Category Archives: Dr Iwan Masterpiene Uniquecollections

DEI HISTORY COLLECTIONS PART FOUR

THIS E-BOOK ONLY SAMPLE NOT COMPLETE ILLUSTRATION, THE COMPLETE ILLUSTRATION EXIST ONLY TEN CD-Rom

Copyright @ Dr Iwan 2016

If you want buy the complete E-Book, please contact iwansuwandy@gmail.com, please upload your iD-Card copy with complete adress and shorth working history, and to more communication you must be my web blog Premium member with tarnsfer US 25,- or send enenvelope via airmail with stamps or old money with the same value. The price of this CD-Rom Only US 100.-

1855

 Image result for DEI one cent coin in 1855

The rare limited edition first nederland Indie one cent castcoin in 1855,the half cent more rare unique I don’t have it(Dr iwan note)

Lettre frappée du cachet bleu ovale SAMARANG FRANCO, datée de 1855 à destination de BATAVIA. Sup.; lettre; Précurseur

 Image result for Batavia - NY - Belgium. Stampless env. red paid 5 +

  1. Batavia – NY – Belgium. Stampless env. red paid 5 + via Boston with BRITISH + AMERICAN PACKET marks (9 Jan – 17 Jan). Belgium entry charges. Boats charged at Boston. Very interesting p history item

1856

Image result for Regent Bandung RA Wiranatakusumah

Based on data from various sources, the development of fully Bandung carried out by a number of people under the leadership of Regent Bandung RA Wiranatakusumah II. Therefore, it can be said that the regents RA Wiranatakusumah II is the founder of (the founding father) of Bandung.
The development of the city of Bandung and its strategic location in the middle Priangan, has encouraged the emergence of the idea of
the Dutch East Indies government in 1856 to move Capital Keresiden Priangan from Cianjur to Bandung

Hotel der Nederlanden kunnen kiezen en toen op een dag in 1856 kwam Douwes Dekker voorbij, mogelijk op weg naar de Franse kleermaker Oger Frèves tegenover Societeit De Harmonie.

En natuurlijk moet dit er dan even bij, de voetnoot onder bijna ieder Nederlands-Indië verhaal van Aad :

……een roofstaat aan de Noordzee……
            …..dat spoorwegen bouwt van gestolen geld en tot
            betaling de bestolene bedwelmt met
            opium, Evangelie en jenever…

Aan U durf ik met vertrouwen te vragen of het
            Uw wil is dat daarginds Uw meer dan dertig
            millioenen onderdanen worden mishandeld en
            uitgezogen in UWEN naam?

 

 

 

 

 

1857

Image result for Hong Kong, 1858 (14 Mar.) entire letter

Hong Kong, 1858 (14 Mar.) entire letter from Hong Kong to Netherlands (28.4) “per land mail via Triest” showing very fine “Paid/at/Hong Kong” small Crowned Circle in red (Webb type 11) with “Hong Kong” double-arc d.s. on reverse, handstruck (at Trieste) blue framed “6¼” and manuscript ratings, fine, another scarce destination for a Crowned Circle.

1857

Dirk Anthonius Varkevisser, an official of the Dutch East Indies government, was born in Samarang (present-day Semarang in Central Java) on 11th July 1800 and passed away on 4th January 1857 in Batavia. He was the former Dutch resident of Pasuruan (in east Java, near to the city of Surabaya), and he was also knighted and conferred the Order of the Netherlands Lion, a Dutch order awarded to eminent individuals from all walks of life, including generals, ministers, mayors, leading scientists, industrialists and high ranking civil servants, among others

 

1 C. als EF auf Kab-Drucksache 1857 mit blauem K2 BALT. PAID. nach Halifax in Canada, hs. Land Mail

1857

 

Insolvency~

The Indian Rebellion of 1857, known to the British as the “Great Mutiny” (also known as First War of Indian Independence), brought the consequence that the British government nationalized the EIC indirectly.

 

After this rebellion, the EIC lost all its administrative powers and dissolved on 1st of January

 

 

een van de eerste foto’s van Woodbury & Page

1857 Java

de tijger werd later “bijgeplakt” ???
We hebben dus nu zoo’n mooi foto album gekocht van Woodbury & Page en spoedden ons weer voorzichtig terug naar ons Hotel Des Indes, want wat we zojuist hebben gekocht is over zoo’n 150 jaar heel zeldzaam….

Woodbury & Page
werkzaam zijn, bij wie je prachtige foto’s van Batavia en omgeving kon verkrijgen.

het atelier van Woodbury & Page in Batavia

met het Britse wapenschild boven hun namen

Woodbury & Page in Batavia nemen het er even van en terecht….
Nu moet Aad eerlijk bekennen dat het nooit precies duidelijk is geworden wie is nu Woodbury en wie is nu Page. Maar in alle oude fotoboeken over o.m. Batavia kom je (bijna) altijd tegen dat de foto is genomen door Woodbury & Page…..dankzij hen kun je je helemaal verdiepen in het oude Batavia, wat Aad dus heel graag doet met al zijn boeken met foto’s van Woodbury & Page

Reeds in 1857 begonnen Walter Bentley Woodbury (1834 – 1885) en James Page (1833 – 1865) hun atelier in Batavia. Zij maakten grote reportages niet alleen van Batavia, maar ook van Java en dan natuurlijk altijd in de vroege nog koele ochtend, helaas dus zelden met een Europeaan op de foto. Later kwam nog een broer Henry James Woodbury erbij.
Uit advertenties is af te leiden dat je bij hen komplete albums kon kopen, nu natuurlijk onbetaalbaar en zeldzaam, maar gelukkig is er een paar jaar geleden een prachtig overzichtsboek verschenen door Aad binnen een dag gefinancierd….

Want als een van je hobbies Nederlands-Indië is, dan kun je ademloos naar een foto van Woodbury & Page kijken en dan weten dat hier ooit o.m. Loudon, van Swieten, Snouck Hurgronje, Köhler, van Daalen, Christoffel en natuurlijk de bekendere Van Heutsz en Colijn hebben rondgelopen. Wie dit allemaal waren :

Klik hier als je wilt zoeken via Aad’s Freefind search engine, vul in het venster jouw woord in, bijvoorbeeld Heutsz en klik op ENTER

De onderstaande foto is een van de eerste van Woodbury & Page geweest, waarschijnlijk uit 1857, de beroemde tijger foto gemaakt ergens op Java. De tijger sprong te vlug en daarom, aldus het verhaal, is de tijger er later “bijgeplakt”

 

 look more info from another e-book like below

Warong (food stall) in Batavia (Jakarta) 1915

Warong (food stall) in Batavia (Jakarta) 1915

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Grand Homann Hotel, Java

Grand Homann Hotel, Java

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Java school. 1920.

Java school. 1920.

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Javanese beauty c.1930.

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Keris . 18th–19th century Culture: Javanese

Keris . 18th–19th century Culture: Javanese

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Gusti Kanjeng Ratu Mas, Surakarta, Java, Indonesia 1920s…

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A Javanese Princess of Mangkunegaran Dynasty circa 1938, Surakarta, Java Island

A Javanese Princess of Mangkunegaran Dynasty circa 1938…

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Batavia: Ronggeng Betawi, 1875-1885

Indonesia Tempo Doeloe
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Kemayoran Airport, Jakarta,

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Potret wanita Karo | Portret van een jonge Karo Batak vrouw…

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King of Dayak Kahayan. Borneo, Indonesia.

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Makasarese lady

Makasarese lady

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Jakarta in the old days - Monas

Jakarta in the old days – Monas

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Vintage Ads, Fiat Ballila 1500. Koningsplein, Dutch East…

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The Dutch East Indies (Today's Indonesia) represented as "the most precious jewel" of the Dutch Empire.

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Waterloo Square - lap banteng

Waterloo Square – lap banteng

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Dirgantara

Dirgantara

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‘De rond 1840 gebouwde Willemskerk in Batavia, de hoofdkerk…

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The Dutch East Indies in photographs 1860-1940 collection…

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Paleis van Gouverneur Generaal Daendels met daar voor het…

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Tempo Doeloe <a class="pintag searchlink" data-query="%2325" data-type="hashtag" href="/search/?q=%2325&rs=hashtag" rel="nofollow" title="#25 search Pinterest">#25</a> - Jakarta, 1919
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Tempo Doeloe <a class="pintag searchlink" data-query="%2389" data-type="hashtag" href="/search/?q=%2389&rs=hashtag" rel="nofollow" title="#89 search Pinterest">#89</a> - Batavia, Pabrik Rokok Ant. Justman, 1909
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Warong (food stall) in Batavia (Jakarta) 1915

Warong (food stall) in Batavia (Jakarta) 1915

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Two sides of a duit, a coin minted in 1735 by the VOC. This Day in History: Mar 20, 1602: Dutch East India Company founded <a href="http://dingeengoete.blogspot.com/" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">dingeengoete.blog...</a>

Two sides of a duit, a 

 

 

1858

ORDONASI REVENUE ON INSURANCE POLISH  1858

 

 

 

1859

1859

The Banjarmasin War (1859–1863) in southeast Kalimantan resulted in the defeat of the Sultan

1859

Legendary story of Banjar War
Many legendary stories in Banjar War period that lasted from 1859 until 1865. one of which there are death squads called the Army War Beratib Ba-mall. Until now, the name of the force is still very legendary ….

Beginning of the conflict in the palace of Sultan Tahmudiah Banjar is when I died. He has a son who still small. Therefore, for while the power is held by Prince Tamjidillah I, brother, Sultan Tahmidillah I. But in fact, Prince Tamjidillah I not only became the guardian of his nephew was a kid, but took control with a smooth and would not return

the son of Sultan Tahmidillah I. Even to strengthen its position as the Sultan of his descendants in the future, Banjar land handed over to the Netherlands. Then by the Dutch were given to the Sultan hakPemerintahan Tamjid I and his descendants.

Therefore there was an armed uprising of Prince Amir (Prince Antasari a hero’s grandfather), a descendant of Sultan Tahmidillah I. However, resistance can be broken by the Dutch. He was later exiled to Ceylon or Sri Lanka.

To reconcile these two offspring, then, Adam Sultan Al Wasique Billah who is a descendant of Sultan Tamjidillah I married his daughter to Prince Antasari. But alas, the Queen died before giving Antasari trigger descent.

In addition, Prince Sultan Muda Abdurrahrnan also had a concubine of the Chinese nation. In 1817 the mistress gave birth to a son. Young Prince Sultan Abdurrahman wanting sons became crown prince. Therefore then freed and married her legally and was named the Big Nyai Aminah. While his son was named Prince Tamjidilllah,

Young Prince Sultan Abdurrahman desire is opposed by the grandfather and father of Sultan Sulaiman and Adam Sultan Al Wasiqu `Billah. They forced the young Prince Sultan Abdurrahman himself married to a cousin of Queen Siti, Miss Mangkubumi Nata.

Nata Mangkubumi besedia Young married his daughter to Prince Sultan Abdurrahman condition, later-born son will be king when the Sultan Muda died. This provision was approved, and the Sultan Muda had made a will on anyone who is entitled to the throne of the Sultanate of Banjar.

In Prince 1822Iahirlah Hidayatutlah. A few years later died so jabatan’tersebut Mangkubumi Nata. is empty. This opportunity was used by Prince Tamjid best, namely the Netherlands requested that appointed him in the Sultanate Mangkubumi Banjar. `With pleasure, of course, the Dutch agreed to because it will benefit the ‘they.’

In 1852 the Young Prince Sultan Abdurrahman died suddenly. A day later with Pengeran Tamjid secretly sent a letter to the Resident of the Dutch in Yogyakarta to appoint him as the heir apparent to the promised delivery of the Sultanate of Banjar areas that prompted the Dutch origin of the request is approved. Once again the Dutch Prince’s request Tamjid, because this is an opportunity for the Dutch reap the fish in troubled waters, as well as running the political divide et empera: glassware and colonize.

On June 10, 1852 the Dutch crown prince Tamjid become crown prince. Of course this appointment caused angry reactions to the nobility, clergy and community on Prince Tamjid and its allies, especially the Dutch.

In April 1853, Sultan Adam, Son of the Young Prince Sultan Abdurrahman sent envoys to Batavia to meet with Governor General of Dutch East Indies in order to request the cancellation of the appointment of justice PangeranTamjid become crown prince and Prince Setting Hidayatullah become crown prince in accordance with the testament of Sultan Adam. But this request was rejected by the Dutch East Indies governor. This adds to the heat of the political climate in the Kingdom of Banjar Prince Tamjid so do not dare to live in the palace which is located diIbukota Banjar Jewels Temple (City of Gems) that the person called Banjar City Martapura now Martapura Banjar regency’s capital.

Tamjid Prince Sultan fled to Banjarmasin. To cool the political atmosphere is getting warmer, finally. HidayatuIlah into Dutch raised Pengeran Mangkubumi previously held by PangeranTamjid and set PangeranTamjid as crown prince. Besides capturing the Dutch Prince and banished him to the King Anom Banjarmasin because it is considered as a provocateur who oppose the decisions of the Netherlands.

To avoid unwanted things to his son, then, the Sultan had come to accompany Prince Adam King moved to Banjarmasin Anom. When gering, or severe illness, he was taken to the palace in Martapura Banjar. On November 01, 1857 he died and was buried in Martapura

On 3 November 1857 the Dutch crown prince as the king’s successor Sultan Tamjid Adam, and the Prince immediately ordered the arrest of Prince Tamjid Anom King then threw to Bogor, West Java.

In 1858, there is a continual movement of people who want to restore the kingdom of culture and the concessions that have been damaged due to the inclusion of power penjajajah Netherlands.

EMERGENCE bead cherished daughter of froth

Mentioned, magical princess who emerged from the foaming whirlpools, then by Gastric Mangkurat crowned as queen in the Kingdom of Dipa Nagara, and then married to the Majapahit royal palace, Raden Putra

After marriage with Princess Bubble cherished, Raden Putra became king in the Kingdom under the name Prince Dipa Nagara Ananta Surya (son of the sun). According to legend Banjar society, they both, in the end mokswa or disappear into the invisible realm and became a ruler in the palace of Magical Mountain Pamaton

According to public confidence, they could both dripping or possessed bodies of people they want.

Thus, when the political temperature in the Kingdom of Banjar is getting hot because the Dutch intervened at the coronation of Prince Tamjid as king in the Kingdom of Banjar to replace Adam Sultan because Sultan Muda Prince Abdurrahman had died first. In fact, the nobility, clergy and the people willed Banjar Hidayatullah became Prince Sultan, according to the testament or the testament of Sultan previous

One of the pious scholars in Kumbayau Tambarangan, Overseas (Regency But right now), named Datu Aling are concerned about the crisis in the palace Banjar. Accordingly, it is because he salampah or penance with his own solitude, fasting, prayer, and remembrance wird, and other practice-practice to draw closer to God, accompanied by a request that the instructions given and the solution to the crisis that is happening in the palace Banjar . Datu Aling_dilaksanakan penance for nine months nine days, beginning in April 1858 until. by February 1859.

On February 2, 1859 to coincide with the 10th Rajab 1275 H; Datu Aling visited by kings and magical kingdom of Banjar Datu Aling asked to bring Prince Muning Antasari to the area. He will start the New Kingdom until the rightful king was elected.

On 13 Rajab 1275 AH, Princess Datu named Aling Saranti, cherished daughter was possessed by Bubble. He is married with a young man asked village named Dulasa because in her magical spirit benemayam Prince Surya Ananta.

Hearing all that, then, was Aling Datu daughter Implementing all these desires. Once married to Dulasa, then, Saranti be named espouse Bubble Princess and her husband Prince Surya Dulasa named Ananta. Datu Aling then announced to the public about Saranti coronation, the king cherished Princess Bubble Bead. Kumbayau area was renamed the Kingdom of Tambay Mecca. As a king in the Kingdom Tambay Mecca, Saranti Bead Princess Bubble lift ayahya cherished, Datu Aling, as Panembahan, brother Sambang given the title of the Yellow Emperor, his sister was given the title Queen of the Sacred Nuramin, while the husband was given the title as Mangkubumi Nuramin Kusuma Nagara, Bayan Sampit, Garuntung waluh, Garumung manau, Kindaui Aji, Kindui Mu `l, splitting Batung, Panimba Sagara, there is also the Commander Juntai In Sky and others.

Tambay Mecca kingdom separate from the Sultanate of Banjar and not subject to the Dutch colonizers. Bubble bead Saranti cherished became queen in Mecca KerajaanTambay only as a symbol of the head of state, while the affairs of government are held, by Penembahan Muda Datu Aling. As a Panembahan, the pious, just and wise he is working with Immediate Banua Ampat, namely: Banua Halat, Banua Gadung, Banua Padang and Banua Parigi. They are subject to the Datu Aling. Then follow the same Banua Top, Trunk Hulu, Guava, Amandit and Pangabau

To his followers, Datu Aling always instill the spirit of jihad for the sake of fighting injustice and occupation. The call for jihad Aling Datu who received tremendous response from the community, was made Prince of the Netherlands felt teracam Tamjid its position. For the Dutch Resident in Banjarmasin send a team consisting of the Chief Prosecutor. Suryadinata prince and the prince of the Head of Prince Muhammad Seman accompanied by 120 followers

Knowing the Will of their arrival, then, was Aling Datu Yellow Emperor ordered his troops to prepare his jihad as many as 700 people complete with weapons drawn

to keep all possibilities that bakal_terjadi.Tentu Dutch Resident is just the messenger gasped to see so many forces in Datu Aling the STAP jihad fighters if they do sort-rnacam. Because they just want to see the actual situation in the Kingdom of Mecca, they were welcome to meet at the Palace of Datu Aling Tambay Mecca.

After hearing reports messenger, once again ordered the Dutch Resident Mangkubumi Prince Hidayatullah to deal with the Kingdom of Tambay Mecca. Then sent Prince Prince Hidayatullah Antasari. Kesuma Jantera Prince and Prince Omar Sharif to meet Datu Aling, Datu Aling During the meeting explaining the intent and purpose of establishment of the Kingdom of Tambay Mecca. It turned out that what is conveyed by Datu Aling dengart hand in hand what is desired by Prince Antasari. Until finally terjadilahn matchmaking agreement between the child named Antasari Prince Prince Mohammed Said with Saranti Bead Princess Bubble who have been widowed cherished.

Thus grew stronger the position of Datu Aling due 30 days after the wedding with Prince Muhammad Said Saranti, the incarnation of Princess Bubble cherish, then, Prince Antasari began to actively lead the popular movement in Banua Ampat and Banua five are directed to the Dutch.

28 April 1859 Puncaknyapada jihadists from Datu Aling Banua Banua Ampat and five under the leadership of Prince Antasari, attacked the Dutch fortress in Pengaron Orange Nassau. The attack was very successful. That was the beginning of the outbreak of the War Banjar. Finally, the battle also extends to various areas in South Kalimantan

As retaliation for the collapse of bastion of Orange Nassau in Pengaron, then, on 16 November 1859, suddenly attacked the Dutch defense forces Yellow Emperor. This attack was greeted with cries of Allahu Akbar by jihadi forces under the command of Sultan Datu Aling Yellow. In battle, the leader of the Dutch army captain killed by a spear Benschop. That day came again a platoon of the larger Dutch troops, but all were driven back.

In the evening, come back bigger Dutch troops to storm the bastion of Datu Aling Muning ie in the mosque. The battle occurred overnight. Datu Aling, Saranti Along with a few people remained loyal followers in the mosque. Aling Datu did not want to surrender to the Dutch even though the fire had licked all the mosques are made of wood. Finally, Datu Aling and Saranti was killed as a martyr.

Listen to the death of Datu Aling and Saranti, then, Prince Antasari issued a slogan which reads “Heram manyareh, waja until ka nipple: (haram surrendered to the Dutch until the last drop of blood)”

WAR FORCES MUNCULNNYA BERATIB BA-CHARITY

Attacks on the forts, coal mines, warships and other Dutch possessions to make the colonists could not do anything about it. Until June 25, 1859 forced the Dutch Prince Tamjid turunt ahta and throw it to Bogor. Prince is being run from the palace Martapura Hidayatullah joined Prince Antasari.

The battle occurred not only in South Kalimantan region, but extends to Central Kalimantan. Central Kalimantan is the field of battle Barito, Kapuas and Katingan led by Prince Antasari, accompanied by the original Surapati Tumenggung Dayak tribe. Martapura and Tang Sea region led by Lehman Demat, Region Five Banua led by Jalil degree Kiyai Wall Duke Anom king.

After the Netherlands asked for help to Batavia, then, berdatanganlah warships and complete with soldiers and cannon-cannon. Onrust Warships sailing to Barito to capture Prince Antasari metalui Tumenggung Surapati. However Tumenggung Surapati not want to sell out despite promises prizes of several thousand Dutch Guilders if Tumenggung Surapati could give Prince Antasari.

On December 26, 1859, suddenly Tumenggung Surapati with his men attacked the ship Onrust In this incident commander Onrust warships and 93 of his men were killed. The guns and cannon cannon transported ashore while his ship was sunk. Meanwhile, the warship sailed Tjipanas Martapura River came under fire from Demat Lehman and his men so hastily returned to Banjarmasin.

On June 11, 1860, proclaimed the abolition of the Kingdom of the Netherlands makes the Banjar and the region as a Dutch colony. Thus the war against the Dutch because the Dutch are no longer intervene in the area of Banjar palace, but the war against Dutch colonialism who want to destroy the Muslims. Therefore, in 1861 came the death squads to defend the religion of Islam. The force is called Ba-Baratib War Forces charity. The cornerstone of their struggle is the sentence of God, Hadith Prophet Muhammad, ask syafa’at 40 prophets, sacred science of the Datu and Heroes. Before progressing to the battlefield, first, they purify the body of hadast with shower and ablution, then dressed in white like clothing Rasullullah war era. They also fasted then beratib ba charity (practice / mewiridkan one practice: Pen) until I forget myself. Then advanced into battle to face the enemy. They believe, if they fall in battle against the infidels Dutch and their allies, they die a martyr.

Leaders of the movement of Ba `War Beratib this mall is the religious teachers and the prince. Among the leaders of the Army War Baratib Perhaps this is the charity of Banua Lawas Badr Haji, the prince of Rashid, and Abdul Gani Buyasin headman of the village Amuntai Basil.

Sementera it Pula, Prince Hidayatullah who has been crowned as the Sultan of the Kingdom of Banjar in Amuntai repeatedly received offers of peace from the Netherlands, but the offer was always declined. With the ruse. Dutch Prince Hidayatullah tricked to come to-Martapura on orders Siti’s mother Queen Dowager. Queen Mother Queen Siti who can not read Latin letters to the Dutch believe it enough to sign a letter written by the Kingdom of the Netherlands as well as stamped Banjar. As a pious man, of Prince Hidatullah afraid of his mother. Hidayatullah Prince came to Martapura on March 3, 1862. Rock aat the same way, he was arrested and exiled to Cianjur.

Prince Antasari continue the struggle against the Dutch. But unfortunately he was a sickly start to Rahmatullah finally passed away on October 11, 1862.

Nevertheless, the war continues. Commander of the Army War Beratib Ba-Hajj Amal Buyasin fall in battle, following the then Chairman of the prince Rashid, Commander of Bukhari, Tumenggung State Tigers, Tumenggung Naro, and others,

Demat Lehman, leader of the guerrilla war untukwilayah Martapura Land Sea and was caught by fraud Dutch in Slippery Rock area and then transported to Martapura and hanged to death in the plaza III (now the Great Mosque of Al-page KaromahPen) Martapura. After that head cut off and sent to Holland. And there is a necklace around her neck ajimat. When ajimat is opened in it there is a white paper that read Arabic letters that people which means free or die

1859

The Banjarmasin War (1859–1863) in southeast Kalimantan resulted in the defeat of the Sultan

.

 

 

 

 

 

 

1860

Multatuli [1860] …aan Nederland…Koning Willem III

….dat dorp stond in brand, omdat het veroverd was door Nederlandsche soldaten…….

Ja, ‘t dorp was veroverd door Nederlandsche soldaten, en stond dus in brand.

Op Nederlandsche heldendaad volgt brand.
Nederlandsche overwinning leidt tot verwoesting.
Nederlandsche krygsbedryven baren wanhoop.

Maar terug naar ons verhaal:

1861

INDIA HOLANDESA. 1861. Entire letter to Bordeaux from Batavia with blue prepaid datestamp of despatch (Feb 2) and thence via Suez and Marseille (March 15). Charged 16 decimes handstruck on arrival in black

 

 

 

 

1862

1862 (14 May). Batavia – USA. Stampless env via London (27 June) + British Packet / Boston + 7sh / 7d + 20c US Charge. On reverse Singapore GPO May 1862 red cds

 

In 1862 werden in Paleis Rijswijk de eerste gasverlichtings armaturen van Batavia aangebracht.

1

Ook in 1862 verscheen een wat negatief commentaar over Paleis Rijswijk: waarom werd dit armetierige gebouw Paleis genoemd, aan de voorzijde hangt weliswaar het Wapen van het Koninkrijk van Nederland, maar de rest van het gebouw lijkt meer op een paardenstal dan een Paleis een Gouverneur-Generaal van Nederlands-Indië waardig.

 

1863

01/07/1863 – 30/06/1868 C.F.W. Wiggers van Kerchem
Wiggers van Kerchem was appointed President per July 1, 1863. Wiggers van Kerchem was a member of the firm Tiedeman & van Kerchem in Batavia prior to his appointment. Per decree of June 30, 1868, it was decided to discharge Wiggers van Kerchem in the most honorable way. After finishing the concept of the fifth Exclusive Right that should be implemented per April 1, 1870, Wiggers van Kerchem decided to return to Europe for retirement

 

Very rare 1863 (5 Sept). Scotland – Batavia. Fkd GB E / 10d rate. Via Singapore fwding agent on front Martin Dice & Cº + boxed. Postage / 6 British Share offi 6d (xxx / RR) of transit charge + 1 shilling at dest. Reverse London. Exceptional exhibition rarity with pmks usage

 

1863

Woodbury & Page

vanuit de Benedenstad langs het Molenvliet (links) meteen rechts de ingang van ons hote lin de verte links De Harmonie met rechts in dat ronde gebouw de Frank leermaker Oger Frèves

Hotel des Indes in 1863

 

1864

Rare 1864, Post Offices Not Controlled By India – BATAVIA (Dutch East India): entire letter from Batavia, Java to London with small boxed ”INDIA PAID/BY BATAVIA” in black. This mark was applied by the Dutch P.O. in Batavia to all letters sent by the P.& O. Steamers to show that the steam postage had been paid. Endorsed ‘Per English Mail via Marseilles’ and ‘India Paid’, backstamped ”SINGAPORE P.O./6 APR(inverted)/1864” in red double circle, and despatch and arrival cds’s.

“Tarif à 30c pour le CHILI” : 1864 10c(n°21)+ 20c(n°22) sur lettre du HAVRE pour VALPAR
AISO. Tarif à 30c des batiments de Commerces(Par navire PADANG). TTB

1864

The idea for a variety of new things realized in 1864. Based Besluit Governor-General dated August 7, 1864 No.18, Bandung defined as the central government Priangan Residency.

Thus, since then the city of Bandung has a double function, namely as the Capital District as well as the capital of Bandung Residency Priangan. At that time, who became Regent of Bandung is Wiranatakusumah RA IV (1846-1874).

 

 

 

 

1864

De Javasche Bank note issues 1864

 

De Javasche Bank note issues, January 1864 – April 1895, printed by Joh. Enschede en Zn.

info source:Rob Huisman

In 1863, De Javasche Bank, was the circulation bank of the Netherlands Indies. One would expect it to be a well-established colonial institution, however the opposite is true. Research at the archives of the printer Joh. Enschede en Zonen at the Museum Enschedé in Haarlem, the Netherlands, shows a completely different picture. The board and especially the President of De Javasche Bank were directly involved in detail in all operational matters related to the design and ordering of their banknotes

1868

01/07/1868 – 31/03/1870 J.W.C. Diepenheim
Wiggers van Kerchem was succeeded by Diepenheim by decree of June 30, 1868. Diepenheim who proviously was Secretary for two years, was President for a short period. He resigned shortly after the fifth Exclusive Right was made public. On March 18, 1870, his resignation was accepted. Diepenheim died in The Hague on May 21, 1875 in the age of 75.
                             
1870

01/04/1870 – 31/03/1873 F. Alting Mees (LL.M.)
By decree of March 19, 1870, Alting Mees was appointed to the position of President of the Javasche Bank. Alting Mees, previously lawyer and attorney, already served the bank as director for several years. Due to his appointment to President of the two high courts of the Netherlands Indies, he left the Javasche Bank per March 31, 1873.

1873

01/04/1873 – 01/09/1889 N.P. van den Berg (LL.M.)                               
Norbertus Petrus van den Berg was chosen as the next President of the Javasche bank from two nominees and was appointed per decree of March 20, 1873. After more than 16 years of service, Van den Berg left the Netherlands Indies in 1889 to become Director of the Nederlandsche Bank and two years later President for a period of 21 years until the age of 81. He passed away in Amsterdam on January 8, 1917.

De Javasche Bank 1864-1895

January 1864 – April 1895, printed by Joh. Enschede en Zn.
Info Sources: Rob Huisman

In 1863, De Javasche Bank, founded in 1828, is a circulation bank in the Netherlands Indies. One would expect to become an established colonial institutions, but the opposite is true. Research in archives John printer. Enschede en Zonen in Haarlem Museum in Enschede, the Netherlands, showed a completely different picture. Council President De Javasche and in particular the Bank is directly involved in operational detail in everything related to design and order their paper money

Section 4, January 1864 – April 1895, printed by Joh. Enschede en Zn.

In 1863,

De Javasche Bank, founded in 1828, is a circulation bank in the Netherlands Indies.
One would expect to become an established colonial institutions, but the opposite is true.
Research in archives John printer. Enschede en Zonen in Haarlem Museum in Enschede,
The Netherlands, showed a completely different picture. Council and in particular President De
Javasche Bank directly involved in operational detail in all matters related to the design and
to order their paper money.

Reading through all the correspondence carefully stored and arranged between Javasche Bank
and printing companies in the homeland, one can feel the atmosphere of modern
entrepreneurial start-up companies. President (CEO) of E. Francis De Javasche Bank (DJB) and
Wiggers van Kerchem successor, wrote a letter to John. Enschede en Zn. (Later called the “Heeren
Enschedee te Haarlem “) on a regular basis to order the new banknotes, commenting on the quality and implementation
command, complained about delays in delivery, and often underscores the urgent need for new supplies to
those remote regions.

Most striking is that they often mention that the cost is to limit the maximum
important. The letters are written with beautiful calligraphy and using ways of polite and politically correct
complaining, urging, comment and criticize. Words such as “worry”, “disappointed”, “propose” and
“Like” is used regularly and frequently suggestions and proposals submitted by completing the statement
such as:

“But we rely on your expertise in this regard and believe you will make the right decision”.
E. Francis (he signed his letters with M. Francis), third President of Javasche Bank, started as a
employees in 1815 and worked his way in the service of civil government to finally be over
available to the Commissioner General of the servant. From 1848 to 1850 Francis is the Superintendent of Financial
and in 1851 he was honorably discharged from government service. Furthermore, Francis was appointed
Javasche to the President of the Bank under the decision dated March 4, 1851. In the early sixties of the 19th century,
De Javasche Bank started to prepare a complete new emission of paper money the Dutch East Indies. In
cooperation with the Nederlandsche Bank, De Javasche Bank is pointing towards the Netherlands
printer “De Heeren Enschedee” (now known as John. Enschede en Zn. (Enschede Security)) to have
The new banknotes are designed and manufactured. Francis was personally involved in the process and
communicate with the printer on a regular basis. Unfortunately, Francis did not stay in the office to see
the results of his efforts. At the request of Francis himself honorably discharged per July 1, 1863
The decision by 20 April 1863. In 1864 Francis published the book “De-beginselen regerings van
Nederlandsch Indie: getoetst aan de behoefte van moederland en kolonie “, expressed his
dissatisfaction with the implementation of a new economic system in the Netherlands Indies and
proposed inquiry by an independent committee. In 1869 Francis issued a request to
Dutch Parliament about his famous right to payment of pensions to retired civil servants
Government of the Netherlands Indies. This response proposal and the request is not found, leading to
believe that Francis ignored by the establishment and must fight for that trust and pension
pay the old days.
In a letter from Francis dated January 31, 1863, with the management of the Nederlandsche Bank, which
evidence has confirmed receipt of the record and the evidence has been approved. In the same letter Francis
raised some comments that he wanted to address:
– Size note: DJB prefer to be the difference in size between the records of 100 and 50
guilders. This means that the records of 1000, 500, 300, 200 and 100 will be great, and notes
of 50, 25 and 10 will be small size. DJB stated that if the De Nederlandsche Bank (DNB) think
the divide should be between 25 and 10 guilders, DJB will also agree.
– Character value in the corner records should be larger.
– Lions at 10 guilders note has an expression, surprised almost frightened. DJB would like
lion to have a more relaxed expression symbolizes strength.

__________________________________________________________________________
– DJB would prefer that the signature is placed under the words “Secretary” and “President” and demand
words to be printed under the date as high as possible.
– DJB prefer that the date is printed on a printer that was not applied in (Joh. Enschede en Zn.)
DJB after arrival. In the case of a printer to print the date, Francis suggests choosing a date is not be
Christian holiday or Sunday and about 6 months after the date of expected departure from the
paper money.
– DJB stated that they calculated six months for the duration of the trip and apply numbers and
signatures for the amount of paper money needed for the exchange of banknotes in circulation today.
In early 1870 the delivery of DJB’s request to be sent through the Suez Canal opened, reducing the
travel time by more than 50%.

De Javasche fourth President of the Bank,

C.F.W. Wiggers van Kerchem, took office on July 1
1863 and continue the process of ordering new issues of paper money.
During the period January 1864 – April 1895, serial number and signature on the front and
cons in the opposite sign printed locally by the Bank in the Netherlands Indies Javasche on
complete records are sent from the printers in the Netherlands. The Bank also Javasche
ordering equipment numbering stamps and signatures of the printer and some blank signature stamps
in the case of signatories will change, allowing them to carve out a new signature stamps
own local. Together with the first order of 1864 new banknotes, the Bank Javasche
ordered the mechanic to accompany numbering machine and take care of the machine becomes
production. Willem Hooij contracted by Joh. Enschede en Zonen for traveling to Batavia in
Dutch East Indies and install the machine. In a letter from Hooij to John. Enschede en Zonen date
August 12, 1864, he wrote about President patient from Javasche Bank makes
difficulties because Hooij not get the machine installed in one day. Wiggers van Kerchem
invite a local printer to meet and together they underestimate Hooij.
161a – from private collections, with the Contra Mark printed in the lower right corner opposite.
All banknotes issued by the De Javasche Bank in the Dutch East Indies during the period 1864 to 1931
and printed by Johan Enschede en Zonen, bringing counter-sign, printed in the lower right corner or
lower center of the opposite. A code that is printed in black on the cap ellipse with a triangular shape
pointing outwards and have up to 5 numbers. Countries lower denomination notes issued during this
period does not have this mark.

Collectors who are familiar with the Dutch East Indies paper money from
This period may be aware that there is a relationship between the date of issuance and cons
the sign. Although it looks like a date then the higher the score, in reality this is not always
the case.
In order to determine the proper application of the mark cons, I gather more information about
than 150 records starting from 1864 to 1931. When setting up and organizing all relevant information
such as date, serial number and the cons, I observed the following:
– One of the unique sign of a counter is always connected to only one specific date of issue
– One of the specified date there are problems with different security code, but the security code that is close
together
– When a record is more of the same problem occurs with the same date and security code, the record has
combinations of the same character in the serial number
– When the date occurs with more than one mark each sign cons cons unique place with different
combinations of characters in the serial number of a specific problem or a sign of a counter connected to the
other denominations issued
– Many have missed the date, there are many days or weeks gap between one and the subsequent counter-sign
– Note the different denominations issued on the same date with different sign cons
– It seems that a range of sequence numbers is used to sign a counter that includes all the notes issued
from the entire period
– There are some exceptions in which the later date has a number of counter low marks
– No combination of different character serial number of a particular denomination with
same counter-sign.
– Changes from 4 to 5 digits occur in the course of 1918
– Note EXAMPLE frequently have signs that are not suitable to deviate counter the usual sequential increase
counter-sign and date.
Clearly, the Bank managed the Netherlands will keep detailed records of the security code and
dates and serial numbers of all paper money issued. It is unknown whether this note De Javasche
Banks still exist in archives somewhere today, although there are rumors that this record is still
present in the archives of Bank Indonesia in Jakarta.
Based on the “Note by PJ Soetens, former conservator DNB (De Nederlandsche Bank), the archive
Geldmuseum, Utrecht, The Netherlands “, I conclude that the Bank used the sign of De Javasche cons
number to identify a separate batch of unfinished bills are transported between
various departments, where they were printed with the serial number and signature, and finally
stored in a vault teller before circulation
Archives of Enschede Museum contains many original orders, production records,
delivery of information and also letters from Batavia where Javasche Bank confirms receipt
shipments. The author makes an overview of all this data and be able to specify the exact amount of
issued notes for each date of issuance. The number of issued notes mentioned in the summary below
should be regarded as a minimum. There is strong evidence that these figures actually incurred.
Although it is possible that more records were published, the opportunity – while there is no distinct
detailed records mention them – very small.
Here is an overview of the different banknotes and their varieties are printed in Johan
Enschede en Zonen in Haarlem, the Netherlands which will be issued by the De Javasche Bank in Batavia,
Dutch East Indies. Although there are rumors about another date of issue and signature combinations,
Overview below lists only those banknotes and varieties that writers have sufficient evidence that
they actually exist.
Java Auction Catalog (7), Cookies (15) and Mevius (16) mentions Van Duyn as a signatory, but
no one by that name is part of the board of DJB during the period. It seems that the signature
of H.P.J. van den Berg (Secretary of 19/10/1893 – 17/01/1899) has been mistaken as it looks like
Van Duyn. H.P.J. van den Berg, brother of the past president of the Bank Javasche NP van den Berg,
appointed as successor to President Groeneveld is on January 17, 1899, but died on February 9, 1899
in Nice, before actually starting his new position.

 

__________________________________________________________________

5 Gulden

1 Oktober 1866
issued : 100,000

10 Gulden

1 Februari 1864
issued : 350.000

25 Gulden

1 Agustus 1864
issued : 120.000

__________________________________________________________________________

50 Gulden

174 – 1 September 1864
withdrawed l 1872 becaus e too many counterfiet circulated
issued : 40.000
__________________________________________________________________________

100 Gulden

1 Maret 1864
issued : 60.000

__________________________________________________________________________
200 Gulden

 

1 Januari 1864
issued : 16,010
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” and two  “200”  __________________________________________________________________________

300 Gulden

193 – 2 Mei 1864
issued : 6.000

500 Gulden

197 – 1 Juni 1864
197c – koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2140 28/13)

198 – 1 Juni 1872

issued : 2.000

1000 Gulden

1 Juli 1864
issued : 14,998

1864

 

Dutch Indies NVPH 1 hinged

1864 – Koning Willem III – 10 ct. wijnrood

Prachtige ongebruikte (hinged) zegel

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 400,00

 

 

Dutch Indies NVPH 1 used

1864 – Koning Willem III – 10 ct. wijnrood

Mooie gebruikte (used) zegel

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 125,00

Halfround CDS on DEI first and second stamps

(courtecy Pipiet Sulistyowati)

 

 

 

 

1865

1865, stampless native envelope w. framed „FRANCO” and violet „CHERIBON 15 9 1865” alongisde to Singapore, on reverse framed ”SINGAPORE/SHIPLETTER 10 OC. ..„ and ”SINGAPORE / PAID„

1865 (14 Sept). Batavia – India. Staylers envelope with contains. Arrival accts charge mark + red Bombay Oct 4,65 on reverse. VF appealing item.[

1865

Photograph of night watchmen in Batavia by Isidore van Kinsbergen, 1865

Painting of Mount Merapi erupting in 1865, by Raden Saleh

 

1866

Unusual 1866, “BATAVIA FRANCO” auf Brief nach Bremen über Triest mit blauem Tax-Vermerk “6” in guter Bedarfserhaltung

 

The emblems of the Nederlandsche Handelsmaatschappij

were deposed in 1866. They consisted of a larger emblem, a medial emblem and a cypher. [18]

GRECIA. 1866 (Jan.). Entire letter from CALIMNO to TRIESTE, with fine strike of oval Forwarding Agent´s cachet GEORGES CALVOCORESSI/SYRA in blue at upper left and SYROS despatch cds´s. Charged in manuscript with ´28´ (kreuzer) due marking on arrival. A fine entire.

Unusual Càd rouge BATAVIA sur lettre pour Bordeaux, taxe tampon 12 et très rare Càd d’entrée rouge (faible) INDES NEERL. / PAQ. BR. AMB. MARS. 1866. – B / TB.

HOTEL DES INDES
In 1860 verkocht Wijss het hotel weer door aan de Fransman Cresonnier en deze Cresonnier was degene die Woodbury & Page foto’s liet maken van zijn Hotel Des Indes, waarom ? Inderdaad, om met deze
fotographieën reclame te maken…..

En dus hier slechts twee foto’s genomen van Hotel Des Indes door Woodbury & Page :

1866

In 1866 ,

 

 

Bickmore stories …

Prof. Albert S. Bickmore was traveling in Sumatra, he saw not a little of these people, and he believed then that the place where their aboriginal civilization sprang up was very likely on the shores of that famous Sumatran lake, Lake Toba, and upon the neighboring plateau of Silindung. From this locality they gradually occupied an extensive domain in the in- terior, which was extended upon either side to the seacoast. Eventually, however, the Malays spread along the coast line, and thus confined the Battaks once more to the interior.

 

The origin of the Battas is doubtful

Battas or Dutch Battaks, the inhabitants of the formerly independent Batta country, in the central highlands of Sumatra, now for the most part subjugated to the Dutch government. The still independent area extends from 9 8 °-99° 35′ E., and 2°-3° 25′ S. North-east of Toba Lake dwell the Timor Batta [ Batak Timur = Simalungun now, red], and west of it the Pakpak [Dairi, red ], but on its north (in the mountains which border on the east coast residency) the Karo Batta [ Batak Karo , red ] form a special group, which, by its dialects and ethnological character, appears to be allied to the Gajus [ suku Gayo , red ] and Alias [suku Alas : red] occupying the interior of Achin [Aceh : red ].

The origin of the Battas is doubtful. It is not known whether they were settled in Sumatra before the Hindu period. Their language contains words of Sanskrit origin and others referable to Javanese, Malay and Tagal influence. Their domain has been doubtless much curtailed, and their absorption into the Achin and Malay population seems to have been long going on.

Battas are physically quite different from the Malay type

The Battas are undoubtedly of Malayan stock, and by most authorities are affiliated to that Indonesian pre-Malayan race which peopled the Indian Archipelago, expelling the aboriginal negritos, and in turn themselves submitting to the civilized Malays. In many points the Battas are physically quite different from the Malay type. The average height of the men is 5 ft. 4 in.[± 160-170 cm , red ]; of the women 4 ft. 8 in [± 130 – 140 cm , red ].

 

The Battas are dirty in their dress and dwellings and eat any kind of food

In general build they are rather thickset, with broad shoulders and fairly muscular limbs. The colour of the skin ranges from dark brown to a yellowish tint, the darkness apparently quite independent of climatic influences or distinction of race. The skulll is rather ovall than round. In marked contrast to the Malay type are the large, black, longshaped eyes, beneath heavy, black or dark brown eyebrows. The cheek-bones are somewhat prominent, but less so than among the Malays. The Battas are dirty in their dress and dwellings and eat any kind of food, though they live chiefly on rice. They are remarkable as a people who in many ways are cultured and possess a written language of their own, and yet are cannibals.
Battaks have long been notorious for the most revolting forms of cannibalism
The more civilized of them around Lake Toba are good agriculturists and stock-breeders, and understand iron-smelting. They weave and dye cotton, make jewellery and krisses which are often of exquisite workmanship, bake pottery, and build picturesque chalet-like houses of two storeys. They have an organized government, hereditary chiefs, popular assemblies, and a written civil and penal code. There is even an antiquated postal; system, the letter-boxes being the hollow tree trunks at crossroads. Yet in spite of this comparative culture the Battas have long been notorious for the most revolting forms of cannibalism. ( see: Memoirs of the Life, &c., of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, 1830.)

Battaks is mainly confined to a belief in three gods concept

The Battas are the only lettered people of the Indian Archipelago who are not Mahommedans. Their religion is mainly confined to a belief in evil spirits, but they recognize three gods, a Creator, a Preserver and a Destroyer, like a trinity suggestive of Hindu influence.
Up to the publication of Dr H. N. van der Tuuk’s essay, Over schrift en uitspraak der Tobasche taal (1855), our knowledge of the Batta language was confined to lists of words more or less complete, chiefly to be found in W. Marsden’s Miscellaneous Works, in F. W. Junghuhn’s Battalander, and in the Tijdschrift van het Bataviaasch Genootschap, vol. iii. (1855). By his exhaustive works (Bataksch Leesboek, in 4 vols., 1861-1862; Batakschnederduitsch Woordenboek, 1861; Tobasche Spraakkunst, 1864-1867) van der Tuuk made the Batta language the most accessible of the various tongues spoken in Sumatra.

 

Batta is poor in general terms, but abounds in terms for special objects

According to him, it is nearest akin to the old Javanese and Tagal, but A. Schreiber (Die Battas in ihrem Verheiltnis zu den Malaien von Sumatra, 1874) endeavoured to prove its closer affinity with the Malay proper. Like most languages spoken by less civilized tribes, Batta is poor in general terms, but abounds in terms for special objects. The number of dialects is three, viz. the Toba, the Mandailing and the Dairi dialects; the first and second have again two subdivisions each.
The Battas further possess six peculiar or recondite modes of speech, such as the Hata Andung, or language of the wakes, and the Hata Poda or the soothsayer’s language.
A fair acquaintance with reading and writing is very general among them. Battaks’s alphabet is said, with the Rejang and Lampong alphabets, to be of Indian origin.
The language is written on bark or bamboo staves from bottom to top, the lines being arranged from left to right. The literature consists chiefly in books on witchcraft, in stories, riddles, incantations, &c., and is mostly in prose, occasionally varied by verse.’
See also “Reisen nach dem Toba See,” Petermanns Mitteil. (1883); Modigliani, Fra i Batacchi indipendenti (Rome, 1892); Neumann, “Het Paneen Bilastroomgebiad,” Tydschr. Aardr. Gen., 1885-1887; Van Dijk in the same periodical (1890-1895); Wing Easton in the Jaarboek voor het Mynwezen, 1894; Niemann in the Encyclopaedia van Nederlandsch-Indie, under the heading Bataks, with very detailed bibliography; Baron J. v. Brenner, Besuch bei den Kannibalen Sumatras (Wurzburg, 1893); H. Breitenstein, 21 Jahre in Indien, Java, Sumatra (Leipzig, 1899-1900); G. P. Rouffaer, Die BatikKunst in niederlcindisch-Indien and ihre Geschichte (Haarlem, 1899).

 

1867

1867, vorphilatelistischer Brief aus Benkoelen (Küstenprovinz in Sumatra)nach den Niederlanden, schwarzer „FRANCO” cds. und roter Ankunftsstempel „S’GRAVENHAGE JUN 67”.

 

1867

In line with the development function, in the city of Bandung was built buildings in the area Cicendo prefecture (now the Home Office of the Governor of West Java) and a government hotel. The building was completed residency in 1867.

 

 

 

 

 

1868

Dutch Indies NVPH 2 hinged

1868 – Koning Willem III – 10 ct. karmijnrood

Mooie ongebruikte (hinged) zegel met originele bruinige gom + cert. NVPH

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 1500,00+++

 

Dutch Indies NVPH 2 used

1868 – Koning Willem III – 10 ct. karmijnrood

Mooie gebruikte (used) zegel

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 225,00

 

1868 – Envelope from Cheribon (Java Island) May 1, 1868 to Samarang (Java Island), bearing 10 cent. lake (Yv. 1 – King William III), tied by “Cheribon/1/5/1868/Franco” semi-circle postmark. Alongside same postmark in black over c.d.s. in red of Cheribon. On the reverse c.d.s. of Samarang “3/5/1868” on arrival. Several handstamps on the front and back in Javanese language. Very fine and rare. Est E 10000,-

1868, incoming mail: stampless cover from Netherlands w. red „TERBORGH 8 APR 68” endorsed „Via Marseilles” to Benkoelen/Sumatra w. red arrival „BENKOELEN 28/5 1868

1868

DEI Half cent castcoin 1858

The Town Hall in the old city center built in 1710 (3rd building)


www.geheugenvannederland.nl


Military parade in front of the statue of Jan Pietersz. Coen at Waterloo-square during the coronation celebrations of Queen Wilhelmina, 1898.


The Artesian well at Salemba, 1885.


The Artesian well at the Koningsplein square, 1885.


The City Theatre, 1865


www.geheugenvannederland.nl


The ‘Landsarchief’ – the colonial archives, housed in a former country house built around 1760


A typical Chinese house.


The shop of ‘Eigen Hulp’ at the Molenvliet-West canal, 1890.


Building in the botanical gardens and zoo.


Bathing kids in the Molenvliet canal next to ‘De Harmonie’ society builing. (Architect: J.C. Schultze, 1815)


www.geheugenvannederland.nl‘De Harmonie’ society building, 1875.


The Aceh monument at the Koningsplein square


The protestant Willemskerk, 1875.


Museum of the Society for Arts and History. (Built in 1862)


Military Society on the east side of the Waterlooplein square, corner Sipajersweg-road.


www.geheugenvannederland.nlMilitary Society Concordia.


Weltevreden Palace at the Koningsplein square, 1880.


Soldiers in front of a ‘watch-house’ of Weltevreden Palace, 1880.


Audience-hall in the Palace


The Palace (back), 1875.


palace interior


Volksraad or Council of the Indies Building or Raad van Indië (founded in 1918).

 


Private estate in Rijswijk in Batavia, 1875.


www.geheugenvannederland.nlPrivate estate, 1856-1878.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1869

Off cover Semicircle cheribon PMK 28.11.1869

Batavia half round PMK to cognae

DUTCH INDIES 1868-73, Six folded entires to France from the Dutch Indies, all with semi-circle BATAVIA desptach cds, plus one item from Sydney/Australia, fine (Est. € 100/200)

 

In 1869 kreeg Gouverneur-Generaal Pieter Mijer toestemming voor de bouw van Paleis Koningsplein.

1866 – 1872

Gouverneur-Generaal Pieter Mijer

1870

Rare Off cover wille II perf second DEI stamp

CDS semicircle Buitenzorg 18.6.1870

Dutch Indies Proof 12-a hinged (scan A)

 

Emissie 1870 – Koning Willem III – Proef 12-a 10 cent zwart
Prachtige ongebruikte (hinged) zegel
Cat. waarde (value) ca. € 25,00

 

 

 

 

 

Dutch Indies Proof 17-a hinged (scan A)

 

Emissie 1870 – Koning Willem III – 17-a 10 cent geelgroen
Prachtige ongebruikte (hinged) zegel
Cat. waarde (value) ca. € 85,00

Dutch Indies NVPH 5 F hinged

1870 -1888 Koning Willem III – 2 ct. lilabruin

Prachtige ongebruikte (hinged) zegel met volle originele gom

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 125,00+

 

 

Dutch Indies NVPH 5 F MNH

1870 -1888 Koning Willem III – 2 ct. lilabruin

Prachtige postfrisse (MNH) zegel – schaarse zegel!!! + fotocertificaat C. Muis –

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 600,00+++

Dutch Indies NVPH 5 F used

1870 -1888 Koning Willem III – 2 ct. lilabruin

Prachtige gebruikte (used) zegel – lastige zegel!!!

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 125,00+

 

Dutch Indies NVPH 5 F MNH block

1870 -1888 Koning Willem III – 2 ct. lilabruin

Prachtige postfris (MNH) blok  – als blok zeer schaars!!!!  !    + fotocertificaat NKD – zegels zijn ook los te bestellen met kopie fotocertificaat ad € 495 per stuk – also 1 piece € 495 with copy certificate!!!

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 2400,00+++

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dutch Indies NVPH 3 hinged

1870 -1888 Koning Willem III – 1 ct. grijsgroen Type I

Prachtige ongebruikte (hinged) zegel met volle originele gom

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 15,00

 

 

Dutch Indies NVPH 4 hinged

1870 -1888 Koning Willem III – 1 ct. grijsgroen Type II

Prachtige ongebruikte (hinged) zegel met volle originele gom

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 10,00

Dutch Indies NVPH 4 MNH

1870 -1888 Koning Willem III – 1 ct. grijsgroen Type II

Mooie postfrisse (MNH) zegel met volle originele gom.

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 45,00

 

Dutch Indies NVPH 7 F MNH

1870-1888 Kon. Willem III – 2,5 ct. geel -7 F

Prachtige postfrisse (MNH) zegel

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 300,00++

 

 

 

Dutch Indies NVPH 9 MNH

1870 – 1888 Koning Willem III – 10 ct. oranjebruin –

Prachtige postfrisse (MNH) zegel

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 150,00

Dutch Indies NVPH 12 G hinged

1870 – 1888 Koning Willem III – 20 ct. ultramarijn –

G – Kamtanding 11,5 : 12 grote gaten

Prachtige ongebruikte (hinged) zegel

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 350,00

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dutch Indies NVPH 10 H MNH block of 4

1870 – 1888 Koning Willem III – 12,5 ct. grijs

– H – tanding 12,5 – kleine gaten

Prachtig postfris (MNH) blok van 4 zegels – zeer zeldzaam!!!!!!

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH ca. € 680,00 – omgerekend via cat NVPH!!!

 

 

 

 

Dutch Indies NVPH 12 hinged

1870 – 1888 Koning Willem III – 20 ct. ultramarijn

Prachtige ongebruikte (hinged) zegel

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 160,00

Dutch Indies NVPH 13 hinged

1870 – 1888 Koning Willem III – 25 ct. donkerpaars

Prachtige ongebruikte (hinged) zegel – prachtig van kleur!!!

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 40,00+

 

 

 

 

Dutch Indies NVPH 14 K MNH

1870 – 1888     Koning Willem III – 30 ct. groen

Prachtige postfrisse (MNH) zegel – zeer schaars!!!!

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 350,00++

 

Dutch Indies NVPH 15 H MNH

1870 – 1888     Koning Willem III – 50 ct. karmijn

Prachtige postfrisse (MNH) zegel met iets ingedroogde gom  – SCHAARSE ZEGEL!!!

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 300,00++

 

 

 

 

Dutch Indies NVPH 16 A MNH

1876 – 1889 Koning Willem III – 16 A Lijntanding 14 kl. gaten

Prachtige postfrisse (MNH) zegel – zeer schaars!!!!!

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 675,00+++

Dutch Indies NVPH 16 hinged

1870 – 1888 Koning Willem III

Prachtige ongebruikte (hinged) zegel

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 125,00

 

 

 

Dutch Indies NVPH 16 MNH

1876 – 1889 Koning Willem III Kamtanding

Prachtige postfrisse (MNH) zegel – zeer schaars!!!!! + cert. Vleeming

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 650,00+++

 

1870

original info:

Maar natuurlijk hebben we ook een schets van iemand anders met een van de beroemde Javaanse Waringinbomen, een mistieke boom die nooit gekapt mocht worden, want in de boom wonen boomgeesten.

Plotseling zwenkt de koetsier rechts af, voert ons een met hoge, schaduwrijke waringinbomen beplant plein op en doet het rijtuig voor

de marmeren vestibule van het kolossale Hotel des Indes

stilstaan.

1870

Cresonnier overleed in 1870, zijn familie verkocht het hotel aan Theodoor Gallas die het op zijn beurt weer verkocht in 1886 aan Jacob Lugt voor dfl 177.000,=. Lugt breidde het hotel fors uit met allerlei grondaankopen van de buren. In 1897 werd zelfs de N.V. Hotel Des Indes door Lugt opgericht, want in de jaren negentig ontstond er in de kolonie een economische depressie. Door die N.V. was Lugt niet meer persoonlijk aansprakelijk.

 

1871

1872

Rare Càd BATAVIA PP (R) semi circircle PMK sur imprimé complet pour Nantes + taxe tampon 20 (R) et Càd d’entrée octo rouge INDES NEER V. S. / P. F. AMB. MAR. 1872. – TB. – R

  1. (7 Feb) Padang to Enschede/Netherlands. Printed matter franked 10c. King William III orange brown perf, tied “Padang/Franco”, also alongside. V. fine and early usage.[ 11388]

1873

1873

1873.

Since the establishment of the VOC in the seventeenth century, the expansion of Dutch territory had been founded on business. However from the mid-nineteenth century it was Dutch national expansionism, in line with the prevailing empire-building outlook of Europe during the era of New Imperialism, that saw them wage a series of wars to enlarge and consolidate their possessions.[8] The most prolonged of these was the Aceh War in which a Dutch invasion in 1873 was met with indigenous guerrilla resistance and ended with an Acehnese surrender in 1912.[7] Disturbances continued to break out on both Java and Sumatra during the remainder of the 19th century,[3] however, the island of Lombok came under Dutch control in 1894,[9] and Batak resistance in northern Sumatra was quashed in 1895.[7].

 

1874.

Dutch Indies NVPH postage due 1 hinged

1874 -1875 Groot waardecijfer

Prachtige ongebruikte (MNH) zegel met voor deze zegel een bijzonder mooie centrering

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 375,00+

Dutch Indies NVPH Postage due 2 hinged

1874 -1875 Groot waardecijfer – 10 ct. groen op geel

Prachtige ongebruikte (hinged) zegel

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 150,00

 

 

 

Dutch Indies NVPH Postage due 3 hinged

1874 -1875 Groot waardecijfer – 15 ct. oranje op geel

Prachtige schaarse ongebruikte (hinged) zegel –

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 30,00

Top of Form

€ 14,50

 

 

 

 

Dutch Indies NVPH Postage due 4 hinged

1874 -1875 Groot waardecijfer – 20 ct.groen op blauw –  Prachtige ongebruikte (hinged) zegel

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 60,00

Top of Form

€ 29,50

Bottom of Form

Bottom of Form

 

Dutch Indies NVPH postage due 09 B TIII MNH + cert M

1874 -1875 Cijfer in zwart – 20 ct.

Prachtige postfrisse (MNH) zegel – zeer zeldzaam – very rare !!!!!!

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 840,00++ omgerekend naar postfris

 

 

THE SOLDIER OF BRITISH EAST INDIA COMPANY

EIC was indirectly subject to the British government and it ruled India through the three presidencies of Bombay, Madras, and Bengal, each of which maintained forces for internal and external defense.T

 

he backbone of the EIC military system was the Indian regular soldier or sepoy (from the Persian sipahi) and for infantry private (a cavalry trooper was a Sowar).

They served under mainly British officers and mainly Indian NCOs


The painting above depicts a soldier of the European Company of the West Coast of Sumatra garrison, on duty at Fort Anne, Moco Moco, circa 1764.
Courtesy: Alan Harfie, “A History on the Honourable East India Company’s,
Garrison on the West Coast of Sumatra 1685-1825”

Native Troops, East India Companys Service, A Sergeant and a Private Grenadier Sepoy of the Bengal Army, from Costumes of the Army of the British Empire, according to the last regulations 1812, published by Colnaghi and Co. 1812-15, Charles Hamilton Smith.

British officers, trained at the EIC’s ‘military seminary’ at Addiscombe, held their commissions from the EIC’s court of directors and enjoyed the right of command over British troops.

1874

1874
Akhir abad ke-19. Belanda menata ulang pemerintahan Priangan dan membaginya menjadi 9 afdeeling (Jerman: Abteilung).

 

 

Salah satunya adalah Sukapura di bawah Raden Tumenggung Wiratanubaya IV. Wirahadiningrat (1874-1906)

memperoleh penghargaan bintang Oranye Nassau dari Belanda

 

1876

1876 (6 Oct). Batavia – Netherlands. eL full text fkd 10c + 50c red, tied “4” dots + cds alongside. Via Marseille / Deutchland Packen. VF + Scarce 50c on cover.[

DOT Postmark

Dot postmark no 98 from ?

F.D. Cochius was born 3rd of December 1787 in Valburg.

His parents are Gerrit Jan Casparus Cochius and Anna Dibbets.

He died in Huize Vredenoord near Rijswijk, Netherlands on 1st of May 1876.

 

1877

1877 5c + 10c(x2) + Boxed NED. INDIE/VIA NAPELS on cover to GERMANY. Rare so early. Vf.

1877 (10 July). Batavia – Deft. 5c stat card + 10c adtl / cds + boxed “Ned Indies / Via Marseille”. VF

1878

1879

1879 William 12,5 CT 5 Mint collectible , 150K

Source

David

1879

House in Batavia, from Le Tour du Monde, 1879

1894

Dutch intervention in Lombok and Karangasem against the Balinese in

Source Ebay

 

1894.

During one of the many Sasak peasant rebellions against the Balinese, Sasak chiefs sent envoys to the Dutch in Bali and invited them to rule Lombok. In June 1894, the governor general of the Dutch East Indies, Van der Wijck, signed a treaty with Sasak rebels in eastern Lombok. He sent a large army to Lombok and the Balinese raja capitulated to Dutch demands.(see Dutch intervention in Lombok) The younger princes however overruled the raja and attacked and routed the Dutch.

Source Ebay

 

 

1895

The Dutch counterattacked overrunning Mataram and the raja surrendered. The entire island was annexed to theNetherlands East Indies in 1895. The Dutch ruled over Lombok’s 500,000 people with a force of no more than 250 by cultivating the support of the Balinese and Sasak aristocracy. The Dutch are remembered in Lombok as liberators from Balinese hegemony.

Source Ebay

 

 

1896

 

  1. Soerabaja – Batavia. Reg 10c brown stat env + 2 adtls / box x5 red wax seals reg on reverse. Fine. Not common.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In 1879

the Koningsplein Palace beginning to built,and klater became Rijswijk Palace Of DEI Govenour General

 

En dus (?) werd in 1879 begonnen met de bouw van Paleis Koningsplein, in de achtertuin van Paleis Rijswijk…

19th Century19e eeuw

Old DEI Gouvenor General Palace Rijswijk at Batavia Het (Oude) Rijswijk Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië in Rijswijk, Batavia

 

 

In 1879

werd het Paleis Koningsplein officieel geopend, het zou dienst doen tot 1949.

Op Paleis Koningsplein zou de Indonesische vlag voor het eerst gaan wapperen.

Luchtfoto Koningsplein Batavia

Met het (werk) Paleis / Residentie van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië

…….indien aanwezig in Batavia……..

Het (woon) Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië was in Buitenzorg

zie hieronder

Waar lagen nu al die Paleizen, daarvoor pakken we de kaart van Batavia uit 1897 weer erbij:

Batavia plattegrond 1897

Ten noorden van het woord Rijswijk op het Koningsplein lag het (nieuwe) Koningsplein Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië, dit is dus het laatste Paleis / Residentie geweest van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië. In dit Paleis vond dus de Soevereiniteitsoverdracht in Batavia in 1949 plaats, een foto van deze Soevereiniteitsoverdracht staat verderop in het verhaal.

Het Koningsplein Paleis werd gebouwd in de achtertuin van het (oude) Rijswijk Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië, op de kaart het rode blokje ten noorden van het Koningsplein paleis.

 

Het Rijswijk Paleis lag aan het Molenvliet water, de weg erlangs heette ook Rijswijk. Aan de overkant van het Molenvliet heette de weg langs het Molenvliet Noordwijk. Kortom, de weg langs de noordoever van het Molenvliet heette dus Noordwijk, de weg langs de zuidoever Rijswijk !

Het Paleis van Daendels ligt aan het Waterlooplein, (nummer 19 op de kaart), ten oosten van het Koningsplein.

Het Waterlooplein is natuurlijk vernoemd naar de Slag bij Waterloo. Ter ere van de overwinning op

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1880-1890

1880

Unusuak 1880, 80 R / 80 R double card brownish-yellow, sent from „MACEIO 24 ABR 94” via London with red cds „LIVERPOOL MY 16 94 SHIP”

to Rembang, there forwarded to Toeban,)Java)

Java with arrival 19 … 1894, reply card unused, extremly rare destination!

Unusual 1880 (20 July). Soerabaja to Woolwich/Maine/U.S.A. Roughly opened envelope franked King William III. 50c. red, tied dots cancels, cds. alongside. Via London and N.Y. on reverse. Scarce

1880

In 1880, the first major railroad between Jakarta to Bandung was opened, boosting light industry and bringing in Chinese workers

 

1881

 

 

 

 

 

 

1882

Dutch Indies NVPH 5-13 MNH

1882 – 88     Cijfer in zwart

Prachtige postfrisse (MNH) zegels – schaars!! met cert. Muis voor Nr 9

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 5,00+++

 

2 Cover William (1) Cirebon to Indramayu (2) Madiun to Cirebon , 1888 & 1889 , 150K

Source

David

Dr iwan comment

I have the same cover send from Padang pandjang to Padang.

Di bawah ini beberapa nama bupati di daerah(the regent Of)  Priangan,yakni:

  1. Bupati Sumedang XV (1882-1918), sewaktu kecil dipanggil Aom Sadeli, setelah menjadi bupati dikenal sebagai Pangeran Aria Suriaatmaja, dan setelah wafat dijuluki Pangeran Mekah karena ia wafat di Mekah sewaktu menunaikan obadah haji.
  2. Bupati Sumedang XV (1882-1918), sewaktu kecil dipanggil Aom Sadeli, setelah menjadi bupati dikenal sebagai Pangeran Aria Suriaatmaja, dan setelah wafat dijuluki Pangeran Mekah karena ia wafat di Mekah sewaktu menunaikan obadah haji.
  3. Bupati Bandung X (1893-1918), sewaktu muda diberi nama Kusumaningrat, setelah menjadi bupati dikenal sebagai Raden Adipati Aria Martanegara, dan setelah pensiun hingga wafat digelari Kangjeng Burujul karena setelah pensiun ia tinggal di desa Burujul, Sumedang.
  4. Bupati Cianjur IX (1834-1862), sewaktu kecil dipanggil Aom Hasan, setelah menjadi bupati dikenal sebagai Dalem Pancaniti karena selama menjadi bupati ia lebih senang tinggal di paviliyun kabupaten yang biasa disebut pancaniti dari pada tinggal dibangunan utama kabupaten.
  5. Bupati Limbangan yang memerintah antara tahun 1836-1871, sewaktu kecil dipanggil Aom Jenon, setelah menjadi bupati dikenal dengan nama Tumenggung Jayaningrat, dan setelah naik pangkat menjadi Raden Adipati Wiratanuningrat VII. Setelah pensiun dan wafat dikenal sebagai Dalem Sepuh (Bupati Tua).
  6. Bupati Sukapura yang memerintah antara tahun 1855-1975, sewaktu kecil dipanggil Raden Tanuwangsa, setelah menjadi bupati dikenal sebagai Tumenggung Wiratanubaya, setelah naik pangkat menjadi Raden Adipati Wiradadaha. Setelah wafat dikenal sebagai Dalem Bogor karena ia dibuang ke Bogor oleh Pemerintah Hindia Belanda akibat dianggap kurang loyal.

Ada beberapa yang mendapat julukan Dalem Bintang karena mereka mendapat tanda jasa berupa gouden ster Nederlandsche-Leeuw (bintang mas singa Belanda), misalnya RAA. Wiranatakusumah IV  Bupati Bandung (1846-1874), R. Adipati Wirahadiningrat Bupati Sukapura (1874-1904).

 

1883

Dutch Indies NVPH 17-22 MNH

1883 -1890 Cijferserie zonder watermerk

Prachtige postfrisse (MNH) serie, schaars!!

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 475,00+

 

Dutch Indies NVPH 21 c MNH

1883 -1890 Cijferserie zonder watermerk – kamtanding 12,5 kleine gaten in olie-achtige druk!!!!

Prachtige postfrisse (MNH) zegel, zeer schaars!!

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 325,00+

 

 

  1. Poerworedjo – Batavia. 5c black stat card. VF.[
  2. Cheribon – Batavia. 10c ovptd stat env. F-VF

1884

Java. Original wood engraving, engraved by C. Barbant after T. Taylor. 1884. Good condition. Hand-coloured. 19x13cm. Matted

Native Battak and Atjeh ethnic Original wood engraving engraved by C. Barbant. 1884. Light foxing. Hand-coloured. 20x13cm. Matted.

Native ethnic Moi Indonesia. Original wood engraving drawn by G. Vuillier, engraved by C. Barbant. 1884. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 19x12cm. Mounted

Gravure, engraving, Plates, Stiche, Indonésie, Indonesia, Moi People, Peuple Moï, Klawelem, Makbon, Mosana, Mooi, Mekwei

Timor island Original wood engraving drawn by T. Taylor, engraved by A. Sargent. 1884. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 19x13cm. Scan can be provided on request

Batavia forest in 1884

Photo traveller Palm Batavia in 1850

  • Francis Frith, born 1822 – died 1898 (maker)
  • Francis Frith, born 1822 – died 1898 (maker)
  • Francis Frith was one of the most successful commercial photographers from the 1850s and 1860s. He also established what was to become the largest photographic printing business in England. This image is part of the V&A’s Francis Frith ‘Universal Series’ archive which consists of over 4000 whole-plate albumen prints predominantly of historical and topographical sites. Images such as these were highly desirable throughout the 1850s and 1860s.
  • It is now known that nearly all of the works bearing the F. Frith and Co. stamp were not taken by Frith himself, but by one of his travelling employees. Photographers associated with Frith’s ‘Universal Series’ include Robert Napper (Andalusia), Frank Mason Good (Egypt) and Frederick William Sutton and Hugo Lewis Pearson (Japan). In addition to hiring his own photographers, Frith also bought the negative stocks of established photographers such as Roger Fenton and Francis Bedford.
  • The images that make up the V&A Frith ‘Universal Series’ are file prints acquired from F. Frith & Co. Ltd of Reigate, Surrey. Mounted on brown card, with the place name and stock number usually handwritten on the print itself, they were most probably used as place-markers within the company’s filing system, allowing for easy retrieval of stocks of unmounted prints.
  • Frith’s growing business coincided with many technological developments taking place within the field of photography. These developments changed and expanded the audience for photography and Frith’s operation was well-prepared to provide for it and, it can be argued, worked to develop it employing a diverse range of publishing channels. Targeted towards a market that would later adopt the postcard as the ideal format for its needs, the ‘Universal Series’ forms a bridge between the initial low volume craft/art production associated with photography of the 1850s and the more commercial mass production work of the latter half of the century.

 

1884

1884

 

The development occurred after the Bandung railway transport operations to and from the city since 1884.

Because the city of Bandung serves as a center of railroad transportation “West Lin”, it has encouraged the development of life in the city of Bandung with the increase in population from year to year.

At the end of the 19th century, the population of the European group number has reached thousands of people and demands an autonomous institution that can take care of their interests. Meanwhile the central government realized the failure of centralized government system following the implementation of its impact. Therefore, the government arrive at a policy to replace the system of government with a system of decentralization, decentralization not only in finance, but also decentralization in the field of government granting autonomy (zelfbestuur)

In this case, the government of Bandung regency under the leadership of Regent RAA Martanagara (1893-1918) welcomed the idea of the colonial government. Ongoing autonomous government in Bandung, means the district gets a special budget fund from the previous colonial government did not exist.

 

1885

INDIA HOLANDESA. 1885 (Aug 28). 5c. green postal stationery card used to Batavia cancelled by ´Tegal´ cds in black with framed ´Poerwokerto´ handstamp at left and Weltvreden cds below. Scarce.

  1. Weltevreden – Batavia. 5c lilac stat card. Namidd stline. VF

 

INDIA HOLANDESA. 1885 (Aug 28). 5c. green postal stationery card used to Batavia cancelled by ´Tegal´ cds in black with framed ´Poerwokerto´ handstamp at left and Weltvreden cds below. Scarce.

1886

1886 (30 Aug). Batavia – Switzerland. Registered 10c stat env + 5x10c adtls / “10” dots cancel, box + proper transits 5 red wax seal on reverse. VF multiple usage

1886 (7 March). Sokaboemi – Batavia. 5c green stat card. VF

Borneo. Original wood engraving drawn by Langlois, engraved by Barbant. 1889. Light foxing in the margins. Hand-coloured. 18,5×12,5cm. Mounted.

Java. Original wood engraving drawn by A. Slom, engraved by C. Barbant. 1884. Light foxing in the margins. Hand-coloured. 19x13cm. Scan can be provided on request.

Koepang Timor Original wood engraving drawn by G. Vuillier, engraved by F. Meaulle. 1884. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 19x13cm. Scan can be provided on request

 

 

1887

  1. Soerabaja – Klaten 16.7.1887 – Kelandan – Semarang. 5c dark green stat card. VF
  2. Padang – Austria. Registered multifkd env 10c + 25c (x3) bluish paper. Stline via Marseille. VF

 

1888

1889

Sumatra. Original wood engraving by A. Slom. 1889. Good condition. Hand-coloured. 19x13cm. Mounted

Brass island Atjeh Feli Jungle Sumatra. Original wood engraving by P. Langlois. 1889. Good condition. Hand-coloured. 19x13cm. Mounted

Sourabia Java. Original wood engraving, engraved by C. Barbant after T. Taylor. 1889. Good condition. Hand-coloured. 19x13cm. Matted.

Bali. Original wood engraving drawn by Weber, engraved by Kohl. 1889. Foxing in the margins. Hand-coloured. 19x13cm.

Banda Niera Islands. Original wood engraving drawn by Weber, engraved by Kohl. 1889. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 19x13cm. Mounted.

Ternate Mollucas Islands. Original wood engraving drawn by Weber, engraved by Méaulle. 1889. Good condition. Hand-coloured. 19x13cm. Mounted.

Batavia(Jakarta)Indonesia. Original wood engraving drawn by Taylor. 1889. Good condition. Hand-coloured. 19x13cm.

Raegent Preager Original wood engraving, engraved by C. Barbant after A. Slom 1889. Good condition. Hand-coloured. 19x13cm. Matted

Manado Original wood engraving drawn by Taylor, engraved by Méaulle. 1889. Light foxing in the margins. Hand-coloured. 19x13cm. Scan can be provided on request

 

 

INDIA HOLANDESA. 1889.

5 c. Yellow green stationery card, H & G 8, but with additional sender´s address surrounding the card in red print, used to SOLOK cancelled by BATAVIA despatch cds and WELTVREDEN, PADANG and PADANG PANDJANG cds´s. Unusual and fine early stationery advertising item for this area.

. Borneo. Original wood engraving drawn by Weber, engraved by Barbant. 1889. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 19x13cm. Mounted.

Borneo. Original wood engraving, engraved by Hildibrand after Ronjat. 1889. Light foxing in the margins. Hand-coloured. 18x12cm. Matted.

 

 

Borneo. Original wood engraving, engraved by H. Thiriat. In texte, printed on the reverse side. 1889. Good condition. Hand-coloured. 15,5×11,5cm.

1889

1889

04/12/1889 – 19/09/1893 S.B. Zeverijn
Altough the board recommended Buijskes to become the next President, the Governor General appointed S. B .Zeverijn to that position by decree of August 21, 1889. Zeverijn was forced because of illness to leave for Europe on March 1, 1893 where he died on December 13, 1893

 

 

 

1882

Dutch Indies NVPH post 13C + 13B MNH

1882-88 Cijfer in zwart – 13C + 13B  gecombineerde tanding 11,5:12,00) + 12,5:12

Prachtige postfrisse (MNH) zegels met de niet gave boventanding, zoals beschreven in de NVPH catalogus – schaars!!!

Cat. waarde (value) ca. € 160,00+ (omgerekend via de NVPH cat.)

 

Above tjilatjap 9.12. 1882 dot pmk no 21 to stuttgart germany

Below semarang dot pmk no 4

1882 P./Stat 7 1/2c canc. LAHAT + NI.EXP.KANT SINGAPORE + french LIGNE N PAQ FR to GERM

1883

  1. KR(small Circle) Koedoes – 4.11.1883 Semarang. 10c stat env ovptd

The Dieanst free Post form the commandant of 4th Battalion depot Padang CDS Padang 22/2/1893 to commandat RH 16th Infantry Battalion CDS Fort de Kock(Boekittinggi) 23.2.1883

 

 

 

 

 

February ,19th.1883

 

The Official dienst free port post card from Assisten resident Of 50 kota(Pajacombo) via CDS Fort de Kock CDS destination 19.2.1883 to CDS Padang 21.2.1883

  1. Tegal – Samarang. 10c stat env ovptd used bilingual. VF

 

 

1884

Rare 1884. Djokjakarta – France. Registered 25c stat env + 10c adtl. Boxed “Ned Indies / Via Naples”. Fine

  1. Cheribon – Batavia. 10c ovptd stat env. F-VF.[ 528196]

 

1884

The road is now called Jalan Asia-Afrika in memory of the conference.

Mileposts on the road were numbered starting at Bandung. Rapid growth of the city, however, began only after the railroad from Batavia (now Jakarta) arrived in 1884

 

 

 

1885

Soerakarta to Weltevreden batavia

Lang (straight log) stempel(PMK) halte Poerwokerto CDS Tegal 27/8/1885 to Batavia cds weltevreden

1885

Ordonasi Reveneu

REVENUE ORDONASI 1885 the new order of Revenue stamped in 1885 had changed to the newe order”ordonatie op de heffing van Zege recht van nederlandch Indie” in this ordonatie there were practise revenue with the same (seragam) Reveneu from one and half G and from 10 cent.This ordonatie still used until the new ordonatie in 1921. please look at the regulation in Indonesia language below,

A

 

 

1886

  1. Cheribon – Semarang. 10c intense red – brown stat env bilingual. F-VF.[
  2. Bandoeng to Gravenhage. 5c green King William stationery with additional 2½ yellow orange (Sc. 19), tied c.d.s.´s Ned Indie/Via Brindisi”(**) box alongside, as well as arrival c.d.s. and “c.12”. Light vertical crease not affecting stamps.[

 

1887

  1. Kediri – Netherlands. Registr 10c stat env + 25c x2 adtls. VF

1887 (10 Dic). Straits Settlements 3c card written from Pº (Penang/Pulan Pinang) and crossed over to Weltevreden (12 Dic) where franked also with Dutch Indies 5c green, tied cds via Soerabaja (15 Dic), and arriving to Borneo/Banjermasin on the 23 (?) Dic 1887. An extraordinary scarce usage from a Malayan outpost with combination of a Dutch stamp est Price: $ 2,500.00

1888

1888

 

 

2.11.1888 Dutch East indie(DEI) first issued revenue stamp 5 cent , please report the earliest used and another high nominal revenue issued like 10 gld

 

 

 

1889

  1. Tegal – Samarang. 10c stat env. VF. Bilingual chinese

The official dienst free port card of Padang cds 10..10.1889 to Welteverden CDs 12/10.1889

1889, portofreie Dienstbriefkarte vs. grünlich, rs. weiß, (DIENSTBRIEFFKAART), aus „WELTEVREUEN 12.10.89” nach Batavia mit Durchgangsstempel „PADANG”, die Nutzung dieser Dienstsbriefkarten war gesetztlich geregelt (Staatsblad 1880 No. 165)., oben kleiner Einriß

  1. (21 Jan.) Tegal to Den Haag/Holland. 7½ Bister brown King stationery, cancelled c.d.s. (***) with several transits and marks on front and reverse, including “Napostijd” in box and “Ned India/via Marseille”. Min. hole in upper center, otherwise fine item

1889

The latset used of five cent nedl Oost Indie  Revennue stamp in 1889

 

 

 

 

1890-1900

1890

 

1890 (8 Dec). Medan – Suriname / Paramaribo. Fkd env 10c + 15c via Italian with arrival / transit. Extremely rare inter Dutch Colonies dest mail.[ 536304]

Bid Info: Price: $ 1,250.00

  1. Semerang dot PMK no 2 small round(KL)- Magelang. 10c stat env local usage

1890

The church of Our Lady of Assumption at waterlooplein stood until 9 April 1890 when it collapsed due to old age and poor maintenance.

A new church was rebuilt in its place between 1891 and 1901 and today it stands as the Jakarta Cathedral. The church is acknowledged as an integral instrument for the spread of Roman Catholicism in Java during the 19th century

1891

1891 (April 23). Provisional 15c. on 25c. violet postal stationery envelope sent registered to Rotterdam cancelled by Magelang cds´s. Framed ´Ned Indie/Par Marseille´ in black on front, reverse with Semarang, Weltvreden and Rotterdam arrival datestamp.

INDIA HOLANDESA. 1891 (April 16). Cover to Germany endorsed ´Via Singapore´ bearing 1870-88 25c. violet, slight faults, tied by framed ´Sambas´ handstamp and ´36´dotted lozenge, Pontianak (Borneo) cds at upper right. Framed ´Ned: Indie / Via Brindisi´ route mark in black, reverse with fine ´N. I. Agent Singapore´ cds (April 21). Scott 13

INDIA HOLANDESA. 1891 (April 23). Provisional 15c. on 25c. violet postal stationery envelope sent registered to Rotterdam cancelled by Magelang cds´s. Framed ´Ned Indie/Par Marseille´ in black on front, reverse with Semarang, Weltvreden and Rotterdam arrival datestamp.

Rare Puntstempel (dot pmk)112 – Goenoeng Toea – mooi en volledig op envelop 25 cent 18-12-1891 via Padang naar Geisweid (D),

Posta lly used leltter sheet willem III cover rare dot stamped 112-Goenoeng toea and smalll round CDs Goennoeng Toea (south tapanoeli) 1812-1891 to Gestwaal netherland via choped NE.Indie. via genua,

 

 

 

 

 

1892

Cover William 12,5C dengan tambahan bea 2,5C using “SHIPCANCEL” Longbar + Dotmart 1 , 225K

Source

David LOOK PART FIVE

DEI HISTORY COLLECTION PRE 1911 PART THREE

THIS E-BOOK ONLY SAMPLE NOT COMPLETE ILLUSTRATION, THE COMPLETE ILLUSTRATION EXIST ONLY TEN CD-Rom

Copyright @ Dr Iwan 2016

If you want buy the complete E-Book, please contact iwansuwandy@gmail.com, please upload your iD-Card copy with complete adress and shorth working history, and to more communication you must be my web blog Premium member with tarnsfer US 25,- or send enenvelope via airmail with stamps or old money with the same value. The price of this CD-Rom Only US 100.-

1819
In the War of 1819 the first Palembang,

the fort was tested by cannon shells Dutch corvette, but not one bullet that can penetrate both walls and doors. Due to run out of bullets and gunpowder, then the Dutch fleet escaped to Batavia. From this was born the phrase, which states that work for nothing, because it does not bring results: ration runs out, no ne of Palembang, means the act or attempt that did not give results, only brought loss and fatigue sernata. This event is written with great charm in Menteng War poem or a poem also called the War of Palembang.

In addition to beautiful and sturdy, Kuto Besak is located in strategic places, namely in the fields like floating on the water. She lies on the “island”, ie the area surrounded by the Musi River (in the front or south), in the western part limited by Sekanak River, bounded on the east Tengkuruk River and behind, or the northern part limited by Kapuran River. This area is called Land of the Palace.

 

Figure sketch Palembang Palace by J. Jeakes


Forms and soil conditions in the city of Palembang as if to the islands, and by the Dutch people gave him the title as the de Twintig Eilanden der Stad (City of Twenty-Island). Further according to G. Bruining, the island’s most valuable (dier Eilanden) is the place Kuto Besak, Kuta Lama and the Great Mosque stands.

Formation of the islands in the city of Palembang is because the number of children who crossed the river and cut the city. Naturally also called the City if Palembang River Hundred. Whereas in the early colonial era, Palembang dubbed by them as het Indische Venetie. Another epithet is de Stad des Vredes, namely a peaceful place (meaning Dar’s Greetings). And indeed this is the name of the official name of the Sultanate of Palembang Darussalam.

Castle Map Kuto Besak (plus sign) visits with wikimapia
[Click to enlarge]


Structure and Technical

According I. J. Sevenhoven, the first Dutch commisaris Regeering in Palembang, Kuto Besak roede width and 77 length 49 roede (Amsterdamsch roede = approximately 3.75 m, or the length is 288.75 meters and 183.75 meters wide), with a strong wall around and the height and width of 30 feet 6 or 7 feet. This wall is strengthened with bastions 4 (bastion). Inside there was a similar wall and nearly as tall, with the gates strong, so this can also be used for defense if the first wall can be broken (see LJ. Sevenhoven, Painting, page 14).

Recent measurements of the consultants themselves have a slightly different size, which is 290 meters long and 180 meters wide.

Opinions de Sturler on the condition of the fort Kuto Besak:
“… 77 roede width and length 44 roede, equipped with a 3 and a half bastion bastion management, which complements a wall around all four sides. Walls are thick and 5 feet high from the ground 22 and 24 feet.
On the inside in the middle of the palace called Dalem, especially for the king’s residence, several feet higher than ordinary buildings. Entirely surrounded by high walls, so bring a protection for the king. No one may approach the royal residence unless the family or the person who ordered. Other stone buildings in the palace is a place to store ammunition and bullets “. (see W. L de Sturler – Proeve – 186 pages)

Site Plan Palace of Palembang in 1811 [click image to enlarge]


At the time of the war against the Dutch colonialists in 1819, there were as many as 129 shoots a cannon was on the wall Kuto Besak. Whereas during the war in 1821, only 75 shoots a cannon on the wall Kuto Besak and 30 shoots along the river wall, the attackers threatened standby.

Images Main Front Gate Castle Kuto Besak

 

Lawang Buratan (west side of the gate) Citadel Kuto Besak remaining

 

Fortress Kuto Besak year of 1935

Fortress Kuto Besak

 

 look and seek info I will help anybody to get info please contact iwansuwandy@gmail.com, please look the VOC following info like below

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Governor-General Valckenier ordered the killings of ethnic Chinese. This Day in History: Mar 20, 1602: Dutch East India Company founded <a href="http://dingeengoete.blogspot.com/" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">dingeengoete.blog...</a>

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Built between 1666 and 1679 by the Dutch East India Company (VOC) as a maritime replenishment station, the Castle of Good Hope is the oldest surviving colonial building in South Africa. From 1678 it was the centre of civilian, administrative and military life at the Cape, until the settlement grew and some functions and activities moved away from the Castle. Today the Castle is the seat of the military in the Cape, and houses the Castle Military Museum and Iziko Museums of Cape Town

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Unsuccessful English attack on the VOC fleet at Bergen, 12…

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The arrest of three VOC Councilmen in Batavia in 1741. Van Imhoff and two fellow councilmen were arrested for insubordination after going against Valckenier.

The arrest of three VOC Councilmen in Batavia in 1741. Van…

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Maquette van de VOC-werf Oostenburg te Amsterdam, Ab J. Hoving, 1989

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The Maritime museum before the VOC ship Amsterdam (Netherlands) aboard the Amsterdam! This ship is an exact replica of the famous VOC ship that in 1749 all sank on its maiden voyage. The Amsterdam is one of the showpieces of the Naval Museum. | Flickr - Photo Sharing!

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Plat VOC Japon, 18th, Scotish National Museum

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VOC in Sri Lanka

VOC in Sri Lanka

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Replica of the pinas &quot;Duyfken&quot; of the Dutch East India company. In 1596, it made the first trip to the East Indies. In 1606, under command of Captain Willem Jansz, it sailed to Papua New Guinea and Northern Australia, making it the ship that discovered Australia for the Europeans

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A DUTCH ENGRAVED VOC WINEGLASS, CIRCA 1740 the flared bowl engraved with a crowned coat of arms bearing the initials VOC flanked by tendrils, the opposite side bearing the inscription HET.WELVAREN.VAN.DE.OSTDIENISCHE.KOMPANCE

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”The Antique Cannon Superstore – Dutch VOC Cannons”

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Vereinigte Ostindische Compagnie bond - Compañía Neerlandesa de las Indias Orientales - Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre

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Peper - Piper nigrum (door W. Marsden, History of Sumatra, London 1811) een van de belangrijkste handelsspecerijen tijdens de VOC hoogtijdagen. Het was zo kostbaar dat er gesproken werd van 'zo duur als peper'.

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In 2010 Ruben Schalk, a history student from Utrecht University, found the world’s oldest known ‘share’ during his thesis research in the Westfries Archief in Hoorn. It dates from 1606 and was issued by the VOC chamber of Enkhuizen.

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De inscheping van het VOC- personeel bij de Montelbaanstoren 1663

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De Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie | <a href="http://entoen.nu" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">entoen.nu</a>

De Verenigde 

1819: Sharif Osman Sultan of Pontianak III Alkadrie be until the year 1855. He was appointed to lead the Dutch East Indies government Afdeeling Pontianak.

in 1819,

that laffles, despite disapproval of the company in london and madras, sailed off to establish a british settlemen in the singapure. the historical and strategic importance and 20 th centries would hard to assess

Following the example of the dutch it was considered necessary to provide military protection for the settlement, and small fortification was built on a narrow spit of land between the sea and the Bengkulu river (now sungai serut). The original fortification named York for was manned by two companies of i

nfantry soldiers and artisans who had been redruited in london. The site proved to be very unhealthy owing to the close proximity of the  river and mangrove swamps. There were many deaths in the early day among the soldiers sen to garrison the fort as well as the civil servants living there..

It was Vastly different to the fort that can be seen today, being just a  rectangle of building wit a roof capable of supporting the artillery pieces required to defend the fort. house of the Deputy Govendor was contructed and the diagram on the original plan.

 

1820

1820: Zainul Abidin bin Badruddin II (1820-1834) became Sultan Mountain Sow I, the fraction of the Sultanate of Berau. Prince Sultan Sulaiman-law of Moses Banjar Kusan II became King until the year 1830.

In 1820,

na de dood van Van Braam, kocht het Gouvernement het huis en werd het ingericht als officiële residentie van de Gouverneur-Generaal van Nederlands-Indië (1820 – 1879), waarbij dus werd afgeweken van het plan van Daendels, waarschijnlijk omdat het Paleis van Daendels nog lang niet klaar was.

 

1820

Sir T. Stamford Raffles, who was among them in 1820, found some of their law

 

 

1821

1821

The Dutch subjugated the Minangkabau of Sumatra in the Padri War (1821–38)

1821

Indie Batav republic cast coin 1821 (during Padri war )

1822

Very rare 1822 entire headed “Petersham Novr 23d/1822”

and signed “JR Rankin” (?), to Scotland with boxed ‘INDIA LETTER/PORTSMOUTH’ h/s in red, London transit b/s in red, Scottish boxed ‘½’ h/s & unframed ‘DUMFRIES/ 13JUN1823/A 340-D’ arrival b/s, some soiling/staining. From the period 1819-1828 when Sydney had no postal markings. [The lengthy letter speaks of “…the golden days of Lauchlin Macquarie…he has done more good to this Colony in the last twelve years than will be done in the next twenty-four his prediliction for they prisoners was certainly his hobbie horse…I am most happy that we had the courage to come out to what they call the land of Cangerros and Convicts…There are more settlers arriving here every week…”]

 

DEI cast coin 1822

May 1822:

Gerrit Jan Casparus Cochius

Awarded “Ridder IIIe klasse of Officier in de Militaire Willems-Orde” [MWO], the 3rd Class Knight in Military Order of William in his service as engineer attached to Headquarters during the Waterloo Campaign.

 

1822

 

1822        Oct 8,

The Galunggung volcano on Java sent boiling sludge into valley. The eruption left 4,011 dead. The long-inactive volcano erupted Apr 4 and blew its top on Apr 12. The Oct 8 and Oct 12 eruptions left 4,011 dead.
    (THE COMPLETE INFORMATION READ  AT ANOTHER ARTICLE IN THE WEB BLOG hhtp://www.driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com)

1822

The parasitic plant Rafflesia was discovered in the lowland forests of Southeast Asia.

It steals nutrition from other plants and periodically creates a monstrous, red-brown flower with the perfume of rotten flesh.
    (SFC, 1/19/04, p.A4)

1823

1823: Mr. Muller Dutch East Indies government employees surveyed northwest Borneo. [42])
 1823: 13 September 1823: Coral Diamond Contract Agreement between the Sultan Suleiman II of the Dutch East Indies represented Banjar with Mr. Resident. Tobias.

1824

The commercial successor of the V.O.C. was the Nederlandse Handelmaatschappij (NHM), founded in 1824  (after the Anglo-Dutch treaty).

The larger emblem consists of disc charged with a winged anchor between the date 1824, surrounded by the title nederlandsche handel maatschappy.

As a crest a three-masted sailing ship and as supporters two lions couchant. Below the central emblem is the cypher NHM.

The achievement is surrounded by waves of the sea and decorated with several floral motives.

In 1964 this company merged with the Twentsche Bank and changed its name in Nederlandsche Middenstands Bank. In 1990 the NMB merged with the Amsterdam-Rotterdam Bank into the ABN AMRO Bank. This bank was split up in 2007.

(Fortis, Bank of Scotland en Banco Santander).

1824

The begal sepoys continued to serve at Bencoolen and the other west coast settlemen, until all of the british trading posts along the west coast of sumatra were handed over to the Dutch Argeement of 1824.

the actual handover took place earlt in 1825.

 

In 1824

werd het geheel opgekocht door het Gouvernement die er een kostschool voor meisjes vestigde.

1824

Under the 1824 Anglo-Dutch Treaty,

the Dutch secured British settlements in Indonesia, such as Bengkulu in Sumatra, in exchange for ceding control of their possessions in the Malay Peninsula and Dutch India. The resulting borders between British and Dutch possessions remain between Malaysia and Indonesia. As exploitation of Indonesian resources expanded off Java, most of the outer islands came under direct Dutch government control or influence. Significant Indonesian piracy remained a problem for the Dutch until the mid-19th century.[7]

 

1825

1825: Adam Alwasikh Billah became Sultan of Banjar XVI until 1857. In Brunei, Mohammad Alam became the Sultan of Brunei until 1828.

1825: In July 1825, Prince Aji Jawi, King of the Land Seasonings establish a contract with the Dutch East Indies.


September 1825:

Gerrit Jan Casparus Cochius

Lieutenant-Colonel F.D. assaulted the Jogjakarta. He was the Commander of Garrison of Soerakarta with 2 companies of infantry [Hulptropen from Soemenap and Legion of Mangkoenegaran], 1 platoon of cavalery [Huzar], and 12 Light Infantry [Dragonder)

The Dutch subjugated the Java War (1825–30) ended significant Javanese resistance.[7]

October 1825:

Gerrit Jan Casparus Cochius

designed the prototype of temporary battlefield fortification in Kalidjengking. His designed would be adopted in to Fortification Strategy in following Java War 1826 – 30.

 

March 1825

 

Fort Marlborough was occupied by the Dutch
The Dokar in front of Fort Marlborough –

 

1825

Raffles was also able to place Fort Marlborough on a lower states of readiness, perceiving that there was little or no thereat from any other Euoropean nation. Following the handover of the settlemen to the Dutch in 1825, records show that the for continued to be manned by Dutch colonial troops,

although it was never enlarged or upgraded with the exception of the intruduction, during the mid-19 th century, of four breech loading guns mounted on each of the four bastions.

1826

1826: After the conquest attack Banjar palace

in Yogyakarta in 1826, the Dutch East Indies had been made a rule which areas are still controlled by the Sultanate of Banjar and determine the division of the territories

June 1826:

Gerrit Jan Casparus Cochius

Capturing Pleret, a fort of Diponegoro in Southern of Jogjakarta with more than 7.000 Dutch soldiers.

July 1826:

He lead the movement to Dekso, a new headquarter of Diponegoro after Pleret conquered by Dutch Army.

Lieutenant-General Frans David Cochius in 1850

[3rd of December 1787  – 1st of May 1876]

Lithograph in format of 32×24.5cm

Source: KITLV

 

 

Lieutenant-General Frans David Cochius

Engineer of Battlefield Fortification Strategy in 1827-30

in sequence capturing Diponegoro

If Frans David Cochius was still alive today, he must be 222 years old in December 2009. Who is he? I’ll bring his short biography and compartment in sequence of capturing Diponegoro in Java War.

Java War 1825-30 was the badly war in the history of colonization in Netherlands Indies. For the first time the colonial government faced a massive social rebellion covering large part of Java: 2 million Javanese people were exposed to the ravages of war, 200 thousands Javanese were died. On the other hand, Dutch suffered 8 thousands European troops and 7 thousands of Indonesian troops who fought for Dutch were perished. The war consequence was rising cost about 20 million guilders! The war that perished everything both Javanese and Dutch side.

The Java War was started in a rebellion led by Pangeran Diponegoro for the reason of Dutch political intervention in the Court of Mataram (general reason), and Dutch decision to build a road across a piece of his ancestral property (personal reason).

F.D. Cochius was an expertise in fortification. He designed the prototype of battlefield fortification strategy [Benteng Stelsel]. The fort was built in high terrain, a square building made by coconut tree height about 7-8 feet.The cannons were applied in the one of diagonal corner of the fort. Each corner has two cannons.

In the throne of Governor General Du Bus de Gissignies,

the government of Dutch Indies failed to extinguish the rebellion of Diponegoro. In several party the Diponegoro army defeated the Dutch Indies army, such as campaign for capturing Kejiwan [August 1826],

campaign of Delanggu [August 1826], and campaign of Gawok [October 1826].

Military operation did not reach the objective. General H.M. de Kock ordered to Colonel F.D. Cochius for planning the prototype of battlefield fortification strategy.

This prototype was implied in battlefield fortification strategy in area Bagelen, Banjoemas, Gowong, Ledok, Kedhu, and Jogjakarta. It could be the simple fort for defense in Java War for the reason for limitation the movement of Diponegoro. It was the temporary battlefield fortification: a simple building for military defense, efficient in raw material for the building, and the materials are available in Java.

 

1827

1827:

Gerrit Jan Casparus Cochius

Commander in Military Operation District of Jogjakarta

The strategy of Battlefield Fortification was implied since May 1827. The Battlefield Fortification means that fort was not only have a passive role in the military defense, but it’s emphasized that the fort has active and important role as quarter for offensive operation, military command and control and logistic purposes. Broadly speaking, fort was attempted as warfare and military strategic. In period of May – December 1827 General H.M. de Kock established about 30 forts surrounding Central Java.

Pas in 1827

zou het Paleis van Daendels gereed komen, in opdracht van de enige, “Belgische” Gouverneur-Generaal Leonard P. J. Burggraaf Du Bus de Gisignies, want het jaar 1830 was immers nog niet aangebroken:

1826 – 1830

Gouverneur-Generaal Leonard P. J. Burggraaf Du Bus de Gisignies

Volgens de overlevering woog bij aankomst Du Bus de Gisignies 145 kg, toen hij weer in 1830 naar Europa terugkeerde was hij 60 kg lichter geworden.

 

1828

April 1828:

Gerrit Jan Casparus Cochius

Battle of Bedoyo, he waved Diponegoro army out from this village.

July – August 1828:

Colonel Cochius occupied the valley of Progo and assault the Diponegoro army between Progo and Opak rivers.

In 1828

Hotel des indes Batavia(now Jakarta )

werd het gebouw weer verlaten, in 1832 werd de kostschool voor meisjes weer opgeheven omdat de leraressen maar steeds weggingen om te trouwen

1828

Javasche Bank 1828

 

De Javasche Bank 1828 – 1953

 

Presidents, Secretaries and Directors

info source: Rob Huisman

The Javasche Bank was founded in 1828 and continued its operations until after the Dutch transfer of souvereignty to Indonesia in 1949. The Javasche Bank became the circulation bank for the Republic of Indonesia and was nationalized in 1953.

A date in italics (24/01/1828) means the date of the decree deciding about the appointment or discharge of  the board member. The date of a decree is only mentioned in case the actual start or end date is unknown.

The following board members (Presidents, Secretaries and Directors) were authorized to sign banknotes issued by the Javasche Bank:

Presidents:

24/01/1828 – 22/03/1838 Chr. de Haan (LL.M.)
Leonard Pierre Joseph viscount du Bus de Gisignies, Commissioner General of the Netherlands Indies, appointed Chr. de Haan by decree 25 on January 24, 1828, to the position of President of the Javasche Bank. Although several other people applied for the position of President, the Commissioner General used his right to move past the nominees. On December 13, 1837, after almost 10 year of service, de Haan was granted a two year European leave. He seceded in the board meeting of March 22, 1838.

1829

January 1829:

Military operation to North Mataram.

This operation was moving Diponegoro in to the western Progo River successfully.

The operation continued to Southern Mountains of Jogjakarta.

July 1829:

Gerrit Jan Casparus Cochius

Capturing Fort Geger. This fort was built by coral materials.

In 1829

werd het geheel opgekocht door de Fransman Surleon Antoine Chaulan die er als eerste een hotel begon onder de naam Hotel de Provence.

 

1829

Father van der Grinten was the head pastor of the Catholic Church of Batavia – the first Catholic church in Batavia – located at the corner of Lapangan Banteng (a large open square situated in an European enclave and formerly known as Waterloopein).

It was built over the former residence of the Dutch East Indies military commander General Hendrik Merkus de Kock (who later was made Baron for his triumph over Prince Diponegoro in the Java war).

The church was inaugurated on 6 November 1829 and blessed by the head pastor at that time, Father L. Prinsen,  as “The Church of Our Lady of Assumption”. It measured 35 long by 17 metres wide, consisted of a large hall with rows of pillars on either side in the neo-gothic style, a common architectural style for churches at the time. Father van der Grinten lived in the priest’s residence on the east wing of the church, while the sacristan lived in the west wing.

 

1830

1830/40s, stampless cover (slight faults) w. large oval hs. „ZEEBRIEF BANKA” to Rembang

March 1830:

Colonel Cleerens with Diponegoro arrived in Magelang.

The Kedhu Resident and military chief, including Colonel F.D. Cochius met them in Magelang before the capitulation 28 of March 1830. Based on capturing Diponegoro in Magelang, it designate that the Java War was terminated.

Post of Java War, Colonel F.D. Cochius was the commander in Salatiga, a town in Java.

The submission of Prince Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830

1831 – 37:

Gerrit Jan Casparus Cochius

Extinguishing of the uprising of the Padri’s Islamic fundamentalist insurgents in the mountains of western Sumatra raged.

 

1832

Batavia, a city of Java,

capital of the Dutch possessions in the East Indies, in hit. 6° 10′ 8., lon. 106° 50′ E., on a swampy plain at the head of a deep bay of the Java sea, on the N. W. coast of the island, upon both banks of the river Jacatra. The bay is protected by a number of islands, and forms a secure harbor.

The population in 1832 was 118,300, of whom 2,800 were Europeans, 25,000 Chinese, 80,000 natives, 1,000 Moors and Arabs, and 0,500 slaves; the present number is variously stated at from 70,000 to 150,000, the discrepancy apparently arising from the different areas embraced, the wealthy inhabitants now residing beyond the limit of the fortifications, upon several broad roads running for some distance inland.

The local trade and handicrafts are mostly in the hands of the Chinese; the foreign commerce in those of the Dutch, although there are also English, French, German, and American merchants. About 1,500 vessels annually enter the port, two thirds of which are Dutch.

The principal articles of export are spices, rice, coffee, sugar, indigo, tobacco, dyewoods, and gold dust. In 1867 the total value of the exports was $27,-227,025; imports, $22,439,435. Batavia was originally laid out on the model of a Dutch city, with broad streets having each a canal in the centre.

1835

1835 (27 Nov). Old Westhall / Scotland – USA. Stampless EL full text boxed “OLD RAIN” (xxx/R). Via London – NY. Fwded Batavia. 7 charges. Fine transatlantic usage from small town.[ 537362]

, Borobudur Java. Original steel engraving drawn by W. Purser, engraved by S. Bradshaw. 1835. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 18,5×11,5cm. Mounted.

1836

Sulawesi. Original steel engraving drawn by Danvin, engraved by Joliot. 1836. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 13,5×8,5cm. Mounted.

Sulawesi. Original steel engraving drawn by Danvin. 1836. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 13,5x9cm. Mounted.

Fabce Buru island Mollucas Islands. Original steel engraving drawn by Danvin, engraved by Joliot. 1836. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 13×8,5cm. Mounted

Chinese overseas Timor. Original steel engraving drawn by Danvin, engraved by Langlois. 1836. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 13,5x9cm. Mounted.

Timor. Original steel engraving drawn by Danvin, engraved by Peronan. 1836. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 14x9cm. Mounted.

Timor. Original steel engraving drawn by Danvin, engraved by Desaul. 1836. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 14x9cm. Mounted.

Mollucas Islands. Original steel engraving drawn by Danvin, engraved by Chaillot. 1836. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 14x9cm. Mounted.

Mollucas Islands. Original steel engraving drawn by Danvin, engraved by Chavannes. 1836. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 14x9cm. Mounted

Bali. Original steel engraving drawn by Danvin, engraved by Casenave. 1836. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 13,5×8,5cm. Mounted.

Timor. Original steel engraving drawn by Danvin, engraved by Peronan. 1836. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 14x9cm. Mounted.

 

Native ethnic of Mollucas Islands. Original steel engraving drawn by Danvin, engraved by Delaistre. 1836. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 14x8cm. Mounted

Natife ethnic of Timor. Original steel engraving drawn by Danvin, engraved by Langlois. 1836. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 13,5×8,5cm. Mounted.

Bali. Original steel engraving drawn by Danvin, engraved by Desaul. 1836. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 14x9cm. Mounted.

1837

Mollucas Islands. Original steel engraving drawn by Danvin. 1837. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 14x9cm. Mounted

 

 

 

 

 

August 1837:

Gerrit Jan Casparus Cochius

Conquered the Fort Bondjol in West Sumatra.

September 1837:

Gerrit Jan Casparus Cochius

1st Colonial Infantry Battalion in Bondjol for Major General F.D. Cochius, RVH

[Van Heutz Regiment].

 

 

1838

Borneo. Original steel engraving drawn by Danvin, engraved by Chavannes. 1836. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 14x9cm. Mounted.

May 1838:

Gerrit Jan Casparus Cochius

Commander Militaire Willemsorde

1838

31/03/1838 – 10/03/1851 C.J. Smulders
C.J. Smulders, the Secretary of the Javasche Bank, succeeded de Haan as President by decision of the Commissioner General on March 31, 1838. 
In November 1846, Smulders bought 1/2 share in the sugar factory Langsee. On January 7, 1851, Smulders requested to be honorably discharged because of his weakening health. By decree of March 4, 1851, Smulders was honorably discharged. He decided to dedicate his time to his interest in the Langsee sugar factory. His successor E. Francis, took over presidency during the board meeting of March 10, 1851.

 

1838

In 1838, the Mataram kingdom brought its rivals under control.

Relations between the Sasak and Balinese in western Lombok were largely harmonious and intermarriage was common. In the island’s east, however, relations were less cordial and the Balinese maintained control from garrisoned forts. While Sasak village government remained in place, the village head became little more than a tax collector for the Balinese. Villagers became a kind of serf and Sasak aristocracy lost much of its power and land holdings.

Source Ebay

 

 

1840

In 1840 Batavia had 537, and, in 1880, 1015 inhabitants

 

1841

November 1841:

Gerrit Jan Casparus Cochius

12th Infantry Battalion in Batavia for Lieutenant-General F.D. Cochius, RVH

[Van Heutz Regiment].

1841

Earliest Nederland and South Holland revenue handstamped (1841) on law magazine from nederland sent to Indonesia.

Look the close up of complete document next page

 

 

 

 

1842

Batavia Jakarta

Java. Original steel engraving drawn by C. Reiss, engraved by W. Wallis. Bibliograph. Institut in Hidlburghausen. 1842. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 15×9,5cm. Mounted.

 

1843

Chinese Overseas Postcard at Batavia in 1843

Sulawesi. Original wood engraving. 1843. Light foxing. Original hand-colouring. 18x8cm. Mounted.

Papua New Guinea. Original steel engraving engraved by Mercier. 1843. Light foxing. Original hand-colouring. 16x9cm. Mounted

 

 

VELDE, Charles William Meredith van de. Serang, hoofdplaats van de residentie Bantam. – Serang, chef-lieu de la résidence Bantam. Amsterdam, Frans Buffa en Zonen, (c. 1843).Lithograph by P. Lauters after C.W.M. van de Velde. Ca. 21 x 30 cm. From: C.W.M. van de Velde. Gezigten uit Nêerlands Indië. – Rustic view of the capital of Bantam, Serang. With horsemen and coach.Bastin-Brommer N360.

résidence Bantam. Amsterdam, Frans Buffa en Zonen, (c. 1843).

Lithograph by P. Lauters after C.

Serang, hoofdplaats van de residentie Bantam. – Serang, chef-lieu de la

 

 

 

1844

1844 (31 Dec). Batavia – France. EL full contains comercial mark despatch on front + Via Alexandria – Malta (dissinfected) + charges. Shows great

Java. Original wood engraving by H. Thiriat. 1884. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 19×12,5cm. Mounted.

 

1845

In 1845 kocht zoon Etienne Chaulan op een veiling het hotel van zijn vader voor dfl 25.000,=, vraag me niet waarom….

Etienne maakte het hotel al een beetje beroemd, want hij was de eerste die ….. verschillende soorten ijs ging verkopen

1845, Zustellungsmarke „Aangebragt per Land-Mail. Te betalen port (hds: 216) koper. BATAVIA (hds: 12/4 1846)” auf Faltbrief von Bordeaux (datiert 24.1.46) via Suez, Ceylon und Singapore nach Batavia, Java, aufgrund von säurehaltiger Tinte kleine Fehlstellen innerhalb der Anschrift, sonst einwandfreie und frische Kabinett-Erhaltung!, Fotoattest Brun&Fils, Paris. Catalog Price 4000,00[Zust. I ]

Bid Info: Price: € 4,000.00     Sold For: €3600.00

 

 

1845,

entire folded letter dated „Batavia 25. August 1845” with blue oval „BATAVIA (posthorn) / ONGEFRANKEERD” to Buitenzorg, red ms. „20”. Clean condition

1846

April 1846:

13th Infantry Battalion in Batavia for Lieutenant-General F.D. Cochius, RVH

[Van Heutz Regiment].

 

 

 

 

 

 

1846

After failed expeditions to conquer Bali in 1846 and 1848, an 1849 intervention brought northern Bali under Dutch control

The Dutch 7th Battalion advancing in Bali in 1846

1846

. After failed expeditions to conquer Bali in 1846 and 1848, an 1849 interventionbrought northern Bali under Dutch control.

 

1846 (Aug 17) outer to Singapore “p Elora” but crossed-out & “p Kyle” added, oval ‘PAID SHIP LETTER/SYDNEY’ d/s & very fine ‘Registered/SYDNEY.’ h/s (Type R2) both in red, superb strike of the chamfered ‘FORWARDED BY/MACLAINE WATSON & Co/BATAVIA’ cachet in red, rated “6” in red on arrival, docketed on the flap “recd Jan7 47 per Nurappin [?] via Batavia”, light vertical filing fold. A very rare destination in this period, taking 5 months to arrive! [Brian Peace – our auction of 27/7/2009 – had six registered covers to overseas destinations: all were to Great Britain. He had no cover to Singapore]

1847

1846, Zustellungsmarke „Aangebragt per Land-Mail. Te betalen port (hds. 150) duiten BATAVIA (hds: 10 Jan 1847)” auf Faltbrief mit blauem K1 „AMSTERDAM 21/11 (1846)” und „P” via Marseille nach Samarang, Java, aufgrund von säurehaltiger Tinte kleine Fehlstellen innerhalb der Anschrift, sonst einwandfreie und frische Kabinett-Erhaltung! Catalog Price 4000,00[Zust. II ] Sold For: €3600.00

 

 

1847 (21 June). Batavia – Netherlands. E. stampless via British mail over Alexandria + Malta / Lazaretto. Displays great! + VF + charges

 

1848

 

werd de bovenste verdieping van het Paleis Rijswijk afgebroken in de hoop het gebouw wat meer status te geven. In de praktijk verbleven de Gouverneurs-Generaal ook liever in Buitenzorg dan in Paleis Rijswijk….. het Paleis Rijswijk kreeg al snel de bijnaam Hotel van de Gouverneur-Generaal….

 

In Paleis Rijswijk kwam wel geregeld de Raad van Indië bij elkaar, de onofficiële regering van Nederlands-Indië voorgezeten door de Gouverneur-Generaal. De Gouverneur-Generaal had echter in de praktijk, we zouden nu zeggen, dictatoriale bevoegdheden en dus altijd het laatste woord.

 

In 1809 begon Daendels dus aan zijn plan voor wat de geschiedenis zou ingaan als het Paleis van Daendels, en ook wel Het Groote Huis genoemd. Pas in 1827 zou het voltooid worden.

Alhoewel groots van opzet

Netherlands. ½ Gulden, 1848. KM-73.1. Willem II. Toned. NGC graded AU-50.
Estimated Value $100 – 125

1849

1849 (9 Feb.). Khibosania to Batavia. EL. Green-grey neat oval KRAWANG (xxx). + manuscript 25-VF

1849 (27 July). Batavia – France (26 Sept). EL full contains via Alexandria BPO + Malta dissinfected. Shows great. VF

 

1849 illustrated ‘OCEAN PENNY POSTAGE’ envelope with ‘London: CHARLES GILPIN, 5, Bishopsgate Street Without.’ imprint at the base, Imperf 1d red (3½ margins), ’34’-in-diamond cancel & ‘Bishopsgate St Within’ h/s alongside, ‘SOUTHAMPTON’ arrival b/s in blue, a couple of ink-stains on the face & overall soiling. [The cover is addressed in the distinctive hand of the American social activist, Elihu Burritt. Burritt was the United States Consular Agent in Birmingham, and a promoter of internationalism and world peace. He advocated a universal Ocean Penny Post as a means to increasing international correspondence, trade & brotherhood]

1850

1850

Cafe Batavia

a building in the old Jakarta city area just across the square of Fatahillah, the main attraction is the interior. It was constructed between 1805-1850, and underwent a renovation in 1993. The Cafe Batavia  was established in 1930.

 

1850 (25 May). Batavia – UK. Stampless E blue Franca cds Via Singapore box on reverse (would display well if opened) charge 2sh / 3d + modified + London transit. Comercial departure cachet on front. Fine

1850 (6 Aug.). Fjilanghap to Batavia. EL. With red oval KRAWANG (xxx) x 25 manuscript charge. VF

1851

In 1851 ging het management over in handen van Cornelis Denninghoff die de naam veranderde in Hotel Rotterdam,
Ook wel het Rotterdamsch Hotel genoemd. Het had niet zoo’n goede naam, iemand schreef dat hem Hotel Rotterdam was aanbevolen, maar hij had veel beter

President of Javasche bank

10/03/1851 – 01/07/1863 E. Francis
Emanuel Francis started his career in the Netherlands Indies as a clerk in 1815 and worked his way up in the government service to eventually become the top civil servant available to the Commissioner General. From 1848 to 1850 Francis was Inspector of Finance and in 1851 he was honorably discharged from the governement service. Next, Francis was appointed to President of the Javasche Bank by decree of March 4, 1851. On his own request Francis was honorably discharged  per Juli 1, 1863 per decree of  April 20, 1863. In 1864 Francis published a book “De regerings-beginselen van Nederlandsch Indië: getoetst aan de behoefte van moederland en kolonie”, expressing his dissatisfaction with the implementation of a new economic system in the Netherlands Indies and proposing an investigation by an independent committee. In 1969 Francis published a request to the Dutch parliament about his reputed right for payment of pension being a retired civil servant of the Netherlands Indies government.

1852

INDIA HOLANDESA. 1852. Entire letter from BATAVIA with red Company cachet and blue BATAVIA cds, British PO at ALEXANDRIA cds of transit in black and red MARSEILLE entry marking on front. Handstamped 10 declines due on delivery.

1852

Het Hotel Rotterdam had in 1852 al weer een andere eigenaar gekregen, de Zwitser Wijss die in 1851 getrouwd was met een 16-jarige nicht van Etienne Chaulan.

En deze Wijss was degene die op advies van Douwes Dekker op 1 Mei 1856 de naam veranderde in het veel chiquer klinkende

 

 

1852

The Postal history used cover from Honolulu hawai via manila to Batavia.

Postmarks front and back of this cover are Honolulu, March 11, 1852, Manila, May 19 and June 17, Hong Kong, June 21, Canton, July 2 along with a Canton PAID mark, and again Hong Kong on July 22. This cover, addressed to Batavia via a forwarder in Canton, was carried to Manila by the Bremen bark Ceres, departing April 3, 1852. The letter next went from Manila to Hong Kong and paid a single letter rate of 4 pence (represented by the black “4” over the Honolulu postmark). At Hong Kong, the letter was sent to the forwarder in Canton at another 4 pence rate (represented by the red “4” in the upper left corner). The forwarder crossed out his name, paid postage to Singapore (1 shilling represented by a red squiggle over the Honolulu postmark) and sent it back down to Hong Kong. From Hong Kong, the letter was carried to Singapore by the P&O steamship Malta (July 23 departure; July 31 arrival) under British mail contract, and then to Batavia by local shipping. The “48” is said to represent a Batavia local rate, typically written with the same type of ink

 

the famous “Batavia Cover” shown below.

 

Backstamps

 

.

 

1853

1854 LOOK PART FOUR

Japan Papermoney History Collections (sample of E-Book In CD-ROM)

THIS e-BOOK IN cd rOM WERE SAMPLE NOT COMPLETE ILLUSTRATED ISU=SUUED. THE FULL COMPLETE COLOUR LIMITED EDITION ONLY TEN cD ISSUED EXIST

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SPONSSORED BVY OUR ANCESTOR MUSEUM WANLIS SONS NORTH JAKARTA INDONESIA

Driwan Masterpiece uniquecollections :”The Limited JJ STokes Rugby(Football) Trade Card Collections”(koleksi Kartus rugby langka JJ Stokes)

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

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Showroom :
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(Museum Duniamaya koleksi unik masterpiece Dr Iwan)

SHOWCASE :
THE LIMITED EDITION JJ STOKES RUGBY(FOOTBALL) TRADE CARD

FRAME ONE:
THE LIMITED 795 CARDS, AUTOPHONEX TEST ISSUE TRAD CARD
( Dr IWAN COLLECTIONS)
FRONTSIDE


BACKSIDE

FRAME TWO:
THE JJ STOKES BIOGRAPHY


J. J. Stokes Date of birth: October 6, 1972 (1972-10-06) (age 38)
Place of birth: San Diego, California
Career information
Position(s): Wide receiver
College: UCLA
NFL Draft: 1995 / Round: 1 / Pick 10
Organizations
As player:
1995-2002
2003
2003 San Francisco 49ers
Jacksonville Jaguars
New England Patriots
Playing stats at DatabaseFootball.com

Jeral Jamal Stokes (born October 6, 1972) is a former National Football League wide receiver. Stokes last played in the NFL in December 2003 for the New

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JAPAN PAPER MONEY HISTORY COLLECTIONS

BY

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Limited E-Book In Cd-Rom

Special for Numismatic Collectors and Historian Scholars

Copyright @ Dr Iwan 2016

 

Dr Iwan comment

In July 2016 I visit this country , with my wife Lily and So0n Anton ,with his wife Grace and my granddaufghter Cess withh her grandmother Sisca. We we stayed at GrandNikko Hotel Tokyo, we visit Mount Fuji, then by train we visit Osaka and stayed at   Hotel mayling Osaka, we visit also Kyoto , then after that I with my wife visit Hongkong.

 

Preface

I found Japan papermoney in 2000, and

I still collected that papermoney until this day .

In 2016 I star to collect Switzerland Paper MoneY

RAREREST COLLETION jAPAN 10 YEN BELOW

And for add my museum collections in North Jakarta Pondok Gading “Our Ancestor Museum WANLI SONS”

This E-book I write for my Sons Anton Jimmi Suwandy ,and his wife Grace with their children Cessa as the remembrance of my effort to ptotect the world heritage from Switzerland.

I put some information from Wikipedia dan E-Bay to give more knowledge to collectors and historian scholar.

Jakarta August 2015

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Ret.Senior Superintentands Indonesian National Police

Consultant Information

 

Introduction

10th Century

During the period of Japanese history from 1185-1603, Japan was ruled by the Emperor, but his power was not absolute.

1603-1863

One of the neatest collectible currencies in the world is Japanese Hansatsu. These banknotes were issued during the Edo Period (1603-1868), but there are similar designs issued before the Edo period and after the Edo period, during the Meiji Restoration, which restored Imperial Rule to Japan.

 

 


After winning the Battle of Sekigahara

in 1600, Tokugawa Ieyasu became the supreme ruler over Japan. He organized all the Daimyo’s into around 300 Han, a type of fief, or domain, from which he demanded loyalty. Those who were his enemies had their houses destroyed and their lands taken. Those who were loyal, he granted powerful positions to in the Han’s.


The Han’s were able to produce what were called Han-Satsu, a type of banknote similar to notes issued previously by private issuers, but had since been removed from circulation. Hansatsu were issued in the different han’s and they circulated primarily within the han they were issued in, though there were a few exceptions. Hansatsu were based on the gold, silver and copper coinage of the time, but there were a few that that were to be exchanged for commodities such as rice and fish.

17th Century

Yamada Hagaki Period Issued By Shinto Priest

1600

A Yamada Hagaki, Japan’s first banknote, circa 1600.

Japan’s first banknotes, called Yamada Hagaki (山田羽書), were issued around 1600 by Shinto priests also working as merchants in the Ise-Yamada (modern Mie Prefecture), in exchange for silver.[1] This was earlier than the first goldsmith notes issued in England around 1640.[1]

 

 

1661

An early issue of domain scrip took place in the Fukui domain in 1661. As early as 1610, private notes had been printed for purposes such as payment of workers on construction projects. Domains issued scrip to supplement coins in times of shortage and to adjust the amount in circulation. They also exchanged scrip for coins to improve the financial situation of the domain. By the end of the period, eight out of ten domains issued paper, as did a few daikan-sho and hatamoto.

 

Accepting scrip always carried the risk of forfeiture.

18th Century

Edo Period

(Era Shogun)

Feudal domains of Japan

During the Edo period, feudal domains of Japan issued scrip called hansatsu (藩札?) for use within the domain.

During the Edo period, the shogunate seized some domains, and transferred others; on such occasions, the new daimyo might not honor the old scrip. Following the condemnation and death of the daimyo Asano Naganori, for example, Ōishi Yoshio, a house elder in the Akō Domain (and later the leader of the Forty-seven Ronin), ordered the redemption of scrip at 60% of face value. In addition, in times of financial difficulty, the domain might simply declare scrip void.

Early in the period, domains printed their own scrip; later, they operated through

 

 

1707

In 1707 the controlling Tokugawa Shogunate banned the use of paper money, due to abuses of the system.

1730

However, in 1730, the practice of issuing Hansatsu was officially resumed. In reality, Japan was actually controlled by powerful Daimyo, (feudal lords) and Shoguns (warlords). This period has been divided up into separate periods of rule based on who was in control at the time.

prominent merchants, whose credibility was important to the acceptance of the currency.

This paper currency supplemented the coinage of the Tokugawa shogunate. Most scrip carried a face value in silver coinage, but gold and copper scrip also circulated. In addition, some scrip was marked for exchange in kind for a commodity such as rice.

In addition to those issued by the domains, forms of paper money were also issued by rice brokers in Osaka and Edo. Originally used only as a representation of amounts of rice (subdivisions of koku) owned by the scrip-holder and held in the Osaka or Edo merchants’ storehouse, these scrips quickly came to be used as currency

1866

Japan Edo period papewr money “Hansatsu Imone” Nara 1866 UNC Est price IDR 263,157.89

Dr Iwan Comment

I found this paper money three type , two from Tokyo flea market and one from Jakarta market.

Japanese Banknotes

 

 

A collection of 18th & 19th century Hansatsu banknote designs

 

 


When Tokugawa Yoshinobu resigned in 1867, the result was the Boshin War in January of 1868, in which the Shogunates forces were defeated and the Emperor declared himself to be restored to power. This period is known as the Meiji Restoration. At this time the government began an exchange program for people to turn in their Hansatsu for the new national currency called the Dajoukansatsu, which was the first banknote issued by a central government in Japan. This was met with reluctance, however, and the exchange ran until 1879.

 

Hansatsu notes are vertically printed and narrow, which has garnered them the nickname of ‘Bookmark Notes’ by some collectors. The notes have many different designs and motifs, and are usually filled with the Japanese Kanji script both in printed and handwritten form. One of the more prevalent design features is that of a corpulent man standing on two barrel shaped rice bales, and carrying an oversized sack over his shoulder. These depictions are of the Daikokuten, one of the Shichi Fukujin, or Seven Gods of Fortune. Originating from the Buddhist faith in India, where he was known as Mahakala and was a fierce warrior god. Towards the end of the fifth century, he was ensconced in Buddhism, and he made his way to Japan by the eighth century where, over time, he lost his fierce ways and became a chubby, happy man. Renamed Daikokuten, he adopted a magic mallet, a large treasure sack, bales of rice, and became the god of wealth, happiness, farming, and of course, good fortune. He rapidly grew into a favorite deity throughout Japan.

 

His association with agriculture has him depicted almost always standing or sitting on two rice bales. This has also made him a favorite deity for cooks and kitchens. Tradition also has it that the main pole in a house is often called the Daikokuten pole, meant to support the house with good fortune.

 

The oversized sack of treasure has in it three items, in abundance: Wealth, Wisdom and Patience.

 

The magical wooden mallet is said to be able to grant whatever wish you want when it is struck on the ground, and when shaken, coins will magically appear to fall out of it. The mallet contains a wish granting jewel, called the Hoju, that is a special symbol of power in Buddhism. The Hoju is said to be able to grant wishes, bring calm, and give understanding of the Dharma, or Buddhist law. The Dharma is also considered to be wealth in Buddhist teachings. The jewel has also been said to contain the sacred ashes of the Buddha himself. The mallet can also be seen with three jewels in a flame, or a single pointed flame.  The three jewels and flame are, along with rice, powerful fertility symbol. On Hansatsu notes, these jewels can most often be seen on the ends of the rice bales.

 

Daikokuten is somtimes depicted with three heads, and is then known as the Sanmen Daikoku, which is depicted to show him as the protector of the three Buddhist “Treasures”: Buddha himself, Law and Buddhist disciples. This depiction of him was quite popular during the Edo Period in Japan.

 

Below are some typical Hansatsu notes from my personal collection. As I do not read Japanese, the translations are not complete. I have had to base my identification of these notes from the information I could obtain from the seller, or from other sources in books or on the Internet. Unfortunately, I have not come across a detailed description of these notes in English, and have often had to rely on sources in French or Polish – there is undoubtedly something lost in the translation at some point. Any assistance in the identification or translation of these notes will be greatly appreciated.

Link: How to attribute dates on Hasnatsu

 

1 Silver Monme – 1740

 

 

1 Silver Monme – 1863

 

 

1 Silver Monme Issued by the Shibamura Han in the Yamamoto-Wahsu Province during the Enkyo (Edo) era, year 2 (Kinoto Ushi) – Western year 1745

 

 

1 Silver Monme Issued during the Kyoho era, year 15 (Kanoe-inu) Western year 1730

 

 

1 Silver Monme – Undetermined Han and date

 

 

 

1 Silver Monme – Issued in the Anwei era – Western year 1854

 

 

 

1 Silver Monme Issued during the Tenpo era – Western year 1838

 

 

1 Silver Monme Issued during the Keio era year 2 (Hinoe-Tora) – Western year 1866

 

 

1 Monme Issued during the Keio era – Western year 1865

 

 Image result for JAPAN 1 Monme Issued during the Keio era - Western year 1865-1867

1 Monme Issued during the Keio era – Western year 1865-1867

 Image result for JAPAN 1 Monme Issued during the Keio era - Western year 1865-1867

 

1 Monme Issued during the Koka era, year 4 (Hinoto-Hitsuji – Western year 1847

 

 

1 Silver Monme Issued during the Keio era year 1 Nana Meguri Hanchi-ko Mura – Western year 1865

 

 

1 Silver Monme Issued during the Bunkyu era, year 4 Hyogo Prefecture of Kasai – Western year 1863

 

 

3 Silver Bu Issued during the Kyoho era, year 15 Kanoe-inu – Western year 1730

 

 

3 Silver Monme Issued during the Kyoho era, year 15 Kanoe-inu Nagasawa, Kawachi (Osaka) – Western Date 1730

 

 

1 Silver Monme issued by the Yanagimoto Han in Yamato no Kuni Nara-Ken Prefecture Issued during the Bunsei era, year 13 – Western year 1830

 

 

1 Silver Monme issued by the Mangani Temple of Abeyamain Yamato no Kuni Nara-Ken Prefecture Issued in Keio 2nd year during the Edo era – Western year 1866

 

 

 

3 Silver Monme issued by the Hatake Mura Village in Atsumi Gin, Mikawa no Kuni – Achi Ken Prefecture Issued during the Meiji era, year 2 – Western year 1869

Valid until Meiji 5th year – Western year 1872

 

The gentleman catching a fish in this vignette is not Daikokuten, but is instead the ‘laughing god’ Ebisu, one of the Seven Gods of Furtune. According to legend, Ebisu gained ill favor with his elders at the age of three, and he was cast into the sea, who is always happy and laughing, and evidently very generous. He is depicted as always wearing traditional Japanese court clothing with a fishing rod and a fish known as a ‘red sea-bream’ (pagrus cardinalis), which is supposedly the most delicious fish that can be prepared. In some modern illustrations, he is also associated with jellyfish.

 

Ebisu is the patron of merchants and tradesmen, as well as fishermen. Perhaps due to his clothing, it is considered good luck to purchase clothing and material on Ebisu Day.

 

How to date Hansatsu (Or try to really, really hard, anyway!)

Link: How to attribute dates on Hasnatsu

 

Source

http://www.banknoteden.com/Japan.html

Look more Hansatsu Edo Papermoney collections from this era from E-Bay auction

Japan Edo period paper money “Hansatsu 1monme” Nara 1866 Uncirculated

o    IDR263,157.89

o    Buy It Now

o     

o    From Japan

o   

Japan Edo period paper money “Hansatsu 1monme” Nara 1700s

o    IDR131,578.95

o    Buy It Now

o     

o    From Japan

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JAPAN HANSATSU 31 NOTE LOT – OUTSTANDING LOT -MANY SCARCE NOTES – 1700S- 1800S

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Japan Edo period paper money “Hansatsu 1monme” Nara 1700s

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The shogunate prohibited the use of scrip in 1707.

 

.Edo Period: Pre-conditions for Industrialization

(See Handout no.2)

The Edo period: 1603-1867

 

Nikko Toshogu Shrine (Yomei Gate)

 

Tokugawa Ieyasu, the first Edo Shogun

From the late 12th century through the 17th century, Japan was ruled by samurais (military leaders) but politics remained unstable. Internal wars and power shifts were very frequent, especially during the late 15th century to the end of the 16th century (called Sengoku Jidai, or warring period).

Finally, Ieyasu Tokugawa unified the country after the decisive Battle of Sekigahara (located between Nagoya and Kyoto, visible from Shinkansen) in 1600 and the attacks on Osaka Castle in 1615 where the rival Toyotomi family perished. Ieyasu established a new government in Edo and became the first shogun of the Edo Bakufu in 1603. Edo, a sleepy little town until then, was transformed into a huge political city by aggressive public works including land reclamation, new canals and clean water supply systems. The Tokugawa family ruled the country in the next 264 years (15 shoguns in all). Ieyasu Tokugawa was deified and worshiped in Nikko Toshogu Shrine (even today).

We start the story of Japan’s economic development from the Edo period because pre-conditions for later industrialization and modernization were created internally during this period (moreover, quantitative data for earlier periods are very limited). The following are the pre-conditions that were generated:

(1) Political unity and stability
(2) Agricultural development in terms of both area and productivity
(3) Development of transportation and the existence of nationally unified markets
(4) The rise of commerce, finance and the wealthy merchant class
(5) The rise of manufacturing (food processing, handicraft, etc)
(6) Industrial promotion by central and local governments (sometimes successful but not always)
(7) High level of education

These are the features of the Edo period which are commonly cited by many researchers. The remainder of this lecture discusses them in detail. Note that some of these conditions are not achieved even today in some countries. In fact, developing countries that are equipped with all these conditions are relatively rare.

SHOGUN WOODBLOCK PICTURE

 

Here are some basic terminology for the Edo period:

Edo

The old name for Tokyo. Edo literally means the mouth of bay. Incidentally, Tokyo means eastern capital (the western, or the traditional, capital is Kyoto).

Daimyo

Regional samurai ruler. During the Edo period, it meant the head samurai of a local government (han).

Shogun

Originally, the supreme commander of dispatched army. But it usually means the head of a central military government.

Bakufu

Residence of a military ruler. Later it meant the central military government itself.

Han

A local government (like province or prefecture) in the Edo period.

Features of the Bakufu-Han System

The basic characteristics of the Edo society and politics were as follows.

(1) It was a class society: The ruling class was samurai (military men who were permitted to carry a sword). Then farmers (ranked no.2), craftsmen (no.3), merchants (no.4). There was a big gap between the samurai class and other classes. Farmers were officially placed no.2 because they paid the rice tax, but they were not particularly respected. Below all of these classes, there were also outcasts (eta and hinin).

(These four classes were called Shi-Nou-Kou-Shou (from top to bottom). Historically, Vietnam also had the distinction of Si-Nong-Cong-Thuong (Chinese characters are the same, only the pronunciation is different). It is clear that the idea originally came from China. In Vietnam, however, the top class “Si” meant scholars or literary bureaucrats, not fighting men. Moreover, it merely showed what types of people were important and respectable in society without political implication. The Edo government changed this idea into an ideology that legitimized a class society with samurais on top.)

(2) Politically, it was a centralized system. The Bakufu (central government) had absolute political power over the fate of hans (local governments) and could even remove or abolish them. It was a feudal society in the sense that the shogun gave daimyos the land to rule. In return, daimyos pledged loyalty to shogun. Any sign of disobedience was met with sternest punishment (often seppuku (ritual suicide) and/or the termination of the family).

(3) Economically, it was more decentralized. The Bakufu was not very capable of (or interested in) imposing consistent economic policies. Its policies were often unstable and short-sighted. Each han could decide its tax rates and other economic regulations, or encourage certain industries (so long as it was not explicitly prohibited by the Bakufu).

(4) The Bakufu imposed the following expenses on hans. (i) sankin kotai, bi-annual commuting between home and Edo (one year the daimyo must live in Edo, next year in his han, then Edo, then home, ad infinitum) — a large number of retainers also moved with him. This cost a large sum of money and usually constituted the largest part of han’s expenditure; (ii) public works ordered by the Bakufu, such as building castles, moats, roads, irrigation ponds and canals, waterworks, etc; (iii) other ad hoc and arbitrary taxes and charges.

Imposition of these financial expenses on hans had the effect of weakening the financial capability of hans so they were unable to build military forces to rebel against the Bakufu.

 

Figure 2-1

Bakufu-Han System

Agriculture

The Edo society was agrarian (particularly at the beginning) with about 90% of the population being peasants. Later, the ratio declined somewhat. The basic unit of production was the small family. Previously, one farming household often contained many families plus servants. But official land surveys (kenchi) conducted before and after the beginning of the Edo period dismantled the big family system and created small farming units, with each family guaranteed of the land to cultivate.

According to the law, peasants had no right to move and were tied to the land as labor force (they were the tax base !) But in reality, some farmers moved to new land, sometimes to avoid a high tax burden, unreasonable policy or famine, but sometimes to look for new land to improve their life. Later, as rural income rose, many well-to-do farmers enjoyed village festivals as well as trips to Ise Shrine and other religious spots (officially for worship, but actually for fun).

Villages were well organized and permitted autonomy, as long as they paid rice taxes as stipulated. The rice tax was levied on villages (not individual farmers), and village representatives, who were often themselves farmers, allocated rice tax burden among all villagers. In a sense, they played the role of lowest-level tax administration. Thanks to them, the Bakufu and hans could raise tax revenues with little administrative cost. Prof. Keiichi Tanaka (Edo historian) argues that farmers were very dynamic and independent, and they often rejected Bakufu officials and policies which were inconsistent and unreasonable. (Prof. Tanaka thinks that the Bakufu had no long-term vision and their laws and regulations were ad hoc responses to unfolding events.)

There were two ways to determine the rice tax obligation. One was the kemi (inspection) system where an official inspector came to check the actual yield every year. Naturally, village representatives treated the official with lots of food and gifts. Some officials only had drinking parties and did not actually check the fields. The bribed official happily understated the crop output (often very substantially) so villages paid much less taxes. According to Prof. Shinzaburo Oishi (historian), such corruption was an important reason for chronic revenue shortage of the government. On the other hand, if the visiting official was arbitrary and uncooperative, he might raise the tax obligation to the chagrin of the farmers.

Another method was the jomen (fixed amount) system where the rice tax was unchanged for three or five years based on the average output of the preceding years. Under this system, the government could expect a more stable tax revenue and also minimize the inspection cost. Farmers borne a greater risk for crop failure, but incentive to produce was also greater (if they worked hard, additional output was all theirs). According to Prof. Tanaka, farmers often preferred the jomen system because they did not want to cope with corrupt officials every year.

During the Edo period, agricultural development underwent two phases: from quantitative expansion to qualitative intensification.

Table 2-1
Estimated Land under Cultivation

 (unit: thousand hectare)

930 AD

862

1450 AD

946

1600 AD

1,635

1720 AD

2,970

1874 AD

3,050

Source: S. Oishi (1977).

From the mid 15th century to the late 17th century (this includes the previous Sengoku Jidai (warring period) as well as the early Edo period), there was an enormous expansion of farmland (especially rice paddies). Earlier, rice was produced in narrow valleys where mountains ended and plains began–this was the only place where constant water supply was available. But during this period, large-scale water projects were carried out all over Japan by daimyos and private farmers to control floods and use rivers for irrigation. As a result, land under cultivation expanded dramatically. The plains, which had hitherto been uninhabitable marshlands, were turned into productive paddy fields. The population increased rapidly (such population growth was very unusual for a pre-modern society). Prof. Shinzaburo Oishi calls this “The Great Age of Opening Fields.”

After the late 17th century, land expansion came to a halt. The rapid growth of farmland in the previous period also brought some negative effects, including (i) shortage of labor force; and (ii) deforestation and frequent occurrence of floods. From this period onward (even today), Japanese agriculture emphasized intensive cultivation with large inputs of labor and technology, instead of quantitative expansion.

 

Agricultural technology in the Edo period

From the 18th century onward, the area of cultivation and population remained relatively stable, but rice output continued to grow thanks to increased productivity. Contributing factors included double cropping, new species of rice, fertilizer (dried fish was popular), and invention of new farming tools. Many guidebooks were published to teach farmers how to produce crops more effectively and efficiently.

At the beginning of the Edo period (17th century), peasants produced mainly for family consumption. They ate what they produced and their living standards were at subsistence levels. However, from the middle Edo period, as productivity rose, agricultural surplus was created and peasants began to sell their rice and other crops to the market (which was nationally integrated). Cash crops increased and commercial agriculture began.

Officially, all farmers were supposed to belong to (or be tied to) pre-assigned land. But in the 19th century as landless farmers increased, the landlord-tenant relationship began to emerge.

Farmers’ uprisings (ikki) frequently occurred, especially at the time of famine and toward the end of the Edo period. They were unhappy with taxes, inflation, famine, corrupt officials, or government policies.

Budget and money

The Bakufu’s revenue sources included the following:

–Rice tax from land directly held by Bakufu (land not distributed to other daimyos)
–Monopoly on mining, foreign trade and minting money
–Direct control on major cities (Edo, Kyoto, Osaka, Nagasaki, Sakai, etc)
–Financial contributions from merchants in exchange for monopoly & cartel permission
–Charges on and borrowings from rich merchants (sometimes not repaid)
–In addition, the Bakufu assigned hans to various public works, as noted above

Hans’ revenue included the following:

–Rice tax from its territory
–Revenues from local industries (if industrial promotion was successful)

The entire fiscal system was based on the rice tax. The unit of fiscal account was “koku” (about 180 liters of rice). The han’s economic size was measured in koku and samurai’s salaries were paid in rice (but of course they had to convert it to cash to buy things). Rice was physically collected from each village and transported to the major rice markets (Osaka was the most important national rice market), then redistributed to the rest of the country. The “koku” size of each han was based on cultivated areas at the beginning, but as new fields were opened and productivity rose, the official “koku” size and the actual “koku” size of each han deviated.

This rice-based system had the following consequences:

(1) Since rice had to be actually shipped across regions, this tax system required a nationally unified transportation and distribution mechanism. Private merchants provided such services but the Bakufu and han governments often guided and supported them. Land transportation (on horseback) was very costly and inefficient, so sea and river transportation was mainly used.

(2) Economic activity gradually shifted from subsistence farming to commercial agriculture and handicraft industries. But the government’s tax base basically remained on rice. There were some taxes on commerce but this did not become the reliable tax base. As a result, the Bakufu and han governments faced fiscal crisis while farmers and merchants were allowed to increase their income and wealth.

(3) Faced with chronic fiscal crisis, the Bakufu responded in the following ways: monetary debasement (similar to printing money, which leads to inflation), spending cuts, tax increases, price controls, administrative reforms. Some commercial policies were tried, including providing certain merchants with the exclusive right to market a product (i.e. monopoly) in exchange for financial contribution to the government.

Money consisted of both gold and silver. Gold was popular in Edo and silver was mainly used in Osaka. Copper money was also used for small transactions. Hans could also issue local paper money. Inflation rose at the time of famine and accelerated toward the end of the Edo period (especially after international trade was resumed).

Transportation and commerce

 

Tokaido “Highway”

The Bakufu designated five official highways and opened major sea lanes. But private inns, restaurants, shippers, baggage carriers, etc. provided the necessary service. Farming villages near the highway were required to provide horses when necessary (part of their nontax obligation). Sankin kotai (bi-annual commuting by daimyos) also stimulated the development of the road system. At the same time, due to military reasons, Bakufu did not encourage free movement of people and merchandise. At major check points, sekisho (passport controls) were created. Some rivers were left without bridges, intentionally and for military reasons. Hans were not allowed to build ships or maintain navy.

As noted above, from the beginning, the Edo tax system presupposed a nationally unified rice market. Development of cash crops and handicrafts also stimulated nationwide commerce. Osaka was the commercial center with many rich merchants and money lenders, while Edo was a political center and consumption city. Naturally, the sea lane between the two cities was well developed. In Osaka, the futures market in rice emerged (this is said to be the first futures market in the world).

The Bakufu’s policy towards commerce and industry was variable and inconsistent. Sometimes the central government tried to control and tax private businesses. Other times free economy was permitted. Cartels were sometimes imposed and other times prohibited. Among historians, opinions differ as to whether the Edo economy was more dynamic under free market policy or pro-cartel policy. Prof. Tetsuji Okazaki (Tokyo University) tries to show that estimated GDP grew faster during the time when cartels were permitted than when they were banned. He argues that trade cartels were a positive factor for the development of the Edo economy rather than an impediment. However, his data and regressions may be too crude to be decisive.

Toward the end of the Edo period, many hans and local cities developed economically. As a result, direct trading among them (without the intervention of Osaka merchants) began. The center of economic activity gradually moved eastward, from Kansai (Osaka, Kyoto) to Edo and Eastern Japan. Many markets (not just rice, but almost everything) were nationally integrated.

Industry

As agriculture and commerce grew, pre-modern manufacturing (handicrafts, food processing) also began to develop. For example, the following products were produced:

tea, tobacco, wax, indigo, salt, knives, sword, pottery, lacquer ware, silk, cotton, soy sauce, sake, paper, stone cutting, medicine, chemicals

 

Cotton weaving factory in Owari (Nagoya). No steam engines or electricity yet, but division of labor was underway.

In order to enrich local population and increase tax revenue, many hans promoted local industries, and some even succeeded (S. Nishikawa and M. Amano, 1989). For example,

Tokushima han (indigo): Farmers produced indigo along the Yoshino River and their output gradually grew. But indigo distribution was monopolized by Osaka merchants who imposed high interest on loans. In order to protect local farmers and encourage local merchants, the han government created an indigo exchange and provided financial and distribution services. But the Bakufu objected to this move, prohibiting such official support (the Bakufu wanted to protect Osaka merchants who contributed financially to the central government). So the han privatized the indigo exchange and other services.

Takamatsu han (sugar): The Takamatsu government issued han’s paper money to promote various industries but failed, and its money depreciated. After many such failed attempts, the han finally succeeded in research on sugar production (from sugar beets) and commercialized the technology. As sugar production greatly increased, the han promoted inter-han trade (direct trade between hans). But again, the Bakufu tried to discourage such trade not brokered by Osaka merchants.

Satsuma han (military technology): This han in southern Kyushu imported new technology from the West and produced blast furnace, cannons and western ships. It was also engaged in illegal trade with Ryukyu (Okinawa), which was very profitable. By increasing wealth and military capability, Satsuma han later played the key role in toppling the Bakufu government and establishing the Meiji government.

These are just a few examples. Many other hans were engaged in industrial promotion, including Choshu han (paper, wax), Yonezawa han (safflower, lacquer wax), Akita han (silk and silk dress), Hizen han (pottery, coal), Higo han (lumber, silk), and so on. But we should not forget that there were many hans which were less successful and deeply in debt. They borrowed money from big private merchants but never repaid.

Education

   

Bakufu school at Yushima Seido (Ochanomizu, Tokyo). Confucianism was taught to the sons of bakufu samurais.

Professional school (enacted)

The popularity of education in the Edo period is often cited as the cause of fast industrialization in later periods. Education in this period ranged from the recondite study of Chinese philosophy and literature at public schools to children’s primary education at private schools. More specifically, four types of learning institutions were important.

(1) Bakufu schools

The bakufu’s schools mainly taught Confucianism, an ancient Chinese philosophy started by Confucius in the 6th to 5th century BC. It emphasized social order, proper rituals, the way of good political leader, and respect for elderly and superior. The Edo government vigorously promoted Confucianism as an ideology to legitimize and maintain the class society. Seika Fujiwara and Razan Hayashi were the leading bakufu scholars. Students had to memorize and interpret ancient Chinese books. How to modify this foreign doctrine to fit the Japanese reality was one of the important theoretical questions. There were also bakufu schools for European language (Dutch) and technology (medicine, navigation, military technology, etc).

(2) Han schools

Hans also established schools to educate their young samurais. The curriculums were basically the same as bakufu schools with Confucianism at the center of learning. Toward the end of the Edo period, han schools were expanded to emphasize practical skills such as military training and foreign language. Some even accepted non-samurai students. Many han schools were transformed into education institutions in the following Meiji period.

(3) Private professional schools

An eminent scholar often established his school and recruited students. Depending on the instructor, various subjects were taught: Confucianism, research on ancient Japanese literature (later leading to nationalism and anti-foreigner movement), Western language (Dutch, later also English), medicine, science, technology, and so on. These schools accepted both samurai and non-samurai students. In the late Edo period, they often attracted talented and hot-hearted young people with the desire to contribute to the country. Their eyes were opened to the international situation and Japan’s precarious position in it. A large number of national leaders in the late Edo period and the early Meiji period came from such professional schools.

Table 2-2
Examples of Private Professional Schools (Late Edo Period)

School & location

Teacher & year of establishment

Main teaching

Prominent students

Shokason Juku
(Hagi, Choshu Han)

Shoin Yoshida
1855-57

Social and political philosophy

Shinsaku Takasugi (anti-bakufu fighter)
Genzui Kusaka (anti-bakufu fighter)
Hirobumi Ito (prime minister)
Aritomo Yamagata (prime minister)

Teki Juku
(Osaka)

Koin Ogata
1838-

Dutch language & medicine

Yukichi Fukuzawa (founder of Keio Univ.)
Masujiro Omura (military reformer)
Sanai Hashimoto (Western studies)
Keisuke Otori (Bakufu & Meiji statesman)

Narutaki Juku
(Nagasaki)

Philipp F. B. von Siebold (German)
1824

Western medicine

Choei Takano (Western scholar)
Genboku Ito (medical doctor)
Keisuke Ito (medical doctor and botanist)

Kangien
(Hita, Bungo Han)

Tanso Hirose
1817

Confucianism & ancient Chinese literature

Choei Takano (Western studies)
Masujiro Omura (military reformer)

(4) Terakoya (private primary schools)

These schools were run by local teachers for teaching 3Rs — reading, writing, and arithmetic (abacus) — to small children, usually starting from six years old. The popularity of terakoya all over Japan contributed to the very high literacy among the general public.

 

Terakoya in caricature. The teacher simultaneously taught different things to different kids. In this picture, some kids are fighting in the corner.

 

Proto-industrialization and population dynamics

Economic historians have noticed that certain areas of Europe (say, Flanders in Belgium and Lancashire in England) were “industrialized” in the 17th-18th centuries, even before the Industrial Revolution began in the UK. This industrialization was characterized by rural, family-based production of textile and garment without modern machinery (often brokered by urban merchants).

The concept of proto-industrialization was proposed to explain why this happened, and why it was observed in certain areas only (proto means primitive or early). The proponents advance a hypothesis to explain rural industrialization from the unique interaction among agriculture, population and commerce. Population growth is often considered given in economic modeling. But in the hypothesis of proto-industrialization, population dynamics is a crucial endogenous factor. F.F. Mendels and P. Deyon, who proposed this idea, define proto-industrialization as the phenomenon satisfying the following three conditions:

–It is a manufacturing activity for market sale, not for home consumption.
–It is undertaken by peasants in a rural area (where soil is poor and plots are small).
–It is located near an area of commercial agriculture with large farm size and high productivity.

Proto-industrialization begins as a side job in villages where agricultural productivity is low. They can sell cloth and garments to nearby rich villages where agricultural productivity is high. It is a sort of specialization (or division of labor) within a relatively small geographical area: villages with fertile soil produce farm products and villages with poor soil produce manufactured goods, and they exchange output with each other (they also sell products to the outside world too).

Furthermore, the hypothesis of proto-industrialization is demographically dynamic, as follows:

(1) For some reason, villages with poor soil face a population increase, leading to food shortage.
(2) Poor peasants engage in the production of garments for sale to relieve population pressure.
(3) This increases their income, and they start to get married sooner and have more children.
(4) Population growth continues to keep the peasants just as poor as before even though they are more “industrialized.”
(5) Supply of cheap labor is increased in this way, and rich farming villages and urban merchants continue to accumulate wealth.

(This widening income gap may possibly generate capitalists and landless farmers which leads to industrialization under full-fledged capitalism. However, such historical linkage is not convincingly proven statistically.)

According to Prof. Osamu Saito (Hitotsubashi University), Japanese data in the Edo period does not support the hypothesis of proto-industrialization as stated above. There is no evidence of systematic population change in the areas where peasants engaged in pre-modern manufacturing. On the contrary, it is said that farmers practiced birth control (sometimes even killing new-born babies) to cope with the population pressure.

At any rate, proto-industrialization seems to assume a rather peculiar population dynamics which may be applicable to certain European regions in certain periods, but not in the rest of the world or other periods. However, the idea of population growth responding to the process of early industrialization is an interesting one.

Additional Questions & Answers

<References>

Dore, Ronald P., Education in Tokugawa Japan, University of Michigan Center, 1984.

Iwanami Shoten, Keizai Shakai no Seiritsu: 17-18 seiki, Nihon Keizaishi 1 (Establishment of Economic Society: 17th-18th Centuries, Japanese Economic History vol. 1), A. Hayami & M. Miyamoto, eds, 1988.

Iwanami Shoten, Kindai Seicho no Taido, Nihon Keizaishi 2 (Signs of Modern Development, Japanese Economic History vol. 2), H. Shimbo & O. Saito, eds, 1989.

Nishikawa, Shunsaku, and Masatoshi Amano, “Shohan no Sangyo to Keizai Seisaku” (Industries and Economic Policies of Hans) in Iwanami Shoten, 1989.

Oishi, Shinzaburo, Edo Jidai (The Edo Period), Chuko Shinsho no.476, 1977.

Okazaki, Tetsuji, Edo no Sijokeizai: Rekishiseidobunseki kara Mita Kabunakama (The Market Economy of Edo: Trade Cartels from the Viewpoint of Historical Institutional Analysis), Kodansha Sensho Metier 155, 1999.

Saito, Osamu, Proto Kogyoka no Jidai (The Age of Proto-Industrialization), Nihon Hyoronsha, 1985.

Tanaka, Keiichi, Hyakusho no Edo Jidai (The Edo Period Led by Farmers), Chikuma Shinsho, 2000.

Source

Grips.ac.jps

 

1730

In 1730, however, Tokugawa Yoshimune authorized domains to issue paper with time limits for redemption. Large domains (200,000 koku and above) could issue currency valid for 25 years, and small domains for 15 years. His son Ieshige prohibited new issue of scrip, and restricted the circulation of scrip other than that exchangeable for silver, in 1759. Despite the prohibitions, domains in severe financial straits occasionally issued paper money.

Each domain formulated its own rules about its scrip. While there were some that forbade the shogunate’s coinage, many allowed both coins and scrip to circulate.

Japan:Money

From Marteau

(Redirected from Money (Japan))

Contents

[hide]

   1 The Closed Country

   2 Selling Silver for Silk – International Trade Relations

   2.1 Trade Relations with Europe

   3 Monetary Politics

   3.1 Paper Money of the Clans

   3.2 The Unified Currency – Metal Money

   4 A Note on our Conversion Tools

   5 Literature

Japan 1710-1714 (Hoei Era) Gold Koban or Ryo

[edit]

The Closed Country

Japan practiced a policy of national seclusion – the “closed country” or “sakoku” policy – aiming at autarky in economical terms, yet it developed a trade deficit resulting in the 1690s in a severe shortage of money. Japan’s Edo or Tokugawa period beginning in the early years of the 17th century (see Japan’s dynasties and rulers) became a period of stability and growth, yet the developing nation failed to turn the advatageous situation into one of wealth creating more wealth – paradoxes sharpened by the dangerous monetary decisions of the 1690s and early 1700s. Compared with the parallel history of England’s monetary decisons following the 1680s one could read the history of money in Japan as one of all the fatal decisions those responsible in London’s could not even dream of.

[edit]

Selling Silver for Silk – International Trade Relations

Japan’s economy was at the beginning of the 17th century – after a century of internal wars – theoretically independent. The strife between the feudal clans (daimyo) had led to a concentration of power. Oda Nobunaga, 1534-1582, the first of Japan’s three unifiers, had effectively welcomed the Portuguese who had landed on Tanegashima island in 1543. Their technological support – fire arms – was helpful and the Jesuit mission they brought seemed especially convenient to counterbalance the power of the militant Buddhist cloisters. Toyotomi Hideyoshi, 1537-1598, his successor, acted undecided between toleration and a total ban of the Christian mission. Tokugawa Ieyasu, 1543-1616, the final unifier of Japan eventually opted for the seclusion of the country and a ban of Christianity. Supported by the Portuguese, the Spanish and the Dutch the new faith had proven to be of no real service on Japan’s way to a centrally governed state. In 1612 the shogun’s retainers and residents of Tokugawa lands were ordered to foreswear Christianity, in 1616 all foreign trade was restricted on Nagasaki and Hirado, an island northwest of Kyushu. The Kyushu daimyo had been the most prominent supporter of the new faith just before. 1622 saw the execution of 120 missionaries and converts, 1624 the expulsion of the Spanish, 1629 a wave of executions with thousands of Christian victims – an estimated 500,000 Japanese had embraced the new religion over the last decades. The edicts of 1633 and 1635 prohibited all contact between Japanese and foreigners: Ships and Japanese subjects were forbidden to leave Japan for a foreign country without a license; all Japanese living abroad were to be put to death if they tried to return to Japan (except those who had resided abroad for less than five years and had been unavoidably detained). The Nagasaki commissioners were to investigate all those suspected of being Christians, and a reward was offered to any informer who revealed the location of “Bateren”, foreign priests. Foreign ships arriving, were to be guarded while a report was sent to Edo. A strict search was to be made for bateren on all ships entering Japan. The Portuguese were restricted to Deshima, an artificial island especially created for that purpose in Nagasaki’s harbor. The Shimabara Rebellion of 1637-38, in which discontented Christian samurai and peasants rebelled against the bakufu (the shogunate administration), was ended by Edo’s government through the help of the Dutch whose ships bombarded the rebel stronghold. Soon thereafter, all “southern barbarians” – the term refering to the Portuguese and Spanish – were permanently expelled, members of the Portuguese diplomatic mission were executed, all subjects were ordered to register at a Buddhist or Shinto temple, and the Dutch and Chinese were restricted, respectively, to Deshima and to a special quarter in Nagasaki. Besides small trade of some outer daimyo with Korea and the Ryukyu Islands, to the southwest of Japan’s main islands, by 1641 foreign contacts were limited to Nagasaki.

The political turmoil of the late 16th and early 17th centuries had paved the way to the Tokugawa or Edo period – the period in which Edo, today Tokyo, became the political centre of the nation. Power was from now onwards to lie in the hands of the shogun; the emperor played a ceremonial rather than a political role. The political stability the new regime dictated, allowed growth. Those who profited from the situation found, however, few incentives for investing their wealth in anything more profitable than their representation. As far as the trade balance is concerned the wealth created in Japan came to be spent on luxury goods satisfying the rich upper class. Silk from China and ginseng from Korea became the most important imported goods. An estimated 1.1 million kan (4,125 tons) of Keicho cho-gin – approximately three-quarters of the silver coinage and silver produced in Japan – left the island in this exchange over the hundred years from 1614 to 1714. A ban on exporting gold that had been implemented to curb the outflow, was lifted in 1664, the sell-out of gold and silver became legal and accelerated in the last decades of the 17th century – till the monetary decisions of the years 1695-1714 served to make goods produced outside Japan too expensive to be paid with money that freely any longer.

[edit]

Trade Relations with Europe

Trade relations with Europe were everything but marginal. They had begun with the arrival the Portuguese in 1543. Dutch explorers had reached Usuki Bay on the southern Japanese island of Kyushu in 1600. Their original expedition had started with 5 ships from Rotterdam on June 27th 1598 of which only one had reached Japan – the Liefde with 24 men, 23 Dutch, and their English captain. Europe’s nations contested each other over influence on Japan’s growing regime. The Dutch eventually won and gained the monopoly on Japan’s trade with Europe. The privilege was otherwise an ordeal: the permanent settlement to be reached over a bridge included a director of the Dutch East India company and about ten employees. No foreign women were allowed on Deshima island. (The regulation was first violated in 1817, Japan’s authorities could, however, enforce their laws three months later). Dutch ships came twice a year – time which had to be passed in isolation. But the base paid: In 1662 the Dutch trading houses withdrew from Taiwan. The Taiwan-Nagasaki import route on which white raw silk, the finest type of Chinese raw silk, used to reach Japan, lost its importance. Nagasaki became the central harbour of a trade now focussing on Korea; and the Tsushima domain became the mediator sustaining the new trade connection. The connection provided Japan with import goods right into the 1690s. Chung Sungil [“The Volume of Early Modern Korea-Japan Trade: A Comparison with the Japan-Holland Trade” Acta Koreana vol 7-1, 2004] compared trade volumes passing between Korea and Japan in Pusan and between Japan and the Dutch in Nagasaki and concluded that trade with the Dutch did not outweigh the Korean-Japanese trade before the 1690s. The situation changed after 1695 and Chung Sungil’s investigation implies that the main reason for the change had little to do with official ceilings set by the Tokugawa shogunate. The Tsushima daimyo was effectively able to circumvent any restrictions and send false reports to the bakufu whilst the Japan-Dutch trade connection could be tightly monitored by the central government. The primary reasons for the drop of the trade with Korea seems to have been the devaluation of Japan’s silver money in 1690s.

Later efforts to bring back the old currency and to thus solve the problems of Korean-Japanese trade relations, failed. When re-introduced for trade abroad in 1710 (and in 1714 for trade inside Japan) the better money was no longer affordable to those who had first lost their wealth when acquiring the worthless money of the 1690s and early 1700s. Goods from abroad remained expensive.

The Dutch, more interested to buy than to sell – silk and porcelain, goods to be sold on Europe’s markets with good profit rates – could take the otherwise catastrophic situation as an advantage. They could offer what Japan needed: money for goods to be sold on other markets.

[edit]

Monetary Politics

Japanese mon, the basic copper coin, as minted between 1668 and 1700

The Edo or Tokugawa period had begun around 1600 with the settlement of the feudal conflicts. The clans had lost power to the central shogunate government. Decisions to create a central currency stood at the beginning of the era. The new money was to have gold, silver and copper units – all exchangeable at fixed rates. The Oban and the Koban gold coins were oblong plates, the smaller Ichibukin little rectangular pieces of minted gold. Silver was hardly minted in the European sense of the word. It was traded in lumps and weighed. The central unit for silver, the momme, was (and still is) a mere unit of weight matching 3.75 g. The lowest unit, the copper mon was influenced by the design of Chinese coins, the only object in the ensemble resembling a conventional coin. The rates between gold and silver were fixed, yet market reates fluctuated. The pattern did not change between 1600 and 1700:

Gold

     
 

1 Oban

=

7.5* Ryo

 

1 Ryo / Koban

=

4 Bu

   

=

4 Kan

   

=

70* Momme

 

1 Bu

=

4 Shu

 

1 Shu

   

Silver

     
 

1 Kamme

=

1000 Momme

 

1 Momme [3.75 g]

=

10 Fun

 

1 Fun

=

10 Rin

 

1 Rin

   

Copper

     
 

1 Kan [3.75 kg]

=

1000 Mon

 

1 Mon

   

*market rates

Wages for ordinary people were paid mostly in copper and silver coins. Wages for the Samurai class, which accounted for 10% of the total population, were paid in amounts of rice. The Tokugawa shogun granted the Samurai a fief, the stipend was measured by the volume of rice the region could be expected to produce. Three times the year the Samurai sold the rice collected as a land tax to traders – the Samurai were better served with money they could spend on goods – part of the problem Japan’s economy faced.

Japan’s trade developed a sophisticated system of cashless payments on Osaka’s market – the central market for goods produced in Japan. Transactions between merchants were settled in silver. In order to reduce the transaction costs the exchange of metal would have produced, a check system developed with checks issued on the basis of current account deposits at money changers, the “ryogae-sho”. The development which led back into the 1660s supported the commercial transaction with its smooth fund settlement. Between 1716 and 1736 about 650 ryogae-shos settled the checks issued by about 6000 merchants every day. The system was as efficient as the Giro-system used in European countries. Access to it was, however, limited to the leading merchants and it was never used to pay wages. It remained the system of Osaka’s wholesale market. Business in cities like Edo and Kyoto did hardly go beyond retail transactions.

Three characteristics distinguished Osaka’s check system: Central institutions, such as the centralized check clearing institution and a centralized fund settlement institution, did not exist. The ryogae-sho had strong ties among each other, together they formed a strict hierarchy with few but powerful money changers called juunin-ryogae at the top. The juunin-ryogae created a de facto central fund settlement by establishing correspondent deposit accounts used exclusively for mutual settlements. All the checks requested by the subsidiary ryogae-sho were settled within this system. In this sense, the large fund settlement system centring on juunin ryougae can be interpreted as a hybrid of a check clearing and fund settlement system. Thirdly, the juunin ryogae ensured a final settlement by allowing overdrafts of accounts. These were usually settled by gold and silver coins based on the net liability amount gained through balancing the debit and credit every half a month or month. The complex system remained intact until the institution of a modern banking system in the 19th century.

Trade inside Japan was furthermore facilitated by an exchange of paper money gaining importance on the level of the clan territories issuing the respective notes.

[edit]

Paper Money of the Clans

Paper money promising a given value of gold, silver or copper, was first issued by merchants of the Uji-, Matsuzaka-, Isawa-, Yamato-shimoichi-, and Settsuhirano-go-regions: the Yamada Hagaki notes. The shogunate’s metal coinage and rivalling clan notes issued by the local feudal lords, left, however, no room for a further development of Yamada Hagaki notes. An autonomous administrative body of the Yamada region, the Sanpokai-gosho, was eventually the only authority issuing Yamada Hagaki notes – under permission of the shogunate which thus stabilised the regional power short of money. In the early 18th century, old notes of this production were exchanged for new ones at intervals of seven years to limit the amounts in circulation and the risk of forgeries.

 

Hansatsu as issued by the Fukui clan in Echizen from 1661 to 1673: A silver 10-momme note from 1666. The denomination is noted in ink and traced on both sides by rows of characters of different shapes and meaning, all pronounced however, identically as “ten”, the note’s denomination. (Image: curtesy of the Bank of Japan’s web page)

Paper money issued by the feudal clans – the “han”, hence the term “hansatsu” – differed from Yamada Hagaki in that it effectively demanded respect as legal tender substituting all gold, silver and copper transactions within the borders of the region issuing the notes. Local authorities supported their paper monies by prohibiting the circulation of species money and by imposing charges on any exchange of paper and metal money within their reach. Hansatsu notes were almost always authorized by the shogunate – by the same shogunate which strove for a unified metal based currency and for supremacy over the feudal lords. Hansatsu issued by a region could, so the laws, not claim any value outside their region. The hansatsu currencies financed and stabilised regional power on the regional level – a stabilisation the shogunate could approve of especially if it became the superior power granting the rights to issue such money. The Fukuyama and the Bingo regions played a leading role in the introduction of hansatsu in the 1630s, the second half of the 17th century saw paper money winning trust throughout the country. The shortage of metal and the massive debasement of the coin implemented by the shogunate in the 1690s did everything but increase the trust in money the central authorities offered. In 1707 the shogunate finally banned all paper money – allegedly a measure designed to curb abuse stemming from the unlimited circulation of hansatsu outside their respective homelands. The measure played, however, its much more important role in the second step of the debasement of Japan’s metal money. With the ban of 1707 more than 50 feudal clans had to change hansatsu they had issued into specie the shogunate issued. Those who changed paper money into gold and silver lost about half of the money they had invested to acquire the paper notes – to the advantage ot the central government issuing the new metal money it could otherwise hardly have brought into circulation.

[edit]

The Unified Currency – Metal Money

The problem of metal money was its open advantage: metal money bearing its value in the coin minted could be traded without any institution guaranteeing its value. The Korean merchant who accepted Japanese money whether gold or silver accepted a certain amount of fine metal within the piece of metal he acquired. Exchanged on the basis of its weight, Japan’s money could just as well cross borders in Japan without affording any clan territory to guarantee for the value of the coin circulating. The problem of Japan’s metal money was its constant loss in trade abroad. Japan exchanged silver for silk and ginseng – a metal which would not lose its value for goods which were to be lost at home in consumption. Monetary experts could still claim rice to be the nation’s real money and wealth – a currency of use in any state of emergency in which metal would turn out to be fundamentally worthless (H. Eijiro, “The Economic thought in the middle period of the Tokugawa period” (1940), p.7-8 pdf. Rice, so the refutation grew, while money – gold, silver and copper – were stable assets. The stable assets left the country and Japan’s gold and silver mines did in the second half of the 17th century, no longer make up for the losses. The growing economy needed more money and encountered a shortage of money instead.

The option to solve the problem was a move towards a metal based currency of nominal rather than real metal values. In 1695 the shogunate government decided to collect and re-issue the circulating metal money. The amount of money in circulation was diluted and thus optically increased – the number of coins rose, the fine metal total minted stayed the same. Had the Keicho Koban issued after the monetary reform of May 1601 offered approximately 17.9 g gold with fineness of 84-87% The Genroku gold Koban issued in 1695 to replace the old Keicho Koban still weighed around 17.9 g. Its content of gold, was however reduced to 57%. The Hoe gold Koban of 1706 returned to the original fineness, now, however, the size was reduced – the new coin had little more than half the metal value the Keicho gold Koban had had a century ago. The Bank of Japan offers the following images and information to illustrate the development for the gold Koban: link

 

Keicho Koban
Weight:

approx.17.9g
Fineness: 

approx.84-87%

Genroku Koban
Weight:

approx.17.9g
Fineness:

approx.57%

Hoei Koban
Weight:

approx.9.4g
Fineness:

approx.84%

Kyoho Koban
Weight:

approx.17.9g
Fineness: 

approx.87%

Gembun Koban
Weight:

approx.13.1g
Fineness: 

approx.66%

 

A parallel debasement of Japan’s silver money took place with the production of coins like the silver Hoei Yotsuho Chogin of 1711 – a coin with a silver content of 20% – Keicho Cho gin and Mameitagin had been minted with a fineness of 80%.

 

Hoei Yotsuho Cho-gin, 1711 Silver coins were debased four times in five years beginning with 1706. The poorest-quality cho-gin, with a silver content of merely 20 percent, was called the Hoei Yotsuho Cho-gin. To note the value the Chinese character ho “treasure” within a circle is stamped four times on the coin’s face. (Image: curtesy of the Bank of Japan’s web page)

The devaluation of Japan’s currency answered the need created by Japan’s growing economy with problematic results: Prices of foreign goods rose as Japan’s new coins were, of course, no money of a nominal value in the modern sense of the word. There was no central bank offering gold and silver of the promised value for coins circulating under that value. Foreign traders could do what Japanese customers could not do: They could demanded more money to get the amount of fine silver they would get for their goods on other markets. Japanese traders had to fulfil their demands and finally convinced the government in 1710 to issue silver of the original quality to satisfy traders from Korea.

 

Oko-gin, 1710 minted to be used by the Tsushima daimyo to pay for imports of Korean ginseng and Chinese raw silk, to satisfy Korea’s traders who rejected the Hoei Cho-gin because of its inferior quality. As with other cho-gin (silver coins), an image of the god of wealth and the Chinese character takara, “treasure”, are stamped numerous times over the face. The fineness is with 80% comparable to the fineness of the Keicho Cho-gin minted after 1601 – regular cho-gin coins had a silver content of 20-50%. (Image: curtesy of the Bank of Japan’s web page)

The result was a system of double standards. Japan’s silver and gold claimed a value it had not – it could do this within the isolated economy. The measure failed, however, on the wider scale. Prices for goods from China and Korea rose after the debasement. To offer the original content of fine silver Japanese merchants had to offer 160% more minted silver after 1695. The debasement of 1706 forced them to offer 200 momme silver where they had offered 100 momme silver of the original quality. The end of the scale were 400 momme matching now the original 100 momme if reduced to fine silver. 400 momme of 20% silver the Japanese trader had bought at home for the price of 80% silver. The problem was not solved with the introduction of expensive 80% silver minted exclusively for the trade with Korea in 1710 nor was it solved with the new silver money issued in 1714 with the old fineness, yet to be bought for a price no one could afford any longer.

The reform came in two steps: To improve the fineness and weight of gold and silver coins the Shotoku Koban was introduced in 1714 – in quality and weight matching the old Keicho Koban. Rumors alleged it was by no means equal in quality to the Keicho Koban. The following year, hence, saw the introduction of the Kyoho Koban, which was slightly higher in quality than the Shotoku Koban and the preceding Keicho Koban had been. The amount of money in circulation dropped with the introduction of the new money. Economic activities came to a standstill, and prices dropped drastically. The measures had consequences down to the rice prices, impoverishing both the samurai class and its farmers.

To stimulate the economy and raise prices, the eighth Tokugawa Shogun, Yoshimune, finally carried out another recoinage in 1736, lowering the quality of gold and silver coins again and increasing their circulation. As had happened with the recoinage of the Genroku and Hoei Koban, the Gembun Koban was debased. Nevertheless, this recoinage deserves more credit, as it supported the Edo period’s economic development from the aspect of currency circulation. Governmental profits from the recoinage resolved the problem of a currency shortage, succeeded in turning the economy around, and allowed the currency a high degree of stability for the next 80 years. Japan had taken the step to a currency of nominal values, yet the market brought this currency back to the value given with the coinage itself.

The immediate effects of the recoinage of the 1690s and early 1700s where immensely problematic – Japan suffered a wave of bankruptcies. In the longer perspective the catastrophe led Japan towards even greater autonomy. The economical problem of the trade deficit was not solved by decisions which might have turned Japan into an exporting country able to stabilise its trade balance. Much rather the decisions strengthened the way towards the even severer national seclusion. As for Japan’s government the steps taken had their beauty: the clans, beaten in the wars of the 16th century, had made money by issuing paper-money for gold, silver and copper money. In the end the central government had made its own profits in the struggle for power. Profits in money and in power over the money it issued.

[edit]

A Note on our Conversion Tools

It is at this point everything but uninteresting to offer conversion tools — in order to perform conversions as traders would have performed them and to allow comparisons of prices and wages on the different Asian and European markets exporting and importing goods like silver and porcelain. The rates between gold, silver, and copper coins were fixed by the shogunate government: The 1 Ryo gold coin matched 50 momme of silver or 4 kan of copper coins. Actual rates differed due to the changes of supply of gold and silver on the market and due to different evaluations of the coins involved. The Kenji gold Koban minted in the 16th century had stood at 60 momme of silver, the Keicho gold Koban of 1601 had been changed into 80-90 momme silver, the Genroku gold Koban of 1695 came to be accepted as an equivalent of 70 momme silver (Eijiro Honjo (1940), p.6 pdf).

The central unit of account in Japan and between Japan and its few partners abroad was the momme silver – quite conveniently nothing but a unit of weight. The difficulty is, of course, the devaluation of Japan’s silver and the double standard it created between the nominal value of money inside Japan and the “real” value of the coin to bee seen from without. Those who traded with Japan made sure they were not paid with bad silver at the rate Japan’s government had forced its citizens to accept. In 1710 Japan began to mint silver coins of the old 80% fineness exclusively for its Korean trade partners. If we base our tools on an exchange of regular Dutch silver coins and equivalent amounts of Japanese silver of 80% fineness the rate will be one of 3 Dutch guilders matching 10 momme: On the Japanese side 10 momme of 80% silver will amount to 30 g fine silver. On the other hand 3 Dutch gulden could be an amount of fine silver between 28.67 and 30.88 g depending on whether one paid in silver gulden (of 10.49 g coin weight and 91.1% fineness) or more valuable Leeuwendaalders (the equivalent of 3 gulden, each coin of 27.53 g metal weight and 74.3% fineness) – with both coins we get a corridor of tolerance our conversion should aim at.

The factor of 3 was chosen to facilitate further computations with silver of less than the nominal 80% fineness. The new coinage could be imposed on a country of closed borders and we get accurate information about the general structure of prices and wages if we allow the new money to have – at least initially – actually circulated at its nominal value. Rates with 80% silver are otherwise misleading. If one changed money one took care of compensations or demanded better coins. If you think of actual money being changed you will hence ask to take the actual fineness of Japanese silver into account. To do so you change the first factor of our conversion tools: 3 stands for 3 g silver and the orginal money of 80 percent fineness, make the momme contain it 1.88 g silver and you will calculate with money minted after 1695s, go down to 0.75 g silver per momme to calculate with the ultimate debasement of 1710. You will now need 133 and a third momme to match 10 Dutch gulden. The price of foreign goods had more than quadruppled, so the perception Japanese customers had, when buying with their new money, a money they had received for a very dear price indeed.link

[edit]

Literature

  • Camfferman, K./ Cooke, T.E., “The Profits of the Dutch East India Company’s Japan Trade”, Abacus, vol. 40, no. 1, (February 2004), pp. 49-75(27). link
  • Sungil, Chung, “The Volume of Early Modern Korea-Japan Trade: A Comparison with the Japan-Holland Trade,” Acta Koreana, vol 7-1 (2004).
  • Shikano, Yoshiaki, “Currency, wage payment and large fund settlement system in Japan: 1600-1868” (Wages and Currency: Global and Historical Comparisons, Symposium in Amsterdam/Leiden, 24-25 May 2002). Abstract
  • Ohnuki, Mari, “Paper Money in Japan 2-2 Hansatsu(I): From Their First Issue to Their Prohibition in the Early 1700s”, Short Essays on Monetary History Contained in Monetary and Economic Studies, Research Division 3, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan (ed.), Monetary and Economic Studies, 17.1 (1999). link
  • Fujii, Noriko, “Oko-gin Silver Coins for Import of Korean Ginseng – A Two-Tiered Pricing System for Silver Coins”, Short Essays on Monetary History Contained in Monetary and Economic Studies, Research Division 3, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan (ed.), Monetary and Economic Studies 16.1, (1998). link
  • Ohnuki, Mari, “The Genroku, Hoei, Shotoku, Kyoho, and Gembun Koban”, Short Essays on Monetary History Contained in Monetary and Economic Studies, Research Division 3, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan (ed.), Monetary and Economic Studies, 15.2 (1997). link
  • Tashiro, Kazui, “Exports of Japan’s Silver to China via Korea and Changes in the Tokugawa Monetary System during the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries”, in: Dennis O. Flynn and Arturo Giraldez (eds.), Metals and Monies in an Emerging Global Economy (Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1997).
  • Uyenaka, Shuzo, “The Tong Shin Sa and The Tokugawa Bakufu: An Aspect of Korea-Japan Relations, 1603-1867,” East Asian Review, 1 (March 1997), 89-98.
  • Mikami, Ryuzo, Edo Bakufu: Hasan e no Michi [Edo Period Government: The Road to Bankruptcy] (NHK Books, 1991) [in Japanese].
  • Tashiro, Kazui, “Exports of Gold and Silver During the Early Tokugawa Era, 1600-1750”, in: Eddy H.G. Van Cauwenberghe (ed.), Money, Coins and Commerce: Essays in the Monetary History of Asia and Europe (From Antiquity to Modern Times): Proceedings of th 4th and 5th International Monetary History Conferences (Leuven, Belgium: Leuven University Press, 1991).
  • Tashiro, Kazui, Tokugawa Jidai no Boeki [Trade during Tokugawa Rule] Nihon Keizai Shi (History of the Japanese Economy), vol. 1 (Iwanami Shoten, 1988) [in Japanese].
  • Hisamitsu, Juhei, Nihon Kahei Monogatari [The Story of Japanese Coins] (Mainichi Shimbunsha, 1976) [in Japanese].
  • Tashiro, Kazui, “Tsushima han’s Korean Trade, 1684-1710,” Acta Asiatica, 30 (1976), 85-105.
  • Bank of Japan, Economic Research Department, ed. Zuroku Nihon no Kahei [Japanese Coins], vol. 3, (Toyo Keizai Shimposha, 1974) [in Japanese].
  • Taya, Hirokichi, Kinsei Ginza no Kenkyu (Yoshikawa Kobunkan, 1963). [A study of early modern silver mints in Japanese]
  • Honjo, Eijiro, “The Ecomonmic thought in the midde period of the Tokugawa period”, Kyoto University Econmonic Review, vol. xv, no. 2 (Kyoto, April 1940), p.1-33. [On monetary politics, price developments and the relatinonship between coinage and price developments, 1688-1763] pdf
  • Honjo, Eijiro, “The Ecomonmic thought in the eraly period of the Tokugawa period”, Kyoto University Econmonic Review, vol. xiv, no. 4 (Kyoto, Oct. 1938), p.1-17. [Concentrating on the period 1600-1688] pdf
  • Honjo, Eijiro, “The Ecomonmic thought in Tokugawa days”, Kyoto University Econmonic Review, vol. xiii, no. 1 (Kyoto, Oct. 1938), p.1-22. [Overview of th perod 1600 to 1867] pdf

 

Source

Pierre-marteur.

 

 

19th century\

1866

As a rule, scrip circulated only within the domain that issued it, but there were exceptions. For example, paper issued by the Kishū domain in 1866 was also used in Yamato, Izumi, Kawachi, Settsu, and Harima Provinces.

In 1871, the Government of Meiji Japan ordered the abolition of the han system and ordered the exchange of all scrip for the national currency. Exchange continued until 1879. In the interim, some scrip carried markings from the central government indicating the value in yen and the smaller sen and rin.

1867

Tokugawa coinage was a unitary and independent metallic monetary system established by Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu in 1601 in Japan, and which lasted throughout the Tokugawa period until its end in 1867.[1]

Further information: Japanese currency

Gold mines across Japan, such as the Toi gold mine (pictured) provided the material for the coinage.

The establishment of Tokugawa coinage followed a period in which Japan was dependent on Chinese bronze coins for its currency.[1] Tokugawa coinage lasted for more than two centuries, and ended with the events of the Boshin war and the establishment of the Meiji restoration.

A Tenshō Ōban (天正大判), made in 1588 by Toyotomi Hideyoshi.

The first attempt at a new currency were made by Hideyoshi, who developed the large Ōban plate, also called the Tensho Ōban (天正大判), in 1588.[2]

From 1601, Tokugawa coinage was minted in gold, silver, and bronze denominations.[1] The denominations were fixed, but the rates actually fluctuated on the exchange market.[1]

The material for the coinage came from gold and silver mines across Japan. To this effect, gold mines were newly opened and exploited, such as the Sado gold mine or the Toi gold mine in Izu Peninsula.

Devaluations and re-evaluations[edit]

Initially, the coinage was used essentially for export purposes in order to pay for imports of luxury goods from China, such as silk.[1] As gold and silver were in short supply, and also because the government was running a deficit, the content of gold in coins was decreased on two occasions, in 1695 and 1706-1711, in order to generate more revenues from seigneurage, but with the effect of generating inflation.[3]

With the beginning of the 18th century, Japan started to restrict the export of bullion currency, which came to be seen as a loss for the country. An export ban on monetary specie was imposed by Arai Hakuseki in 1715.[1] Trade substitution was encouraged, but remained limited anyway due to the policy of closure, or Sakoku. Upon Arai Hakuseki’s suggestion the government increased again the gold and silver content of coinage in 1714-1715, but this led to crippling deflation this time.[3] In 1736, Japan abandoned this policy and again increased the money supply, with a resulting price stability for the next 80 years.[3]

In the early 19th century, budgetary problems resulting from natural disasters and large Tokugawa governmental expenditures led the government to increase the money supply and the seigneurage associated to it. From 1818 to 1829 the money supply increased by 60%, and from 1832 to 1837 by 20%. Severe inflation again followed as prices nearly doubled.[3]

Size evolution of the Koban during the Tokugawa period. From left to right: Keichō koban (1601-1695), Genroku koban (1695-1710), Hōei koban (1710-1714), Shōtoku koban (1714), Kyōhō koban (1714-1736), Genbun koban (1736-1818), Bunsei koban (1819-1828), Tenpo koban (1837-1858), Ansei koban (1859), Man’en koban (1860-1867).

Structure[edit]

Keichō gold coinage: Ōban, Koban, Ichibuban, 1601-1695.

Tokugawa coinage worked according to a triple monetary standard, using gold, silver and bronze coins, each with their own denominations.[1] The systems worked by multiples of 4, and coins were valued according to the Ryō. One Ryō was worth 4 Bu, 16 Shu, or 4,000 Mon (a cheap bronze coin).

Ōban[edit]

The Ōban (大判) was a very large gold coin plate, equivalent to ten Ryōs, or ten Koban (小判) plates.

Koban[edit]

Main article: Koban (coin)

The Koban (小判) was a regular ovoid gold coin, equivalent to one Ryō. The initial Keichō Koban (minted from 1601) had a weight of 18.20g. The 1714 Sado Koban (佐渡小判金, 4th year of Shōtoku) also had a weight of 18.20g and was made with an alloy of typically 85.69% of gold and 14.25% of silver.[4]

Nibuban and Ichibuban[edit]

A Tenpō silver Ichibuban (1837-1854).

The Nibuban (二分判) was worth half a Koban and was rectangular gold coin.

The Ichibuban (一分判) could be either made of silver or gold, in which case it was a quarter of a Koban. The gold Ichibuban of 1714 (佐渡一分判金) had a weight of 4.5 g, with 85.6% of gold and 14.2% of silver. The silver Ichibuban from 1837 to 1854 (Tenpō Ichibugin, 天保一分銀, “Old Ichibuban”) weighed 8.66 g, with an alloy of 0.21% gold and 98.86% silver.[4]

Nishuban and Isshuban[edit]

There were then Nishuban (二朱判) and Isshuban (一朱判) small denominations of silver or gold, before getting to the Mon or Sen bronze coins.

From 1853 to 1865, the silver Isshuban (Kaei Isshugin, 嘉永一朱銀) weighed 1.88 g, with an alloy of 1.7% gold, 98.7% silver and 1.12% copper.[4]

Genroku gold Nishuban (1695-1710).

Bunsei gold Isshuban (1819-1828).

Kaei silver Isshuban (1853-1865).

Kan’ei tsūhō[edit]

Keichō tsūhō coin (慶長通宝), circa 1606.

Regarding copper coins, the Kan’ei tsūhō coin (寛永通宝) came to replace the Chinese coins that had been in circulation in Japan, as well as those that were minted privately, and became the legal tender.[5] This put an end to more than four centuries during which Chinese copper coins, obtained through trade or Wakō piracy, had been the main currency of Japan.[5]

Demise[edit]

Nibunkin (二分金) coins, packaged and certified for easy handling and authentification.

Hiding places for Tokugawa coinage.

From 1772, the silver coins had a denomination in function of their value in gold, and had significantly less silver than their face value (rather than being just silver-by-weight) so as to cover coinage expenses, a practice known as token or fiduciary coinage, and a characteristic of modern coinage.[6] This technique was introduced later in England, in 1816, with its adoption of the full gold standard.[6] At the market rates of 1858 10 silver units could be exchanged for 1 gold unit by weight, whereas the face value of silver units was only convertible at 5 to 1. This permitted an increase of monetary circulation without actual production of more bullion, and provided great profit (seigniorage) for the Bakufu.[6]

A Koban box (called Senryōbako, or “Box of 1,000 ryō“), used for transportation.

World ratios for silver and gold were significantly different, gold being generally valued much higher than silver, at about 15 to 16 weights of silver for 1 weight of gold. This difference motivated foreigners to bring silver to Japan, to exchange it for gold at a very interesting rate.[7]

In 1858, Western countries, especially the United States, France and Great Britain imposed through “unequal treaties” (Treaty of Amity and Commerce“) free trade, free monetary flow, and very low tariffs, effectively taking away Japanese control of its foreign exchange:[7] The 1715 export embargo on bullion was thus lifted:

“All foreign coin shall be current in Japan and pass for its corresponding weight of Japanese coin of the same description… Coins of all description (with the exception of Japanese copper coin) may be exported from Japan”

— Treaty of Amity and Commerce, 1858, extract[8]

A Keichō koban (minted 1601-1695), versus a Man’en koban (minted 1860-1867), shows the drastic reduction in gold weight of the koban denomination.

This created a massive outflow of gold from Japan, as foreigners rushed to exchange their silver for “token” silver Japanese coinage and again exchange these against gold, giving a 200% profit to the transaction. In 1860, about 4 million ryōs thus left Japan,[7] that is about 70 tons of gold. This effectively destroyed Japan’s gold standard system, and forced it to return to weight-based system with International rates. The Bakufu instead responded to the crises by debasing the gold content of its coins by two thirds, so as to match foreign gold-silver exchange ratios.[7]

As a consequence, the Bakufu lost the major profit source of recoinage (seigniorage), and was forced to issue unbacked paper money, leading to major inflation. This was one of the major causes of discontent during the Bakumatsu period, and one of the causes of the demise of the Shogunate.[7]

Other coins[edit]

Despite Tokugawa Ieyasu’s strong will to unify the currency, there were still some local exceptions, with locally made currency.

Silver koban of Sagami Province, called Odawara Hishi (小田原菱).

Silver Nanryō Ōban (南鐐大判).

Gold Genbun Inari Koban (元文稲荷小判).

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Metzler p.15
  2. ^ The Cambridge History of Japan: Early modern Japan by John Whitney Hall p.61 [1]
  3. ^ a b c d The political economy of Japanese monetary policy by Thomas F. Cargill p.13 [2]
  4. ^ a b c Toi Museum
  5. ^ a b Japan Currency Museum permanent exhibit.
  6. ^ a b c Metzler, p.16
  7. ^ a b c d e Metzler, p.17
  8. ^ Quoted in Metzler, p.17

Bibliography[edit]

Japanese currency

     
 

Topics

 
 

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Rin

 

Sen

 

Yen

 

Other

 

Banknotes

Sen

 

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Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Japan Currency Museum permanent exhibit.

Sources[edit]

This article incorporates information from the Japanese Wikipedia.

  • Bank of Japan
  • 新井政義(編集者)『日本史事典』。東京:旺文社1987(p. 329)
  • 竹内理三(編)『日本史小辞典』。東京:角川書店1985(p. 290)

External links[edit]

 

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Currency

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A Kan’ei tsûhô coin from the Edo period (date unknown, left), a replica Keichô koban (center), and a Meiji 14 (1881) one sen coin (right)

A number of different modes of currency were used throughout Japanese history, including, in the pre-modern period, the heavy use of Chinese coins. By the Edo period, a relatively standardized system of gold and silver coinage was in place, though it experienced dramatic inflation and devaluation, among other financial crises, at times. Systems which served as precursors for a “modern” system of banks and paper currency, along with futures markets and other such economic/financial developments, emerged in the 18th-19th centuries, and beginning in the Meiji period, “modern” systems based on the Western model were established.

Contents

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Early Coinage

It is widely believed that the first currency to be produced in Japan was minted in the Wadô era (708-715), an era named after the discovery of copper in Musashi province (Wadô 和銅 literally means “Japanese copper”). These coins, with a face value of one mon, were based on the kai yuan tong bao (開元通宝) coinage then circulating in Tang Dynasty China. These small round coins with square holes in the middle would serve as the standard model for the shape or form of coins in both China and Japan for many centuries. Recent discoveries since the 1990s, however, have unearthed earlier, unlabeled (mumon 無文) silver coins, as well as coins known as fuhonsen 富本銭. The latter seem to have emerged in the 680s, during the period of Fujiwara-kyô; in contrast to the mumon ginsen which were valued by their actual weight in silver, and which Emperor Temmu outlawed in 683, the fuhonsen were fiat money (face value).

After the so-called Wadô kaihô (“Wadô coins”), other currencies continued to be produced until the mid-10th century, each named after the Imperial reign era in which they were produced. These included the Mannen tsûhô, Jinkô kaihô, Ryûhei eihô, Fûju shinpô, Shôwa shôhô, Chônen taihô, Jôeki shinpô, Jôgan eihô, Kanpyô taihô, and Engi tsûhô.[1]

Coinage at this time was used only by the aristocracy or religious elites, while the rest of the population functioned on a barter system in which value or buying power tended to be expressed in terms of silk, cloth, or rice.[2] One hiki 疋 of silk was generally valued as equal to one koku of rice (1 koku = 10 to 斗 = 100 shô 升), though this varied. Still, on average, from the Heian period through the Sengoku period, one koku of rice was considered equivalent to one kanmon, or 1000 mon in coins; one hiki remained steadily equivalent to ten mon of coins through the Edo period.[3] The direct association of goods, especially rice, with value, would continue through the mid-19th century; in the Edo period (1600-1868), lands would be valued in terms of their agricultural production, taxes would be paid in rice (or equivalents), and samurai would be paid their stipends in rice.

These early currencies fell out of usage, however, in the tenth century. By the time of the issuing of the Engi taihô (901-923), the currency had become debased, meaning that a given coin, despite officially having a certain denomination, actually contained less precious metal than its nominal value. In other words, there was severe inflation, as a given amount of currency no longer had the value (or buying power) it once did. And so, people lost confidence in the currency, and the government stopped minting coins for a time.

Several centuries later, beginning in the 12th century, Song dynasty Chinese coins began to be imported in considerable volumes, as a natural result of increased trade with China. The Northern Song, in fact, minted more copper coins than any other Chinese dynasty, and though the export of coinage from China was banned, Chinese coins nevertheless flowed throughout the East Asia region.[4] The court noble Saionji Kintsune alone is known to have imported as much as 100,000 kan of Song coins, enough to fund the construction of a dozen or more buildings. Song coins circulated so widely that as early as 1240 the Kamakura shogunate had reversed its various bans on the usage of cash, permitting its use everywhere but in the northernmost provinces.[5]

Muromachi Period and Ming Trade

Chinese coins continued to be a major presence in Japanese markets – at least among the elites – into the Muromachi period (1333-1573). The Ashikaga shogunate entered into formal trade relations with Ming Dynasty China in the late 14th century, and maintained relations until the mid-16th. Coins associated with the reign of the Yongle Emperor (1403-1425) were particularly numerous in Japan due to the close Sino-Japanese relations during that period, under Shogun Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, but coins issued in the Hongwu (1368-98) and Xuande (1425-35) reigns in particular have also been found in considerable numbers. The export of gold, silver, and copper from China remained forbidden in this period, but copper coins ended up being taken back to Japan by the tribute envoys anyway, after selling their cargoes in China.

The use of currency expanded considerably in Japan in the Kamakura (1185-1333) and Muromachi periods. Taxes previously paid in rice or other crops were now increasingly paid in Chinese coinage (though payment in crops was still very common), and coins circulated more widely. Systems of moneylenders called kariage or dosô emerged. But the currency being used was almost exclusively Chinese coins.[6]

Japanese coins first began to re-appear, and the volume of Chinese coins in circulation in Japan to drop, in the mid-15th century. Due to price fluctuations, Japanese merchants / tribute envoys in China found it more profitable to purchase goods – such as silk – in China to resell in Japan, rather than bringing Chinese coin back. Some areas in western Japan even began minting their own coins in imitation of the Chinese ones, and sending traders with Japanese coins to China to buy Chinese goods. Chinese coins from the late 15th century, e.g. those minted in the Hongzhi (1488-1505) reign, are quite rare finds for archaeologists in Japan today, and those from later reigns are almost entirely absent.[6]

In the Sengoku period (1467-1600), and especially as Japan began to become more integrated in the mid-to-late 16th century, regional daimyô began to expand their mining efforts, and gold and silver came to be more widely circulated, and exported. Gold dust had long been a common element in gifts (tribute) paid by samurai lords and shogunates to the Imperial Court; bags of gold dust of a designated size, called (納), were valued at 20 ryô.[7] In the central regions of the country, where mining was most prevalent, taxes came to increasingly be paid in gold and silver; this was then exchanged for coins or rice. Kin’ya and gin’ya (gold and silver dealers) emerged and enabled these conversion (exchange) transactions. These dealers, along with firms officially licensed by the local lord, called ginza or tenbinza, also dealt in producing, and certifying, pieces of gold and silver with a designated level of refinement or quality. Certified pieces, called hankin or gokuin-gin would be marked with numbers, kanji, kaô (monograms), or crests, indicating the firm’s certification. The term hankin would later be used in the Edo period to refer chiefly to ôban coins, but in fact the term could be applied to all certified & marked pieces of gold.

In the Edo period, the ryô would become one of the more common monetary denominations, and would become intricately tied into the koku, a measure of rice. However, prior to that time, the ryô was more closely related to a Japanese adaptation of the Tang system of measuring precious metals. In Tang China, precious metals were measured in “big” chin (J: kin, 斤) and “small” chin, and in “big” liang (J: ryô) and “small” liang,[8] with the smaller denomination being one-third that of the “large” denomination.[7] In the Nara and Heian periods, Japan simply made use of the “small” Chinese denominations as a standard denomination, omitting the “small” designation. But by the end of the 13th century, the Japanese implemented their own system of denominations, equating one ryô of gold to four monme and five bu[9].

For the sake of convenience, the ryô was, for a time in the late 16th century, devalued to four monme four bu. Around the same time, the denomination mai, equal to ten ryô, was briefly used.

Coins were minted from time to time in the Sengoku period by various local/regional power-holders, including lesser daimyô, as well as the likes of Oda Nobunaga. Toyotomi Hideyoshi, after securing control over most of the archipelago, minted coins as well. The so-called Tenshô-hishi-ôban, an ôban coin shaped like a chestnut (hishi), was first minted in 1588, the sixteenth year of the Tenshô era; similar coins continued to be made for several years afterwards. However, the vast majority of such coins produced in the 16th century were ten ryô coins, produced to be given as gifts to loyal commanders, or for other similar purposes, and not for general circulation.[10]

Edo Period

Two ten ryô ôban, one five ryô ôban, and a one ryô koban coin, on display at the British Museum

Samurai stipends in the Edo period were paid out in koku, i.e. in rice. However, gold and silver coinage was used in everyday exchanges (especially among chônin/commoners – peasants, merchants, artisans, etc.). In Edo, gold was more widely circulated, while in Kamigata (the Kyoto-Osaka area), silver was more commonly the mode of exchange. Gold was exchanged in relatively standardized coins issued by the shogunate, known as koban, and worth one ryô apiece.

A ryô was considered to be roughly equal to one koku, which in turn is said to have been roughly the amount of rice needed to feed a man for a year. However, rice and gold prices fluctuated dramatically over the course of the period, with 19 separate incidents of currency devaluation between 1819 and 1837 alone,[11] and the exact amount of rice that comprised a koku is, in any case, a subject of debate. Over the course of the Edo period, the cost of rice dropped dramatically relative to the value of gold, making samurai (who relied on stipends paid in koku) less and less wealthy than members of the merchant class who earned their incomes in gold and silver.[12]

The use of the gold koban, however, was most common in and around Edo, and the farther one traveled from Edo, the less standard it became. At the beginning of the Edo period, there were over one hundred types of gold coins in circulation,[13] and so in many parts of the country, particularly the active commercial centers of Kyoto and Osaka, and other areas at a considerable distance from Edo, currency continued to be valued by weight, and not by face value. While gold coins were particularly standard in Edo, in the rest of the country, silver and copper coins remained quite common, and were valued by their weight, in momme. One momme of silver was a little less than 4 grams. The most common denomination of silver was a 43 momme nugget called a chôgin.[14] One hundred momme of copper coins were worth roughly one momme of silver, and one thousand momme was called one kanme. Weights, previously not fully standardized, were in the Edo period restricted to those produced by the Gotô school, whose weights were to be used in all transactions for weighing out, for example, gold or silver. (Rice was measured by volume, not by weight.) Gotô Tokujô, who produced weights and coins for Oda Nobunaga, and gold engraver Gotô Yûjô (1440-1512) were members/ancestors of this family.

The Edo period monetary system, or at least its foundations, was established quite early in the period. In 1601 (Keichô 6), the Tokugawa oversaw the minting of a series of coins, in fairly large quantities, explicitly for circulation. The largest was the Keichô ôban, worth 10 ryô; the Keichô koban and ichibuban, gold coins worth 1 ryô and 1 bu respectively, were “face value” coins, with the value of one bu dependent not directly on the weight of the gold coin, but rather tied to the rising or falling value of the koban. Silver chôgin and mameita-gin coins continued to be valued by weight, and circulated in paper wrappings.[15]

Regional currencies continued to be used for a time, along with hankin and gokuin-gin certified bullion. Merchants in the Ise-Yamada area began producing paper money as early as 1600. Many domains produced their own paper notes; the oldest known today in its original form was a variety produced in Fukui han in 1661.[16] Kaga han (Ishikawa prefecture), which is still known today for its precious metals, was one of a number of places which had its own systems of certified bullion (mainly in silver), including what was called shuhô-gin – certified silver in a vermillion wrapper. Bullion sent to Edo or other parts of the country from these mining areas was often stamped or otherwise designated by marking for that region. To take just one example, bars from Niigata were stamped with the character ei/sakae (栄, prosperity). Akita han was also a major mining and minting area, producing gold and silver sen (coins in the same form as copper coins traditionally), along with koban, crude silver ore (jô-gin), and certified silver (gokuin-gin). Akita employed its own producers of weights and scales.[17]

By the end of the 17th century, the shogunate took control of the silver mines and the minting of currency, and established shogunate-controlled ginza, kinza, and copper mints in Osaka and Edo. The Kan’ei tsûhô was first minted in 1670, and the system was standardized, eliminating regional variant currencies, at least in theory.[16] Though this might seem on the surface like it might stifle economic development, in fact, the opposite occurred, as regional differences in currency systems, and protective policies put in place by the various domains, were eliminated, allowing freer circulation of money and goods throughout the country, especially in and out of the major economic centers of Edo and Osaka.[18] Despite the shogunal ban, many domains continued to produce their own fiat money, at least at times. Akita han issued its own fiat money in 1755, in an effort to monopsonize rice; the project was short-lived, however, being shut down a mere two years later after tea merchants from Mino province complained to the shogunate about the non-convertible currency. In another example, Tokushima han issued paper money beginning in the 1680s in an effort to make up for an insufficient supply of silver. Most domainal efforts to print their own money resulted in unintended inflation.[19]

Meanwhile, precious metals, especially silver, flowed out of the country in great volume, especially through Nagasaki. In the 16th century Japanese silver mines had become much more productive just as Chinese ones began to wane, spurring this considerable outflow. Copper mines similarly saw a considerable increase in their output in the 17th century, but by the end of that century, Japan’s silver mines were already beginning to run dry. This led to dramatic devaluations in the coinage, and rampant inflation, at various times over the course of the Edo period, as the shogunate attempted to implement financial/monetary policies to address the declining supply of precious metal. The Keichô koban weighed four momme, eight fun, and was 862 parts gold to 132 parts silver. After 1695, it was debased to 564 parts gold to 432 parts silver, with the total weight of the coin remaining the same.[20] One of the most significant instances of this came in 1718, when the value of the gold ryô dropped by about 20 percent. One gold ryô had been equal to roughly 60 momme of silver, and was now worth roughly 50 momme;[14] one chôgin (43 momme), therefore, had been equivalent to roughly 71% of a gold ryô, but was now worth closer to 83% of a ryô.[21] Meanwhile, the Genroku-gin pieces of silver (issued 1695-1706), made of 646 parts silver to 352.6 parts copper and 1.4 parts gold, were replaced by the Hôeigin in 1706-1710, made up of 507 parts silver 490.6 parts copper and 1.2 parts gold.[22]

The debasement of coinage in the Genroku period was the first major debasement in the period;[16] the change to minting coins of only 57% gold and ingots of only 64% silver may have created as much as five million ryô in savings (or profits) for the shogunate, providing a much-needed boost to the shogunate’s finances.[23]

Prices

Though prices varied widely, of course, over time, from place to place, and depending on the quality of the goods or other factors, the following figures might provide a rough idea of prices (i.e. the value of the ryô) in the “high” Edo period (18th to early 19th centuries).

  • 8 mon – a single piece of relatively low-quality sushi.[24]
  • 16 mon – a bowl of soba.[24]
  • 2 or 3 momme – a cheap ukiyo-e print[25]
  • 300-500 mon – one night with a prostitute at a post-station or port town in the Kansai or Inland Sea regions.[24]
  • 20 momme – an ukiyo-e print of good quality.[25]
  • 32 momme – the cost of seeing a play at Ryôgoku in 1820.
  • 75 momme – the cost of the journey from Osaka to Nagasaki by boat (roughly 14-20 days).[25][14]
  • 90 momme – the cost of a multi-volume illustrated book, such as Soga Monogatari.[25]
  • 1 bu or 1/4 ryô – a night with a particularly expensive prostitute at a post-station near Edo.[24]
  • 1000 momme or 1/4 ryô – the cost of sending a child to terakoya (temple school) for a year
  • 1 ryô – the cost for a man’s formal kamishimo outfit, including hakama, haori, and kosode.
  • 1 ryô – the cost of commissioning a scroll painting by a well-known painter; a screen painting by the same painter might cost roughly 6-10 ryô.
  • 2-3 ryô – the cost of hiring a maid for a year (i.e. the income made by a maid in a year)
  • 4 ryô – the cost of a print imported from Europe[26]
  • 6 ryô – a typical annual wage for a laborer[25][14]
  • 6 to 10 ryô – the fee to commission a major artist for a single set of lavish byôbu (folding screen) paintings; could be as much as even 40 ryô depending.[25]
  • 10 ryô – the cost of a first visit to a Yoshiwara establishment, including tips for the nakai and taikomochi.[27]
  • 200 ryô – A month in the Yoshiwara could cost as much as this.[25]
  • 360 ryô – the cost of buying a small room (80 sq yards) in Edo.
  • 483 ryô – The annual salary of a typical hatamoto in 1711.[28]
  • 500 ryô – The cap on kabuki actors’ salaries, imposed by the Kansei Reforms in 1794.[28]
  • 800 ryô The salary of kabuki actor Ichikawa Danjūrō I (16601704) peaked at this amount.[28]
  • 1000 ryôYoshizawa Ayame I (16631729) was the first kabuki actor to attain an annual salary of this amount.[28]

Denominations Chart

Gold

1 ryô

4 bu

16 shu

1 koku of rice

1 bu

1/10 monme 匁

.375 grams

 

1 monme

10 bu

3.75 grams

 

Silver

     

1 kan

100 ryô

1000 monme

 

Copper

     

1 kanmon 貫文

1000 mon

   

Rice

     

1 koku

10 to

100 shô

1 ryô of gold

1 hiki of silk

Silk

       

1 hiki

1 koku of rice

     

Meiji Period

The Meiji government began printing its own money almost immediately, in 1868. These first notes were called Dajôkansatsu, after the Dajôkan (Imperial Council of State). A new Currency Act was passed in 1871, establishing the yen as the core denomination of currency. The first national bank notes to feature a person’s portrait depicted Empress Jingû, and came out in 1881.[16]

The Bank of Japan was established in 1882, and issued its first notes in 1885; these notes, known as Daikoku satsu, featured images of Daikoku, one of the Seven Lucky Gods. A Coinage Law passed in 1897 set the economy onto the gold standard.[16]

References

  • Crawcour, E.S. and Kozo Yamamura. “The Tokugawa Monetary System, 1787-1868.” Economic Development and Cultural Change 18:4, part 1 (1970). pp489-518.
  • Kobata Atsushi. “Coinage from the Kamakura Period through the Edo Period.” Acta Asiatica 21 (1971). pp98-108.
  1. Kobata. p98n1.
  2. When a good was used as payment, its value was often counted in terms of jun-kinu 準絹, jun-nuno 準布, or jun-kome 準米, that is, in terms of how much silk, cloth, or rice it would have been worth.
  3. Kobata. pp98-99.
  4. Kobata. p98.
  5. Kang, David C. “Hierarchy in Asian International Relations: 1300-1900.” Asian Security 1, no. 1 (2005), 65.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Kobata. pp99-100.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Kobata. p101.
  8. That is, da-chin 大斤 (J: dai-kin) and xiao-chin 小斤 (J: shô-kin), da-liang 大両 (J: dai-ryô) and xiao-liang 小両 (J: shô-ryô).
  9. With one monme being 3.75 grams, or ten bu.
  10. Kobata. p105.
  11. Conrad Schirokauer, David Lurie, and Suzanne Gay, A Brief History of Japanese Civilization, Wadsworth Cengage (2013), 153.
  12. Screech, Timon. “Owning Edo-Period Paintings.” in Lillehoj, Elizabeth (ed.) Acquisition: Art and Ownership in Edo-Period Japan. Floating World Editions, 2007. p34.
  13. Crawcour and Yamamura. p490.
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 Timon Screech, Obtaining Images, University of Hawaii Press (2012), 79.
  15. Kobata. p106.
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 Pamphlet, Currency Museum.
  17. Kobata. p107.
  18. Kobata. p108.
  19. Mark Ravina, Land and Lordship in Early Modern Japan, Stanford University Press (1999), 59-60.
  20. Arai Hakuseki, Joyce Ackroyd (trans.), Told Round a Brushwood Fire, University of Tokyo Press (1979), 296n239.
  21. Timon Screech (Obtaining Images, p79) cites the figures as 65% and 95%; however, calculating directly, using the figures 43, 50, and 60, results in the percentages 71 and 83.
  22. Hakuseki, 296n240.
  23. Robert Hellyer, Defining Engagement, Harvard University Press (2009), 59.
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 24.3 Amy Stanley, Selling Women: Prostitution, Markets, and the Household in Early Modern Japan, UC Press (2012), xxii.
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 25.5 25.6 Screech, “Owning Edo-Period Paintings.” p26.
  26. Timon Screech, Obtaining Images, 325.
  27. Segawa Seigle, Cecelia. Yoshiwara. University of Hawaii Press, 1993.
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 28.3 Leiter, Samuel. “Edo Kabuki: The Actor’s World.” Impressions 31 (2010). pp114-131

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THE ZAIBATSU OF JAPAN

 

財閥
Financial Cliques

The zaibatsu (literally financial cliques) were the diversified family enterprises that rose to prominence in the Meiji Era. Some of the most important zaibatsu and their origins were:

Mitsui

Mitsubishi

Yasuda

Sumitomo

Okura

Furukawa

Kuhara

Suzuki

Fujita

Asano

Mitsui:

  • The founder of the Mitsui zaibatsu, Mitsui Hachirobei Takatoshi, established shops for dry goods in Kyoto (the old capital) and Edo (now Tokyo) in 1673 to sell high quality kimonos. Ten years later he and his sons established money changing shops which soon were carrying out exchange operations for the Tokugawa Shogunate, the government of Japan. One operation Mitsui performed for the Shogunate was to convert taxes which were paid in rice into money available in Edo. Osaka was the principal commercial center of Japan at the time and Mitsui sold in Osaka the rice collected as taxes. Mitsui handled the transfer of funds from Osaka to Edo. Transporting money itself from Osaka to Edo was dangerous and expensive so Mitsui instead bought the promissory notes Edo merchants gave to Osaka and Kyoto merchants and transferred these to Edo for collection. Mitsui did not charge a fee for these important services to the Shogunate but instead was compensated by having the use of government funds for a period of months. For those months between the receipt of the rice tax and the payment of money in Edo Mitsui had, in effect, an interest-free loan which it could lend at interest to other borrowers. Eventually these financial services businesses became more important than the dry goods shops which were the original business of the Mitsui family.
  • Although providing services for the Shogunate was profitable for Mitsui there were risks. When the Shogunate got into political difficulties and needed funds it squeezed the political merchants like Mitsui who had been making profits from its patronage. After demanding substantial comtributions in the 1864-65 period from Mitsui and other political merchants, in 1866 it demanded a payment from Mitsui alone which was more 50 percent larger than Mitsui’s operating assets.
  • Mitsui had to petition for a reduction in the amount the Shogunate was demanding. Mitsui founded a talented negotiator, Minokawa Rihachi, who had once been a servant of the Minister of Finance. Minokawa was uneducated and illiterate but he was a very sharp political operator. Minokawa got the payment demanded of Mitsui reduced by two-thirds. Furthermore the payment was split into three installments. Before the last two installments were due the Shogunate was overthrown.
  • However before its overthrow the Shogunate had asked that Mitsui set up in Yokohama a lending organization that would be funded by custom duties. Minokawa as a reward for his successful negotiation was selected to manage the Yokohama lending institution for Mitsui. Minokawa changed his name to Minomura for this new career.
  • When the Tokogawa Shogunate was overthrown Mitsui was selected by the new Meiji government to provide financial services and handle the creation of a new currency. Mitsui was also instructed to begin preparation for the creation of a central bank for Japan.
  • After Mitsui was well along in its plans to create a central bank the Meiji government changed its mind and called for Mitsui to collaborate with another business, Ono, in the formation of the central bank. Mitsui, Ono and Shamada were the three businesses which held government deposits and benefited from having the use of these funds interest free for a period of time. In October 1874 the government demanded that each of these three firms make a payment to the government equal to one-third of the amount that the government held with them. This payment was required within a couple of months which was too short a time for Ono and Shamada to collect on the loans they had out of government funds and they went bankrupt. Mitsui was able to survive because government funds were a smaller proportion of their holdings than they were for Ono and Shamada. Mitsui had also been more cautious in its lending than Ono and Shamada. But the key to Mitsui surviving is that its political operator, Minomura, had gotten advanced warning of the change in government policy and had longer to raise the payment required.
  • In 1876 Mitsui formed the Mitsui Bank, a major financial institution in Japan in the years ahead.

Mitsubishi:

  • Mitsubishi (Three Diamonds) was founded by Iwasaki Yataro of what is now Kochi Prefecture but was at the time Tosa domain, a samarai-controlled region. Iwasaki was selected to serve in the bureaucracy and later headed the Nagasalo office of the financial agency of the domain. The financial agency was charged with promoting the sale of domain products and using the proceeds to purchase ships and weapons from foreign merchants. The Meiji Revolution brought an end to his domain’s Nagasaki office and Iwasaki was transferred to Osaka in 1869. The trust and relationships Iwasaki developed with foreign merchants were important factors in his career. The Meiji government banned domain enterprises so the financial agency Iwasaki managed was transformed into a private business under Iwasaki’s management. Its primary activity was shipping.
  • In 1871 the Meiji government abolished the domain governments and put in their place the prefecture system. Iwasaki took over the managment of the privatized domain enterprises and assumed responsibility for the debts of the Tosa domain. This assumption of unpaid debt gave foreign merchants great confidence in Iwasaki’s integrity. Initially the new company was named Mitsukawa (Three Rivers) because three of the principle owners had “kawa” as part of their surnames. By 1873 Iwasaki had emerged as the dominant personality in the company and he renamed the company Mitsubishi Shokai.
  • The company headquarters was moved to Tokyo in 1874 and the name changed to Mitsubishi Steamship Company (Mitsubishi Jokisen Kaisha). In 1874 the Meiji government wanted transportation for a military expedition to Taiwan and foreign shipping firms refused to provide the ships. There was a national government enterprise, the Japan National Mail Steamship Company (YJK), from which the government sought transportation. YJK was not an efficiently managed enterprise and it also refused to provide the ships needed. In desperation the government turned to Mitsubishi for aid and Mitsubishi provided transport the government needed. Thereafter Mitsubishi gained favor and protection from the Meiji government. It subsequently changed its name to Mitsubishi Mail Steamship Company.
  • Mitsubishi started a Shanghai-Yokohama line and, with government backing, drove foreign ship lines out of the market. When the Meiji government needed military transport Mitsubishi provided it.

Yasuda

  • The Yasuda zaibatsu was founded by Yasuda Zenjiro at the end of the era of the Tokogawa Shogunate. Yasuda came from a poor samarai class family in what is now Toyama Prefecture. He migrated to Edo and worked in a money changing business until 1863, at age 25, he was ready to start his own money changing business. In 1867 Yasuda became a political merchant, carrying out financial operations for the Shogunate like overseeing the collection of gold and silver. Under the Meiji government Yasuda continued to provide financial services. Like other political merchants Yasuda handled tax collections and profited from the delay between collection and the time at which those funds had to be forwarded to the government. Yasuda bought up depreciated paper money which had been issued by the new regime. When the regime announced the paper money would be accepted at its face value in gold coin Yasuda made a fortune. In 1876 Yasuda founded the Third National Bank of Japan.

Sumitomo

  • The Sumitomo enterprise had its origins in mining and smelting. Soga Riemon learned copper smelting and processing in Osaka and then founded a copper refinery in Kyoto in 1590. Sumitomo Masatomo was a wealthy druggist and publisher in Kyoto. When the eldest son of Soga married the daughter of Sumitomo he adopted the Sumitomo surname. The copper business grew and the Sumitomo family became one of the companies allowed by the Shogun to trade in copper. Later the Sumitomo family enterprise was allowed to operate the Besshi copper mine owned by the Shogunate.
  • In the 1860’s the Sumitomo enterprises were experiencing financial difficulties which became catastrophic when the Shogun was overthrown. All the special privileges of Sumitomo were lost. The loans that Sumitomo had made to daimyo governments in the past were cancelled.The Meiji government intended to expropriate the Besshi copper mine as a property of the Shogunate government.
  • The mangager of the Besshi mine, Hirose Giemon, was able to make the case that the Shogunate had given Sumitomo the right to operate the Besshi mine in perpetuity and thus Besshi was really the property of Sumitomo. Hirose Giemon was made manager of the head office of Sumitomo and successfully negotiated some terms for the settlement of other financial obligations of Sumitomo. Hirose then began selling copper to foreign buyers and with the advice of a French mining engineer was able to expand production at the Besshi copper mine.

Okura:

  • In contrast to most of the zaibatsu, the Okura zaibatsu was founded by someone from the peasant class. Okura Kihachiro moved from what is now Niigata Prefecture on the north shore of Honshu to Edo and worked for three years before starting his own grocery store in 1857. After selling groceries for eight years he began to sell guns during the last days of the Shogunate.
  • In 1872 Okura traveled to Europe and the United States where he met members of a Meiji government mission who were also traveling there. After his return to Japan and he obtained government contracts as a result of the acquaintances of government people he made on that trip. Later he established a trading company with a branch in London but his profits came more from services he provided rather than the trading operations of the company. Okura also provided military supplies to the government.

Furukawa:

  • Ono was a political merchant company which held government funds on deposit and invested the idle funds in raw silk exporting and mining. When the Meiji government demanded a matching deposit Ono was not able to raise the funds and went bankrupt. Furukawa Ichibei was an employee of Ono when it collapsed. He founded a company to engage in the same activities as Ono. After Furukawa found raw silk exporting unprofitable he concentrated on mining ventures.
  • When the Ono bank collapsed depositors such as Furukawa lost their savings. Soma, a wealthy daimyo family also lost a large amount in the collapse of the Ono bank. Furukawa convinced the Soma family to relinquish its large claim for its lost deposits in return for the ownership of two mines which the Ono company had owned. Furukawa was to manage the mines for the Soma family.

Kuhara:

  • The Kuhara zaibatsu had its origins in the Fujita zaibatsu. Kuhara Fusanosuke was the nephew of the founder of Fujita. Kuhara became the manager of an unprofitable Fujita silver mine at Kosaka. Kuhara transformed the unprofitable Kosaka silver mine into a profitable copper mine by utilizing the low grade copper ore available there. The success of the Kosaka mine revived the Fujita zaibatsu. At the time the Fujita zaibatsu was a partnership of three brothers, but Fujita Denzaburo decided to buy out the interests of his two brothers’ heirs, which included Kuhara.
  • With his compensation from Fujita, Kuhara purchased a mine which he renamed Hitachi. Kuhara developed his operations into the third largest copper producer in Japan, exceeded only by Furukawa and Fujita.

Suzuki:

  • The Suzuki zaibatsu was founded by Suzuki Iwajiro of Kobe. Suzuki began as a sugar importer in 1874 but expanded to exporting camphor and mint. Suzuki marketed 65 percent of the camphor oil produced in Taiwan when it became a Japanese colony. In the early years of the twentieth century Suzuki moved into sugar refining and the processing of camphor and mint. It also built a steel mill, the Kobe Steelworks, and sought contracts to supply the Japanese navy.

Fujita:

  • Fujita Denzaburo capitalized upon his connections with government officials in Choshu to obtain government contracts for goods and civil engineering projects. The profits from being a political merchant far surpassed the earnings from the Fujita family brewery of soy sauce and saki in Choshu (now Yamaguchi Prefecture). Fujita was what Americans later called a “wheeler-dealer.” At one point Fujita spent four months in jail because of government suspicion that he was using counterfeit currency in his dealings. He and his two brothers later founded Fujita-gumi, a company that engaged in mining and drainage projects.

Asano:

  • The Asano zaibatsu had a quite different origin from the other zaibatsu, coming neither from a political merchant family business nor a family mining enterprise. The founder, Asano Soichiro, came to Tokyo with practically nothing. He progressed from a street vendor of sugar water through a variety of small businesses to retailer of firewood, charcoal and coal. One major use of coal at the time was to produce coal gas for gas light systems for homes and businesses. In producing coal gas coal is heated to a high temperature without burning and is turned into coke. Coke is valuable fuel and essential for smelting iron ore to produce iron, but at that time the coke was not being used for anything. Asano saw a use for the coke as fuel at the government-owned cement where cement was produced by heating clay and limestone to a high temperature. Asano was also able to induce a Tokyo paper manufacturer to use coke as fuel.
  • From his success in marketing coke as fuel Asano went on to capture a major share of the coal market through marketing the production of a government-run coal mine in Hokkaido. In 1884 he purchased a government cement plant and started his own shipping company to transport his coal and cement. Later he obtained from contacts in the government the exclusive rights to import kerosene from a Russian company.

The relative sizes of the zaibatsu changed somewhat over time. In 1895 the annual incomes of the various zaibatsu families were as follows.

Family

Annual
Income
1895
(000 yen)

Iwasaki
(Mitsubishi)

1,084

Mitsui

529

Sumitomo

156

Yasuda

94

Okura

65

Furukawa

62

Reference: Hidemasa Morikawa, Zaibatsu: The Rise and Fall of Family Enterprise Groups in Japan, University of Tokyo Press, 1992

 

 

The banknotes of the Japanese yen are part of the physical form of Japan‘s currency. The issuance of the yen banknotes began in 1872, two years after the currency was introduced. Throughout its history, the denominations have ranged from 0.05 yen to 10,000 yen.

Before World War II[edit]

1869

In 1869, the Ministry of Finance introduced notes in denominations between 10 sen and 100 yen. “Imperial Japanese Paper Currency” followed in 1873 in denominations of 1 yen up to 20 yen. “Imperial Japanese Paper Money” was issued between 1881 and 1883 in denominations between 20 sen and 10 yen.

1877

In 1877 and 1878, the Imperial Japanese National Bank issued 1 and 5 yen notes. In 1885, the Bank of Japan began issuing notes, in denominations of 1, 5, 10 and 100 yen. 20 yen notes were added in 1917, followed by 200 yen in 1927 and 1000 yen in 1945. [1]

Between 1917 and 1922, the government issued 10, 20 and 50 sen notes. 50 sen notes were reintroduced in 1938. In 1944, 5 and 10 sen notes were introduced by the Bank of Japan.

1930

Japan 1930 10 yen P 40a,PMG 64 FPO UNC IDR 1.157.894, 74

Dr Iwan comment

I found the near same PMG , I didinot nremember when and where I found this PMG

 

 

Allied forces notes[edit]

1945-1951

The Allies issued notes in denominations of 10 and 50 sen, 1, 5, 10, 20, 100 and 1000 yen between 1945 and 1951, during which time the Bank of Japan also issued notes. Banknotes below 1 yen became invalid on December 31, 1953 by the same legislation mentioned above.

 

P.O.W 1 yen Camp Chit Ticket for US Military (very rare) est price IDR 2.368.289,47

Australia actually made notes for the occupation as well and those can be seen at the Australian Reserve Bank website [2]

Regaining sovereignty[edit]

1950

By the early 1950s, notes below 50 yen had been replaced by coins, followed by those for 50 and 100 yen in the late 1950s.

1957-1958

In 1957 and 1958, 5000 and 10,000 yen notes were introduced.

1982

The 500 yen notes were replaced after 1982,

2000

while 2000 yen notes were introduced in 2000.

2016

100-1000 yen notes were introduced at July 2016 with small papermoney type.

Dr Iwan comment

I have   almost all of the above Japan PM type

 

except geometric patern 1946

200 yen 1946 ,

1000 yen 1986 (I found but I sold in 2000)

and

 

5000 yen 1956, I still hunting this rare bank note,

I found a rare catalogues of Japan Banknote with more older bank note which some I found in Jakarta, if the collectors and scholar want to look please visit my museum”Our Ancestor Museum WANLI SONS Kelapa Gading North Jakarta Indonesia.

Look the complete table of Japan papermoney at another page below

 

1946-48[edit]

Series A (1946–48)

Image

Value

Dimensions

Description

Date of

Obverse

Reverse

Obverse

Reverse

issue

issue suspension

expiration

   

¥0.05

94 × 48 mm

Prunus mume blossoms

Geometric patterns

May 25, 1948

December 31, 1953

June 30, 1954

   

¥0.1

100 × 52 mm

Pigeons

The Diet building

September 5, 1947

   

¥1

124 × 68 mm

Ninomiya Sontoku

Geometric patterns

March 19, 1946

October 1, 1958

Valid

   

¥5

132 × 68 mm

Geometric patterns

March 5, 1946

April 1, 1955

   

¥10

140 × 76 mm

The Diet building

February 25, 1946

   

¥100

162 × 93 mm

Prince Shōtoku, “Yumedono” (A hall associated with Prince Shōtoku in Hōryū-ji Temple)

Hōryū-ji Temple

February 25, 1946

July 5, 1956

For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

   

1950-53[edit]

Series B (1950–53) [3]

Image

Value

Dimensions

Main Color

Description

Date of

Obverse

Reverse

Obverse

Reverse

issue

issue suspension

   

¥50

144 × 68 mm

Orange

Takahashi Korekiyo

The headquarters of the Bank of Japan

December 1, 1951

October 1, 1958

   

¥100

148 × 76 mm

Brown-orange

Itagaki Taisuke

The Diet building

December 1, 1953

August 1, 1974

   

¥500

156 × 76 mm

Dark blue

Iwakura Tomomi

Mt. Fuji

April 2, 1951

January 4, 1971

   

¥1000

164 × 76 mm

Grey

Prince Shōtoku

“Yumedono”

January 7, 1950

January 4, 1965

For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

   

The series B introduced a new high value banknote ¥1000.

1957-69[edit]

Series C (1957–69) [3]

Image

Value

Dimensions

Main Color

Description

Date of

Obverse

Reverse

Obverse

Reverse

issue

issue suspension

   

¥500

159 × 72 mm

Blue

Iwakura Tomomi

Mt. Fuji

November 1, 1969

April 1, 1994

   

¥1000

164 × 76 mm

Yellow-green

Itō Hirobumi

The headquarters of the Bank of Japan

November 1, 1963

January 4, 1986

   

¥5000

169 × 80 mm

Green-brown

Prince Shōtoku

The headquarters of the Bank of Japan

October 1, 1957

January 4, 1986

   

¥10,000

174 × 84 mm

Brown-green

Prince Shōtoku

A pillar painting of Hōō in Byōdō-in Temple

December 1, 1958

January 4, 1986

For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

The series C introduced two new high value banknotes ¥5000 and ¥10,000.

1984[edit]

Series D (1984) [4]

Image

Value

Dimensions

Main Color

Description

Date of

Obverse

Reverse

Obverse

Reverse

issue

issue suspension

   

¥1000

150 × 76 mm

Blue

Natsume Sōseki

Pair of cranes

November 1, 1984

April 2, 2007

   

¥5000

155 × 76 mm

Purple

Nitobe Inazō

Mt. Fuji, Lake Motosu and cherry blossoms

   

¥10,000

160 × 76 mm

Brown

Fukuzawa Yukichi

Pair of pheasants

For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Due to the discovery of a large number of counterfeit Series D banknotes at the end of 2004, all Series D banknotes except ¥2000 were virtually suspended on January 17, 2005,[5] and officially suspended on April 2, 2007.[6] According to a news release [7] from the National Police Agency, they seized 11,717 counterfeit Series D banknotes (excluding the ¥2000 denomination) in 2005. However, they seized only 486 counterfeit current issue banknotes, namely Series E ¥1000, ¥5000, ¥10000, and Series D ¥2000.

2000[edit]

Commemorative series D (2000) [4]

Image

Value

Dimensions

Main Color

Description

Date of issue

Obverse

Reverse

Obverse

Reverse

   

¥2000

154 × 76 mm

Green

Shurei-mon

Scene from the Tale of Genji and portrait of Murasaki Shikibu

July 19, 2000

For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

2000 yen note with The Tale of Genji and Murasaki Shikibu on the right corner

Dr Iwan comment

I found this papermoney at Seoul City at NamDaimon Market money changer in 2008.

This is the current issue. The 2000 yen note was first issued on July 19, 2000 to commemorate the 26th G8 summit in Okinawa and the 2000 millennium year as well. Pictured on the front of the note is Shureimon, a famous gate in Naha, Okinawa near the site of the summit. The other side features a scene from the The Tale of Genji and the author Murasaki Shikibu on the lower right corner. The motif of the scene was taken from the 12th century illuminated handscrolls of the novel kept at the Tokugawa Art Museum in Nagoya. The image of Murasaki Shikibu is taken from the Gotoh edition of the Murasaki Shikibu Diary Emaki held at the Gotoh Museum.

These notes are rare in the market, but at banks they are readily available. Many Japanese consider the 2000 yen note a novelty as it is the only Japanese denomination whose first digit is 2. To promote the circulation of the notes, some companies had started paying wages in them. The series D is the first to display the EURion constellation.

2004[edit]

Series E (2004) [4]

Image

Value

Dimensions

Main Color

Description

Date of issue

Obverse

Reverse

Obverse

Reverse

   

¥1000

150 × 76 mm

Blue

Noguchi Hideyo

Mt. Fuji, Lake Motosu and cherry blossoms

November 1, 2004

   

¥5000

156 × 76 mm

Purple

Higuchi Ichiyō

“Kakitsubata-zu” (Painting of irises, a work by Ogata Kōrin)

   

¥10,000

160 × 76 mm

Brown

Fukuzawa Yukichi

Statue of hōō (phoenix) from Byōdō-in Temple

For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

This is the current issue. The EURion constellation pattern can be observed on the series E.

Source wiki

 

 

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References[edit]

  1. ^ “1000 Yen note 1945 prince Yamato Takeru”. World Banknotes. Retrieved 14 February 2015. 
  2. ^ http://www.rba.gov.au/Museum/Displays/_Images/1920_1960/100_yen_note_front_big.jpg
  3. ^ a b http://www.boj.or.jp/en/type/list/yuko/data/money01.pdf
  4. ^ a b c Currency in Use: Bank of Japan
  5. ^ http://www.boj.or.jp/type/release/zuiji/bnnew16.htm Archived August 8, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  6. ^ 一万円券、五千円券および千円券の今後の支払について:日本銀行
  7. ^ http://www.npa.go.jp/toukei/souni/gizou.htm Archived August 10, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.

External links[edit]

 

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The End @ Copyright DR Iwan 2016

The E-book in CD-ROM Collections in 2016

tHE SAMPLE oF dRIWANCYBERMUSEUM E-bOOK IN cd rOKIM

THIS SAMPLE NOT COMPLE AND NOT CORRECTED,

If you want to buy this E-bbok in CD-ROmj in complete and very good and  woow collections, send email to iwansuwandy@gmail.com, with upload your Id D and Adfress comete with Phoned number. abour cost only RP 250.000,- per one question and the full info will dscuss later.

Sincerely

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Adventurecandijiwa1

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I have some of this collections below (near same  or used condition)

 

 

 

 

Intro

THE ADVENTURE OF Dr IWAN TO CANDI JIWA WEST KRAWANG

I.August,16Th.2000

In this day with my loving Toyota Hardtop Lancruiser BJ 40, I went alone to Rengasdengklok to look at the historic house where Bung Karno and Bug Hata were” Keep ” by the young man 55 years ago inorder to aksed them to proclaimed the Indonesian Independent there (the complete story look at the Indonesian Independent war collections and Bung Hatta Collections in this blog or in my old bl9oc hhtp”//www.uniquecoleetion.wordpress.com-auth)

Very difficult to found the road to the Candi “Jiwa” (Ancient Soul -BudhishTemple), after enter the Rengasdengklok ,from the Jakarta Cikampek Toll Road, at West Cikampek I foun dthe sign

,then tern left and after the railways t’s turn to the right,

I came to the very crowded market

 

Then the turn right until at then of that market

,turn left near the small river, I drive straight until arrived the sign

, the Jiwa Temple at the right circa 40 km in very bad road,with very small arrow directions of Candi Jiwa , then turn to the right about 500 m.

I enter the broken candi Jiwa, and with the helping of the native peoples there I have seen other borken candi, they talled me about 24 candi beside Candi Jiwa there.

 

All the candi built frome “Bata” sands break.

At the small camp’s house there ,I saw the project map,and some artifact founding, like same small sand Tablet with Buddish’s relief ,and a broken earthenweare vessels (Kendi),and small jarlets(buli-buli) and some new ceramics, they said until now they still studied the earliest Candi which ever found in Java circa three or four century AD much older than the Ancient mataram kindom of Java, may be this candi built by the Ancient Tarumanegara Kingdom, no Ancient coins and Chinese ceramic found there. I took the adventure after read te magazine story about Mr Abu Ridho from National Centre Museum and Mrs Sumirah Adyatman of Adam Malik museum,s curator ever came there too.

  1. August.15th 2010

After ten years , I am asking my son Anton to take me with my wife with his Toyota Kinjang Innova to adventure agains to Rengas Dengklok in order to comemorate the 65 years of Indonesian Indenpent day.

After that we went to “Candi Jiwa “to look the progress of that Candi renovations, because I have read in Kompas Newspaper a week ago,that some foriegn’s arkeologist had found athe human skull and skelletons ,very long diameters about two meters long body-head with their ancient gold necklage and sword.

The Road still same but before the raillways ,there atre the new flyt over bridge wich made the road more closer, and still turn right strait to the Rengas Dengklok market but I didnnot met the Historic House anymore,

after arrive the market still the same turn to the right until the end of market near river turn left but the road more best with cement beton and smoe asphalt betons to cadi Jiwa, now there have two candi almost finished ,one cadi Jiwa and near that candi, new candi Blondongan are still in renovations ,

 

please look my profile at two candi Jiwa at Batujaya krawang west Java

 

This time I with my wife Lily and My son Anto, have made some interesting pictures of some artifact found

The picture of the candi Jiwan and Blondongan

 

2) The letest artifact have just founds, very pity the Ancient Gold were bring abroad by the archeoligt to studies .

3) the older foundings’s artifact.

 

An :Sebenarnya apa yang dimaksud dengan candi ?
Ark: Menurut Pak Soekmono (dia salah satu maestro arkelogi di Indonesia gan),candi adalah tempat memuliakan orang2 yang sudah meninggal.Ini masih ada kaitannya dengan asal kata “candi” itu sendiri,yaitu “candika”,nama lain dari Dewi Durga,dewi kematian.
namun masyarakat terkadang menggunakan istilah candi untuk menyebut bangunan peninggalan dari masa Hindu-Budha di Indonesia.Terkaadang juga digunakan untuk menyebut bangunan bersejarah agama Hindu-Budha di luar negeri seperti candi Angkor Wat di Kamboja dan candi Khajuraho di India.
Namun yang unik adalah dalam prasasti2 atau naskah2 kuno yang sudah ditemukan dan diterjemahkan,tidak ditemui istilah candi.Sebutan yang digunakan adalah Padharmaan,Dharma Haji,Dharma Lpas,Prasada,Bhavana,Vihara,Parahyangan,Pangastulan,Tirth,atau Patirthan.

Quote:An :Sejak kapan tradisi pembangunan candi masuk ke Nusantara?
Ark:Sebelum tradisi Hindu-Budha masuk ke Nusantara,tidak ada tradisi membangun bangunan dari batu.Jikapun ada,jumlahnya sedikit sekali.Ketika agama Hindu dan Budha masuk ke Nusantara,tempat pemujaan awalnya pun masih terbuat dari kayu.Kemudian digunakanlah batu sebagai bahan bangunan.Itupun masih berukuran kecil dan masih minim ornamen dan masih ada unsur Indianya.
Istimewanya candi di Nusantara menurut Bosch adalah dari segi teknis,mungkin tidak begitu mengagumkan,tapi dari segi seni,candi2 di Nusantara memiliki nilai yang tinggi.Hingga kini,bangunan candi tertua masih dilihat pada gugus candi Hindu di Dieng. 
Ada sebuah teori yang mengatakan bahwa raja2 Nusantara mendatangkan arsitek langsung dari India untuk memebangun candi,tapi teori ini masih lemah karena tidak ditemukan candi bercorak India,misalnya penggunaan pilar.Kemudian munculah teori baru bahwa arsitek Indonesialah yang membangun candi dan mereka membangun candi sesuai yang tertera dalam kitab Silpasastra (kitab yang berisi kaidah pembangunan candi).

Quote:An :Sebenarnya apa sih latar belakang orang zaman dahulu dalam membangun candi ?
Ark:Latar belakang candi dibangun adalah untuk Memuliakan orang yang meninggal atau sering disebut dengan didharmakan.Biasanya yang didharmakan adalah orang penting seperti raja,bangsawan,atau agamawan.Dalam tradisi Hindu Budha tidak mengenal tradisi penguburan,yang ada adalah pembakaran mayat yang kemudian abunya dilarung ke laut sebagai simbol terpisahnya roh dari unsur keduniawian yang selanjutnya akan menyatu dengan dewa yang dulu menitis pada seorang raja (mirip dengan konsep Avatar).Setelah melalui berbagai upacara,barulah didirkan candi untuk mendharamakan raja.Untuk candi Budha,
Candi dibangun sebagai tempat pemujaan atau sebagai biara.Abu jenazah biasanya disimpan di stupa2 dekat candi.Ketika candi dibangun,tanah didirikanya sebuah candi dijadikan sebuah Sima atau tanah perdikan (tanah bebas pajak) melalui berbagai upacara.Penetapan Sima ini biasanya dicatat pada sebuah prasasti.Candi memiliki konsepsi yang jauh lebih rumit daripada bangunan2 pada masa kini,konsepsi sebuah candi meliputi :
1.Candi merupakan tiruan dari gunung suci,yaitu Mahameru dan Kailasa,jadi banyak sekali ornamen tumbuhan yang ada dalam sebuah candi.
2.Sebuah candi harus memiliki konsep geometri suci atau dalam tradisi India disebut Mandala.
3.Candi merupakan simbol dari rahim atau Grbagrha.
4.Candi merupakan pusat dari peziarahan.
5.Candi merupakan imitasi dari surga,makanya banyak relief bidadari pada sebuah candi.
6.Sebuah candi merupakan penghubung antara surga dengan bumi.
Quote:Anda Bertanya Arkeolog Menjawab :: Seputar Candi

 
 
 


Denah Candi Borobudur yang melambangkan sebuah Mandala

Quote:An :Saya masih bingung bagaimana orang2 zaman dahulu membangun sebuah candi ?
Ark:Bagaimana orang2 zaman dahulu membangun candi juga masih menjadi pertanyaan bagi arkeolog karena tidak ditemukan alat2 untuk membangun candi.Teknik membangun candi tergantung dari bahannya sendiri.Untuk batu,biasanya digunakan susunan batu yang saling mengunci seperti pada mainan lego.Sedangkan untuk batu bata,biasanya batu bata akan direkatkan dengan cara digosok gosokan menggunakan air.
Yang jelas,dalam membangun candi harus memerhatikan hal2 yang ada dalam ilmu Vastusastra atau Silpasastra. Ilmu ini berisi berbagai hal mulai dari pemilihan jenis tanah,cara pengujian tanah,pembuatan diagram,detail bangunan,hingga pembagian kerjanya.

Quote:An:Terus adakah pembagian kerja dalam membangun sebuah candi ?
Ark:Tentu ! sebuah tentu membutuhkan pembagian kerja agar bisa berdiri dengan baik termasuk candi.Adapun pembagian kerja meliputi:
1.Yajamana : Yajamana adalah orang yang memerintahkan dan mendanai pembangunan sebuah candi.
2.Acharya : Imam,atau pendeta yang memimpin upacara pembuatan candi.
3.Sthapati : Arsitek,dipilih oleh Acharya.
4.Sutrhagin:Surveyor,bertugas untuk menentukan tanah tempat akan dibangunnya candi.
5.Taksaka : Tugasnya menghias candi dengan relief2 dan membuat arca.
6.Vardhakin:Orang yang tugasnya mirip pekerja kasar,misalnya mengangkat batu,membuat perancah,atau menyusun candi.

Quote:An :Seperti apa bentuk susunan pada sebuah candi ?
Ark:Susunan candi dibagi menjadi 3 bagian yaitu bagian yaitu:
1.Kaki candi merupakan bagian bawah candi. Bagian ini melambangkan dunia bawah atau bhurloka. Pada konsep Buddha disebut kamadhatu. Yaitu menggambarkan dunia hewan, alam makhluk halus seperti iblis, raksasa dan asura, serta tempat manusia biasa yang masih terikat nafsu rendah.
2.Tubuh candi adalah bagian tengah candi yang berbentuk kubus yang dianggap sebagai dunia antara atau bhuwarloka. Pada konsep Buddha disebut rupadhatu. Yaitu menggambarkan dunia tempat manusia suci yang berupaya mencapai pencerahan dan kesempurnaan batiniah. 
3.Atap candi adalah bagian atas candi yang menjadi simbol dunia atas atau swarloka. Pada konsep Buddha disebut arupadhatu. Yaitu menggambarkan ranah surgawi tempat para dewa dan jiwa yang telah mencapai kesempurnaan bersemayam.
Pada dasarnya,candi merupakan tempat bertemunya surga,bumi,dan dunia bawah.Untuk lebih jelas lihat gambar di bawah
Quote:Anda Bertanya Arkeolog Menjawab :: Seputar Candi
Susunan candi Prambanan

An :Apa aja sih yang ada pada bagian dalam candi ?
Ark: Dalam konsepsi India,bagian dalam candi melambangkan rahim atau disebut juga Grbhagrha.Pada bagian dalam candi Hindu biasanya kita akan temukan lingga,yaitu batu yang melambangkan dewa Siwa.Selain lingga,kita juga akan menemukan arca dewa yang merupakan penjelmaan seorang raja.Lalu pada bagian dasar candi,terdapat sumuran yang berfungsi untuk menyimpan peripih,yaitu kotak yang digunakan untuk menyimpan abu,entah abu jenazah atau abu hewan,serta lempengan emas yang bertuliskan mantra2,lalu ada permata,kaca,atau cangkang kerang.Pada bagian atas ruangan,terdapat rongga kosong yang fungsinya diyakini sebagai tempat bersemayamnya rohnya dewa.
Lalu untuk candi Budha,kita akan dapatkan patung Budha serta pengiringnya.

Quote:An :Terus apa sajakah yang ada pada bagian luar candi ?
Ark:Pada bagian luar candi terdapat relief2 yang menceritakan kisah tertentu.Pada candi Hindu,biasanya menceritakan kisah Mahabaratha atau Ramayana.Sedangkan pada candi Budha bisasanya menceritakan kisah perjalanan hidup sang Budha.Kemungkinan besar relief2 pada masa itu diberi warna,namun seiring zaman,warna2 tadi luntur.Ada juga antefix,yaitu hiasan segitiga pada bagian puncak dinding.Antefix dibuat untuk memberi kesan bangunan lebih tinggi daripada biasanya.Kemudia terdapat Jaladwara,yaitu semacam tempat pembuangan air hujan yang dihias sedemikian rupa.Selain itu,
masih terdapat kala makara.Kala adalah hiasan pada bagian atas pintu candi yang berbentuk seperti wajah Iblis atau raksaksa Kala.Adapun Makara adalah hiasan di kaki tangga candi,biasanya berbentuk hewan aneh.Kala Makara berfungsi untuk menakut nakuti roh jahat agar tidak masuk ke dalam candi.Kala sendiri adalah dewa waktu.Di Jawa Timur,kala digambarkan memiliki taring besar pada bagian atas dan bawah mulut,berbeda dengan di Jawa Tengah yang taringnya hanya pada bagian atas.Selain itu,terdapat pintu masuk candi yang dibedakan menjadi dua,yaitu candi bentar yang tidak memiliki atap,dan paduraksa yang memiliki
atap.

Quote:An :
Ark:Tata letak candi dibagi menjadi dua,yaitu secara konsentris,dan secara berurutan.Secara konsentris,posisi candi yang lebih besar dikelilingi oleh anak-anak candi yang lebih kecil (candi perwara),sehingga candi paling besar ada di tengah bangunan.Sistem ini dipengaruhi oleh tata letak mandala.Contohnya pada Candi Sewu dan Candi Prambanan.Secara paralel yaitu posisi candi perwara berada di depan candi induk. Ada yang disusun berurutan simetris, ada yang asimetris. 
Ada juga pola denah memanjang ke belakang.Urutan pengunjung memasuki kawasan yang dianggap kurang suci berupa gerbang dan bangunan tambahan, sebelum memasuki kawasan tersuci tempat candi induk berdiri. Sistem ini merupakan sistem tata letak asli Nusantara yang memuliakan tempat yang tinggi, sehingga bangunan induk atau tersuci diletakkan paling tinggi di belakang mengikuti topografi alami ketinggian tanah tempat candi dibangun.Ada juga yang dibangun secara tersebar.
Contohnya pada Candi Sukuh dan Pura2 di Bali.Arah hadap sebuah candi tergantung dari konsepsi dari tata ruangnya,secara kosmologis,candi menghadap ke arah barat atau timur.Candi terkadang menghadap ke arah gunung tertentu yang dianggap suci atau disebut dengan Chtonis.
Oh ya,hampir semua bagian tengah candi tidak berada tepat pada tengah bangunan,kecuali sebuah candi di Ngemplak,Sleman Yogyakarta.
Quote:Anda Bertanya Arkeolog Menjawab :: Seputar Candi
Denah Candi Sukuh yang memanjang ke belakang
Quote:Anda Bertanya Arkeolog Menjawab :: Seputar Candi
Denaha Candi Prambanan yang konsentris

Quote:An :Terus dimanakah orang zaman dahulu memilih lokasi untuk membangun candi ?
Ark:Sesuai dengan kitab Silpasastra,masyarakat membangun candi berdekatan dengan air,jika tidak ditemukan air,maka akan dibuat sebuah kolam,karena air merupakan salah satu unsur upacara.Selain itu candi dibangun pada sebuah puncak gunung karena ada kepercayaan bahwa gunung merupakan tempat bersemayamnya dewa.Contoh candi yang dibangun di puncak gunung adalah candi yang ada di gunung Penanggunan.Jadi bikin candi itu gak asal2an kaya bangunan zaman sekarang.Semuanya ada konsepsinya.

Quote:An :Selama ini saya membaca buku sejarah,disebutkan bahwa candi memiliki dua langgam,yaitu langgam Jawa Tengah dan langgam Jawa Timur.Apakah itu sudah benar ?
Ark:Hal itu sebenarnya sudah benar,tapi ada catatan bahwa ada candi berlanggam Jawa Tengah tapi ada di Jawa Timur seperti Candi Badut,di Jawa Tengah juga ada candi berlanggam Jawa Timur seperti candi Sukuh dan Candi Cetho.
Oleh pak Soekmono,akhirnya pembagian candi didasarkan bukan berdasarkan lokasinya,tapi berdasarkan masanya,yaitu Masa Klasik Awal dan Masa Klasik Akhir.

Quote:An :Ada berapa candi dari ukuran, kerumitan, dan kemegahannya ? 
Ark:Candi dibagi menjadi 3 berdasarkan dari ukuran, kerumitan, dan kemegahannya candi yaitu :

1.Candi Kerajaan, yaitu candi yang digunakan oleh seluruh warga kerajaan, tempat digelarnya upacara-upacara keagamaan penting kerajaan. Candi kerajaan biasanya dibangun mewah, besar, dan luas. Contoh: Candi Borobudur, Candi Prambanan, Candi Sewu, dan Candi Panataran.
2.Candi Wanua atau Watak, yaitu candi yang digunakan oleh masyarakat pada daerah atau desa tertentu pada suatu kerajaan. Candi ini biasanya kecil dan hanya bangunan tunggal yang tidak berkelompok. Contoh: candi yang berasal dari masa Majapahit, Candi Sanggrahan di Tulung Agung, Candi Gebang di Yogyakarta, dan Candi Pringapus.
3.Candi Pribadi, yaitu candi yang digunakan untuk mendharmakan seorang tokoh, dapat dikatakan memiliki fungsi mirip makam. Contoh: Candi Kidal (pendharmaan Anusapati, raja Singhasari), candi Jajaghu (Pendharmaan Wisnuwardhana, raja Singhasari), Candi Rimbi (pendharmaan Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi, ibu Hayam Wuruk), Candi Tegowangi (pendharmaan Bhre Matahun), dan Candi Surawana (pendharmaan Bhre Wengker).

Quote:An :Terus apa saja fungsi dari sebuah candi ?
Ark:Macam2,mulai dari :

1.Candi Pemujaan: candi Hindu yang paling umum, dibangun untuk memuja dewa, dewi, atau bodhisatwa tertentu, contoh: candi Prambanan, candi Canggal, candi Sambisari, dan candi Ijo yang menyimpan lingga dan dipersembahkan utamanya untuk Siwa, candi Kalasan dibangun untuk memuliakan Dewi Tara, sedangkan candi Sewu untuk memuja Manjusri.
2.Candi Stupa: didirikan sebagai lambang Budha atau menyimpan relik buddhis, atau sarana ziarah agama Buddha. Secara tradisional stupa digunakan untuk menyimpan relikui buddhis seperti abu jenazah, kerangka, potongan kuku, rambut, atau gigi yang dipercaya milik Buddha Gautama, atau bhiksu Buddha terkemuka, atau keluarga kerajaan penganut Buddha. Beberapa stupa lainnya dibangun sebagai sarana ziarah dan ritual, contoh: candi Borobudur, candi Sumberawan, dan candi Muara Takus
3.Candi Pedharmaan: sama dengan kategori candi pribadi, yakni candi yang dibangun untuk memuliakan arwah raja atau tokoh penting yang telah meninggal. Candi ini kadang berfungsi sebagai candi pemujaan juga karena arwah raja yang telah meninggal seringkali dianggap bersatu dengan dewa perwujudannya, contoh: candi Belahan tempat Airlangga dicandikan, arca perwujudannya adalah sebagai Wishnu menunggang Garuda. Candi Simping di Blitar, tempat Raden Wijaya didharmakan sebagai dewa Harihara.
4.Candi Pertapaan: didirikan di lereng-lereng gunung tempat bertapa, contoh: candi-candi di lereng Gunung Penanggungan, kelompok candi Dieng dan candi Gedong Songo, serta Candi Liyangan di lereng timur Gunung Sundoro, diduga selain berfungsi sebagai pemujaan, juga merupakan tempat pertapaan sekaligus situs permukiman.
5.Candi Wihara: didirikan untuk tempat para biksu atau pendeta tinggal dan bersemadi, candi seperti ini memiliki fungsi sebagai permukiman atau asrama, contoh: candi Sari dan Plaosan
6.Candi Gerbang: didirikan sebagai gapura atau pintu masuk, contoh: gerbang di kompleks Ratu Boko, Bajang Ratu, Wringin Lawang, dan candi Plumbangan.
7.Candi Petirtaan: didirikan didekat sumber air atau di tengah kolam dan fungsinya sebagai pemandian, contoh: Petirtaan Belahan, Jalatunda, dan candi Tikus

Quote:An :Terakhir,apa saja bahan untuk membangun candi ?
Ark:Ada bermacam2 bahan yang digunakan untuk membangun sebuah candi,antara lain :

1. Batu andesit, batu bekuan vulkanik yang ditatah membentuk kotak-kotak yang saling kunci. Batu andesit bahan candi harus dibedakan dari batu kali. Batu kali meskipun mirip andesit tapi keras dan mudah pecah jika ditatah (sukar dibentuk). Batu andesit yang cocok untuk candi adalah yang terpendam di dalam tanah sehingga harus ditambang di tebing bukit.
2.Batu putih (tuff), batu endapan piroklastik berwarna putih, digunakan di Candi Pembakaran di kompleks Ratu Boko. Bahan batu putih ini juga ditemukan dijadikan sebagai bahan isi candi, dimana bagian luarnya dilapis batu andesit
3.Bata merah, dicetak dari lempung tanah merah yang dikeringkan dan dibakar. Candi Majapahit dan Sumatera banyak menggunakan bata merah.
4.Stuko (stucco), yaitu bahan semacam beton dari tumbukan batu dan pasir. Bahan stuko ditemukan di percandian Batu Jaya.
5.Bajralepa (vajralepa), yaitu bahan lepa pelapis dinding candi semacam plaster putih kekuningan untuk memperhalus dan memperindah sekaligus untuk melindungi dinding dari kerusakan. Bajralepa dibuat dari campuran pasir vulkanik dan kapur halus. Konon campuran bahan lain juga digunakan seperti getah tumbuhan, putih telur, dan lain-lain. Bekas-bekas bajralepa ditemukan di candi Sari dan candi Kalasan. Kini pelapis bajralepa telah banyak yang mengelupas.
6.Kayu, beberapa candi diduga terbuat dari kayu atau memiliki komponen kayu. Candi kayu serupa dengan Pura Bali yang ditemukan kini. Beberapa candi tertinggal hanya batu umpak atau batur landasannya saja yang terbuat dari batu andesit atau bata, sedangkan atasnya yang terbuat dari bahan organik kayu telah lama musnah. Beberapa dasar batur di Trowulan Majapahit disebut candi, meskipun sesungguhnya merupakan landasan pendopo yang bertiang kayu. Candi Sambisari dan candi Kimpulan memiliki umpak yang diduga candi induknya dinaungi bangunan atap kayu. Beberapa candi seperti Candi Sari dan Candi Plaosan memiliki komponen kayu karena pada struktur batu ditemukan bekas lubang-lubang untuk meletakkan kayu gelagar penyangga lantai atas, serta lubang untuk menyisipkan daun pintu dan jeruji jendela.

Quote:An :Oh ya saya hampir lupa,bagaimanakah seorang arkeolog memperlakukan sebuah candi ?
Ark:Pertanyaan yang sudah saya tunggu sejak awal,jadi begini seorang arkeolog memperlakukan sebuah candi sesuai dengan kode etik ilmu arkeologi.Jadi sebuah candi harus berdiri di tempatnya ditemukan (selama tidak ada proses tafonomi) dan jika harus disusun harus menggunakan batu aslinya.Jika candi benar2 runtuh dan batu aslinya belum ditemukan,maka bisa diganti dengan batu baru,tapi harus diberi tanda.Tujuannya jika batu aslinya ditemukan kembali,maka batu baru bisa diganti dengan batu asli.Jika anda melihat pada candi Prambanan ada beberapa batu yang tidak memiliki reliefnya dan berbeda sendiri,maka itu termasuk batu baru.
Karena apa ?Ketika batu baru diberi relief,maka akan menghilangkan kesan otentiknya.Pak Soekmono pernah memberi catatan ketika candi Prambanan akan direkonstruksi kembali bahwa Candi boleh dibangun kembali,asalkan batu baru tidak boleh lebih dari 30 % dari batu lama.Pak Soekmono sendiri lebih suka candi dibiarkan runtuh karena menambahkan kesan eksostisnya.Sama halnya pemerintah Kamboja membiarkan Candi Angkor Thom ditutupi semak belukar dan runtuh agar terlihat eksotis.
Quote:Sekedara tambahan :
Anda Bertanya Arkeolog Menjawab :: Seputar Candi
Antefiks,hanya berfungsi sebagai hiasan

Anda Bertanya Arkeolog Menjawab :: Seputar Candi
Lingga Yoni,simbol dari kesuburan

Anda Bertanya Arkeolog Menjawab :: Seputar Candi
Jaladwara,fungsinya seperti saluran pembuangan air pada masa sekarang.

Anda Bertanya Arkeolog Menjawab :: Seputar Candi
Stupa,susunan batu yang berbentuk setenga lingkaran yang berfungsi untuk menyimpan relik atau abu.

Quote:Sumber :
Soekmono, 1974. Candi Fungsi dan Pengertiannya, UI Press.
George Michell,Hindhu Art & Architecture

(1) Eathenware Budhist Tablet astifact

(2) Earthenware Jar Kendi artifact

(3) Eatherware Jarlet buli-buli artfact

(4) other old artifact finding

 

Batujaya Museum

The Jokowi History Collection

Part One

Created By

DR Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Limited E-Book In CD-ROM

Special For Senior Collectors And Historian

Copyrighy @ Dr Iwan 2014

 

INTRODUCTION

Saya mulai tertarik dengan Jokowi saat pemimilu Daerah Gubernur DKI, dan kemudian saat Pilpres RI 2014 walaupun kemudian saya beralih ke capres PrabowoSubianto karena saya menginggat jasa ayahnya

Prof Sumitro mendirikan Fakultas Ekonomi di Padang sumatera Barat tempat kelahiran saya dan Prof Sumitro membantu perjuangan rakyat Sumatera Barat menentang Komunisme.

Kemudian saya kembali tertarik dengan Jokowi karena Prabo tidak mengakui hasil PIlpres dan mengugatnya di Makamah Konstitusi,sifatnya yang arogan membuat simpari saya menghilang walaupun saat Pemilu saya memilihnya.

Untuk mengrahui bagaimana perlkembangan peranan presiden Indonesia Ke 7 Joko Widodo dengan

wakilnya Moh Jusuf Kall(JK) saya akan mulai mengumpulkan informasi sejak kampanye Pemilu dimulai baik dari surat Kabar maupun dari internet,dan inilah hasilnya.

Semoga Karya Tulis ini dapat menjadi masukan bagi generasi penerus,dimasa mendatang.

Selamat Pak Jokowi dan JK kami mengharapkan anda berdua dapat meningkatkan peran dan keberhasilan Republik Indonesia baik dalam negeri maupun luar negeri seperti yang di diharapkan oleh seluruh rakyat Indonesia

Jakarta Agustus 2014

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Presdien RI

Komentar Dr Iwan

Presiden Jokowi, hati-hati bila tanda tangan sesuatu, anda telah keliru menadatangani prasasasti huruf keliru

PELUMBACURAN yang seharusnya PELUNCURAN, jika Bapak telah lupa akn janji membuat telaga raksasa di Jakarta dan juga pembangunan lainnya nanti juga akan lupa, tentu anda seharusnya bersumpah demi nama allah untuk selalu meminta ILHAM dan KEPINTARAN untuk dapat memecahkan permasalahan didunia yang penunh tandatangan dan ancama,serta memberikan peneranga agar seluruh rakyat Indoensia waspada terhadap berbagai ancama, jika bapak laksanakan tentu Bapak akan dipilih pada prode berikutnya

Dr Iwan Suwandy

Konusltan Informasi

 

Hi Iwan

And I’m sorry, but it’s a tough one.

Who was the most important artist of the 1960s?

I know, I know.

What a ridiculous thing to ask.

How do you even answer that?

You’ve got all of the Beatles.

The Rolling Stones, the Grateful Dead…

There’s Jimi Hendrix,

Joni Mitchell and

Jim Morrison alongside countless others from

Ray Davies to

Brian Wilson.

Let’s not even start on

Motown.

I can hear you banging your head against your desk.

I’ve been banging mine for the past couple of hours.

But humour me.

Which one?

Who’s the one person to personify the spirit of the era?

Because if you asked me…

After a lot of thought…

And enough head banging to give me a mild concussion…

I would have to say

Bob Dylan.

Bob Dylan was the voice of his generation

AKA Robert Zimmerman.

The nobody from nowhere who arrived in New York in 1961, to pay his respects to

a dying Woody Guthrie…

Who passed him the torch of the great American folk tradition

Think about it.

Dylan revolutionised folk music, breathing life into a dying sound.

In his music we hear the voice of the new America.

The sound of changing times.

Author Joyce Carol Oates once wrote: “When we first heard this raw, very young, and seemingly untrained voice, frankly nasal, as if sandpaper could sing, the effect was dramatic and electrifying.”

His songs are eternal.

They speak to all ages and backgrounds.

Do you remember the first time you heard Blowing in the Wind?

I do

And so do millions of others.

In 100 years’ time people will still be listening to his music.

I’ve got something for you

It’s a set list signed by Dylan.

Bob Dylan Autographed Set List

For Sale: £2,950.00

  • Bob Dylan handwritten set list from a 2001 concert
  • Signed by the artist clearly in black pen
  • Lists some of his most famous songs

Bob Dylan (1941-) is one of the most influential musicians of all time, who has had a “profound impact on popular music and American culture, marked by lyrical compositions of extraordinary poetic power.” His career has spanned more than five decades, but nonetheless quality memorabilia remains extremely rare due to his private nature.

Dylan has handwritten and autographed this set list for a live concert performance in Seattle, Washington in 2001, “To Celery, Best wishes! Bob Dylan, 2001”. ‘Celery’ was a member of staff helping on the tour.

Each section of the show is divided into groups of songs, beginning with Shine the Light and ending with the enigmatic All Along the Watch Tower. Dylan’s autograph is placed on a blank section of this list.
The list is written in thick black marker, while Dylan’s signature is inscribed in fine black pen. There is some handwritten blue text on the back of the page. Some light folds and creases to the page, otherwise in excellent condition.

This item qualifies for our layaway plan

For Sale: £2,950.00


Stock Status:In Stock 
 
Product Code: PT620

 

From a gig in Seattle, Washington in 2001

5 things you never knew about Bob Dylan

  1. Dylan has worked under various aliases over the years, from Elston Gunn to Blind Boy Grunt.
    4. He’s the only rock musician ever awarded a Pulitzer Prize.
    3. In 1997 he performed for Pope John Paul II. 
    2. He’s released 36 studio albums over the years. 
    1. While he was born Jewish, he became an evangelical Christian in the 1970s.

Source

Paul

 

Source

Twitter

 

Hi iwan,

Welcome to your Paul Fraser Collectibles newsletter.

First for you this week:

Cold Blood

Have your read Truman Capote’s In Cold Blood, or seen the film? It is the account of the horrific murder of a Kansas family in 1959.

And now a guitar owned by one of the two men responsible is coming to auction at Guernsey’s in New York.

Capote mentions Smith’s guitar several times in his book

Perry Smith’s Gibson-made guitar auctions with a $175,000 high estimate at the end of the month. It is accompanied in the lot by the guitar played by

Robert Blake in the 1967 film adaptation.

Guernsey’s comments: “The In Cold Blood pair of guitars in the auction must constitute one of the most unusual musical offerings ever: those who vividly recall the legendary Truman Capote book and movie will remember that Perry Smith, the much-analyzed killer, toted his guitar everywhere.”

Che Guevara’s cigar box

Personal items connected with Che Guevara are rare. So you can be sure the auction of the revolutionary’s cigar box will cause excitement on March 1

 

Cuban history of this calibre is a rare find

It’s expected to make around £10,000-12,000 ($14,500-17,398).

“Items relating to this period of Cuban history rarely appear on the market. We have only handled one Che Guevara signed photo in the last 10 years,” says Ben Jones of Mullock’s –

 

Christmas tales

Rare Book Chrsimast Tale

short stories written

by Charles Dickens in the 1850s.

A unique Christmassy Christmas Gift

Before you say anything , I Know

I Know it’s only November 17 away

I know Christmas is more than five weeks But I make no apology for talking chrismas with you today

You need to know about this now

Because this is such a special Christmas gift for you and your family

 

 

Memorabilia3

Trade Card

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Copyright @ 2015

 

 

 

 

Babe Ruth

In the week that Shakespeare’s will went on display in London, the will of another legendary artisan has come to light.

Babe Ruth’s last will and testament will auction on February 20 with a $150,000 estimate.

Babe Ruth memorabilia can sell for millions

Ruth (1895-1948) signed the will in 1933, two years before he played his last professional game.

Ruth artefacts are the most valuable in the sports memorabilia arena. His 1920 Yankees road jersey sold for $4.4 million in 2012 – a sports memorabilia record

 

 

 

Ty Cobs Card History Collections

By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Consultan Information

Limited E-Book In CD-Rom Edition

Copyright @ Dr Iwan 2016

 

I have seen a very rare Baseball Card Collections

 

Ty Cobb Baseball Cards and Autographs: A Peach of an Investment

Ty Cobb is synonymous with the dead ball era of baseball.  Most of his 22-year career was spent with the Detroit Tigers.  This Hall of Fame inductee had a very colorful life, both on and off the field.  Also, he was one of the few players, who performed the dual function of player and manager.  Ty Cobb baseball cards and autographs are among the most sought after in the hobby.

Comment in google eksploration as upload below

Ty Cobb Baseball Cards and Autographs: A Peach of an Investment

Ty Cobb is synonymous with the dead ball era of baseball.  Most of his 22-year career was spent with the Detroit Tigers.  This Hall of Fame inductee had a very colorful life, both on and off the field.  Also, he was one of the few players, who performed the dual function of player and manager.  Ty Cobb baseball cards and autographs are among the most sought after in the hobby.

Collecting Ty Cobb memorabilia

Cobb’s original baseball cards have been collected for decades.  Every generation of collector rightfully views him as one of the greatest baseball players of all-time.  Validating his popularity, Cobb was named to Major League Baseball’s All Century Team.

Because he excelled in so many areas of the game, many collectible subsets have him included.  Examples would be the following:  .300 batting club, 3,000 hit club,  Hall of Famers, stolen base leaders and many more.

Even though Cobb spent the 1927 and 1928 seasons with the Philadelphia Athletics, team collectors associate him with the Tigers and Detroit team collectors view Cobb as a pinnacle card in their team sets

1932 US Caramel Ty Cobb

Cobb’s personality, brash as it was during his playing days, probably helps his status.  He’s considered one of the game’s most feared tough guys.

Investment quality of Ty Cobb cards

Cobb, like stocks within the Dow Jones Industrial Average, is considered a blue-chip player and investment.  His cards steadily and consistently appreciate in value, especially when viewed over five and ten year time horizons.

There are enough issues of his cards to provide liquidity, while maintaining scarcity at higher grades.  For investors, who wish to add Cobb to their investment portfolios, they should look at both cards and autographs.  Each presents their own, unique opportunities.

Ty Cobb autographs

Cobb lived until 1961 and signed autographs for many years after his playing days, although he wasn’t exactly a man about town.  He was a prodigious letter writer and many Cobb letters have made their way into the marketplace (there are usually a few on eBay via this link and they are fascinating–even those simply responding to fans).   Prices vary dramatically.  Thhere are a lot of autographs in the market, but still not enough to keep up with collector and investor demand.  Be sure to buy with a certificate of authenticity from a leader in the field such as JSA or PSA.

A fairly large quantity of Cobb signed checks also exist and with forgery still an issue in the industry, a signed check is one way to collect authentic signatures without much worry.  Expect to pay at least $1,200-$2,000 for one.

Below are some of the most popular Cobb cards in the marketplace, although by no means does the list showcase all of those from his playing career.  Click the title of each to see that particular issue being offered by eBay sellers.

Top Ty Cobb Baseball Cards to Watch

1912 T202 Hassan Cobb and Jennings/Ty Cobb Steals Third– This card, like no other, captures the true grit and determination of the player.  The middle of the multi-player tobacco issue features a photo of Cobb sliding into third base.  With Hughie Jennings sharing space with Cobb on this rectangular issue, you can’t lose.  Cobb also appears on other combinations in the T202 set.

1914, 1915 Cracker JackThe 1914 Cracker Jack set is exceedingly rare but collectors can find 1915 Cracker Jack Ty Cobb cards in the market.  They’re still quite scarce and expensive.  However, the sets are very popular because of Cobb’s stature, the desirability of the set itself and Cracker Jack’s still iconic status in American culture

1911 T205 Gold Border – A lithograph portrait of Ty Cobb is featured on the front of the card.  The gold border gives this one an elegant quality but they are also prone to showing wear because of it. Like the T206 issue, these come with various cigarette brand ads on the back and the less common brands can command big money.  However, the best advice is to buy the best quality Cobb you can afford.  Mid-grade examples can be found for $2,000 and less but near mint issues will run into the tens of thousands.

1909 E95 Philadelphia Caramel – If you’re looking for the quintessential Cobb portrait, this might be it. The E95 baseball card set is attractive and popular but Cobb’s card is spectacular. Standing in the collared uniform with the famous Tigers cap on his head, Cobb’s lithograph portrait is set against a red background.  The card is a more economical alternative to the T206 issue and around ten can usually be found on eBay with prices reflecting the smaller number of cards available compared to T205 and T206 Cobb cards

1909-1911 T206 How popular was Cobb?  Popular enough to have four different card issued in this set, which was produced during the height of his career.  There are two portrait cards, one picturing him with a bat on his shoulder and another with the bat just off his shoulder.  T206 cards were produced with several different types of cigarette ads on the back and the most rare examples of these will command the highest prices and be in demand but so will higher grade T206 Cobbs, regardless of back.

Of course, the rarest Cobb card is the T206 style with the ‘Ty Cobb Tobacco’ back.  Issued only in tins of a brand of tobacco endorsed by Cobb, only a small number exist and they sell for huge prices.  In 2013, a PSA 1 example sold for $120,109 via Goldin Auctions.

Ty Cobb baseball cards and autographs have proven to be a worthy investment and it’s unlikely that will change.   Cobb’s status as one of the game’s greatest players remains intact.  You’ll have competition in the marketplace, but compare prices of completed sales and bid or buy accordingly.

Source

B.Cardin Inv.

More info look.

E-Book In CD-Rom

Ty cobs history collctions

By Dr iwan suwandy,MHA

Consultan information or in web blog Hhtp//www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

Or via email iwansuwandy@gmail.com for mor information or coonsulation the the original or flase card and the value of the card original or repepro

 

 

 

 

o    IDR32,467,532.47

 

Memorabilia5

Magazine

 

intage magazines appeal to people who have a particular interest in old paper, to be sure, but they are also collected for the specific content on and between their covers.

For example,

those who have fond

memories of JFK may seek out copies of the November 29, 1963, issue of “Life,” with its formal portrait of the recently assassinated 35th president on its somber cover.

Serious Beatles fans almost certainly want a copy of the January 9, 1968, issue of “Look,” which included a quartet of full-page, psychedelic photos of John, Paul, George, and Ringo by Richard Avedon.

And military historians may collect copies of “Colliers” printed during World War II for its articles by Martha Gellhorn, who famously stowed away on a hospital ship so she could report on the D-Day landing at Normandy.

Not all magazine collectors are so high-minded. Year in and year out,

one of the most popular vintage-magazine titles has been “Playboy,” especially its undated first issue from December of 1953, which featured a Marilyn Monroe centerfold. For those who claim that they only read “Playboy” for the articles, there are numerous more literary issues to choose from,

including the March, April, and May editions from 1954, in which Ray Bradbury’s “Fahrenheit 451” was serialized in its entirety.

For art lovers, there are old copies of “The Saturday Evening Post,” which were famous for its covers by Norman Rockwell, and “Harper’s Weekly,” which occasionally had covers by Maxfield Parrish.

More recently, copies of “Oz,” a London music, fashion, and culture magazine from the late 1960s, have been in demand for the artwork created for it by Martin Sharp, who silkscreened posters of Bob Dylan on foil and made album covers for Cream.

Other magazines fall somewhere between comic books and science-fiction novels, such as issues of “Amazing Stories,” which, in the 1940s,

reprinted a number of Edgar Rice Burroughs’ tales of earthman John Carter’s adventures on Mars, or, as it was named by Burroughs, Barsoom. “Argosy” was also an outlet for Burroughs, serializing his “Tarzan” adventures in the 1920s and ’30s.

Finally, there are magazines that are infamous for being spot-on parodies of other magazines.

In 1972, the “Harvard Lampoon” produced its version of “Cosmopolitan,” which featured a nude centerfold of

Henry Kissinger, which was as disgusting as you might imagine it would be. Not to be outdone, in 1980, “New West” produced a slim but brilliant five-page parody of “Sunset” which it called “Sunsect,” featuring a family picnicking in the shadow of a nuclear power plant on the cover and articles such as “Mule trips into East Los Angeles–a guide” and “Tulips so big they eat meat” inside.

 The End @ Copyright Dr iwan 2016

INILAH KENANG-KENANGAN DARI dR iwan bagi seluruh teman-teman dan keluarga besar , dibuat saat setelah musim hujan yang penuh prihatin.

Saya harap kleuarga besar akan tetap meneruskan web blog ini apabila suatu waktu saya sudah taka da lagi didunia ini

 dan koleksi tersebut hendaknya tetap disimpan dlam museum leluhur kita WANLI di rumah yang sya peroleh s=dari ahsil penjualan koleksi saya.

yang saya kumpul sejak berumur sepuluh tahun (tahun 1955) sampai tahun 2016 ditambah koleksi yang akan dtang diperkirakan dua puluh tahun ;lagi (2036), saat ini entah dima a aku berada di gunung, dihutan,didasar laut , didlam sungai atau masih melayang0-melayang diudara, karena itu sya minta cucu saya antoni wiliam suwandy membacakan pesan saya terakhirr di saat jenazah saya dimakamkan secara militer saat trompet dan genderang dan temabakan diletuskan SAMBIL MENDEKAP PISTL MAINAN YANG oPA JANJIKAN YANG BELUM DISERAHKAN.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

If I told you, iwan.

That just minutes from now…

…you could own a piece of American folklore…

…would you believe me?

I don’t blame you if you’re sceptical.

But it’s true.

Because I have for you a piece of memorabilia from an American folk hero.

A folk hero as much an American legend as Daniel Boone, Johnny Appleseed or Davy Crockett.

A folk hero as much a part of the story of America as the Plymouth Rock, the US Constitution, or Ellis Island.

“Impossible Paul”

Impossible to own a piece that important? That legendary? That rare?

It’s not impossible.

This item is rare, yes. Hugely, rare. Which means these things appear for sale but seldom.

But it is possible.

And today is one of those rare occasions.

Are you ready?

This is a piece of paper.

A piece of paper bearing a letterhead from the Crosby House hotel, in Beaumont, Texas.

106 years ago, one of the legends of the Old West took out a pen…

…and wrote seven words on this piece of paper.

The folk hero who wrote these seven words is so celebrated…

…so much a part of American culture…

…that she is almost mythical.

“Did she really exist?” children ask, as though her feats were so legendary, she can’t have been real.

It’s why this piece of personal memorabilia is so exhilarating for you to own.

It’s the myth becoming a reality.

This woman was such a dead-eye shot she could:

  →  

Shoot a cigarette from your mouth at 50 paces 

  →  

Snuff out a candle’s flame with a single bullet 

  →  

Split a playing card in two along its edge

You’ve got it now, I’m sure.

We’re talking Annie Oakley. Who took on the men, and spanked their behinds.

The farm girl now a folk hero: Annie Oakley

The Annie Oakley who, besides being the finest shot around, was also:

America’s most famous woman: At 5 foot nothing, with a gun slung over her shoulder, and a femininity offset with a swagger that said “look but don’t touch”, her shows sold out in America and around the world.

A pioneer for women’s rights: Not only did she shoot guns for a living, Oakley taught 15,000 women to handle guns for self-defence. She once said: “I ain’t afraid to love a man. I ain’t afraid to shoot him either.”

Today, perhaps many know her story from the musical Annie Get Your Gun. Perhaps the true woman behind the legend is in danger of being lost.

But not for you.

Not when you own this striking rare autograph and inscription

I am thanking you!” writes Annie Oakley

This is a hand-signed note from Annie Oakley from 1910.

It reads “Annie Oakley Butler. I am thanking you!”

(Butler was her married name).

Who was the sharpshooter thanking on this day 106 years ago? We don’t know.

What we do know is that Annie’s signature is stunning

Crisp and confident: a gorgeous signature

Just look at the crispness. The confidence. This is a woman who knows she is good. And in 1910, she is at the top of her game.

What’s more, the autograph, inscription and piece of paper are in excellent condition. And that’s not all you get.

Because this note comes mounted and framed – along with a superb Annie Oakley photograph. It all makes for a stunning piece of American history

Annie Oakley Autographed Note

For Sale: £2,950.00

  • Note autographed by legendary sharpshooter Annie Oakley, star of Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show

Annie Oakley (1860-1926) was an American sharpshooter and exhibition shooter. Dubbed “Little Sure Shot” by Chief Sitting Bull, 5-foot-tall Annie rose to fame in her role in Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show.

This item features Annie’s autograph, reading “Annie Oakley Butler. I am thanking you”, dated 1910, on headed stationary (7.5cm x 18.5xcm) from the ‘Crosby House Hotel” in Beaumont, Texas. The “Butler” element of her name comes after she marrised traveling show marksman and dog trainer Fracis E Butler in 1876. 

This wonderful autograph is in excellent condition and comes mounted, framed and glazed with an image of Oakley.

This item qualifies for our layaway plan

For Sale: £2,950.00

One you will love showcasing on your wall.

And if you’re still reading, I’m guessing you’d love to know its price.

Ann ie Oakley

1860: Born into a farming family in Ohio. Aged 8, Annie starts shooting game to support her family, and sells the animals to local shops and restaurants. By 15, Annie’s prowess has paid off the family mortgage on their farm. 
1876: Aged just 15, Annie beats renowned show marksman Frank E Butler in a shooting contest. Annie marries him the following year. 
1885: Joins the famous Buffalo Bill’s Wild West show and is the star attraction for the next 16 years. 
1890: While touring Germany, Oakley shoots the cigarette out of Kaiser Wilhelm II’s hand – missing the opportunity to prevent WWI. When war breaks out, Oakley writes to the Kaiser asking for a second shot. She receives no reply. 
1917: Turned down by the US government to head a women’s division of sharpshooters in WWI. Instead, Annie raises money for the Red Cross by putting on shooting displays for the troops. 
1926: Dies a legend

How much?

Remember.

Annie Oakley stuff is rare. Her autograph is rare. And collectors want it. Which means major auction prices. In recent years I’ve seen:

  →  

Annie’s shotgun sell for $240,000 

  →  

Annie’s Stetson hat auction for $15,000 

  →  

An Annie-signed photo make $11,000

So what price for this striking Annie Oakley handwritten note today?

£5,000 ($7,120)? No, lower.

£4,000 ($5,696)? No, lower.

£3,000 ($4,272) surely?

This is yours for just £2,950 ($4,200).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ice hockey

I don’t often get to talk ice hockey in these emails. But today is an exception. Because Classic Auctions’ winter auction took place earlier this week.

If you’re a connoisseur of the game, you’ll know the name Dave Keon, who was at the heart of the Toronto Maple Leafs team in the 60s and 70s.

Dave Keon played for the Toronto Maple Leafs the
last time they lifted the Stanley Cup – 1967

A jersey he wore in his rookie season was the top seller, making $52,360.

There was also a strong performance from Canada goalie Ed Belfour’s 2002 Winter Olympic medal. It made $25,015, while a Bobby Orr Boston Bruins “gamer” achieved $12,518.

Memorabilia19Tiger

 

Pre scandal

2009

 

Post Scandal

2010

For tweleve Year

 

The End @ Copyright Dr Iwan 2016

 

 

 

 

Source Paul

 

 

 

 

 

in small museums near candi Jiwa

 

Candi Jiwa yang pertama kali ditemukan di Situs Batujaya. Ada 24 candi di kompleks ini, di permukaan. Belum yang rata/ bawah permukaan tanah. Teridentifikasi 30 umur, seluas 5 km2

24 candi sekaligus. Itu baru di permukaan, belum yang di bawah permukaan. Bisa jadi yang terbesar di Asia Tenggara. ( kalau sabar, Allah takkan menyia-nyiakan kesabaran itu, kan ? Dihadiah full packed : candi, gerabah kuno, kerangka prasejarah, keramik, dll. You name it ). Situs Batujaya telah teridentifikasi 30 umur dengan luas sekitar 5 kilometer persegi. Dahulu di sepanjang pesisir Karawang berjejer bangunan tertua di Indonesia. Abad 4 Masehi. Warisan kerajaan Budha kuno, Tarumanegara

Source

http://anisavitri.wordpress.com/2010/05/19/situs-batujaya-prasejarah-tarumanagara-terbesar-di-asia-tenggara/

 

There is another candi at batujaya named Candi Cangkuang

Hasan Djafar , UI archaeologists , head of the excavation team Batujaya site , describes the discovery of coherent this site . Excavations have been going on for 22 years has resulted in many discoveries of artifacts : bongkah2 red brick which can then be reconstructed temples are quite large , pottery – pottery , beads , clay tablets and surprising and newly discovered in 2006 this ( mainly July 2006 ) is the discovery of dozens of human skeletons were still intact from the skull to the soles of the feet .


Two women archaeologists French and Dutch nationals specifically come to this site for skeletons excavated at the site Batujaya , take some samples of bones and teeth and will do a DNA study of the fossil bones and teeth in order to get the physical characteristics of the data are more complete . Latest methods in archeology is that a fossil specimen of the human race must be carried out by archaeologists from different races . Possible , to avoid contamination when sampling . Because the human skeleton race in Batujaya estimated from Indonesia , namely Mongolid , then who took the sample is orang2 of the European race ( Caucasian ) .
Research over the course of 20 years has produced some tentative conclusions , namely : ( 1 ) the site was on the verge of pre – history and history of Indonesia ( 4th century and 5th AD , the current limit of pre – history and history of Indonesia is AD 400 years ) , ( 2 ) temple Batujaya made ​​of batamerah and discrete Buddhist temple , ( 3 ) pottery and beads were found is from the Neolithic period , ( 4 ) votive tablets ( a kind of seal ) of baked clay bearing short posts in Pallava script .

The Beattles

History Collections

Edited By

Dr Iwan Suwandy<MHA

Consultan information

Copyright@2015

 

PART ONE

CHRONOLOGY HISTORY COLLECTIONS

Imagine, iwan.

You’ve bought an autograph. You love it.

You have it mounted and framed. You hang it on your wall. You show it off to friends, neighbours, the postman.

But then the doubts begin.

Perhaps you notice other autographs from this famous figure don’t match yours. Perhaps a friend asks “how do you know it’s real?” and it sets you thinking. Or perhaps something just doesn’t feel right.

So you send it to an expert for authentication.

The reply is everything you’ve feared.

“In our opinion this autograph is not genuine”.

It leaves you feeling stupid. A chump. Not to mention out of pocket.

Every time you see it you feel furious. Furious with the seller who swindled you. Furious at yourself for being scammed.

Think I’m scaremongering? Think it won’t happen to you?

Do you know what percentage of autographs on eBay are fakes?

An estimated 80%.

And if you own a signature from one of the 10 famous names on the list below, you’re in real danger.

Because this is autograph authenticator PSA/DNA’s latest list of the 10 most “dangerous” historical and entertainment autographs.

By “dangerous” they mean most likely to be forged.

The dangerous top 10

  1. Star Wars cast
  2. The Rolling Stones
  3. Jimi Hendrix
  4. Led Zeppelin
  5. Marilyn Monroe
  6. Michael Jackson
  7. John F Kennedy
  8. Neil Armstrong
  9. Elvis Presley
  10. The Beatles

“So what’s the answer Paul?”

Don’t run to the hills, vowing never to buy an autograph again.

INSTEAD.

Realise that you can enjoy the incredible hobby of autograph collecting withcomplete confidence.

How?

You have two options:

  1. Become an expert:This takes years of study and experience. There’s no shortcut. Few in the world can genuinely say they are.

Or.

  1. Buy from an expert you trust:I have been trading in autographs since 1977. That is 39 years. In those 39 years I’ve handled tens of thousands of signatures. I’ve seen it all, from terrible fakes to the almost superb.

My 39 years in the business mean I don’t get caught out.

Which means when you buy from me, you know you’re buying the real thing.

And you also get a further layer of security.

Because when you buy from me you get my Lifetime Moneyback Guarantee of Authenticity.

Which means if the autograph turns out to be fake in the future – I will give you your money back. Every penny.

I am happy to offer you this guarantee because I know you’ll never need to use it.

Want to own an autograph you know is genuine?

If you want to own an autograph on the “dangerous” list, but are scared you’re going to get stung, keep reading.

These are four genuine autographs from the “dangerous” list you can buy now at Paul Fraser Collectibles.

The Beatles

Danger alert.

The Beatles are the world’s most popular autograph. Which also makes them the most forged. Always be on your guard.

The most desirable Beatles autographs feature all four members. Autographs such as this:

Four genuine Beatles signatures: just £7,950 ($11,371)

This is a page from an autograph album, signed by John, Paul, George and Ringo in bright blue ink.

Look at the life in these autographs. The youthful excitement of the band and their fans leaps from the page. This piece of paper truly captures the essence of the Beatles and the Beatlemania era.

I’ve seen signed copies of the Beatles’ Sgt Pepper album sell for as much as $290,500. But there are still good deals available at Paul Fraser Collectibles.

This item does have mild staining to the bottom right. Which is why I’m offering you it for just £7,950 ($11,371)

 

1961

THE BEAT BROTHERS

The Beatles First Recorded In Hamburg Germany , Tony Sheridan’s On My Bonnie In 1961 with named “ The Beat Brother”

(part Of Contract)

Complete document look below

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Original source

Paul

 

Cavern 1961

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1964

 

Meet The Beattles at Aintree Institue Invitation 1961

 

Top of Form

Earlier today, we posted about the 1962 Beatles poster, and ticket

The rebel Rouser ticket years (?)

 

 

 

Theter Ticket fil A Grand River Cruis 1962

Two Ticket 1962

Pier head Liverpool 1962

 

 

 

Winter Garden 1963

Odeon Romford 1st performance ticket year(?)

 

 

Bournemouth theater 1963

Mr Smith’s Nightclub 1963

Ticket 1963

 

Vintage Photo London 1963

 

 

 

 

 

TV scene Southampton 1963

Mersey View Ballrom A Dabnce ticet 1963

Juke box ticket 1963’

 

Royal Variety Performance 1963

Vintage Photo Forthlin Road 1963

Top of Form

The Beatles taking a break from recording `From Me To You’, `The One After 909′ and `Thank You Girl’ at Abbey Road Studios with George Martin, 5th March 1963

Bottom of Form

 

 

Let it be show at The London Pavilluion Picadilly Cirbus Ticket

 

Hyde Park 1964

Four types Ticket 1964

Two Vintgae Photo, Twickenham studio 1964

All I Need is Love,japan,1964

Don’t Buy My Love,Japan,1964

 

 

 

A Hard Day’s Night 1964 Nederland

 

At Bar 1964

 

I feel Fine-She’s AWomen Netherland 1964

Guiters Abey Road Photo 1964

 

Madame tussaud 1964

Ringo drummer 1964 at The rock and Roll Hall Of Fame 1964

Vintgae Photo Fans London 1964

 

The Introduction Of Postal and Document History Republic Indonesia 1950-1955 Exhibiton at Driwancybermuseum (Pameran koleksi Negara Kesatuan RI 1950_55)

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

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      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Welcome To Driwancybermuseum Blog And Home Office

Selamat Datang Para Kolektor Dari seluruh dunia Ke Museum dunia Maya Dan Homeoffice Dr Iwan Suwandy.

Driwancybermuseum’s Blog

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                           hallo  collectors from all over the world

                       WELCOME TO Dr IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

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More illustration and info please look at the EXHIBITION FRAME TARUMANEGARA

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the end@Dr iwan Suwandy 2010

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THE POSTAL  AND DOCUMENT HISTORY OG NKRI 1950-1955

1950(August-December)1.September 1950

(1) September,4th 1950

Postally used cover from  cds soerabaja 4.9.50 on RIS overprint smelt stamps 1 sen strip three.

(2)September,8th.1950

Return to sender official free stamps homemade cover from balai harta peninggalan semarang to Jatinegara, but not found with two postmarak ” return afzender onbeken” and  Onbekend. Veldpost Batavia.geen adreswijziging door geadreseeth .

2.October 1950

(1) October ,10th.1950

Postally used cover from soerabaja to Sidoardjo with RIS overprint smelt stamps 4 cen.(rare stamp)

(2) October,11th.1950

The Registed postal used cover from Tondano to Djakarta with RIS overprint building 4o cent stamp.

 3.November 1950

 4.december 1950

b. 1951

1.Penemuan Koleksi Langka tjonto prangko jang berlaku di Indonesia dengan stempel tinta violet tjonto (specimen) , oleh kepala kantor pos Bengkulu

Contoh Prangko yang berlaku di Indonesia tahun 1951 termasuk prangko RISprangko RIS Rp.2,-Rp.3.Rp.5 ,-Rp 10.- dan Rp.25. tak dijual diloket,prangko nominal tinggi saat itu langsung dipasang dan di stempel saat pengiriman surat berat atau pospaket.

Koleksi ini hanya baru satu  ditemukan dan dilaporkan, maaf illustrasi kurang jelas,ini disengaja agar tidak di buat palsunya,d an tetap dalam kondisi seperti yang ditemukan di Bengkulu , ini merupakn postal histori sangat langka dan membuktikan bahwa prangko cetak wina tak pernah dijual diloket kantor pos Indonesia,bagi yang memilikinya harap berkenan memberikan informasi liwat comment,terima kasih. Apabila perhimpunan filateli Indonesia atau asia ingin memamerkan koleksi yang sangat langka ini silahkan menghubungi Dr Iwan liwat comment-catatan Dr iwan suwandy)

(the RIS Sample Stamp circulated In Indonesia Until 1951, only one exist in the world,if the Phillatelic Exhibtion want to show this amizing and RRRR collections ,please asked the owner Dr Iwan suwandy via comment.Please donnot tag this collections without the owner permission)

4.April.1951

(1) April,10th.1951

postally used registered homemade cover with RIS overprint building stamps 25 sen,one stamp cutting.

10.OCTOBER 1951

(1) October,24.1950

Postally used cover from  panitia penyelesaian  urusahan pemulihan  jawa tengah semarah cover cds semarang  24,.1o.51 to pekalongan,return to sender witth therare building stamps overprint RIS 30 sen.\

2. January 1951

(1)January,23th.1951

RIS Priting Office cARD OVERPRINT BLOB INK TO COVER THE ris SEND FROM CDS jAKARTA 23,1.51.

3.Akhir 1951

Dr Adnan Kapau Gani pada akhir tahun 1951 sampai Februari 1952 berada di Holland sebagai anggota Delegasi RI pada perundingan Indonesia-Belanda dari hasil KMB, dan mengenai kedaulatan Irian Barat, tepatnya di kota Den Haag.

c.1952

October,23th,952

The first flight cover from bandung via KOLM to Chile with RIS overprint 30 cent building stamps and sukarno first series stamp RP.1 ,RIS eagle stamps .

 D.1953

 E. 1954

F.1955

THE FIRST INDONESIAN GENERAL ELECTIONS 1955 COLLECTIONS
KOLEKSI PEMILU PERTAMA 1955

FRAME ONE :
Dr IWAN COLLECTION
1. head of bailout(bagian atas kartu suara)

2. The picture of Party emblem(Tanda gambar Partai Peserta PEMILU)
a.Hole Party(Seluruh Partai)

b.Close up some pary(tanda Gambar beberapa Partai)

 

THE COMPLETE EXHIBITION ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER PLEASE SUBSCRIBED VIA COMMENT AND I WILL SHOW THE EXHIBIITON SPECIAL FOR YOU.GREETING FROM Dr IWAN SUWANDY

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

The complete Collections Exist Only for Premium Member.please subscribed Via Comment.)

THE complete collections only for PREMIUM  member , Please subscribed via Comment. 

.

GREATING FROM THE MUSUEM’S FOUNDER AND STAFF

HAPPY TRAVELLIN IN Driwancybermuseum

SELAMAT DATANG

WELCOME TO THE HOME OFFICE OF   Driwancybermuseum

hhto://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

__________________________________________________________________________________________
SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR,yang berminat kontak liwat comment.

___________________________________________________________________________________________
PEMBINA MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DAN STAF MENGUCAPKAN SELAMAT DATANG DI KANTOR MUSEUM DUNIAMAYA

UNTUK MELIHAT KANTOR DIMANA SELURUH KARYAWAN BEKERJA UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KEPUASAN PARA KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN SELURUH DUNIA SEHINGGA KOLEKSI UNIK , KHUSUSNYA PUSAKA NENEK MOYANG INDONESIA DAN ASIA DAPAT DILESTARIKAN UNTUK GENERASI PENERUS.LIHATLAH SECARA LENGKAP DI hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

SELAMAT DATANG DI PINTU MASUK HOMEOFFICE


SILAHKAN MELIHAT TAMAN TANAMAN HIAS HOME OFFICE

 ANDA MEMASUKI RUANG TAMU
 DAN RUANG RAPAT.

SILAHKAN MELIHAT RUANGAN KANTOR ELEKTRONIK INTRENET KOMPUTERISASI HOME OFFICE

RUANGAN PERPUSTAKAAN

RUANGAN DAPUR BERSIH
KAMAR REST ROOM

SELANJUTNYA AND DIPERSILAHKAN MELIHAT MUSEUM MINI KOLEKSI Dr IWAN S PRIBADI, MULAI TANGGA MASUK YANG ARTISTIK DENGAN PELINDUNG CHILLIN DAN KERAMIK CHILLIN DINASTI MING

KOLEKSI MUSEUM MINI PERTAMA ADALAH PATUNG ETHNIS INDONESIA

LEMARI

 DAN KURSI ANTIK


TEMPAT TIDUR ANTIK


 RUANGAN STUDI KOLEKSI

KOLEKSI LUKISAN

GUCI ANTIK

KERAMIK ANTIK,ANTARA LAIN DIDALM LEMARI ES BEKAS  teridiri dari ceret dan mangkuk kecil yang mungih dan indah

, Serta LAMPU-LAMPU ANTIK  yang sangat langka,indah dan menarik.

Selesai Hak Cipta @Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

The end@copyright Dr Iwan s 2011

The Introduction From The Founder of Driwancybermuseum Web Blog

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Driwancybermuseum Blog A.Driwancybermuseum homeoffice openhouse

Cybermuseum open house”

Qillin decoration
Postal History and Document History collections in antique cupboard
 Library
Meeting room
working room
dragon boat mini musuem
Ceramic Collection
Ceramic Collections 2
VOC ship tile
VOC Tile&Token
Ngoc San Hanoi tile
Ancient Wayang Petruk
Ancient wayang Semar

Hallo Collector
THe founder and All of UCN uniquecollections cybernews staff send the greatings and Happy Chinese New Year “Gong Hi Fat Choi” .
During this happy seasons, UCM uniquecollection cybermuseum and UCN home office open house , all of our best friend collectors were invited to joint the celebration ceremony of the opening of the home office and small museum .

All the collectors from allover the world Please look at the illustration of the new restored UCM-UCN home office and small musuem:

1. The front of the homeoffice with Qillin staircase or tangga Killin as the protection of uniquecollection cybermuseum homeoffice, constist two Qillin stone statue,two Qillin wooden carving, three artifact Qillin late Ming ceramic , design by Dr Iwan S. built by Mr burhanuddin , the idea from Ming emperor palace forbidden city Beijing @copyright Dr Iwan S.2010 (ill. caption “Qillin decoration”)

2. The vintage Writing desk and cupboard (ill Vintage writingcase), in the cupboard the collector will see the albums of vintage document histories.

3. TheLibrary of uniquecollections literatures (ill.library)

4. The Meeting room

5. The Working room

6. The Small Museum consist :
(1) The Ancient ceramic Collections in two vintage showcase( ill ceramic collection 1 and 2)
(2) The dragon boat style Museum with the uniquecollections show : ceramic,stamps and revenue,martavan,woodencarving,statue,metal collections, cins,ancien smoking Pipes, vintage Labels, vintage paintings (ill Small museum)
(3) special close up illustration of VOC ship multicolour tiles-(ill VOC Gauda tiles), VOC Fort tiles(ill.VOC Delft tiles), Wayang Berber Paintings (ill Wayang berber 1945).
(4) The founder show the very rare handpainted pictures with calligraphy ancient wayang book (ill. Ancietn Wayang Petruk and ill. ancient wayang Semar)

After look of the UCM-UCN home office with small musuem illustrations we hope all the collectors will more closed with the best uniquecollection blog of the world and always click this blog to found anykind of uniquecollections information, if you didn’t found the informations please asked as collector choice via comment lika Fake Coins, the value of Rare stamps, the Indochine coins,stamps and papermoney informations etc.If our visitor near 1 million , uniquecollections blog will develop the uniquecollectins club all over the world, please the collectors of all over the world asking the copyright permission with special regulations via comment and editor will contact you to issued the written permission and regulations. every members will send the UCN and the UCM showed with regular one year or life member operational postal & scanning cost to send that information stright install via the members sms adress.the complete best color illustrations. This only the recent proposal, please comment and suggestions.

UCM-uniquecollections Cybermuseum have announced that this night will show ” The Qing Imperial Collections’consist The Qing imperial Paintings, ceramics , meubeluers, and other kind unique Qing imperial collections , this show sponsored by anonim Chinese Beijing collectors.

 B.Introduction
a.I starting stamps collection during 1955 very young boy. look my vintage photo with mother Diana lanny and father Djohan Oetama at Bukittingi West Sumatra 1955, my father passed away in 1985 and my mother just passed away in june 2011 at  91 years old.

b.Between 1960-1963, during study at Don Bosco high school I had started collected beside stamps all type of informations collections due to my Teacher Frater Servaas told me that I must collected the Informations due to the develping the satellite which made the globalizations which the growing of world cmmunications will became fast and no border between the nations countries, who have the Information he will became the leader and the King in communications, thank you Frater Servaas your info which made me could built the very best informations communications uniquecollection blog in the world.
Look at in memoriam Frater Servaas with my teacher at Frater middle school in memrian Frater Eric at my House during my Sister Erlita 17th years birthday in 1963.


also look my profile with my loving teacher who still alive and stay at Padang city west sumatra Pak Sofjanto at my house in the same time of the photo above


c.Between 1973-1983 many interesting history which related with the stamp and postal history and also with my life :
1. In 1972 I have graduated Medical Doctor(MD)

2.as the temporary assitenst at Pulmonology (Lung Disease) department in Medical faculty

3.In 1973 join the medical officer of Indonesia National Police


4.in September 1973 I was merried with Lily W.


5. in 1974 my first son Albert our photographer was born in November 1974, and later in January 1977 born my second son Anton our Editor .
a. Albert at Solok city west Sumatra 1978

b.Anton at Solok city 1978


6. Between 1975 until 1989 I have travelled around Indonesia myself or officially and I have found many uniquecollections that time.

7.In 1985 I have made a postal communications, I have send the aerogram to all Postal services in the capital city of all oin the world, 90 % send to me back the official cover,this could be done by the helping of Padang postmaster Ahmadsyah Soewil, his father collections I had bought in 1980.
The vintage photo of Soewil St.marajo ,during the chief of Painan West Sumatra Post office
look his photos

During Dai Nippon occupation he still at Painan and during Indonesia Independence war he was the Finance officer of Padang office and later in 1950-1959 the chief of TelukBayur Harbour west Sumatra post office, seme of the rare West sumatra during Dai Nippon occupation and Indonesia Inedependence war were his collectins,thankyou Family Soewil for that rare collections(complete infrmatins source Dai nippon occupatin sumatra under Malaya Singapore or Syonato Dai Nippon military Administrations and Indonesia Independence war collections.

8. Before between 1979-1985 I have joint the postal circuit club and I have found many covers from all over the world especially Latin America.This circuit as the help of my friend Frans,now he was in Bogor.

9.In 1990 I was graduate my Master Hospital Administration.


10.Between 1990-1994
I was n the duty at West Borneo and visit Sarwak,and i have fund some rare Sarawak stamps, revenue there and in Pontianak I have found rare sarawak coins

11.Between 1995 until 2000
I am seeking the postally used cover from the countries I havenot found especailly the new freedom countries.
All the postal stamps and covers I will arranged in the very exciting and unique collections, I will starting with Asia Countries, and later Africa, Australia, America and Euro.
This special collections were built dedicated to my Sons,especially the histrical fact from my vintage books collections as the rememberance what their father collected and I hope they will keep this beautiful and histric collections until put in speciale site in the CyberMuseum.
I hope all the collectors all over the world will help me to complete the collections, frm Asia I donnot have the cover from Bhutan,Mongol, Tibet, and SAfghanistan.but the stamps I have complete from that countries except my thematic bridge on the river kwai from Myanmar and Thailand.
12. In the years of 2000, I was retired from my job
this is my official profile just before retired.


13, Between 2000-2008
I am travelling around Asia,and starting to arranged my travelling unque collections.
14. December,25th 2008
I built the uniquecollection.wordpress.com Blog with articles :
(1). The Unique books collections
(2). The Unique Stamps collectins
(3). The rare Coins collections
(4). The rare ceramic collections
(5.) The Unique label collectins
(6.) The Travelling Unque collections (now changed as the Adventures of Dr iwan S.
(7). The Tionghoa Unique Collections
(8.) The Asia Unique Collections
(9.) The Africa Unique collections
(10). The Padang minangkabau CyberMuseum

15. In 2010

I built another web :

(1) hhtp://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com

(2)hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

In this web the collectors will look the amizing collections:

(1) The Vietnam War 1965-1975, and another Vietnam Historic collections like Vienam during Indochina, Vienam Diem War 1955-1963,etc

(2) The Dai Nippon War 1942-1945, five part in homeland,pasific war,in Korea,in China, in south East Asia including Indonesia.

(3) The Indonesia Independence War  1945,1946,1947,1948,1949 and 1950.

(4) The Uniquecollections from all over the world.

(5) The Icon Cybermuseum, including Bung Karno,Bung Hatta,Sultan Hemangkubuwono, and also from foreign countries Iran,Iraq Sadam huseun ,Palestina jerusalam,turkey,afghanistan, libya Moamer Khadafi, Suriah , etc

(6) The Rare Ceramic Collections found In Indonesia, like China Imperial Tang,Yuan,Ming and Qing; also euro ceramic from delf,dutch maastrict ,etc

(7) and many other collections

AT LEAST AFTER THE ALL OF MY COLLECTIONS ENTER THE CYBERMUSEUM AND OTHER WEB BLOG, I WILL ASKING TO GET  THE MURI CERTIFICATE.(INDONESIAN RECORD MUSEUM)

8. I also built a amizing collections due to my premium member prefered, like The Indonesia Revenue Collections from 19th to 20th century, the mysteri of the Indonesian vienna Printing Stamps, the China  Gold Coins, The Rare Chian imperial ceramic design foun in Indonesia, The Tionghoa (Indonesia Chinese Overseas collection), Penguasa Wanta di dunia(Women in Leaders) etc.

5. At Least thankyou verymuch to all the collectors who have visit my blog and support me, my last prestation in June 2011 (26 years from the first starting to built the e-antique or uniquecollections info in internet) :

(1) hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum : visit 60.000, the highest per day 3200.

(2)hhtp://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com:visit 21.000,the highest per day 200.

(3)hhtp://www.uniquecollection.wordpress.com, visit 40.000,the highest per day 210.

Jakarta June 2011

Greatings from teh founder

Dr Iwan Suwandy

the end @copyright XDr Iwan suwandy 2011

I WRITE THIS MEMORABLE STORY WITH RELATED UNIQUECOLLECTIONS ILLUSTRATIONS AS MY HONOR TO MY LOVING FAMILY , ALL MY FRIEND AND MY TEACHERS.BECAUSE WITHOUT YOU I AM NOTHING AT ALL,AND YOU ARE ALWAYS IN MY HEART FOREVER.

THE SAMPLE OF EXHIBTION IN Driwancybermuseum

SELAMAT DATANG DI RUANG PAMERAN KHUSUS

SHOWCASE :

RUANG PAMERAN :

PAMERAN KOLEKSI KERAMIK LANGKA DINASTI MING AKHIR YANG DITEMUI DI INDONESIA

Showcase :

The Rare Late Ming Ceramic Which Foun At Indonesia Exhibition

(Dr Iwan Private Collections)

Frame one:Southern Ming Dynasty

 
 
History of China

History of China

 
 
 
 
 
  *wan li imperial mark and dragon five clow cup below.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
   
   
     
     
 
 
 
 
 
   
 

The Southern Ming Dynasty (Chinese: 南明; pinyin: Nán Míng) refers to the Ming loyalist regimes that existed in Southern China from 1644 to 1662 following the collapse of the Ming Dynasty and the capture of Beijing first by rebel armies led by Li Zicheng, and then by the forces of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty.

On April 24, 1644, Li Zicheng’s rebel soldiers, of the recently proclaimed Great Shun dynasty, breached the walls of Beijing. The Chongzhen Emperor committed suicide the next day to avoid humiliation at their hands. Remnants of the Ming imperial family and some court ministers then sought refuge in the southern part of China and regrouped around Nanjing, the Ming auxiliary capital, south of the Yangzi River. Four different power groups had eventuated:

  • Shun Dynasty led by Li Zicheng, with its power base north of the Huai river, which had been under controlled of the Ming Dynasty.
  • Zhang Xianzhong had established the Great West (Ch:大西) regime controlling Sichuanprovince.
  • Manchu-founded Qing Dynastyhad control of the north-east area beyond Shanhai Pass, at the same times much of the Mongol tribes.
  • The remnants of Ming Dynasty could only survive south of the Huai river.

Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showcase:

The Original Dr Iwancybermuseum logo Collections .

Frame one:

INTRODUCTION (PENDAHULUAN)

1.In February.27th 2011 morning 7.30 am west Indonesia Time, during I walking out of Yacobus Church Kelapa Gading North Jakarta Indonesia to my car parking lot beyond the tree, God have send me one very amizing beautiful iron red fruit from the  tree which I donnot know it ‘s name, and  I bring to my cybermuseum home office ,put on my antique pure white stempcup ceramic , made to art photos by my digital camera Olympus, one still original and one was making corrections of the background by digital painting restorarion

2. then I have deciding that this art photography became the logo of my blog “Driwan Cybermuseum.

3.The red and white colour were the same of Indonesian flag colour,the flag of my homeland countries and theiron red and pure white were my favorite colour of my ceramic collections, the background sandtone colour was my favorite colour of my cybermuseum homeoffice.The  Iron red fruit was send to me by the holygod which give my the mercy and lucky in the future.

3.I hove all the collectors from all over the world to honor my logo copyright,please donnot copy.

Jakarta, February.27th 2011

The founder of Cybermuseum Blog

 Dr Iwan Suwandy

Frame Two :

The Original Picture Of Driwancybermuseum Logo1.The Original Photo at Driwancybermuseum

 private home office

 2.The Original Art photography of Driwancybermuseum’s logo(after digital restoration)

CONTOH KOLEKSI DARI SURINAME BEKA SJAJAHAN BELANDA YANG BANYAK ETHNIS JAWA DISANA

 




Suraname Jang Tk Terkenal, karangan Albert Herman, Seri Buku Buku Badjing Untuk Kanak-Kanak, 30 halaman.

the end @ copyright XDr Iwan suwandy

The Unusual Rare Indonesian Phillately,Revenue and Numismatic History Collections(Koleksi Postal,Meterai dan numismatik histori Indonesia Yang aneh dan Langka)

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom : 

 

Dr Iwan Unusual  Indonesian Postal,Revenue and Numismatic Cybermuseum(Koleksi Filateli , Meterai dan  Numismatik Indonesia Yang  Aneh)

1.Kata Pengantar(Introduction)

If you look carefully the postal,revenue and numismatic history collections , one day you will find the images you are not usual or strange, and was never seen anymore  again at this time.

The  unusual collections  is a collection which, when compiled with trim, will be a collection of rare and interesting as the remembrance from the past as our human heritage.

I will starting to reseach  my   privately owned collections in the cybermuseum world and flaunt my period, so that collectors can enjoy them.

If you have a collection like this please willing to flaunt it in Driwancybermuseum, please sent  comment, thanks.

How amazing is not it, I hope to entertain you all

Jakarta, June 2011

Dr Iwan Suwandy

Apabila anda memperhatikan dengan saksama koleksi sejarah pos,meterai dan numismatik  ,suatu saat anda anda akan menemukan koleksi  yang tak biasanya atau aneh  serta sangat sulit ditemukan lagi pada saat ini.

Koleksi  aneh dan tak biasa tersebut merupakan suatu koleksi yang bila disusun dengan apik akan menjadi suatu koleksi yang langka dan menarik.yang merupakan warisan manusia tempo dulu.

Saya akan mulai mempelajari koleksi  milik pribadi dan memamerkannya dalam museum dunia maya saya, agar para kolektor dapat menikmatinya.

Apabila anda memiliki koleksi seperti ini harap bersedia memamerkannya di Driwancybermuseum, harap dikirimkan liwat comment, terima kasih.

Bagaimana menakjubkan bukan, saya harap dapat menghibur anda semua

Jakarta Juni 2011

Dr Iwan Suwandy

 The Vintage Indonesian’s Unusual Postal,Revenue and Numismatic History Collections 

 (Koleksi postal,meteri dan numismatik histori Indonesia yang  Aneh Dan Langka)

1.POSTAL HISTORY

1) Koleksi Kartupos Pendudukan Jepang di Jawa dengan stempel pos aneh, ” Tida(tidak) Diperkenanken(diperkenankan) Kombali(Kembali) , hal ini jarang terjadi , hanya apabila  tempelan terlarang di tempelkan  diatas kartupos, sayang tempelan tersebut sudah dilepas, namun hanya satu kartupos saja   yang saya temukan,harap para kolektor yang memiliki stempel pos yang sama melaporkan temuannya.

Japanese Occupation Postcards Collection in Java with a strange postmark, “Tida (not) Diperkenanken (allowed) return  to sender (Back), this rarely happens, only if the patch forbidden of posting the above postcard, darling patch has been released, but only one postcard only I found, hope the collectors who have same postmark reported findings.

2.Unusual Stamps

Prangko Sial

Beberapa tahun sebelum lengser(mundur ) dari Jabatan Presiden, telah ditandai dengan adanya prangko salah cetak dengan tanda-tanda kesialan antara lain Coretan garis di tepi sampai mengenai wajah Pak Harto ,hal sama pada prangko sial Hitler.

Selain itu juga ditemukan prangko pah harto yang kepanasan sehingga mukanya jadi hitam seperti terbakar matahari yang menunjukkan pak harto diserang dari segala lapisan masyarakat dan politik. Bagaimana anehkan.

Damn Stamps
A few years before his resignation (backwards) from Position of President, has been marked by a misprinted stamps with signs of misfortune among other graffiti on the edge of the line until about Soeharto’s face,

 this same shit on stamps of Hitler.

It also found that heat Harto hero stamps so that his face became black like a burning sun which shows Soeharto was burning by the attacking from all walks of life and politics. How amizing.

3.Unusual Atjeh 1 real cenderella stamp 1882

 

 

 

 
File:Atjeh11.jpg

 

Description  

English: Cinderella stamp of Acheh (Indonesia)
 
Date 1882(1882)
 

3a.Used on Money order fragment ,RMS overprint Indonesia numeric smelt

 

and building stamps

3c.Kartupos dulu sangat populer untuk mengirim berita singkat,walaupun saat ini tidak diterbitkan lagi karena ada teknologi SMS ,hal sama juga dengan telegram.Salah satu koleksi aneh dan anda pasti berum pernah lihat adalah kartupos tahun 1953 yang belum digunting (Uncutting) masih satu lembar kartupos proeff dengan empat kartu pos jadi satu, kalau pernah lihat mungkin telat mikir untuk dijadikan koleksi postal history lihatlah illustrasinya dibawah ini :

Selain itu juga ditemui smapul cetakan Pos Udar yang dicetak pada bagian luar dan bagian dalam

Postcards used to be very popular to send brief news, although currently not published anymore because there is SMS technology, the same thing with telegram.Salah a collection of strange and definitely berum you ever see is the postcard of 1953 that have not been cut (Uncutting) is still one sheet postcards proeff with four postcards to be one, if you never see might be late thinkers to be a collection of postal history behold its illustrasi

. Also found the error print of PTT envelope on out and inside .

4.The Postal History could told us the situation like two money order send during The PRRI movement in middle Sumatra, first Money order send one day after Pakanbaru captured by The APRI frm PRRI,send to Sawahlunto still in PRRI hand in March 11 th.1958,return to sender because the communication broken,look at the handwritten”Kembali Perhubungan belum ada”

and the second Money order send from Padang to angkola south tananuli return to sender looh the handwritten”Kembali Untuk sementara perhubungan Terputus”(return for temporary communicationbroken)

5.Cinderella Historic Collections Cinderela adalah label sampul surat yang bentuknya sama seperti prangko tetapi tanpa nominal,digunakan untuk menutup bagian belakang sampul atau sebagai sarana marketing produk. Koleksi cinderal indonesia yang paling aneh dan langka adalah satu sheet lengkap cinderela label promosi Obat Radja dengan perforasi terdiri dari 100 label dengan pembatas kosong diantara 50 label yang dikenal dengan istilah “gutter pair”.menakjubkan bukan.

english version:

Cinderela is a label that looks the same envelope as postage stamps but without par, used to close the back cover or as a means of marketing the product. Collection cinderal Indonesia’s most bizarre and rare is a complete sheet cinderela label drug promotion Radja with perforation consists of 100 blank labels with a divider between the 50 labels are known by the term “Gutter pair”. amazing is not.

 

3..Revenue History Collections

1) METERAI PENDUDUKAN JEPANG ANEH.

Mulai 1 April 1943, meterai seluruh meterai di Indonesia dicetak tindih secara machinal untuk menutup wajah ratu belanda atau aksara belanda yang dianggap milik musuh dengan berbagai bentuk , untuk meterai di pulau jawa di cetak tindih gambar matahari bewarna merah. Salah seorang pedagang di Jawa merasa sayang membuang meterai Hindia belanda yang ia miliki, maka dengan nekat mengambar dengan pena  gambar matahari meniru cetak tindih asli pemerintah balatentara nippon(Dai Nippon Gunseikanbu) diatas meterai hindia belanda dan memakainya diatas kwitansi tanggal 1 agustus 1944(2604), sikap ini dikatakan nekat karena bila ketahuan akan ditangkap dan dihukum oleh Kampetai,polisi militer Jepang.

, silahkan melihat illustrasi meterai tersebut dibandingkan dengan yang asli cetak tindih dengan mesin, bagaimana anehkan,bila anda memiliki yang sama harap berkenan melaporkannya.

STRANGE JAPANESE OCCUPATION seal.
Beginning April 1, 1943, the seal of all seals in Indonesia printed in machinal overlapping to cover the queen’s face or script netherlands dutch deemed enemy property in various forms, to seal in the island of Java in the print image superimposed on a red colored sun. One trader in Java feel affection discard seal Dutch East Indies he had, then with reckless drawing with pen drawings mimic the sun original print overlapping government army nippon (Dai Nippon Gunseikanbu) above the seal of the Dutch East Indies and wear it on a receipt dated August 1, 1944 (2604) , is said to be reckless attitude because if caught would be arrested and punished by Kampetai, the Japanese military police.

, please see the illustration of the seal is compared to the original print overlapping with the machine, how anehkan, if you have the same hope is pleased to report it.

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3. Numismatic History collections

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2.The International Unusual Stamps Collections

Unusual Stamps

Here are three examples of unusual stamps from my collection.

cloth

This is a set of five stamps issued by four countries, Grenada, the Gambia, Sierra Leone and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, commemorating the teddy bear. What I find interesting about this set is that:

  • the stamps are made of cloth!
  • four different countries cooperated to produce a single set of commemorative stamps with almost identical designs
  • despite being part of Grenada, a local group of islands, Carriacou and Petite Martinique, were permitted by the government of Grenada to issue a separate cloth stamp

 

phonograph record stamps issued by Bhutan

This is one of the most unusual sets of stamps that were ever issued. This set of seven stamps issued by the Kingdom of Bhutan in 1973 are also phonograph records! When played on a record player, the stamps play folk songs as well as provide an oral history (in Bhutanese and English) of Bhutan!

phonograph record stamps issued by Bhutan CD stamps issued by Bhutan

In 2008, Bhutan decided to update the phonograph record stamps it issued thirty-five years earlier by issuing a set of two CD stamps! Actually, as you can see, the CD’s are enclosed in a CD envelope that acts as the postage stamp (the envelope is self-adhesive on the back, so that, in theory, someone in Bhutan could stick the CD envelope onto a larger envelope or package that needed to be mailed). Like the phonograph stamp issue, when played on a record player, the CD stamps, when played on a CD player, will play folk songs as well as provide an oral history of Bhutan.

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011