KOLEKSI BUKU LANGKA YANG DITEMUKAN DI INDONESIA(SAMPLE CD PROMO)

The Rare Book Colwcctions Found In Indonesia

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Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

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*Engrave Orang Hutan  from Book Narrative of a Journey in the Interior of China, and of a Voyage to and from that Country, in the Years 1816 and 1817; Author: Abel F.L.S, Clarke
Year: 1818
,source google

Pendahuluan

Saya adalah sorang dokter yang menyenangi Sejarah, saya banyak belajar dari buku-buku sejarah ini, hal-hal yang baik saya jadikan dasar dalam menysusun strategi masa depan dan hal yang jelek saya hindari sesuai dengan pepatah Minangkabau Alam terkembang jadi Guru.

Setelah berumur tujuh puluh tahun, dan menyusun koleksi buku langka mulai tahun 1975, yaitu buku keramik karangan warren E.Cox, dibeli di Los Angeles oleh Kakak wanita saya Elina Widyono.

Lihat buku tersebut dan berapa harganya dari llelangan E-bay dihalaman berikut ini, dan buku ini jadi pegangan saya untuk menyusun koleksi saya sampai hari ini.

Rahasasia info ini sudah saatnya saya buka agar para kolektor dapat berpedoman dalam membeli koleksi,harap jangan di repro dan diberitahu pedagang nanti harganya jadi mahal.

 

 

Book of Pottery and Porcelain Warren E. Cox 2 volumes 1944 Hardcovers

From United States

Canada  $ 33.54

or Best Offer

+C $31.72 shipping

Baru saja tah8un ini saya menemukan Buku Sejarah Angatan Perang Amerika

Tiga Tahun yang lalu, saya memperoleh dan membeli dengan harga murah buku yang sangat langka

Narrative of a Journey in the Interior of China, and of a Voyage to and from that Country, in the Years 1816 and 1817;

containing an Account of the most interesting Transactions of Lord Amherst’s Embassy to the Court of Pekin, and Observations on the Countries which it visited.

Author: Abel F.L.S, Clarke
Year: 1818
Edition: First edition
Publisher: London; Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown
Category: Asia East & Central

Buku ini tanpa kulit dan ada dua illustrasi yang sudah dijual oleh pemiliknya yaitu dengan ilustrasi jung dan Kaisar Tiongkok, kendatipun demikian buku ini tentunya masih mahal karena edisi pertama, lihatlah beberapa ilustrasi yang masih ad, ilustrasi saya peroleh dari google eksplorasi,

Baik gambar di Indonesia saat pertama datang ke Banten dan jawa,keudian ke Tiongkok dan kembali lagi ke Inggris tanpa menemui Kaisar karena tidak segera menghadap akibat pakaian Dinasknya masih belum tiba.

Ilustrasi engrave sebelum tahun 1840 sangat langka dan saat ini masih ada tersisa sangat sedikit dan banyak yang sudah dimakan ngengat, ilustrasi milik saya masih mulus.

Nikmatilah ilustrasi dari Cd ini dalam Cd yang alsi,harga masih murah hanya lima ratus ribu rupiah,dapat dipesan liwat email saya iwansuwanddy@gmail.com

,dengan syarat berjanji tidak akan mereproduksi, dan mengupload kopi KTP dan alamat lengkapnya , ini penting untuk sekuriti terhadap penipuan liwat internet.

Untuk pembeli luar negeri belum di layani karena biaya kirim sangat mahal sampai satu juta rupiah.

Halaman depan

Peta Tiongkok

Gambar bunga cengkeh

Gambar Banten

Gambar air mancur di Banten

Gambar Ikan terbang

Gambar di Banten

Gambar di Banten

Gambar Jung Tiongkok

Gambar Orang Hutan

Gambar Banten

Gambar Kaisar Tiongkok

Gambar lainnya

 

  

Narrative of a Journey in the Interior of China, and of a Voyage to and from that Country, in the Years 1816 and 1817;containing an Account of the most interesting Transactions of Lord Amherst’s Embassy to the Court of Pekin, and Observations on the Countries which it visited.Author: Abel F.L.S, Clarke
Year: 1818
Edition: First edition
Publisher: London; Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown
Category: Asia East & Central
Price: € 2,100.-
Contempory blind tooled half calf over paper covered boards. The upper joint has cracked, but the board is still firmly attached by the cords. The spine divided in six tooled panels by five raised and gilt bands with gilt titles in the second compartment. The leather tooled and gilt ruled along the edges. Errata leaf bound right before the preface, pp. xvi, 420.Illustrated with 7 (of 8) hand coloured aquatint plates (*), 10 (of 11) black & white plates of which 8 aquatints as well, 4 maps of which 3 folding and 30 woodcuts in the text. The plates missing are the often lacking b/w botanical plate plus the plate entitled “View of the Landing place at Pulo Leat”. There, however, are no traces of removed plates, so that most likely they never were bound in.(*) The missing hand coloured aquatint plate is supplied from another copy and has been loosely inserted; so actually all eight plates are present. However, the greater part of the margins of this plate has been trimmed, so that this single sheet is much smaller than the paper of the other seven plates (please see picture #18).Abel’s voyage on the Alceste left Spithead on February 8, 1816 and first led him to Madeira. From there they sailed to Table Bay, South Africa, then onwards to Java, from there to China and then back to England via South Africa once more. On their return journey the ship was wrecked, but all passengers were rescued and they continued their voyage aboard the Termate. Abel’s rich collections, unfortunately, except for a small botanical collection which he had handed over to R. Brown before, got lost.

The upper compartment of the spine bears, in gilt, the crest of arms of the clan of Maconochie of Meadowbank, while on the inner frontboard there is the armorial bookplate of the clan of Maclean of Ardgour. So the book was passed on from one noble Scottish family to another, though we do not know how. If you have any information, then please let us know.

Lust 496, Abbey Travel 537, Mendelssohn I, p. 2 (the latter two both for the 2nd edition of 1819).

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Saya harapkan informasi dari buku elektronik ini dapat diajdikan pedoman bagi seluruh kolektor dan para mahasiswa.senior.

Selanjutnya harap maaaf bila info ini belum diedit dan tanpa ilustrasi lengkap, karena mencegah usaha para plagiat untuk merepronya.

Salam dari Jakarta Indonesia

Jakarta , Februrari, 2015

 

DR Iwan suwandy,MHA

DAFTAR BUKU Langka

Yang ditemukan Dr Iwan Di indonesia

 

De Zeike Reizieger, or Rambles in Java and the Straits in 1852 by a Bengal Civilian

De Zeike Reizieger, or Rambles in Java and the Straits in 1852 by a Bengal Civilian

 

Authors: Edwards, William, d. 1890, Kinloch, C. W. (Charles Walter), d. 1893, supposed author

Publisher London : Simpkin, Marshall

Date 1853

 

Rambles in Java and the Straits Settlement Paperback – Dec 1987

by Charles Walter Kinloch (Author)

Travel in South-East Asia may seem to be wild and exotic – but it is certainly not the path less travelled. This classic book was first published in 1853 by ‘Bengal Civilian’ (Charles Walter Himloch) as De Zieke Reiziger (‘The Invalid Traveller’), and is an account of the author and his wife’s travels from Penang, to Singapore, and on to Java in 1852 – a time before guidebooks, travel agencies and package tours.

And while the times may have changed, the adventure and everyday frustrations are still the same. The pair travel for medical reasons, to recover from an unspecified ailment. Their travels are not really that different from today, except that there is no guidebook, and travel is often horse powered instead of petrol.

But the extended delays, at-times perilous sea journeys, even the ease of passage requiring letters of recommendation (i.e. knowing some who can smooth your journey) are all too common today.

Many observations captured in the book are still (perhaps arguably) relevant today. For example: “The community of Singapore … is a community of merchants, whose whole time and thoughts are absorbed in money making…”, and “Dutch cooking … is disgusting”, the standard of accommodation often questionable, and travel between town on Java often taking longs periods of time.

What does stand this book apart are the observations of Java at the time when it was a Dutch colony. The author clearly has disdain for the Dutch, their cleanliness, dress sense, and cuisine, but if the reader can see through this, the book becomes a simple observation of life in Java at a time when it was emerging from an exotic unknown to the country it is today.

New from £40.49

 

 

A Banned Author & That anHonor to Him — Original Printed Wrappers

Heine, Heinrich.  Vermischte Schriften. Hamburg: Hoffmann & Campe, 1854. Small 8vo. (18.5 cm; 7.25″). 3 vols. I: [2] ff., 322 pp. II: xviii, 317, [1] pp. III: [2] ff., 310 pp., [1] f.
$250.00

Among the books that the Nazis burned that infamous night in 1933 in Berlin’s Opernplatz were works by Heinrich Heine, both because he was a Jew who converted to Christianity and because of his friendship with Marx and the liberal ideas and ideals contained in his writings.

 

The contents of these three volumes were written over the course of many years including during the last years of Heine’s life when he was confined to his bed in Paris, the city he made his home beginning in 1831, after leaving Germany.

 

 Vermischte Schriften (“Miscellaneous Writings”), in three volumes, is precisely “miscellaneous” in its contents: Vol. I is composed of “Gestaendnisse” (“Confessions,” an autobiographical work), “Die Goetter im Exil” (“The Gods in Exile,” a prose essay), “Die Goettin Diana” (“The Goddess Diana,” a ballet scenario, from 1846), “Ludwig Marcus: Denkworte” (“Ludwig Marcus: Recollections,” a prose essay), and “Gedichte. 1853 und 1854″ (“Poems. 1854 and 1854″). Vols. II and III contain his collected journalism about France (i.e, “Lutezia”), his observations on French politics, government, and intellectual life from 1831 to 1848. These were originally written for the Cotta family’s newspaper the Allgemeine Zeitung.

First edition of all volumes.

 

Uncut and unopened, in original printed wrappers, variously darkened and a little chipped; text with some discoloration and foxing, again “variously,” due to the quality of the paper. Over all a rather nice set that has not suffered at the hands of either binder or reader.  (33286)

 

Destination Chunking

by Han Suyin

3.9 of 5 stars 3.90  ·   rating details  ·  30 ratings  ·  reviews

Han Suyin means The Chinese Gamble. Written during the Sino~Japanese war by a twenty five year old Author, employed as a qualified midwife in the American Christian hospital in Chengtu, the capital town of the Sichuan province. It was written with aid of another person (an unnamed American missionary, employed as a woman doctor in the same Chengtu hospital). The brutal and bloody events of the Sino~Japanese war providing a realistic and impressive background to this personal story. The author’s novelized memoir of living in wartime China. ‘Han Suyin’ is the pen name of Peking-born Eurasian Dr. Elisabeth Comber. She is an author of several books on modern China, novels set in East Asia, and autobiographical works, as well as a physician

 

Destination Chunking Paperback – January, 1973

by Han Suyin (Author)

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Product Details

  • Paperback:256 pages
  • Publisher:Triad Books (January 1973)
  • Language:English
  • ISBN-10:0586038604
  • ISBN-13:978-0586038604
  • Product Dimensions: 9 x 4.4 x 0.6 inches
  • Shipping Weight:8 ounces
  • Average Customer Review:Be the first to review this item
  • Amazon Best Sellers Rank:#1,259,057 in Books (See Top 100 in Books)

 

 

Han Suyin

Author profile

 

born

in Xinyang, Henan Province, China

September 12, 1917

 

died

November 02, 2012

gender

female

 

genre

Literature & FictionBiographies & MemoirsHistory

About this author

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Han Suyin (Pinyin: Hán Sùyīn) is the pen name of Elizabeth Comber, born Rosalie Elisabeth Kuanghu Chow (Pinyin: Zhōu Guānghú). She is a Chinese-born Eurasian
author of several books on modern China, novels set in East Asia, and autobiographical works, as well as a physician. She currently resides in Lausanne and has written in English and French.

 

Renowned Chinese-born writer Han Suyin, whose autobiographical novel was turned into the popular American film Love Is a Many-Splendored Thing, has died in Lausanne, Switzerland, Chinese and Swiss media said on Sunday. She was 95.

Han, the author of about 40 books on modern China, died on Friday, Xinhua reported, citing her family.

The frail-looking and charismatic Han was branded both as a “Chinese revolutionary” in the West and “bourgeois” in communist China, with her work, often based on her own life straddling the two worlds.

Novels and essays by the thrice-married Han, as well as her meetings with Indira Gandhi, Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai, earned her a worldwide reputation.

The writer’s biggest work was a five-volume autobiography, while other writings included biographies of Mao and Zhou, and a study on Tibet.

She had been one of the few foreigners to be able to visit communist China in the early years of the regime. In a 1968 interview with France’s Le Figaronewspaper, she said Mao was “the greatest man China has known”.

Born Matilda Rosalie Elizabeth Chow in Henan province on September 12, 1917, Han was the daughter of a Chinese railway engineer and his Belgian wife. She studied medicine in China before continuing her studies in Belgium in the 1930s and later in London.

She later changed her name to Rosalie Elizabeth Comber and chose Han Suyin as a pen name. “Suyin” means ordinary voice in Chinese.

She was criticised for supporting Mao’s Great Leap Forward in the 1950s and the later Cultural Revolution.

Han’s work as a nurse in China during the war against the Japanese occupation in 1938 stoked her patriotic feelings.

She qualified as a doctor in London in 1948, meantime having a disappointing marriage with her first husband, Dang Baoyang, an anti-communist engineer.

He was killed during China’s civil war, after which Han abandoned medicine and started writing, in Chinese, English and French.

She wrote A Many-Splendored Thing in Hong Kong based on her romance with British war correspondent Ian Morrison, who was killed in the Korean War in 1950.

The book was adapted for the silver screen in 1955.

She married a British anti-espionage specialist, Leon Comber, and worked as a doctor in Malaysia and Singapore, during which time she grew increasingly sympathetic with communism.

She returned to China in 1956, when she was greeted with great fanfare by then premier Zhou.

Having divorced Comber, she later married a third time, to Indian engineer named Vincent Ruthnaswany, with whom she had lived in Lausanne.

Han frequently returned to China and in 1984 wrote a historical novel set in China and Switzerland, The Enchantress.

Funeral services for Han are planned for Thursday in Lausanne, the Swiss news agency ATS reported.

The Thought of Chairman Mao and the Chinese People
(Han Suyin; From a speech recorded in London, c. 1972)

Introduction | Lecture One  | Special Collections

Note: Due to issues regarding the quality of the source audio, a few words and phrases were unintelligible to the transcriber and are noted as “indistinct” in the proceeding transcription. Emphasis is noted with italics based upon the speaker’s inflection.

Dr. Han Suyin, 1972

(Audio recording joined in progress)[1]…people of China has everybody agitating the “Little Red Book” and everybody shouting the same slogans and some who like China bravely say, “Well, this is the way it ought to be” but in themselves, they still have a few misgivings. And others, of course, frankly criticize. I can say that this picture is not altogether correct. It is quite true –and I think that this is a philosophical truth which we must agree on – that there has been no great movement in the world, no other really great movement that has changed the world that has not had basic philosophy as its foundation. If we go back in the history of humanity, we find that many such books looked upon as religious books did provoke great movements and these great movements – they changed the world. And so we must agree that unless there are basic principles; basic philosophical principles; basic political principles which animate the mass of people–ideas; new ideas which come to them and which open their minds to a new way of looking at things–we shall not have anything new. And therefore, waiving the Little Red Book may be symbol which you dislike, but it was a symbol of learning a new philosophy. It is not only what is written in the Little Red Book that I am speaking of but it is the whole of the philosophy that Mao Zedong made accessible not a small elite but to one quarter of humanity. And this philosophy, this way of looking, has transformed one quarter of humanity who only a few years ago–even ten years ago–was still thinking in medieval terms on the intellectual way, was still thinking in a way which was destructive to their own best interests. It has transformed a great many of them.

I would like to elaborate a little on this. I do not look upon what Mao Zedong has written by trying to give it any name. You can call it Marxism-Leninism; I am not a Marxist. I look at it from a scientific view now. And from a scientific point of view, I can say that I personally feel that what he has written and what the Chinese people are learning is rigorously a  scientific way of thinking; the dialectical way of thinking and analysis.

Now, you will say, “How can this help? How can this make for better crops? How can this make for factories? How can this make for a better life?” Well it does and I’ll tell you why: It’s because it is much closer to reality. It is reality. And when you know what reality is; when you are not living in a dream world; when you cope with reality as it is, then you become scientific-minded. Then you understand the principles by which you can really produce results.

I had not seen it before. And in these three years, I have seen it. I have seen peasants who really now begin to understand the scientific way of growing things–not superstition. Not thinking that if they do some mumbo jumbo then the crops will be better, but really analyzing the soil and the rain and the sun and looking upon it in a dialectic way. That means from both sides–seeing its effects; seeing its cause to effect and not only that, but also how its effects can transform itself and again transform themselves so that the primary or original shape has now become another. And when you have peasants doing this kind of analytical thinking, they have made a great leap into the future. They have become scientists. They now understand not only what they have been doing but they cancreate.  And it is a tremendous creativity of a whole people released which is so exhilarating. And that is why I also sound as if I were a bit idealistic because I myself–being always on the lookout for something new–I have found this tremendously stimulating. I have found it so stimulating that you can spend hours in a commune talking with peasants and find them grasping these ideas and manipulating abstract concepts in such a way that, really, they are shaping something new. And they are now applying all this not only to their daily living, to coping with the earth with the crops and so on, but also as a preparation for themselves for the future. Now this what was so interesting to me; this is the main thing that I think the Cultural Revolution has done.

Chairman Mao during his rural inspection tour in Henan (Honan) Province in 1958.

And the other, the second most important thing that it has done besides this opening of the mind–this emancipation and true liberation of the mind–the second thing that it has done is a moral–a moral standard of values. Now we all accept that there should be a standard of morality but sometimes we feel that morality is very boring and annoying. And sometimes we feel that freedom resides in the throwing away of all that is called the shackles but when we do that, do we really have freedoms? And what does “freedom” mean?

In China, what has come now is the realization that self indulgence is not freedom; that putting “me” first all the time is not freedom. But that true freedom and the ways of freedom reside in unselfishness and serving others–what is called “serving the people.” And this also has become something genuine. Right up to now, I tell you, right up to now I did not feel it inside and now I feel it. All the years I did not feel it–now I feel it. Now it has become almost a habit. To think of others first before thinking of oneself not for everybody but for quite a few people–quite a few people– and this also is very entrancing because it becomes a habit. And when it becomes a habit of the mind—when it becomes so easy and so simple and so natural—to really love your neighbor more than yourself, then you have a new society, but not before.

You cannot make this society upon edicts. You cannot make it by giving orders. It must come from each person and this is also what I have found this year which I had not realized before. There is a way now that when you walk about—and I have been in the interior provinces like Sichuan (Szechwan) and Guizhou (Kweichow) and Xinjiang (Sinkiang )—places that are not visited; places that are far out and when there, you see it. When there you see the countryside alive with this new spirit, then you really feel that something has been done. When you find that housewives really now get together and organize little factories and do something about it, and that’s…generally, they have not they have not done this for any gain for themselves but because they feel they have to serve their community. Because they feel they have to serve the people.[2] Then you are somewhere. And this happens on a large scale; a little everywhere. Again, I am not saying that everybody thinks the same way. I am quite sure that there are still a lot of selfish people in China. I’m quite sure of it. But there are quite enough people around now who have grasped this; for whom it has become a second way of life and when that it is infinitely more rewarding than in which the one they only sought for private gain in a way that really now I feel the revolution can be carried forward in order to truly create socialism as itshould be and not the kind of thing that we have seen in certain countries, which was a bureaucratic elite imposed upon people.

Now you have been told about the achievements by many other people. I would only like to concentrate on what I have seen in a certain province. Near Ruijin in Jiangxi (Chiang-hsi) Province, I have seen and crossed thirteen bridges over fairly wide rivers. Thirteen bridges, large bridges, built by the peasants’ commune themselves without costing any cent to anybody, built to serve the people.

Members of a brigade in charge of women’s and public health work. (“Picture from “Inside a People’s Commune,” 1974.

I have seen small factories in the communes. Small factories run by women. Small factories run by young people. Small factories run young girls. And I asked them, I said, “How did you start?”  And they said, “Well, I don’t know…Two or three of us got the idea, then we talked to others, then we all got together, then we did it.” And I say, “But how? Did you ask any money from the government?” “Oh, no! Oh, we would never think of doing that! Oh, no; we did it ourselves. We started using …Well, somebody brought maybe a pair of scissors and somebody else brought the bench and a third on brought this and we put it all together and then we went to a neighboring factory and we asked them to lend us two workers who knew something and (they) asked (us), ‘What would you like us to do?’ and (we) said, ‘Well, we would like to make this or that’ and so we started. And now it’s doing well.”

I visited such a factory of housewives near…in Zhangshu (Chang-shu). They had started with seven housewives who had, between them, been told by their husbands to stay at home (laughter from the audience) because their husbands made enough money. Their husbands were steelworkers or cadres. And their husbands said, “I want my wife at home. I want her to be at home and cook my mean when I’m back.” And you know, these women—young—they were around about between 25 to 35, they thought to themselves, “Well that is not a good way of serving the people, so they got together. And they put their money together. They had, altogether seven of them, they had ¥50 Yuan, which is $25, which is £10. They had £10 and with that, they bought two benches and about seven large scissors because some of them had gone to a neighboring factory and they had said, “We want to do something,” and the neighboring factory had laughed— “Ha ha” —and they said, “Well, you can make those thin strips of metal to wrap bales with…To tie up bales with.” So they had started with that and they did that for a few months and they did it so well that after a few months, they had made a bit more money. They now had, I think, about $200. And, with that, they bought a machine and they made more. And with that, they were able to buy another machine and they said, “Let’s diversify.” So, they went back to the factory and they said, “We’re ready to do some more,” so the factory gave them other spare pieces other spare pieces to do. And, little by little like this, they have now built a factory of 143 people making $10 million a year. This $10 million they give to the State. They…pay themselves $35 a month. They make $10 million making small, spare parts of all kinds for several factories around. This is one example – and there are so many more; there are masses of examples like that – of people doing things in the factories, in the communes, everywhere. This would not be true if there was not this new spirit; the spirit of initiative, the spirit of serving the people.

When I told this story in America, somebody said, when I got to the $10 million bit somebody said, “My, my! That’s a real capitalist enterprise!” (laughter from the audience) I said, “Yes, it is! Accept for one little difference – very small difference: They did not keep the money for themselves. They gave it to the State.” Apart from taking a little bit to buy some more machines because they are now going to do something more – I think now they are building spare parts for tractors – apart from that, drawing a plan for that and giving it to the State, all the rest went to the State and they were very happy that way. And when I interviewed them and I asked them, I said, “But aren’t you going to raise your salaries?” they looked at me and they said, “But what for? We have everything we need!” There is no point in accumulating a lot of money. You wouldn’t know what to do with it, anyway.

Now for the bad things because, of course, there are bad things. One should not only talk of the good things, because if one does, one is not at all impartial. Are there still selfish people in China? Yes, there are! Of course there are! There are constantly selfish people doing selfish things as there are anywhere else. But the way of dealing with them is quite different. The way of dealing with them in China is for everybody who is around them, not to immediately insult them and no punishment, but to try to show them and to educate them; to try to show them that really, they’re not doing themselves or anybody else any good by what they do. And I remember one terribly moving story I was told by a cadre who said: “Well, I had a friend who had a very beautiful watch and this friend also had a very weak heart. And this friend said to me, ‘When I die’ – he was a bit pessimistic about himself because he’s still not dead  –  (laughter from the audience) but he said, ‘When I die, I’ll give you my watch.’” And he said, “One evening my friend laid there and he was very ill and I had to come look after him. And I looked at his watch and I looked at him. And suddenly the thought crossed my mind: Now if he dies, I’ll get that watch.” (laughter from the audience) And he said, “For a moment, I said…Well I won’t call the doctor and I’ll get the watch.” And then he said, “I went and called the doctor.” And he said, “I feel ashamed of myself for having had these terrible thoughts.” But he was able to speak of it; he was able to face it. His face it. And his friend is well and alive and wanted to give him the watch. He said, “Take the watch since you like it so much” and he said, “No, I won’t take it. And they are better friends than before. But he was able to face himself; he was able to see that he also had these terrible thoughts.

Chairman Mao relaxing at Jinggangshan (Chingkangshan), 1965.

And you see, with the dialectical method applied to everybody nobody expects other people to be ideal. Nobody expects other people not to have defects. There is a good and bad side to everybody so they can accept themselves as they are and so that their good side can try to change the bad side. And that is the way philosophy also acts in your personal life. It is the same in marriage. Marriage is not “…and they married and were happy ever after.” You know that. (laughter from the audience) Marriage should be, “…and they married and they worked hard at their marriage ever after” because you have to work hard at a marriage to make it go. But if you get married with the kind of idea that is sometimes spread here, that the other person must be as you think they must be, otherwise there’s something wrong with them, you’re not going to get anywhere much with your marriage. But if, like the Chinese, you don’t expect them to be necessarily ideal but neither do you expect them to be absolute demons, then you sit down and you talk problems over.

And this is where I was most moved. It was in the dialectical method [of] Mao Zedong Thought dealing with the family problems. There are family classes in Mao Zedong Thought.  What does that mean? That means that in a family, old and young, and may I remind you that in China the family is not destroyed; that most grandparents live with their children and grandchildren—families sit together and they talk over things. They read Mao Zedong and then they try to make democracy work in the family. How does democracy work in the family? In China before, there was a great deal of the paternal —of the father having a lot of rights, and talking and telling everybody what to do. And this has now disappeared, or is disappearing. Not everybody, of course. We must remember that probably there still are a few men throwing their weight around. But otherwise, in these family conclaves, you have the children speaking up and that is the way that children can speak to their parents. And you have parents speaking and giving their point of view. And so when in America, they ask me whether there is a generation gap in China, I said, “You mean don’t talk to each other.”  I said, “In China, a young man who does not talk to his parents is not considered to be truly revolutionary. If he is truly a revolutionary, he must be good at talking with older people and persuading them; at changing their ideas.” I think that in the families today, there is because and precisely because there is a new way of looking at things; there is a great deal more of family feelings then there ever was.  There is a great deal more of understanding and of health in the family.

And this consolidates, of course, social life too. It makes for a better society; a more harmonious one. Not that there are no difficulties, but these difficulties can be debated openly and today in China you will find that there are two slogans that constantly recur besides the one of fighting selfishness, of serving the people . There are two others that constantly recur and one is that you must investigate every situation; you must not make up your mind hastily. You must investigate and study. And the second one is that you must debate and talk and persuade and educate and not rush off to make hasty judgments. But you must debate and educate.

Now I think that in this type of society, of course, there will be people coming to it who will find that is singularly lacks luster. I mean [indistinct] there are no clubs and so on. And they say, “What do people do with themselves?” Well, I can assure you that people have a very good time. They have a very good time because they truly feel that they are doing something worthwhile. Because every small thing — whether you are sweeping the floor or whether you are baking a cake or whether you are working a machine or whether you are building a bridge or whether you are flying planting corn – has a meaning beyond the meaning of the act. It is full of the value of doing something for the collective good; for the people and for the revolution. It is a way of advancing. And after all, what is the meaning of life than to find a meaning to everything normal, everything small?  Not to rush of to do something outstanding, heroic [indistinct] or something that you think will be outside of the ordinary, but to be able to live fully, your life every day in the knowledge that what you are doing is really serving others; doing good for others; not only for yourself but forothers —and the others first.

I think that there is this feeling, a greater reward than in any other. A greater reward than in amassing money and a much greater reward indeed than in just imprisoning the self in self. And so I have thought that there was a meaning to freedom. Huey Newton, the Black Panther who went to China this year said in America on television that the only place where he had felt free is China. Perhaps he was exaggerating a bit. I won’t argue about that. But what he meant was that he felt there that the kind of pressures that he felt in his own society were not there. And it is a great pressure indeed when you are confined, cribbed and caged within your own little self and you’re always only thinking of that. It is a much greater freedom to be thinking in much greater terms of everybody else.

And now in China, it is not only China that they are thinking about, but the whole world. As Mao Zedong said and has repeated again and again, “China’s contribution to the world has been too little so far. We must give more.” And in this giving, it is already felt throughout the world. China gives $750 million in aid, $250 million more than the USSR—this is fromThe New York Times; and The New York Times adds: “And whereas other countries exact strict businesslike terms, most of China’s aid is without interest—long-term—and is designed towards the recipients’ advantage.” And so, you see, this can even be recognized by a newspaper which, after all, is not really distinctly, shall I say, to the left. (laughter from the audience) And this kind of giving is only the beginning of what China can do and will do, for I believe that you will see in the years to come that a new spirit will emanate from China and that more and more people from the world will recognize this spirit and this spirit is based upon what Mao Zedong has said and repeated again and again: “Serve the people.” Not only the people of one color or one nation, but the people of the world; those who work and those who toil.

And now this is what I have found, at last, in China this year. I have never spoken like this because I was not quite sure. This year, I am sure I have seen it. And because I have seen it, I have been made very happy. I have been very happy and now, to finish, some people will say, “Yes, but won’t this change? Will China stay like that or will she too change?” Nobody can guarantee the future. That is why we must always be vigilant. And the Chinese themselves will tell you that the question is not settled. Therefore, there must be many, many people who are imbued with this spirit, for it is not in edicts and laws and a small elite that you can impose these things. It must be done by the masses; by all the masses together; by the people who work and toil: the peasants, the soldiers, the workers who must understand this. They are the guarantee; the people, and the people alone, are the force that moves history. I did not understand that before and now I know it. It is true—it is true, it is in their hands and it is where they all manifest themselves. And if the peoples of the world also learn this lesson—that what they call “democracy” is truly that: taking the responsibility upon yourself of serving  the people of the world, then only will there be a changed world. Thank you very much. (Applause)    

 

Literature – autograph – Han Suyin The Mountain is Young 1958. Signed by Han Suyin in both Chinese and European characters to inside cover. Book is good condition

Guide Price: £100.00 – £200.00

This product went to auction on 22nd May 2014

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Beatles Illustrated Lyrics Book Dell by Alan Aldridge First Edition 1972
    • IDR126,455.70
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  • Did we say the most famous day in Beatles history? Make that the most famous day in of ALL OF ROCK ‘N’ ROLL HISTORY. The revolution was televised, and more than 73 million people (a full 40% of the U.S. population) tuned in for the Fab Four’s first performance on American soil. No one living had ever seen a global cultural phenomenon quite like Beatlemania before—and it has never been eclipsed since. In retrospect, John, Paul, George and Ringo’s Ed Sullivanappearance was bigger than Elvis’ hip gyrations. Bigger than Dylan plugging in at Newport. Bigger than Michael Jackson’s moonwalk. Maybe even bigger than Neil Armstrong’s moonwalk!
  • After all the fainting, swooning and screaming had subsided in Ed Sullivan’s studio, the triumphant Fab Four hopped into their limo and hightailed it back to the Plaza Hotel. George stayed behind to nurse his cold, while John, Paul and Ringo (plus John’s wife Cynthia) set out to paint the Big Apple red. First stop: Drinks at the Playboy Club. Then off to the legendary Peppermint Lounge—ground zero for the Twist dance craze. Documentary filmmakers Albert and David Maysles memorably captured Ringo in a feverish dance-floor courtship with Peppermint girl Geri Miller. Off to the side, John, Cynthia and Paul shot the breeze with cocktails and cigarettes. (Actual footage can be viewed here: youtube.com/watch?v=DNJmP1cJdKA.) The party finally broke up in the wee hours…or so it seemed.
  • According to a 1964 interview with Geri Miller (posted on the “Truth About the Beatles’ Girls” blog site), “[Ringo] asked what I was doing later and could he see me. I flipped. Of course, I answered, the only thing is, I don’t get off work until 4 A.M. I knew Ringo didn’t want to stay in the Lounge and wait for me because the place was crawling with photographers, and I knew he didn’t want to go back to his hotel with the rest of the group. ‘I’ve got it,’ I announced, ‘why don’t you wait for me at my apartment. I live right around the corner. I have a hi-fi and dozens of albums. You can listen to all of our popular recording artists until I get there.’ Ringo liked the idea. I gave him the key to my apartment and directions…When I got to my door I heard the TV and…rang the bell and shoeless Ringo answered…I made him breakfast and we talked and talked…By now it was close to 7 A.M…I walked him to the door and kissed him goodnight. ‘Just a minute,’ I called out as he waited for the elevator. I ran into the hallway and gave him a Peppermint Lounge souvenir key-chain and told him to ‘use it and think of me.’ I watched him put his keys on the chain and slip them into his pocket.”
  • Ringo and Geri weren’t the only ones to exchange a Peppermint Lounge memento that historic night. Just several hours earlier, the drummer and his two mop-topped bandmates had autographed this very postcard for their Peppermint waitress—with George later adding his signature once he was on the mend. The waitress folded the postcard in quarters, resulting in a horizontal and vertical fold that thankfully do not visually distract from the exquisitely bold, clear signatures. Better yet, because the card happened to have been folded inward rather than outward, the related surface creasing appears to almost exclusively affect the picture side (rather adding to the charming vintage appeal, we must say) and remains quite subtle on the signature side. Lastly, to the far right of the signatures, a 1/4″ vertical strip appears to have been excised from the edge.
  • Foremost Beatles autograph expert Frank Caiazzo’s LOA, dated 6/6/07, reads in part, “A waitress at the club, who was serving the band all night, obtained their signatures on this picture postcard, which measures 5″ x 3.5″. John, Paul and Ringo have signed very nicely in blue ballpoint. This card also contains the first name pencil signature of George Harrison, which was later obtained by Beatles staff and then returned to the waitress at the club, as she was initially disappointed that she did not get to get his autograph. There are very few [complete Beatles autograph] sets in existence which were signed on this, the most important day in Beatles history.” Encapsulated and Graded NM-MT 8 by PSA/DNA.
  • Also included is a (desirable in its own right) CBS original press photo from the iconic Dezo Hoffman “collarless suit” photo session. Considered the most emblematic images of that transformative time, this 7″ x 9″ example represents the perfect complement not only to the Peppermint postcard, but also to the Beatles signed Hoffman photo offered as the adjacent lot in this auction. An official CBS archiving label on the reverse is dated 6/30/64 and describes a re-airing of the Ed Sullivan Showepisode on July 12th. There is also a date-stamping from 7/15/1964, and two from December—along with several more usages ranging from 1970 through 1983. Typical creasing and crazing throughout, as is often seen on period published photos. Encapsulated as Type I by PSA/DNA.
  • Click above for larger image.
Bidding

Current Bidding
Minimum Bid: $4,000
Final Bid(Includes Buyers Premium): $7,768
Estimate: $8000 – $10000
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H.Colijn, J.B.Van Heutsz, Nederlands Indie, 1932

Complete set met het fraaie bandontwerp van Chris Lebeau

  1. Colijn – Neerlands Indië. Land en Volk-geschiedenis en Bestuur, Bedrijf en Samenleving – 2 delen – 1911/1912 – Amsterdam, Elsevier, 1911/1912 – 378 + 394 pp. Fraai gedecoreerde linnen banden naar ontwerp van Chris Lebeau.Deel 1: Met 326 afbeeldingen, prenten, kaarten en tekeningen,
    een gekleurde kaart en 3 gekleurde platen.Deel 2: Met 265 afbeeldingen, prenten, kaarten en tekeningen,
    benevens 3 gekleurde platen.Dit werk verscheen onder de leiding van H. Colijn en voorts enkele
    deskundigen. Met een voorwoord van J.B. van Heutsz, oud gouverneur
    van Nederlandsch-Indië.

    Conditie: Op snee lichte foxing (bruine vlekjes). Voorts zijn beide delen in een uitstekende staat.

    (totaal 2)

In de catalogus

Voor meer informatie over dit kavel zie onderstaande Catawiki catalogus item(s):

Neerlands Indië

 

Neerlands Indië

 

 

David Pickell;Between The Tides;periplus;2002

Between the Tides: A Fascinating Journey Among the Kamoro of New Guinea

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Photographer Kal Muller was exploring one of the most remote places on earth: Irian Jaya, the Indonesian half of the island of New Guinea and home to the Kamoro people, whose culture, it was widely believed, was extinct.

By happenstance Muller stumbled upon an initiation ceremony and uncovered a thriving, traditional way of life. With longtime collaborator David Pickell and two Kamoro friends-Aloysius Akiniyau, a guide, and Apollo Takati, a schoolteacher-Muller set out to rediscover the Kamoro people. Traveling …

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Zev Pressman and Paul Lamle; Better Photography ;New Yor;1949

Not exist in internet

Alec Pearlman; Rollei Manual; London;1953

THE ROLLEI MANUAL – ALEC PEARLMAN – 1ST EDITION! – RARE!

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US $150.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P.R.Bulterman:Poststemples Nederands-Indie;Deventer;1981

Indonesië; P.R. Bulterman – Poststempels Nederlands-Indië 1864-1950 — 1981

Euro 50.-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Johan Jakop Meyer; Das Weib Im Altindischen Epos:Leipzig;1915

das weib im altindischen von meyer

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  • Titel: das & weib & im & altindischen

 

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Nr. 1 Meyer, Johann JakobDas Weib im altindischen Epos. Ein Beitrag zur indischen und zur vergleichenden Kulturgeschichte[nach diesem Titel suchen]Leipzig Verlag von Wilhelm Heims 1915,

Johann Jakob Meyer (1870-1939) Indologe, Professor an der Universität Chicago, Übersetzer altindischen und finnischen Litereratur , Lyriker. 440 Seiten, leicht berieben, auf Titel Besitzvermerk Dr. W. Pieth ( Direktor der Bibliothek in Lübeck) , Seiten 199-202 lose und kleiner Einriss, zufiedenstellender Gesamtzustand. Erstausgabe Halbleinen gr. 8 ° Buch; Erstausgabe

Zufriedenstellend

[Schlagwörter: Indien Indologie Literatur Lyrik]

Hardcover, Erstausgabe

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Nr. 2 Meyer, Johann Jakob:Das Weib im altindischen Epos. Ein Beitrag zur indischen und zur vergleichenden Kulturgeschichte.[nach diesem Titel suchen]Leipzig, Wilhelm Heims, 1915.

XVIII, 440 Seiten. Neuerer Halbleinenband mit Rückentitel.

*Johann Jakob Meyer (1870-1939) war Indologe. “Die Geltung und Stellung der Frau im Gangeslande jener Tage, ihre Freuden und ihre Schmerzen und was sonst mit dem Weibe verknüpft ist, soll vor den Augen des Lesers entstehen” (Vorwort). – Sauberes Exemplar.

[Schlagwörter: Indien Indologie Literatur Lyrik]

Artikel-Nr.: 110200

 

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 Masih banyak lagi buku langka koleksi Dr Iwan seperti dibawah ini,lengkapnay silahkan pesan Cd-Rom segera karena edsinya sangat terbatas hanya sepuluh buku elektronik dalam Cd-ROM

 

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Protected: PROMOSI CD-ROM :” UPAYA PENANGULANGAN EFEK KELIANAN DIABETES MELITTUS TYPE 2 TERHADAP GINJAL”

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Protected: PROMOSI CD DR IWAN ; KOLEKSI SEJARAH INDONESIA AWAL ABAD KE DUA PULUH”(BERSAMBUNG)

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Protected: Promosi CD Dr Iwan :”Koleksi Sejarah Indonesia Awal Abad Kedua Puluh”

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PROMOSI BUKU ELEKTRONI DR IWAN :”THE RARE BOOK COLLECTIONS FOUND IN INDONESIA”

The Rare Book Collections

Found In Indonesia

 

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-Rom Edition

Special for Senior Collectors And Scholars

Copyright @ 2014

KATA PENGANTAR

PREFACE

Dalam rangka memperingati ulang tahun saya yang ke tujuh puluh pada tanggal 9 Pebuari 2015 , dengan segalakerendahan hati saya menerbitkan buku panduan bagi para  kolektor Senior dan Mahasiswa yang saya beri judul alam bahasa Ingris

“The Rare Book Collections Found In Indonesia “

Mohon maaf apabila ada ejaan bahasa Ingris saya yang kurang tepat , karena sya belajar secara otodidak , dan terjemahan dengan bantuan Google Translate yang perlu mendapatkan koreksi , kandatipun demikian saya harap anda semua akan mengerti karena gaya bahsa Inggris saya adalah gaya Inggris Indonesia seperti yang anda sering dengar di Singapura  atau Malaysia.

Sudah banyak buku-buku langka koleksi saya yang saya upload di web blog saya baik Driwancybermuseum’Blog  atau Iwansuwandy’s blog , dari Buu-buku yang saya karang sendiri maupun karangan penulis terkenal yang banyak mendpatkan sorotan dari para pemirsa web blog saya anatara lain:

Motif Keramik Kerajaan  Tiongkok Yang Ditemukan di Indonesia dan

Koleksi Martavan Yang ditemukan di Indonesia sehingga telah banyak pemesannya ,tetapi hanya sebagian yang membeli mungkin dianggap mahal walaupun menurut ukuran saya masih murah hanya lima ratus ribu rupiah , dan bayak pedagang menginginkan buku ini tetapi saya tidak jual kepadanya sampai mereka marah dan memaki-maki saya sampai ada yang membuat email saya spam, saya tidak jual kepada pedagang saya takut nanti dikopi dan juga mereka akan jadi saingan saya sehingga harga dipasaran jadi naik dan saya jadi tidak sanggup membelinya , apalagi akhir-akhir ini banyak keramik antic asli maupun palsu banyak diperjual belikan di Jakarta.

Selain itu juga banyak komentar tentang buku saya lainnya seperti   ,

Buku  Koleksi Sejarah Minangkabau ,

buku Koleksi sejarah   Bali ,

buku Koleksi Sejarah Kerajaan kalimantan Barat

Buku Koleski sejarah wayang

Buku Koleksi  Sejarah Aceh ,

Buku sejarah Batak,Buku sejarah leluhur Tionghoa Indonesia Buku Koleksi Sejarah Indonesia Permulaan Abad Kedua Puluh, Buku Koleksi Sejarah Keramik Dinasti Tang , dinasti Sung, dinasti Yuan , Diansti Ming dan dinasti Qing ,

begitu juga dengan buku koleksi sejarah Koin Gobok Tiongkok dari seluruh dinasti.

Buku sejarah Perang Vietnam 945-1975

Buku Koleksi

sejarah Pendudukan Jepang di Indonesia,

 

Buku

Koleksi Sejarah Perang dunia Kedua di Eropa, Buku Sejarah Revolusi dan perang Kemerdekaan Indonesia 1945-1950.

Koleksi Buku Langka yang  saya beri judul

The Rare Book Collections dan Bedah Buku Indonesia yang banyak juga mendapat sorotan dari pemirsa web blog saya.

Dalam CD-Rom ini anda aka dapat melihat cuplikan seluruh buku-buku elektronik dalam Cd-Rom tulisan saya , harganya tetap masing-masih satu Cd lima ratus ribu rupiah ,

 kecuali bila nanti ada devaluasi rupiah yang tambah tinggi harganya akan disesuaikan, seperti saat ini sebenarnya sudah enam ratus ribu tetapi saya tetap tidak menaikan harga mengiggat situasi Indonesia saat ini masih aman dan cerah sejak pimp[iannya bapak Jokowi .

Edisi terbatas paling banyak antara sepuluh sampai 20 Cd  saja. Juga dalam Cd-Rom ini akan saya tampilkan  cuplikan buku langka yang sudah saya upload di Web Blog saya.

Saya ucapkan terima kasih kepada berbagai pihak yang tak dapat saya sebutkan satu persatu namanya , mereka telah banyak membantu saya dan membeli CD-Rom saya sehingga membuat saya tambah semangat, buku elektronik ini saya buat untuk menambah pengetahuan anda tentang buku-buku langka dan berapa nilai jualnya.

Sebenarnya anda bisa mencari sendri harganya liwat eksplorasi google dengan mencantumkan nama buku,pengarang,dan tahun edisinya, tetapi untuk menghemat waktu anda biarlah saya dengan susah payah, siang-malam mengerjakan buku ini dan membuka rahasianya bagi anda yang seluruhnya saya anggap teman baik saya dimanapun anda berada.

 

Bagi yang yang ingin memperoleh bku elektronikyang langka ini dan harap anda segera memesannya  karena diterbitkan harnya sepuluh CD- saja, Pemesan yang pertama sampai sepuluh akan saya urut sesuai dengan komunikasi anda melalui email saya

iwansuwandy@gmail.com

Jangan lupa mengupload kopi KTP dan alamat lengkap rumah anda serta riwyata pekerjaan singkat, ini untuk mencegah penipuan yang banyyak terjadi aat ini yang dikenal dengan hijact internet atau spam.

Terima kasih atas kunjungan and adi web blog saya dan juga terimakasih atas pesanan anda,  Cd-Rom ini akan selesai pada bulan maret 2015.

 

 

 

Maklum saya sudah tua , dan banyak urusan, sudah satu juta pemirsa saya , shingga komunikasi mereka harus saya balas.

Jakarta Pebruari , 2015

 

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

DAFTAR ISI

PENGANTAR

PENDAHULUAN

DAFTAR DAN CUPLIKAN BUKU YANG TELAH DIUPLOAD HARGANYA TETAP RP 500.000,-

DAFTAR BUKU KOLEKSI DR IWAN YANG BELUM DIUPLOAD DENGAN HARGANYA

KESIMPULAN

PENUTUP

RIWAYAT HIDUP PENULIS

 

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA 

The Author Profile

.I starting stamps collection during 1955 very young boy. look my vintage photo with mother Diana lanny and father Djohan Oetama at Bukittingi West Sumatra 1955, my father passed away in 1985 and my mother just passed away in june 2011 at  91 years old.

b.Between 1960-1963, during study at Don Bosco high school I had started collected beside stamps all type of informations collections due to my Teacher Frater Servaas told me that I must collected the Informations due to the develping the satellite which made the globalizations which the growing of world cmmunications will became fast and no border between the nations countries, who have the Information he will became the leader and the King in communications, thank you Frater Servaas your info which made me could built the very best informations communications uniquecollection blog in the world.
Look at in memoriam Frater Servaas with my teacher at Frater middle school in memrian Frater Eric at my House during my Sister Erlita 17th years birthday in 1963.


also look my profile with my loving teacher who still alive and stay at Padang city west sumatra Pak Sofjanto at my house in the same time of the photo above


c.Between 1973-1983 many interesting history which related with the stamp and postal history and also with my life :
1. In 1972 I have graduated Medical Doctor(MD)

2.as the temporary assitenst at Pulmonology (Lung Disease) department in Medical faculty

3.In 1973 join the medical officer of Indonesia National Police


4.in September 1973 I was merried with Lily W.


5. in 1974 my first son Albert our photographer was born in November 1974, and later in January 1977 born my second son Anton our Editor .
a. Albert at Solok city west Sumatra 1978

b.Anton at Solok city 1978


6. Between 1975 until 1989 I have travelled around Indonesia myself or officially and I have found many uniquecollections that time.

7.In 1985 I have made a postal communications, I have send the aerogram to all Postal services in the capital city of all oin the world, 90 % send to me back the official cover,this could be done by the helping of Padang postmaster Ahmadsyah Soewil, his father collections I had bought in 1980.
The vintage photo of Soewil St.marajo ,during the chief of Painan West Sumatra Post office
look his photos

During Dai Nippon occupation he still at Painan and during Indonesia Independence war he was the Finance officer of Padang office and later in 1950-1959 the chief of TelukBayur Harbour west Sumatra post office, seme of the rare West sumatra during Dai Nippon occupation and Indonesia Inedependence war were his collectins,thankyou Family Soewil for that rare collections(complete infrmatins source Dai nippon occupatin sumatra under Malaya Singapore or Syonato Dai Nippon military Administrations and Indonesia Independence war collections.

8. Before between 1979-1985 I have joint the postal circuit club and I have found many covers from all over the world especially Latin America.This circuit as the help of my friend Frans,now he was in Bogor.

9.In 1990 I was graduate my Master Hospital Administration.


10.Between 1990-1994
I was n the duty at West Borneo and visit Sarwak,and i have fund some rare Sarawak stamps, revenue there and in Pontianak I have found rare sarawak coins

11.Between 1995 until 2000
I am seeking the postally used cover from the countries I havenot found especailly the new freedom countries.
All the postal stamps and covers I will arranged in the very exciting and unique collections, I will starting with Asia Countries, and later Africa, Australia, America and Euro.
This special collections were built dedicated to my Sons,especially the histrical fact from my vintage books collections as the rememberance what their father collected and I hope they will keep this beautiful and histric collections until put in speciale site in the CyberMuseum.
I hope all the collectors all over the world will help me to complete the collections, frm Asia I donnot have the cover from Bhutan,Mongol, Tibet, and SAfghanistan.but the stamps I have complete from that countries except my thematic bridge on the river kwai from Myanmar and Thailand.
12. In the years of 2000, I was retired from my job
this is my official profile just before retired.


13, Between 2000-2008
I am travelling around Asia,and starting to arranged my travelling unque collections.
14. December,25th 2008
I built the uniquecollection.wordpress.com Blog with articles :
(1). The Unique books collections
(2). The Unique Stamps collectins
(3). The rare Coins collections
(4). The rare ceramic collections
(5.) The Unique label collectins
(6.) The Travelling Unque collections (now changed as the Adventures of Dr iwan S.
(7). The Tionghoa Unique Collections
(8.) The Asia Unique Collections
(9.) The Africa Unique collections
(10). The Padang minangkabau CyberMuseum

15. In 2010

I built another web :

(1) hhtp://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com

(2)hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

In this web the collectors will look the amizing collections:

(1) The Vietnam War 1965-1975, and another Vietnam Historic collections like Vienam during Indochina, Vienam Diem War 1955-1963,etc

(2) The Dai Nippon War 1942-1945, five part in homeland,pasific war,in Korea,in China, in south East Asia including Indonesia.

(3) The Indonesia Independence War  1945,1946,1947,1948,1949 and 1950.

(4) The Uniquecollections from all over the world.

(5) The Icon Cybermuseum, including Bung Karno,Bung Hatta,Sultan Hemangkubuwono, and also from foreign countries Iran,Iraq Sadam huseun ,Palestina jerusalam,turkey,afghanistan, libya Moamer Khadafi, Suriah , etc

(6) The Rare Ceramic Collections found In Indonesia, like China Imperial Tang,Yuan,Ming and Qing; also euro ceramic from delf,dutch maastrict ,etc

(7) The Indonesian History Collections  and many other collections

AT LEAST AFTER THE ALL OF MY COLLECTIONS ENTER THE CYBERMUSEUM AND OTHER WEB BLOG, I WILL ASKING TO GET  THE MURI CERTIFICATE.(INDONESIAN RECORD MUSEUM)

8. I also built a amizing collections due to my premium member prefered, like The Indonesia Revenue Collections from 19th to 20th century, the mysteri of the Indonesian vienna Printing Stamps, the China  Gold Coins, The Rare Chian imperial ceramic design foun in Indonesia, The Tionghoa (Indonesia Chinese Overseas collection), Penguasa Wanta di dunia(Women in Leaders) etc.

5. At Least thankyou verymuch to all the collectors who have visit my blog and support me, my last prestation in June 2011 (26 years from the first starting to built the e-antique or uniquecollections info in internet) :

(1) hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum : visit 60.000, the highest per day 3200.

(2)hhtp://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com:visit 21.000,the highest per day 200.

(3)hhtp://www.uniquecollection.wordpress.com, visit 40.000,the highest per day 210.

Jakarta October 2013

Greatings from the  founder

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

 

 

PEMBINA MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DAN STAF MENGUCAPKAN SELAMAT DATANG DI KANTOR MUSEUM DUNIAMAYA

UNTUK MELIHAT KANTOR DIMANA SELURUH KARYAWAN BEKERJA UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KEPUASAN PARA KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN SELURUH DUNIA SEHINGGA KOLEKSI UNIK , KHUSUSNYA PUSAKA NENEK MOYANG INDONESIA DAN ASIA DAPAT DILESTARIKAN UNTUK GENERASI PENERUS.LIHATLAH SECARA LENGKAP DI hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

SELAMAT DATANG DI PINTU MASUK HOMEOFFICE


SILAHKAN MELIHAT TAMAN TANAMAN HIAS HOME OFFICE

ANDA MEMASUKI RUANG TAMU
DAN RUANG RAPAT.

SILAHKAN MELIHAT RUANGAN KANTOR ELEKTRONIK INTRENET KOMPUTERISASI HOME OFFICE

RUANGAN PERPUSTAKAAN

RUANGAN DAPUR BERSIH
KAMAR REST ROOM

SELANJUTNYA AND DIPERSILAHKAN MELIHAT MUSEUM MINI KOLEKSI Dr IWAN S PRIBADI, MULAI TANGGA MASUK YANG ARTISTIK DENGAN PELINDUNG CHILLIN DAN KERAMIK CHILLIN DINASTI MING

KOLEKSI MUSEUM MINI PERTAMA ADALAH PATUNG ETHNIS INDONESIA

LEMARI

DAN KURSI ANTIK
TEMPAT TIDUR ANTIK
RUANGAN STUDI KOLEKSI

KOLEKSI LUKISAN

GUCI ANTIK

KERAMIK ANTIK,ANTARA LAIN DIDALM LEMARI ES BEKAS  teridiri dari ceret dan mangkuk kecil yang mungih dan indah, Serta LAMPU-LAMPU ANTIK  yang sangat langka,indah dan menarik.

promosi cd rom dr iwan:”the tang ceramic history collection”

ini contoh cd-rom dr iwan “the song ceramic history collections” harga ;lim ratus ribu rupiah, dapat dipesan liwat email

IWANSUWANDY@GMAIL.COM

jangan lupa upload kopi KTP dan alamat rumahnya

ini untuk sekuriti terhadap penipuan hijact internet

terima kasih

The Tang Ceramic History Collections

*

 

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-rom Edition

Special For senior Collectors and Historian

Copyright @ 2014

*King Ganesha Teracota

found West Java( Collection Dr Iwan)

 

TANG CERAMIC REPRO

 


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Antique Vintage Asian Tang Jade Horse Statue

 

tang horse sculptures | Antique Vintage Asian Tang Jade Horse Statue by Hild4 on Etsy

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tang horse sculptures | Tang sculpture of a horse with a painted saddle, 618-906 AD. The great ..

 

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TANG DYNASTY

The Tang dynasty is considered by many people to be the golden age of Chinese civilization. Its emperors presided over one of the greatest periods of Chinese art, culture and diplomacy.

Under the Tangs, China dominated the Far East in a generally amicable and peaceful way; Silk Road trade flourished; Christianity was introduced to China; and Buddhism become so well entrenched that the reproduction of Buddhist texts led to the invention of block printing and calendars.

The Tang Dynasty was centered in Chang’an, a city established by the Han dynasty on the ruins of Emperor Qin Shi Huang’s capital of Xian and developed by Sui emperor Wen Tu. Under the Tangs, Chang’an became a thriving metropolis and center of international trade filled with merchants, foreign traders, missionaries from numerous religions, acrobats, artists and entertainers.

It was the largest city in Asia, perhaps the world, with a population of around two million people at a time when no city in Europe had a population of more than a few hundred thousand.

 The city was linked to the rest of China through a network of canals and toll roads which brought more riches and taxes into Chang’an.

The Tang dynasty is often regarded as the classical period of Chinese civilization. It was a relatively peaceful phase in Chinese history.

 The other major power center during the Tang Dynasty was Baghdad, the home of the Muslim Abbasid dynasty.

 Robust trade between the two empires took place on the Silk Road and the Maritime Silk Road. Important ports included present-day Guangzhou in China and present-day Basra in Iraq. In the ninth century an estimated 10,000 foreign traders and merchants lived in Guangzhou, many of them Arabs and Persians.

There is some debate as to when the Tang dynasty began. Most historians argue that it was inaugurated by a Sui official named Li Yuan (later known as Gaozu) who took power after the last Sui emperor was assassinated in 618. The Tangs had Turkic influences and a little Turkish blood.

Websites and Resources

Good Websites and Sources: Wikipedia ; Google Book: China’s Golden Age: Everday Life in the Tang Dynasty by Charles Bennbooks.google.com/books ; Warring States Project Warring States Project Empress Wuwomeninworldhistory.com ;

Good Websites and Sources on Tang Culture: Metropolitan Museum of Art metmuseum.org ; Tang Poems etext.lib.virginia.edu; Tang Horses persiancarpetguide.com China Vista chinavista.com : Links in this Website: CHINA CERAMICSfactsanddetails.com/china ; CHINESE PAINTING factsanddetails.com/china

Links in this Website: IMPERIAL CHINA factsanddetails.com ; CHINESE ART FROM THE GREAT DYNASTIESfactsanddetails.com/china ; CHINESE DYNASTIES Factsanddetails.com/China ; COURT LIFE AND EMPERORSFactsanddetails.com/China ; MANDARINS IN CHINA Factsanddetails.com/China ; EUNUCHS IN CHINA Factsanddetails.com/China ; SHANG DYNASTY (2200-1700 B.C.) AND XIA DYNASTY Factsanddetails.com/China ; ZHOU (CHOU) DYNASTY (1100-221 B.C.)Factsanddetails.com/China ; EMPEROR QIN AND THE QIN DYNASTY (221-206 B.C.) Factsanddetails.com/China ; HAN DYNASTY (206 B.C.-A.D. 220) Factsanddetails.com/China ; TANG DYNASTY (A.D. 690-907) Factsanddetails.com/China ; SONG DYNASTY (960-1279) Factsanddetails.com/China ; YUAN (MONGOL) DYNASTY (1215-1368) ; MING DYNASTY (1368-1644)Factsanddetails.com/China ; QING (MANCHU) DYNASTY (1644-1911) Factsanddetails.com/China ; THEMES IN CHINESE HISTORYFactsanddetails.com/China ; CHINESE FIRSTS–GUNPOWDER, MACHINES, FOODS AND CHAIRS Factsanddetails.com/China ; CHINESE FIRSTS–PAPER, MONEY, ASTRONOMY, CLOCKS Factsanddetails.com/China ; GREAT WALL OF CHINAFactsanddetails.com/China ; SILK ROAD factsanddetails.com ; MARITIME SILK ROAD factsanddetails.com ; SILK ROAD HISTORY AND EXPLORERS factsanddetails.com ;

Good Websites and Sources on Early Chinese History: 1) Ancient China Life ancientchinalife.com ; 2) Ancient China for School Kids elibrary.sd71.bc.ca/subject_resources ; 3) Oriental Style ourorient.com ; 4) Chinese Text Projectchinese.dsturgeon.net ; 5) Minnesota State University site mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory ; 6) ChinaVoc.com ChinaVoc.com ; 7) Early Medieval China Journal languages.ufl.edu/EMC ; 8) History of China history-of-china.com ; 9) U.S.C. Educationusc.edu/libraries/archives Books: Cambridge History of Ancient China edited by Michael Loewe and Edward Shaughnessy (1999, Cambridge University Press); The Culture and Civilization of China, a massive, multi-volume series, (Yale University Press);Mysteries of Ancient China: New Discoveries from the Early Dynasties by Jessica Rawson (British Museum, 1996)

Good Chinese History Websites: 1) Chaos Group of University of Maryland chaos.umd.edu/history/toc ; 2) Brooklyn College siteacademic.brooklyn.cuny.edu ; 3) Wikipedia article on the History of China Wikipedia 4) China Knowledge chinaknowledge.de ; 5) China History Forum chinahistoryforum.com ; 6) Gutenberg.org e-book gutenberg.org/files ; 7 ) WWW VL: History Chinavlib.iue.it/history/asia

 

ORIGINAL TANG CERAMIC

Antique Chinese Ceramics

John Fairman

 

A tomb figure depicting a Turkic caravan woman rousing her camel while nursing. It is earthenware with unfired colouring and from the Tang dynasty.

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Vase Meiping en porcelaine de type Jun Chine, fin de la dynastie Song-début de la dynastie Jin, XIII E siècle – Sotheby’s

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HISTORY

Tang Dynasty Rule and Achievements

The Tang dynasty (A.D. 618-907), with its capital at Chang’an, is regarded by historians as a high point in Chinese civilization– equal, or even superior, to the Han period. Its territory, acquired through the military exploits of its early rulers, was greater than that of the Han. Stimulated by contact with India and the Middle East, the empire saw a flowering of creativity in many fields. Buddhism, originating in India around the time of Confucius, flourished during the Tang period, becoming thoroughly sinicized and a permanent part of Chinese traditional culture. [Source: The Library of Congress]

“Block printing was invented, making the written word available to vastly greater audiences. The Tang period was the golden age of literature and art.

A government system supported by a large class of Confucian literati selected through civil service examinations was perfected under Tang rule. This competitive procedure was designed to draw the best talents into government. But perhaps an even greater consideration for the Tang rulers, aware that imperial dependence on powerful aristocratic families and warlords would have destabilizing consequences, was to create a body of career officials having no autonomous territorial or functional power base.

 As it turned out, these scholar-officials acquired status in their local communities, family ties, and shared values that connected them to the imperial court. From Tang times until the closing days of the Qing empire in 1911, scholarofficials functioned often as intermediaries between the grassroots level and the government. [Ibid]

“By the middle of the eighth century A.D., Tang power had ebbed. Domestic economic instability and military defeat in 751 by Arabs at Talas, in Central Asia, marked the beginning of five centuries of steady military decline for the Chinese empire. Misrule, court intrigues, economic exploitation, and popular rebellions weakened the empire, making it possible for northern invaders to terminate the dynasty in 907. The next half-century saw the fragmentation of China into five northern dynasties and ten southern kingdoms. [Ibid]

 

 

 

 

Tang Emperors

Tang Taizong, the second emperor of the Tang Dynasty, is one the most admired Chinese leaders and is known for his love of art. He so admired the calligrapher Wang His-chi he took his famous work Preface to the Gathering at the Orchid Pavilion with him to his grave.

The most famous Tang ruler was Minghuang (685-761), who was also known as the “Radiant Emperor.” He developed Chang’an into a center of art and culture. His court drew scholars and artists from all over Asia

The Tang dynasty had its share of corrupt, incompetent and decadent leaders. One 8th century Tang emperor spent nearly all of his time hunting and kept 5,000 chows and a staff of 10,000 huntsmen. The ninth Tang emperor was so distracted by a concubine named Yang Guifei it led to the catastrophe of 755.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Empress Wu Zetian


Empress Wu Empress Wu Ze Tian, the first female ruler in Chinese history, usurped the throne in 690 and is credited by many historians with founding the Tang Dynasty.

 

The daughter of a Shanxi lumber dealer, she grew up in Shaanxi and was briefly a nun before she worked her way up to empress from a low-ranking concubine. Regarded as a tyrant, she reportedly killed many of her rivals and changed the name of the dynasty from Tang to Chou (or Zhou) although it was changed back after she died.

Empress Wu Zetian was the only female emperor in Chinese history. Her story has intrigued many in China, and has been the subject of a TV series.

 She expanded China, improved international relations and trade, raised the status of women and encouraged the arts. Under her rule great works of art such as Buddhist statuary, mounted dolls playing musical instruments, gold and silverworks, ceramics and glassware were produced. She reportedly had her own harem of men and is famous for being tactful with her husbands.. She was killed in a palace coup in A.D. 710 AD.

Wu Zetain had high-level female officials working under her. In September 2013, the BBC reported: “The ancient tomb of a female politician in China, described as the country’s “female prime minister”, has been discovered, Chinese media say. The tomb of Shangguan Wan’er, who lived from 664-710 AD, was recently found in Shaanxi province. Archaeologists confirmed the tomb was hers this week. She was a famous politician and poet and a trusted aide of Wu Zetian. The grave was discovered near an airport in Xianyang, Shaanxi province, reports said. A badly damaged epitaph on the tomb helped archaeologists confirm that the tomb was Shangguan Wan’er’s. Experts described the discovery as one of “major significance”, even though it had been subject to “large-scale damage”. “The roof had completely collapsed, the four walls were damaged, and all the tiles on the floor had been lifted up,”

 

 

Geng Qinggang, an archaeology research associate in Shaanxi, told Chinese media. “Hence, we think it must have been subject to large-scale, organised damage… quite possibly damage organised by officials,” he said. [Source: BBC News, September 12, 2013]

Tang Power and Leadership

The T’ang dynasty was the most militarily powerful of all the dynasties. It expanded the Chinese empire across the Great Wall of China and beyond the Himalayas. At its height, it administered much of present-day China and exerted control or received tributes from a dozen other kingdoms, including those in Korea, Tibet, Mongolia, Japan, Indonesia and most of Southeast Asia.

The Tang didn’t build walls. They were skilled at dealing with the Central Asian tribes that challenged them, knowing when to use diplomacy and when to go to war. The fact they were part Turkish, the ethnicity of many of the Central Asian tribes that threatened them, also helped

The Tangs ruled with a pyramidal administration system consisting of the Emperor, and three main ministries at the top. Underneath them were nine courts and six advisory boards. To discourage warlordism and establish regional power bases, China itself was broken down into 300 prefectures and 1,500 counties, a system which persists to this day.

Advances to the West by the Tang Dynasty were slowed by the Turks in the late 7th century. In 751, in the Battle of Talas, Tang Chinese forces attempting to extend the Chinese empire into Central Asia were annihilated by a Muslim army not far from Samarkand in present-day Uzbekistan. The defeat kept the Chinese out of Central Asia and opened up Central Asia and Western China to Islam.

Openness and Ideas in the Tang Dynasty

The Tang emperors were known for their openness to new ideas about art, religion, philosophy and music that were brought in by foreigners who flowed into China along the Silk Road trade routes.

 

 Unlike most Chinese dynasties which tried to cut off their empire from influences from the outside world, the Tang ruling families tolerated outsiders and members of variety of religious sects.

Dr. Jukka O. Miettinen of the Theater Academy Helsinki wrote: “Changan, with its approximately one million inhabitants, was a well organised cosmopolitan city, where international embassies and traders had their own, designated quarters. The city bustled with Central Asian horsemen, international traders, many in their national costumes, as well as elegant beauties with tiny, painted lips, all of them immortalised in the Tang-period terracotta statuettes. The terracotta figurines also give enlightening information about the many forms of music, dance, mimes and other entertainment which were in vogue during that time.” [Source:Dr. Jukka O. Miettinen, Asian Traditional Theater and Dance website, Theater Academy Helsinki]

Taoists, Confucian scholars, Nestorian Christian missionaries, Zoroastrian priests and Buddhist monks, among them ones who helped found Zen Buddhism in Japan, all felt comfortable in Tang era China and practiced and to certain degrees proselytized their religions.

 

 

 

New inventions from the T’ang dynasty included the magnetic compass, gunpowder, the abacus, printing, and cataract surgery. Silks, porcelain and art were traded for spices, ivory and other goods along the Silk Road caravan routes. Sea routes took Chinese goods as far away as Africa and the Middle East.

Cosmopolitan culture flourished. Tens of thousands of foreigners lived in major Chinese cities.

 Women held high government offices, played polo with men and wore men’s clothes. Chinese intermarried with nomadic peoples. Foreigners such as Turks rose to high positions in the civil service and the military.The economy changed a great deal in the Tang and Song dynasties, going from what was basically a subsistence economy to one in which peasantry was active in local and long-distance trade and non-food crops such as silk were produced on a large scale.

 

 

 

Religion and Buddhism in the Tang Dynasty


Tang Buddhist sculpture Dr. Jukka O. Miettinen of the Theater Academy Helsinki wrote: “Buddhism, brought from India via Central Asia, became the dominant religion. Nestorian Christianity, Manichaeism and later Islam were also practised. During liberal times they lived peacefully side by side with the traditional indigenous belief systems and ideologies, Taoism and Confucianism. In the visual arts the pan-Asian Buddhist style was combined with the refinement of Tang court elegance. Tang China was open to outside influences and the trade routes brought to Changan monks, scholars, artists, musicians and dancers from all over the then known world.” [Source:Dr. Jukka O. Miettinen, Asian Traditional Theater and Dance website, Theater Academy Helsinki]

During the 6th century Chinese Buddhism was consolidated and standardized. Great schools were founded that boasted thousands of disciples. Schools with royal patrons built huge monasteries. Between A.D. 476 and 540 the number temples rose from 6,500 to 30,900 and the number of monks and nuns grew from 80,000 to 200,000 (out of a population of 50 million).

Buddhism reached its height in the Tang Dynasty. Doctrines were refined. Schools expanded. The Pure Land School and the worship of Amitabha became widespread. Many Tang emperors were Buddhists, or at least nominally favorable to Buddhism. Some great Chinese poets from the period were monks.

In A.D. 629, the Chinese monk Hsuan Tsang left the Tang dynasty capital and traveled west—on foot, on horseback and by camel and elephant—to India and returned in A.D. 645 with 700 Buddhist texts from which Chinese deepened their understanding of Buddhism. Hsuan Tsang is remembered as a great scholar for his translations from Sanskrit to Chinese but also for his descriptions of the places he visited—the great Silk Road cities of Kashgar and Samarkand and the great stone Buddhas in Bamiyan, Afghanistan. His trip was the inspiration of the for Journey to the West, widely regarded as one of the great novels of Chinese literature. [Book: “Ultimate Journey, Retracing the Path of an Ancient Buddhist Monk Who Crossed Asia in Search of Enlightenment” by Richard Bernstein (Alfred A. Knopf)]

Towards the end of the Tang dynasty, Chinese emperors began to favor Taoism over Buddhism;. monks and nuns were secularized; temples and libraries were destroyed. Buddhism remained overshadowed by Taoism and Confucianism until it experienced a revival in the 11th century

Battle of Talas

As China became strong during the Tang dynasty it began expanding westward, for the most part relying more on diplomatic skills than military might to achieve its goals. The strategy worked well until one Chinese viceroy went too far and ordered the murder of the khan of the Tashkent Turks.

In 751 an alliance of enraged Turks, opportunist Arabs and Tibetans maneuvered a Chinese force into the Talas Valley in present-day Kazakhstan and Kyrzgzstan. In the ensuing battle—the Battle of Talas—the Chinese were routed and forced back across the Tian Shan. Tibetans moving up from the south were driven out of the Tarim basin by Uighur Turks, allies of the Tang. The Uighars have been in the region ever since.

The Battle of Talas, ended Chinese ambitions in Central Asia. After the battle, the Turk, Arab and Tibetans splintered and instability was the rule in Central Asia until the 9th century when the Samanid dynasty rose up.

 

 

 

End of Tang Dynasty

The humiliations that resulted form the annihilation of the Tang forces at the Battle of Talas destabalized the Tang dynasty by showing its weaknesses and opening it up to rebellions from powerful generals.

During the Tang dynasty arts and ideas flourished when record rice harvest were being recorded, but the entire dynasty began to collapse when the rising population began to outstrip the food supply. An Arab traveler to China at end of the Tang dynasty wrote that “Chinese law permits the eating of human flesh, and this flesh is sold publically in markets” as a means of providing enough food

The Tang dynasty was greatly weakened when a powerful general named An Lushan drove the Tang emperor from the capital in 755. Even though An was killed in 757, the rebellion continues until 763 at a cost of perhaps a millions deaths. In much of the late 8th century the Tang Dynasty wa sin decline.

In the 9th century disputes within the court grew more acrimonious and the Tang dynasty weakened further. Invaders from the north destroyed the Tang dynasty in 907, and China once again was thrown into a period of anarchy and disunity that lasted this time for about a half a century.

 

 

Culture During the Tang Dynasty


Tang sleeve dancer The Tang Dynasty was a golden age for the Chinese arts. Landscape painting and bronze sculpture (Tang horses) were perfected and famous poets wrote verse.

Chinese acrobatics and dance also took off. Dr. Jukka O. Miettinen of the Theater Academy Helsinki wrote: “Literature, the visual arts, and music flourished and the theatrical arts were evolving towards their present forms. The most influential capital of the dynasty was Changan (C’hang-an) (currently Xi’an, Hsi-an) in Central China. During the Tang dynasty it was the world’s biggest metropolis. A vast network of caravan routes, generally known as the Silk Road, connected Changan with Central Asia, India, Persia and finally with the Mediterranean world. The influence of Tang culture spread to Korea as well as to Japan, where two of its capitals, Nara and Kyoto, were built according to the city plan of Changan.” [Source:Dr. Jukka O. Miettinen, Asian Traditional Theater and Dance website, Theater Academy Helsinki]

Chinese poetry reached its zenith in the Tang dynasty. Poets often sat beneath the moon and drank wine from cups floated on rivers and composed poems like: “The sun beyond the mountain glows/ The Yellow River seaward flows/ But if you desire a grander sight/ The you must scale a greater height.” Poets sometimes played a game in which a cup was placed in a stream and a poet had to compose a poem before the cup floated by. If he failed he had to consume a glass of wine.

Famous Tang dynasty poets include Tu Fu (Du Fu, 712-70), Li Po (701-62,) Wang Wei (701-761), Li Bai, Bo Juyi, Li You and Huang Tingjian. Tu Fu poems inspired many Chinese painters. Xue Tao was a famous female poet. Wang Wei was a poet-painter who said “there are paintings in his poems and poems in his paintings.” See Literature

In the Tang Dynasty dances and music styles from outside of China were incorporated into Chinese dance and Chinese styles were passed onto other parts of the world, particularly Korea and Japan. Hundreds of young men and women were trained in dance and music at a school called the Academy of the Pear Garden. Tang poets wrote of “the dance of the rainbow skirt and feathered jacket” and described how dancers used their long silk sleeves to accentuate their hand movements. This kind of sleeve dancing was also depicted in sculptures and Buddhist cave art from teh Tang period.

Gambling was also popular. A crackdown on gambling included penalties of 100 lashes and death and forced tenure in the army.

Art During the Tang Dynasty

Ideas and art flowed into China on the Silk Road along with commercial goods during the Tang period. Art produced in China at this time reveals influences from Persia, India, Mongolia, Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East. Tang sculptures combined the sensuality of Indian and Persian art and the strength of the Tang empire itself.

 

Art critic Julie Salamon wrote in the New York Times, that artists in the Tang dynasty “absorbed influences from all over the world, synthesized them and a created a new multiethnic Chinese culture.”

Tang funerary vessels often contained figures of merchants. warriors, grooms, musicians and dancers. There are some works that have Hellenistic influences that came via Bactria in Afghanistan and Central Asia. Some Buddhas of immense size were produced.

None of the tombs of the Tang emperors have been opened but some tombs of the royal family members have excavated, Most of them were thoroughly looted. The most important finds are murals and paintings in lacquer. They contain delightful images of court life.

Proto-porcelain evolved during the Tang dynasty. It was made by mixing clay with quartz and the mineral feldspar to make a hard, smooth-surfaced vessel. Feldspar was mixed with small amounts of iron to produce an olive-green glaze.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tang Horses

Tang horses are among the most famous works of Chinese art. Made from ceramic, some are glazed in blue, green amber and have elaborate saddle blankets and tasseled bridles. Other are made of unglazed ceramic and thereby look more modern like a Rodin statute. The horses are often in frantic positions: with their heads raises and nostrils flared, or twisting around to get at something on their backs. Many had a grooved channel running the length of the arched neck, where a real horsehair mane was placed, and had a hole in their rear for a horsehair tail. Most are only around 15 inches tall.

Chinese art specialist J.J. Lally told the New York Times, “Tang horses are the most widely popular image of Chinese art because they are immediately accessible to everyone. You don’t have to read the Tang dynasty was a moment in Chinese art when there was a strong move toward realism and strong decorative impulse. Horses imported from the Near East were precious. In Tang China, the horse was the emblem of wealth and power. They are meant to embody rank and speed.”

The Chinese used horses as far back as the Shang dynasty (1600 to 1100 B.C.) but these were mainly strong, draft animals. Later they began importing horses from Central Asia and Middle East. By the Tang dynasty horses were favorite subjects of not only artists but also poets and composers. The inspiration for the many of Tang horses were Tall horses, the heavenly horses from Central Asia introduced to China in the first century B.C.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Varieties of Tang Horses

Some of the most treasured Tang horses were glazed in cobalt blue. Gallery owner Khalil Rizk told the New York Times, “Only 5 percent of Tang horses have blue glaze.

 Cobalt was put on during the last firing. Cobalt was a treasured commodity imported from the Middle East; it was more valuable than gold. Its use means the horse was for someone of the highest rank.”

 

Describing a relatively ordinary Tang horse that sold for $266,500 at a Christie’s auction, Wendy Moonan wrote in the New York Times, “Unglazed, it had its head lowered toward its left foreleg, which was slightly raised.”

One extraordinary glazed Tang pieces depicts a kneeling man with a horse’s head. The expression on the horse’s head is sensitive. Tang artist also made some extraordinarily beautiful ceramic animals, including a glazed earthenware camel carrying a troupe of musicians.

The highest price ever paid for ceramics and/or a Chinese work of art was $6.1 million for a Tang dynasty horse sold by the British Rail Pension Fund to a Japanese dealer at Sotheby’s in London in December 1989. Collectors like Tang horses because they can be dated with some certainty using thermoluminescnece testing.

Tang Buddhist Sculpture

The periods of Chinese Buddhist art closely parallel the phases the Buddhist religion went through in China Works that appeared in the 5th and 6th centuries were very free and individualistic. In the Tang period the art became more mature and robust, with Buddhist figures featuring graceful lines and curves. In the 10th to 13th century Buddist art became more refined. After that it was rooted in tradition and lacked innovation.

Wonderful 6th and 7th century Buddhist sculptures have been unearthed in northern China along the Silk Road in Gansu and Ningxia. This include a big-nosed clay representation of a Buddha disciple; a granite carving of Avalokitesvara, a popular Buddhist deity; and a bronze figure of a dancing Sogidian. Many of the work bears influences from Persia and Central Asia. The Sogdians were a Persian culture centered around Samarkand

A relief a Buddha flanked by two bodhisattvas and a life-size bodhisattva feature extraordinary detail and expression. Souren Melikian wrote in the International Herald Tribune, “A seated Buddha that was once enthroned represents a classical moment of its art. The perfect proportions project a sense of harmony and the expression of imperious illumination speaks of a powerful , self confident art. A figure in motion is unique in the art of China, with its knees very slightly flexed lifting the light drape adhering to the body.”

Tang dynasty figures are known for their provocative poses. Those that were painted are known for their soft colors and patterns.

Tang Dynasty Painting

During the Tang Dynasty ( both figure painting and landscape painting reached great heights of maturity and beauty. Forms were carefully drawn and rich colors applied in painting that were later called “gold and blue-green landscapes.” This style was supplanted by the technique of applying washes of monochrome ink that captured images in abbreviated, suggestive forms.

During the late Tang dynasty (907-960) bird, flower and animal painting were especially valued. There were two major schools of this style of painting: 1) rich and opulent and 2) “untrammeled mode of natural wilderness.” Unfortunately, few works from the Tang period remain.

Lovely murals were discovered in the tomb of Princess Yongtain, the granddaughter of Empress Wu Zetiab (624?-705) on the outskirts of Xian. One shows a lady-in-waiting holding a nyoi stick while another lady holds glassware. It is similar to tomb art found in Japan. A painting on silk cloth dated to the A.D. mid-8th century found in the tomb of a rich family in the Astana tombs near Urumqi in western China depicts a noblewoman with rouge cheeks deep in concentration as she plays go.

Famous Tang dynasty paintings include Zhou Fang’s Palace Ladies Wearing Flowered Headdresses, a study of several beautiful, plump women having their hair done; Wei Xian’s The Harmonious Family Life of an Eminent Recluse, a Five Dynasties portrait of a father teaching his son in a pavilion surrounded by jagged mountains; and Han Huang’s Five Oxen, an amusing depiction of a five fat oxen.

Wang Wei (701-761) is a legendary Tang dynasty painter and poet who said “there are paintings his poems and poems in his paintings.”

Tang-Era Arab Shipwreck

In the 1998 sea cumcumber divers working in the Gelesa Straight found some coral-encrusted ceramics, and further scraping away revealed a 9th century Arab dhow laden with 60,000 handmade ceramics and some pieces of gold and silver. Much of the cargo was made of up cheap, mass-produced, Chinese-made bowls, known as Changsa bowls, placed n large storage jars. There was also ink pots, spices jars of various sizes and ewers. [Source: Simon Worrall, National Geographic, June 2009]

The destination of the ship appeared to be Middle East, meaning that ship was traveling the maritime Silk Road. Many of the bowls were decorated with geometric decorations and Koranic motifs that were clearly intended for Middle Eastern market. This implied she objects were made to order for Middle Eastern customers.

The dhow was almost 20 meters long. It resembled a kind of sailing dhow still used in Oman called a baitl qarib. Built of African and Indian wood, it had a raked prow and stern and was fitted with square sails and made of planks sewn together with coconut husks fiber.

Significance of the Tang-Era Arab Shipwreck

Sonia Kolesnikov-Jessop wrote in the New York Times, “For more than a decade, archaeologists and historians have been studying the contents of a ninth-century Arab dhow that was discovered in 1998 off Indonesia’s Belitung Island. The sea-cucumber divers who found the wreck had no idea it eventually would be considered one of the most important maritime discoveries of the late 20th century. The dhow was carrying a rich cargo “ 60,000 ceramic pieces and an array of gold and silver works “ and its discovery has confirmed how significant trade was along a maritime silk road between Tang Dynasty China and Abbasid Iraq. It also has revealed how China was mass-producing trade goods even then and customizing them to suit the tastes of clients in West Asia. [Source: Sonia Kolesnikov-Jessop, New York Times, March 7, 2011]

‘shipwrecked: Tang Treasures and Monsoon Winds,” an exhibition that opened at the ArtScience Museum in Singapore in 2011 and was put together by the Asian Civilisations Museum in Singapore and the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery and Smithsonian Institution in Washington, featured amny artifacts from the belitung shipwreck. “This exhibition tells us a story about an extraordinary moment in globalization,” Julian Raby, director of the Smithsonian’s Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, told the New York Times. “It brings to life the tale of Sinbad sailing to China to make his fortune. It shows us that the world in the ninth century was not as fragmented as we assumed. There were two great export powers: the Tang in the east and the Abbasid based in Baghdad.”

Until the Belitung find, historians had thought that Tang China traded primarily through the land routes of Central Asia, mainly on the Silk Road. Ancient records told of Persian fleets sailing the Southeast Asian seas but no wrecks had been found, until the Belitung dhow. Its cargo confirmed that a huge volume of trade was taking place along a maritime route, said Heidi Tan, a curator at the Asian Civilisations Museum and a co-curator of the exhibition.

Mr. Raby said: “The size of the find gives us a sense of two things: a sense of China as a country already producing things on an industrialized scale and also a China that is no longer producing ceramics to bury.” He was referring to the production of burial pottery like camels and horses, which was banned in the late eighth century. “Instead, kilns looked for other markets and they started producing tableware and they built an export market.”

Artifacts from the Tang-Era Arab Shipwreck

‘shipwrecked: Tang Treasures and Monsoon Winds” featured only 450 of the 60,000 objects found in the shipwreck but the rows of similar bowls that were displayed underscored the importance and size of the find.

 

 

Sonia Kolesnikov-Jessop wrote in the New York Times, ‘stacked in the dhow, hundreds of tall stoneware jars each held more than a hundred nested Changsha bowls “ named after the Changsha kilns in Hunan where they were produced. Of the thousands of hand-painted pieces, almost all carry one of a few set patterns, but these were copied by many hands, resulting in an impression of huge variety.

Not all of the ceramics were mass-produced. Among the most interesting pieces in the exhibition is an extremely rare dish, one of three found in the wreck, with floral lozenge motifs surrounded by sprigs of foliage. They are believed to be the earliest known complete Chinese blue-and-white ceramics.

Ms. Tan, the curator, said: “It demonstrates that the Chinese potters were already experimenting with imported cobalt blue from Iraq, which they applied as underglaze painted decoration, some 500 years earlier than the famous blue and white porcelain of the 14th century.” At the time of the dhow’s discovery, cobalt-blue pigments had been found only in the Middle East, not yet in China, said Alan Chong, director of the Asian Civilisations Museum.

Aside from the rare ceramics, the haul also contained gold and silver objects, some of which Mr. Raby of the Smithsonian described as “of the very best quality you can see, clearly of imperial quality,” adding, “so we believe these were possible diplomatic gifts.” The form and decorative motifs of an octagonal gold cup “ musicians and dancers with long hair and billowing robes “suggest Central Asian metal wares. Mr. Raby said it was believed to be the largest known such gold cup from Tang China, even upstaging, he added, one of the great treasures of Tang gold and silver work: the so-called Hejiacun Hoard, found in what had been one of the southern suburbs of the Tang capital of Xian.

Tang Image Sources: 1) Tang Camel. Ohio State University; 2) Empresss Wu, AllPosters.com ; 3) Tang map, St. Marin edu ; 4) Tang Buddist sculpture, Metropolitan Museum of Art; 5) Sleeve dance, McClung Museum ; 6) Tang horses, Antiques and Art Online;

Text Sources: New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Times of London, National Geographic, The New Yorker, Time, Newsweek, Reuters, AP, Lonely Planet Guides, Compton’s Encyclopedia and various books and other publications.

© 2008 Jeffrey Hays

Last updated August 2013

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

US$ 3600

 

 

For more knowledge about Tang Dynasty and relation with Indonesian Ancestor read and look theinfo below

(Dr Iwan)

The Chinese  And Indonesian Ancestors

The Chinese Kapitan Indonesia history Collections

Part Two C

 EARLY PRE COLONIAL ERA

THE INDONESIAN EMMITEN ANCESTORS  RELIC

DURING ERA BEFORE SRIVIJAYA

Created By

Dr iwan Suwandy,MHA

COPYRIGHT @ 2014

 

 

INTRODUCTIONS

The Map Of Indonesian Archiphelago

Swarnadwipa means the gold Land,also called Andalas Islandbecaue due to Tambo Minangkabau they came from Andalucia

 This island  with the famous port Lobu Tua (barus) exist since 3000 years BC with their Barus talc or camphor which used to mummification during pharaos

Also from the Yew record known Ophir mountain at Pasaman West sumatera where the gold mining from the Minangkabau Kingdom which export from the old port inderagiri, Barus and Pedir.Then in this island in Chinese record exist the bigger empire Srivijaya which called San Fo shi

 

Java Dwipa or The Rice Land which called Labadiu by Ptelomeus.

 At this island found Argyre City (the city of silver) may be this the old Sunda Kingdom or Salaknegara ,

 Chinese Wang Yuan record told that the java coin made from silver and Tin.

The Rome Monk Ordorico de Pordone told that the Java kingdom palace full with gold,silver and jewellary.

At This island very famous  many kingdom like  Tarumanegara,Old Mataram.Sunda,Singosari,Kediri,Majaphit,walisongo,Islamic mataram and Madura Kingdom.

The island of ocean goddest , from Chinese record Tai Png huan yu chi was called Chin Li Pi Si or  nusa kencana and also called pulo chung ( the island of ujung tanah)  in Malaya,In this island very famous Kutai and the Tanjungpura kingdom.

.

The small island called Lesser Sunda.Bali was the best landscape island and many traveler visit this island since  Rsi Markandiya in 8 th Century.In this lesser sunda island there were the famous Horse,and there the bali and Lombok kingdom there.

 

 

The Arabs called the Sulawesi with Sholibis name ..

Sulawesi name supposedly comes from the word ‘ Sula ‘ which means island and ‘ iron ‘ . Sulawesi Island is the largest since the first bessi ( iron ) , so it is not surprising Ussu and around the lake Matana containing iron and Nikkel .

The Dutch call this island by the name of Celebes .

 The island has been inhabited by humans since 30,000 years ago as evidenced by the presence of ancient relics on the island . For example, the location of prehistoric stone age Besoa Valley

 

.

Maluku has a real name ” Jazirah al – Mulk ” which means a collection / royal peninsula consisting of small kingdoms . Maluku is known as the Thousand Island region and socio-cultural diversity and abundant natural resources .


In 4000 years ago

 in the kingdom of Egypt , Pharaoh 12th dynasty , Sesoteris III . Through the data regarding the transaction Egyptian archaeologists in importing incense , ebony , incense , ivory , from the mysterious land where ” Punt ” is derived .

 Although archaeological support is lacking, the country ” baboons ” can be identified after Giorgio Buccellati find a container that contains objects such as clove in the middle Euphrates .

 In the period 1700 BC ,

 the cloves are just in the Maluku islands , Indonesia . In the Middle Ages ( around 1600 AD ) clove spice once one of the most popular and expensive in Europe , exceeding the price of gold .

In addition to cloves , spices from the Moluccas is the fruit of Nutmeg . Fruit Nutmeg ( Myristica fragrans ) tree is a plant form that is derived from the Banda Islands , Maluku .

 

Papua is the second largest island in the world . At around the year 200 AD , Geography expert named Ptolamy LABADIOS call it by name .

At the end of the year 500 AD ,

 the Chinese author named Ghau Yu TUNGKI Kua gives the name ,

and by the end of the year 600 AD , the kingdom of Srivijaya Papua naming using JANGGI name . Tidore give a name to this island and its inhabitants as PAPA – UA that has changed the title into PAPUA .

In the 18th century BC , the rulers of Srivijaya empire , sending offerings to the Chinese empire . In the offering would be some birds of paradise , which is believed to be a bird of paradise garden that is native of Papua .

 With a strong fleet Sriwijaya visit Maluku and Papua to trade spices – spices , perfume – perfume , pearls and feathers of birds of Paradise .

 

 

In the early centuries AD

began the relationship between the Euro, Indian and Chinese empire with Indonesian, Malaysian and other Asian country

What .When,Where and How were  the relationship ?  

Who were the  Euro,Chinese and Indian eminent  People an Leaders that influenced the development of the kingdom in Indonesia and Malaysia at the beginning of the first century until the advent of the kingdom of Srivijaya?

Information relating to the above must be known by all generations now  especially the young  generations in order  to take a good examples  to be imitated and prevent recurrence of the things that are not good or bad in the present and future

Look carefully the informations below

Learn from the past

Alam Terkembang Menjadi Guru

Jakarta,February 2014

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

 

 

 

2 BC

The Godawaya shipwreck treasure at Sri lanka

Galle port Srilanka

 with its splendid natural harbour was an important port in days of yore being reputed as a trade centre due to its location just 12 miles away from international sea routes.

Many sunken ships have been found here according to the UNESCO Pacific Zone’s marine archaeological centre in Galle Fort.

There are as many as 26 places that need to be surveyed here which have a history dating back a hundred years. Along the coast in the Galle

 and Ambalangoda areas

more than 100 wrecks of ships are reported have been found already. According to divers it is a new world which is the happy breeding grounds for fish.

R K Somadasa de Silva of Hikkaduwa,

a diver of repute had this to say on these findings

 Galle port Srilanka

 with its splendid natural harbour was an important port in days of yore being reputed as a trade centre due to its location just 12 miles away from international sea routes.

 

 

Many sunken ships have been found here according to the UNESCO Pacific Zone’s marine archaeological centre in Galle Fort.

There are as many as 26 places that need to be surveyed here which have a history dating back a hundred years. Along the coast in the Galle

 and Ambalangoda areas

more than 100 wrecks of ships are reported have been found already. According to divers it is a new world which is the happy breeding grounds for fish.

R K Somadasa de Silva of Hikkaduwa,

a diver of repute had this to say on these findings.

 “I have over 30 years experience as a diver having dived in seas off Germany and England. I have more than 5000 hours of diving experience

and I run an international diving school

 

 

 

 

at the Coral Sands Hotel in Hikkaduwa.

Some shipwrecks in the Galle area are over 500 years old and full of archaeological value. Some organized groups use dynamite to get at treasures in ships sunk between Galle and Ambalangoda.”

 

Some steps have to be taken by marine archaeologists to save these treasures from vandals, he said.

 
An ancient clay pot retrieved from the seas off Godawaya in Ambalantota
 
Somadasa inspecting the remains an undersea wreck
 
A bell retrieved from the ocean floor

Ambalagoda srilanka art

 

The ambaguan south india srilanka art had many realted with Indonesian Hindu art at Bali

 

 

Diplomatic relations between Rome and South India are known by historian in 2 BC

.1st Century

2 AD

 

St Thomas ,

one of the disciples Of Jesus Christ came to India in 52 AD,

landed

at Kodungallur (Mallyankara)

 in Kerala,

 

preached

Gospel

and

conveated thousand of Christian faith.

St.Thomas, referred to as Didymus, in the Gospel of St.John is one of the twelve disciples of Jesus Christ. He is one of the prime witnesses to the resurrection of Jesus.

 

St Thomas  is one of the prime witnesses to the resurrection of Jesus

The Great Famine of 843 (90 AD)

 

 

The monsoons

are a series of winds that bring in moist clouds that drench the areas of India and SoutheastA picture of the onset dates of Monsoons in the Indian Subcontinent. These did not occur in the year 843 (90 AD).Asia in rain during the Summer.

These weather patterns are very sensitive and vulnerable to changes in the environment. In the summer of the year 843 (90 AD)

the monsoons did not arrive in Southeast Asia and the people of Nan as well as Srivijaya fell into famine.

 

At the same time the deserts of Northern Sinica began to send great sandstorms further outside the desert than they had ever reached before, which also chocked many of the river valleys of Sinica.

The death that ensued was massive and amplified even more so by the fact that it came at the end of a time of long and sustained peace between the powers of East Asia.

The only areas that were rather uneffected by these developments were the Indonesian islands of Srivijaya, which many of the wealthier members of their society fled to after leaving the continent, as well as the Easternmost areas of the Second Han Dynasty and the Japanese Colonies.

The Srivijaya were, for the most part, to far for people from Sinica to reach them.

 

 

 

The dying people of what was Song and Tang moved East.

The death that surrounded the people of Sinica was so great that it became the topic of the first novel story of a young boy losing his parents to a long move to the the city of Shanghai to find food and a future.

These new cities were started on routes moving to the East grew into trading centers once the rains returned and the Western areas were suitable for repopulation. .

The move to retake the Mongolian parts of North Asia by the Japanese was met without resistance by the leadership of Mongolia who would greet any occupier who could offer them food

The World around the Indian Ocean after the Great Famine of 843 (90 AD).

Red: Maurya Empire, Orange: Roman Empire, Green: Srivijaya Empire, Light Blue: Parthian Empire, Blue: Ethiopian Kingdom, Purple: Satavahana Kingdom most no defenses on their borders with the retreat of the soldiers back to the islands.

Srivijaya was however of a firm diplomatic ground with the other Empires.

The next movement in the Asian Continent in response to the monsoons was in the country that was most effected by monsoon cycle, India.

The Indians began a campaign of migration in search of food and money. What reserves the successful Maurya Empire had went to these ships that began to explore the Indian Ocean and to control it so that they can gain food from more fertile areas.

The first move was made by a wealthy family from around the Andhra Coast.

The second branch of the Indian exploration for food went to the islands of the Srivijaya Empire

The First King of Satavahana

 

The Kingdom of Satavahana 

 

was established in a rebellion to the Maurya rulers.

The earlier civil war which resulted in a major blow to some of the more independent minded clans solidified the Maurya Dynasty but came at the expense of other clans like the Satavahana.

 

Among these was the Sungas which later immigrated to the Srivijaya Empire, and in many ways aided them in exposing the weaknesses and possible routes of invasion of the Peninsula.

The desire to take the lands of any other Empire was a source of support for these radicals in some parts of India.

They would be even more angered at the developments in Srivijaya, an Empire which had been taunting the Indians with threats and embargoes on their trade and even going so far as to attack the Indian Coast directly

 

 

 

The Sātavāhanas were one of the first Indian states to issue coins struck with their rulers embossed.

Any money that could be extracted from the traveling people was, the inability of them to leave after they ran out of money led many to settle around the richest person who could orchestrate the movement of food.

 

During the Han dynasty,

 occupied Vietnam (Chaio Chih) received ships travelling to China from Java, Burma, Iran and the Roman empire. Khmers and Indians were living in major centres. Overseas trade was controlled by the Chinese.
Nguyen Khac Vien, Vietnam: a long history, p..24-25

A Han dynasty dragon bowl excavated in Indonesia is strikingly similar to one excavated in Guangzhou.
Maritime Silk Route 1996, p.69

 

Dr Iwan Notes

I seen at Jakarta Indonesia National Central Museum some Han dynasty Ceramic,  and in my collections I have found some artifact of Han dynasty plate from west java,  and artifact eathern jar fom west borneo, also

one Han dynasty cash coin found at Bali.

 

 

 

 

 

Menhir  Sang Hyang Heuleut

This site found near the Pulosari Mout at Padeglang area Bantam province West Java.

The people there said that this Menhir were they husband and wife  ancestor

Situs Sang Hyang Dengdek

Sanghyang Dengdek ”Sang Hyang Dengdek”  or other name “ Prabu Jayasati Wisesa” were the menhir of the man and  Sanghyang Heuleut or  “Mas Ratu Lenglang Jagad”  was the the women menhir

The people there belief this menhir will made the people  who visit the Menhir be success , the Menhir also named  “Arca Kisemar”  which made everybody who look this Menhir became the intersesting human  and  everybody will like them

Dr Iwan Visit Sang Hyang Dendek in 2005

From the toll road Jakarta-merak

 after toll cibitung

Then toll ciujung bridge

About 30 km

Turn left

Out of the toll road  Serang east gate

And

 we met the banten capital city serang

 

 

 

Serang tempo dulu

 

 

Serang city now

 

We met

 the Indonesian Police Banten Headqauter

Then

 Banten Gouvenor Office  at Serang city

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Out of Serang City about 3 km

we can visit Banten Girang location

Across the cibanten river with

 

 the bridge across cibanten river

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

at the front

Museum banten girang

 

 

Turn left met the old cibanten river site

At this site we can seen

 

 the old stone at the cibanten river

 

And turn right

 the Banten Girang location ex excavation

 

and I still found there

Artifact of

 the Yuan qingpai ewer 

and fish celadon bowl artifact

 

 

 

 

 

and

 

then went to Padeglang city about 30 km from serang

.

 

 

desa Sang Hyang Dengdek 31 km dari kota padeglang

.

 Dat  Cipurut village

Sang Hyang Dengdek village ,saketi about   61 km from Serang City

 

 

 

Situs Batu Goong – Citaman

 

 

 

 near ancient telaga

 

Kingdom of Salakapura

Start in 130 A.D

 

 

after that I visit banten lama

and found very rare dragon overglazed  red Bowl

 

Read the complete info at Banten Kingdom history Collections

at   a small village named Pandegelang

 from a guy named Aki Tirem,an Indian.

He was a village’s chief.

 

 

 

Then came Dewawarman, an Indian trader

 which marry  Aki Tirem daughter.

When Aki tirem died, Dewawarman hold the power and later built a Kingdom named Salakanagara(from old Sundannese Salaka means Silver and Nagara means country) or Rajaapura samoe says this

what Phtolomeus called Argyre.

 Dalanagar reign in Westren Java from 200-362

List of Salaka Nagara Kings:

King .Dewawarman I  until VIII

 

Salakanagara Kingdom was the Earliest First Kingdom In Indonesia  

The Early Ancestor was

 Aki Tirem

and the First King was

 Dewawarman

 the Indian envoy to Java and then He merried to

 

Larasati Pohaci (the daughter of Aki Tirem),

 

Then  Dewawarman as the King with named

 “Prabhu Dharmalokapala Dewawarman Haji Raksagapurasagara” .

 

 

 

 

 

2nd  Century

130-150 AD

.

Rudradaman I (r. 130–150) was a Saka ruler from the Western Kshatrapas dynasty.

He was the grandson of the celebrated Sah[1] 

king Chastana.

 

 Rudradaman I was instrumental in the decline of the Satavahana Empire.

after he became the king and then strengthened his kingdom. During his reign he married a Hindu woman and converted to

Hinduism[2] 

 

 

192 AD

 

Wang Yun (137–192),[1] 

courtesy name Zishi,

was a Minister over the Masses 

 

 

 

under 

 

 

Emperor Xian 

in the late Eastern Han Dynasty.

 

 

During Wang Yun’s time,

 the emperors were mere puppets under the power of eunuchs and warlords.

In 192, Wang Yun plotted and successfully staged

Lü Bu‘s

 assassination of 

 

Dong Zhuo,

 the tyrannical warlord in power.

 

 However,

Dong Zhuo’s former subjects soon led a coup,

 

 in which

 

 Wang Yun along with most of his family were executed.

194 AD

Towards the end of the Han Dynasty,

 

 Sun Ce,

the eldest son of

 

the warlord Sun Jian,

 

 

 and his followers borrowed troops from

 

the warlord Yuan Shu

and embarked on a series of military conquests

 

 in the Jiangdong

and Wu regions between 194 and 199,

 

 

 

 

 

seizing several territories previously occupied by

warlords such as 

 

Liu Yao, 

 

 

Liu Yao was an official in the Jiangdong region during the late Eastern Han Dynasty and Three Kingdoms era of China. He ruled for a brief period of time before Sun Ce invaded and conquered his territory, and his Chinese style name was Zhengli .
Unfortunately, Liu Yao was not a good military commander despite being a good administrator.

When Sun Ce attacked him, many his advisors correctly suggested to him that he should name Taishi Ci as the commander-in-chief of his force to defend themselves against Sun Ce, but Liu Yao refused, fearing that Taishi Ci was a fugitive who had just joined him, and his reputation would be tarnished for favoritism, since he was very good friend with Taishi Ci.

The mistake proved to be fatal for Liu Yao and his defeat was generally the same as described in the Romance of Three Kingdoms, and Liu Yao soon died at the age of 42 after fled to Dantu .

After Taishi Ci surrendered to Sun Ce and sent to ask the surrender of Liu Yao’s remaining force, Liu Yao’s son agreed and more than ten thousand begun their service to Sun Ce, with Liu Yao’s son eventually rose in ranks in later eras under Sun Quan.

 

Yan Baihu 

 

and 

 

Wang Lang

 

Wang Lang (onyomi: Ō Rō) is one of the rulers of the Wu Territory.

 He, along with Yan Baihu and Liu Yao, was defeated by Sun Ce and he fled to Wei where he served as a high-ranking official.

 

196 AD

Sun Ce broke off relations with

 Yuan Shu around 196-197

 after the latter declared himself emperor —

 an act deemed as treason against 

Emperor Xian, the figurehead ruler of the Han Dynasty.

The warlord Cao Cao,  who was the de facto head of government in the Han imperial court, asked  Emperor Xian

 to grant Sun Ce the title of

 “Marquis of Wu” (吳侯).

 

3rd Century

The Satavahanas In the 3rd century CE the empire was split into smaller states

 

According to the data of China Koying were trading in the 3rd century AD

 

200

Sun Ce was assassinated in the summer of 200 and was succeeded by his younger brother,

 Sun Quan.

 Sun Quan, like his elder brother, also paid nominal allegiance to Emperor Xian while maintaining autonomous rule over the Wu territories

 

208 AD

In 208, Sun Quan allied with the warlord Liu Bei and they combined forces to defeat Cao Cao at the Battle of Red Cliffs.

218 AD

 Sun Quan and Liu Bei maintained their alliance against Cao Cao after the battle for the next ten years or so, despite having some territorial disputes over Jing Province

 

 

219 AD

In 219, Sun Quan severed ties with Liu Bei when he sent his general Lü Meng to invade Liu’s territories in Jing Province.

 Guan Yu, who was defending Liu Bei’s assets in Jing Province, was captured and executed by Sun Quan’s forces.

After that, the boundaries of Sun Quan’s domain extended from beyond the Jiangdong region to include the southern part of Jing Province, which covered roughly present-day Hunan and parts of Hubei.

 

220 AD

In 220, Cao Cao’s son and successor, Cao Pi, ended the Han Dynasty by forcing Emperor Xian to abdicate in his favour and established the state of Cao Wei.

Sun Quan agreed to submit to Wei and was granted the title of a vassal king — “King of Wu” (吳王) — by Cao Pi.

221 AD

A year later, Liu Bei declared himself emperor and founded the state of Shu Han

 

222 AD

In 222, Liu Bei launched a military campaign against Sun Quan to take back Jing Province and avenge Guan Yu,

 leading to the Battle of Xiaoting.

However, Liu Bei suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of Sun Quan’s general Lu Xun and was forced to retreat to Baidicheng, where he died a year later.

Liu Bei’s successor,

 Liu Shan,

and his regent,

 Zhuge Liang,

 made peace with Sun Quan later and reaffirmed their previous alliance.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Sun Quan

declared independence from Wei in 222,

but continued to rule as “King of Wu” until 229, when he declared himself “Emperor of Wu”. His legitimacy was recognised by Shu.

 

 

 

 

 

Old Malay Kingdom in Jambi


In Jambi area there are three old Malay kingdoms ,

namely , Koying , Tupo , and Kantoli .

Koying kingdom found in China notes made ​​by K’ang – and Wan – chen tai of

 

the Wu dynasty ( 222-208 )

about the country Koying .

According to the data of China Koying were trading in the 3rd century AD

Pasemah

also in South Sumatra and Lampung Ranau area

 has found indications of trading activities undertaken by Tonkin or Tongkin and Vietnam or Fu – nan in the same century . Instead of tiles Han dynasty ( 2nd century BC to 2nd century AD ) found in a particular region of Sumatra .

 

 

The possibility of the spread of various countries in Central Sumatra to Palembang in South and north of the River Tungkal described by Obdeyn ( 1942 ) , but the picture was standing there Koying country .

 

 If true Koying located east Tupo or Thu – po , Tchu – po , Chu – po and his position at the mouth of the confluence of two rivers , then there are two places so the Muara Sabak Zabaq , Djaba , Java , Java and Muara Tembesi or Fo – ts’I , San – fo – tsi ‘ , Che – li -fo – che before seroang up in Jambi tchan – pie , Sanfin , Melayur , Moloyu , Malalyu .

 

Thus as if displacement Ancient Malay kingdom of Srivijaya pre – shift from west to east following the Gulf Wen silting caused by sediment carried by the river , especially the Batang Tembesi .

Direct trade relations occurred in trade with countries outside around the Gulf and the Strait of Malacca Wen will most likely be around the country Koying Alam Kerinci .

 

Dr Iwan Note

At Kerinci Sungai Penuh city in 1985, when visit with my whole family I found

the Ancient Chinese brass statue

 

 

 

 

222-223 AD

Sun Quan ruled for over 20 years and his long reign resulted in stability in southern China. During his reign, Wu engaged Wei in numerous wars, including

 the battles of Ruxu (222–223)

228 AD

The battle of Shiting (228)

234 AD

The Battle Of Hefei (234).

However, Wu never managed to gain any territory north of the Yangtze River while Wei also never succeeded in conquering the lands south of the Yangtze.

241

 Sun Deng, died in 241

242 AD

A succession struggle broke out between Sun Quan’s sons in the later part of his reign — Sun Quan instated Sun He as the crown prince in 242  after his former heir apparent, Sun Deng, died in 241, but Sun He soon became involved in a rivalry with his younger brother, Sun Ba.

 

The conflict resulted in the emergence of two rivalling factions, each supporting either Sun He or Sun Ba, in Sun Quan’s imperial court.

 

Sun Quan eventually deposed

 Sun He and forced

 Sun Ba to commit suicide,

while Lu Xun and many other ministers who took either Sun He’s or Sun Ba’s side in the struggle met with unhappy ends. Sun Quan appointed his youngest son, 

Sun Liang,

as the crown prince after the incident

252 AD

Sun Quan died in 252 and was succeeded by Sun Liang, with Zhuge Ke and Sun Jun serving as regents.

253 AD

In 253, Zhuge Ke was assassinated in a coup launched by Sun Jun, and the state power of Wu fell into Sun Jun’s hands and was passed on to his cousin, Sun Chen,

255 AD

 

 after Sun Chen  death. During Sun Liang’s reign,

  rebellions broke out in the Wei commandery of Shouchun (around present-day Shou County, Anhui) in 255

 

 257-258 AD

The Rebellion  257-258.

Sun Jun and Sun Chen led Wu forces to support the rebels in the first and second rebellions respectively in the hope of making some territorial gains in Wei, but both revolts were suppressed and the Wu forces retreated after suffering much losses.

 

258 AD

Sun Liang was deposed in 258

by Sun Chen,

 

who installed 

 

Sun Xiu,

another son of Sun Quan, on the throne.

 

Sun Xiu

killed Sun Chen later in

 The Sun Xiu coup

with the help of 

Zhang Bu and Ding Feng

 

264 AD

Sun Xiu died of illness in 264

, a year after 

Shu was quenquer By Wei

 

At the time, Wu was experiencing internal turmoil because rebellions had broken out in Jiaozhi (交趾) in the south.

The ministers Puyang Xing, Wan Yu and Zhang Bu 

decided to install Sun He’s son,

 Sun Hao, on the throne.

 

 

In the beginning of Sun Hao’s reign,

the emperor reduced taxes, gave relief to the poor, and granted freedom to a large number of palace maids.

 However, Sun Hao gradually became more cruel and superstitious and started indulging in wine and women instead of finding ways to revive his declining state.

Sun Hao’s tyranny caused widespread anger and hatred towards him in Wu, but it was due to

the efforts of officials such as

 Lu Kai and Lu Kang 

that Wu was able to remain relatively stable and peaceful.

265

 

In 265, Sima Yan ended the state of Cao Wei by forcing its last ruler, Cao Huan, to abdicate in his favour, and then established the Jin Dynasty.

 275

In 275, Jin forces led by Du Yu, Wang Jun and others attacked Wu from six directions.

Sun Hao attempted to put up resistance by sending his armies to fight the Jin invaders, but the Wu forces suffered several consecutive defeats and even the Wu chancellor, Zhang Ti, was killed in action.

280

Seeing that Wu was doomed to fall, Sun Hao surrendered to the Jin Dynasty in 280, marking the end of Wu and the reunification of China at the end of the Three Kingdoms period.

 

 

Jin Dynasty

(265–420),

 

There are two main divisions in the history of the Dynasty, the first being Western Jin (ch: 西晉, 265–316) and the second Eastern Jin (ch: 東晉 317–420). Western Jin was founded by Sima Yan, with its capital at Luoyang, while Eastern Jin was begun by Sima Rui, with its capital at Jiankang

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Western Jin

 (ch: 西晉, 265–316)

Sima Yan

Emperor Wu Di

Capital Luoyang

 

 

 

.

In 285,

 

 The emperor Diocletian (r. 284–305)

 

partitioned the Roman Empire’s administration into eastern and western halves.[3] 

Mark the transitional period during which the Roman Empire’s

 east and west 

divided

 

290 AD

Emperor Sima zhong(Hui Di)

 

 

 

4th Century

301 AD

Sima  Lun

 

307 AD

 

Sima chi

(Emperor Huai)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emperor  of Jin: After the Fall of LuoyangIn

311 Luoyang fell to Han Zhao forces, and Emperor Huai was captured.

 

313

 

Sima Ye(Min Di)

 

 

 

Eastern Jin

 (ch: 東晉 317–420).

 

Sima rui

 

Capital Jiankang

 

In early 318,

 

Han Zhao’s emperor Liu Cong executed Emperor Min, and three months later, news arrived in Jiankang.

 

 

By 320,

 

Emperor Yuan’s relationship with Wang Dun was at a breaking point, as Wang Dun had grown more and more arrogant and controlling of the western provinces.

 Emperor Yuan feared him

Between 324 and 330

,Constantine I (r. 306–337)

transferred the main capital from Rome to Byzantium, later known as Constantinople (“City of Constantine”) andNova Roma (“New Rome”).[n 1] 

 

375 AD

About  Koying (Old Malay Kingdom Jambi)

this country is also included in the T’ung – tien encyclopedia written by Tu – yu ( 375-812 ) and copied by Ma – tu – an- lin in the encyclopedia Wen- hsien – t’ung – k’ao .

 

 

 

 

 

Explained that in the kingdom there Koying volcano and its position

in the east 5000 li Chu – po ( Jambi )

 

 

For the First time

 in 1984

I visit jambi from Padang City

 

 by my Toyota landcruiser BJ 40 diesel

like this

 

and near muara bulian I met

the kubu people

 

 

 and with the hepng of my friend Drg Ali Hanfiah

 I with my wifw Lily,and two son albert and Anton

went to candi muara Jambi starting from

the river at jambi city at the back of Police sectors

 

by boat across the river from Jambi

 

The first time visit

 

at the candi still seen the durian and langsat tree on the candi

 

 

 

 

And

the second visit with my son Albert and Dr Sjafrizal by road

 

with Daihatsu Feroza new car I bring from Jakarta to Bajubang

where Albert starting work at Pertamina oil explorations there and met his friend Heru and senior Mr Bambang in 1999

From the back of jambi sultanate palace

We wen to

 the village rantau panjang

 

then across the bridge to

Candi muara Jambi

 

 

Museum candi muara jambi

 

 

 

Women statue

 

 

 

 

I have seen the dog statue at the museum candi muara jambi,and then in surabaya street antique market in Jakarta I f0und that statue artifact

 

 

 

 

 

 

Makara at  candi Kedaton

 

 

Many small candi there

 

 

 

265

Sima shao

Emperor Ming of Jin (晋明帝/晉明帝, pinyin Jìn Míngdì, Wade-Giles Chin Ming-ti) (299 – 18 October 325), personal name Sima Shao(司馬紹), courtesy name Daoji (道畿), was an emperor of the Eastern Jin Dynasty (265-420).

 

Empress Yu’s father Yu Chen (庾琛) was the governor of Kuaiji Commandery (會稽, roughmodern Shaoxing, Zhejiang),

 and later served on the staff of Sima Rui the Prince of Langye (laterEmperor Yuan) when Sima Rui was posted at Jianye.

 She was considered kind and beautiful, and Sima Rui took her to be his son Sima Shao’s wife empress Yu

 

Emperor Ming only ruled briefly and died in 326.

 Initially, he left a balance of power between high level officials that he entrusted the four-year-old Crown Prince Yan (who succeeded to the throne as Emperor Cheng) with,

 but after Empress Yu was honored as Empress Dowager Yu, she was encouraged by these officials to be regent, and soon Yu Liang became alone the most powerful official of the empire.

 

During sima shao  brief reign (323-325),

 

 he led the weakened Jin out of domination by the warlord Wang Dun, but at his early death,  the empire was left to his young son

 Emperor Cheng(sima Yan),

 

 and the fragile balance of power that he created was soon broken, leading to the Su Jun Disturbance and weakening the Jin state even further.

The imperial princes Sima Zong (司馬宗) the Prince of Nandun and Sima Yang (司馬) the Prince of Xiyang, all of whom were powerful during Emperor Ming’s reign but who had been removed from powerful positions under Empress Dowager Yu’s regency.

 

 

 

 

 In winter 326,

 he accused Sima Zong of treason and killed him, demoted Sima Yang, and exiled Yu Yin. This led to the people losing confidence in him

 

327

In 327, Yu Liang further resolved on separating Su, then the governor of Liyang Commandery (歷陽, roughly modern Chaohu, Anhui) from his troops, and he promoted Su to be the minister of agriculture—a post that did not involve commanding troops.

 

Su saw his intent and declared a rebellion, with Zu’s assistance.

 

328

Yu Liang initially thought that Su could be easily defeated, but instead Su quickly arrived at the capital early 328 and captured it.

Yu Liang was forced to flee. Meanwhile, Su pillaged the capital, and it was said that even Empress Dowager Yu’s servant girls became spoils for his troops.

Further, it was said that Su himself “humiliated” Empress Dowager Yu—although the method of humiliation was not specified in history. She died in distress and fear.

 Her son Emperor Cheng would become Su’s captive for months before other provincial generals would converge on Jiankang and defeat Su.

Mid-4th century –

 

 Wang Xizhi makes a portion of a letter from the Feng Ju album. Six Dynasties period.

 

 

 It is now kept at National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.

 

 

 

 

 

358

Salakanagara later replace by

 Tarumanegara dynasty

Jayasingawarman,

the founder of  

Tarumanegara  was the son in law of King adalah Dewawarman VIII.

 

 

Rajatapura

 was the capital of  salakanagara from

  363 AD

and  still as the center of government from  Dewawarman I – Dewawarman VIII.

 Jayasingawarman, the founder of  Tarumanegara  was the son in law of King adalah Dewawarman VIII.

 

THE ADVENTURE OF Dr IWAN TO CANDI JIWA WEST KRAWANG

I.August,16Th.2000

In this day with my loving Toyota Hardtop Lancruiser BJ 40, I went alone to Rengasdengklok to look at the historic house where Bung Karno and Bug Hata were” Keep ” by the young man 55 years ago inorder to aksed them to proclaimed the Indonesian Independent there (the complete story look at the Indonesian Independent war collections and Bung Hatta Collections in this blog or in my old bl9oc hhtp”//www.uniquecoleetion.wordpress.com-auth)

 

 

Very difficult to found the road to the Candi “Jiwa” (Ancient Soul -BudhishTemple), after enter the Rengasdengklok ,from the Jakarta Cikampek Toll Road, at West Cikampek I foun dthe sign

,then tern left and after the railways t’s turn to the right,

I came to the very crowded market

Then the turn right until at then of that market

,turn left near the small river, I drive straight until arrived the sign

, the Jiwa Temple at the right circa 40 km in very bad road,with very small arrow directions of Candi Jiwa , then turn to the right about 500 m.

 

I enter the broken candi Jiwa, and with the helping of the native peoples there I have seen other borken candi, they talled me about 24 candi beside Candi Jiwa there.

 

All the candi built frome “Bata” sands break.

At the small camp’s house there ,I saw the project map,and some artifact founding, like same small sand Tablet with Buddish’s relief ,and a broken earthenweare vessels (Kendi),and small jarlets(buli-buli) and some new ceramics, they said until now they still studied the earliest Candi which ever found in Java circa three or four century AD much older than the Ancient mataram kindom of Java, may be this candi built by the Ancient Tarumanegara Kingdom, no Ancient coins and Chinese ceramic found there. I took the adventure after read te magazine story about Mr Abu Ridho from National Centre Museum and Mrs Sumirah Adyatman of Adam Malik museum,s curator ever came there too.

  1. August.15th 2010

After ten years , I am asking my son Anton to take me with my wife with his Toyota Kinjang Innova to adventure agains to Rengas Dengklok in order to comemorate the 65 years of Indonesian Indenpent day.

After that we went to “Candi Jiwa “to look the progress of that Candi renovations, because I have read in Kompas Newspaper a week ago,that some foriegn’s arkeologist had found athe human skull and skelletons ,very long diameters about two meters long body-head with their ancient gold necklage and sword.

The Road still same but before the raillways ,there atre the new flyt over bridge wich made the road more closer, and still turn right strait to the Rengas Dengklok market but I didnnot met the Historic House anymore,

after arrive the market still the same turn to the right until the end of market near river turn left but the road more best with cement beton and smoe asphalt betons to cadi Jiwa, now there have two candi almost finished ,one cadi Jiwa and near that candi, new candi Blondongan are still in renovations ,

 

please look my profile at two candi Jiwa at Batujaya krawang west Java

 

This time I with my wife Lily and My son Anto, have made some interesting pictures of some artifact found

  • The picture of the candi Jiwan and Blondongan

 

2) The letest artifact have just founds, very pity the Ancient Gold were bring abroad by the archeoligt to studies .

3) the older foundings’s artifact.

(1) Eathenware Budhist Tablet astifact

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(2) Earthenware Jar Kendi artifact

 

 

 

(3) Eatherware Jarlet buli-buli artfact

(4) other old artifact finding

 

Batujaya Museum

 

 

 

in small museums near candi Jiwa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

379 AD

 

 

Under 

 

Theodosius I (r. 379–395),

 Christianity became the Empire’s official state religion and others such asRoman polytheism were proscribed.

And finally,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5th CENTURY

 

 Southern and Northern Dynasties

(420–589).

 

Two wooden sculptures from China, created in about the 3rd of 4th centuries BC. are among the earliest known human figures in Chinese art. They represent attendants buried with the dead.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6th CENTURY

 

Gujarat trader

The Chinese records

give a graphic picture of the long trade routes across their country,

 

 

around the south of the Gobi desert,

to the Oxus River,

 

 

 into

Parthia

and on to

Mesopotamia.

An alternate route was by sea from

 Canton,

around

the Malay peninsula

 

 

 

 

, pass

 the southern tip of India

 and into

 the Persian Gulf.

Yule writes, “At this time, (early fifth century)

the Euphrates

was navigable

as high as Hira,

a city lying

southwest of ancient Babylon …

 

and the ships of India and China were constantly to be seen moored before the houses of the town.”38

The Chinese either turned their goods,

 

 chiefly silks,

 over to the Arabs here, or over to the Parthians at the Oxus River, the latter then bringing them to Hira.

 

There they were transshipped around

the Arabian peninsula,

 up

the Red Sea

to

 

Solomon’s Ezion-geber

Or

 the Aelana (modern Akabah) of the Romans;

from there

 caravans carried them

 

 to

Petra, the great market city,

 

to sell them to

the western traders.

Ancient Chinese traders

 

 

 

 

 

During

 

the reign of

 

Justinian I (r. 527–565),

the Empire reached its greatest extent after reconquering much of the historically Roman western Mediterraneancoast, including north Africa, Italy, and Rome itself, which it held for two more centuries.

During

the reign of

 

 Maurice (r. 582–602),

 

the Empire’s eastern frontier was expanded and the north stabilised.

 

However, his assassination caused a two-decade-long war with 

 

 

Sassanid Persia

 which exhausted the Empire’s resources and contributed to major territorial losses during the Muslim conquests of the 7th century.

 

Dr Iwan Noteas

In 2011 I found

 

The Queen Sasanid silver coin

in Bukittinggi west Sumatra

The Iran  Sasanid kindom during

 

Empress Puran 7th Century,

bring by Gujarat Trader during Srivijaya empire in Indonesia and they had trading with the Minangkabau marchant at Mingkabau Kingdom (Pagaruyung),( The first report found in Indonesia-auth,anoher report from Rusia)

 

 

 

The Chinese Kapitan Indonesia history Collections

Part Two C

 EARLY PRE COLONIAL ERA

THE CHINESE EMPEROR AND KING CHOLA DURING THE RISE AND FALL OF SRIVIJAYA EMPIRE

Created By

Dr iwan Suwandy,MHA

COPYRIGHT @ 2014

 

 

 

 

6th Century

Around the year 500,

Srivijayan roots began to develop around present day 

 Palembang, 

Sumatra,

in modern Indonesia.

The empire was organised in three main zones — the estuarine capital region centred on Palembang, the Musi River basin which served as hinterland and rival estuarine areas capable of forming rival power centres.

The areas upstream of the Musi River were rich in various commodities valuable to Chinese traders.[16] 

The capital was administered directly by the ruler while the hinterland remained under its own local datus or chiefs, who were organized into a network of alliances with the Srivijaya maharaja or king. Force was the dominant element in the empire’s relations with rival river systems such as Batang Hari, centred in Jambi

 

 

 

 

 

In 6th century

when the decline of Tarumanegara Kingdom,

rise the srivijaya kingdom

7th Century

 

605

The country of Fu-lin, also called Ta-ts’in, lies above the western sea.

In the southeast it borders on Po-ssu (Persia)….

 The emperor Yang-ti of the Sui dynasty (A.D. 605-617) always wished to open intercourse with Fu-lin, but did not succeed.

 

The several accounts known in Chinese literature of

 the mysterious country in the west called

Fu-lin

is declared to be identical with

 the country from ancient times known as

Ta-ts’in.

This is known from the texts of the T’ang dynasty, which use the two names are interchangeable terms.

It has been concluded by the Chinese that Ta-ts’in is Syria, and if that is the case,

then Fu-lin must be Syria.

The author is disinclined to be guided by this kind of logic. Friedrich Hirth believes that Ta-ts’in is the Roman empire.

However the detail placed on record in the contemporary Chinese texts is confined to its Asiatic provinces, for which reason Antioch is described as the capital city.

 Hirth considers Fu-lin to be Byzantium and Ta-ts’in to be certain Asiatic portions of the empire.

 After this analysis, there still remain quite a number of important points to be settled in connection with both Ta-ts’in and Fu-lin

5th Century

According to the Chinese annals, Funan and Pan-pan were known where Mahāyāna Buddhism flourished since the fifth century and contributed to China in the field of Buddhism

.So, when the Srivijaya, the Tang court gave them the name of ‘室利佛逝Shi-li-fo-shi).

This name includes the Buddha (佛).

This means special treatment for Srivijaya.

 

 

610 AD

 

Under

the reign of Heraclius (r. 610–641),

the Empire’s military and administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use instead of Latin.[5]

 

 In summary,

 while it maintained Roman state traditions, Byzantium is distinguished from ancient Rome proper insofar as it was oriented towards Greek rather than Latin culture, and characterised by

 

 Orthodox Christianity 

 

 

rather than

 

 Roman polytheism.[6]

The borders of the Empire evolved significantly over its existence, as it went through several cycles of decline and recovery.

 

The Byzantine Empire was the predominantly Greek-speaking continuation of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages.

 

Its capital city was Constantinople

 

 

(modern-day Istanbul), originally known as Byzantium. Initially the eastern half of the Roman Empire (often called the Eastern Roman Empire in this context),  it survived the 5th century 

 

fragmentation   

 

 and fall of the Western Roman Empire

and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.

. Both “Byzantine Empire” and “Eastern Roman Empire” are historiographical terms applied in later centuries; its citizens continued to refer to their empire as the Roma Empire (Ancient Greek: Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων, tr.Basileia Rhōmaiōn; Latin: Imperium Romanum),[1] and Romania (Ῥωμανία).[2]

c.616 CE:

The maternal uncle of the prophet Muhammad, Abu Waqqas, joined a trading voyage from Ethiopia to Guangzhou. He then returned to Arabia, and came back to Guangzhou 21 years later with a copy of the Koran.

He founded the Mosque of Remembrance,

near the Kwang Ta (Smooth Minaret) built by the Arabs as a lighthouse.

Abu Waqqas tomb is in the Muslim cemetery in Guangzhou.

 

 


Liu Chih,

The Life of the Prophet (12 vols), 1721, quoted by the Islamic Council of Victoria, Four missionaries were sent to China by the prophet Mohammad, and two died in Quanzhou.

 

 They were buried as honoured guests, and the tombs repeatedly repaired and embellished until the present.
Wang Lianmao (ed),
Return to the City of Light, p.99, and Quanzhou site captions, citing Ming Shu, ‘A history of Fujian province

618

Tang Dynasty

The death of

Emperor Yang Ti of Sui

resulted in a Sui Kingdom civil war from which

King Li Yuan (of Western Wei) later became

the first Tang Emperor Kao Tsu

and

his son Li Shih-min arose victorious,

establishing the T’ang dynasty and extending the unification of China for another 300 years. Li Yuan, adopting the title

 

T’ang Kao Tsu, ruled from AD 618-626

 

 

then abdicated in favor of his son Li Shih-min who adopted the title

T’ai Tsung and ruled from AD 627 to 649.

Both were able rules under whom T’ang began its rise to greatness. The next 300 years was a time of relative calm, prosperity and enlightenment with the cultural arts dominating over the military arts.

 

 

 

 

 

636

During the patriarchate of

Syrian missionaries

Mar Ishu Jahb II, 636,

 went to China, and for 150 years this mission was active…. 109 Syrian missionaries have worked in China during 150 years of the Chinese mission….

They went out from Beth Nahrin, the birthplace of Abraham, the father of all believers.

The Syrian missionaries traveled on foot;

 they had sandals on their feet, and a staff in their hands, and carried a basket on their backs, and in the basket was the Holy Write and the cross.

They took the road around the Persian Gulf; went over deep rivers and high mountains, thousands of miles. On their way they met many heathen nations and preached to them the gospel of Christ.20

LOOK  COMPLETE INFORMATION AT

THE BOOK

BYFOOT TO CHINA

 

 

During the early years of the Mohammedan regime,

 the Syrian Christian churches had more freedom and peace than under the Persian kings.

A concordat was signed with Mohammed whereby the Christians would pay tribute, in time of war shelter endangered Muslims and refrain from helping the enemy.

In exchange they were to be given religious toleration, though they were not to proselytize, and they would not be required to fight for Mohammed.21

He had reason to be friend the Christians for a “Nestorian” had been Mohammed’s teacher at one point and, in some early battles, certain Christian communities had actually fought on his side against pagan tribes.22

So much Christian influence, though highly distorted, is apparent in his teaching that Islam has been called a Christian heresy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

It was not until the seventh century

 that two events brought about the demise of this great trading center.

The first was

the smuggling of silkmoth eggs

 into Syria, concealed in a bamboo cane,

 

the presumption being that it was done by “Nestorians,”40 with the result that “by the end of the sixth century (Syria) appears to have been meeting the west’s demand for the raw material.”41

 

 

 

EMPERORS OF T’ANG

RULER DATES
Kao Tsu
also known as Li Yuan
AD 618 – 626
T’ai Tsung
also known as Li Shih-min
AD 627-649
Kao Tsung AD 649-683
Chung Tsung AD 684-690
Wu Tsu-t’ien
Empress
AD 690-705
Chung Tsung
2nd reign
AD 705-710
Juei Tsung AD 710-712
Li Lung-Chi
also known as Hsuan Tsung (Ming Hsuan)
AD 712-756
?????
son of Li Lung-chi
AD 756
Su Tsung
(full control)   (nominal control)
AD 756-757
AD 758-761
Shih Su-ming
rebel
AD 757-761
Tai Tsung AD 762-779
Te Tsung AD 780-805
Hien Tsung AD 806-820
Mu Tsung AD 821-824
????? AD 824-827
Wen Tsung AD 827-841
Wu Tsung AD 841-846
Siuan Tsung AD 847-855
????? AD 856-859
Yi Tsung AD 860-873
Hi Tsung AD 874-888
Chao Tsung AD 889-904
Chou We
through puppet emperor Ngai Tsung
AD 905-907
   

Tang Dynasty

[]GaoZu
[] Emperor Taizong [Tai-tsung], Tang Dynasty (626-649)
The second emperor of the Tang Dynasty.

[]

 

Li Lihua as the Empress in a movie about Wu Zetian (c.1940)

 

 

 

 

 

635

In the year 635 A.D., a party of foreigners from the distant West, a vague area known to the Chinese for many centuries as Ta Chinn, reached the capital city of the Great Chinese Empire, Ch’ang-An, later called Hsian-fu. It was in the early years of the T’ang dynasty.

 

XuanZong

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DeZong

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XianZong

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WuZong

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XuanZong

 

The Chronology Srivijaya History Collections

Distorted history of Southeast Asia in Śrīvijaya times

At the beginning of the twenty-first century, few people doubt that the location of the Śrīvijaya was Palembang in Sumatra, because, according to G. Coedès, Palembang was the center of the trade between the East and West in the Śrīvijaya times as well as that of Mahāyāna Buddhism.

However it is quite dubious if the hypotheses reflect historical facts or not. As the entrepôt between India and China, Jambi was located at more preferable location than Palembang.

As the center of Mahāyāna Buddhism, the states of Malay Peninsula, such as Chaiya had more advantage than Palembang.

 

Emperor KAO TSUNG
AD 649-683

Kao Tsung, son of T’ai Tsung,

 

 

 

 

 

651 CE:

 First Arab embassy to China.

 

 

670

The Kingdom of Sunda and kingdom of Galuh

were twin kingdoms in West Java 

that emerged from the division of Tarumanagara kingdom in 670 C.E..

 

Information about the two kingdoms is taken mostly from stone inscriptions scattered around Bogor in Java, and from later historical annals and the records of traders and travelers.

The inscriptions mention the kingdom of Sunda as the successor of Tarumanagara, while the inscriptions in Sukabumi mention the existence of the Sunda kingdom until the era of Sri Jayabupati.

Wretikandayun,  (monarchic founder of Galuh), used this event as a pretext to dissociate his small kingdom from the power of Tarumanagara. Galuh had made an alliance through dynastic marriage with the Kingdom of Kalingga, which supported their demands for independence.

Wishing to avoid civil war, King Tarusbawa granted Wretikandayun’s demand. In 670 C.E

 

666-669

Hall notes that Taruma on the Sunda straits sent an embassy to China in 666-9, but the Chinese never heard from this Javanese port again.

 

 

 

 

 

 

680 AD

 

This possibly occurred in the 680s.

Malayu, also known as Jambi,

rich in gold and was held in high esteem.

Srivijaya recognized that the submission of Malayu would increase its own prestige.[18]

682 CE:

Kedukan Bukit Inscription

 

The first known inscription of a king of Srivijaya was incised on a river boulder at Kedukan Bukit, Palembang in Sumatra.
Stuart Munro-Hay, Nakhon Sri Thammarat, 1.6.

 

 

 

Alih Aksara

 

Little physical evidence of Srivijaya remains.[13] According to the Kedukan Bukit Inscription, dated 605 Saka (683 CE), the empire of Srivijaya was founded by Dapunta Hyang Çri Yacanaca (Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa). He led 20,000 troops and 312 people in boats with 1312 foot soldiers from Minanga Tamwan to Jambi and Palembang.

Although according to this inscription, Srivijaya was first established in the vicinity of today’s Palembang, it mentions that Dapunta Hyang came from Minanga Tamwan. The exact location of Minanga Tamwan is still a subject of discussion.

The Kedukan Bukit Inscription was discovered by the Dutchman M. Batenburg on 29 November 1920 at Kedukan Bukit, South Sumatra, on the banks of the River Tatang, a tributary of the River Musi. Barring the potentially earlier (but undated) Dong Yen Chau inscription, it is the oldest surviving specimen of the Malay language, in a form known as Old Malay. It is a small stone of 45 by 80 cm. This inscription is dated the year 605 Saka (683 AD) and contains numerous Sanskrit words

All these inscriptions were written in Pallava script, a form of ancient script used in Tamil kingdoms of ancient India.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bagéa! Taun Śaka geus liwat 604, dina poé ka sabelas

  1. paro-terang bulan Waiśakha Dapunta Hiyang naék di
  2. parahu ngalapsiddhayātra. di poé ka tujuh paro-terang
  3. bulan Jyestha Dapunta Hiyang angkat ti Minanga
  4. tambahan mawa prajurit dua laksa kalawan bekel
  5. dua ratus cara (peti) di parahu kalawan leumpang sarewu
  6. tiga ratus dua welas lobana datang ti mata jap (Mukha Upang)
  7. di poé ka lima paro-terang bulan….(Asada)
  8. ngemplong gumbira datang nyieun wanua….
  9. Śrīwijaya jaya,siddhayātra 

 

 

Transliteration 1:

svasti śrī śakavaŕşātīta 605 (604?) ekādaśī śu-

klapakşa vulan vaiśākha ḍapunta hiya<ṃ> nāyik di

sāmvau mangalap siddhayātra di saptamī śuklapakşa

vulan jyeşţha ḍapunta hiya<ṃ> maŕlapas dari minānga

tāmvan mamāva yaṃ vala dualakşa dangan ko-

duaratus cāra di sāmvau dangan jālan sarivu

tlurātus sapulu dua vañakña dātaṃ di mata jap

sukhacitta di pañcamī śuklapakşa vula<n> <…>

laghu mudita dātaṃ marvuat vanua <…>

śrīvijaya jaya siddhayātra subhikşa <…>

  1. svasti śrī śakavaŕşātīta 605 (604 ?) ekādaśī śu
  2. klapakşa vulan vaiśākha dapunta hiya<(m> nāyik di
  3. sāmvau mangalap siddhayātra di saptamī śuklapakşa
  4. apunta hiya,vulan jyeşţha d<(m> maŕlapas dari minānga
  5. vala dualakşa dangan ko-(sa)(tāmvan mamāva yam
  6. duaratus cāra di sāmvau dangan jālan sarivu
  7. di mata jap(tlurātus sapulu dua vañakña dātam
  8. sukhacitta di pañcamī śuklapakşa vula<n>…
  9. marvuat vanua…(laghu mudita dātam
  10. śrīvijaya jaya siddhayātra subhikşa…

 

 

 

Transliteration 2:[1]

Swasti Shri Shakawarsatita 605 ekadashi

Shuklapaksa wulan Waishaka dapunta hiyang naik

Disambau mangalap siddhayatra di Saptami Shuklapaksa

Wulan Jyestha dapunta hiyang marlapas dari Minanga

Tamvan (Tamvar?) mamawa jang bala dua laksa dangan <…>

dua ratus tsyara disambau dangan jalan saribu

Tlu ratus sapuloh dua banyaknya. Datang di Matajap (Mataya?)

Sukhatshitta. Di pantshami shuklapaksa Wulan <…>

Laghu mudik datang marwuat manua <…>

Syriwijaya jayasiddhayatra subhiksa.

 

Ti prasasti Kedukan Bukit, kapanggih data-data saperti kieu[3]:

  1. Dapunta Hyang naék parahu tanggal 11 Waisaka 604 (23 April 682)
  2. Dapunta Hyang angkat ti Minanga tanggal 7 Jesta (19 Mei) kalawan mawa leuwih ti 20.000 prajurit. Rombongan nepi di Muka Upang.
  3. Dapunta Hyang nyieun ‘wanua’ tanggal 5 Asada (16 Juni)

 

 

 

 

 

 

English Translation

for Malay Language version of the Inscription

 

All hail and prosperity! In the year 605 of the Saka calendar, on the eleventh day on the full moon of Waisaka, His Majesty took

a boat to make a profit.

 On the seventh day on the full moon of Jyesta, His Majesty

brings 20000 troops and 312 people in boats from firth of Tamvan, With 1312 foot soldiers and came to Matajap happily. On the fifth day on the bright moon of …,

they docked and open a country …

Great, prosperous and peaceful Srivijaya!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

English Translation

Om swasti astu! All hail and prosperity.

 In the year 605 of the [Indian] Saka calendar, on the eleventh day at half-moon of Waisaka, Sri Baginda took dugouts in order to obtain siddhayatra.[2]

 On Day 7, on the 15th day at half-moon of Jyestha, Sri Baginda extricated himself from minānga tāmvan.[3] He took 20,000 troops with him … as many as 200 in dugouts, with 1,312 foot soldiers.

They arrived at … Truly merry on the fifteenth day of the half-moon…, agile, happy, and they made a trip to the country … Great Sriwijaya! Prosperity and riches …”

 

 

 

 

 

683 AD

Little physical evidence of Srivijaya remains.[13]

According to the Kedukan Bukit Inscription, dated 605 Saka (683 CE), the empire of Srivijaya was founded by Dapunta Hyang Çri Yacanaca (Dapunta Hyang Sri Jayanasa).

 He led 20,000 troops and 312 people in boats with 1312 foot soldiers from Minanga Tamwan to Jambi and Palembang.

Although according to this inscription, Srivijaya was first established in the vicinity of today’s Palembang, it mentions that Dapunta Hyang came from Minanga Tamwan.

 

 

The exact location of Minanga Tamwan

 is still a subject of discussion.

The Palembang theory as the place where Srivijaya was first established, was presented by Coedes and supported by Pierre-Yves Manguin. Soekmono on the other hand, argues that Palembang is not the capital of Srivijaya and suggests that the Kampar river system in Riau where theMuara Takus temple is located as Minanga Tamwan.[14] 

Another theory suggests that Dapunta Hyang came from the east coast of the Malay Peninsula, and suggests Chaiya as the center of Srivijaya.[15]

684

Talang Tuo inscription

is a Srivijaya inscription measured 50cm × 80 cm discovered in 17 November 1920 at the foot of Seguntang Hill, near Palembang, South Sumatra, Indonesia.

 

The inscription is written in Pallava letter in Old Malay, dated 606 Saka (23 March 684 CE) mentioning about the establishment of Śrīksetra sacred park under the order of Śrī Jayanāśa. Today the inscription is stored in National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta

From Sanskrit inscriptions, it’s notable that the King Jayanasa launched a maritime conquest in 684 with 20,000 men to acquire wealth, power, and ‘magic power’.[17] 

Under the leadership of Jayanasa, the kingdom of Malayu became the first kingdom to be integrated into the Srivijayan Empire.

 

 

686 CE:

The Kota kapur inscription

found on Bangka island records preparation of a naval expedition by Srivijaya against rival ports in western Java.

 

Prasasti Kota Kapur:

Pallava inscribed column (dated 686 AD.), concerning Sriwijaya, found on the island Bangka, Indonesia (Stitch; photo’s made in Museum Volkenkunde, Leiden. Column property of Museum Nasional Indonesia, Jakarta, item-no.: MNI D90

NSCRIPTION Lake Stone found in 1935 in Stone Lake, around the cemetery of the kings of Palembang Sabokingking, 2 Ilir, Palembang, no dates to the year.

 

 

The inscriptions are decorated with the head of this seven-headed cobra consist of 28 lines.

 

FM Schnitger According to this inscription from the 9th century AD or AD-10, but according to JG de Casparis inscriptions are from the mid-7th century AD.
Form (rupa) is compared with inscription inscription others considered the most artistic and beautiful shaped feet, showing the statue of Srivijaya already have a capable artist.

 

In this site also found a stone that reads sidhayatra (victory or holy journey). It is estimated that this place is an important place of pilgrimage at the time.

 

Judging from perupaan Telaga Batu inscription, which appears is seven and a cobra’s head on the bottom rail or the inscription there is a symmetry between the left channel with right and meet in the middle like a water fountain.

 

From the shape and it illustrates two shower perupaan genitals once (hermaphrodite), which when linked with mystical cosmology is a symbol of fertility.

 

This inscription is the only inscription of Srivijaya which not only contains the writings, but also there is a shape or image.

The seventh head of a cobra that existed at the top of the stele can be interpreted as an attempt to keep the king of Srivijaya content or text engraved inscription was still obeyed.

 

Today, the Old Malay inscriptions and lettered this Pallawa, stored in the National Museum, Jakarta.
 

 

 

 
Telaga Batu inscription text

(1) om siddham titam hamwan wari AWAI kandra kayet nipaihumpa, amuha an ulu
(2) tandrum opponent’s nauseating nauseating makamatai tandrun hakairu muah kayet nihumpa Unai ume
(3) Ntem ni wll ulun Haraki Unai cash you wanak mamu rajaputra, prostara, bhupati, senapati, nayata, pratyaya, hajipratyaya, dandanayaka
(4) …. murddhaka tuha an watakwuruh, addhyaksi nijawarna, vasikarana, kumaramatya, cathabhata, adhikarana, karmma, kayastha, sthapaka, puhawan, waniyaga, pratisara da
(5) ye hajj Marsi, hulun Hajo, wanak uram niwunuh mamu ye oath of mammam kadaci you wll tida dyaku niwunuh you swear you drohaka tuwi mulam kadasi wanun Luwi marwuddhi yam.

Translation by G. Coedes:

Om! Good luck …. You all, no matter how many, the son of the king …, regents, senapati, Nayaka, pratiyaya, people trust the king, judges, leaders of … the head of the workers, supervisors low caste, vasikarana, kumaramatya, catabhata, adhikarana … … workers, sculptors, skipper, merchants, leaders, …, and you washerwoman rajadan slave king.

 

You will all die by this curse, if ye are not faithful to me, you will die by the curse. In addition, if you apply as a traitor, in league with the people …
 

 

 

 

 
Telaga Batu inscription text content is basically also a curse king of Srivijaya to its followers, its magnifying

The interpretation of the inscription

Writing engraved on the stele is quite long, but in outline the contents of a curse on anyone who commits a crime in kedatuan Sriwijaya and do not obey the command Datu.

 

Casparis argue that people who called in this inscription are the people who categorized and potentially dangerous to fight the sworn kedatuan Sriwijaya so need.

Mentioned these people from

the king’s  son  (rājaputra) , minister (kumārāmātya) , regent (bhūpati) , commander (Senapati), Council / prominent local figures (Nayaka)  , royalty  (pratyaya) , king of   subordinates  (Hajj pratyaya) ,  judge (dandanayaka) , chairman of the workers / laborers (Tuha an vatak = vuruh) , low labor supervisor (addhyāksi nījavarna) , weapons expert  (vāsīkarana)  ,  soldiers (cātabhata), officer manager (adhikarana) , store employees (kāyastha)  , craftsmen (sthāpaka ), captain of the ship (puhāvam) , peniaga (vaniyāga), the king’s servants (Marsi Hajj) , and the slave king (hulun Hajj).
This inscription is one of the most complete curse inscriptions contain the names of government officials.

 

Some historians consider the existence of this inscription, allegedly was the center of Srivijaya in Palembang and officials are sworn it certainly resided in the capital of the kingdom.

 

Soekmono argued on the basis of this inscription is not possible Sriwijaya in Palembang

 

because of the threat information to anyone who curses disobedience to kedatuan, and Minanga proposal as it is called in the inscription Kedukan Hill

assumed to be

around Temple Barelang as the capital of Srivijaya

 

images Temple Barelang or

Muara Takus temple

The site is supposedly the oldest in the world the rest of the triumph of the Kingdom of Sriwijaya was on Barelang Village, Kampar regency, Riau.
Center Barelang Buddhist temple complex located in District XIII Koto Kampar a distance of about 135 kilometers from the city of Pekanbaru, Riau

The distance to the center of the village temple complex itself Barelang about 2.5 km, not far from the edge of Kampar Kanan River. And from the cross road of West Sumatra, Riau, is within a distance of about 19 km.

temple complex which was first discovered Cornet D Groot in 1860 it was truly unique. Unlike the temples in Java such as Borobudur, Prambanan and others.

Temple complex is surrounded by a wall measuring 74 x 74 meters. ‘

 

Muara Takus Temple Riau, The temple is located in the village Barelang, Kampar district, Riau City.

 

 Barelang temple complex, the only relic of history that shaped

 

Outside their area of land there is also a wall measuring 1.5 x 1.5 km that surround this complex to the Kampar Kanan river.

 

 

Within this complex there are also old buildings of the temple, temples and Stupas Mahligai Youngest and Palangkaraya. Here we find the temple made of clay and sand soil.

 

Historically, the Village Barelang before becoming a central teaching of Buddhism, is an area that formerly had visit by sailors from the kingdom of Srivijaya with Right down the Kampar River.

According to experts, the material used in this temple is the older method than the existing temple in Java, using stone from the mountains.

 

 

If it continues to follow the history of the creation of the temple, known to manufacture the material was taken and the village temple Pongkai located approximately 6 km from the temple. Pongkai name comes from China “Pong” means a hole and “Kai” means land.

We also can find bone burning place which is situated inside the temple complex.

Pongkai village.

 

This village near

 air tiris village near the Kampar river   where Dr Iwan in 1995 found

Tang yueh Jar

 

Incised tang yueh jar with 12 ears

The oldest jar in Indonesia found at air tiris villages near muaratakus temple

 

Dr Iwan yueh dragon jar with six chillin dog ear  found at java

 

 

Compare with other yueh jar which many found in java

Six Dynasties Yue Ware Globular Jar with Short Spout.

The greenish glaze covers the whole globular undecorated body with some running down to the base.

The body has four ear lugs. The base is flat with exposed burnt red body material.

 

And  more oldest jar but never found in Indonesia

Western Han Dynasty Yue Ware Large Jar. Globulus with two incised ear lugs, a co-joined double S mould rest above the lugs. The rim is flat and three bands borders circle the upper body. On one of the border is incised with four stylised flying bird motif. The glaze run down up to the third band border and exposed the unglazed reddish brown body. Glaze loss and a long hairline crack across the body. Part of the lug is slightly broke

 

 

Six Six Dynasties Yue Ware Large Martavan Jar. The jar with six lugs covered with greenish glaze

Eastern Han Proto Yue Ware Large Vase ( 2nd-3rd AD). Heavy potted, spontaneous glaze brush wash on the red earth body material with abstract like drips running down to the base. It has a thick inverted mouthrim..

 

 

7th Century

.7th century
The Islamic King have fight each other in order to cupied the Middles East area have changed the social and political situation in Europe

  • 7th to 15th century:

 

 The Sumatra-based Srivijaya naval kingdom flourishes and declines.[9]

Some 200,000 Persians, Arabs, Indians, Malays, and other foreigners lived in Guangzhou as traders, artisans and metalworkers.
Louise Levathes, When China Ruled the seas, p.39.

 In fact Islam has already arrived in Indonesia in the 7th century AD. It was already a busy shipping lane and become international through the Malacca Strait that connects the Tang Dynasty in China, the Srivijaya in Southeast Asia and the Umayyads in West Asia since the 7th century. [4]

705 AD

.

Kao Tsung extended Chinese control over much of Korea and part of Manchuria.

 

 

He defeated the Japanese fleet, ending Japanese influence on the mainland for many years.

The later years of his reign saw

Kao Tsung  father’s concubine,

Wu Tsu-t’ien,

asserting power, probably ruling from behind the scenes.

She proved ruthless,

eventually seizing power in her own name

 (AD 705-710).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

723

The two kingdoms sunda and Galuh were re-united under Tarumanagara’s successor, Sanjaya, who placed a vassal king on the throne of Galuh in 723.

the Sundan king

which became the Mataram and Majapahit King

Sanjaya

( Rakeyan Jamri / Prabu Harisdama,)

The second Sunda King

(723 – 732M),

Became the King of Mataram K8ingdom(732-860 AD(

 and he found the Ancient Mataram kingdom and also the  Sandjaja Reign

menjadi raja di Kerajaan Mataram (Hindu) (732 – 760M).

 Ia adalah pendiri Kerajaan Mataram Kuno, dan sekaligus pendiri Wangsa Sanjaya

 

 

 

 

Kompleks Candi Dieng

Hindus  candi were built in 7th Century  Candi Gatotkaca, Candi Bima, Candi Arjuna, Candi Semar, Candi Sembadra, Candi Srikandi, Candi Setyaki, Gangsiran Aswatama, dan Candi Dwarawati.

Balaputradewa
a king of the Kingdom of Srivijaya. Balaputradewa ruled VIII-IX century AD. Balaputradewa is the most famous king of the Kingdom of Srivijaya as in the reign of the kingdom of Srivijaya was he reached the peak of its power as a Maritime Empire in power almost throughout the archipelago to reach Thailand, India, the Philippines and China

.

 

Look the Museum Balaputra  dewa

Top of Form

Balaputradewa Museum is located at Km 6.5 on Jl. No. I Srijaya State. 288, Palembang, South Sumatra, Indonesia.

 

Balaputradewa museum has about 3580 pieces of this collection of traditional items Palembang, preserved animals from various regions in South Sumatra, some miniature houses inland, replicas of statues of ancient inscriptions ever found in Siguntang Hill, giant carved stones of the Megalithic era , and many more.

 

 

 

 

Collections at the Museum Balaputradewa divided into 10 kinds of categories:
histografi or historika (stories),
ethnography,
feologi,
ceramics,
the tools of modern technology,
art (in the form of engravings),
flora and fauna (Biologika) and geological
and contained limas house is also home Ulu Ali.
The collection at the Museum Balaputradewa placed on 3 pieces exhibit space to be grouped into
showrooms prehistoric times,

,

Putri cave

 

 

 

 

 

Pasemah fossil

 

Stone axe

 

 

Burial eathern martavan

Stone inscription

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

732

The Sailendras and the Sanjayas

From the beginning, a tension developed in central Java between competing Buddhist and Hindu ruling families.

 The first central-Javanese temples and inscriptions, dating from 732 A.D.,

were the work of a Hindu ruler by the name of Sanjaya.Very soon thereafter, however, a Budhist line of kings known as the Sailendras (Lords of the Mountain) seem to have come from the north coast of Java to impose their rule over Sanjaya and his descendants.

The Sailendras maintained close relations with Sriwijaya (both rulers were Buddhist) and ruled Java for about 100 years.

 During this relatively short period they constructed the magnificent Buddhist monuments of Borobudur, Mendut, Kalasan, Sewu and many others in the shadow of majestic Mt. Merapi. Still now this area is blessed with unusually fertile soils, and already in ancient times it must have supported a vast population, who all participated in the erection of these state monuments.

 

Plaosan temple

 


The statue of Durga Mahisasuramardini in northern cella of Shiva temple,

Prambanan temple complex in Central Java. Also called Durga Loro Jonggrang
Candi (pronounced /
ˈtʃandiː/) are commonly refer to Hindu and Buddhist temples
or sanctuaries in Indonesia, most of which were built from the 8th to the 15th centuries

 

 

745:

Arrival of Islam in the archipelago

 was first marked in the invention Batu Nisan Sandai Sandai, Ketapang territory of the Kingdom Tanjungpura bertarikh 127 Hijri (745 AD).

The  discovery of a tombstone inscription bertarikh 127 AH or 745 AD replied rather long debate among the historians regarding the arrival of Islam in Indonesia . Historical inscriptions found in the District ‘s Sandai high value to reveal that Islamic culture in Ketapang is the oldest Islamic culture in the archipelago that came in the 7th century , rather than in Aceh .
Previously , experts were mostly from the west and the Netherlands are still different opinions about the timing of the spread of Islam in the archipelago . There are some experts mention the 10th century , 12th century and 13th century as the most likely period from the beginning of the spread of Islam in the archipelago . Based on historical fact , according to the Foundation Coordinator Leaf Width , Ir Gusti Cambodia , said during the Islamisation of Ocean Pasai , Aceh , the first king of Malik Al – Salih , died 698 Hijri or 1297 AD , Gujarat is still a Hindu kingdom .

” So at that time Islam has not been established and developed in Gujarat , so may not be able to spread Islam to the archipelago , ” he said .

 

In addition , the results of the study concluded that the width Leaf Foundation Sandai inscription form is not the same as the shape of tombstones in Pasai and Gresik , East Java . The stone is a stone nor a native of Ketapang , but imported stone .

Although research conducted fully completed yet , the Foundation is actively also collect a lot of literature to strengthen the findings .

” Based on the shape of the tombstone , the experts also found the origin of the spread of Islam in the archipelago mention of Gujarat ( 12th century ) , Bengal , Coromandel and Malabar ( 13th century ) . According to their shape tombstones and Pasai found in East Java , the same shape with tombstones found in Cambay , Gujarat , “said Cambodia .

He added that this opinion is reinforced by the opinion of the Dutch scholar , JP Moquette that conclusion based on the findings of gravestones in Pasai , Aceh Dhul – Hijjah bertarikh 17 H 831 / 27 September 1428 M. Likewise SQ Fatimi based tombstone Siti Fatimah bertarikh 475 AH / 1082 AD found in Leran , East Java .

Cambodia concluded , based chronicle inscription proved to have occurred Sandai connection with the Arab – Persian archipelago in the early 7th century . At that time known in history as the heyday of the Islamic World . History of Muslims noted , that in the 7th century in Spain still controlled by the Muslim rulers . In this period , Umayyad Dynasty ( 132 AD – 749 AD ) and the Abbasid dynasty ( 750 AD – 798 AD ) has expanded into Persia and the Indian subcontinent to set sail to the Far East .

” This is the farthest humans have ever navigated before the rise of European shipping in the 16th century . Empire in history Tanjungpura sourced from the book History of the Sung Dynasty 489 , mentions that the royal Tanjungpura relations with Arab traders in the year 977 AD is growing ” , he continued . Where King Tanjungpura , Hiang – ta when it has sent a messenger to the palace of China , which is entrusted to the Arab traders called P’ulu – Hsieh ( Abu Abdallah ) to lead the royal delegation – West Borneo .

 

” Sandai tombstone is one of important evidence about the origin of the spread of Islam in the archipelago and strengthen the notion that Islam initially taken directly from Arabic instead of Samudera Pasai ” , he said .

If the majority of Muslims see the archipelago air- Shafi , said Cambodia , there are similarities kepemelukan Islam in Egypt and Hadhralmawt , which is thought to be part of a place in Arabic as the origin of the spread of Islam in the archipelago .

” Although there has been a connection in the 7th century , the spread of Islam in the archipelago newly gained momentum in the 11th century until the 18th . This momentum occurs after the penetration of Islam by the Sufis who appear through a network of scholars who maintain harmony between Shari’a and Sufism , “he described .

However, the role of the maritime Srivijaya empire that once ruled the West Boneo (Kingdom Tanjungpura ) in the 7th century in the spread of Islam in the archipelago says are just as important .

” Even at that time Srivijaya still are Hindus, but there are already Muslim community that settled in the kingdom of Srivijaya and follow this to the cruise around the archipelago , ” he said .

Although the 7th century residents in Ketapang (Kingdom Tanjungpura ) have met and interacted with Arab Muslim traders , there has been no evidence of the presence of the local Muslim population in large numbers or on the occurrence of substantial Islamization in Tanjungpura . Tanjungpura new rulers converted to Islam in the year 1590 by using titles Panembahan and Giri , namely Panembahan Giri Kusuma and change the name of the Hindu kingdom into an Islamic empire Tanjungpura Matan ( Arabic ; spot starters ) .

 

 

 


With the discovery of the tombstone inscriptions in this Sandai ( Inscription Sandai ) , said Cambodia can be presumed that the relationship between the people in Tanjungpura ( West Borneo ) and the Middle East has existed since the early days of Islam . Muslim traders from Arabia , Persia , and the Indian subcontinent who came to the islands of the archipelago and China not only trade , but to some extent also spread Islam to the people of your Site

However, around 745,

 Chen-la (Cambodia真臘) attacked the capital of Shih-li-fo-shi, and occupied Chaiya and Nakhon Si Thammarat.

 At the same time the control of the Malacca Strait collapsed.

Nearly twenty years later, Śrīvijaya group counter attacked Chen-la and recovered Chaiya and Nakhon Si Thammarat.

At this campaign the Śailendra navy from central Java (Shailendra) played the leading role and the king of Śailendra was given the title of the ‘Mahārāja’ of Śrīvijaya.

The memorial of this event was the ‘Ligor inscription’ dated 775.

 Śailendra became the champion state of Śrīvijaya group, but Śailendra sent envoys to the Tang court under the name of ‘Kha-ling’ same as Sañjaya.

Actual shipment of its tribute was dispatched from the east coast of the Malay Peninsula, probably Sathing Phra, and sometimes from Jambi where international commodities were easily accumulated.

 a Chinese monk,

 I-Tsing,

wrote that he visited…

 ruled Sumatra, the Malay peninsula, and western Java (Sunda)

sīlĕnˈdrä,

sīlĕnˈdrä,

name of a dynasty in Indonesia and SE Asia.

 

 

The dynasty appeared in central Java in the 7th century. and had consolidated its position by the mid-8th cent appeared in central Java in the 7th cent. and had consolidated its position by the mid-8th cent.

The Sailendras, who adopted Buddhism,

extended their power over the Sumatran domains of Sri Vijaya and the Malay Peninsula and exerted influence in Siam and Indochina

748 CE:

Chinese monk Jian Zhen (Jianzhou, of Daming monastery in Yangzhou), failed in his fifth attempt to sail to Japan, and drifted to Guangzhou where ‘many big ships came from Borneo, Persia, Qunglun [Indonesia/Java]… with… spices, pearls and jade piled up mountain high’.

 

 

The largest ship looked like a mansion, with sails many zhangs high. [1 zhang = 3.11 metres.] Sri Lanka was by now the major shipping centre, with ships visiting from India, Persia and Ethiopia; Sri Lankan ships had gangways many zhangs high.
Tang Zhiba, ‘The influence of the sail on the development of the ancient navy’, p.61

752 to 1045:

 The Hindu Medang (Mataram) kingdom flourishes and declines.[12]

 

Emperor SU TSUNG
AD 756-762

Reign title: CH’IEN-YUAN, AD 758-762

While the rebel Shih Su-ming ruled much of China, the legitimate T’ang emperor Su Tsung worked to restore order. In 758 he cast high denomination fiduciary coins to finance the war, but they proved a financial disaster

 

 

 

760 to 830:

 

Borobudur Buddhist monument constructed.[13]

 

The Tang Dynasty (Chinese: 唐朝; Mandarin Pinyin: Táng Cháo; Jyutping: tong4 ciu4; IPA: [tʰɑ̌ŋ tʂʰɑ̌ʊ]; Middle Chinese: Dâng) (618 – 907 AD) was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.

 It was founded by the Li () family, who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire.

The dynasty was interrupted briefly when Empress Wu Zetian seized the throne proclaiming the Second Zhou Dynasty (October 8, 690 – March 3, 705) and becoming the only Chinese empress regnant.

The 7th century and first half of the 8th century is generally considered the zenith era of the Tang Dynasty.

Emperor Tang Xuanzong brought the Middle Kingdom to its golden age while the Silk Road thrived, with sway over Indochina in the south, and to the west Tang China was master of the Pamirs (modern-day Tajikistan) and protector of Kashmir bordering Persia.[48]

 

 

Some of the kingdoms paying tribute to the Tang Dynasty included Kashmir, Nepal, Khotan, Kucha, Kashgar, Japan, Korea, Champa, and kingdoms located in Amu Darya and Syr Darya valley.[49][50]

There was great contact and interest in India as a hub for Buddhist knowledge, with famous travelers such as Xuanzang (d. 664) visiting the South Asian subcontinent.

After a 17-year long trip,

Xuanzang managed to bring back valuable Sanskrit texts to be translated into Chinese.

 There was also a Turkic–Chinese dictionary available for serious scholars and students, while Turkic folksongs gave inspiration to some Chinese poetry.[103][104]

In the interior of China, trade was facilitated by the Grand Canal and the Tang government’s rationalization of the greater canal system that reduced costs of transporting grain and other commodities.[105] The state also managed roughly 32,100 km (19,900 mi) of postal service routes by horse or boat.[106]

 

During the Tang Dynasty, thousands of foreigners came and lived in numerous Chinese cities for trade and commercial ties with China, including Persians, Arabs, Hindu Indians, Malays, Sinhalese, Khmers, Chams, Jews and Nestorian Christians of the Near East, and many others.[115][116] In 748,

the Buddhist monk Jian Zhen described Guangzhou as a bustling mercantile center where many large and impressive foreign ships came to dock. He wrote that “many big ships came from Borneo, Persia, Qunglun (Indonesia/Java)…with…spices, pearls, and jade piled up mountain high”,[117][118]

 

The Kwan Sing Bio Temple

is located in Tuban Regency, the city lying in the north coast of East Java.
It is also easy to reach by public transport such as bus or car since its strategic position close to the Surabaya and Jakarta main road, or take only a short walk about two hundred metres from the Tuban bus terminal.

 

 

 

The worship place of Kwan Sing Bio temple is predicted to have been built in the seventh century and it was also believed to have high supernatural quality, therefore lots of Hindu pilgrims visite there daily, especially on holidays of Chinese calendar Imlek and the birthday of Kwan Ping Thai Tjoe, Kwan Sing Tee Koen, and Tjoe pjong Tiang Koen. The temple faces northward to the seashore.

 

 

 

The Indonesian Chinese communities believe that God will easily grant every prayer spelt in this direction.

 One of its uniqueness is the giant crab standing on the gateway, and such a kind of this is away from the custom since most of the temples have symbol of dragon and peacock

1.The very rare and excellent Tang Dinasty ceramic s and other gold cup were found at the Belitung straits , but very pitty Indonesia fishermen only found the bad conditions collections, all the best collection were gone to Singapore Museum and trader.

2.Due to that condition I starting to seek the info about that collections via google explorations and show to all the Chinese Tang’s  Ceramic collector all over the world.

  1. I hope this info will help the Indonesia and all over the world marine archeologist will used this info fore their research

 

 

 

 

 

 

— Tang Dynasty China

and

Abbasid Persia —

the ship has been reasonably thought to be sailing from one to the other, probably

 

 from

Guangzhou

To

 Basra.

 

Basra silver coin

 The vessel is purported to be the first of Middle Eastern origin found in Southeast Asian waters.

Singapore, alas, didn’t acquire the actual ship, so I didn’t get to see it. We saw the Tang treasure instead.

 

 

6     Changsha Copper Reds

Copper oxide and iron oxide were applied in the glaze material for firing in oxidizing (oxygen rich) atmosphere to give off the green and brown colours.  However, copper oxide would turn red if put under high fire in a reducing (oxygen deficit) atmosphere.  In historical terms, China only started to produce the red color effect in Jun ware made in Henan during the Song dynasty.

 

The appearance of red patches on the bluish Jun wares was probably due to misfire, that is the dropping of copper impurities from the roof of the kiln chamber on the clay body burnt under simmering situation which enhanced the formation of reducing flame.  The occurrence was rather accidental.

Foliage design in copper red (An Islamic version)

From the discovery of Changsha wares, it seems the deliberate use of the copper red effect in Chinese ceramics first took place at the Changsha kilns in the Tang dynasty, which would bring forward the firing of copper red history to an earlier period

.

Spiral symbol motif in copper red (an Islamic version)

The evolution of copper reds from the copper bearing Changsha green and the blue green glazes is not really surprising.  Changsha wares were fired in wood burning dragon kilns built on hill slopes. 

The pulling effect of the wind due to the creation of a vacuum space in the firing process within the slanting structure could flare up the contents in the kiln chamber to an exceedingly high temperature in a very short while. 

This caused the kiln chamber to be suddenly filled with smoke, cutting down the oxygen supply and making occasional accidental reduction from the exceptionally high ash (soot) levels that would turn some of the copper oxide into cuprous oxide (red copper oxide) or colloidal copper ions, thus giving a red colour to a transparent glaze.

The Changsha copper reds were produced mainly by accident as the skill of controlling and manufacturing copper red glazes only reached their most successful expression in the early 15th century AD when Jingdezhen porcelains with copper red glazes were used in China in imperial rites.

 

 Even so, a piece of Ming copper red bowls can cost millions of dollars in the auction market. 

 

Changsha copper reds are therefore found in limited quantities and the shipwreck find will mark a new phase in ceramics history.

 

7     Religious Factors

The under glaze paintings of birds, animals, floral sprigs and trees executed by the Changsha potters during the Tang Dynasty exhibit a good mix of Buddhist and Islamic symbols and influence.  The paintings are exuberant, with attractive, eye-catching yet elegant images and produce an atmosphere of harmony of the two different religions.  The majority of the designs are composed and executed in a simple, uncluttered and spontaneous manner although they sometimes suffer from exaggeration and distortion.

Brief descriptions of some of the more popular painted subjects on Changsha wares are presented as follows:

 

  1. Buddhist symbols

Buddhism was introduced to China during the Western Han period and reached its peak in the Tang Dynasty.  We have found various forms of Buddhist symbols such as the swastika sign or other familiar motifs or molded design in relief as outlined below:

  • Lotus flowers:  painted in exquisite style or free flow of simplified line forms.  The lotus is treated as a sacred Buddhist representation.
   
Lotus motif in green and brown Lotus motif in Copper red

 

Tang Chines ecaligraphy

 

Salak  tree (cyathea spinulosa),

 

 

  • usually in the form of appliqué, is a living fossil of the prehistoric tree fern. The fronds are dark green and finely divided, held in a graceful arching habit, and the slender trunk is able to reach a height of about 20 feet.

It was said that

 

the Great Master Sekkiamani died between two Sala trees, and the Sala tree was regarded as a holy tree and is always shown protected in a cage-like fence.

   
Sala tree motif on Ewer Makara (fish) motif (A Buddhist Symbol)

Makara fish,

which is a legendary animal with a dragon-shaped head and curved nose, is a reincarnation of the Buddha, who always harbors the intention of tying people up for the preaching of the religion.

 

  • Lion motif or molded in relief is a symbol of Buddhism to express the loudness and clarity of the chanting of prayers by the Buddha.Lingzhi fungus is a sign of blessing for longevity.  This usually includes pictures of clouds.
   
Ewer with lion applique Lingzhi fungus with the potter’s mark zhou inscribed

 

 

 

 

  • Islamic symbols

 

 

In order to cater to the needs of the Muslims in the Middle East countries, the ingenious Changsha artisans cleverly painted motifs in line with Islamic teachings.  These consist of the following:

]

 

 

Abstract geographical pictures

are commonly found in Changsha bowls meant for the Arabic market.  First, small dots or beads are applied at random and the beads are arranged in circles, squares and lozenges which are typical design found in Persian embroideries or carpets.

 

]

 

 

 

 

Next comes the free flow lines and spiral symbols

which appear as flora sprigs, foliage or even ribbons.

The spiral is universally regarded as a symbol of movement.

We also see festive firework patterns that exude a sense of happiness.

  All these abstract designs suggest that the Muslims are not allowed to worship idols or anything in the form of living creatures.  Thus, the mosque is empty and only geographical patterns are drawn on the wall.

Arabic Koran scripts written in graphic forms are found on Changsha bowls, in praise of Allah as the only god.

Arabic Koran Inscription “I am the servant of Allah”

 

Arabic Koran Inscription “No other god but only Allah is the God”

 

 

 

Date palms

are a common appliqué design especially on ewers. 

Date palm

This is suitable for the Middle Eastern market as the date palm plantation was one of the important sources of wealth to the people then and sweet and juicy dates were a well-liked delicacy for the Arab people.

 

 The fruits of the date palm in the design have long been mistaken for that of grapes but the palm leaves are definitely different from grape vines.

8     Conclusion

The archaeological salvage of the Batu Hitam shipwreck has unlocked the secrets of the sunken ship and greatly expanded our knowledge of the Tang era.  It is the oldest ship ever found in Asia, in Indonesian waters, and provides the earliest evidence of the flourishing trade between China and Middle Eastern countries via a maritime silk route.

 The cargo is of historical importance and can be classed as a world heritage find.  The collection is a meaningful and important acquisition for Singapore as Singapore is currently an important commercial and maritime centre for the region

8th Cemtury

The Chinese merchants had crossed oceans to trade

 in Japan, Champa, and Java.

 

Jayavarman II is said to have reigned

since 802 until 850 (or 835?)

 

At the early stage of the ninth century

Samaratuńgga, the Mahārāja of Śailendra still dominated the central Java and Jayavarman II was perhaps under his control. Of course Chen-la could have traded with China, however the record of the tributary missions was not found in the Chinese chronicles after 814.

902

The Ten States Kingdom

Unlike the dynasties of northern China, which succeeded one other in rapid succession, the regimes of southern China were generally concurrent, each controlling a specific geographical area.

These were known as “The Ten Kingdoms”. [edit] Wu

The Kingdom of Wu (902–937)

 

 was established in modern-day Jiangsu, Anhui, and Jiangxi provinces. It was founded by Yang Xingmi, who became a Tang Dynasty military governor in 892.

The capital was initially at Guangling (present-day Yangzhou) and later moved to Jinling (present-day Nanjing).

 

 

 

 

 

937

 The kingdom fell in 937 when it was taken from within by the founder of the Southern Tang.

 

  The Kingdom of Wuyue

 was the longest-lived (907–978)

 and among the most powerful of the southern states. Wuyue was known for its learning and culture.

 It was founded by Qian Liu, who set up his capital at Xifu (modern-day Hangzhou). It was based mostly in modern Zhejiang province but also held parts of southern Jiangsu.

 

Qian Liu was named the Prince of Yue by the Tang emperor in 902; the Prince of Wu was added in 904.

 

After the fall of the Tang Dynasty in 907,

he declared himself king of Wuyue. Wuyue survived until the eighteenth year of the Song Dynasty, when Qian Shu surrendered to the expanding dynasty. [edit]

 

 The Kingdom of Min (909–945)

was founded by Wang Shenzhi, who named himself the Prince of Min with its capital at Changle (present-day Fuzhou).

One of Shenzhi’s sons proclaimed the independent state of Yin in the northeast of Min territory.

 

 

 

The Southern Han (917–971)

was founded in Guangzhou (also known as Canton) by Liu Yan. His brother, Liu Yin, was named regional governor by the Tang court. The kingdom included Guangdong and most of Guangxi.

 

[edit] Chu The Chu (927–951) was founded by Ma Yin with the capital at Changsha. The kingdom held Hunan and northeastern Guangxi. Ma was named regional military governor by the Tang court in 896, and named himself the Prince of Chu with the fall of the Tang Dynasty in 907.

921

Prasasti Sukabumi itu, tertera angka tahun 921 M.

 

Di situ diceritakan soal pembangunan bendungan dan sungai yang dimulai pertama kali pada 804 M.

Prasasti Sukabumi adalah sebuah prasasti pada batu

yang ditemukan di perkebunan Sukabumi, kecamatan Pare, Kediri, Jawa Timur.

 

Prasasti ini menurut sebutan ahli epigrafi lebih dikenal dengan nama Prasasti Harinjing.

 

Tulisan yang terdapat pada kedua belah sisi prasasti ini ditulis dengan aksara dan bahasa Jawa Kuna.

 

Prasasti ini terdiri dari tiga buah piagam yang mengenai hal yang sama

 

Bagian depan disebut Prasasti Harinjing A.

Isinya menyebutkan pada 11 Suklapaksa bulan Caitra tahun 726 Saka atau 25 Maret 804 Masehi, para pendeta di daerah Culangi memperoleh hak sima (tanah yang dilindungi) atas daerah mereka karena telah berjasa membuat sebuah saluran sungai bernama Harinjing.

Bagian belakang, Prasasti Harinjing B,

baris 1-23 menyebutkan bahwa Sri Maharaja Rake Layang Dyah Tulodhong pada 15 Suklapaksa bulan Asuji tahun 843 Saka atau 19 September 921 Masehi, mengakui hak-hak para pendeta di Culangi karena mereka masih tetap harus memelihara saluran Harinjing.

Mulai baris selanjutnya, disebut Prasasti Harinjing C,

 

 menyebutkan bahwa hak serupa diakui pula pada 1 Suklapaksa bulan Caitra tahun 849 Saka atau 7 Maret 927 Masehi.

 

.

khuluk_BABAT_JAWA.

 

Edward McKinnon (Nalanda Sriwijaya Center) pada Kunjungan ke Situs Kota Rentang Hamparan Perak. 18 Maret 2010

.DR Edward Mackinnon visit Nalanda Srivijaya center at situs Kota rentang Hamparan Perak

 

 

 

11th Century

The Indian Tamil King Chola Attacked Srivijaya


At the early eleventh century,

 San-fo-chi was occupied by Chola,

the south Indian, Tamil empire. San-fo-chi regained its helm at the end of the eleventh century.

 

 

 

Following a 1025

raid by the Chola Empire (In the period of Emperor Rajendra Chola I) of southern India it began to gradually decline in importance.

Srivijaya’s capital eventually moved northward to Jambi. Palembang is also the origin of Parameswara, founder of the Malacca Sultanate

1030

Prasasti Sanghyang Tapak (juga dikenal sebagai Prasasti Jayabupati atau Prasasti Cicatih )[1] 

adalah prasasti kuno perangka tahun 952 saka (1030 M), terdiri dari 40 baris yang memerlukan 4 buah batu untuk menulisnya. Keempat batu prasasti ini ditemukan \

di tepi Sungai Cicatih, Cibadak, Sukabumi, Jawa Barat.

Tiga diantaranya ditemukan di dekat Kampung Bantar Muncang, sementara sebuah lainnya ditemukan di Kampung Pangcalikan.

Prasasti ini ditulis dalam huruf Kawi Jawa. Kini keempat batu prasasti ini disimpan di Museum Nasional Republik Indonesia, Jakarta, dengan kode D 73 (Cicatih), D 96, D 97, dan D 98

Isi tiga prasasti pertama (menurut Pleyte):

D 73: //O// Swasti shakawarsatita 952 karttikamasa tithi dwadashi shuklapa-ksa. ha. ka. ra. wara tambir. iri- ka diwasha nira prahajyan sunda ma-haraja shri jayabhupati jayamana- hen wisnumurtti samarawijaya shaka-labhuwanamandaleswaranindita harogowardhana wikra-mottunggadewa, ma-

D 96: gaway tepek i purwa sanghyang tapak ginaway denira shri jayabhupati prahajyan sunda. mwang tan hanani baryya baryya shila. irikang lwah tan pangalapa ikan sesini lwah. Makahingan sanghyang tapak wates kapujan i hulu, i sor makahingan ia sanghyang tapak wates kapujan i wungkalagong kalih matangyan pinagawayaken pra-sasti pagepageh. mangmang sapatha.

D 97: sumpah denira prahajyan sunda. lwirnya nihan.

Translate]

 

Selamat dan sejahtera. Pada tahun Saka 952, bulan Kartika pada hari ke-12th bagian terang, hari Hariang, Kaliwon, hari pertama, Wuku Tambir.

 

Hari ini adalah hari dimana raja kerajaan Sunda, Maharaja Sri Jayabupati Jayamanahen Wisnumurti Samarawijaya Sakalabuwanamandaleswaranindita Haro Gowardhana Wikramottunggadewa,

membuat tanda tapak di bagian timur Sanghiyang Tapak.

 Dibuat oleh Sri Jayabupati raja kerajaan Sunda. Tidak ada seorangpun yang boleh melanggar aturan ini.

Di bagian sungai ini tidak boleh menangkap ikan, di kawasan pemujaan Sanghyang Tapak dekat hulu sungai.

Jauh hingga ke batas Sanghyang Tapak yang ditandai dua pohon besar.

Demikanlah tulisan ini dibuat, ditegakkan dengan sumpah kerajaan Sunda.

 

Piagam persumpahan raja ditulis di atas prasasti keempat (D 98). Terdiri atas 20 baris, sumpah ini memanggil semua kekuatan gaib, dewata (hyang) dari langit dan bumi untuk membantu menjaga dan melindungi mandat sang raja.

Siapa saja yang melanggar aturan ini akan dihukum oleh segenap makhluk halus, mati dengan cara yang mengerikan seperti otaknya disedot, darahnya diminum, ususnya dihancurkan, dan dada dibelah dua.

 

 Prasasti ini ditutup dengan kalimat,

 “I wruhhanta kamung hyang kabeh

 (Oh ketahuilah kamu sekalian hyang

 

 

In 1068,

King Rajendra I of the Chola Dynasty conquered what is now modern day Kedah from Srivijaya

and began a series of raids in Sumatera and Malay Peninsula for the next 20 years.

 Though ultimately, Srivijaya prevailed over the Indian Kingdom, the invasion leave Srivijaya severely weakened.

With large number of soldiers died in the war and it’s coffer almost empty plus 20 years of disrupted trades, Srivijaya reach grow short. It’s territories began to freed themselves from Palembang ruled and establish many small kingdoms all over Srivijaya former empire.

There’s some evidence that Srivijaya capital moved from Palembang to Jambi, but this is widely disputed. [4]

 

After the collapse of Srivijaya,

no major power that controls the town.

At that time in Palembang and the surrounding emerging local forces such as the Great Commander in the lower Yellow River Musi, The Trembling Nature group in the hills, the Master and Master Bosai Strong River upstream Histories, Commander Gumay groups along the Bukit Barisan, and so on. [citation needed] In addition, some merchants of China make this city as their trade base. Sea People also made their headquarters Palembang as a pirate.

In this phase,

 Prince emerged last Sriwijaya, Parameswara. Following the invasion of Majapahit to Palembang, Parameswara with Sang Nila Utama go Tumasik fled.

 There he killed the governor Tumasik Thai nationals. When the Thai army will attack Tumasik, Parameswara with his followers moved to Malacca in the Malay Peninsula, and established the kingdom of Malacca.

Parameswara converted to Islam to marry the daughter of Ocean Pasai and changed his name to Sultan Iskandar Shah. Malacca flourished in the 15th century so that Parameswara became the sole ruler of the Malacca Strait and waters around it.

The Indian Tamil King Chola Army Attacked Sumatra and the fall of Srivijaya

Kota Cina sites

1080

1080-1350

CHINESE CITY

(KOTA CINA MEDAN)  

 

the end

Copyright @ Dr Iwan 2914

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Sung Dragon Pklate found West Java

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Song Porcelain

The Song Dynasty saw the introduction of many new folk kilns ceramics form and Imperial Court’s involvement in the production of ceramics for the palace use.

Song porcelain ware is an epitome of aesthetic perfection.  Generations of potters have drawn and will continue to draw inspirations from Song ceramics creations.  The elegance of the shape of the vessels achieved was superb.  The aesthetic beauty of jade -like celadon glaze of ru/guan/longquan reached unsurpassed perfection and delicacy.  The icy bluish beauty Qingbai glaze has enchanted generations of porcelain collectors.  The curved/impressed decorations of Ding and Yaozhou wares reigned supreme.

The ingenuity and creativity of the Cizhou and Jizhou potters was also amazing.  They were able to overcome the limitations of poor quality raw material for porcelain making and came out with innovative and aesthetically wonderful products.  The use of white slip to whiten the body and further using it as a decorative element for sgraffiato design was brilliant.  Building on the foundation of the celadon underglaze iron-pigment brown/black decoration of the earlier era, the cizhou kilns fully developed the underglaze iron-pigment motif on white ground.  It became a main-stream product until it was overtaken by blue and white in the Ming dynasty and marginalised in the Qing Dynasty.   The jizhou potters were able to work on a dark and a lighter colour glaze to achieve great products such as the tortoise’s shell/tiger’s fur effect and paper cut motifs.

The potential of the copper oxide was finally realised in the dazzling beauty of rainbow-like purplish/red splashes on blue ground of Jun wares.  The ever inexhaustible potential of iron-pigment for amazing decorative effect was proudly displayed in the form of the temmoku hares’ fur and oil spots.

It was also a period of commercial liberalisation and huge growth in overseas trade which was encouraged by the imperial court as a source of substantial tax revenue.  An important development was the large number of kilns that were set up in the coastal region in Guangdong and Fujian to produce porcelains for the Southeast Asia market.  The coastal kilns made use of their proximity to the port, Guangdong Guangzhou during the Tan/Song period and Fujian Quanzhou during the Southern Song period to produce lower end copies of Yue, Longquan celadon, Jingdezhen Qingbai and Jian temmoku wares to meet overseas demand. For more on Guangdong and Fujian trade ceramics, please read below:

Tang/Song Guangdong trade ceramics

Song/Yuan Fujian trade ceramics

Song Jun, Ru and guan wares

In the area of ceramics production, an important development was the setting up of official kilns to produce ceramics for the Imperial palace.  During the Northern Song period, Jun and Ru wares , both a form of celadon, were produced.

The Jun kilns at Baguadong (°ËØÔ¶´£©and Juntai £¨¾ų̂£©were located in Yu county£¨ÓíÏØ£© in Henan.  The Jun kiln used iron and copper oxides to fire an opacified bluish glaze with red or purplish splashes.  Vessels included flower pots, washers, dishes, censor, bowls, zun and etc.  Some of the flower pots/stands  have number (1-10) carved on their base.  It has been established that the number is an indication of the size.  Some vessels also have inscription such as fenghua (·î»ª£©¡¡and sheng fu¡¡£¨Ê¡·û£©.  [Guan Jun is still a controversial subject with some experts questioning the Northern Song attribution.]

Folk kilns in Henan also produced Jun wares but the number of Song/Jin wares excavated were few.  The best Jun from the folk kiln were produced at Liu Jiamen (Áõ¼ÒÃÅÒ¤£©¡£

Ru wares were produced in Baofeng Qingliangsi £¨±¦·áÇåÁ¹Ë£©¡¡in Henan. They usually have a light sky-blue colour with tiny spur marks on the outer base. Vessel forms consisted of mainly dishes, washers, bowls and some archaic zun vase, lian-form censers and vases. Some vessels also have the inscription fenghua¡¡£¨·î»ª£©.

During the Southern Song Period, two officially operated kilns were built at Xiuneisi and Jiaotanxia with the former in operation first. They consisted of jade-like thick which powdered bluish or yellowish colour tone.  They have iron black body with majority having crackled glaze.  The best have very thick multi-layered glaze and biscuit think body.

 

For more on the guanwares, please read : Song Guan Wares .

 

Yue/Longquan greenware (celadon)

During the Northern Song period, Yue ware was still an important greenware. The products of this period is characterised by fine incised motifs covering floral, bird, phoenix, dragon and human motif. A form of more deeply curved combined with incised style of decoration was introduced during the Mid Northern Song Period and continued to be used during the rest of the Northern Song Period.  Yue greenwares essential ceased by early Southern Song period.

Longquan of the Northern Song essentially copied the Yue curved/combed motifs.  Longquan developed its famous powder¡¡green £Û·ÛÇà£Ýnd mei zi qing (plum green) [÷×ÓÇà£Ýglaze towards the end of Southern Song period.  The ware is characterised by multi-layered glaze application with jade like quality. It is arguably the greatest achievement of all green glaze wares.   Longquan potters also produced some guan-type black body wares during the late southern Song period.

The curved/combed motifs longquan motif was widely adopted by the Fujian kilns during the late Northern Song/early Southern Song period.  It was an important export item and was termed Tongan type greenware or Juko (shuko seiji) £ÛÖé¹âÇà´É£Ýgreenware in Japan. Shuko was a Japanese monk who was known for his preference for Tongan type greenware for tea ceremony.

For more on Longquan celadon, please read: Longquan Celadon

For more on Longquan influenced Fujian greenware, please read: Fujian Trade Ceramics

Yaozhou Greenware (Ò«ÖÞÒ¤£©

Yaozhou established itself as the greatest Northern Celadon (greenware) production centre during the Northern Song Period.  The most famous was the Huangbao £¨»Æ±¤£©site at Tongchuan Shanxi (Í­´¨¡¡ÉÂÎ÷£© . But the kiln sites included Chenluzhen¡¡³Â¯Õò£©, Lidipo £¨Á¢µØÆ£©and Shangdian¡¡£¨Éϵ꣩.  Yaozhou greenware was famous for the curved motif with strong 3 dimensional visual effect.  An interesting characteristic of Yaozhou wares is the ginger-yellow scotched marks on the base and at the footring. After Mid Northern Song, elaborate impressed motifs were introduced and gradually became the more dorminent products.  The impressed motifs were varied and consisted of flowers, dragon, phoenix, fish, makara, flying fairies, infants and etc.  Yaozhou greenware continued to be produced during the Jin period and gradually ceased during the Yuan period.  During the Jin period, an important Yue bai £ÛÔ°ףÝ(moon-white) glaze was introduced.

Yaozhou type greenwares were also produced in Henan kilns such as those in  Linru £¨ÁÙÈ꣩£¬Xinan Cheng Guan ((а²³Ç¹ØÒ¤£©¡¡and Baofeng¡¡£¨±¦·á£©.  They are very similar to the Yaozhou production but are generally of poorer quality.

For more on Yaozhou greenware, please read: Yaozhou Celadon

 

Ding ware (¶¨Ò¤£©

Ding kiln was located in Jiancicun (½§´Å´å£©¡¡in Quyang county¡¡£¨ÇúÑôÏØ£©.  The kiln started production during the Tang period and achieved great fame during the Northern Song and Jin period for its ivory white glaze and finely curved and later even more famous impressed motifs. It was at one point an important tribute ware to the Imperial court during the Northern Song period.

One of the most important contributions of the Ding potters was the invention of the inverted firing Method.  It was subsequently adopted by many kilns including Jingdezhen.¡¡This method enabled more pieces to be fired in the kiln.  It however required the removal of glaze at the rim.

Important Ding type white wares were made in Pingding (ƽ¶¨£©and Jiexiu£¨½éÐÝ£©in shanxi £¨É½Î÷£©¡¡province.

For more on Ding ware, please read: Ding ware

 

Qingbai (Yingqing) ware

Qingbai meaning bluish white ware, was invented in Jingdezhen during the Northern Song period.  The best Qingbai wares were produced in Hutian kilns (ºþÌïÒ¤£©¡¡near Jingdezhen. The curved motif on Northern Qingbai wares was excellent.  The pooling of the bluish glaze in curved area of the motif enhance and bring out the profile of the motif nicely.  Impressed motifs were popular during the Southern Song and Yuan Period.  The glaze became more whitish during Southern Song and gradually became more opaque¡¡especially in the Yuan Dynasty.

Qingbai wares in British Museum

Qingbai was an enormously popular product and were produced in numerous kilns in Jiangxi in areas around Jingdezhen, Nanfeng and Jizhou and also provinces such as Anhui, Zhejiang, Fujian and Guangdong.

Qingbai wares were exported overseas in large volume during the Song/Yuan period.

For more on Qingbai ware, please read: Qingbai (Yingqing) wares

 

Cizhou ware

Cizhou kilns are located in Guantai £¨Ò‹Ì¨£©and Pengcheng £¨Åí³Ç£©area in Hebei.  Its main products consisted of whiteware, blackware and wares with underglaze iron black/brown decoration on white ground.  The iron pigment painted decoration first appeared in late 3 Kingdom period and some rare examples were made by the Yue kilns.   But it was only during the Song period that it was popularised by the cizhou and cizhou type kilns and was produced even to this day.  The white glaze was able to show off the iron brown decoration distinctively and attractively.

Other famous  decorative types included incised/curved and sgraffito motif.¡¡¡¡

There are numerous other kilns located in Hebei, Henan (some famous ones such as Dangyangyu kiln [ÐÞÎäµ±ÑôÓøÒ¤]£¬Hebiji kiln [ÌÀÒõº×±Ú¼¯Ò¤]£¬pa chu kiln [ÓíÏØ°Ç´åÒ¤]£¬Dengfeng kiln [µÇ·âÒ¤]£©, Shanxi yaozhou kiln¡¡(Ò«ÖÞÒ¤£©, Ningxia Lingwu kiln (ÁéÎäÒ¤£©,Inner Mongolia Chifeng kiln (³à·åÒ¤£©£¬ Shanxi Jie xiu and ping ding kiln (½éÐÝÒ¤£¬Æ½¶¨Ò¤£©, Shandong, Anhui, Jiangxi jizhou kiln£¨¼ªÖÞÒ¤£©and Guandong which produced similar wares.  There are definitely some local stylistic decorative differences and also in terms of shape/form and glaze and paste  appearance.  Yet one can still discern that they are unmistakably cizhou in character especially in terms of the decorative techniques.  Hence, they are widely termed as cizhou type wares.

Dangyangyu kiln (ÐÞÎäµ±ÑôÓøÒ¤)in Henan also produced a famous marbled ware. It is also termed wood grain pattern, pheasant’s wing pattern or feather pattern.  Other Henan kilns producing such product included Qingliangsi in Baofeng £¨±¦·áÇåÁ¹Ë£©and Chengguan in Xinan(а²³Ç¹Ø£©

For more on Cizhou ware, please read: Cizhou wares

Overglaze enamelled Wares

The overglaze enamelled red, green and yellow motif on white glaze ware was an important new decorative type introduced during the Song period.  Most extant pieces were from the Hebei cizhou, Henan pacun (°Ç´åÒ¤£© and Shanxi Changzhi kiln £¨³¤ÖÎÒ¤£©and shandong zibo (×Ͳ©Ò¤£©.  The decoration was drawn on the high fired white glaze vessel.  Upon completion, it went through a second low firing of about 800 degree centigrade to adhere the enamels to the white glaze surface.  The vessels consisted of mainly bowls, dishes and human figurines.  In fact, black enamel was used for the eye brow and eyes of figurines from pacun kiln.

There were further development of overglaze enamelled wares during the Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasty and subsequent became the widely known Ming/Qing wucai .

 

Black wares

Jian (temmoku/Tianmu) ware

Jian black wares were made in Jian kilns situated in shuiji Jianyang (Ë®¼ª½¨Ñô£©in Fujian province.  Its major products were black glazed tea bowls with purplish black paste.  The most famous type had hare’s furs effect on it.  The hare’s furs are streaks which are either brownish or silvery white in colour.   Some highly priced type have bluish irridescent oil-spots of different sizes and shapes in the glaze.¡¡Those made for the palace had the inscribed chinese characters gongyu (¹©Óù£©or jinzhan £¨½øÕµ£©¡¡mark.

Tea contest was popular during the Song Dynasty.  Jian tea bowls were considered most suitable for such contest as its glossy black surface contrasted well with the white  tea.

During the Song Dynasty, the monasteries in the Tianmu mountains were frequently visit by Japanese monks who took the black tea bowls used in the monasteries with them when they returned home.  Hence black tea bowls came to be known as Tianmu (temmoku) in Japan.

Jian tea bowls were in high demand during the Song Dynasty and numerous kilns in Fujian also produced them to meet the demand.  There were also other kilns in provinces such as Zhejiang, Jizhou and sichuan which produced them.

Such bowls continued to be produced for sometime into the Yuan period.

For more information on Fujian temmoku, please read: Lianjiang shipwreck Fujian temmoku bowls

 

Jizhou ware

Jizhou kiln is situated in Yonghe £¨ÓÀºÍ£©in Ji’an £¨¼ª°²£©in Jiangxi province.  During the Southern Song period, Jizhou kiln developed a distinctive decorative technique which involved sprinkling a lighter glaze over a darker base glaze to produce the so called the tortoise shell and tiger fur effects.  They may have a dry mouldy mottled quality or could be more transparent and glossy if fired at a higher temperature.  There were many other varieties of  mottled effect.

The Jizhou potters also used paper cuttings  for decorations. The openwork stencils of cut paper was positioned on the  dark glaze surface.  A lighter glaze is then sprinkled over the whole surface.  A black design on a lighter colour mottled background is produced when the paper cutting is removed.   Some more commonly found papercut designs include plum blossom, floral spray, dragon, and phoenix.  There are also those with rhomboid patterns and 4 Chinese characters such as fu shou kang ning “¸£ÊÙ¿µŒŽ” ie  fortune, longevity, health and peace  or chang ming fu gui “³¤Ãü¸£¹ó” ie long life and prosperity.

During the late Song period, Jizhou also produced the underglaze iron-brown cizhou type painted motifs vessels.

For more on Jizhou ware, please read: Jizhou wares

 

Northern China black/brown wares

Northern kilns such as those in Henan and Hebei also produced beautiful oil spots black glaze tea bowl.  The Yaozhou and Ding black and Zijing glaze wares were also high excellent.   Henan kilns also made black wares with iron rust effect design of floral/bird and splashed design.  The black glaze was first applied and then the  design  painted over the glazed surface using iron-rich pigment.  The ware was fired at about 1300 degree centigrade and the iron pigment transformed into haematite crystals which is rust red in colour.

 

Kudat Song Shipwreck

The wreck was said to be discovered by fisherman on 15 Apr 2003.  However, based on the condition of the wreck, it is obvious that looting of the cargo had already taken place before the official announcement.   Some quantity of the ceramics from this wreck made their way to antique shops in Kota Kinabalu. The Sabah Museum gave Nanhai Marine Archaeology Sdn Bhd, a salvage company,  a permit to excavate the site. More than 800 ceramic and non-ceramic items were salvaged  from a depth of 400 metres from the Tanjung Simpang Mengayau shore at the northern tip of Borneo, close to Kudat in Sabah.  Simpang Mengayau meaning  ‘lingering junction‘ is where the South China Sea lingers and meets the Sulu Seas.  The treacherous coastline was the cause of many past shipwrecks.

 

 

Kudat wreck,  dated to the Song period, is the oldest  shipwreck discovered in Malaysian waters.  Some of the salvaged items are now on display at the Sabah museum.

I visited Sabah Museum in Aug 2011,  According to the museum short introduction of the wreck, the wreck is a Chinese merchant ship which was probably on its way to Brunei which ancient Chinese text recorded that it had diplomatic and trading relationship with China since the Song Dynasty.  The following types of ceramics were found:

  1. a)  Celadon bowls and dishes with carved motif from Tongan (同安)kiln in Fujian Province
  2. b)  Qingbai ewers and cover boxes from Fujian province
  3. c)  Celadon dishes with carved floral motif from Longquan
  4. d)  Kendis and jars from Guangdong province

After examining the ceramics artifacts on display, I am of the view that they are dated to Early Southern Song period.  Some of the Qingbai ewers , cover boxes, Fujian celadon with carved motif and Fujian cizao brown glaze kendis  are similar to those found in the Jepara shipwreck.  The celadon bowls and dishes with carved motif are from Fujian kilns, some could be produced in Tongan (同安) but we cannot preclude the possibility of other coastal kilns.  Kiln sites excavation revealed that kilns in county such as Nanan (南安), Fuqing (福清), Putian (莆田), Anxi (安溪) and  Minhou (闽侯) also produced similar style celadon wares. The dark brown kendis and jars are most likely products of Quanzhou Cizao (泉州磁灶) kiln  .

Ceramics recovered form the Kudat wreck

 

 
The ‘mercury jars’, ewers and kendis are most likely products of Cizao kiln in Quanzhou.
 
Cizao kiln kendis in Jepara wreck

Fujian celadon bowls with carved motif in Kudat wreck

Celadon bowl and dishes with carved motif from Fujian kiln

Qingbai ewers.  Similar ewers were recovered from Jepara wreck

Qingbai ewer from Fujian kiln from Jepara wreck

The large number of Fujian ceramics found in the Jepara, Nanhai 1 and Kudat wreck is testament of the importance of Quanzhou as the main port where goods were assembled and exported through the maritime trade route.   Quanzhou replaced Guangzhou as the most important port during the Southern Song period.  It maintained its prominent role during the Yuan period.  Fujian coastal region just like Guangdong during the Tang/Northern Song period, capitalised on its strategic location and built kilns to produce ceramics which copied the famous kiln such as celadon from Longquan, Qingbai from Jingdezhen and temmoku bowls from Jian kiln.  Such products targeted mainly the consumers from Southeast Asia region. However, some quantity also made their way along the mairtime trade route to places as far as India, middle East and East Africa.

Source

Mr Koh

 

Sung Ceramic From Auction

Driwan Comment

I found this type ceramic at Jambi,Palembang,west java ,tuban and west Boneo, and Makasar

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Huai-jen ware Stoneware with dark-brown glaze. Song Dynasty

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A CIZHOU-TYPE RUSSET-SPLASHED BLACKISH-BROWN-GLAZED BOWL NORTHERN SONG/JIN DYNASTY, 12TH-13TH CENTURY The rounded, conical body is covered on the interior and upper exterior with a lustrous, variegated, blackish-brown glaze that is decorated on the interior with five russet splashes, and on the exterior falls in an irregular line atop a thin brown glaze that ends irregularly above the foot to expose the granular ware that has fired to a buff color. 7 1/8 in. (18.2 cm.) diam.

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A JIZHOU PARTIALLY-GLAZED ‘WILLOW BASKET’ STONEWARE JAR SOUTHERN SONG/YUAN DYNASTY, 13TH-14TH CENTURY The unglazed exterior is finely combed with parallel lines forming concentric semi-circles on two sides and, at their longest, continuing under and across the small flat base. There is a combed band encircling the neck above a row of pointed bosses of white glaze. The rolled rim and interior are covered with a russet-mottled black glaze. 3 5/16 in. (8.4 cm.) across mouth

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Song Dynasty

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Vase with Waves China (Southern Song or Yuan Dynasty) The Cleveland Museum of Art

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kara miller ceramics #plates

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A LONGQUAN CELADON ‘TWIN FISH’ DISH 12th c.

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Kendi decorated in underglaze copper red, Jingdezhen, Ming dynasty, Hongwu period (1368-1398). Height: 15.3 cm, Width: 16 cm. C.54-1937. Sir Percival David Gift. © V Images.

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Porcelain flask decorated in underglaze blue with dragon design, China, Ming dynasty, ca. 1400-1430. Height: 13 in, Diameter: 8.5 in. 554-1878. © V Images.

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Vase, porcelain decorated in underglaze blue, China, Qing dynasty, Yongzheng mark and period, 1723-1735. Height: 52 cm. C.286-1910. © V Images.

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Cizhou-Vase in Mei-ping-Form. | North China / Province Hebei, Jin-Era 12. century

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Cizhou-Vase in Mei-ping-Form. | North China / Province Hebei, Jin-Era 12. century

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A rare green ‘jun’ ‘lotus bud’ water pot. Song dynasty. photo Sotheby’s

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Jizhou ware porcelain bowl with speckle pattern, Song Dynasty

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Ewer, Northern Song dynasty 11th-12th century; Yaozhou ware. Image from The Metropolitan Museum of Art

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Vase (meiping) with inscription ‘Fine wine with delicate aroma’. Yuan-Ming dynasty, 1350-1400. Longquan kilns, south China. Stoneware with olive green (celadon) glaze. Height: 47 cm. FE.34-1972. E. V. Lee Gift. © V Images.

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 Jian Temmoku bowls (Jian Zhan)

 

Jian temmoku bowls were prized by tea connoisseurs during the Song Dynasty.  However, with changes to the tea drinking habits, it lost favour subsequently and awareness and knowledge of its eminent stature was erased from the Chinese memory with the passage of time. During the late Qing/Republican period, there was a revival of interest in these black glaze bowls as one category of antique Chinese ceramics for overseas collectors   Many of the antique ceramics, with some as early as the Neolithic period, were from ancient tombs/graves and kiln sites.  Many of the black glaze bowls that surfaced in the Shanghai and Beijing antique markets were defective bowls from kiln sites.  According to the Jianou chronicles (建欧县志) dated 18th year of Republican era  ie 1929 A.D,antique dealers  paid the villagers to illegally dig up Jian kiln black bowls and transport  them to Shanghai or Japan. 

James Marshall Plumer, an American who served as a custom officer in Fuzhou in Fujian, got wind that the bowls originated from Shuji (水吉) in Jianyang (建阳)in Minbei (Northern Fujian).  He made a trip there in 1935 and collected numerous sherds and kiln furnitures such as clay separator and saggars.  He became a Chinese ceramics scholar and was noted for his study on Jian temmoku bowls.  

 

Origin of the term Jian Zhan and Temmoku

The term Jian Zhan () first appeared in Japanese written sources during the early 14th century.   Zhan 盏)is a chinese word which means a small bowl during ancient time. Many writings related to Jian zhan mistook it to mean bowls from Jianyang as Shuiji where the kilns were located is now part of Jianyang county. But that only happened during the 20th century.  Prior to that, Shuiji came under the jurisdiction of Jianou (建欧) county.  In 207 A.D of the Eastern Han period, Jianou, known as Jianan (建安), was set up as a county.  It was elevated to prefecture status subsequently and renamed as Jianzhou (建州) in 621 A.D of the Tang era.  Cai Xiang (蔡襄) in his “Record of Tea”, Cha lu (), wrote : “.. The tea bowls made at Jianan have purplish black glaze with hare’s fur pattern. The body is slightly thicker and so retains the heat well.”  Hence, the term Jian Zhan is more likely refer to zhan from Jianan or Jianzhou.   However, in line with the Song convention of naming famous ceramics after the prefecture that they were made, such as Ding or Yue wares, it is most appropriate to understand it as meaning Jianzhou zhan.

Nowadays, it is common to refer to Jian Zhan as Temmoku (Tenmoku) bowls.  According to the Qing chronicle “Da Qing Yi Tong Zhi”  (大清一统志)”, Tianmu mountain (Tenmoku in Japanese), located in present day Zhejiang Linan city (临安市), had many zen sect temples during the Song/Yuan period.  Many Japanese monks went there to study and practice Zen Buddhism.  When returning to Japan, they brought back with them black glaze tea bowls which included those from Jianzhou and other kilns, which they termed Tenmoku bowls (天目碗)ie bowls from Tianmu mountian. Tea drinking is an effective means to stay awake during meditation. 

In the Japanese work (禅林小歌dated 1394 – 1427 A.D, there appeared to be distinction between various types of Jian zhan and other types of tea bowls such as  Fuzhou zhan  (福州) and tenmoku.  However, subsequently the term tenmoku was used loosely to refer to all types of black/brown tea bowls.  

Tianmu mountain in Linan city located west of  Hangzhou

Tea competition and Jian Zhan

Tea from Fujian Fuzhou and Jianzhou were mentioned in Tang Lu Yu’s treatise on tea (陆羽茶经).  By the Northern Song Dynasty, Jianzhou tea, ie Jian cha (建茶) achieved so much fame for its quality that in 977 A.D, Bei Yuan Yu Cha Yuan (北苑御茶园), an officially managed imperial  tea plantation was established in Jianzhou (present day Jianou city).  The tea leaves gone through the process of powdering, steaming and baking. After which, they were packed in cake form before sending to the palace.   

Cai Xiang (1012 – 1048 A.D) ), a native of Xianyou (仙游) in Fujian, was once  in charge and supervised the official Beiyuan tea plantation.  During the stint in Jianzhou, he gained deep knowledge of a leisure activity called tea competition enjoyed by the locals.  He became an ardent convert.  Using his influence as a high ranking court official, he introduced the art of Fujian tea competition to the imperial court.   In his  treatise “Record of Tea”, Cai Xiang ranked  a type of white Jiancha called Dragon Pheonix tea (Longfeng tea 龙凤茶) and Jian purplish black glaze bowl with hare’s fur pattern as the best for tea competition. Through his active promotion, tea competition became a popular and noble activity of the imperial court and the literati class.  This activity gained a further boost during the late Northern Song Emperor Huizong’s reign ( AD 1101-1125).  He was a great connoisseur of the tea culture and displayed his in-depth understanding in a twelve-chapter dissertation “Discussion of Tea in the Daguan period ” (Da Guan cha lun 观茶录 ).  He too advocated Jian hare’s fur tea bowls as the best for tea competition.  The competition was judged based on certain criteria, such as the taste, fragrance, colour of the tea (white superior to yellowish tone).  During the contest,  the tea was whisked to white froth  The tea should stay well-mix and the first to show traces of residue loss was declared the loser. 

Tea competitions became the favourite past time of the rich and poor in many areas in China. Due to popular demand, Jian kilns produced large quantity of tea bowls during the Song period.  For those common folks who could not afford Jian Zhan, they could avail themselves of cheaper version of tea bowls produced in other provinces and numerous other Fujian kilns.  

 

Origin, dating and characteristics of Jian Zhan

Shuiji, a market town in present day Jianyang,was the location where the ancient Jian kilns were found.  Since 1960, 4 official archaeological excavations, ie in 1960, 1977, 1990 and 1991,  were carried out in Shuiji.  Kilns were discovered in small villages in:

  • Luhuaping (芦花坪) – celadon and black glaze sherds
  • Niupilun (牛皮仑)–   celadon and black glaze sherds
  • Daluhoumen (大路后) –  black glaze, small quantity celadon and blue and white sherds
  • Yuangtoukeng(源头坑) – black glaze sherds 
  • Anweishan (庵尾山) –  celadon and black glaze sherds
  • Shuiweilan (水尾) – black glaze sherds
  • Yingzhanggan (营长乾– black glaze and qingbai sherds
  • Qililan (七里) .– black glaze sherds

 

Based on archaelogical evidence, small scale celadon wares were produced during late Tang/5 Dynasty period in kilns located at sites such as  Luhuaping (芦花坪), Niupilun (牛皮仑) and Anweishan (庵尾山).  The wares consisting of bowls, plates, jars, ewers, cover boxes and etc.  The vessels which are generally rough and stylistically similar to the celebrated yue wares. The glaze is generally uneven and the lower portion of the external wall of the vessel is unglaze. The vessels were fired with protection of saggars.

By late 5 Dynasty/Early Northern Song, the Jian potters started to produce two types of shallow bowls with slightly in-curving rim.   The lower external wall and foot is unglaze.  The glaze is thin and black/dark brown in colour. The bowl is quite thinly potted with a slight protrusion on the inner base.  Below the rim, the wall is of relatively even thickness.  The paste is greyish or greyish brown.  Such bowls were recovered from the kiln in Anweishan (庵尾山).  The bowl was fired upright in a saggar.

Precursor of the typical Jian wares

Tao Gu (陶穀) (903 – 970 A.D) in his work Qingyilu (清异) wrote that among the tea bowls made in Min (Fujian), there are those decorated with partridge-feather mottles.  His work has often been quoted to back the dating of Jian tea bowls to 5 Dynasty/early Northern Song period.   It gives the impression that by late 5 Dynasty/early Northern Song, Jian potters were already producing the celebrated Jian zhan.  However, based on archaeological evidence, the bowls of late 5 Dynasty/Early Song period are generally rough as compared with the mature products of mid Northern Song onward.  Extant tea bowls with partridge-feather mottles are found in bowls which were stylistically  produced at least from mid Northern Song period onward.  In fact, the authenticity of Qingyilu is now being questioned by some Chinese scholars.  Some suggested that it was a fictitious work of late Northern Song period.

Based on the archaeological findings, the typical Jian tea bowls were produced from the Mid Northern Song (perhaps from 2nd quarter of 11th century) to late Southern Song period. Jian kilns also produced small quantity of  black glaze cups, bowl-shaped lamps and bo-shaoed bowls. There are at least 8 different types of tea bowls in 3 sizes that were produced during the duration.  

From the bowls recovered from the kilns, it is clear that type 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 and 8 were found in large quantity.  Type 1 with a conical form and an indent near the rim is the most classical form which is usually associated with the celebrated Jian Zhan.  Based on Jian bowls recovered from graves, this form became the dominant form from the late Northern Song period onward.  In fact this served as a prototype which was widely copied by potters from other kilns. Compared with those from other kilns, the typical Jian bowl has a thicker and lustrous glaze.  The paste is usually purplish black and more dense.  (It should be noted some especially the small size bowls have greyish or redish brown paste.  This is because they were placed in locations  which received uneven or lower heat while firing in the kiln). The unglaze lower portion is carefully finished.  It appears smooth and usually do not show shaving marks when trimming the external wall.  The wall of the bowl thickens as it descends towards the foot. The base is thick and the square cut foot is neat and the outer base sits within a shallow inner footring.   

   
   
   
   
   
Some examples of Jian tea bowls

For tea  bowls sent as tribute to the palace, there are at least a portion which is marked with Gongyu (供御) ie tribute or Jinzhan (进盏) meaning to present bowl.  The characters are either incised or impressed.  They were found in the kilns dated mid Northern Song to Southern Song. 

   

Besides Gongyu and Jinzhan mark, there are also others incised with chinese characters of surname/name of the potter/or kiln owner or Chinese character/chinese numeral which could indicate location which item was to be place in the kiln.

   

Bowls with glaze decorated with hare’s fur marking or  partridge feather mottles were highly prized by the Song tea culture connoisseurs.  Many Song literati made reference to them in their poems and commentary. Hare’s fur markings are silvery or rustic streaks which are found on the interior and exterior wall of the lustrous black glaze bowl.  According to Nigel Wood in his book “Chinese Glazes”, once the glaze melted, a layer of thin iron-rich droplets coalesced to form a thin layer within the glaze.  Some of the iron-rich droplets were brought ot the surface by bubbles and run down the sides of the bowl under the influence of gravity.  The iron oxide in these streaks crystalised out into silvery tone if under reduction or rustic tone if under oxidisation atmosphere.  

   
Hare’s fur bowl with rustic streaks
   
Hare’s fur sherd  with silvery streaks 
   

 

As regard Partridge feather’ glaze,  in the past there were debate on whether the markings actually refers to fine markings on the back of the partridge or large light-coloured spots on its breast.  Most argued that it cannot be the fine markings on the back as some other types of bird  also have similar marking.  On the other hand, large light-coloured spots is unique to a type of partridge in Fujian.  This is now the more widely accepted meaning for partridge feather mottles.  In 1988 a  shard with 66 carefully placed white glaze spots was excavated from the Shuiweilan (水尾)  kiln.  The base has a incised gong yu mark  suggesting that it was originally intended for tribute.  This is now acknowledged as partridge feather glaze. It make sense of a Northern Song poet’s description of a Jian bowl having markings that appear ‘like melting snow on dark water.

   
A Fujian partridge with white spots on the breast Jian sherd with white spots and gongyu mark

In the Japanese collections, there are some Jian Zhan with silvery or rustic oil-spots (termed Yuteki in Japanese). In DaDe Temple, Kyoto in Japan there is a Jian Zhan with oil-spots.   The silvery oil-spots are large, the result of several oil-spots congealed into bigger spots during firing.  Indeed, they resemble the partridge spots.  Those with smaller oil-spots are also classified as partridge feather type although strictly speaking the similarity is less convincing.

   

 

 

Oil spots Tenmoku in Japanese collection. The spots are smaller as compared with that from Dade temple

 

Oil spots tenmoku bowls are scarce.  According to Nigel Wood : “It happened occasionally that kiln temperatures began to fall while the glazes were still boiling, thereby fixing the iron-rich spots before they could run down into streaks. … The effect was copied in north China during the the Song and Jin period,  using a more reliable technique that involved the application of an iron-rich (and perhaps magnetite-based) slip beneath an ordinary black temmoku glaze. The success of this approach has meant that northern oil spot temmokus are less uncommon than the jian originals.”    His comments is important and rectify the erroneous explanations in some past published text that Jian hare’s fur and oil spots glaze involves the application of an iron-rich slip.

There are 4 extremely rare tenmoku bowls with yohen glaze in the Japanese collections.   The term Yohen means dazzling and brilliant kiln transmutation.  The  clusters of brown-colored spots of various sizes are either surrounded by light blue or deep blue or golden iridescent film. 

In the past, no known example of Yohen was found outside Japan.  Few years ago, a broken piece was found in Hangzhou in a location near the imperial palace.

   
   

Yohen temmoku found in Hangzhou

By the late Southern Song period, Jian potters also manufactured qingbai wares with carved or impressed motif.  One of the kiln at Yingzhanggan (营长乾) has a layer of qingbai sherds above Jian zhan sherds layer.  This indicated that Jian kiln was facing stiff competition from Jingdezhen which produced Qingbai wares.  The decline popularity of Jian Zhan could also be linked to the decline in popularity of tea competition. To ensure their survival, some kilns were forced to branch out and  produce the increasingly more popular Qingbai wares.  Latest by early Yuan period, Jian kilns ceased production.

 

 Temmoku bowls from other Fujian kilns

To meet the hugh domestic and overseas demand for temmoku bowls, they were also produced in large quantity in other kilns in Fujian, mainly in Jianyan (建阳), Wuyishan (武夷山), Songxi (松溪), Guangze (), Jianou (建瓯), Pucheng (蒲城), Nanping (南平) , Changting (长汀), Fuqing (), Minhou (闽侯) and Ningde (宁德).  Most of the sites produced a mix of celadon, qingbai and black wares.  For temmoku bowls, the dominant form produced were similar or variants of the Jian conical bowl with the indent near the rim.  

Among the sites, those at Wuyishan Yulinting (武夷山遇林亭), Nanping Chayang (南平茶洋)  and Fuzhou Dongzhang (福州东张) were large in scale and were found in overseas  especially Japan.  

Wuyishan Yulinting (武夷山遇林亭) produced an interesting form with decoration in gold.  In most instances, the decorations have faded and only traces could be seen.  The motif includes dragon phoenix, crane, pine, bamboo, prunus, flowers and orchid.   There were also those with auspicious wordings or landscape.  In some past ceramics publications, such bowls have been erroneously attributed to Jian kiln. Bowls from this kiln have mainly  greyish to greyish white paste.

A bowl with traces of gold decoration of auspicious phrase “寿山福海” connoting longevity

The medium size temmoku bowls from Nanping Chayang (南平茶洋) is distinguishable by a thin horizontal ridge where the foot meet the wall.  This feature appears to be unique to this kiln. The shaving marks are usually clearly seen on the unglaze lower external wall.  

   
A medium size (12 cm dia. ) bowl from Nanping Chayang kiln

In the 1980s, local residents recovered a large number of small Temmoku tea bowls from a wreck at Bai Jiao (白礁) in Fujian Lianjiang Dinghai (连江定海).  The Fujian ceramic experts observed that many of the bowls were similar to those produced at Fuqing Dongzhang (请东张) and Minhou Nanyu (闽侯南屿) and dated them to Southern Song period. Dong Zhang kiln complex was large and comparable in size to that at the Jian complex.  They produced large quantities of temmoku and celadon bowls.  In the Japanese work (禅林小歌dated 1394 – 1427 A.D, a type of tea bowl  called Fuzhou zhan (福州) was mentioned.  During the Song/Yuan period, Fuqing and Minhou came under the jurisdiction of Fuzhou.  Hence, Fuzhou zhan most probably included tea bowls produced in those two counties.  In ancient sites in Japan Fukuoka and Kamakura, there were numerous similar type of tea bowls recovered and were dated to mid 12th to first half of 13th century.  Many Dongzhang bowls were also recovered from ancients sites in the coastal Fujian region.   

After studying the large number of small tea bowls from the Lianjiang wreck in my collection, it is hard to confirm with certainty the actual kiln of production. Those from Dongzhang, Minhou Nanyu (闽侯南屿) and Ningde Feiluan (宁德飞鸾) appear similar.  They share the characteristics of having a casual finishing with poorly formed foot and shaving marks.  The profile of the conical bowl with the indent at the rim could vary to a large degree.  The lower wall could descent more gradually or steeply to the foot.  The glaze is more thinly applied and large number show a thinner layer of glaze especially at the lower wall near the foot.  Some of the bowls also have bluish white or rustic hare’s fur markings but are not well-defined and clear compared to those from the Jian Kiln.  The colour of the glaze ranges from black, black with rustic patches, brown, tea-dust or rustic .

Examples from Lianjiang wreck showing the different profile of the conical bowls

Examples from Lianjiang wreck.  Below one shows traces of hare’s fur markings

 

Some examples of temmoku bowls from the  Min Hou, Fuqing and Ningfei kilns are shown below.

 

 

Written by : NK Koh 

 

 

Compare with yuan celadon at the next page

Dr Iwan Comment

I upload this CD-Rom after I found some Song ware from West Java.

To more now I upload the info from my other research

The Chinese ancestor Song

Read and Look at the next page

If the collectors want to get this CD-Rom

Please contact me via email

iwansuwandy@gmail.com

donnot forget to upload you ID copy and the home address

this important to protect from

internet hijact.

Emperor china during

. 960 AD to 1279 AD Song and Liao and Jin Dynasty Emperors

       
Emperor Song Taizu Emperor Song Taizong Emperor Song Huizong Emperor Song Gaozong

 

 

 
China was unified again by
the Song Dynasty

(960 – 1279).

The Song dynasty produced a complex series of coins. Song emperors used many reign titles and different calligraphy styles were used in the coins.

This is a guide to the coins of

the Northern Sung Dynasty

(AD 960 to 1126),

the coin uncommkon and rare.

Dr Iwan Notes

The Nothern Song found many than the Southern Song Coins

 

The Sung Dynasty, established in AD 960,

saw relative stability in China, although conflict with the Tartars and Mongols continued. In AD 1127 the northern provinces were lost to them

and

the capital had to be moved from

K’ai-feng Fu (Pien-liang) in the north

To

Lin-an Fu (Hangchou) in the south.

We now refer to the period before the move as the Northern Sung and after the move as Southern Sung.

This is a complex series, with nine Emperors using dozens of reign titles and many inscription and calligraphy variations which defined dates and mints. If the variations were catalogued, they would number in the thousands. Unfortunately the key to understanding them no longer exists..

Song Dynasty,

Is Many Armor Leaves (Iron Sheet) One Kind Of Iron Armor Which Connects With The Rawhide Or The Armor Nail Becomes. It Protects The Whole Body Nearly, For China Ancient Armor’s Apex.

AD960-AD1279



Northern Song Dynasty

 

 

Emperor Taizu – Song Dynasty

 

[] Emperor Taizu [Tai-tsu] , the first emperor

 

[]Emperor Taizong

 

 

[]Emperor Zhengzong

[] Emperor Renzong

[]Yinzong

[]Shenzong

[]Zhezong

[]Huizong

[]Qinzong

 

Due to many North and south Sung Coins found in Indonesia were the history fact that North Sung Empire had many trading to the Indonesian kingdom starting from the later srivijaya and the kingdom after that after the Sung empewor had helped srivijaya and another kingdom from the Tamil Indian chola king occupation Indonesia, and all the Indonesian Kingdom sent tribute to Sung empires that is why the north sung cash coin were upload completey for  better wto  learn  with more detailed information

 

 

 

OUTLINE OF THE BRONZE COINS

At the standard in use since the T’ang, the Northern Sung monetary system was based on full weight bronze 1 cash averaging 3.5 grams, 2 cash averaging 7 grams cast sporadically after AD 1093, and on a few occasions, usually during times of war, bronze 3 and 10 cash fiduciary coins cast to the 2 and 3 cash standard. In addition to bronze coins, fiduciary iron coins were also cast through much of this period.

AD 960 to 1041.

The only bronze northern song coins were full-weight 1 cash.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1030

The Sanghyang Tapak or also called Jayabhupati inscription, dated 952 saka (1030 CE). Displayed at National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta.

 

Discovered in Pancalikan, Bantar Muncang, Cibadak, Sukabumi, West Java.

 

 

 

The inscription was edicted by Jayabhupati, king of Sunda kingdom

that declared forbidden (conservation?) lands east of Sanghyang Tapak, that forbade people from catching fish in the river and wetlands in this area.

 

 

 

 

 

AD 1041.

Fiduciary 3 cash (S-505) of about 7 grams and 29 mm. This was the earliest North Sung issue higher than a 1 cash. As a fiduciary issue it proved unpopular and subject to counterfeiting and

 in AD 1059

was devalued to 2 cash, consistent with the weight.

 

Out of this defeat, however, emerged the reign of Airlangga, founder of Java’s first empire.

Reputedly the son of a Balinese king and a Javanese princess, he was able to bring east and central Java, as well as Bali, under a relatively united regime, though this probably meant that he was able to keep up a sustained intimidation of regional lords, rather than that he ruled closely.

 His capital was at Kahuripan in the lower reaches of the Brantas and his seaport, Hujung Galah, was probably close to the site of modern Surabaya.

On his deathbed in 1049,

Airlangga

between his two sons, one taking the lower reaches of the Brantas as ruler of a kingdom known as Janggala, the other establishing a new capital in Panjalu (later Kediri) and ruling a kingdom called Daha. Hardly any information on either kingdom has survived, but two hundred years later, when records are once more available, the division was still politically significant.

By the early 13th century, Kediri had conquered Janggala, but in 1222, Kediri itself was overthrown by a usurper, Ken Angrok, who established his capital at Singhasari. Singhasari’s greatest ruler was Kertanegara, who presided over a time of rapid development in Javanese culture

 

AD 1070.

Fiduciary bronze 10 cash (S-538) of 7.2 grams and 30 mm were issued to raise funds for the Western Wars. As with the earlier fiduciary issues, these were unpopular and subject to counterfeiting and were devalued to 2 cash at the war’s end. Iron 10 cash were also issued at this time.

 

 

AD 1093.

Full-weight 2 cash of about 7.0 grams and 29 mm. (S-575) were introduced as a regular part of the currency, but only issued sporadically.

AD 1102.

Fiduciary 10 cash (S-621) were cast in an attempt to introduce them as a regular part of the coinage. At about 11 grams and 31 mm these contained 3 cash worth of metal and were devalued to value 3 cash in AD 1111.

AD 1107.

A full weight 10 cash was issued (S-630) at about 27 grams and 50 mm, but was withdrawn within a year. These appear to have been hoarded, and used as a cheap source of metal for counterfeiting the fiduciary 10 cash issues still circulating from the issue of AD 1102.

 

 

OUTLINE OF THE IRON COINS

The earliest northern Song iron coins

consisted of non-fiduciary 1/10 cash. Schjoth (page 28) records: “In the 2nd year of Ching-te (AD 1005) large iron coins were cast in the two localities of Chia-ting Fu and Chiung-chou in Szechuan, value one copper cash or ten small iron cash. These all circulated jointly and gave much satisfaction.”

The large iron coins, of bronze 1 cash value, seem to be S-472 (10.83 grams, 35 mm). We believe

the “small iron cash”

valued at 1/10th of a copper cash are the well known iron issues of bronze cash size and weight which start with the T’ai-p’ing (S-462) issues of AD 976-984. This would explain a passage where Schjoth records Mr. Hu, in AD 978, paid for copying some sacred classics with

120 strings of iron money. Recording payment specifically in iron money would not be necessary unless iron and copper cash were valued differently. This establishes iron at about 1/10th the value of copper, a figure very important to understanding other iron issues. The larger iron coin (S-472), at about 11 grams, was fiduciary with only about 0.3 cash worth of iron.

A careful analysis of the coins, as well as the literary evidence, suggests the following sequence:

AD 978. Non-fiduciary 1/10 cash iron coins are first cast. It is possible that earlier specimens may one day come to light.

AD 990. Non-fiduciary 1/10 cash iron coins cease to be cast, but continue to circulate until at least AD 1005.

AD 1004 (possibly a little earlier). Fiduciary iron 1 cash ware introduced (S-472) at 11 grams, 35 mm and issued sporadically throughout the Northern Sung period but at ever-reducing weights and sizes.

AD 1017. The standard for iron 1 cash is reduced to about 7 grams, 28 mm (S-483).

AD 1023. The size of iron 1 cash is reduced to about 25 mm, but the weight remains at about 7.0 grams (S-487).

AD 1070. Fiduciary iron 10 cash (S-542a) of 35 mm and variable weight between 7.5 and 11 grams are issued to finance the Western Wars. At the end of the war these are devalued to 2 cash.

AD 1093. Iron 2 cash (S-580) introduced at the same standard as the 10 cash of AD 1070, but prove an unsuccessful experiment and by the end of AD 1094 are trading at scrap iron prices (about 0.4 cash).

AD 1101. The weights of iron 1 cash become variable (S-615) averaging about 5.75 grams but specimens between 3.5 and 7 grams are encountered. The size remains consistent at about 25 mm.

AD 1111. Iron 2 cash (29 mm, 7-10 grams) (S-643) and 3 cash (32 mm, 9-11 grams) are cast but again faile to be accepted.

 

 

THE NATURE OF THE FIDUCIARY ISSUES

When we were first writing this site, the issuing and later devaluations of fiduciary coins appeared somewhat random, but it quickly became obvious this was not the case.

All of the iron coins, with the exception of the early 1/10 cash issues were fiduciary. Fiduciary 1 cash iron coins were accepted throughout this period, but all attempts at higher denominations were rejected.

It appears that almost all fiduciary bronze coins, and most fiduciary iron over 1 cash, were only cast during times of war or other emergencies and afterwards the bronze coins were devalued to denominations consistent with their size and weight, while iron coins were demonetized and withdrawn from circulation.

Fiduciary bronze was always cast to standards consistent with lower denominations, allowing them to be devalued later and still fit into the pre-existing coinage system. This shows planning, suggesting they were cast with the full intent of a future devaluation. (The same is not true of fiduciary iron coins).

 

 

INSCRIPTION VARIETIES

Northern Sung coins present a complex series of inscription variations which, while easily catalogued, are poorly understood. Date and mint codes are probably hidden in these variations, but it is possible we will never understand them.

 

CALLIGRAPHY STYLES

Schjoth’s introduction to Northern Sung coinage (page 27) says: “As regards the style of writing, the coins in the ‘seal’ writing come first, followed by those in the clerkly or orthodox writing, and ultimately finishing up with the ‘running’ hand, or ‘grass-character’ style of writing.”

By using “or” he is saying “clerkly” and “orthodox” are one script style, “running hand” and “grass-character” are a second. Seal script is the third style. A quick examination of the coins shows his statement of only three styles of calligraphy are correct.

 

  • “SEAL” –

Zhong he tong bao@

a very formal style of writing. Rounded characters with a fixed form and all details of each character included. The differences between coins are minor. There is no real Western equivalent, but type set block capital letters come closest.

 

  • “ORTHODOX” –

Chong he tong bao

Ta ting tung pao

also referred to as “clerkly”. Angular characters with a generally square or rectangular appearance in which most details are made up of distinct either straight or slightly curved stokes. The general layout of a character is fixed, but small details can be left out. From coin to coin there can be significant differences. The closest Western equivalent is handwritten small-case printing.

 

  • “GRASS” –

Chung hua yung bao@

Yuan feng tong bao@

Compare the same coin in seal script

 

Northern Song ZhiDao YuanBao Grass script US $6.00@

 

 

 

 

Compare with the very rare

Li script

Jing Kang Tong Bao

 

 

Northern Song dynasty, 960-1127,

Jing Kang Tong Bao, 1126, iron 1 cash, H16.518, S-669, Li script, aVF $180.00 sold 7/4/2011

 

also referred to as “running hand”. Flowing characters on which several details of a character can be represented by a single wavy or jagged line. A form of shorthand in which a character can show major differences from coin to coin. This is distinctly like Western handwriting (as opposed to hand printing).

Confusion throughout the general listings, such as for S-633-637 (page 33) where he states the type exists in both “clerkly” and “orthodox” script leads us to believe Schjoth did not write this part of the catalogue. It must have been written by someone working from his rough notes in which must the terms have been used interchangeably.

We relied on Schjoth’s drawings and descriptions to determine the calligraphy style of most issues, but the drawings are not always accurate. Some of the drawings show coins with a mix of orthodox and grass characters, in which cases we list the coin by the style of the 12 o’clock character. If actual specimens confirm this mixing of types, we will comment on them later.

 

INSCRIPTION ENDINGS

In his introduction to the Northern Sung coinage, Schjoth (page 27) writes “It will be noted that the Yuan-paos, implying the ‘opening’ or ‘beginning’ currency are placed before the T’ung-paos, implying the principle of the ‘flowing’ currency.”

A simple examination of the coins shows no such relationship exists. There is also a third ending,”Chung-pao”, which Schjoth has ignored in this passage. We have noted the following pattern in the use of these endings:

AD 960 to 989 –

all coins use “T’UNG PAO”.

AD 990 to 1007 –

all coins use “YUAN-PAO”.

AD 1008-1016 –

both “T’UNG PAO” and “YUAN-PAO” during the same reign title.

 

 

 

AD 1041 –

Chung ning chung pao

a third ending of “CHUNG-PAO” was introduced.

AD 1017-1041 –

only one ending was used during any reign title, but it could be either “T’UNG PAO”, “YUAN-PAO” or (after AD 1041) “CHUNG-PAO.

AD 1053-1126 –

no evident pattern. Anywhere from one to three endings used in any reign title. In the cases where only one was used, it could be any of the three.

At this time we cannot comment of the significance of these endings, but there must be one. Coins of some reign titles are very rare and it is possible new types may turn up which will help establish a more significant pattern.

 

 

INSCRIPTION ORIENTATIONS

Northern Sung coins occur with inscriptions reading either

@

TOP, BOTTOM, RIGHT, LEFT

Tai ping tung bao

or

@

TOP, RIGHT, BOTTOM, LEFT.

Grass script Northern Song Dynasty, Sheng Song Yuan Bao 1101-1106A.D.

1cash “Knotted Sheng” – Price 55 USD

 

 

Other example

Seal script Yua yao yuan bao@

Orthodox script Tong Seng Yuan bao

Both orientations occur throughout and some issues can be found either way. We have not yet been able to determine any significance of these two orientations.

 

 

 

 

 

 

DATE TITLE under
23
mm
23-26
mm
27-30
mm
31-35
mm
over 35
mm
968-975 KAI-PAO Sung yuan tong bao 3.2 grams
976-984 T’AI-P’ING@ 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.1 grams@
990-994 SHUN-HUA@ 

@

3.2 grams
995-998 CHIH-TAO yuan pao@ 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.5 grams
998-1004 HSIEN-P’ING Yuan Pao @ 3.6 grams
1004-1007 CHING-TE yuan pao@ 3.5 grams
1008-1016 HSIANG-FU  

 

 

 

 

 

3.7 grams
1017-1021 T’IEN-SHI @ 3.2 grams
1023-1031 T’IEN-SHENG@ 3.7 grams
1032-1033 MING-TAO@ 3.9 grams
1034-1037 CHING-YU@ 3.7 grams
1038-1039 PAO-YUANhuang yu tong pao @ 

 

3.6 grams
1040 K’ANG-TING 3.3 grams
1041-1048 CH’ING-LI 3.3 grams 7.2 grams
1049-1053 HUANG-YU 2.7 grams
1054-1055 CHIH-HO@ 3.7 grams
1056-1063 CHIA-YU yun pao 3.5 grams
1064-1067 CHIH-P’ING yuan pao@ 3.6 grams
1068-1077 HSI-NING@ 3.5 grams@ 7.2 grams@
1078-1085 YUAN-FENG@ 3.3 grams@ 7.0 grams
1086-1093 YUAN-YU@ 3.2 grams 7.8 grams
1094-1097 SHAO-SHENG@ 3.7 grams 7.0 grams
@
1098-1100 YUAN-FU@ 1.7 grams 3.2 grams 7.4 grams
1101 CHIEN-CHUNGShen shung yuan pau 2.0 grams 3.6 grams@ 6.5 grams
1102-1106 CH’UNG-NING@ 2.7 grams 10.3 grams
1107-1110 TA KUAN@ 3.85 grams ?? grams 23.5 grams
1111-1117 CHENG-HO@ 3.3 grams2 7.2 grams
1118 CHUNG-HO 4.9 grams
1119-1125 HSUAN-HO 3.4 grams 6.1 grams 6.7 grams@
1126 CHING-K’ANG 7.3 grams

 

 

.

 

 

 

The Yuan (元)government

 inherited the ‘maritime custom system’,

so the individual state could trade with the custom officers at the major ports of China.

At the beginning of the Ming(明) Dynasty,

 the first emperor Hongwudi (洪武帝) resumed the tributary system.

Then so-called ’San-fo-chi’ appeared to the Ming court.

This San-fo-chi came from Palembang.

At that time Palembang was a vassal state of Java (the Majapahit kingdom) and Java killed the envoy from the Ming court at Palembang.

Hongwudi realized that he was cheated by the rulers of Palembang and accepted the situation.This ‘faked San-fo-chi

The end

Copyright @ 2014