘Javanist religion’ or a non-orthodox ‘Javanese Islam’. The emergence of a self-conscious Hindu revival movement these days within Javanese community is a sign of significant development. Hindu symbols are still in use in Indonesia. The state intelligence agency of Republic of Indonesia has a Garuda as their symbol and the official airline of Indonesia is called Garuda Indonesia


14th century

The Glory of MajapahitMajapahit was the first empire to truly embrace the entire Indonesian archipelago. Later Javanese rulers, ancient and modern, have always looked upon this kingdom as their spiritual and political forerunner. Majapahit reached its zenith in the middle of the 14th Century under the rule of Wijaya’s grandson Hayam Wuruk and his brillian prime minister Patih Gajah Mada.Knowledge of Majapahit comes partly from stone inscriptions found among hundreds of temple ruins discovered in the vicinity of the capital, but mainly from a panegyric poepwritten by the court poet Prapanca following the death of Gajahmada in 1365.This next, known as the Negarakertagama, records all kinds of interesting details about the court and the royal family.One of the most important passages concerns an oath taken by Gajah Mada (the so-called sumpah palapa) to bring all the major islands of the archipelago (the Nusantara or ‘other islands’), under Majapahit’s control. This is said to have been accomplished by Gajah Mada, but historians feel that the subjugation of Nusantara actually involved a kind of trading federation with Majapahit as the dominant partner.Nevertheless, the trading ports of Sumatra as well as the Malay peninsula, Borneo, Sulawesi, Maluku and Bali all seem to have acknowledged Majapahit’s sovereignty. Not until the end of the 19th Century was a comparable attempt made to unify these disprate areas under a single banner.Majapahit’s decline set in almost immediately after Hayam Wuruk’s death in 1389. In a vain attempt to forestall the inevitable sibling conflict, Hayam Wuruk had divided his kingdom between his son and his daughter. However, a smouldering struggle for supremacy erupted in 1429, Majapahit had by this time lost control of thewestern Java Sea and the straits to a new Islamic power located at Malacca. Toward the endof the 15th Century, Majapahit and Kediri were conquered by the new Islamicstate of Demak on Java’s north coast, and it is said that the entire Hindu-Javanese aristocracy then fled to Bali.

16th century

According to primary historical sources from the 16th century, this kingdom is a kingdom covering an area which is now the province of Banten, Jakarta, West Java Province, and the western part of Central Java Province.
Based on the primary codex Bujangga Manik (narrating the journey Bujangga Manik, a Hindu priest who visited the Sunda sacred places of Hinduism in Java and Bali in the early 16th century), which is currently stored at Boedlian Library, Oxford University, England since 1627), limits the Kingdom of Sunda on the east is Ci pamali ( “pamali River”, now known as Kali Brebes) and Ci Serayu (which is now called Kali Serayu) in Central Java province. 

The first Europe


Europe is, by convention, one of the world’s seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally ‘divided’ from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting…

an fleet, four Portuguese


Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic , is a country located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west and south and by Spain to the north and east…

 ships from Malacca

Malacca is the third smallest Malaysian state, after Perlis and Penang. It is located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, on the Straits of Malacca. It borders Negeri Sembilan to the north and the state of Johor to the south…

, arrived in 1513 when the Portuguese were looking for a route for spices, especially black pepper

Black pepper

Black pepper is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. The fruit, known as a peppercorn when dried, is approximately in diameter, dark red when fully mature, and, like all drupes, contains a single seed…

. The Kingdom of Sunda made a peace agreement

Luso Sundanese padrão
The Luso Sundanese padrão is a stone pillar commemorating the Sunda–Portuguese treaty, better known as the Luso-Sundanese Treaty of Sunda Kalapa.-History:…

 with Portugal by allowing the Portuguese to build a port in 1522 in order to defend against the rising power of the Sultanate of Demak

Sultanate of Demak

The Sultanate of Demak was Javanese Muslim state located on Java’s north coast in Indonesia, at the site of the present day city of Demak. A port fief to the Majapahit kingdom thought to have been founded in the last quarter of the 15th century, it was influenced by Islam brought by Arab and…



The Moluccas, from the “Livro das Plantas das Fortalezas, Cidades e Povoaçoes do Estado da India Oriental 1600s.

Because of the continuous trade contacts between the Moluccas and the coming merchants of Muslim faith from Arabia and other Asia zones, starting from the 1430-1460 years Maomettan faith   made its entry in the islands, in those years various kings were converted to Islam and at the arrival of the Portuguese, Islam represented an important and elitarian element, although  the majority of the population still remained BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Ramerini, Marco  “The Spanish presence in the Moluccas, 1606-1663/1671-1677” unpublished research.

Ramerini, Marco  “The Spanish forts in Tidore, a preliminar survey” unpublished article.


 A 1764 map of the Moluccas

Sultanate of Demak

Sultanate of Demak
Kasultanan Demak

The Grand Mosque of Demak, build on traditional Javanese architecture.

Capital Demak
Language(s) Javanese
Religion Islam
Government Sultanate
 – 1475-1518 ¹ Raden Patah
 – 1518-1521 Pati Unus
 – 1521-1548 Sultan Trenggana
 – foundation of Demak port town 1475
 – death of Sultan Trenggana 1548
¹ (
Spread of Islam (1200–1600)
Sultanate of Ternate (1257–present)
Malacca Sultanate (1400–1511)
Sultanate of Demak (1475–1548)
Aceh Sultanate (1496–1903)
Sultanate of Banten (1526–1813)
Mataram Sultanate (1500s–1700s)

The Sultanate of Demak was Javanese Muslim state located on Java‘s north coast in Indonesia, at the site of the present day city of Demak. A port fief to the Majapahit kingdom thought to have been founded in the last quarter of the 15th century, it was influenced by Islam brought by Arab and Gujarat traders. The sultanate was the first Muslim state in Java.

Despite its short period, the sultanate played an important role in the establishment of Islam in Indonesia, especially on Java and neighbouring area.




Demak’s origins are uncertain although it was apparently founded in the last quarter of the fifteenth century by a Muslim, known as Raden Patah (from Arabic name: “Fatah”, also called “Pate Rodin” in Portuguese records, or “Jin Bun” in Chinese record). There is evidence that he had Chinese ancestry and perhaps was named Cek Ko-po.[1]

Raden Patah’s son, or possibly his brother, led Demak’s brief domination in Java. He was known as Trenggana, and later Javanese traditions say he gave himself the title Sultan. It appears that Trenggana had two reigns—c 1505–1518 and c 1521–1546—between which his brother in law, Yunus of Jepara occupied the throne.[1]

Before emergence of Demak, northern coast of Java was seat of many Muslim communities, both foreign merchants and Javanese. The islamisation process gained momentum from decline of Majapahit authority. Following fall of Majapahit capital to usurper from Kediri, Raden Patah declared Demak indepence from Majapahit overlordship so did nearly all northern Javanese ports.[2]

Demak and nearby ports. With approximate coastline when Muria and Java still separated.

Demak was a busy harbor with trade connection to Malacca and the Spices islands. It was located at the end of a channel that separated Java and Muria Island (the channel is now filled and Muria joined with Java). In 15th century until 18th century, the channel was wide enough and important waterway for ships traveling along northern Javanese coast to the Spices islands. In the channel ia also located Serang river, which enabled access to rice producing interior of Java. This strategic location enabled Demak to rise as a leading trading centre in Java.[3]

According to Tome Pires, Demak had more inhabitants than any port in Sunda or Java. Demak was the main exporter of rice to Malacca. And with the rise of Malacca, so did Demak rise into prominence. Its supremacy also enhanced with claim of direct decent of Raden Patah to Majapahit royalty and his marriages ties with neighboring city-states.[3]

[Rulers of Demak

[ Raden Patah

Foundation of Demak traditionally attributed to Raden Patah (1475–1518), a Javanese nobility related to Majapahit royalty. At least one account stated that he was son of Kertabhumi, who reigned as king Brawijaya V of Majapahit (1468–1478). Demak manage consolidate its power to defeat Daha in 1527 because it is more accepted as legitimate successor of Majapahit. The reason of this acceptance is because Raden Patah was direct descendant of Kertabhumi who survived the Girindrawardana invasion of Trowulan in 1478.

Chinese chronicle in temple of Semarang states that Raden Patah founded town of Demak in marshy area to the north of Semarang. After the collapse of Majapahit, its various dependencies and vassals broke free, including northern Javanese port towns like Demak.[4]

The new state derives its income by trade: importing spices and exporting rice to Malacca and the Maluku Islands. He managed to gain hegemony on other Javanese trading ports in northern coast of Java such as Semarang, Jepara, Tuban, and Gresik.[5]

Supremacy of Raden Patah was illustrated by Tome Pires,” … should de Albuquerque make peace with the Lord of Demak, all of Java will almost be forced to make peace with him… The Lord of Demak stood for all of Java”.[6] Apart from Javanese city-states, Raden Patah also gained overlordship of ports of Jambi and Palembang in eastern Sumatra, from which produced commodities such as lignaloes and gold.[6] As most of its power is based on trade and control of coastal cities, Demak can be considered as a thalassocracy.

A early 18th century map of Java. Note that only major trading ports on the northern coast were known to the European. From west to east: * Bantam (Banten) * Xacatara (Jayakarta) * Cherebum (Cirebon) * Taggal (Tegal) * Damo (Demak) * Iapara (Jepara) * Tubam (Tuban) * Sodaio (Sedayu, now near Gresik) * Surubaya (Surabaya)

Pati Unus

Raden Patah was succeeded by his brother-in-law Pati Unus or Adipati Yunus (1518–1521). Before it, he was a ruler of Jepara, a vassal state to the north of Demak. He was known for his two attempts in 1511 and 1521 to seize the port of Malacca from the control of Portuguese.

In Suma Oriental, Tomé Pires refer to him as “Pate Onus” or “Pate Unus”, brother in-law of “Pate Rodim” (Raden Patah), the ruler of Demak. During the invasions he managed to mobilise vessels from Javanese coastal cities to Malay Peninsula. Javanese ports turned against Portuguese for a number of reason, the major of them is opposition to Portuguese insistence on monopoly of spices trade. The invasion fleet cosisted around one thousand vessels, but this was repulsed by the Portuguese. The destruction of this navy proved devastating to the Javanese ports, who although somewhat recovered, unable to respond properly when next colonial power came, the Dutch.

This campaign attempt ended with failures and loss of the King’s life. He was later remembered as Pangeran Sabrang Lor or the Prince who crossed (the Java Sea) to North (Malay peninsula).

 Sultan Trenggana

After the death of Pati Unus, the throne was contested between his brothers; Raden Kikin and Raden Trenggana. According to tradition, Sunan Prawoto, the son of Prince Trenggana, stole Keris Setan Kober, a powerful magical kris from Sunan Kudus, and used it to assassin his uncle Raden Kikin by the river, since then Raden Kikin also referred to as Sekar Seda Lepen (flower that fell by the river). Raden Trenggana rise as Sultan. The Pati Unus’ brother-in-law, Trenggana (1522–1548), crowned by Sunan Gunungjati (one of the Wali Songo), became the third and the greatest ruler of Demak. He conquered the Hindu based resistance in Central Java.

Following discovery of news of Portuguese-Sunda alliance, he ordered invasion to Banten and Sunda Kelapa ports of kingdom of Sunda at 1527 (Sunda Kelapa was later renamed Jayakarta). From this territories he created sultanate of Banten as vassal-state under Hasanudin, son of Gunungjati.

Trenggana spread Demak’s influence eastward and during his second regin, he conquered the last Javanese Hindu-Buddhist state, the remnants of Majapahit. Majapahit had been in decline since the later fifteenth century and was in an advanced state of collapse at the time of the Demak’s conquest,[1] it not real Majapahit which defeated by Sultan Trenggana since it created by Girindrawardhana after he defeat Kertabumi and raze Trowulan into ground. Majapahit’s heirlooms were brought to Demak and adopted as Demak’s royal icons.[citation needed] Demak was able to subdue other major ports and its reach extended into some inland areas of East Java that are not thought to have been Islamised at the time. Although evidence is limited, it is known that Demak’s conquests covered much of Java: Tuban, an old Majapahit port mentioned in Chinese sources from the eleventh century, was conquered c. 1527;

His campaign ended when he was killed in Panarukan, East Java in 1548.


The death of the strong Trenggana sparked the civil war of succession between the King’s son, Prince Prawoto; and Arya Penangsang the son of late Sekar Seda Lepen (Raden Kikin). Prawoto son of Trenggana ascend to throne as the new Sultan of Demak. However, Arya Penangsang of Jipang with the help of his teacher, Sunan Kudus, took revenge by sending an assassin to kill Prawoto using the same kris. Prawoto younger sister Ratu Kalinyamat seeks revenge on Penangsang, since Penangsang also murdered her husband. She urged her brother in-law, Hadiwijaya (popularly known as Joko Tingkir), Lord of Boyolali, to kill Arya Penangsang.

Arya Penangsang soon faced heavy opposition from his own vassals due to his unlikeable character, and soon was dethroned by a coalition of vassals led by Hadiwijaya, Lord of Boyolali, who had kinship with the King Trenggana. Hadiwijaya sent his adopted son and also his son in-law Sutawijaya, who would later become the first ruler of the Mataram dynasty, to kill Penangsang.

Hadiwijaya assumed the role as the King but he moved all the Demak heirlooms and sacred artifacts to Pajang, then he ended the Demak history when he founded his new kingdom: the short-lived Kingdom of Pajang.

Javanese legends of Demak

Later Javanese chronicles provide varying accounts of the conquest, but they all describe Demak as the legitimate direct successor of Majapahit although they do not mention the possibility that by the time of its final conquest, Majapahit no longer ruled. The first ‘Sultan’ of Demak, Raden Patah, is portrayed as the son of Majapahit’s last king by a Chinese princess who was exiled from the court before Patah’s birth.

The chronicles conventionally date the fall of Majapahit at the end of the fourteenth Javanese calendar (1400 Saka or 1478 AD), a time when changes of dynasties or court was though to occur. Although these legends explain little about the actual events, they do illustrate that the dynastic continuity survived Islamisation of

 from central Java.

By the 14th century, it was a major port for the Hindu

Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word “Hindu” is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion…

 16th century

Sunda Kingdom
 around 1579, covering areas of present-day Banten, Jakarta, West Java, and the western part of Central Java…
around 1579, covering areas of present-day Banten, Jakarta, West Java, and the western part of Central Java… The source reports the port of Sunda as strategic and thriving, pepper

Black pepper

Black pepper is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. The fruit, known as a peppercorn when dried, is approximately in diameter, dark red when fully mature, and, like all drupes, contains a single seed…

 from Sunda being among the best in quality. The people worked in agriculture and their houses were built on wooden piles.
The harbour area was renamed Sunda Kelapa

Sunda Kelapa
Sunda Kelapa is the old port of Jakarta located on the estuarine of Ciliwung River. “Sunda Kalapa” is the original name, and it was the main port of Sunda Kingdom of Pajajaran. The port is situated in Penjaringan sub-district, of North Jakarta, Indonesia…

 as written in a Hindu

. The first Europe


Europe is, by convention, one of the world’s seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally ‘divided’ from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting…

an fleet, four Portuguese


Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic , is a country located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west and south and by Spain to the north and east…

 ships from Malacca

Malacca is the third smallest Malaysian state, after Perlis and Penang. It is located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, on the Straits of Malacca. It borders Negeri Sembilan to the north and the state of Johor to the south…

, arrived in 1513. Malacca had been conquered by Afonso de Albuquerque in 1511 when the Portuguese were looking for spices and especially pepper

Black pepper

Black pepper is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. The fruit, known as a peppercorn when dried, is approximately in diameter, dark red when fully mature, and, like all drupes, contains a single seed…


In the 15th century AD there was, at the mouth of the Ciliwung River

Ciliwung River
Ciliwung is a river that passes through Jakarta, Indonesia. The river flows from its source near Puncak on the highlands of West Java to the Jakarta Bay….

 in the western part of Java Island, a harbour called Kalapa. It was one of the sea ports of the Sundanese kingdom of Pajajaran whose capital, Pakuan, was situated on the location of the modern city of Bogor


Bogor is a city on the island of Java in the West Java province of Indonesia. The city is located in the center of the Bogor Regency , 60 kilometers south of the Indonesian capital Jakarta…

, some 60 km upstream on the river.

The Portuguese, who had conquered Malacca

Malacca is the third smallest Malaysian state, after Perlis and Penang. It is located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, on the Straits of Malacca. It borders Negeri Sembilan to the north and the state of Johor to the south…

 in 1511 and wanted to set foot in the Moluccas, the famed “Spice Islands”, were looking for a relay harbour on Java. Kalapa was attractive to them, all the more so since Pajajaran, which was still a Hindu

Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word “Hindu” is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion…

 polity, could make an alliance against Muslims who dominated the regional trade at that time.

 In 1522,

the Portuguese signed with Pajajaran a treaty.

The relationship between the Kingdom

A monarchy is a form of government in which the head of state reigns by some kind of perceived divine sanction. It is usually hereditary and there is usually only one monarch, though there are significant exceptions to these. The monarch often bears the title king or queen…

 of Sunda and Portugal intensified when another Portuguese named Enrique Leme visited Sunda in 1522 with the intention of giving a present. He was well-received and as a result, the Portuguese gained rights to build a warehouse and expand their fort in Sunda Kelapa (the name of the location at the time). The Sundanese regarded this as a consolidation of their position against the raging Muslim


Relationship Sunda Kingdom with the European
Sunda kingdom had long established trade relations with European nations such as British, French and Portuguese. Kingdom of Sunda even had a political relationship with the Portuguese. In the year 1522, the Kingdom of Sunda sign Sunda-Portuguese Treaty that allowed the Portuguese built forts and warehouses in the port of Sunda Kelapa. In return, the Portuguese are required to give military aid to the Kingdom of Sunda in the face of attacks from Demak and Cirebon (which broke away from the Kingdom of Sunda).


In 1512,

 at the arrival of the Portuguese  two main kingdoms controlled  the Moluccas: they were the sultanat of Ternate and the reign of Tidore, the first one controlled beyond the island of Ternate also half of the island of Moti, the northern side of the island of Halmahera called by the Portuguese Moro, the island of Ambon, the east part of Ceram and the northeast area of Sulawesi. The reign of Tidore, controlled beyond the island of Tidore the other half of the island of Moti, the island of Makian, the great part of the island of Halmahera and the western side of New Guinea. The control on these islands was exercised directly or through vassallage. Two others smaller reigns also existed: that of Bacan and that of Jailolo. The reign of Bacan, whose main village was on the island of Kasiruta, extended its infuence on the archipelago of Bacan and on the northern side of Ceram; the reign of Bacan was a great producer of sago, basic food of the populations of the islands, but  it was scarcely populated; the reign of Jailolo instead had been in the past the more important of the region but in 1500s. it was in decline and it controlled only the  north-western side of Halmahera, this reign will be practically annexed by Ternate and the Portuguese in 1551.

The sultan of Ternate succeeded to make alliance with the Portuguese and in 1522 asked and obtained the construction of a Portuguese fortress in its island. The first stone of the fortress was placed for the festivity of Saint John he Baptiste, on 24 June 1522, and for this the fort was called “Săo Joăo Baptista de Ternate”. The alliance with the Portuguese put out of balance more in favor of Ternate the power relationships with Tidore, on the contrary the king of Tidore at the arrival of the ships of the Magellan expedition ready demanded the help of the Spaniards.

A 1714 map of theMoluccas

As  is well known,  starting from the Magellan expedition, the Spaniards tried more and more times to get the controll of the spice islands to the prejudice of the Portuguese, with which they often had severe divergences. The Spaniards, established alliances with the sultans of Tidore and Jailolo and Spanish troops were present in the islands during the years 1527-1534 and 1544-1545. The lack of discover of the return route through the Pacific prevented they of being able to compete with the Portuguese naval power. In 1529, in order to define the contentious, an agreement between Spain and Portugal, the treaty of Saragozza, was reached, with this treaty the king of Spain at least nominally abandoned every pretension on the islands in exchange for a sum of money. The first  period of interest of the Spaniards in the Moluccas, was characterized by the fights against the Portuguese for the control of the islands, it began with the arrival of the Magellan expedition in 1521 and ended in 1545 with the surrender to the Portuguese of the men of the army of Villalobos, between these two expedition the Spaniards sent other fleets, those of Loaisa (1527) and Saavedra (1528) beyond to the unlucky expedition of Grijalva (1538). The expedition of Villalobos was prepared after the treaty of Saragozza and for this reason it was direct to not better specified islands of the spices not still occupied by  Portugal. The center of all this activity of the Spaniards remained for the whole period the island of Tidore. This first period of interest for the Spaniards in the Moluccas, that regards the years 1521-1606, can be subdivided in two distinct parts: the first part was that one, to which we have already pointed out, of the fights against the Portuguese for the control of the islands, it began with the arrival of the shipment of Magellano in 1521 and finished in 1545 with the surrender to the Portuguese of the men of Villalobos. The second part of this first period, was instead that of the union between the crowns of Spain and Portugal, during this time the Spanish expeditions departed from Manila in the Philippines and were organized with the aim to help the Portuguese troops against the Ternateans enemies, that were rebelled to the Portuguese and that  had expelled them from the island of Ternate. The main objective of these expeditions was the “reconquista” of the Portuguese fortress of Ternate. None of the six successive Spanish attempt  reached the prefixed objective. These attempts began in 1582 with the expedition of Francisco Dueńas, this first expedition had  merely informative character to know more on the military situation of the islands, Francisco Dueńas remained in the Moluccas for approximately two months between March and April 1582. The successive expedition was that   commanded by D. Juan Ronquillo it was done between 1582 and 1583, the Spaniards collaborated with the Portuguese helping them in some punitive expeditions. In 1584 it was the time of Pedro Sarmiento and then in 1585 of Juan de Morón also these two expeditions did not have the hoped result, this time the fortress of Ternate was attacked, but without result. A larger and better assembled army left Manila direct to the Moluccas in 1593 under the command of the governor of the Philippines Gómez Pérez Dasmarińas, but a rebellion and the murder of the same governor before reaching the Moluccas carried to the cancellation of all the operation. The last Spanish expedition of this period was that sent from Manila in aid of the fleet of Portuguese admiral André Furtado de Mendonça, the Spanish succour was commanded by Juan Juárez Gallinato, and left  Manila to the end of 1602, a combined Spanish-Portuguese attack against the fortress of Ternate was with no success. Was successful instead the attack that the Dutch did to the fortress of Tidore in 1605. Tidore was conquered on 19  May 1605, but not having a sufficient number of men in order to garrison the conquered fort, the Dutch commander the vice-admiral Cornelis Bastiaensz was limited to leave some men in a small trading farm. The Spanish answer, this time, was not late to arrive, and the expedition of 1606  lead by the governor of the Philippines Pedro de Acuńa reestablished the Iberian control on the Moluccas. After his fast Victoria, Acuńa decided,  to deport to Manila the sultan of Ternate, Said Barakat, with the Prince, its son, and all his dignitaries, in total about thirty persons. It was therefore from the year 1606 for 57 years, until the 1663 (with one small appendix in the island of Siau where a very small Spanish garrison remained from 1671 to 1677), the Spanish occupied some spice islands. The period was characterized by a continuous and often hard fights against the Dutch that were nearly always masters of the seas and in condition of superiority for armament, number of soldiers and ships. For most part of the period the Spaniards had a faithful allied in the sultan of Tidore, while the Dutch had the same in that of Ternate.


Ternate by Francois Valentijn, 1726: in this print is showed also the map of the Spanish town Nuestra Seńora del Rosario (Gammalamma).

The Spaniards, that after the conquest of Ternate, in 1606, were at least nominally masters of the spice islands, did not succed to contrast the successive return of Dutch that formed an alliance with the rebellious Ternatens. The Spanish occupation was mainly a military occupation, because of the hostility of theTernatens and the Dutch, than after the Spanish conquest of Ternate, returned more battle-trained. Starting  from the year 1607, the Dutch extended their control on the more profitableand better part and of the Moluccas: they, in 1607 constructed a fort in the same island of Ternate a few kilometers from the Spanish city, this fort was name Fort Malayo and then Fort Orange  (it was the actual Benteng Orange, in the city of Ternate). In the same island in October 1609, the Dutch built a fort in Tacome (Fort Willemstadt). The fort of Tacome was situated in the northern side of the island, that was rich of cloves. A third fort was finally constructed,




In 1522,
less than half a century after Islam arrived at Ternate, the Portuguese set up a fort on the island.
Thus, for the time they became allies of Ternate (a Muslim). In subsequent years several magnifying Ternate successfully baptized, but the royal dynasty and the mass of the people stick to the religion of Islam, which they profess since 1473. Christian community in Ternate remains “fortress church”. But in some other area Christian congregations born natives. Let us realize that these churches is the result of the Moluccan own initiative. In Halmahera, population of the village on the east coast of the island requested that the Portuguese in Ternate protect them from enemies and accept the religion of their protectors (1534). They were given rudimentary religious instruction, was baptized and given a new name, the name of the Portuguese. Thus, the pattern of conversion to Christianity-like conversion to Islam.
In the long term, Christian congregations in Halmahera can not stand, because it began in 1570 a war raged between Ternate and the Portuguese, who had killed the Sultan of Ternate, Hairun. The killing led to a long partnership turned into enmity, and political reasons described above is no longer valid. Church of the fort of Ternate were wiped out with fort, and in Halmahera was the Christian religion can not survive. However, while it successfully planted the seeds of Christians in Ambon. Around the year 1510 brought Islam to Hitu of Java. In 1538, the Sultan of Ternate (Islam) with the help of allies of the Portuguese (Christian), attacking people Hitu (a Muslim), who is assisted by a fleet of Java. People Hitu defeated. Then a number of villages around the Bay of Ambon, which has not converted to Islam, calling for the Portuguese. They also would receive their religious friends. In later Christianity spread to other villages in Ambon and Lease. Just as Christians in Halmahera, Ambon who can not live peacefully. They must constantly resist the attacks of Ternate and Hitu, and they should help in his battle against Ternate Tidore. However, in contrast to Halmahera, Ambon and Christianity can survive in the future is also widespread.
Christianity also spread to North Sulawesi and Sangihe. In 1563 the King of Manado and the number of people baptized. Siau king happened to be visiting there and participate baptized; population Siau island itself followed some years later. But since the Portuguese increasingly pressured by the Ternate, this seed can not be maintained. New in the 17th century, when the Spaniards from the Philippines to expand their influence into the region, successfully established congregations rather steady.
Christianity also spread over a region that lies outside the influence of the Sultan of Ternate, which is in East Nusa Tenggara. This area is important for Portuguese traders, since they produce sandalwood, which is sold in India and China.

A Muslim is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. “Muslim” is the Arabic term for “one who submits to God”….

 troops from the rising power of the Sultanate of Demak in Central Java.

 Islamic Kingdom
 History of Nusantara in the era of the Islamic empire

Islam as a government presence in Indonesia around the 12th century, but in fact Islam has already arrived in Indonesia in the 7th century AD. It was already a busy shipping lane and become international through the Malacca Strait that connects the Tang Dynasty in China, the Srivijaya in Southeast Asia and the Umayyads in West Asia since the 7th century. [4]

According to Chinese sources by the end of the third quarter of 7th century, became the leader of an Arab merchant Muslim Arab settlements on the coast of Sumatra. Islam also gives effect to the existing political institutions. This is apparent in the year 100 H (718 AD) King of Srivijaya Jambi named Srindravarman send a letter to the Caliph Umar bin Abdul Aziz of the Umayyad Caliphate request sent preachers who could explain Islam to him. The letter reads: “From the King in the King who is the descendant of a thousand kings, whose wife was also grandson of a thousand kings, who in the animal cages are a thousand elephants, whose territory there are two rivers that irrigate the tree aloes, spices fragrance, nutmeg and lime lines that fragrant smell to reach out to a distance of 12 miles, to the Arab King who does not associate other gods with Allah. I have sent you a gift, which is actually a gift that is not so much, but just a sign of friendship. I want you to send me someone who can teach Islam to me and explain to me about its laws. “Two years later, the year 720 AD, King Srindravarman, which was originally Hindu, converted to Islam. Sriwijaya Jambi also known as the ‘Sribuza Islam’. Unfortunately, in 730 AD captured by Jambi Sriwijaya Sriwijaya Palembang who still adhered to Buddhism. [5]

Islam continues to mengokoh become a political institution who carry Islam. For example, an Islamic sultanate called the Sultanate of Peureulak established on 1 Muharram 225 H or 12 November 839 AD Another example is the kingdom of Ternate. Islam arrived in this kingdom in the Maluku islands in 1440. Its king, a Muslim named Bayanullah.

Islamic Sultanate then semikin spread his teachings to the people and through assimilation, replaced Hinduism as the main trust at the end of the 16th century in Java and Sumatra. Only Bali that still retain the majority Hindus. On the islands in the east, Churchman-known Christian and Muslim clergy has been active in the 16th century and 17, and currently there are a large majority of both religions on these islands.

The spread of Islam through trade relations outside the archipelago; this case, because the spreading propaganda or mubaligh an emissary of the Islamic government that came from outside Indonesia, then to feed themselves and their families, the mubaligh this work through how to trade, the spread even this mubaligh Islam to the traders from the natives, until the merchants are embracing Islam and also transmit to other people, because most traders and experts was the first kingdom to adopt the new religion. Important Islamic Kingdom including: Royal Ocean Pasai, Sultanate of Banten, which establish diplomatic relations with European countries, the Kingdom of Mataram, and the Sultanate of Ternate in the Moluccas and the Sultanate Tidore


In 1527, Musl



A Muslim is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. “Muslim” is the Arabic term for “one who submits to God”….

 troops coming from Cirebon


Cirebon is a port city on the north coast of the Indonesian island of Java. It is located in the province of West Java near the provincial border with Central Java, approximately 297 km east of Jakarta, at .The seat of a former Sultanate, the city’s West and Central Java border location have…

 and Demak

Demak is on the north coast of Central Java province, on the island of Java, Indonesia.* Demak, Indonesia – the modern-day large town.* Demak Sultanate – the sixteenth century sultanate.* Demak Regency – the modern-day regency around the town….

 attacked the Kingdom of Sunda under the leadership of Fatahillah. The king was expecting the Portuguese to come and help them hold Fatahillah’s army because of an agreement that had been in place between Sunda and the Portuguese. However, Fatahillah’s army succeeded in conquering the city on June 22, 1557, and Fatahillah changed the name of “Sunda Kelapa” to “Jayakarta” (जयकर्; “Great Deed” or “Complete Victory” in Sanskrit


Sanskrit , is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism….



original manuscript.jpg (117635 bytes)

Naer dat wij bij d’Ed=e. Hr. gouverneur en d’E. H=ren raden van India naer Taijoan waren gedestineert, soo sijn op den 18en Junij 1553 met bovengenoemde Iacht vande rheede van Batavia ‘tzeijl gegaen, op hebbende d’E. Hr. Cornelis Caesar om’t gouvernement van Taijoan, Formosa , met den aencleven van dien te becleden, tot vervangh van d’E


 In 1556
five thousand people are baptized on the island of Timor. Thus was born the Christian congregations in Flores and on several other islands. Dominicans here are active. They established a kind of religious state, with the center on the island of Solor.
Fort in Solor 1556  was they who built it. In this area also Christian groups involved in wars and are often attacked by outside forces. But they survived and grew into a kind of enclave of Portuguese in Southeast Asia.
Thus, the spread of Christianity in the 16th century was the beginning of the history of religion in Indonesia. We mention a few characteristics. (1) Christianity is not imposed on people of Indonesia, but accepted by them based on political considerations, economic, ethnological, military. (2) The spread of Christianity is not a purely religious phenomenon, but intertwined with other factors. (3) The emphasis of the Christian congregation located in Eastern Indonesia. (4) For adherents, Christianity is not a foreign element, but one’s own. Indigenous religion and culture as well as a new religion that blends into a new identity. (5) Christians are willing to treat * hold * it, and defend their new identities against all enemies. Age was also the * right * to witness the faith who are willing to die for his faith


Triumph of the Archipelago Portuguese Period
Period 1511-1526,

for 15 years, the archipelago became an important maritime port for the Kingdom of Portugal, which regularly become a maritime route to the island of Sumatra, Java, Banda, and Maluku.

In 1511 the Portuguese defeated the kingdom of Malacca.

In the Portuguese in 1512 to establish communication with the [[Kingdom of Sunda]] to sign a trade agreement, especially pepper. Trade agreement is then manifested on August 21, 1522 in the form of contract documents created duplicate, one copy to the king of Sunda and one for the king of Portugal. On the same day built a monument called the [[Inscription Sunda-Portuguese Treaty]] in a place that is now the corner of Clove Road and East First Street Kali Besar, West Jakarta. With this agreement, the Portuguese allowed to build a warehouse or a fortress in the [[Sunda Kelapa]].

In the year 1512

also Afonso de Albuquerque send Albreu Antonio and Francisco Serrão to lead the fleet to find a way to place of origin of spices in the Moluccas. Along the way, they stopped at Madura, Bali and Lombok. By using the skipper-skipper of Java, the fleet arrived in the Banda Islands, continue heading North until arriving at Ternate.

Portuguese presence in the waters and islands of Indonesia that has left traces of history that to this day is still maintained by local communities in the archipelago, particularly Flores, Solor and Maluku, Jakarta Kampong monument located in the eastern part of Jakarta, between Kali Cakung, Cilincing beach and soil Marunda.

Europeans first discovered the Moluccas is Portuguese, in the year 1512. At that time, two Portuguese fleet, each under the leadership of Anthony d’Abreu and Francisco Serau, landed in Banda Islands and Turtle Island. Once they make friends with residents and local kings – such as with Kingdom of Ternate on the island of Ternate, the Portuguese were given permission to establish a stronghold in Pikaoli, nor may the State Hitu old, and Mamala Ambon.Namun Island spice trade relations did not last long , because the Portuguese introduced a system of monopoly and also to spread Christianity.
One of his famous missionary Francis Xavier. Arriving in Ambon 14 February 1546, then traveled to Ternate, arrived in 1547, and tirelessly visiting the islands in the Maluku Islands to make the spread of religion.
Portuguese Friendship and Ternate ended in 1570. Warfare with the Sultan Babullah for 5 years (1570-1575), allowed the Portuguese had to leave from and expelled into Tidore Ternate and Ambon.


Discounting francis drake’s brief passage through the sunda strait in the late 1570s,

In 1595,


Amsterdam is the capital and largest city of the Netherlands, with a population of 780,152 within city limits, an urban population of 1,209,419 and a metropolitan population of 2,158,592. The city is in the province of North Holland in the west of the country

then they built a fort at Ternate in 1511,

then in 1512 built the Citadel in Amurang North Sulawesi. Portuguese lost the war with Spain, the north Sulawesi area submitted in the Spanish rule (1560 to 1660). Portuguese kingdom later united with the Kingdom of Spain. (Read the book: Portuguese Colonial History in Indonesia, by David DS Lumoindong). 17th-century merchant fleet came VOC (Dutch), who later managed to expel the Portuguese from Ternate, which then backwards and mastering Portuguese East Timor (since 1515).

Colonialism and Imperialism began spreading in Indonesia around the 15th century, which begins with the landing of the Portuguese in Malacca and the Dutch-led Cornelis de Houtmen in 1596, to seek the source of spices and trade.

Popular Resistance against Portuguese === ===
The arrival of the Portuguese to the Malay Peninsula and the Maluku Islands is an order from his country to trade.

Popular Resistance ==== ==== Malacca to the Portuguese
In 1511, the Portuguese fleet led by Albuquerque to attack the kingdom of Malacca. To attack the colonial Portuguese in Malacca which occurred in 1513 have failed because the power of Portuguese and more powerful weapons. In 1527, the fleet Demak under the leadership of Falatehan can master Banten, Suda Palm, and Cirebon. Portuguese fleet to be destroyed by Falatehan and he later renamed Sunda Kelapa to Jayakarta (Jakarta)

Resistance ==== ==== Acehnese against the Portuguese
Beginning in 1554 until the year 1555, the Portuguese efforts failed because the Portuguese received stiff resistance from the people of Aceh. At the time of Sultan Iskandar Muda in power, the Kingdom of Aceh was attacked the Portuguese in Malacca in 1629.

Popular Resistance ==== ==== Moluccas against Portuguese
The Portuguese first landed in Maluku in 1511. The next Portuguese arrival in 1513. However, Tertnate feel aggrieved by the Portuguese because of their greed to obtain monopoly profits through the efforts of the spice trade.

In 1533, the Sultan of Ternate appeal to all the people of Maluku to expel the Portuguese in the Moluccas. In 1570, the people of Ternate, which was led by Sultan Hairun to re-take the fight against the Portuguese, but can be tricked by the Portuguese and eventually murdered in the Fort Duurstede. Furthermore, led by Sultan Baabullah in the year 1574. Portuguese expelled who then lived on the island of Timor.

Spanish Colonization === ===
{{Main | History of Nusantara Zaman_Spanyol}}

[[Fernando Magelhans]] (sometimes also written Ferdinand) Magelan. Because of this character, who led the first fleet to circumnavigate the world and prove that the earth is round, when it was known by the [[Europe]] flat earth. Commencement [[Colonization]] for centuries by the [[Spain]] along with other European nations, especially the [[Portuguese ]],[[ England]] and [[Netherlands]].

From [[Spain]] to [[Pacific Ocean]] that the Portuguese fleet sailed the Pacific Ocean, past the [[Cape of Good Hope Africa]], to [[Strait of Malacca]]. From here proceed to the Moluccas exploration to find spices, gold equivalent commodity at the time.

“In the 16th century when the adventure begins usually sailors Catholic country was blessed by the priest and the king before sailing through the ocean.

On September 20, 1519, San Antonio, Concepción, Victoria, and Santiago, the biggest to the smallest-follow the mother ship Magellan, Trinidad, the second largest ship, as they set sail for South America. On 13 December, they reached Brazil, and Pao de Açúcar staring, or Sugarloaf Mountain, which is impressive, they entered the bay of Rio de Janeiro is wonderful for repairs and provisions. Then they went south into what is now Argentina, always searching for el paso, the elusive path to the other oceans. Meanwhile, the days get colder and icebergs appear. Finally, on March 31, 1520, Magellan decided to spend the winter in a cold harbor of San Julián.

Sailing has now take six times longer than Columbus’ voyage across the Atlantic Ocean for the first time, and have not seen any of the strait! Their morale began as cold weather in San Julián, and the men, including several captains and officers, get frustrated and want to go home. It’s no surprise when mutiny erupts. However, thanks to a quick and decisive action on the part of Magellan, it was foiled and the two leaders are killed.

The presence of foreign vessels in the harbor must have attracted a strong local-and large-bodied. Feeling like a dwarf compared to these giants, the visitors Patagonia call that land from a Spanish word meaning “big feet”-to this day. They also observe ‘sea wolves of the calf, as well as black and white geese that swim underwater, eat fish, and has a beak like a crow’. Of course, none other than not it seals and penguins!

Polar latitudes are prone to violent storms suddenly, and before winter is over, the fleet was experiencing his first victim of small-Santiago. However, fortunately the crew can be rescued from the sinking ship that. After that, the four surviving ship, like a little winged moths that hit in the middle of the frozen ocean currents and never let up, fight tooth and nail head south to colder waters, until October 21. Sailing under the pouring rain that freezes, all eyes glued to a crack in the west. El paso? Yes! Finally, they turned and entered the strait later known as the Strait of Magellan! However, even this moment of triumph is tarnished. San Antonio deliberately disappear in the maze of straits and return to Spain.

The three ships which still survive, diimpit by a narrow gulf between snow-covered cliffs, with persistent sailed through the winding strait that. Brand watched so many fires in the south, possibly from Indian camps, so they call that land Tierra del Fuego, “Land of Fire.”

Magellan arrived in the Philippines many local people and their rulers to Catholicism. But the spirit also become corrupted. He became involved in tribal disputes and, with only 60 men, attacked about 1,500 indigenous people, with the belief that guns bows, old-fashioned guns, and God will ensure his victory. Instead, he and a number of his subordinates were killed. Magellan was about 41 years. Pigafetta loyal wailing, ‘They killed reflection, lights, entertainers, and our true guide. ” A few days later, about 27 officers who only watch from their ship, was killed by tribal leaders who previously friendly.

Because now the number of crew of the cruise is low, it is impossible to sail with three ships, so they drown the Concepción and sail with two ships are still living to their final destination, the Spice Islands. Then, after filling the charge with the spices, the two ships separated. However, the crew of the ship Trinidad was captured by the Portuguese and imprisoned.

However, Victoria, under the command of former rebel Juan Sebastián de Elcano, miss. While avoiding all the ports except one, they take the risk of the Portuguese route around the Cape of Good Hope. However, without stopping to fill the supply is an expensive strategy. When they finally reached Spain on 6 September 1522-three years since their departure, only 18 men who are sick and helpless who survive. Even so, can not be denied that they were the first person to sail around the earth. Juan Sebastián de Elcano was a hero. What an amazing thing, the charge spice Victoria weighing 26 tons defray the costs of the entire expedition!

When a ship that survived, Victoria, returned to port after completing the journey around the world for the first time, only 18 men of 237 men who were on the ship in the early departure. Among survivors, there are two Italians, Antonio Pigafetta and Martino de Judicibus. Martino de Judicibus (Spanish: Martín de Judicibus) adalan people of Genoa [1] which acts as the Head Waiter. It works by Ferdinand Magellan on its historic journey to find a western route to the Spice Islands of Indonesia. [2] The history of his trip immortalized in the registration of nominative in Archivo General de Indias in Seville, Spain. The family name is called with the proper Latin patronimik, namely: “de Judicibus”. At first he was assigned to the Caravel Concepción, one of five Spanish fleet owned by Magellan. Martino de Judicibus start this expedition with the title of captain. (Read more in the book “History of Colonial Spanish in Indonesia” by David DS Lumoindong.

Before mastering the Philippine islands in 1543, Spain made the island of Manado Tua as a stopover to obtain fresh water. Of the island’s Spanish ships entered the mainland
North Sulawesi through the river-Tondano. Spanish traveler relationship with rural residents is established through a barter economy began in Uwuran (now city Amurang) alongside the river Rano I Apo. Barter trade of rice, resin, honey and other forest products with fish and salt.

Warehouse Coffee
Manado and Minahasa be important for Spain, because of soil fertility and use Spanish for the planting Kofi originating from South-America to be marketed to mainland China. For that in-
wake Manado as a trade center for Chinese traders who market Kofi kedaratan China. Manado name included in the map of the world by experts the world map, Nicolas_Desliens, in 1541. Manado also
the main attraction of Chinese society by Kofi as an export commodity inland communities of Manado and Minahasa. Pioneered the development of Chinese traders Kofi warehouse (now around the Market 45) which later became Chinatown and the settlement. The arrivals from mainland China mingle and assimilate with inland communities and to form a pluralistic society in Manado and Minahasa
with derivatives Spanish, Portuguese and Dutch.

The appearance of the name of Manado in North Sulawesi with a variety of commercial activities carried Spain into Portugal since the appeal to establish its position in Ternate. For that approach send the Portuguese Catholic mission on the ground Manado and Minahasa in 1563 and developed a religious and Catholic education. Effect of race in the Celebes Sea Adu

Between Minahasa with Ternate, there are two small islands called Mayu and Tafure. Then the two islands were used as transit port by sailors Minahasa. At that time there is competition Portuguese and Spanish in which Spain won the two islands. Pandey Tombulu origin who became king on the island run by a fleet of boats back to the Minahasa, but because of the summer monsoon and then stranded in Gorontalo. Pandey boy named Potangka continue the journey and arrived at Ratahan. In Ratahan, he was appointed commander of the war because he was an expert shot guns and rifles to fight the Portuguese attacker from Mongondouw in the region. In 1563 the territory known Ratahan Ternate people with the name “Watasina” because when attacked by a fleet of Kora-kora menhalau Ternate to Spain from the region (the book “De Katholieken en hares Missie” written by AJ Van Aernsbergen). In 1570 Portuguese and Spanish conspired to kill the king of Ternate, so make a big fuss in Ternate. When that many Islamic traders fled to Ternate and Tidore Ratahan. Pirate attacks increased in Ratahan through Bentenan, plows the sea using the slaves as rowers. The captive slaves fled to the Ratahan pirates when night pirate boat fleet was damaged soldiers Ratahan – barely. Tentative conclusions can we draw from this story collection is the original inhabitants of this region is Touwuntu in lowland areas to the beach Toulumawak in the mountains, they are descendants Opok Soputan seventh century. Name OPO ‘Soputan appears again as the head of the 16th century walak region with head walak Raliu brothers and Potangkuman. Residents of this region comes from the 16th century natives and newcomers from Tombulu, Tompakewa (Tontemboan), Tonsea, Ternate and pirates prisoner may from Sangihe.

Minahasa Struggle Against Spain === ===

Oki Queen in 1644 ranges up to 1683. At that time, there was a great war between the child Tombatu tribe (also commonly referred to Toundanow or Tonsawang) with the Spaniards. The war was triggered by the child’s tribe Tombatu disaffection against the Spaniards who want to master the trade of commodities, especially rice, which is the result of the earth at that time the mainstay of residents. Besides, anger is also caused by the evil Spaniards against local residents, especially to his daughter.
The war has resulted in the death of 40 Spanish soldiers in Kali and Stone (Stone Dimples location now – ed). Naasnya, on the child’s tribe Tombatu, has resulted in the deaths Monde Commander with 9 people’s armies. Commander Monde is none other than her husband Queen Oki. According to that told in the paper, the Commander Monde died after desperately defending his wife, Queen Oki.Menurut PA Gosal, et al., In the reign of Queen Oki, son of the tribe Toundanow (another name for the child’s tribe or Tonsawang Tombatu) that inhabit the lake Bulilin live prosperous, secure and peaceful. “The wisdom and the wisdom to lead children Toudanow tribe then adopted as well as Queen Oki Tonaas or Balian. During kepemimpinnan Queen Oki, Spain and the Netherlands have never mastered or colonize Toundanow child, ”

War of the Spanish opponent Minahasa

The crew of Spanish sailors lived in Minahasa and even blend in with society. They married women Minahasa, so that their descendants became brothers with indigenous residents.

In 1643 war broke out Minaesa States against the kingdom of Spain. in a battle in Tompaso, Spanish troops assisted the troops of King Loloda Mokoagouw II hit losers, the union backed by the combined forces Minaesa, chased up to the shore but

Year 1694 in a battle in Tompaso, the troops of King Loloda Mokoagouw II hit losers, the union backed by the combined forces of Minahasa, chased down to the beach but is prevented and mediated by the Resident VOC Herman Jansz Steynkuler. In the year 1694 September 21, was held peace agreement, and set the border is a river Poigar Minahasa. Minaesa States troops from occupied Tompaso New Tompaso, Rumoong settled in Rumoong Down, down Kawangkoan Kawangkoan inhabit, and so forth.

In the Dutch colonial administration pasa then it originally was an autonomous region but over time gradually decreased with the powers of the king the king the appointment of an officer in the Dutch government, so that the king lives a territory level officials ‘district’.

 Europeans had been aware of the existence of a rich archipelago off the southeastern corner of Asia since classical times, and the name ‘Java’ in particular often appeared in various forms on European maps of the world before 1500. Closer European knowledge of the Indies, however, had to await the establishment of direct contact after the Portuguese Vasco da Gama discovered the sea route to India around the Cape of Good Hope (though Marco Polo’s brief passage through the archipelago at the end of the 13th century had begun to extend European knowledge). The Portuguese Antonio d’Abreu and Francisco Serrão, sent eastwards after the capture of Melaka, gave detailed reports of Maluku, but the Portuguese were most secretive about their activities in the east and it was not until the later expeditions of the Spaniard Ferdinand Magellan (who died in what is now The Philippines before reaching the Indies) and the Englishman Francis Drake (1540 –1596) that information on the Indies became more widely published in Europe.


Figure 3.i:  Portuguese ship.

Early European visitors to the Indonesian archipelago

Rijklof van Goens’ description of main roads in Mataram, 1648-1654

These visits were the prelude to an era of more than four centuries in which European traders, soldiers, administrators and missionaries utterly transformed the Indonesian archipelago.

Historians continue to debate when European influence in the Indonesian archipelago began to produce significant political, social and economic change. The Portuguese attack on Melaka in 1511 was significant as the first attack on the Indonesian archipelago from outside since the brief Mongol invasion of the 13th century and the attack had major religious and political consequences for western Indonesia. Many regions, however, remained entirely or largely unaffected by the Europeans for decades or even centuries thereafter.

The Europeans were drawn to Indonesia by the spice trade, but all the major European powers with interests in the archipelago claimed more than traders’ rights there. Portugal and Spain, the only European powers active in the archipelago during the 16th century, claimed authority throughout the region on the basis of the so-called Papal Donation of 1493, which had allocated the western hemisphere to Spain and the eastern hemisphere to Portugal. This Donation, ratified in the Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494, implicitly established a line of demarcation in the Indies at 129°E, thus partitioning Maluku. Determining longitude in the field, however, was a difficult exercise, and the course of the line remained uncertain. In 1527, Spain and Portugal signed a further treaty in Saragossa which shifted the boundary seventeen degrees to the east, giving Portugal clear title over Maluku and most of the island of New Guinea in exchange for a payment of 350,000 ducats. Nonetheless, Spain briefly established a post in Tidore between 1542 and 1545 while further north the Spanish claimed what became the Philippines by virtue of Magellan’s ‘discovery’ in 1521. An expedition from New Spain landed in the islands in 1565 and laid the basis for Spanish control which confirmed the separation of the Philippines from the Indonesian world.


Sulawesi and Maluku (The Moluccas)

Like Nusatenggara, the island of Sulawesi offers only a sparse historical and archaeological record before the 17th century. By the 14th century, states had begun to form in the southwestern peninsula (generally called South Sulawesi), but because there appears to have been little Indic cultural influence in this process, there are no significant inscriptions from this era. In 1300, the main states were Luwu’ (by tradition the oldest state in the region) and Soppeng, both of them consisting of powerful centres dominating a number of surrounding lesser states, including Sidenreng and Lamuru. Soppeng’s power seems to have been based especially on the export of rice, while Luwu’ exported iron from the interior. In the late 15th century, Soppeng appears to have declined in power, while Wajo’ emerged as junior member of an alliance with Luwu’. The dominance of Luwu’, however, was checked by the rise of Bone in the early 16th century, while a new power arose in the south in the form of Gowa. Little is known about the other peninsulas of Sulawesi in this period.

Southern Sulawesi, ca 1500

Minor states of northern Sulawesi, 16th century

From about 1530, the formerly small south Sulawesi state of Gowa began to grow in power, and its port, Makasar, became increasingly important as a centre of trade in the western archipelago. Gowa used military force to bring much of South Sulawesi under its domination, though the more distant and powerful states such as Wajo’ had the standing of slightly subordinate allies, rather than true vassals; only the Bugis state of Bone on the east coast successfully resisted Gowa’s campaigns. The port of Makasar became still more important in the early 17th century. Its ruler converted to Islam in 1605, making the port more attractive to Muslim traders, and it also became a centre for traders, both European and indigenous, excluded from Maluku by the monopoly practices of the VOC. Conversion to Islam led Gowa into a new bout of conquests in the region, including Wajo’ in 1610 and finally Bone in 1611. Further campaigns in the following decades took Gowa’s influence to Sumbawa, the east coast of Borneo and even the Kai and Aru Islands, though – except in Sumbawa and Butung – Makasar never exercised significant authority and in many areas, such as the northern parts of Sulawesi, the Makasar claim was a fiction supported only by the absence of significant local powers to question it.

Makasar and the subordinate states of south Sulawesi, ca 1600

As the centre for trade which the Dutch regarded as smuggling, Makasar soon became the target for intermittent Dutch hostility, and Makasar responded by assisting the Company’s enemies in Maluku. In 1666, the Dutch decided to make an end once and for all to Makasar’s resistance. They made an alliance with Arung Palakka, a Bugis prince from Bone, who had been exiled by Makasar to Butung in 1660 after an abortive uprising. The combined force defeated Makasar in 1667, and forced the sultan to sign the Treaty of Bungaya in which Makasar relinquished all its vassals, both in south Sulawesi and abroad, and allowed the Dutch to build a fort in the heart of its main port. The treaty was decisive in ending Makasar’s power, but it took a further round of fighting until 1669 before Makasar was fully defeated. Arung Palakka became ruler of Bone and the dominant political force in the region, but his authoritarian rule and destructive military campaigns against rebellious vassals led to a massive exodus of Buginese and Makasar warriors seeking safer homes elsewhere in the archipelago. The northern arm of Sulawesi had come under Spanish influence from the nearby Philippines in the 16th century, but was incorporated in the Dutch sphere of influence after the Treaty of Bungaya.


Bali and Nusatenggara

Recent archaeological work has shown that Bali was part of a trading network linking the archipelago with the Indian and Roman worlds from about the first century A.D., but very little is known of the island’s history before the 8th century, when it begins to be mentioned in Javanese accounts. Successive Javanese rulers, notably Airlangga in the 11th century, appear to have held some degree of hegemony over Bali, and many elements of Javanese culture, including Hindu-Buddhist beliefs, were transmitted in this era. According to the Nagarakertagama (Desawarnyana), Majapahit conquered Bali in 1334, establishing a ruling class of nobles called Arya.

Some time after the decline of Majapahit, probably in the early 16th century, Bali came under the dominance of a royal family based in the town of Gelgel, who created an empire encompassing not just Bali but parts of Lombok, Sumbawa and the eastern peninsula of Java.

Bali: the empire of Gelgel at its greatest extent, 17th century

Gelgel appears to have collapsed in the mid-17th century, and Bali disintegrated into a number of warring states, the most important of them Buleleng in the north, Mengwi in the south and Klungkung in the east; Klungkung’s capital was just a few kilometres from the site of Gelgel and its royal family claimed to be the senior lords on the island. Over the next century and a half, however, the balance of power between the kingdoms, large and small, was constantly in flux. Buleleng went into decline in the 18th century, while Karangasem rose in power to dominate virtually all of southern Bali. The rulers of Karangasem carved out an empire on Lombok and even sought to recover Gelgel’s hegemony over Sumbawa. Mengwi was the most powerful state in the south of the island for most of the 18th century, but much of its energy was consumed in an ultimately unsuccessful attempt to regain and maintain hegemony over Balambangan.



The Alienation (1601 – 1700)

(1601 – 1700)

1601 – Portuguese sent a fleet from Goa, India, to drive the Dutch from the Indies. The English set up fort at Banda. Aceh sends two ambassadors to Europe to observe and report on the situation to the Sultan. December 25-27: Five Dutch ships defeat the Portuguese fleet of 30 ships in battle in Banten harbour.

1602 – March 20: Dutch companies combine to form Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC); led by Heeren XVII representing different regions of the Netherlands; States-General gives VOC power to raise armies, build forts, negotiate treaties and wage war in Asia. VOC begins sending large, well-armed ships to the Indies (38 in the first three years). VOC establishes post at Gresik. Sir James Lancaster leads an (English) East India Company expedition, reaches Aceh, and builds a trading post at Banten.

1603 – Official VOC trading post founded at Banten.

1604 – English East India Company expedition under Sir Henry Middleton visits Ternate, Tidore, Ambon, and Banda.

1605 – Portuguese at Ambon surrender to ships under VOC and sends expeditions to Banda, Irian Jaya, northern Australia.

1606 – Spanish take Ternate and Tidore. VOC makes unsuccessful attack on Portuguese Melaka. VOC begins trading at Banjarmasin.

1607 – May: Sultan of Ternate appeals to the VOC for help against the Spanish. Aceh under Iskandar Muda and his successor, Iskandar Thani, was a center of Islamic scholarship and debate.

1609 – Portuguese fortress on Bacan falls to VOC.

1610 – Post of Governor-General is created for VOC in Asia, advised by Raad van Indie (Council of the Indies).

1611 – English begin setting up many posts in the Indies, including at Makassar, Jepara, Aceh and Jambi. Dutch set up post at Jayakerta.

1613 – April 18: Dutch take Solor from Portuguese. Portuguese Dominicans move headquarters to Larantuka, Flores. Iskandar Muda of Aceh defeats Johore, burns down the city, carries away the Sultan of Johore and VOC representatives. Mataram forces burn down Gresik; Krapyak asks VOC in Maluku for help against Surabaya. VOC sets up post at Jepara and first post on Timor.

1614 – Aceh wins naval battle against Portuguese at Bintan, continues on to attack Melaka. Johore throws out Aceh forces, creates alliance Palembang, Jambi, and other Sultanates against Aceh. VOC sends ambassador to Agung.


An attack in progress

1615 – VOC closes post at Gowa, hostilities drag on for years.

First Dutch Reformed church in the east founded at Ambon. English build warehouse at Jayakerta. Dutch abandon Solor after just two years.

During 1615-1616, the Schouten expedition became the first to sail around Cape Horn at the the southern tip of South America, then made the first visit by Europeans to many south Pacific islands. By the time they arrived in Batavia (Jakarta), Coen had them jailed for violating the V.O.C.’s monopoly, and confiscated their ships. Years later, in 1722, the Dutch explorer Roggeveen would run into the same trouble after discovering Easter Island.

1616 – VOC military expedition against Banda.

1618 – Jan Pieterzoon Coen becomes Governor-General of VOC. English merchants attack Chinese ships in Banten in a dispute over the price of pepper. Coen begins secretly fortifying the VOC warehouses at Jayakerta to the east. December Sultan of Banten encourages English to drive Dutch out of Jayakerta. Coen leaves for Maluku to muster ships and soldiers. Agung bans the sale of rice to the VOC. Agung’s governor of Jepara attacks the VOC post there; Dutch burn down much of Jepara in retaliation. Dutch reoccupy Solor.

banten - chinese traders late 1500Chinese traders

1619 – January: English force Dutch surrender at Jayakerta, but Banten forces take over from the English in a surprise move. The English and the Pangeran of Jayakerta retreat. March 12: Dutch rename post at Jayakerta to Batavia (today’s Jakarta). May: Coen passes through Jepara, and burns down the city again, including the English trading post. May 28: Coen arrives at Jayakerta, and burns down the original town of Jayakerta, leaving only the Dutch post of Batavia remaining to become VOC headquarters. August: VOC begins building city at Batavia.

1620 – VOC under Coen almost exterminates population of Banda to prevent “smuggling”. Survivors settle on small islands near Seram.

One of Coen’s goals was to make the VOC strong enough on its own so that it did not have to depend on the goodwill of neighboring rulers. He intended to do this by changing the VOC from a trade empire to an empire that ruled actual territories, then settling those territories with colonists from the Netherlands. Military strength was important, both for maintaining a position of power among the local kings and sultans, and for keeping the Spanish, Portuguese and English away.

1621 – British found trading post at Ambon.

1622 – Agung and VOC make overtures to each other.

1623 – VOC agents in Ambon arrest, torture and execute English agents on charges of conspiracy. Aceh sacks Johore. Carstenz expedition for VOC explores southern coast of Irian Jaya. Coen returns to the Netherlands. Carpentier is new Governor-General of the VOC. VOC takes nominal claim to Aru Islands.

1625 – The first “hongi” raids took place in Maluku. These were attacks, usually by local allies of the VOC, against anyone who was growing cloves without authorization of the VOC.

Dutch ship_1628

1627 – Coen returns from the Netherlands to serve as Governor-General of the V.O.C. again. December 25: Soldiers from Banten infiltrate the fortress of Batavia, kill some guards, and escape, but do little damage.

1628 – Agung sends army against VOC in Batavia; dams Ciliwung River in attempt to deny fresh water to the VOC. He fails to oust the Dutch, who prevent his army from receiving supplies by sea. Commanders of the Mataram army are executed for failure. Last of the English leave Banda.

1629 – Agung attacks Batavia again. He is defeated, although Coen dies during the siege. Banten, fearing Agung now more than the VOC, pleads for peace with the VOC. Iskandar Muda sends navy of Aceh against Portuguese Melaka, but the Aceh navy is destroyed. September 20: Coen passes away. Introduction of sugar cultivation in Banten.

1630 – Dutch abandon Solor, which is retaken by the Portuguese.

1633 – Agung raids east Java; the Hindu kingdom of Balambangan asks for VOC help and is refused. Balambangan then asks the King of Gelgel in Bali for help. War between VOC and Banten.

1634 – Dutch arrest Kakiali, leader of Hitu in Maluku, on charges of smuggling.

This was the “mercantilist” age of trade empires. There were many powers that wanted to create trade empires: the Dutch through the VOC, the English, Banten, and Gowa were among them. There was no such thing as “free trade” under these empires. The VOC especially wanted total control of trade, and any selling to anyone outside the VOC was considered “smuggling”.

batakwarrior2Batak warrior

1635 – VOC signs treaty with Kutai on Kalimantan.

1636 – Agung, realizing that he cannot defeat Dutch, makes overtures towards VOC. Van Diemen becomes Governor-General of VOC. Portuguese abandon posts on Solor after six years. VOC bans all private correspondence (until 1701).

1637 – VOC attacks Ternate. VOC releases Kakiali, who pledges friendship to VOC but makes anti-Dutch alliance between Hitu, Ternate, and Gowa. Local Muslims overcome Portuguese fortress at Ende on Flores. Agung gives permission for Portuguese and Catholic refugees from Batavia to settle around Jepara. Around this time the VOC started pushing the Portuguese out of many of their posts in Nusa Tenggara.

1639 – Chief minister Matoaya of Gowa is succeeded by his son Pattingalloang. Unlike his father, Pattingalloang did not maintain good relations with the Bugis. The bad feeling would eventually lead some Bugis to side with the VOC against Gowa and Makassar.

1640 – Portugal regains independent crown from Spain. Portuguese abandon trading post at Jepara.

1641 – Taj ul-Alam becomes Sultana of Aceh, starts period of female rulers; Johore and Aceh settle differences. January 14: VOC takes Melaka from Portuguese, with help from the Sultan of Johore. The Sultan opens ports in Riau to all traders. Kakiali and Hitu attack VOC on Ambon.

The VOC takeover of Melaka was the real end of Portuguese importance in the region. But after losing Melaka, some Portuguese started trading with Gowa on Sulawesi. With the English and Portuguese almost gone, and Batavia and Ambon relatively secure from neighboring rulers, this was the most profitable time for the VOC.


1642 – VOC gets monopoly on trade with Palembang by treaty. Tasman explores coasts of Irian Jaya for VOC on voyage back from New Zealand. “Statutes of Batavia”, based on Roman law, are introduced as a legal code for VOC territories.

1645 – Mandarsyah becomes Sultan of Ternate with VOC help. VOC established outpost at Perak.

1646 – Sultan Agung dies, and is succeeded by Susuhunan Amangkurat I. Relations between Amangkurat I and the VOC are good in the beginning. VOC finally takes Hitu. Dutch arrive again on Solor, abandoned by the Portuguese ten years earlier. September 24: Cooperation treaty between VOC and Mataram, involving promises of mutual assistance against enemies and extradition of runaway debtors, among other things. Ships of Mataram may trade at any VOC port except Ambon, Ternate or Banda, but must apply for a pass at Batavia if they are sailing for Melaka or points beyond. Portuguese begin building a settlement at the present site of Kupang on western Timor. VOC builds a trading post in the Tanimbar Islands.

1650 – VOC intervenes in uprising against Sultan Mandarsyah of Ternate, sparking civil war.

1651 – VOC reopens post at Jepara; Amangkurat I begins interfering in coastal trade. VOC takes Kupang on western Timor; Portuguese move to Lifau, in what is now East Timor. VOC outpost at Perak is destroyed.

1652 – VOC takes Sultan Mandarsyah of Ternate to Batavia, makes him sign agreement not to grow cloves, starts military moves against opposing faction in Ternate. Amangkurat I bans the export of rice or timber. Tensions grow between the VOC and Gowa.

1656 – VOC deports population of Hoamoal near Ternate to Ambon.

1657 – VOC forces population of Buru to relocate to Kaleji Bay.

1658 – VOC sets up post at Manado. War between VOC and Palembang.

1659 – VOC forces burn down Palembang, and reestablish the VOC post. Amangkurat I has several family members murdered, including the mother of the future Amangkurat II. July 10 Treaty between VOC and Banten: prisoners and runaway slaves are to be exchanged; VOC receives a presence at Banten free from rent or taxes; boundary between Banten and VOC territory is set. VOC builds fort in the Aru Islands, but soon abandons it.


1660 – VOC attacks Gowa, destroys Portuguese ships in harbor, and forces peace treaty on Sultan Hasanuddin of Gowa. Amangkurat I closes ports again; VOC leaves Jepara.

1662 – Portuguese headquarters in the east is moved from Larantuka, Flores to Lifau (today Oecussi or Pantemakassar) in what is now East Timor. VOC signs treaty with chiefs on Roti.

1663 – Spanish abandon post at Tidore. VOC allows Arung Palakka and followers to settle at Batavia. Banten begins direct trade with Manila. July 6, Treaty of Painan: coastal areas of Minangkabau, including Padang, become a protectorate of the VOC, which guarantees them security against raids from Aceh.

1666 – VOC sends out a fleet under Admiral Cornelis Speelman, with Bugis soldiers under Arung Palakka and Ambonese soldiers under “Captain Jonker”, to settle issues in Gowa and Maluku.

1667 – VOC expedition under Speelman lands at Butung, and clears the island of Gowa forces. Speelman expedition forces the Sultan of Tidore (now free of Spanish presence) to submit to the VOC. A peace treaty is signed between Ternate and Tidore, now both under VOC control. Future Amangkurat II begins seeking VOC help against his father. The English give up claims to Banda in exchange for Manhattan Island in America.

Sultan Hasanuddin of Gowa is remembered for fighting bravely against the VOC, but he eventually had to sign a treaty giving up almost all his territories to the Dutch.

war boatIndonesian war boat

1668 – Speelman expedition finally defeats Gowa. November 18, Treaty of Bungaya: Gowa submits to VOC control, and Sultan Hasanuddin has no influence outside the general area of the city of Makassar. VOC extends claims to Sumbawa and Flores after the defeat of Gowa. VOC builds a fort at Menggala in Lampung.

1669 – Sultan Hasanuddin of Gowa passes away; continuing troubles against the VOC in Gowa finally end. VOC traders at Banjarmasin are massacred.

1670 – VOC establishes outposts at Bengkalis (across the straits from Melaka) and Perak, both for controlling the trade in tin.

1672 – Louis XIV of France invaded the Netherlands with 100,000 soldiers. The Dutch had to open the dikes and flood the fields to prevent Amsterdam from falling to the French. However, since travel and communication were so slow in the 1600s and 1700s, these events had little effect on the activities of the VOC, which had the power to govern itself in any case.

1675 – Rebels appeal to Islamic sentiments among the common people against both the court of Mataram and the VOC.

1676 – Amangkurat I sends his son, Pangeran Puger, to the VOC to ask for help. VOC sends Admiral Speelman to fight the rebels against Mataram in North Java and Madura. Speelman quiets the rebellion along the coast between Cirebon and Jepara.

1677 – February 25, VOC makes a treaty with Amangkurat I: VOC will help Mataram, VOC territory around Batavia will be extended eastward, VOC may establish a factory anywhere they like without any restrictions on exports or imports, Mataram will restrict Malays, Arabs and other outsiders from settling in Mataram, and Mataram will repay the VOC for the cost of putting down the rebellion. Speelman receives the right to make treaties on behalf of Amangkurat I. May: VOC pushes Trunojoyo out of Surabaya. Trunojoyo leaves behind over a 100 cannons. July: Amangkurat I dies. Amangkurat II seeks VOC help against the rebels. VOC occupies Sangir islands.

1678 – January 15 Amangkurat II gives the VOC a monopoly on the sugar trade in Jepara. Amangkurat II, without money to pay his debts to the VOC, promises to give up Semarang, his claims to the Priangan, and fees from coastal ports until debts are paid. VOC and Amangkurat II march on Kediri and destroy Trunojoyo’s headquarters after a fifty-day siege. Arung Palakka and his supporters fight for the VOC as mercenaries, and conspire to win away Makassarese mercenaries fighting for Trunojoyo. December 9: Nine Makassarese chiefs who had been fighting for Trunojoyo as mercenaries surrender to the VOC, and are allowed to return to Sulawesi.

1679 – VOC and Arung Palakka drive the remaining Makassarese out of East Java. VOC makes an alliance with Minahasans at Manado. December 25: Trunojoyo gives himself up to the combined VOC and Mataram forces, under the promise that his life will be spared. He is executed anyway. (In one story, he is promised the post of minister and executed by Amangkurat II himself, with a royal keris.)

Malay_coupleA couple in discussion

1680 – VOC forces attack rebel areas in Mataram. Banten declares war on VOC. Sultan Ageng is replaced in coup by his son, Sultan Haji, who seeks help from the VOC. VOC forces invade Madura, supposedly on behalf of Mataram. Cakraningrat II, uncle of Trunojoyo, takes power in West Madura. VOC retains control of East Madura.

1681 – January 6 VOC signs agreement with the princes of Cirebon for mutual assistance in case of emergencies, and agreeing on severe punishment if any of the three heads rebelled against the VOC. Cirebon will not build any fortifications without VOC approval, the VOC has a monopoly on pepper in Cirebon, and the princes may control the export of sugar and rice from Cirebon. Pangeran Puger builds a new force and retakes the center of Mataram, but not Kartasura. VOC forces push him back and defeat him. VOC intervenes in Roti, puts allies in power.

1682 – Sultan Ageng’s supporters, including much of the population, retake Banten against his son. VOC reacts by taking Banten with superior firepower. VOC expels English and other European traders from Banten, and begins to control Cirebon, the Priangan, and Lampung. Syekh Waliyullah, Islamic scholar and enemy of the Dutch, is exiled to the VOC post in Ceylon.

1684 – April 17: VOC renews its 1659 treaty with Banten; in addition, Banten gives up its claims to Cirebon, and grants the VOC a monopoly in the pepper trade in Lampung. April 28: VOC cancels the debts owed by the Sultan of Banten, but only on the condition that the previous treaties between the VOC and Banten are obeyed. Surapati, (also called Untung), a former slave and outlaw, now employed as a VOC soldier, attacks a VOC column and escapes. He travels across the countryside of Java gathering followers. Surapati instructs his followers to kill two officials in Banyumas who were rebelling against the authority of Mataram. He receives the gratitude of Amangkurat II, and is given refuge by anti-VOC members of the court of Mataram at Kartasura.

1685 – Post is founded at Bengkulu by English traders who had been forced to leave Banten. VOC forces treaty on Sultan of Riau.

1686 – February 15 VOC receives a complete monopoly on pepper in Banten. VOC sends an embassy to the Mataram court at Kartasura, demanding the return of Surapati. Amangkurat II stages a fake attack on Surapati’s residence, then has his soldiers turn to cut down VOC representatives and soldiers, with the help of Pangeran Puger. The remaining VOC presence at court leaves for Jepara. Amangkurat II sends an ambassador to the VOC at Jepara claiming that he took no part in attacking the Dutch. Amangkurat II sends secret letters to Johore, Minangkabau, English East India Co, even Siam trying to find help against VOC.

1688 – Local leader on Bangka (claimed by Palembang) asks for VOC protection.

1689 – Plot against VOC in Batavia fails; rebels flee to Kartasura.

1690 – VOC abandons outpost at Perak. Tea is introduced on Java.

1694 – VOC begins contacts with Bataks around Lake Toba, Sumatra.

1696 – Sultan Muhammad Syah of Indrapura abdicates and VOC gains influence in the absence of a ruler there.


1699 – VOC introduces coffee cultivation to Java. VOC increases influence around Kutai on Kalimantan.


In the 1500s, the Netherlands were an important business center for Europe, where products from Russia, Scandinavia, Africa, Asia and America were bought and sold. The Netherlands during that time was ruled by Spain. By 1581, the Netherlands had rebelled against the King of Spain and had begun to govern themselves. But since Spain now had control of the Portuguese colonies, the Spanish could prevent Dutch businessmen from easy access to spices from the Indies. This was one reason that Dutch ships began to make their own voyages direct to the Indies in the 1590s. Many Dutch sailors had worked on Spanish and Portuguese ships. When De Houtman’s Dutch expedition set sail, there were experienced crewmen available to guide them to the Indies.

The Dutch introduced the fifth of Indonesia’s recognized religions: Protestant Christianity. Beside the missionary work on Java, there were soon many “orang Kristen” around Manado on Sulawesi, in Ambon, and around Kupang on Timor and nearby Roti. The VOC, being mostly a business, had very little interest in spreading religion. However, it banned the practice of Catholicism wherever it could.

By this time, the VOC was probably the largest business enterprise anywhere in the world, with tens of thousands of employees. The territories controlled by the VOC were not only in Indonesia: in the mid-1600s, they also included Sri Lanka, Taiwan, and the Cape area in what is now South Africa. The VOC also had “factories”, warehouses and offices in Thailand, Japan, Iran, Yemen, and Canton in China.

By the end of the 1660s, Banten was trading directly with China, Japan, Thailand, India and Arabia, using its own ships to compete with English, French, Danish and VOC traders. Sultan Ageng of Banten was a strong opponent of the VOC monopoly who insisted on promoting trade with other European, Arab and Asian traders as he pleased.




The Alienation (1501 – 1600)


Timeline (of Mayhem)

(1501 – 1600)

1509 – Portuguese visit Melaka for the first time.

1511 – April: Portuguese Admiral Albuquerque sets sail from Goa to Melaka. August: Albuquerque’s forces take Melaka. Sultan of Melaka escapes to Riau. Portuguese in Melaka destroy a “Javanese” fleet. Portuguese ship sinks with treasure on way back to Goa. December: Albuquerque sends three ships under da Breu from Melaka to explore eastwards.

1512 – Da Breu expedition travels from Melaka to Madura, Bali, Lombok, Aru and Banda. Two ships are wrecked at Banda. Da Breu returns to Melaka. Francisco Serrão repairs ship and continues to Ambon, Ternate, and Tidore. Serrão offers support to Ternate in a dispute with Tidore – his men build a Portuguese post at Ternate.


1513 – A force from Jepara and Palembang attacks the Portuguese in Melaka, but is repulsed. March Portuguese send an envoy to King of Pajajaran. Portuguese are allowed to build a fort at Sunda Kelapa (now Jakarta). Portuguese build factories at Ternate and Bacan.

1515 – First Portuguese visit Timor.

1520 – Portuguese traders begin visiting Flores and Solor.

1522 – February Portuguese expedition under De Brito arrives on Banda. May De Brito expedition arrive at Ternate, builds a Portuguese fort. Banten, still Hindu, asks for Portuguese help against Muslim Demak. Portuguese build fort at Hitu on Ambon.

1526 – Portuguese build first fort on Timor.


1527 – Expeditions from Spain and Mexico try to drive the Portuguese from Maluku.


1529 – The Kings of Spain and Portugal agree that Maluku should belong to Portugal, and the Philippines should belong to Spain.

1530 – Gowa begins expanding from Makassar.

1536 – Major Portuguese attack on Johore. Antonio da Galvão becomes governor of Portuguese post at Ternate; founds Portuguese post at Ambon. Portuguese take Sultan Tabariji of Ternate to Goa due to suspicions of anti-Portuguese activity, replace him with his brother.

1537 – Acehnese attack on Melaka fails. Salahuddin of Aceh is replaced by Alaudin Riayat Syah I.

1540 – Portuguese in contact with Gowa.

1546 – St. Francis Xavier travels to Morotai, Ambon, and Ternate.

1547 – Aceh attacks Melaka.

1550 – Portuguese begin building forts on Flores.

1551 – Johore attacks Portuguese Melaka with help from Jepara. Force from Ternate takes control of Sultanate of Jailolo on Halmahera with Portuguese help.

1552 – Aceh sends embassy to the Ottoman sultan in Istanbul.

1558 – Leiliato leads a force from Ternate to attack the Portuguese at Hitu. Portuguese build a fortress on Bacan.

1559 – Portuguese missionaries land at Timor.

1560 – Portuguese found mission and trading post at Panarukan, in easternmost Java. Spanish establish a presence at Manado.

1561 – Portuguese Dominican mission founded on Solor.

1564 – Smallpox epidemic at Ambon.

1566 – Portuguese Dominican mission on Solor builds a stone fortress.

1568 – Unsuccessful attack by Aceh on Portuguese Melaka.

1569 – Portuguese build wooden fortress on Ambon island.

1570 – Aceh attacks Johore again, but fails. Sultan Khairun of Ternate signs a treaty of friendship with the Portuguese, but is found poisoned the next day. Portuguese agents are suspected. They had thrown Sultan Khairun in prison and tried to poison him when he would not yield lands to them. Babullah becomes Sultan (until 1583), and vows to drive the Portuguese out of their fortress. Maulana Yusup becomes Sultan of Banten.

1574 – Jepara led another unsuccessful attack on Melaka.

1575 – Sultan Babullah expels the Portuguese from Ternate. The Portuguese in Ternate were under siege in their fortress for five years, and never received help from Melaka or Goa in India. Portuguese build a fort on Tidore instead.

1576 – Portuguese build fort at the present site of the city of Ambon.

1579 – November: Sir Francis Drake of England, after raiding Spanish ships and ports in America, arrives at Ternate. Sultan Babullah, who also hated the Spanish, pledges friendship to England.

1580 – Maulana Muhammad becomes Sultan of Banten. Portugal falls under Spanish crown; Portuguese colonial enterprises are disregarded. Drake visits Sulawesi and Java, on the way back to England. Ternate takes control of Butung.

1585 – Sultan of Aceh sends a letter to Elizabeth I of England. Portuguese ship sent to build a fort and mission on Bali is wrecked just offshore.

1587 – Portuguese in Melaka attack Johore. Portuguese sign a truce with the Sultan of Aceh. Sir Thomas Cavendish of England visits Java.

1591 – Sir James Lancaster of England reaches Aceh and Penang, but his mission is a failure. Ternate attacks Portuguese in Ambon.

1593 – Ternate lays siege on the Portuguese in Ambon again.

1595 – April 2: Dutch expedition under De Houtman leaves for Indies. Portuguese build fort at Ende, Flores.

1596 – June 5: De Houtman expedition reaches Sumatra. June 23: De Houtman expedition reaches Banten. The initial reception is friendly, but after some bad behaviour by the Dutch, the Sultan of Banten, along with the Portuguese stationed in Banten, shell the Dutch ships. The De Houtman expedition continues along north coast of Java. A ship is lost to pirates. More bad behaviour leads to misunderstandings and violence on Madura. A prince of Madura is killed, several Dutch sailors are arrested and taken prisoner, De Houtman has to ransom them for release. Abul Mufakir becomes Sultan of Banten.

1597 – Some members of De Houtman expedition settle on Bali and refuse to leave. A Portuguese fleet under Lourenzo de Brito decides, contrary to instructions, to seek retribution from the Sultan of Banten for doing business with Dutch traders. The fleet is defeated by Banten and forced to retreat. Remnants of the De Houtman expedition (89 of an original 248 sailors) return to Holland with spices.

1598 – 22 Dutch ships in five expeditions set out for the east. The Netherlands States-General suggests that competing companies should merge. De Houtman’s second expedition includes John Davis, an English spy. Van Noort sets off to sail around the southern tip of America to the Indies.

1599 – Dutch expedition under Van Neck reaches Maluku, begins successful trading on Banda, Ambon and Ternate. June: De Houtman is killed in conflict with Sultan of Aceh. Dutch churches begin calls for missionary work in the Indies.

1600 – Van Noort expedition attacks Spanish at Guam. Portuguese establish trading post at Jepara. September: Dutch Admiral Van den Haghen makes an alliance with the Hitu against the Portuguese in Ambon. December 31: Elizabeth I of England charters East India Company.



Colonial contact

The scents of Eden had caught the attention of the colonialists, which also attracted them to the Ternate and Tidore and three smaller islands adjacent to the sprawling island of Halmahera in the Northern Moluccas.

Contact 1599

Maluku – Leaders of Banda met with Dutch traders in 1599

Spices were prized for their flavour and some were also believed to cure everything from the plague to venereal disease, which made spices literally worth their weight in gold.



This article is actually from “A Sobana Hardjasaputra”, but bludgeons his fault that the share again, good for improving the earth we love this parahyangan. most young people today have forgotten the history of Bandung that used in the proud. so I share again here. cekidot …

Regarding the origin of the name “Bandung”, put forward various opinions. Some say that the word “Bandung” in Sundanese, synonymous with the word “appeal” in Indonesian, means side by side. Ngabanding (Sunda) means contiguous or adjacent. This is among others expressed in Indonesian dictionary published by Balai Besar Reader (1994) and Sundanese-Indonesian dictionary published by Pustaka Setia (1996), that word means in pairs and mean bandung also side by side.

Bandung Lake in old map
Another opinion says that the word “bandung” means big or large. The word comes from the word milk. In Sundanese, ngabandeng means vast pool of water and looked Timbanganten with Tegalluar capital. The kingdom is under the domination of the Kingdom of Sunda-Pajajaran. Since the mid-15th century, the Kingdom Timbanganten hereditarily ruled by King Pandaan Measure, Dipati the Great, and Dipati Ukur. In the reign of Dipati Ukur, Tatar Ukur is an area which is quite extensive, covering most areas of West Java, consists of nine regional called “Measure Sasanga”.
After the Kingdom of Sunda-Pajajaran collapse (1579/1580) due to Forces movement of offerings in an effort to spread Islam in West Java,
Tatar Ukur become the Kingdom’s territory Sumedanglarang, successors Pajajaran Kingdom. Sumedanglarang Kingdom was founded and ruled the first time by King Geusan Ulun on (1580-1608), with its capital in Kutamaya, a place which is located west of Sumedang now. The kingdom’s territory covers an area then called Priangan, except Galuh area (now called Ciamis).

Balinese kingdoms, ca 1700


Balinese kingdoms, ca 1800

To the east of Bali lies the long chain of islands known as the Lesser Sundas or Nusatenggara (Southeastern Islands). For the most part, these islands were involved only peripherally in the trade and civilization of the western archipelago until the colonial area. Although the Nagarakertagama (Desawarnyana) lists Timor and Sumba as tributaries of 14th -century Majapahit, Javanese culture has left at the most only scattered traces in the region. No significant local inscriptions have been found to attest to the existence of early kingdoms and Chinese records are vague. The region’s economic relations with the outside world seem to have been based on the export of sandalwood, especially from Timor, a trade which may have begun in the 7th century.

Islands of Nusatenggara

From about the 16th century, the western islands of Lombok and Sumbawa came under the increasing domination of outside forces. Balinese settlers from the kingdom of Karangasem displaced the indigenous Sasaks from western Lombok and by the end of the 17th century held a loose hegemony over the east of the island, while raiders and settlers from Makasar drew Sumbawa increasingly into their orbit. The island was effectively subject to Makasar from 1618, and Manggarai, at the western end of Flores, soon followed. The rest of Flores, however, and the whole of Sumba remained divided into a large number of small states until the colonial era.

Polities in Lombok and Sumbawa, 16th century

Polities in Sumba, 17th to 18th centuries

Polities in the Solor and Alor archipelagos, 17th to 18th centuries

Polities in Flores, 17th to 18th centuries

Lombok and Sumbawa, ca 1800

Balinese rule on Lombok was turbulent. By the middle of the 18th century, they had subdued the Sasak aristocracy in the east of the island. A few decades later, however, disunity led them to split into four separate kingdoms, while the Sasak domains in the east regained much of their independence. Even in times of Balinese control, the east of the island was often restive.

Evidence from the earliest European visitors to the Nusatenggara region suggests that the normal state of affairs was one of division into a large number of small polities, which were linked into larger confederacies or empires whose significance was sometimes political and economic but more often symbolic. Timor produced sandalwood, which was valued for trade to China, and management of this trade necessarily meant a relationship between port towns such as Sorbian, Insana and Dili, and the polities of the interior. In the centre and east of the island, the ruler of Wehale (Belu), sometimes based in the port of Dili, sometimes based in the interior, claimed a hegemony over some forty-six liurai or ‘kings’ along the coast and the interior. In the west the confederacy of Sonba’i (Sonnebait), sometimes based in Sorbian, claimed a similar hegemony over sixteen liurai. The port of Kupang seems to have been independent of both of these power centres.

Timor and nearby islands 1500-1800

The Portuguese began trading and missionary activities in the Timor region soon after they had captured Melaka, and they established settlements at Lifau and Kupang in about 1520 and a fort on Solor in 1566 to protect both their trading interests and their converts. The fort soon became the nucleus for a community of mixed race ‘Black Portuguese’ or Topasses. When Dutch vessels captured Solor in 1613, many of the Topasses fled to Larantuka, where they established an independent community, which later extended its influence to the northern coast of west Timor. In 1642, a Portuguese expedition devastated the confederacy of Wehale and intimidated the Sonba’i states into submission, but Portuguese power remained slight and until the end of the century it was represented mainly by the Topasses.

In 1653, the Dutch shifted their local headquarters from Solor to Kupang in Timor. They were defeated by the Topasses in a campaign in Amarasi in 1653, but signed treaties with five small states near Kupang in 1654 and 1655 which confirmed their foothold on the island. Battles with the Topasses continued on and off for the next century, and the strength of Topass resistance was the main reason why Portuguese influence persisted in the Timor region whereas the Dutch were able to remove it from everywhere else in the archipelago. Only with the defeat of Topass forces in the battle of Penfui in 1749 were the Dutch able to extend their influence into the interior of western Timor.

Although the Topasses from time to time nominally acknowledged the sovereignty of Portugal, they were entirely independent of Portuguese control, and from 1719 to 1731 joined an alliance of liurai in the east to fight the Portuguese. The defeat of this alliance and the rise of Dutch power in the west with the victory at Penfui led the official representatives of Portugal to shift their headquarters from Lifau to Dili in 1769.

The VOC was now free to extend closer influence over the west of the island, and in 1756 it signed a contract with fifteen liurai, taking them as vassals. In the following years, the VOC extended a loose hegemony over the middle of the island, with the exception of the Topass enclaves, but a clear demarcation of territory with the Portuguese was not made until the 19th century.

Borneo (Kalimantan)

Unlike Java and Sumatra, Borneo has not experienced volcanic activity in historical times and its soils are correspondingly poor. As a result, although some of the earliest known polities in the Indonesian archipelago were located on the Borneo coasts, the island was never able to support the substantial populations which underpinned empires such as Srivijaya and Majapahit. The interior of Borneo was consistently important as a source of minerals and forest products, but the kingdoms which emerged on the coast never became powerful enough to extend their control over more than a small part of the island, and there is no record of a Borneo state exercising influence further afield than Borneo’s offshore islands. Besides, very few early inscriptions have been recovered from Borneo, so that the record of early state formation there has to be based mainly on external records. Chinese records from the 10th to 15th centuries speak of a significant state called ‘Poni’ on the northern coast of the island which was tributary to China as a trading partner. The name suggests a connection with the later state of Brunei, but Poni’s location remains uncertain. Archaeological research suggests that ‘Poni’ may have centred originally at Santubong, near the mouth of the Sarawak River, before moving at some stage to Brunei Bay.

The most extensive early account comes from the 14th century Javanese Nagarakertagama (Desawarnyana), which records over twenty states in Borneo as tributary to Majapahit. Just how significantly this claim, like that of China, was felt by the Borneo states themselves is open to debate. Archaeological evidence indicates the existence of a state called Negaradipa in what is now the hinterland of Banjarmasin.

Borneo in the 15th and 16th centuries

Little is known of Borneo in the 15th century, but the most significant states were apparently Sukadana and Banjarmasin in the south (both of them tributaries to Demak and later Mataram), Berau in the east, and Brunei in the north. Sukadana is said to have been established by Brawijaya, a ruler of Majapahit, and to have converted to Islam in about 1550. Throughout these years, the interior of the island was the domain of indigenous Dayak tribes.

Shortly after the fall of Melaka to the Portuguese in 1511, however, Brunei seems to have converted to Islam, perhaps as the consequence of an influx of Muslim refugees (though Brunei’s own dynastic records suggest that conversion took place a century earlier). During the 16th century, the sultans of Brunei created an empire which stretched along the entire northern coast of Borneo and into what is now the southern Philippines, though their control was probably tenuous at that distance. The port of Brunei itself became a major entrepot on the spice route between the Moluccas and China and was described in glittering terms by members of the Spanish expedition of Ferdinand Magellan in 1521.

With its mountainous, densely forested interior, Borneo could not easily be dominated by a single power, and each of its four coasts has generally had its own distinctive history.

In the south, the sultanate of Banjarmasin grew strong on the pepper trade. Large areas in the hills behind Banjarmasin were cleared for pepper cultivation and from the middle of the 17th century the region threw off its tradition of vassaldom to Java to become a significant regional power. Banjarmasin’s heartland was the basin of the Barito River, especially the fertile uplands of Amuntai, but at the height of its power, it claimed suzerainty over all the coastal states from Kota Waringin to Bulungan, and even claimed some influence in Sintang in the Kapuas basin. In the west, the main power at the beginning of the 17th century was Sukadana, a major exporter of diamonds and forest products, though its influence was being challenged by Sambas to the north, which was a vassal of Johor. The state of Landak came under Sukadana’s control in about 1600, but frequently sought its independence.

In 1622, forces from Mataram conquered Sukadana. Mataram, however, soon declined and by 1650 Sukadana had recovered to dominate the entire west coast. In 1699, rebels from Landak joined forces with the Javanese state of Banten to conquer Sukadana. Banten’s domination of Sukadana was brief. With the help of Bugis mercenaries based in Banjarmasin, the sultan managed to recover his throne and Sukadana once more became the major trading power of the west coast. Towards the end of the century, however, Sukadana’s power was increasingly challenged by the new state of Pontianak, founded by an Arab adventurer in 1772. In 1778, Banten ceded its defunct rights over Sukadana to the VOC, which joined Pontianak in 1786 in an attack which utterly destroyed the city. The royal family of Sukadana continued to rule the minor state of Matan (Kayung), but Sukadana was abandoned and Pontianak became the main centre of trade on the west coast. In the final years of the century, the rulers of Pontianak claimed Sanggau, Landak, Matan and Tayan as vassals, but they never ruled those areas directly. North of Pontianak, the states of Sambas and Mempawah were transformed from about 1760 by the arrival of Chinese miners to work the gold fields of the region. The miners came at first at the invitation of the local rulers, but their commercial organizations, or kongsi, soon developed into small republics virtually independent of the rulers. States of a different kind also emerged in this era in the interior of western Kalimantan, along the Kapuas River and its tributaries. For the most part, the elites of these states were Malays, often with trading interests, who established varying degrees of hegemony over the indigenous Dayaks. The largest of these states, Sintang, was moderately significant, but the states further upstream were small, sometimes claiming only a few hundred subjects.

Borneo, ca 1750

Brunei, meanwhile, was also in decline before the rising sultanate of Sulu, based in the archipelago between Borneo and Mindanao. In return for backing the successful claimant in a succession dispute in Brunei, Sulu received suzerainty over much of Borneo north of Brunei itself. Sulu’s influence also increased on the east coast of Borneo.

The principal state of the east coast was Kutai, a Malay kingdom in the Mahakam river basin which converted to Islam in the 16th century. From the late 17th century, however, many Buginese settled on the east coast, founding the state of Pasir and for a time dominating the Tidung, Bulungan and Berau regions, though these northern areas were to come under the Sulu sultanate.

States of western Borneo, ca 1800

Sulawesi and Maluku (The Moluccas)

Like Nusatenggara, the island of Sulawesi offers only a sparse historical and archaeological record before the 17th century. By the 14th century, states had begun to form in the southwestern peninsula (generally called South Sulawesi), but because there appears to have been little Indic cultural influence in this process, there are no significant inscriptions from this era. In 1300, the main states were Luwu’ (by tradition the oldest state in the region) and Soppeng, both of them consisting of powerful centres dominating a number of surrounding lesser states, including Sidenreng and Lamuru. Soppeng’s power seems to have been based especially on the export of rice, while Luwu’ exported iron from the interior. In the late 15th century, Soppeng appears to have declined in power, while Wajo’ emerged as junior member of an alliance with Luwu’. The dominance of Luwu’, however, was checked by the rise of Bone in the early 16th century, while a new power arose in the south in the form of Gowa. Little is known about the other peninsulas of Sulawesi in this period.

Southern Sulawesi, ca 1500

Minor states of northern Sulawesi, 16th century

From about 1530, the formerly small south Sulawesi state of Gowa began to grow in power, and its port, Makasar, became increasingly important as a centre of trade in the western archipelago. Gowa used military force to bring much of South Sulawesi under its domination, though the more distant and powerful states such as Wajo’ had the standing of slightly subordinate allies, rather than true vassals; only the Bugis state of Bone on the east coast successfully resisted Gowa’s campaigns. The port of Makasar became still more important in the early 17th century. Its ruler converted to Islam in 1605, making the port more attractive to Muslim traders, and it also became a centre for traders, both European and indigenous, excluded from Maluku by the monopoly practices of the VOC. Conversion to Islam led Gowa into a new bout of conquests in the region, including Wajo’ in 1610 and finally Bone in 1611. Further campaigns in the following decades took Gowa’s influence to Sumbawa, the east coast of Borneo and even the Kai and Aru Islands, though – except in Sumbawa and Butung – Makasar never exercised significant authority and in many areas, such as the northern parts of Sulawesi, the Makasar claim was a fiction supported only by the absence of significant local powers to question it.

Makasar and the subordinate states of south Sulawesi, ca 1600

As the centre for trade which the Dutch regarded as smuggling, Makasar soon became the target for intermittent Dutch hostility, and Makasar responded by assisting the Company’s enemies in Maluku. In 1666, the Dutch decided to make an end once and for all to Makasar’s resistance. They made an alliance with Arung Palakka, a Bugis prince from Bone, who had been exiled by Makasar to Butung in 1660 after an abortive uprising. The combined force defeated Makasar in 1667, and forced the sultan to sign the Treaty of Bungaya in which Makasar relinquished all its vassals, both in south Sulawesi and abroad, and allowed the Dutch to build a fort in the heart of its main port. The treaty was decisive in ending Makasar’s power, but it took a further round of fighting until 1669 before Makasar was fully defeated. Arung Palakka became ruler of Bone and the dominant political force in the region, but his authoritarian rule and destructive military campaigns against rebellious vassals led to a massive exodus of Buginese and Makasar warriors seeking safer homes elsewhere in the archipelago. The northern arm of Sulawesi had come under Spanish influence from the nearby Philippines in the 16th century, but was incorporated in the Dutch sphere of influence after the Treaty of Bungaya.

Makasar empire before 1667

Pre-colonial records are even sparser for eastern Indonesia than they are for Sulawesi, and only the sketchiest outline can be given of the region’s history before the 17th century.

The islands of Maluku had supplied cloves to other parts of the world since at least 1700 B.C., according to archaeological evidence from the Middle East, and they were also the only source of nutmeg. The small islands with their narrow coastal plains, however, could only sustain a relatively small population, and there appear to have been no large polities in the region before the 15th century, when the tiny clove-producing islands of Ternate and Tidore began to emerge as major political centres. Except in Sula, Buru, Ambon and Seram, where Ternatean aristocrats ruled directly, both empires operated as a network of alliances and vassalages, rather than as tightly ruled polities, and there was considerable ebb and flow in the degree of authority that each exercised. Ternate reached the peak of its power in the late 16th century under the warlike Sultan Baabullah.

Traditional kingdoms of Maluku, early 15th century, and the spheres of influence of Ternate and Tidore, early 16th century

As the main reason for European interest in the Indies, the Spice Islands were amongst the first to experience direct European military intervention. Ternate and Tidore were unable to prevent first the Portuguese and Spanish and later the Dutch and English from establishing fortified trading posts in the region, though Ternate had a number of military victories over the Europeans in the course of the sporadic hostilities of the 16th and early 17th centuries.

By the middle of the 17th century, however, Ternate’s need for free trade in spices was fundamentally in conflict with the Dutch aims for monopoly. In 1652, the Dutch extracted a treaty from Ternate giving the Company a monopoly of clove production, and broke the power of local Ternatean lords in a series of bloody campaigns during the next few years. The Company then centred clove production on Ambon and sent out periodic expeditions to destroy clove trees in other regions.

The great island of New Guinea was also a major centre of population, but its people were concentrated in the interior and except on the fringes close to Maluku there is no record at all of political forms before the 17th century.

Imagining the Archipelago

Although trade routes had tied the Indonesian archipelago to China, India and the Middle East since very early times, the region remained relatively unknown to outsiders until five or six centuries ago. Long distances and the hazards of travel, together with the fact that Indonesians themselves carried most of the products of their islands to the outside world, meant that scholars in the major centres of civilization generally relied on sparse and often second hand accounts of Southeast Asia.

In the West, the Egyptian geographer Claudius Ptolemy (c. 85–165 AD) prepared a major geographical work, the Periplus of the Erythrean Sea, containing a compilation of information on the region gathered from traders and seafarers. Ptolemy described a Golden Chersonese, or peninsula, far to the east which is normally identified with the Malay Peninsula and he records the existence of many islands in the vicinity. Ptolemy’s geography formed the basis of most Western conceptions of the Far East until the 16th century, and also influenced some of the Arab geographers. The maps of Idrisi (d. 1165) show a good deal more detail than those based on Ptolemy’s account, but they clearly reflect an attempt to reconcile imprecise and contradictory information originating from several centuries and a wide variety of sources.


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Fishes of Ceylon 1834 a

Fishes of Ceylon 1834

Fishes of Ceylon 1834 b

These stunning hand-coloured engravings of exotic fish from Sri Lanka (extracted from a .pdf) are from:
‘A Selection from the most Remarkable and Interesting of the Fishes Found on the Coast of Ceylon from Drawings made in the Southern Part of that Island from the Living Specimens by John Whitchurch Bennett, 2nd Ed. 1834’.
The work contains thirty illustrations in total and the Harvard University edition is ‘Natural History of Ceylon’ from 1861



‘An Account of Indian Serpents, collected on the Coast of Coromandel’ by Patrick Russell, 1796. Russell was the botanist to the East India Company in Madras (Chennai). This is apparently the first book devoted to Indian snakes. The image, spliced together from screencaps, comes from somewhere in the Books, Manuscripts & Maps category at Christies (inadvertently following from a comment by Michael some weeks ago).

All the World Going to See the Great Exhibition of 1851

‘All the World Going to See the Great Exhibition of 1851’ by George Cruikshank.

“This image first appeared in Henry Mayhew’s 1851 or The Adventures of Mr. and Mrs. Sandboys and Family, Who Came Up to London to ‘Enjoy Themselves,’ and to See the Great Exhibition (London: David Bogue, [1851]).”
[image and quote from this entry – where there is more info. – at one of my favourite sites: Princeton Graphic Arts Blog.]

satirical cartoon - London in 1851

‘London in 1851’ by George Cruikshank.

View from the Circus looking up Piccadilly – Proof for an illustration to be included in: ‘1851, or, The Adventures of Mr and Mrs Sandboys’ by Henry Mayhew (from the British Museum Prints Database)

Overland Journey to the Great Exhibition (composite)

Overland Journey to the Great Exhibition

‘An Overland Journey to the Great Exhibition. Showing a Few Extra Articles & Visitors’ by (at one time) Punch Magazine illustrator, Richard Doyle. The book contains no text and the satirical parade of humans and animals on their way to Crystal Palace measured nine feet in length when all of the illustrations were joined together. The composite image is from PBA Galleries and the second illustration comes from the Great Exhibition Humorous Asides page at Kansas University’s Spencer Library.

'The Arts and Manufactures of Ireland'

‘The Arts and Manufactures of Ireland’

One of several designs for political caricatures on the Great Exhibition of 1851 drawn by George Augustus Sala (from the British Museum Prints Database)

Th' Greyt Eggshibishun

‘O Ful, Tru, un Pertikler Okeaawnt o bwoth wat aw seed un wat aw yerd, we gooin too Th’ Greyt Eggshibishun, e Lundun, an a greyt deyle of Hinfurmashun besoide’ by Oliver Ormerod (penned under his Rochdale, Lancashire pseudonym, Felley from Rachde).
“The title of the book (translated from the Rochdalian) is “A full, true and particular account of both what I saw and what I heard when going to the Great Exhibition, in London, and a great deal of information besides.” (image and quote also from Kansas U.)

editorial cartoon: Britannia's Great Party - Punch on the Prince Consort and the Exhibition 1851

‘Britannia’s Great Party’

Punch Magazine on the Prince Consort and the Exhibition of 1851 (from Victorian Web) [See also: Punch Magazine illustrations by John Leech: Memorials of the Great Exhibition]

The prompt that made me look around for some satirical prints on the Great Exhibition of 1851 was receiving a (requested) copy of the catalogue (available online) from Melbourne’s Monash University Library exhibition (until August 31) – Fifty Books for Fifty Years. “This is an exhibition of fifty books chosen by Monash academics and researchers.[..] The fifty participants have chosen items they have consulted in the course of their work. The result is a fascinating variety of books, many of which have never been displayed.” If not for the thousand-or-so kilometres, I would definitely go.

Cover of Meanjin 1949 - Australia

cover of Meanjin Literary Magazine 1965

Speaking of Melbourne, Sophie Cunningham is a publisher, journalist, writer and current editor of Meanjin, an Australian literary and culture magazine established more than sixty years ago. Sophie has posted a set of photographs of Meanjin covers to Flickr. Both the stylised Aboriginal figure in ceremonial* attire and emu head cover illustrations above remain under copyright and have been posted here with permission.

Harp and Pneumatic Organ


These engravings come from the first of Johann Forkel’s ambitious 2-volume work, ‘Allgemeine Geschichte der Musik’ (General History of Music) [1788-1801]. These, together with a couple more similarly interesting illustrations can be found on the last pages of Tome I at the Universities of Strasbourg Digital Library (very little of visual interest in Tome 2). I presume the schematic in the first illustration above is a pedal control unit for a pneumatic organ. It’s too early for steam. Forkel was a biographer of Bach and is often regarded as the founder of modern musicology. He was never able to complete the planned third volume in the series so this first German attempt at documenting the history of music stops at the beginning of the 16th century. (See: i, ii, iii)

Zincgref, Julius Wilhelm - Facetiae Pennalium 1622 (HAB)

Titlepage from ‘Facetiae Pennalium’, 1622, by Julius Zincgref from HAB. I know nothing about this book although I suspect it is philosophical in nature. Somewhere around I have a couple of links to emblemata books by him which might materialise here in the future.

Een Gesigt van de Zuyker mool te Pasoeroeang met het Gebergte Artjoeno

‘Een Gesigt van de Zuyker mool te Pasoeroeang met het Gebergte Artjoeno’


De Tempel van Madjanpoeti van Binnen te Zien

‘De Tempel van Madjanpoeti van Binnen te Zien’

De Berg Mirabie bij Banjoewangi

‘De Berg Mirabie bij Banjoewangi’

Batavia 1656

Batavia 1656

Despite the terrible rendering of online translation of Dutch, I’m fairly confident all four images above relate to the Java region of Indonesia and are all* the first three are approximately from the second half of the 17th 18th century [*see the comments at the end of the post]. They are spliced screencaps from a new cartographic database of several hundred images relating to the Dutch East India Company (VOC). The collection consists mostly of maps (of course) – many fort outlines and lots of interesting and artistic map sketches – but there are the occasional scenic watercolour pictures as well.  From the ‘Collectie/Archief’ drop down menu, select ‘Kaarten van de VOC’, change the number of thumbnails you want to display per page down the bottom and then hit ‘zoek’. It’s all easy.

D'Haazendans 1868

‘D’Haazendans’ engraved by FW Zürcher, 1868.
Spliced from screencaps

De Muizenvreugd

‘De Muizenvreugd’ engraved by FW Zürcher, 1868.
The Joy of Mice spliced from screencaps

World map from 1300 - Monialium Ebstorfensium Mappamundi

‘Monialium Ebstorfensium Mappamundi’

This chromolithograph world map [spliced together from two sections] was made by Konrad Miller in 1896 and is a reproduction of a mappamundi produced in Hanover (I think) in 1300. Although the largest version doesn’t quite magnify all the details, it nevertheless remains an interesting map. Note that Christ’s head, hands and feet mark the vertical and horizontal axes. The digital version is hosted by MDZ.

 the map – the German equivalent of the ‘Hereford Mappamundi’ – is known as the ‘Ebstorf Mappamundi’ (image) and was produced in 1234 by Gervase of Tilbury.

Kermis of geen Kermis


‘Kermis of geen Kermis?’
This lithograph, with it’s unusual scalloped vignettes, was produced by Joseph Vürtheim sometime between 1843 and 1875. The print imagery seems to imply that village fair recreation will lead to death and despair. .

 squid from Bible der Natur by Jan Swammerdam

mosquito from Bible der Natur by Jan Swammerdam

These fabulous squid and mosquito engravings come from Jan Swammerdam’s classic ‘Bibel der Natur’ (1752). The whole book is (finally!) online at Berlin’s Humboldt University E-Doc server. (note the thumbnail link top left; the text may be photocopy quality but the engravings are great: ‘Höhere Auflösung’=high resolution)

The Dutch microscopist, Jan Swammerdam, conducted groundbreaking research into the development of insects and made significant contributions to human anatomy and scientific methodology.

Mathesis Caesarea - Albert von Curtz 1662 (HAB) c

Mathesis Caesarea (composite)

Mathesis Caesarea - Curtz/Schott 1662 (HAB)

 these odd engravings from ‘Mathesis Caesarea’ (1662) just because the idea of adding putti (cupids) to an otherwise rather dry reworking of Albert von Curtz’s ‘Amussis Fernandea’ by Gaspar Schott (the book being about mathematics, geometry and military architecture) seems amusingly incongruous..

Flora of the Cashmere - Gossypium herbaceum + G. arboreum

Gossypium herbaceum and Gossypium arboreum

Flora of Cashmere - Rheum Webbianum + Balanophora dioica

Rheum webbianum and Balanophora dioica

These plates (extracted from a .pdf) come from the beautiful book, ‘Illustrations of the Botany and other Branches of the Natural History of the Himalayan Mountains and of the Flora of Cashmere’ by J. Forbes Royle, 1839.

Allegorie op de vrede (Allegory of Peace)

Allegorie op de vrede (Allegory of Peace) (detail)

‘Allegorie op de Vrede’ (Allegory of Peace) is by A. Zürcher 1814

anthropomorphic Polish satire

‘Zoilus’ by Cyprian Norwid (search on his name at the Polish Digital Library – they have a large number of his works. As previously noted, Matt from Rashomon made a beautiful five minute collage-film from a range of Norwid prints)

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