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Japan Papermoney History Collections (sample of E-Book In CD-ROM)

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SPONSSORED BVY OUR ANCESTOR MUSEUM WANLIS SONS NORTH JAKARTA INDONESIA

Driwan Masterpiece uniquecollections :”The Limited JJ STokes Rugby(Football) Trade Card Collections”(koleksi Kartus rugby langka JJ Stokes)

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

THE FOUNDER

Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM

SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showroom :
The Driwan Masterpiece Uniquecollection Cybermuseum

(Museum Duniamaya koleksi unik masterpiece Dr Iwan)

SHOWCASE :
THE LIMITED EDITION JJ STOKES RUGBY(FOOTBALL) TRADE CARD

FRAME ONE:
THE LIMITED 795 CARDS, AUTOPHONEX TEST ISSUE TRAD CARD
( Dr IWAN COLLECTIONS)
FRONTSIDE


BACKSIDE

FRAME TWO:
THE JJ STOKES BIOGRAPHY


J. J. Stokes Date of birth: October 6, 1972 (1972-10-06) (age 38)
Place of birth: San Diego, California
Career information
Position(s): Wide receiver
College: UCLA
NFL Draft: 1995 / Round: 1 / Pick 10
Organizations
As player:
1995-2002
2003
2003 San Francisco 49ers
Jacksonville Jaguars
New England Patriots
Playing stats at DatabaseFootball.com

Jeral Jamal Stokes (born October 6, 1972) is a former National Football League wide receiver. Stokes last played in the NFL in December 2003 for the New

THIS ARTICLE SPONSPORED BY MU FRIEND

JEAN BELGIAN

SINCERELY YOURS Dr iwan suwandy,MHA

Consultan Information

collections can look at my museum “Our Ancestor Museum WANLI SONS North Jkarta Indondonesia”

LO9OK THE SAMPLE BELOW AND PLEASE SEND YOUR COMMENT

JAPAN PAPER MONEY HISTORY COLLECTIONS

BY

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Limited E-Book In Cd-Rom

Special for Numismatic Collectors and Historian Scholars

Copyright @ Dr Iwan 2016

 

Dr Iwan comment

In July 2016 I visit this country , with my wife Lily and So0n Anton ,with his wife Grace and my granddaufghter Cess withh her grandmother Sisca. We we stayed at GrandNikko Hotel Tokyo, we visit Mount Fuji, then by train we visit Osaka and stayed at   Hotel mayling Osaka, we visit also Kyoto , then after that I with my wife visit Hongkong.

 

Preface

I found Japan papermoney in 2000, and

I still collected that papermoney until this day .

In 2016 I star to collect Switzerland Paper MoneY

RAREREST COLLETION jAPAN 10 YEN BELOW

And for add my museum collections in North Jakarta Pondok Gading “Our Ancestor Museum WANLI SONS”

This E-book I write for my Sons Anton Jimmi Suwandy ,and his wife Grace with their children Cessa as the remembrance of my effort to ptotect the world heritage from Switzerland.

I put some information from Wikipedia dan E-Bay to give more knowledge to collectors and historian scholar.

Jakarta August 2015

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Ret.Senior Superintentands Indonesian National Police

Consultant Information

 

Introduction

10th Century

During the period of Japanese history from 1185-1603, Japan was ruled by the Emperor, but his power was not absolute.

1603-1863

One of the neatest collectible currencies in the world is Japanese Hansatsu. These banknotes were issued during the Edo Period (1603-1868), but there are similar designs issued before the Edo period and after the Edo period, during the Meiji Restoration, which restored Imperial Rule to Japan.

 

 


After winning the Battle of Sekigahara

in 1600, Tokugawa Ieyasu became the supreme ruler over Japan. He organized all the Daimyo’s into around 300 Han, a type of fief, or domain, from which he demanded loyalty. Those who were his enemies had their houses destroyed and their lands taken. Those who were loyal, he granted powerful positions to in the Han’s.


The Han’s were able to produce what were called Han-Satsu, a type of banknote similar to notes issued previously by private issuers, but had since been removed from circulation. Hansatsu were issued in the different han’s and they circulated primarily within the han they were issued in, though there were a few exceptions. Hansatsu were based on the gold, silver and copper coinage of the time, but there were a few that that were to be exchanged for commodities such as rice and fish.

17th Century

Yamada Hagaki Period Issued By Shinto Priest

1600

A Yamada Hagaki, Japan’s first banknote, circa 1600.

Japan’s first banknotes, called Yamada Hagaki (山田羽書), were issued around 1600 by Shinto priests also working as merchants in the Ise-Yamada (modern Mie Prefecture), in exchange for silver.[1] This was earlier than the first goldsmith notes issued in England around 1640.[1]

 

 

1661

An early issue of domain scrip took place in the Fukui domain in 1661. As early as 1610, private notes had been printed for purposes such as payment of workers on construction projects. Domains issued scrip to supplement coins in times of shortage and to adjust the amount in circulation. They also exchanged scrip for coins to improve the financial situation of the domain. By the end of the period, eight out of ten domains issued paper, as did a few daikan-sho and hatamoto.

 

Accepting scrip always carried the risk of forfeiture.

18th Century

Edo Period

(Era Shogun)

Feudal domains of Japan

During the Edo period, feudal domains of Japan issued scrip called hansatsu (藩札?) for use within the domain.

During the Edo period, the shogunate seized some domains, and transferred others; on such occasions, the new daimyo might not honor the old scrip. Following the condemnation and death of the daimyo Asano Naganori, for example, Ōishi Yoshio, a house elder in the Akō Domain (and later the leader of the Forty-seven Ronin), ordered the redemption of scrip at 60% of face value. In addition, in times of financial difficulty, the domain might simply declare scrip void.

Early in the period, domains printed their own scrip; later, they operated through

 

 

1707

In 1707 the controlling Tokugawa Shogunate banned the use of paper money, due to abuses of the system.

1730

However, in 1730, the practice of issuing Hansatsu was officially resumed. In reality, Japan was actually controlled by powerful Daimyo, (feudal lords) and Shoguns (warlords). This period has been divided up into separate periods of rule based on who was in control at the time.

prominent merchants, whose credibility was important to the acceptance of the currency.

This paper currency supplemented the coinage of the Tokugawa shogunate. Most scrip carried a face value in silver coinage, but gold and copper scrip also circulated. In addition, some scrip was marked for exchange in kind for a commodity such as rice.

In addition to those issued by the domains, forms of paper money were also issued by rice brokers in Osaka and Edo. Originally used only as a representation of amounts of rice (subdivisions of koku) owned by the scrip-holder and held in the Osaka or Edo merchants’ storehouse, these scrips quickly came to be used as currency

1866

Japan Edo period papewr money “Hansatsu Imone” Nara 1866 UNC Est price IDR 263,157.89

Dr Iwan Comment

I found this paper money three type , two from Tokyo flea market and one from Jakarta market.

Japanese Banknotes

 

 

A collection of 18th & 19th century Hansatsu banknote designs

 

 


When Tokugawa Yoshinobu resigned in 1867, the result was the Boshin War in January of 1868, in which the Shogunates forces were defeated and the Emperor declared himself to be restored to power. This period is known as the Meiji Restoration. At this time the government began an exchange program for people to turn in their Hansatsu for the new national currency called the Dajoukansatsu, which was the first banknote issued by a central government in Japan. This was met with reluctance, however, and the exchange ran until 1879.

 

Hansatsu notes are vertically printed and narrow, which has garnered them the nickname of ‘Bookmark Notes’ by some collectors. The notes have many different designs and motifs, and are usually filled with the Japanese Kanji script both in printed and handwritten form. One of the more prevalent design features is that of a corpulent man standing on two barrel shaped rice bales, and carrying an oversized sack over his shoulder. These depictions are of the Daikokuten, one of the Shichi Fukujin, or Seven Gods of Fortune. Originating from the Buddhist faith in India, where he was known as Mahakala and was a fierce warrior god. Towards the end of the fifth century, he was ensconced in Buddhism, and he made his way to Japan by the eighth century where, over time, he lost his fierce ways and became a chubby, happy man. Renamed Daikokuten, he adopted a magic mallet, a large treasure sack, bales of rice, and became the god of wealth, happiness, farming, and of course, good fortune. He rapidly grew into a favorite deity throughout Japan.

 

His association with agriculture has him depicted almost always standing or sitting on two rice bales. This has also made him a favorite deity for cooks and kitchens. Tradition also has it that the main pole in a house is often called the Daikokuten pole, meant to support the house with good fortune.

 

The oversized sack of treasure has in it three items, in abundance: Wealth, Wisdom and Patience.

 

The magical wooden mallet is said to be able to grant whatever wish you want when it is struck on the ground, and when shaken, coins will magically appear to fall out of it. The mallet contains a wish granting jewel, called the Hoju, that is a special symbol of power in Buddhism. The Hoju is said to be able to grant wishes, bring calm, and give understanding of the Dharma, or Buddhist law. The Dharma is also considered to be wealth in Buddhist teachings. The jewel has also been said to contain the sacred ashes of the Buddha himself. The mallet can also be seen with three jewels in a flame, or a single pointed flame.  The three jewels and flame are, along with rice, powerful fertility symbol. On Hansatsu notes, these jewels can most often be seen on the ends of the rice bales.

 

Daikokuten is somtimes depicted with three heads, and is then known as the Sanmen Daikoku, which is depicted to show him as the protector of the three Buddhist “Treasures”: Buddha himself, Law and Buddhist disciples. This depiction of him was quite popular during the Edo Period in Japan.

 

Below are some typical Hansatsu notes from my personal collection. As I do not read Japanese, the translations are not complete. I have had to base my identification of these notes from the information I could obtain from the seller, or from other sources in books or on the Internet. Unfortunately, I have not come across a detailed description of these notes in English, and have often had to rely on sources in French or Polish – there is undoubtedly something lost in the translation at some point. Any assistance in the identification or translation of these notes will be greatly appreciated.

Link: How to attribute dates on Hasnatsu

 

1 Silver Monme – 1740

 

 

1 Silver Monme – 1863

 

 

1 Silver Monme Issued by the Shibamura Han in the Yamamoto-Wahsu Province during the Enkyo (Edo) era, year 2 (Kinoto Ushi) – Western year 1745

 

 

1 Silver Monme Issued during the Kyoho era, year 15 (Kanoe-inu) Western year 1730

 

 

1 Silver Monme – Undetermined Han and date

 

 

 

1 Silver Monme – Issued in the Anwei era – Western year 1854

 

 

 

1 Silver Monme Issued during the Tenpo era – Western year 1838

 

 

1 Silver Monme Issued during the Keio era year 2 (Hinoe-Tora) – Western year 1866

 

 

1 Monme Issued during the Keio era – Western year 1865

 

 Image result for JAPAN 1 Monme Issued during the Keio era - Western year 1865-1867

1 Monme Issued during the Keio era – Western year 1865-1867

 Image result for JAPAN 1 Monme Issued during the Keio era - Western year 1865-1867

 

1 Monme Issued during the Koka era, year 4 (Hinoto-Hitsuji – Western year 1847

 

 

1 Silver Monme Issued during the Keio era year 1 Nana Meguri Hanchi-ko Mura – Western year 1865

 

 

1 Silver Monme Issued during the Bunkyu era, year 4 Hyogo Prefecture of Kasai – Western year 1863

 

 

3 Silver Bu Issued during the Kyoho era, year 15 Kanoe-inu – Western year 1730

 

 

3 Silver Monme Issued during the Kyoho era, year 15 Kanoe-inu Nagasawa, Kawachi (Osaka) – Western Date 1730

 

 

1 Silver Monme issued by the Yanagimoto Han in Yamato no Kuni Nara-Ken Prefecture Issued during the Bunsei era, year 13 – Western year 1830

 

 

1 Silver Monme issued by the Mangani Temple of Abeyamain Yamato no Kuni Nara-Ken Prefecture Issued in Keio 2nd year during the Edo era – Western year 1866

 

 

 

3 Silver Monme issued by the Hatake Mura Village in Atsumi Gin, Mikawa no Kuni – Achi Ken Prefecture Issued during the Meiji era, year 2 – Western year 1869

Valid until Meiji 5th year – Western year 1872

 

The gentleman catching a fish in this vignette is not Daikokuten, but is instead the ‘laughing god’ Ebisu, one of the Seven Gods of Furtune. According to legend, Ebisu gained ill favor with his elders at the age of three, and he was cast into the sea, who is always happy and laughing, and evidently very generous. He is depicted as always wearing traditional Japanese court clothing with a fishing rod and a fish known as a ‘red sea-bream’ (pagrus cardinalis), which is supposedly the most delicious fish that can be prepared. In some modern illustrations, he is also associated with jellyfish.

 

Ebisu is the patron of merchants and tradesmen, as well as fishermen. Perhaps due to his clothing, it is considered good luck to purchase clothing and material on Ebisu Day.

 

How to date Hansatsu (Or try to really, really hard, anyway!)

Link: How to attribute dates on Hasnatsu

 

Source

http://www.banknoteden.com/Japan.html

Look more Hansatsu Edo Papermoney collections from this era from E-Bay auction

Japan Edo period paper money “Hansatsu 1monme” Nara 1866 Uncirculated

o    IDR263,157.89

o    Buy It Now

o     

o    From Japan

o   

Japan Edo period paper money “Hansatsu 1monme” Nara 1700s

o    IDR131,578.95

o    Buy It Now

o     

o    From Japan

o   

JAPAN HANSATSU 31 NOTE LOT – OUTSTANDING LOT -MANY SCARCE NOTES – 1700S- 1800S

o    IDR4,440,789.47

Was: IDR5,921,052.63

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o    25% off

o    From United States

JAPAN HANSATSU – MEIJI ERA 3 MONME SMALL NOTE

o    IDR118,421.05

Was: IDR157,894.74

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o    25% off

o    From United States

Japan Edo period paper money “Hansatsu 1monme” Nara 1700s

IDR171,052.63

The shogunate prohibited the use of scrip in 1707.

 

.Edo Period: Pre-conditions for Industrialization

(See Handout no.2)

The Edo period: 1603-1867

 

Nikko Toshogu Shrine (Yomei Gate)

 

Tokugawa Ieyasu, the first Edo Shogun

From the late 12th century through the 17th century, Japan was ruled by samurais (military leaders) but politics remained unstable. Internal wars and power shifts were very frequent, especially during the late 15th century to the end of the 16th century (called Sengoku Jidai, or warring period).

Finally, Ieyasu Tokugawa unified the country after the decisive Battle of Sekigahara (located between Nagoya and Kyoto, visible from Shinkansen) in 1600 and the attacks on Osaka Castle in 1615 where the rival Toyotomi family perished. Ieyasu established a new government in Edo and became the first shogun of the Edo Bakufu in 1603. Edo, a sleepy little town until then, was transformed into a huge political city by aggressive public works including land reclamation, new canals and clean water supply systems. The Tokugawa family ruled the country in the next 264 years (15 shoguns in all). Ieyasu Tokugawa was deified and worshiped in Nikko Toshogu Shrine (even today).

We start the story of Japan’s economic development from the Edo period because pre-conditions for later industrialization and modernization were created internally during this period (moreover, quantitative data for earlier periods are very limited). The following are the pre-conditions that were generated:

(1) Political unity and stability
(2) Agricultural development in terms of both area and productivity
(3) Development of transportation and the existence of nationally unified markets
(4) The rise of commerce, finance and the wealthy merchant class
(5) The rise of manufacturing (food processing, handicraft, etc)
(6) Industrial promotion by central and local governments (sometimes successful but not always)
(7) High level of education

These are the features of the Edo period which are commonly cited by many researchers. The remainder of this lecture discusses them in detail. Note that some of these conditions are not achieved even today in some countries. In fact, developing countries that are equipped with all these conditions are relatively rare.

SHOGUN WOODBLOCK PICTURE

 

Here are some basic terminology for the Edo period:

Edo

The old name for Tokyo. Edo literally means the mouth of bay. Incidentally, Tokyo means eastern capital (the western, or the traditional, capital is Kyoto).

Daimyo

Regional samurai ruler. During the Edo period, it meant the head samurai of a local government (han).

Shogun

Originally, the supreme commander of dispatched army. But it usually means the head of a central military government.

Bakufu

Residence of a military ruler. Later it meant the central military government itself.

Han

A local government (like province or prefecture) in the Edo period.

Features of the Bakufu-Han System

The basic characteristics of the Edo society and politics were as follows.

(1) It was a class society: The ruling class was samurai (military men who were permitted to carry a sword). Then farmers (ranked no.2), craftsmen (no.3), merchants (no.4). There was a big gap between the samurai class and other classes. Farmers were officially placed no.2 because they paid the rice tax, but they were not particularly respected. Below all of these classes, there were also outcasts (eta and hinin).

(These four classes were called Shi-Nou-Kou-Shou (from top to bottom). Historically, Vietnam also had the distinction of Si-Nong-Cong-Thuong (Chinese characters are the same, only the pronunciation is different). It is clear that the idea originally came from China. In Vietnam, however, the top class “Si” meant scholars or literary bureaucrats, not fighting men. Moreover, it merely showed what types of people were important and respectable in society without political implication. The Edo government changed this idea into an ideology that legitimized a class society with samurais on top.)

(2) Politically, it was a centralized system. The Bakufu (central government) had absolute political power over the fate of hans (local governments) and could even remove or abolish them. It was a feudal society in the sense that the shogun gave daimyos the land to rule. In return, daimyos pledged loyalty to shogun. Any sign of disobedience was met with sternest punishment (often seppuku (ritual suicide) and/or the termination of the family).

(3) Economically, it was more decentralized. The Bakufu was not very capable of (or interested in) imposing consistent economic policies. Its policies were often unstable and short-sighted. Each han could decide its tax rates and other economic regulations, or encourage certain industries (so long as it was not explicitly prohibited by the Bakufu).

(4) The Bakufu imposed the following expenses on hans. (i) sankin kotai, bi-annual commuting between home and Edo (one year the daimyo must live in Edo, next year in his han, then Edo, then home, ad infinitum) — a large number of retainers also moved with him. This cost a large sum of money and usually constituted the largest part of han’s expenditure; (ii) public works ordered by the Bakufu, such as building castles, moats, roads, irrigation ponds and canals, waterworks, etc; (iii) other ad hoc and arbitrary taxes and charges.

Imposition of these financial expenses on hans had the effect of weakening the financial capability of hans so they were unable to build military forces to rebel against the Bakufu.

 

Figure 2-1

Bakufu-Han System

Agriculture

The Edo society was agrarian (particularly at the beginning) with about 90% of the population being peasants. Later, the ratio declined somewhat. The basic unit of production was the small family. Previously, one farming household often contained many families plus servants. But official land surveys (kenchi) conducted before and after the beginning of the Edo period dismantled the big family system and created small farming units, with each family guaranteed of the land to cultivate.

According to the law, peasants had no right to move and were tied to the land as labor force (they were the tax base !) But in reality, some farmers moved to new land, sometimes to avoid a high tax burden, unreasonable policy or famine, but sometimes to look for new land to improve their life. Later, as rural income rose, many well-to-do farmers enjoyed village festivals as well as trips to Ise Shrine and other religious spots (officially for worship, but actually for fun).

Villages were well organized and permitted autonomy, as long as they paid rice taxes as stipulated. The rice tax was levied on villages (not individual farmers), and village representatives, who were often themselves farmers, allocated rice tax burden among all villagers. In a sense, they played the role of lowest-level tax administration. Thanks to them, the Bakufu and hans could raise tax revenues with little administrative cost. Prof. Keiichi Tanaka (Edo historian) argues that farmers were very dynamic and independent, and they often rejected Bakufu officials and policies which were inconsistent and unreasonable. (Prof. Tanaka thinks that the Bakufu had no long-term vision and their laws and regulations were ad hoc responses to unfolding events.)

There were two ways to determine the rice tax obligation. One was the kemi (inspection) system where an official inspector came to check the actual yield every year. Naturally, village representatives treated the official with lots of food and gifts. Some officials only had drinking parties and did not actually check the fields. The bribed official happily understated the crop output (often very substantially) so villages paid much less taxes. According to Prof. Shinzaburo Oishi (historian), such corruption was an important reason for chronic revenue shortage of the government. On the other hand, if the visiting official was arbitrary and uncooperative, he might raise the tax obligation to the chagrin of the farmers.

Another method was the jomen (fixed amount) system where the rice tax was unchanged for three or five years based on the average output of the preceding years. Under this system, the government could expect a more stable tax revenue and also minimize the inspection cost. Farmers borne a greater risk for crop failure, but incentive to produce was also greater (if they worked hard, additional output was all theirs). According to Prof. Tanaka, farmers often preferred the jomen system because they did not want to cope with corrupt officials every year.

During the Edo period, agricultural development underwent two phases: from quantitative expansion to qualitative intensification.

Table 2-1
Estimated Land under Cultivation

 (unit: thousand hectare)

930 AD

862

1450 AD

946

1600 AD

1,635

1720 AD

2,970

1874 AD

3,050

Source: S. Oishi (1977).

From the mid 15th century to the late 17th century (this includes the previous Sengoku Jidai (warring period) as well as the early Edo period), there was an enormous expansion of farmland (especially rice paddies). Earlier, rice was produced in narrow valleys where mountains ended and plains began–this was the only place where constant water supply was available. But during this period, large-scale water projects were carried out all over Japan by daimyos and private farmers to control floods and use rivers for irrigation. As a result, land under cultivation expanded dramatically. The plains, which had hitherto been uninhabitable marshlands, were turned into productive paddy fields. The population increased rapidly (such population growth was very unusual for a pre-modern society). Prof. Shinzaburo Oishi calls this “The Great Age of Opening Fields.”

After the late 17th century, land expansion came to a halt. The rapid growth of farmland in the previous period also brought some negative effects, including (i) shortage of labor force; and (ii) deforestation and frequent occurrence of floods. From this period onward (even today), Japanese agriculture emphasized intensive cultivation with large inputs of labor and technology, instead of quantitative expansion.

 

Agricultural technology in the Edo period

From the 18th century onward, the area of cultivation and population remained relatively stable, but rice output continued to grow thanks to increased productivity. Contributing factors included double cropping, new species of rice, fertilizer (dried fish was popular), and invention of new farming tools. Many guidebooks were published to teach farmers how to produce crops more effectively and efficiently.

At the beginning of the Edo period (17th century), peasants produced mainly for family consumption. They ate what they produced and their living standards were at subsistence levels. However, from the middle Edo period, as productivity rose, agricultural surplus was created and peasants began to sell their rice and other crops to the market (which was nationally integrated). Cash crops increased and commercial agriculture began.

Officially, all farmers were supposed to belong to (or be tied to) pre-assigned land. But in the 19th century as landless farmers increased, the landlord-tenant relationship began to emerge.

Farmers’ uprisings (ikki) frequently occurred, especially at the time of famine and toward the end of the Edo period. They were unhappy with taxes, inflation, famine, corrupt officials, or government policies.

Budget and money

The Bakufu’s revenue sources included the following:

–Rice tax from land directly held by Bakufu (land not distributed to other daimyos)
–Monopoly on mining, foreign trade and minting money
–Direct control on major cities (Edo, Kyoto, Osaka, Nagasaki, Sakai, etc)
–Financial contributions from merchants in exchange for monopoly & cartel permission
–Charges on and borrowings from rich merchants (sometimes not repaid)
–In addition, the Bakufu assigned hans to various public works, as noted above

Hans’ revenue included the following:

–Rice tax from its territory
–Revenues from local industries (if industrial promotion was successful)

The entire fiscal system was based on the rice tax. The unit of fiscal account was “koku” (about 180 liters of rice). The han’s economic size was measured in koku and samurai’s salaries were paid in rice (but of course they had to convert it to cash to buy things). Rice was physically collected from each village and transported to the major rice markets (Osaka was the most important national rice market), then redistributed to the rest of the country. The “koku” size of each han was based on cultivated areas at the beginning, but as new fields were opened and productivity rose, the official “koku” size and the actual “koku” size of each han deviated.

This rice-based system had the following consequences:

(1) Since rice had to be actually shipped across regions, this tax system required a nationally unified transportation and distribution mechanism. Private merchants provided such services but the Bakufu and han governments often guided and supported them. Land transportation (on horseback) was very costly and inefficient, so sea and river transportation was mainly used.

(2) Economic activity gradually shifted from subsistence farming to commercial agriculture and handicraft industries. But the government’s tax base basically remained on rice. There were some taxes on commerce but this did not become the reliable tax base. As a result, the Bakufu and han governments faced fiscal crisis while farmers and merchants were allowed to increase their income and wealth.

(3) Faced with chronic fiscal crisis, the Bakufu responded in the following ways: monetary debasement (similar to printing money, which leads to inflation), spending cuts, tax increases, price controls, administrative reforms. Some commercial policies were tried, including providing certain merchants with the exclusive right to market a product (i.e. monopoly) in exchange for financial contribution to the government.

Money consisted of both gold and silver. Gold was popular in Edo and silver was mainly used in Osaka. Copper money was also used for small transactions. Hans could also issue local paper money. Inflation rose at the time of famine and accelerated toward the end of the Edo period (especially after international trade was resumed).

Transportation and commerce

 

Tokaido “Highway”

The Bakufu designated five official highways and opened major sea lanes. But private inns, restaurants, shippers, baggage carriers, etc. provided the necessary service. Farming villages near the highway were required to provide horses when necessary (part of their nontax obligation). Sankin kotai (bi-annual commuting by daimyos) also stimulated the development of the road system. At the same time, due to military reasons, Bakufu did not encourage free movement of people and merchandise. At major check points, sekisho (passport controls) were created. Some rivers were left without bridges, intentionally and for military reasons. Hans were not allowed to build ships or maintain navy.

As noted above, from the beginning, the Edo tax system presupposed a nationally unified rice market. Development of cash crops and handicrafts also stimulated nationwide commerce. Osaka was the commercial center with many rich merchants and money lenders, while Edo was a political center and consumption city. Naturally, the sea lane between the two cities was well developed. In Osaka, the futures market in rice emerged (this is said to be the first futures market in the world).

The Bakufu’s policy towards commerce and industry was variable and inconsistent. Sometimes the central government tried to control and tax private businesses. Other times free economy was permitted. Cartels were sometimes imposed and other times prohibited. Among historians, opinions differ as to whether the Edo economy was more dynamic under free market policy or pro-cartel policy. Prof. Tetsuji Okazaki (Tokyo University) tries to show that estimated GDP grew faster during the time when cartels were permitted than when they were banned. He argues that trade cartels were a positive factor for the development of the Edo economy rather than an impediment. However, his data and regressions may be too crude to be decisive.

Toward the end of the Edo period, many hans and local cities developed economically. As a result, direct trading among them (without the intervention of Osaka merchants) began. The center of economic activity gradually moved eastward, from Kansai (Osaka, Kyoto) to Edo and Eastern Japan. Many markets (not just rice, but almost everything) were nationally integrated.

Industry

As agriculture and commerce grew, pre-modern manufacturing (handicrafts, food processing) also began to develop. For example, the following products were produced:

tea, tobacco, wax, indigo, salt, knives, sword, pottery, lacquer ware, silk, cotton, soy sauce, sake, paper, stone cutting, medicine, chemicals

 

Cotton weaving factory in Owari (Nagoya). No steam engines or electricity yet, but division of labor was underway.

In order to enrich local population and increase tax revenue, many hans promoted local industries, and some even succeeded (S. Nishikawa and M. Amano, 1989). For example,

Tokushima han (indigo): Farmers produced indigo along the Yoshino River and their output gradually grew. But indigo distribution was monopolized by Osaka merchants who imposed high interest on loans. In order to protect local farmers and encourage local merchants, the han government created an indigo exchange and provided financial and distribution services. But the Bakufu objected to this move, prohibiting such official support (the Bakufu wanted to protect Osaka merchants who contributed financially to the central government). So the han privatized the indigo exchange and other services.

Takamatsu han (sugar): The Takamatsu government issued han’s paper money to promote various industries but failed, and its money depreciated. After many such failed attempts, the han finally succeeded in research on sugar production (from sugar beets) and commercialized the technology. As sugar production greatly increased, the han promoted inter-han trade (direct trade between hans). But again, the Bakufu tried to discourage such trade not brokered by Osaka merchants.

Satsuma han (military technology): This han in southern Kyushu imported new technology from the West and produced blast furnace, cannons and western ships. It was also engaged in illegal trade with Ryukyu (Okinawa), which was very profitable. By increasing wealth and military capability, Satsuma han later played the key role in toppling the Bakufu government and establishing the Meiji government.

These are just a few examples. Many other hans were engaged in industrial promotion, including Choshu han (paper, wax), Yonezawa han (safflower, lacquer wax), Akita han (silk and silk dress), Hizen han (pottery, coal), Higo han (lumber, silk), and so on. But we should not forget that there were many hans which were less successful and deeply in debt. They borrowed money from big private merchants but never repaid.

Education

   

Bakufu school at Yushima Seido (Ochanomizu, Tokyo). Confucianism was taught to the sons of bakufu samurais.

Professional school (enacted)

The popularity of education in the Edo period is often cited as the cause of fast industrialization in later periods. Education in this period ranged from the recondite study of Chinese philosophy and literature at public schools to children’s primary education at private schools. More specifically, four types of learning institutions were important.

(1) Bakufu schools

The bakufu’s schools mainly taught Confucianism, an ancient Chinese philosophy started by Confucius in the 6th to 5th century BC. It emphasized social order, proper rituals, the way of good political leader, and respect for elderly and superior. The Edo government vigorously promoted Confucianism as an ideology to legitimize and maintain the class society. Seika Fujiwara and Razan Hayashi were the leading bakufu scholars. Students had to memorize and interpret ancient Chinese books. How to modify this foreign doctrine to fit the Japanese reality was one of the important theoretical questions. There were also bakufu schools for European language (Dutch) and technology (medicine, navigation, military technology, etc).

(2) Han schools

Hans also established schools to educate their young samurais. The curriculums were basically the same as bakufu schools with Confucianism at the center of learning. Toward the end of the Edo period, han schools were expanded to emphasize practical skills such as military training and foreign language. Some even accepted non-samurai students. Many han schools were transformed into education institutions in the following Meiji period.

(3) Private professional schools

An eminent scholar often established his school and recruited students. Depending on the instructor, various subjects were taught: Confucianism, research on ancient Japanese literature (later leading to nationalism and anti-foreigner movement), Western language (Dutch, later also English), medicine, science, technology, and so on. These schools accepted both samurai and non-samurai students. In the late Edo period, they often attracted talented and hot-hearted young people with the desire to contribute to the country. Their eyes were opened to the international situation and Japan’s precarious position in it. A large number of national leaders in the late Edo period and the early Meiji period came from such professional schools.

Table 2-2
Examples of Private Professional Schools (Late Edo Period)

School & location

Teacher & year of establishment

Main teaching

Prominent students

Shokason Juku
(Hagi, Choshu Han)

Shoin Yoshida
1855-57

Social and political philosophy

Shinsaku Takasugi (anti-bakufu fighter)
Genzui Kusaka (anti-bakufu fighter)
Hirobumi Ito (prime minister)
Aritomo Yamagata (prime minister)

Teki Juku
(Osaka)

Koin Ogata
1838-

Dutch language & medicine

Yukichi Fukuzawa (founder of Keio Univ.)
Masujiro Omura (military reformer)
Sanai Hashimoto (Western studies)
Keisuke Otori (Bakufu & Meiji statesman)

Narutaki Juku
(Nagasaki)

Philipp F. B. von Siebold (German)
1824

Western medicine

Choei Takano (Western scholar)
Genboku Ito (medical doctor)
Keisuke Ito (medical doctor and botanist)

Kangien
(Hita, Bungo Han)

Tanso Hirose
1817

Confucianism & ancient Chinese literature

Choei Takano (Western studies)
Masujiro Omura (military reformer)

(4) Terakoya (private primary schools)

These schools were run by local teachers for teaching 3Rs — reading, writing, and arithmetic (abacus) — to small children, usually starting from six years old. The popularity of terakoya all over Japan contributed to the very high literacy among the general public.

 

Terakoya in caricature. The teacher simultaneously taught different things to different kids. In this picture, some kids are fighting in the corner.

 

Proto-industrialization and population dynamics

Economic historians have noticed that certain areas of Europe (say, Flanders in Belgium and Lancashire in England) were “industrialized” in the 17th-18th centuries, even before the Industrial Revolution began in the UK. This industrialization was characterized by rural, family-based production of textile and garment without modern machinery (often brokered by urban merchants).

The concept of proto-industrialization was proposed to explain why this happened, and why it was observed in certain areas only (proto means primitive or early). The proponents advance a hypothesis to explain rural industrialization from the unique interaction among agriculture, population and commerce. Population growth is often considered given in economic modeling. But in the hypothesis of proto-industrialization, population dynamics is a crucial endogenous factor. F.F. Mendels and P. Deyon, who proposed this idea, define proto-industrialization as the phenomenon satisfying the following three conditions:

–It is a manufacturing activity for market sale, not for home consumption.
–It is undertaken by peasants in a rural area (where soil is poor and plots are small).
–It is located near an area of commercial agriculture with large farm size and high productivity.

Proto-industrialization begins as a side job in villages where agricultural productivity is low. They can sell cloth and garments to nearby rich villages where agricultural productivity is high. It is a sort of specialization (or division of labor) within a relatively small geographical area: villages with fertile soil produce farm products and villages with poor soil produce manufactured goods, and they exchange output with each other (they also sell products to the outside world too).

Furthermore, the hypothesis of proto-industrialization is demographically dynamic, as follows:

(1) For some reason, villages with poor soil face a population increase, leading to food shortage.
(2) Poor peasants engage in the production of garments for sale to relieve population pressure.
(3) This increases their income, and they start to get married sooner and have more children.
(4) Population growth continues to keep the peasants just as poor as before even though they are more “industrialized.”
(5) Supply of cheap labor is increased in this way, and rich farming villages and urban merchants continue to accumulate wealth.

(This widening income gap may possibly generate capitalists and landless farmers which leads to industrialization under full-fledged capitalism. However, such historical linkage is not convincingly proven statistically.)

According to Prof. Osamu Saito (Hitotsubashi University), Japanese data in the Edo period does not support the hypothesis of proto-industrialization as stated above. There is no evidence of systematic population change in the areas where peasants engaged in pre-modern manufacturing. On the contrary, it is said that farmers practiced birth control (sometimes even killing new-born babies) to cope with the population pressure.

At any rate, proto-industrialization seems to assume a rather peculiar population dynamics which may be applicable to certain European regions in certain periods, but not in the rest of the world or other periods. However, the idea of population growth responding to the process of early industrialization is an interesting one.

Additional Questions & Answers

<References>

Dore, Ronald P., Education in Tokugawa Japan, University of Michigan Center, 1984.

Iwanami Shoten, Keizai Shakai no Seiritsu: 17-18 seiki, Nihon Keizaishi 1 (Establishment of Economic Society: 17th-18th Centuries, Japanese Economic History vol. 1), A. Hayami & M. Miyamoto, eds, 1988.

Iwanami Shoten, Kindai Seicho no Taido, Nihon Keizaishi 2 (Signs of Modern Development, Japanese Economic History vol. 2), H. Shimbo & O. Saito, eds, 1989.

Nishikawa, Shunsaku, and Masatoshi Amano, “Shohan no Sangyo to Keizai Seisaku” (Industries and Economic Policies of Hans) in Iwanami Shoten, 1989.

Oishi, Shinzaburo, Edo Jidai (The Edo Period), Chuko Shinsho no.476, 1977.

Okazaki, Tetsuji, Edo no Sijokeizai: Rekishiseidobunseki kara Mita Kabunakama (The Market Economy of Edo: Trade Cartels from the Viewpoint of Historical Institutional Analysis), Kodansha Sensho Metier 155, 1999.

Saito, Osamu, Proto Kogyoka no Jidai (The Age of Proto-Industrialization), Nihon Hyoronsha, 1985.

Tanaka, Keiichi, Hyakusho no Edo Jidai (The Edo Period Led by Farmers), Chikuma Shinsho, 2000.

Source

Grips.ac.jps

 

1730

In 1730, however, Tokugawa Yoshimune authorized domains to issue paper with time limits for redemption. Large domains (200,000 koku and above) could issue currency valid for 25 years, and small domains for 15 years. His son Ieshige prohibited new issue of scrip, and restricted the circulation of scrip other than that exchangeable for silver, in 1759. Despite the prohibitions, domains in severe financial straits occasionally issued paper money.

Each domain formulated its own rules about its scrip. While there were some that forbade the shogunate’s coinage, many allowed both coins and scrip to circulate.

Japan:Money

From Marteau

(Redirected from Money (Japan))

Contents

[hide]

   1 The Closed Country

   2 Selling Silver for Silk – International Trade Relations

   2.1 Trade Relations with Europe

   3 Monetary Politics

   3.1 Paper Money of the Clans

   3.2 The Unified Currency – Metal Money

   4 A Note on our Conversion Tools

   5 Literature

Japan 1710-1714 (Hoei Era) Gold Koban or Ryo

[edit]

The Closed Country

Japan practiced a policy of national seclusion – the “closed country” or “sakoku” policy – aiming at autarky in economical terms, yet it developed a trade deficit resulting in the 1690s in a severe shortage of money. Japan’s Edo or Tokugawa period beginning in the early years of the 17th century (see Japan’s dynasties and rulers) became a period of stability and growth, yet the developing nation failed to turn the advatageous situation into one of wealth creating more wealth – paradoxes sharpened by the dangerous monetary decisions of the 1690s and early 1700s. Compared with the parallel history of England’s monetary decisons following the 1680s one could read the history of money in Japan as one of all the fatal decisions those responsible in London’s could not even dream of.

[edit]

Selling Silver for Silk – International Trade Relations

Japan’s economy was at the beginning of the 17th century – after a century of internal wars – theoretically independent. The strife between the feudal clans (daimyo) had led to a concentration of power. Oda Nobunaga, 1534-1582, the first of Japan’s three unifiers, had effectively welcomed the Portuguese who had landed on Tanegashima island in 1543. Their technological support – fire arms – was helpful and the Jesuit mission they brought seemed especially convenient to counterbalance the power of the militant Buddhist cloisters. Toyotomi Hideyoshi, 1537-1598, his successor, acted undecided between toleration and a total ban of the Christian mission. Tokugawa Ieyasu, 1543-1616, the final unifier of Japan eventually opted for the seclusion of the country and a ban of Christianity. Supported by the Portuguese, the Spanish and the Dutch the new faith had proven to be of no real service on Japan’s way to a centrally governed state. In 1612 the shogun’s retainers and residents of Tokugawa lands were ordered to foreswear Christianity, in 1616 all foreign trade was restricted on Nagasaki and Hirado, an island northwest of Kyushu. The Kyushu daimyo had been the most prominent supporter of the new faith just before. 1622 saw the execution of 120 missionaries and converts, 1624 the expulsion of the Spanish, 1629 a wave of executions with thousands of Christian victims – an estimated 500,000 Japanese had embraced the new religion over the last decades. The edicts of 1633 and 1635 prohibited all contact between Japanese and foreigners: Ships and Japanese subjects were forbidden to leave Japan for a foreign country without a license; all Japanese living abroad were to be put to death if they tried to return to Japan (except those who had resided abroad for less than five years and had been unavoidably detained). The Nagasaki commissioners were to investigate all those suspected of being Christians, and a reward was offered to any informer who revealed the location of “Bateren”, foreign priests. Foreign ships arriving, were to be guarded while a report was sent to Edo. A strict search was to be made for bateren on all ships entering Japan. The Portuguese were restricted to Deshima, an artificial island especially created for that purpose in Nagasaki’s harbor. The Shimabara Rebellion of 1637-38, in which discontented Christian samurai and peasants rebelled against the bakufu (the shogunate administration), was ended by Edo’s government through the help of the Dutch whose ships bombarded the rebel stronghold. Soon thereafter, all “southern barbarians” – the term refering to the Portuguese and Spanish – were permanently expelled, members of the Portuguese diplomatic mission were executed, all subjects were ordered to register at a Buddhist or Shinto temple, and the Dutch and Chinese were restricted, respectively, to Deshima and to a special quarter in Nagasaki. Besides small trade of some outer daimyo with Korea and the Ryukyu Islands, to the southwest of Japan’s main islands, by 1641 foreign contacts were limited to Nagasaki.

The political turmoil of the late 16th and early 17th centuries had paved the way to the Tokugawa or Edo period – the period in which Edo, today Tokyo, became the political centre of the nation. Power was from now onwards to lie in the hands of the shogun; the emperor played a ceremonial rather than a political role. The political stability the new regime dictated, allowed growth. Those who profited from the situation found, however, few incentives for investing their wealth in anything more profitable than their representation. As far as the trade balance is concerned the wealth created in Japan came to be spent on luxury goods satisfying the rich upper class. Silk from China and ginseng from Korea became the most important imported goods. An estimated 1.1 million kan (4,125 tons) of Keicho cho-gin – approximately three-quarters of the silver coinage and silver produced in Japan – left the island in this exchange over the hundred years from 1614 to 1714. A ban on exporting gold that had been implemented to curb the outflow, was lifted in 1664, the sell-out of gold and silver became legal and accelerated in the last decades of the 17th century – till the monetary decisions of the years 1695-1714 served to make goods produced outside Japan too expensive to be paid with money that freely any longer.

[edit]

Trade Relations with Europe

Trade relations with Europe were everything but marginal. They had begun with the arrival the Portuguese in 1543. Dutch explorers had reached Usuki Bay on the southern Japanese island of Kyushu in 1600. Their original expedition had started with 5 ships from Rotterdam on June 27th 1598 of which only one had reached Japan – the Liefde with 24 men, 23 Dutch, and their English captain. Europe’s nations contested each other over influence on Japan’s growing regime. The Dutch eventually won and gained the monopoly on Japan’s trade with Europe. The privilege was otherwise an ordeal: the permanent settlement to be reached over a bridge included a director of the Dutch East India company and about ten employees. No foreign women were allowed on Deshima island. (The regulation was first violated in 1817, Japan’s authorities could, however, enforce their laws three months later). Dutch ships came twice a year – time which had to be passed in isolation. But the base paid: In 1662 the Dutch trading houses withdrew from Taiwan. The Taiwan-Nagasaki import route on which white raw silk, the finest type of Chinese raw silk, used to reach Japan, lost its importance. Nagasaki became the central harbour of a trade now focussing on Korea; and the Tsushima domain became the mediator sustaining the new trade connection. The connection provided Japan with import goods right into the 1690s. Chung Sungil [“The Volume of Early Modern Korea-Japan Trade: A Comparison with the Japan-Holland Trade” Acta Koreana vol 7-1, 2004] compared trade volumes passing between Korea and Japan in Pusan and between Japan and the Dutch in Nagasaki and concluded that trade with the Dutch did not outweigh the Korean-Japanese trade before the 1690s. The situation changed after 1695 and Chung Sungil’s investigation implies that the main reason for the change had little to do with official ceilings set by the Tokugawa shogunate. The Tsushima daimyo was effectively able to circumvent any restrictions and send false reports to the bakufu whilst the Japan-Dutch trade connection could be tightly monitored by the central government. The primary reasons for the drop of the trade with Korea seems to have been the devaluation of Japan’s silver money in 1690s.

Later efforts to bring back the old currency and to thus solve the problems of Korean-Japanese trade relations, failed. When re-introduced for trade abroad in 1710 (and in 1714 for trade inside Japan) the better money was no longer affordable to those who had first lost their wealth when acquiring the worthless money of the 1690s and early 1700s. Goods from abroad remained expensive.

The Dutch, more interested to buy than to sell – silk and porcelain, goods to be sold on Europe’s markets with good profit rates – could take the otherwise catastrophic situation as an advantage. They could offer what Japan needed: money for goods to be sold on other markets.

[edit]

Monetary Politics

Japanese mon, the basic copper coin, as minted between 1668 and 1700

The Edo or Tokugawa period had begun around 1600 with the settlement of the feudal conflicts. The clans had lost power to the central shogunate government. Decisions to create a central currency stood at the beginning of the era. The new money was to have gold, silver and copper units – all exchangeable at fixed rates. The Oban and the Koban gold coins were oblong plates, the smaller Ichibukin little rectangular pieces of minted gold. Silver was hardly minted in the European sense of the word. It was traded in lumps and weighed. The central unit for silver, the momme, was (and still is) a mere unit of weight matching 3.75 g. The lowest unit, the copper mon was influenced by the design of Chinese coins, the only object in the ensemble resembling a conventional coin. The rates between gold and silver were fixed, yet market reates fluctuated. The pattern did not change between 1600 and 1700:

Gold

     
 

1 Oban

=

7.5* Ryo

 

1 Ryo / Koban

=

4 Bu

   

=

4 Kan

   

=

70* Momme

 

1 Bu

=

4 Shu

 

1 Shu

   

Silver

     
 

1 Kamme

=

1000 Momme

 

1 Momme [3.75 g]

=

10 Fun

 

1 Fun

=

10 Rin

 

1 Rin

   

Copper

     
 

1 Kan [3.75 kg]

=

1000 Mon

 

1 Mon

   

*market rates

Wages for ordinary people were paid mostly in copper and silver coins. Wages for the Samurai class, which accounted for 10% of the total population, were paid in amounts of rice. The Tokugawa shogun granted the Samurai a fief, the stipend was measured by the volume of rice the region could be expected to produce. Three times the year the Samurai sold the rice collected as a land tax to traders – the Samurai were better served with money they could spend on goods – part of the problem Japan’s economy faced.

Japan’s trade developed a sophisticated system of cashless payments on Osaka’s market – the central market for goods produced in Japan. Transactions between merchants were settled in silver. In order to reduce the transaction costs the exchange of metal would have produced, a check system developed with checks issued on the basis of current account deposits at money changers, the “ryogae-sho”. The development which led back into the 1660s supported the commercial transaction with its smooth fund settlement. Between 1716 and 1736 about 650 ryogae-shos settled the checks issued by about 6000 merchants every day. The system was as efficient as the Giro-system used in European countries. Access to it was, however, limited to the leading merchants and it was never used to pay wages. It remained the system of Osaka’s wholesale market. Business in cities like Edo and Kyoto did hardly go beyond retail transactions.

Three characteristics distinguished Osaka’s check system: Central institutions, such as the centralized check clearing institution and a centralized fund settlement institution, did not exist. The ryogae-sho had strong ties among each other, together they formed a strict hierarchy with few but powerful money changers called juunin-ryogae at the top. The juunin-ryogae created a de facto central fund settlement by establishing correspondent deposit accounts used exclusively for mutual settlements. All the checks requested by the subsidiary ryogae-sho were settled within this system. In this sense, the large fund settlement system centring on juunin ryougae can be interpreted as a hybrid of a check clearing and fund settlement system. Thirdly, the juunin ryogae ensured a final settlement by allowing overdrafts of accounts. These were usually settled by gold and silver coins based on the net liability amount gained through balancing the debit and credit every half a month or month. The complex system remained intact until the institution of a modern banking system in the 19th century.

Trade inside Japan was furthermore facilitated by an exchange of paper money gaining importance on the level of the clan territories issuing the respective notes.

[edit]

Paper Money of the Clans

Paper money promising a given value of gold, silver or copper, was first issued by merchants of the Uji-, Matsuzaka-, Isawa-, Yamato-shimoichi-, and Settsuhirano-go-regions: the Yamada Hagaki notes. The shogunate’s metal coinage and rivalling clan notes issued by the local feudal lords, left, however, no room for a further development of Yamada Hagaki notes. An autonomous administrative body of the Yamada region, the Sanpokai-gosho, was eventually the only authority issuing Yamada Hagaki notes – under permission of the shogunate which thus stabilised the regional power short of money. In the early 18th century, old notes of this production were exchanged for new ones at intervals of seven years to limit the amounts in circulation and the risk of forgeries.

 

Hansatsu as issued by the Fukui clan in Echizen from 1661 to 1673: A silver 10-momme note from 1666. The denomination is noted in ink and traced on both sides by rows of characters of different shapes and meaning, all pronounced however, identically as “ten”, the note’s denomination. (Image: curtesy of the Bank of Japan’s web page)

Paper money issued by the feudal clans – the “han”, hence the term “hansatsu” – differed from Yamada Hagaki in that it effectively demanded respect as legal tender substituting all gold, silver and copper transactions within the borders of the region issuing the notes. Local authorities supported their paper monies by prohibiting the circulation of species money and by imposing charges on any exchange of paper and metal money within their reach. Hansatsu notes were almost always authorized by the shogunate – by the same shogunate which strove for a unified metal based currency and for supremacy over the feudal lords. Hansatsu issued by a region could, so the laws, not claim any value outside their region. The hansatsu currencies financed and stabilised regional power on the regional level – a stabilisation the shogunate could approve of especially if it became the superior power granting the rights to issue such money. The Fukuyama and the Bingo regions played a leading role in the introduction of hansatsu in the 1630s, the second half of the 17th century saw paper money winning trust throughout the country. The shortage of metal and the massive debasement of the coin implemented by the shogunate in the 1690s did everything but increase the trust in money the central authorities offered. In 1707 the shogunate finally banned all paper money – allegedly a measure designed to curb abuse stemming from the unlimited circulation of hansatsu outside their respective homelands. The measure played, however, its much more important role in the second step of the debasement of Japan’s metal money. With the ban of 1707 more than 50 feudal clans had to change hansatsu they had issued into specie the shogunate issued. Those who changed paper money into gold and silver lost about half of the money they had invested to acquire the paper notes – to the advantage ot the central government issuing the new metal money it could otherwise hardly have brought into circulation.

[edit]

The Unified Currency – Metal Money

The problem of metal money was its open advantage: metal money bearing its value in the coin minted could be traded without any institution guaranteeing its value. The Korean merchant who accepted Japanese money whether gold or silver accepted a certain amount of fine metal within the piece of metal he acquired. Exchanged on the basis of its weight, Japan’s money could just as well cross borders in Japan without affording any clan territory to guarantee for the value of the coin circulating. The problem of Japan’s metal money was its constant loss in trade abroad. Japan exchanged silver for silk and ginseng – a metal which would not lose its value for goods which were to be lost at home in consumption. Monetary experts could still claim rice to be the nation’s real money and wealth – a currency of use in any state of emergency in which metal would turn out to be fundamentally worthless (H. Eijiro, “The Economic thought in the middle period of the Tokugawa period” (1940), p.7-8 pdf. Rice, so the refutation grew, while money – gold, silver and copper – were stable assets. The stable assets left the country and Japan’s gold and silver mines did in the second half of the 17th century, no longer make up for the losses. The growing economy needed more money and encountered a shortage of money instead.

The option to solve the problem was a move towards a metal based currency of nominal rather than real metal values. In 1695 the shogunate government decided to collect and re-issue the circulating metal money. The amount of money in circulation was diluted and thus optically increased – the number of coins rose, the fine metal total minted stayed the same. Had the Keicho Koban issued after the monetary reform of May 1601 offered approximately 17.9 g gold with fineness of 84-87% The Genroku gold Koban issued in 1695 to replace the old Keicho Koban still weighed around 17.9 g. Its content of gold, was however reduced to 57%. The Hoe gold Koban of 1706 returned to the original fineness, now, however, the size was reduced – the new coin had little more than half the metal value the Keicho gold Koban had had a century ago. The Bank of Japan offers the following images and information to illustrate the development for the gold Koban: link

 

Keicho Koban
Weight:

approx.17.9g
Fineness: 

approx.84-87%

Genroku Koban
Weight:

approx.17.9g
Fineness:

approx.57%

Hoei Koban
Weight:

approx.9.4g
Fineness:

approx.84%

Kyoho Koban
Weight:

approx.17.9g
Fineness: 

approx.87%

Gembun Koban
Weight:

approx.13.1g
Fineness: 

approx.66%

 

A parallel debasement of Japan’s silver money took place with the production of coins like the silver Hoei Yotsuho Chogin of 1711 – a coin with a silver content of 20% – Keicho Cho gin and Mameitagin had been minted with a fineness of 80%.

 

Hoei Yotsuho Cho-gin, 1711 Silver coins were debased four times in five years beginning with 1706. The poorest-quality cho-gin, with a silver content of merely 20 percent, was called the Hoei Yotsuho Cho-gin. To note the value the Chinese character ho “treasure” within a circle is stamped four times on the coin’s face. (Image: curtesy of the Bank of Japan’s web page)

The devaluation of Japan’s currency answered the need created by Japan’s growing economy with problematic results: Prices of foreign goods rose as Japan’s new coins were, of course, no money of a nominal value in the modern sense of the word. There was no central bank offering gold and silver of the promised value for coins circulating under that value. Foreign traders could do what Japanese customers could not do: They could demanded more money to get the amount of fine silver they would get for their goods on other markets. Japanese traders had to fulfil their demands and finally convinced the government in 1710 to issue silver of the original quality to satisfy traders from Korea.

 

Oko-gin, 1710 minted to be used by the Tsushima daimyo to pay for imports of Korean ginseng and Chinese raw silk, to satisfy Korea’s traders who rejected the Hoei Cho-gin because of its inferior quality. As with other cho-gin (silver coins), an image of the god of wealth and the Chinese character takara, “treasure”, are stamped numerous times over the face. The fineness is with 80% comparable to the fineness of the Keicho Cho-gin minted after 1601 – regular cho-gin coins had a silver content of 20-50%. (Image: curtesy of the Bank of Japan’s web page)

The result was a system of double standards. Japan’s silver and gold claimed a value it had not – it could do this within the isolated economy. The measure failed, however, on the wider scale. Prices for goods from China and Korea rose after the debasement. To offer the original content of fine silver Japanese merchants had to offer 160% more minted silver after 1695. The debasement of 1706 forced them to offer 200 momme silver where they had offered 100 momme silver of the original quality. The end of the scale were 400 momme matching now the original 100 momme if reduced to fine silver. 400 momme of 20% silver the Japanese trader had bought at home for the price of 80% silver. The problem was not solved with the introduction of expensive 80% silver minted exclusively for the trade with Korea in 1710 nor was it solved with the new silver money issued in 1714 with the old fineness, yet to be bought for a price no one could afford any longer.

The reform came in two steps: To improve the fineness and weight of gold and silver coins the Shotoku Koban was introduced in 1714 – in quality and weight matching the old Keicho Koban. Rumors alleged it was by no means equal in quality to the Keicho Koban. The following year, hence, saw the introduction of the Kyoho Koban, which was slightly higher in quality than the Shotoku Koban and the preceding Keicho Koban had been. The amount of money in circulation dropped with the introduction of the new money. Economic activities came to a standstill, and prices dropped drastically. The measures had consequences down to the rice prices, impoverishing both the samurai class and its farmers.

To stimulate the economy and raise prices, the eighth Tokugawa Shogun, Yoshimune, finally carried out another recoinage in 1736, lowering the quality of gold and silver coins again and increasing their circulation. As had happened with the recoinage of the Genroku and Hoei Koban, the Gembun Koban was debased. Nevertheless, this recoinage deserves more credit, as it supported the Edo period’s economic development from the aspect of currency circulation. Governmental profits from the recoinage resolved the problem of a currency shortage, succeeded in turning the economy around, and allowed the currency a high degree of stability for the next 80 years. Japan had taken the step to a currency of nominal values, yet the market brought this currency back to the value given with the coinage itself.

The immediate effects of the recoinage of the 1690s and early 1700s where immensely problematic – Japan suffered a wave of bankruptcies. In the longer perspective the catastrophe led Japan towards even greater autonomy. The economical problem of the trade deficit was not solved by decisions which might have turned Japan into an exporting country able to stabilise its trade balance. Much rather the decisions strengthened the way towards the even severer national seclusion. As for Japan’s government the steps taken had their beauty: the clans, beaten in the wars of the 16th century, had made money by issuing paper-money for gold, silver and copper money. In the end the central government had made its own profits in the struggle for power. Profits in money and in power over the money it issued.

[edit]

A Note on our Conversion Tools

It is at this point everything but uninteresting to offer conversion tools — in order to perform conversions as traders would have performed them and to allow comparisons of prices and wages on the different Asian and European markets exporting and importing goods like silver and porcelain. The rates between gold, silver, and copper coins were fixed by the shogunate government: The 1 Ryo gold coin matched 50 momme of silver or 4 kan of copper coins. Actual rates differed due to the changes of supply of gold and silver on the market and due to different evaluations of the coins involved. The Kenji gold Koban minted in the 16th century had stood at 60 momme of silver, the Keicho gold Koban of 1601 had been changed into 80-90 momme silver, the Genroku gold Koban of 1695 came to be accepted as an equivalent of 70 momme silver (Eijiro Honjo (1940), p.6 pdf).

The central unit of account in Japan and between Japan and its few partners abroad was the momme silver – quite conveniently nothing but a unit of weight. The difficulty is, of course, the devaluation of Japan’s silver and the double standard it created between the nominal value of money inside Japan and the “real” value of the coin to bee seen from without. Those who traded with Japan made sure they were not paid with bad silver at the rate Japan’s government had forced its citizens to accept. In 1710 Japan began to mint silver coins of the old 80% fineness exclusively for its Korean trade partners. If we base our tools on an exchange of regular Dutch silver coins and equivalent amounts of Japanese silver of 80% fineness the rate will be one of 3 Dutch guilders matching 10 momme: On the Japanese side 10 momme of 80% silver will amount to 30 g fine silver. On the other hand 3 Dutch gulden could be an amount of fine silver between 28.67 and 30.88 g depending on whether one paid in silver gulden (of 10.49 g coin weight and 91.1% fineness) or more valuable Leeuwendaalders (the equivalent of 3 gulden, each coin of 27.53 g metal weight and 74.3% fineness) – with both coins we get a corridor of tolerance our conversion should aim at.

The factor of 3 was chosen to facilitate further computations with silver of less than the nominal 80% fineness. The new coinage could be imposed on a country of closed borders and we get accurate information about the general structure of prices and wages if we allow the new money to have – at least initially – actually circulated at its nominal value. Rates with 80% silver are otherwise misleading. If one changed money one took care of compensations or demanded better coins. If you think of actual money being changed you will hence ask to take the actual fineness of Japanese silver into account. To do so you change the first factor of our conversion tools: 3 stands for 3 g silver and the orginal money of 80 percent fineness, make the momme contain it 1.88 g silver and you will calculate with money minted after 1695s, go down to 0.75 g silver per momme to calculate with the ultimate debasement of 1710. You will now need 133 and a third momme to match 10 Dutch gulden. The price of foreign goods had more than quadruppled, so the perception Japanese customers had, when buying with their new money, a money they had received for a very dear price indeed.link

[edit]

Literature

  • Camfferman, K./ Cooke, T.E., “The Profits of the Dutch East India Company’s Japan Trade”, Abacus, vol. 40, no. 1, (February 2004), pp. 49-75(27). link
  • Sungil, Chung, “The Volume of Early Modern Korea-Japan Trade: A Comparison with the Japan-Holland Trade,” Acta Koreana, vol 7-1 (2004).
  • Shikano, Yoshiaki, “Currency, wage payment and large fund settlement system in Japan: 1600-1868” (Wages and Currency: Global and Historical Comparisons, Symposium in Amsterdam/Leiden, 24-25 May 2002). Abstract
  • Ohnuki, Mari, “Paper Money in Japan 2-2 Hansatsu(I): From Their First Issue to Their Prohibition in the Early 1700s”, Short Essays on Monetary History Contained in Monetary and Economic Studies, Research Division 3, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan (ed.), Monetary and Economic Studies, 17.1 (1999). link
  • Fujii, Noriko, “Oko-gin Silver Coins for Import of Korean Ginseng – A Two-Tiered Pricing System for Silver Coins”, Short Essays on Monetary History Contained in Monetary and Economic Studies, Research Division 3, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan (ed.), Monetary and Economic Studies 16.1, (1998). link
  • Ohnuki, Mari, “The Genroku, Hoei, Shotoku, Kyoho, and Gembun Koban”, Short Essays on Monetary History Contained in Monetary and Economic Studies, Research Division 3, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan (ed.), Monetary and Economic Studies, 15.2 (1997). link
  • Tashiro, Kazui, “Exports of Japan’s Silver to China via Korea and Changes in the Tokugawa Monetary System during the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries”, in: Dennis O. Flynn and Arturo Giraldez (eds.), Metals and Monies in an Emerging Global Economy (Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1997).
  • Uyenaka, Shuzo, “The Tong Shin Sa and The Tokugawa Bakufu: An Aspect of Korea-Japan Relations, 1603-1867,” East Asian Review, 1 (March 1997), 89-98.
  • Mikami, Ryuzo, Edo Bakufu: Hasan e no Michi [Edo Period Government: The Road to Bankruptcy] (NHK Books, 1991) [in Japanese].
  • Tashiro, Kazui, “Exports of Gold and Silver During the Early Tokugawa Era, 1600-1750”, in: Eddy H.G. Van Cauwenberghe (ed.), Money, Coins and Commerce: Essays in the Monetary History of Asia and Europe (From Antiquity to Modern Times): Proceedings of th 4th and 5th International Monetary History Conferences (Leuven, Belgium: Leuven University Press, 1991).
  • Tashiro, Kazui, Tokugawa Jidai no Boeki [Trade during Tokugawa Rule] Nihon Keizai Shi (History of the Japanese Economy), vol. 1 (Iwanami Shoten, 1988) [in Japanese].
  • Hisamitsu, Juhei, Nihon Kahei Monogatari [The Story of Japanese Coins] (Mainichi Shimbunsha, 1976) [in Japanese].
  • Tashiro, Kazui, “Tsushima han’s Korean Trade, 1684-1710,” Acta Asiatica, 30 (1976), 85-105.
  • Bank of Japan, Economic Research Department, ed. Zuroku Nihon no Kahei [Japanese Coins], vol. 3, (Toyo Keizai Shimposha, 1974) [in Japanese].
  • Taya, Hirokichi, Kinsei Ginza no Kenkyu (Yoshikawa Kobunkan, 1963). [A study of early modern silver mints in Japanese]
  • Honjo, Eijiro, “The Ecomonmic thought in the midde period of the Tokugawa period”, Kyoto University Econmonic Review, vol. xv, no. 2 (Kyoto, April 1940), p.1-33. [On monetary politics, price developments and the relatinonship between coinage and price developments, 1688-1763] pdf
  • Honjo, Eijiro, “The Ecomonmic thought in the eraly period of the Tokugawa period”, Kyoto University Econmonic Review, vol. xiv, no. 4 (Kyoto, Oct. 1938), p.1-17. [Concentrating on the period 1600-1688] pdf
  • Honjo, Eijiro, “The Ecomonmic thought in Tokugawa days”, Kyoto University Econmonic Review, vol. xiii, no. 1 (Kyoto, Oct. 1938), p.1-22. [Overview of th perod 1600 to 1867] pdf

 

Source

Pierre-marteur.

 

 

19th century\

1866

As a rule, scrip circulated only within the domain that issued it, but there were exceptions. For example, paper issued by the Kishū domain in 1866 was also used in Yamato, Izumi, Kawachi, Settsu, and Harima Provinces.

In 1871, the Government of Meiji Japan ordered the abolition of the han system and ordered the exchange of all scrip for the national currency. Exchange continued until 1879. In the interim, some scrip carried markings from the central government indicating the value in yen and the smaller sen and rin.

1867

Tokugawa coinage was a unitary and independent metallic monetary system established by Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu in 1601 in Japan, and which lasted throughout the Tokugawa period until its end in 1867.[1]

Further information: Japanese currency

Gold mines across Japan, such as the Toi gold mine (pictured) provided the material for the coinage.

The establishment of Tokugawa coinage followed a period in which Japan was dependent on Chinese bronze coins for its currency.[1] Tokugawa coinage lasted for more than two centuries, and ended with the events of the Boshin war and the establishment of the Meiji restoration.

A Tenshō Ōban (天正大判), made in 1588 by Toyotomi Hideyoshi.

The first attempt at a new currency were made by Hideyoshi, who developed the large Ōban plate, also called the Tensho Ōban (天正大判), in 1588.[2]

From 1601, Tokugawa coinage was minted in gold, silver, and bronze denominations.[1] The denominations were fixed, but the rates actually fluctuated on the exchange market.[1]

The material for the coinage came from gold and silver mines across Japan. To this effect, gold mines were newly opened and exploited, such as the Sado gold mine or the Toi gold mine in Izu Peninsula.

Devaluations and re-evaluations[edit]

Initially, the coinage was used essentially for export purposes in order to pay for imports of luxury goods from China, such as silk.[1] As gold and silver were in short supply, and also because the government was running a deficit, the content of gold in coins was decreased on two occasions, in 1695 and 1706-1711, in order to generate more revenues from seigneurage, but with the effect of generating inflation.[3]

With the beginning of the 18th century, Japan started to restrict the export of bullion currency, which came to be seen as a loss for the country. An export ban on monetary specie was imposed by Arai Hakuseki in 1715.[1] Trade substitution was encouraged, but remained limited anyway due to the policy of closure, or Sakoku. Upon Arai Hakuseki’s suggestion the government increased again the gold and silver content of coinage in 1714-1715, but this led to crippling deflation this time.[3] In 1736, Japan abandoned this policy and again increased the money supply, with a resulting price stability for the next 80 years.[3]

In the early 19th century, budgetary problems resulting from natural disasters and large Tokugawa governmental expenditures led the government to increase the money supply and the seigneurage associated to it. From 1818 to 1829 the money supply increased by 60%, and from 1832 to 1837 by 20%. Severe inflation again followed as prices nearly doubled.[3]

Size evolution of the Koban during the Tokugawa period. From left to right: Keichō koban (1601-1695), Genroku koban (1695-1710), Hōei koban (1710-1714), Shōtoku koban (1714), Kyōhō koban (1714-1736), Genbun koban (1736-1818), Bunsei koban (1819-1828), Tenpo koban (1837-1858), Ansei koban (1859), Man’en koban (1860-1867).

Structure[edit]

Keichō gold coinage: Ōban, Koban, Ichibuban, 1601-1695.

Tokugawa coinage worked according to a triple monetary standard, using gold, silver and bronze coins, each with their own denominations.[1] The systems worked by multiples of 4, and coins were valued according to the Ryō. One Ryō was worth 4 Bu, 16 Shu, or 4,000 Mon (a cheap bronze coin).

Ōban[edit]

The Ōban (大判) was a very large gold coin plate, equivalent to ten Ryōs, or ten Koban (小判) plates.

Koban[edit]

Main article: Koban (coin)

The Koban (小判) was a regular ovoid gold coin, equivalent to one Ryō. The initial Keichō Koban (minted from 1601) had a weight of 18.20g. The 1714 Sado Koban (佐渡小判金, 4th year of Shōtoku) also had a weight of 18.20g and was made with an alloy of typically 85.69% of gold and 14.25% of silver.[4]

Nibuban and Ichibuban[edit]

A Tenpō silver Ichibuban (1837-1854).

The Nibuban (二分判) was worth half a Koban and was rectangular gold coin.

The Ichibuban (一分判) could be either made of silver or gold, in which case it was a quarter of a Koban. The gold Ichibuban of 1714 (佐渡一分判金) had a weight of 4.5 g, with 85.6% of gold and 14.2% of silver. The silver Ichibuban from 1837 to 1854 (Tenpō Ichibugin, 天保一分銀, “Old Ichibuban”) weighed 8.66 g, with an alloy of 0.21% gold and 98.86% silver.[4]

Nishuban and Isshuban[edit]

There were then Nishuban (二朱判) and Isshuban (一朱判) small denominations of silver or gold, before getting to the Mon or Sen bronze coins.

From 1853 to 1865, the silver Isshuban (Kaei Isshugin, 嘉永一朱銀) weighed 1.88 g, with an alloy of 1.7% gold, 98.7% silver and 1.12% copper.[4]

Genroku gold Nishuban (1695-1710).

Bunsei gold Isshuban (1819-1828).

Kaei silver Isshuban (1853-1865).

Kan’ei tsūhō[edit]

Keichō tsūhō coin (慶長通宝), circa 1606.

Regarding copper coins, the Kan’ei tsūhō coin (寛永通宝) came to replace the Chinese coins that had been in circulation in Japan, as well as those that were minted privately, and became the legal tender.[5] This put an end to more than four centuries during which Chinese copper coins, obtained through trade or Wakō piracy, had been the main currency of Japan.[5]

Demise[edit]

Nibunkin (二分金) coins, packaged and certified for easy handling and authentification.

Hiding places for Tokugawa coinage.

From 1772, the silver coins had a denomination in function of their value in gold, and had significantly less silver than their face value (rather than being just silver-by-weight) so as to cover coinage expenses, a practice known as token or fiduciary coinage, and a characteristic of modern coinage.[6] This technique was introduced later in England, in 1816, with its adoption of the full gold standard.[6] At the market rates of 1858 10 silver units could be exchanged for 1 gold unit by weight, whereas the face value of silver units was only convertible at 5 to 1. This permitted an increase of monetary circulation without actual production of more bullion, and provided great profit (seigniorage) for the Bakufu.[6]

A Koban box (called Senryōbako, or “Box of 1,000 ryō“), used for transportation.

World ratios for silver and gold were significantly different, gold being generally valued much higher than silver, at about 15 to 16 weights of silver for 1 weight of gold. This difference motivated foreigners to bring silver to Japan, to exchange it for gold at a very interesting rate.[7]

In 1858, Western countries, especially the United States, France and Great Britain imposed through “unequal treaties” (Treaty of Amity and Commerce“) free trade, free monetary flow, and very low tariffs, effectively taking away Japanese control of its foreign exchange:[7] The 1715 export embargo on bullion was thus lifted:

“All foreign coin shall be current in Japan and pass for its corresponding weight of Japanese coin of the same description… Coins of all description (with the exception of Japanese copper coin) may be exported from Japan”

— Treaty of Amity and Commerce, 1858, extract[8]

A Keichō koban (minted 1601-1695), versus a Man’en koban (minted 1860-1867), shows the drastic reduction in gold weight of the koban denomination.

This created a massive outflow of gold from Japan, as foreigners rushed to exchange their silver for “token” silver Japanese coinage and again exchange these against gold, giving a 200% profit to the transaction. In 1860, about 4 million ryōs thus left Japan,[7] that is about 70 tons of gold. This effectively destroyed Japan’s gold standard system, and forced it to return to weight-based system with International rates. The Bakufu instead responded to the crises by debasing the gold content of its coins by two thirds, so as to match foreign gold-silver exchange ratios.[7]

As a consequence, the Bakufu lost the major profit source of recoinage (seigniorage), and was forced to issue unbacked paper money, leading to major inflation. This was one of the major causes of discontent during the Bakumatsu period, and one of the causes of the demise of the Shogunate.[7]

Other coins[edit]

Despite Tokugawa Ieyasu’s strong will to unify the currency, there were still some local exceptions, with locally made currency.

Silver koban of Sagami Province, called Odawara Hishi (小田原菱).

Silver Nanryō Ōban (南鐐大判).

Gold Genbun Inari Koban (元文稲荷小判).

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Metzler p.15
  2. ^ The Cambridge History of Japan: Early modern Japan by John Whitney Hall p.61 [1]
  3. ^ a b c d The political economy of Japanese monetary policy by Thomas F. Cargill p.13 [2]
  4. ^ a b c Toi Museum
  5. ^ a b Japan Currency Museum permanent exhibit.
  6. ^ a b c Metzler, p.16
  7. ^ a b c d e Metzler, p.17
  8. ^ Quoted in Metzler, p.17

Bibliography[edit]

Japanese currency

     
 

Topics

 
 

Coinage

Rin

 

Sen

 

Yen

 

Other

 

Banknotes

Sen

 

Yen

 

Military

 

 

 

 

 

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Japan Currency Museum permanent exhibit.

Sources[edit]

This article incorporates information from the Japanese Wikipedia.

  • Bank of Japan
  • 新井政義(編集者)『日本史事典』。東京:旺文社1987(p. 329)
  • 竹内理三(編)『日本史小辞典』。東京:角川書店1985(p. 290)

External links[edit]

 

Japanese currency

     
 

Topics

 
 

Coinage

Rin

 

Sen

 

Yen

 

Other

 

Banknotes

Sen

 

Yen

 

Military

 

 

         

Source

Wiki

Currency

From SamuraiWiki

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A Kan’ei tsûhô coin from the Edo period (date unknown, left), a replica Keichô koban (center), and a Meiji 14 (1881) one sen coin (right)

A number of different modes of currency were used throughout Japanese history, including, in the pre-modern period, the heavy use of Chinese coins. By the Edo period, a relatively standardized system of gold and silver coinage was in place, though it experienced dramatic inflation and devaluation, among other financial crises, at times. Systems which served as precursors for a “modern” system of banks and paper currency, along with futures markets and other such economic/financial developments, emerged in the 18th-19th centuries, and beginning in the Meiji period, “modern” systems based on the Western model were established.

Contents

 [hide

Early Coinage

It is widely believed that the first currency to be produced in Japan was minted in the Wadô era (708-715), an era named after the discovery of copper in Musashi province (Wadô 和銅 literally means “Japanese copper”). These coins, with a face value of one mon, were based on the kai yuan tong bao (開元通宝) coinage then circulating in Tang Dynasty China. These small round coins with square holes in the middle would serve as the standard model for the shape or form of coins in both China and Japan for many centuries. Recent discoveries since the 1990s, however, have unearthed earlier, unlabeled (mumon 無文) silver coins, as well as coins known as fuhonsen 富本銭. The latter seem to have emerged in the 680s, during the period of Fujiwara-kyô; in contrast to the mumon ginsen which were valued by their actual weight in silver, and which Emperor Temmu outlawed in 683, the fuhonsen were fiat money (face value).

After the so-called Wadô kaihô (“Wadô coins”), other currencies continued to be produced until the mid-10th century, each named after the Imperial reign era in which they were produced. These included the Mannen tsûhô, Jinkô kaihô, Ryûhei eihô, Fûju shinpô, Shôwa shôhô, Chônen taihô, Jôeki shinpô, Jôgan eihô, Kanpyô taihô, and Engi tsûhô.[1]

Coinage at this time was used only by the aristocracy or religious elites, while the rest of the population functioned on a barter system in which value or buying power tended to be expressed in terms of silk, cloth, or rice.[2] One hiki 疋 of silk was generally valued as equal to one koku of rice (1 koku = 10 to 斗 = 100 shô 升), though this varied. Still, on average, from the Heian period through the Sengoku period, one koku of rice was considered equivalent to one kanmon, or 1000 mon in coins; one hiki remained steadily equivalent to ten mon of coins through the Edo period.[3] The direct association of goods, especially rice, with value, would continue through the mid-19th century; in the Edo period (1600-1868), lands would be valued in terms of their agricultural production, taxes would be paid in rice (or equivalents), and samurai would be paid their stipends in rice.

These early currencies fell out of usage, however, in the tenth century. By the time of the issuing of the Engi taihô (901-923), the currency had become debased, meaning that a given coin, despite officially having a certain denomination, actually contained less precious metal than its nominal value. In other words, there was severe inflation, as a given amount of currency no longer had the value (or buying power) it once did. And so, people lost confidence in the currency, and the government stopped minting coins for a time.

Several centuries later, beginning in the 12th century, Song dynasty Chinese coins began to be imported in considerable volumes, as a natural result of increased trade with China. The Northern Song, in fact, minted more copper coins than any other Chinese dynasty, and though the export of coinage from China was banned, Chinese coins nevertheless flowed throughout the East Asia region.[4] The court noble Saionji Kintsune alone is known to have imported as much as 100,000 kan of Song coins, enough to fund the construction of a dozen or more buildings. Song coins circulated so widely that as early as 1240 the Kamakura shogunate had reversed its various bans on the usage of cash, permitting its use everywhere but in the northernmost provinces.[5]

Muromachi Period and Ming Trade

Chinese coins continued to be a major presence in Japanese markets – at least among the elites – into the Muromachi period (1333-1573). The Ashikaga shogunate entered into formal trade relations with Ming Dynasty China in the late 14th century, and maintained relations until the mid-16th. Coins associated with the reign of the Yongle Emperor (1403-1425) were particularly numerous in Japan due to the close Sino-Japanese relations during that period, under Shogun Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, but coins issued in the Hongwu (1368-98) and Xuande (1425-35) reigns in particular have also been found in considerable numbers. The export of gold, silver, and copper from China remained forbidden in this period, but copper coins ended up being taken back to Japan by the tribute envoys anyway, after selling their cargoes in China.

The use of currency expanded considerably in Japan in the Kamakura (1185-1333) and Muromachi periods. Taxes previously paid in rice or other crops were now increasingly paid in Chinese coinage (though payment in crops was still very common), and coins circulated more widely. Systems of moneylenders called kariage or dosô emerged. But the currency being used was almost exclusively Chinese coins.[6]

Japanese coins first began to re-appear, and the volume of Chinese coins in circulation in Japan to drop, in the mid-15th century. Due to price fluctuations, Japanese merchants / tribute envoys in China found it more profitable to purchase goods – such as silk – in China to resell in Japan, rather than bringing Chinese coin back. Some areas in western Japan even began minting their own coins in imitation of the Chinese ones, and sending traders with Japanese coins to China to buy Chinese goods. Chinese coins from the late 15th century, e.g. those minted in the Hongzhi (1488-1505) reign, are quite rare finds for archaeologists in Japan today, and those from later reigns are almost entirely absent.[6]

In the Sengoku period (1467-1600), and especially as Japan began to become more integrated in the mid-to-late 16th century, regional daimyô began to expand their mining efforts, and gold and silver came to be more widely circulated, and exported. Gold dust had long been a common element in gifts (tribute) paid by samurai lords and shogunates to the Imperial Court; bags of gold dust of a designated size, called (納), were valued at 20 ryô.[7] In the central regions of the country, where mining was most prevalent, taxes came to increasingly be paid in gold and silver; this was then exchanged for coins or rice. Kin’ya and gin’ya (gold and silver dealers) emerged and enabled these conversion (exchange) transactions. These dealers, along with firms officially licensed by the local lord, called ginza or tenbinza, also dealt in producing, and certifying, pieces of gold and silver with a designated level of refinement or quality. Certified pieces, called hankin or gokuin-gin would be marked with numbers, kanji, kaô (monograms), or crests, indicating the firm’s certification. The term hankin would later be used in the Edo period to refer chiefly to ôban coins, but in fact the term could be applied to all certified & marked pieces of gold.

In the Edo period, the ryô would become one of the more common monetary denominations, and would become intricately tied into the koku, a measure of rice. However, prior to that time, the ryô was more closely related to a Japanese adaptation of the Tang system of measuring precious metals. In Tang China, precious metals were measured in “big” chin (J: kin, 斤) and “small” chin, and in “big” liang (J: ryô) and “small” liang,[8] with the smaller denomination being one-third that of the “large” denomination.[7] In the Nara and Heian periods, Japan simply made use of the “small” Chinese denominations as a standard denomination, omitting the “small” designation. But by the end of the 13th century, the Japanese implemented their own system of denominations, equating one ryô of gold to four monme and five bu[9].

For the sake of convenience, the ryô was, for a time in the late 16th century, devalued to four monme four bu. Around the same time, the denomination mai, equal to ten ryô, was briefly used.

Coins were minted from time to time in the Sengoku period by various local/regional power-holders, including lesser daimyô, as well as the likes of Oda Nobunaga. Toyotomi Hideyoshi, after securing control over most of the archipelago, minted coins as well. The so-called Tenshô-hishi-ôban, an ôban coin shaped like a chestnut (hishi), was first minted in 1588, the sixteenth year of the Tenshô era; similar coins continued to be made for several years afterwards. However, the vast majority of such coins produced in the 16th century were ten ryô coins, produced to be given as gifts to loyal commanders, or for other similar purposes, and not for general circulation.[10]

Edo Period

Two ten ryô ôban, one five ryô ôban, and a one ryô koban coin, on display at the British Museum

Samurai stipends in the Edo period were paid out in koku, i.e. in rice. However, gold and silver coinage was used in everyday exchanges (especially among chônin/commoners – peasants, merchants, artisans, etc.). In Edo, gold was more widely circulated, while in Kamigata (the Kyoto-Osaka area), silver was more commonly the mode of exchange. Gold was exchanged in relatively standardized coins issued by the shogunate, known as koban, and worth one ryô apiece.

A ryô was considered to be roughly equal to one koku, which in turn is said to have been roughly the amount of rice needed to feed a man for a year. However, rice and gold prices fluctuated dramatically over the course of the period, with 19 separate incidents of currency devaluation between 1819 and 1837 alone,[11] and the exact amount of rice that comprised a koku is, in any case, a subject of debate. Over the course of the Edo period, the cost of rice dropped dramatically relative to the value of gold, making samurai (who relied on stipends paid in koku) less and less wealthy than members of the merchant class who earned their incomes in gold and silver.[12]

The use of the gold koban, however, was most common in and around Edo, and the farther one traveled from Edo, the less standard it became. At the beginning of the Edo period, there were over one hundred types of gold coins in circulation,[13] and so in many parts of the country, particularly the active commercial centers of Kyoto and Osaka, and other areas at a considerable distance from Edo, currency continued to be valued by weight, and not by face value. While gold coins were particularly standard in Edo, in the rest of the country, silver and copper coins remained quite common, and were valued by their weight, in momme. One momme of silver was a little less than 4 grams. The most common denomination of silver was a 43 momme nugget called a chôgin.[14] One hundred momme of copper coins were worth roughly one momme of silver, and one thousand momme was called one kanme. Weights, previously not fully standardized, were in the Edo period restricted to those produced by the Gotô school, whose weights were to be used in all transactions for weighing out, for example, gold or silver. (Rice was measured by volume, not by weight.) Gotô Tokujô, who produced weights and coins for Oda Nobunaga, and gold engraver Gotô Yûjô (1440-1512) were members/ancestors of this family.

The Edo period monetary system, or at least its foundations, was established quite early in the period. In 1601 (Keichô 6), the Tokugawa oversaw the minting of a series of coins, in fairly large quantities, explicitly for circulation. The largest was the Keichô ôban, worth 10 ryô; the Keichô koban and ichibuban, gold coins worth 1 ryô and 1 bu respectively, were “face value” coins, with the value of one bu dependent not directly on the weight of the gold coin, but rather tied to the rising or falling value of the koban. Silver chôgin and mameita-gin coins continued to be valued by weight, and circulated in paper wrappings.[15]

Regional currencies continued to be used for a time, along with hankin and gokuin-gin certified bullion. Merchants in the Ise-Yamada area began producing paper money as early as 1600. Many domains produced their own paper notes; the oldest known today in its original form was a variety produced in Fukui han in 1661.[16] Kaga han (Ishikawa prefecture), which is still known today for its precious metals, was one of a number of places which had its own systems of certified bullion (mainly in silver), including what was called shuhô-gin – certified silver in a vermillion wrapper. Bullion sent to Edo or other parts of the country from these mining areas was often stamped or otherwise designated by marking for that region. To take just one example, bars from Niigata were stamped with the character ei/sakae (栄, prosperity). Akita han was also a major mining and minting area, producing gold and silver sen (coins in the same form as copper coins traditionally), along with koban, crude silver ore (jô-gin), and certified silver (gokuin-gin). Akita employed its own producers of weights and scales.[17]

By the end of the 17th century, the shogunate took control of the silver mines and the minting of currency, and established shogunate-controlled ginza, kinza, and copper mints in Osaka and Edo. The Kan’ei tsûhô was first minted in 1670, and the system was standardized, eliminating regional variant currencies, at least in theory.[16] Though this might seem on the surface like it might stifle economic development, in fact, the opposite occurred, as regional differences in currency systems, and protective policies put in place by the various domains, were eliminated, allowing freer circulation of money and goods throughout the country, especially in and out of the major economic centers of Edo and Osaka.[18] Despite the shogunal ban, many domains continued to produce their own fiat money, at least at times. Akita han issued its own fiat money in 1755, in an effort to monopsonize rice; the project was short-lived, however, being shut down a mere two years later after tea merchants from Mino province complained to the shogunate about the non-convertible currency. In another example, Tokushima han issued paper money beginning in the 1680s in an effort to make up for an insufficient supply of silver. Most domainal efforts to print their own money resulted in unintended inflation.[19]

Meanwhile, precious metals, especially silver, flowed out of the country in great volume, especially through Nagasaki. In the 16th century Japanese silver mines had become much more productive just as Chinese ones began to wane, spurring this considerable outflow. Copper mines similarly saw a considerable increase in their output in the 17th century, but by the end of that century, Japan’s silver mines were already beginning to run dry. This led to dramatic devaluations in the coinage, and rampant inflation, at various times over the course of the Edo period, as the shogunate attempted to implement financial/monetary policies to address the declining supply of precious metal. The Keichô koban weighed four momme, eight fun, and was 862 parts gold to 132 parts silver. After 1695, it was debased to 564 parts gold to 432 parts silver, with the total weight of the coin remaining the same.[20] One of the most significant instances of this came in 1718, when the value of the gold ryô dropped by about 20 percent. One gold ryô had been equal to roughly 60 momme of silver, and was now worth roughly 50 momme;[14] one chôgin (43 momme), therefore, had been equivalent to roughly 71% of a gold ryô, but was now worth closer to 83% of a ryô.[21] Meanwhile, the Genroku-gin pieces of silver (issued 1695-1706), made of 646 parts silver to 352.6 parts copper and 1.4 parts gold, were replaced by the Hôeigin in 1706-1710, made up of 507 parts silver 490.6 parts copper and 1.2 parts gold.[22]

The debasement of coinage in the Genroku period was the first major debasement in the period;[16] the change to minting coins of only 57% gold and ingots of only 64% silver may have created as much as five million ryô in savings (or profits) for the shogunate, providing a much-needed boost to the shogunate’s finances.[23]

Prices

Though prices varied widely, of course, over time, from place to place, and depending on the quality of the goods or other factors, the following figures might provide a rough idea of prices (i.e. the value of the ryô) in the “high” Edo period (18th to early 19th centuries).

  • 8 mon – a single piece of relatively low-quality sushi.[24]
  • 16 mon – a bowl of soba.[24]
  • 2 or 3 momme – a cheap ukiyo-e print[25]
  • 300-500 mon – one night with a prostitute at a post-station or port town in the Kansai or Inland Sea regions.[24]
  • 20 momme – an ukiyo-e print of good quality.[25]
  • 32 momme – the cost of seeing a play at Ryôgoku in 1820.
  • 75 momme – the cost of the journey from Osaka to Nagasaki by boat (roughly 14-20 days).[25][14]
  • 90 momme – the cost of a multi-volume illustrated book, such as Soga Monogatari.[25]
  • 1 bu or 1/4 ryô – a night with a particularly expensive prostitute at a post-station near Edo.[24]
  • 1000 momme or 1/4 ryô – the cost of sending a child to terakoya (temple school) for a year
  • 1 ryô – the cost for a man’s formal kamishimo outfit, including hakama, haori, and kosode.
  • 1 ryô – the cost of commissioning a scroll painting by a well-known painter; a screen painting by the same painter might cost roughly 6-10 ryô.
  • 2-3 ryô – the cost of hiring a maid for a year (i.e. the income made by a maid in a year)
  • 4 ryô – the cost of a print imported from Europe[26]
  • 6 ryô – a typical annual wage for a laborer[25][14]
  • 6 to 10 ryô – the fee to commission a major artist for a single set of lavish byôbu (folding screen) paintings; could be as much as even 40 ryô depending.[25]
  • 10 ryô – the cost of a first visit to a Yoshiwara establishment, including tips for the nakai and taikomochi.[27]
  • 200 ryô – A month in the Yoshiwara could cost as much as this.[25]
  • 360 ryô – the cost of buying a small room (80 sq yards) in Edo.
  • 483 ryô – The annual salary of a typical hatamoto in 1711.[28]
  • 500 ryô – The cap on kabuki actors’ salaries, imposed by the Kansei Reforms in 1794.[28]
  • 800 ryô The salary of kabuki actor Ichikawa Danjūrō I (16601704) peaked at this amount.[28]
  • 1000 ryôYoshizawa Ayame I (16631729) was the first kabuki actor to attain an annual salary of this amount.[28]

Denominations Chart

Gold

1 ryô

4 bu

16 shu

1 koku of rice

1 bu

1/10 monme 匁

.375 grams

 

1 monme

10 bu

3.75 grams

 

Silver

     

1 kan

100 ryô

1000 monme

 

Copper

     

1 kanmon 貫文

1000 mon

   

Rice

     

1 koku

10 to

100 shô

1 ryô of gold

1 hiki of silk

Silk

       

1 hiki

1 koku of rice

     

Meiji Period

The Meiji government began printing its own money almost immediately, in 1868. These first notes were called Dajôkansatsu, after the Dajôkan (Imperial Council of State). A new Currency Act was passed in 1871, establishing the yen as the core denomination of currency. The first national bank notes to feature a person’s portrait depicted Empress Jingû, and came out in 1881.[16]

The Bank of Japan was established in 1882, and issued its first notes in 1885; these notes, known as Daikoku satsu, featured images of Daikoku, one of the Seven Lucky Gods. A Coinage Law passed in 1897 set the economy onto the gold standard.[16]

References

  • Crawcour, E.S. and Kozo Yamamura. “The Tokugawa Monetary System, 1787-1868.” Economic Development and Cultural Change 18:4, part 1 (1970). pp489-518.
  • Kobata Atsushi. “Coinage from the Kamakura Period through the Edo Period.” Acta Asiatica 21 (1971). pp98-108.
  1. Kobata. p98n1.
  2. When a good was used as payment, its value was often counted in terms of jun-kinu 準絹, jun-nuno 準布, or jun-kome 準米, that is, in terms of how much silk, cloth, or rice it would have been worth.
  3. Kobata. pp98-99.
  4. Kobata. p98.
  5. Kang, David C. “Hierarchy in Asian International Relations: 1300-1900.” Asian Security 1, no. 1 (2005), 65.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Kobata. pp99-100.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Kobata. p101.
  8. That is, da-chin 大斤 (J: dai-kin) and xiao-chin 小斤 (J: shô-kin), da-liang 大両 (J: dai-ryô) and xiao-liang 小両 (J: shô-ryô).
  9. With one monme being 3.75 grams, or ten bu.
  10. Kobata. p105.
  11. Conrad Schirokauer, David Lurie, and Suzanne Gay, A Brief History of Japanese Civilization, Wadsworth Cengage (2013), 153.
  12. Screech, Timon. “Owning Edo-Period Paintings.” in Lillehoj, Elizabeth (ed.) Acquisition: Art and Ownership in Edo-Period Japan. Floating World Editions, 2007. p34.
  13. Crawcour and Yamamura. p490.
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 Timon Screech, Obtaining Images, University of Hawaii Press (2012), 79.
  15. Kobata. p106.
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 Pamphlet, Currency Museum.
  17. Kobata. p107.
  18. Kobata. p108.
  19. Mark Ravina, Land and Lordship in Early Modern Japan, Stanford University Press (1999), 59-60.
  20. Arai Hakuseki, Joyce Ackroyd (trans.), Told Round a Brushwood Fire, University of Tokyo Press (1979), 296n239.
  21. Timon Screech (Obtaining Images, p79) cites the figures as 65% and 95%; however, calculating directly, using the figures 43, 50, and 60, results in the percentages 71 and 83.
  22. Hakuseki, 296n240.
  23. Robert Hellyer, Defining Engagement, Harvard University Press (2009), 59.
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 24.3 Amy Stanley, Selling Women: Prostitution, Markets, and the Household in Early Modern Japan, UC Press (2012), xxii.
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 25.5 25.6 Screech, “Owning Edo-Period Paintings.” p26.
  26. Timon Screech, Obtaining Images, 325.
  27. Segawa Seigle, Cecelia. Yoshiwara. University of Hawaii Press, 1993.
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 28.3 Leiter, Samuel. “Edo Kabuki: The Actor’s World.” Impressions 31 (2010). pp114-131

Source samuwiki

 

 

USA

 

THE ZAIBATSU OF JAPAN

 

財閥
Financial Cliques

The zaibatsu (literally financial cliques) were the diversified family enterprises that rose to prominence in the Meiji Era. Some of the most important zaibatsu and their origins were:

Mitsui

Mitsubishi

Yasuda

Sumitomo

Okura

Furukawa

Kuhara

Suzuki

Fujita

Asano

Mitsui:

  • The founder of the Mitsui zaibatsu, Mitsui Hachirobei Takatoshi, established shops for dry goods in Kyoto (the old capital) and Edo (now Tokyo) in 1673 to sell high quality kimonos. Ten years later he and his sons established money changing shops which soon were carrying out exchange operations for the Tokugawa Shogunate, the government of Japan. One operation Mitsui performed for the Shogunate was to convert taxes which were paid in rice into money available in Edo. Osaka was the principal commercial center of Japan at the time and Mitsui sold in Osaka the rice collected as taxes. Mitsui handled the transfer of funds from Osaka to Edo. Transporting money itself from Osaka to Edo was dangerous and expensive so Mitsui instead bought the promissory notes Edo merchants gave to Osaka and Kyoto merchants and transferred these to Edo for collection. Mitsui did not charge a fee for these important services to the Shogunate but instead was compensated by having the use of government funds for a period of months. For those months between the receipt of the rice tax and the payment of money in Edo Mitsui had, in effect, an interest-free loan which it could lend at interest to other borrowers. Eventually these financial services businesses became more important than the dry goods shops which were the original business of the Mitsui family.
  • Although providing services for the Shogunate was profitable for Mitsui there were risks. When the Shogunate got into political difficulties and needed funds it squeezed the political merchants like Mitsui who had been making profits from its patronage. After demanding substantial comtributions in the 1864-65 period from Mitsui and other political merchants, in 1866 it demanded a payment from Mitsui alone which was more 50 percent larger than Mitsui’s operating assets.
  • Mitsui had to petition for a reduction in the amount the Shogunate was demanding. Mitsui founded a talented negotiator, Minokawa Rihachi, who had once been a servant of the Minister of Finance. Minokawa was uneducated and illiterate but he was a very sharp political operator. Minokawa got the payment demanded of Mitsui reduced by two-thirds. Furthermore the payment was split into three installments. Before the last two installments were due the Shogunate was overthrown.
  • However before its overthrow the Shogunate had asked that Mitsui set up in Yokohama a lending organization that would be funded by custom duties. Minokawa as a reward for his successful negotiation was selected to manage the Yokohama lending institution for Mitsui. Minokawa changed his name to Minomura for this new career.
  • When the Tokogawa Shogunate was overthrown Mitsui was selected by the new Meiji government to provide financial services and handle the creation of a new currency. Mitsui was also instructed to begin preparation for the creation of a central bank for Japan.
  • After Mitsui was well along in its plans to create a central bank the Meiji government changed its mind and called for Mitsui to collaborate with another business, Ono, in the formation of the central bank. Mitsui, Ono and Shamada were the three businesses which held government deposits and benefited from having the use of these funds interest free for a period of time. In October 1874 the government demanded that each of these three firms make a payment to the government equal to one-third of the amount that the government held with them. This payment was required within a couple of months which was too short a time for Ono and Shamada to collect on the loans they had out of government funds and they went bankrupt. Mitsui was able to survive because government funds were a smaller proportion of their holdings than they were for Ono and Shamada. Mitsui had also been more cautious in its lending than Ono and Shamada. But the key to Mitsui surviving is that its political operator, Minomura, had gotten advanced warning of the change in government policy and had longer to raise the payment required.
  • In 1876 Mitsui formed the Mitsui Bank, a major financial institution in Japan in the years ahead.

Mitsubishi:

  • Mitsubishi (Three Diamonds) was founded by Iwasaki Yataro of what is now Kochi Prefecture but was at the time Tosa domain, a samarai-controlled region. Iwasaki was selected to serve in the bureaucracy and later headed the Nagasalo office of the financial agency of the domain. The financial agency was charged with promoting the sale of domain products and using the proceeds to purchase ships and weapons from foreign merchants. The Meiji Revolution brought an end to his domain’s Nagasaki office and Iwasaki was transferred to Osaka in 1869. The trust and relationships Iwasaki developed with foreign merchants were important factors in his career. The Meiji government banned domain enterprises so the financial agency Iwasaki managed was transformed into a private business under Iwasaki’s management. Its primary activity was shipping.
  • In 1871 the Meiji government abolished the domain governments and put in their place the prefecture system. Iwasaki took over the managment of the privatized domain enterprises and assumed responsibility for the debts of the Tosa domain. This assumption of unpaid debt gave foreign merchants great confidence in Iwasaki’s integrity. Initially the new company was named Mitsukawa (Three Rivers) because three of the principle owners had “kawa” as part of their surnames. By 1873 Iwasaki had emerged as the dominant personality in the company and he renamed the company Mitsubishi Shokai.
  • The company headquarters was moved to Tokyo in 1874 and the name changed to Mitsubishi Steamship Company (Mitsubishi Jokisen Kaisha). In 1874 the Meiji government wanted transportation for a military expedition to Taiwan and foreign shipping firms refused to provide the ships. There was a national government enterprise, the Japan National Mail Steamship Company (YJK), from which the government sought transportation. YJK was not an efficiently managed enterprise and it also refused to provide the ships needed. In desperation the government turned to Mitsubishi for aid and Mitsubishi provided transport the government needed. Thereafter Mitsubishi gained favor and protection from the Meiji government. It subsequently changed its name to Mitsubishi Mail Steamship Company.
  • Mitsubishi started a Shanghai-Yokohama line and, with government backing, drove foreign ship lines out of the market. When the Meiji government needed military transport Mitsubishi provided it.

Yasuda

  • The Yasuda zaibatsu was founded by Yasuda Zenjiro at the end of the era of the Tokogawa Shogunate. Yasuda came from a poor samarai class family in what is now Toyama Prefecture. He migrated to Edo and worked in a money changing business until 1863, at age 25, he was ready to start his own money changing business. In 1867 Yasuda became a political merchant, carrying out financial operations for the Shogunate like overseeing the collection of gold and silver. Under the Meiji government Yasuda continued to provide financial services. Like other political merchants Yasuda handled tax collections and profited from the delay between collection and the time at which those funds had to be forwarded to the government. Yasuda bought up depreciated paper money which had been issued by the new regime. When the regime announced the paper money would be accepted at its face value in gold coin Yasuda made a fortune. In 1876 Yasuda founded the Third National Bank of Japan.

Sumitomo

  • The Sumitomo enterprise had its origins in mining and smelting. Soga Riemon learned copper smelting and processing in Osaka and then founded a copper refinery in Kyoto in 1590. Sumitomo Masatomo was a wealthy druggist and publisher in Kyoto. When the eldest son of Soga married the daughter of Sumitomo he adopted the Sumitomo surname. The copper business grew and the Sumitomo family became one of the companies allowed by the Shogun to trade in copper. Later the Sumitomo family enterprise was allowed to operate the Besshi copper mine owned by the Shogunate.
  • In the 1860’s the Sumitomo enterprises were experiencing financial difficulties which became catastrophic when the Shogun was overthrown. All the special privileges of Sumitomo were lost. The loans that Sumitomo had made to daimyo governments in the past were cancelled.The Meiji government intended to expropriate the Besshi copper mine as a property of the Shogunate government.
  • The mangager of the Besshi mine, Hirose Giemon, was able to make the case that the Shogunate had given Sumitomo the right to operate the Besshi mine in perpetuity and thus Besshi was really the property of Sumitomo. Hirose Giemon was made manager of the head office of Sumitomo and successfully negotiated some terms for the settlement of other financial obligations of Sumitomo. Hirose then began selling copper to foreign buyers and with the advice of a French mining engineer was able to expand production at the Besshi copper mine.

Okura:

  • In contrast to most of the zaibatsu, the Okura zaibatsu was founded by someone from the peasant class. Okura Kihachiro moved from what is now Niigata Prefecture on the north shore of Honshu to Edo and worked for three years before starting his own grocery store in 1857. After selling groceries for eight years he began to sell guns during the last days of the Shogunate.
  • In 1872 Okura traveled to Europe and the United States where he met members of a Meiji government mission who were also traveling there. After his return to Japan and he obtained government contracts as a result of the acquaintances of government people he made on that trip. Later he established a trading company with a branch in London but his profits came more from services he provided rather than the trading operations of the company. Okura also provided military supplies to the government.

Furukawa:

  • Ono was a political merchant company which held government funds on deposit and invested the idle funds in raw silk exporting and mining. When the Meiji government demanded a matching deposit Ono was not able to raise the funds and went bankrupt. Furukawa Ichibei was an employee of Ono when it collapsed. He founded a company to engage in the same activities as Ono. After Furukawa found raw silk exporting unprofitable he concentrated on mining ventures.
  • When the Ono bank collapsed depositors such as Furukawa lost their savings. Soma, a wealthy daimyo family also lost a large amount in the collapse of the Ono bank. Furukawa convinced the Soma family to relinquish its large claim for its lost deposits in return for the ownership of two mines which the Ono company had owned. Furukawa was to manage the mines for the Soma family.

Kuhara:

  • The Kuhara zaibatsu had its origins in the Fujita zaibatsu. Kuhara Fusanosuke was the nephew of the founder of Fujita. Kuhara became the manager of an unprofitable Fujita silver mine at Kosaka. Kuhara transformed the unprofitable Kosaka silver mine into a profitable copper mine by utilizing the low grade copper ore available there. The success of the Kosaka mine revived the Fujita zaibatsu. At the time the Fujita zaibatsu was a partnership of three brothers, but Fujita Denzaburo decided to buy out the interests of his two brothers’ heirs, which included Kuhara.
  • With his compensation from Fujita, Kuhara purchased a mine which he renamed Hitachi. Kuhara developed his operations into the third largest copper producer in Japan, exceeded only by Furukawa and Fujita.

Suzuki:

  • The Suzuki zaibatsu was founded by Suzuki Iwajiro of Kobe. Suzuki began as a sugar importer in 1874 but expanded to exporting camphor and mint. Suzuki marketed 65 percent of the camphor oil produced in Taiwan when it became a Japanese colony. In the early years of the twentieth century Suzuki moved into sugar refining and the processing of camphor and mint. It also built a steel mill, the Kobe Steelworks, and sought contracts to supply the Japanese navy.

Fujita:

  • Fujita Denzaburo capitalized upon his connections with government officials in Choshu to obtain government contracts for goods and civil engineering projects. The profits from being a political merchant far surpassed the earnings from the Fujita family brewery of soy sauce and saki in Choshu (now Yamaguchi Prefecture). Fujita was what Americans later called a “wheeler-dealer.” At one point Fujita spent four months in jail because of government suspicion that he was using counterfeit currency in his dealings. He and his two brothers later founded Fujita-gumi, a company that engaged in mining and drainage projects.

Asano:

  • The Asano zaibatsu had a quite different origin from the other zaibatsu, coming neither from a political merchant family business nor a family mining enterprise. The founder, Asano Soichiro, came to Tokyo with practically nothing. He progressed from a street vendor of sugar water through a variety of small businesses to retailer of firewood, charcoal and coal. One major use of coal at the time was to produce coal gas for gas light systems for homes and businesses. In producing coal gas coal is heated to a high temperature without burning and is turned into coke. Coke is valuable fuel and essential for smelting iron ore to produce iron, but at that time the coke was not being used for anything. Asano saw a use for the coke as fuel at the government-owned cement where cement was produced by heating clay and limestone to a high temperature. Asano was also able to induce a Tokyo paper manufacturer to use coke as fuel.
  • From his success in marketing coke as fuel Asano went on to capture a major share of the coal market through marketing the production of a government-run coal mine in Hokkaido. In 1884 he purchased a government cement plant and started his own shipping company to transport his coal and cement. Later he obtained from contacts in the government the exclusive rights to import kerosene from a Russian company.

The relative sizes of the zaibatsu changed somewhat over time. In 1895 the annual incomes of the various zaibatsu families were as follows.

Family

Annual
Income
1895
(000 yen)

Iwasaki
(Mitsubishi)

1,084

Mitsui

529

Sumitomo

156

Yasuda

94

Okura

65

Furukawa

62

Reference: Hidemasa Morikawa, Zaibatsu: The Rise and Fall of Family Enterprise Groups in Japan, University of Tokyo Press, 1992

 

 

The banknotes of the Japanese yen are part of the physical form of Japan‘s currency. The issuance of the yen banknotes began in 1872, two years after the currency was introduced. Throughout its history, the denominations have ranged from 0.05 yen to 10,000 yen.

Before World War II[edit]

1869

In 1869, the Ministry of Finance introduced notes in denominations between 10 sen and 100 yen. “Imperial Japanese Paper Currency” followed in 1873 in denominations of 1 yen up to 20 yen. “Imperial Japanese Paper Money” was issued between 1881 and 1883 in denominations between 20 sen and 10 yen.

1877

In 1877 and 1878, the Imperial Japanese National Bank issued 1 and 5 yen notes. In 1885, the Bank of Japan began issuing notes, in denominations of 1, 5, 10 and 100 yen. 20 yen notes were added in 1917, followed by 200 yen in 1927 and 1000 yen in 1945. [1]

Between 1917 and 1922, the government issued 10, 20 and 50 sen notes. 50 sen notes were reintroduced in 1938. In 1944, 5 and 10 sen notes were introduced by the Bank of Japan.

1930

Japan 1930 10 yen P 40a,PMG 64 FPO UNC IDR 1.157.894, 74

Dr Iwan comment

I found the near same PMG , I didinot nremember when and where I found this PMG

 

 

Allied forces notes[edit]

1945-1951

The Allies issued notes in denominations of 10 and 50 sen, 1, 5, 10, 20, 100 and 1000 yen between 1945 and 1951, during which time the Bank of Japan also issued notes. Banknotes below 1 yen became invalid on December 31, 1953 by the same legislation mentioned above.

 

P.O.W 1 yen Camp Chit Ticket for US Military (very rare) est price IDR 2.368.289,47

Australia actually made notes for the occupation as well and those can be seen at the Australian Reserve Bank website [2]

Regaining sovereignty[edit]

1950

By the early 1950s, notes below 50 yen had been replaced by coins, followed by those for 50 and 100 yen in the late 1950s.

1957-1958

In 1957 and 1958, 5000 and 10,000 yen notes were introduced.

1982

The 500 yen notes were replaced after 1982,

2000

while 2000 yen notes were introduced in 2000.

2016

100-1000 yen notes were introduced at July 2016 with small papermoney type.

Dr Iwan comment

I have   almost all of the above Japan PM type

 

except geometric patern 1946

200 yen 1946 ,

1000 yen 1986 (I found but I sold in 2000)

and

 

5000 yen 1956, I still hunting this rare bank note,

I found a rare catalogues of Japan Banknote with more older bank note which some I found in Jakarta, if the collectors and scholar want to look please visit my museum”Our Ancestor Museum WANLI SONS Kelapa Gading North Jakarta Indonesia.

Look the complete table of Japan papermoney at another page below

 

1946-48[edit]

Series A (1946–48)

Image

Value

Dimensions

Description

Date of

Obverse

Reverse

Obverse

Reverse

issue

issue suspension

expiration

   

¥0.05

94 × 48 mm

Prunus mume blossoms

Geometric patterns

May 25, 1948

December 31, 1953

June 30, 1954

   

¥0.1

100 × 52 mm

Pigeons

The Diet building

September 5, 1947

   

¥1

124 × 68 mm

Ninomiya Sontoku

Geometric patterns

March 19, 1946

October 1, 1958

Valid

   

¥5

132 × 68 mm

Geometric patterns

March 5, 1946

April 1, 1955

   

¥10

140 × 76 mm

The Diet building

February 25, 1946

   

¥100

162 × 93 mm

Prince Shōtoku, “Yumedono” (A hall associated with Prince Shōtoku in Hōryū-ji Temple)

Hōryū-ji Temple

February 25, 1946

July 5, 1956

For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

   

1950-53[edit]

Series B (1950–53) [3]

Image

Value

Dimensions

Main Color

Description

Date of

Obverse

Reverse

Obverse

Reverse

issue

issue suspension

   

¥50

144 × 68 mm

Orange

Takahashi Korekiyo

The headquarters of the Bank of Japan

December 1, 1951

October 1, 1958

   

¥100

148 × 76 mm

Brown-orange

Itagaki Taisuke

The Diet building

December 1, 1953

August 1, 1974

   

¥500

156 × 76 mm

Dark blue

Iwakura Tomomi

Mt. Fuji

April 2, 1951

January 4, 1971

   

¥1000

164 × 76 mm

Grey

Prince Shōtoku

“Yumedono”

January 7, 1950

January 4, 1965

For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

   

The series B introduced a new high value banknote ¥1000.

1957-69[edit]

Series C (1957–69) [3]

Image

Value

Dimensions

Main Color

Description

Date of

Obverse

Reverse

Obverse

Reverse

issue

issue suspension

   

¥500

159 × 72 mm

Blue

Iwakura Tomomi

Mt. Fuji

November 1, 1969

April 1, 1994

   

¥1000

164 × 76 mm

Yellow-green

Itō Hirobumi

The headquarters of the Bank of Japan

November 1, 1963

January 4, 1986

   

¥5000

169 × 80 mm

Green-brown

Prince Shōtoku

The headquarters of the Bank of Japan

October 1, 1957

January 4, 1986

   

¥10,000

174 × 84 mm

Brown-green

Prince Shōtoku

A pillar painting of Hōō in Byōdō-in Temple

December 1, 1958

January 4, 1986

For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

The series C introduced two new high value banknotes ¥5000 and ¥10,000.

1984[edit]

Series D (1984) [4]

Image

Value

Dimensions

Main Color

Description

Date of

Obverse

Reverse

Obverse

Reverse

issue

issue suspension

   

¥1000

150 × 76 mm

Blue

Natsume Sōseki

Pair of cranes

November 1, 1984

April 2, 2007

   

¥5000

155 × 76 mm

Purple

Nitobe Inazō

Mt. Fuji, Lake Motosu and cherry blossoms

   

¥10,000

160 × 76 mm

Brown

Fukuzawa Yukichi

Pair of pheasants

For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Due to the discovery of a large number of counterfeit Series D banknotes at the end of 2004, all Series D banknotes except ¥2000 were virtually suspended on January 17, 2005,[5] and officially suspended on April 2, 2007.[6] According to a news release [7] from the National Police Agency, they seized 11,717 counterfeit Series D banknotes (excluding the ¥2000 denomination) in 2005. However, they seized only 486 counterfeit current issue banknotes, namely Series E ¥1000, ¥5000, ¥10000, and Series D ¥2000.

2000[edit]

Commemorative series D (2000) [4]

Image

Value

Dimensions

Main Color

Description

Date of issue

Obverse

Reverse

Obverse

Reverse

   

¥2000

154 × 76 mm

Green

Shurei-mon

Scene from the Tale of Genji and portrait of Murasaki Shikibu

July 19, 2000

For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

2000 yen note with The Tale of Genji and Murasaki Shikibu on the right corner

Dr Iwan comment

I found this papermoney at Seoul City at NamDaimon Market money changer in 2008.

This is the current issue. The 2000 yen note was first issued on July 19, 2000 to commemorate the 26th G8 summit in Okinawa and the 2000 millennium year as well. Pictured on the front of the note is Shureimon, a famous gate in Naha, Okinawa near the site of the summit. The other side features a scene from the The Tale of Genji and the author Murasaki Shikibu on the lower right corner. The motif of the scene was taken from the 12th century illuminated handscrolls of the novel kept at the Tokugawa Art Museum in Nagoya. The image of Murasaki Shikibu is taken from the Gotoh edition of the Murasaki Shikibu Diary Emaki held at the Gotoh Museum.

These notes are rare in the market, but at banks they are readily available. Many Japanese consider the 2000 yen note a novelty as it is the only Japanese denomination whose first digit is 2. To promote the circulation of the notes, some companies had started paying wages in them. The series D is the first to display the EURion constellation.

2004[edit]

Series E (2004) [4]

Image

Value

Dimensions

Main Color

Description

Date of issue

Obverse

Reverse

Obverse

Reverse

   

¥1000

150 × 76 mm

Blue

Noguchi Hideyo

Mt. Fuji, Lake Motosu and cherry blossoms

November 1, 2004

   

¥5000

156 × 76 mm

Purple

Higuchi Ichiyō

“Kakitsubata-zu” (Painting of irises, a work by Ogata Kōrin)

   

¥10,000

160 × 76 mm

Brown

Fukuzawa Yukichi

Statue of hōō (phoenix) from Byōdō-in Temple

For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

This is the current issue. The EURion constellation pattern can be observed on the series E.

Source wiki

 

 

Lokk more info from E-Bay auction August 2016-08-15

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(3) WW ll era JAPANESE Bank note…10 YEN.

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o    45m left (Today 8:18PM)

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JAPANESE OCCUPATION $10 MALAYSIA CURRENCY

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40 BILLS World War II Japanese Military Yen Money Banknote NIPPON VINTAGE

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Japan banknote 10 yen (1946) B351 P-87 UNC-

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Japan P-106 2004 10000 Yen (Gem UNC)

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Japan banknote 1 yen (1916) B312 P-30 UNC-

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Japan Banknote “2th Kiyomaro 10yen” 1943 XF-condition

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Japan 10 Yen 1940’s Block {376} Circulated Banknote

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6 pc Japanese Government Currency WWII Invasion Occupation 32.50 Pesos U grade

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Bank of Japan 2th 1944y~ 100Yen Shotoku Block {150} aFine

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Japan banknote 50 yen (1951) B353 P-88 UNC

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Japanese banknote 5 yen military m 25 UNC 1938

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JAPAN, 10 YEN, P#40a,ND(1930)

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1000 Yen Nippon Ginko Japan Japanese Banknote Circulated

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References[edit]

  1. ^ “1000 Yen note 1945 prince Yamato Takeru”. World Banknotes. Retrieved 14 February 2015. 
  2. ^ http://www.rba.gov.au/Museum/Displays/_Images/1920_1960/100_yen_note_front_big.jpg
  3. ^ a b http://www.boj.or.jp/en/type/list/yuko/data/money01.pdf
  4. ^ a b c Currency in Use: Bank of Japan
  5. ^ http://www.boj.or.jp/type/release/zuiji/bnnew16.htm Archived August 8, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  6. ^ 一万円券、五千円券および千円券の今後の支払について:日本銀行
  7. ^ http://www.npa.go.jp/toukei/souni/gizou.htm Archived August 10, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.

External links[edit]

 

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Money of Japan.

Japanese currency

     
 

Topics

 
 

Coinage

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Other

 

Banknotes

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Source wiki

The End @ Copyright DR Iwan 2016

The E-book in CD-ROM Collections in 2016

tHE SAMPLE oF dRIWANCYBERMUSEUM E-bOOK IN cd rOKIM

THIS SAMPLE NOT COMPLE AND NOT CORRECTED,

If you want to buy this E-bbok in CD-ROmj in complete and very good and  woow collections, send email to iwansuwandy@gmail.com, with upload your Id D and Adfress comete with Phoned number. abour cost only RP 250.000,- per one question and the full info will dscuss later.

Sincerely

Dr iwan siw=uwnsady, MHA

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Adventurecandijiwa1

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DR Iwan Comment

I have some of this collections below (near same  or used condition)

 

 

 

 

Intro

THE ADVENTURE OF Dr IWAN TO CANDI JIWA WEST KRAWANG

I.August,16Th.2000

In this day with my loving Toyota Hardtop Lancruiser BJ 40, I went alone to Rengasdengklok to look at the historic house where Bung Karno and Bug Hata were” Keep ” by the young man 55 years ago inorder to aksed them to proclaimed the Indonesian Independent there (the complete story look at the Indonesian Independent war collections and Bung Hatta Collections in this blog or in my old bl9oc hhtp”//www.uniquecoleetion.wordpress.com-auth)

Very difficult to found the road to the Candi “Jiwa” (Ancient Soul -BudhishTemple), after enter the Rengasdengklok ,from the Jakarta Cikampek Toll Road, at West Cikampek I foun dthe sign

,then tern left and after the railways t’s turn to the right,

I came to the very crowded market

 

Then the turn right until at then of that market

,turn left near the small river, I drive straight until arrived the sign

, the Jiwa Temple at the right circa 40 km in very bad road,with very small arrow directions of Candi Jiwa , then turn to the right about 500 m.

I enter the broken candi Jiwa, and with the helping of the native peoples there I have seen other borken candi, they talled me about 24 candi beside Candi Jiwa there.

 

All the candi built frome “Bata” sands break.

At the small camp’s house there ,I saw the project map,and some artifact founding, like same small sand Tablet with Buddish’s relief ,and a broken earthenweare vessels (Kendi),and small jarlets(buli-buli) and some new ceramics, they said until now they still studied the earliest Candi which ever found in Java circa three or four century AD much older than the Ancient mataram kindom of Java, may be this candi built by the Ancient Tarumanegara Kingdom, no Ancient coins and Chinese ceramic found there. I took the adventure after read te magazine story about Mr Abu Ridho from National Centre Museum and Mrs Sumirah Adyatman of Adam Malik museum,s curator ever came there too.

  1. August.15th 2010

After ten years , I am asking my son Anton to take me with my wife with his Toyota Kinjang Innova to adventure agains to Rengas Dengklok in order to comemorate the 65 years of Indonesian Indenpent day.

After that we went to “Candi Jiwa “to look the progress of that Candi renovations, because I have read in Kompas Newspaper a week ago,that some foriegn’s arkeologist had found athe human skull and skelletons ,very long diameters about two meters long body-head with their ancient gold necklage and sword.

The Road still same but before the raillways ,there atre the new flyt over bridge wich made the road more closer, and still turn right strait to the Rengas Dengklok market but I didnnot met the Historic House anymore,

after arrive the market still the same turn to the right until the end of market near river turn left but the road more best with cement beton and smoe asphalt betons to cadi Jiwa, now there have two candi almost finished ,one cadi Jiwa and near that candi, new candi Blondongan are still in renovations ,

 

please look my profile at two candi Jiwa at Batujaya krawang west Java

 

This time I with my wife Lily and My son Anto, have made some interesting pictures of some artifact found

The picture of the candi Jiwan and Blondongan

 

2) The letest artifact have just founds, very pity the Ancient Gold were bring abroad by the archeoligt to studies .

3) the older foundings’s artifact.

 

An :Sebenarnya apa yang dimaksud dengan candi ?
Ark: Menurut Pak Soekmono (dia salah satu maestro arkelogi di Indonesia gan),candi adalah tempat memuliakan orang2 yang sudah meninggal.Ini masih ada kaitannya dengan asal kata “candi” itu sendiri,yaitu “candika”,nama lain dari Dewi Durga,dewi kematian.
namun masyarakat terkadang menggunakan istilah candi untuk menyebut bangunan peninggalan dari masa Hindu-Budha di Indonesia.Terkaadang juga digunakan untuk menyebut bangunan bersejarah agama Hindu-Budha di luar negeri seperti candi Angkor Wat di Kamboja dan candi Khajuraho di India.
Namun yang unik adalah dalam prasasti2 atau naskah2 kuno yang sudah ditemukan dan diterjemahkan,tidak ditemui istilah candi.Sebutan yang digunakan adalah Padharmaan,Dharma Haji,Dharma Lpas,Prasada,Bhavana,Vihara,Parahyangan,Pangastulan,Tirth,atau Patirthan.

Quote:An :Sejak kapan tradisi pembangunan candi masuk ke Nusantara?
Ark:Sebelum tradisi Hindu-Budha masuk ke Nusantara,tidak ada tradisi membangun bangunan dari batu.Jikapun ada,jumlahnya sedikit sekali.Ketika agama Hindu dan Budha masuk ke Nusantara,tempat pemujaan awalnya pun masih terbuat dari kayu.Kemudian digunakanlah batu sebagai bahan bangunan.Itupun masih berukuran kecil dan masih minim ornamen dan masih ada unsur Indianya.
Istimewanya candi di Nusantara menurut Bosch adalah dari segi teknis,mungkin tidak begitu mengagumkan,tapi dari segi seni,candi2 di Nusantara memiliki nilai yang tinggi.Hingga kini,bangunan candi tertua masih dilihat pada gugus candi Hindu di Dieng. 
Ada sebuah teori yang mengatakan bahwa raja2 Nusantara mendatangkan arsitek langsung dari India untuk memebangun candi,tapi teori ini masih lemah karena tidak ditemukan candi bercorak India,misalnya penggunaan pilar.Kemudian munculah teori baru bahwa arsitek Indonesialah yang membangun candi dan mereka membangun candi sesuai yang tertera dalam kitab Silpasastra (kitab yang berisi kaidah pembangunan candi).

Quote:An :Sebenarnya apa sih latar belakang orang zaman dahulu dalam membangun candi ?
Ark:Latar belakang candi dibangun adalah untuk Memuliakan orang yang meninggal atau sering disebut dengan didharmakan.Biasanya yang didharmakan adalah orang penting seperti raja,bangsawan,atau agamawan.Dalam tradisi Hindu Budha tidak mengenal tradisi penguburan,yang ada adalah pembakaran mayat yang kemudian abunya dilarung ke laut sebagai simbol terpisahnya roh dari unsur keduniawian yang selanjutnya akan menyatu dengan dewa yang dulu menitis pada seorang raja (mirip dengan konsep Avatar).Setelah melalui berbagai upacara,barulah didirkan candi untuk mendharamakan raja.Untuk candi Budha,
Candi dibangun sebagai tempat pemujaan atau sebagai biara.Abu jenazah biasanya disimpan di stupa2 dekat candi.Ketika candi dibangun,tanah didirikanya sebuah candi dijadikan sebuah Sima atau tanah perdikan (tanah bebas pajak) melalui berbagai upacara.Penetapan Sima ini biasanya dicatat pada sebuah prasasti.Candi memiliki konsepsi yang jauh lebih rumit daripada bangunan2 pada masa kini,konsepsi sebuah candi meliputi :
1.Candi merupakan tiruan dari gunung suci,yaitu Mahameru dan Kailasa,jadi banyak sekali ornamen tumbuhan yang ada dalam sebuah candi.
2.Sebuah candi harus memiliki konsep geometri suci atau dalam tradisi India disebut Mandala.
3.Candi merupakan simbol dari rahim atau Grbagrha.
4.Candi merupakan pusat dari peziarahan.
5.Candi merupakan imitasi dari surga,makanya banyak relief bidadari pada sebuah candi.
6.Sebuah candi merupakan penghubung antara surga dengan bumi.
Quote:Anda Bertanya Arkeolog Menjawab :: Seputar Candi

 
 
 


Denah Candi Borobudur yang melambangkan sebuah Mandala

Quote:An :Saya masih bingung bagaimana orang2 zaman dahulu membangun sebuah candi ?
Ark:Bagaimana orang2 zaman dahulu membangun candi juga masih menjadi pertanyaan bagi arkeolog karena tidak ditemukan alat2 untuk membangun candi.Teknik membangun candi tergantung dari bahannya sendiri.Untuk batu,biasanya digunakan susunan batu yang saling mengunci seperti pada mainan lego.Sedangkan untuk batu bata,biasanya batu bata akan direkatkan dengan cara digosok gosokan menggunakan air.
Yang jelas,dalam membangun candi harus memerhatikan hal2 yang ada dalam ilmu Vastusastra atau Silpasastra. Ilmu ini berisi berbagai hal mulai dari pemilihan jenis tanah,cara pengujian tanah,pembuatan diagram,detail bangunan,hingga pembagian kerjanya.

Quote:An:Terus adakah pembagian kerja dalam membangun sebuah candi ?
Ark:Tentu ! sebuah tentu membutuhkan pembagian kerja agar bisa berdiri dengan baik termasuk candi.Adapun pembagian kerja meliputi:
1.Yajamana : Yajamana adalah orang yang memerintahkan dan mendanai pembangunan sebuah candi.
2.Acharya : Imam,atau pendeta yang memimpin upacara pembuatan candi.
3.Sthapati : Arsitek,dipilih oleh Acharya.
4.Sutrhagin:Surveyor,bertugas untuk menentukan tanah tempat akan dibangunnya candi.
5.Taksaka : Tugasnya menghias candi dengan relief2 dan membuat arca.
6.Vardhakin:Orang yang tugasnya mirip pekerja kasar,misalnya mengangkat batu,membuat perancah,atau menyusun candi.

Quote:An :Seperti apa bentuk susunan pada sebuah candi ?
Ark:Susunan candi dibagi menjadi 3 bagian yaitu bagian yaitu:
1.Kaki candi merupakan bagian bawah candi. Bagian ini melambangkan dunia bawah atau bhurloka. Pada konsep Buddha disebut kamadhatu. Yaitu menggambarkan dunia hewan, alam makhluk halus seperti iblis, raksasa dan asura, serta tempat manusia biasa yang masih terikat nafsu rendah.
2.Tubuh candi adalah bagian tengah candi yang berbentuk kubus yang dianggap sebagai dunia antara atau bhuwarloka. Pada konsep Buddha disebut rupadhatu. Yaitu menggambarkan dunia tempat manusia suci yang berupaya mencapai pencerahan dan kesempurnaan batiniah. 
3.Atap candi adalah bagian atas candi yang menjadi simbol dunia atas atau swarloka. Pada konsep Buddha disebut arupadhatu. Yaitu menggambarkan ranah surgawi tempat para dewa dan jiwa yang telah mencapai kesempurnaan bersemayam.
Pada dasarnya,candi merupakan tempat bertemunya surga,bumi,dan dunia bawah.Untuk lebih jelas lihat gambar di bawah
Quote:Anda Bertanya Arkeolog Menjawab :: Seputar Candi
Susunan candi Prambanan

An :Apa aja sih yang ada pada bagian dalam candi ?
Ark: Dalam konsepsi India,bagian dalam candi melambangkan rahim atau disebut juga Grbhagrha.Pada bagian dalam candi Hindu biasanya kita akan temukan lingga,yaitu batu yang melambangkan dewa Siwa.Selain lingga,kita juga akan menemukan arca dewa yang merupakan penjelmaan seorang raja.Lalu pada bagian dasar candi,terdapat sumuran yang berfungsi untuk menyimpan peripih,yaitu kotak yang digunakan untuk menyimpan abu,entah abu jenazah atau abu hewan,serta lempengan emas yang bertuliskan mantra2,lalu ada permata,kaca,atau cangkang kerang.Pada bagian atas ruangan,terdapat rongga kosong yang fungsinya diyakini sebagai tempat bersemayamnya rohnya dewa.
Lalu untuk candi Budha,kita akan dapatkan patung Budha serta pengiringnya.

Quote:An :Terus apa sajakah yang ada pada bagian luar candi ?
Ark:Pada bagian luar candi terdapat relief2 yang menceritakan kisah tertentu.Pada candi Hindu,biasanya menceritakan kisah Mahabaratha atau Ramayana.Sedangkan pada candi Budha bisasanya menceritakan kisah perjalanan hidup sang Budha.Kemungkinan besar relief2 pada masa itu diberi warna,namun seiring zaman,warna2 tadi luntur.Ada juga antefix,yaitu hiasan segitiga pada bagian puncak dinding.Antefix dibuat untuk memberi kesan bangunan lebih tinggi daripada biasanya.Kemudia terdapat Jaladwara,yaitu semacam tempat pembuangan air hujan yang dihias sedemikian rupa.Selain itu,
masih terdapat kala makara.Kala adalah hiasan pada bagian atas pintu candi yang berbentuk seperti wajah Iblis atau raksaksa Kala.Adapun Makara adalah hiasan di kaki tangga candi,biasanya berbentuk hewan aneh.Kala Makara berfungsi untuk menakut nakuti roh jahat agar tidak masuk ke dalam candi.Kala sendiri adalah dewa waktu.Di Jawa Timur,kala digambarkan memiliki taring besar pada bagian atas dan bawah mulut,berbeda dengan di Jawa Tengah yang taringnya hanya pada bagian atas.Selain itu,terdapat pintu masuk candi yang dibedakan menjadi dua,yaitu candi bentar yang tidak memiliki atap,dan paduraksa yang memiliki
atap.

Quote:An :
Ark:Tata letak candi dibagi menjadi dua,yaitu secara konsentris,dan secara berurutan.Secara konsentris,posisi candi yang lebih besar dikelilingi oleh anak-anak candi yang lebih kecil (candi perwara),sehingga candi paling besar ada di tengah bangunan.Sistem ini dipengaruhi oleh tata letak mandala.Contohnya pada Candi Sewu dan Candi Prambanan.Secara paralel yaitu posisi candi perwara berada di depan candi induk. Ada yang disusun berurutan simetris, ada yang asimetris. 
Ada juga pola denah memanjang ke belakang.Urutan pengunjung memasuki kawasan yang dianggap kurang suci berupa gerbang dan bangunan tambahan, sebelum memasuki kawasan tersuci tempat candi induk berdiri. Sistem ini merupakan sistem tata letak asli Nusantara yang memuliakan tempat yang tinggi, sehingga bangunan induk atau tersuci diletakkan paling tinggi di belakang mengikuti topografi alami ketinggian tanah tempat candi dibangun.Ada juga yang dibangun secara tersebar.
Contohnya pada Candi Sukuh dan Pura2 di Bali.Arah hadap sebuah candi tergantung dari konsepsi dari tata ruangnya,secara kosmologis,candi menghadap ke arah barat atau timur.Candi terkadang menghadap ke arah gunung tertentu yang dianggap suci atau disebut dengan Chtonis.
Oh ya,hampir semua bagian tengah candi tidak berada tepat pada tengah bangunan,kecuali sebuah candi di Ngemplak,Sleman Yogyakarta.
Quote:Anda Bertanya Arkeolog Menjawab :: Seputar Candi
Denah Candi Sukuh yang memanjang ke belakang
Quote:Anda Bertanya Arkeolog Menjawab :: Seputar Candi
Denaha Candi Prambanan yang konsentris

Quote:An :Terus dimanakah orang zaman dahulu memilih lokasi untuk membangun candi ?
Ark:Sesuai dengan kitab Silpasastra,masyarakat membangun candi berdekatan dengan air,jika tidak ditemukan air,maka akan dibuat sebuah kolam,karena air merupakan salah satu unsur upacara.Selain itu candi dibangun pada sebuah puncak gunung karena ada kepercayaan bahwa gunung merupakan tempat bersemayamnya dewa.Contoh candi yang dibangun di puncak gunung adalah candi yang ada di gunung Penanggunan.Jadi bikin candi itu gak asal2an kaya bangunan zaman sekarang.Semuanya ada konsepsinya.

Quote:An :Selama ini saya membaca buku sejarah,disebutkan bahwa candi memiliki dua langgam,yaitu langgam Jawa Tengah dan langgam Jawa Timur.Apakah itu sudah benar ?
Ark:Hal itu sebenarnya sudah benar,tapi ada catatan bahwa ada candi berlanggam Jawa Tengah tapi ada di Jawa Timur seperti Candi Badut,di Jawa Tengah juga ada candi berlanggam Jawa Timur seperti candi Sukuh dan Candi Cetho.
Oleh pak Soekmono,akhirnya pembagian candi didasarkan bukan berdasarkan lokasinya,tapi berdasarkan masanya,yaitu Masa Klasik Awal dan Masa Klasik Akhir.

Quote:An :Ada berapa candi dari ukuran, kerumitan, dan kemegahannya ? 
Ark:Candi dibagi menjadi 3 berdasarkan dari ukuran, kerumitan, dan kemegahannya candi yaitu :

1.Candi Kerajaan, yaitu candi yang digunakan oleh seluruh warga kerajaan, tempat digelarnya upacara-upacara keagamaan penting kerajaan. Candi kerajaan biasanya dibangun mewah, besar, dan luas. Contoh: Candi Borobudur, Candi Prambanan, Candi Sewu, dan Candi Panataran.
2.Candi Wanua atau Watak, yaitu candi yang digunakan oleh masyarakat pada daerah atau desa tertentu pada suatu kerajaan. Candi ini biasanya kecil dan hanya bangunan tunggal yang tidak berkelompok. Contoh: candi yang berasal dari masa Majapahit, Candi Sanggrahan di Tulung Agung, Candi Gebang di Yogyakarta, dan Candi Pringapus.
3.Candi Pribadi, yaitu candi yang digunakan untuk mendharmakan seorang tokoh, dapat dikatakan memiliki fungsi mirip makam. Contoh: Candi Kidal (pendharmaan Anusapati, raja Singhasari), candi Jajaghu (Pendharmaan Wisnuwardhana, raja Singhasari), Candi Rimbi (pendharmaan Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi, ibu Hayam Wuruk), Candi Tegowangi (pendharmaan Bhre Matahun), dan Candi Surawana (pendharmaan Bhre Wengker).

Quote:An :Terus apa saja fungsi dari sebuah candi ?
Ark:Macam2,mulai dari :

1.Candi Pemujaan: candi Hindu yang paling umum, dibangun untuk memuja dewa, dewi, atau bodhisatwa tertentu, contoh: candi Prambanan, candi Canggal, candi Sambisari, dan candi Ijo yang menyimpan lingga dan dipersembahkan utamanya untuk Siwa, candi Kalasan dibangun untuk memuliakan Dewi Tara, sedangkan candi Sewu untuk memuja Manjusri.
2.Candi Stupa: didirikan sebagai lambang Budha atau menyimpan relik buddhis, atau sarana ziarah agama Buddha. Secara tradisional stupa digunakan untuk menyimpan relikui buddhis seperti abu jenazah, kerangka, potongan kuku, rambut, atau gigi yang dipercaya milik Buddha Gautama, atau bhiksu Buddha terkemuka, atau keluarga kerajaan penganut Buddha. Beberapa stupa lainnya dibangun sebagai sarana ziarah dan ritual, contoh: candi Borobudur, candi Sumberawan, dan candi Muara Takus
3.Candi Pedharmaan: sama dengan kategori candi pribadi, yakni candi yang dibangun untuk memuliakan arwah raja atau tokoh penting yang telah meninggal. Candi ini kadang berfungsi sebagai candi pemujaan juga karena arwah raja yang telah meninggal seringkali dianggap bersatu dengan dewa perwujudannya, contoh: candi Belahan tempat Airlangga dicandikan, arca perwujudannya adalah sebagai Wishnu menunggang Garuda. Candi Simping di Blitar, tempat Raden Wijaya didharmakan sebagai dewa Harihara.
4.Candi Pertapaan: didirikan di lereng-lereng gunung tempat bertapa, contoh: candi-candi di lereng Gunung Penanggungan, kelompok candi Dieng dan candi Gedong Songo, serta Candi Liyangan di lereng timur Gunung Sundoro, diduga selain berfungsi sebagai pemujaan, juga merupakan tempat pertapaan sekaligus situs permukiman.
5.Candi Wihara: didirikan untuk tempat para biksu atau pendeta tinggal dan bersemadi, candi seperti ini memiliki fungsi sebagai permukiman atau asrama, contoh: candi Sari dan Plaosan
6.Candi Gerbang: didirikan sebagai gapura atau pintu masuk, contoh: gerbang di kompleks Ratu Boko, Bajang Ratu, Wringin Lawang, dan candi Plumbangan.
7.Candi Petirtaan: didirikan didekat sumber air atau di tengah kolam dan fungsinya sebagai pemandian, contoh: Petirtaan Belahan, Jalatunda, dan candi Tikus

Quote:An :Terakhir,apa saja bahan untuk membangun candi ?
Ark:Ada bermacam2 bahan yang digunakan untuk membangun sebuah candi,antara lain :

1. Batu andesit, batu bekuan vulkanik yang ditatah membentuk kotak-kotak yang saling kunci. Batu andesit bahan candi harus dibedakan dari batu kali. Batu kali meskipun mirip andesit tapi keras dan mudah pecah jika ditatah (sukar dibentuk). Batu andesit yang cocok untuk candi adalah yang terpendam di dalam tanah sehingga harus ditambang di tebing bukit.
2.Batu putih (tuff), batu endapan piroklastik berwarna putih, digunakan di Candi Pembakaran di kompleks Ratu Boko. Bahan batu putih ini juga ditemukan dijadikan sebagai bahan isi candi, dimana bagian luarnya dilapis batu andesit
3.Bata merah, dicetak dari lempung tanah merah yang dikeringkan dan dibakar. Candi Majapahit dan Sumatera banyak menggunakan bata merah.
4.Stuko (stucco), yaitu bahan semacam beton dari tumbukan batu dan pasir. Bahan stuko ditemukan di percandian Batu Jaya.
5.Bajralepa (vajralepa), yaitu bahan lepa pelapis dinding candi semacam plaster putih kekuningan untuk memperhalus dan memperindah sekaligus untuk melindungi dinding dari kerusakan. Bajralepa dibuat dari campuran pasir vulkanik dan kapur halus. Konon campuran bahan lain juga digunakan seperti getah tumbuhan, putih telur, dan lain-lain. Bekas-bekas bajralepa ditemukan di candi Sari dan candi Kalasan. Kini pelapis bajralepa telah banyak yang mengelupas.
6.Kayu, beberapa candi diduga terbuat dari kayu atau memiliki komponen kayu. Candi kayu serupa dengan Pura Bali yang ditemukan kini. Beberapa candi tertinggal hanya batu umpak atau batur landasannya saja yang terbuat dari batu andesit atau bata, sedangkan atasnya yang terbuat dari bahan organik kayu telah lama musnah. Beberapa dasar batur di Trowulan Majapahit disebut candi, meskipun sesungguhnya merupakan landasan pendopo yang bertiang kayu. Candi Sambisari dan candi Kimpulan memiliki umpak yang diduga candi induknya dinaungi bangunan atap kayu. Beberapa candi seperti Candi Sari dan Candi Plaosan memiliki komponen kayu karena pada struktur batu ditemukan bekas lubang-lubang untuk meletakkan kayu gelagar penyangga lantai atas, serta lubang untuk menyisipkan daun pintu dan jeruji jendela.

Quote:An :Oh ya saya hampir lupa,bagaimanakah seorang arkeolog memperlakukan sebuah candi ?
Ark:Pertanyaan yang sudah saya tunggu sejak awal,jadi begini seorang arkeolog memperlakukan sebuah candi sesuai dengan kode etik ilmu arkeologi.Jadi sebuah candi harus berdiri di tempatnya ditemukan (selama tidak ada proses tafonomi) dan jika harus disusun harus menggunakan batu aslinya.Jika candi benar2 runtuh dan batu aslinya belum ditemukan,maka bisa diganti dengan batu baru,tapi harus diberi tanda.Tujuannya jika batu aslinya ditemukan kembali,maka batu baru bisa diganti dengan batu asli.Jika anda melihat pada candi Prambanan ada beberapa batu yang tidak memiliki reliefnya dan berbeda sendiri,maka itu termasuk batu baru.
Karena apa ?Ketika batu baru diberi relief,maka akan menghilangkan kesan otentiknya.Pak Soekmono pernah memberi catatan ketika candi Prambanan akan direkonstruksi kembali bahwa Candi boleh dibangun kembali,asalkan batu baru tidak boleh lebih dari 30 % dari batu lama.Pak Soekmono sendiri lebih suka candi dibiarkan runtuh karena menambahkan kesan eksostisnya.Sama halnya pemerintah Kamboja membiarkan Candi Angkor Thom ditutupi semak belukar dan runtuh agar terlihat eksotis.
Quote:Sekedara tambahan :
Anda Bertanya Arkeolog Menjawab :: Seputar Candi
Antefiks,hanya berfungsi sebagai hiasan

Anda Bertanya Arkeolog Menjawab :: Seputar Candi
Lingga Yoni,simbol dari kesuburan

Anda Bertanya Arkeolog Menjawab :: Seputar Candi
Jaladwara,fungsinya seperti saluran pembuangan air pada masa sekarang.

Anda Bertanya Arkeolog Menjawab :: Seputar Candi
Stupa,susunan batu yang berbentuk setenga lingkaran yang berfungsi untuk menyimpan relik atau abu.

Quote:Sumber :
Soekmono, 1974. Candi Fungsi dan Pengertiannya, UI Press.
George Michell,Hindhu Art & Architecture

(1) Eathenware Budhist Tablet astifact

(2) Earthenware Jar Kendi artifact

(3) Eatherware Jarlet buli-buli artfact

(4) other old artifact finding

 

Batujaya Museum

The Jokowi History Collection

Part One

Created By

DR Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Limited E-Book In CD-ROM

Special For Senior Collectors And Historian

Copyrighy @ Dr Iwan 2014

 

INTRODUCTION

Saya mulai tertarik dengan Jokowi saat pemimilu Daerah Gubernur DKI, dan kemudian saat Pilpres RI 2014 walaupun kemudian saya beralih ke capres PrabowoSubianto karena saya menginggat jasa ayahnya

Prof Sumitro mendirikan Fakultas Ekonomi di Padang sumatera Barat tempat kelahiran saya dan Prof Sumitro membantu perjuangan rakyat Sumatera Barat menentang Komunisme.

Kemudian saya kembali tertarik dengan Jokowi karena Prabo tidak mengakui hasil PIlpres dan mengugatnya di Makamah Konstitusi,sifatnya yang arogan membuat simpari saya menghilang walaupun saat Pemilu saya memilihnya.

Untuk mengrahui bagaimana perlkembangan peranan presiden Indonesia Ke 7 Joko Widodo dengan

wakilnya Moh Jusuf Kall(JK) saya akan mulai mengumpulkan informasi sejak kampanye Pemilu dimulai baik dari surat Kabar maupun dari internet,dan inilah hasilnya.

Semoga Karya Tulis ini dapat menjadi masukan bagi generasi penerus,dimasa mendatang.

Selamat Pak Jokowi dan JK kami mengharapkan anda berdua dapat meningkatkan peran dan keberhasilan Republik Indonesia baik dalam negeri maupun luar negeri seperti yang di diharapkan oleh seluruh rakyat Indonesia

Jakarta Agustus 2014

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Presdien RI

Komentar Dr Iwan

Presiden Jokowi, hati-hati bila tanda tangan sesuatu, anda telah keliru menadatangani prasasasti huruf keliru

PELUMBACURAN yang seharusnya PELUNCURAN, jika Bapak telah lupa akn janji membuat telaga raksasa di Jakarta dan juga pembangunan lainnya nanti juga akan lupa, tentu anda seharusnya bersumpah demi nama allah untuk selalu meminta ILHAM dan KEPINTARAN untuk dapat memecahkan permasalahan didunia yang penunh tandatangan dan ancama,serta memberikan peneranga agar seluruh rakyat Indoensia waspada terhadap berbagai ancama, jika bapak laksanakan tentu Bapak akan dipilih pada prode berikutnya

Dr Iwan Suwandy

Konusltan Informasi

 

Hi Iwan

And I’m sorry, but it’s a tough one.

Who was the most important artist of the 1960s?

I know, I know.

What a ridiculous thing to ask.

How do you even answer that?

You’ve got all of the Beatles.

The Rolling Stones, the Grateful Dead…

There’s Jimi Hendrix,

Joni Mitchell and

Jim Morrison alongside countless others from

Ray Davies to

Brian Wilson.

Let’s not even start on

Motown.

I can hear you banging your head against your desk.

I’ve been banging mine for the past couple of hours.

But humour me.

Which one?

Who’s the one person to personify the spirit of the era?

Because if you asked me…

After a lot of thought…

And enough head banging to give me a mild concussion…

I would have to say

Bob Dylan.

Bob Dylan was the voice of his generation

AKA Robert Zimmerman.

The nobody from nowhere who arrived in New York in 1961, to pay his respects to

a dying Woody Guthrie…

Who passed him the torch of the great American folk tradition

Think about it.

Dylan revolutionised folk music, breathing life into a dying sound.

In his music we hear the voice of the new America.

The sound of changing times.

Author Joyce Carol Oates once wrote: “When we first heard this raw, very young, and seemingly untrained voice, frankly nasal, as if sandpaper could sing, the effect was dramatic and electrifying.”

His songs are eternal.

They speak to all ages and backgrounds.

Do you remember the first time you heard Blowing in the Wind?

I do

And so do millions of others.

In 100 years’ time people will still be listening to his music.

I’ve got something for you

It’s a set list signed by Dylan.

Bob Dylan Autographed Set List

For Sale: £2,950.00

  • Bob Dylan handwritten set list from a 2001 concert
  • Signed by the artist clearly in black pen
  • Lists some of his most famous songs

Bob Dylan (1941-) is one of the most influential musicians of all time, who has had a “profound impact on popular music and American culture, marked by lyrical compositions of extraordinary poetic power.” His career has spanned more than five decades, but nonetheless quality memorabilia remains extremely rare due to his private nature.

Dylan has handwritten and autographed this set list for a live concert performance in Seattle, Washington in 2001, “To Celery, Best wishes! Bob Dylan, 2001”. ‘Celery’ was a member of staff helping on the tour.

Each section of the show is divided into groups of songs, beginning with Shine the Light and ending with the enigmatic All Along the Watch Tower. Dylan’s autograph is placed on a blank section of this list.
The list is written in thick black marker, while Dylan’s signature is inscribed in fine black pen. There is some handwritten blue text on the back of the page. Some light folds and creases to the page, otherwise in excellent condition.

This item qualifies for our layaway plan

For Sale: £2,950.00


Stock Status:In Stock 
 
Product Code: PT620

 

From a gig in Seattle, Washington in 2001

5 things you never knew about Bob Dylan

  1. Dylan has worked under various aliases over the years, from Elston Gunn to Blind Boy Grunt.
    4. He’s the only rock musician ever awarded a Pulitzer Prize.
    3. In 1997 he performed for Pope John Paul II. 
    2. He’s released 36 studio albums over the years. 
    1. While he was born Jewish, he became an evangelical Christian in the 1970s.

Source

Paul

 

Source

Twitter

 

Hi iwan,

Welcome to your Paul Fraser Collectibles newsletter.

First for you this week:

Cold Blood

Have your read Truman Capote’s In Cold Blood, or seen the film? It is the account of the horrific murder of a Kansas family in 1959.

And now a guitar owned by one of the two men responsible is coming to auction at Guernsey’s in New York.

Capote mentions Smith’s guitar several times in his book

Perry Smith’s Gibson-made guitar auctions with a $175,000 high estimate at the end of the month. It is accompanied in the lot by the guitar played by

Robert Blake in the 1967 film adaptation.

Guernsey’s comments: “The In Cold Blood pair of guitars in the auction must constitute one of the most unusual musical offerings ever: those who vividly recall the legendary Truman Capote book and movie will remember that Perry Smith, the much-analyzed killer, toted his guitar everywhere.”

Che Guevara’s cigar box

Personal items connected with Che Guevara are rare. So you can be sure the auction of the revolutionary’s cigar box will cause excitement on March 1

 

Cuban history of this calibre is a rare find

It’s expected to make around £10,000-12,000 ($14,500-17,398).

“Items relating to this period of Cuban history rarely appear on the market. We have only handled one Che Guevara signed photo in the last 10 years,” says Ben Jones of Mullock’s –

 

Christmas tales

Rare Book Chrsimast Tale

short stories written

by Charles Dickens in the 1850s.

A unique Christmassy Christmas Gift

Before you say anything , I Know

I Know it’s only November 17 away

I know Christmas is more than five weeks But I make no apology for talking chrismas with you today

You need to know about this now

Because this is such a special Christmas gift for you and your family

 

 

Memorabilia3

Trade Card

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Copyright @ 2015

 

 

 

 

Babe Ruth

In the week that Shakespeare’s will went on display in London, the will of another legendary artisan has come to light.

Babe Ruth’s last will and testament will auction on February 20 with a $150,000 estimate.

Babe Ruth memorabilia can sell for millions

Ruth (1895-1948) signed the will in 1933, two years before he played his last professional game.

Ruth artefacts are the most valuable in the sports memorabilia arena. His 1920 Yankees road jersey sold for $4.4 million in 2012 – a sports memorabilia record

 

 

 

Ty Cobs Card History Collections

By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Consultan Information

Limited E-Book In CD-Rom Edition

Copyright @ Dr Iwan 2016

 

I have seen a very rare Baseball Card Collections

 

Ty Cobb Baseball Cards and Autographs: A Peach of an Investment

Ty Cobb is synonymous with the dead ball era of baseball.  Most of his 22-year career was spent with the Detroit Tigers.  This Hall of Fame inductee had a very colorful life, both on and off the field.  Also, he was one of the few players, who performed the dual function of player and manager.  Ty Cobb baseball cards and autographs are among the most sought after in the hobby.

Comment in google eksploration as upload below

Ty Cobb Baseball Cards and Autographs: A Peach of an Investment

Ty Cobb is synonymous with the dead ball era of baseball.  Most of his 22-year career was spent with the Detroit Tigers.  This Hall of Fame inductee had a very colorful life, both on and off the field.  Also, he was one of the few players, who performed the dual function of player and manager.  Ty Cobb baseball cards and autographs are among the most sought after in the hobby.

Collecting Ty Cobb memorabilia

Cobb’s original baseball cards have been collected for decades.  Every generation of collector rightfully views him as one of the greatest baseball players of all-time.  Validating his popularity, Cobb was named to Major League Baseball’s All Century Team.

Because he excelled in so many areas of the game, many collectible subsets have him included.  Examples would be the following:  .300 batting club, 3,000 hit club,  Hall of Famers, stolen base leaders and many more.

Even though Cobb spent the 1927 and 1928 seasons with the Philadelphia Athletics, team collectors associate him with the Tigers and Detroit team collectors view Cobb as a pinnacle card in their team sets

1932 US Caramel Ty Cobb

Cobb’s personality, brash as it was during his playing days, probably helps his status.  He’s considered one of the game’s most feared tough guys.

Investment quality of Ty Cobb cards

Cobb, like stocks within the Dow Jones Industrial Average, is considered a blue-chip player and investment.  His cards steadily and consistently appreciate in value, especially when viewed over five and ten year time horizons.

There are enough issues of his cards to provide liquidity, while maintaining scarcity at higher grades.  For investors, who wish to add Cobb to their investment portfolios, they should look at both cards and autographs.  Each presents their own, unique opportunities.

Ty Cobb autographs

Cobb lived until 1961 and signed autographs for many years after his playing days, although he wasn’t exactly a man about town.  He was a prodigious letter writer and many Cobb letters have made their way into the marketplace (there are usually a few on eBay via this link and they are fascinating–even those simply responding to fans).   Prices vary dramatically.  Thhere are a lot of autographs in the market, but still not enough to keep up with collector and investor demand.  Be sure to buy with a certificate of authenticity from a leader in the field such as JSA or PSA.

A fairly large quantity of Cobb signed checks also exist and with forgery still an issue in the industry, a signed check is one way to collect authentic signatures without much worry.  Expect to pay at least $1,200-$2,000 for one.

Below are some of the most popular Cobb cards in the marketplace, although by no means does the list showcase all of those from his playing career.  Click the title of each to see that particular issue being offered by eBay sellers.

Top Ty Cobb Baseball Cards to Watch

1912 T202 Hassan Cobb and Jennings/Ty Cobb Steals Third– This card, like no other, captures the true grit and determination of the player.  The middle of the multi-player tobacco issue features a photo of Cobb sliding into third base.  With Hughie Jennings sharing space with Cobb on this rectangular issue, you can’t lose.  Cobb also appears on other combinations in the T202 set.

1914, 1915 Cracker JackThe 1914 Cracker Jack set is exceedingly rare but collectors can find 1915 Cracker Jack Ty Cobb cards in the market.  They’re still quite scarce and expensive.  However, the sets are very popular because of Cobb’s stature, the desirability of the set itself and Cracker Jack’s still iconic status in American culture

1911 T205 Gold Border – A lithograph portrait of Ty Cobb is featured on the front of the card.  The gold border gives this one an elegant quality but they are also prone to showing wear because of it. Like the T206 issue, these come with various cigarette brand ads on the back and the less common brands can command big money.  However, the best advice is to buy the best quality Cobb you can afford.  Mid-grade examples can be found for $2,000 and less but near mint issues will run into the tens of thousands.

1909 E95 Philadelphia Caramel – If you’re looking for the quintessential Cobb portrait, this might be it. The E95 baseball card set is attractive and popular but Cobb’s card is spectacular. Standing in the collared uniform with the famous Tigers cap on his head, Cobb’s lithograph portrait is set against a red background.  The card is a more economical alternative to the T206 issue and around ten can usually be found on eBay with prices reflecting the smaller number of cards available compared to T205 and T206 Cobb cards

1909-1911 T206 How popular was Cobb?  Popular enough to have four different card issued in this set, which was produced during the height of his career.  There are two portrait cards, one picturing him with a bat on his shoulder and another with the bat just off his shoulder.  T206 cards were produced with several different types of cigarette ads on the back and the most rare examples of these will command the highest prices and be in demand but so will higher grade T206 Cobbs, regardless of back.

Of course, the rarest Cobb card is the T206 style with the ‘Ty Cobb Tobacco’ back.  Issued only in tins of a brand of tobacco endorsed by Cobb, only a small number exist and they sell for huge prices.  In 2013, a PSA 1 example sold for $120,109 via Goldin Auctions.

Ty Cobb baseball cards and autographs have proven to be a worthy investment and it’s unlikely that will change.   Cobb’s status as one of the game’s greatest players remains intact.  You’ll have competition in the marketplace, but compare prices of completed sales and bid or buy accordingly.

Source

B.Cardin Inv.

More info look.

E-Book In CD-Rom

Ty cobs history collctions

By Dr iwan suwandy,MHA

Consultan information or in web blog Hhtp//www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

Or via email iwansuwandy@gmail.com for mor information or coonsulation the the original or flase card and the value of the card original or repepro

 

 

 

 

o    IDR32,467,532.47

 

Memorabilia5

Magazine

 

intage magazines appeal to people who have a particular interest in old paper, to be sure, but they are also collected for the specific content on and between their covers.

For example,

those who have fond

memories of JFK may seek out copies of the November 29, 1963, issue of “Life,” with its formal portrait of the recently assassinated 35th president on its somber cover.

Serious Beatles fans almost certainly want a copy of the January 9, 1968, issue of “Look,” which included a quartet of full-page, psychedelic photos of John, Paul, George, and Ringo by Richard Avedon.

And military historians may collect copies of “Colliers” printed during World War II for its articles by Martha Gellhorn, who famously stowed away on a hospital ship so she could report on the D-Day landing at Normandy.

Not all magazine collectors are so high-minded. Year in and year out,

one of the most popular vintage-magazine titles has been “Playboy,” especially its undated first issue from December of 1953, which featured a Marilyn Monroe centerfold. For those who claim that they only read “Playboy” for the articles, there are numerous more literary issues to choose from,

including the March, April, and May editions from 1954, in which Ray Bradbury’s “Fahrenheit 451” was serialized in its entirety.

For art lovers, there are old copies of “The Saturday Evening Post,” which were famous for its covers by Norman Rockwell, and “Harper’s Weekly,” which occasionally had covers by Maxfield Parrish.

More recently, copies of “Oz,” a London music, fashion, and culture magazine from the late 1960s, have been in demand for the artwork created for it by Martin Sharp, who silkscreened posters of Bob Dylan on foil and made album covers for Cream.

Other magazines fall somewhere between comic books and science-fiction novels, such as issues of “Amazing Stories,” which, in the 1940s,

reprinted a number of Edgar Rice Burroughs’ tales of earthman John Carter’s adventures on Mars, or, as it was named by Burroughs, Barsoom. “Argosy” was also an outlet for Burroughs, serializing his “Tarzan” adventures in the 1920s and ’30s.

Finally, there are magazines that are infamous for being spot-on parodies of other magazines.

In 1972, the “Harvard Lampoon” produced its version of “Cosmopolitan,” which featured a nude centerfold of

Henry Kissinger, which was as disgusting as you might imagine it would be. Not to be outdone, in 1980, “New West” produced a slim but brilliant five-page parody of “Sunset” which it called “Sunsect,” featuring a family picnicking in the shadow of a nuclear power plant on the cover and articles such as “Mule trips into East Los Angeles–a guide” and “Tulips so big they eat meat” inside.

 The End @ Copyright Dr iwan 2016

INILAH KENANG-KENANGAN DARI dR iwan bagi seluruh teman-teman dan keluarga besar , dibuat saat setelah musim hujan yang penuh prihatin.

Saya harap kleuarga besar akan tetap meneruskan web blog ini apabila suatu waktu saya sudah taka da lagi didunia ini

 dan koleksi tersebut hendaknya tetap disimpan dlam museum leluhur kita WANLI di rumah yang sya peroleh s=dari ahsil penjualan koleksi saya.

yang saya kumpul sejak berumur sepuluh tahun (tahun 1955) sampai tahun 2016 ditambah koleksi yang akan dtang diperkirakan dua puluh tahun ;lagi (2036), saat ini entah dima a aku berada di gunung, dihutan,didasar laut , didlam sungai atau masih melayang0-melayang diudara, karena itu sya minta cucu saya antoni wiliam suwandy membacakan pesan saya terakhirr di saat jenazah saya dimakamkan secara militer saat trompet dan genderang dan temabakan diletuskan SAMBIL MENDEKAP PISTL MAINAN YANG oPA JANJIKAN YANG BELUM DISERAHKAN.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

If I told you, iwan.

That just minutes from now…

…you could own a piece of American folklore…

…would you believe me?

I don’t blame you if you’re sceptical.

But it’s true.

Because I have for you a piece of memorabilia from an American folk hero.

A folk hero as much an American legend as Daniel Boone, Johnny Appleseed or Davy Crockett.

A folk hero as much a part of the story of America as the Plymouth Rock, the US Constitution, or Ellis Island.

“Impossible Paul”

Impossible to own a piece that important? That legendary? That rare?

It’s not impossible.

This item is rare, yes. Hugely, rare. Which means these things appear for sale but seldom.

But it is possible.

And today is one of those rare occasions.

Are you ready?

This is a piece of paper.

A piece of paper bearing a letterhead from the Crosby House hotel, in Beaumont, Texas.

106 years ago, one of the legends of the Old West took out a pen…

…and wrote seven words on this piece of paper.

The folk hero who wrote these seven words is so celebrated…

…so much a part of American culture…

…that she is almost mythical.

“Did she really exist?” children ask, as though her feats were so legendary, she can’t have been real.

It’s why this piece of personal memorabilia is so exhilarating for you to own.

It’s the myth becoming a reality.

This woman was such a dead-eye shot she could:

  →  

Shoot a cigarette from your mouth at 50 paces 

  →  

Snuff out a candle’s flame with a single bullet 

  →  

Split a playing card in two along its edge

You’ve got it now, I’m sure.

We’re talking Annie Oakley. Who took on the men, and spanked their behinds.

The farm girl now a folk hero: Annie Oakley

The Annie Oakley who, besides being the finest shot around, was also:

America’s most famous woman: At 5 foot nothing, with a gun slung over her shoulder, and a femininity offset with a swagger that said “look but don’t touch”, her shows sold out in America and around the world.

A pioneer for women’s rights: Not only did she shoot guns for a living, Oakley taught 15,000 women to handle guns for self-defence. She once said: “I ain’t afraid to love a man. I ain’t afraid to shoot him either.”

Today, perhaps many know her story from the musical Annie Get Your Gun. Perhaps the true woman behind the legend is in danger of being lost.

But not for you.

Not when you own this striking rare autograph and inscription

I am thanking you!” writes Annie Oakley

This is a hand-signed note from Annie Oakley from 1910.

It reads “Annie Oakley Butler. I am thanking you!”

(Butler was her married name).

Who was the sharpshooter thanking on this day 106 years ago? We don’t know.

What we do know is that Annie’s signature is stunning

Crisp and confident: a gorgeous signature

Just look at the crispness. The confidence. This is a woman who knows she is good. And in 1910, she is at the top of her game.

What’s more, the autograph, inscription and piece of paper are in excellent condition. And that’s not all you get.

Because this note comes mounted and framed – along with a superb Annie Oakley photograph. It all makes for a stunning piece of American history

Annie Oakley Autographed Note

For Sale: £2,950.00

  • Note autographed by legendary sharpshooter Annie Oakley, star of Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show

Annie Oakley (1860-1926) was an American sharpshooter and exhibition shooter. Dubbed “Little Sure Shot” by Chief Sitting Bull, 5-foot-tall Annie rose to fame in her role in Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show.

This item features Annie’s autograph, reading “Annie Oakley Butler. I am thanking you”, dated 1910, on headed stationary (7.5cm x 18.5xcm) from the ‘Crosby House Hotel” in Beaumont, Texas. The “Butler” element of her name comes after she marrised traveling show marksman and dog trainer Fracis E Butler in 1876. 

This wonderful autograph is in excellent condition and comes mounted, framed and glazed with an image of Oakley.

This item qualifies for our layaway plan

For Sale: £2,950.00

One you will love showcasing on your wall.

And if you’re still reading, I’m guessing you’d love to know its price.

Ann ie Oakley

1860: Born into a farming family in Ohio. Aged 8, Annie starts shooting game to support her family, and sells the animals to local shops and restaurants. By 15, Annie’s prowess has paid off the family mortgage on their farm. 
1876: Aged just 15, Annie beats renowned show marksman Frank E Butler in a shooting contest. Annie marries him the following year. 
1885: Joins the famous Buffalo Bill’s Wild West show and is the star attraction for the next 16 years. 
1890: While touring Germany, Oakley shoots the cigarette out of Kaiser Wilhelm II’s hand – missing the opportunity to prevent WWI. When war breaks out, Oakley writes to the Kaiser asking for a second shot. She receives no reply. 
1917: Turned down by the US government to head a women’s division of sharpshooters in WWI. Instead, Annie raises money for the Red Cross by putting on shooting displays for the troops. 
1926: Dies a legend

How much?

Remember.

Annie Oakley stuff is rare. Her autograph is rare. And collectors want it. Which means major auction prices. In recent years I’ve seen:

  →  

Annie’s shotgun sell for $240,000 

  →  

Annie’s Stetson hat auction for $15,000 

  →  

An Annie-signed photo make $11,000

So what price for this striking Annie Oakley handwritten note today?

£5,000 ($7,120)? No, lower.

£4,000 ($5,696)? No, lower.

£3,000 ($4,272) surely?

This is yours for just £2,950 ($4,200).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ice hockey

I don’t often get to talk ice hockey in these emails. But today is an exception. Because Classic Auctions’ winter auction took place earlier this week.

If you’re a connoisseur of the game, you’ll know the name Dave Keon, who was at the heart of the Toronto Maple Leafs team in the 60s and 70s.

Dave Keon played for the Toronto Maple Leafs the
last time they lifted the Stanley Cup – 1967

A jersey he wore in his rookie season was the top seller, making $52,360.

There was also a strong performance from Canada goalie Ed Belfour’s 2002 Winter Olympic medal. It made $25,015, while a Bobby Orr Boston Bruins “gamer” achieved $12,518.

Memorabilia19Tiger

 

Pre scandal

2009

 

Post Scandal

2010

For tweleve Year

 

The End @ Copyright Dr Iwan 2016

 

 

 

 

Source Paul

 

 

 

 

 

in small museums near candi Jiwa

 

Candi Jiwa yang pertama kali ditemukan di Situs Batujaya. Ada 24 candi di kompleks ini, di permukaan. Belum yang rata/ bawah permukaan tanah. Teridentifikasi 30 umur, seluas 5 km2

24 candi sekaligus. Itu baru di permukaan, belum yang di bawah permukaan. Bisa jadi yang terbesar di Asia Tenggara. ( kalau sabar, Allah takkan menyia-nyiakan kesabaran itu, kan ? Dihadiah full packed : candi, gerabah kuno, kerangka prasejarah, keramik, dll. You name it ). Situs Batujaya telah teridentifikasi 30 umur dengan luas sekitar 5 kilometer persegi. Dahulu di sepanjang pesisir Karawang berjejer bangunan tertua di Indonesia. Abad 4 Masehi. Warisan kerajaan Budha kuno, Tarumanegara

Source

http://anisavitri.wordpress.com/2010/05/19/situs-batujaya-prasejarah-tarumanagara-terbesar-di-asia-tenggara/

 

There is another candi at batujaya named Candi Cangkuang

Hasan Djafar , UI archaeologists , head of the excavation team Batujaya site , describes the discovery of coherent this site . Excavations have been going on for 22 years has resulted in many discoveries of artifacts : bongkah2 red brick which can then be reconstructed temples are quite large , pottery – pottery , beads , clay tablets and surprising and newly discovered in 2006 this ( mainly July 2006 ) is the discovery of dozens of human skeletons were still intact from the skull to the soles of the feet .


Two women archaeologists French and Dutch nationals specifically come to this site for skeletons excavated at the site Batujaya , take some samples of bones and teeth and will do a DNA study of the fossil bones and teeth in order to get the physical characteristics of the data are more complete . Latest methods in archeology is that a fossil specimen of the human race must be carried out by archaeologists from different races . Possible , to avoid contamination when sampling . Because the human skeleton race in Batujaya estimated from Indonesia , namely Mongolid , then who took the sample is orang2 of the European race ( Caucasian ) .
Research over the course of 20 years has produced some tentative conclusions , namely : ( 1 ) the site was on the verge of pre – history and history of Indonesia ( 4th century and 5th AD , the current limit of pre – history and history of Indonesia is AD 400 years ) , ( 2 ) temple Batujaya made ​​of batamerah and discrete Buddhist temple , ( 3 ) pottery and beads were found is from the Neolithic period , ( 4 ) votive tablets ( a kind of seal ) of baked clay bearing short posts in Pallava script .

The Beattles

History Collections

Edited By

Dr Iwan Suwandy<MHA

Consultan information

Copyright@2015

 

PART ONE

CHRONOLOGY HISTORY COLLECTIONS

Imagine, iwan.

You’ve bought an autograph. You love it.

You have it mounted and framed. You hang it on your wall. You show it off to friends, neighbours, the postman.

But then the doubts begin.

Perhaps you notice other autographs from this famous figure don’t match yours. Perhaps a friend asks “how do you know it’s real?” and it sets you thinking. Or perhaps something just doesn’t feel right.

So you send it to an expert for authentication.

The reply is everything you’ve feared.

“In our opinion this autograph is not genuine”.

It leaves you feeling stupid. A chump. Not to mention out of pocket.

Every time you see it you feel furious. Furious with the seller who swindled you. Furious at yourself for being scammed.

Think I’m scaremongering? Think it won’t happen to you?

Do you know what percentage of autographs on eBay are fakes?

An estimated 80%.

And if you own a signature from one of the 10 famous names on the list below, you’re in real danger.

Because this is autograph authenticator PSA/DNA’s latest list of the 10 most “dangerous” historical and entertainment autographs.

By “dangerous” they mean most likely to be forged.

The dangerous top 10

  1. Star Wars cast
  2. The Rolling Stones
  3. Jimi Hendrix
  4. Led Zeppelin
  5. Marilyn Monroe
  6. Michael Jackson
  7. John F Kennedy
  8. Neil Armstrong
  9. Elvis Presley
  10. The Beatles

“So what’s the answer Paul?”

Don’t run to the hills, vowing never to buy an autograph again.

INSTEAD.

Realise that you can enjoy the incredible hobby of autograph collecting withcomplete confidence.

How?

You have two options:

  1. Become an expert:This takes years of study and experience. There’s no shortcut. Few in the world can genuinely say they are.

Or.

  1. Buy from an expert you trust:I have been trading in autographs since 1977. That is 39 years. In those 39 years I’ve handled tens of thousands of signatures. I’ve seen it all, from terrible fakes to the almost superb.

My 39 years in the business mean I don’t get caught out.

Which means when you buy from me, you know you’re buying the real thing.

And you also get a further layer of security.

Because when you buy from me you get my Lifetime Moneyback Guarantee of Authenticity.

Which means if the autograph turns out to be fake in the future – I will give you your money back. Every penny.

I am happy to offer you this guarantee because I know you’ll never need to use it.

Want to own an autograph you know is genuine?

If you want to own an autograph on the “dangerous” list, but are scared you’re going to get stung, keep reading.

These are four genuine autographs from the “dangerous” list you can buy now at Paul Fraser Collectibles.

The Beatles

Danger alert.

The Beatles are the world’s most popular autograph. Which also makes them the most forged. Always be on your guard.

The most desirable Beatles autographs feature all four members. Autographs such as this:

Four genuine Beatles signatures: just £7,950 ($11,371)

This is a page from an autograph album, signed by John, Paul, George and Ringo in bright blue ink.

Look at the life in these autographs. The youthful excitement of the band and their fans leaps from the page. This piece of paper truly captures the essence of the Beatles and the Beatlemania era.

I’ve seen signed copies of the Beatles’ Sgt Pepper album sell for as much as $290,500. But there are still good deals available at Paul Fraser Collectibles.

This item does have mild staining to the bottom right. Which is why I’m offering you it for just £7,950 ($11,371)

 

1961

THE BEAT BROTHERS

The Beatles First Recorded In Hamburg Germany , Tony Sheridan’s On My Bonnie In 1961 with named “ The Beat Brother”

(part Of Contract)

Complete document look below

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Original source

Paul

 

Cavern 1961

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1964

 

Meet The Beattles at Aintree Institue Invitation 1961

 

Top of Form

Earlier today, we posted about the 1962 Beatles poster, and ticket

The rebel Rouser ticket years (?)

 

 

 

Theter Ticket fil A Grand River Cruis 1962

Two Ticket 1962

Pier head Liverpool 1962

 

 

 

Winter Garden 1963

Odeon Romford 1st performance ticket year(?)

 

 

Bournemouth theater 1963

Mr Smith’s Nightclub 1963

Ticket 1963

 

Vintage Photo London 1963

 

 

 

 

 

TV scene Southampton 1963

Mersey View Ballrom A Dabnce ticet 1963

Juke box ticket 1963’

 

Royal Variety Performance 1963

Vintage Photo Forthlin Road 1963

Top of Form

The Beatles taking a break from recording `From Me To You’, `The One After 909′ and `Thank You Girl’ at Abbey Road Studios with George Martin, 5th March 1963

Bottom of Form

 

 

Let it be show at The London Pavilluion Picadilly Cirbus Ticket

 

Hyde Park 1964

Four types Ticket 1964

Two Vintgae Photo, Twickenham studio 1964

All I Need is Love,japan,1964

Don’t Buy My Love,Japan,1964

 

 

 

A Hard Day’s Night 1964 Nederland

 

At Bar 1964

 

I feel Fine-She’s AWomen Netherland 1964

Guiters Abey Road Photo 1964

 

Madame tussaud 1964

Ringo drummer 1964 at The rock and Roll Hall Of Fame 1964

Vintgae Photo Fans London 1964

 

The Introduction Of Postal and Document History Republic Indonesia 1950-1955 Exhibiton at Driwancybermuseum (Pameran koleksi Negara Kesatuan RI 1950_55)

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Welcome To Driwancybermuseum Blog And Home Office

Selamat Datang Para Kolektor Dari seluruh dunia Ke Museum dunia Maya Dan Homeoffice Dr Iwan Suwandy.

Driwancybermuseum’s Blog

tarian betawi tempo dulu                 

                           hallo  collectors from all over the world

                       WELCOME TO Dr IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

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 *ill 001  THE MUSUEM LOGO IMPERIAL MING  DRAGON FIVE CLOWN*ill 001

           THE FIRST INDONESIAN UNIQOECOLLECTIONS CYBERMUSEUM

                                   THE FOUNDER  Dr IWAN SUWANDY

                                                         

    THE FOUNDER FLOWER IDLE: MING IMPERIAL WANLI CHRYSANTHENUM

  

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                    WELCOME TO THE  MAIN “FREEDOM HALL” 

       

                                                               FOR

                                        INTERNATIONAL OR REGIONAL 

                                           MEETING AND EXHIBITIONS

                                              PERMANENT  EXHIBITION

1.THE SILVER UNIQUECOLLECTION ANNIVERSARY EXHBITIONS

                               

                     

2.THE BETAWI MOSLEM IDULFITRI EXHIBITION(PERMANENT)

 *

               *BETAWI PUPPET SHADOW MAN(DALANG)

3.THE BILITON’S TANG TREASURE CARGO ARTIFACT EXHIBITION

                                   ARTIFACT GOLD CUP AND BARCELET

                                       (*courtecy Singapore National Museum)

                                           

                                         

                                TANG CUP (*courteny Dr Iwan Cybermuseum)

                                 

4.THE EXHIBITION OF YUAN MING IMPERIAL CERAMIC ARTIFACT RECONSTRUCTIONS

                                  THE HALL OF FREEDOM

     YUAN-   MING IMPERIAL CERAMIC DIGITAL RECONSTRACTION EXHIBITION

                        IN ORDER TO SAVE THE HUMAN HERITAGE

I.MING CHENG HUA IMPERIAL RED  AND MOHAMADDAN BLUE INGLAZED SAUCER

                                            BEFORE

                          AFTER RECONSTRACTIONS

THE COMPLETE INFO LOOK AT THE PREMIUM HALL OF CERAMIC

5, THE EXHIBITION OF JAVANESE FUTURE TELLING DJOJOBOJO

                           

*ANCIENT DJOJOBOJO BRONZE STATUE

ALSO ABOUT THE OLD BOOK OF DJOJOBOJO,HIS PETILASAN DAN HISTORY NARRATIONS

6. THE EXHIBITION OF ART PHOTOGRAPY

THE PHOTOGRAPHY COLLECTIONS EXHIBITION

I.FRAME OF OLD CAMERA

1. KODAK 1948*ill 001

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2. INDONESIA ETHNIC  STATUE AND FIGURINE ARTPHOTOPICTURE

1) THE OLD BALI STATUE . *ill 006 dan 007

7.THE TARUMANEGARA KINGDOM EXHIBITION

1). THE PICTURE OF CANDI JIWA*ill 001 AND BLONDONGAN *ill 002RELATED WITH TARUMANEGARA KINGDOM

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2). THE CANDI JIWA MUSEUM COLLECTIONS*ill 003

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3.) THE TARUMANEGARA HISTORY9english version and Indonesia version*ill 004

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The complete information of Tarumanegara was available in CR-rom  only for Premium member

More illustration and info please look at the EXHIBITION FRAME TARUMANEGARA

hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

the end@Dr iwan Suwandy 2010

                THANK YOU FOR VISIT  THE  MAIN “FREEDOM HALL” REGIONAL EXHIBITION

       

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TO ENTER THIS HALL YOU MUST REGISTER AS THE PREMIUM MEMBER

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                                               Dr IWAN CYBERMUSEUM      

                                            “INTRODUCTION OFFICE”

                                    

                       Information how to enter the Premium Cybermuseum

                                      And Register for Premium ID

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                                   THE  CYBERMUSEUM TOL GATE

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                                    ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBERS

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                         !!!!!! Your Premium Member ID please!!!!!!!!!!!

       

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                                                  WELCOME TO

                                “HALL OF HUMAN HERITAGE”

                               BETAWI TRADITIONAL DANCE                                 

              

                  THANK YOU !!TERIMA KASIH !! ARIGATO!! SHE-SE!!DANKE!!

                                               FOR COMING TO

                                       Dr IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                             THE HALL OF HUMAN HERITAGE

   

                 THE HALL OF DR IWANS MASTERPIECE COLLECTIONS

THE HALL OF PHILLATELLIC COLLECTIONS

THE POSTAL  AND DOCUMENT HISTORY OG NKRI 1950-1955

1950(August-December)1.September 1950

(1) September,4th 1950

Postally used cover from  cds soerabaja 4.9.50 on RIS overprint smelt stamps 1 sen strip three.

(2)September,8th.1950

Return to sender official free stamps homemade cover from balai harta peninggalan semarang to Jatinegara, but not found with two postmarak ” return afzender onbeken” and  Onbekend. Veldpost Batavia.geen adreswijziging door geadreseeth .

2.October 1950

(1) October ,10th.1950

Postally used cover from soerabaja to Sidoardjo with RIS overprint smelt stamps 4 cen.(rare stamp)

(2) October,11th.1950

The Registed postal used cover from Tondano to Djakarta with RIS overprint building 4o cent stamp.

 3.November 1950

 4.december 1950

b. 1951

1.Penemuan Koleksi Langka tjonto prangko jang berlaku di Indonesia dengan stempel tinta violet tjonto (specimen) , oleh kepala kantor pos Bengkulu

Contoh Prangko yang berlaku di Indonesia tahun 1951 termasuk prangko RISprangko RIS Rp.2,-Rp.3.Rp.5 ,-Rp 10.- dan Rp.25. tak dijual diloket,prangko nominal tinggi saat itu langsung dipasang dan di stempel saat pengiriman surat berat atau pospaket.

Koleksi ini hanya baru satu  ditemukan dan dilaporkan, maaf illustrasi kurang jelas,ini disengaja agar tidak di buat palsunya,d an tetap dalam kondisi seperti yang ditemukan di Bengkulu , ini merupakn postal histori sangat langka dan membuktikan bahwa prangko cetak wina tak pernah dijual diloket kantor pos Indonesia,bagi yang memilikinya harap berkenan memberikan informasi liwat comment,terima kasih. Apabila perhimpunan filateli Indonesia atau asia ingin memamerkan koleksi yang sangat langka ini silahkan menghubungi Dr Iwan liwat comment-catatan Dr iwan suwandy)

(the RIS Sample Stamp circulated In Indonesia Until 1951, only one exist in the world,if the Phillatelic Exhibtion want to show this amizing and RRRR collections ,please asked the owner Dr Iwan suwandy via comment.Please donnot tag this collections without the owner permission)

4.April.1951

(1) April,10th.1951

postally used registered homemade cover with RIS overprint building stamps 25 sen,one stamp cutting.

10.OCTOBER 1951

(1) October,24.1950

Postally used cover from  panitia penyelesaian  urusahan pemulihan  jawa tengah semarah cover cds semarang  24,.1o.51 to pekalongan,return to sender witth therare building stamps overprint RIS 30 sen.\

2. January 1951

(1)January,23th.1951

RIS Priting Office cARD OVERPRINT BLOB INK TO COVER THE ris SEND FROM CDS jAKARTA 23,1.51.

3.Akhir 1951

Dr Adnan Kapau Gani pada akhir tahun 1951 sampai Februari 1952 berada di Holland sebagai anggota Delegasi RI pada perundingan Indonesia-Belanda dari hasil KMB, dan mengenai kedaulatan Irian Barat, tepatnya di kota Den Haag.

c.1952

October,23th,952

The first flight cover from bandung via KOLM to Chile with RIS overprint 30 cent building stamps and sukarno first series stamp RP.1 ,RIS eagle stamps .

 D.1953

 E. 1954

F.1955

THE FIRST INDONESIAN GENERAL ELECTIONS 1955 COLLECTIONS
KOLEKSI PEMILU PERTAMA 1955

FRAME ONE :
Dr IWAN COLLECTION
1. head of bailout(bagian atas kartu suara)

2. The picture of Party emblem(Tanda gambar Partai Peserta PEMILU)
a.Hole Party(Seluruh Partai)

b.Close up some pary(tanda Gambar beberapa Partai)

 

THE COMPLETE EXHIBITION ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER PLEASE SUBSCRIBED VIA COMMENT AND I WILL SHOW THE EXHIBIITON SPECIAL FOR YOU.GREETING FROM Dr IWAN SUWANDY

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

The complete Collections Exist Only for Premium Member.please subscribed Via Comment.)

THE complete collections only for PREMIUM  member , Please subscribed via Comment. 

.

GREATING FROM THE MUSUEM’S FOUNDER AND STAFF

HAPPY TRAVELLIN IN Driwancybermuseum

SELAMAT DATANG

WELCOME TO THE HOME OFFICE OF   Driwancybermuseum

hhto://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

__________________________________________________________________________________________
SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR,yang berminat kontak liwat comment.

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PEMBINA MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DAN STAF MENGUCAPKAN SELAMAT DATANG DI KANTOR MUSEUM DUNIAMAYA

UNTUK MELIHAT KANTOR DIMANA SELURUH KARYAWAN BEKERJA UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KEPUASAN PARA KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN SELURUH DUNIA SEHINGGA KOLEKSI UNIK , KHUSUSNYA PUSAKA NENEK MOYANG INDONESIA DAN ASIA DAPAT DILESTARIKAN UNTUK GENERASI PENERUS.LIHATLAH SECARA LENGKAP DI hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

SELAMAT DATANG DI PINTU MASUK HOMEOFFICE


SILAHKAN MELIHAT TAMAN TANAMAN HIAS HOME OFFICE

 ANDA MEMASUKI RUANG TAMU
 DAN RUANG RAPAT.

SILAHKAN MELIHAT RUANGAN KANTOR ELEKTRONIK INTRENET KOMPUTERISASI HOME OFFICE

RUANGAN PERPUSTAKAAN

RUANGAN DAPUR BERSIH
KAMAR REST ROOM

SELANJUTNYA AND DIPERSILAHKAN MELIHAT MUSEUM MINI KOLEKSI Dr IWAN S PRIBADI, MULAI TANGGA MASUK YANG ARTISTIK DENGAN PELINDUNG CHILLIN DAN KERAMIK CHILLIN DINASTI MING

KOLEKSI MUSEUM MINI PERTAMA ADALAH PATUNG ETHNIS INDONESIA

LEMARI

 DAN KURSI ANTIK


TEMPAT TIDUR ANTIK


 RUANGAN STUDI KOLEKSI

KOLEKSI LUKISAN

GUCI ANTIK

KERAMIK ANTIK,ANTARA LAIN DIDALM LEMARI ES BEKAS  teridiri dari ceret dan mangkuk kecil yang mungih dan indah

, Serta LAMPU-LAMPU ANTIK  yang sangat langka,indah dan menarik.

Selesai Hak Cipta @Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

The end@copyright Dr Iwan s 2011

The Introduction From The Founder of Driwancybermuseum Web Blog

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Driwancybermuseum Blog A.Driwancybermuseum homeoffice openhouse

Cybermuseum open house”

Qillin decoration
Postal History and Document History collections in antique cupboard
 Library
Meeting room
working room
dragon boat mini musuem
Ceramic Collection
Ceramic Collections 2
VOC ship tile
VOC Tile&Token
Ngoc San Hanoi tile
Ancient Wayang Petruk
Ancient wayang Semar

Hallo Collector
THe founder and All of UCN uniquecollections cybernews staff send the greatings and Happy Chinese New Year “Gong Hi Fat Choi” .
During this happy seasons, UCM uniquecollection cybermuseum and UCN home office open house , all of our best friend collectors were invited to joint the celebration ceremony of the opening of the home office and small museum .

All the collectors from allover the world Please look at the illustration of the new restored UCM-UCN home office and small musuem:

1. The front of the homeoffice with Qillin staircase or tangga Killin as the protection of uniquecollection cybermuseum homeoffice, constist two Qillin stone statue,two Qillin wooden carving, three artifact Qillin late Ming ceramic , design by Dr Iwan S. built by Mr burhanuddin , the idea from Ming emperor palace forbidden city Beijing @copyright Dr Iwan S.2010 (ill. caption “Qillin decoration”)

2. The vintage Writing desk and cupboard (ill Vintage writingcase), in the cupboard the collector will see the albums of vintage document histories.

3. TheLibrary of uniquecollections literatures (ill.library)

4. The Meeting room

5. The Working room

6. The Small Museum consist :
(1) The Ancient ceramic Collections in two vintage showcase( ill ceramic collection 1 and 2)
(2) The dragon boat style Museum with the uniquecollections show : ceramic,stamps and revenue,martavan,woodencarving,statue,metal collections, cins,ancien smoking Pipes, vintage Labels, vintage paintings (ill Small museum)
(3) special close up illustration of VOC ship multicolour tiles-(ill VOC Gauda tiles), VOC Fort tiles(ill.VOC Delft tiles), Wayang Berber Paintings (ill Wayang berber 1945).
(4) The founder show the very rare handpainted pictures with calligraphy ancient wayang book (ill. Ancietn Wayang Petruk and ill. ancient wayang Semar)

After look of the UCM-UCN home office with small musuem illustrations we hope all the collectors will more closed with the best uniquecollection blog of the world and always click this blog to found anykind of uniquecollections information, if you didn’t found the informations please asked as collector choice via comment lika Fake Coins, the value of Rare stamps, the Indochine coins,stamps and papermoney informations etc.If our visitor near 1 million , uniquecollections blog will develop the uniquecollectins club all over the world, please the collectors of all over the world asking the copyright permission with special regulations via comment and editor will contact you to issued the written permission and regulations. every members will send the UCN and the UCM showed with regular one year or life member operational postal & scanning cost to send that information stright install via the members sms adress.the complete best color illustrations. This only the recent proposal, please comment and suggestions.

UCM-uniquecollections Cybermuseum have announced that this night will show ” The Qing Imperial Collections’consist The Qing imperial Paintings, ceramics , meubeluers, and other kind unique Qing imperial collections , this show sponsored by anonim Chinese Beijing collectors.

 B.Introduction
a.I starting stamps collection during 1955 very young boy. look my vintage photo with mother Diana lanny and father Djohan Oetama at Bukittingi West Sumatra 1955, my father passed away in 1985 and my mother just passed away in june 2011 at  91 years old.

b.Between 1960-1963, during study at Don Bosco high school I had started collected beside stamps all type of informations collections due to my Teacher Frater Servaas told me that I must collected the Informations due to the develping the satellite which made the globalizations which the growing of world cmmunications will became fast and no border between the nations countries, who have the Information he will became the leader and the King in communications, thank you Frater Servaas your info which made me could built the very best informations communications uniquecollection blog in the world.
Look at in memoriam Frater Servaas with my teacher at Frater middle school in memrian Frater Eric at my House during my Sister Erlita 17th years birthday in 1963.


also look my profile with my loving teacher who still alive and stay at Padang city west sumatra Pak Sofjanto at my house in the same time of the photo above


c.Between 1973-1983 many interesting history which related with the stamp and postal history and also with my life :
1. In 1972 I have graduated Medical Doctor(MD)

2.as the temporary assitenst at Pulmonology (Lung Disease) department in Medical faculty

3.In 1973 join the medical officer of Indonesia National Police


4.in September 1973 I was merried with Lily W.


5. in 1974 my first son Albert our photographer was born in November 1974, and later in January 1977 born my second son Anton our Editor .
a. Albert at Solok city west Sumatra 1978

b.Anton at Solok city 1978


6. Between 1975 until 1989 I have travelled around Indonesia myself or officially and I have found many uniquecollections that time.

7.In 1985 I have made a postal communications, I have send the aerogram to all Postal services in the capital city of all oin the world, 90 % send to me back the official cover,this could be done by the helping of Padang postmaster Ahmadsyah Soewil, his father collections I had bought in 1980.
The vintage photo of Soewil St.marajo ,during the chief of Painan West Sumatra Post office
look his photos

During Dai Nippon occupation he still at Painan and during Indonesia Independence war he was the Finance officer of Padang office and later in 1950-1959 the chief of TelukBayur Harbour west Sumatra post office, seme of the rare West sumatra during Dai Nippon occupation and Indonesia Inedependence war were his collectins,thankyou Family Soewil for that rare collections(complete infrmatins source Dai nippon occupatin sumatra under Malaya Singapore or Syonato Dai Nippon military Administrations and Indonesia Independence war collections.

8. Before between 1979-1985 I have joint the postal circuit club and I have found many covers from all over the world especially Latin America.This circuit as the help of my friend Frans,now he was in Bogor.

9.In 1990 I was graduate my Master Hospital Administration.


10.Between 1990-1994
I was n the duty at West Borneo and visit Sarwak,and i have fund some rare Sarawak stamps, revenue there and in Pontianak I have found rare sarawak coins

11.Between 1995 until 2000
I am seeking the postally used cover from the countries I havenot found especailly the new freedom countries.
All the postal stamps and covers I will arranged in the very exciting and unique collections, I will starting with Asia Countries, and later Africa, Australia, America and Euro.
This special collections were built dedicated to my Sons,especially the histrical fact from my vintage books collections as the rememberance what their father collected and I hope they will keep this beautiful and histric collections until put in speciale site in the CyberMuseum.
I hope all the collectors all over the world will help me to complete the collections, frm Asia I donnot have the cover from Bhutan,Mongol, Tibet, and SAfghanistan.but the stamps I have complete from that countries except my thematic bridge on the river kwai from Myanmar and Thailand.
12. In the years of 2000, I was retired from my job
this is my official profile just before retired.


13, Between 2000-2008
I am travelling around Asia,and starting to arranged my travelling unque collections.
14. December,25th 2008
I built the uniquecollection.wordpress.com Blog with articles :
(1). The Unique books collections
(2). The Unique Stamps collectins
(3). The rare Coins collections
(4). The rare ceramic collections
(5.) The Unique label collectins
(6.) The Travelling Unque collections (now changed as the Adventures of Dr iwan S.
(7). The Tionghoa Unique Collections
(8.) The Asia Unique Collections
(9.) The Africa Unique collections
(10). The Padang minangkabau CyberMuseum

15. In 2010

I built another web :

(1) hhtp://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com

(2)hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

In this web the collectors will look the amizing collections:

(1) The Vietnam War 1965-1975, and another Vietnam Historic collections like Vienam during Indochina, Vienam Diem War 1955-1963,etc

(2) The Dai Nippon War 1942-1945, five part in homeland,pasific war,in Korea,in China, in south East Asia including Indonesia.

(3) The Indonesia Independence War  1945,1946,1947,1948,1949 and 1950.

(4) The Uniquecollections from all over the world.

(5) The Icon Cybermuseum, including Bung Karno,Bung Hatta,Sultan Hemangkubuwono, and also from foreign countries Iran,Iraq Sadam huseun ,Palestina jerusalam,turkey,afghanistan, libya Moamer Khadafi, Suriah , etc

(6) The Rare Ceramic Collections found In Indonesia, like China Imperial Tang,Yuan,Ming and Qing; also euro ceramic from delf,dutch maastrict ,etc

(7) and many other collections

AT LEAST AFTER THE ALL OF MY COLLECTIONS ENTER THE CYBERMUSEUM AND OTHER WEB BLOG, I WILL ASKING TO GET  THE MURI CERTIFICATE.(INDONESIAN RECORD MUSEUM)

8. I also built a amizing collections due to my premium member prefered, like The Indonesia Revenue Collections from 19th to 20th century, the mysteri of the Indonesian vienna Printing Stamps, the China  Gold Coins, The Rare Chian imperial ceramic design foun in Indonesia, The Tionghoa (Indonesia Chinese Overseas collection), Penguasa Wanta di dunia(Women in Leaders) etc.

5. At Least thankyou verymuch to all the collectors who have visit my blog and support me, my last prestation in June 2011 (26 years from the first starting to built the e-antique or uniquecollections info in internet) :

(1) hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum : visit 60.000, the highest per day 3200.

(2)hhtp://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com:visit 21.000,the highest per day 200.

(3)hhtp://www.uniquecollection.wordpress.com, visit 40.000,the highest per day 210.

Jakarta June 2011

Greatings from teh founder

Dr Iwan Suwandy

the end @copyright XDr Iwan suwandy 2011

I WRITE THIS MEMORABLE STORY WITH RELATED UNIQUECOLLECTIONS ILLUSTRATIONS AS MY HONOR TO MY LOVING FAMILY , ALL MY FRIEND AND MY TEACHERS.BECAUSE WITHOUT YOU I AM NOTHING AT ALL,AND YOU ARE ALWAYS IN MY HEART FOREVER.

THE SAMPLE OF EXHIBTION IN Driwancybermuseum

SELAMAT DATANG DI RUANG PAMERAN KHUSUS

SHOWCASE :

RUANG PAMERAN :

PAMERAN KOLEKSI KERAMIK LANGKA DINASTI MING AKHIR YANG DITEMUI DI INDONESIA

Showcase :

The Rare Late Ming Ceramic Which Foun At Indonesia Exhibition

(Dr Iwan Private Collections)

Frame one:Southern Ming Dynasty

 
 
History of China

History of China

 
 
 
 
 
  *wan li imperial mark and dragon five clow cup below.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
   
   
     
     
 
 
 
 
 
   
 

The Southern Ming Dynasty (Chinese: 南明; pinyin: Nán Míng) refers to the Ming loyalist regimes that existed in Southern China from 1644 to 1662 following the collapse of the Ming Dynasty and the capture of Beijing first by rebel armies led by Li Zicheng, and then by the forces of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty.

On April 24, 1644, Li Zicheng’s rebel soldiers, of the recently proclaimed Great Shun dynasty, breached the walls of Beijing. The Chongzhen Emperor committed suicide the next day to avoid humiliation at their hands. Remnants of the Ming imperial family and some court ministers then sought refuge in the southern part of China and regrouped around Nanjing, the Ming auxiliary capital, south of the Yangzi River. Four different power groups had eventuated:

  • Shun Dynasty led by Li Zicheng, with its power base north of the Huai river, which had been under controlled of the Ming Dynasty.
  • Zhang Xianzhong had established the Great West (Ch:大西) regime controlling Sichuanprovince.
  • Manchu-founded Qing Dynastyhad control of the north-east area beyond Shanhai Pass, at the same times much of the Mongol tribes.
  • The remnants of Ming Dynasty could only survive south of the Huai river.

Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showcase:

The Original Dr Iwancybermuseum logo Collections .

Frame one:

INTRODUCTION (PENDAHULUAN)

1.In February.27th 2011 morning 7.30 am west Indonesia Time, during I walking out of Yacobus Church Kelapa Gading North Jakarta Indonesia to my car parking lot beyond the tree, God have send me one very amizing beautiful iron red fruit from the  tree which I donnot know it ‘s name, and  I bring to my cybermuseum home office ,put on my antique pure white stempcup ceramic , made to art photos by my digital camera Olympus, one still original and one was making corrections of the background by digital painting restorarion

2. then I have deciding that this art photography became the logo of my blog “Driwan Cybermuseum.

3.The red and white colour were the same of Indonesian flag colour,the flag of my homeland countries and theiron red and pure white were my favorite colour of my ceramic collections, the background sandtone colour was my favorite colour of my cybermuseum homeoffice.The  Iron red fruit was send to me by the holygod which give my the mercy and lucky in the future.

3.I hove all the collectors from all over the world to honor my logo copyright,please donnot copy.

Jakarta, February.27th 2011

The founder of Cybermuseum Blog

 Dr Iwan Suwandy

Frame Two :

The Original Picture Of Driwancybermuseum Logo1.The Original Photo at Driwancybermuseum

 private home office

 2.The Original Art photography of Driwancybermuseum’s logo(after digital restoration)

CONTOH KOLEKSI DARI SURINAME BEKA SJAJAHAN BELANDA YANG BANYAK ETHNIS JAWA DISANA

 




Suraname Jang Tk Terkenal, karangan Albert Herman, Seri Buku Buku Badjing Untuk Kanak-Kanak, 30 halaman.

the end @ copyright XDr Iwan suwandy

The Unusual Rare Indonesian Phillately,Revenue and Numismatic History Collections(Koleksi Postal,Meterai dan numismatik histori Indonesia Yang aneh dan Langka)

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom : 

 

Dr Iwan Unusual  Indonesian Postal,Revenue and Numismatic Cybermuseum(Koleksi Filateli , Meterai dan  Numismatik Indonesia Yang  Aneh)

1.Kata Pengantar(Introduction)

If you look carefully the postal,revenue and numismatic history collections , one day you will find the images you are not usual or strange, and was never seen anymore  again at this time.

The  unusual collections  is a collection which, when compiled with trim, will be a collection of rare and interesting as the remembrance from the past as our human heritage.

I will starting to reseach  my   privately owned collections in the cybermuseum world and flaunt my period, so that collectors can enjoy them.

If you have a collection like this please willing to flaunt it in Driwancybermuseum, please sent  comment, thanks.

How amazing is not it, I hope to entertain you all

Jakarta, June 2011

Dr Iwan Suwandy

Apabila anda memperhatikan dengan saksama koleksi sejarah pos,meterai dan numismatik  ,suatu saat anda anda akan menemukan koleksi  yang tak biasanya atau aneh  serta sangat sulit ditemukan lagi pada saat ini.

Koleksi  aneh dan tak biasa tersebut merupakan suatu koleksi yang bila disusun dengan apik akan menjadi suatu koleksi yang langka dan menarik.yang merupakan warisan manusia tempo dulu.

Saya akan mulai mempelajari koleksi  milik pribadi dan memamerkannya dalam museum dunia maya saya, agar para kolektor dapat menikmatinya.

Apabila anda memiliki koleksi seperti ini harap bersedia memamerkannya di Driwancybermuseum, harap dikirimkan liwat comment, terima kasih.

Bagaimana menakjubkan bukan, saya harap dapat menghibur anda semua

Jakarta Juni 2011

Dr Iwan Suwandy

 The Vintage Indonesian’s Unusual Postal,Revenue and Numismatic History Collections 

 (Koleksi postal,meteri dan numismatik histori Indonesia yang  Aneh Dan Langka)

1.POSTAL HISTORY

1) Koleksi Kartupos Pendudukan Jepang di Jawa dengan stempel pos aneh, ” Tida(tidak) Diperkenanken(diperkenankan) Kombali(Kembali) , hal ini jarang terjadi , hanya apabila  tempelan terlarang di tempelkan  diatas kartupos, sayang tempelan tersebut sudah dilepas, namun hanya satu kartupos saja   yang saya temukan,harap para kolektor yang memiliki stempel pos yang sama melaporkan temuannya.

Japanese Occupation Postcards Collection in Java with a strange postmark, “Tida (not) Diperkenanken (allowed) return  to sender (Back), this rarely happens, only if the patch forbidden of posting the above postcard, darling patch has been released, but only one postcard only I found, hope the collectors who have same postmark reported findings.

2.Unusual Stamps

Prangko Sial

Beberapa tahun sebelum lengser(mundur ) dari Jabatan Presiden, telah ditandai dengan adanya prangko salah cetak dengan tanda-tanda kesialan antara lain Coretan garis di tepi sampai mengenai wajah Pak Harto ,hal sama pada prangko sial Hitler.

Selain itu juga ditemukan prangko pah harto yang kepanasan sehingga mukanya jadi hitam seperti terbakar matahari yang menunjukkan pak harto diserang dari segala lapisan masyarakat dan politik. Bagaimana anehkan.

Damn Stamps
A few years before his resignation (backwards) from Position of President, has been marked by a misprinted stamps with signs of misfortune among other graffiti on the edge of the line until about Soeharto’s face,

 this same shit on stamps of Hitler.

It also found that heat Harto hero stamps so that his face became black like a burning sun which shows Soeharto was burning by the attacking from all walks of life and politics. How amizing.

3.Unusual Atjeh 1 real cenderella stamp 1882

 

 

 

 
File:Atjeh11.jpg

 

Description  

English: Cinderella stamp of Acheh (Indonesia)
 
Date 1882(1882)
 

3a.Used on Money order fragment ,RMS overprint Indonesia numeric smelt

 

and building stamps

3c.Kartupos dulu sangat populer untuk mengirim berita singkat,walaupun saat ini tidak diterbitkan lagi karena ada teknologi SMS ,hal sama juga dengan telegram.Salah satu koleksi aneh dan anda pasti berum pernah lihat adalah kartupos tahun 1953 yang belum digunting (Uncutting) masih satu lembar kartupos proeff dengan empat kartu pos jadi satu, kalau pernah lihat mungkin telat mikir untuk dijadikan koleksi postal history lihatlah illustrasinya dibawah ini :

Selain itu juga ditemui smapul cetakan Pos Udar yang dicetak pada bagian luar dan bagian dalam

Postcards used to be very popular to send brief news, although currently not published anymore because there is SMS technology, the same thing with telegram.Salah a collection of strange and definitely berum you ever see is the postcard of 1953 that have not been cut (Uncutting) is still one sheet postcards proeff with four postcards to be one, if you never see might be late thinkers to be a collection of postal history behold its illustrasi

. Also found the error print of PTT envelope on out and inside .

4.The Postal History could told us the situation like two money order send during The PRRI movement in middle Sumatra, first Money order send one day after Pakanbaru captured by The APRI frm PRRI,send to Sawahlunto still in PRRI hand in March 11 th.1958,return to sender because the communication broken,look at the handwritten”Kembali Perhubungan belum ada”

and the second Money order send from Padang to angkola south tananuli return to sender looh the handwritten”Kembali Untuk sementara perhubungan Terputus”(return for temporary communicationbroken)

5.Cinderella Historic Collections Cinderela adalah label sampul surat yang bentuknya sama seperti prangko tetapi tanpa nominal,digunakan untuk menutup bagian belakang sampul atau sebagai sarana marketing produk. Koleksi cinderal indonesia yang paling aneh dan langka adalah satu sheet lengkap cinderela label promosi Obat Radja dengan perforasi terdiri dari 100 label dengan pembatas kosong diantara 50 label yang dikenal dengan istilah “gutter pair”.menakjubkan bukan.

english version:

Cinderela is a label that looks the same envelope as postage stamps but without par, used to close the back cover or as a means of marketing the product. Collection cinderal Indonesia’s most bizarre and rare is a complete sheet cinderela label drug promotion Radja with perforation consists of 100 blank labels with a divider between the 50 labels are known by the term “Gutter pair”. amazing is not.

 

3..Revenue History Collections

1) METERAI PENDUDUKAN JEPANG ANEH.

Mulai 1 April 1943, meterai seluruh meterai di Indonesia dicetak tindih secara machinal untuk menutup wajah ratu belanda atau aksara belanda yang dianggap milik musuh dengan berbagai bentuk , untuk meterai di pulau jawa di cetak tindih gambar matahari bewarna merah. Salah seorang pedagang di Jawa merasa sayang membuang meterai Hindia belanda yang ia miliki, maka dengan nekat mengambar dengan pena  gambar matahari meniru cetak tindih asli pemerintah balatentara nippon(Dai Nippon Gunseikanbu) diatas meterai hindia belanda dan memakainya diatas kwitansi tanggal 1 agustus 1944(2604), sikap ini dikatakan nekat karena bila ketahuan akan ditangkap dan dihukum oleh Kampetai,polisi militer Jepang.

, silahkan melihat illustrasi meterai tersebut dibandingkan dengan yang asli cetak tindih dengan mesin, bagaimana anehkan,bila anda memiliki yang sama harap berkenan melaporkannya.

STRANGE JAPANESE OCCUPATION seal.
Beginning April 1, 1943, the seal of all seals in Indonesia printed in machinal overlapping to cover the queen’s face or script netherlands dutch deemed enemy property in various forms, to seal in the island of Java in the print image superimposed on a red colored sun. One trader in Java feel affection discard seal Dutch East Indies he had, then with reckless drawing with pen drawings mimic the sun original print overlapping government army nippon (Dai Nippon Gunseikanbu) above the seal of the Dutch East Indies and wear it on a receipt dated August 1, 1944 (2604) , is said to be reckless attitude because if caught would be arrested and punished by Kampetai, the Japanese military police.

, please see the illustration of the seal is compared to the original print overlapping with the machine, how anehkan, if you have the same hope is pleased to report it.

2)

2)

3. Numismatic History collections

1).

2.The International Unusual Stamps Collections

Unusual Stamps

Here are three examples of unusual stamps from my collection.

cloth

This is a set of five stamps issued by four countries, Grenada, the Gambia, Sierra Leone and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, commemorating the teddy bear. What I find interesting about this set is that:

  • the stamps are made of cloth!
  • four different countries cooperated to produce a single set of commemorative stamps with almost identical designs
  • despite being part of Grenada, a local group of islands, Carriacou and Petite Martinique, were permitted by the government of Grenada to issue a separate cloth stamp

 

phonograph record stamps issued by Bhutan

This is one of the most unusual sets of stamps that were ever issued. This set of seven stamps issued by the Kingdom of Bhutan in 1973 are also phonograph records! When played on a record player, the stamps play folk songs as well as provide an oral history (in Bhutanese and English) of Bhutan!

phonograph record stamps issued by Bhutan CD stamps issued by Bhutan

In 2008, Bhutan decided to update the phonograph record stamps it issued thirty-five years earlier by issuing a set of two CD stamps! Actually, as you can see, the CD’s are enclosed in a CD envelope that acts as the postage stamp (the envelope is self-adhesive on the back, so that, in theory, someone in Bhutan could stick the CD envelope onto a larger envelope or package that needed to be mailed). Like the phonograph stamp issue, when played on a record player, the CD stamps, when played on a CD player, will play folk songs as well as provide an oral history of Bhutan.

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

Pameran Permainan Catur Dan Mahjong Tionghoa Antik Yang ditemukan Di Indonesia

 MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

 

                    Please Enter

                   

              DTC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Tionghoa   Cybermuseum)

Showcase:

Pameran Catur  dan Majong Tionghoa Antik Yang ditemukan Di Indonesia

Frame Satu :

Koleksi Alat Permainan Catur Tionghoa Antik.(HO )

 

SEJARAH Catur Tionghoa  (Xiangqi)

Di Tiongkok, ada sebuah permainan bernama Xiangqi (atau Xiangxi), tanggal kembali ke selambat-lambatnya periode negara berperang. [Rujukan?] Hal ini diyakini akan ditemukan di Tiongkok  selatan. Permainan ini dijelaskan dalam Chu Ci dan buku dinasti Han [rujukan?] Buku-buku Cina pertama pada strategi xiangqi ditulis pada abad ke-5.. [rujukan?] Dalam bentuk kuno, Xiangqi memiliki enam potong (Sejarah Xiangqi (Cina )). Beberapa percaya bahwa catur berasal dari India xiangqi (Asal-usul Catur). Beberapa percaya bahwa xiangqi telah berasal dari India Chaturanga [26] Teori ini berjalan sebagai berikut: Chaturanga berubah dan berasimilasi ke dalam xiangqi permainan di mana potongan-potongan ditempatkan pada titik persimpangan dari garis-garis papan bukan dalam kotak.. [7] Objek variasi Tionghoa  mirip dengan Chaturanga, yaitu untuk membuat tidak berdaya raja lawan, kadang-kadang dikenal secara umum. [26] catur Tionghoa  juga meminjam elemen-elemen dari permainan Go, yang dimainkan di Tiongkok  sejak setidaknya abad ke-6 SM. [26] Karena pengaruh Go, catur Tionghoa  diputar pada persimpangan dari garis-garis di papan, bukan di kotak [26] lembar catur Tionghoa . biasanya rata dan menyerupai yang digunakan di dam, dengan potongan dibedakan dengan menulis nama mereka di permukaan datar. [26]

Sebuah teori asal-usul catur berpendapat alternatif yang muncul dari Xiangqi atau pendahulunya daripadanya, yang ada di Tiongkok  sejak abad ke-2 SM [27] David H. Li, seorang akuntan pensiunan, profesor akuntansi dan penerjemah teks-teks Tiongkok  kuno, hipotesis. Bahwa Han umum Xin menarik pada permainan awal Liubo untuk mengembangkan bentuk awal catur Cina di musim dingin tahun 204-203 SM [27] catur Jerman sejarawan Peter Banaschak., bagaimanapun, dari poin yang hipotesis utama Li “didasarkan pada hampir tidak ada” . Dia mencatat bahwa “lu Xuanguai,” ditulis oleh menteri Dinasti Tang Niu Sengru (779-847), tetap merupakan sumber nyata pertama di xianggqi varian catur Cina, LIHAT DI LUAR NEGERI Tiongkok pada etnis  TIONGHOA INDONESIA  XIANFQI DEWAN bawah ini.

 
 

FRAME DUA

 “Permainan  DAM(HO) Tionghoa Antik Yang ditemukan di Indonesia

FRAME TIGA : PERMAINAN MAHJONG TIONGHOA ANTIK

THE TIONGKOK MAHJONG GAMES HISTORY

THE OLD CHINESE OVERSEAS INDONESIA ” TIONGHOA” ‘S MAHJONG GAMES COLLECTIONS.

The Type Of Mahjong Tiles: 

Examples of winning hands (split into melds and pair for clarity):

  • MJf1.pngMJf1.pngMJs3.pngMJs3.pngMJs3.pngMJd3.pngMJd3.pngMJd3.pngMJd2.pngMJd2.pngMJd2.pngMJd1.pngMJd1.pngMJd1.png
  • MJt1.pngMJt2.pngMJt3.pngMJt4.pngMJt5.pngMJt6.pngMJt7.pngMJt7.pngMJt7.pngMJt8.pngMJt8.pngMJt9.pngMJt9.pngMJt9.png

Please compare the new tiles

with the old Majong Tiles below

 

1.The small dice

 

2.The lucky stick and coins

3.The mahjong tiles

(1) Kaligrafi Tiongkok

 Hóng Zhōng (紅中 MJd1.png, red middle), Fā Cái (發財 MJd2.png, prosperity), and Bái Ban (白板 MJd3.png, white board) represent benevolence, sincerity, and filial piety, respectively

 (2) Bulat Seperti Domino 

(a) mahyong antik

(b) Mahjong Baru

 

MJt1.pngMJt2.pngMJt3.pngMJt4.pngMJt5.pngMJt6.pngMJt7.pngMJt7.pngMJt7.pngMJt8.pngMJt8.pngMJt9.pngMJt9.pngMJt9.png

(3) Gambar (Pictorial)

(4) Hanya Mahyong Asing yang meiliki Yoker(Joker only foreign mahjong), Mahyong tiongkok tanpa Yoker(Chinese mahjong without Joker.)

(5) Jubin Antik dibuat dari (The tiles made from) Keramik( ceramic),

ivory(Gading)

 

,stone(batu),

wood(kayu),

and Mahyong Baru Dari Plastik(new one plastic). MJt8.pngMJt8.pngMJt9.pngMJt9.pngMJt9.png

Frame Lima:

SEJARAH MAHJONG

sejarah Mahjong

Mahjong in Hangzhou.jpg
 

Mahjong
 
Sebuah permainan mahjong yang dimainkan di Hangzhou, Cina
Nama cina
Cina Tradisional 麻将
Cina Sederhana 麻将
[Tampilkan] transliterasi
Hakka
– Romanisasi ma jiong3
Jeruk keprok
– Hanyu Pinyin Ma jiang
Wu
– Romanisasi mu Ciang (麻雀 儿 / 麻将)
Kanton
– Jyutping maa4 zoeng3
– Romanisasi Yale ma4 jeung3
 
Cina alternatif nama
Cina Tradisional 麻雀
Cina Sederhana 麻雀
[Tampilkan] transliterasi
Hakka
– Romanisasi ma4 jiok3
Jeruk keprok
– Hanyu Pinyin que MA
Min
– Hokkien POJ MOA-chhiok
Wu
– Romanisasi mu ciah
Kanton
– Jyutping maa4 zoek3
– Romanisasi Yale ma4 jeuk3
 
Jepang nama
Kanji 麻雀
Kana マージャン
[Tampilkan] transliterasi
– Majan Romaji
 
Nama korea
Hangul 마작
Hanja 麻雀
[Tampilkan] transliterasi
– Revisi
Romanisasi majak
– McCune-
Reischauer machak
 
Nama Vietnam
Vietnam tikar chược
Mahjong Pemain 4
Rentang usia 4 tahun dan lebih tua
Setup waktu 2-10 menit
Bermain Tergantung pada variasi waktu dan / atau rumah / aturan turnamen
Random kesempatan Ya
Keterampilan yang diperlukan Taktik, observasi, memori
 Artikel ini berisi teks Cina. Tanpa dukungan rendering yang tepat, Anda mungkin melihat tanda tanya, kotak, atau simbol lain bukan karakter Cina.

Mahjong (Cina: 麻将; pinyin: jiang ma) adalah permainan yang berasal dari Cina, biasanya dimainkan oleh empat pemain (dengan beberapa variasi tiga pemain yang ditemukan di Korea dan Jepang). Mahjong adalah permainan keterampilan, strategi dan perhitungan dan melibatkan tingkat tertentu kebetulan. Di Asia, mahjong juga populer dimainkan sebagai permainan perjudian (meskipun mungkin hanya dengan mudah dimainkan recreationally).

Permainan ini dimainkan dengan satu set 152 ubin berdasarkan karakter Cina dan simbol, meskipun beberapa variasi regional menggunakan nomor yang berbeda ubin. Pada sebagian besar variasi, setiap pemain mulai dengan menerima ubin tiga belas. Pada gilirannya pemain menarik dan membuang ubin sampai mereka menyelesaikan tangan hukum menggunakan ubin ditarik keempat belas untuk membentuk empat kelompok (melds) dan sepasang (kepala). Ada aturan yang cukup standar tentang bagaimana sepotong diambil, dicuri dari pemain lain (menyatu), penggunaan dasar (nomor ubin) dan kehormatan (angin dan naga), jenis-jenis melds, dan urutan menangani dan bermain. Namun ada variasi regional yang mungkin berbeda-beda aturan ini, di samping itu, sistem penilaian, tangan minimum yang diperlukan untuk memenangkan bervariasi berdasarkan aturan lokal yang digunakan.

Isi
 

1 Nama
2 Sejarah
2.1 Mahjong di Cina
2.2 Mahjong di dunia Barat
2.3 pengembangan Lancar
3 Jenis permainan
4 Varian
4.1 Deskripsi
4.2 Dipilih Variasi Dibandingkan
5 aturan persaingan Mahjong
6 Peralatan
6.1 Sejarah
6.2 Jenis cocok
6.2.1 Simples
6.2.2 Honours
6.2.3 Bonus Ubin
6.2.4 Wild Ubin
6.3 Individu Setelan
6.4 Honors
6.5 Bunga
7 Menyiapkan papan
7.1 Game Angin dan Angin Berlaku
7.2 Dealing ubin
7.3 Charleston
8 Gameplay
8.1 melds
8.2 Bunga
8.3 Jokers
8.4 Menang
Siap 8,5 tangan
8.6 Menggambar
8.7 Abortive menarik
Ternyata 8,8 dan putaran
9 Scoring
10 Mahjong dalam Unicode
11 Lihat juga
12 Catatan kaki
13 Bacaan lebih lanjut
14 Pranala luar
 

 Nama
Permainan ini disebut 麻雀 (pinyin: ma que), yang berarti burung pipit di Cina, yang masih nama yang paling umum digunakan dalam beberapa dialek Cina selatan seperti Kanton dan Min Nan, dan juga di Jepang. Namun, sebagian besar Cina berbahasa Mandarin sekarang panggilan jiang ma game (麻将). Dalam Wu Utara Cina (Shanghai dan kerabat), itu diucapkan sebagai [mu tsiaŋ] 麻将, tetapi dalam kenyataannya, 麻将 adalah bentuk kecil dari 麻雀, ditulis sebagai 麻雀 [mu tsiaʔ n] 儿, karena acara erhua. Ini adalah melalui pengucapan Wu Cina 儿 麻雀 bahwa bentuk kecil dari 麻雀 dalam dialek Wu Utara dikenal sebagai 麻将 baik dalam bahasa Mandarin dan Wu.

Sejarah
Mahjong di Cina
Salah satu mitos tentang asal-usul mahjong menunjukkan bahwa Konfusius, [1] filsuf Cina, mengembangkan permainan pada sekitar 500 SM. Pernyataan ini mungkin akan apokrif. Menurut mitos ini, munculnya permainan di berbagai negara Cina bertepatan dengan perjalanan Konfusius ‘pada saat itu ia sedang mengajar doktrin barunya. Ketiga naga (kardinal) ubin juga setuju dengan tiga kebajikan kardinal diwariskan oleh Konfusius. Hong Zhong (红 中, tengah merah), Fa Cai (发财, kemakmuran), dan Bai Ban (白板, papan tulis) merupakan kebajikan, ketulusan, dan kasih sayang, masing-masing.

Mitos ini juga mengklaim bahwa Konfusius suka burung, yang akan menjelaskan nama “mahjong” (麻雀 maque = burung pipit). Namun, tidak ada bukti keberadaan mahjong sebelum era Taiping pada abad ke-19, yang menghilangkan Konfusius sebagai penemu mungkin.

Banyak sejarawan percaya hal itu didasarkan pada permainan kartu Cina disebut Mǎdiào (马 吊) (juga dikenal sebagai Ma Tiae, tergantung kuda, atau Yèzí [叶子], daun) pada awal dinasti Ming [2] Permainan ini dimainkan dengan 40. kertas semacam itu dalam tampilannya kartu yang digunakan dalam permainan Ya Pei kartu. Ini 40 kartu diberi nomor 1 sampai 9 di empat setelan yang berbeda, bersama dengan empat kartu bunga tambahan. Ini cukup mirip dengan penomoran mahjong ubin hari ini, meskipun mahjong hanya memiliki tiga jas dan, pada dasarnya, menggunakan empat bungkus kartu Ya Pei.

Masih ada perdebatan tentang siapa yang menciptakan permainan. Satu teori adalah bahwa perwira tentara Cina yang melayani selama Pemberontakan Taiping menciptakan permainan untuk melewatkan waktu. Teori lain adalah bahwa seorang bangsawan yang tinggal di daerah Shanghai menciptakan permainan antara 1870 dan 1875. Lain percaya bahwa dua bersaudara dari Ningpo dibuat mahjong sekitar tahun 1850, dari game sebelumnya Mǎdiào.

Game ini dilarang oleh pemerintah Republik Rakyat Cina ketika itu mengambil alih kekuasaan tahun 1949. [3] Pemerintah Komunis baru melarang kegiatan perjudian ada, yang dianggap sebagai simbol korupsi kapitalis. Setelah Revolusi Kebudayaan, permainan ini dihidupkan kembali, tanpa unsur judi (lihat di bawah), dan larangan itu dicabut tahun 1985. [4] Hari ini, ini merupakan hobi favorit di Cina dan masyarakat Tionghoa berbahasa lainnya.

Mahjong di dunia Barat

Siswa di Amerika Serikat belajar cara bermain mahjong

Pada tahun 1895, Stewart Culin, seorang antropolog Amerika, menulis sebuah makalah yang mahjong disebutkan. Ini adalah account tertulis pertama dikenal mahjong dalam bahasa lain selain Cina. Pada 1910, ada ditulis akun dalam berbagai bahasa, termasuk Perancis dan Jepang.

Pertandingan itu diimpor ke Amerika Serikat pada 1920-an. [5] pertama menentukan mahjong dijual di AS telah dijual oleh Abercrombie & Fitch dimulai pada tahun 1920. [6] Ini menjadi sukses di New York, dan pemilik perusahaan , Ezra Fitch, dikirim utusan ke desa Cina untuk membeli setiap set mahjong bisa mereka temukan. Abercrombie & Fitch dijual sebanyak 12.000 set. [6]

Juga pada tahun 1920, Joseph Park Babcock menerbitkan bukunya Peraturan Mah-Jongg, juga dikenal sebagai “buku merah”. Ini adalah versi awal mahjong dikenal di Amerika. Babcock telah belajar mahjong ketika tinggal di Cina. aturan permainan Babcock’s disederhanakan untuk memudahkan Amerika untuk mengambil, dan versi-nya adalah umum melalui mode mahjong tahun 1920-an. Kemudian, ketika mode tahun 1920-an mati, banyak penyederhanaan Babcock ditinggalkan.

Permainan ini telah diambil pada sejumlah nama merek dagang, seperti “Pung Chow” dan “Game Seribu Kecerdasan”. Mahjong malam di Amerika sering terlibat rias dan dekorasi kamar dalam gaya Cina [7] lagu-lagu hit Beberapa juga tercatat selama mode mahjong, terutama “Sejak Ma Bermain Mah Jong” oleh Eddie penyanyi.. [8]

Banyak varian mahjong dikembangkan selama periode ini. Pada tahun 1930-an, banyak revisi aturan yang dikembangkan yang secara substansial berbeda dari versi klasik Babcock’s (termasuk beberapa fundamental yang dipertimbangkan dalam varian lainnya, seperti gagasan tangan standar). Bentuk yang paling umum, yang akhirnya menjadi “mahjong Amerika”, yang paling populer di kalangan wanita Yahudi [9] Standardisasi datang dengan pembentukan National Mah Jongg League (NMJL) pada tahun 1937, bersama dengan buku aturan mahjong pertama Amerika, Maajh.: Versi Amerika Game Cina Kuno.

Sementara mahjong diterima oleh pemain AS dari semua latar belakang etnis selama era Babcock, banyak mempertimbangkan versi Amerika modern remake dari permainan Yahudi, [10] karena banyak pemain mahjong Amerika keturunan Yahudi. Ini NMJL didirikan oleh pemain Yahudi dan dianggap sebuah organisasi Yahudi. Selain itu, pemain biasanya menggunakan permainan Amerika sebagai suatu kegiatan sosial yang ramah keluarga, bukan sebagai perjudian. Pada tahun 1986, National Mah Jongg League dilakukan pertama mereka Mah Jongg Cruise Tournament, dalam conjuction dengan Mah Jongg Madness. Pada tahun 2010, ini skala besar berlayar di laut host acara Silver-25 HUT Cruise, dengan pemain dari seluruh Amerika dan Kanada berpartisipasi.

Dalam beberapa tahun terakhir, sebuah organisasi kedua telah terbentuk, American Association Mah Jongg. Para AMJA saat host turnamen di seluruh Amerika Utara, dengan acara tanda tangan mereka berada di Trump Taj Mahal Casino Resort di Atlantic City, New Jersey.

Inggris penulis Alan D. Millington menghidupkan kembali permainan klasik Cina dari tahun 1920-an dengan bukunya Kitab Lengkap Mah-jongg (1977). Buku panduan ini mencakup aturan formal ditetapkan untuk permainan. Banyak pemain di negara-negara Barat menganggap karya Millington’s otoritatif.

Mahjong bukan kembali penampilan pertama dari permainan Cina di dunia barat. Ia juga diperkenalkan pada bentuk bermain kartu oleh pejabat Pelayanan Konsuler Inggris bernama William Henry Wilkinson, penulis “asal Cina bermain kartu,” dengan nama Khanhoo. Permainan kartu ini tampaknya tidak membuat kesan banyak. Keberhasilan mahjong datang kemudian sebagian dari keanggunan mekanisme sebagai tercantum dalam potongan seperti domino.

Saat ini pembangunan
Saat ini, popularitas dan karakteristik pemain mahjong bervariasi dari satu negara ke negara. Ada juga banyak badan pemerintah, yang seringkali tuan rumah pameran permainan dan turnamen. Ini masih jauh lebih populer di Asia daripada di Barat.

. Mahjong, pada 2010, adalah meja permainan yang paling populer di Jepang [11] Di Jepang, ada penekanan tradisional pada judi [meragukan – mendiskusikan], dan pemain khas adalah laki-laki. Banyak umat percaya ada permainan ini kehilangan popularitas dan telah mengambil upaya untuk menghidupkan kembali itu. [rujukan?] Ada beberapa manga dan anime (misalnya Saki dan Akagi) ditujukan untuk situasi dramatis dan komik yang melibatkan mahjong [12] Selain itu,. video Jepang arcade telah memperkenalkan mahjong mesin arcade yang dapat dihubungkan kepada orang lain melalui Internet. Ada juga versi video game mahjong strip.

Mahjong budaya masih sangat tertanam dalam masyarakat Tionghoa. Sam Hui menulis lagu Cantopop menggunakan mahjong sebagai tema mereka, dan Hong Kong film sering termasuk adegan permainan mahjong. Banyak film perjudian telah difilmkan di Hong Kong, dan sub-genre baru-baru ini adalah film mahjong.

Seperti permainan lainnya, seperti catur, Mastermind, catur dan permainan kartu, bermain mahjong berkepanjangan dapat memicu serangan epilepsi. Jumlah kasus tersebut, namun jarang terjadi. Menurut sebuah studi 2007, [13] [14] sampai saat ini hanya ada 23 dilaporkan kasus kejang yang disebabkan mahjong dalam literatur medis Inggris.

Studi yang dilakukan oleh dokter juga telah menunjukkan di Hong Kong bahwa permainan ini bermanfaat bagi individu yang menderita dari demensia atau kesulitan memori kognitif, mengarah ke pengembangan terapi mahjong. [15]

Pada tahun 2008, terdapat sekitar 7,6 juta pemain Mahjong di Jepang. Sebuah 8.900 Diperkirakan Mahjong salon di Jepang melakukan 300000000000 ¥ penjualan tahun yang sama itu. [16]

 Jenis permainan
Karena bentuk padat dari ubin, mahjong kadang-kadang diklasifikasikan sebagai permainan domino. Namun, jauh lebih mirip dengan permainan kartu gaya Barat seperti pedagang minuman keras.

Varian
Ada banyak variasi mahjong. Di banyak tempat, pemain sering mengamati satu versi dan tidak menyadari variasi lain atau mengklaim bahwa versi yang berbeda tidak benar. Meskipun banyak variasi saat ini berbeda hanya dengan mencetak, ada beberapa varietas utama:

Deskripsi
mahjong klasik Cina adalah berbagai tertua mahjong dan versi diperkenalkan ke Amerika pada tahun 1920 di bawah berbagai nama. Memiliki berikut, kecil setia di Barat, meskipun hanya sedikit bermain di Asia.
Mahjong Hong Kong atau mahjong Kanton mungkin merupakan bentuk yang paling umum mahjong, berbeda dalam rincian penilaian minor dari berbagai Klasik Cina. Tidak memungkinkan beberapa pemain untuk menang dari satu membuang.
mahjong Korea adalah unik dalam banyak hal dan merupakan versi yang sangat baik untuk pemula dan tiga pemain. Satu gugatan dihilangkan sama sekali (biasanya Bambu set) serta musim. Penilaian tersebut lebih sederhana dan bermain lebih cepat. Tidak Chows menyatu yang diijinkan dalam dan tersembunyi tangan yang umum. Riichi (seperti sepupu Jepang) merupakan bagian integral dari permainan juga. Aturan korea
mahjong Sichuan merupakan varietas berkembang, khususnya di Cina bagian selatan, pelarangan chi melds, dan hanya menggunakan ubin cocok. Hal ini dapat dimainkan dengan sangat cepat.
mahjong Taiwan adalah berbagai lazim di Taiwan dan melibatkan tangan 16 ubin (yang bertentangan dengan tangan 13-genteng di versi lain), fitur bonus untuk dealer dan dealer berulang, dan memungkinkan pemain ganda untuk memenangkan dari satu membuang.
mahjong Jepang adalah bentuk standar mahjong di Jepang dan juga ditemukan prevalently dalam permainan video. Selain skor perubahan, aturan Richi (tangan siap) dan dora (ubin bonus) yang unik highlights dari varian ini. Selain itu, ada variasi yang disebut Sanma (三 麻) berdasarkan semacam ini, yang dimodifikasi untuk bermain dengan tiga pemain, dan perbedaan utama dari satu standar yang chi (Chow) adalah dibolehkan dan ubin sederhana (nomor dua melalui delapan) dari satu setelan (biasanya karakter) dihapus.
mahjong klasik Barat adalah keturunan versi mahjong diperkenalkan oleh Babcock ke Amerika pada tahun 1920. Hari ini, istilah ini sebagian besar mengacu pada aturan “Wright-Patterson”, yang digunakan dalam militer AS, dan varian buatan Amerika yang sama yang lebih dekat dengan aturan Babcock.
mahjong Amerika adalah bentuk mahjong standar oleh National Mah Jongg League [17] dan American Mah-Jongg Asosiasi [18]. ini menggunakan ubin joker, Charleston, ditambah melds lima atau lebih genteng, dan eschews Chow dan gagasan tangan standar. Puritan mengklaim bahwa ini membuat Amerika mahjong permainan terpisah. Selain itu, NMJL dan variasi AMJA, yang berbeda dengan perbedaan skor kecil, biasanya disebut sebagai Mahjongg atau Mah-jongg (dengan dua Gs, sering ditulis dgn tanda penghubung).
Tiga pemain mahjong (atau tiga-ka) adalah tiga orang mahjong disederhanakan yang melibatkan tangan 13 ubin (dengan total 84 ubin di atas meja) dan dapat menggunakan pelawak tergantung pada variasi. Setiap set aturan bisa diadaptasi untuk tiga pemain, namun hal ini jauh lebih umum dan diterima di Jepang, Korea, Malaysia dan Filipina. Biasanya menghilangkan satu setelan seluruhnya atau ubin 2-8 dalam satu setelan hanya meninggalkan terminal. Perlu lebih sedikit orang untuk memulai permainan dan waktu perputaran permainan pendek-sehingga dianggap permainan cepat. Dalam beberapa versi ada jackpot untuk menang di mana siapapun akumulasi titik 10 dianggap memukul jackpot atau siapa pun skor tiga tangan tersembunyi pertama. Versi Malaysia dan Korea menjatuhkan salah angin dan mungkin termasuk naga kursi. Jepang Korea tiga pemain varian.
mahjong Singapura / Malaysia adalah varian mirip dengan mahjong Kanton dimainkan di Malaysia. elemen unik dari mahjong Singapura / Malaysia adalah empat ubin hewan (kucing, tikus, seekor ayam jantan muda, dan lipan) serta alternatif tertentu dalam aturan penilaian, yang memungkinkan tengah pembayaran melalui permainan jika kondisi tertentu (seperti kang a) terpenuhi .
Fujian mahjong, dengan joker 带 百搭 Dàidì 弟.
Vietnam chược tikar, dengan 16 berbagai jenis pelawak.
mahjong Thailand, termasuk ubin Vietnam dengan yang lain delapan dengan total 168 ubin.
Filipina mahjong, dengan Joker Window.
tulang Pussers merupakan varian yang bergerak cepat yang dikembangkan oleh para pelaut dalam Angkatan Laut Australia. Ia menggunakan kosa kata alternatif yang kreatif, seperti Eddie, Sammy, Wally, dan Normie, bukan Timur, Selatan, Barat, dan Utara.
Mahjong Solitaire melibatkan menumpuk ubin Mahjong dalam berbagai konfigurasi dan kemudian melalui tindakan eliminasi penemuan pasangan ubin dan penghilangan orang-orang pasangan dari stack. Permainan komputer yang awalnya diciptakan oleh Brodie Lockard pada tahun 1981 pada sistem PLATO. Microsoft Corporation merilis sebuah permainan Mahjong solitaire komputerisasi disebut “Mahjong Titans” awalnya dibundel dengan Windows Vista dan kemudian juga dengan Windows 7. Activision Sebelumnya pada tahun 1986 merilis sebuah permainan Mahjong solitaire terkomputerisasi untuk Amiga, Macintosh dan IIgs komputer Apple dan juga Sega Master System berjudul Shanghai.
Variasi Dipilih Dibandingkan
Mahjong Variasi Variasi Hong Kong HK Klasik Baru Taiwan Jepang Korea Malaysia / Singapura player Tiga mahjong J / K Amerika
Bunga Ya Ya Ya Ya Ya Opsional Ya Ya Ya
Seasons Ya Ya Ya Jarang Ya Tidak Ya Tidak Ya
Bambu Ya Ya Ya Ya Tidak atau hanya terminal Ya Ya Tidak atau Terminal hanya Ya
Hewan Tidak Tidak Tidak Tidak Tidak Tidak Ya Tidak Ya
Jokers Tidak Tidak Tidak Tidak Tidak Tidak Ya Tidak Ya
Scoring Pengganda Faan Base Faan Pengganda Amerika Wikipedia Wikipedia Wikipedia Wikipedia
Scoring Winner Winner Semua Winner Winner Winner Winner Winner Winner
Ganda Timur Ya Ya Ya Ya Tidak Ya Ya Tidak Ya
Buang Suci Tidak Tidak Tidak Ya Ya Tidak Tidak Ya Tidak
Menyatu Chows Ya Ya Ya Ya Tidak Ya Ya Tidak Ya
Riichi Tidak Tidak Tidak Ya Ya Ya Tidak Ya Tidak
Poin minimum (dalam satuan variasi) 3f 3f 5f 1Y 2p 7/10t 2u 3 + Bervariasi

 Mahjong aturan persaingan

Bagian atas tiga di Dunia Mahjong Championship di Tokyo, Oktober 2002. Di tengah-tengah: Mai juara dunia Hatsune, dari Jepang

Terbuka Mahjong Kejuaraan Eropa pertama, Nijmegen, Belanda, Juni 2005

Pemenang Eropa Terbuka kedua Kejuaraan Mahjong, Kopenhagen, Denmark, Juni 2007. Dari kiri: Kohichi Oda (2), Martin Wedel Jacobsen (1), dan Benyamin Boas (3)

Pada tahun 1998, untuk kepentingan memisahkan perjudian ilegal dari mahjong, China Olahraga Negara Komisi menerbitkan seperangkat aturan baru, sekarang umumnya disebut sebagai aturan resmi Cina atau Turnamen Internasional aturan (lihat Guobiao Majiang). Prinsip-prinsip mahjong, baru sehat adalah: tidak berjudi, tidak minum, dan tidak merokok. Dalam turnamen internasional, pemain sering dikelompokkan dalam tim untuk menekankan bahwa mahjong mulai sekarang dianggap olahraga.

Aturan baru sangat pola berbasis. buku aturan berisi 81 kombinasi, berdasarkan pola dan unsur-unsur penilaian populer di kedua varian klasik dan modern Cina daerah; praktek tabel beberapa Jepang juga telah diadopsi. Poin untuk ubin bunga (bunga masing-masing bernilai satu poin) tidak dapat ditambahkan sampai pemain telah mencetak 8 poin. Pemenang dari permainan menerima skor dari pemain yang membuang genteng menang, ditambah 8 poin dasar dari masing-masing pemain, dalam kasus zimo (self-ditarik menang), ia menerima nilai putaran ini ditambah 8 poin dari semua pemain .

Aturan baru pertama kali digunakan dalam sebuah turnamen internasional di Tokyo, di mana, pada tahun 2002, Kejuaraan Dunia pertama di Mahjong diselenggarakan oleh Museum Mahjong, Jepang Mahjong Panitia, dan dewan kota Ningbo, Cina. Seratus pemain berpartisipasi, terutama dari Jepang dan China, tetapi juga dari Eropa dan Amerika Serikat. Mai Hatsune, dari Jepang, menjadi juara dunia pertama. Tahun berikutnya melihat tahunan pertama Cina Majhong Kejuaraan, yang diadakan di Hainan, dua berikutnya turnamen tahunan yang diadakan di Hong Kong dan Beijing. Sebagian besar pemain Cina, tapi pemain dari negara-negara lain hadir juga.

Pada tahun 2005, Open Mahjong Kejuaraan Eropa pertama [19] diadakan di Belanda, dengan 108 pemain. Lomba ini dimenangkan oleh Masato Chiba dari Jepang. Kejuaraan Eropa kedua [20] di Kopenhagen (2007) dihadiri oleh 136 pemain dan dimenangkan oleh pemain Denmark Martin Wedel Jacobsen. Online Mahjong Kejuaraan Eropa pertama diadakan pada server Sisa Mahjong pada tahun 2007, dengan 64 pemain, dan pemenangnya adalah Juliani Leo, dari Amerika Serikat, dan Eropa Best Player telah Gerda van Oorschot, dari Belanda. Ketiga Buka Eropa Mahjong Championship 2009 [21] di Baden / Wina, Austria, dimenangkan oleh pemain Jepang Koji Idota, sedangkan runner-up Bo Lang dari Swiss menjadi Juara Eropa. Ada 152 peserta.

Pada tahun 2006, World Mahjong Organization (WMO) didirikan di Beijing, Cina, dengan kerjasama, antara lain, Jepang Mahjong Panitia (JMOC) dan Eropa Mahjong Association (EMA). Organisasi ini diadakan pertama Kejuaraan Dunia pada bulan November 2007 di kota Cina Chengdu, dihadiri oleh 144 peserta dari seluruh dunia. Hal itu dimenangkan oleh Li Li, seorang mahasiswa Cina di Tsinghua University. Kejuaraan Dunia berikutnya akan berlangsung di Utrecht, Belanda, di musim panas 2010.

Beberapa pihak lain juga berusaha untuk menciptakan aturan persaingan internasional. Yang paling terlihat adalah Jung Zung (中庸) Mahjong Scoring System, yang diciptakan oleh sarjana Hong Kong mahjong Alan Kwan. Berbeda dengan aturan resmi Cina, Zung Jung dirancang dengan kesederhanaan sebagai salah satu tujuan desain, dan bertujuan untuk menjadi cocok untuk hiburan santai serta bermain turnamen. Zung Jung diadopsi oleh World Series acara Mahjong diadakan setiap tahun di Macau. World Series of Mahjong terakhir diadakan pada bulan September 2008, di mana 302 peserta ambil bagian. Acara utama memiliki kolam renang hadiah sebesar US $ 1-juta, yang memenangkan lebih dari tiga hari bermain oleh Alex Ho, dari Hong Kong. Ia meraih US $ 500K dari kolam hadiah dan kalung mahjong dirancang oleh Steela + Steelo. [22]

Barat, atau Amerika gaya Mah Jongg turnamen yang diselenggarakan di hampir setiap negara – yang terbesar di Las Vegas, NV dua kali setahun, dan di Atlantic City, NJ, oleh Mah JOngg Madness, dan pelayaran tahunan yang diselenggarakan oleh National Mah JOngg Liga dan Madness Jongg Mah (MJM). MJM turnamen host antara 150 dan 500 peserta pada acara-acara yang lebih besar, dan ada beberapa skala yang lebih kecil, tapi juga sukses turnamen yang diselenggarakan setiap tahun oleh host lain. Hadiah kolam didasarkan pada jumlah yang berpartisipasi. Aturan didasarkan pada Mah Jongg Nasional Liga aturan baku.

Peralatan
Artikel utama: ubin Mahjong

Dasar peralatan: keripik, ubin, dan dadu

Mahjong dapat dimainkan baik dengan satu set ubin mahjong atau satu set kartu bermain mahjong (kadang-kadang dieja “kards” untuk membedakan mereka dari daftar standar yang digunakan di tangan mahjong Amerika). Bermain kartu sering digunakan ketika bepergian, saat mereka mengambil banyak ruang lebih sedikit dan lebih ringan daripada rekan-rekan genteng mereka, namun mereka biasanya dari kualitas yang lebih rendah. Pada artikel ini, “ubin” akan digunakan untuk menunjukkan kartu bermain baik dan ubin.

set mahjong Banyak juga akan menyertakan sekumpulan chip atau ubin tulang untuk penilaian, serta indikator yang menunjukkan dealer dan Wind berlaku bundar. Beberapa set juga mungkin termasuk rak untuk menahan ubin atau keripik (meskipun dalam banyak set, ubin umumnya cukup tebal sehingga mereka dapat berdiri sendiri), dengan salah satu dari mereka menjadi berbeda untuk menunjukkan rak dealer.

implementasi Komputer mahjong juga tersedia. Hal ini memungkinkan Anda untuk bermain melawan lawan komputer, atau terhadap lawan manusia di Internet.

Satu set ubin mahjong biasanya akan berbeda dari satu tempat ke tempat. Biasanya memiliki setidaknya 136 ubin (paling sering 144), walaupun set yang berasal dari Amerika atau Jepang akan memiliki lebih. ubin Mahjong dibagi ke dalam kategori: pakaian, kehormatan, dan bunga.

[Sunting] Sejarah
Yang cocok dari ubin adalah uang berbasis. Di Cina kuno, koin-koin tembaga memiliki lubang persegi di tengah; orang melewati tali melalui lubang-lubang untuk mengikat koin ke string. String ini biasanya dalam kelompok 100 koin, Diao disebut (吊, atau 吊 varian), atau 1000 koin, Guan disebut (贯). koneksi Mahjong terhadap sistem mata uang kuno Cina ini konsisten dengan dugaan derivasi dari permainan bernama mǎ Diao (马 吊).

Dalam sesuai mahjong, para tembaga mewakili koin, tali sebenarnya string dari 100 koin, dan karakter berbagai mewakili 10.000 koin atau 100 string. Ketika tangan menerima maksimum yang diperbolehkan memenangkan bulat, hal itu disebut Guan mǎn (满贯, secara harfiah, “penuh string koin”.)

[Sunting] Jenis cocok
Ada empat kategori sesuai yang keempat “ubin liar” digunakan hanya dalam beberapa variasi lokal (Amerika dan Singapura aturan).

[Sunting] Simples
Ada tiga setelan sederhana yang berbeda nomor 1-9. Mereka adalah bambu, koin dan karakter. Mereka universal digunakan dengan pengecualian terbatas atau tidak ada bambu dalam aturan Korea dan penghilangan satu setelan atau 2-8 dari satu setelan dalam tiga versi pemain. simples Hanya dapat digunakan untuk membuat sebuah chow.

[Edit] Honours
Ada dua setelan jas kehormatan yang berbeda. Angin yang ada utara selatan timur dan barat dan naga yang terdapat Merah, Hijau dan Putih. Honours tidak dapat terbentuk Chows.

[Sunting] Bonus Ubin
Ada sampai 16 ubin bonus mungkin. Dalam beberapa variasi mereka kecewa seperti riichi dan variasi Jepang lainnya. Yang paling umum digunakan adalah bunga-bunga. Musim digunakan dalam variasi Cina yang paling (Hong Kong, Taiwan, shanghai). Di Singapura dan variasi Malaysia ada juga setelan hewan. Ada setelan keempat yang dapat digunakan terdiri dari moda transportasi yang mungkin (yaitu becak). Hal ini jarang digunakan. Ada empat sesuai dengan masing-masing dan setiap ubin unik. Mereka diberi nomor 1 sampai 4.

[Sunting] Wild Ubin
Juga dikenal sebagai Joker ubin. Mereka hanya digunakan dalam beberapa variasi dan bukan merupakan gugatan melainkan dapat digantikan untuk setiap ubin yang diinginkan berdasarkan aturan tertentu dari variasi.

[Sunting] Suits Individu
Stones (alternatif roda atau lingkaran): satu sampai sembilan (🀙 🀚 🀛 🀜 🀝 🀞 🀟 🀠 🀡). Dinamakan sebagai ubin masing-masing terdiri dari sejumlah kalangan. Setiap lingkaran dikatakan untuk mewakili bisa (筒, Tong) koin dengan lubang persegi di tengah.

Bambu: satu sampai sembilan (🀐 🀑 🀒 🀓 🀔 🀕 🀖 🀗 🀘). Dinamakan sebagai ubin masing-masing terdiri dari beberapa tongkat bambu. Setiap tongkat dikatakan untuk mewakili string (索, sǔo) yang memegang seratus koin. Perhatikan bahwa 1 Bambu adalah pengecualian: memiliki burung duduk di bambu, untuk mencegah perubahan.

Karakter (alternatif nomor): satu sampai sembilan (🀇 🀈 🀉 🀊 🀋 🀌 🀍 🀎 🀏). Dinamakan sebagai ubin masing-masing mewakili sepuluh ribu (万, WAN) koin, atau seratus string dari seratus koin.

[Sunting] Honors
ubin Angin: 🀀 Timur Angin (东, dong timur), 🀁 Angin Selatan (南, selatan nan), 🀂 Angin Barat (西, XI barat), dan 🀃 Angin Utara (北, bei Utara).

Dragon ubin: 🀄 Red Dragon, Green Dragon 🀅, dan 🀆 White Dragon. Ubin naga Istilah konvensi Barat diperkenalkan oleh Joseph Park Babcock pada tahun 1920 bukunya memperkenalkan mahjong ke Amerika. Awalnya, ubin ini dikatakan memiliki sesuatu untuk dilakukan dengan Pemeriksaan Kekaisaran Cina. Ubin merah (“中” 榜, zhōngbǎng) berarti lulus ujian untuk menghapus cara untuk kepegawaian. Ubin hijau (“发” 财, facai, secara harfiah “menjadi kaya”) berarti kekayaan. Ubin putih (白板, báibǎn, secara harfiah “sabak bersih”) berarti bebas dari korupsi. Biasanya memiliki garis tepi biru untuk membedakan dari ubin penggantian dan mencegah perubahan. Dalam mahjong Cina asli, potongan-potongan ini disebut Jian (箭), yang mewakili memanah, dan merah “中” merupakan hit pada target. Dalam panahan Cina kuno, orang akan menaruh “中” merah untuk menandakan bahwa target dipukul. Putih “白” mewakili kegagalan, dan hijau “发” berarti bahwa satu akan merilis menarik. [Rujukan?]

[Sunting] Bunga
Kategori terakhir, dan komponen biasanya opsional untuk satu set mahjong ubin, ubin ini sering mengandung karya seni. Banyak orang memilih untuk tidak menggunakan ubin, karena mereka membuat lebih mudah untuk menang dan mendapatkan poin bonus. Misalnya, jika Anda tidak memiliki bunga di tangan Anda, Anda mendapatkan hanya satu titik bonus, tapi jika Anda memegang dua ubin bunga yang sesuai dengan kursi Anda / arah angin, Anda berhak untuk dua poin bonus, karena bunga sesuai dengan arah angin. Sebagai contoh, memegang sepasang bunga 3 simbol saat Anda berada di posisi Angin Barat memperoleh 2 poin bonus untuk tangan itu, karena bunga 3 dikaitkan dengan Angin Barat.

set aturan Jepang menghambat penggunaan bunga dan musim. Korea aturan dan tiga pemain mahjong dalam tradisi / Korea Jepang menggunakan bunga saja. Di Singapura dan Malaysia satu set ekstra bonus ubin dari empat binatang yang digunakan. Peraturan yang ditetapkan meliputi fungsi unik yang pemain yang mendapatkan dua hewan spesifik mendapatkan satu kali pembayaran langsung dari semua pemain. Dalam mahjong Taiwan, mendapatkan semua delapan bunga dan musim merupakan kemenangan otomatis tangan dan pembayaran tertentu dari semua pemain.

Empat dari ubin bunga mewakili empat pabrik mulia Konfusianisme perhitungan: prem 🀢, 🀣 anggrek, krisan 🀥, dan 🀤 bambu.

Ubin bunga lainnya empat (atau musim ubin) merupakan musim: 🀦 musim semi, panas 🀧, musim gugur 🀨, dan 🀩 musim dingin.

ubin hewan yang digunakan di Malaysia, Singapura dan variasi lokal adalah binatang. Mereka mewakili kucing, tikus, ayam jantan dan kelabang.

[Sunting] Menyiapkan papan
Urutan berikut ini untuk mengatur Hong Kong standar (atau Singapura) permainan. Casual atau pemain mulai mungkin ingin melanjutkan langsung ke gameplay. Menyeret ubin diperlukan sebelum menumpuk.

[Sunting] Game Angin dan Angin Berlaku
Untuk menentukan Player Game Angin (门 风 atau 自 风), masing-masing pemain melempar tiga dadu (dua di beberapa varian) dan pemain dengan total tertinggi dipilih sebagai dealer atau bankir (庄家). Angin adalah dealer Timur; pemain di sebelah kanan dealer telah angin Selatan; pemain sebelah kanan memiliki Barat, dan pemain keempat telah Utara (bayangkan peta terbalik). Game angin perubahan setelah setiap tangan, kecuali dealer menang. Dalam beberapa variasi, semakin lama dealer tetap dealer, semakin tinggi nilai masing-masing tangan.

Angin yang berlaku (场 风) selalu diatur ke Timur ketika memulai. Ini perubahan setelah angin Game telah diputar di sekitar papan, yaitu setelah setiap pemain telah kehilangan sebagai dealer. dealer selalu Timur. Sebuah permainan penuh mahjong berlangsung sampai berlaku Angin telah berputar melalui keempat.

Sebuah mahjong set dengan Angin dalam bermain biasanya akan menyertakan penanda berlaku terpisah Angin (biasanya mati ditandai dengan karakter Angin di pemegang) dan sebuah penunjuk yang dapat berorientasi pada dealer untuk menunjukkan Player Game Angin. Dalam set dengan rak, rak mungkin ditandai berbeda untuk menunjukkan dealer.

Angin ini juga signifikan, seperti Angin yang sering dikaitkan dengan seorang anggota dari kelompok ubin Bunga, biasanya 1 dengan Timur, 2 dengan Selatan, 3 dengan Barat, dan 4 dengan Utara.

[Sunting] Menangani ubin
Semua ubin ditempatkan menghadap ke bawah dan dikocok. Setiap pemain kemudian tumpukan deretan ubin dua ubin tinggi di depannya, panjang baris tergantung pada jumlah ubin yang digunakan:

136 ubin: 17 tumpukan untuk setiap pemain
Setelan titik, bambu, dan karakter + angin + naga
144 ubin: 18 tumpukan untuk setiap pemain
148 ubin: 19 tumpukan untuk berlawanan dealer dan pemain, 18 untuk beristirahat
152 ubin: 19 tumpukan untuk setiap pemain
Dealer melempar tiga dadu dan meringkas total. Menghitung berlawanan sehingga dealer adalah 1, baris pemain dipilih.

 

the history of Mahjong

 

Mahjong
Mahjong in Hangzhou.jpg
A game of mahjong being played in Hangzhou, China
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 麻將
Simplified Chinese 麻将
[show]Transliterations
Hakka
Romanization ma jiong3
Mandarin
Hanyu Pinyin Má jiàng
Wu
Romanization mu ciang (麻雀兒/麻將)
Cantonese
Jyutping maa4 zoeng3
Yale Romanization ma4 jeung3
alternative Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 麻雀
Simplified Chinese 麻雀
[show]Transliterations
Hakka
Romanization ma4 jiok3
Mandarin
Hanyu Pinyin Má què
Min
Hokkien POJ Moâ-chhiok
Wu
Romanization mu ciah
Cantonese
Jyutping maa4 zoek3
Yale Romanization ma4 jeuk3
Japanese name
Kanji 麻雀
Kana マージャン
[show]Transliterations
– Romaji mājan
Korean name
Hangul 마작
Hanja 麻雀
[show]Transliterations
Revised
Romanization
majak
McCune-
Reischauer
machak
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese mạt chược
Mahjong
Players 4
Age range 4 years and older
Setup time 2–10 minutes
Playing time Dependent on variation and/or house/tournament rules
Random chance Yes
Skills required Tactics, observation, memory
This article contains Chinese text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.

Mahjong (Chinese: 麻將; pinyin: má jiàng) is a game that originated in China, commonly played by four players (with some three-player variations found in Korea and Japan). Mahjong is a game of skill, strategy and calculation and involves a certain degree of chance. In Asia, mahjong is also popularly played as a gambling game (though it may just as easily be played recreationally).

The game is played with a set of 152 tiles based on Chinese characters and symbols, although some regional variations use a different number of tiles. In most variations, each player begins by receiving thirteen tiles. In turn players draw and discard tiles until they complete a legal hand using the fourteenth drawn tile to form four groups (melds) and a pair (head). There are fairly standard rules about how a piece is drawn, stolen from another player (melded), the use of basic (numbered tiles) and honours (winds and dragons), the kinds of melds, and the order of dealing and play. However there are many regional variations which may vary these rules; in addition, the scoring system, the minimum hand necessary to win varies significantly based on the local rules being used.

 

 Name

The game was called 麻雀 (pinyin: má què), meaning sparrow in Chinese, which is still the name most commonly used in some southern Chinese dialects such as Cantonese and Min Nan, as well as in Japanese. However, most Mandarin-speaking Chinese now call the game má jiàng (麻將). In Northern Wu Chinese (Shanghainese and its relatives), it is pronounced as 麻將 [mu tsiaŋ], but in actuality, 麻將 is the diminutive form of 麻雀, written as 麻雀兒 [mu tsiaʔ ŋ], due to an erhua event. It is through the Wu Chinese pronunciation of 麻雀兒 that the diminutive form of 麻雀 in Northern Wu dialect became known as 麻將 in both Mandarin and Wu.

History

Mahjong in China

One of the myths of the origin of mahjong suggests that Confucius,[1] the Chinese philosopher, developed the game in about 500 BC. This assertion is likely to be apocryphal. According to this myth, the appearance of the game in the various Chinese states coincided with Confucius’ travels at the time he was teaching his new doctrines. The three dragon (cardinal) tiles also agree with the three cardinal virtues bequeathed by Confucius. Hóng Zhōng (紅中 MJd1.png, red middle), Fā Cái (發財 MJd2.png, prosperity), and Bái Ban (白板 MJd3.png, white board) represent benevolence, sincerity, and filial piety, respectively.

The myth also claims that Confucius was fond of birds, which would explain the name “mahjong” (maque 麻雀 = sparrow). However, there is no evidence of mahjong’s existence before the Taiping era in the 19th century, which eliminates Confucius as a likely inventor.

Many historians believe it was based on a Chinese card game called Mǎdiào (馬吊) (also known as Ma Tiae, hanging horse; or Yèzí [葉子], leaf) in the early Ming dynasty.[2] This game was played with 40 paper cards similar in appearance to the cards used in the game Ya Pei. These 40 cards are numbered 1 to 9 in four different suits, along with four extra flower cards. This is quite similar to the numbering of mahjong tiles today, although mahjong only has three suits and, in effect, uses four packs of Ya Pei cards.

There is still some debate about who created the game. One theory is that Chinese army officers serving during the Taiping Rebellion created the game to pass the time. Another theory is that a nobleman living in the Shanghai area created the game between 1870 and 1875. Others believe that two brothers from Níngpō created mahjong around 1850, from the earlier game of Mǎdiào.

This game was banned by the government of People’s Republic of China when it took power in 1949.[3] The new Communist government forbade any gambling activities, which were regarded as symbols of capitalist corruption. After the Cultural Revolution, the game was revived, without gambling elements (see below), and the prohibition was revoked in 1985.[4] Today, it is a favorite pastime in China and other Chinese-speaking communities.

Mahjong in the Western world

Students in the United States learning how to play mahjong

In 1895, Stewart Culin, an American anthropologist, wrote a paper in which mahjong was mentioned. This is the first known written account of mahjong in any language other than Chinese. By 1910, there were written accounts in many languages, including French and Japanese.

The game was imported to the United States in the 1920s.[5] The first mahjong sets sold in the U.S. were sold by Abercrombie & Fitch starting in 1920.[6] It became a success in New York, and the owner of the company, Ezra Fitch, sent emissaries to Chinese villages to buy every set of mahjong they could find. Abercrombie & Fitch sold a total of 12,000 sets.[6]

Also in 1920, Joseph Park Babcock published his book Rules of Mah-Jongg, also known as the “red book”. This was the earliest version of mahjong known in America. Babcock had learned mahjong while living in China. Babcock’s rules simplified the game to make it easier for Americans to take up, and his version was common through the mahjong fad of the 1920s. Later, when the 1920s fad died out, many of Babcock’s simplifications were abandoned.

The game has taken on a number of trademarked names, such as “Pung Chow” and the “Game of Thousand Intelligences”. Mahjong nights in America often involved dressing and decorating rooms in Chinese style.[7] Several hit songs were also recorded during the mahjong fad, most notably “Since Ma is Playing Mah Jong” by Eddie Cantor.[8]

Many variants of mahjong developed during this period. By the 1930s, many revisions of the rules developed that were substantially different from Babcock’s classical version (including some that were considered fundamentals in other variants, such as the notion of a standard hand). The most common form, which eventually became “American mahjong”, was most popular among Jewish women.[9] Standardization came with the formation of the National Mah Jongg League (NMJL) in 1937, along with the first American mahjong rulebook, Maajh: The American Version of the Ancient Chinese Game.

While mahjong was accepted by U.S. players of all ethnic backgrounds during the Babcock era, many consider the modern American version a remake of a Jewish game,[10] as many American mahjong players are of Jewish descent. The NMJL was founded by Jewish players and is considered a Jewish organization. In addition, players usually use the American game as a family-friendly social activity, not as gambling. In 1986, the National Mah Jongg League conducted their first Mah Jongg Cruise Tournament, in conjuction with Mah Jongg Madness. In 2010, this large scale seagoing event hosts its 25th Silver Anniversary Cruise, with players from all over the States and Canada participating.

In recent years, a second organization has formed, the American Mah Jongg Association. The AMJA currently hosts tournaments all across North America, with their signature event being at the Trump Taj Mahal Casino Resort in Atlantic City, New Jersey.

British author Alan D. Millington revived the Chinese classical game of the 1920s with his book The Complete Book of Mah-jongg (1977). This handbook includes a formal rules set for the game. Many players in Western countries consider Millington’s work authoritative.

Mahjong is not the first re-appearance of the Chinese game in the western world. It was also introduced in playing card form by an official of Britain‘s Consular Service named William Henry Wilkinson, author of “Chinese origin of playing cards,” under the name of Khanhoo. This card game does not seem to have made much impression. The later success of mahjong came in part from the elegance of its mechanism as embodied in the domino-like pieces.

Current development

Today, the popularity and the characteristics of players of mahjong vary from country to country. There are also many governing bodies, which often host exhibition games and tournaments. It remains far more popular in Asia than in the West.

Mahjong, as of 2010, is the most popular table game in Japan.[11] In Japan, there is a traditional emphasis on gambling[dubiousdiscuss], and the typical player is male. Many devotees there believe the game is losing popularity and have taken efforts to revive it.[citation needed] There are several manga and anime (e.g. Saki and Akagi) devoted to dramatic and comic situations involving mahjong.[12] In addition, Japanese video arcades have introduced mahjong arcade machines that can be connected to others over the Internet. There are also video game versions of strip mahjong.

Mahjong culture is still deeply ingrained in the Chinese community. Sam Hui wrote Cantopop songs using mahjong as their themes, and Hong Kong movies have often included scenes of mahjong games. Many gambling movies have been filmed in Hong Kong, and a recent sub-genre is the mahjong movie.

Like other games, such as chess, Mastermind, checkers and card games, prolonged playing of mahjong may trigger epileptic seizures. The number of such cases, however, are rare. According to a 2007 study,[13][14] to date there are only 23 reported cases of mahjong-induced seizures in the English medical literature.

Studies by doctors have also shown in Hong Kong that the game is beneficial for individuals suffering from dementia or cognitive memory difficulties, leading to the development of mahjong therapy.[15]

As of 2008, there were approximately 7.6 million Mahjong players in Japan. An estimated 8,900 Mahjong parlors in Japan did ¥300 billion in sales that same year.[16]

 Type of game

Because of the solid form of the tiles, mahjong is sometimes classified as a domino game. However, it is much more similar to Western-style card games such as rummy.

Variants

There are many variations of mahjong. In many places, players often observe one version and are either unaware of other variations or claim that different versions are incorrect. Although many variations today differ only by scoring, there are several main varieties:

Descriptions

  • Chinese classical mahjong is the oldest variety of mahjong and was the version introduced to America in the 1920s under various names. It has a small, loyal following in the West, although few play it in Asia.
  • Hong Kong mahjong or Cantonese mahjong is possibly the most common form of mahjong, differing in minor scoring details from the Chinese Classical variety. It does not allow multiple players to win from a single discard.
  • Korean mahjong is unique in many ways and is an excellent version for beginners and three players. One suit is omitted completely (usually the Bamboo set) as well as the seasons. The scoring is simpler and the play is faster. No melded chows are allowed in and concealed hands are common. Riichi (much like its Japanese cousin) is an integral part of the game as well. Korean Rules
  • Sichuan mahjong is a growing variety, particularly in southern China, disallowing chi melds, and using only the suited tiles. It can be played very quickly.
  • Taiwanese mahjong is the variety prevalent in Taiwan and involves hands of 16 tiles (as opposed to the 13-tile hands in other versions), features bonuses for dealers and recurring dealerships, and allows multiple players to win from a single discard.
  • Japanese mahjong is a standardized form of mahjong in Japan and is also found prevalently in video games. In addition to scoring changes, the rules of rīchi (ready hand) and dora (bonus tiles) are unique highlights of this variant. Besides, there is a variation called sanma (三麻) based on this sort, which is modified for playing by three players, and its main differences from the standard one are that chī (Chow) is disallowed and the simple tiles (numbers two through eight) of one suit (usually characters) are removed.
  • Western classical mahjong is a descendant of the version of mahjong introduced by Babcock to America in the 1920s. Today, this term largely refers to the “Wright-Patterson” rules, used in the U.S. military, and other similar American-made variants that are closer to the Babcock rules.
  • American mahjong is a form of mahjong standardized by the National Mah Jongg League[17] and the American Mah-Jongg Association.[18] It uses joker tiles, the Charleston, plus melds of five or more tiles, and eschews the Chow and the notion of a standard hand. Purists claim that this makes American mahjong a separate game. In addition, the NMJL and AMJA variations, which differ by minor scoring differences, are commonly referred to as mahjongg or mah-jongg (with two Gs, often hyphenated).
  • Three player mahjong (or three-ka) is a simplified three-person mahjong that involves hands of 13 tiles (with a total of 84 tiles on the table) and may use jokers depending on the variation. Any rule set can be adapted for three players, however this is far more common and accepted in Japan, Korea, Malaysia and the Philippines. It usually eliminates one suit entirely or tiles 2-8 in one suit leaving only the terminals. It needs fewer people to start a game and the turnaround time of a game is short—hence, it is considered a fast game. In some versions there is a jackpot for winning in which whoever accumulates a point of 10 is considered to hit the jackpot or whoever scores three hidden hands first. The Malaysian and Korean versions drop one wind and may include a seat dragon. Korean Japanese three player variant.
  • Singaporean/Malaysian mahjong is a variant similar to the Cantonese mahjong played in Malaysia. Unique elements of Singaporean/Malaysian mahjong are the four animal tiles (cat, mouse, cockerel, and centipede) as well as certain alternatives in the scoring rules, which allow payouts midway through the game if certain conditions (such as a kang) are met.
  • Fujian mahjong, with a Dàidì joker 帶弟百搭.
  • Vietnamese mạt chược, with 16 different kinds of jokers.
  • Thai mahjong, includes the Vietnamese tiles with another eight for a total of 168 tiles.
  • Filipino mahjong, with the Window Joker.
  • Pussers bones is a fast-moving variant developed by sailors in the Royal Australian Navy. It uses a creative alternative vocabulary, such as Eddie, Sammy, Wally, and Normie, instead of East, South, West, and North.
  • Mahjong Solitaire involves stacking the Mahjong tiles in various configurations and then through an act of elimination the discovery of tile pairs and the removal of those pairs from the stack. The computer game was originally created by Brodie Lockard in 1981 on the PLATO system. Microsoft Corporation released a computerized Mahjong solitaire game called “Mahjong Titans” originally bundled with Windows Vista and later also with Windows 7. Previously Activision in 1986 released a computerized Mahjong solitaire game for the Amiga, Macintosh and Apple IIgs computers and also the Sega Master System entitled Shanghai.

Selected Variations Compared

Mahjong Variations
Variation Hong Kong HK New Classical Japanese Korean Taiwan Malaysia/ Singapore Three player mahjong J/K American
Flowers Yes Yes Yes Optional Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Seasons Yes Yes Yes Uncommon Yes No Yes No Yes
Bamboo Yes Yes Yes Yes No or only terminals Yes Yes No or only Terminals Yes
Animals No No No No No No Yes No Yes
Jokers No No No No No No Yes No Yes
Scoring Base Faan Faan Multipliers Multipliers Simple Simple Simple Simple American
Scoring Winner Winner All Winner Winner Winner Winner Winner Winner
East Doubles Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes
Sacred Discard No No No Yes Yes No No Yes No
Melded Chows Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes
Riichi No No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No
Minimum Points (in variations units) 3f 5f 3f 1y 2p 7/10t 2u 3+ Varies

 Mahjong competition rules

The top three in the World Mahjong Championship in Tokyo, October 2002. In the middle: world champion Mai Hatsune, from Japan

The first Open European Mahjong Championship, Nijmegen, the Netherlands, June 2005

The winners of the second Open European Mahjong Championship, Copenhagen, Denmark, June 2007. From left: Kohichi Oda (2), Martin Wedel Jacobsen (1), and Benjamin Boas (3)

In 1998, in the interest of dissociating illegal gambling from mahjong, the China State Sports Commission published a new set of rules, now generally referred to as Chinese Official rules or International Tournament rules (see Guobiao Majiang). The principles of the new, wholesome mahjong are: no gambling, no drinking, and no smoking. In international tournaments, players are often grouped in teams to emphasize that mahjong from now on is considered a sport.

The new rules are highly pattern-based. The rulebook contains 81 combinations, based on patterns and scoring elements popular in both classic and modern regional Chinese variants; some table practices of Japan have also been adopted. Points for flower tiles (each flower is worth one point) may not be added until the player has scored 8 points. The winner of a game receives the score from the player who discards the winning tile, plus 8 basic points from each player; in the case of zimo (self-drawn win), he receives the value of this round plus 8 points from all players.

The new rules were first used in an international tournament in Tokyo, where, in 2002, the first World Championship in Mahjong was organized by the Mahjong Museum, the Japan Mahjong Organizing Committee, and the city council of Ningbo, China. One hundred players participated, mainly from Japan and China, but also from Europe and the United States. Mai Hatsune, from Japan, became the first world champion. The following year saw the first annual China Majhong Championship, held in Hainan; the next two annual tournaments were held in Hong Kong and Beijing. Most players were Chinese, but players from other nations attended as well.

In 2005, the first Open European Mahjong Championship[19] was held in the Netherlands, with 108 players. The competition was won by Masato Chiba from Japan. The second European championship[20] in Copenhagen (2007) was attended by 136 players and won by Danish player Martin Wedel Jacobsen. The first Online European Mahjong Championship was held on the Mahjong Time server in 2007, with 64 players, and the winner was Juliani Leo, from the U.S., and the Best European Player was Gerda van Oorschot, from the Netherlands. The Third Open European Mahjong Championship 2009[21] at Baden/Vienna, Austria, was won by Japanese player Koji Idota, while runner-up Bo Lang from Switzerland became European Champion. There were 152 participants.

In 2006, the World Mahjong Organization (WMO) was founded in Beijing, China, with the cooperation of, amongst others, the Japan Mahjong Organizing Committee (JMOC) and the European Mahjong Association (EMA). This organization held its first World Championship in November 2007 in the Chinese town of Chengdu, attended by 144 participants from all over the world. It was won by Li Li, a Chinese student at Tsinghua University. The next World Championship will take place in Utrecht, the Netherlands, in Summer 2010.

Some other parties have also attempted to create international competition rules. The most noticeable one is the Zung Jung (中庸) Mahjong Scoring System, created by Hong Kong mahjong scholar Alan Kwan. Unlike the Chinese Official rules, Zung Jung is designed with simplicity as one of its design goals, and aims to be suitable for casual entertainment as well as tournament play. Zung Jung is adopted by the World Series of Mahjong event held annually in Macau. The World Series of Mahjong was last held in September 2008, in which 302 participants took part. The main event had a prize pool of US$1-million, which was won over three days of play by Alex Ho, from Hong Kong. He won US$500K from the prize pool and a mahjong necklace designed by Steela+Steelo.[22]

Western, or American-style Mah Jongg tournaments are held in virtually every state – the largest in Las Vegas, NV twice a year, and in Atlantic City, NJ, by Mah JOngg Madness; and the annual cruise hosted by the National Mah JOngg League and Mah Jongg Madness (MJM). MJM tournaments host between 150 and 500 participants at these larger events; and there are several smaller scale, but equally successful tournaments held annually by other hosts. Prize pools are based on the number participating. Rules are based on the National Mah Jongg League standard rules.

Equipment(PERALATAN)

 ubin Mahjong
 
Dasar peralatan: keripik, ubin, dan daduMahjong dapat dimainkan baik dengan satu set ubin mahjong atau satu set kartu bermain mahjong (kadang-kadang dieja “kards” untuk membedakan mereka dari daftar standar yang digunakan di tangan mahjong Amerika). Bermain kartu sering digunakan ketika bepergian, saat mereka mengambil banyak ruang lebih sedikit dan lebih ringan daripada rekan-rekan genteng mereka, namun mereka biasanya dari kualitas yang lebih rendah. Pada artikel ini, “ubin” akan digunakan untuk menunjukkan kartu bermain baik dan ubin.set mahjong Banyak juga akan menyertakan sekumpulan chip atau ubin tulang untuk penilaian, serta indikator yang menunjukkan dealer dan Wind berlaku bundar. Beberapa set juga mungkin termasuk rak untuk menahan ubin atau keripik (meskipun dalam banyak set, ubin umumnya cukup tebal sehingga mereka dapat berdiri sendiri), dengan salah satu dari mereka menjadi berbeda untuk menunjukkan rak dealer.implementasi Komputer mahjong juga tersedia. Hal ini memungkinkan Anda untuk bermain melawan lawan komputer, atau terhadap lawan manusia di Internet.Satu set ubin mahjong biasanya akan berbeda dari satu tempat ke tempat. Biasanya memiliki setidaknya 136 ubin (paling sering 144), walaupun set yang berasal dari Amerika atau Jepang akan memiliki lebih. ubin Mahjong dibagi ke dalam kategori: pakaian, kehormatan, dan bunga.[Sunting] Sejarah
Yang cocok dari ubin adalah uang berbasis. Di Cina kuno, koin-koin tembaga memiliki lubang persegi di tengah; orang melewati tali melalui lubang-lubang untuk mengikat koin ke string. String ini biasanya dalam kelompok 100 koin, Diao disebut (吊, atau 吊 varian), atau 1000 koin, Guan disebut (贯). koneksi Mahjong terhadap sistem mata uang kuno Cina ini konsisten dengan dugaan derivasi dari permainan bernama mǎ Diao (马 吊).Dalam sesuai mahjong, para tembaga mewakili koin, tali sebenarnya string dari 100 koin, dan karakter berbagai mewakili 10.000 koin atau 100 string. Ketika tangan menerima maksimum yang diperbolehkan memenangkan bulat, hal itu disebut Guan mǎn (满贯, secara harfiah, “penuh string koin”.)[Sunting] Jenis cocok
Ada empat kategori sesuai yang keempat “ubin liar” digunakan hanya dalam beberapa variasi lokal (Amerika dan Singapura aturan).[Sunting] Simples
Ada tiga setelan sederhana yang berbeda nomor 1-9. Mereka adalah bambu, koin dan karakter. Mereka universal digunakan dengan pengecualian terbatas atau tidak ada bambu dalam aturan Korea dan penghilangan satu setelan atau 2-8 dari satu setelan dalam tiga versi pemain. simples Hanya dapat digunakan untuk membuat sebuah chow.[Edit] Honours
Ada dua setelan jas kehormatan yang berbeda. Angin yang ada utara selatan timur dan barat dan naga yang terdapat Merah, Hijau dan Putih. Honours tidak dapat terbentuk Chows.[Sunting] Bonus Ubin
Ada sampai 16 ubin bonus mungkin. Dalam beberapa variasi mereka kecewa seperti riichi dan variasi Jepang lainnya. Yang paling umum digunakan adalah bunga-bunga. Musim digunakan dalam variasi Cina yang paling (Hong Kong, Taiwan, shanghai). Di Singapura dan variasi Malaysia ada juga setelan hewan. Ada setelan keempat yang dapat digunakan terdiri dari moda transportasi yang mungkin (yaitu becak). Hal ini jarang digunakan. Ada empat sesuai dengan masing-masing dan setiap ubin unik. Mereka diberi nomor 1 sampai 4.

 
 

Basic equipment: chips, tiles, and dice

Mahjong can be played either with a set of mahjong tiles or a set of mahjong playing cards (sometimes spelled “kards” to distinguish them from the list of standard hands used in American mahjong). Playing cards are often used when travelling, as they take up less space and are lighter than their tile counterparts; however, they are usually of a lower quality. In this article, “tile” will be used to denote both playing cards and tiles.

Many mahjong sets will also include a set of chips or bone tiles for scoring, as well as indicators denoting the dealer and the Prevailing Wind of the round. Some sets may also include racks to hold tiles or chips (although in many sets, the tiles are generally sufficiently thick so that they can stand on their own), with one of them being different to denote the dealer’s rack.

Computer implementations of mahjong are also available. These allow you to play against computer opponents, or against human opponents on the Internet.

A set of mahjong tiles will usually differ from place to place. It usually has at least 136 tiles (most commonly 144), although sets originating from America or Japan will have more. Mahjong tiles are split into these categories: suits, honor, and flowers.

 History

The suits of the tiles are money-based. In ancient China, the copper coins had a square hole in the center; people passed a rope through the holes to tie coins into strings. These strings are usually in groups of 100 coins, called diào (弔, or variant 吊), or 1000 coins, called guàn (貫). Mahjong’s connection to the ancient Chinese currency system is consistent with its alleged derivation from the game named mǎ diào (馬弔).

In the mahjong suits, the coppers represent the coins, the ropes are actually strings of 100 coins, and the character myriad represents 10,000 coins or 100 strings. When a hand receives the maximum allowed winning of a round, it is called mǎn guàn (滿貫, literally, “full string of coins”.)

 Kinds of suits

There are four categories of suits of which the fourth “wild tiles” is used in only a few local variations (American and Singapore rules).

 Simples

Simples
Ada tiga setelan sederhana yang berbeda nomor 1-9. Mereka adalah bambu, koin dan karakter. Mereka universal digunakan dengan pengecualian terbatas atau tidak ada bambu dalam aturan Korea dan penghilangan satu setelan atau 2-8 dari satu setelan dalam tiga versi pemain. Simples Hanya dapat digunakan untuk membuat sebuah chow.

 Honours
Ada dua setelan jas kehormatan yang berbeda. Angin yang ada utara selatan timur dan barat dan naga yang terdapat Merah, Hijau dan Putih. Honours tidak dapat terbentuk Chows.

 Bonus Ubin
Ada sampai 16 ubin bonus mungkin. Dalam beberapa variasi mereka kecewa seperti riichi dan variasi Jepang lainnya. Yang paling umum digunakan adalah bunga-bunga. Musim digunakan dalam variasi Cina yang paling (Hong Kong, Taiwan, shanghai). Di Singapura dan variasi Malaysia ada juga setelan hewan. Ada setelan keempat yang dapat digunakan terdiri dari moda transportasi yang mungkin (yaitu becak). Hal ini jarang digunakan. Ada empat sesuai dengan masing-masing dan setiap ubin unik. Mereka diberi nomor 1 sampai 4.

 Wild Ubin
Juga dikenal sebagai Joker ubin. Mereka hanya digunakan dalam beberapa variasi dan bukan merupakan gugatan melainkan dapat digantikan untuk setiap ubin yang diinginkan berdasarkan aturan tertentu variasi

  
 Setelan Individu (Individual Suit)
Stones (alternatif roda atau lingkaran): satu sampai sembilan (🀙 🀚 🀛 🀜 🀝 🀞 🀟 🀠 🀡). Dinamakan sebagai ubin masing-masing terdiri dari sejumlah kalangan. Setiap lingkaran dikatakan untuk mewakili bisa (筒, Tong) koin dengan lubang persegi di tengah.

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Setelan  Bambu:

 Bambu satu sampai sembilan (🀐 🀑 🀒 🀓 🀔 🀕 🀖 🀗 🀘). Dinamakan sebagai ubin masing-masing terdiri dari beberapa tongkat bambu. Setiap tongkat dikatakan untuk mewakili string (索, sǔo) yang memegang seratus koin. Perhatikan bahwa 1 Bambu adalah pengecualian: memiliki burung duduk di bambu, untuk mencegah perubahan

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  • Karakter (alternatif nomor): satu sampai sembilan (🀇 🀈 🀉 🀊 🀋 🀌 🀍 🀎 🀏). Dinamakan sebagai ubin masing-masing mewakili sepuluh ribu (万, WAN) koin, atau seratus string dari seratus koin.

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 Honors

  •  

    Ubin Angin: 🀀 Timur Angin (东, dong timur), 🀁 Angin Selatan (南, selatan nan), 🀂 Angin Barat (西, XI barat), dan 🀃 Angin Utara (北, bei Utara

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  • Dragon ubin: 🀄 Red Dragon, Green Dragon 🀅, dan 🀆 White Dragon. Ubin naga Istilah konvensi Barat diperkenalkan oleh Joseph Park Babcock pada tahun 1920 bukunya memperkenalkan mahjong ke Amerika. Awalnya, ubin ini dikatakan memiliki sesuatu untuk dilakukan dengan Pemeriksaan Kekaisaran Cina. Ubin merah (“中” 榜, zhōngbǎng) berarti lulus ujian untuk menghapus cara untuk kepegawaian. Ubin hijau (“发” 财, facai, secara harfiah “menjadi kaya”) berarti kekayaan. Ubin putih (白板, báibǎn, secara harfiah “sabak bersih”) berarti bebas dari korupsi. Biasanya memiliki garis tepi biru untuk membedakan dari ubin penggantian dan mencegah perubahan. Dalam mahjong Cina asli, potongan-potongan ini disebut Jian (箭), yang mewakili memanah, dan merah “中” merupakan hit pada target. Dalam panahan Cina kuno, orang akan menaruh “中” merah untuk menandakan bahwa target dipukul. Putih “白” mewakili kegagalan, dan hijau “发” berarti bahwa satu akan merilis menarik

 

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 Flowers

Bunga-bunga
Kategori terakhir, dan komponen biasanya opsional untuk satu set mahjong ubin, ubin ini sering mengandung karya seni. Banyak orang memilih untuk tidak menggunakan ubin, karena mereka membuat lebih mudah untuk menang dan mendapatkan poin bonus. Misalnya, jika Anda tidak memiliki bunga di tangan Anda, Anda mendapatkan hanya satu titik bonus, tapi jika Anda memegang dua ubin bunga yang sesuai dengan kursi Anda / arah angin, Anda berhak untuk dua poin bonus, karena bunga sesuai dengan arah angin. Sebagai contoh, memegang sepasang bunga 3 simbol saat Anda berada di posisi Angin Barat memperoleh 2 poin bonus untuk tangan itu, karena bunga 3 dikaitkan dengan Angin Barat.

Set aturan Jepang menghambat penggunaan bunga dan musim. Korea aturan dan tiga pemain mahjong dalam tradisi / Korea Jepang menggunakan bunga saja. Di Singapura dan Malaysia satu set ekstra bonus ubin dari empat binatang yang digunakan. Peraturan yang ditetapkan meliputi fungsi unik yang pemain yang mendapatkan dua hewan spesifik mendapatkan satu kali pembayaran langsung dari semua pemain. Dalam mahjong Taiwan, mendapatkan semua delapan bunga dan musim merupakan kemenangan otomatis tangan dan pembayaran tertentu dari semua pemain.

Empat dari ubin bunga mewakili empat pabrik mulia Konfusianisme perhitungan: prem 🀢, 🀣 anggrek, krisan 🀥, dan 🀤 bambu.

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Empat Ubin Bunga lainnya  (atau ubin musim )mengambarkan musim   :

🀦 spring, 🀧 summer, 🀨 autumn, and 🀩 winter.

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Ubin Binatang digunakan di Malaysia, Singapore dan variasi  binatang lokal . dalam bentuk Kucing,Tikus  cat, dan  centipede.

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 Setting up the board

Menyiapkan papan
Urutan berikut ini untuk mengatur Hong Kong standar (atau Singapura) permainan. Casual atau pemain mulai mungkin ingin melanjutkan langsung ke gameplay. Menyeret ubin diperlukan sebelum menumpuk.

Game Angin dan Angin Berlaku
Untuk menentukan Player Game Angin (门 风 atau 自 风), masing-masing pemain melempar tiga dadu (dua di beberapa varian) dan pemain dengan total tertinggi dipilih sebagai dealer atau bankir (庄家). Angin adalah dealer Timur; pemain di sebelah kanan dealer telah angin Selatan; pemain sebelah kanan memiliki Barat, dan pemain keempat telah Utara (bayangkan peta terbalik). Game angin perubahan setelah setiap tangan, kecuali dealer menang. Dalam beberapa variasi, semakin lama dealer tetap dealer, semakin tinggi nilai masing-masing tangan.

Angin yang berlaku (场 风) selalu diatur ke Timur ketika memulai. Ini perubahan setelah angin Game telah diputar di sekitar papan, yaitu setelah setiap pemain telah kehilangan sebagai dealer. dealer selalu Timur. Sebuah permainan penuh mahjong berlangsung sampai berlaku Angin telah berputar melalui keempat.

Sebuah mahjong set dengan Angin dalam bermain biasanya akan menyertakan penanda berlaku terpisah Angin (biasanya mati ditandai dengan karakter Angin di pemegang) dan sebuah penunjuk yang dapat berorientasi pada dealer untuk menunjukkan Player Game Angin. Dalam set dengan rak, rak mungkin ditandai berbeda untuk menunjukkan dealer.

Angin ini juga signifikan, seperti Angin yang sering dikaitkan dengan seorang anggota dari kelompok ubin Bunga, biasanya 1 dengan Timur, 2 dengan Selatan, 3 dengan Barat, dan 4 dengan Utara.

 Dealing ubin
Semua ubin ditempatkan menghadap ke bawah dan dikocok. Setiap pemain kemudian tumpukan deretan ubin dua ubin tinggi di depannya, panjang baris tergantung pada jumlah ubin yang digunakan:

136 ubin: 17 tumpukan untuk setiap pemain
Setelan titik, bambu, dan karakter + angin + naga
144 ubin: 18 tumpukan untuk setiap pemain
148 ubin: 19 tumpukan untuk berlawanan dealer dan pemain, 18 untuk beristirahat
152 ubin: 19 tumpukan untuk setiap pemain
Dealer melempar tiga dadu dan meringkas total. Menghitung berlawanan sehingga dealer adalah 1, baris pemain dipilih. Mulai di tepi kanan, “jumlah” ubin dihitung dan bergeser ke kanan.

dealer sekarang mengambil blok empat ubin di sebelah kiri membagi.

Pemain ke kanan dealer mengambil empat ubin ke kiri, dan pemain (berlawanan) mengambil blok empat ubin (searah jarum jam) sampai semua pemain memiliki 12 ubin (untuk variasi 13-ubin) atau 16 (untuk variasi 16-ubin). Dalam variasi 13-ubin, masing-masing pemain kemudian mengambil satu genteng, untuk membuat tangan 13-ubin. Dalam prakteknya, untuk mempercepat prosedur berurusan, dealer sering mengambil satu genteng ekstra selama prosedur menangani untuk memulai gilirannya.

Dewan ini sekarang sudah siap, dan ubin baru akan diambil dari dinding di mana dealing tinggalkan, melanjutkan searah jarum jam. Dalam beberapa kasus khusus dibahas kemudian, ubin diambil dari ujung dinding, sering disebut sebagai bagian belakang dinding. Dalam beberapa variasi, sekelompok ubin di bagian belakang, yang dikenal sebagai dinding mati, disediakan untuk tujuan ini sebagai gantinya. Dalam variasi seperti, dinding mati mungkin secara visual dipisahkan dari dinding utama, tapi tidak diperlukan.

Kecuali dealer telah memenangkan (lihat di bawah), dealer kemudian mengabaikan ubin. Proses berurusan dengan ubin adalah ritual dan kompleks untuk mencegah kecurangan. Casual pemain, atau pemain dengan bermain kartu mahjong, mungkin ingin untuk hanya shuffle baik dan kesepakatan keluar ubin dengan prosedur upacara yang lebih sedikit.

Charleston
Dalam variasi Amerika, diperlukan bahwa sebelum masing-masing tangan dimulai, Charleston diundangkan. Di babak pertama, tiga ubin dilewatkan ke pemain di sebelah kanan seseorang, di babak berikutnya, ubin dioper ke pemain lawan, diikuti oleh tiga ubin dilewatkan ke kiri. Jika semua pemain dalam perjanjian, sebuah Charleston kedua dilakukan, namun setiap pemain dapat memutuskan untuk menghentikan lulus setelah Charleston pertama selesai. Charleston diikuti oleh lulus opsional untuk pemain di satu,, dua atau tiga ubin. Charleston, ciri khas mahjong Amerika, mungkin telah dipinjam dari permainan kartu seperti Hearts.

 Gameplay
Setiap pemain ditangani baik tiga belas ubin (untuk variasi 13-ubin) atau enam belas ubin (untuk variasi 16-ubin). Jika seorang pemain ditangani tangan ubin yang bertekad untuk menjadi tangan menang (dikenal sebagai “surgawi menang”, 天 胡), ia dapat menyatakan kemenangan segera sebelum pertandingan bahkan dimulai. Namun, ini skenario kemenangan terjadi sangat jarang.

gilirannya Sebuah melibatkan pemain gambar ubin dari dinding (atau menggambar tumpukan) dan kemudian menempatkannya di tangan nya, pemain kemudian membuang ubin ke meja. Ini menandakan akhir giliran nya, mendorong pemain ke kanan untuk bergerak nya. Beberapa varian mendorong masing-masing pemain untuk keras mengumumkan nama genteng yang sedang dibuang sebagai bentuk kesopanan. Banyak variasi mengharuskan ubin dibuang ditempatkan secara teratur di depan pemain, sementara beberapa mengharuskan mereka ditempatkan menghadap ke bawah.

Selama gameplay, jumlah ubin dikelola oleh masing-masing pemain harus selalu sama, yakni, tiga belas atau enam belas. Pemain harus membuang genteng setelah mengambil satu. Kegagalan untuk melakukannya aturan bahwa pemain secara efektif keluar dari menang, karena kombinasi yang unggul tidak akan pernah bisa dibangun dengan satu ubin ekstra atau lebih sedikit, namun pemain berkewajiban untuk terus sampai orang lain menang.

Salah satu ciri khas ubin Barat: ketika tiga pemain drop ubin Barat, pemain keempat biasanya akan menghindari membuang Barat lain di giliran berikut. Hal ini disebabkan oleh takhayul yang mengatakan, ketika semua pemain membuang Barat (“西”) bersama-sama, semua pemain akan mati (“归西”) atau dikutuk dengan nasib buruk (lihat tetraphobia). Selama putaran angin Barat yang berlaku, pemain juga akan menghindari melemparkan di Satu Lingkaran pada langkah pertama, karena Satu Circle terdengar seperti “bersama” dalam bahasa Kanton dan Mandarin, dengan demikian, “mati semua bersama-sama” (“一同 归西”). Bahkan, karena takhayul ini, beberapa varian memerlukan pemain untuk me-restart permainan ketika semua ubin dari satu jenis angin dibuang baik dalam empat putaran pertama, atau selama empat putaran selama pertandingan. [Rujukan?]

[Sunting] melds
Ketika seorang pemain membuang ubin, setiap pemain lainnya dapat “panggilan” atau “tawaran” untuk itu dalam rangka untuk menyelesaikan berbaur (satu set tertentu ubin) di tangannya sendiri. Kelemahan melakukan hal ini adalah bahwa pemain sekarang harus mengekspos selesai berbaur dengan pemain lain, memberikan gambaran tentang apa jenis tangan ia menciptakan. Hal ini juga menciptakan unsur strategi sebagai, dalam banyak variasi, membuang sebuah ubin yang memungkinkan pemain lain untuk memenangkan permainan ini membutuhkan pemain membuang kehilangan poin, atau membayar pemenang lebih, dalam permainan uang.

Kebanyakan varian, dengan pengecualian mahjong Amerika, memungkinkan tiga jenis melds. Ketika berbaur dinyatakan melalui membuang, pemain harus menyatakan jenis berbaur dapat dinyatakan dan tempat berbaur menghadap ke atas. (Adapun varian Jepang, pemanggilan untuk membuat melds berbeda dari nama-nama yang sebenarnya dari jenis melds, mendukung nama-nama Cina yang asli dari terjemahan Jepang.) Pemain kemudian harus membuang genteng, dan bermain terus ke kanan. Karena itu, ternyata bisa dilewati dalam proses.

Pong, atau Pung (碰 pinyin Peng, Jepang: 刻 子 kōtsu)-A Pong, atau Pung, adalah satu set tiga ubin identik.
Sebagai contoh:;,,.
Dalam mahjong Amerika, mana adalah mungkin untuk berbaur ubin Bunga, sebuah Pong juga dapat merujuk kepada sebuah menyatukan tiga dari empat ubin Bunga dalam satu kelompok. mahjong Amerika juga mungkin memiliki tangan yang memerlukan triplet rajutan-tiga ubin peringkat identik tetapi berbeda sesuai.
Kong (杠 / 杠 pinyin geng, Jepang: kantsu 杠子)-A Kong adalah satu set empat ubin identik.
Sebagai contoh:;.
Karena semua lainnya melds mengandung tiga ubin, suatu Kong harus segera terkena saat eksplisit dinyatakan. Jika genteng keempat terbentuk dari membuang, dikatakan menjadi terkena Kong (明 杠 / 明 杠, pinyin geng ming). Jika semua empat ubin dibentuk di tangan, dikatakan menjadi Kong disembunyikan (暗 杠 / 暗 杠, pinyin geng). Dalam beberapa bentuk permainan, dua luar ubin dari Kong tersembunyi yang membalik untuk menunjukkan statusnya tersembunyi. Hal ini juga memungkinkan untuk membentuk sebuah Kong terkena jika pemain memiliki Pung terbuka dan menarik ubin keempat. Dalam kasus apapun, pemain harus menggambar genteng ekstra dari ujung belakang dinding, atau dari dinding mati, jika ada, dan buang seperti biasa. Play kemudian berlanjut ke kanan. Setelah Kong terbentuk, tidak dapat dibagi, yaitu, untuk menggunakan satu ubin sebagai bagian dari Chow, dan dengan demikian, mungkin tidak menguntungkan untuk segera mendeklarasikan Kong.
Sheung, atau Chow (上, dalam beberapa versi 吃 chi, Jepang: shuntsu 顺子)-A Sheung atau Chow adalah berbaur dari tiga ubin cocok secara berurutan.
Sebagai contoh:;,,.
Tidak seperti melds, sebuah Sheung terbuka hanya dapat dinyatakan dari membuang dari pemain di sebelah kiri. Satu-satunya pengecualian adalah ketika pemain kebutuhan yang ubin untuk membentuk sebuah Sheung untuk menang. Dalam hal ini, Sheung yang dapat dideklarasikan pada gilirannya setiap lawan. mahjong Amerika tidak memiliki Sheung formal (Sheungs tidak dapat dideklarasikan), tetapi beberapa tangan mungkin mengharuskan bahwa urutan serupa dibangun di tangan. Beberapa variasi Amerika juga mungkin memiliki urutan rajutan, dimana tiga ubin dari tiga setelan yang berbeda. Urutan panjang yang lebih tinggi biasanya tidak diperbolehkan, kecuali bentuk lebih dari satu berbaur.
Mata (将 jiang, dalam beberapa versi yǎn 眼, Jepang: 対 子 Toitsu atau 头 雀 Janto; juga Pair)-Pasangan ini, sementara tidak berbaur (dan dengan demikian tidak dapat dideklarasikan atau dibentuk dengan membuang, kecuali jika menyelesaikan pasangan selesai tangan), adalah komponen terakhir ke tangan standar. Ini terdiri dari dua ubin identik.
Misalnya, tangan ini menggunakan dua sebagai mata.
Mahjongg tangan Amerika mungkin memiliki konstruksi genteng yang tidak melds, seperti “NEWS” (satu dari masing-masing memiliki Angin). Karena mereka tidak melds, mereka tidak dapat dibentuk off membuang, dan dalam beberapa variasi, tidak dapat dibangun di sebagian atau seluruhnya oleh ubin Joker. Dalam pejabat China (dan beberapa lainnya) mengetahui aturan, ada tangan lebih lanjut, seperti Tujuh Pasangan atau Tiga Belas Yatim.

Ketika dua atau lebih pemain panggilan untuk ubin dibuang, pemain mengambil ubin untuk memenangkan tangan memiliki hak atas semua orang lain, diikuti oleh Pong atau deklarasi Kong, dan terakhir, Chows. Dalam mahjong Amerika, di mana dimungkinkan untuk dua pemain membutuhkan ubin yang sama untuk melds, yang berbaur dari jumlah yang lebih tinggi ubin identik diutamakan. Jika dua atau lebih pemain panggilan untuk berbaur dari prioritas yang sama (atau untuk menang), pemain terdekat ke kanan menang keluar. Secara khusus, jika panggilan untuk memenangkan override panggilan untuk membentuk suatu kong, seperti bergerak disebut “merampok Kong”, dan mungkin memberikan bonus skor. Permainan mungkin mengumumkan menarik gagal jika dua atau lebih pemain panggilan ubin untuk menang meskipun, sekali lagi tergantung pada variasi.

Ada umumnya merupakan konvensi informal untuk jumlah waktu yang diperbolehkan untuk membuat panggilan untuk ubin dibuang sebelum pemain berikutnya mengambil gilirannya mereka. Dalam mahjong Amerika, ini “jendela kesempatan” secara eksplisit dinyatakan dalam aturan, sedangkan di varian lain, umumnya dianggap bahwa ketika memulai gilirannya pemain depan, yaitu, ubin dinding daun, kesempatan telah hilang.

[Sunting] Bunga
ubin Bunga, ketika ditangani atau ditarik, harus segera diganti dengan genteng dari dinding mati (atau jika tidak ada dinding mati ada, bagian belakang dinding). Dengan pengecualian mahjong Amerika, mereka segera terbuka, ditempatkan di tampilan atas meja di depan ubin pemain. Pada awal setiap putaran, dimana dua atau lebih pemain mungkin memiliki ubin Flower, ubin Bunga mulai diganti dengan dealer dan bergerak ke kanan. ubin Bunga mungkin atau mungkin tidak memiliki nilai titik, dalam beberapa variasi, memiliki semua ubin Bunga memenangkan putaran tanpa isi sebenarnya tangan.

Dalam mahjong Amerika, ubin Bunga juga tidak langsung terkena dan diganti, karena mungkin akan menyatu dengan ubin Flower lain dalam kelompok yang sama (pada intinya, mereka diperlakukan seolah-olah mereka satu set ubin kehormatan) atau digunakan sebagai persyaratan tangan menang. Versi awal mahjong Amerika digunakan ubin ubin Flower sebagai Joker.

[Sunting] Jokers
Sebuah fitur beberapa variasi mahjong, variasi Amerika terutama, adalah gagasan dari beberapa jumlah ubin 🀪 Joker. Mereka dapat digunakan sebagai kartu liar: pengganti ubin pun di tangan, atau, dalam beberapa variasi, ubin hanya dalam melds. Variasi lainnya adalah bahwa Joker ubin tidak boleh digunakan untuk penyatuan. Tergantung pada variasi, pemain mungkin mengganti ubin Joker yang merupakan bagian dari terkena berbaur milik setiap pemain dengan ubin yang diwakilinya.

Aturan yang mengatur ubin membuang Joker juga ada, beberapa variasi mengizinkan ubin Joker untuk mengambil identitas setiap ubin, dan lain-lain hanya mengizinkan ubin Joker untuk mengambil identitas genteng sebelumnya dibuang (atau tidak adanya ubin, jika adalah yang pertama buang).

ubin Joker mungkin atau mungkin tidak berdampak pada penilaian, tergantung pada variasi. Beberapa tangan khusus mungkin memerlukan penggunaan ubin Joker (misalnya, untuk mewakili “ubin kelima” dari suatu tertentu cocok atau kehormatan genteng).

Dalam mahjong Amerika, adalah ilegal untuk lulus Jokers selama Charleston.

[Sunting] Menang
Seorang pemain menang bulat dengan menciptakan tangan mahjong standar, yang terdiri dari sejumlah tertentu melds (yaitu, empat untuk variasi 13-ubin dan lima untuk variasi 16-ubin) dan sepasang. Jika seorang pemain hanya membutuhkan satu lebih ubin untuk menyelesaikan tangan pemenang dan pemain lain membuang genteng yang dia butuhkan, dia dapat mengklaim segera, terlepas dari yang dibuang atau bagian apa dari tangannya itu selesai.

Contoh tangan menang (dibagi menjadi melds dan pasangan untuk kejelasan):

 – – – –
 – – – –
Dalam varian klasik Barat, ini dikenal sebagai menciptakan mahjong, dan proses memenangkan disebut akan mahjong.

Variasi mungkin memiliki tangan yang tidak standar khusus yang pemain dapat membuat (dalam pengertian ini, mahjong Amerika adalah varian mana hanya tangan khusus ada).

Beberapa variasi mungkin mengharuskan tangan menang menjadi beberapa nilai titik. Jika seorang pemain menyatakan kemenangan tetapi tidak ditemukan akan memegang tangan menang, ia menderita hukuman harus membayar semua pemain lawan (disebut zaa3 wu2, atau Zha hu [诈 胡] dalam bahasa Kanton dan Mandarin, masing-masing, atau secara harfiah diterjemahkan, “tangan palsu”). Dalam beberapa versi pemain membutuhkan tangan pemenang yang sangat menuntut untuk menang seperti 5 mahjong fan Hong Kong.

Winning disebut Hu (胡) dalam bahasa Cina, dan agari (アガリ) atau hora (和 了) dalam bahasa Jepang. Jika pemain menang dengan menggambar ubin dari dinding saat gilirannya, nama khusus diberikan untuk jenis ini menang dalam bahasa Cina dan Jepang: zìmō (自摸) di Cina dan tsumo (自摸, ツモ) dalam bahasa Jepang, sedangkan bila pemain menang dengan mengambil genteng cast off oleh pemain lain, dalam bahasa Jepang disebut ron (栄, ロン).

[Sunting] tangan Ready
Ketika tangan merupakan salah satu ubin pendek untuk menang (misalnya:, menunggu:,, atau, seperti yang dapat mata), tangan dikatakan tangan siap (Cina Tradisional: 牌 听; Cina Sederhana: 牌 听; Jepang : tenpai [聴 牌]), atau lebih kiasan, “di pot”. Pemain memegang tangan siap dikatakan menunggu untuk ubin tertentu. Hal ini umum harus menunggu dua atau tiga ubin, dan beberapa poin penghargaan variasi untuk tangan yang sedang menunggu untuk satu ubin. Pada 13-ubin mahjong, jumlah terbesar ubin yang seorang pemain bisa menunggu adalah 13 (tiga belas keajaiban, atau tiga belas anak yatim, tangan khusus tidak standar). Siap tangan harus dinyatakan dalam beberapa variasi mahjong, sedangkan variasi lainnya melarang sama.

Beberapa variasi mahjong, yang paling terutama Jepang dan Korea, memungkinkan pemain untuk menyatakan Richi (立 直, kadang-kadang dikenal sebagai dijangkau, seperti yang fonetis serupa). Sebuah pernyataan dari Richi adalah janji bahwa setiap ubin yang ditarik oleh pemain segera dibuang kecuali merupakan menang. persyaratan standar untuk Richi adalah bahwa tangan ditutup atau tidak memiliki melds menyatakan (selain kong tersembunyi) dan bahwa pemain sudah memiliki poin untuk deklarasi Richi. Seorang pemain yang menyatakan Richi dan menang biasanya menerima bonus poin untuk tangan mereka secara langsung, dan pemain yang menang dengan Richi juga memiliki keuntungan untuk membuka dora bagian dalam (ドラ, dari “dra” gon) yang mengarah ke kemungkinan lebih tinggi untuk mencocokkan seperti kartu, sehingga memiliki lebih banyak kesempatan untuk memberikan bonus tambahan. Namun, pemain yang menyatakan Richi dan kehilangan biasanya dihukum dengan cara tertentu. Mendeklarasikan sebuah Richi tidak ada juga dihukum dalam beberapa cara.

Dalam beberapa variasi, situasi di mana semua empat pemain menyatakan Richi adalah sebuah game dibuat otomatis, karena mengurangi permainan ke keberuntungan murni, yaitu, siapa yang mendapat genteng diperlukan mereka terlebih dahulu.

[Sunting] Menggambar
Kalau saja dinding mati tetap (atau jika tidak ada dinding mati ada dan dinding habis) dan tidak ada yang menang, bundar digambar (流 局 liu ju, 黄庄 Zhuang Huang, ryūkyoku Jepang), atau “goulashed”. Sebuah babak baru dimulai, dan tergantung pada varian, Angin Game dapat berubah. Sebagai contoh, di sebagian kalangan bermain di Singapura, jika ada setidaknya satu Kong saat putaran adalah menggambar, pemain berikut dealer menjadi dealer berikutnya, jika tidak, dealer tetap dealer.

mahjong Jepang memiliki aturan khusus yang disebut sanchahō (三家 和), yang, jika tiga pemain membuang klaim yang sama untuk menang, putaran digambar. Salah satu alasannya adalah bahwa ada kasus-kasus di mana batang 1.000 poin untuk Richi menyatakan tidak dapat dibagi tiga. Aturannya diperlakukan sama dengan “gagal menarik”.

[Sunting] Abortive menarik
Dalam mahjong Jepang, aturan memungkinkan gagal menarik dapat dinyatakan sementara ubin masih tersedia. Mereka dapat dinyatakan dengan ketentuan sebagai berikut:

九种 么 九 牌 倒 牌 (Kyushu yaochūhai tōhai): Pada giliran pertama pemain ketika tidak berbaur telah dinyatakan belum, jika pemain memiliki sembilan terminal yang berbeda atau ubin kehormatan, pemain dapat menyatakan putaran untuk ditarik (misalnya, , tapi juga bisa pergi untuk tangan keajaiban tiga belas tidak standar juga).
四 风 子 连 打 (renda sūfontsu): Pada giliran pertama tanpa berbaur deklarasi, jika semua empat pemain membuang genteng Angin yang sama, bulat digambar.
四 家 立 直 (sūcha Richi): Jika semua empat pemain menyatakan Richi, bundar digambar.
四 杠 算了 (sūkan sanra): bulat itu diambil ketika Kong keempat dinyatakan, kecuali keempat Kongs telah dinyatakan oleh seorang pemain tunggal. Namun, bulat ini diambil ketika pemain lain mendeklarasikan Kong kelima.
[Sunting] Ternyata dan putaran
Jika dealer memenangkan permainan, ia akan tetap dealer. Jika tidak, pemain ke kanan menjadi dealer, dan Wind bahwa pemain menjadi Angin Game, di urutan Timur-Selatan-Barat-Utara.

Setelah kembali Angin Timur (yaitu, setiap pemain telah dealer), putaran selesai dan Angin berlaku akan berubah, lagi di urutan Timur-Selatan-Barat-Utara. Sebuah permainan penuh mahjong berakhir setelah ketika berlaku Utara putaran angin adalah berakhir. Hal ini sering dianggap sebagai tindakan beruntung untuk menghentikan permainan di putaran Barat, sebagai kata Cina untuk Barat (西) memiliki suara yang mirip dengan kata kematian (死), dan juga dunia setelah dalam Buddhisme / Taoisme adalah wasit sebagai bahagia dunia barat.

Namun, variasi Jepang berbeda dalam permainan dimulai pada putaran Timur, di mana meja Wind khusus ditugaskan untuk semua game di putaran tersebut. dealer ini juga selalu dianggap kursi Timur, jadi ketika dealer beralih kepada pemain berikutnya, itu semua reassigns Angin kursi ke pemain berikutnya, meskipun tidak ada yang benar-benar bergerak di sekitar. Setelah setiap pemain telah Timur setidaknya sekali, putaran Timur selesai dan putaran Selatan dimulai. Play biasanya berakhir setelah putaran Selatan, namun jika tidak ada pemain memiliki lebih dari jumlah tertentu, biasanya 30.000, kemudian bermain akan terus ke Barat, dan mungkin bahkan ke babak Utara.

Variasi Korea mirip dengan Jepang, meskipun timur membayar ganda adalah opsional. Dalam beberapa tiga versi pemain (tiga versi pemain tidak disukai di Korea) dua ubin Utara dihapus, berarti hanya dapat digunakan sebagai pasangan. Hal ini meninggalkan tiga putaran tiga pertandingan. Hal ini sering dua kali lipat [Sunting] Penimenjadi 18 pertandingan terakhir, yang dapat diputar sangat cepat dalam permainan tiga pemain.

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Artikel utama: Scoring di mahjong
Mencetak gol di mahjong melibatkan poin, dengan nilai moneter untuk titik yang telah disepakati oleh pemain. Meskipun dalam banyak variasi tangan kosong-kosong yang mungkin, banyak mengharuskan tangan menjadi beberapa nilai titik untuk memenangkan putaran.

Sedangkan gameplay dasar kurang lebih sama di seluruh mahjong, maka perbedaan terbesar antara variasi terletak pada sistem penilaian. Seperti gameplay, ada sistem umum dari penilaian, berdasarkan metode tangan menang dan menang, dari mana Cina dan Jepang (di antara sistem penting) akar dasar mereka. mahjong Amerika umumnya memiliki aturan skor sangat berbeda, serta aturan permainan sangat berbeda.

Karena perbedaan besar antara berbagai sistem penilaian (terutama untuk varian China), kelompok pemain akan sering menyetujui aturan skoring tertentu sebelum pertandingan. Seperti permainan, banyak usaha telah dilakukan untuk menciptakan standar internasional penilaian, tetapi kebanyakan tidak diterima secara luas.

Poin (terminologi yang berbeda dari variasi untuk variasi) diperoleh dengan cara mencocokkan tangan menang dan kondisi menang dengan satu set kriteria tertentu, dengan kriteria yang berbeda skoring nilai yang berbeda. Beberapa kriteria mungkin himpunan bagian dari kriteria lain (misalnya, memiliki berbaur satu Dragon versus memiliki berbaur dari semua itu), dan dalam kasus ini, hanya kriteria yang paling umum adalah mencetak gol. Poin yang diperoleh dapat diterjemahkan ke dalam skor untuk setiap pemain menggunakan beberapa (biasanya eksponensial) fungsi. Ketika judi dengan mahjong, skor ini biasanya langsung diterjemahkan ke dalam jumlah uang. Beberapa kriteria mungkin juga baik dari segi poin dan skor.

 
 

The following sequence is for setting up a standard Hong Kong (or Singapore) game. Casual or beginning players may wish to proceed directly to gameplay. Shuffling the tiles is needed before piling up.

Game Wind and Prevailing Wind

To determine the Player Game Wind (門風 or 自風), each player throws three dice (two in some variants) and the player with the highest total is chosen as the dealer or the banker (莊家). The dealer’s Wind is East; the player to the right of the dealer has South wind; the next player to the right has West; and the fourth player has North (imagine a reversed map). Game Wind changes after every hand, unless the dealer wins. In some variations, the longer the dealer remains dealer, the higher the value of each hand.

The Prevailing Wind (場風) is always set to East when starting. It changes after the Game Wind has rotated around the board; that is, after each player has lost as the dealer. The dealer is always East. A full game of mahjong lasts until the Prevailing Wind has cycled through all four.

A mahjong set with Winds in play will usually include a separate Prevailing Wind marker (typically a die marked with the Wind characters in a holder) and a pointer that can be oriented towards the dealer to show Player Game Wind. In sets with racks, a rack may be marked differently to denote the dealer.

These Winds are also significant, as Winds are often associated with a member of a Flower tile group, typically 1 with East, 2 with South, 3 with West, and 4 with North.

 Dealing tiles

All tiles are placed face down and shuffled. Each player then stacks a row of tiles two tiles high in front of him, the length of the row depending on the number of tiles in use:

  • 136 tiles: 17 stacks for each player
    • Suits of dots, bamboos, and characters + winds + dragons
  • 144 tiles: 18 stacks for each player
  • 148 tiles: 19 stacks for dealer and player opposite, 18 for rest
  • 152 tiles: 19 stacks for each player

The dealer throws three dice and sums up the total. Counting counterclockwise so that the dealer is 1, a player’s row is chosen. Starting at the right edge, “sum” tiles are counted and shifted to the right.

The dealer now takes a block of four tiles to the left of the divide.

The player to the dealer’s right takes four tiles to the left, and players (counterclockwise) take blocks of four tiles (clockwise) until all players have 12 tiles (for 13-tile variations) or 16 (for 16-tile variations). In 13-tile variations, each player then takes one more tile, to make a 13-tile hand. In practice, in order to speed up the dealing procedure, the dealer often takes one extra tile during the dealing procedure to start his turn.

The board is now ready, and new tiles will be taken from the wall where the dealing left off, proceeding clockwise. In some special cases discussed later, tiles are taken from the other end of the wall, commonly referred to as the back end of the wall. In some variations, a group of tiles at the back end, known as the dead wall, is reserved for this purpose instead. In such variations, the dead wall may be visually separated from the main wall, but it is not required.

Unless the dealer has already won (see below), the dealer then discards a tile. The dealing process with tiles is ritualized and complex to prevent cheating. Casual players, or players with mahjong playing cards, may wish to simply shuffle well and deal out the tiles with fewer ceremonial procedures.

Charleston

In the American variations, it is required that before each hand begins, a Charleston is enacted. In the first round, three tiles are passed to the player on one’s right; in the next round, the tiles are passed to the player opposite, followed by three tiles passed to the left. If all players are in agreement, a second Charleston is performed; however, any player may decide to stop passing after the first Charleston is complete. The Charleston is followed by an optional pass to the player across of one, two, or three tiles. The Charleston, a distinctive feature of American mahjong, may have been borrowed from card games such as Hearts.

 Gameplay

Each player is dealt either thirteen tiles (for 13-tile variations) or sixteen tiles (for 16-tile variations). If a player is dealt a hand of tiles that is determined to be a winning hand (known as a “heavenly win”, 天胡), he or she may declare victory immediately before the game even begins. However, this scenario of victory occurs very rarely.

A turn involves a player’s drawing a tile from the wall (or draw pile) and then placing it in his or her hand; the player then discards a tile onto the table. This signals the end of his or her turn, prompting the player to the right to make his or her move. Some variants encourage each player to loudly announce the name of the tile being discarded as a form of courtesy. Many variations require that discarded tiles be placed in an orderly fashion in front of the player, while some require that they be placed face down.

During gameplay, the number of tiles maintained by each player should always be the same; i.e., thirteen or sixteen. A player must discard a tile after picking up one. Failure to do so rules that player effectively out of winning, since a winning combination could never be built with one extra tile or fewer, but the player is obliged to continue until someone else wins.

A distinctive feature of West tiles: when three players drop the West tile, the fourth player will usually avoid discarding another West in the following turn. This is caused by a superstition that says, when all the players discard a West (“西”) together, all players will die (“歸西”) or be cursed with bad luck (see tetraphobia). During the West Prevailing Wind round, players will also avoid throwing in the One Circle during the first move, because One Circle sounds like “together” in Cantonese and Mandarin; thus, “to die all together” (“一同歸西”). In fact, because of this superstition, some variants require players to restart the game when all tiles of one kind of wind are discarded either in the first four turns, or during any four turns during the game.[citation needed]

 Melds

When a player discards a tile, any other player may “call” or “bid” for it in order to complete a meld (a certain set of tiles) in his own hand. The disadvantage of doing this is that the player must now expose the completed meld to the other players, giving them an idea of what type of hand he or she is creating. This also creates an element of strategy as, in many variations, discarding a tile that allows another player to win the game requires the discarding player to lose points, or pay the winner more, in a game for money.

Most variants, with the notable exception of American mahjong, allow three types of melds. When a meld is declared through a discard, the player must state the type of meld to be declared and place the meld face up. (As for the Japanese variant, callings to make melds are different from the actual names of the types of melds, favoring the original Chinese names over the Japanese translation.) The player must then discard a tile, and play continues to the right. Because of this, turns may be skipped in the process.

Pong, atau Pung (碰 pinyin Peng, Jepang: 刻 子 kōtsu)-A Pong, atau Pung, adalah satu set tiga ubin identik.
Sebagai contoh:;,,.: MJt9.pngMJt9.pngMJt9.png; MJs3.pngMJs3.pngMJs3.png; MJf2.pngMJf2.pngMJf2.png; MJd2.pngMJd2.pngMJd2.png.
Dalam mahjong Amerika, mana adalah mungkin untuk berbaur ubin Bunga, sebuah Pong juga dapat merujuk kepada sebuah menyatukan tiga dari empat ubin Bunga dalam satu kelompok. mahjong Amerika juga mungkin memiliki tangan yang memerlukan triplet rajutan-tiga ubin peringkat identik tetapi berbeda sesuai.
Kong (杠 / 杠 pinyin geng, Jepang: kantsu 杠子)-A Kong adalah satu set empat ubin identik.
Sebagai contoh:;.MJd1.pngMJd1.pngMJd1.pngMJd1.png; MJs7.pngMJs7.pngMJs7.pngMJs7.png.
Karena semua lainnya melds mengandung tiga ubin, suatu Kong harus segera terkena saat eksplisit dinyatakan. Jika genteng keempat terbentuk dari membuang, dikatakan menjadi terkena Kong (明 杠 / 明 杠, pinyin geng ming). Jika semua empat ubin dibentuk di tangan, dikatakan menjadi Kong disembunyikan (暗 杠 / 暗 杠, pinyin geng). Dalam beberapa bentuk permainan, dua luar ubin dari Kong tersembunyi yang membalik untuk menunjukkan statusnya tersembunyi. Hal ini juga memungkinkan untuk membentuk sebuah Kong terkena jika pemain memiliki Pung terbuka dan menarik ubin keempat. Dalam kasus apapun, pemain harus menggambar genteng ekstra dari ujung belakang dinding, atau dari dinding mati, jika ada, dan buang seperti biasa. Play kemudian berlanjut ke kanan. Setelah Kong terbentuk, tidak dapat dibagi, yaitu, untuk menggunakan satu ubin sebagai bagian dari Chow, dan dengan demikian, mungkin tidak menguntungkan untuk segera mendeklarasikan Kong.
Sheung, atau Chow (上, dalam beberapa versi 吃 chi, Jepang: shuntsu 顺子)-A Sheung atau Chow adalah berbaur dari tiga ubin cocok secara berurutan.
Sebagai contoh:;,,MJs1.pngMJs2.pngMJs3.png; MJs3.pngMJs4.pngMJs5.png; MJs7.pngMJs8.pngMJs9.png; MJt5.pngMJt6.pngMJt7.png.
.
Tidak seperti melds, sebuah Sheung terbuka hanya dapat dinyatakan dari membuang dari pemain di sebelah kiri. Satu-satunya pengecualian adalah ketika pemain kebutuhan yang ubin untuk membentuk sebuah Sheung untuk menang. Dalam hal ini, Sheung yang dapat dideklarasikan pada gilirannya setiap lawan. mahjong Amerika tidak memiliki Sheung formal (Sheungs tidak dapat dideklarasikan), tetapi beberapa tangan mungkin mengharuskan bahwa urutan serupa dibangun di tangan. Beberapa variasi Amerika juga mungkin memiliki urutan rajutan, dimana tiga ubin dari tiga setelan yang berbeda. Urutan panjang yang lebih tinggi biasanya tidak diperbolehkan, kecuali bentuk lebih dari satu berbaur.
Mata (将 jiang, dalam beberapa versi yǎn 眼, Jepang: 対 子 Toitsu atau 头 雀 Janto; juga Pair)-Pasangan ini, sementara tidak berbaur (dan dengan demikian tidak dapat dideklarasikan atau dibentuk dengan membuang, kecuali jika menyelesaikan pasangan selesai tangan), adalah komponen terakhir ke tangan standar. Ini terdiri dari dua ubin identik.
Misalnya, tangan ini menggunakan dua sebagai mata

 MJf4.pngMJf4.pngMJt5.pngMJt5.pngMJt5.pngMJs5.pngMJs5.pngMJs5.pngMJf1.pngMJf1.pngMJf1.pngMJd3.pngMJd3.pngMJd3.png digunakan dua MJf4.png sebagai mata

American mahjongg hands may have tile constructions that are not melds, such as “NEWS” (having one of each Wind). As they are not melds, they cannot be formed off discards, and in some variations, cannot be constructed in part or in whole by Joker tiles. In the Chinese official (and several other) rulesets, there are further hands, such as Seven Pairs or Thirteen Orphans.

When two or more players call for a discarded tile, a player taking the tile to win the hand has precedence over all others, followed by Pong or Kong declarations, and lastly, Chows. In American mahjong, where it may be possible for two players needing the same tile for melds, the meld of a higher number of identical tiles takes precedence. If two or more players call for a meld of the same precedence (or to win), the player closest to the right wins out. In particular, if a call to win overrides a call to form a kong, such a move is called “robbing the Kong”, and may give a scoring bonus. The game may be declared an abortive draw if two or more players call a tile for the win though, again depending on the variation.

There is generally an informal convention as to the amount of time allowed to make a call for a discarded tile before the next player takes their turn. In American mahjong, this “window of opportunity” is explicitly stated in the rules; whereas in other variants, it is generally considered that when the next player’s turn starts, i.e., the tile leaves the wall, the opportunity has been lost.

Flowers

Flower tiles, when dealt or drawn, must be immediately replaced by a tile from the dead wall (or if no dead wall exists, the back end of the wall). With the exception of American mahjong, they are immediately exposed, placed in view on the table on front of the player’s tiles. At the start of each round, where two or more players may have Flower tiles, Flower tiles are replaced starting with the dealer and moving to the right. Flower tiles may or may not have point value; in some variations, possession of all the Flower tiles wins the round regardless of the actual contents of the hand.

In American mahjong, Flower tiles are not instantly exposed and replaced, as they may be melded with other Flower tiles in the same group (in essence, they are treated as if they were another set of honor tiles) or be used as a requirement of a winning hand. Early versions of American mahjong used Flower tiles as Joker tiles.

Jokers

A feature of several variations of mahjong, most notably American variations, is the notion of some number of 🀪 Joker tiles. They may be used as a wild card: a substitute for any tile in a hand, or, in some variations, only tiles in melds. Another variation is that the Joker tile may not be used for melding. Depending on the variation, a player may replace a Joker tile that is part of an exposed meld belonging to any player with the tile it represents.

Rules governing discarding Joker tiles also exist; some variations permit the Joker tile to take on the identity of any tile, and others only permit the Joker tile to take on the identity of the previously discarded tile (or the absence of a tile, if it is the first discard).

Joker tiles may or may not have an impact on scoring, depending on the variation. Some special hands may require the use of Joker tiles (for example, to represent a “fifth tile” of a certain suited or honor tile).

In American mahjong, it is illegal to pass Jokers during the Charleston.

Winning

A player wins the round by creating a standard mahjong hand, which consists of a certain number of melds (namely, four for 13-tile variations and five for 16-tile variations) and a pair. If a player needs only one more tile to complete his winning hand and another player discards the tile he needs, he may claim it immediately, regardless of who discarded it or what part of his hand it completes.

Examples of winning hands (split into melds and pair for clarity):

  • MJf1.pngMJf1.pngMJs3.pngMJs3.pngMJs3.pngMJd3.pngMJd3.pngMJd3.pngMJd2.pngMJd2.pngMJd2.pngMJd1.pngMJd1.pngMJd1.png
  • MJt1.pngMJt2.pngMJt3.pngMJt4.pngMJt5.pngMJt6.pngMJt7.pngMJt7.pngMJt7.pngMJt8.pngMJt8.pngMJt9.pngMJt9.pngMJt9.png

In Western Classical variants, this is known as creating a mahjong, and the process of winning is called going mahjong.

Variations may have special nonstandard hands that a player can make (in this sense, American mahjong is a variant where only special hands exist).

Some variations may require that winning hands be of some point value. If a player declares victory but is discovered not to be holding a winning hand, he or she suffers a penalty of having to pay all the opposing players (called a zaa3 wu2, or zhà hú [詐胡] in Cantonese and Mandarin, respectively, or literally translated, “fake hand”). In some versions a player needs a very demanding winning hand to win such as 5 fan Hong Kong mahjong.

Winning is called (胡) in Chinese, and agari (アガリ) or hōra (和了) in Japanese. If the player wins by drawing a tile from a wall during his turn, a special name is given to this type of win in Chinese and Japanese: zìmō (自摸) in Chinese and tsumo (自摸, ツモ) in Japanese, while when the player wins by taking a tile cast off by another player, in Japanese it is called ron (栄, ロン).

Ready hands

When a hand is one tile short of winning (for example: MJs1.pngMJs2.pngMJs3.pngMJs1.pngMJs2.pngMJs3.pngMJs2.pngMJs3.pngMJs7.pngMJs8.pngMJs9.pngMJd2.pngMJd2.png, waiting for: MJs1.png, MJs4.png, or MJd2.png, as MJs1.png can be eyes), the hand is said to be a ready hand (Traditional Chinese: 聽牌; Simplified Chinese: 听牌; Japanese: tenpai [聴牌]), or more figuratively, “on the pot”. The player holding a ready hand is said to be waiting for certain tiles. It is common to be waiting for two or three tiles, and some variations award points for a hand that is waiting for one tile. In 13-tile mahjong, the largest number of tiles for which a player can wait is 13 (the thirteen wonders, or thirteen orphans, a nonstandard special hand). Ready hands must be declared in some variations of mahjong, while other variations prohibit the same.

Some variations of mahjong, most notably Japanese and Korean ones, allow a player to declare rīchi (立直; sometimes known as reach, as it is phonetically similar). A declaration of rīchi is a promise that any tile drawn by the player is immediately discarded unless it constitutes a win. Standard requirements for rīchi are that the hand be closed or have no melds declared (other than a concealed kong) and that players already have points for declaration of rīchi. A player who declares rīchi and wins usually receives a point bonus for their hand directly, and a player who won with rīchi also has the advantage to open the inner dora (ドラ, from “dra”gon) which leads to higher possibilities to match such a card, thus has more chance to grant additional bonus. However, a player who declares rīchi and loses is usually penalized in some fashion. Declaring a nonexistent rīchi is also penalized in some way.

In some variations, a situation in which all four players declare a rīchi is an automatic drawn game, as it reduces the game down to pure luck, i.e., who gets their needed tile first.

Draws

If only the dead wall remains (or if no dead wall exists and the wall is depleted) and no one has won, the round is drawn (流局 liú jú, 黃莊 huáng zhuāng, Japanese ryūkyoku), or “goulashed“. A new round begins, and depending on the variant, the Game Wind may change. For example, in most playing circles in Singapore, if there is at least one Kong when the round is a draw, the following player of the dealer becomes the next dealer; otherwise, the dealer remains dealer.

Japanese mahjong has a special rule called sanchahō (三家和), which is, if three players claim the same discard in order to win, the round is drawn. One reason for this is that there are cases in which bars of 1,000 points for declaring rīchi cannot be divided by three. The rule is treated the same as “abortive draws”.

 Abortive draws

In Japanese mahjong, rules allow abortive draws to be declared while tiles are still available. They can be declared under the following conditions:

  • 九種么九牌倒牌 (kyūshu yaochūhai tōhai): On a player’s first turn when no meld has been declared yet, if a player has nine different terminal or honor tiles, the player may declare the round to be drawn (for example, MJt1.pngMJt4.pngMJt5.pngMJt9.pngMJs1.pngMJs4.pngMJs6.pngMJs9.pngMJw1.pngMJf1.pngMJf3.pngMJd1.pngMJd1.pngMJd3.png, but could also go for the nonstandard thirteen wonders hand as well).
  • 四風子連打 (sūfontsu renda): On the first turn without any meld declarations, if all four players discard the same Wind tile, the round is drawn.
  • 四家立直 (sūcha rīchi): If all four players declare rīchi, the round is drawn.
  • 四槓算了 (sūkan sanra): The round is drawn when the fourth Kong is declared, unless all four Kongs were declared by a single player. Still, the round is drawn when another player declares a fifth Kong.

Turns and rounds

If the dealer wins the game, he will remain the dealer. Otherwise, the player to the right becomes dealer, and that player’s Wind becomes the Game Wind, in the sequence East-South-West-North.

After the Wind returns to East (i.e., each player has been the dealer), a round is complete and the Prevailing Wind will change, again in the sequence East-South-West-North. A full game of mahjong ends after when the North Prevailing Wind round is over. It is often regarded as an unlucky act to stop the gameplay at the West round, as the Chinese word for West (西) has a similar sound to the word for death (死), and also the after-world in Buddhism/Taoism is refereed as the blissful western world.

However, the Japanese variation differs in that the game starts on the East round, where a special table Wind is assigned to all games in that round. The dealer is also always considered East seat, so when the dealership passes to the next player, it reassigns all the seat Winds to the next player, although nobody actually moves around. After every player has been East at least once, the East round is over and the South round begins. Play usually ends after the South round; however, if none of the players has more than a certain amount, usually 30,000, then play will continue to the West, and possibly even to the North round.

The Korean variation is similar to the Japanese one, though east paying double is optional. In some three player versions (three player versions not being frowned upon in Korea) two North tiles are removed, meaning it can only be used as a pair. This leaves three rounds of three games. This is often doubled to last 18 games, which can be played surprisingly fast in a three player game.

Scoring

Main article: Scoring in mahjong

Scoring in mahjong involves points, with a monetary value for points agreed upon by players. Although in many variations scoreless hands are possible, many require that hands be of some point value in order to win the round.

While the basic gameplay is more or less the same throughout mahjong, the greatest divergence between variations lies in the scoring systems. Like the gameplay, there is a generalized system of scoring, based on the method of winning and the winning hand, from which Chinese and Japanese (among notable systems) base their roots. American mahjong generally has greatly divergent scoring rules, as well as greatly divergent gameplay rules.

Because of the large differences between the various systems of scoring (especially for Chinese variants), groups of players will often agree on particular scoring rules before a game. As with gameplay, many attempts have been made to create an international standard of scoring, but most are not widely accepted.

Points (terminology of which differs from variation to variation) are obtained by matching the winning hand and the winning condition with a specific set of criteria, with different criteria scoring different values. Some of these criteria may be subsets of other criteria (for example, having a meld of one Dragon versus having a meld of all of them), and in these cases, only the most general criterion is scored. The points obtained may be translated into scores for each player using some (typically exponential) functions. When gambling with mahjong, these scores are typically directly translated into sums of money. Some criteria may be also in terms of both points and score.

 Mahjong in Unicode

The Unicode range for mahjong is U+1F000 .. U+1F02F. Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points.

Mahjong Tiles
Unicode.org chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+1f00x 🀀 🀁 🀂 🀃 🀄 🀅 🀆 🀇 🀈 🀉 🀊 🀋 🀌 🀍 🀎 🀏
U+1f01x 🀐 🀑 🀒 🀓 🀔 🀕 🀖 🀗 🀘 🀙 🀚 🀛 🀜 🀝 🀞 🀟
U+1f02x 🀠 🀡 🀢 🀣 🀤 🀥 🀦 🀧 🀨 🀩 🀪 🀫        

[edit] See also

This article contains Chinese text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: mahjong

[edit] Footnotes

  1. ^ Butler, Jonathan. The Tiles of Mah Jong. 1996.
  2. ^ Yèzí in Ming Dynasty Chinese only
  3. ^ Carlisle, Rodney P. (2009). Encyclopedia of Play in Today’s Society. SAGE. p. 133. ISBN 9781412966702
  4. ^ “转发公安部关于废止部分规范性文件的通知”. Guangdong Provincial Public Security Department. http://dangan.jianghai.gov.cn/Article_Show.asp?ArticleID=12251. Retrieved 25 October 2009. 
  5. ^ “Recalling the Craze for a Game of Chance” By Steven Heller New York Times, March 15, 2010 online version
  6. ^ a b [1], A&F Careers, History, “1920”
  7. ^ Bill Bryson, Made in America. Harper, 1996, ch. 16.
  8. ^ Eddie Cantor and his mahjong song
  9. ^ Why do so many Jewish women play mah jongg?
  10. ^ [unreliable source?] Why are so many players of American mah-jongg Jewish?
  11. ^ Pakarnian, John, “Game Boy: Glossary of Japanese Gambling Games”, Metropolis, January 22, 2010, p. 15.
  12. ^ Schodt, Frederik, Manga! Manga! The World of Japanese Comics. Kodansha, 1986, Chapter 5
  13. ^ Richard SK Chang, Raymond TF Cheung, SL Ho, and Windsor Mak (2007), “Mah-jong–induced seizures: case reports and review of twenty-three patients”, Hong Kong Med J 13 (4): 314–318, http://www.hkmj.org/article_pdfs/hkm0708p314.pdf 
  14. ^ Vaudine England (4 August 2007), Mahjong game can induce epileptic seizures, BBC News
  15. ^ An exploratory study of the effect of mahjong on the cognitive functioning of persons with dementia
  16. ^ Matsutani, Minoru, “Mah-jongg ancient, progressive“, Japan Times, June 15, 2010, p. 3.
  17. ^ National Mahjjong League
  18. ^ Amja
  19. ^ Mahjong News
  20. ^ Mahjong News
  21. ^ Mahjong News
  22. ^ “World Series of mahjong”. http://www.online-mahjong.com

Further reading

Historical research
  • Culin, Stewart, ‘The Game of Ma-Jong, its Origin and Significance’. In: Brooklyn Museum Quarterly, Brooklyn, NY, Vol. XI, 1924, p. 153-168. Also found at;

http://www.gamesmuseum.uwaterloo.ca/Archives/Culin/Majong1924/index.html

  • Depaulis, Thierry, ‘Embarrassing Tiles: Mahjong and the Taipings’. In: The Playing-card, Vol. 35, No. 3, 2007, pp. 148 – 153.
  • Ebashi, Takashi, ‘Proto Mahjong. Mahjong Tiles in the 19th Century’. In: Mahjong Museum Report, Vol. 5, No.2, Issue 9, April, 2005, pp. 14 – 17 (in Japanese).
  • Lo, Andrew, ‘China’s Passion for Pai: Playing Cards, Dominoes, and Mahjong’. In: Asian Games: The Art of Contest, Colin Mackenzie and Irving Finkel, eds. Asia Society. 2004. pp. 217–231. ISBN 0-87848-099-4
  • Stanwick, Michael, ‘Mahjong(g) Before Mahjong(g): Part 1’. In: The Playing-card, Vol. 32, No. 4, 2004, pp. 153–162.
  • Stanwick, michael, ‘Mahjong(g) Before Mahjong(g): Part 2’. In: The Playing-card, Vol. 32, No. 5, 2004, pp. 206–215.
  • Stanwick, Michael, ‘Mahjong(g), Before and After Mahjong(g): Part 1’. In: The Playing-card, Vol. 34, No. 4, 2006, pp. 259–268.
  • Stanwick, Michael, ‘Mahjong(g), Before and After Mahjong(g): Part 2’. In: The Playing-card, Vol. 35, No. 1, 2006, pp. 27–39.
  • Stanwick, Michael and Xu, Hongbing, ‘Flowers nad Kings: A Hypothesis of their Function in Early Ma Que’. In: The Playing-card, Vol. 37, No. 1, 2008, pp. 29–40.
  • Wilkinson, William H.,(1890): Published in 1901 as pp 184–194 of Catalogue of the Collection of Playing Cards Bequeathed to the Trustees of the British Museum, F. M. O’Donoghue.
  • Wilkinson, William H.,(1893): Published in Culin, Games of the Orient, Tuttle, 1958. First published under the title Korean Games, with Notes on the Corresponding Games of China and Japan, University of Pennsylvania, 1895.
  • Wilkinson, William H., ‘Chinese Origin of Playing Cards’, in The American Anthropologist, Volume VIII, 1895, pp. 61–78. Also found at;

http://www.gamesmuseum.uwaterloo.ca/Archives/Wilkinson/Wilkinson.html

Chinese classical
  • Babcock, Joseph Park, Babcock’s Rules for Mah-jongg. Mah-jongg Sales Company of America: 1923.
  • Babcock, Smith, Hartman, Work, and Foster, The American Code Of Laws For Mah-Jongg. Standardization Committee: 1924.
  • Millington, A.D., Complete Book of Mah Jong. Weidenfeld & Nicolson: 1993. ISBN 0-297-81340-4.
Chinese official
Others
  • Lo, Amy. The Book of Mah jong: An Illustrated Guide. Tuttle Publishing: 2001. ISBN 0-8048-3302-8.
  • Oxfeld, Ellen, Blood, Sweat, and Mahjong: Family and Enterprise in an Overseas Chinese Community. Cornell University Press: 1993. ISBN 0-8014-9908-9.
  • Pritchard, David B.,Teach Yourself mahjong. McGraw-Hill/Contemporary: 2001. ISBN 0-658-02147-8.
  • Sloper, Tom., Mah-Jongg: Game of the Orient. Self-published: n.d.
  • Wright Patterson Mah Jongg Group, Mah Jongg; Wright-Patterson Rules. Wright Patterson Mah Jongg Group: 1963.

External links

THE END@COPYRIGHT Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

The Rare Old Indonesia Bandung Historical Picture Collections

 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

 

                    Please Enter

                   

              DMC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Masterpiece  Cybermuseum)

Showcase:

The Rare Old Bandung Historical Pictures collections

history dates from 1488 when the first reference to this city exists. But from ancient archeological finds, we know the city was home to Australopithecus, Java Man.

 
Isola Build, NowUPI (university)

Villa Isola/Bumi Siliwangi Gedung: great example of Bandung Art Deco built by an Italian millionare, named D.W. Berrety in 1825. Great views of Bandung are visible from here. Now it is used as UPI Bandung (Bandung Institute of Teacher Training and Education). It is located at Jalan Setiabudi 299, and can be reached by taking public transport from Cicaheum, railway station, or Kebon Kalapa to Ledeng

OLD BRAGA 

Braga street and the older section and particlar were planned by the Dutch when they set up Bandung to be their new capital. The Braga street area was regulated by these authorities to insure its European nature in the building styles. The municipal, regional, and national governments are now intervening in Bandung( I remember the first visit at braga Bandung in 1959 the situation near like this  beside the car-Dr Iwan) 

Driwancybermuseum 
   

 

 
 
 

 

 
 
 
 

Gedung Sate (Sate Building) Build in 1920
* Gedung Sate, the building is called because of its unique distinguished small satay shaped structure on the roof, and used as the head office of West Java provincial government and West Java’s house of representative. Established in 1920 as Gouverments Bedrijven (GB). Location: Diponegoro Street.

 


 

 

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The Best Art Deco

 

Founded by the Dutch in 1810, Bandung became important with the arrival of the railroad in the late 19th cent. It is the center of cultural life for the Sundanese and surrounded by beautiful scenery. It is a center for the study and preservation of Sundanese culture and an educational center. Bandung has served for popular weekend-break destination for people living in Jakarta for many reasons. The cooler climate of highland plantation area, the varieties of food, the cheaper fashion shops located in factory outlets and distros, golf courses, and the friendliness of local people have become the main attraction of the city.* Sovoy Homann Bidakara Hotel, has been maintained as the city’s landmark hotel. The oldest part of the hotel dates back 1880. In 1938 the Savoy Homann Bidakara Hotel got its new design, the classic Art Deco design. Some of the rooms have been left in original state, and offer the unique experience of staying in exactly the same room that Charlie Chaplin stayed in 1925. In 1955, the Asian African Conference was held in the nearby Merdeka Building. There, leaders of Third World countries on initiative of Indonesia’s first president Sukarno, established the alliance of non-aligned countries. Many of the Third World leaders stayed at the Savoy Homann, so next to Nasser and Ho Chi Minh, it can be your turn to enjoy the unique ambiance of this place. The colonial history makes a stay in the Savoy Homann a unique experience. Location: Asia Afrika Street No. 112.at 1880

at 1938

at the moment

 

   

 

 
 
 

 

 

 
 
 

 
 

Gedung Merdeka
Gedung Merdeka (Independence Building) which hosted the first Asian African Conference also known as the Bandung Conference in 1955. Built in 1895 for a club house for rich people, named the Concordia Society. In 1921, Societeit Concordia Building was rebuilt in a more functional and structural modern architecture (Art Deco) by designer C. P Wolff Schoemaker. It was renovated again in 1940 with new international style architecture with the help of Architect A. F Aalbers. Now it is a museum for that conference. Location: Asia Afrika Street No. 65.

 

   

 

 
 
 

 

 

 
 
 

Gedung Pakuan (Pakuan Building)
* Gedung Pakuan (Pakuan Building), established in 1864 as Gubernur Jenderal Ch.F. Pahud instruction and finished in 1867. The architectural style is Indische Empire Stijl (Gaya Empire Hindia). Now is used as West Java Governour residential. Location: Otto Iskandardinata Street No.1

 

   

 

 
 
 

 

 

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Vila Isola
This superb example of Art Deco style building is located on the northern part of Bandung. The architect, A.F. Aalbers who also designed the new Savoy Homan, has dedicated his time and creativity in exploring the design, which finally resulted in this distinguished piece of art. Surrounded by a vast area of rectangular form of paddy fields seen from above, the complex had an orderly arrangement of site plan that recalled the regularity of the paddy fields.It was built in 1932 for the Italian millionaire D.W. Berretyan art-critics phillantropist who died shortly after the building finished. Later this building was changed into a villa-hotel, and later as a Teacher Training College.
Villa Isola is located on Northern Bandung. With its splendid site and beautiful view surrounding, this hotel has won a special place among the many hotels existed in Netherlands Indie.

 

   

 

 
 
 

 

 

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Preanger HotelThe famous Preanger Hotel of Bandung, first built in the 1880s and
subsequently redesigned with Art Deco flourishes in the 1920s by the famed
architect, Professor Wolfe Shoemaker. The young Sukarno who was his student
at the Technische Hogeschool (now Institut Teknologi Bandung), is believed
to have assisted Shoemaker in the endeavour. The hotel was renovated again
in the 1980s. This shot shows the old wing.

 

   

 

hhtp ://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com
 
 

 

 

Driwancybermuseum  
 
 

 
 
Preanger HotelThe famous Preanger Hotel of Bandung, first built in the 1880s and
subsequently redesigned with Art Deco flourishes in the 1920s by the famed
architect, Professor Wolfe Shoemaker. The young Sukarno who was his student
at the Technische Hogeschool (now Institut Teknologi Bandung), is believed
to have assisted Shoemaker in the endeavour. The hotel was renovated again
in the 1980s.1880

Old wing (after 1920)

 

   

 

Dr Iwan Cybermuseum
 
 

 

 

 
 
 

 
 

The Aerial Photographs of Bandung
I have some great aerial photographs of the old Bandung (1920’s and 1930’s). By viewing these photo, you can imagine how beautiful Bandung as Parijs van Java in the past.

Atjehstraat – Merdikaweg – Bilitonstraat – Sumatrastraat – Borneostraat – BangkastraatThis view from 1920’s gives a good view of the north east district of the center. The KNIL (Dutch Army) War Department building, right from the middle, is the one that catches attention, in the Kalimantan Street. On the left the Palace of the Army commandant (in the Aceh street) and the Molukkenpark (Taman Maluku), and the HBS (now it is SMU 3 Building) on the right of Bilitonstraat (Belitung Street). In the front of the War Department is the Insulindepark (now Taman Lalulintas), surrounded by all kinds of building and houses of KNIL officers. Behind the War Department are buildings of the the Jaarbeurs, first built in 1920. Down left in the picture is the intersection between Aceh Street and Merdeka Street (BIP). At the background, in the left corner is the Department of Government buildings, betterknown as Gedung Sate.

Old Grand Hotel Homann

This is the view of the old Grand Hotel Homann and surroundings. Hotel Homann was founded around 1870 on the Groote Postweg (now Asia Africa Street) as a simple hotel, but grew to be the most popular hotel of Bandung. Many famous people stayed there, but besides that it was very well known for its rice-table. In 1938 / 1939 the old hotel was replaced by a modern Indonesian new-business-style (art deco style) building by a design of architect Aalbers, with the new name Hotel Savoy Homann. Down right on the picture, dated beginning 1930’s, the Bragaweg ends in the Groote Postweg. The building on the corner, one should see a part of the roof, was part of the famous Concordia Club.

Rembrandtstraat – Tjilakistraat – Tjisankoejstraat – Tjimanoekstraat – Wenckebachstraat – Dagoweg – Progoweg

Five Fokker airplanes of the KNIL airforce are flying above the Department of Government Buildings (Gedung Sate), in 1925. North of this area are no buildings on the picture, only the Geological Laboratory, beside which the Geological Museum later was to be built, is already completed. This city-district mainly was reserved as an building-area for other departments from Batavia, but those transfer-plans were cancelled. South of the Gedung Sateh roads are built and the first country-houses are to be seen. The three-cornered shaped group of houses is the Gempol kampong-district.

Villa Isola – Lembangweg

Villa Isola at Setiabudhi Street, direction Lembang, in 1938. It was built in 1933 ordered by the millionaire Berretty, one of the most famous persons in the Indies newspaper-world en founder of the press agency Aneta. Berretty had this impressive country-house predominantly built in new-business style by the famous architect Wolff Schoemaker, already responsible for the Grand Hotel Preanger, the Jaarbeurs building and the Concordia club. Berretty was only able to enjoy this beautiful posession for one year. December 22, 1934 he crashed with the “Uiver”, a plane of the KLM, the Royal Dutch Airlines. After that Villa Isola was in service as a annex of the Grand Hotel Homann, untill the Second Worldwar. Now, this building is the main office for UPI (Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia

The Old Soekamiskin Prison

View from 1930 of the Sukamiskin Prison, at Ujungberung street, East of Bandung, on road to Garut. Around the huge, symmetric shaped complex the houses for the personal are built. The small airport Sukamiskin is seen in the background, one can see the landingstrip markings. Sukamiskin was used from the late 1920’s as a prison for Indonesian nationalists and was known to the people as a symbol of colonial suppression. President Sukarno was here in prison, after his conviction in the sensational trial against him and some other Indonesian leaders in december 1930. The irony was that Sukarno some years earlier, during a short period as an architect, probably worked on the building drawings himself. During the Japanese occupation Sukamiskin was a prison for Dutch civil servants, until February 1944.

Bragaweg – Merdikaweg – Soeniaradjaweg – Tamblongweg – Javastraat – Logeweg – Grootepostweg

Another view on the center of Bandung, around 1930, direction north west this time. The upper part of the picture shows the railroad clearly, crossed by the northern part of the Bragaweg. North of this crossing one should see the white buildings of the residence office, the Bank of Java (now Bank Indonesia building), and the Church of Bethel, and the Parc of Pieter Sythof (Taman Balaikota / Taman Merdeka) on the right. Between this Park oand the Cathedral Church is the Schoolroad (now it is the part of Merdeka Street). The name for the School is the Ursulinen Sisters (now St Angela High School), see the high, white building upper right, and the Dutch-Native Training-college for teachers next to it. Along the northern part of the Bragaweg, on the left, old low buildings mostly are being replaced by modern European shops, with multiple floors. Notice the building with the flat roof of the Dutch Indies Gas Company. In the middle of the picture are along the diagonal Oude Hospitaalroad (Lembong Street) the telephone office and the radio-telephone office, in an L-shape.

  

 
 

The History of Bandung

 

 

 
 

Bandung is a city in the western part of Java island in Indonesia. Beside its own city administration, Bandung also serves as the capital of the West Java province and the seat of the chief (bupati) of Bandung regency.

Contents

 Early settlement

Although the oldest written historical reference to the city dates back to 1488, where it was the capital of the Kingdom of Pajajaran, there have been some archaeological findings of Austropithecus or Java Man, in the banks of Cikapunding river and around the old lake of Bandung.[1][2]

 Dutch East Indies Company

Braga Street in the mid-1930s.

The Dutch-built Gedung Sate

During the 17th and 18th centuries, the Dutch East Indies company (VOC) established a small plantation area in the fertile and properous Bandung area. A supply road connecting Batavia (now Jakarta), Bogor, Cianjur, Bandung, Sumedang and Cirebon was built in 1786.

In 1809, Louis Napoleon, the ruler of the Netherlands and its colonies, ordered the Dutch Indies Governor H.W. Daendels to increase the defense system of Java island against British. Daendels built a 1000 km road joining the west and east coasts of Java. Since the northern part of West Java at that time was only swamp and marsh, the road was diverted through Bandung.[3][4] The Great Postweg (now Jalan Asia-Afrika) was laid down in 1810.

Local folklore has it that when Daendels was walking along the edge of Cikapundung river, he was amazed by a site he found. He then put a stick at the edge of the Cikapundung and said: “Zorg, dat als ik terug kom hier een stad is gebouwd!” (‘Attention! If I come again here, a city must be built!’).[5] Today, this site is the geographical center of Bandung. R.A. Wiranatakusumah II, the regent of Bandung regency at that time, moved its office from Krapyak, in the south, to a place near a pair of holy city wells (sumur Bandung), which is today the ‘alun-alun (city square). He built his istana (palace), masjid agung (the grand mosque) and pendopo (“pavilion”) in the classical orientation.[6] The pendopo faces Tangkuban Perahu mountain, who was believed to have a mystical ambience.

In 1880, the first major railroad between Batavia and Bandung was laid down.[7] It boosted light industry in Bandung. Chinese migrants flocked in to help run the facilities, services and vendor machines. A small Chinatown district can still be recognised in the vicinity of the railroad station. In 1906, Bandung was given the status of gemeente (municipality) and then later as staadsgemeente (city municipality) in 1926.

Bandung’s location, in a low area between two mountainous areas, is strategically advantageous for military defense. In the 1930s, the Dutch East Indies government had planned to move the capital from Batavia to Bandung, and built military barracks, the central government building (Gouvernments Bedrijven, nicknamed Gedung Sate) and other buildings. This plan did not come to fruition following the failure of the Dutch to reclaim Indonesia after World War II.

The growth of plantation areas

The fertile area of the Parahyangan mountains surrounding Bandung allowed productive tea plantations. In the 19th century, cinchona (kina) plants were introduced by Franz Junghuhn.[8] Cinchona is a plant that can be used for the treatment of malaria and the old pharmacy factory of cinchona still exists in the city.

Bandung had developed itself into an exclusive European resort with hotels, cafes and shops.[1] Rich plantation owners came during the weekends and so did girls and businessmen from the capital, Batavia. The promenade Braga Street grew into an elite area of cafes, restaurants and boutique shops. Two art-deco style hotels, Savoy Homann and Preanger, became two major accommodations there. The Concordia Society (now known as Merdeka Building) was built as a club house of these rich people, complete with a large ballroom and a theater.[7] The title of “Parijs van Java” was given to this city.

Struggle for Independence

Gedung Merdeka during the Asian-African Conference in 1955

Bandung was decided as the provincial capital of West Java, after the independence.

Since October 1945, there had been several extreme Islam groups in West Java with the main goal of establishing an Islamic state in Indonesia (Darul Islam). One of this movements was “Laskar Hitam” a militia group that kidnapped and killed Otto Iskandardinata, RI’s Minister of State (1945). Other victims of similar groups: Poerdiredja, the regent of Priangan, Oekar Bratakoesoemah, the mayor of Bandung and Niti Soemantri, the leader of Indonesian national committee (KNI) in Priangan.

During the Dutch Politionele acties (“police action”), there was an ultimatum for the Indonesian combatants in Bandung to leave. As for the answer, on March 24 1946, the southern part of Bandung was deliberately burned down as they were leaving. This event is known as Bandung Lautan Api or “Bandung as the sea of flame”.[9] A heroic song “Halo-halo Bandung” was sang along by these hundreds of patriots.

During the evacuation process on March 1946, Mohammad Toha, a member of Indonesian militia smuggled several sticks of dynamite to a large scale ammunition dump guarded by Japanese and Dutch troops, near the Dutch military HQ in Dayeuh Kolot.

After overpowering the guards, he put the dynamite in several warehouses full of ammunition. He then committed suicide by igniting the dynamite. The massive explosion killed him and several Dutch, Japanese troops in the area. The explosion created a small lake (“situ”) in Dayeuh Kolot. The main street in the area is called “Mohammad Toha Street”.

Independence

On January 23, 1950, a rebel group called the Just King Armed Forces (Indonesian: Angkatan Perang Ratu Adil, APRA), led by Captain Raymond Westerling (a former Dutch military officer) and King Sultan Hamid II from Kalimantan (Borneo) attacked Indonesian army’s Siliwangi Division HQ in Bandung. Lt. Col. Lembong and 93 other Indonesian soldiers and officers were killed. On January 24, 1950, the rebels tried to attack Jakarta, but the rebellion was quashed in a fierce battle in Pacet, near Jakarta. Sultan Hamid II was arrested, but Capt. Westerling managed to escape to Singapore.

In 1955, the first Asian-African Conference (Indonesian: Konferensi Tingkat Tinggi Asia-Afrika) was held in Bandung. Twenty-nine countries attended the conference. The Asian-African leaders who attended the summit included Nehru (India), Nasser (Egypt), Tito (Yugoslavia), Nkrumah (Ghana), U Nu (Myanmar), and others. This conference is one of the preparation for the establishment of the Non-Aligned Movement block in Beograd (former Yugoslavia) in 1961.

After being elected in 1955, a new parliament body called the Constitutional Assembly (Indonesian: Konstituante), was established. It was tasked with creating new constitution to replace the Provisional Constitution of 1950. This new body held meetings in Bandung for several years without any result. The Constituent Assembly was dissolved by President Sukarno in a decree issued on July 5, 1959, which also reinstated the 1945 Constitution.

On May 10, 1963, a minor traffic accident (collision between 2 motorcycles) occurred in the campus of Bandung Institute of Technology. Two ITB students were involved in this accident: an ethnic Chinese student and an Indonesian student. The traffic accident turned into a racial brawl on the basketball field. The leaders of “Dewan Mahasiswa” (DM)/student council at ITB such as Muslimin Nasution (later becoming a government minister), Siswono Yudohusodo (later becoming a government minister), and Sutjipto (later becoming a leader of PKS party) used this event as the start of a movement against the establishment of ethnic Chinese tribe by Baperki (an ethnic Chinese organization influenced by Indonesian Communist Party/PKI). This movement was also directed against NASAKOM (Nasionalis, Agama dan Komunis) ideology from President Soekarno. The movement disagree with the Communist part of NASAKOM and they assumed that all ethnic Chinese community supported Baperki/Indonesian Communist Party. The next day, there was a large scale public demonstration by this movement against Baperki and ethnic Chinese. Unfortunately there are other organizations/people who use this event to start a large scale racial riot in Bandung that spread to other cities: Jogjakarta, Surabaya, Malang and Medan. Muslimin Nasution and other leaders of Student Council were arrested by Police. Muslimin was sentenced to 3 years in Prison for starting the riot.

On September 30, 1965, there was a failed coup attempt by revolutionary council (aka G30S). The Military Chief Of Staff, General Nasution escaped and went to Bandung for protection from the loyal Siliwangi division. According to General Nasution, near his mother residence in Bandung, members of Indonesian communist party (PKI) also dig new wells for burying their enemies.

On September 6, 1970 there was a football match between ITB students and cadets from Military academy. The game ended in a riot and brawl. Rene L. Conrad, an ITB student, was kidnapped and murdered by the Military cadets.[citation needed] Unfortunately the case remain unsolved today.

In 1976, Doctor Habibie (later becoming Indonesian President) established a state owned, aircraft manufacturing company called Industri Pesawat Terbang Nusantara (IPTN). Later this company was renamed into PT Dirgantara Indonesia (PT DI).

In 1978, after a People Consultative Assembly session in Jakarta, there were demonstrations against the re-election of President Soeharto by ITB students. Police disbanded the “Dewan Mahasiswa” (Student council) movement in ITB and the leaders were arrested. The university was closed for 3 months and the new Minister of Education announced “Normalization of University Life” (NKK) to quell the student movement.

On March 11, 1981, an extreme Moslem group called “Jamaah Imron” attacked Cicendo police station in Bandung. The movement was quashed by Indonesian police, but several members escaped to Medan, North Sumatra and hijacked Garuda airplane to Bangkok 2 weeks later. The passengers and crews were rescued by Indonesian special force in the Don Muang airport, Bangkok, Thailand. The pilot and a soldier were shot death during the rescue attempt.

From April 5, 1982 to January 8, 1983, there were several eruptions at Mt Galunggung in Tasikmalaya and Bandung was buried in several inches of ash.

 21st century

On December 24, 2000, there were bomb attacks against churches in Bandung. The bombs exploded prematurely and the perpetrators were arrested.

On February 21, 2005, a landslide occurred at the garbage dumpsite in Leuwigajah, Bandung. 143 people were killed by the landslide. After this fatal accident, the Leuwigajah dumpsite was closed and Bandung had a major problem in garbage management. The entire city was turned into a giant garbage dump (“kota sampah”). The mayor of Bandung was unable to solve the problem and the governor of West Java was forced to search for new garbage dumpsites. Fortunately the problem is solved now.[citation needed]

Today, Bandung has grown beyond its city core with the Bandung Raya plan. Traffic in Bandung is infamous with its complex, congested and chaotic nature.[10] The city core is practically uprooted, old faces are torn down, lot sizes regrouped, and what was idyllic residence is now bustling chain supermarkets and rich banks.[1] However Bandung is always a weekend break destination for people living in Jakarta. A new Cipularang highway was recently completed, reducing travel time from Jakarta. The major attraction to come to Bandung is the food and fashion shopping. The food in Bandung is well known for their wide varieties and taste. Bandung is also a place to do fashion shopping with its numerous factory outlets and stock centres.[11]

References

  1. ^ a b c “An Extremely Brief Urban History of Bandung”. Institute of Indonesian Architectural Historian. http://www.iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~fujimori/lsai/bandung.html. Retrieved 2006-08-20. 
  2. ^ Brahmantyo, B.; Yulianto, E.; Sudjatmiko, (2001). “On the geomorphological development of Pawon Cave, west of Bandung, and the evidence finding of prehistoric dwelling cave”. JTM. Archived from the original on 2008-04-08. http://web.archive.org/web/20080408111619/http://www.geocities.com/ekoy001/PawonJTM-web.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-21. 
  3. ^ “Pramoedya sheds light on dark side of Daendels highway”. The Jakarta Post. 2006-01-08. 
  4. ^ Peter .J.M Nas; Pratiwo (2001) (PDF). Java and De Groote Postweg, La Grande Route, The High Military Road. University of Leiden. http://www.leidenuniv.nl/fsw/nas/pdf/NasPratiwoPostweg30-10-2001.pdf
  5. ^ “Old Buildings in Bandung Then and Now” (in Indonesian). Bandung Heritage Society. http://www.bandungheritage.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=56&Itemid=2. Retrieved 2006-08-21. 
  6. ^ Kunto, Haryanto (1984). Wajah Bandung Tempoe Doeloe. Granesia. 
  7. ^ a b Soemardi, Ahmad R.; Radjawali, I (2004). “Creative culture and urban planning:The Bandung Experience” (PDF). The 11th International Planning History Conference 2004. http://www.etsav.upc.es/personals/iphs2004/pdf. Retrieved 2006-08-21. 
  8. ^ “If Only Junghuhn Knows How Cinchona in Indonesia Becomes…” (in Indonesian). Pikiran Rakyat. 2004-06-07. Archived from the original on 2006-05-17. http://web.archive.org/web/20060517024534/http://www.pikiran-rakyat.com/cetak/0604/07/0108.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-21. 
  9. ^ Sitaresmi, Ratnayu (PDF). Social History of Bandung Lautan Api (Bandung Sea of Fire) 24 March 1946. http://www.bandungheritage.org/images/stories/dokumen/bandung_sea_of_fire.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-22. [dead link]
  10. ^ “Traffic jams ruin Bandung getaway weekend”. The Jakarta Post. 2006-08-22. http://www.thejakartapost.com/detailheadlines.asp?fileid=20060822.A02&irec=1
  11. ^ “Trading and Promising Services of Bandung” (in Indonesian). Kompas. 2004-08-18. http://www.kompas.com/kompas-cetak/0408/18/Jabar/1212266.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-22

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy