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The E-book in CD-ROM Collections in 2016

tHE SAMPLE oF dRIWANCYBERMUSEUM E-bOOK IN cd rOKIM

THIS SAMPLE NOT COMPLE AND NOT CORRECTED,

If you want to buy this E-bbok in CD-ROmj in complete and very good and  woow collections, send email to iwansuwandy@gmail.com, with upload your Id D and Adfress comete with Phoned number. abour cost only RP 250.000,- per one question and the full info will dscuss later.

Sincerely

Dr iwan siw=uwnsady, MHA

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Adventurecandijiwa1

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DR Iwan Comment

I have some of this collections below (near same  or used condition)

 

 

 

 

Intro

THE ADVENTURE OF Dr IWAN TO CANDI JIWA WEST KRAWANG

I.August,16Th.2000

In this day with my loving Toyota Hardtop Lancruiser BJ 40, I went alone to Rengasdengklok to look at the historic house where Bung Karno and Bug Hata were” Keep ” by the young man 55 years ago inorder to aksed them to proclaimed the Indonesian Independent there (the complete story look at the Indonesian Independent war collections and Bung Hatta Collections in this blog or in my old bl9oc hhtp”//www.uniquecoleetion.wordpress.com-auth)

Very difficult to found the road to the Candi “Jiwa” (Ancient Soul -BudhishTemple), after enter the Rengasdengklok ,from the Jakarta Cikampek Toll Road, at West Cikampek I foun dthe sign

,then tern left and after the railways t’s turn to the right,

I came to the very crowded market

 

Then the turn right until at then of that market

,turn left near the small river, I drive straight until arrived the sign

, the Jiwa Temple at the right circa 40 km in very bad road,with very small arrow directions of Candi Jiwa , then turn to the right about 500 m.

I enter the broken candi Jiwa, and with the helping of the native peoples there I have seen other borken candi, they talled me about 24 candi beside Candi Jiwa there.

 

All the candi built frome “Bata” sands break.

At the small camp’s house there ,I saw the project map,and some artifact founding, like same small sand Tablet with Buddish’s relief ,and a broken earthenweare vessels (Kendi),and small jarlets(buli-buli) and some new ceramics, they said until now they still studied the earliest Candi which ever found in Java circa three or four century AD much older than the Ancient mataram kindom of Java, may be this candi built by the Ancient Tarumanegara Kingdom, no Ancient coins and Chinese ceramic found there. I took the adventure after read te magazine story about Mr Abu Ridho from National Centre Museum and Mrs Sumirah Adyatman of Adam Malik museum,s curator ever came there too.

  1. August.15th 2010

After ten years , I am asking my son Anton to take me with my wife with his Toyota Kinjang Innova to adventure agains to Rengas Dengklok in order to comemorate the 65 years of Indonesian Indenpent day.

After that we went to “Candi Jiwa “to look the progress of that Candi renovations, because I have read in Kompas Newspaper a week ago,that some foriegn’s arkeologist had found athe human skull and skelletons ,very long diameters about two meters long body-head with their ancient gold necklage and sword.

The Road still same but before the raillways ,there atre the new flyt over bridge wich made the road more closer, and still turn right strait to the Rengas Dengklok market but I didnnot met the Historic House anymore,

after arrive the market still the same turn to the right until the end of market near river turn left but the road more best with cement beton and smoe asphalt betons to cadi Jiwa, now there have two candi almost finished ,one cadi Jiwa and near that candi, new candi Blondongan are still in renovations ,

 

please look my profile at two candi Jiwa at Batujaya krawang west Java

 

This time I with my wife Lily and My son Anto, have made some interesting pictures of some artifact found

The picture of the candi Jiwan and Blondongan

 

2) The letest artifact have just founds, very pity the Ancient Gold were bring abroad by the archeoligt to studies .

3) the older foundings’s artifact.

 

An :Sebenarnya apa yang dimaksud dengan candi ?
Ark: Menurut Pak Soekmono (dia salah satu maestro arkelogi di Indonesia gan),candi adalah tempat memuliakan orang2 yang sudah meninggal.Ini masih ada kaitannya dengan asal kata “candi” itu sendiri,yaitu “candika”,nama lain dari Dewi Durga,dewi kematian.
namun masyarakat terkadang menggunakan istilah candi untuk menyebut bangunan peninggalan dari masa Hindu-Budha di Indonesia.Terkaadang juga digunakan untuk menyebut bangunan bersejarah agama Hindu-Budha di luar negeri seperti candi Angkor Wat di Kamboja dan candi Khajuraho di India.
Namun yang unik adalah dalam prasasti2 atau naskah2 kuno yang sudah ditemukan dan diterjemahkan,tidak ditemui istilah candi.Sebutan yang digunakan adalah Padharmaan,Dharma Haji,Dharma Lpas,Prasada,Bhavana,Vihara,Parahyangan,Pangastulan,Tirth,atau Patirthan.

Quote:An :Sejak kapan tradisi pembangunan candi masuk ke Nusantara?
Ark:Sebelum tradisi Hindu-Budha masuk ke Nusantara,tidak ada tradisi membangun bangunan dari batu.Jikapun ada,jumlahnya sedikit sekali.Ketika agama Hindu dan Budha masuk ke Nusantara,tempat pemujaan awalnya pun masih terbuat dari kayu.Kemudian digunakanlah batu sebagai bahan bangunan.Itupun masih berukuran kecil dan masih minim ornamen dan masih ada unsur Indianya.
Istimewanya candi di Nusantara menurut Bosch adalah dari segi teknis,mungkin tidak begitu mengagumkan,tapi dari segi seni,candi2 di Nusantara memiliki nilai yang tinggi.Hingga kini,bangunan candi tertua masih dilihat pada gugus candi Hindu di Dieng. 
Ada sebuah teori yang mengatakan bahwa raja2 Nusantara mendatangkan arsitek langsung dari India untuk memebangun candi,tapi teori ini masih lemah karena tidak ditemukan candi bercorak India,misalnya penggunaan pilar.Kemudian munculah teori baru bahwa arsitek Indonesialah yang membangun candi dan mereka membangun candi sesuai yang tertera dalam kitab Silpasastra (kitab yang berisi kaidah pembangunan candi).

Quote:An :Sebenarnya apa sih latar belakang orang zaman dahulu dalam membangun candi ?
Ark:Latar belakang candi dibangun adalah untuk Memuliakan orang yang meninggal atau sering disebut dengan didharmakan.Biasanya yang didharmakan adalah orang penting seperti raja,bangsawan,atau agamawan.Dalam tradisi Hindu Budha tidak mengenal tradisi penguburan,yang ada adalah pembakaran mayat yang kemudian abunya dilarung ke laut sebagai simbol terpisahnya roh dari unsur keduniawian yang selanjutnya akan menyatu dengan dewa yang dulu menitis pada seorang raja (mirip dengan konsep Avatar).Setelah melalui berbagai upacara,barulah didirkan candi untuk mendharamakan raja.Untuk candi Budha,
Candi dibangun sebagai tempat pemujaan atau sebagai biara.Abu jenazah biasanya disimpan di stupa2 dekat candi.Ketika candi dibangun,tanah didirikanya sebuah candi dijadikan sebuah Sima atau tanah perdikan (tanah bebas pajak) melalui berbagai upacara.Penetapan Sima ini biasanya dicatat pada sebuah prasasti.Candi memiliki konsepsi yang jauh lebih rumit daripada bangunan2 pada masa kini,konsepsi sebuah candi meliputi :
1.Candi merupakan tiruan dari gunung suci,yaitu Mahameru dan Kailasa,jadi banyak sekali ornamen tumbuhan yang ada dalam sebuah candi.
2.Sebuah candi harus memiliki konsep geometri suci atau dalam tradisi India disebut Mandala.
3.Candi merupakan simbol dari rahim atau Grbagrha.
4.Candi merupakan pusat dari peziarahan.
5.Candi merupakan imitasi dari surga,makanya banyak relief bidadari pada sebuah candi.
6.Sebuah candi merupakan penghubung antara surga dengan bumi.
Quote:Anda Bertanya Arkeolog Menjawab :: Seputar Candi

 
 
 


Denah Candi Borobudur yang melambangkan sebuah Mandala

Quote:An :Saya masih bingung bagaimana orang2 zaman dahulu membangun sebuah candi ?
Ark:Bagaimana orang2 zaman dahulu membangun candi juga masih menjadi pertanyaan bagi arkeolog karena tidak ditemukan alat2 untuk membangun candi.Teknik membangun candi tergantung dari bahannya sendiri.Untuk batu,biasanya digunakan susunan batu yang saling mengunci seperti pada mainan lego.Sedangkan untuk batu bata,biasanya batu bata akan direkatkan dengan cara digosok gosokan menggunakan air.
Yang jelas,dalam membangun candi harus memerhatikan hal2 yang ada dalam ilmu Vastusastra atau Silpasastra. Ilmu ini berisi berbagai hal mulai dari pemilihan jenis tanah,cara pengujian tanah,pembuatan diagram,detail bangunan,hingga pembagian kerjanya.

Quote:An:Terus adakah pembagian kerja dalam membangun sebuah candi ?
Ark:Tentu ! sebuah tentu membutuhkan pembagian kerja agar bisa berdiri dengan baik termasuk candi.Adapun pembagian kerja meliputi:
1.Yajamana : Yajamana adalah orang yang memerintahkan dan mendanai pembangunan sebuah candi.
2.Acharya : Imam,atau pendeta yang memimpin upacara pembuatan candi.
3.Sthapati : Arsitek,dipilih oleh Acharya.
4.Sutrhagin:Surveyor,bertugas untuk menentukan tanah tempat akan dibangunnya candi.
5.Taksaka : Tugasnya menghias candi dengan relief2 dan membuat arca.
6.Vardhakin:Orang yang tugasnya mirip pekerja kasar,misalnya mengangkat batu,membuat perancah,atau menyusun candi.

Quote:An :Seperti apa bentuk susunan pada sebuah candi ?
Ark:Susunan candi dibagi menjadi 3 bagian yaitu bagian yaitu:
1.Kaki candi merupakan bagian bawah candi. Bagian ini melambangkan dunia bawah atau bhurloka. Pada konsep Buddha disebut kamadhatu. Yaitu menggambarkan dunia hewan, alam makhluk halus seperti iblis, raksasa dan asura, serta tempat manusia biasa yang masih terikat nafsu rendah.
2.Tubuh candi adalah bagian tengah candi yang berbentuk kubus yang dianggap sebagai dunia antara atau bhuwarloka. Pada konsep Buddha disebut rupadhatu. Yaitu menggambarkan dunia tempat manusia suci yang berupaya mencapai pencerahan dan kesempurnaan batiniah. 
3.Atap candi adalah bagian atas candi yang menjadi simbol dunia atas atau swarloka. Pada konsep Buddha disebut arupadhatu. Yaitu menggambarkan ranah surgawi tempat para dewa dan jiwa yang telah mencapai kesempurnaan bersemayam.
Pada dasarnya,candi merupakan tempat bertemunya surga,bumi,dan dunia bawah.Untuk lebih jelas lihat gambar di bawah
Quote:Anda Bertanya Arkeolog Menjawab :: Seputar Candi
Susunan candi Prambanan

An :Apa aja sih yang ada pada bagian dalam candi ?
Ark: Dalam konsepsi India,bagian dalam candi melambangkan rahim atau disebut juga Grbhagrha.Pada bagian dalam candi Hindu biasanya kita akan temukan lingga,yaitu batu yang melambangkan dewa Siwa.Selain lingga,kita juga akan menemukan arca dewa yang merupakan penjelmaan seorang raja.Lalu pada bagian dasar candi,terdapat sumuran yang berfungsi untuk menyimpan peripih,yaitu kotak yang digunakan untuk menyimpan abu,entah abu jenazah atau abu hewan,serta lempengan emas yang bertuliskan mantra2,lalu ada permata,kaca,atau cangkang kerang.Pada bagian atas ruangan,terdapat rongga kosong yang fungsinya diyakini sebagai tempat bersemayamnya rohnya dewa.
Lalu untuk candi Budha,kita akan dapatkan patung Budha serta pengiringnya.

Quote:An :Terus apa sajakah yang ada pada bagian luar candi ?
Ark:Pada bagian luar candi terdapat relief2 yang menceritakan kisah tertentu.Pada candi Hindu,biasanya menceritakan kisah Mahabaratha atau Ramayana.Sedangkan pada candi Budha bisasanya menceritakan kisah perjalanan hidup sang Budha.Kemungkinan besar relief2 pada masa itu diberi warna,namun seiring zaman,warna2 tadi luntur.Ada juga antefix,yaitu hiasan segitiga pada bagian puncak dinding.Antefix dibuat untuk memberi kesan bangunan lebih tinggi daripada biasanya.Kemudia terdapat Jaladwara,yaitu semacam tempat pembuangan air hujan yang dihias sedemikian rupa.Selain itu,
masih terdapat kala makara.Kala adalah hiasan pada bagian atas pintu candi yang berbentuk seperti wajah Iblis atau raksaksa Kala.Adapun Makara adalah hiasan di kaki tangga candi,biasanya berbentuk hewan aneh.Kala Makara berfungsi untuk menakut nakuti roh jahat agar tidak masuk ke dalam candi.Kala sendiri adalah dewa waktu.Di Jawa Timur,kala digambarkan memiliki taring besar pada bagian atas dan bawah mulut,berbeda dengan di Jawa Tengah yang taringnya hanya pada bagian atas.Selain itu,terdapat pintu masuk candi yang dibedakan menjadi dua,yaitu candi bentar yang tidak memiliki atap,dan paduraksa yang memiliki
atap.

Quote:An :
Ark:Tata letak candi dibagi menjadi dua,yaitu secara konsentris,dan secara berurutan.Secara konsentris,posisi candi yang lebih besar dikelilingi oleh anak-anak candi yang lebih kecil (candi perwara),sehingga candi paling besar ada di tengah bangunan.Sistem ini dipengaruhi oleh tata letak mandala.Contohnya pada Candi Sewu dan Candi Prambanan.Secara paralel yaitu posisi candi perwara berada di depan candi induk. Ada yang disusun berurutan simetris, ada yang asimetris. 
Ada juga pola denah memanjang ke belakang.Urutan pengunjung memasuki kawasan yang dianggap kurang suci berupa gerbang dan bangunan tambahan, sebelum memasuki kawasan tersuci tempat candi induk berdiri. Sistem ini merupakan sistem tata letak asli Nusantara yang memuliakan tempat yang tinggi, sehingga bangunan induk atau tersuci diletakkan paling tinggi di belakang mengikuti topografi alami ketinggian tanah tempat candi dibangun.Ada juga yang dibangun secara tersebar.
Contohnya pada Candi Sukuh dan Pura2 di Bali.Arah hadap sebuah candi tergantung dari konsepsi dari tata ruangnya,secara kosmologis,candi menghadap ke arah barat atau timur.Candi terkadang menghadap ke arah gunung tertentu yang dianggap suci atau disebut dengan Chtonis.
Oh ya,hampir semua bagian tengah candi tidak berada tepat pada tengah bangunan,kecuali sebuah candi di Ngemplak,Sleman Yogyakarta.
Quote:Anda Bertanya Arkeolog Menjawab :: Seputar Candi
Denah Candi Sukuh yang memanjang ke belakang
Quote:Anda Bertanya Arkeolog Menjawab :: Seputar Candi
Denaha Candi Prambanan yang konsentris

Quote:An :Terus dimanakah orang zaman dahulu memilih lokasi untuk membangun candi ?
Ark:Sesuai dengan kitab Silpasastra,masyarakat membangun candi berdekatan dengan air,jika tidak ditemukan air,maka akan dibuat sebuah kolam,karena air merupakan salah satu unsur upacara.Selain itu candi dibangun pada sebuah puncak gunung karena ada kepercayaan bahwa gunung merupakan tempat bersemayamnya dewa.Contoh candi yang dibangun di puncak gunung adalah candi yang ada di gunung Penanggunan.Jadi bikin candi itu gak asal2an kaya bangunan zaman sekarang.Semuanya ada konsepsinya.

Quote:An :Selama ini saya membaca buku sejarah,disebutkan bahwa candi memiliki dua langgam,yaitu langgam Jawa Tengah dan langgam Jawa Timur.Apakah itu sudah benar ?
Ark:Hal itu sebenarnya sudah benar,tapi ada catatan bahwa ada candi berlanggam Jawa Tengah tapi ada di Jawa Timur seperti Candi Badut,di Jawa Tengah juga ada candi berlanggam Jawa Timur seperti candi Sukuh dan Candi Cetho.
Oleh pak Soekmono,akhirnya pembagian candi didasarkan bukan berdasarkan lokasinya,tapi berdasarkan masanya,yaitu Masa Klasik Awal dan Masa Klasik Akhir.

Quote:An :Ada berapa candi dari ukuran, kerumitan, dan kemegahannya ? 
Ark:Candi dibagi menjadi 3 berdasarkan dari ukuran, kerumitan, dan kemegahannya candi yaitu :

1.Candi Kerajaan, yaitu candi yang digunakan oleh seluruh warga kerajaan, tempat digelarnya upacara-upacara keagamaan penting kerajaan. Candi kerajaan biasanya dibangun mewah, besar, dan luas. Contoh: Candi Borobudur, Candi Prambanan, Candi Sewu, dan Candi Panataran.
2.Candi Wanua atau Watak, yaitu candi yang digunakan oleh masyarakat pada daerah atau desa tertentu pada suatu kerajaan. Candi ini biasanya kecil dan hanya bangunan tunggal yang tidak berkelompok. Contoh: candi yang berasal dari masa Majapahit, Candi Sanggrahan di Tulung Agung, Candi Gebang di Yogyakarta, dan Candi Pringapus.
3.Candi Pribadi, yaitu candi yang digunakan untuk mendharmakan seorang tokoh, dapat dikatakan memiliki fungsi mirip makam. Contoh: Candi Kidal (pendharmaan Anusapati, raja Singhasari), candi Jajaghu (Pendharmaan Wisnuwardhana, raja Singhasari), Candi Rimbi (pendharmaan Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi, ibu Hayam Wuruk), Candi Tegowangi (pendharmaan Bhre Matahun), dan Candi Surawana (pendharmaan Bhre Wengker).

Quote:An :Terus apa saja fungsi dari sebuah candi ?
Ark:Macam2,mulai dari :

1.Candi Pemujaan: candi Hindu yang paling umum, dibangun untuk memuja dewa, dewi, atau bodhisatwa tertentu, contoh: candi Prambanan, candi Canggal, candi Sambisari, dan candi Ijo yang menyimpan lingga dan dipersembahkan utamanya untuk Siwa, candi Kalasan dibangun untuk memuliakan Dewi Tara, sedangkan candi Sewu untuk memuja Manjusri.
2.Candi Stupa: didirikan sebagai lambang Budha atau menyimpan relik buddhis, atau sarana ziarah agama Buddha. Secara tradisional stupa digunakan untuk menyimpan relikui buddhis seperti abu jenazah, kerangka, potongan kuku, rambut, atau gigi yang dipercaya milik Buddha Gautama, atau bhiksu Buddha terkemuka, atau keluarga kerajaan penganut Buddha. Beberapa stupa lainnya dibangun sebagai sarana ziarah dan ritual, contoh: candi Borobudur, candi Sumberawan, dan candi Muara Takus
3.Candi Pedharmaan: sama dengan kategori candi pribadi, yakni candi yang dibangun untuk memuliakan arwah raja atau tokoh penting yang telah meninggal. Candi ini kadang berfungsi sebagai candi pemujaan juga karena arwah raja yang telah meninggal seringkali dianggap bersatu dengan dewa perwujudannya, contoh: candi Belahan tempat Airlangga dicandikan, arca perwujudannya adalah sebagai Wishnu menunggang Garuda. Candi Simping di Blitar, tempat Raden Wijaya didharmakan sebagai dewa Harihara.
4.Candi Pertapaan: didirikan di lereng-lereng gunung tempat bertapa, contoh: candi-candi di lereng Gunung Penanggungan, kelompok candi Dieng dan candi Gedong Songo, serta Candi Liyangan di lereng timur Gunung Sundoro, diduga selain berfungsi sebagai pemujaan, juga merupakan tempat pertapaan sekaligus situs permukiman.
5.Candi Wihara: didirikan untuk tempat para biksu atau pendeta tinggal dan bersemadi, candi seperti ini memiliki fungsi sebagai permukiman atau asrama, contoh: candi Sari dan Plaosan
6.Candi Gerbang: didirikan sebagai gapura atau pintu masuk, contoh: gerbang di kompleks Ratu Boko, Bajang Ratu, Wringin Lawang, dan candi Plumbangan.
7.Candi Petirtaan: didirikan didekat sumber air atau di tengah kolam dan fungsinya sebagai pemandian, contoh: Petirtaan Belahan, Jalatunda, dan candi Tikus

Quote:An :Terakhir,apa saja bahan untuk membangun candi ?
Ark:Ada bermacam2 bahan yang digunakan untuk membangun sebuah candi,antara lain :

1. Batu andesit, batu bekuan vulkanik yang ditatah membentuk kotak-kotak yang saling kunci. Batu andesit bahan candi harus dibedakan dari batu kali. Batu kali meskipun mirip andesit tapi keras dan mudah pecah jika ditatah (sukar dibentuk). Batu andesit yang cocok untuk candi adalah yang terpendam di dalam tanah sehingga harus ditambang di tebing bukit.
2.Batu putih (tuff), batu endapan piroklastik berwarna putih, digunakan di Candi Pembakaran di kompleks Ratu Boko. Bahan batu putih ini juga ditemukan dijadikan sebagai bahan isi candi, dimana bagian luarnya dilapis batu andesit
3.Bata merah, dicetak dari lempung tanah merah yang dikeringkan dan dibakar. Candi Majapahit dan Sumatera banyak menggunakan bata merah.
4.Stuko (stucco), yaitu bahan semacam beton dari tumbukan batu dan pasir. Bahan stuko ditemukan di percandian Batu Jaya.
5.Bajralepa (vajralepa), yaitu bahan lepa pelapis dinding candi semacam plaster putih kekuningan untuk memperhalus dan memperindah sekaligus untuk melindungi dinding dari kerusakan. Bajralepa dibuat dari campuran pasir vulkanik dan kapur halus. Konon campuran bahan lain juga digunakan seperti getah tumbuhan, putih telur, dan lain-lain. Bekas-bekas bajralepa ditemukan di candi Sari dan candi Kalasan. Kini pelapis bajralepa telah banyak yang mengelupas.
6.Kayu, beberapa candi diduga terbuat dari kayu atau memiliki komponen kayu. Candi kayu serupa dengan Pura Bali yang ditemukan kini. Beberapa candi tertinggal hanya batu umpak atau batur landasannya saja yang terbuat dari batu andesit atau bata, sedangkan atasnya yang terbuat dari bahan organik kayu telah lama musnah. Beberapa dasar batur di Trowulan Majapahit disebut candi, meskipun sesungguhnya merupakan landasan pendopo yang bertiang kayu. Candi Sambisari dan candi Kimpulan memiliki umpak yang diduga candi induknya dinaungi bangunan atap kayu. Beberapa candi seperti Candi Sari dan Candi Plaosan memiliki komponen kayu karena pada struktur batu ditemukan bekas lubang-lubang untuk meletakkan kayu gelagar penyangga lantai atas, serta lubang untuk menyisipkan daun pintu dan jeruji jendela.

Quote:An :Oh ya saya hampir lupa,bagaimanakah seorang arkeolog memperlakukan sebuah candi ?
Ark:Pertanyaan yang sudah saya tunggu sejak awal,jadi begini seorang arkeolog memperlakukan sebuah candi sesuai dengan kode etik ilmu arkeologi.Jadi sebuah candi harus berdiri di tempatnya ditemukan (selama tidak ada proses tafonomi) dan jika harus disusun harus menggunakan batu aslinya.Jika candi benar2 runtuh dan batu aslinya belum ditemukan,maka bisa diganti dengan batu baru,tapi harus diberi tanda.Tujuannya jika batu aslinya ditemukan kembali,maka batu baru bisa diganti dengan batu asli.Jika anda melihat pada candi Prambanan ada beberapa batu yang tidak memiliki reliefnya dan berbeda sendiri,maka itu termasuk batu baru.
Karena apa ?Ketika batu baru diberi relief,maka akan menghilangkan kesan otentiknya.Pak Soekmono pernah memberi catatan ketika candi Prambanan akan direkonstruksi kembali bahwa Candi boleh dibangun kembali,asalkan batu baru tidak boleh lebih dari 30 % dari batu lama.Pak Soekmono sendiri lebih suka candi dibiarkan runtuh karena menambahkan kesan eksostisnya.Sama halnya pemerintah Kamboja membiarkan Candi Angkor Thom ditutupi semak belukar dan runtuh agar terlihat eksotis.
Quote:Sekedara tambahan :
Anda Bertanya Arkeolog Menjawab :: Seputar Candi
Antefiks,hanya berfungsi sebagai hiasan

Anda Bertanya Arkeolog Menjawab :: Seputar Candi
Lingga Yoni,simbol dari kesuburan

Anda Bertanya Arkeolog Menjawab :: Seputar Candi
Jaladwara,fungsinya seperti saluran pembuangan air pada masa sekarang.

Anda Bertanya Arkeolog Menjawab :: Seputar Candi
Stupa,susunan batu yang berbentuk setenga lingkaran yang berfungsi untuk menyimpan relik atau abu.

Quote:Sumber :
Soekmono, 1974. Candi Fungsi dan Pengertiannya, UI Press.
George Michell,Hindhu Art & Architecture

(1) Eathenware Budhist Tablet astifact

(2) Earthenware Jar Kendi artifact

(3) Eatherware Jarlet buli-buli artfact

(4) other old artifact finding

 

Batujaya Museum

The Jokowi History Collection

Part One

Created By

DR Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Limited E-Book In CD-ROM

Special For Senior Collectors And Historian

Copyrighy @ Dr Iwan 2014

 

INTRODUCTION

Saya mulai tertarik dengan Jokowi saat pemimilu Daerah Gubernur DKI, dan kemudian saat Pilpres RI 2014 walaupun kemudian saya beralih ke capres PrabowoSubianto karena saya menginggat jasa ayahnya

Prof Sumitro mendirikan Fakultas Ekonomi di Padang sumatera Barat tempat kelahiran saya dan Prof Sumitro membantu perjuangan rakyat Sumatera Barat menentang Komunisme.

Kemudian saya kembali tertarik dengan Jokowi karena Prabo tidak mengakui hasil PIlpres dan mengugatnya di Makamah Konstitusi,sifatnya yang arogan membuat simpari saya menghilang walaupun saat Pemilu saya memilihnya.

Untuk mengrahui bagaimana perlkembangan peranan presiden Indonesia Ke 7 Joko Widodo dengan

wakilnya Moh Jusuf Kall(JK) saya akan mulai mengumpulkan informasi sejak kampanye Pemilu dimulai baik dari surat Kabar maupun dari internet,dan inilah hasilnya.

Semoga Karya Tulis ini dapat menjadi masukan bagi generasi penerus,dimasa mendatang.

Selamat Pak Jokowi dan JK kami mengharapkan anda berdua dapat meningkatkan peran dan keberhasilan Republik Indonesia baik dalam negeri maupun luar negeri seperti yang di diharapkan oleh seluruh rakyat Indonesia

Jakarta Agustus 2014

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Presdien RI

Komentar Dr Iwan

Presiden Jokowi, hati-hati bila tanda tangan sesuatu, anda telah keliru menadatangani prasasasti huruf keliru

PELUMBACURAN yang seharusnya PELUNCURAN, jika Bapak telah lupa akn janji membuat telaga raksasa di Jakarta dan juga pembangunan lainnya nanti juga akan lupa, tentu anda seharusnya bersumpah demi nama allah untuk selalu meminta ILHAM dan KEPINTARAN untuk dapat memecahkan permasalahan didunia yang penunh tandatangan dan ancama,serta memberikan peneranga agar seluruh rakyat Indoensia waspada terhadap berbagai ancama, jika bapak laksanakan tentu Bapak akan dipilih pada prode berikutnya

Dr Iwan Suwandy

Konusltan Informasi

 

Hi Iwan

And I’m sorry, but it’s a tough one.

Who was the most important artist of the 1960s?

I know, I know.

What a ridiculous thing to ask.

How do you even answer that?

You’ve got all of the Beatles.

The Rolling Stones, the Grateful Dead…

There’s Jimi Hendrix,

Joni Mitchell and

Jim Morrison alongside countless others from

Ray Davies to

Brian Wilson.

Let’s not even start on

Motown.

I can hear you banging your head against your desk.

I’ve been banging mine for the past couple of hours.

But humour me.

Which one?

Who’s the one person to personify the spirit of the era?

Because if you asked me…

After a lot of thought…

And enough head banging to give me a mild concussion…

I would have to say

Bob Dylan.

Bob Dylan was the voice of his generation

AKA Robert Zimmerman.

The nobody from nowhere who arrived in New York in 1961, to pay his respects to

a dying Woody Guthrie…

Who passed him the torch of the great American folk tradition

Think about it.

Dylan revolutionised folk music, breathing life into a dying sound.

In his music we hear the voice of the new America.

The sound of changing times.

Author Joyce Carol Oates once wrote: “When we first heard this raw, very young, and seemingly untrained voice, frankly nasal, as if sandpaper could sing, the effect was dramatic and electrifying.”

His songs are eternal.

They speak to all ages and backgrounds.

Do you remember the first time you heard Blowing in the Wind?

I do

And so do millions of others.

In 100 years’ time people will still be listening to his music.

I’ve got something for you

It’s a set list signed by Dylan.

Bob Dylan Autographed Set List

For Sale: £2,950.00

  • Bob Dylan handwritten set list from a 2001 concert
  • Signed by the artist clearly in black pen
  • Lists some of his most famous songs

Bob Dylan (1941-) is one of the most influential musicians of all time, who has had a “profound impact on popular music and American culture, marked by lyrical compositions of extraordinary poetic power.” His career has spanned more than five decades, but nonetheless quality memorabilia remains extremely rare due to his private nature.

Dylan has handwritten and autographed this set list for a live concert performance in Seattle, Washington in 2001, “To Celery, Best wishes! Bob Dylan, 2001”. ‘Celery’ was a member of staff helping on the tour.

Each section of the show is divided into groups of songs, beginning with Shine the Light and ending with the enigmatic All Along the Watch Tower. Dylan’s autograph is placed on a blank section of this list.
The list is written in thick black marker, while Dylan’s signature is inscribed in fine black pen. There is some handwritten blue text on the back of the page. Some light folds and creases to the page, otherwise in excellent condition.

This item qualifies for our layaway plan

For Sale: £2,950.00


Stock Status:In Stock 
 
Product Code: PT620

 

From a gig in Seattle, Washington in 2001

5 things you never knew about Bob Dylan

  1. Dylan has worked under various aliases over the years, from Elston Gunn to Blind Boy Grunt.
    4. He’s the only rock musician ever awarded a Pulitzer Prize.
    3. In 1997 he performed for Pope John Paul II. 
    2. He’s released 36 studio albums over the years. 
    1. While he was born Jewish, he became an evangelical Christian in the 1970s.

Source

Paul

 

Source

Twitter

 

Hi iwan,

Welcome to your Paul Fraser Collectibles newsletter.

First for you this week:

Cold Blood

Have your read Truman Capote’s In Cold Blood, or seen the film? It is the account of the horrific murder of a Kansas family in 1959.

And now a guitar owned by one of the two men responsible is coming to auction at Guernsey’s in New York.

Capote mentions Smith’s guitar several times in his book

Perry Smith’s Gibson-made guitar auctions with a $175,000 high estimate at the end of the month. It is accompanied in the lot by the guitar played by

Robert Blake in the 1967 film adaptation.

Guernsey’s comments: “The In Cold Blood pair of guitars in the auction must constitute one of the most unusual musical offerings ever: those who vividly recall the legendary Truman Capote book and movie will remember that Perry Smith, the much-analyzed killer, toted his guitar everywhere.”

Che Guevara’s cigar box

Personal items connected with Che Guevara are rare. So you can be sure the auction of the revolutionary’s cigar box will cause excitement on March 1

 

Cuban history of this calibre is a rare find

It’s expected to make around £10,000-12,000 ($14,500-17,398).

“Items relating to this period of Cuban history rarely appear on the market. We have only handled one Che Guevara signed photo in the last 10 years,” says Ben Jones of Mullock’s –

 

Christmas tales

Rare Book Chrsimast Tale

short stories written

by Charles Dickens in the 1850s.

A unique Christmassy Christmas Gift

Before you say anything , I Know

I Know it’s only November 17 away

I know Christmas is more than five weeks But I make no apology for talking chrismas with you today

You need to know about this now

Because this is such a special Christmas gift for you and your family

 

 

Memorabilia3

Trade Card

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Copyright @ 2015

 

 

 

 

Babe Ruth

In the week that Shakespeare’s will went on display in London, the will of another legendary artisan has come to light.

Babe Ruth’s last will and testament will auction on February 20 with a $150,000 estimate.

Babe Ruth memorabilia can sell for millions

Ruth (1895-1948) signed the will in 1933, two years before he played his last professional game.

Ruth artefacts are the most valuable in the sports memorabilia arena. His 1920 Yankees road jersey sold for $4.4 million in 2012 – a sports memorabilia record

 

 

 

Ty Cobs Card History Collections

By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Consultan Information

Limited E-Book In CD-Rom Edition

Copyright @ Dr Iwan 2016

 

I have seen a very rare Baseball Card Collections

 

Ty Cobb Baseball Cards and Autographs: A Peach of an Investment

Ty Cobb is synonymous with the dead ball era of baseball.  Most of his 22-year career was spent with the Detroit Tigers.  This Hall of Fame inductee had a very colorful life, both on and off the field.  Also, he was one of the few players, who performed the dual function of player and manager.  Ty Cobb baseball cards and autographs are among the most sought after in the hobby.

Comment in google eksploration as upload below

Ty Cobb Baseball Cards and Autographs: A Peach of an Investment

Ty Cobb is synonymous with the dead ball era of baseball.  Most of his 22-year career was spent with the Detroit Tigers.  This Hall of Fame inductee had a very colorful life, both on and off the field.  Also, he was one of the few players, who performed the dual function of player and manager.  Ty Cobb baseball cards and autographs are among the most sought after in the hobby.

Collecting Ty Cobb memorabilia

Cobb’s original baseball cards have been collected for decades.  Every generation of collector rightfully views him as one of the greatest baseball players of all-time.  Validating his popularity, Cobb was named to Major League Baseball’s All Century Team.

Because he excelled in so many areas of the game, many collectible subsets have him included.  Examples would be the following:  .300 batting club, 3,000 hit club,  Hall of Famers, stolen base leaders and many more.

Even though Cobb spent the 1927 and 1928 seasons with the Philadelphia Athletics, team collectors associate him with the Tigers and Detroit team collectors view Cobb as a pinnacle card in their team sets

1932 US Caramel Ty Cobb

Cobb’s personality, brash as it was during his playing days, probably helps his status.  He’s considered one of the game’s most feared tough guys.

Investment quality of Ty Cobb cards

Cobb, like stocks within the Dow Jones Industrial Average, is considered a blue-chip player and investment.  His cards steadily and consistently appreciate in value, especially when viewed over five and ten year time horizons.

There are enough issues of his cards to provide liquidity, while maintaining scarcity at higher grades.  For investors, who wish to add Cobb to their investment portfolios, they should look at both cards and autographs.  Each presents their own, unique opportunities.

Ty Cobb autographs

Cobb lived until 1961 and signed autographs for many years after his playing days, although he wasn’t exactly a man about town.  He was a prodigious letter writer and many Cobb letters have made their way into the marketplace (there are usually a few on eBay via this link and they are fascinating–even those simply responding to fans).   Prices vary dramatically.  Thhere are a lot of autographs in the market, but still not enough to keep up with collector and investor demand.  Be sure to buy with a certificate of authenticity from a leader in the field such as JSA or PSA.

A fairly large quantity of Cobb signed checks also exist and with forgery still an issue in the industry, a signed check is one way to collect authentic signatures without much worry.  Expect to pay at least $1,200-$2,000 for one.

Below are some of the most popular Cobb cards in the marketplace, although by no means does the list showcase all of those from his playing career.  Click the title of each to see that particular issue being offered by eBay sellers.

Top Ty Cobb Baseball Cards to Watch

1912 T202 Hassan Cobb and Jennings/Ty Cobb Steals Third– This card, like no other, captures the true grit and determination of the player.  The middle of the multi-player tobacco issue features a photo of Cobb sliding into third base.  With Hughie Jennings sharing space with Cobb on this rectangular issue, you can’t lose.  Cobb also appears on other combinations in the T202 set.

1914, 1915 Cracker JackThe 1914 Cracker Jack set is exceedingly rare but collectors can find 1915 Cracker Jack Ty Cobb cards in the market.  They’re still quite scarce and expensive.  However, the sets are very popular because of Cobb’s stature, the desirability of the set itself and Cracker Jack’s still iconic status in American culture

1911 T205 Gold Border – A lithograph portrait of Ty Cobb is featured on the front of the card.  The gold border gives this one an elegant quality but they are also prone to showing wear because of it. Like the T206 issue, these come with various cigarette brand ads on the back and the less common brands can command big money.  However, the best advice is to buy the best quality Cobb you can afford.  Mid-grade examples can be found for $2,000 and less but near mint issues will run into the tens of thousands.

1909 E95 Philadelphia Caramel – If you’re looking for the quintessential Cobb portrait, this might be it. The E95 baseball card set is attractive and popular but Cobb’s card is spectacular. Standing in the collared uniform with the famous Tigers cap on his head, Cobb’s lithograph portrait is set against a red background.  The card is a more economical alternative to the T206 issue and around ten can usually be found on eBay with prices reflecting the smaller number of cards available compared to T205 and T206 Cobb cards

1909-1911 T206 How popular was Cobb?  Popular enough to have four different card issued in this set, which was produced during the height of his career.  There are two portrait cards, one picturing him with a bat on his shoulder and another with the bat just off his shoulder.  T206 cards were produced with several different types of cigarette ads on the back and the most rare examples of these will command the highest prices and be in demand but so will higher grade T206 Cobbs, regardless of back.

Of course, the rarest Cobb card is the T206 style with the ‘Ty Cobb Tobacco’ back.  Issued only in tins of a brand of tobacco endorsed by Cobb, only a small number exist and they sell for huge prices.  In 2013, a PSA 1 example sold for $120,109 via Goldin Auctions.

Ty Cobb baseball cards and autographs have proven to be a worthy investment and it’s unlikely that will change.   Cobb’s status as one of the game’s greatest players remains intact.  You’ll have competition in the marketplace, but compare prices of completed sales and bid or buy accordingly.

Source

B.Cardin Inv.

More info look.

E-Book In CD-Rom

Ty cobs history collctions

By Dr iwan suwandy,MHA

Consultan information or in web blog Hhtp//www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

Or via email iwansuwandy@gmail.com for mor information or coonsulation the the original or flase card and the value of the card original or repepro

 

 

 

 

o    IDR32,467,532.47

 

Memorabilia5

Magazine

 

intage magazines appeal to people who have a particular interest in old paper, to be sure, but they are also collected for the specific content on and between their covers.

For example,

those who have fond

memories of JFK may seek out copies of the November 29, 1963, issue of “Life,” with its formal portrait of the recently assassinated 35th president on its somber cover.

Serious Beatles fans almost certainly want a copy of the January 9, 1968, issue of “Look,” which included a quartet of full-page, psychedelic photos of John, Paul, George, and Ringo by Richard Avedon.

And military historians may collect copies of “Colliers” printed during World War II for its articles by Martha Gellhorn, who famously stowed away on a hospital ship so she could report on the D-Day landing at Normandy.

Not all magazine collectors are so high-minded. Year in and year out,

one of the most popular vintage-magazine titles has been “Playboy,” especially its undated first issue from December of 1953, which featured a Marilyn Monroe centerfold. For those who claim that they only read “Playboy” for the articles, there are numerous more literary issues to choose from,

including the March, April, and May editions from 1954, in which Ray Bradbury’s “Fahrenheit 451” was serialized in its entirety.

For art lovers, there are old copies of “The Saturday Evening Post,” which were famous for its covers by Norman Rockwell, and “Harper’s Weekly,” which occasionally had covers by Maxfield Parrish.

More recently, copies of “Oz,” a London music, fashion, and culture magazine from the late 1960s, have been in demand for the artwork created for it by Martin Sharp, who silkscreened posters of Bob Dylan on foil and made album covers for Cream.

Other magazines fall somewhere between comic books and science-fiction novels, such as issues of “Amazing Stories,” which, in the 1940s,

reprinted a number of Edgar Rice Burroughs’ tales of earthman John Carter’s adventures on Mars, or, as it was named by Burroughs, Barsoom. “Argosy” was also an outlet for Burroughs, serializing his “Tarzan” adventures in the 1920s and ’30s.

Finally, there are magazines that are infamous for being spot-on parodies of other magazines.

In 1972, the “Harvard Lampoon” produced its version of “Cosmopolitan,” which featured a nude centerfold of

Henry Kissinger, which was as disgusting as you might imagine it would be. Not to be outdone, in 1980, “New West” produced a slim but brilliant five-page parody of “Sunset” which it called “Sunsect,” featuring a family picnicking in the shadow of a nuclear power plant on the cover and articles such as “Mule trips into East Los Angeles–a guide” and “Tulips so big they eat meat” inside.

 The End @ Copyright Dr iwan 2016

INILAH KENANG-KENANGAN DARI dR iwan bagi seluruh teman-teman dan keluarga besar , dibuat saat setelah musim hujan yang penuh prihatin.

Saya harap kleuarga besar akan tetap meneruskan web blog ini apabila suatu waktu saya sudah taka da lagi didunia ini

 dan koleksi tersebut hendaknya tetap disimpan dlam museum leluhur kita WANLI di rumah yang sya peroleh s=dari ahsil penjualan koleksi saya.

yang saya kumpul sejak berumur sepuluh tahun (tahun 1955) sampai tahun 2016 ditambah koleksi yang akan dtang diperkirakan dua puluh tahun ;lagi (2036), saat ini entah dima a aku berada di gunung, dihutan,didasar laut , didlam sungai atau masih melayang0-melayang diudara, karena itu sya minta cucu saya antoni wiliam suwandy membacakan pesan saya terakhirr di saat jenazah saya dimakamkan secara militer saat trompet dan genderang dan temabakan diletuskan SAMBIL MENDEKAP PISTL MAINAN YANG oPA JANJIKAN YANG BELUM DISERAHKAN.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

If I told you, iwan.

That just minutes from now…

…you could own a piece of American folklore…

…would you believe me?

I don’t blame you if you’re sceptical.

But it’s true.

Because I have for you a piece of memorabilia from an American folk hero.

A folk hero as much an American legend as Daniel Boone, Johnny Appleseed or Davy Crockett.

A folk hero as much a part of the story of America as the Plymouth Rock, the US Constitution, or Ellis Island.

“Impossible Paul”

Impossible to own a piece that important? That legendary? That rare?

It’s not impossible.

This item is rare, yes. Hugely, rare. Which means these things appear for sale but seldom.

But it is possible.

And today is one of those rare occasions.

Are you ready?

This is a piece of paper.

A piece of paper bearing a letterhead from the Crosby House hotel, in Beaumont, Texas.

106 years ago, one of the legends of the Old West took out a pen…

…and wrote seven words on this piece of paper.

The folk hero who wrote these seven words is so celebrated…

…so much a part of American culture…

…that she is almost mythical.

“Did she really exist?” children ask, as though her feats were so legendary, she can’t have been real.

It’s why this piece of personal memorabilia is so exhilarating for you to own.

It’s the myth becoming a reality.

This woman was such a dead-eye shot she could:

  →  

Shoot a cigarette from your mouth at 50 paces 

  →  

Snuff out a candle’s flame with a single bullet 

  →  

Split a playing card in two along its edge

You’ve got it now, I’m sure.

We’re talking Annie Oakley. Who took on the men, and spanked their behinds.

The farm girl now a folk hero: Annie Oakley

The Annie Oakley who, besides being the finest shot around, was also:

America’s most famous woman: At 5 foot nothing, with a gun slung over her shoulder, and a femininity offset with a swagger that said “look but don’t touch”, her shows sold out in America and around the world.

A pioneer for women’s rights: Not only did she shoot guns for a living, Oakley taught 15,000 women to handle guns for self-defence. She once said: “I ain’t afraid to love a man. I ain’t afraid to shoot him either.”

Today, perhaps many know her story from the musical Annie Get Your Gun. Perhaps the true woman behind the legend is in danger of being lost.

But not for you.

Not when you own this striking rare autograph and inscription

I am thanking you!” writes Annie Oakley

This is a hand-signed note from Annie Oakley from 1910.

It reads “Annie Oakley Butler. I am thanking you!”

(Butler was her married name).

Who was the sharpshooter thanking on this day 106 years ago? We don’t know.

What we do know is that Annie’s signature is stunning

Crisp and confident: a gorgeous signature

Just look at the crispness. The confidence. This is a woman who knows she is good. And in 1910, she is at the top of her game.

What’s more, the autograph, inscription and piece of paper are in excellent condition. And that’s not all you get.

Because this note comes mounted and framed – along with a superb Annie Oakley photograph. It all makes for a stunning piece of American history

Annie Oakley Autographed Note

For Sale: £2,950.00

  • Note autographed by legendary sharpshooter Annie Oakley, star of Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show

Annie Oakley (1860-1926) was an American sharpshooter and exhibition shooter. Dubbed “Little Sure Shot” by Chief Sitting Bull, 5-foot-tall Annie rose to fame in her role in Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show.

This item features Annie’s autograph, reading “Annie Oakley Butler. I am thanking you”, dated 1910, on headed stationary (7.5cm x 18.5xcm) from the ‘Crosby House Hotel” in Beaumont, Texas. The “Butler” element of her name comes after she marrised traveling show marksman and dog trainer Fracis E Butler in 1876. 

This wonderful autograph is in excellent condition and comes mounted, framed and glazed with an image of Oakley.

This item qualifies for our layaway plan

For Sale: £2,950.00

One you will love showcasing on your wall.

And if you’re still reading, I’m guessing you’d love to know its price.

Ann ie Oakley

1860: Born into a farming family in Ohio. Aged 8, Annie starts shooting game to support her family, and sells the animals to local shops and restaurants. By 15, Annie’s prowess has paid off the family mortgage on their farm. 
1876: Aged just 15, Annie beats renowned show marksman Frank E Butler in a shooting contest. Annie marries him the following year. 
1885: Joins the famous Buffalo Bill’s Wild West show and is the star attraction for the next 16 years. 
1890: While touring Germany, Oakley shoots the cigarette out of Kaiser Wilhelm II’s hand – missing the opportunity to prevent WWI. When war breaks out, Oakley writes to the Kaiser asking for a second shot. She receives no reply. 
1917: Turned down by the US government to head a women’s division of sharpshooters in WWI. Instead, Annie raises money for the Red Cross by putting on shooting displays for the troops. 
1926: Dies a legend

How much?

Remember.

Annie Oakley stuff is rare. Her autograph is rare. And collectors want it. Which means major auction prices. In recent years I’ve seen:

  →  

Annie’s shotgun sell for $240,000 

  →  

Annie’s Stetson hat auction for $15,000 

  →  

An Annie-signed photo make $11,000

So what price for this striking Annie Oakley handwritten note today?

£5,000 ($7,120)? No, lower.

£4,000 ($5,696)? No, lower.

£3,000 ($4,272) surely?

This is yours for just £2,950 ($4,200).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ice hockey

I don’t often get to talk ice hockey in these emails. But today is an exception. Because Classic Auctions’ winter auction took place earlier this week.

If you’re a connoisseur of the game, you’ll know the name Dave Keon, who was at the heart of the Toronto Maple Leafs team in the 60s and 70s.

Dave Keon played for the Toronto Maple Leafs the
last time they lifted the Stanley Cup – 1967

A jersey he wore in his rookie season was the top seller, making $52,360.

There was also a strong performance from Canada goalie Ed Belfour’s 2002 Winter Olympic medal. It made $25,015, while a Bobby Orr Boston Bruins “gamer” achieved $12,518.

Memorabilia19Tiger

 

Pre scandal

2009

 

Post Scandal

2010

For tweleve Year

 

The End @ Copyright Dr Iwan 2016

 

 

 

 

Source Paul

 

 

 

 

 

in small museums near candi Jiwa

 

Candi Jiwa yang pertama kali ditemukan di Situs Batujaya. Ada 24 candi di kompleks ini, di permukaan. Belum yang rata/ bawah permukaan tanah. Teridentifikasi 30 umur, seluas 5 km2

24 candi sekaligus. Itu baru di permukaan, belum yang di bawah permukaan. Bisa jadi yang terbesar di Asia Tenggara. ( kalau sabar, Allah takkan menyia-nyiakan kesabaran itu, kan ? Dihadiah full packed : candi, gerabah kuno, kerangka prasejarah, keramik, dll. You name it ). Situs Batujaya telah teridentifikasi 30 umur dengan luas sekitar 5 kilometer persegi. Dahulu di sepanjang pesisir Karawang berjejer bangunan tertua di Indonesia. Abad 4 Masehi. Warisan kerajaan Budha kuno, Tarumanegara

Source

http://anisavitri.wordpress.com/2010/05/19/situs-batujaya-prasejarah-tarumanagara-terbesar-di-asia-tenggara/

 

There is another candi at batujaya named Candi Cangkuang

Hasan Djafar , UI archaeologists , head of the excavation team Batujaya site , describes the discovery of coherent this site . Excavations have been going on for 22 years has resulted in many discoveries of artifacts : bongkah2 red brick which can then be reconstructed temples are quite large , pottery – pottery , beads , clay tablets and surprising and newly discovered in 2006 this ( mainly July 2006 ) is the discovery of dozens of human skeletons were still intact from the skull to the soles of the feet .


Two women archaeologists French and Dutch nationals specifically come to this site for skeletons excavated at the site Batujaya , take some samples of bones and teeth and will do a DNA study of the fossil bones and teeth in order to get the physical characteristics of the data are more complete . Latest methods in archeology is that a fossil specimen of the human race must be carried out by archaeologists from different races . Possible , to avoid contamination when sampling . Because the human skeleton race in Batujaya estimated from Indonesia , namely Mongolid , then who took the sample is orang2 of the European race ( Caucasian ) .
Research over the course of 20 years has produced some tentative conclusions , namely : ( 1 ) the site was on the verge of pre – history and history of Indonesia ( 4th century and 5th AD , the current limit of pre – history and history of Indonesia is AD 400 years ) , ( 2 ) temple Batujaya made ​​of batamerah and discrete Buddhist temple , ( 3 ) pottery and beads were found is from the Neolithic period , ( 4 ) votive tablets ( a kind of seal ) of baked clay bearing short posts in Pallava script .

The Beattles

History Collections

Edited By

Dr Iwan Suwandy<MHA

Consultan information

Copyright@2015

 

PART ONE

CHRONOLOGY HISTORY COLLECTIONS

Imagine, iwan.

You’ve bought an autograph. You love it.

You have it mounted and framed. You hang it on your wall. You show it off to friends, neighbours, the postman.

But then the doubts begin.

Perhaps you notice other autographs from this famous figure don’t match yours. Perhaps a friend asks “how do you know it’s real?” and it sets you thinking. Or perhaps something just doesn’t feel right.

So you send it to an expert for authentication.

The reply is everything you’ve feared.

“In our opinion this autograph is not genuine”.

It leaves you feeling stupid. A chump. Not to mention out of pocket.

Every time you see it you feel furious. Furious with the seller who swindled you. Furious at yourself for being scammed.

Think I’m scaremongering? Think it won’t happen to you?

Do you know what percentage of autographs on eBay are fakes?

An estimated 80%.

And if you own a signature from one of the 10 famous names on the list below, you’re in real danger.

Because this is autograph authenticator PSA/DNA’s latest list of the 10 most “dangerous” historical and entertainment autographs.

By “dangerous” they mean most likely to be forged.

The dangerous top 10

  1. Star Wars cast
  2. The Rolling Stones
  3. Jimi Hendrix
  4. Led Zeppelin
  5. Marilyn Monroe
  6. Michael Jackson
  7. John F Kennedy
  8. Neil Armstrong
  9. Elvis Presley
  10. The Beatles

“So what’s the answer Paul?”

Don’t run to the hills, vowing never to buy an autograph again.

INSTEAD.

Realise that you can enjoy the incredible hobby of autograph collecting withcomplete confidence.

How?

You have two options:

  1. Become an expert:This takes years of study and experience. There’s no shortcut. Few in the world can genuinely say they are.

Or.

  1. Buy from an expert you trust:I have been trading in autographs since 1977. That is 39 years. In those 39 years I’ve handled tens of thousands of signatures. I’ve seen it all, from terrible fakes to the almost superb.

My 39 years in the business mean I don’t get caught out.

Which means when you buy from me, you know you’re buying the real thing.

And you also get a further layer of security.

Because when you buy from me you get my Lifetime Moneyback Guarantee of Authenticity.

Which means if the autograph turns out to be fake in the future – I will give you your money back. Every penny.

I am happy to offer you this guarantee because I know you’ll never need to use it.

Want to own an autograph you know is genuine?

If you want to own an autograph on the “dangerous” list, but are scared you’re going to get stung, keep reading.

These are four genuine autographs from the “dangerous” list you can buy now at Paul Fraser Collectibles.

The Beatles

Danger alert.

The Beatles are the world’s most popular autograph. Which also makes them the most forged. Always be on your guard.

The most desirable Beatles autographs feature all four members. Autographs such as this:

Four genuine Beatles signatures: just £7,950 ($11,371)

This is a page from an autograph album, signed by John, Paul, George and Ringo in bright blue ink.

Look at the life in these autographs. The youthful excitement of the band and their fans leaps from the page. This piece of paper truly captures the essence of the Beatles and the Beatlemania era.

I’ve seen signed copies of the Beatles’ Sgt Pepper album sell for as much as $290,500. But there are still good deals available at Paul Fraser Collectibles.

This item does have mild staining to the bottom right. Which is why I’m offering you it for just £7,950 ($11,371)

 

1961

THE BEAT BROTHERS

The Beatles First Recorded In Hamburg Germany , Tony Sheridan’s On My Bonnie In 1961 with named “ The Beat Brother”

(part Of Contract)

Complete document look below

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Original source

Paul

 

Cavern 1961

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1964

 

Meet The Beattles at Aintree Institue Invitation 1961

 

Top of Form

Earlier today, we posted about the 1962 Beatles poster, and ticket

The rebel Rouser ticket years (?)

 

 

 

Theter Ticket fil A Grand River Cruis 1962

Two Ticket 1962

Pier head Liverpool 1962

 

 

 

Winter Garden 1963

Odeon Romford 1st performance ticket year(?)

 

 

Bournemouth theater 1963

Mr Smith’s Nightclub 1963

Ticket 1963

 

Vintage Photo London 1963

 

 

 

 

 

TV scene Southampton 1963

Mersey View Ballrom A Dabnce ticet 1963

Juke box ticket 1963’

 

Royal Variety Performance 1963

Vintage Photo Forthlin Road 1963

Top of Form

The Beatles taking a break from recording `From Me To You’, `The One After 909′ and `Thank You Girl’ at Abbey Road Studios with George Martin, 5th March 1963

Bottom of Form

 

 

Let it be show at The London Pavilluion Picadilly Cirbus Ticket

 

Hyde Park 1964

Four types Ticket 1964

Two Vintgae Photo, Twickenham studio 1964

All I Need is Love,japan,1964

Don’t Buy My Love,Japan,1964

 

 

 

A Hard Day’s Night 1964 Nederland

 

At Bar 1964

 

I feel Fine-She’s AWomen Netherland 1964

Guiters Abey Road Photo 1964

 

Madame tussaud 1964

Ringo drummer 1964 at The rock and Roll Hall Of Fame 1964

Vintgae Photo Fans London 1964

 

The Introduction Of Postal and Document History Republic Indonesia 1950-1955 Exhibiton at Driwancybermuseum (Pameran koleksi Negara Kesatuan RI 1950_55)

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Welcome To Driwancybermuseum Blog And Home Office

Selamat Datang Para Kolektor Dari seluruh dunia Ke Museum dunia Maya Dan Homeoffice Dr Iwan Suwandy.

Driwancybermuseum’s Blog

tarian betawi tempo dulu                 

                           hallo  collectors from all over the world

                       WELCOME TO Dr IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

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 *ill 001  THE MUSUEM LOGO IMPERIAL MING  DRAGON FIVE CLOWN*ill 001

           THE FIRST INDONESIAN UNIQOECOLLECTIONS CYBERMUSEUM

                                   THE FOUNDER  Dr IWAN SUWANDY

                                                         

    THE FOUNDER FLOWER IDLE: MING IMPERIAL WANLI CHRYSANTHENUM

  

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                    WELCOME TO THE  MAIN “FREEDOM HALL” 

       

                                                               FOR

                                        INTERNATIONAL OR REGIONAL 

                                           MEETING AND EXHIBITIONS

                                              PERMANENT  EXHIBITION

1.THE SILVER UNIQUECOLLECTION ANNIVERSARY EXHBITIONS

                               

                     

2.THE BETAWI MOSLEM IDULFITRI EXHIBITION(PERMANENT)

 *

               *BETAWI PUPPET SHADOW MAN(DALANG)

3.THE BILITON’S TANG TREASURE CARGO ARTIFACT EXHIBITION

                                   ARTIFACT GOLD CUP AND BARCELET

                                       (*courtecy Singapore National Museum)

                                           

                                         

                                TANG CUP (*courteny Dr Iwan Cybermuseum)

                                 

4.THE EXHIBITION OF YUAN MING IMPERIAL CERAMIC ARTIFACT RECONSTRUCTIONS

                                  THE HALL OF FREEDOM

     YUAN-   MING IMPERIAL CERAMIC DIGITAL RECONSTRACTION EXHIBITION

                        IN ORDER TO SAVE THE HUMAN HERITAGE

I.MING CHENG HUA IMPERIAL RED  AND MOHAMADDAN BLUE INGLAZED SAUCER

                                            BEFORE

                          AFTER RECONSTRACTIONS

THE COMPLETE INFO LOOK AT THE PREMIUM HALL OF CERAMIC

5, THE EXHIBITION OF JAVANESE FUTURE TELLING DJOJOBOJO

                           

*ANCIENT DJOJOBOJO BRONZE STATUE

ALSO ABOUT THE OLD BOOK OF DJOJOBOJO,HIS PETILASAN DAN HISTORY NARRATIONS

6. THE EXHIBITION OF ART PHOTOGRAPY

THE PHOTOGRAPHY COLLECTIONS EXHIBITION

I.FRAME OF OLD CAMERA

1. KODAK 1948*ill 001

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2. INDONESIA ETHNIC  STATUE AND FIGURINE ARTPHOTOPICTURE

1) THE OLD BALI STATUE . *ill 006 dan 007

7.THE TARUMANEGARA KINGDOM EXHIBITION

1). THE PICTURE OF CANDI JIWA*ill 001 AND BLONDONGAN *ill 002RELATED WITH TARUMANEGARA KINGDOM

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2). THE CANDI JIWA MUSEUM COLLECTIONS*ill 003

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3.) THE TARUMANEGARA HISTORY9english version and Indonesia version*ill 004

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The complete information of Tarumanegara was available in CR-rom  only for Premium member

More illustration and info please look at the EXHIBITION FRAME TARUMANEGARA

hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

the end@Dr iwan Suwandy 2010

                THANK YOU FOR VISIT  THE  MAIN “FREEDOM HALL” REGIONAL EXHIBITION

       

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TO ENTER THIS HALL YOU MUST REGISTER AS THE PREMIUM MEMBER

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                                               Dr IWAN CYBERMUSEUM      

                                            “INTRODUCTION OFFICE”

                                    

                       Information how to enter the Premium Cybermuseum

                                      And Register for Premium ID

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                                   THE  CYBERMUSEUM TOL GATE

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                                    ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBERS

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                         !!!!!! Your Premium Member ID please!!!!!!!!!!!

       

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                                                  WELCOME TO

                                “HALL OF HUMAN HERITAGE”

                               BETAWI TRADITIONAL DANCE                                 

              

                  THANK YOU !!TERIMA KASIH !! ARIGATO!! SHE-SE!!DANKE!!

                                               FOR COMING TO

                                       Dr IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                             THE HALL OF HUMAN HERITAGE

   

                 THE HALL OF DR IWANS MASTERPIECE COLLECTIONS

THE HALL OF PHILLATELLIC COLLECTIONS

THE POSTAL  AND DOCUMENT HISTORY OG NKRI 1950-1955

1950(August-December)1.September 1950

(1) September,4th 1950

Postally used cover from  cds soerabaja 4.9.50 on RIS overprint smelt stamps 1 sen strip three.

(2)September,8th.1950

Return to sender official free stamps homemade cover from balai harta peninggalan semarang to Jatinegara, but not found with two postmarak ” return afzender onbeken” and  Onbekend. Veldpost Batavia.geen adreswijziging door geadreseeth .

2.October 1950

(1) October ,10th.1950

Postally used cover from soerabaja to Sidoardjo with RIS overprint smelt stamps 4 cen.(rare stamp)

(2) October,11th.1950

The Registed postal used cover from Tondano to Djakarta with RIS overprint building 4o cent stamp.

 3.November 1950

 4.december 1950

b. 1951

1.Penemuan Koleksi Langka tjonto prangko jang berlaku di Indonesia dengan stempel tinta violet tjonto (specimen) , oleh kepala kantor pos Bengkulu

Contoh Prangko yang berlaku di Indonesia tahun 1951 termasuk prangko RISprangko RIS Rp.2,-Rp.3.Rp.5 ,-Rp 10.- dan Rp.25. tak dijual diloket,prangko nominal tinggi saat itu langsung dipasang dan di stempel saat pengiriman surat berat atau pospaket.

Koleksi ini hanya baru satu  ditemukan dan dilaporkan, maaf illustrasi kurang jelas,ini disengaja agar tidak di buat palsunya,d an tetap dalam kondisi seperti yang ditemukan di Bengkulu , ini merupakn postal histori sangat langka dan membuktikan bahwa prangko cetak wina tak pernah dijual diloket kantor pos Indonesia,bagi yang memilikinya harap berkenan memberikan informasi liwat comment,terima kasih. Apabila perhimpunan filateli Indonesia atau asia ingin memamerkan koleksi yang sangat langka ini silahkan menghubungi Dr Iwan liwat comment-catatan Dr iwan suwandy)

(the RIS Sample Stamp circulated In Indonesia Until 1951, only one exist in the world,if the Phillatelic Exhibtion want to show this amizing and RRRR collections ,please asked the owner Dr Iwan suwandy via comment.Please donnot tag this collections without the owner permission)

4.April.1951

(1) April,10th.1951

postally used registered homemade cover with RIS overprint building stamps 25 sen,one stamp cutting.

10.OCTOBER 1951

(1) October,24.1950

Postally used cover from  panitia penyelesaian  urusahan pemulihan  jawa tengah semarah cover cds semarang  24,.1o.51 to pekalongan,return to sender witth therare building stamps overprint RIS 30 sen.\

2. January 1951

(1)January,23th.1951

RIS Priting Office cARD OVERPRINT BLOB INK TO COVER THE ris SEND FROM CDS jAKARTA 23,1.51.

3.Akhir 1951

Dr Adnan Kapau Gani pada akhir tahun 1951 sampai Februari 1952 berada di Holland sebagai anggota Delegasi RI pada perundingan Indonesia-Belanda dari hasil KMB, dan mengenai kedaulatan Irian Barat, tepatnya di kota Den Haag.

c.1952

October,23th,952

The first flight cover from bandung via KOLM to Chile with RIS overprint 30 cent building stamps and sukarno first series stamp RP.1 ,RIS eagle stamps .

 D.1953

 E. 1954

F.1955

THE FIRST INDONESIAN GENERAL ELECTIONS 1955 COLLECTIONS
KOLEKSI PEMILU PERTAMA 1955

FRAME ONE :
Dr IWAN COLLECTION
1. head of bailout(bagian atas kartu suara)

2. The picture of Party emblem(Tanda gambar Partai Peserta PEMILU)
a.Hole Party(Seluruh Partai)

b.Close up some pary(tanda Gambar beberapa Partai)

 

THE COMPLETE EXHIBITION ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER PLEASE SUBSCRIBED VIA COMMENT AND I WILL SHOW THE EXHIBIITON SPECIAL FOR YOU.GREETING FROM Dr IWAN SUWANDY

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

The complete Collections Exist Only for Premium Member.please subscribed Via Comment.)

THE complete collections only for PREMIUM  member , Please subscribed via Comment. 

.

GREATING FROM THE MUSUEM’S FOUNDER AND STAFF

HAPPY TRAVELLIN IN Driwancybermuseum

SELAMAT DATANG

WELCOME TO THE HOME OFFICE OF   Driwancybermuseum

hhto://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

__________________________________________________________________________________________
SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR,yang berminat kontak liwat comment.

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PEMBINA MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DAN STAF MENGUCAPKAN SELAMAT DATANG DI KANTOR MUSEUM DUNIAMAYA

UNTUK MELIHAT KANTOR DIMANA SELURUH KARYAWAN BEKERJA UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KEPUASAN PARA KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN SELURUH DUNIA SEHINGGA KOLEKSI UNIK , KHUSUSNYA PUSAKA NENEK MOYANG INDONESIA DAN ASIA DAPAT DILESTARIKAN UNTUK GENERASI PENERUS.LIHATLAH SECARA LENGKAP DI hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

SELAMAT DATANG DI PINTU MASUK HOMEOFFICE


SILAHKAN MELIHAT TAMAN TANAMAN HIAS HOME OFFICE

 ANDA MEMASUKI RUANG TAMU
 DAN RUANG RAPAT.

SILAHKAN MELIHAT RUANGAN KANTOR ELEKTRONIK INTRENET KOMPUTERISASI HOME OFFICE

RUANGAN PERPUSTAKAAN

RUANGAN DAPUR BERSIH
KAMAR REST ROOM

SELANJUTNYA AND DIPERSILAHKAN MELIHAT MUSEUM MINI KOLEKSI Dr IWAN S PRIBADI, MULAI TANGGA MASUK YANG ARTISTIK DENGAN PELINDUNG CHILLIN DAN KERAMIK CHILLIN DINASTI MING

KOLEKSI MUSEUM MINI PERTAMA ADALAH PATUNG ETHNIS INDONESIA

LEMARI

 DAN KURSI ANTIK


TEMPAT TIDUR ANTIK


 RUANGAN STUDI KOLEKSI

KOLEKSI LUKISAN

GUCI ANTIK

KERAMIK ANTIK,ANTARA LAIN DIDALM LEMARI ES BEKAS  teridiri dari ceret dan mangkuk kecil yang mungih dan indah

, Serta LAMPU-LAMPU ANTIK  yang sangat langka,indah dan menarik.

Selesai Hak Cipta @Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

The end@copyright Dr Iwan s 2011

The Introduction From The Founder of Driwancybermuseum Web Blog

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Driwancybermuseum Blog A.Driwancybermuseum homeoffice openhouse

Cybermuseum open house”

Qillin decoration
Postal History and Document History collections in antique cupboard
 Library
Meeting room
working room
dragon boat mini musuem
Ceramic Collection
Ceramic Collections 2
VOC ship tile
VOC Tile&Token
Ngoc San Hanoi tile
Ancient Wayang Petruk
Ancient wayang Semar

Hallo Collector
THe founder and All of UCN uniquecollections cybernews staff send the greatings and Happy Chinese New Year “Gong Hi Fat Choi” .
During this happy seasons, UCM uniquecollection cybermuseum and UCN home office open house , all of our best friend collectors were invited to joint the celebration ceremony of the opening of the home office and small museum .

All the collectors from allover the world Please look at the illustration of the new restored UCM-UCN home office and small musuem:

1. The front of the homeoffice with Qillin staircase or tangga Killin as the protection of uniquecollection cybermuseum homeoffice, constist two Qillin stone statue,two Qillin wooden carving, three artifact Qillin late Ming ceramic , design by Dr Iwan S. built by Mr burhanuddin , the idea from Ming emperor palace forbidden city Beijing @copyright Dr Iwan S.2010 (ill. caption “Qillin decoration”)

2. The vintage Writing desk and cupboard (ill Vintage writingcase), in the cupboard the collector will see the albums of vintage document histories.

3. TheLibrary of uniquecollections literatures (ill.library)

4. The Meeting room

5. The Working room

6. The Small Museum consist :
(1) The Ancient ceramic Collections in two vintage showcase( ill ceramic collection 1 and 2)
(2) The dragon boat style Museum with the uniquecollections show : ceramic,stamps and revenue,martavan,woodencarving,statue,metal collections, cins,ancien smoking Pipes, vintage Labels, vintage paintings (ill Small museum)
(3) special close up illustration of VOC ship multicolour tiles-(ill VOC Gauda tiles), VOC Fort tiles(ill.VOC Delft tiles), Wayang Berber Paintings (ill Wayang berber 1945).
(4) The founder show the very rare handpainted pictures with calligraphy ancient wayang book (ill. Ancietn Wayang Petruk and ill. ancient wayang Semar)

After look of the UCM-UCN home office with small musuem illustrations we hope all the collectors will more closed with the best uniquecollection blog of the world and always click this blog to found anykind of uniquecollections information, if you didn’t found the informations please asked as collector choice via comment lika Fake Coins, the value of Rare stamps, the Indochine coins,stamps and papermoney informations etc.If our visitor near 1 million , uniquecollections blog will develop the uniquecollectins club all over the world, please the collectors of all over the world asking the copyright permission with special regulations via comment and editor will contact you to issued the written permission and regulations. every members will send the UCN and the UCM showed with regular one year or life member operational postal & scanning cost to send that information stright install via the members sms adress.the complete best color illustrations. This only the recent proposal, please comment and suggestions.

UCM-uniquecollections Cybermuseum have announced that this night will show ” The Qing Imperial Collections’consist The Qing imperial Paintings, ceramics , meubeluers, and other kind unique Qing imperial collections , this show sponsored by anonim Chinese Beijing collectors.

 B.Introduction
a.I starting stamps collection during 1955 very young boy. look my vintage photo with mother Diana lanny and father Djohan Oetama at Bukittingi West Sumatra 1955, my father passed away in 1985 and my mother just passed away in june 2011 at  91 years old.

b.Between 1960-1963, during study at Don Bosco high school I had started collected beside stamps all type of informations collections due to my Teacher Frater Servaas told me that I must collected the Informations due to the develping the satellite which made the globalizations which the growing of world cmmunications will became fast and no border between the nations countries, who have the Information he will became the leader and the King in communications, thank you Frater Servaas your info which made me could built the very best informations communications uniquecollection blog in the world.
Look at in memoriam Frater Servaas with my teacher at Frater middle school in memrian Frater Eric at my House during my Sister Erlita 17th years birthday in 1963.


also look my profile with my loving teacher who still alive and stay at Padang city west sumatra Pak Sofjanto at my house in the same time of the photo above


c.Between 1973-1983 many interesting history which related with the stamp and postal history and also with my life :
1. In 1972 I have graduated Medical Doctor(MD)

2.as the temporary assitenst at Pulmonology (Lung Disease) department in Medical faculty

3.In 1973 join the medical officer of Indonesia National Police


4.in September 1973 I was merried with Lily W.


5. in 1974 my first son Albert our photographer was born in November 1974, and later in January 1977 born my second son Anton our Editor .
a. Albert at Solok city west Sumatra 1978

b.Anton at Solok city 1978


6. Between 1975 until 1989 I have travelled around Indonesia myself or officially and I have found many uniquecollections that time.

7.In 1985 I have made a postal communications, I have send the aerogram to all Postal services in the capital city of all oin the world, 90 % send to me back the official cover,this could be done by the helping of Padang postmaster Ahmadsyah Soewil, his father collections I had bought in 1980.
The vintage photo of Soewil St.marajo ,during the chief of Painan West Sumatra Post office
look his photos

During Dai Nippon occupation he still at Painan and during Indonesia Independence war he was the Finance officer of Padang office and later in 1950-1959 the chief of TelukBayur Harbour west Sumatra post office, seme of the rare West sumatra during Dai Nippon occupation and Indonesia Inedependence war were his collectins,thankyou Family Soewil for that rare collections(complete infrmatins source Dai nippon occupatin sumatra under Malaya Singapore or Syonato Dai Nippon military Administrations and Indonesia Independence war collections.

8. Before between 1979-1985 I have joint the postal circuit club and I have found many covers from all over the world especially Latin America.This circuit as the help of my friend Frans,now he was in Bogor.

9.In 1990 I was graduate my Master Hospital Administration.


10.Between 1990-1994
I was n the duty at West Borneo and visit Sarwak,and i have fund some rare Sarawak stamps, revenue there and in Pontianak I have found rare sarawak coins

11.Between 1995 until 2000
I am seeking the postally used cover from the countries I havenot found especailly the new freedom countries.
All the postal stamps and covers I will arranged in the very exciting and unique collections, I will starting with Asia Countries, and later Africa, Australia, America and Euro.
This special collections were built dedicated to my Sons,especially the histrical fact from my vintage books collections as the rememberance what their father collected and I hope they will keep this beautiful and histric collections until put in speciale site in the CyberMuseum.
I hope all the collectors all over the world will help me to complete the collections, frm Asia I donnot have the cover from Bhutan,Mongol, Tibet, and SAfghanistan.but the stamps I have complete from that countries except my thematic bridge on the river kwai from Myanmar and Thailand.
12. In the years of 2000, I was retired from my job
this is my official profile just before retired.


13, Between 2000-2008
I am travelling around Asia,and starting to arranged my travelling unque collections.
14. December,25th 2008
I built the uniquecollection.wordpress.com Blog with articles :
(1). The Unique books collections
(2). The Unique Stamps collectins
(3). The rare Coins collections
(4). The rare ceramic collections
(5.) The Unique label collectins
(6.) The Travelling Unque collections (now changed as the Adventures of Dr iwan S.
(7). The Tionghoa Unique Collections
(8.) The Asia Unique Collections
(9.) The Africa Unique collections
(10). The Padang minangkabau CyberMuseum

15. In 2010

I built another web :

(1) hhtp://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com

(2)hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

In this web the collectors will look the amizing collections:

(1) The Vietnam War 1965-1975, and another Vietnam Historic collections like Vienam during Indochina, Vienam Diem War 1955-1963,etc

(2) The Dai Nippon War 1942-1945, five part in homeland,pasific war,in Korea,in China, in south East Asia including Indonesia.

(3) The Indonesia Independence War  1945,1946,1947,1948,1949 and 1950.

(4) The Uniquecollections from all over the world.

(5) The Icon Cybermuseum, including Bung Karno,Bung Hatta,Sultan Hemangkubuwono, and also from foreign countries Iran,Iraq Sadam huseun ,Palestina jerusalam,turkey,afghanistan, libya Moamer Khadafi, Suriah , etc

(6) The Rare Ceramic Collections found In Indonesia, like China Imperial Tang,Yuan,Ming and Qing; also euro ceramic from delf,dutch maastrict ,etc

(7) and many other collections

AT LEAST AFTER THE ALL OF MY COLLECTIONS ENTER THE CYBERMUSEUM AND OTHER WEB BLOG, I WILL ASKING TO GET  THE MURI CERTIFICATE.(INDONESIAN RECORD MUSEUM)

8. I also built a amizing collections due to my premium member prefered, like The Indonesia Revenue Collections from 19th to 20th century, the mysteri of the Indonesian vienna Printing Stamps, the China  Gold Coins, The Rare Chian imperial ceramic design foun in Indonesia, The Tionghoa (Indonesia Chinese Overseas collection), Penguasa Wanta di dunia(Women in Leaders) etc.

5. At Least thankyou verymuch to all the collectors who have visit my blog and support me, my last prestation in June 2011 (26 years from the first starting to built the e-antique or uniquecollections info in internet) :

(1) hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum : visit 60.000, the highest per day 3200.

(2)hhtp://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com:visit 21.000,the highest per day 200.

(3)hhtp://www.uniquecollection.wordpress.com, visit 40.000,the highest per day 210.

Jakarta June 2011

Greatings from teh founder

Dr Iwan Suwandy

the end @copyright XDr Iwan suwandy 2011

I WRITE THIS MEMORABLE STORY WITH RELATED UNIQUECOLLECTIONS ILLUSTRATIONS AS MY HONOR TO MY LOVING FAMILY , ALL MY FRIEND AND MY TEACHERS.BECAUSE WITHOUT YOU I AM NOTHING AT ALL,AND YOU ARE ALWAYS IN MY HEART FOREVER.

THE SAMPLE OF EXHIBTION IN Driwancybermuseum

SELAMAT DATANG DI RUANG PAMERAN KHUSUS

SHOWCASE :

RUANG PAMERAN :

PAMERAN KOLEKSI KERAMIK LANGKA DINASTI MING AKHIR YANG DITEMUI DI INDONESIA

Showcase :

The Rare Late Ming Ceramic Which Foun At Indonesia Exhibition

(Dr Iwan Private Collections)

Frame one:Southern Ming Dynasty

 
 
History of China

History of China

 
 
 
 
 
  *wan li imperial mark and dragon five clow cup below.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
   
   
     
     
 
 
 
 
 
   
 

The Southern Ming Dynasty (Chinese: 南明; pinyin: Nán Míng) refers to the Ming loyalist regimes that existed in Southern China from 1644 to 1662 following the collapse of the Ming Dynasty and the capture of Beijing first by rebel armies led by Li Zicheng, and then by the forces of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty.

On April 24, 1644, Li Zicheng’s rebel soldiers, of the recently proclaimed Great Shun dynasty, breached the walls of Beijing. The Chongzhen Emperor committed suicide the next day to avoid humiliation at their hands. Remnants of the Ming imperial family and some court ministers then sought refuge in the southern part of China and regrouped around Nanjing, the Ming auxiliary capital, south of the Yangzi River. Four different power groups had eventuated:

  • Shun Dynasty led by Li Zicheng, with its power base north of the Huai river, which had been under controlled of the Ming Dynasty.
  • Zhang Xianzhong had established the Great West (Ch:大西) regime controlling Sichuanprovince.
  • Manchu-founded Qing Dynastyhad control of the north-east area beyond Shanhai Pass, at the same times much of the Mongol tribes.
  • The remnants of Ming Dynasty could only survive south of the Huai river.

Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showcase:

The Original Dr Iwancybermuseum logo Collections .

Frame one:

INTRODUCTION (PENDAHULUAN)

1.In February.27th 2011 morning 7.30 am west Indonesia Time, during I walking out of Yacobus Church Kelapa Gading North Jakarta Indonesia to my car parking lot beyond the tree, God have send me one very amizing beautiful iron red fruit from the  tree which I donnot know it ‘s name, and  I bring to my cybermuseum home office ,put on my antique pure white stempcup ceramic , made to art photos by my digital camera Olympus, one still original and one was making corrections of the background by digital painting restorarion

2. then I have deciding that this art photography became the logo of my blog “Driwan Cybermuseum.

3.The red and white colour were the same of Indonesian flag colour,the flag of my homeland countries and theiron red and pure white were my favorite colour of my ceramic collections, the background sandtone colour was my favorite colour of my cybermuseum homeoffice.The  Iron red fruit was send to me by the holygod which give my the mercy and lucky in the future.

3.I hove all the collectors from all over the world to honor my logo copyright,please donnot copy.

Jakarta, February.27th 2011

The founder of Cybermuseum Blog

 Dr Iwan Suwandy

Frame Two :

The Original Picture Of Driwancybermuseum Logo1.The Original Photo at Driwancybermuseum

 private home office

 2.The Original Art photography of Driwancybermuseum’s logo(after digital restoration)

CONTOH KOLEKSI DARI SURINAME BEKA SJAJAHAN BELANDA YANG BANYAK ETHNIS JAWA DISANA

 




Suraname Jang Tk Terkenal, karangan Albert Herman, Seri Buku Buku Badjing Untuk Kanak-Kanak, 30 halaman.

the end @ copyright XDr Iwan suwandy

The Unusual Rare Indonesian Phillately,Revenue and Numismatic History Collections(Koleksi Postal,Meterai dan numismatik histori Indonesia Yang aneh dan Langka)

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom : 

 

Dr Iwan Unusual  Indonesian Postal,Revenue and Numismatic Cybermuseum(Koleksi Filateli , Meterai dan  Numismatik Indonesia Yang  Aneh)

1.Kata Pengantar(Introduction)

If you look carefully the postal,revenue and numismatic history collections , one day you will find the images you are not usual or strange, and was never seen anymore  again at this time.

The  unusual collections  is a collection which, when compiled with trim, will be a collection of rare and interesting as the remembrance from the past as our human heritage.

I will starting to reseach  my   privately owned collections in the cybermuseum world and flaunt my period, so that collectors can enjoy them.

If you have a collection like this please willing to flaunt it in Driwancybermuseum, please sent  comment, thanks.

How amazing is not it, I hope to entertain you all

Jakarta, June 2011

Dr Iwan Suwandy

Apabila anda memperhatikan dengan saksama koleksi sejarah pos,meterai dan numismatik  ,suatu saat anda anda akan menemukan koleksi  yang tak biasanya atau aneh  serta sangat sulit ditemukan lagi pada saat ini.

Koleksi  aneh dan tak biasa tersebut merupakan suatu koleksi yang bila disusun dengan apik akan menjadi suatu koleksi yang langka dan menarik.yang merupakan warisan manusia tempo dulu.

Saya akan mulai mempelajari koleksi  milik pribadi dan memamerkannya dalam museum dunia maya saya, agar para kolektor dapat menikmatinya.

Apabila anda memiliki koleksi seperti ini harap bersedia memamerkannya di Driwancybermuseum, harap dikirimkan liwat comment, terima kasih.

Bagaimana menakjubkan bukan, saya harap dapat menghibur anda semua

Jakarta Juni 2011

Dr Iwan Suwandy

 The Vintage Indonesian’s Unusual Postal,Revenue and Numismatic History Collections 

 (Koleksi postal,meteri dan numismatik histori Indonesia yang  Aneh Dan Langka)

1.POSTAL HISTORY

1) Koleksi Kartupos Pendudukan Jepang di Jawa dengan stempel pos aneh, ” Tida(tidak) Diperkenanken(diperkenankan) Kombali(Kembali) , hal ini jarang terjadi , hanya apabila  tempelan terlarang di tempelkan  diatas kartupos, sayang tempelan tersebut sudah dilepas, namun hanya satu kartupos saja   yang saya temukan,harap para kolektor yang memiliki stempel pos yang sama melaporkan temuannya.

Japanese Occupation Postcards Collection in Java with a strange postmark, “Tida (not) Diperkenanken (allowed) return  to sender (Back), this rarely happens, only if the patch forbidden of posting the above postcard, darling patch has been released, but only one postcard only I found, hope the collectors who have same postmark reported findings.

2.Unusual Stamps

Prangko Sial

Beberapa tahun sebelum lengser(mundur ) dari Jabatan Presiden, telah ditandai dengan adanya prangko salah cetak dengan tanda-tanda kesialan antara lain Coretan garis di tepi sampai mengenai wajah Pak Harto ,hal sama pada prangko sial Hitler.

Selain itu juga ditemukan prangko pah harto yang kepanasan sehingga mukanya jadi hitam seperti terbakar matahari yang menunjukkan pak harto diserang dari segala lapisan masyarakat dan politik. Bagaimana anehkan.

Damn Stamps
A few years before his resignation (backwards) from Position of President, has been marked by a misprinted stamps with signs of misfortune among other graffiti on the edge of the line until about Soeharto’s face,

 this same shit on stamps of Hitler.

It also found that heat Harto hero stamps so that his face became black like a burning sun which shows Soeharto was burning by the attacking from all walks of life and politics. How amizing.

3.Unusual Atjeh 1 real cenderella stamp 1882

 

 

 

 
File:Atjeh11.jpg

 

Description  

English: Cinderella stamp of Acheh (Indonesia)
 
Date 1882(1882)
 

3a.Used on Money order fragment ,RMS overprint Indonesia numeric smelt

 

and building stamps

3c.Kartupos dulu sangat populer untuk mengirim berita singkat,walaupun saat ini tidak diterbitkan lagi karena ada teknologi SMS ,hal sama juga dengan telegram.Salah satu koleksi aneh dan anda pasti berum pernah lihat adalah kartupos tahun 1953 yang belum digunting (Uncutting) masih satu lembar kartupos proeff dengan empat kartu pos jadi satu, kalau pernah lihat mungkin telat mikir untuk dijadikan koleksi postal history lihatlah illustrasinya dibawah ini :

Selain itu juga ditemui smapul cetakan Pos Udar yang dicetak pada bagian luar dan bagian dalam

Postcards used to be very popular to send brief news, although currently not published anymore because there is SMS technology, the same thing with telegram.Salah a collection of strange and definitely berum you ever see is the postcard of 1953 that have not been cut (Uncutting) is still one sheet postcards proeff with four postcards to be one, if you never see might be late thinkers to be a collection of postal history behold its illustrasi

. Also found the error print of PTT envelope on out and inside .

4.The Postal History could told us the situation like two money order send during The PRRI movement in middle Sumatra, first Money order send one day after Pakanbaru captured by The APRI frm PRRI,send to Sawahlunto still in PRRI hand in March 11 th.1958,return to sender because the communication broken,look at the handwritten”Kembali Perhubungan belum ada”

and the second Money order send from Padang to angkola south tananuli return to sender looh the handwritten”Kembali Untuk sementara perhubungan Terputus”(return for temporary communicationbroken)

5.Cinderella Historic Collections Cinderela adalah label sampul surat yang bentuknya sama seperti prangko tetapi tanpa nominal,digunakan untuk menutup bagian belakang sampul atau sebagai sarana marketing produk. Koleksi cinderal indonesia yang paling aneh dan langka adalah satu sheet lengkap cinderela label promosi Obat Radja dengan perforasi terdiri dari 100 label dengan pembatas kosong diantara 50 label yang dikenal dengan istilah “gutter pair”.menakjubkan bukan.

english version:

Cinderela is a label that looks the same envelope as postage stamps but without par, used to close the back cover or as a means of marketing the product. Collection cinderal Indonesia’s most bizarre and rare is a complete sheet cinderela label drug promotion Radja with perforation consists of 100 blank labels with a divider between the 50 labels are known by the term “Gutter pair”. amazing is not.

 

3..Revenue History Collections

1) METERAI PENDUDUKAN JEPANG ANEH.

Mulai 1 April 1943, meterai seluruh meterai di Indonesia dicetak tindih secara machinal untuk menutup wajah ratu belanda atau aksara belanda yang dianggap milik musuh dengan berbagai bentuk , untuk meterai di pulau jawa di cetak tindih gambar matahari bewarna merah. Salah seorang pedagang di Jawa merasa sayang membuang meterai Hindia belanda yang ia miliki, maka dengan nekat mengambar dengan pena  gambar matahari meniru cetak tindih asli pemerintah balatentara nippon(Dai Nippon Gunseikanbu) diatas meterai hindia belanda dan memakainya diatas kwitansi tanggal 1 agustus 1944(2604), sikap ini dikatakan nekat karena bila ketahuan akan ditangkap dan dihukum oleh Kampetai,polisi militer Jepang.

, silahkan melihat illustrasi meterai tersebut dibandingkan dengan yang asli cetak tindih dengan mesin, bagaimana anehkan,bila anda memiliki yang sama harap berkenan melaporkannya.

STRANGE JAPANESE OCCUPATION seal.
Beginning April 1, 1943, the seal of all seals in Indonesia printed in machinal overlapping to cover the queen’s face or script netherlands dutch deemed enemy property in various forms, to seal in the island of Java in the print image superimposed on a red colored sun. One trader in Java feel affection discard seal Dutch East Indies he had, then with reckless drawing with pen drawings mimic the sun original print overlapping government army nippon (Dai Nippon Gunseikanbu) above the seal of the Dutch East Indies and wear it on a receipt dated August 1, 1944 (2604) , is said to be reckless attitude because if caught would be arrested and punished by Kampetai, the Japanese military police.

, please see the illustration of the seal is compared to the original print overlapping with the machine, how anehkan, if you have the same hope is pleased to report it.

2)

2)

3. Numismatic History collections

1).

2.The International Unusual Stamps Collections

Unusual Stamps

Here are three examples of unusual stamps from my collection.

cloth

This is a set of five stamps issued by four countries, Grenada, the Gambia, Sierra Leone and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, commemorating the teddy bear. What I find interesting about this set is that:

  • the stamps are made of cloth!
  • four different countries cooperated to produce a single set of commemorative stamps with almost identical designs
  • despite being part of Grenada, a local group of islands, Carriacou and Petite Martinique, were permitted by the government of Grenada to issue a separate cloth stamp

 

phonograph record stamps issued by Bhutan

This is one of the most unusual sets of stamps that were ever issued. This set of seven stamps issued by the Kingdom of Bhutan in 1973 are also phonograph records! When played on a record player, the stamps play folk songs as well as provide an oral history (in Bhutanese and English) of Bhutan!

phonograph record stamps issued by Bhutan CD stamps issued by Bhutan

In 2008, Bhutan decided to update the phonograph record stamps it issued thirty-five years earlier by issuing a set of two CD stamps! Actually, as you can see, the CD’s are enclosed in a CD envelope that acts as the postage stamp (the envelope is self-adhesive on the back, so that, in theory, someone in Bhutan could stick the CD envelope onto a larger envelope or package that needed to be mailed). Like the phonograph stamp issue, when played on a record player, the CD stamps, when played on a CD player, will play folk songs as well as provide an oral history of Bhutan.

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

Pameran Permainan Catur Dan Mahjong Tionghoa Antik Yang ditemukan Di Indonesia

 MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

 

                    Please Enter

                   

              DTC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Tionghoa   Cybermuseum)

Showcase:

Pameran Catur  dan Majong Tionghoa Antik Yang ditemukan Di Indonesia

Frame Satu :

Koleksi Alat Permainan Catur Tionghoa Antik.(HO )

 

SEJARAH Catur Tionghoa  (Xiangqi)

Di Tiongkok, ada sebuah permainan bernama Xiangqi (atau Xiangxi), tanggal kembali ke selambat-lambatnya periode negara berperang. [Rujukan?] Hal ini diyakini akan ditemukan di Tiongkok  selatan. Permainan ini dijelaskan dalam Chu Ci dan buku dinasti Han [rujukan?] Buku-buku Cina pertama pada strategi xiangqi ditulis pada abad ke-5.. [rujukan?] Dalam bentuk kuno, Xiangqi memiliki enam potong (Sejarah Xiangqi (Cina )). Beberapa percaya bahwa catur berasal dari India xiangqi (Asal-usul Catur). Beberapa percaya bahwa xiangqi telah berasal dari India Chaturanga [26] Teori ini berjalan sebagai berikut: Chaturanga berubah dan berasimilasi ke dalam xiangqi permainan di mana potongan-potongan ditempatkan pada titik persimpangan dari garis-garis papan bukan dalam kotak.. [7] Objek variasi Tionghoa  mirip dengan Chaturanga, yaitu untuk membuat tidak berdaya raja lawan, kadang-kadang dikenal secara umum. [26] catur Tionghoa  juga meminjam elemen-elemen dari permainan Go, yang dimainkan di Tiongkok  sejak setidaknya abad ke-6 SM. [26] Karena pengaruh Go, catur Tionghoa  diputar pada persimpangan dari garis-garis di papan, bukan di kotak [26] lembar catur Tionghoa . biasanya rata dan menyerupai yang digunakan di dam, dengan potongan dibedakan dengan menulis nama mereka di permukaan datar. [26]

Sebuah teori asal-usul catur berpendapat alternatif yang muncul dari Xiangqi atau pendahulunya daripadanya, yang ada di Tiongkok  sejak abad ke-2 SM [27] David H. Li, seorang akuntan pensiunan, profesor akuntansi dan penerjemah teks-teks Tiongkok  kuno, hipotesis. Bahwa Han umum Xin menarik pada permainan awal Liubo untuk mengembangkan bentuk awal catur Cina di musim dingin tahun 204-203 SM [27] catur Jerman sejarawan Peter Banaschak., bagaimanapun, dari poin yang hipotesis utama Li “didasarkan pada hampir tidak ada” . Dia mencatat bahwa “lu Xuanguai,” ditulis oleh menteri Dinasti Tang Niu Sengru (779-847), tetap merupakan sumber nyata pertama di xianggqi varian catur Cina, LIHAT DI LUAR NEGERI Tiongkok pada etnis  TIONGHOA INDONESIA  XIANFQI DEWAN bawah ini.

 
 

FRAME DUA

 “Permainan  DAM(HO) Tionghoa Antik Yang ditemukan di Indonesia

FRAME TIGA : PERMAINAN MAHJONG TIONGHOA ANTIK

THE TIONGKOK MAHJONG GAMES HISTORY

THE OLD CHINESE OVERSEAS INDONESIA ” TIONGHOA” ‘S MAHJONG GAMES COLLECTIONS.

The Type Of Mahjong Tiles: 

Examples of winning hands (split into melds and pair for clarity):

  • MJf1.pngMJf1.pngMJs3.pngMJs3.pngMJs3.pngMJd3.pngMJd3.pngMJd3.pngMJd2.pngMJd2.pngMJd2.pngMJd1.pngMJd1.pngMJd1.png
  • MJt1.pngMJt2.pngMJt3.pngMJt4.pngMJt5.pngMJt6.pngMJt7.pngMJt7.pngMJt7.pngMJt8.pngMJt8.pngMJt9.pngMJt9.pngMJt9.png

Please compare the new tiles

with the old Majong Tiles below

 

1.The small dice

 

2.The lucky stick and coins

3.The mahjong tiles

(1) Kaligrafi Tiongkok

 Hóng Zhōng (紅中 MJd1.png, red middle), Fā Cái (發財 MJd2.png, prosperity), and Bái Ban (白板 MJd3.png, white board) represent benevolence, sincerity, and filial piety, respectively

 (2) Bulat Seperti Domino 

(a) mahyong antik

(b) Mahjong Baru

 

MJt1.pngMJt2.pngMJt3.pngMJt4.pngMJt5.pngMJt6.pngMJt7.pngMJt7.pngMJt7.pngMJt8.pngMJt8.pngMJt9.pngMJt9.pngMJt9.png

(3) Gambar (Pictorial)

(4) Hanya Mahyong Asing yang meiliki Yoker(Joker only foreign mahjong), Mahyong tiongkok tanpa Yoker(Chinese mahjong without Joker.)

(5) Jubin Antik dibuat dari (The tiles made from) Keramik( ceramic),

ivory(Gading)

 

,stone(batu),

wood(kayu),

and Mahyong Baru Dari Plastik(new one plastic). MJt8.pngMJt8.pngMJt9.pngMJt9.pngMJt9.png

Frame Lima:

SEJARAH MAHJONG

sejarah Mahjong

Mahjong in Hangzhou.jpg
 

Mahjong
 
Sebuah permainan mahjong yang dimainkan di Hangzhou, Cina
Nama cina
Cina Tradisional 麻将
Cina Sederhana 麻将
[Tampilkan] transliterasi
Hakka
– Romanisasi ma jiong3
Jeruk keprok
– Hanyu Pinyin Ma jiang
Wu
– Romanisasi mu Ciang (麻雀 儿 / 麻将)
Kanton
– Jyutping maa4 zoeng3
– Romanisasi Yale ma4 jeung3
 
Cina alternatif nama
Cina Tradisional 麻雀
Cina Sederhana 麻雀
[Tampilkan] transliterasi
Hakka
– Romanisasi ma4 jiok3
Jeruk keprok
– Hanyu Pinyin que MA
Min
– Hokkien POJ MOA-chhiok
Wu
– Romanisasi mu ciah
Kanton
– Jyutping maa4 zoek3
– Romanisasi Yale ma4 jeuk3
 
Jepang nama
Kanji 麻雀
Kana マージャン
[Tampilkan] transliterasi
– Majan Romaji
 
Nama korea
Hangul 마작
Hanja 麻雀
[Tampilkan] transliterasi
– Revisi
Romanisasi majak
– McCune-
Reischauer machak
 
Nama Vietnam
Vietnam tikar chược
Mahjong Pemain 4
Rentang usia 4 tahun dan lebih tua
Setup waktu 2-10 menit
Bermain Tergantung pada variasi waktu dan / atau rumah / aturan turnamen
Random kesempatan Ya
Keterampilan yang diperlukan Taktik, observasi, memori
 Artikel ini berisi teks Cina. Tanpa dukungan rendering yang tepat, Anda mungkin melihat tanda tanya, kotak, atau simbol lain bukan karakter Cina.

Mahjong (Cina: 麻将; pinyin: jiang ma) adalah permainan yang berasal dari Cina, biasanya dimainkan oleh empat pemain (dengan beberapa variasi tiga pemain yang ditemukan di Korea dan Jepang). Mahjong adalah permainan keterampilan, strategi dan perhitungan dan melibatkan tingkat tertentu kebetulan. Di Asia, mahjong juga populer dimainkan sebagai permainan perjudian (meskipun mungkin hanya dengan mudah dimainkan recreationally).

Permainan ini dimainkan dengan satu set 152 ubin berdasarkan karakter Cina dan simbol, meskipun beberapa variasi regional menggunakan nomor yang berbeda ubin. Pada sebagian besar variasi, setiap pemain mulai dengan menerima ubin tiga belas. Pada gilirannya pemain menarik dan membuang ubin sampai mereka menyelesaikan tangan hukum menggunakan ubin ditarik keempat belas untuk membentuk empat kelompok (melds) dan sepasang (kepala). Ada aturan yang cukup standar tentang bagaimana sepotong diambil, dicuri dari pemain lain (menyatu), penggunaan dasar (nomor ubin) dan kehormatan (angin dan naga), jenis-jenis melds, dan urutan menangani dan bermain. Namun ada variasi regional yang mungkin berbeda-beda aturan ini, di samping itu, sistem penilaian, tangan minimum yang diperlukan untuk memenangkan bervariasi berdasarkan aturan lokal yang digunakan.

Isi
 

1 Nama
2 Sejarah
2.1 Mahjong di Cina
2.2 Mahjong di dunia Barat
2.3 pengembangan Lancar
3 Jenis permainan
4 Varian
4.1 Deskripsi
4.2 Dipilih Variasi Dibandingkan
5 aturan persaingan Mahjong
6 Peralatan
6.1 Sejarah
6.2 Jenis cocok
6.2.1 Simples
6.2.2 Honours
6.2.3 Bonus Ubin
6.2.4 Wild Ubin
6.3 Individu Setelan
6.4 Honors
6.5 Bunga
7 Menyiapkan papan
7.1 Game Angin dan Angin Berlaku
7.2 Dealing ubin
7.3 Charleston
8 Gameplay
8.1 melds
8.2 Bunga
8.3 Jokers
8.4 Menang
Siap 8,5 tangan
8.6 Menggambar
8.7 Abortive menarik
Ternyata 8,8 dan putaran
9 Scoring
10 Mahjong dalam Unicode
11 Lihat juga
12 Catatan kaki
13 Bacaan lebih lanjut
14 Pranala luar
 

 Nama
Permainan ini disebut 麻雀 (pinyin: ma que), yang berarti burung pipit di Cina, yang masih nama yang paling umum digunakan dalam beberapa dialek Cina selatan seperti Kanton dan Min Nan, dan juga di Jepang. Namun, sebagian besar Cina berbahasa Mandarin sekarang panggilan jiang ma game (麻将). Dalam Wu Utara Cina (Shanghai dan kerabat), itu diucapkan sebagai [mu tsiaŋ] 麻将, tetapi dalam kenyataannya, 麻将 adalah bentuk kecil dari 麻雀, ditulis sebagai 麻雀 [mu tsiaʔ n] 儿, karena acara erhua. Ini adalah melalui pengucapan Wu Cina 儿 麻雀 bahwa bentuk kecil dari 麻雀 dalam dialek Wu Utara dikenal sebagai 麻将 baik dalam bahasa Mandarin dan Wu.

Sejarah
Mahjong di Cina
Salah satu mitos tentang asal-usul mahjong menunjukkan bahwa Konfusius, [1] filsuf Cina, mengembangkan permainan pada sekitar 500 SM. Pernyataan ini mungkin akan apokrif. Menurut mitos ini, munculnya permainan di berbagai negara Cina bertepatan dengan perjalanan Konfusius ‘pada saat itu ia sedang mengajar doktrin barunya. Ketiga naga (kardinal) ubin juga setuju dengan tiga kebajikan kardinal diwariskan oleh Konfusius. Hong Zhong (红 中, tengah merah), Fa Cai (发财, kemakmuran), dan Bai Ban (白板, papan tulis) merupakan kebajikan, ketulusan, dan kasih sayang, masing-masing.

Mitos ini juga mengklaim bahwa Konfusius suka burung, yang akan menjelaskan nama “mahjong” (麻雀 maque = burung pipit). Namun, tidak ada bukti keberadaan mahjong sebelum era Taiping pada abad ke-19, yang menghilangkan Konfusius sebagai penemu mungkin.

Banyak sejarawan percaya hal itu didasarkan pada permainan kartu Cina disebut Mǎdiào (马 吊) (juga dikenal sebagai Ma Tiae, tergantung kuda, atau Yèzí [叶子], daun) pada awal dinasti Ming [2] Permainan ini dimainkan dengan 40. kertas semacam itu dalam tampilannya kartu yang digunakan dalam permainan Ya Pei kartu. Ini 40 kartu diberi nomor 1 sampai 9 di empat setelan yang berbeda, bersama dengan empat kartu bunga tambahan. Ini cukup mirip dengan penomoran mahjong ubin hari ini, meskipun mahjong hanya memiliki tiga jas dan, pada dasarnya, menggunakan empat bungkus kartu Ya Pei.

Masih ada perdebatan tentang siapa yang menciptakan permainan. Satu teori adalah bahwa perwira tentara Cina yang melayani selama Pemberontakan Taiping menciptakan permainan untuk melewatkan waktu. Teori lain adalah bahwa seorang bangsawan yang tinggal di daerah Shanghai menciptakan permainan antara 1870 dan 1875. Lain percaya bahwa dua bersaudara dari Ningpo dibuat mahjong sekitar tahun 1850, dari game sebelumnya Mǎdiào.

Game ini dilarang oleh pemerintah Republik Rakyat Cina ketika itu mengambil alih kekuasaan tahun 1949. [3] Pemerintah Komunis baru melarang kegiatan perjudian ada, yang dianggap sebagai simbol korupsi kapitalis. Setelah Revolusi Kebudayaan, permainan ini dihidupkan kembali, tanpa unsur judi (lihat di bawah), dan larangan itu dicabut tahun 1985. [4] Hari ini, ini merupakan hobi favorit di Cina dan masyarakat Tionghoa berbahasa lainnya.

Mahjong di dunia Barat

Siswa di Amerika Serikat belajar cara bermain mahjong

Pada tahun 1895, Stewart Culin, seorang antropolog Amerika, menulis sebuah makalah yang mahjong disebutkan. Ini adalah account tertulis pertama dikenal mahjong dalam bahasa lain selain Cina. Pada 1910, ada ditulis akun dalam berbagai bahasa, termasuk Perancis dan Jepang.

Pertandingan itu diimpor ke Amerika Serikat pada 1920-an. [5] pertama menentukan mahjong dijual di AS telah dijual oleh Abercrombie & Fitch dimulai pada tahun 1920. [6] Ini menjadi sukses di New York, dan pemilik perusahaan , Ezra Fitch, dikirim utusan ke desa Cina untuk membeli setiap set mahjong bisa mereka temukan. Abercrombie & Fitch dijual sebanyak 12.000 set. [6]

Juga pada tahun 1920, Joseph Park Babcock menerbitkan bukunya Peraturan Mah-Jongg, juga dikenal sebagai “buku merah”. Ini adalah versi awal mahjong dikenal di Amerika. Babcock telah belajar mahjong ketika tinggal di Cina. aturan permainan Babcock’s disederhanakan untuk memudahkan Amerika untuk mengambil, dan versi-nya adalah umum melalui mode mahjong tahun 1920-an. Kemudian, ketika mode tahun 1920-an mati, banyak penyederhanaan Babcock ditinggalkan.

Permainan ini telah diambil pada sejumlah nama merek dagang, seperti “Pung Chow” dan “Game Seribu Kecerdasan”. Mahjong malam di Amerika sering terlibat rias dan dekorasi kamar dalam gaya Cina [7] lagu-lagu hit Beberapa juga tercatat selama mode mahjong, terutama “Sejak Ma Bermain Mah Jong” oleh Eddie penyanyi.. [8]

Banyak varian mahjong dikembangkan selama periode ini. Pada tahun 1930-an, banyak revisi aturan yang dikembangkan yang secara substansial berbeda dari versi klasik Babcock’s (termasuk beberapa fundamental yang dipertimbangkan dalam varian lainnya, seperti gagasan tangan standar). Bentuk yang paling umum, yang akhirnya menjadi “mahjong Amerika”, yang paling populer di kalangan wanita Yahudi [9] Standardisasi datang dengan pembentukan National Mah Jongg League (NMJL) pada tahun 1937, bersama dengan buku aturan mahjong pertama Amerika, Maajh.: Versi Amerika Game Cina Kuno.

Sementara mahjong diterima oleh pemain AS dari semua latar belakang etnis selama era Babcock, banyak mempertimbangkan versi Amerika modern remake dari permainan Yahudi, [10] karena banyak pemain mahjong Amerika keturunan Yahudi. Ini NMJL didirikan oleh pemain Yahudi dan dianggap sebuah organisasi Yahudi. Selain itu, pemain biasanya menggunakan permainan Amerika sebagai suatu kegiatan sosial yang ramah keluarga, bukan sebagai perjudian. Pada tahun 1986, National Mah Jongg League dilakukan pertama mereka Mah Jongg Cruise Tournament, dalam conjuction dengan Mah Jongg Madness. Pada tahun 2010, ini skala besar berlayar di laut host acara Silver-25 HUT Cruise, dengan pemain dari seluruh Amerika dan Kanada berpartisipasi.

Dalam beberapa tahun terakhir, sebuah organisasi kedua telah terbentuk, American Association Mah Jongg. Para AMJA saat host turnamen di seluruh Amerika Utara, dengan acara tanda tangan mereka berada di Trump Taj Mahal Casino Resort di Atlantic City, New Jersey.

Inggris penulis Alan D. Millington menghidupkan kembali permainan klasik Cina dari tahun 1920-an dengan bukunya Kitab Lengkap Mah-jongg (1977). Buku panduan ini mencakup aturan formal ditetapkan untuk permainan. Banyak pemain di negara-negara Barat menganggap karya Millington’s otoritatif.

Mahjong bukan kembali penampilan pertama dari permainan Cina di dunia barat. Ia juga diperkenalkan pada bentuk bermain kartu oleh pejabat Pelayanan Konsuler Inggris bernama William Henry Wilkinson, penulis “asal Cina bermain kartu,” dengan nama Khanhoo. Permainan kartu ini tampaknya tidak membuat kesan banyak. Keberhasilan mahjong datang kemudian sebagian dari keanggunan mekanisme sebagai tercantum dalam potongan seperti domino.

Saat ini pembangunan
Saat ini, popularitas dan karakteristik pemain mahjong bervariasi dari satu negara ke negara. Ada juga banyak badan pemerintah, yang seringkali tuan rumah pameran permainan dan turnamen. Ini masih jauh lebih populer di Asia daripada di Barat.

. Mahjong, pada 2010, adalah meja permainan yang paling populer di Jepang [11] Di Jepang, ada penekanan tradisional pada judi [meragukan – mendiskusikan], dan pemain khas adalah laki-laki. Banyak umat percaya ada permainan ini kehilangan popularitas dan telah mengambil upaya untuk menghidupkan kembali itu. [rujukan?] Ada beberapa manga dan anime (misalnya Saki dan Akagi) ditujukan untuk situasi dramatis dan komik yang melibatkan mahjong [12] Selain itu,. video Jepang arcade telah memperkenalkan mahjong mesin arcade yang dapat dihubungkan kepada orang lain melalui Internet. Ada juga versi video game mahjong strip.

Mahjong budaya masih sangat tertanam dalam masyarakat Tionghoa. Sam Hui menulis lagu Cantopop menggunakan mahjong sebagai tema mereka, dan Hong Kong film sering termasuk adegan permainan mahjong. Banyak film perjudian telah difilmkan di Hong Kong, dan sub-genre baru-baru ini adalah film mahjong.

Seperti permainan lainnya, seperti catur, Mastermind, catur dan permainan kartu, bermain mahjong berkepanjangan dapat memicu serangan epilepsi. Jumlah kasus tersebut, namun jarang terjadi. Menurut sebuah studi 2007, [13] [14] sampai saat ini hanya ada 23 dilaporkan kasus kejang yang disebabkan mahjong dalam literatur medis Inggris.

Studi yang dilakukan oleh dokter juga telah menunjukkan di Hong Kong bahwa permainan ini bermanfaat bagi individu yang menderita dari demensia atau kesulitan memori kognitif, mengarah ke pengembangan terapi mahjong. [15]

Pada tahun 2008, terdapat sekitar 7,6 juta pemain Mahjong di Jepang. Sebuah 8.900 Diperkirakan Mahjong salon di Jepang melakukan 300000000000 ¥ penjualan tahun yang sama itu. [16]

 Jenis permainan
Karena bentuk padat dari ubin, mahjong kadang-kadang diklasifikasikan sebagai permainan domino. Namun, jauh lebih mirip dengan permainan kartu gaya Barat seperti pedagang minuman keras.

Varian
Ada banyak variasi mahjong. Di banyak tempat, pemain sering mengamati satu versi dan tidak menyadari variasi lain atau mengklaim bahwa versi yang berbeda tidak benar. Meskipun banyak variasi saat ini berbeda hanya dengan mencetak, ada beberapa varietas utama:

Deskripsi
mahjong klasik Cina adalah berbagai tertua mahjong dan versi diperkenalkan ke Amerika pada tahun 1920 di bawah berbagai nama. Memiliki berikut, kecil setia di Barat, meskipun hanya sedikit bermain di Asia.
Mahjong Hong Kong atau mahjong Kanton mungkin merupakan bentuk yang paling umum mahjong, berbeda dalam rincian penilaian minor dari berbagai Klasik Cina. Tidak memungkinkan beberapa pemain untuk menang dari satu membuang.
mahjong Korea adalah unik dalam banyak hal dan merupakan versi yang sangat baik untuk pemula dan tiga pemain. Satu gugatan dihilangkan sama sekali (biasanya Bambu set) serta musim. Penilaian tersebut lebih sederhana dan bermain lebih cepat. Tidak Chows menyatu yang diijinkan dalam dan tersembunyi tangan yang umum. Riichi (seperti sepupu Jepang) merupakan bagian integral dari permainan juga. Aturan korea
mahjong Sichuan merupakan varietas berkembang, khususnya di Cina bagian selatan, pelarangan chi melds, dan hanya menggunakan ubin cocok. Hal ini dapat dimainkan dengan sangat cepat.
mahjong Taiwan adalah berbagai lazim di Taiwan dan melibatkan tangan 16 ubin (yang bertentangan dengan tangan 13-genteng di versi lain), fitur bonus untuk dealer dan dealer berulang, dan memungkinkan pemain ganda untuk memenangkan dari satu membuang.
mahjong Jepang adalah bentuk standar mahjong di Jepang dan juga ditemukan prevalently dalam permainan video. Selain skor perubahan, aturan Richi (tangan siap) dan dora (ubin bonus) yang unik highlights dari varian ini. Selain itu, ada variasi yang disebut Sanma (三 麻) berdasarkan semacam ini, yang dimodifikasi untuk bermain dengan tiga pemain, dan perbedaan utama dari satu standar yang chi (Chow) adalah dibolehkan dan ubin sederhana (nomor dua melalui delapan) dari satu setelan (biasanya karakter) dihapus.
mahjong klasik Barat adalah keturunan versi mahjong diperkenalkan oleh Babcock ke Amerika pada tahun 1920. Hari ini, istilah ini sebagian besar mengacu pada aturan “Wright-Patterson”, yang digunakan dalam militer AS, dan varian buatan Amerika yang sama yang lebih dekat dengan aturan Babcock.
mahjong Amerika adalah bentuk mahjong standar oleh National Mah Jongg League [17] dan American Mah-Jongg Asosiasi [18]. ini menggunakan ubin joker, Charleston, ditambah melds lima atau lebih genteng, dan eschews Chow dan gagasan tangan standar. Puritan mengklaim bahwa ini membuat Amerika mahjong permainan terpisah. Selain itu, NMJL dan variasi AMJA, yang berbeda dengan perbedaan skor kecil, biasanya disebut sebagai Mahjongg atau Mah-jongg (dengan dua Gs, sering ditulis dgn tanda penghubung).
Tiga pemain mahjong (atau tiga-ka) adalah tiga orang mahjong disederhanakan yang melibatkan tangan 13 ubin (dengan total 84 ubin di atas meja) dan dapat menggunakan pelawak tergantung pada variasi. Setiap set aturan bisa diadaptasi untuk tiga pemain, namun hal ini jauh lebih umum dan diterima di Jepang, Korea, Malaysia dan Filipina. Biasanya menghilangkan satu setelan seluruhnya atau ubin 2-8 dalam satu setelan hanya meninggalkan terminal. Perlu lebih sedikit orang untuk memulai permainan dan waktu perputaran permainan pendek-sehingga dianggap permainan cepat. Dalam beberapa versi ada jackpot untuk menang di mana siapapun akumulasi titik 10 dianggap memukul jackpot atau siapa pun skor tiga tangan tersembunyi pertama. Versi Malaysia dan Korea menjatuhkan salah angin dan mungkin termasuk naga kursi. Jepang Korea tiga pemain varian.
mahjong Singapura / Malaysia adalah varian mirip dengan mahjong Kanton dimainkan di Malaysia. elemen unik dari mahjong Singapura / Malaysia adalah empat ubin hewan (kucing, tikus, seekor ayam jantan muda, dan lipan) serta alternatif tertentu dalam aturan penilaian, yang memungkinkan tengah pembayaran melalui permainan jika kondisi tertentu (seperti kang a) terpenuhi .
Fujian mahjong, dengan joker 带 百搭 Dàidì 弟.
Vietnam chược tikar, dengan 16 berbagai jenis pelawak.
mahjong Thailand, termasuk ubin Vietnam dengan yang lain delapan dengan total 168 ubin.
Filipina mahjong, dengan Joker Window.
tulang Pussers merupakan varian yang bergerak cepat yang dikembangkan oleh para pelaut dalam Angkatan Laut Australia. Ia menggunakan kosa kata alternatif yang kreatif, seperti Eddie, Sammy, Wally, dan Normie, bukan Timur, Selatan, Barat, dan Utara.
Mahjong Solitaire melibatkan menumpuk ubin Mahjong dalam berbagai konfigurasi dan kemudian melalui tindakan eliminasi penemuan pasangan ubin dan penghilangan orang-orang pasangan dari stack. Permainan komputer yang awalnya diciptakan oleh Brodie Lockard pada tahun 1981 pada sistem PLATO. Microsoft Corporation merilis sebuah permainan Mahjong solitaire komputerisasi disebut “Mahjong Titans” awalnya dibundel dengan Windows Vista dan kemudian juga dengan Windows 7. Activision Sebelumnya pada tahun 1986 merilis sebuah permainan Mahjong solitaire terkomputerisasi untuk Amiga, Macintosh dan IIgs komputer Apple dan juga Sega Master System berjudul Shanghai.
Variasi Dipilih Dibandingkan
Mahjong Variasi Variasi Hong Kong HK Klasik Baru Taiwan Jepang Korea Malaysia / Singapura player Tiga mahjong J / K Amerika
Bunga Ya Ya Ya Ya Ya Opsional Ya Ya Ya
Seasons Ya Ya Ya Jarang Ya Tidak Ya Tidak Ya
Bambu Ya Ya Ya Ya Tidak atau hanya terminal Ya Ya Tidak atau Terminal hanya Ya
Hewan Tidak Tidak Tidak Tidak Tidak Tidak Ya Tidak Ya
Jokers Tidak Tidak Tidak Tidak Tidak Tidak Ya Tidak Ya
Scoring Pengganda Faan Base Faan Pengganda Amerika Wikipedia Wikipedia Wikipedia Wikipedia
Scoring Winner Winner Semua Winner Winner Winner Winner Winner Winner
Ganda Timur Ya Ya Ya Ya Tidak Ya Ya Tidak Ya
Buang Suci Tidak Tidak Tidak Ya Ya Tidak Tidak Ya Tidak
Menyatu Chows Ya Ya Ya Ya Tidak Ya Ya Tidak Ya
Riichi Tidak Tidak Tidak Ya Ya Ya Tidak Ya Tidak
Poin minimum (dalam satuan variasi) 3f 3f 5f 1Y 2p 7/10t 2u 3 + Bervariasi

 Mahjong aturan persaingan

Bagian atas tiga di Dunia Mahjong Championship di Tokyo, Oktober 2002. Di tengah-tengah: Mai juara dunia Hatsune, dari Jepang

Terbuka Mahjong Kejuaraan Eropa pertama, Nijmegen, Belanda, Juni 2005

Pemenang Eropa Terbuka kedua Kejuaraan Mahjong, Kopenhagen, Denmark, Juni 2007. Dari kiri: Kohichi Oda (2), Martin Wedel Jacobsen (1), dan Benyamin Boas (3)

Pada tahun 1998, untuk kepentingan memisahkan perjudian ilegal dari mahjong, China Olahraga Negara Komisi menerbitkan seperangkat aturan baru, sekarang umumnya disebut sebagai aturan resmi Cina atau Turnamen Internasional aturan (lihat Guobiao Majiang). Prinsip-prinsip mahjong, baru sehat adalah: tidak berjudi, tidak minum, dan tidak merokok. Dalam turnamen internasional, pemain sering dikelompokkan dalam tim untuk menekankan bahwa mahjong mulai sekarang dianggap olahraga.

Aturan baru sangat pola berbasis. buku aturan berisi 81 kombinasi, berdasarkan pola dan unsur-unsur penilaian populer di kedua varian klasik dan modern Cina daerah; praktek tabel beberapa Jepang juga telah diadopsi. Poin untuk ubin bunga (bunga masing-masing bernilai satu poin) tidak dapat ditambahkan sampai pemain telah mencetak 8 poin. Pemenang dari permainan menerima skor dari pemain yang membuang genteng menang, ditambah 8 poin dasar dari masing-masing pemain, dalam kasus zimo (self-ditarik menang), ia menerima nilai putaran ini ditambah 8 poin dari semua pemain .

Aturan baru pertama kali digunakan dalam sebuah turnamen internasional di Tokyo, di mana, pada tahun 2002, Kejuaraan Dunia pertama di Mahjong diselenggarakan oleh Museum Mahjong, Jepang Mahjong Panitia, dan dewan kota Ningbo, Cina. Seratus pemain berpartisipasi, terutama dari Jepang dan China, tetapi juga dari Eropa dan Amerika Serikat. Mai Hatsune, dari Jepang, menjadi juara dunia pertama. Tahun berikutnya melihat tahunan pertama Cina Majhong Kejuaraan, yang diadakan di Hainan, dua berikutnya turnamen tahunan yang diadakan di Hong Kong dan Beijing. Sebagian besar pemain Cina, tapi pemain dari negara-negara lain hadir juga.

Pada tahun 2005, Open Mahjong Kejuaraan Eropa pertama [19] diadakan di Belanda, dengan 108 pemain. Lomba ini dimenangkan oleh Masato Chiba dari Jepang. Kejuaraan Eropa kedua [20] di Kopenhagen (2007) dihadiri oleh 136 pemain dan dimenangkan oleh pemain Denmark Martin Wedel Jacobsen. Online Mahjong Kejuaraan Eropa pertama diadakan pada server Sisa Mahjong pada tahun 2007, dengan 64 pemain, dan pemenangnya adalah Juliani Leo, dari Amerika Serikat, dan Eropa Best Player telah Gerda van Oorschot, dari Belanda. Ketiga Buka Eropa Mahjong Championship 2009 [21] di Baden / Wina, Austria, dimenangkan oleh pemain Jepang Koji Idota, sedangkan runner-up Bo Lang dari Swiss menjadi Juara Eropa. Ada 152 peserta.

Pada tahun 2006, World Mahjong Organization (WMO) didirikan di Beijing, Cina, dengan kerjasama, antara lain, Jepang Mahjong Panitia (JMOC) dan Eropa Mahjong Association (EMA). Organisasi ini diadakan pertama Kejuaraan Dunia pada bulan November 2007 di kota Cina Chengdu, dihadiri oleh 144 peserta dari seluruh dunia. Hal itu dimenangkan oleh Li Li, seorang mahasiswa Cina di Tsinghua University. Kejuaraan Dunia berikutnya akan berlangsung di Utrecht, Belanda, di musim panas 2010.

Beberapa pihak lain juga berusaha untuk menciptakan aturan persaingan internasional. Yang paling terlihat adalah Jung Zung (中庸) Mahjong Scoring System, yang diciptakan oleh sarjana Hong Kong mahjong Alan Kwan. Berbeda dengan aturan resmi Cina, Zung Jung dirancang dengan kesederhanaan sebagai salah satu tujuan desain, dan bertujuan untuk menjadi cocok untuk hiburan santai serta bermain turnamen. Zung Jung diadopsi oleh World Series acara Mahjong diadakan setiap tahun di Macau. World Series of Mahjong terakhir diadakan pada bulan September 2008, di mana 302 peserta ambil bagian. Acara utama memiliki kolam renang hadiah sebesar US $ 1-juta, yang memenangkan lebih dari tiga hari bermain oleh Alex Ho, dari Hong Kong. Ia meraih US $ 500K dari kolam hadiah dan kalung mahjong dirancang oleh Steela + Steelo. [22]

Barat, atau Amerika gaya Mah Jongg turnamen yang diselenggarakan di hampir setiap negara – yang terbesar di Las Vegas, NV dua kali setahun, dan di Atlantic City, NJ, oleh Mah JOngg Madness, dan pelayaran tahunan yang diselenggarakan oleh National Mah JOngg Liga dan Madness Jongg Mah (MJM). MJM turnamen host antara 150 dan 500 peserta pada acara-acara yang lebih besar, dan ada beberapa skala yang lebih kecil, tapi juga sukses turnamen yang diselenggarakan setiap tahun oleh host lain. Hadiah kolam didasarkan pada jumlah yang berpartisipasi. Aturan didasarkan pada Mah Jongg Nasional Liga aturan baku.

Peralatan
Artikel utama: ubin Mahjong

Dasar peralatan: keripik, ubin, dan dadu

Mahjong dapat dimainkan baik dengan satu set ubin mahjong atau satu set kartu bermain mahjong (kadang-kadang dieja “kards” untuk membedakan mereka dari daftar standar yang digunakan di tangan mahjong Amerika). Bermain kartu sering digunakan ketika bepergian, saat mereka mengambil banyak ruang lebih sedikit dan lebih ringan daripada rekan-rekan genteng mereka, namun mereka biasanya dari kualitas yang lebih rendah. Pada artikel ini, “ubin” akan digunakan untuk menunjukkan kartu bermain baik dan ubin.

set mahjong Banyak juga akan menyertakan sekumpulan chip atau ubin tulang untuk penilaian, serta indikator yang menunjukkan dealer dan Wind berlaku bundar. Beberapa set juga mungkin termasuk rak untuk menahan ubin atau keripik (meskipun dalam banyak set, ubin umumnya cukup tebal sehingga mereka dapat berdiri sendiri), dengan salah satu dari mereka menjadi berbeda untuk menunjukkan rak dealer.

implementasi Komputer mahjong juga tersedia. Hal ini memungkinkan Anda untuk bermain melawan lawan komputer, atau terhadap lawan manusia di Internet.

Satu set ubin mahjong biasanya akan berbeda dari satu tempat ke tempat. Biasanya memiliki setidaknya 136 ubin (paling sering 144), walaupun set yang berasal dari Amerika atau Jepang akan memiliki lebih. ubin Mahjong dibagi ke dalam kategori: pakaian, kehormatan, dan bunga.

[Sunting] Sejarah
Yang cocok dari ubin adalah uang berbasis. Di Cina kuno, koin-koin tembaga memiliki lubang persegi di tengah; orang melewati tali melalui lubang-lubang untuk mengikat koin ke string. String ini biasanya dalam kelompok 100 koin, Diao disebut (吊, atau 吊 varian), atau 1000 koin, Guan disebut (贯). koneksi Mahjong terhadap sistem mata uang kuno Cina ini konsisten dengan dugaan derivasi dari permainan bernama mǎ Diao (马 吊).

Dalam sesuai mahjong, para tembaga mewakili koin, tali sebenarnya string dari 100 koin, dan karakter berbagai mewakili 10.000 koin atau 100 string. Ketika tangan menerima maksimum yang diperbolehkan memenangkan bulat, hal itu disebut Guan mǎn (满贯, secara harfiah, “penuh string koin”.)

[Sunting] Jenis cocok
Ada empat kategori sesuai yang keempat “ubin liar” digunakan hanya dalam beberapa variasi lokal (Amerika dan Singapura aturan).

[Sunting] Simples
Ada tiga setelan sederhana yang berbeda nomor 1-9. Mereka adalah bambu, koin dan karakter. Mereka universal digunakan dengan pengecualian terbatas atau tidak ada bambu dalam aturan Korea dan penghilangan satu setelan atau 2-8 dari satu setelan dalam tiga versi pemain. simples Hanya dapat digunakan untuk membuat sebuah chow.

[Edit] Honours
Ada dua setelan jas kehormatan yang berbeda. Angin yang ada utara selatan timur dan barat dan naga yang terdapat Merah, Hijau dan Putih. Honours tidak dapat terbentuk Chows.

[Sunting] Bonus Ubin
Ada sampai 16 ubin bonus mungkin. Dalam beberapa variasi mereka kecewa seperti riichi dan variasi Jepang lainnya. Yang paling umum digunakan adalah bunga-bunga. Musim digunakan dalam variasi Cina yang paling (Hong Kong, Taiwan, shanghai). Di Singapura dan variasi Malaysia ada juga setelan hewan. Ada setelan keempat yang dapat digunakan terdiri dari moda transportasi yang mungkin (yaitu becak). Hal ini jarang digunakan. Ada empat sesuai dengan masing-masing dan setiap ubin unik. Mereka diberi nomor 1 sampai 4.

[Sunting] Wild Ubin
Juga dikenal sebagai Joker ubin. Mereka hanya digunakan dalam beberapa variasi dan bukan merupakan gugatan melainkan dapat digantikan untuk setiap ubin yang diinginkan berdasarkan aturan tertentu dari variasi.

[Sunting] Suits Individu
Stones (alternatif roda atau lingkaran): satu sampai sembilan (🀙 🀚 🀛 🀜 🀝 🀞 🀟 🀠 🀡). Dinamakan sebagai ubin masing-masing terdiri dari sejumlah kalangan. Setiap lingkaran dikatakan untuk mewakili bisa (筒, Tong) koin dengan lubang persegi di tengah.

Bambu: satu sampai sembilan (🀐 🀑 🀒 🀓 🀔 🀕 🀖 🀗 🀘). Dinamakan sebagai ubin masing-masing terdiri dari beberapa tongkat bambu. Setiap tongkat dikatakan untuk mewakili string (索, sǔo) yang memegang seratus koin. Perhatikan bahwa 1 Bambu adalah pengecualian: memiliki burung duduk di bambu, untuk mencegah perubahan.

Karakter (alternatif nomor): satu sampai sembilan (🀇 🀈 🀉 🀊 🀋 🀌 🀍 🀎 🀏). Dinamakan sebagai ubin masing-masing mewakili sepuluh ribu (万, WAN) koin, atau seratus string dari seratus koin.

[Sunting] Honors
ubin Angin: 🀀 Timur Angin (东, dong timur), 🀁 Angin Selatan (南, selatan nan), 🀂 Angin Barat (西, XI barat), dan 🀃 Angin Utara (北, bei Utara).

Dragon ubin: 🀄 Red Dragon, Green Dragon 🀅, dan 🀆 White Dragon. Ubin naga Istilah konvensi Barat diperkenalkan oleh Joseph Park Babcock pada tahun 1920 bukunya memperkenalkan mahjong ke Amerika. Awalnya, ubin ini dikatakan memiliki sesuatu untuk dilakukan dengan Pemeriksaan Kekaisaran Cina. Ubin merah (“中” 榜, zhōngbǎng) berarti lulus ujian untuk menghapus cara untuk kepegawaian. Ubin hijau (“发” 财, facai, secara harfiah “menjadi kaya”) berarti kekayaan. Ubin putih (白板, báibǎn, secara harfiah “sabak bersih”) berarti bebas dari korupsi. Biasanya memiliki garis tepi biru untuk membedakan dari ubin penggantian dan mencegah perubahan. Dalam mahjong Cina asli, potongan-potongan ini disebut Jian (箭), yang mewakili memanah, dan merah “中” merupakan hit pada target. Dalam panahan Cina kuno, orang akan menaruh “中” merah untuk menandakan bahwa target dipukul. Putih “白” mewakili kegagalan, dan hijau “发” berarti bahwa satu akan merilis menarik. [Rujukan?]

[Sunting] Bunga
Kategori terakhir, dan komponen biasanya opsional untuk satu set mahjong ubin, ubin ini sering mengandung karya seni. Banyak orang memilih untuk tidak menggunakan ubin, karena mereka membuat lebih mudah untuk menang dan mendapatkan poin bonus. Misalnya, jika Anda tidak memiliki bunga di tangan Anda, Anda mendapatkan hanya satu titik bonus, tapi jika Anda memegang dua ubin bunga yang sesuai dengan kursi Anda / arah angin, Anda berhak untuk dua poin bonus, karena bunga sesuai dengan arah angin. Sebagai contoh, memegang sepasang bunga 3 simbol saat Anda berada di posisi Angin Barat memperoleh 2 poin bonus untuk tangan itu, karena bunga 3 dikaitkan dengan Angin Barat.

set aturan Jepang menghambat penggunaan bunga dan musim. Korea aturan dan tiga pemain mahjong dalam tradisi / Korea Jepang menggunakan bunga saja. Di Singapura dan Malaysia satu set ekstra bonus ubin dari empat binatang yang digunakan. Peraturan yang ditetapkan meliputi fungsi unik yang pemain yang mendapatkan dua hewan spesifik mendapatkan satu kali pembayaran langsung dari semua pemain. Dalam mahjong Taiwan, mendapatkan semua delapan bunga dan musim merupakan kemenangan otomatis tangan dan pembayaran tertentu dari semua pemain.

Empat dari ubin bunga mewakili empat pabrik mulia Konfusianisme perhitungan: prem 🀢, 🀣 anggrek, krisan 🀥, dan 🀤 bambu.

Ubin bunga lainnya empat (atau musim ubin) merupakan musim: 🀦 musim semi, panas 🀧, musim gugur 🀨, dan 🀩 musim dingin.

ubin hewan yang digunakan di Malaysia, Singapura dan variasi lokal adalah binatang. Mereka mewakili kucing, tikus, ayam jantan dan kelabang.

[Sunting] Menyiapkan papan
Urutan berikut ini untuk mengatur Hong Kong standar (atau Singapura) permainan. Casual atau pemain mulai mungkin ingin melanjutkan langsung ke gameplay. Menyeret ubin diperlukan sebelum menumpuk.

[Sunting] Game Angin dan Angin Berlaku
Untuk menentukan Player Game Angin (门 风 atau 自 风), masing-masing pemain melempar tiga dadu (dua di beberapa varian) dan pemain dengan total tertinggi dipilih sebagai dealer atau bankir (庄家). Angin adalah dealer Timur; pemain di sebelah kanan dealer telah angin Selatan; pemain sebelah kanan memiliki Barat, dan pemain keempat telah Utara (bayangkan peta terbalik). Game angin perubahan setelah setiap tangan, kecuali dealer menang. Dalam beberapa variasi, semakin lama dealer tetap dealer, semakin tinggi nilai masing-masing tangan.

Angin yang berlaku (场 风) selalu diatur ke Timur ketika memulai. Ini perubahan setelah angin Game telah diputar di sekitar papan, yaitu setelah setiap pemain telah kehilangan sebagai dealer. dealer selalu Timur. Sebuah permainan penuh mahjong berlangsung sampai berlaku Angin telah berputar melalui keempat.

Sebuah mahjong set dengan Angin dalam bermain biasanya akan menyertakan penanda berlaku terpisah Angin (biasanya mati ditandai dengan karakter Angin di pemegang) dan sebuah penunjuk yang dapat berorientasi pada dealer untuk menunjukkan Player Game Angin. Dalam set dengan rak, rak mungkin ditandai berbeda untuk menunjukkan dealer.

Angin ini juga signifikan, seperti Angin yang sering dikaitkan dengan seorang anggota dari kelompok ubin Bunga, biasanya 1 dengan Timur, 2 dengan Selatan, 3 dengan Barat, dan 4 dengan Utara.

[Sunting] Menangani ubin
Semua ubin ditempatkan menghadap ke bawah dan dikocok. Setiap pemain kemudian tumpukan deretan ubin dua ubin tinggi di depannya, panjang baris tergantung pada jumlah ubin yang digunakan:

136 ubin: 17 tumpukan untuk setiap pemain
Setelan titik, bambu, dan karakter + angin + naga
144 ubin: 18 tumpukan untuk setiap pemain
148 ubin: 19 tumpukan untuk berlawanan dealer dan pemain, 18 untuk beristirahat
152 ubin: 19 tumpukan untuk setiap pemain
Dealer melempar tiga dadu dan meringkas total. Menghitung berlawanan sehingga dealer adalah 1, baris pemain dipilih.

 

the history of Mahjong

 

Mahjong
Mahjong in Hangzhou.jpg
A game of mahjong being played in Hangzhou, China
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 麻將
Simplified Chinese 麻将
[show]Transliterations
Hakka
Romanization ma jiong3
Mandarin
Hanyu Pinyin Má jiàng
Wu
Romanization mu ciang (麻雀兒/麻將)
Cantonese
Jyutping maa4 zoeng3
Yale Romanization ma4 jeung3
alternative Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 麻雀
Simplified Chinese 麻雀
[show]Transliterations
Hakka
Romanization ma4 jiok3
Mandarin
Hanyu Pinyin Má què
Min
Hokkien POJ Moâ-chhiok
Wu
Romanization mu ciah
Cantonese
Jyutping maa4 zoek3
Yale Romanization ma4 jeuk3
Japanese name
Kanji 麻雀
Kana マージャン
[show]Transliterations
– Romaji mājan
Korean name
Hangul 마작
Hanja 麻雀
[show]Transliterations
Revised
Romanization
majak
McCune-
Reischauer
machak
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese mạt chược
Mahjong
Players 4
Age range 4 years and older
Setup time 2–10 minutes
Playing time Dependent on variation and/or house/tournament rules
Random chance Yes
Skills required Tactics, observation, memory
This article contains Chinese text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.

Mahjong (Chinese: 麻將; pinyin: má jiàng) is a game that originated in China, commonly played by four players (with some three-player variations found in Korea and Japan). Mahjong is a game of skill, strategy and calculation and involves a certain degree of chance. In Asia, mahjong is also popularly played as a gambling game (though it may just as easily be played recreationally).

The game is played with a set of 152 tiles based on Chinese characters and symbols, although some regional variations use a different number of tiles. In most variations, each player begins by receiving thirteen tiles. In turn players draw and discard tiles until they complete a legal hand using the fourteenth drawn tile to form four groups (melds) and a pair (head). There are fairly standard rules about how a piece is drawn, stolen from another player (melded), the use of basic (numbered tiles) and honours (winds and dragons), the kinds of melds, and the order of dealing and play. However there are many regional variations which may vary these rules; in addition, the scoring system, the minimum hand necessary to win varies significantly based on the local rules being used.

 

 Name

The game was called 麻雀 (pinyin: má què), meaning sparrow in Chinese, which is still the name most commonly used in some southern Chinese dialects such as Cantonese and Min Nan, as well as in Japanese. However, most Mandarin-speaking Chinese now call the game má jiàng (麻將). In Northern Wu Chinese (Shanghainese and its relatives), it is pronounced as 麻將 [mu tsiaŋ], but in actuality, 麻將 is the diminutive form of 麻雀, written as 麻雀兒 [mu tsiaʔ ŋ], due to an erhua event. It is through the Wu Chinese pronunciation of 麻雀兒 that the diminutive form of 麻雀 in Northern Wu dialect became known as 麻將 in both Mandarin and Wu.

History

Mahjong in China

One of the myths of the origin of mahjong suggests that Confucius,[1] the Chinese philosopher, developed the game in about 500 BC. This assertion is likely to be apocryphal. According to this myth, the appearance of the game in the various Chinese states coincided with Confucius’ travels at the time he was teaching his new doctrines. The three dragon (cardinal) tiles also agree with the three cardinal virtues bequeathed by Confucius. Hóng Zhōng (紅中 MJd1.png, red middle), Fā Cái (發財 MJd2.png, prosperity), and Bái Ban (白板 MJd3.png, white board) represent benevolence, sincerity, and filial piety, respectively.

The myth also claims that Confucius was fond of birds, which would explain the name “mahjong” (maque 麻雀 = sparrow). However, there is no evidence of mahjong’s existence before the Taiping era in the 19th century, which eliminates Confucius as a likely inventor.

Many historians believe it was based on a Chinese card game called Mǎdiào (馬吊) (also known as Ma Tiae, hanging horse; or Yèzí [葉子], leaf) in the early Ming dynasty.[2] This game was played with 40 paper cards similar in appearance to the cards used in the game Ya Pei. These 40 cards are numbered 1 to 9 in four different suits, along with four extra flower cards. This is quite similar to the numbering of mahjong tiles today, although mahjong only has three suits and, in effect, uses four packs of Ya Pei cards.

There is still some debate about who created the game. One theory is that Chinese army officers serving during the Taiping Rebellion created the game to pass the time. Another theory is that a nobleman living in the Shanghai area created the game between 1870 and 1875. Others believe that two brothers from Níngpō created mahjong around 1850, from the earlier game of Mǎdiào.

This game was banned by the government of People’s Republic of China when it took power in 1949.[3] The new Communist government forbade any gambling activities, which were regarded as symbols of capitalist corruption. After the Cultural Revolution, the game was revived, without gambling elements (see below), and the prohibition was revoked in 1985.[4] Today, it is a favorite pastime in China and other Chinese-speaking communities.

Mahjong in the Western world

Students in the United States learning how to play mahjong

In 1895, Stewart Culin, an American anthropologist, wrote a paper in which mahjong was mentioned. This is the first known written account of mahjong in any language other than Chinese. By 1910, there were written accounts in many languages, including French and Japanese.

The game was imported to the United States in the 1920s.[5] The first mahjong sets sold in the U.S. were sold by Abercrombie & Fitch starting in 1920.[6] It became a success in New York, and the owner of the company, Ezra Fitch, sent emissaries to Chinese villages to buy every set of mahjong they could find. Abercrombie & Fitch sold a total of 12,000 sets.[6]

Also in 1920, Joseph Park Babcock published his book Rules of Mah-Jongg, also known as the “red book”. This was the earliest version of mahjong known in America. Babcock had learned mahjong while living in China. Babcock’s rules simplified the game to make it easier for Americans to take up, and his version was common through the mahjong fad of the 1920s. Later, when the 1920s fad died out, many of Babcock’s simplifications were abandoned.

The game has taken on a number of trademarked names, such as “Pung Chow” and the “Game of Thousand Intelligences”. Mahjong nights in America often involved dressing and decorating rooms in Chinese style.[7] Several hit songs were also recorded during the mahjong fad, most notably “Since Ma is Playing Mah Jong” by Eddie Cantor.[8]

Many variants of mahjong developed during this period. By the 1930s, many revisions of the rules developed that were substantially different from Babcock’s classical version (including some that were considered fundamentals in other variants, such as the notion of a standard hand). The most common form, which eventually became “American mahjong”, was most popular among Jewish women.[9] Standardization came with the formation of the National Mah Jongg League (NMJL) in 1937, along with the first American mahjong rulebook, Maajh: The American Version of the Ancient Chinese Game.

While mahjong was accepted by U.S. players of all ethnic backgrounds during the Babcock era, many consider the modern American version a remake of a Jewish game,[10] as many American mahjong players are of Jewish descent. The NMJL was founded by Jewish players and is considered a Jewish organization. In addition, players usually use the American game as a family-friendly social activity, not as gambling. In 1986, the National Mah Jongg League conducted their first Mah Jongg Cruise Tournament, in conjuction with Mah Jongg Madness. In 2010, this large scale seagoing event hosts its 25th Silver Anniversary Cruise, with players from all over the States and Canada participating.

In recent years, a second organization has formed, the American Mah Jongg Association. The AMJA currently hosts tournaments all across North America, with their signature event being at the Trump Taj Mahal Casino Resort in Atlantic City, New Jersey.

British author Alan D. Millington revived the Chinese classical game of the 1920s with his book The Complete Book of Mah-jongg (1977). This handbook includes a formal rules set for the game. Many players in Western countries consider Millington’s work authoritative.

Mahjong is not the first re-appearance of the Chinese game in the western world. It was also introduced in playing card form by an official of Britain‘s Consular Service named William Henry Wilkinson, author of “Chinese origin of playing cards,” under the name of Khanhoo. This card game does not seem to have made much impression. The later success of mahjong came in part from the elegance of its mechanism as embodied in the domino-like pieces.

Current development

Today, the popularity and the characteristics of players of mahjong vary from country to country. There are also many governing bodies, which often host exhibition games and tournaments. It remains far more popular in Asia than in the West.

Mahjong, as of 2010, is the most popular table game in Japan.[11] In Japan, there is a traditional emphasis on gambling[dubiousdiscuss], and the typical player is male. Many devotees there believe the game is losing popularity and have taken efforts to revive it.[citation needed] There are several manga and anime (e.g. Saki and Akagi) devoted to dramatic and comic situations involving mahjong.[12] In addition, Japanese video arcades have introduced mahjong arcade machines that can be connected to others over the Internet. There are also video game versions of strip mahjong.

Mahjong culture is still deeply ingrained in the Chinese community. Sam Hui wrote Cantopop songs using mahjong as their themes, and Hong Kong movies have often included scenes of mahjong games. Many gambling movies have been filmed in Hong Kong, and a recent sub-genre is the mahjong movie.

Like other games, such as chess, Mastermind, checkers and card games, prolonged playing of mahjong may trigger epileptic seizures. The number of such cases, however, are rare. According to a 2007 study,[13][14] to date there are only 23 reported cases of mahjong-induced seizures in the English medical literature.

Studies by doctors have also shown in Hong Kong that the game is beneficial for individuals suffering from dementia or cognitive memory difficulties, leading to the development of mahjong therapy.[15]

As of 2008, there were approximately 7.6 million Mahjong players in Japan. An estimated 8,900 Mahjong parlors in Japan did ¥300 billion in sales that same year.[16]

 Type of game

Because of the solid form of the tiles, mahjong is sometimes classified as a domino game. However, it is much more similar to Western-style card games such as rummy.

Variants

There are many variations of mahjong. In many places, players often observe one version and are either unaware of other variations or claim that different versions are incorrect. Although many variations today differ only by scoring, there are several main varieties:

Descriptions

  • Chinese classical mahjong is the oldest variety of mahjong and was the version introduced to America in the 1920s under various names. It has a small, loyal following in the West, although few play it in Asia.
  • Hong Kong mahjong or Cantonese mahjong is possibly the most common form of mahjong, differing in minor scoring details from the Chinese Classical variety. It does not allow multiple players to win from a single discard.
  • Korean mahjong is unique in many ways and is an excellent version for beginners and three players. One suit is omitted completely (usually the Bamboo set) as well as the seasons. The scoring is simpler and the play is faster. No melded chows are allowed in and concealed hands are common. Riichi (much like its Japanese cousin) is an integral part of the game as well. Korean Rules
  • Sichuan mahjong is a growing variety, particularly in southern China, disallowing chi melds, and using only the suited tiles. It can be played very quickly.
  • Taiwanese mahjong is the variety prevalent in Taiwan and involves hands of 16 tiles (as opposed to the 13-tile hands in other versions), features bonuses for dealers and recurring dealerships, and allows multiple players to win from a single discard.
  • Japanese mahjong is a standardized form of mahjong in Japan and is also found prevalently in video games. In addition to scoring changes, the rules of rīchi (ready hand) and dora (bonus tiles) are unique highlights of this variant. Besides, there is a variation called sanma (三麻) based on this sort, which is modified for playing by three players, and its main differences from the standard one are that chī (Chow) is disallowed and the simple tiles (numbers two through eight) of one suit (usually characters) are removed.
  • Western classical mahjong is a descendant of the version of mahjong introduced by Babcock to America in the 1920s. Today, this term largely refers to the “Wright-Patterson” rules, used in the U.S. military, and other similar American-made variants that are closer to the Babcock rules.
  • American mahjong is a form of mahjong standardized by the National Mah Jongg League[17] and the American Mah-Jongg Association.[18] It uses joker tiles, the Charleston, plus melds of five or more tiles, and eschews the Chow and the notion of a standard hand. Purists claim that this makes American mahjong a separate game. In addition, the NMJL and AMJA variations, which differ by minor scoring differences, are commonly referred to as mahjongg or mah-jongg (with two Gs, often hyphenated).
  • Three player mahjong (or three-ka) is a simplified three-person mahjong that involves hands of 13 tiles (with a total of 84 tiles on the table) and may use jokers depending on the variation. Any rule set can be adapted for three players, however this is far more common and accepted in Japan, Korea, Malaysia and the Philippines. It usually eliminates one suit entirely or tiles 2-8 in one suit leaving only the terminals. It needs fewer people to start a game and the turnaround time of a game is short—hence, it is considered a fast game. In some versions there is a jackpot for winning in which whoever accumulates a point of 10 is considered to hit the jackpot or whoever scores three hidden hands first. The Malaysian and Korean versions drop one wind and may include a seat dragon. Korean Japanese three player variant.
  • Singaporean/Malaysian mahjong is a variant similar to the Cantonese mahjong played in Malaysia. Unique elements of Singaporean/Malaysian mahjong are the four animal tiles (cat, mouse, cockerel, and centipede) as well as certain alternatives in the scoring rules, which allow payouts midway through the game if certain conditions (such as a kang) are met.
  • Fujian mahjong, with a Dàidì joker 帶弟百搭.
  • Vietnamese mạt chược, with 16 different kinds of jokers.
  • Thai mahjong, includes the Vietnamese tiles with another eight for a total of 168 tiles.
  • Filipino mahjong, with the Window Joker.
  • Pussers bones is a fast-moving variant developed by sailors in the Royal Australian Navy. It uses a creative alternative vocabulary, such as Eddie, Sammy, Wally, and Normie, instead of East, South, West, and North.
  • Mahjong Solitaire involves stacking the Mahjong tiles in various configurations and then through an act of elimination the discovery of tile pairs and the removal of those pairs from the stack. The computer game was originally created by Brodie Lockard in 1981 on the PLATO system. Microsoft Corporation released a computerized Mahjong solitaire game called “Mahjong Titans” originally bundled with Windows Vista and later also with Windows 7. Previously Activision in 1986 released a computerized Mahjong solitaire game for the Amiga, Macintosh and Apple IIgs computers and also the Sega Master System entitled Shanghai.

Selected Variations Compared

Mahjong Variations
Variation Hong Kong HK New Classical Japanese Korean Taiwan Malaysia/ Singapore Three player mahjong J/K American
Flowers Yes Yes Yes Optional Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Seasons Yes Yes Yes Uncommon Yes No Yes No Yes
Bamboo Yes Yes Yes Yes No or only terminals Yes Yes No or only Terminals Yes
Animals No No No No No No Yes No Yes
Jokers No No No No No No Yes No Yes
Scoring Base Faan Faan Multipliers Multipliers Simple Simple Simple Simple American
Scoring Winner Winner All Winner Winner Winner Winner Winner Winner
East Doubles Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes
Sacred Discard No No No Yes Yes No No Yes No
Melded Chows Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes
Riichi No No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No
Minimum Points (in variations units) 3f 5f 3f 1y 2p 7/10t 2u 3+ Varies

 Mahjong competition rules

The top three in the World Mahjong Championship in Tokyo, October 2002. In the middle: world champion Mai Hatsune, from Japan

The first Open European Mahjong Championship, Nijmegen, the Netherlands, June 2005

The winners of the second Open European Mahjong Championship, Copenhagen, Denmark, June 2007. From left: Kohichi Oda (2), Martin Wedel Jacobsen (1), and Benjamin Boas (3)

In 1998, in the interest of dissociating illegal gambling from mahjong, the China State Sports Commission published a new set of rules, now generally referred to as Chinese Official rules or International Tournament rules (see Guobiao Majiang). The principles of the new, wholesome mahjong are: no gambling, no drinking, and no smoking. In international tournaments, players are often grouped in teams to emphasize that mahjong from now on is considered a sport.

The new rules are highly pattern-based. The rulebook contains 81 combinations, based on patterns and scoring elements popular in both classic and modern regional Chinese variants; some table practices of Japan have also been adopted. Points for flower tiles (each flower is worth one point) may not be added until the player has scored 8 points. The winner of a game receives the score from the player who discards the winning tile, plus 8 basic points from each player; in the case of zimo (self-drawn win), he receives the value of this round plus 8 points from all players.

The new rules were first used in an international tournament in Tokyo, where, in 2002, the first World Championship in Mahjong was organized by the Mahjong Museum, the Japan Mahjong Organizing Committee, and the city council of Ningbo, China. One hundred players participated, mainly from Japan and China, but also from Europe and the United States. Mai Hatsune, from Japan, became the first world champion. The following year saw the first annual China Majhong Championship, held in Hainan; the next two annual tournaments were held in Hong Kong and Beijing. Most players were Chinese, but players from other nations attended as well.

In 2005, the first Open European Mahjong Championship[19] was held in the Netherlands, with 108 players. The competition was won by Masato Chiba from Japan. The second European championship[20] in Copenhagen (2007) was attended by 136 players and won by Danish player Martin Wedel Jacobsen. The first Online European Mahjong Championship was held on the Mahjong Time server in 2007, with 64 players, and the winner was Juliani Leo, from the U.S., and the Best European Player was Gerda van Oorschot, from the Netherlands. The Third Open European Mahjong Championship 2009[21] at Baden/Vienna, Austria, was won by Japanese player Koji Idota, while runner-up Bo Lang from Switzerland became European Champion. There were 152 participants.

In 2006, the World Mahjong Organization (WMO) was founded in Beijing, China, with the cooperation of, amongst others, the Japan Mahjong Organizing Committee (JMOC) and the European Mahjong Association (EMA). This organization held its first World Championship in November 2007 in the Chinese town of Chengdu, attended by 144 participants from all over the world. It was won by Li Li, a Chinese student at Tsinghua University. The next World Championship will take place in Utrecht, the Netherlands, in Summer 2010.

Some other parties have also attempted to create international competition rules. The most noticeable one is the Zung Jung (中庸) Mahjong Scoring System, created by Hong Kong mahjong scholar Alan Kwan. Unlike the Chinese Official rules, Zung Jung is designed with simplicity as one of its design goals, and aims to be suitable for casual entertainment as well as tournament play. Zung Jung is adopted by the World Series of Mahjong event held annually in Macau. The World Series of Mahjong was last held in September 2008, in which 302 participants took part. The main event had a prize pool of US$1-million, which was won over three days of play by Alex Ho, from Hong Kong. He won US$500K from the prize pool and a mahjong necklace designed by Steela+Steelo.[22]

Western, or American-style Mah Jongg tournaments are held in virtually every state – the largest in Las Vegas, NV twice a year, and in Atlantic City, NJ, by Mah JOngg Madness; and the annual cruise hosted by the National Mah JOngg League and Mah Jongg Madness (MJM). MJM tournaments host between 150 and 500 participants at these larger events; and there are several smaller scale, but equally successful tournaments held annually by other hosts. Prize pools are based on the number participating. Rules are based on the National Mah Jongg League standard rules.

Equipment(PERALATAN)

 ubin Mahjong
 
Dasar peralatan: keripik, ubin, dan daduMahjong dapat dimainkan baik dengan satu set ubin mahjong atau satu set kartu bermain mahjong (kadang-kadang dieja “kards” untuk membedakan mereka dari daftar standar yang digunakan di tangan mahjong Amerika). Bermain kartu sering digunakan ketika bepergian, saat mereka mengambil banyak ruang lebih sedikit dan lebih ringan daripada rekan-rekan genteng mereka, namun mereka biasanya dari kualitas yang lebih rendah. Pada artikel ini, “ubin” akan digunakan untuk menunjukkan kartu bermain baik dan ubin.set mahjong Banyak juga akan menyertakan sekumpulan chip atau ubin tulang untuk penilaian, serta indikator yang menunjukkan dealer dan Wind berlaku bundar. Beberapa set juga mungkin termasuk rak untuk menahan ubin atau keripik (meskipun dalam banyak set, ubin umumnya cukup tebal sehingga mereka dapat berdiri sendiri), dengan salah satu dari mereka menjadi berbeda untuk menunjukkan rak dealer.implementasi Komputer mahjong juga tersedia. Hal ini memungkinkan Anda untuk bermain melawan lawan komputer, atau terhadap lawan manusia di Internet.Satu set ubin mahjong biasanya akan berbeda dari satu tempat ke tempat. Biasanya memiliki setidaknya 136 ubin (paling sering 144), walaupun set yang berasal dari Amerika atau Jepang akan memiliki lebih. ubin Mahjong dibagi ke dalam kategori: pakaian, kehormatan, dan bunga.[Sunting] Sejarah
Yang cocok dari ubin adalah uang berbasis. Di Cina kuno, koin-koin tembaga memiliki lubang persegi di tengah; orang melewati tali melalui lubang-lubang untuk mengikat koin ke string. String ini biasanya dalam kelompok 100 koin, Diao disebut (吊, atau 吊 varian), atau 1000 koin, Guan disebut (贯). koneksi Mahjong terhadap sistem mata uang kuno Cina ini konsisten dengan dugaan derivasi dari permainan bernama mǎ Diao (马 吊).Dalam sesuai mahjong, para tembaga mewakili koin, tali sebenarnya string dari 100 koin, dan karakter berbagai mewakili 10.000 koin atau 100 string. Ketika tangan menerima maksimum yang diperbolehkan memenangkan bulat, hal itu disebut Guan mǎn (满贯, secara harfiah, “penuh string koin”.)[Sunting] Jenis cocok
Ada empat kategori sesuai yang keempat “ubin liar” digunakan hanya dalam beberapa variasi lokal (Amerika dan Singapura aturan).[Sunting] Simples
Ada tiga setelan sederhana yang berbeda nomor 1-9. Mereka adalah bambu, koin dan karakter. Mereka universal digunakan dengan pengecualian terbatas atau tidak ada bambu dalam aturan Korea dan penghilangan satu setelan atau 2-8 dari satu setelan dalam tiga versi pemain. simples Hanya dapat digunakan untuk membuat sebuah chow.[Edit] Honours
Ada dua setelan jas kehormatan yang berbeda. Angin yang ada utara selatan timur dan barat dan naga yang terdapat Merah, Hijau dan Putih. Honours tidak dapat terbentuk Chows.[Sunting] Bonus Ubin
Ada sampai 16 ubin bonus mungkin. Dalam beberapa variasi mereka kecewa seperti riichi dan variasi Jepang lainnya. Yang paling umum digunakan adalah bunga-bunga. Musim digunakan dalam variasi Cina yang paling (Hong Kong, Taiwan, shanghai). Di Singapura dan variasi Malaysia ada juga setelan hewan. Ada setelan keempat yang dapat digunakan terdiri dari moda transportasi yang mungkin (yaitu becak). Hal ini jarang digunakan. Ada empat sesuai dengan masing-masing dan setiap ubin unik. Mereka diberi nomor 1 sampai 4.

 
 

Basic equipment: chips, tiles, and dice

Mahjong can be played either with a set of mahjong tiles or a set of mahjong playing cards (sometimes spelled “kards” to distinguish them from the list of standard hands used in American mahjong). Playing cards are often used when travelling, as they take up less space and are lighter than their tile counterparts; however, they are usually of a lower quality. In this article, “tile” will be used to denote both playing cards and tiles.

Many mahjong sets will also include a set of chips or bone tiles for scoring, as well as indicators denoting the dealer and the Prevailing Wind of the round. Some sets may also include racks to hold tiles or chips (although in many sets, the tiles are generally sufficiently thick so that they can stand on their own), with one of them being different to denote the dealer’s rack.

Computer implementations of mahjong are also available. These allow you to play against computer opponents, or against human opponents on the Internet.

A set of mahjong tiles will usually differ from place to place. It usually has at least 136 tiles (most commonly 144), although sets originating from America or Japan will have more. Mahjong tiles are split into these categories: suits, honor, and flowers.

 History

The suits of the tiles are money-based. In ancient China, the copper coins had a square hole in the center; people passed a rope through the holes to tie coins into strings. These strings are usually in groups of 100 coins, called diào (弔, or variant 吊), or 1000 coins, called guàn (貫). Mahjong’s connection to the ancient Chinese currency system is consistent with its alleged derivation from the game named mǎ diào (馬弔).

In the mahjong suits, the coppers represent the coins, the ropes are actually strings of 100 coins, and the character myriad represents 10,000 coins or 100 strings. When a hand receives the maximum allowed winning of a round, it is called mǎn guàn (滿貫, literally, “full string of coins”.)

 Kinds of suits

There are four categories of suits of which the fourth “wild tiles” is used in only a few local variations (American and Singapore rules).

 Simples

Simples
Ada tiga setelan sederhana yang berbeda nomor 1-9. Mereka adalah bambu, koin dan karakter. Mereka universal digunakan dengan pengecualian terbatas atau tidak ada bambu dalam aturan Korea dan penghilangan satu setelan atau 2-8 dari satu setelan dalam tiga versi pemain. Simples Hanya dapat digunakan untuk membuat sebuah chow.

 Honours
Ada dua setelan jas kehormatan yang berbeda. Angin yang ada utara selatan timur dan barat dan naga yang terdapat Merah, Hijau dan Putih. Honours tidak dapat terbentuk Chows.

 Bonus Ubin
Ada sampai 16 ubin bonus mungkin. Dalam beberapa variasi mereka kecewa seperti riichi dan variasi Jepang lainnya. Yang paling umum digunakan adalah bunga-bunga. Musim digunakan dalam variasi Cina yang paling (Hong Kong, Taiwan, shanghai). Di Singapura dan variasi Malaysia ada juga setelan hewan. Ada setelan keempat yang dapat digunakan terdiri dari moda transportasi yang mungkin (yaitu becak). Hal ini jarang digunakan. Ada empat sesuai dengan masing-masing dan setiap ubin unik. Mereka diberi nomor 1 sampai 4.

 Wild Ubin
Juga dikenal sebagai Joker ubin. Mereka hanya digunakan dalam beberapa variasi dan bukan merupakan gugatan melainkan dapat digantikan untuk setiap ubin yang diinginkan berdasarkan aturan tertentu variasi

  
 Setelan Individu (Individual Suit)
Stones (alternatif roda atau lingkaran): satu sampai sembilan (🀙 🀚 🀛 🀜 🀝 🀞 🀟 🀠 🀡). Dinamakan sebagai ubin masing-masing terdiri dari sejumlah kalangan. Setiap lingkaran dikatakan untuk mewakili bisa (筒, Tong) koin dengan lubang persegi di tengah.

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Setelan  Bambu:

 Bambu satu sampai sembilan (🀐 🀑 🀒 🀓 🀔 🀕 🀖 🀗 🀘). Dinamakan sebagai ubin masing-masing terdiri dari beberapa tongkat bambu. Setiap tongkat dikatakan untuk mewakili string (索, sǔo) yang memegang seratus koin. Perhatikan bahwa 1 Bambu adalah pengecualian: memiliki burung duduk di bambu, untuk mencegah perubahan

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  • Karakter (alternatif nomor): satu sampai sembilan (🀇 🀈 🀉 🀊 🀋 🀌 🀍 🀎 🀏). Dinamakan sebagai ubin masing-masing mewakili sepuluh ribu (万, WAN) koin, atau seratus string dari seratus koin.

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 Honors

  •  

    Ubin Angin: 🀀 Timur Angin (东, dong timur), 🀁 Angin Selatan (南, selatan nan), 🀂 Angin Barat (西, XI barat), dan 🀃 Angin Utara (北, bei Utara

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  • Dragon ubin: 🀄 Red Dragon, Green Dragon 🀅, dan 🀆 White Dragon. Ubin naga Istilah konvensi Barat diperkenalkan oleh Joseph Park Babcock pada tahun 1920 bukunya memperkenalkan mahjong ke Amerika. Awalnya, ubin ini dikatakan memiliki sesuatu untuk dilakukan dengan Pemeriksaan Kekaisaran Cina. Ubin merah (“中” 榜, zhōngbǎng) berarti lulus ujian untuk menghapus cara untuk kepegawaian. Ubin hijau (“发” 财, facai, secara harfiah “menjadi kaya”) berarti kekayaan. Ubin putih (白板, báibǎn, secara harfiah “sabak bersih”) berarti bebas dari korupsi. Biasanya memiliki garis tepi biru untuk membedakan dari ubin penggantian dan mencegah perubahan. Dalam mahjong Cina asli, potongan-potongan ini disebut Jian (箭), yang mewakili memanah, dan merah “中” merupakan hit pada target. Dalam panahan Cina kuno, orang akan menaruh “中” merah untuk menandakan bahwa target dipukul. Putih “白” mewakili kegagalan, dan hijau “发” berarti bahwa satu akan merilis menarik

 

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 Flowers

Bunga-bunga
Kategori terakhir, dan komponen biasanya opsional untuk satu set mahjong ubin, ubin ini sering mengandung karya seni. Banyak orang memilih untuk tidak menggunakan ubin, karena mereka membuat lebih mudah untuk menang dan mendapatkan poin bonus. Misalnya, jika Anda tidak memiliki bunga di tangan Anda, Anda mendapatkan hanya satu titik bonus, tapi jika Anda memegang dua ubin bunga yang sesuai dengan kursi Anda / arah angin, Anda berhak untuk dua poin bonus, karena bunga sesuai dengan arah angin. Sebagai contoh, memegang sepasang bunga 3 simbol saat Anda berada di posisi Angin Barat memperoleh 2 poin bonus untuk tangan itu, karena bunga 3 dikaitkan dengan Angin Barat.

Set aturan Jepang menghambat penggunaan bunga dan musim. Korea aturan dan tiga pemain mahjong dalam tradisi / Korea Jepang menggunakan bunga saja. Di Singapura dan Malaysia satu set ekstra bonus ubin dari empat binatang yang digunakan. Peraturan yang ditetapkan meliputi fungsi unik yang pemain yang mendapatkan dua hewan spesifik mendapatkan satu kali pembayaran langsung dari semua pemain. Dalam mahjong Taiwan, mendapatkan semua delapan bunga dan musim merupakan kemenangan otomatis tangan dan pembayaran tertentu dari semua pemain.

Empat dari ubin bunga mewakili empat pabrik mulia Konfusianisme perhitungan: prem 🀢, 🀣 anggrek, krisan 🀥, dan 🀤 bambu.

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Empat Ubin Bunga lainnya  (atau ubin musim )mengambarkan musim   :

🀦 spring, 🀧 summer, 🀨 autumn, and 🀩 winter.

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Ubin Binatang digunakan di Malaysia, Singapore dan variasi  binatang lokal . dalam bentuk Kucing,Tikus  cat, dan  centipede.

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 Setting up the board

Menyiapkan papan
Urutan berikut ini untuk mengatur Hong Kong standar (atau Singapura) permainan. Casual atau pemain mulai mungkin ingin melanjutkan langsung ke gameplay. Menyeret ubin diperlukan sebelum menumpuk.

Game Angin dan Angin Berlaku
Untuk menentukan Player Game Angin (门 风 atau 自 风), masing-masing pemain melempar tiga dadu (dua di beberapa varian) dan pemain dengan total tertinggi dipilih sebagai dealer atau bankir (庄家). Angin adalah dealer Timur; pemain di sebelah kanan dealer telah angin Selatan; pemain sebelah kanan memiliki Barat, dan pemain keempat telah Utara (bayangkan peta terbalik). Game angin perubahan setelah setiap tangan, kecuali dealer menang. Dalam beberapa variasi, semakin lama dealer tetap dealer, semakin tinggi nilai masing-masing tangan.

Angin yang berlaku (场 风) selalu diatur ke Timur ketika memulai. Ini perubahan setelah angin Game telah diputar di sekitar papan, yaitu setelah setiap pemain telah kehilangan sebagai dealer. dealer selalu Timur. Sebuah permainan penuh mahjong berlangsung sampai berlaku Angin telah berputar melalui keempat.

Sebuah mahjong set dengan Angin dalam bermain biasanya akan menyertakan penanda berlaku terpisah Angin (biasanya mati ditandai dengan karakter Angin di pemegang) dan sebuah penunjuk yang dapat berorientasi pada dealer untuk menunjukkan Player Game Angin. Dalam set dengan rak, rak mungkin ditandai berbeda untuk menunjukkan dealer.

Angin ini juga signifikan, seperti Angin yang sering dikaitkan dengan seorang anggota dari kelompok ubin Bunga, biasanya 1 dengan Timur, 2 dengan Selatan, 3 dengan Barat, dan 4 dengan Utara.

 Dealing ubin
Semua ubin ditempatkan menghadap ke bawah dan dikocok. Setiap pemain kemudian tumpukan deretan ubin dua ubin tinggi di depannya, panjang baris tergantung pada jumlah ubin yang digunakan:

136 ubin: 17 tumpukan untuk setiap pemain
Setelan titik, bambu, dan karakter + angin + naga
144 ubin: 18 tumpukan untuk setiap pemain
148 ubin: 19 tumpukan untuk berlawanan dealer dan pemain, 18 untuk beristirahat
152 ubin: 19 tumpukan untuk setiap pemain
Dealer melempar tiga dadu dan meringkas total. Menghitung berlawanan sehingga dealer adalah 1, baris pemain dipilih. Mulai di tepi kanan, “jumlah” ubin dihitung dan bergeser ke kanan.

dealer sekarang mengambil blok empat ubin di sebelah kiri membagi.

Pemain ke kanan dealer mengambil empat ubin ke kiri, dan pemain (berlawanan) mengambil blok empat ubin (searah jarum jam) sampai semua pemain memiliki 12 ubin (untuk variasi 13-ubin) atau 16 (untuk variasi 16-ubin). Dalam variasi 13-ubin, masing-masing pemain kemudian mengambil satu genteng, untuk membuat tangan 13-ubin. Dalam prakteknya, untuk mempercepat prosedur berurusan, dealer sering mengambil satu genteng ekstra selama prosedur menangani untuk memulai gilirannya.

Dewan ini sekarang sudah siap, dan ubin baru akan diambil dari dinding di mana dealing tinggalkan, melanjutkan searah jarum jam. Dalam beberapa kasus khusus dibahas kemudian, ubin diambil dari ujung dinding, sering disebut sebagai bagian belakang dinding. Dalam beberapa variasi, sekelompok ubin di bagian belakang, yang dikenal sebagai dinding mati, disediakan untuk tujuan ini sebagai gantinya. Dalam variasi seperti, dinding mati mungkin secara visual dipisahkan dari dinding utama, tapi tidak diperlukan.

Kecuali dealer telah memenangkan (lihat di bawah), dealer kemudian mengabaikan ubin. Proses berurusan dengan ubin adalah ritual dan kompleks untuk mencegah kecurangan. Casual pemain, atau pemain dengan bermain kartu mahjong, mungkin ingin untuk hanya shuffle baik dan kesepakatan keluar ubin dengan prosedur upacara yang lebih sedikit.

Charleston
Dalam variasi Amerika, diperlukan bahwa sebelum masing-masing tangan dimulai, Charleston diundangkan. Di babak pertama, tiga ubin dilewatkan ke pemain di sebelah kanan seseorang, di babak berikutnya, ubin dioper ke pemain lawan, diikuti oleh tiga ubin dilewatkan ke kiri. Jika semua pemain dalam perjanjian, sebuah Charleston kedua dilakukan, namun setiap pemain dapat memutuskan untuk menghentikan lulus setelah Charleston pertama selesai. Charleston diikuti oleh lulus opsional untuk pemain di satu,, dua atau tiga ubin. Charleston, ciri khas mahjong Amerika, mungkin telah dipinjam dari permainan kartu seperti Hearts.

 Gameplay
Setiap pemain ditangani baik tiga belas ubin (untuk variasi 13-ubin) atau enam belas ubin (untuk variasi 16-ubin). Jika seorang pemain ditangani tangan ubin yang bertekad untuk menjadi tangan menang (dikenal sebagai “surgawi menang”, 天 胡), ia dapat menyatakan kemenangan segera sebelum pertandingan bahkan dimulai. Namun, ini skenario kemenangan terjadi sangat jarang.

gilirannya Sebuah melibatkan pemain gambar ubin dari dinding (atau menggambar tumpukan) dan kemudian menempatkannya di tangan nya, pemain kemudian membuang ubin ke meja. Ini menandakan akhir giliran nya, mendorong pemain ke kanan untuk bergerak nya. Beberapa varian mendorong masing-masing pemain untuk keras mengumumkan nama genteng yang sedang dibuang sebagai bentuk kesopanan. Banyak variasi mengharuskan ubin dibuang ditempatkan secara teratur di depan pemain, sementara beberapa mengharuskan mereka ditempatkan menghadap ke bawah.

Selama gameplay, jumlah ubin dikelola oleh masing-masing pemain harus selalu sama, yakni, tiga belas atau enam belas. Pemain harus membuang genteng setelah mengambil satu. Kegagalan untuk melakukannya aturan bahwa pemain secara efektif keluar dari menang, karena kombinasi yang unggul tidak akan pernah bisa dibangun dengan satu ubin ekstra atau lebih sedikit, namun pemain berkewajiban untuk terus sampai orang lain menang.

Salah satu ciri khas ubin Barat: ketika tiga pemain drop ubin Barat, pemain keempat biasanya akan menghindari membuang Barat lain di giliran berikut. Hal ini disebabkan oleh takhayul yang mengatakan, ketika semua pemain membuang Barat (“西”) bersama-sama, semua pemain akan mati (“归西”) atau dikutuk dengan nasib buruk (lihat tetraphobia). Selama putaran angin Barat yang berlaku, pemain juga akan menghindari melemparkan di Satu Lingkaran pada langkah pertama, karena Satu Circle terdengar seperti “bersama” dalam bahasa Kanton dan Mandarin, dengan demikian, “mati semua bersama-sama” (“一同 归西”). Bahkan, karena takhayul ini, beberapa varian memerlukan pemain untuk me-restart permainan ketika semua ubin dari satu jenis angin dibuang baik dalam empat putaran pertama, atau selama empat putaran selama pertandingan. [Rujukan?]

[Sunting] melds
Ketika seorang pemain membuang ubin, setiap pemain lainnya dapat “panggilan” atau “tawaran” untuk itu dalam rangka untuk menyelesaikan berbaur (satu set tertentu ubin) di tangannya sendiri. Kelemahan melakukan hal ini adalah bahwa pemain sekarang harus mengekspos selesai berbaur dengan pemain lain, memberikan gambaran tentang apa jenis tangan ia menciptakan. Hal ini juga menciptakan unsur strategi sebagai, dalam banyak variasi, membuang sebuah ubin yang memungkinkan pemain lain untuk memenangkan permainan ini membutuhkan pemain membuang kehilangan poin, atau membayar pemenang lebih, dalam permainan uang.

Kebanyakan varian, dengan pengecualian mahjong Amerika, memungkinkan tiga jenis melds. Ketika berbaur dinyatakan melalui membuang, pemain harus menyatakan jenis berbaur dapat dinyatakan dan tempat berbaur menghadap ke atas. (Adapun varian Jepang, pemanggilan untuk membuat melds berbeda dari nama-nama yang sebenarnya dari jenis melds, mendukung nama-nama Cina yang asli dari terjemahan Jepang.) Pemain kemudian harus membuang genteng, dan bermain terus ke kanan. Karena itu, ternyata bisa dilewati dalam proses.

Pong, atau Pung (碰 pinyin Peng, Jepang: 刻 子 kōtsu)-A Pong, atau Pung, adalah satu set tiga ubin identik.
Sebagai contoh:;,,.
Dalam mahjong Amerika, mana adalah mungkin untuk berbaur ubin Bunga, sebuah Pong juga dapat merujuk kepada sebuah menyatukan tiga dari empat ubin Bunga dalam satu kelompok. mahjong Amerika juga mungkin memiliki tangan yang memerlukan triplet rajutan-tiga ubin peringkat identik tetapi berbeda sesuai.
Kong (杠 / 杠 pinyin geng, Jepang: kantsu 杠子)-A Kong adalah satu set empat ubin identik.
Sebagai contoh:;.
Karena semua lainnya melds mengandung tiga ubin, suatu Kong harus segera terkena saat eksplisit dinyatakan. Jika genteng keempat terbentuk dari membuang, dikatakan menjadi terkena Kong (明 杠 / 明 杠, pinyin geng ming). Jika semua empat ubin dibentuk di tangan, dikatakan menjadi Kong disembunyikan (暗 杠 / 暗 杠, pinyin geng). Dalam beberapa bentuk permainan, dua luar ubin dari Kong tersembunyi yang membalik untuk menunjukkan statusnya tersembunyi. Hal ini juga memungkinkan untuk membentuk sebuah Kong terkena jika pemain memiliki Pung terbuka dan menarik ubin keempat. Dalam kasus apapun, pemain harus menggambar genteng ekstra dari ujung belakang dinding, atau dari dinding mati, jika ada, dan buang seperti biasa. Play kemudian berlanjut ke kanan. Setelah Kong terbentuk, tidak dapat dibagi, yaitu, untuk menggunakan satu ubin sebagai bagian dari Chow, dan dengan demikian, mungkin tidak menguntungkan untuk segera mendeklarasikan Kong.
Sheung, atau Chow (上, dalam beberapa versi 吃 chi, Jepang: shuntsu 顺子)-A Sheung atau Chow adalah berbaur dari tiga ubin cocok secara berurutan.
Sebagai contoh:;,,.
Tidak seperti melds, sebuah Sheung terbuka hanya dapat dinyatakan dari membuang dari pemain di sebelah kiri. Satu-satunya pengecualian adalah ketika pemain kebutuhan yang ubin untuk membentuk sebuah Sheung untuk menang. Dalam hal ini, Sheung yang dapat dideklarasikan pada gilirannya setiap lawan. mahjong Amerika tidak memiliki Sheung formal (Sheungs tidak dapat dideklarasikan), tetapi beberapa tangan mungkin mengharuskan bahwa urutan serupa dibangun di tangan. Beberapa variasi Amerika juga mungkin memiliki urutan rajutan, dimana tiga ubin dari tiga setelan yang berbeda. Urutan panjang yang lebih tinggi biasanya tidak diperbolehkan, kecuali bentuk lebih dari satu berbaur.
Mata (将 jiang, dalam beberapa versi yǎn 眼, Jepang: 対 子 Toitsu atau 头 雀 Janto; juga Pair)-Pasangan ini, sementara tidak berbaur (dan dengan demikian tidak dapat dideklarasikan atau dibentuk dengan membuang, kecuali jika menyelesaikan pasangan selesai tangan), adalah komponen terakhir ke tangan standar. Ini terdiri dari dua ubin identik.
Misalnya, tangan ini menggunakan dua sebagai mata.
Mahjongg tangan Amerika mungkin memiliki konstruksi genteng yang tidak melds, seperti “NEWS” (satu dari masing-masing memiliki Angin). Karena mereka tidak melds, mereka tidak dapat dibentuk off membuang, dan dalam beberapa variasi, tidak dapat dibangun di sebagian atau seluruhnya oleh ubin Joker. Dalam pejabat China (dan beberapa lainnya) mengetahui aturan, ada tangan lebih lanjut, seperti Tujuh Pasangan atau Tiga Belas Yatim.

Ketika dua atau lebih pemain panggilan untuk ubin dibuang, pemain mengambil ubin untuk memenangkan tangan memiliki hak atas semua orang lain, diikuti oleh Pong atau deklarasi Kong, dan terakhir, Chows. Dalam mahjong Amerika, di mana dimungkinkan untuk dua pemain membutuhkan ubin yang sama untuk melds, yang berbaur dari jumlah yang lebih tinggi ubin identik diutamakan. Jika dua atau lebih pemain panggilan untuk berbaur dari prioritas yang sama (atau untuk menang), pemain terdekat ke kanan menang keluar. Secara khusus, jika panggilan untuk memenangkan override panggilan untuk membentuk suatu kong, seperti bergerak disebut “merampok Kong”, dan mungkin memberikan bonus skor. Permainan mungkin mengumumkan menarik gagal jika dua atau lebih pemain panggilan ubin untuk menang meskipun, sekali lagi tergantung pada variasi.

Ada umumnya merupakan konvensi informal untuk jumlah waktu yang diperbolehkan untuk membuat panggilan untuk ubin dibuang sebelum pemain berikutnya mengambil gilirannya mereka. Dalam mahjong Amerika, ini “jendela kesempatan” secara eksplisit dinyatakan dalam aturan, sedangkan di varian lain, umumnya dianggap bahwa ketika memulai gilirannya pemain depan, yaitu, ubin dinding daun, kesempatan telah hilang.

[Sunting] Bunga
ubin Bunga, ketika ditangani atau ditarik, harus segera diganti dengan genteng dari dinding mati (atau jika tidak ada dinding mati ada, bagian belakang dinding). Dengan pengecualian mahjong Amerika, mereka segera terbuka, ditempatkan di tampilan atas meja di depan ubin pemain. Pada awal setiap putaran, dimana dua atau lebih pemain mungkin memiliki ubin Flower, ubin Bunga mulai diganti dengan dealer dan bergerak ke kanan. ubin Bunga mungkin atau mungkin tidak memiliki nilai titik, dalam beberapa variasi, memiliki semua ubin Bunga memenangkan putaran tanpa isi sebenarnya tangan.

Dalam mahjong Amerika, ubin Bunga juga tidak langsung terkena dan diganti, karena mungkin akan menyatu dengan ubin Flower lain dalam kelompok yang sama (pada intinya, mereka diperlakukan seolah-olah mereka satu set ubin kehormatan) atau digunakan sebagai persyaratan tangan menang. Versi awal mahjong Amerika digunakan ubin ubin Flower sebagai Joker.

[Sunting] Jokers
Sebuah fitur beberapa variasi mahjong, variasi Amerika terutama, adalah gagasan dari beberapa jumlah ubin 🀪 Joker. Mereka dapat digunakan sebagai kartu liar: pengganti ubin pun di tangan, atau, dalam beberapa variasi, ubin hanya dalam melds. Variasi lainnya adalah bahwa Joker ubin tidak boleh digunakan untuk penyatuan. Tergantung pada variasi, pemain mungkin mengganti ubin Joker yang merupakan bagian dari terkena berbaur milik setiap pemain dengan ubin yang diwakilinya.

Aturan yang mengatur ubin membuang Joker juga ada, beberapa variasi mengizinkan ubin Joker untuk mengambil identitas setiap ubin, dan lain-lain hanya mengizinkan ubin Joker untuk mengambil identitas genteng sebelumnya dibuang (atau tidak adanya ubin, jika adalah yang pertama buang).

ubin Joker mungkin atau mungkin tidak berdampak pada penilaian, tergantung pada variasi. Beberapa tangan khusus mungkin memerlukan penggunaan ubin Joker (misalnya, untuk mewakili “ubin kelima” dari suatu tertentu cocok atau kehormatan genteng).

Dalam mahjong Amerika, adalah ilegal untuk lulus Jokers selama Charleston.

[Sunting] Menang
Seorang pemain menang bulat dengan menciptakan tangan mahjong standar, yang terdiri dari sejumlah tertentu melds (yaitu, empat untuk variasi 13-ubin dan lima untuk variasi 16-ubin) dan sepasang. Jika seorang pemain hanya membutuhkan satu lebih ubin untuk menyelesaikan tangan pemenang dan pemain lain membuang genteng yang dia butuhkan, dia dapat mengklaim segera, terlepas dari yang dibuang atau bagian apa dari tangannya itu selesai.

Contoh tangan menang (dibagi menjadi melds dan pasangan untuk kejelasan):

 – – – –
 – – – –
Dalam varian klasik Barat, ini dikenal sebagai menciptakan mahjong, dan proses memenangkan disebut akan mahjong.

Variasi mungkin memiliki tangan yang tidak standar khusus yang pemain dapat membuat (dalam pengertian ini, mahjong Amerika adalah varian mana hanya tangan khusus ada).

Beberapa variasi mungkin mengharuskan tangan menang menjadi beberapa nilai titik. Jika seorang pemain menyatakan kemenangan tetapi tidak ditemukan akan memegang tangan menang, ia menderita hukuman harus membayar semua pemain lawan (disebut zaa3 wu2, atau Zha hu [诈 胡] dalam bahasa Kanton dan Mandarin, masing-masing, atau secara harfiah diterjemahkan, “tangan palsu”). Dalam beberapa versi pemain membutuhkan tangan pemenang yang sangat menuntut untuk menang seperti 5 mahjong fan Hong Kong.

Winning disebut Hu (胡) dalam bahasa Cina, dan agari (アガリ) atau hora (和 了) dalam bahasa Jepang. Jika pemain menang dengan menggambar ubin dari dinding saat gilirannya, nama khusus diberikan untuk jenis ini menang dalam bahasa Cina dan Jepang: zìmō (自摸) di Cina dan tsumo (自摸, ツモ) dalam bahasa Jepang, sedangkan bila pemain menang dengan mengambil genteng cast off oleh pemain lain, dalam bahasa Jepang disebut ron (栄, ロン).

[Sunting] tangan Ready
Ketika tangan merupakan salah satu ubin pendek untuk menang (misalnya:, menunggu:,, atau, seperti yang dapat mata), tangan dikatakan tangan siap (Cina Tradisional: 牌 听; Cina Sederhana: 牌 听; Jepang : tenpai [聴 牌]), atau lebih kiasan, “di pot”. Pemain memegang tangan siap dikatakan menunggu untuk ubin tertentu. Hal ini umum harus menunggu dua atau tiga ubin, dan beberapa poin penghargaan variasi untuk tangan yang sedang menunggu untuk satu ubin. Pada 13-ubin mahjong, jumlah terbesar ubin yang seorang pemain bisa menunggu adalah 13 (tiga belas keajaiban, atau tiga belas anak yatim, tangan khusus tidak standar). Siap tangan harus dinyatakan dalam beberapa variasi mahjong, sedangkan variasi lainnya melarang sama.

Beberapa variasi mahjong, yang paling terutama Jepang dan Korea, memungkinkan pemain untuk menyatakan Richi (立 直, kadang-kadang dikenal sebagai dijangkau, seperti yang fonetis serupa). Sebuah pernyataan dari Richi adalah janji bahwa setiap ubin yang ditarik oleh pemain segera dibuang kecuali merupakan menang. persyaratan standar untuk Richi adalah bahwa tangan ditutup atau tidak memiliki melds menyatakan (selain kong tersembunyi) dan bahwa pemain sudah memiliki poin untuk deklarasi Richi. Seorang pemain yang menyatakan Richi dan menang biasanya menerima bonus poin untuk tangan mereka secara langsung, dan pemain yang menang dengan Richi juga memiliki keuntungan untuk membuka dora bagian dalam (ドラ, dari “dra” gon) yang mengarah ke kemungkinan lebih tinggi untuk mencocokkan seperti kartu, sehingga memiliki lebih banyak kesempatan untuk memberikan bonus tambahan. Namun, pemain yang menyatakan Richi dan kehilangan biasanya dihukum dengan cara tertentu. Mendeklarasikan sebuah Richi tidak ada juga dihukum dalam beberapa cara.

Dalam beberapa variasi, situasi di mana semua empat pemain menyatakan Richi adalah sebuah game dibuat otomatis, karena mengurangi permainan ke keberuntungan murni, yaitu, siapa yang mendapat genteng diperlukan mereka terlebih dahulu.

[Sunting] Menggambar
Kalau saja dinding mati tetap (atau jika tidak ada dinding mati ada dan dinding habis) dan tidak ada yang menang, bundar digambar (流 局 liu ju, 黄庄 Zhuang Huang, ryūkyoku Jepang), atau “goulashed”. Sebuah babak baru dimulai, dan tergantung pada varian, Angin Game dapat berubah. Sebagai contoh, di sebagian kalangan bermain di Singapura, jika ada setidaknya satu Kong saat putaran adalah menggambar, pemain berikut dealer menjadi dealer berikutnya, jika tidak, dealer tetap dealer.

mahjong Jepang memiliki aturan khusus yang disebut sanchahō (三家 和), yang, jika tiga pemain membuang klaim yang sama untuk menang, putaran digambar. Salah satu alasannya adalah bahwa ada kasus-kasus di mana batang 1.000 poin untuk Richi menyatakan tidak dapat dibagi tiga. Aturannya diperlakukan sama dengan “gagal menarik”.

[Sunting] Abortive menarik
Dalam mahjong Jepang, aturan memungkinkan gagal menarik dapat dinyatakan sementara ubin masih tersedia. Mereka dapat dinyatakan dengan ketentuan sebagai berikut:

九种 么 九 牌 倒 牌 (Kyushu yaochūhai tōhai): Pada giliran pertama pemain ketika tidak berbaur telah dinyatakan belum, jika pemain memiliki sembilan terminal yang berbeda atau ubin kehormatan, pemain dapat menyatakan putaran untuk ditarik (misalnya, , tapi juga bisa pergi untuk tangan keajaiban tiga belas tidak standar juga).
四 风 子 连 打 (renda sūfontsu): Pada giliran pertama tanpa berbaur deklarasi, jika semua empat pemain membuang genteng Angin yang sama, bulat digambar.
四 家 立 直 (sūcha Richi): Jika semua empat pemain menyatakan Richi, bundar digambar.
四 杠 算了 (sūkan sanra): bulat itu diambil ketika Kong keempat dinyatakan, kecuali keempat Kongs telah dinyatakan oleh seorang pemain tunggal. Namun, bulat ini diambil ketika pemain lain mendeklarasikan Kong kelima.
[Sunting] Ternyata dan putaran
Jika dealer memenangkan permainan, ia akan tetap dealer. Jika tidak, pemain ke kanan menjadi dealer, dan Wind bahwa pemain menjadi Angin Game, di urutan Timur-Selatan-Barat-Utara.

Setelah kembali Angin Timur (yaitu, setiap pemain telah dealer), putaran selesai dan Angin berlaku akan berubah, lagi di urutan Timur-Selatan-Barat-Utara. Sebuah permainan penuh mahjong berakhir setelah ketika berlaku Utara putaran angin adalah berakhir. Hal ini sering dianggap sebagai tindakan beruntung untuk menghentikan permainan di putaran Barat, sebagai kata Cina untuk Barat (西) memiliki suara yang mirip dengan kata kematian (死), dan juga dunia setelah dalam Buddhisme / Taoisme adalah wasit sebagai bahagia dunia barat.

Namun, variasi Jepang berbeda dalam permainan dimulai pada putaran Timur, di mana meja Wind khusus ditugaskan untuk semua game di putaran tersebut. dealer ini juga selalu dianggap kursi Timur, jadi ketika dealer beralih kepada pemain berikutnya, itu semua reassigns Angin kursi ke pemain berikutnya, meskipun tidak ada yang benar-benar bergerak di sekitar. Setelah setiap pemain telah Timur setidaknya sekali, putaran Timur selesai dan putaran Selatan dimulai. Play biasanya berakhir setelah putaran Selatan, namun jika tidak ada pemain memiliki lebih dari jumlah tertentu, biasanya 30.000, kemudian bermain akan terus ke Barat, dan mungkin bahkan ke babak Utara.

Variasi Korea mirip dengan Jepang, meskipun timur membayar ganda adalah opsional. Dalam beberapa tiga versi pemain (tiga versi pemain tidak disukai di Korea) dua ubin Utara dihapus, berarti hanya dapat digunakan sebagai pasangan. Hal ini meninggalkan tiga putaran tiga pertandingan. Hal ini sering dua kali lipat [Sunting] Penimenjadi 18 pertandingan terakhir, yang dapat diputar sangat cepat dalam permainan tiga pemain.

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Artikel utama: Scoring di mahjong
Mencetak gol di mahjong melibatkan poin, dengan nilai moneter untuk titik yang telah disepakati oleh pemain. Meskipun dalam banyak variasi tangan kosong-kosong yang mungkin, banyak mengharuskan tangan menjadi beberapa nilai titik untuk memenangkan putaran.

Sedangkan gameplay dasar kurang lebih sama di seluruh mahjong, maka perbedaan terbesar antara variasi terletak pada sistem penilaian. Seperti gameplay, ada sistem umum dari penilaian, berdasarkan metode tangan menang dan menang, dari mana Cina dan Jepang (di antara sistem penting) akar dasar mereka. mahjong Amerika umumnya memiliki aturan skor sangat berbeda, serta aturan permainan sangat berbeda.

Karena perbedaan besar antara berbagai sistem penilaian (terutama untuk varian China), kelompok pemain akan sering menyetujui aturan skoring tertentu sebelum pertandingan. Seperti permainan, banyak usaha telah dilakukan untuk menciptakan standar internasional penilaian, tetapi kebanyakan tidak diterima secara luas.

Poin (terminologi yang berbeda dari variasi untuk variasi) diperoleh dengan cara mencocokkan tangan menang dan kondisi menang dengan satu set kriteria tertentu, dengan kriteria yang berbeda skoring nilai yang berbeda. Beberapa kriteria mungkin himpunan bagian dari kriteria lain (misalnya, memiliki berbaur satu Dragon versus memiliki berbaur dari semua itu), dan dalam kasus ini, hanya kriteria yang paling umum adalah mencetak gol. Poin yang diperoleh dapat diterjemahkan ke dalam skor untuk setiap pemain menggunakan beberapa (biasanya eksponensial) fungsi. Ketika judi dengan mahjong, skor ini biasanya langsung diterjemahkan ke dalam jumlah uang. Beberapa kriteria mungkin juga baik dari segi poin dan skor.

 
 

The following sequence is for setting up a standard Hong Kong (or Singapore) game. Casual or beginning players may wish to proceed directly to gameplay. Shuffling the tiles is needed before piling up.

Game Wind and Prevailing Wind

To determine the Player Game Wind (門風 or 自風), each player throws three dice (two in some variants) and the player with the highest total is chosen as the dealer or the banker (莊家). The dealer’s Wind is East; the player to the right of the dealer has South wind; the next player to the right has West; and the fourth player has North (imagine a reversed map). Game Wind changes after every hand, unless the dealer wins. In some variations, the longer the dealer remains dealer, the higher the value of each hand.

The Prevailing Wind (場風) is always set to East when starting. It changes after the Game Wind has rotated around the board; that is, after each player has lost as the dealer. The dealer is always East. A full game of mahjong lasts until the Prevailing Wind has cycled through all four.

A mahjong set with Winds in play will usually include a separate Prevailing Wind marker (typically a die marked with the Wind characters in a holder) and a pointer that can be oriented towards the dealer to show Player Game Wind. In sets with racks, a rack may be marked differently to denote the dealer.

These Winds are also significant, as Winds are often associated with a member of a Flower tile group, typically 1 with East, 2 with South, 3 with West, and 4 with North.

 Dealing tiles

All tiles are placed face down and shuffled. Each player then stacks a row of tiles two tiles high in front of him, the length of the row depending on the number of tiles in use:

  • 136 tiles: 17 stacks for each player
    • Suits of dots, bamboos, and characters + winds + dragons
  • 144 tiles: 18 stacks for each player
  • 148 tiles: 19 stacks for dealer and player opposite, 18 for rest
  • 152 tiles: 19 stacks for each player

The dealer throws three dice and sums up the total. Counting counterclockwise so that the dealer is 1, a player’s row is chosen. Starting at the right edge, “sum” tiles are counted and shifted to the right.

The dealer now takes a block of four tiles to the left of the divide.

The player to the dealer’s right takes four tiles to the left, and players (counterclockwise) take blocks of four tiles (clockwise) until all players have 12 tiles (for 13-tile variations) or 16 (for 16-tile variations). In 13-tile variations, each player then takes one more tile, to make a 13-tile hand. In practice, in order to speed up the dealing procedure, the dealer often takes one extra tile during the dealing procedure to start his turn.

The board is now ready, and new tiles will be taken from the wall where the dealing left off, proceeding clockwise. In some special cases discussed later, tiles are taken from the other end of the wall, commonly referred to as the back end of the wall. In some variations, a group of tiles at the back end, known as the dead wall, is reserved for this purpose instead. In such variations, the dead wall may be visually separated from the main wall, but it is not required.

Unless the dealer has already won (see below), the dealer then discards a tile. The dealing process with tiles is ritualized and complex to prevent cheating. Casual players, or players with mahjong playing cards, may wish to simply shuffle well and deal out the tiles with fewer ceremonial procedures.

Charleston

In the American variations, it is required that before each hand begins, a Charleston is enacted. In the first round, three tiles are passed to the player on one’s right; in the next round, the tiles are passed to the player opposite, followed by three tiles passed to the left. If all players are in agreement, a second Charleston is performed; however, any player may decide to stop passing after the first Charleston is complete. The Charleston is followed by an optional pass to the player across of one, two, or three tiles. The Charleston, a distinctive feature of American mahjong, may have been borrowed from card games such as Hearts.

 Gameplay

Each player is dealt either thirteen tiles (for 13-tile variations) or sixteen tiles (for 16-tile variations). If a player is dealt a hand of tiles that is determined to be a winning hand (known as a “heavenly win”, 天胡), he or she may declare victory immediately before the game even begins. However, this scenario of victory occurs very rarely.

A turn involves a player’s drawing a tile from the wall (or draw pile) and then placing it in his or her hand; the player then discards a tile onto the table. This signals the end of his or her turn, prompting the player to the right to make his or her move. Some variants encourage each player to loudly announce the name of the tile being discarded as a form of courtesy. Many variations require that discarded tiles be placed in an orderly fashion in front of the player, while some require that they be placed face down.

During gameplay, the number of tiles maintained by each player should always be the same; i.e., thirteen or sixteen. A player must discard a tile after picking up one. Failure to do so rules that player effectively out of winning, since a winning combination could never be built with one extra tile or fewer, but the player is obliged to continue until someone else wins.

A distinctive feature of West tiles: when three players drop the West tile, the fourth player will usually avoid discarding another West in the following turn. This is caused by a superstition that says, when all the players discard a West (“西”) together, all players will die (“歸西”) or be cursed with bad luck (see tetraphobia). During the West Prevailing Wind round, players will also avoid throwing in the One Circle during the first move, because One Circle sounds like “together” in Cantonese and Mandarin; thus, “to die all together” (“一同歸西”). In fact, because of this superstition, some variants require players to restart the game when all tiles of one kind of wind are discarded either in the first four turns, or during any four turns during the game.[citation needed]

 Melds

When a player discards a tile, any other player may “call” or “bid” for it in order to complete a meld (a certain set of tiles) in his own hand. The disadvantage of doing this is that the player must now expose the completed meld to the other players, giving them an idea of what type of hand he or she is creating. This also creates an element of strategy as, in many variations, discarding a tile that allows another player to win the game requires the discarding player to lose points, or pay the winner more, in a game for money.

Most variants, with the notable exception of American mahjong, allow three types of melds. When a meld is declared through a discard, the player must state the type of meld to be declared and place the meld face up. (As for the Japanese variant, callings to make melds are different from the actual names of the types of melds, favoring the original Chinese names over the Japanese translation.) The player must then discard a tile, and play continues to the right. Because of this, turns may be skipped in the process.

Pong, atau Pung (碰 pinyin Peng, Jepang: 刻 子 kōtsu)-A Pong, atau Pung, adalah satu set tiga ubin identik.
Sebagai contoh:;,,.: MJt9.pngMJt9.pngMJt9.png; MJs3.pngMJs3.pngMJs3.png; MJf2.pngMJf2.pngMJf2.png; MJd2.pngMJd2.pngMJd2.png.
Dalam mahjong Amerika, mana adalah mungkin untuk berbaur ubin Bunga, sebuah Pong juga dapat merujuk kepada sebuah menyatukan tiga dari empat ubin Bunga dalam satu kelompok. mahjong Amerika juga mungkin memiliki tangan yang memerlukan triplet rajutan-tiga ubin peringkat identik tetapi berbeda sesuai.
Kong (杠 / 杠 pinyin geng, Jepang: kantsu 杠子)-A Kong adalah satu set empat ubin identik.
Sebagai contoh:;.MJd1.pngMJd1.pngMJd1.pngMJd1.png; MJs7.pngMJs7.pngMJs7.pngMJs7.png.
Karena semua lainnya melds mengandung tiga ubin, suatu Kong harus segera terkena saat eksplisit dinyatakan. Jika genteng keempat terbentuk dari membuang, dikatakan menjadi terkena Kong (明 杠 / 明 杠, pinyin geng ming). Jika semua empat ubin dibentuk di tangan, dikatakan menjadi Kong disembunyikan (暗 杠 / 暗 杠, pinyin geng). Dalam beberapa bentuk permainan, dua luar ubin dari Kong tersembunyi yang membalik untuk menunjukkan statusnya tersembunyi. Hal ini juga memungkinkan untuk membentuk sebuah Kong terkena jika pemain memiliki Pung terbuka dan menarik ubin keempat. Dalam kasus apapun, pemain harus menggambar genteng ekstra dari ujung belakang dinding, atau dari dinding mati, jika ada, dan buang seperti biasa. Play kemudian berlanjut ke kanan. Setelah Kong terbentuk, tidak dapat dibagi, yaitu, untuk menggunakan satu ubin sebagai bagian dari Chow, dan dengan demikian, mungkin tidak menguntungkan untuk segera mendeklarasikan Kong.
Sheung, atau Chow (上, dalam beberapa versi 吃 chi, Jepang: shuntsu 顺子)-A Sheung atau Chow adalah berbaur dari tiga ubin cocok secara berurutan.
Sebagai contoh:;,,MJs1.pngMJs2.pngMJs3.png; MJs3.pngMJs4.pngMJs5.png; MJs7.pngMJs8.pngMJs9.png; MJt5.pngMJt6.pngMJt7.png.
.
Tidak seperti melds, sebuah Sheung terbuka hanya dapat dinyatakan dari membuang dari pemain di sebelah kiri. Satu-satunya pengecualian adalah ketika pemain kebutuhan yang ubin untuk membentuk sebuah Sheung untuk menang. Dalam hal ini, Sheung yang dapat dideklarasikan pada gilirannya setiap lawan. mahjong Amerika tidak memiliki Sheung formal (Sheungs tidak dapat dideklarasikan), tetapi beberapa tangan mungkin mengharuskan bahwa urutan serupa dibangun di tangan. Beberapa variasi Amerika juga mungkin memiliki urutan rajutan, dimana tiga ubin dari tiga setelan yang berbeda. Urutan panjang yang lebih tinggi biasanya tidak diperbolehkan, kecuali bentuk lebih dari satu berbaur.
Mata (将 jiang, dalam beberapa versi yǎn 眼, Jepang: 対 子 Toitsu atau 头 雀 Janto; juga Pair)-Pasangan ini, sementara tidak berbaur (dan dengan demikian tidak dapat dideklarasikan atau dibentuk dengan membuang, kecuali jika menyelesaikan pasangan selesai tangan), adalah komponen terakhir ke tangan standar. Ini terdiri dari dua ubin identik.
Misalnya, tangan ini menggunakan dua sebagai mata

 MJf4.pngMJf4.pngMJt5.pngMJt5.pngMJt5.pngMJs5.pngMJs5.pngMJs5.pngMJf1.pngMJf1.pngMJf1.pngMJd3.pngMJd3.pngMJd3.png digunakan dua MJf4.png sebagai mata

American mahjongg hands may have tile constructions that are not melds, such as “NEWS” (having one of each Wind). As they are not melds, they cannot be formed off discards, and in some variations, cannot be constructed in part or in whole by Joker tiles. In the Chinese official (and several other) rulesets, there are further hands, such as Seven Pairs or Thirteen Orphans.

When two or more players call for a discarded tile, a player taking the tile to win the hand has precedence over all others, followed by Pong or Kong declarations, and lastly, Chows. In American mahjong, where it may be possible for two players needing the same tile for melds, the meld of a higher number of identical tiles takes precedence. If two or more players call for a meld of the same precedence (or to win), the player closest to the right wins out. In particular, if a call to win overrides a call to form a kong, such a move is called “robbing the Kong”, and may give a scoring bonus. The game may be declared an abortive draw if two or more players call a tile for the win though, again depending on the variation.

There is generally an informal convention as to the amount of time allowed to make a call for a discarded tile before the next player takes their turn. In American mahjong, this “window of opportunity” is explicitly stated in the rules; whereas in other variants, it is generally considered that when the next player’s turn starts, i.e., the tile leaves the wall, the opportunity has been lost.

Flowers

Flower tiles, when dealt or drawn, must be immediately replaced by a tile from the dead wall (or if no dead wall exists, the back end of the wall). With the exception of American mahjong, they are immediately exposed, placed in view on the table on front of the player’s tiles. At the start of each round, where two or more players may have Flower tiles, Flower tiles are replaced starting with the dealer and moving to the right. Flower tiles may or may not have point value; in some variations, possession of all the Flower tiles wins the round regardless of the actual contents of the hand.

In American mahjong, Flower tiles are not instantly exposed and replaced, as they may be melded with other Flower tiles in the same group (in essence, they are treated as if they were another set of honor tiles) or be used as a requirement of a winning hand. Early versions of American mahjong used Flower tiles as Joker tiles.

Jokers

A feature of several variations of mahjong, most notably American variations, is the notion of some number of 🀪 Joker tiles. They may be used as a wild card: a substitute for any tile in a hand, or, in some variations, only tiles in melds. Another variation is that the Joker tile may not be used for melding. Depending on the variation, a player may replace a Joker tile that is part of an exposed meld belonging to any player with the tile it represents.

Rules governing discarding Joker tiles also exist; some variations permit the Joker tile to take on the identity of any tile, and others only permit the Joker tile to take on the identity of the previously discarded tile (or the absence of a tile, if it is the first discard).

Joker tiles may or may not have an impact on scoring, depending on the variation. Some special hands may require the use of Joker tiles (for example, to represent a “fifth tile” of a certain suited or honor tile).

In American mahjong, it is illegal to pass Jokers during the Charleston.

Winning

A player wins the round by creating a standard mahjong hand, which consists of a certain number of melds (namely, four for 13-tile variations and five for 16-tile variations) and a pair. If a player needs only one more tile to complete his winning hand and another player discards the tile he needs, he may claim it immediately, regardless of who discarded it or what part of his hand it completes.

Examples of winning hands (split into melds and pair for clarity):

  • MJf1.pngMJf1.pngMJs3.pngMJs3.pngMJs3.pngMJd3.pngMJd3.pngMJd3.pngMJd2.pngMJd2.pngMJd2.pngMJd1.pngMJd1.pngMJd1.png
  • MJt1.pngMJt2.pngMJt3.pngMJt4.pngMJt5.pngMJt6.pngMJt7.pngMJt7.pngMJt7.pngMJt8.pngMJt8.pngMJt9.pngMJt9.pngMJt9.png

In Western Classical variants, this is known as creating a mahjong, and the process of winning is called going mahjong.

Variations may have special nonstandard hands that a player can make (in this sense, American mahjong is a variant where only special hands exist).

Some variations may require that winning hands be of some point value. If a player declares victory but is discovered not to be holding a winning hand, he or she suffers a penalty of having to pay all the opposing players (called a zaa3 wu2, or zhà hú [詐胡] in Cantonese and Mandarin, respectively, or literally translated, “fake hand”). In some versions a player needs a very demanding winning hand to win such as 5 fan Hong Kong mahjong.

Winning is called (胡) in Chinese, and agari (アガリ) or hōra (和了) in Japanese. If the player wins by drawing a tile from a wall during his turn, a special name is given to this type of win in Chinese and Japanese: zìmō (自摸) in Chinese and tsumo (自摸, ツモ) in Japanese, while when the player wins by taking a tile cast off by another player, in Japanese it is called ron (栄, ロン).

Ready hands

When a hand is one tile short of winning (for example: MJs1.pngMJs2.pngMJs3.pngMJs1.pngMJs2.pngMJs3.pngMJs2.pngMJs3.pngMJs7.pngMJs8.pngMJs9.pngMJd2.pngMJd2.png, waiting for: MJs1.png, MJs4.png, or MJd2.png, as MJs1.png can be eyes), the hand is said to be a ready hand (Traditional Chinese: 聽牌; Simplified Chinese: 听牌; Japanese: tenpai [聴牌]), or more figuratively, “on the pot”. The player holding a ready hand is said to be waiting for certain tiles. It is common to be waiting for two or three tiles, and some variations award points for a hand that is waiting for one tile. In 13-tile mahjong, the largest number of tiles for which a player can wait is 13 (the thirteen wonders, or thirteen orphans, a nonstandard special hand). Ready hands must be declared in some variations of mahjong, while other variations prohibit the same.

Some variations of mahjong, most notably Japanese and Korean ones, allow a player to declare rīchi (立直; sometimes known as reach, as it is phonetically similar). A declaration of rīchi is a promise that any tile drawn by the player is immediately discarded unless it constitutes a win. Standard requirements for rīchi are that the hand be closed or have no melds declared (other than a concealed kong) and that players already have points for declaration of rīchi. A player who declares rīchi and wins usually receives a point bonus for their hand directly, and a player who won with rīchi also has the advantage to open the inner dora (ドラ, from “dra”gon) which leads to higher possibilities to match such a card, thus has more chance to grant additional bonus. However, a player who declares rīchi and loses is usually penalized in some fashion. Declaring a nonexistent rīchi is also penalized in some way.

In some variations, a situation in which all four players declare a rīchi is an automatic drawn game, as it reduces the game down to pure luck, i.e., who gets their needed tile first.

Draws

If only the dead wall remains (or if no dead wall exists and the wall is depleted) and no one has won, the round is drawn (流局 liú jú, 黃莊 huáng zhuāng, Japanese ryūkyoku), or “goulashed“. A new round begins, and depending on the variant, the Game Wind may change. For example, in most playing circles in Singapore, if there is at least one Kong when the round is a draw, the following player of the dealer becomes the next dealer; otherwise, the dealer remains dealer.

Japanese mahjong has a special rule called sanchahō (三家和), which is, if three players claim the same discard in order to win, the round is drawn. One reason for this is that there are cases in which bars of 1,000 points for declaring rīchi cannot be divided by three. The rule is treated the same as “abortive draws”.

 Abortive draws

In Japanese mahjong, rules allow abortive draws to be declared while tiles are still available. They can be declared under the following conditions:

  • 九種么九牌倒牌 (kyūshu yaochūhai tōhai): On a player’s first turn when no meld has been declared yet, if a player has nine different terminal or honor tiles, the player may declare the round to be drawn (for example, MJt1.pngMJt4.pngMJt5.pngMJt9.pngMJs1.pngMJs4.pngMJs6.pngMJs9.pngMJw1.pngMJf1.pngMJf3.pngMJd1.pngMJd1.pngMJd3.png, but could also go for the nonstandard thirteen wonders hand as well).
  • 四風子連打 (sūfontsu renda): On the first turn without any meld declarations, if all four players discard the same Wind tile, the round is drawn.
  • 四家立直 (sūcha rīchi): If all four players declare rīchi, the round is drawn.
  • 四槓算了 (sūkan sanra): The round is drawn when the fourth Kong is declared, unless all four Kongs were declared by a single player. Still, the round is drawn when another player declares a fifth Kong.

Turns and rounds

If the dealer wins the game, he will remain the dealer. Otherwise, the player to the right becomes dealer, and that player’s Wind becomes the Game Wind, in the sequence East-South-West-North.

After the Wind returns to East (i.e., each player has been the dealer), a round is complete and the Prevailing Wind will change, again in the sequence East-South-West-North. A full game of mahjong ends after when the North Prevailing Wind round is over. It is often regarded as an unlucky act to stop the gameplay at the West round, as the Chinese word for West (西) has a similar sound to the word for death (死), and also the after-world in Buddhism/Taoism is refereed as the blissful western world.

However, the Japanese variation differs in that the game starts on the East round, where a special table Wind is assigned to all games in that round. The dealer is also always considered East seat, so when the dealership passes to the next player, it reassigns all the seat Winds to the next player, although nobody actually moves around. After every player has been East at least once, the East round is over and the South round begins. Play usually ends after the South round; however, if none of the players has more than a certain amount, usually 30,000, then play will continue to the West, and possibly even to the North round.

The Korean variation is similar to the Japanese one, though east paying double is optional. In some three player versions (three player versions not being frowned upon in Korea) two North tiles are removed, meaning it can only be used as a pair. This leaves three rounds of three games. This is often doubled to last 18 games, which can be played surprisingly fast in a three player game.

Scoring

Main article: Scoring in mahjong

Scoring in mahjong involves points, with a monetary value for points agreed upon by players. Although in many variations scoreless hands are possible, many require that hands be of some point value in order to win the round.

While the basic gameplay is more or less the same throughout mahjong, the greatest divergence between variations lies in the scoring systems. Like the gameplay, there is a generalized system of scoring, based on the method of winning and the winning hand, from which Chinese and Japanese (among notable systems) base their roots. American mahjong generally has greatly divergent scoring rules, as well as greatly divergent gameplay rules.

Because of the large differences between the various systems of scoring (especially for Chinese variants), groups of players will often agree on particular scoring rules before a game. As with gameplay, many attempts have been made to create an international standard of scoring, but most are not widely accepted.

Points (terminology of which differs from variation to variation) are obtained by matching the winning hand and the winning condition with a specific set of criteria, with different criteria scoring different values. Some of these criteria may be subsets of other criteria (for example, having a meld of one Dragon versus having a meld of all of them), and in these cases, only the most general criterion is scored. The points obtained may be translated into scores for each player using some (typically exponential) functions. When gambling with mahjong, these scores are typically directly translated into sums of money. Some criteria may be also in terms of both points and score.

 Mahjong in Unicode

The Unicode range for mahjong is U+1F000 .. U+1F02F. Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points.

Mahjong Tiles
Unicode.org chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+1f00x 🀀 🀁 🀂 🀃 🀄 🀅 🀆 🀇 🀈 🀉 🀊 🀋 🀌 🀍 🀎 🀏
U+1f01x 🀐 🀑 🀒 🀓 🀔 🀕 🀖 🀗 🀘 🀙 🀚 🀛 🀜 🀝 🀞 🀟
U+1f02x 🀠 🀡 🀢 🀣 🀤 🀥 🀦 🀧 🀨 🀩 🀪 🀫        

[edit] See also

This article contains Chinese text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: mahjong

[edit] Footnotes

  1. ^ Butler, Jonathan. The Tiles of Mah Jong. 1996.
  2. ^ Yèzí in Ming Dynasty Chinese only
  3. ^ Carlisle, Rodney P. (2009). Encyclopedia of Play in Today’s Society. SAGE. p. 133. ISBN 9781412966702
  4. ^ “转发公安部关于废止部分规范性文件的通知”. Guangdong Provincial Public Security Department. http://dangan.jianghai.gov.cn/Article_Show.asp?ArticleID=12251. Retrieved 25 October 2009. 
  5. ^ “Recalling the Craze for a Game of Chance” By Steven Heller New York Times, March 15, 2010 online version
  6. ^ a b [1], A&F Careers, History, “1920”
  7. ^ Bill Bryson, Made in America. Harper, 1996, ch. 16.
  8. ^ Eddie Cantor and his mahjong song
  9. ^ Why do so many Jewish women play mah jongg?
  10. ^ [unreliable source?] Why are so many players of American mah-jongg Jewish?
  11. ^ Pakarnian, John, “Game Boy: Glossary of Japanese Gambling Games”, Metropolis, January 22, 2010, p. 15.
  12. ^ Schodt, Frederik, Manga! Manga! The World of Japanese Comics. Kodansha, 1986, Chapter 5
  13. ^ Richard SK Chang, Raymond TF Cheung, SL Ho, and Windsor Mak (2007), “Mah-jong–induced seizures: case reports and review of twenty-three patients”, Hong Kong Med J 13 (4): 314–318, http://www.hkmj.org/article_pdfs/hkm0708p314.pdf 
  14. ^ Vaudine England (4 August 2007), Mahjong game can induce epileptic seizures, BBC News
  15. ^ An exploratory study of the effect of mahjong on the cognitive functioning of persons with dementia
  16. ^ Matsutani, Minoru, “Mah-jongg ancient, progressive“, Japan Times, June 15, 2010, p. 3.
  17. ^ National Mahjjong League
  18. ^ Amja
  19. ^ Mahjong News
  20. ^ Mahjong News
  21. ^ Mahjong News
  22. ^ “World Series of mahjong”. http://www.online-mahjong.com

Further reading

Historical research
  • Culin, Stewart, ‘The Game of Ma-Jong, its Origin and Significance’. In: Brooklyn Museum Quarterly, Brooklyn, NY, Vol. XI, 1924, p. 153-168. Also found at;

http://www.gamesmuseum.uwaterloo.ca/Archives/Culin/Majong1924/index.html

  • Depaulis, Thierry, ‘Embarrassing Tiles: Mahjong and the Taipings’. In: The Playing-card, Vol. 35, No. 3, 2007, pp. 148 – 153.
  • Ebashi, Takashi, ‘Proto Mahjong. Mahjong Tiles in the 19th Century’. In: Mahjong Museum Report, Vol. 5, No.2, Issue 9, April, 2005, pp. 14 – 17 (in Japanese).
  • Lo, Andrew, ‘China’s Passion for Pai: Playing Cards, Dominoes, and Mahjong’. In: Asian Games: The Art of Contest, Colin Mackenzie and Irving Finkel, eds. Asia Society. 2004. pp. 217–231. ISBN 0-87848-099-4
  • Stanwick, Michael, ‘Mahjong(g) Before Mahjong(g): Part 1’. In: The Playing-card, Vol. 32, No. 4, 2004, pp. 153–162.
  • Stanwick, michael, ‘Mahjong(g) Before Mahjong(g): Part 2’. In: The Playing-card, Vol. 32, No. 5, 2004, pp. 206–215.
  • Stanwick, Michael, ‘Mahjong(g), Before and After Mahjong(g): Part 1’. In: The Playing-card, Vol. 34, No. 4, 2006, pp. 259–268.
  • Stanwick, Michael, ‘Mahjong(g), Before and After Mahjong(g): Part 2’. In: The Playing-card, Vol. 35, No. 1, 2006, pp. 27–39.
  • Stanwick, Michael and Xu, Hongbing, ‘Flowers nad Kings: A Hypothesis of their Function in Early Ma Que’. In: The Playing-card, Vol. 37, No. 1, 2008, pp. 29–40.
  • Wilkinson, William H.,(1890): Published in 1901 as pp 184–194 of Catalogue of the Collection of Playing Cards Bequeathed to the Trustees of the British Museum, F. M. O’Donoghue.
  • Wilkinson, William H.,(1893): Published in Culin, Games of the Orient, Tuttle, 1958. First published under the title Korean Games, with Notes on the Corresponding Games of China and Japan, University of Pennsylvania, 1895.
  • Wilkinson, William H., ‘Chinese Origin of Playing Cards’, in The American Anthropologist, Volume VIII, 1895, pp. 61–78. Also found at;

http://www.gamesmuseum.uwaterloo.ca/Archives/Wilkinson/Wilkinson.html

Chinese classical
  • Babcock, Joseph Park, Babcock’s Rules for Mah-jongg. Mah-jongg Sales Company of America: 1923.
  • Babcock, Smith, Hartman, Work, and Foster, The American Code Of Laws For Mah-Jongg. Standardization Committee: 1924.
  • Millington, A.D., Complete Book of Mah Jong. Weidenfeld & Nicolson: 1993. ISBN 0-297-81340-4.
Chinese official
Others
  • Lo, Amy. The Book of Mah jong: An Illustrated Guide. Tuttle Publishing: 2001. ISBN 0-8048-3302-8.
  • Oxfeld, Ellen, Blood, Sweat, and Mahjong: Family and Enterprise in an Overseas Chinese Community. Cornell University Press: 1993. ISBN 0-8014-9908-9.
  • Pritchard, David B.,Teach Yourself mahjong. McGraw-Hill/Contemporary: 2001. ISBN 0-658-02147-8.
  • Sloper, Tom., Mah-Jongg: Game of the Orient. Self-published: n.d.
  • Wright Patterson Mah Jongg Group, Mah Jongg; Wright-Patterson Rules. Wright Patterson Mah Jongg Group: 1963.

External links

THE END@COPYRIGHT Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

The Rare Old Indonesia Bandung Historical Picture Collections

 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

 

                    Please Enter

                   

              DMC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Masterpiece  Cybermuseum)

Showcase:

The Rare Old Bandung Historical Pictures collections

history dates from 1488 when the first reference to this city exists. But from ancient archeological finds, we know the city was home to Australopithecus, Java Man.

 
Isola Build, NowUPI (university)

Villa Isola/Bumi Siliwangi Gedung: great example of Bandung Art Deco built by an Italian millionare, named D.W. Berrety in 1825. Great views of Bandung are visible from here. Now it is used as UPI Bandung (Bandung Institute of Teacher Training and Education). It is located at Jalan Setiabudi 299, and can be reached by taking public transport from Cicaheum, railway station, or Kebon Kalapa to Ledeng

OLD BRAGA 

Braga street and the older section and particlar were planned by the Dutch when they set up Bandung to be their new capital. The Braga street area was regulated by these authorities to insure its European nature in the building styles. The municipal, regional, and national governments are now intervening in Bandung( I remember the first visit at braga Bandung in 1959 the situation near like this  beside the car-Dr Iwan) 

Driwancybermuseum 
   

 

 
 
 

 

 
 
 
 

Gedung Sate (Sate Building) Build in 1920
* Gedung Sate, the building is called because of its unique distinguished small satay shaped structure on the roof, and used as the head office of West Java provincial government and West Java’s house of representative. Established in 1920 as Gouverments Bedrijven (GB). Location: Diponegoro Street.

 


 

 

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The Best Art Deco

 

Founded by the Dutch in 1810, Bandung became important with the arrival of the railroad in the late 19th cent. It is the center of cultural life for the Sundanese and surrounded by beautiful scenery. It is a center for the study and preservation of Sundanese culture and an educational center. Bandung has served for popular weekend-break destination for people living in Jakarta for many reasons. The cooler climate of highland plantation area, the varieties of food, the cheaper fashion shops located in factory outlets and distros, golf courses, and the friendliness of local people have become the main attraction of the city.* Sovoy Homann Bidakara Hotel, has been maintained as the city’s landmark hotel. The oldest part of the hotel dates back 1880. In 1938 the Savoy Homann Bidakara Hotel got its new design, the classic Art Deco design. Some of the rooms have been left in original state, and offer the unique experience of staying in exactly the same room that Charlie Chaplin stayed in 1925. In 1955, the Asian African Conference was held in the nearby Merdeka Building. There, leaders of Third World countries on initiative of Indonesia’s first president Sukarno, established the alliance of non-aligned countries. Many of the Third World leaders stayed at the Savoy Homann, so next to Nasser and Ho Chi Minh, it can be your turn to enjoy the unique ambiance of this place. The colonial history makes a stay in the Savoy Homann a unique experience. Location: Asia Afrika Street No. 112.at 1880

at 1938

at the moment

 

   

 

 
 
 

 

 

 
 
 

 
 

Gedung Merdeka
Gedung Merdeka (Independence Building) which hosted the first Asian African Conference also known as the Bandung Conference in 1955. Built in 1895 for a club house for rich people, named the Concordia Society. In 1921, Societeit Concordia Building was rebuilt in a more functional and structural modern architecture (Art Deco) by designer C. P Wolff Schoemaker. It was renovated again in 1940 with new international style architecture with the help of Architect A. F Aalbers. Now it is a museum for that conference. Location: Asia Afrika Street No. 65.

 

   

 

 
 
 

 

 

 
 
 

Gedung Pakuan (Pakuan Building)
* Gedung Pakuan (Pakuan Building), established in 1864 as Gubernur Jenderal Ch.F. Pahud instruction and finished in 1867. The architectural style is Indische Empire Stijl (Gaya Empire Hindia). Now is used as West Java Governour residential. Location: Otto Iskandardinata Street No.1

 

   

 

 
 
 

 

 

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Vila Isola
This superb example of Art Deco style building is located on the northern part of Bandung. The architect, A.F. Aalbers who also designed the new Savoy Homan, has dedicated his time and creativity in exploring the design, which finally resulted in this distinguished piece of art. Surrounded by a vast area of rectangular form of paddy fields seen from above, the complex had an orderly arrangement of site plan that recalled the regularity of the paddy fields.It was built in 1932 for the Italian millionaire D.W. Berretyan art-critics phillantropist who died shortly after the building finished. Later this building was changed into a villa-hotel, and later as a Teacher Training College.
Villa Isola is located on Northern Bandung. With its splendid site and beautiful view surrounding, this hotel has won a special place among the many hotels existed in Netherlands Indie.

 

   

 

 
 
 

 

 

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Preanger HotelThe famous Preanger Hotel of Bandung, first built in the 1880s and
subsequently redesigned with Art Deco flourishes in the 1920s by the famed
architect, Professor Wolfe Shoemaker. The young Sukarno who was his student
at the Technische Hogeschool (now Institut Teknologi Bandung), is believed
to have assisted Shoemaker in the endeavour. The hotel was renovated again
in the 1980s. This shot shows the old wing.

 

   

 

hhtp ://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com
 
 

 

 

Driwancybermuseum  
 
 

 
 
Preanger HotelThe famous Preanger Hotel of Bandung, first built in the 1880s and
subsequently redesigned with Art Deco flourishes in the 1920s by the famed
architect, Professor Wolfe Shoemaker. The young Sukarno who was his student
at the Technische Hogeschool (now Institut Teknologi Bandung), is believed
to have assisted Shoemaker in the endeavour. The hotel was renovated again
in the 1980s.1880

Old wing (after 1920)

 

   

 

Dr Iwan Cybermuseum
 
 

 

 

 
 
 

 
 

The Aerial Photographs of Bandung
I have some great aerial photographs of the old Bandung (1920’s and 1930’s). By viewing these photo, you can imagine how beautiful Bandung as Parijs van Java in the past.

Atjehstraat – Merdikaweg – Bilitonstraat – Sumatrastraat – Borneostraat – BangkastraatThis view from 1920’s gives a good view of the north east district of the center. The KNIL (Dutch Army) War Department building, right from the middle, is the one that catches attention, in the Kalimantan Street. On the left the Palace of the Army commandant (in the Aceh street) and the Molukkenpark (Taman Maluku), and the HBS (now it is SMU 3 Building) on the right of Bilitonstraat (Belitung Street). In the front of the War Department is the Insulindepark (now Taman Lalulintas), surrounded by all kinds of building and houses of KNIL officers. Behind the War Department are buildings of the the Jaarbeurs, first built in 1920. Down left in the picture is the intersection between Aceh Street and Merdeka Street (BIP). At the background, in the left corner is the Department of Government buildings, betterknown as Gedung Sate.

Old Grand Hotel Homann

This is the view of the old Grand Hotel Homann and surroundings. Hotel Homann was founded around 1870 on the Groote Postweg (now Asia Africa Street) as a simple hotel, but grew to be the most popular hotel of Bandung. Many famous people stayed there, but besides that it was very well known for its rice-table. In 1938 / 1939 the old hotel was replaced by a modern Indonesian new-business-style (art deco style) building by a design of architect Aalbers, with the new name Hotel Savoy Homann. Down right on the picture, dated beginning 1930’s, the Bragaweg ends in the Groote Postweg. The building on the corner, one should see a part of the roof, was part of the famous Concordia Club.

Rembrandtstraat – Tjilakistraat – Tjisankoejstraat – Tjimanoekstraat – Wenckebachstraat – Dagoweg – Progoweg

Five Fokker airplanes of the KNIL airforce are flying above the Department of Government Buildings (Gedung Sate), in 1925. North of this area are no buildings on the picture, only the Geological Laboratory, beside which the Geological Museum later was to be built, is already completed. This city-district mainly was reserved as an building-area for other departments from Batavia, but those transfer-plans were cancelled. South of the Gedung Sateh roads are built and the first country-houses are to be seen. The three-cornered shaped group of houses is the Gempol kampong-district.

Villa Isola – Lembangweg

Villa Isola at Setiabudhi Street, direction Lembang, in 1938. It was built in 1933 ordered by the millionaire Berretty, one of the most famous persons in the Indies newspaper-world en founder of the press agency Aneta. Berretty had this impressive country-house predominantly built in new-business style by the famous architect Wolff Schoemaker, already responsible for the Grand Hotel Preanger, the Jaarbeurs building and the Concordia club. Berretty was only able to enjoy this beautiful posession for one year. December 22, 1934 he crashed with the “Uiver”, a plane of the KLM, the Royal Dutch Airlines. After that Villa Isola was in service as a annex of the Grand Hotel Homann, untill the Second Worldwar. Now, this building is the main office for UPI (Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia

The Old Soekamiskin Prison

View from 1930 of the Sukamiskin Prison, at Ujungberung street, East of Bandung, on road to Garut. Around the huge, symmetric shaped complex the houses for the personal are built. The small airport Sukamiskin is seen in the background, one can see the landingstrip markings. Sukamiskin was used from the late 1920’s as a prison for Indonesian nationalists and was known to the people as a symbol of colonial suppression. President Sukarno was here in prison, after his conviction in the sensational trial against him and some other Indonesian leaders in december 1930. The irony was that Sukarno some years earlier, during a short period as an architect, probably worked on the building drawings himself. During the Japanese occupation Sukamiskin was a prison for Dutch civil servants, until February 1944.

Bragaweg – Merdikaweg – Soeniaradjaweg – Tamblongweg – Javastraat – Logeweg – Grootepostweg

Another view on the center of Bandung, around 1930, direction north west this time. The upper part of the picture shows the railroad clearly, crossed by the northern part of the Bragaweg. North of this crossing one should see the white buildings of the residence office, the Bank of Java (now Bank Indonesia building), and the Church of Bethel, and the Parc of Pieter Sythof (Taman Balaikota / Taman Merdeka) on the right. Between this Park oand the Cathedral Church is the Schoolroad (now it is the part of Merdeka Street). The name for the School is the Ursulinen Sisters (now St Angela High School), see the high, white building upper right, and the Dutch-Native Training-college for teachers next to it. Along the northern part of the Bragaweg, on the left, old low buildings mostly are being replaced by modern European shops, with multiple floors. Notice the building with the flat roof of the Dutch Indies Gas Company. In the middle of the picture are along the diagonal Oude Hospitaalroad (Lembong Street) the telephone office and the radio-telephone office, in an L-shape.

  

 
 

The History of Bandung

 

 

 
 

Bandung is a city in the western part of Java island in Indonesia. Beside its own city administration, Bandung also serves as the capital of the West Java province and the seat of the chief (bupati) of Bandung regency.

Contents

 Early settlement

Although the oldest written historical reference to the city dates back to 1488, where it was the capital of the Kingdom of Pajajaran, there have been some archaeological findings of Austropithecus or Java Man, in the banks of Cikapunding river and around the old lake of Bandung.[1][2]

 Dutch East Indies Company

Braga Street in the mid-1930s.

The Dutch-built Gedung Sate

During the 17th and 18th centuries, the Dutch East Indies company (VOC) established a small plantation area in the fertile and properous Bandung area. A supply road connecting Batavia (now Jakarta), Bogor, Cianjur, Bandung, Sumedang and Cirebon was built in 1786.

In 1809, Louis Napoleon, the ruler of the Netherlands and its colonies, ordered the Dutch Indies Governor H.W. Daendels to increase the defense system of Java island against British. Daendels built a 1000 km road joining the west and east coasts of Java. Since the northern part of West Java at that time was only swamp and marsh, the road was diverted through Bandung.[3][4] The Great Postweg (now Jalan Asia-Afrika) was laid down in 1810.

Local folklore has it that when Daendels was walking along the edge of Cikapundung river, he was amazed by a site he found. He then put a stick at the edge of the Cikapundung and said: “Zorg, dat als ik terug kom hier een stad is gebouwd!” (‘Attention! If I come again here, a city must be built!’).[5] Today, this site is the geographical center of Bandung. R.A. Wiranatakusumah II, the regent of Bandung regency at that time, moved its office from Krapyak, in the south, to a place near a pair of holy city wells (sumur Bandung), which is today the ‘alun-alun (city square). He built his istana (palace), masjid agung (the grand mosque) and pendopo (“pavilion”) in the classical orientation.[6] The pendopo faces Tangkuban Perahu mountain, who was believed to have a mystical ambience.

In 1880, the first major railroad between Batavia and Bandung was laid down.[7] It boosted light industry in Bandung. Chinese migrants flocked in to help run the facilities, services and vendor machines. A small Chinatown district can still be recognised in the vicinity of the railroad station. In 1906, Bandung was given the status of gemeente (municipality) and then later as staadsgemeente (city municipality) in 1926.

Bandung’s location, in a low area between two mountainous areas, is strategically advantageous for military defense. In the 1930s, the Dutch East Indies government had planned to move the capital from Batavia to Bandung, and built military barracks, the central government building (Gouvernments Bedrijven, nicknamed Gedung Sate) and other buildings. This plan did not come to fruition following the failure of the Dutch to reclaim Indonesia after World War II.

The growth of plantation areas

The fertile area of the Parahyangan mountains surrounding Bandung allowed productive tea plantations. In the 19th century, cinchona (kina) plants were introduced by Franz Junghuhn.[8] Cinchona is a plant that can be used for the treatment of malaria and the old pharmacy factory of cinchona still exists in the city.

Bandung had developed itself into an exclusive European resort with hotels, cafes and shops.[1] Rich plantation owners came during the weekends and so did girls and businessmen from the capital, Batavia. The promenade Braga Street grew into an elite area of cafes, restaurants and boutique shops. Two art-deco style hotels, Savoy Homann and Preanger, became two major accommodations there. The Concordia Society (now known as Merdeka Building) was built as a club house of these rich people, complete with a large ballroom and a theater.[7] The title of “Parijs van Java” was given to this city.

Struggle for Independence

Gedung Merdeka during the Asian-African Conference in 1955

Bandung was decided as the provincial capital of West Java, after the independence.

Since October 1945, there had been several extreme Islam groups in West Java with the main goal of establishing an Islamic state in Indonesia (Darul Islam). One of this movements was “Laskar Hitam” a militia group that kidnapped and killed Otto Iskandardinata, RI’s Minister of State (1945). Other victims of similar groups: Poerdiredja, the regent of Priangan, Oekar Bratakoesoemah, the mayor of Bandung and Niti Soemantri, the leader of Indonesian national committee (KNI) in Priangan.

During the Dutch Politionele acties (“police action”), there was an ultimatum for the Indonesian combatants in Bandung to leave. As for the answer, on March 24 1946, the southern part of Bandung was deliberately burned down as they were leaving. This event is known as Bandung Lautan Api or “Bandung as the sea of flame”.[9] A heroic song “Halo-halo Bandung” was sang along by these hundreds of patriots.

During the evacuation process on March 1946, Mohammad Toha, a member of Indonesian militia smuggled several sticks of dynamite to a large scale ammunition dump guarded by Japanese and Dutch troops, near the Dutch military HQ in Dayeuh Kolot.

After overpowering the guards, he put the dynamite in several warehouses full of ammunition. He then committed suicide by igniting the dynamite. The massive explosion killed him and several Dutch, Japanese troops in the area. The explosion created a small lake (“situ”) in Dayeuh Kolot. The main street in the area is called “Mohammad Toha Street”.

Independence

On January 23, 1950, a rebel group called the Just King Armed Forces (Indonesian: Angkatan Perang Ratu Adil, APRA), led by Captain Raymond Westerling (a former Dutch military officer) and King Sultan Hamid II from Kalimantan (Borneo) attacked Indonesian army’s Siliwangi Division HQ in Bandung. Lt. Col. Lembong and 93 other Indonesian soldiers and officers were killed. On January 24, 1950, the rebels tried to attack Jakarta, but the rebellion was quashed in a fierce battle in Pacet, near Jakarta. Sultan Hamid II was arrested, but Capt. Westerling managed to escape to Singapore.

In 1955, the first Asian-African Conference (Indonesian: Konferensi Tingkat Tinggi Asia-Afrika) was held in Bandung. Twenty-nine countries attended the conference. The Asian-African leaders who attended the summit included Nehru (India), Nasser (Egypt), Tito (Yugoslavia), Nkrumah (Ghana), U Nu (Myanmar), and others. This conference is one of the preparation for the establishment of the Non-Aligned Movement block in Beograd (former Yugoslavia) in 1961.

After being elected in 1955, a new parliament body called the Constitutional Assembly (Indonesian: Konstituante), was established. It was tasked with creating new constitution to replace the Provisional Constitution of 1950. This new body held meetings in Bandung for several years without any result. The Constituent Assembly was dissolved by President Sukarno in a decree issued on July 5, 1959, which also reinstated the 1945 Constitution.

On May 10, 1963, a minor traffic accident (collision between 2 motorcycles) occurred in the campus of Bandung Institute of Technology. Two ITB students were involved in this accident: an ethnic Chinese student and an Indonesian student. The traffic accident turned into a racial brawl on the basketball field. The leaders of “Dewan Mahasiswa” (DM)/student council at ITB such as Muslimin Nasution (later becoming a government minister), Siswono Yudohusodo (later becoming a government minister), and Sutjipto (later becoming a leader of PKS party) used this event as the start of a movement against the establishment of ethnic Chinese tribe by Baperki (an ethnic Chinese organization influenced by Indonesian Communist Party/PKI). This movement was also directed against NASAKOM (Nasionalis, Agama dan Komunis) ideology from President Soekarno. The movement disagree with the Communist part of NASAKOM and they assumed that all ethnic Chinese community supported Baperki/Indonesian Communist Party. The next day, there was a large scale public demonstration by this movement against Baperki and ethnic Chinese. Unfortunately there are other organizations/people who use this event to start a large scale racial riot in Bandung that spread to other cities: Jogjakarta, Surabaya, Malang and Medan. Muslimin Nasution and other leaders of Student Council were arrested by Police. Muslimin was sentenced to 3 years in Prison for starting the riot.

On September 30, 1965, there was a failed coup attempt by revolutionary council (aka G30S). The Military Chief Of Staff, General Nasution escaped and went to Bandung for protection from the loyal Siliwangi division. According to General Nasution, near his mother residence in Bandung, members of Indonesian communist party (PKI) also dig new wells for burying their enemies.

On September 6, 1970 there was a football match between ITB students and cadets from Military academy. The game ended in a riot and brawl. Rene L. Conrad, an ITB student, was kidnapped and murdered by the Military cadets.[citation needed] Unfortunately the case remain unsolved today.

In 1976, Doctor Habibie (later becoming Indonesian President) established a state owned, aircraft manufacturing company called Industri Pesawat Terbang Nusantara (IPTN). Later this company was renamed into PT Dirgantara Indonesia (PT DI).

In 1978, after a People Consultative Assembly session in Jakarta, there were demonstrations against the re-election of President Soeharto by ITB students. Police disbanded the “Dewan Mahasiswa” (Student council) movement in ITB and the leaders were arrested. The university was closed for 3 months and the new Minister of Education announced “Normalization of University Life” (NKK) to quell the student movement.

On March 11, 1981, an extreme Moslem group called “Jamaah Imron” attacked Cicendo police station in Bandung. The movement was quashed by Indonesian police, but several members escaped to Medan, North Sumatra and hijacked Garuda airplane to Bangkok 2 weeks later. The passengers and crews were rescued by Indonesian special force in the Don Muang airport, Bangkok, Thailand. The pilot and a soldier were shot death during the rescue attempt.

From April 5, 1982 to January 8, 1983, there were several eruptions at Mt Galunggung in Tasikmalaya and Bandung was buried in several inches of ash.

 21st century

On December 24, 2000, there were bomb attacks against churches in Bandung. The bombs exploded prematurely and the perpetrators were arrested.

On February 21, 2005, a landslide occurred at the garbage dumpsite in Leuwigajah, Bandung. 143 people were killed by the landslide. After this fatal accident, the Leuwigajah dumpsite was closed and Bandung had a major problem in garbage management. The entire city was turned into a giant garbage dump (“kota sampah”). The mayor of Bandung was unable to solve the problem and the governor of West Java was forced to search for new garbage dumpsites. Fortunately the problem is solved now.[citation needed]

Today, Bandung has grown beyond its city core with the Bandung Raya plan. Traffic in Bandung is infamous with its complex, congested and chaotic nature.[10] The city core is practically uprooted, old faces are torn down, lot sizes regrouped, and what was idyllic residence is now bustling chain supermarkets and rich banks.[1] However Bandung is always a weekend break destination for people living in Jakarta. A new Cipularang highway was recently completed, reducing travel time from Jakarta. The major attraction to come to Bandung is the food and fashion shopping. The food in Bandung is well known for their wide varieties and taste. Bandung is also a place to do fashion shopping with its numerous factory outlets and stock centres.[11]

References

  1. ^ a b c “An Extremely Brief Urban History of Bandung”. Institute of Indonesian Architectural Historian. http://www.iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~fujimori/lsai/bandung.html. Retrieved 2006-08-20. 
  2. ^ Brahmantyo, B.; Yulianto, E.; Sudjatmiko, (2001). “On the geomorphological development of Pawon Cave, west of Bandung, and the evidence finding of prehistoric dwelling cave”. JTM. Archived from the original on 2008-04-08. http://web.archive.org/web/20080408111619/http://www.geocities.com/ekoy001/PawonJTM-web.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-21. 
  3. ^ “Pramoedya sheds light on dark side of Daendels highway”. The Jakarta Post. 2006-01-08. 
  4. ^ Peter .J.M Nas; Pratiwo (2001) (PDF). Java and De Groote Postweg, La Grande Route, The High Military Road. University of Leiden. http://www.leidenuniv.nl/fsw/nas/pdf/NasPratiwoPostweg30-10-2001.pdf
  5. ^ “Old Buildings in Bandung Then and Now” (in Indonesian). Bandung Heritage Society. http://www.bandungheritage.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=56&Itemid=2. Retrieved 2006-08-21. 
  6. ^ Kunto, Haryanto (1984). Wajah Bandung Tempoe Doeloe. Granesia. 
  7. ^ a b Soemardi, Ahmad R.; Radjawali, I (2004). “Creative culture and urban planning:The Bandung Experience” (PDF). The 11th International Planning History Conference 2004. http://www.etsav.upc.es/personals/iphs2004/pdf. Retrieved 2006-08-21. 
  8. ^ “If Only Junghuhn Knows How Cinchona in Indonesia Becomes…” (in Indonesian). Pikiran Rakyat. 2004-06-07. Archived from the original on 2006-05-17. http://web.archive.org/web/20060517024534/http://www.pikiran-rakyat.com/cetak/0604/07/0108.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-21. 
  9. ^ Sitaresmi, Ratnayu (PDF). Social History of Bandung Lautan Api (Bandung Sea of Fire) 24 March 1946. http://www.bandungheritage.org/images/stories/dokumen/bandung_sea_of_fire.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-22. [dead link]
  10. ^ “Traffic jams ruin Bandung getaway weekend”. The Jakarta Post. 2006-08-22. http://www.thejakartapost.com/detailheadlines.asp?fileid=20060822.A02&irec=1
  11. ^ “Trading and Promising Services of Bandung” (in Indonesian). Kompas. 2004-08-18. http://www.kompas.com/kompas-cetak/0408/18/Jabar/1212266.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-22

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