Category Archives: Dr Iwan Masterpiene Uniquecollections

DEI HISTORY COLLECTIONS PART FOUR

THIS E-BOOK ONLY SAMPLE NOT COMPLETE ILLUSTRATION, THE COMPLETE ILLUSTRATION EXIST ONLY TEN CD-Rom

Copyright @ Dr Iwan 2016

If you want buy the complete E-Book, please contact iwansuwandy@gmail.com, please upload your iD-Card copy with complete adress and shorth working history, and to more communication you must be my web blog Premium member with tarnsfer US 25,- or send enenvelope via airmail with stamps or old money with the same value. The price of this CD-Rom Only US 100.-

1855

 Image result for DEI one cent coin in 1855

The rare limited edition first nederland Indie one cent castcoin in 1855,the half cent more rare unique I don’t have it(Dr iwan note)

Lettre frappée du cachet bleu ovale SAMARANG FRANCO, datée de 1855 à destination de BATAVIA. Sup.; lettre; Précurseur

 Image result for Batavia - NY - Belgium. Stampless env. red paid 5 +

  1. Batavia – NY – Belgium. Stampless env. red paid 5 + via Boston with BRITISH + AMERICAN PACKET marks (9 Jan – 17 Jan). Belgium entry charges. Boats charged at Boston. Very interesting p history item

1856

Image result for Regent Bandung RA Wiranatakusumah

Based on data from various sources, the development of fully Bandung carried out by a number of people under the leadership of Regent Bandung RA Wiranatakusumah II. Therefore, it can be said that the regents RA Wiranatakusumah II is the founder of (the founding father) of Bandung.
The development of the city of Bandung and its strategic location in the middle Priangan, has encouraged the emergence of the idea of
the Dutch East Indies government in 1856 to move Capital Keresiden Priangan from Cianjur to Bandung

Hotel der Nederlanden kunnen kiezen en toen op een dag in 1856 kwam Douwes Dekker voorbij, mogelijk op weg naar de Franse kleermaker Oger Frèves tegenover Societeit De Harmonie.

En natuurlijk moet dit er dan even bij, de voetnoot onder bijna ieder Nederlands-Indië verhaal van Aad :

……een roofstaat aan de Noordzee……
            …..dat spoorwegen bouwt van gestolen geld en tot
            betaling de bestolene bedwelmt met
            opium, Evangelie en jenever…

Aan U durf ik met vertrouwen te vragen of het
            Uw wil is dat daarginds Uw meer dan dertig
            millioenen onderdanen worden mishandeld en
            uitgezogen in UWEN naam?

 

 

 

 

 

1857

Image result for Hong Kong, 1858 (14 Mar.) entire letter

Hong Kong, 1858 (14 Mar.) entire letter from Hong Kong to Netherlands (28.4) “per land mail via Triest” showing very fine “Paid/at/Hong Kong” small Crowned Circle in red (Webb type 11) with “Hong Kong” double-arc d.s. on reverse, handstruck (at Trieste) blue framed “6¼” and manuscript ratings, fine, another scarce destination for a Crowned Circle.

1857

Dirk Anthonius Varkevisser, an official of the Dutch East Indies government, was born in Samarang (present-day Semarang in Central Java) on 11th July 1800 and passed away on 4th January 1857 in Batavia. He was the former Dutch resident of Pasuruan (in east Java, near to the city of Surabaya), and he was also knighted and conferred the Order of the Netherlands Lion, a Dutch order awarded to eminent individuals from all walks of life, including generals, ministers, mayors, leading scientists, industrialists and high ranking civil servants, among others

 

1 C. als EF auf Kab-Drucksache 1857 mit blauem K2 BALT. PAID. nach Halifax in Canada, hs. Land Mail

1857

 

Insolvency~

The Indian Rebellion of 1857, known to the British as the “Great Mutiny” (also known as First War of Indian Independence), brought the consequence that the British government nationalized the EIC indirectly.

 

After this rebellion, the EIC lost all its administrative powers and dissolved on 1st of January

 

 

een van de eerste foto’s van Woodbury & Page

1857 Java

de tijger werd later “bijgeplakt” ???
We hebben dus nu zoo’n mooi foto album gekocht van Woodbury & Page en spoedden ons weer voorzichtig terug naar ons Hotel Des Indes, want wat we zojuist hebben gekocht is over zoo’n 150 jaar heel zeldzaam….

Woodbury & Page
werkzaam zijn, bij wie je prachtige foto’s van Batavia en omgeving kon verkrijgen.

het atelier van Woodbury & Page in Batavia

met het Britse wapenschild boven hun namen

Woodbury & Page in Batavia nemen het er even van en terecht….
Nu moet Aad eerlijk bekennen dat het nooit precies duidelijk is geworden wie is nu Woodbury en wie is nu Page. Maar in alle oude fotoboeken over o.m. Batavia kom je (bijna) altijd tegen dat de foto is genomen door Woodbury & Page…..dankzij hen kun je je helemaal verdiepen in het oude Batavia, wat Aad dus heel graag doet met al zijn boeken met foto’s van Woodbury & Page

Reeds in 1857 begonnen Walter Bentley Woodbury (1834 – 1885) en James Page (1833 – 1865) hun atelier in Batavia. Zij maakten grote reportages niet alleen van Batavia, maar ook van Java en dan natuurlijk altijd in de vroege nog koele ochtend, helaas dus zelden met een Europeaan op de foto. Later kwam nog een broer Henry James Woodbury erbij.
Uit advertenties is af te leiden dat je bij hen komplete albums kon kopen, nu natuurlijk onbetaalbaar en zeldzaam, maar gelukkig is er een paar jaar geleden een prachtig overzichtsboek verschenen door Aad binnen een dag gefinancierd….

Want als een van je hobbies Nederlands-Indië is, dan kun je ademloos naar een foto van Woodbury & Page kijken en dan weten dat hier ooit o.m. Loudon, van Swieten, Snouck Hurgronje, Köhler, van Daalen, Christoffel en natuurlijk de bekendere Van Heutsz en Colijn hebben rondgelopen. Wie dit allemaal waren :

Klik hier als je wilt zoeken via Aad’s Freefind search engine, vul in het venster jouw woord in, bijvoorbeeld Heutsz en klik op ENTER

De onderstaande foto is een van de eerste van Woodbury & Page geweest, waarschijnlijk uit 1857, de beroemde tijger foto gemaakt ergens op Java. De tijger sprong te vlug en daarom, aldus het verhaal, is de tijger er later “bijgeplakt”

 

 look more info from another e-book like below

Warong (food stall) in Batavia (Jakarta) 1915

Warong (food stall) in Batavia (Jakarta) 1915

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Grand Homann Hotel, Java

Grand Homann Hotel, Java

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Java school. 1920.

Java school. 1920.

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Javanese beauty c.1930.

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Keris . 18th–19th century Culture: Javanese

Keris . 18th–19th century Culture: Javanese

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Gusti Kanjeng Ratu Mas, Surakarta, Java, Indonesia 1920s…

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A Javanese Princess of Mangkunegaran Dynasty circa 1938, Surakarta, Java Island

A Javanese Princess of Mangkunegaran Dynasty circa 1938…

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Batavia: Ronggeng Betawi, 1875-1885

Indonesia Tempo Doeloe
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Kemayoran Airport, Jakarta,

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Potret wanita Karo | Portret van een jonge Karo Batak vrouw…

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King of Dayak Kahayan. Borneo, Indonesia.

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Makasarese lady

Makasarese lady

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Jakarta in the old days - Monas

Jakarta in the old days – Monas

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Vintage Ads, Fiat Ballila 1500. Koningsplein, Dutch East…

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The Dutch East Indies (Today's Indonesia) represented as "the most precious jewel" of the Dutch Empire.

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Waterloo Square - lap banteng

Waterloo Square – lap banteng

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Dirgantara

Dirgantara

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‘De rond 1840 gebouwde Willemskerk in Batavia, de hoofdkerk…

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The Dutch East Indies in photographs 1860-1940 collection…

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Paleis van Gouverneur Generaal Daendels met daar voor het…

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Tempo Doeloe <a class="pintag searchlink" data-query="%2325" data-type="hashtag" href="/search/?q=%2325&rs=hashtag" rel="nofollow" title="#25 search Pinterest">#25</a> - Jakarta, 1919
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Tempo Doeloe <a class="pintag searchlink" data-query="%2389" data-type="hashtag" href="/search/?q=%2389&rs=hashtag" rel="nofollow" title="#89 search Pinterest">#89</a> - Batavia, Pabrik Rokok Ant. Justman, 1909
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Warong (food stall) in Batavia (Jakarta) 1915

Warong (food stall) in Batavia (Jakarta) 1915

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Two sides of a duit, a coin minted in 1735 by the VOC. This Day in History: Mar 20, 1602: Dutch East India Company founded <a href="http://dingeengoete.blogspot.com/" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">dingeengoete.blog...</a>

Two sides of a duit, a 

 

 

1858

ORDONASI REVENUE ON INSURANCE POLISH  1858

 

 

 

1859

1859

The Banjarmasin War (1859–1863) in southeast Kalimantan resulted in the defeat of the Sultan

1859

Legendary story of Banjar War
Many legendary stories in Banjar War period that lasted from 1859 until 1865. one of which there are death squads called the Army War Beratib Ba-mall. Until now, the name of the force is still very legendary ….

Beginning of the conflict in the palace of Sultan Tahmudiah Banjar is when I died. He has a son who still small. Therefore, for while the power is held by Prince Tamjidillah I, brother, Sultan Tahmidillah I. But in fact, Prince Tamjidillah I not only became the guardian of his nephew was a kid, but took control with a smooth and would not return

the son of Sultan Tahmidillah I. Even to strengthen its position as the Sultan of his descendants in the future, Banjar land handed over to the Netherlands. Then by the Dutch were given to the Sultan hakPemerintahan Tamjid I and his descendants.

Therefore there was an armed uprising of Prince Amir (Prince Antasari a hero’s grandfather), a descendant of Sultan Tahmidillah I. However, resistance can be broken by the Dutch. He was later exiled to Ceylon or Sri Lanka.

To reconcile these two offspring, then, Adam Sultan Al Wasique Billah who is a descendant of Sultan Tamjidillah I married his daughter to Prince Antasari. But alas, the Queen died before giving Antasari trigger descent.

In addition, Prince Sultan Muda Abdurrahrnan also had a concubine of the Chinese nation. In 1817 the mistress gave birth to a son. Young Prince Sultan Abdurrahman wanting sons became crown prince. Therefore then freed and married her legally and was named the Big Nyai Aminah. While his son was named Prince Tamjidilllah,

Young Prince Sultan Abdurrahman desire is opposed by the grandfather and father of Sultan Sulaiman and Adam Sultan Al Wasiqu `Billah. They forced the young Prince Sultan Abdurrahman himself married to a cousin of Queen Siti, Miss Mangkubumi Nata.

Nata Mangkubumi besedia Young married his daughter to Prince Sultan Abdurrahman condition, later-born son will be king when the Sultan Muda died. This provision was approved, and the Sultan Muda had made a will on anyone who is entitled to the throne of the Sultanate of Banjar.

In Prince 1822Iahirlah Hidayatutlah. A few years later died so jabatan’tersebut Mangkubumi Nata. is empty. This opportunity was used by Prince Tamjid best, namely the Netherlands requested that appointed him in the Sultanate Mangkubumi Banjar. `With pleasure, of course, the Dutch agreed to because it will benefit the ‘they.’

In 1852 the Young Prince Sultan Abdurrahman died suddenly. A day later with Pengeran Tamjid secretly sent a letter to the Resident of the Dutch in Yogyakarta to appoint him as the heir apparent to the promised delivery of the Sultanate of Banjar areas that prompted the Dutch origin of the request is approved. Once again the Dutch Prince’s request Tamjid, because this is an opportunity for the Dutch reap the fish in troubled waters, as well as running the political divide et empera: glassware and colonize.

On June 10, 1852 the Dutch crown prince Tamjid become crown prince. Of course this appointment caused angry reactions to the nobility, clergy and community on Prince Tamjid and its allies, especially the Dutch.

In April 1853, Sultan Adam, Son of the Young Prince Sultan Abdurrahman sent envoys to Batavia to meet with Governor General of Dutch East Indies in order to request the cancellation of the appointment of justice PangeranTamjid become crown prince and Prince Setting Hidayatullah become crown prince in accordance with the testament of Sultan Adam. But this request was rejected by the Dutch East Indies governor. This adds to the heat of the political climate in the Kingdom of Banjar Prince Tamjid so do not dare to live in the palace which is located diIbukota Banjar Jewels Temple (City of Gems) that the person called Banjar City Martapura now Martapura Banjar regency’s capital.

Tamjid Prince Sultan fled to Banjarmasin. To cool the political atmosphere is getting warmer, finally. HidayatuIlah into Dutch raised Pengeran Mangkubumi previously held by PangeranTamjid and set PangeranTamjid as crown prince. Besides capturing the Dutch Prince and banished him to the King Anom Banjarmasin because it is considered as a provocateur who oppose the decisions of the Netherlands.

To avoid unwanted things to his son, then, the Sultan had come to accompany Prince Adam King moved to Banjarmasin Anom. When gering, or severe illness, he was taken to the palace in Martapura Banjar. On November 01, 1857 he died and was buried in Martapura

On 3 November 1857 the Dutch crown prince as the king’s successor Sultan Tamjid Adam, and the Prince immediately ordered the arrest of Prince Tamjid Anom King then threw to Bogor, West Java.

In 1858, there is a continual movement of people who want to restore the kingdom of culture and the concessions that have been damaged due to the inclusion of power penjajajah Netherlands.

EMERGENCE bead cherished daughter of froth

Mentioned, magical princess who emerged from the foaming whirlpools, then by Gastric Mangkurat crowned as queen in the Kingdom of Dipa Nagara, and then married to the Majapahit royal palace, Raden Putra

After marriage with Princess Bubble cherished, Raden Putra became king in the Kingdom under the name Prince Dipa Nagara Ananta Surya (son of the sun). According to legend Banjar society, they both, in the end mokswa or disappear into the invisible realm and became a ruler in the palace of Magical Mountain Pamaton

According to public confidence, they could both dripping or possessed bodies of people they want.

Thus, when the political temperature in the Kingdom of Banjar is getting hot because the Dutch intervened at the coronation of Prince Tamjid as king in the Kingdom of Banjar to replace Adam Sultan because Sultan Muda Prince Abdurrahman had died first. In fact, the nobility, clergy and the people willed Banjar Hidayatullah became Prince Sultan, according to the testament or the testament of Sultan previous

One of the pious scholars in Kumbayau Tambarangan, Overseas (Regency But right now), named Datu Aling are concerned about the crisis in the palace Banjar. Accordingly, it is because he salampah or penance with his own solitude, fasting, prayer, and remembrance wird, and other practice-practice to draw closer to God, accompanied by a request that the instructions given and the solution to the crisis that is happening in the palace Banjar . Datu Aling_dilaksanakan penance for nine months nine days, beginning in April 1858 until. by February 1859.

On February 2, 1859 to coincide with the 10th Rajab 1275 H; Datu Aling visited by kings and magical kingdom of Banjar Datu Aling asked to bring Prince Muning Antasari to the area. He will start the New Kingdom until the rightful king was elected.

On 13 Rajab 1275 AH, Princess Datu named Aling Saranti, cherished daughter was possessed by Bubble. He is married with a young man asked village named Dulasa because in her magical spirit benemayam Prince Surya Ananta.

Hearing all that, then, was Aling Datu daughter Implementing all these desires. Once married to Dulasa, then, Saranti be named espouse Bubble Princess and her husband Prince Surya Dulasa named Ananta. Datu Aling then announced to the public about Saranti coronation, the king cherished Princess Bubble Bead. Kumbayau area was renamed the Kingdom of Tambay Mecca. As a king in the Kingdom Tambay Mecca, Saranti Bead Princess Bubble lift ayahya cherished, Datu Aling, as Panembahan, brother Sambang given the title of the Yellow Emperor, his sister was given the title Queen of the Sacred Nuramin, while the husband was given the title as Mangkubumi Nuramin Kusuma Nagara, Bayan Sampit, Garuntung waluh, Garumung manau, Kindaui Aji, Kindui Mu `l, splitting Batung, Panimba Sagara, there is also the Commander Juntai In Sky and others.

Tambay Mecca kingdom separate from the Sultanate of Banjar and not subject to the Dutch colonizers. Bubble bead Saranti cherished became queen in Mecca KerajaanTambay only as a symbol of the head of state, while the affairs of government are held, by Penembahan Muda Datu Aling. As a Panembahan, the pious, just and wise he is working with Immediate Banua Ampat, namely: Banua Halat, Banua Gadung, Banua Padang and Banua Parigi. They are subject to the Datu Aling. Then follow the same Banua Top, Trunk Hulu, Guava, Amandit and Pangabau

To his followers, Datu Aling always instill the spirit of jihad for the sake of fighting injustice and occupation. The call for jihad Aling Datu who received tremendous response from the community, was made Prince of the Netherlands felt teracam Tamjid its position. For the Dutch Resident in Banjarmasin send a team consisting of the Chief Prosecutor. Suryadinata prince and the prince of the Head of Prince Muhammad Seman accompanied by 120 followers

Knowing the Will of their arrival, then, was Aling Datu Yellow Emperor ordered his troops to prepare his jihad as many as 700 people complete with weapons drawn

to keep all possibilities that bakal_terjadi.Tentu Dutch Resident is just the messenger gasped to see so many forces in Datu Aling the STAP jihad fighters if they do sort-rnacam. Because they just want to see the actual situation in the Kingdom of Mecca, they were welcome to meet at the Palace of Datu Aling Tambay Mecca.

After hearing reports messenger, once again ordered the Dutch Resident Mangkubumi Prince Hidayatullah to deal with the Kingdom of Tambay Mecca. Then sent Prince Prince Hidayatullah Antasari. Kesuma Jantera Prince and Prince Omar Sharif to meet Datu Aling, Datu Aling During the meeting explaining the intent and purpose of establishment of the Kingdom of Tambay Mecca. It turned out that what is conveyed by Datu Aling dengart hand in hand what is desired by Prince Antasari. Until finally terjadilahn matchmaking agreement between the child named Antasari Prince Prince Mohammed Said with Saranti Bead Princess Bubble who have been widowed cherished.

Thus grew stronger the position of Datu Aling due 30 days after the wedding with Prince Muhammad Said Saranti, the incarnation of Princess Bubble cherish, then, Prince Antasari began to actively lead the popular movement in Banua Ampat and Banua five are directed to the Dutch.

28 April 1859 Puncaknyapada jihadists from Datu Aling Banua Banua Ampat and five under the leadership of Prince Antasari, attacked the Dutch fortress in Pengaron Orange Nassau. The attack was very successful. That was the beginning of the outbreak of the War Banjar. Finally, the battle also extends to various areas in South Kalimantan

As retaliation for the collapse of bastion of Orange Nassau in Pengaron, then, on 16 November 1859, suddenly attacked the Dutch defense forces Yellow Emperor. This attack was greeted with cries of Allahu Akbar by jihadi forces under the command of Sultan Datu Aling Yellow. In battle, the leader of the Dutch army captain killed by a spear Benschop. That day came again a platoon of the larger Dutch troops, but all were driven back.

In the evening, come back bigger Dutch troops to storm the bastion of Datu Aling Muning ie in the mosque. The battle occurred overnight. Datu Aling, Saranti Along with a few people remained loyal followers in the mosque. Aling Datu did not want to surrender to the Dutch even though the fire had licked all the mosques are made of wood. Finally, Datu Aling and Saranti was killed as a martyr.

Listen to the death of Datu Aling and Saranti, then, Prince Antasari issued a slogan which reads “Heram manyareh, waja until ka nipple: (haram surrendered to the Dutch until the last drop of blood)”

WAR FORCES MUNCULNNYA BERATIB BA-CHARITY

Attacks on the forts, coal mines, warships and other Dutch possessions to make the colonists could not do anything about it. Until June 25, 1859 forced the Dutch Prince Tamjid turunt ahta and throw it to Bogor. Prince is being run from the palace Martapura Hidayatullah joined Prince Antasari.

The battle occurred not only in South Kalimantan region, but extends to Central Kalimantan. Central Kalimantan is the field of battle Barito, Kapuas and Katingan led by Prince Antasari, accompanied by the original Surapati Tumenggung Dayak tribe. Martapura and Tang Sea region led by Lehman Demat, Region Five Banua led by Jalil degree Kiyai Wall Duke Anom king.

After the Netherlands asked for help to Batavia, then, berdatanganlah warships and complete with soldiers and cannon-cannon. Onrust Warships sailing to Barito to capture Prince Antasari metalui Tumenggung Surapati. However Tumenggung Surapati not want to sell out despite promises prizes of several thousand Dutch Guilders if Tumenggung Surapati could give Prince Antasari.

On December 26, 1859, suddenly Tumenggung Surapati with his men attacked the ship Onrust In this incident commander Onrust warships and 93 of his men were killed. The guns and cannon cannon transported ashore while his ship was sunk. Meanwhile, the warship sailed Tjipanas Martapura River came under fire from Demat Lehman and his men so hastily returned to Banjarmasin.

On June 11, 1860, proclaimed the abolition of the Kingdom of the Netherlands makes the Banjar and the region as a Dutch colony. Thus the war against the Dutch because the Dutch are no longer intervene in the area of Banjar palace, but the war against Dutch colonialism who want to destroy the Muslims. Therefore, in 1861 came the death squads to defend the religion of Islam. The force is called Ba-Baratib War Forces charity. The cornerstone of their struggle is the sentence of God, Hadith Prophet Muhammad, ask syafa’at 40 prophets, sacred science of the Datu and Heroes. Before progressing to the battlefield, first, they purify the body of hadast with shower and ablution, then dressed in white like clothing Rasullullah war era. They also fasted then beratib ba charity (practice / mewiridkan one practice: Pen) until I forget myself. Then advanced into battle to face the enemy. They believe, if they fall in battle against the infidels Dutch and their allies, they die a martyr.

Leaders of the movement of Ba `War Beratib this mall is the religious teachers and the prince. Among the leaders of the Army War Baratib Perhaps this is the charity of Banua Lawas Badr Haji, the prince of Rashid, and Abdul Gani Buyasin headman of the village Amuntai Basil.

Sementera it Pula, Prince Hidayatullah who has been crowned as the Sultan of the Kingdom of Banjar in Amuntai repeatedly received offers of peace from the Netherlands, but the offer was always declined. With the ruse. Dutch Prince Hidayatullah tricked to come to-Martapura on orders Siti’s mother Queen Dowager. Queen Mother Queen Siti who can not read Latin letters to the Dutch believe it enough to sign a letter written by the Kingdom of the Netherlands as well as stamped Banjar. As a pious man, of Prince Hidatullah afraid of his mother. Hidayatullah Prince came to Martapura on March 3, 1862. Rock aat the same way, he was arrested and exiled to Cianjur.

Prince Antasari continue the struggle against the Dutch. But unfortunately he was a sickly start to Rahmatullah finally passed away on October 11, 1862.

Nevertheless, the war continues. Commander of the Army War Beratib Ba-Hajj Amal Buyasin fall in battle, following the then Chairman of the prince Rashid, Commander of Bukhari, Tumenggung State Tigers, Tumenggung Naro, and others,

Demat Lehman, leader of the guerrilla war untukwilayah Martapura Land Sea and was caught by fraud Dutch in Slippery Rock area and then transported to Martapura and hanged to death in the plaza III (now the Great Mosque of Al-page KaromahPen) Martapura. After that head cut off and sent to Holland. And there is a necklace around her neck ajimat. When ajimat is opened in it there is a white paper that read Arabic letters that people which means free or die

1859

The Banjarmasin War (1859–1863) in southeast Kalimantan resulted in the defeat of the Sultan

.

 

 

 

 

 

 

1860

Multatuli [1860] …aan Nederland…Koning Willem III

….dat dorp stond in brand, omdat het veroverd was door Nederlandsche soldaten…….

Ja, ‘t dorp was veroverd door Nederlandsche soldaten, en stond dus in brand.

Op Nederlandsche heldendaad volgt brand.
Nederlandsche overwinning leidt tot verwoesting.
Nederlandsche krygsbedryven baren wanhoop.

Maar terug naar ons verhaal:

1861

INDIA HOLANDESA. 1861. Entire letter to Bordeaux from Batavia with blue prepaid datestamp of despatch (Feb 2) and thence via Suez and Marseille (March 15). Charged 16 decimes handstruck on arrival in black

 

 

 

 

1862

1862 (14 May). Batavia – USA. Stampless env via London (27 June) + British Packet / Boston + 7sh / 7d + 20c US Charge. On reverse Singapore GPO May 1862 red cds

 

In 1862 werden in Paleis Rijswijk de eerste gasverlichtings armaturen van Batavia aangebracht.

1

Ook in 1862 verscheen een wat negatief commentaar over Paleis Rijswijk: waarom werd dit armetierige gebouw Paleis genoemd, aan de voorzijde hangt weliswaar het Wapen van het Koninkrijk van Nederland, maar de rest van het gebouw lijkt meer op een paardenstal dan een Paleis een Gouverneur-Generaal van Nederlands-Indië waardig.

 

1863

01/07/1863 – 30/06/1868 C.F.W. Wiggers van Kerchem
Wiggers van Kerchem was appointed President per July 1, 1863. Wiggers van Kerchem was a member of the firm Tiedeman & van Kerchem in Batavia prior to his appointment. Per decree of June 30, 1868, it was decided to discharge Wiggers van Kerchem in the most honorable way. After finishing the concept of the fifth Exclusive Right that should be implemented per April 1, 1870, Wiggers van Kerchem decided to return to Europe for retirement

 

Very rare 1863 (5 Sept). Scotland – Batavia. Fkd GB E / 10d rate. Via Singapore fwding agent on front Martin Dice & Cº + boxed. Postage / 6 British Share offi 6d (xxx / RR) of transit charge + 1 shilling at dest. Reverse London. Exceptional exhibition rarity with pmks usage

 

1863

Woodbury & Page

vanuit de Benedenstad langs het Molenvliet (links) meteen rechts de ingang van ons hote lin de verte links De Harmonie met rechts in dat ronde gebouw de Frank leermaker Oger Frèves

Hotel des Indes in 1863

 

1864

Rare 1864, Post Offices Not Controlled By India – BATAVIA (Dutch East India): entire letter from Batavia, Java to London with small boxed ”INDIA PAID/BY BATAVIA” in black. This mark was applied by the Dutch P.O. in Batavia to all letters sent by the P.& O. Steamers to show that the steam postage had been paid. Endorsed ‘Per English Mail via Marseilles’ and ‘India Paid’, backstamped ”SINGAPORE P.O./6 APR(inverted)/1864” in red double circle, and despatch and arrival cds’s.

“Tarif à 30c pour le CHILI” : 1864 10c(n°21)+ 20c(n°22) sur lettre du HAVRE pour VALPAR
AISO. Tarif à 30c des batiments de Commerces(Par navire PADANG). TTB

1864

The idea for a variety of new things realized in 1864. Based Besluit Governor-General dated August 7, 1864 No.18, Bandung defined as the central government Priangan Residency.

Thus, since then the city of Bandung has a double function, namely as the Capital District as well as the capital of Bandung Residency Priangan. At that time, who became Regent of Bandung is Wiranatakusumah RA IV (1846-1874).

 

 

 

 

1864

De Javasche Bank note issues 1864

 

De Javasche Bank note issues, January 1864 – April 1895, printed by Joh. Enschede en Zn.

info source:Rob Huisman

In 1863, De Javasche Bank, was the circulation bank of the Netherlands Indies. One would expect it to be a well-established colonial institution, however the opposite is true. Research at the archives of the printer Joh. Enschede en Zonen at the Museum Enschedé in Haarlem, the Netherlands, shows a completely different picture. The board and especially the President of De Javasche Bank were directly involved in detail in all operational matters related to the design and ordering of their banknotes

1868

01/07/1868 – 31/03/1870 J.W.C. Diepenheim
Wiggers van Kerchem was succeeded by Diepenheim by decree of June 30, 1868. Diepenheim who proviously was Secretary for two years, was President for a short period. He resigned shortly after the fifth Exclusive Right was made public. On March 18, 1870, his resignation was accepted. Diepenheim died in The Hague on May 21, 1875 in the age of 75.
                             
1870

01/04/1870 – 31/03/1873 F. Alting Mees (LL.M.)
By decree of March 19, 1870, Alting Mees was appointed to the position of President of the Javasche Bank. Alting Mees, previously lawyer and attorney, already served the bank as director for several years. Due to his appointment to President of the two high courts of the Netherlands Indies, he left the Javasche Bank per March 31, 1873.

1873

01/04/1873 – 01/09/1889 N.P. van den Berg (LL.M.)                               
Norbertus Petrus van den Berg was chosen as the next President of the Javasche bank from two nominees and was appointed per decree of March 20, 1873. After more than 16 years of service, Van den Berg left the Netherlands Indies in 1889 to become Director of the Nederlandsche Bank and two years later President for a period of 21 years until the age of 81. He passed away in Amsterdam on January 8, 1917.

De Javasche Bank 1864-1895

January 1864 – April 1895, printed by Joh. Enschede en Zn.
Info Sources: Rob Huisman

In 1863, De Javasche Bank, founded in 1828, is a circulation bank in the Netherlands Indies. One would expect to become an established colonial institutions, but the opposite is true. Research in archives John printer. Enschede en Zonen in Haarlem Museum in Enschede, the Netherlands, showed a completely different picture. Council President De Javasche and in particular the Bank is directly involved in operational detail in everything related to design and order their paper money

Section 4, January 1864 – April 1895, printed by Joh. Enschede en Zn.

In 1863,

De Javasche Bank, founded in 1828, is a circulation bank in the Netherlands Indies.
One would expect to become an established colonial institutions, but the opposite is true.
Research in archives John printer. Enschede en Zonen in Haarlem Museum in Enschede,
The Netherlands, showed a completely different picture. Council and in particular President De
Javasche Bank directly involved in operational detail in all matters related to the design and
to order their paper money.

Reading through all the correspondence carefully stored and arranged between Javasche Bank
and printing companies in the homeland, one can feel the atmosphere of modern
entrepreneurial start-up companies. President (CEO) of E. Francis De Javasche Bank (DJB) and
Wiggers van Kerchem successor, wrote a letter to John. Enschede en Zn. (Later called the “Heeren
Enschedee te Haarlem “) on a regular basis to order the new banknotes, commenting on the quality and implementation
command, complained about delays in delivery, and often underscores the urgent need for new supplies to
those remote regions.

Most striking is that they often mention that the cost is to limit the maximum
important. The letters are written with beautiful calligraphy and using ways of polite and politically correct
complaining, urging, comment and criticize. Words such as “worry”, “disappointed”, “propose” and
“Like” is used regularly and frequently suggestions and proposals submitted by completing the statement
such as:

“But we rely on your expertise in this regard and believe you will make the right decision”.
E. Francis (he signed his letters with M. Francis), third President of Javasche Bank, started as a
employees in 1815 and worked his way in the service of civil government to finally be over
available to the Commissioner General of the servant. From 1848 to 1850 Francis is the Superintendent of Financial
and in 1851 he was honorably discharged from government service. Furthermore, Francis was appointed
Javasche to the President of the Bank under the decision dated March 4, 1851. In the early sixties of the 19th century,
De Javasche Bank started to prepare a complete new emission of paper money the Dutch East Indies. In
cooperation with the Nederlandsche Bank, De Javasche Bank is pointing towards the Netherlands
printer “De Heeren Enschedee” (now known as John. Enschede en Zn. (Enschede Security)) to have
The new banknotes are designed and manufactured. Francis was personally involved in the process and
communicate with the printer on a regular basis. Unfortunately, Francis did not stay in the office to see
the results of his efforts. At the request of Francis himself honorably discharged per July 1, 1863
The decision by 20 April 1863. In 1864 Francis published the book “De-beginselen regerings van
Nederlandsch Indie: getoetst aan de behoefte van moederland en kolonie “, expressed his
dissatisfaction with the implementation of a new economic system in the Netherlands Indies and
proposed inquiry by an independent committee. In 1869 Francis issued a request to
Dutch Parliament about his famous right to payment of pensions to retired civil servants
Government of the Netherlands Indies. This response proposal and the request is not found, leading to
believe that Francis ignored by the establishment and must fight for that trust and pension
pay the old days.
In a letter from Francis dated January 31, 1863, with the management of the Nederlandsche Bank, which
evidence has confirmed receipt of the record and the evidence has been approved. In the same letter Francis
raised some comments that he wanted to address:
– Size note: DJB prefer to be the difference in size between the records of 100 and 50
guilders. This means that the records of 1000, 500, 300, 200 and 100 will be great, and notes
of 50, 25 and 10 will be small size. DJB stated that if the De Nederlandsche Bank (DNB) think
the divide should be between 25 and 10 guilders, DJB will also agree.
– Character value in the corner records should be larger.
– Lions at 10 guilders note has an expression, surprised almost frightened. DJB would like
lion to have a more relaxed expression symbolizes strength.

__________________________________________________________________________
– DJB would prefer that the signature is placed under the words “Secretary” and “President” and demand
words to be printed under the date as high as possible.
– DJB prefer that the date is printed on a printer that was not applied in (Joh. Enschede en Zn.)
DJB after arrival. In the case of a printer to print the date, Francis suggests choosing a date is not be
Christian holiday or Sunday and about 6 months after the date of expected departure from the
paper money.
– DJB stated that they calculated six months for the duration of the trip and apply numbers and
signatures for the amount of paper money needed for the exchange of banknotes in circulation today.
In early 1870 the delivery of DJB’s request to be sent through the Suez Canal opened, reducing the
travel time by more than 50%.

De Javasche fourth President of the Bank,

C.F.W. Wiggers van Kerchem, took office on July 1
1863 and continue the process of ordering new issues of paper money.
During the period January 1864 – April 1895, serial number and signature on the front and
cons in the opposite sign printed locally by the Bank in the Netherlands Indies Javasche on
complete records are sent from the printers in the Netherlands. The Bank also Javasche
ordering equipment numbering stamps and signatures of the printer and some blank signature stamps
in the case of signatories will change, allowing them to carve out a new signature stamps
own local. Together with the first order of 1864 new banknotes, the Bank Javasche
ordered the mechanic to accompany numbering machine and take care of the machine becomes
production. Willem Hooij contracted by Joh. Enschede en Zonen for traveling to Batavia in
Dutch East Indies and install the machine. In a letter from Hooij to John. Enschede en Zonen date
August 12, 1864, he wrote about President patient from Javasche Bank makes
difficulties because Hooij not get the machine installed in one day. Wiggers van Kerchem
invite a local printer to meet and together they underestimate Hooij.
161a – from private collections, with the Contra Mark printed in the lower right corner opposite.
All banknotes issued by the De Javasche Bank in the Dutch East Indies during the period 1864 to 1931
and printed by Johan Enschede en Zonen, bringing counter-sign, printed in the lower right corner or
lower center of the opposite. A code that is printed in black on the cap ellipse with a triangular shape
pointing outwards and have up to 5 numbers. Countries lower denomination notes issued during this
period does not have this mark.

Collectors who are familiar with the Dutch East Indies paper money from
This period may be aware that there is a relationship between the date of issuance and cons
the sign. Although it looks like a date then the higher the score, in reality this is not always
the case.
In order to determine the proper application of the mark cons, I gather more information about
than 150 records starting from 1864 to 1931. When setting up and organizing all relevant information
such as date, serial number and the cons, I observed the following:
– One of the unique sign of a counter is always connected to only one specific date of issue
– One of the specified date there are problems with different security code, but the security code that is close
together
– When a record is more of the same problem occurs with the same date and security code, the record has
combinations of the same character in the serial number
– When the date occurs with more than one mark each sign cons cons unique place with different
combinations of characters in the serial number of a specific problem or a sign of a counter connected to the
other denominations issued
– Many have missed the date, there are many days or weeks gap between one and the subsequent counter-sign
– Note the different denominations issued on the same date with different sign cons
– It seems that a range of sequence numbers is used to sign a counter that includes all the notes issued
from the entire period
– There are some exceptions in which the later date has a number of counter low marks
– No combination of different character serial number of a particular denomination with
same counter-sign.
– Changes from 4 to 5 digits occur in the course of 1918
– Note EXAMPLE frequently have signs that are not suitable to deviate counter the usual sequential increase
counter-sign and date.
Clearly, the Bank managed the Netherlands will keep detailed records of the security code and
dates and serial numbers of all paper money issued. It is unknown whether this note De Javasche
Banks still exist in archives somewhere today, although there are rumors that this record is still
present in the archives of Bank Indonesia in Jakarta.
Based on the “Note by PJ Soetens, former conservator DNB (De Nederlandsche Bank), the archive
Geldmuseum, Utrecht, The Netherlands “, I conclude that the Bank used the sign of De Javasche cons
number to identify a separate batch of unfinished bills are transported between
various departments, where they were printed with the serial number and signature, and finally
stored in a vault teller before circulation
Archives of Enschede Museum contains many original orders, production records,
delivery of information and also letters from Batavia where Javasche Bank confirms receipt
shipments. The author makes an overview of all this data and be able to specify the exact amount of
issued notes for each date of issuance. The number of issued notes mentioned in the summary below
should be regarded as a minimum. There is strong evidence that these figures actually incurred.
Although it is possible that more records were published, the opportunity – while there is no distinct
detailed records mention them – very small.
Here is an overview of the different banknotes and their varieties are printed in Johan
Enschede en Zonen in Haarlem, the Netherlands which will be issued by the De Javasche Bank in Batavia,
Dutch East Indies. Although there are rumors about another date of issue and signature combinations,
Overview below lists only those banknotes and varieties that writers have sufficient evidence that
they actually exist.
Java Auction Catalog (7), Cookies (15) and Mevius (16) mentions Van Duyn as a signatory, but
no one by that name is part of the board of DJB during the period. It seems that the signature
of H.P.J. van den Berg (Secretary of 19/10/1893 – 17/01/1899) has been mistaken as it looks like
Van Duyn. H.P.J. van den Berg, brother of the past president of the Bank Javasche NP van den Berg,
appointed as successor to President Groeneveld is on January 17, 1899, but died on February 9, 1899
in Nice, before actually starting his new position.

 

__________________________________________________________________

5 Gulden

1 Oktober 1866
issued : 100,000

10 Gulden

1 Februari 1864
issued : 350.000

25 Gulden

1 Agustus 1864
issued : 120.000

__________________________________________________________________________

50 Gulden

174 – 1 September 1864
withdrawed l 1872 becaus e too many counterfiet circulated
issued : 40.000
__________________________________________________________________________

100 Gulden

1 Maret 1864
issued : 60.000

__________________________________________________________________________
200 Gulden

 

1 Januari 1864
issued : 16,010
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” and two  “200”  __________________________________________________________________________

300 Gulden

193 – 2 Mei 1864
issued : 6.000

500 Gulden

197 – 1 Juni 1864
197c – koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2140 28/13)

198 – 1 Juni 1872

issued : 2.000

1000 Gulden

1 Juli 1864
issued : 14,998

1864

 

Dutch Indies NVPH 1 hinged

1864 – Koning Willem III – 10 ct. wijnrood

Prachtige ongebruikte (hinged) zegel

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 400,00

 

 

Dutch Indies NVPH 1 used

1864 – Koning Willem III – 10 ct. wijnrood

Mooie gebruikte (used) zegel

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 125,00

Halfround CDS on DEI first and second stamps

(courtecy Pipiet Sulistyowati)

 

 

 

 

1865

1865, stampless native envelope w. framed „FRANCO” and violet „CHERIBON 15 9 1865” alongisde to Singapore, on reverse framed ”SINGAPORE/SHIPLETTER 10 OC. ..„ and ”SINGAPORE / PAID„

1865 (14 Sept). Batavia – India. Staylers envelope with contains. Arrival accts charge mark + red Bombay Oct 4,65 on reverse. VF appealing item.[

1865

Photograph of night watchmen in Batavia by Isidore van Kinsbergen, 1865

Painting of Mount Merapi erupting in 1865, by Raden Saleh

 

1866

Unusual 1866, “BATAVIA FRANCO” auf Brief nach Bremen über Triest mit blauem Tax-Vermerk “6” in guter Bedarfserhaltung

 

The emblems of the Nederlandsche Handelsmaatschappij

were deposed in 1866. They consisted of a larger emblem, a medial emblem and a cypher. [18]

GRECIA. 1866 (Jan.). Entire letter from CALIMNO to TRIESTE, with fine strike of oval Forwarding Agent´s cachet GEORGES CALVOCORESSI/SYRA in blue at upper left and SYROS despatch cds´s. Charged in manuscript with ´28´ (kreuzer) due marking on arrival. A fine entire.

Unusual Càd rouge BATAVIA sur lettre pour Bordeaux, taxe tampon 12 et très rare Càd d’entrée rouge (faible) INDES NEERL. / PAQ. BR. AMB. MARS. 1866. – B / TB.

HOTEL DES INDES
In 1860 verkocht Wijss het hotel weer door aan de Fransman Cresonnier en deze Cresonnier was degene die Woodbury & Page foto’s liet maken van zijn Hotel Des Indes, waarom ? Inderdaad, om met deze
fotographieën reclame te maken…..

En dus hier slechts twee foto’s genomen van Hotel Des Indes door Woodbury & Page :

1866

In 1866 ,

 

 

Bickmore stories …

Prof. Albert S. Bickmore was traveling in Sumatra, he saw not a little of these people, and he believed then that the place where their aboriginal civilization sprang up was very likely on the shores of that famous Sumatran lake, Lake Toba, and upon the neighboring plateau of Silindung. From this locality they gradually occupied an extensive domain in the in- terior, which was extended upon either side to the seacoast. Eventually, however, the Malays spread along the coast line, and thus confined the Battaks once more to the interior.

 

The origin of the Battas is doubtful

Battas or Dutch Battaks, the inhabitants of the formerly independent Batta country, in the central highlands of Sumatra, now for the most part subjugated to the Dutch government. The still independent area extends from 9 8 °-99° 35′ E., and 2°-3° 25′ S. North-east of Toba Lake dwell the Timor Batta [ Batak Timur = Simalungun now, red], and west of it the Pakpak [Dairi, red ], but on its north (in the mountains which border on the east coast residency) the Karo Batta [ Batak Karo , red ] form a special group, which, by its dialects and ethnological character, appears to be allied to the Gajus [ suku Gayo , red ] and Alias [suku Alas : red] occupying the interior of Achin [Aceh : red ].

The origin of the Battas is doubtful. It is not known whether they were settled in Sumatra before the Hindu period. Their language contains words of Sanskrit origin and others referable to Javanese, Malay and Tagal influence. Their domain has been doubtless much curtailed, and their absorption into the Achin and Malay population seems to have been long going on.

Battas are physically quite different from the Malay type

The Battas are undoubtedly of Malayan stock, and by most authorities are affiliated to that Indonesian pre-Malayan race which peopled the Indian Archipelago, expelling the aboriginal negritos, and in turn themselves submitting to the civilized Malays. In many points the Battas are physically quite different from the Malay type. The average height of the men is 5 ft. 4 in.[± 160-170 cm , red ]; of the women 4 ft. 8 in [± 130 – 140 cm , red ].

 

The Battas are dirty in their dress and dwellings and eat any kind of food

In general build they are rather thickset, with broad shoulders and fairly muscular limbs. The colour of the skin ranges from dark brown to a yellowish tint, the darkness apparently quite independent of climatic influences or distinction of race. The skulll is rather ovall than round. In marked contrast to the Malay type are the large, black, longshaped eyes, beneath heavy, black or dark brown eyebrows. The cheek-bones are somewhat prominent, but less so than among the Malays. The Battas are dirty in their dress and dwellings and eat any kind of food, though they live chiefly on rice. They are remarkable as a people who in many ways are cultured and possess a written language of their own, and yet are cannibals.
Battaks have long been notorious for the most revolting forms of cannibalism
The more civilized of them around Lake Toba are good agriculturists and stock-breeders, and understand iron-smelting. They weave and dye cotton, make jewellery and krisses which are often of exquisite workmanship, bake pottery, and build picturesque chalet-like houses of two storeys. They have an organized government, hereditary chiefs, popular assemblies, and a written civil and penal code. There is even an antiquated postal; system, the letter-boxes being the hollow tree trunks at crossroads. Yet in spite of this comparative culture the Battas have long been notorious for the most revolting forms of cannibalism. ( see: Memoirs of the Life, &c., of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, 1830.)

Battaks is mainly confined to a belief in three gods concept

The Battas are the only lettered people of the Indian Archipelago who are not Mahommedans. Their religion is mainly confined to a belief in evil spirits, but they recognize three gods, a Creator, a Preserver and a Destroyer, like a trinity suggestive of Hindu influence.
Up to the publication of Dr H. N. van der Tuuk’s essay, Over schrift en uitspraak der Tobasche taal (1855), our knowledge of the Batta language was confined to lists of words more or less complete, chiefly to be found in W. Marsden’s Miscellaneous Works, in F. W. Junghuhn’s Battalander, and in the Tijdschrift van het Bataviaasch Genootschap, vol. iii. (1855). By his exhaustive works (Bataksch Leesboek, in 4 vols., 1861-1862; Batakschnederduitsch Woordenboek, 1861; Tobasche Spraakkunst, 1864-1867) van der Tuuk made the Batta language the most accessible of the various tongues spoken in Sumatra.

 

Batta is poor in general terms, but abounds in terms for special objects

According to him, it is nearest akin to the old Javanese and Tagal, but A. Schreiber (Die Battas in ihrem Verheiltnis zu den Malaien von Sumatra, 1874) endeavoured to prove its closer affinity with the Malay proper. Like most languages spoken by less civilized tribes, Batta is poor in general terms, but abounds in terms for special objects. The number of dialects is three, viz. the Toba, the Mandailing and the Dairi dialects; the first and second have again two subdivisions each.
The Battas further possess six peculiar or recondite modes of speech, such as the Hata Andung, or language of the wakes, and the Hata Poda or the soothsayer’s language.
A fair acquaintance with reading and writing is very general among them. Battaks’s alphabet is said, with the Rejang and Lampong alphabets, to be of Indian origin.
The language is written on bark or bamboo staves from bottom to top, the lines being arranged from left to right. The literature consists chiefly in books on witchcraft, in stories, riddles, incantations, &c., and is mostly in prose, occasionally varied by verse.’
See also “Reisen nach dem Toba See,” Petermanns Mitteil. (1883); Modigliani, Fra i Batacchi indipendenti (Rome, 1892); Neumann, “Het Paneen Bilastroomgebiad,” Tydschr. Aardr. Gen., 1885-1887; Van Dijk in the same periodical (1890-1895); Wing Easton in the Jaarboek voor het Mynwezen, 1894; Niemann in the Encyclopaedia van Nederlandsch-Indie, under the heading Bataks, with very detailed bibliography; Baron J. v. Brenner, Besuch bei den Kannibalen Sumatras (Wurzburg, 1893); H. Breitenstein, 21 Jahre in Indien, Java, Sumatra (Leipzig, 1899-1900); G. P. Rouffaer, Die BatikKunst in niederlcindisch-Indien and ihre Geschichte (Haarlem, 1899).

 

1867

1867, vorphilatelistischer Brief aus Benkoelen (Küstenprovinz in Sumatra)nach den Niederlanden, schwarzer „FRANCO” cds. und roter Ankunftsstempel „S’GRAVENHAGE JUN 67”.

 

1867

In line with the development function, in the city of Bandung was built buildings in the area Cicendo prefecture (now the Home Office of the Governor of West Java) and a government hotel. The building was completed residency in 1867.

 

 

 

 

 

1868

Dutch Indies NVPH 2 hinged

1868 – Koning Willem III – 10 ct. karmijnrood

Mooie ongebruikte (hinged) zegel met originele bruinige gom + cert. NVPH

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 1500,00+++

 

Dutch Indies NVPH 2 used

1868 – Koning Willem III – 10 ct. karmijnrood

Mooie gebruikte (used) zegel

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 225,00

 

1868 – Envelope from Cheribon (Java Island) May 1, 1868 to Samarang (Java Island), bearing 10 cent. lake (Yv. 1 – King William III), tied by “Cheribon/1/5/1868/Franco” semi-circle postmark. Alongside same postmark in black over c.d.s. in red of Cheribon. On the reverse c.d.s. of Samarang “3/5/1868” on arrival. Several handstamps on the front and back in Javanese language. Very fine and rare. Est E 10000,-

1868, incoming mail: stampless cover from Netherlands w. red „TERBORGH 8 APR 68” endorsed „Via Marseilles” to Benkoelen/Sumatra w. red arrival „BENKOELEN 28/5 1868

1868

DEI Half cent castcoin 1858

The Town Hall in the old city center built in 1710 (3rd building)


www.geheugenvannederland.nl


Military parade in front of the statue of Jan Pietersz. Coen at Waterloo-square during the coronation celebrations of Queen Wilhelmina, 1898.


The Artesian well at Salemba, 1885.


The Artesian well at the Koningsplein square, 1885.


The City Theatre, 1865


www.geheugenvannederland.nl


The ‘Landsarchief’ – the colonial archives, housed in a former country house built around 1760


A typical Chinese house.


The shop of ‘Eigen Hulp’ at the Molenvliet-West canal, 1890.


Building in the botanical gardens and zoo.


Bathing kids in the Molenvliet canal next to ‘De Harmonie’ society builing. (Architect: J.C. Schultze, 1815)


www.geheugenvannederland.nl‘De Harmonie’ society building, 1875.


The Aceh monument at the Koningsplein square


The protestant Willemskerk, 1875.


Museum of the Society for Arts and History. (Built in 1862)


Military Society on the east side of the Waterlooplein square, corner Sipajersweg-road.


www.geheugenvannederland.nlMilitary Society Concordia.


Weltevreden Palace at the Koningsplein square, 1880.


Soldiers in front of a ‘watch-house’ of Weltevreden Palace, 1880.


Audience-hall in the Palace


The Palace (back), 1875.


palace interior


Volksraad or Council of the Indies Building or Raad van Indië (founded in 1918).

 


Private estate in Rijswijk in Batavia, 1875.


www.geheugenvannederland.nlPrivate estate, 1856-1878.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1869

Off cover Semicircle cheribon PMK 28.11.1869

Batavia half round PMK to cognae

DUTCH INDIES 1868-73, Six folded entires to France from the Dutch Indies, all with semi-circle BATAVIA desptach cds, plus one item from Sydney/Australia, fine (Est. € 100/200)

 

In 1869 kreeg Gouverneur-Generaal Pieter Mijer toestemming voor de bouw van Paleis Koningsplein.

1866 – 1872

Gouverneur-Generaal Pieter Mijer

1870

Rare Off cover wille II perf second DEI stamp

CDS semicircle Buitenzorg 18.6.1870

Dutch Indies Proof 12-a hinged (scan A)

 

Emissie 1870 – Koning Willem III – Proef 12-a 10 cent zwart
Prachtige ongebruikte (hinged) zegel
Cat. waarde (value) ca. € 25,00

 

 

 

 

 

Dutch Indies Proof 17-a hinged (scan A)

 

Emissie 1870 – Koning Willem III – 17-a 10 cent geelgroen
Prachtige ongebruikte (hinged) zegel
Cat. waarde (value) ca. € 85,00

Dutch Indies NVPH 5 F hinged

1870 -1888 Koning Willem III – 2 ct. lilabruin

Prachtige ongebruikte (hinged) zegel met volle originele gom

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 125,00+

 

 

Dutch Indies NVPH 5 F MNH

1870 -1888 Koning Willem III – 2 ct. lilabruin

Prachtige postfrisse (MNH) zegel – schaarse zegel!!! + fotocertificaat C. Muis –

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 600,00+++

Dutch Indies NVPH 5 F used

1870 -1888 Koning Willem III – 2 ct. lilabruin

Prachtige gebruikte (used) zegel – lastige zegel!!!

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 125,00+

 

Dutch Indies NVPH 5 F MNH block

1870 -1888 Koning Willem III – 2 ct. lilabruin

Prachtige postfris (MNH) blok  – als blok zeer schaars!!!!  !    + fotocertificaat NKD – zegels zijn ook los te bestellen met kopie fotocertificaat ad € 495 per stuk – also 1 piece € 495 with copy certificate!!!

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 2400,00+++

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dutch Indies NVPH 3 hinged

1870 -1888 Koning Willem III – 1 ct. grijsgroen Type I

Prachtige ongebruikte (hinged) zegel met volle originele gom

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 15,00

 

 

Dutch Indies NVPH 4 hinged

1870 -1888 Koning Willem III – 1 ct. grijsgroen Type II

Prachtige ongebruikte (hinged) zegel met volle originele gom

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 10,00

Dutch Indies NVPH 4 MNH

1870 -1888 Koning Willem III – 1 ct. grijsgroen Type II

Mooie postfrisse (MNH) zegel met volle originele gom.

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 45,00

 

Dutch Indies NVPH 7 F MNH

1870-1888 Kon. Willem III – 2,5 ct. geel -7 F

Prachtige postfrisse (MNH) zegel

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 300,00++

 

 

 

Dutch Indies NVPH 9 MNH

1870 – 1888 Koning Willem III – 10 ct. oranjebruin –

Prachtige postfrisse (MNH) zegel

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 150,00

Dutch Indies NVPH 12 G hinged

1870 – 1888 Koning Willem III – 20 ct. ultramarijn –

G – Kamtanding 11,5 : 12 grote gaten

Prachtige ongebruikte (hinged) zegel

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 350,00

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dutch Indies NVPH 10 H MNH block of 4

1870 – 1888 Koning Willem III – 12,5 ct. grijs

– H – tanding 12,5 – kleine gaten

Prachtig postfris (MNH) blok van 4 zegels – zeer zeldzaam!!!!!!

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH ca. € 680,00 – omgerekend via cat NVPH!!!

 

 

 

 

Dutch Indies NVPH 12 hinged

1870 – 1888 Koning Willem III – 20 ct. ultramarijn

Prachtige ongebruikte (hinged) zegel

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 160,00

Dutch Indies NVPH 13 hinged

1870 – 1888 Koning Willem III – 25 ct. donkerpaars

Prachtige ongebruikte (hinged) zegel – prachtig van kleur!!!

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 40,00+

 

 

 

 

Dutch Indies NVPH 14 K MNH

1870 – 1888     Koning Willem III – 30 ct. groen

Prachtige postfrisse (MNH) zegel – zeer schaars!!!!

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 350,00++

 

Dutch Indies NVPH 15 H MNH

1870 – 1888     Koning Willem III – 50 ct. karmijn

Prachtige postfrisse (MNH) zegel met iets ingedroogde gom  – SCHAARSE ZEGEL!!!

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 300,00++

 

 

 

 

Dutch Indies NVPH 16 A MNH

1876 – 1889 Koning Willem III – 16 A Lijntanding 14 kl. gaten

Prachtige postfrisse (MNH) zegel – zeer schaars!!!!!

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 675,00+++

Dutch Indies NVPH 16 hinged

1870 – 1888 Koning Willem III

Prachtige ongebruikte (hinged) zegel

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 125,00

 

 

 

Dutch Indies NVPH 16 MNH

1876 – 1889 Koning Willem III Kamtanding

Prachtige postfrisse (MNH) zegel – zeer schaars!!!!! + cert. Vleeming

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 650,00+++

 

1870

original info:

Maar natuurlijk hebben we ook een schets van iemand anders met een van de beroemde Javaanse Waringinbomen, een mistieke boom die nooit gekapt mocht worden, want in de boom wonen boomgeesten.

Plotseling zwenkt de koetsier rechts af, voert ons een met hoge, schaduwrijke waringinbomen beplant plein op en doet het rijtuig voor

de marmeren vestibule van het kolossale Hotel des Indes

stilstaan.

1870

Cresonnier overleed in 1870, zijn familie verkocht het hotel aan Theodoor Gallas die het op zijn beurt weer verkocht in 1886 aan Jacob Lugt voor dfl 177.000,=. Lugt breidde het hotel fors uit met allerlei grondaankopen van de buren. In 1897 werd zelfs de N.V. Hotel Des Indes door Lugt opgericht, want in de jaren negentig ontstond er in de kolonie een economische depressie. Door die N.V. was Lugt niet meer persoonlijk aansprakelijk.

 

1871

1872

Rare Càd BATAVIA PP (R) semi circircle PMK sur imprimé complet pour Nantes + taxe tampon 20 (R) et Càd d’entrée octo rouge INDES NEER V. S. / P. F. AMB. MAR. 1872. – TB. – R

  1. (7 Feb) Padang to Enschede/Netherlands. Printed matter franked 10c. King William III orange brown perf, tied “Padang/Franco”, also alongside. V. fine and early usage.[ 11388]

1873

1873

1873.

Since the establishment of the VOC in the seventeenth century, the expansion of Dutch territory had been founded on business. However from the mid-nineteenth century it was Dutch national expansionism, in line with the prevailing empire-building outlook of Europe during the era of New Imperialism, that saw them wage a series of wars to enlarge and consolidate their possessions.[8] The most prolonged of these was the Aceh War in which a Dutch invasion in 1873 was met with indigenous guerrilla resistance and ended with an Acehnese surrender in 1912.[7] Disturbances continued to break out on both Java and Sumatra during the remainder of the 19th century,[3] however, the island of Lombok came under Dutch control in 1894,[9] and Batak resistance in northern Sumatra was quashed in 1895.[7].

 

1874.

Dutch Indies NVPH postage due 1 hinged

1874 -1875 Groot waardecijfer

Prachtige ongebruikte (MNH) zegel met voor deze zegel een bijzonder mooie centrering

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 375,00+

Dutch Indies NVPH Postage due 2 hinged

1874 -1875 Groot waardecijfer – 10 ct. groen op geel

Prachtige ongebruikte (hinged) zegel

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 150,00

 

 

 

Dutch Indies NVPH Postage due 3 hinged

1874 -1875 Groot waardecijfer – 15 ct. oranje op geel

Prachtige schaarse ongebruikte (hinged) zegel –

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 30,00

Top of Form

€ 14,50

 

 

 

 

Dutch Indies NVPH Postage due 4 hinged

1874 -1875 Groot waardecijfer – 20 ct.groen op blauw –  Prachtige ongebruikte (hinged) zegel

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 60,00

Top of Form

€ 29,50

Bottom of Form

Bottom of Form

 

Dutch Indies NVPH postage due 09 B TIII MNH + cert M

1874 -1875 Cijfer in zwart – 20 ct.

Prachtige postfrisse (MNH) zegel – zeer zeldzaam – very rare !!!!!!

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 840,00++ omgerekend naar postfris

 

 

THE SOLDIER OF BRITISH EAST INDIA COMPANY

EIC was indirectly subject to the British government and it ruled India through the three presidencies of Bombay, Madras, and Bengal, each of which maintained forces for internal and external defense.T

 

he backbone of the EIC military system was the Indian regular soldier or sepoy (from the Persian sipahi) and for infantry private (a cavalry trooper was a Sowar).

They served under mainly British officers and mainly Indian NCOs


The painting above depicts a soldier of the European Company of the West Coast of Sumatra garrison, on duty at Fort Anne, Moco Moco, circa 1764.
Courtesy: Alan Harfie, “A History on the Honourable East India Company’s,
Garrison on the West Coast of Sumatra 1685-1825”

Native Troops, East India Companys Service, A Sergeant and a Private Grenadier Sepoy of the Bengal Army, from Costumes of the Army of the British Empire, according to the last regulations 1812, published by Colnaghi and Co. 1812-15, Charles Hamilton Smith.

British officers, trained at the EIC’s ‘military seminary’ at Addiscombe, held their commissions from the EIC’s court of directors and enjoyed the right of command over British troops.

1874

1874
Akhir abad ke-19. Belanda menata ulang pemerintahan Priangan dan membaginya menjadi 9 afdeeling (Jerman: Abteilung).

 

 

Salah satunya adalah Sukapura di bawah Raden Tumenggung Wiratanubaya IV. Wirahadiningrat (1874-1906)

memperoleh penghargaan bintang Oranye Nassau dari Belanda

 

1876

1876 (6 Oct). Batavia – Netherlands. eL full text fkd 10c + 50c red, tied “4” dots + cds alongside. Via Marseille / Deutchland Packen. VF + Scarce 50c on cover.[

DOT Postmark

Dot postmark no 98 from ?

F.D. Cochius was born 3rd of December 1787 in Valburg.

His parents are Gerrit Jan Casparus Cochius and Anna Dibbets.

He died in Huize Vredenoord near Rijswijk, Netherlands on 1st of May 1876.

 

1877

1877 5c + 10c(x2) + Boxed NED. INDIE/VIA NAPELS on cover to GERMANY. Rare so early. Vf.

1877 (10 July). Batavia – Deft. 5c stat card + 10c adtl / cds + boxed “Ned Indies / Via Marseille”. VF

1878

1879

1879 William 12,5 CT 5 Mint collectible , 150K

Source

David

1879

House in Batavia, from Le Tour du Monde, 1879

1894

Dutch intervention in Lombok and Karangasem against the Balinese in

Source Ebay

 

1894.

During one of the many Sasak peasant rebellions against the Balinese, Sasak chiefs sent envoys to the Dutch in Bali and invited them to rule Lombok. In June 1894, the governor general of the Dutch East Indies, Van der Wijck, signed a treaty with Sasak rebels in eastern Lombok. He sent a large army to Lombok and the Balinese raja capitulated to Dutch demands.(see Dutch intervention in Lombok) The younger princes however overruled the raja and attacked and routed the Dutch.

Source Ebay

 

 

1895

The Dutch counterattacked overrunning Mataram and the raja surrendered. The entire island was annexed to theNetherlands East Indies in 1895. The Dutch ruled over Lombok’s 500,000 people with a force of no more than 250 by cultivating the support of the Balinese and Sasak aristocracy. The Dutch are remembered in Lombok as liberators from Balinese hegemony.

Source Ebay

 

 

1896

 

  1. Soerabaja – Batavia. Reg 10c brown stat env + 2 adtls / box x5 red wax seals reg on reverse. Fine. Not common.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In 1879

the Koningsplein Palace beginning to built,and klater became Rijswijk Palace Of DEI Govenour General

 

En dus (?) werd in 1879 begonnen met de bouw van Paleis Koningsplein, in de achtertuin van Paleis Rijswijk…

19th Century19e eeuw

Old DEI Gouvenor General Palace Rijswijk at Batavia Het (Oude) Rijswijk Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië in Rijswijk, Batavia

 

 

In 1879

werd het Paleis Koningsplein officieel geopend, het zou dienst doen tot 1949.

Op Paleis Koningsplein zou de Indonesische vlag voor het eerst gaan wapperen.

Luchtfoto Koningsplein Batavia

Met het (werk) Paleis / Residentie van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië

…….indien aanwezig in Batavia……..

Het (woon) Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië was in Buitenzorg

zie hieronder

Waar lagen nu al die Paleizen, daarvoor pakken we de kaart van Batavia uit 1897 weer erbij:

Batavia plattegrond 1897

Ten noorden van het woord Rijswijk op het Koningsplein lag het (nieuwe) Koningsplein Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië, dit is dus het laatste Paleis / Residentie geweest van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië. In dit Paleis vond dus de Soevereiniteitsoverdracht in Batavia in 1949 plaats, een foto van deze Soevereiniteitsoverdracht staat verderop in het verhaal.

Het Koningsplein Paleis werd gebouwd in de achtertuin van het (oude) Rijswijk Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië, op de kaart het rode blokje ten noorden van het Koningsplein paleis.

 

Het Rijswijk Paleis lag aan het Molenvliet water, de weg erlangs heette ook Rijswijk. Aan de overkant van het Molenvliet heette de weg langs het Molenvliet Noordwijk. Kortom, de weg langs de noordoever van het Molenvliet heette dus Noordwijk, de weg langs de zuidoever Rijswijk !

Het Paleis van Daendels ligt aan het Waterlooplein, (nummer 19 op de kaart), ten oosten van het Koningsplein.

Het Waterlooplein is natuurlijk vernoemd naar de Slag bij Waterloo. Ter ere van de overwinning op

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1880-1890

1880

Unusuak 1880, 80 R / 80 R double card brownish-yellow, sent from „MACEIO 24 ABR 94” via London with red cds „LIVERPOOL MY 16 94 SHIP”

to Rembang, there forwarded to Toeban,)Java)

Java with arrival 19 … 1894, reply card unused, extremly rare destination!

Unusual 1880 (20 July). Soerabaja to Woolwich/Maine/U.S.A. Roughly opened envelope franked King William III. 50c. red, tied dots cancels, cds. alongside. Via London and N.Y. on reverse. Scarce

1880

In 1880, the first major railroad between Jakarta to Bandung was opened, boosting light industry and bringing in Chinese workers

 

1881

 

 

 

 

 

 

1882

Dutch Indies NVPH 5-13 MNH

1882 – 88     Cijfer in zwart

Prachtige postfrisse (MNH) zegels – schaars!! met cert. Muis voor Nr 9

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 5,00+++

 

2 Cover William (1) Cirebon to Indramayu (2) Madiun to Cirebon , 1888 & 1889 , 150K

Source

David

Dr iwan comment

I have the same cover send from Padang pandjang to Padang.

Di bawah ini beberapa nama bupati di daerah(the regent Of)  Priangan,yakni:

  1. Bupati Sumedang XV (1882-1918), sewaktu kecil dipanggil Aom Sadeli, setelah menjadi bupati dikenal sebagai Pangeran Aria Suriaatmaja, dan setelah wafat dijuluki Pangeran Mekah karena ia wafat di Mekah sewaktu menunaikan obadah haji.
  2. Bupati Sumedang XV (1882-1918), sewaktu kecil dipanggil Aom Sadeli, setelah menjadi bupati dikenal sebagai Pangeran Aria Suriaatmaja, dan setelah wafat dijuluki Pangeran Mekah karena ia wafat di Mekah sewaktu menunaikan obadah haji.
  3. Bupati Bandung X (1893-1918), sewaktu muda diberi nama Kusumaningrat, setelah menjadi bupati dikenal sebagai Raden Adipati Aria Martanegara, dan setelah pensiun hingga wafat digelari Kangjeng Burujul karena setelah pensiun ia tinggal di desa Burujul, Sumedang.
  4. Bupati Cianjur IX (1834-1862), sewaktu kecil dipanggil Aom Hasan, setelah menjadi bupati dikenal sebagai Dalem Pancaniti karena selama menjadi bupati ia lebih senang tinggal di paviliyun kabupaten yang biasa disebut pancaniti dari pada tinggal dibangunan utama kabupaten.
  5. Bupati Limbangan yang memerintah antara tahun 1836-1871, sewaktu kecil dipanggil Aom Jenon, setelah menjadi bupati dikenal dengan nama Tumenggung Jayaningrat, dan setelah naik pangkat menjadi Raden Adipati Wiratanuningrat VII. Setelah pensiun dan wafat dikenal sebagai Dalem Sepuh (Bupati Tua).
  6. Bupati Sukapura yang memerintah antara tahun 1855-1975, sewaktu kecil dipanggil Raden Tanuwangsa, setelah menjadi bupati dikenal sebagai Tumenggung Wiratanubaya, setelah naik pangkat menjadi Raden Adipati Wiradadaha. Setelah wafat dikenal sebagai Dalem Bogor karena ia dibuang ke Bogor oleh Pemerintah Hindia Belanda akibat dianggap kurang loyal.

Ada beberapa yang mendapat julukan Dalem Bintang karena mereka mendapat tanda jasa berupa gouden ster Nederlandsche-Leeuw (bintang mas singa Belanda), misalnya RAA. Wiranatakusumah IV  Bupati Bandung (1846-1874), R. Adipati Wirahadiningrat Bupati Sukapura (1874-1904).

 

1883

Dutch Indies NVPH 17-22 MNH

1883 -1890 Cijferserie zonder watermerk

Prachtige postfrisse (MNH) serie, schaars!!

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 475,00+

 

Dutch Indies NVPH 21 c MNH

1883 -1890 Cijferserie zonder watermerk – kamtanding 12,5 kleine gaten in olie-achtige druk!!!!

Prachtige postfrisse (MNH) zegel, zeer schaars!!

Cat. waarde (value) NVPH € 325,00+

 

 

  1. Poerworedjo – Batavia. 5c black stat card. VF.[
  2. Cheribon – Batavia. 10c ovptd stat env. F-VF

1884

Java. Original wood engraving, engraved by C. Barbant after T. Taylor. 1884. Good condition. Hand-coloured. 19x13cm. Matted

Native Battak and Atjeh ethnic Original wood engraving engraved by C. Barbant. 1884. Light foxing. Hand-coloured. 20x13cm. Matted.

Native ethnic Moi Indonesia. Original wood engraving drawn by G. Vuillier, engraved by C. Barbant. 1884. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 19x12cm. Mounted

Gravure, engraving, Plates, Stiche, Indonésie, Indonesia, Moi People, Peuple Moï, Klawelem, Makbon, Mosana, Mooi, Mekwei

Timor island Original wood engraving drawn by T. Taylor, engraved by A. Sargent. 1884. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 19x13cm. Scan can be provided on request

Batavia forest in 1884

Photo traveller Palm Batavia in 1850

  • Francis Frith, born 1822 – died 1898 (maker)
  • Francis Frith, born 1822 – died 1898 (maker)
  • Francis Frith was one of the most successful commercial photographers from the 1850s and 1860s. He also established what was to become the largest photographic printing business in England. This image is part of the V&A’s Francis Frith ‘Universal Series’ archive which consists of over 4000 whole-plate albumen prints predominantly of historical and topographical sites. Images such as these were highly desirable throughout the 1850s and 1860s.
  • It is now known that nearly all of the works bearing the F. Frith and Co. stamp were not taken by Frith himself, but by one of his travelling employees. Photographers associated with Frith’s ‘Universal Series’ include Robert Napper (Andalusia), Frank Mason Good (Egypt) and Frederick William Sutton and Hugo Lewis Pearson (Japan). In addition to hiring his own photographers, Frith also bought the negative stocks of established photographers such as Roger Fenton and Francis Bedford.
  • The images that make up the V&A Frith ‘Universal Series’ are file prints acquired from F. Frith & Co. Ltd of Reigate, Surrey. Mounted on brown card, with the place name and stock number usually handwritten on the print itself, they were most probably used as place-markers within the company’s filing system, allowing for easy retrieval of stocks of unmounted prints.
  • Frith’s growing business coincided with many technological developments taking place within the field of photography. These developments changed and expanded the audience for photography and Frith’s operation was well-prepared to provide for it and, it can be argued, worked to develop it employing a diverse range of publishing channels. Targeted towards a market that would later adopt the postcard as the ideal format for its needs, the ‘Universal Series’ forms a bridge between the initial low volume craft/art production associated with photography of the 1850s and the more commercial mass production work of the latter half of the century.

 

1884

1884

 

The development occurred after the Bandung railway transport operations to and from the city since 1884.

Because the city of Bandung serves as a center of railroad transportation “West Lin”, it has encouraged the development of life in the city of Bandung with the increase in population from year to year.

At the end of the 19th century, the population of the European group number has reached thousands of people and demands an autonomous institution that can take care of their interests. Meanwhile the central government realized the failure of centralized government system following the implementation of its impact. Therefore, the government arrive at a policy to replace the system of government with a system of decentralization, decentralization not only in finance, but also decentralization in the field of government granting autonomy (zelfbestuur)

In this case, the government of Bandung regency under the leadership of Regent RAA Martanagara (1893-1918) welcomed the idea of the colonial government. Ongoing autonomous government in Bandung, means the district gets a special budget fund from the previous colonial government did not exist.

 

1885

INDIA HOLANDESA. 1885 (Aug 28). 5c. green postal stationery card used to Batavia cancelled by ´Tegal´ cds in black with framed ´Poerwokerto´ handstamp at left and Weltvreden cds below. Scarce.

  1. Weltevreden – Batavia. 5c lilac stat card. Namidd stline. VF

 

INDIA HOLANDESA. 1885 (Aug 28). 5c. green postal stationery card used to Batavia cancelled by ´Tegal´ cds in black with framed ´Poerwokerto´ handstamp at left and Weltvreden cds below. Scarce.

1886

1886 (30 Aug). Batavia – Switzerland. Registered 10c stat env + 5x10c adtls / “10” dots cancel, box + proper transits 5 red wax seal on reverse. VF multiple usage

1886 (7 March). Sokaboemi – Batavia. 5c green stat card. VF

Borneo. Original wood engraving drawn by Langlois, engraved by Barbant. 1889. Light foxing in the margins. Hand-coloured. 18,5×12,5cm. Mounted.

Java. Original wood engraving drawn by A. Slom, engraved by C. Barbant. 1884. Light foxing in the margins. Hand-coloured. 19x13cm. Scan can be provided on request.

Koepang Timor Original wood engraving drawn by G. Vuillier, engraved by F. Meaulle. 1884. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 19x13cm. Scan can be provided on request

 

 

1887

  1. Soerabaja – Klaten 16.7.1887 – Kelandan – Semarang. 5c dark green stat card. VF
  2. Padang – Austria. Registered multifkd env 10c + 25c (x3) bluish paper. Stline via Marseille. VF

 

1888

1889

Sumatra. Original wood engraving by A. Slom. 1889. Good condition. Hand-coloured. 19x13cm. Mounted

Brass island Atjeh Feli Jungle Sumatra. Original wood engraving by P. Langlois. 1889. Good condition. Hand-coloured. 19x13cm. Mounted

Sourabia Java. Original wood engraving, engraved by C. Barbant after T. Taylor. 1889. Good condition. Hand-coloured. 19x13cm. Matted.

Bali. Original wood engraving drawn by Weber, engraved by Kohl. 1889. Foxing in the margins. Hand-coloured. 19x13cm.

Banda Niera Islands. Original wood engraving drawn by Weber, engraved by Kohl. 1889. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 19x13cm. Mounted.

Ternate Mollucas Islands. Original wood engraving drawn by Weber, engraved by Méaulle. 1889. Good condition. Hand-coloured. 19x13cm. Mounted.

Batavia(Jakarta)Indonesia. Original wood engraving drawn by Taylor. 1889. Good condition. Hand-coloured. 19x13cm.

Raegent Preager Original wood engraving, engraved by C. Barbant after A. Slom 1889. Good condition. Hand-coloured. 19x13cm. Matted

Manado Original wood engraving drawn by Taylor, engraved by Méaulle. 1889. Light foxing in the margins. Hand-coloured. 19x13cm. Scan can be provided on request

 

 

INDIA HOLANDESA. 1889.

5 c. Yellow green stationery card, H & G 8, but with additional sender´s address surrounding the card in red print, used to SOLOK cancelled by BATAVIA despatch cds and WELTVREDEN, PADANG and PADANG PANDJANG cds´s. Unusual and fine early stationery advertising item for this area.

. Borneo. Original wood engraving drawn by Weber, engraved by Barbant. 1889. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 19x13cm. Mounted.

Borneo. Original wood engraving, engraved by Hildibrand after Ronjat. 1889. Light foxing in the margins. Hand-coloured. 18x12cm. Matted.

 

 

Borneo. Original wood engraving, engraved by H. Thiriat. In texte, printed on the reverse side. 1889. Good condition. Hand-coloured. 15,5×11,5cm.

1889

1889

04/12/1889 – 19/09/1893 S.B. Zeverijn
Altough the board recommended Buijskes to become the next President, the Governor General appointed S. B .Zeverijn to that position by decree of August 21, 1889. Zeverijn was forced because of illness to leave for Europe on March 1, 1893 where he died on December 13, 1893

 

 

 

1882

Dutch Indies NVPH post 13C + 13B MNH

1882-88 Cijfer in zwart – 13C + 13B  gecombineerde tanding 11,5:12,00) + 12,5:12

Prachtige postfrisse (MNH) zegels met de niet gave boventanding, zoals beschreven in de NVPH catalogus – schaars!!!

Cat. waarde (value) ca. € 160,00+ (omgerekend via de NVPH cat.)

 

Above tjilatjap 9.12. 1882 dot pmk no 21 to stuttgart germany

Below semarang dot pmk no 4

1882 P./Stat 7 1/2c canc. LAHAT + NI.EXP.KANT SINGAPORE + french LIGNE N PAQ FR to GERM

1883

  1. KR(small Circle) Koedoes – 4.11.1883 Semarang. 10c stat env ovptd

The Dieanst free Post form the commandant of 4th Battalion depot Padang CDS Padang 22/2/1893 to commandat RH 16th Infantry Battalion CDS Fort de Kock(Boekittinggi) 23.2.1883

 

 

 

 

 

February ,19th.1883

 

The Official dienst free port post card from Assisten resident Of 50 kota(Pajacombo) via CDS Fort de Kock CDS destination 19.2.1883 to CDS Padang 21.2.1883

  1. Tegal – Samarang. 10c stat env ovptd used bilingual. VF

 

 

1884

Rare 1884. Djokjakarta – France. Registered 25c stat env + 10c adtl. Boxed “Ned Indies / Via Naples”. Fine

  1. Cheribon – Batavia. 10c ovptd stat env. F-VF.[ 528196]

 

1884

The road is now called Jalan Asia-Afrika in memory of the conference.

Mileposts on the road were numbered starting at Bandung. Rapid growth of the city, however, began only after the railroad from Batavia (now Jakarta) arrived in 1884

 

 

 

1885

Soerakarta to Weltevreden batavia

Lang (straight log) stempel(PMK) halte Poerwokerto CDS Tegal 27/8/1885 to Batavia cds weltevreden

1885

Ordonasi Reveneu

REVENUE ORDONASI 1885 the new order of Revenue stamped in 1885 had changed to the newe order”ordonatie op de heffing van Zege recht van nederlandch Indie” in this ordonatie there were practise revenue with the same (seragam) Reveneu from one and half G and from 10 cent.This ordonatie still used until the new ordonatie in 1921. please look at the regulation in Indonesia language below,

A

 

 

1886

  1. Cheribon – Semarang. 10c intense red – brown stat env bilingual. F-VF.[
  2. Bandoeng to Gravenhage. 5c green King William stationery with additional 2½ yellow orange (Sc. 19), tied c.d.s.´s Ned Indie/Via Brindisi”(**) box alongside, as well as arrival c.d.s. and “c.12”. Light vertical crease not affecting stamps.[

 

1887

  1. Kediri – Netherlands. Registr 10c stat env + 25c x2 adtls. VF

1887 (10 Dic). Straits Settlements 3c card written from Pº (Penang/Pulan Pinang) and crossed over to Weltevreden (12 Dic) where franked also with Dutch Indies 5c green, tied cds via Soerabaja (15 Dic), and arriving to Borneo/Banjermasin on the 23 (?) Dic 1887. An extraordinary scarce usage from a Malayan outpost with combination of a Dutch stamp est Price: $ 2,500.00

1888

1888

 

 

2.11.1888 Dutch East indie(DEI) first issued revenue stamp 5 cent , please report the earliest used and another high nominal revenue issued like 10 gld

 

 

 

1889

  1. Tegal – Samarang. 10c stat env. VF. Bilingual chinese

The official dienst free port card of Padang cds 10..10.1889 to Welteverden CDs 12/10.1889

1889, portofreie Dienstbriefkarte vs. grünlich, rs. weiß, (DIENSTBRIEFFKAART), aus „WELTEVREUEN 12.10.89” nach Batavia mit Durchgangsstempel „PADANG”, die Nutzung dieser Dienstsbriefkarten war gesetztlich geregelt (Staatsblad 1880 No. 165)., oben kleiner Einriß

  1. (21 Jan.) Tegal to Den Haag/Holland. 7½ Bister brown King stationery, cancelled c.d.s. (***) with several transits and marks on front and reverse, including “Napostijd” in box and “Ned India/via Marseille”. Min. hole in upper center, otherwise fine item

1889

The latset used of five cent nedl Oost Indie  Revennue stamp in 1889

 

 

 

 

1890-1900

1890

 

1890 (8 Dec). Medan – Suriname / Paramaribo. Fkd env 10c + 15c via Italian with arrival / transit. Extremely rare inter Dutch Colonies dest mail.[ 536304]

Bid Info: Price: $ 1,250.00

  1. Semerang dot PMK no 2 small round(KL)- Magelang. 10c stat env local usage

1890

The church of Our Lady of Assumption at waterlooplein stood until 9 April 1890 when it collapsed due to old age and poor maintenance.

A new church was rebuilt in its place between 1891 and 1901 and today it stands as the Jakarta Cathedral. The church is acknowledged as an integral instrument for the spread of Roman Catholicism in Java during the 19th century

1891

1891 (April 23). Provisional 15c. on 25c. violet postal stationery envelope sent registered to Rotterdam cancelled by Magelang cds´s. Framed ´Ned Indie/Par Marseille´ in black on front, reverse with Semarang, Weltvreden and Rotterdam arrival datestamp.

INDIA HOLANDESA. 1891 (April 16). Cover to Germany endorsed ´Via Singapore´ bearing 1870-88 25c. violet, slight faults, tied by framed ´Sambas´ handstamp and ´36´dotted lozenge, Pontianak (Borneo) cds at upper right. Framed ´Ned: Indie / Via Brindisi´ route mark in black, reverse with fine ´N. I. Agent Singapore´ cds (April 21). Scott 13

INDIA HOLANDESA. 1891 (April 23). Provisional 15c. on 25c. violet postal stationery envelope sent registered to Rotterdam cancelled by Magelang cds´s. Framed ´Ned Indie/Par Marseille´ in black on front, reverse with Semarang, Weltvreden and Rotterdam arrival datestamp.

Rare Puntstempel (dot pmk)112 – Goenoeng Toea – mooi en volledig op envelop 25 cent 18-12-1891 via Padang naar Geisweid (D),

Posta lly used leltter sheet willem III cover rare dot stamped 112-Goenoeng toea and smalll round CDs Goennoeng Toea (south tapanoeli) 1812-1891 to Gestwaal netherland via choped NE.Indie. via genua,

 

 

 

 

 

1892

Cover William 12,5C dengan tambahan bea 2,5C using “SHIPCANCEL” Longbar + Dotmart 1 , 225K

Source

David LOOK PART FIVE

DEI HISTORY COLLECTION PRE 1911 PART THREE

THIS E-BOOK ONLY SAMPLE NOT COMPLETE ILLUSTRATION, THE COMPLETE ILLUSTRATION EXIST ONLY TEN CD-Rom

Copyright @ Dr Iwan 2016

If you want buy the complete E-Book, please contact iwansuwandy@gmail.com, please upload your iD-Card copy with complete adress and shorth working history, and to more communication you must be my web blog Premium member with tarnsfer US 25,- or send enenvelope via airmail with stamps or old money with the same value. The price of this CD-Rom Only US 100.-

1819
In the War of 1819 the first Palembang,

the fort was tested by cannon shells Dutch corvette, but not one bullet that can penetrate both walls and doors. Due to run out of bullets and gunpowder, then the Dutch fleet escaped to Batavia. From this was born the phrase, which states that work for nothing, because it does not bring results: ration runs out, no ne of Palembang, means the act or attempt that did not give results, only brought loss and fatigue sernata. This event is written with great charm in Menteng War poem or a poem also called the War of Palembang.

In addition to beautiful and sturdy, Kuto Besak is located in strategic places, namely in the fields like floating on the water. She lies on the “island”, ie the area surrounded by the Musi River (in the front or south), in the western part limited by Sekanak River, bounded on the east Tengkuruk River and behind, or the northern part limited by Kapuran River. This area is called Land of the Palace.

 

Figure sketch Palembang Palace by J. Jeakes


Forms and soil conditions in the city of Palembang as if to the islands, and by the Dutch people gave him the title as the de Twintig Eilanden der Stad (City of Twenty-Island). Further according to G. Bruining, the island’s most valuable (dier Eilanden) is the place Kuto Besak, Kuta Lama and the Great Mosque stands.

Formation of the islands in the city of Palembang is because the number of children who crossed the river and cut the city. Naturally also called the City if Palembang River Hundred. Whereas in the early colonial era, Palembang dubbed by them as het Indische Venetie. Another epithet is de Stad des Vredes, namely a peaceful place (meaning Dar’s Greetings). And indeed this is the name of the official name of the Sultanate of Palembang Darussalam.

Castle Map Kuto Besak (plus sign) visits with wikimapia
[Click to enlarge]


Structure and Technical

According I. J. Sevenhoven, the first Dutch commisaris Regeering in Palembang, Kuto Besak roede width and 77 length 49 roede (Amsterdamsch roede = approximately 3.75 m, or the length is 288.75 meters and 183.75 meters wide), with a strong wall around and the height and width of 30 feet 6 or 7 feet. This wall is strengthened with bastions 4 (bastion). Inside there was a similar wall and nearly as tall, with the gates strong, so this can also be used for defense if the first wall can be broken (see LJ. Sevenhoven, Painting, page 14).

Recent measurements of the consultants themselves have a slightly different size, which is 290 meters long and 180 meters wide.

Opinions de Sturler on the condition of the fort Kuto Besak:
“… 77 roede width and length 44 roede, equipped with a 3 and a half bastion bastion management, which complements a wall around all four sides. Walls are thick and 5 feet high from the ground 22 and 24 feet.
On the inside in the middle of the palace called Dalem, especially for the king’s residence, several feet higher than ordinary buildings. Entirely surrounded by high walls, so bring a protection for the king. No one may approach the royal residence unless the family or the person who ordered. Other stone buildings in the palace is a place to store ammunition and bullets “. (see W. L de Sturler – Proeve – 186 pages)

Site Plan Palace of Palembang in 1811 [click image to enlarge]


At the time of the war against the Dutch colonialists in 1819, there were as many as 129 shoots a cannon was on the wall Kuto Besak. Whereas during the war in 1821, only 75 shoots a cannon on the wall Kuto Besak and 30 shoots along the river wall, the attackers threatened standby.

Images Main Front Gate Castle Kuto Besak

 

Lawang Buratan (west side of the gate) Citadel Kuto Besak remaining

 

Fortress Kuto Besak year of 1935

Fortress Kuto Besak

 

 look and seek info I will help anybody to get info please contact iwansuwandy@gmail.com, please look the VOC following info like below

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Governor-General Valckenier ordered the killings of ethnic Chinese. This Day in History: Mar 20, 1602: Dutch East India Company founded <a href="http://dingeengoete.blogspot.com/" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">dingeengoete.blog...</a>

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Built between 1666 and 1679 by the Dutch East India Company (VOC) as a maritime replenishment station, the Castle of Good Hope is the oldest surviving colonial building in South Africa. From 1678 it was the centre of civilian, administrative and military life at the Cape, until the settlement grew and some functions and activities moved away from the Castle. Today the Castle is the seat of the military in the Cape, and houses the Castle Military Museum and Iziko Museums of Cape Town

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Unsuccessful English attack on the VOC fleet at Bergen, 12…

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The arrest of three VOC Councilmen in Batavia in 1741. Van Imhoff and two fellow councilmen were arrested for insubordination after going against Valckenier.

The arrest of three VOC Councilmen in Batavia in 1741. Van…

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Maquette van de VOC-werf Oostenburg te Amsterdam, Ab J. Hoving, 1989

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The Maritime museum before the VOC ship Amsterdam (Netherlands) aboard the Amsterdam! This ship is an exact replica of the famous VOC ship that in 1749 all sank on its maiden voyage. The Amsterdam is one of the showpieces of the Naval Museum. | Flickr - Photo Sharing!

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Plat VOC Japon, 18th, Scotish National Museum

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VOC in Sri Lanka

VOC in Sri Lanka

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Replica of the pinas &quot;Duyfken&quot; of the Dutch East India company. In 1596, it made the first trip to the East Indies. In 1606, under command of Captain Willem Jansz, it sailed to Papua New Guinea and Northern Australia, making it the ship that discovered Australia for the Europeans

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A DUTCH ENGRAVED VOC WINEGLASS, CIRCA 1740 the flared bowl engraved with a crowned coat of arms bearing the initials VOC flanked by tendrils, the opposite side bearing the inscription HET.WELVAREN.VAN.DE.OSTDIENISCHE.KOMPANCE

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”The Antique Cannon Superstore – Dutch VOC Cannons”

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Vereinigte Ostindische Compagnie bond - Compañía Neerlandesa de las Indias Orientales - Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre

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Peper - Piper nigrum (door W. Marsden, History of Sumatra, London 1811) een van de belangrijkste handelsspecerijen tijdens de VOC hoogtijdagen. Het was zo kostbaar dat er gesproken werd van 'zo duur als peper'.

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In 2010 Ruben Schalk, a history student from Utrecht University, found the world’s oldest known ‘share’ during his thesis research in the Westfries Archief in Hoorn. It dates from 1606 and was issued by the VOC chamber of Enkhuizen.

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De inscheping van het VOC- personeel bij de Montelbaanstoren 1663

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De Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie | <a href="http://entoen.nu" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">entoen.nu</a>

De Verenigde 

1819: Sharif Osman Sultan of Pontianak III Alkadrie be until the year 1855. He was appointed to lead the Dutch East Indies government Afdeeling Pontianak.

in 1819,

that laffles, despite disapproval of the company in london and madras, sailed off to establish a british settlemen in the singapure. the historical and strategic importance and 20 th centries would hard to assess

Following the example of the dutch it was considered necessary to provide military protection for the settlement, and small fortification was built on a narrow spit of land between the sea and the Bengkulu river (now sungai serut). The original fortification named York for was manned by two companies of i

nfantry soldiers and artisans who had been redruited in london. The site proved to be very unhealthy owing to the close proximity of the  river and mangrove swamps. There were many deaths in the early day among the soldiers sen to garrison the fort as well as the civil servants living there..

It was Vastly different to the fort that can be seen today, being just a  rectangle of building wit a roof capable of supporting the artillery pieces required to defend the fort. house of the Deputy Govendor was contructed and the diagram on the original plan.

 

1820

1820: Zainul Abidin bin Badruddin II (1820-1834) became Sultan Mountain Sow I, the fraction of the Sultanate of Berau. Prince Sultan Sulaiman-law of Moses Banjar Kusan II became King until the year 1830.

In 1820,

na de dood van Van Braam, kocht het Gouvernement het huis en werd het ingericht als officiële residentie van de Gouverneur-Generaal van Nederlands-Indië (1820 – 1879), waarbij dus werd afgeweken van het plan van Daendels, waarschijnlijk omdat het Paleis van Daendels nog lang niet klaar was.

 

1820

Sir T. Stamford Raffles, who was among them in 1820, found some of their law

 

 

1821

1821

The Dutch subjugated the Minangkabau of Sumatra in the Padri War (1821–38)

1821

Indie Batav republic cast coin 1821 (during Padri war )

1822

Very rare 1822 entire headed “Petersham Novr 23d/1822”

and signed “JR Rankin” (?), to Scotland with boxed ‘INDIA LETTER/PORTSMOUTH’ h/s in red, London transit b/s in red, Scottish boxed ‘½’ h/s & unframed ‘DUMFRIES/ 13JUN1823/A 340-D’ arrival b/s, some soiling/staining. From the period 1819-1828 when Sydney had no postal markings. [The lengthy letter speaks of “…the golden days of Lauchlin Macquarie…he has done more good to this Colony in the last twelve years than will be done in the next twenty-four his prediliction for they prisoners was certainly his hobbie horse…I am most happy that we had the courage to come out to what they call the land of Cangerros and Convicts…There are more settlers arriving here every week…”]

 

DEI cast coin 1822

May 1822:

Gerrit Jan Casparus Cochius

Awarded “Ridder IIIe klasse of Officier in de Militaire Willems-Orde” [MWO], the 3rd Class Knight in Military Order of William in his service as engineer attached to Headquarters during the Waterloo Campaign.

 

1822

 

1822        Oct 8,

The Galunggung volcano on Java sent boiling sludge into valley. The eruption left 4,011 dead. The long-inactive volcano erupted Apr 4 and blew its top on Apr 12. The Oct 8 and Oct 12 eruptions left 4,011 dead.
    (THE COMPLETE INFORMATION READ  AT ANOTHER ARTICLE IN THE WEB BLOG hhtp://www.driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com)

1822

The parasitic plant Rafflesia was discovered in the lowland forests of Southeast Asia.

It steals nutrition from other plants and periodically creates a monstrous, red-brown flower with the perfume of rotten flesh.
    (SFC, 1/19/04, p.A4)

1823

1823: Mr. Muller Dutch East Indies government employees surveyed northwest Borneo. [42])
 1823: 13 September 1823: Coral Diamond Contract Agreement between the Sultan Suleiman II of the Dutch East Indies represented Banjar with Mr. Resident. Tobias.

1824

The commercial successor of the V.O.C. was the Nederlandse Handelmaatschappij (NHM), founded in 1824  (after the Anglo-Dutch treaty).

The larger emblem consists of disc charged with a winged anchor between the date 1824, surrounded by the title nederlandsche handel maatschappy.

As a crest a three-masted sailing ship and as supporters two lions couchant. Below the central emblem is the cypher NHM.

The achievement is surrounded by waves of the sea and decorated with several floral motives.

In 1964 this company merged with the Twentsche Bank and changed its name in Nederlandsche Middenstands Bank. In 1990 the NMB merged with the Amsterdam-Rotterdam Bank into the ABN AMRO Bank. This bank was split up in 2007.

(Fortis, Bank of Scotland en Banco Santander).

1824

The begal sepoys continued to serve at Bencoolen and the other west coast settlemen, until all of the british trading posts along the west coast of sumatra were handed over to the Dutch Argeement of 1824.

the actual handover took place earlt in 1825.

 

In 1824

werd het geheel opgekocht door het Gouvernement die er een kostschool voor meisjes vestigde.

1824

Under the 1824 Anglo-Dutch Treaty,

the Dutch secured British settlements in Indonesia, such as Bengkulu in Sumatra, in exchange for ceding control of their possessions in the Malay Peninsula and Dutch India. The resulting borders between British and Dutch possessions remain between Malaysia and Indonesia. As exploitation of Indonesian resources expanded off Java, most of the outer islands came under direct Dutch government control or influence. Significant Indonesian piracy remained a problem for the Dutch until the mid-19th century.[7]

 

1825

1825: Adam Alwasikh Billah became Sultan of Banjar XVI until 1857. In Brunei, Mohammad Alam became the Sultan of Brunei until 1828.

1825: In July 1825, Prince Aji Jawi, King of the Land Seasonings establish a contract with the Dutch East Indies.


September 1825:

Gerrit Jan Casparus Cochius

Lieutenant-Colonel F.D. assaulted the Jogjakarta. He was the Commander of Garrison of Soerakarta with 2 companies of infantry [Hulptropen from Soemenap and Legion of Mangkoenegaran], 1 platoon of cavalery [Huzar], and 12 Light Infantry [Dragonder)

The Dutch subjugated the Java War (1825–30) ended significant Javanese resistance.[7]

October 1825:

Gerrit Jan Casparus Cochius

designed the prototype of temporary battlefield fortification in Kalidjengking. His designed would be adopted in to Fortification Strategy in following Java War 1826 – 30.

 

March 1825

 

Fort Marlborough was occupied by the Dutch
The Dokar in front of Fort Marlborough –

 

1825

Raffles was also able to place Fort Marlborough on a lower states of readiness, perceiving that there was little or no thereat from any other Euoropean nation. Following the handover of the settlemen to the Dutch in 1825, records show that the for continued to be manned by Dutch colonial troops,

although it was never enlarged or upgraded with the exception of the intruduction, during the mid-19 th century, of four breech loading guns mounted on each of the four bastions.

1826

1826: After the conquest attack Banjar palace

in Yogyakarta in 1826, the Dutch East Indies had been made a rule which areas are still controlled by the Sultanate of Banjar and determine the division of the territories

June 1826:

Gerrit Jan Casparus Cochius

Capturing Pleret, a fort of Diponegoro in Southern of Jogjakarta with more than 7.000 Dutch soldiers.

July 1826:

He lead the movement to Dekso, a new headquarter of Diponegoro after Pleret conquered by Dutch Army.

Lieutenant-General Frans David Cochius in 1850

[3rd of December 1787  – 1st of May 1876]

Lithograph in format of 32×24.5cm

Source: KITLV

 

 

Lieutenant-General Frans David Cochius

Engineer of Battlefield Fortification Strategy in 1827-30

in sequence capturing Diponegoro

If Frans David Cochius was still alive today, he must be 222 years old in December 2009. Who is he? I’ll bring his short biography and compartment in sequence of capturing Diponegoro in Java War.

Java War 1825-30 was the badly war in the history of colonization in Netherlands Indies. For the first time the colonial government faced a massive social rebellion covering large part of Java: 2 million Javanese people were exposed to the ravages of war, 200 thousands Javanese were died. On the other hand, Dutch suffered 8 thousands European troops and 7 thousands of Indonesian troops who fought for Dutch were perished. The war consequence was rising cost about 20 million guilders! The war that perished everything both Javanese and Dutch side.

The Java War was started in a rebellion led by Pangeran Diponegoro for the reason of Dutch political intervention in the Court of Mataram (general reason), and Dutch decision to build a road across a piece of his ancestral property (personal reason).

F.D. Cochius was an expertise in fortification. He designed the prototype of battlefield fortification strategy [Benteng Stelsel]. The fort was built in high terrain, a square building made by coconut tree height about 7-8 feet.The cannons were applied in the one of diagonal corner of the fort. Each corner has two cannons.

In the throne of Governor General Du Bus de Gissignies,

the government of Dutch Indies failed to extinguish the rebellion of Diponegoro. In several party the Diponegoro army defeated the Dutch Indies army, such as campaign for capturing Kejiwan [August 1826],

campaign of Delanggu [August 1826], and campaign of Gawok [October 1826].

Military operation did not reach the objective. General H.M. de Kock ordered to Colonel F.D. Cochius for planning the prototype of battlefield fortification strategy.

This prototype was implied in battlefield fortification strategy in area Bagelen, Banjoemas, Gowong, Ledok, Kedhu, and Jogjakarta. It could be the simple fort for defense in Java War for the reason for limitation the movement of Diponegoro. It was the temporary battlefield fortification: a simple building for military defense, efficient in raw material for the building, and the materials are available in Java.

 

1827

1827:

Gerrit Jan Casparus Cochius

Commander in Military Operation District of Jogjakarta

The strategy of Battlefield Fortification was implied since May 1827. The Battlefield Fortification means that fort was not only have a passive role in the military defense, but it’s emphasized that the fort has active and important role as quarter for offensive operation, military command and control and logistic purposes. Broadly speaking, fort was attempted as warfare and military strategic. In period of May – December 1827 General H.M. de Kock established about 30 forts surrounding Central Java.

Pas in 1827

zou het Paleis van Daendels gereed komen, in opdracht van de enige, “Belgische” Gouverneur-Generaal Leonard P. J. Burggraaf Du Bus de Gisignies, want het jaar 1830 was immers nog niet aangebroken:

1826 – 1830

Gouverneur-Generaal Leonard P. J. Burggraaf Du Bus de Gisignies

Volgens de overlevering woog bij aankomst Du Bus de Gisignies 145 kg, toen hij weer in 1830 naar Europa terugkeerde was hij 60 kg lichter geworden.

 

1828

April 1828:

Gerrit Jan Casparus Cochius

Battle of Bedoyo, he waved Diponegoro army out from this village.

July – August 1828:

Colonel Cochius occupied the valley of Progo and assault the Diponegoro army between Progo and Opak rivers.

In 1828

Hotel des indes Batavia(now Jakarta )

werd het gebouw weer verlaten, in 1832 werd de kostschool voor meisjes weer opgeheven omdat de leraressen maar steeds weggingen om te trouwen

1828

Javasche Bank 1828

 

De Javasche Bank 1828 – 1953

 

Presidents, Secretaries and Directors

info source: Rob Huisman

The Javasche Bank was founded in 1828 and continued its operations until after the Dutch transfer of souvereignty to Indonesia in 1949. The Javasche Bank became the circulation bank for the Republic of Indonesia and was nationalized in 1953.

A date in italics (24/01/1828) means the date of the decree deciding about the appointment or discharge of  the board member. The date of a decree is only mentioned in case the actual start or end date is unknown.

The following board members (Presidents, Secretaries and Directors) were authorized to sign banknotes issued by the Javasche Bank:

Presidents:

24/01/1828 – 22/03/1838 Chr. de Haan (LL.M.)
Leonard Pierre Joseph viscount du Bus de Gisignies, Commissioner General of the Netherlands Indies, appointed Chr. de Haan by decree 25 on January 24, 1828, to the position of President of the Javasche Bank. Although several other people applied for the position of President, the Commissioner General used his right to move past the nominees. On December 13, 1837, after almost 10 year of service, de Haan was granted a two year European leave. He seceded in the board meeting of March 22, 1838.

1829

January 1829:

Military operation to North Mataram.

This operation was moving Diponegoro in to the western Progo River successfully.

The operation continued to Southern Mountains of Jogjakarta.

July 1829:

Gerrit Jan Casparus Cochius

Capturing Fort Geger. This fort was built by coral materials.

In 1829

werd het geheel opgekocht door de Fransman Surleon Antoine Chaulan die er als eerste een hotel begon onder de naam Hotel de Provence.

 

1829

Father van der Grinten was the head pastor of the Catholic Church of Batavia – the first Catholic church in Batavia – located at the corner of Lapangan Banteng (a large open square situated in an European enclave and formerly known as Waterloopein).

It was built over the former residence of the Dutch East Indies military commander General Hendrik Merkus de Kock (who later was made Baron for his triumph over Prince Diponegoro in the Java war).

The church was inaugurated on 6 November 1829 and blessed by the head pastor at that time, Father L. Prinsen,  as “The Church of Our Lady of Assumption”. It measured 35 long by 17 metres wide, consisted of a large hall with rows of pillars on either side in the neo-gothic style, a common architectural style for churches at the time. Father van der Grinten lived in the priest’s residence on the east wing of the church, while the sacristan lived in the west wing.

 

1830

1830/40s, stampless cover (slight faults) w. large oval hs. „ZEEBRIEF BANKA” to Rembang

March 1830:

Colonel Cleerens with Diponegoro arrived in Magelang.

The Kedhu Resident and military chief, including Colonel F.D. Cochius met them in Magelang before the capitulation 28 of March 1830. Based on capturing Diponegoro in Magelang, it designate that the Java War was terminated.

Post of Java War, Colonel F.D. Cochius was the commander in Salatiga, a town in Java.

The submission of Prince Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830

1831 – 37:

Gerrit Jan Casparus Cochius

Extinguishing of the uprising of the Padri’s Islamic fundamentalist insurgents in the mountains of western Sumatra raged.

 

1832

Batavia, a city of Java,

capital of the Dutch possessions in the East Indies, in hit. 6° 10′ 8., lon. 106° 50′ E., on a swampy plain at the head of a deep bay of the Java sea, on the N. W. coast of the island, upon both banks of the river Jacatra. The bay is protected by a number of islands, and forms a secure harbor.

The population in 1832 was 118,300, of whom 2,800 were Europeans, 25,000 Chinese, 80,000 natives, 1,000 Moors and Arabs, and 0,500 slaves; the present number is variously stated at from 70,000 to 150,000, the discrepancy apparently arising from the different areas embraced, the wealthy inhabitants now residing beyond the limit of the fortifications, upon several broad roads running for some distance inland.

The local trade and handicrafts are mostly in the hands of the Chinese; the foreign commerce in those of the Dutch, although there are also English, French, German, and American merchants. About 1,500 vessels annually enter the port, two thirds of which are Dutch.

The principal articles of export are spices, rice, coffee, sugar, indigo, tobacco, dyewoods, and gold dust. In 1867 the total value of the exports was $27,-227,025; imports, $22,439,435. Batavia was originally laid out on the model of a Dutch city, with broad streets having each a canal in the centre.

1835

1835 (27 Nov). Old Westhall / Scotland – USA. Stampless EL full text boxed “OLD RAIN” (xxx/R). Via London – NY. Fwded Batavia. 7 charges. Fine transatlantic usage from small town.[ 537362]

, Borobudur Java. Original steel engraving drawn by W. Purser, engraved by S. Bradshaw. 1835. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 18,5×11,5cm. Mounted.

1836

Sulawesi. Original steel engraving drawn by Danvin, engraved by Joliot. 1836. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 13,5×8,5cm. Mounted.

Sulawesi. Original steel engraving drawn by Danvin. 1836. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 13,5x9cm. Mounted.

Fabce Buru island Mollucas Islands. Original steel engraving drawn by Danvin, engraved by Joliot. 1836. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 13×8,5cm. Mounted

Chinese overseas Timor. Original steel engraving drawn by Danvin, engraved by Langlois. 1836. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 13,5x9cm. Mounted.

Timor. Original steel engraving drawn by Danvin, engraved by Peronan. 1836. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 14x9cm. Mounted.

Timor. Original steel engraving drawn by Danvin, engraved by Desaul. 1836. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 14x9cm. Mounted.

Mollucas Islands. Original steel engraving drawn by Danvin, engraved by Chaillot. 1836. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 14x9cm. Mounted.

Mollucas Islands. Original steel engraving drawn by Danvin, engraved by Chavannes. 1836. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 14x9cm. Mounted

Bali. Original steel engraving drawn by Danvin, engraved by Casenave. 1836. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 13,5×8,5cm. Mounted.

Timor. Original steel engraving drawn by Danvin, engraved by Peronan. 1836. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 14x9cm. Mounted.

 

Native ethnic of Mollucas Islands. Original steel engraving drawn by Danvin, engraved by Delaistre. 1836. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 14x8cm. Mounted

Natife ethnic of Timor. Original steel engraving drawn by Danvin, engraved by Langlois. 1836. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 13,5×8,5cm. Mounted.

Bali. Original steel engraving drawn by Danvin, engraved by Desaul. 1836. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 14x9cm. Mounted.

1837

Mollucas Islands. Original steel engraving drawn by Danvin. 1837. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 14x9cm. Mounted

 

 

 

 

 

August 1837:

Gerrit Jan Casparus Cochius

Conquered the Fort Bondjol in West Sumatra.

September 1837:

Gerrit Jan Casparus Cochius

1st Colonial Infantry Battalion in Bondjol for Major General F.D. Cochius, RVH

[Van Heutz Regiment].

 

 

1838

Borneo. Original steel engraving drawn by Danvin, engraved by Chavannes. 1836. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 14x9cm. Mounted.

May 1838:

Gerrit Jan Casparus Cochius

Commander Militaire Willemsorde

1838

31/03/1838 – 10/03/1851 C.J. Smulders
C.J. Smulders, the Secretary of the Javasche Bank, succeeded de Haan as President by decision of the Commissioner General on March 31, 1838. 
In November 1846, Smulders bought 1/2 share in the sugar factory Langsee. On January 7, 1851, Smulders requested to be honorably discharged because of his weakening health. By decree of March 4, 1851, Smulders was honorably discharged. He decided to dedicate his time to his interest in the Langsee sugar factory. His successor E. Francis, took over presidency during the board meeting of March 10, 1851.

 

1838

In 1838, the Mataram kingdom brought its rivals under control.

Relations between the Sasak and Balinese in western Lombok were largely harmonious and intermarriage was common. In the island’s east, however, relations were less cordial and the Balinese maintained control from garrisoned forts. While Sasak village government remained in place, the village head became little more than a tax collector for the Balinese. Villagers became a kind of serf and Sasak aristocracy lost much of its power and land holdings.

Source Ebay

 

 

1840

In 1840 Batavia had 537, and, in 1880, 1015 inhabitants

 

1841

November 1841:

Gerrit Jan Casparus Cochius

12th Infantry Battalion in Batavia for Lieutenant-General F.D. Cochius, RVH

[Van Heutz Regiment].

1841

Earliest Nederland and South Holland revenue handstamped (1841) on law magazine from nederland sent to Indonesia.

Look the close up of complete document next page

 

 

 

 

1842

Batavia Jakarta

Java. Original steel engraving drawn by C. Reiss, engraved by W. Wallis. Bibliograph. Institut in Hidlburghausen. 1842. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 15×9,5cm. Mounted.

 

1843

Chinese Overseas Postcard at Batavia in 1843

Sulawesi. Original wood engraving. 1843. Light foxing. Original hand-colouring. 18x8cm. Mounted.

Papua New Guinea. Original steel engraving engraved by Mercier. 1843. Light foxing. Original hand-colouring. 16x9cm. Mounted

 

 

VELDE, Charles William Meredith van de. Serang, hoofdplaats van de residentie Bantam. – Serang, chef-lieu de la résidence Bantam. Amsterdam, Frans Buffa en Zonen, (c. 1843).Lithograph by P. Lauters after C.W.M. van de Velde. Ca. 21 x 30 cm. From: C.W.M. van de Velde. Gezigten uit Nêerlands Indië. – Rustic view of the capital of Bantam, Serang. With horsemen and coach.Bastin-Brommer N360.

résidence Bantam. Amsterdam, Frans Buffa en Zonen, (c. 1843).

Lithograph by P. Lauters after C.

Serang, hoofdplaats van de residentie Bantam. – Serang, chef-lieu de la

 

 

 

1844

1844 (31 Dec). Batavia – France. EL full contains comercial mark despatch on front + Via Alexandria – Malta (dissinfected) + charges. Shows great

Java. Original wood engraving by H. Thiriat. 1884. Very good condition. Hand-coloured. 19×12,5cm. Mounted.

 

1845

In 1845 kocht zoon Etienne Chaulan op een veiling het hotel van zijn vader voor dfl 25.000,=, vraag me niet waarom….

Etienne maakte het hotel al een beetje beroemd, want hij was de eerste die ….. verschillende soorten ijs ging verkopen

1845, Zustellungsmarke „Aangebragt per Land-Mail. Te betalen port (hds: 216) koper. BATAVIA (hds: 12/4 1846)” auf Faltbrief von Bordeaux (datiert 24.1.46) via Suez, Ceylon und Singapore nach Batavia, Java, aufgrund von säurehaltiger Tinte kleine Fehlstellen innerhalb der Anschrift, sonst einwandfreie und frische Kabinett-Erhaltung!, Fotoattest Brun&Fils, Paris. Catalog Price 4000,00[Zust. I ]

Bid Info: Price: € 4,000.00     Sold For: €3600.00

 

 

1845,

entire folded letter dated „Batavia 25. August 1845” with blue oval „BATAVIA (posthorn) / ONGEFRANKEERD” to Buitenzorg, red ms. „20”. Clean condition

1846

April 1846:

13th Infantry Battalion in Batavia for Lieutenant-General F.D. Cochius, RVH

[Van Heutz Regiment].

 

 

 

 

 

 

1846

After failed expeditions to conquer Bali in 1846 and 1848, an 1849 intervention brought northern Bali under Dutch control

The Dutch 7th Battalion advancing in Bali in 1846

1846

. After failed expeditions to conquer Bali in 1846 and 1848, an 1849 interventionbrought northern Bali under Dutch control.

 

1846 (Aug 17) outer to Singapore “p Elora” but crossed-out & “p Kyle” added, oval ‘PAID SHIP LETTER/SYDNEY’ d/s & very fine ‘Registered/SYDNEY.’ h/s (Type R2) both in red, superb strike of the chamfered ‘FORWARDED BY/MACLAINE WATSON & Co/BATAVIA’ cachet in red, rated “6” in red on arrival, docketed on the flap “recd Jan7 47 per Nurappin [?] via Batavia”, light vertical filing fold. A very rare destination in this period, taking 5 months to arrive! [Brian Peace – our auction of 27/7/2009 – had six registered covers to overseas destinations: all were to Great Britain. He had no cover to Singapore]

1847

1846, Zustellungsmarke „Aangebragt per Land-Mail. Te betalen port (hds. 150) duiten BATAVIA (hds: 10 Jan 1847)” auf Faltbrief mit blauem K1 „AMSTERDAM 21/11 (1846)” und „P” via Marseille nach Samarang, Java, aufgrund von säurehaltiger Tinte kleine Fehlstellen innerhalb der Anschrift, sonst einwandfreie und frische Kabinett-Erhaltung! Catalog Price 4000,00[Zust. II ] Sold For: €3600.00

 

 

1847 (21 June). Batavia – Netherlands. E. stampless via British mail over Alexandria + Malta / Lazaretto. Displays great! + VF + charges

 

1848

 

werd de bovenste verdieping van het Paleis Rijswijk afgebroken in de hoop het gebouw wat meer status te geven. In de praktijk verbleven de Gouverneurs-Generaal ook liever in Buitenzorg dan in Paleis Rijswijk….. het Paleis Rijswijk kreeg al snel de bijnaam Hotel van de Gouverneur-Generaal….

 

In Paleis Rijswijk kwam wel geregeld de Raad van Indië bij elkaar, de onofficiële regering van Nederlands-Indië voorgezeten door de Gouverneur-Generaal. De Gouverneur-Generaal had echter in de praktijk, we zouden nu zeggen, dictatoriale bevoegdheden en dus altijd het laatste woord.

 

In 1809 begon Daendels dus aan zijn plan voor wat de geschiedenis zou ingaan als het Paleis van Daendels, en ook wel Het Groote Huis genoemd. Pas in 1827 zou het voltooid worden.

Alhoewel groots van opzet

Netherlands. ½ Gulden, 1848. KM-73.1. Willem II. Toned. NGC graded AU-50.
Estimated Value $100 – 125

1849

1849 (9 Feb.). Khibosania to Batavia. EL. Green-grey neat oval KRAWANG (xxx). + manuscript 25-VF

1849 (27 July). Batavia – France (26 Sept). EL full contains via Alexandria BPO + Malta dissinfected. Shows great. VF

 

1849 illustrated ‘OCEAN PENNY POSTAGE’ envelope with ‘London: CHARLES GILPIN, 5, Bishopsgate Street Without.’ imprint at the base, Imperf 1d red (3½ margins), ’34’-in-diamond cancel & ‘Bishopsgate St Within’ h/s alongside, ‘SOUTHAMPTON’ arrival b/s in blue, a couple of ink-stains on the face & overall soiling. [The cover is addressed in the distinctive hand of the American social activist, Elihu Burritt. Burritt was the United States Consular Agent in Birmingham, and a promoter of internationalism and world peace. He advocated a universal Ocean Penny Post as a means to increasing international correspondence, trade & brotherhood]

1850

1850

Cafe Batavia

a building in the old Jakarta city area just across the square of Fatahillah, the main attraction is the interior. It was constructed between 1805-1850, and underwent a renovation in 1993. The Cafe Batavia  was established in 1930.

 

1850 (25 May). Batavia – UK. Stampless E blue Franca cds Via Singapore box on reverse (would display well if opened) charge 2sh / 3d + modified + London transit. Comercial departure cachet on front. Fine

1850 (6 Aug.). Fjilanghap to Batavia. EL. With red oval KRAWANG (xxx) x 25 manuscript charge. VF

1851

In 1851 ging het management over in handen van Cornelis Denninghoff die de naam veranderde in Hotel Rotterdam,
Ook wel het Rotterdamsch Hotel genoemd. Het had niet zoo’n goede naam, iemand schreef dat hem Hotel Rotterdam was aanbevolen, maar hij had veel beter

President of Javasche bank

10/03/1851 – 01/07/1863 E. Francis
Emanuel Francis started his career in the Netherlands Indies as a clerk in 1815 and worked his way up in the government service to eventually become the top civil servant available to the Commissioner General. From 1848 to 1850 Francis was Inspector of Finance and in 1851 he was honorably discharged from the governement service. Next, Francis was appointed to President of the Javasche Bank by decree of March 4, 1851. On his own request Francis was honorably discharged  per Juli 1, 1863 per decree of  April 20, 1863. In 1864 Francis published a book “De regerings-beginselen van Nederlandsch Indië: getoetst aan de behoefte van moederland en kolonie”, expressing his dissatisfaction with the implementation of a new economic system in the Netherlands Indies and proposing an investigation by an independent committee. In 1969 Francis published a request to the Dutch parliament about his reputed right for payment of pension being a retired civil servant of the Netherlands Indies government.

1852

INDIA HOLANDESA. 1852. Entire letter from BATAVIA with red Company cachet and blue BATAVIA cds, British PO at ALEXANDRIA cds of transit in black and red MARSEILLE entry marking on front. Handstamped 10 declines due on delivery.

1852

Het Hotel Rotterdam had in 1852 al weer een andere eigenaar gekregen, de Zwitser Wijss die in 1851 getrouwd was met een 16-jarige nicht van Etienne Chaulan.

En deze Wijss was degene die op advies van Douwes Dekker op 1 Mei 1856 de naam veranderde in het veel chiquer klinkende

 

 

1852

The Postal history used cover from Honolulu hawai via manila to Batavia.

Postmarks front and back of this cover are Honolulu, March 11, 1852, Manila, May 19 and June 17, Hong Kong, June 21, Canton, July 2 along with a Canton PAID mark, and again Hong Kong on July 22. This cover, addressed to Batavia via a forwarder in Canton, was carried to Manila by the Bremen bark Ceres, departing April 3, 1852. The letter next went from Manila to Hong Kong and paid a single letter rate of 4 pence (represented by the black “4” over the Honolulu postmark). At Hong Kong, the letter was sent to the forwarder in Canton at another 4 pence rate (represented by the red “4” in the upper left corner). The forwarder crossed out his name, paid postage to Singapore (1 shilling represented by a red squiggle over the Honolulu postmark) and sent it back down to Hong Kong. From Hong Kong, the letter was carried to Singapore by the P&O steamship Malta (July 23 departure; July 31 arrival) under British mail contract, and then to Batavia by local shipping. The “48” is said to represent a Batavia local rate, typically written with the same type of ink

 

the famous “Batavia Cover” shown below.

 

Backstamps

 

.

 

1853

1854 LOOK PART FOUR

Japan Papermoney History Collections (sample of E-Book In CD-ROM)

THIS e-BOOK IN cd rOM WERE SAMPLE NOT COMPLETE ILLUSTRATED ISU=SUUED. THE FULL COMPLETE COLOUR LIMITED EDITION ONLY TEN cD ISSUED EXIST

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SPONSSORED BVY OUR ANCESTOR MUSEUM WANLIS SONS NORTH JAKARTA INDONESIA

Driwan Masterpiece uniquecollections :”The Limited JJ STokes Rugby(Football) Trade Card Collections”(koleksi Kartus rugby langka JJ Stokes)

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

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Showroom :
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(Museum Duniamaya koleksi unik masterpiece Dr Iwan)

SHOWCASE :
THE LIMITED EDITION JJ STOKES RUGBY(FOOTBALL) TRADE CARD

FRAME ONE:
THE LIMITED 795 CARDS, AUTOPHONEX TEST ISSUE TRAD CARD
( Dr IWAN COLLECTIONS)
FRONTSIDE


BACKSIDE

FRAME TWO:
THE JJ STOKES BIOGRAPHY


J. J. Stokes Date of birth: October 6, 1972 (1972-10-06) (age 38)
Place of birth: San Diego, California
Career information
Position(s): Wide receiver
College: UCLA
NFL Draft: 1995 / Round: 1 / Pick 10
Organizations
As player:
1995-2002
2003
2003 San Francisco 49ers
Jacksonville Jaguars
New England Patriots
Playing stats at DatabaseFootball.com

Jeral Jamal Stokes (born October 6, 1972) is a former National Football League wide receiver. Stokes last played in the NFL in December 2003 for the New

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JAPAN PAPER MONEY HISTORY COLLECTIONS

BY

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Limited E-Book In Cd-Rom

Special for Numismatic Collectors and Historian Scholars

Copyright @ Dr Iwan 2016

 

Dr Iwan comment

In July 2016 I visit this country , with my wife Lily and So0n Anton ,with his wife Grace and my granddaufghter Cess withh her grandmother Sisca. We we stayed at GrandNikko Hotel Tokyo, we visit Mount Fuji, then by train we visit Osaka and stayed at   Hotel mayling Osaka, we visit also Kyoto , then after that I with my wife visit Hongkong.

 

Preface

I found Japan papermoney in 2000, and

I still collected that papermoney until this day .

In 2016 I star to collect Switzerland Paper MoneY

RAREREST COLLETION jAPAN 10 YEN BELOW

And for add my museum collections in North Jakarta Pondok Gading “Our Ancestor Museum WANLI SONS”

This E-book I write for my Sons Anton Jimmi Suwandy ,and his wife Grace with their children Cessa as the remembrance of my effort to ptotect the world heritage from Switzerland.

I put some information from Wikipedia dan E-Bay to give more knowledge to collectors and historian scholar.

Jakarta August 2015

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Ret.Senior Superintentands Indonesian National Police

Consultant Information

 

Introduction

10th Century

During the period of Japanese history from 1185-1603, Japan was ruled by the Emperor, but his power was not absolute.

1603-1863

One of the neatest collectible currencies in the world is Japanese Hansatsu. These banknotes were issued during the Edo Period (1603-1868), but there are similar designs issued before the Edo period and after the Edo period, during the Meiji Restoration, which restored Imperial Rule to Japan.

 

 


After winning the Battle of Sekigahara

in 1600, Tokugawa Ieyasu became the supreme ruler over Japan. He organized all the Daimyo’s into around 300 Han, a type of fief, or domain, from which he demanded loyalty. Those who were his enemies had their houses destroyed and their lands taken. Those who were loyal, he granted powerful positions to in the Han’s.


The Han’s were able to produce what were called Han-Satsu, a type of banknote similar to notes issued previously by private issuers, but had since been removed from circulation. Hansatsu were issued in the different han’s and they circulated primarily within the han they were issued in, though there were a few exceptions. Hansatsu were based on the gold, silver and copper coinage of the time, but there were a few that that were to be exchanged for commodities such as rice and fish.

17th Century

Yamada Hagaki Period Issued By Shinto Priest

1600

A Yamada Hagaki, Japan’s first banknote, circa 1600.

Japan’s first banknotes, called Yamada Hagaki (山田羽書), were issued around 1600 by Shinto priests also working as merchants in the Ise-Yamada (modern Mie Prefecture), in exchange for silver.[1] This was earlier than the first goldsmith notes issued in England around 1640.[1]

 

 

1661

An early issue of domain scrip took place in the Fukui domain in 1661. As early as 1610, private notes had been printed for purposes such as payment of workers on construction projects. Domains issued scrip to supplement coins in times of shortage and to adjust the amount in circulation. They also exchanged scrip for coins to improve the financial situation of the domain. By the end of the period, eight out of ten domains issued paper, as did a few daikan-sho and hatamoto.

 

Accepting scrip always carried the risk of forfeiture.

18th Century

Edo Period

(Era Shogun)

Feudal domains of Japan

During the Edo period, feudal domains of Japan issued scrip called hansatsu (藩札?) for use within the domain.

During the Edo period, the shogunate seized some domains, and transferred others; on such occasions, the new daimyo might not honor the old scrip. Following the condemnation and death of the daimyo Asano Naganori, for example, Ōishi Yoshio, a house elder in the Akō Domain (and later the leader of the Forty-seven Ronin), ordered the redemption of scrip at 60% of face value. In addition, in times of financial difficulty, the domain might simply declare scrip void.

Early in the period, domains printed their own scrip; later, they operated through

 

 

1707

In 1707 the controlling Tokugawa Shogunate banned the use of paper money, due to abuses of the system.

1730

However, in 1730, the practice of issuing Hansatsu was officially resumed. In reality, Japan was actually controlled by powerful Daimyo, (feudal lords) and Shoguns (warlords). This period has been divided up into separate periods of rule based on who was in control at the time.

prominent merchants, whose credibility was important to the acceptance of the currency.

This paper currency supplemented the coinage of the Tokugawa shogunate. Most scrip carried a face value in silver coinage, but gold and copper scrip also circulated. In addition, some scrip was marked for exchange in kind for a commodity such as rice.

In addition to those issued by the domains, forms of paper money were also issued by rice brokers in Osaka and Edo. Originally used only as a representation of amounts of rice (subdivisions of koku) owned by the scrip-holder and held in the Osaka or Edo merchants’ storehouse, these scrips quickly came to be used as currency

1866

Japan Edo period papewr money “Hansatsu Imone” Nara 1866 UNC Est price IDR 263,157.89

Dr Iwan Comment

I found this paper money three type , two from Tokyo flea market and one from Jakarta market.

Japanese Banknotes

 

 

A collection of 18th & 19th century Hansatsu banknote designs

 

 


When Tokugawa Yoshinobu resigned in 1867, the result was the Boshin War in January of 1868, in which the Shogunates forces were defeated and the Emperor declared himself to be restored to power. This period is known as the Meiji Restoration. At this time the government began an exchange program for people to turn in their Hansatsu for the new national currency called the Dajoukansatsu, which was the first banknote issued by a central government in Japan. This was met with reluctance, however, and the exchange ran until 1879.

 

Hansatsu notes are vertically printed and narrow, which has garnered them the nickname of ‘Bookmark Notes’ by some collectors. The notes have many different designs and motifs, and are usually filled with the Japanese Kanji script both in printed and handwritten form. One of the more prevalent design features is that of a corpulent man standing on two barrel shaped rice bales, and carrying an oversized sack over his shoulder. These depictions are of the Daikokuten, one of the Shichi Fukujin, or Seven Gods of Fortune. Originating from the Buddhist faith in India, where he was known as Mahakala and was a fierce warrior god. Towards the end of the fifth century, he was ensconced in Buddhism, and he made his way to Japan by the eighth century where, over time, he lost his fierce ways and became a chubby, happy man. Renamed Daikokuten, he adopted a magic mallet, a large treasure sack, bales of rice, and became the god of wealth, happiness, farming, and of course, good fortune. He rapidly grew into a favorite deity throughout Japan.

 

His association with agriculture has him depicted almost always standing or sitting on two rice bales. This has also made him a favorite deity for cooks and kitchens. Tradition also has it that the main pole in a house is often called the Daikokuten pole, meant to support the house with good fortune.

 

The oversized sack of treasure has in it three items, in abundance: Wealth, Wisdom and Patience.

 

The magical wooden mallet is said to be able to grant whatever wish you want when it is struck on the ground, and when shaken, coins will magically appear to fall out of it. The mallet contains a wish granting jewel, called the Hoju, that is a special symbol of power in Buddhism. The Hoju is said to be able to grant wishes, bring calm, and give understanding of the Dharma, or Buddhist law. The Dharma is also considered to be wealth in Buddhist teachings. The jewel has also been said to contain the sacred ashes of the Buddha himself. The mallet can also be seen with three jewels in a flame, or a single pointed flame.  The three jewels and flame are, along with rice, powerful fertility symbol. On Hansatsu notes, these jewels can most often be seen on the ends of the rice bales.

 

Daikokuten is somtimes depicted with three heads, and is then known as the Sanmen Daikoku, which is depicted to show him as the protector of the three Buddhist “Treasures”: Buddha himself, Law and Buddhist disciples. This depiction of him was quite popular during the Edo Period in Japan.

 

Below are some typical Hansatsu notes from my personal collection. As I do not read Japanese, the translations are not complete. I have had to base my identification of these notes from the information I could obtain from the seller, or from other sources in books or on the Internet. Unfortunately, I have not come across a detailed description of these notes in English, and have often had to rely on sources in French or Polish – there is undoubtedly something lost in the translation at some point. Any assistance in the identification or translation of these notes will be greatly appreciated.

Link: How to attribute dates on Hasnatsu

 

1 Silver Monme – 1740

 

 

1 Silver Monme – 1863

 

 

1 Silver Monme Issued by the Shibamura Han in the Yamamoto-Wahsu Province during the Enkyo (Edo) era, year 2 (Kinoto Ushi) – Western year 1745

 

 

1 Silver Monme Issued during the Kyoho era, year 15 (Kanoe-inu) Western year 1730

 

 

1 Silver Monme – Undetermined Han and date

 

 

 

1 Silver Monme – Issued in the Anwei era – Western year 1854

 

 

 

1 Silver Monme Issued during the Tenpo era – Western year 1838

 

 

1 Silver Monme Issued during the Keio era year 2 (Hinoe-Tora) – Western year 1866

 

 

1 Monme Issued during the Keio era – Western year 1865

 

 Image result for JAPAN 1 Monme Issued during the Keio era - Western year 1865-1867

1 Monme Issued during the Keio era – Western year 1865-1867

 Image result for JAPAN 1 Monme Issued during the Keio era - Western year 1865-1867

 

1 Monme Issued during the Koka era, year 4 (Hinoto-Hitsuji – Western year 1847

 

 

1 Silver Monme Issued during the Keio era year 1 Nana Meguri Hanchi-ko Mura – Western year 1865

 

 

1 Silver Monme Issued during the Bunkyu era, year 4 Hyogo Prefecture of Kasai – Western year 1863

 

 

3 Silver Bu Issued during the Kyoho era, year 15 Kanoe-inu – Western year 1730

 

 

3 Silver Monme Issued during the Kyoho era, year 15 Kanoe-inu Nagasawa, Kawachi (Osaka) – Western Date 1730

 

 

1 Silver Monme issued by the Yanagimoto Han in Yamato no Kuni Nara-Ken Prefecture Issued during the Bunsei era, year 13 – Western year 1830

 

 

1 Silver Monme issued by the Mangani Temple of Abeyamain Yamato no Kuni Nara-Ken Prefecture Issued in Keio 2nd year during the Edo era – Western year 1866

 

 

 

3 Silver Monme issued by the Hatake Mura Village in Atsumi Gin, Mikawa no Kuni – Achi Ken Prefecture Issued during the Meiji era, year 2 – Western year 1869

Valid until Meiji 5th year – Western year 1872

 

The gentleman catching a fish in this vignette is not Daikokuten, but is instead the ‘laughing god’ Ebisu, one of the Seven Gods of Furtune. According to legend, Ebisu gained ill favor with his elders at the age of three, and he was cast into the sea, who is always happy and laughing, and evidently very generous. He is depicted as always wearing traditional Japanese court clothing with a fishing rod and a fish known as a ‘red sea-bream’ (pagrus cardinalis), which is supposedly the most delicious fish that can be prepared. In some modern illustrations, he is also associated with jellyfish.

 

Ebisu is the patron of merchants and tradesmen, as well as fishermen. Perhaps due to his clothing, it is considered good luck to purchase clothing and material on Ebisu Day.

 

How to date Hansatsu (Or try to really, really hard, anyway!)

Link: How to attribute dates on Hasnatsu

 

Source

http://www.banknoteden.com/Japan.html

Look more Hansatsu Edo Papermoney collections from this era from E-Bay auction

Japan Edo period paper money “Hansatsu 1monme” Nara 1866 Uncirculated

o    IDR263,157.89

o    Buy It Now

o     

o    From Japan

o   

Japan Edo period paper money “Hansatsu 1monme” Nara 1700s

o    IDR131,578.95

o    Buy It Now

o     

o    From Japan

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JAPAN HANSATSU 31 NOTE LOT – OUTSTANDING LOT -MANY SCARCE NOTES – 1700S- 1800S

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Japan Edo period paper money “Hansatsu 1monme” Nara 1700s

IDR171,052.63

The shogunate prohibited the use of scrip in 1707.

 

.Edo Period: Pre-conditions for Industrialization

(See Handout no.2)

The Edo period: 1603-1867

 

Nikko Toshogu Shrine (Yomei Gate)

 

Tokugawa Ieyasu, the first Edo Shogun

From the late 12th century through the 17th century, Japan was ruled by samurais (military leaders) but politics remained unstable. Internal wars and power shifts were very frequent, especially during the late 15th century to the end of the 16th century (called Sengoku Jidai, or warring period).

Finally, Ieyasu Tokugawa unified the country after the decisive Battle of Sekigahara (located between Nagoya and Kyoto, visible from Shinkansen) in 1600 and the attacks on Osaka Castle in 1615 where the rival Toyotomi family perished. Ieyasu established a new government in Edo and became the first shogun of the Edo Bakufu in 1603. Edo, a sleepy little town until then, was transformed into a huge political city by aggressive public works including land reclamation, new canals and clean water supply systems. The Tokugawa family ruled the country in the next 264 years (15 shoguns in all). Ieyasu Tokugawa was deified and worshiped in Nikko Toshogu Shrine (even today).

We start the story of Japan’s economic development from the Edo period because pre-conditions for later industrialization and modernization were created internally during this period (moreover, quantitative data for earlier periods are very limited). The following are the pre-conditions that were generated:

(1) Political unity and stability
(2) Agricultural development in terms of both area and productivity
(3) Development of transportation and the existence of nationally unified markets
(4) The rise of commerce, finance and the wealthy merchant class
(5) The rise of manufacturing (food processing, handicraft, etc)
(6) Industrial promotion by central and local governments (sometimes successful but not always)
(7) High level of education

These are the features of the Edo period which are commonly cited by many researchers. The remainder of this lecture discusses them in detail. Note that some of these conditions are not achieved even today in some countries. In fact, developing countries that are equipped with all these conditions are relatively rare.

SHOGUN WOODBLOCK PICTURE

 

Here are some basic terminology for the Edo period:

Edo

The old name for Tokyo. Edo literally means the mouth of bay. Incidentally, Tokyo means eastern capital (the western, or the traditional, capital is Kyoto).

Daimyo

Regional samurai ruler. During the Edo period, it meant the head samurai of a local government (han).

Shogun

Originally, the supreme commander of dispatched army. But it usually means the head of a central military government.

Bakufu

Residence of a military ruler. Later it meant the central military government itself.

Han

A local government (like province or prefecture) in the Edo period.

Features of the Bakufu-Han System

The basic characteristics of the Edo society and politics were as follows.

(1) It was a class society: The ruling class was samurai (military men who were permitted to carry a sword). Then farmers (ranked no.2), craftsmen (no.3), merchants (no.4). There was a big gap between the samurai class and other classes. Farmers were officially placed no.2 because they paid the rice tax, but they were not particularly respected. Below all of these classes, there were also outcasts (eta and hinin).

(These four classes were called Shi-Nou-Kou-Shou (from top to bottom). Historically, Vietnam also had the distinction of Si-Nong-Cong-Thuong (Chinese characters are the same, only the pronunciation is different). It is clear that the idea originally came from China. In Vietnam, however, the top class “Si” meant scholars or literary bureaucrats, not fighting men. Moreover, it merely showed what types of people were important and respectable in society without political implication. The Edo government changed this idea into an ideology that legitimized a class society with samurais on top.)

(2) Politically, it was a centralized system. The Bakufu (central government) had absolute political power over the fate of hans (local governments) and could even remove or abolish them. It was a feudal society in the sense that the shogun gave daimyos the land to rule. In return, daimyos pledged loyalty to shogun. Any sign of disobedience was met with sternest punishment (often seppuku (ritual suicide) and/or the termination of the family).

(3) Economically, it was more decentralized. The Bakufu was not very capable of (or interested in) imposing consistent economic policies. Its policies were often unstable and short-sighted. Each han could decide its tax rates and other economic regulations, or encourage certain industries (so long as it was not explicitly prohibited by the Bakufu).

(4) The Bakufu imposed the following expenses on hans. (i) sankin kotai, bi-annual commuting between home and Edo (one year the daimyo must live in Edo, next year in his han, then Edo, then home, ad infinitum) — a large number of retainers also moved with him. This cost a large sum of money and usually constituted the largest part of han’s expenditure; (ii) public works ordered by the Bakufu, such as building castles, moats, roads, irrigation ponds and canals, waterworks, etc; (iii) other ad hoc and arbitrary taxes and charges.

Imposition of these financial expenses on hans had the effect of weakening the financial capability of hans so they were unable to build military forces to rebel against the Bakufu.

 

Figure 2-1

Bakufu-Han System

Agriculture

The Edo society was agrarian (particularly at the beginning) with about 90% of the population being peasants. Later, the ratio declined somewhat. The basic unit of production was the small family. Previously, one farming household often contained many families plus servants. But official land surveys (kenchi) conducted before and after the beginning of the Edo period dismantled the big family system and created small farming units, with each family guaranteed of the land to cultivate.

According to the law, peasants had no right to move and were tied to the land as labor force (they were the tax base !) But in reality, some farmers moved to new land, sometimes to avoid a high tax burden, unreasonable policy or famine, but sometimes to look for new land to improve their life. Later, as rural income rose, many well-to-do farmers enjoyed village festivals as well as trips to Ise Shrine and other religious spots (officially for worship, but actually for fun).

Villages were well organized and permitted autonomy, as long as they paid rice taxes as stipulated. The rice tax was levied on villages (not individual farmers), and village representatives, who were often themselves farmers, allocated rice tax burden among all villagers. In a sense, they played the role of lowest-level tax administration. Thanks to them, the Bakufu and hans could raise tax revenues with little administrative cost. Prof. Keiichi Tanaka (Edo historian) argues that farmers were very dynamic and independent, and they often rejected Bakufu officials and policies which were inconsistent and unreasonable. (Prof. Tanaka thinks that the Bakufu had no long-term vision and their laws and regulations were ad hoc responses to unfolding events.)

There were two ways to determine the rice tax obligation. One was the kemi (inspection) system where an official inspector came to check the actual yield every year. Naturally, village representatives treated the official with lots of food and gifts. Some officials only had drinking parties and did not actually check the fields. The bribed official happily understated the crop output (often very substantially) so villages paid much less taxes. According to Prof. Shinzaburo Oishi (historian), such corruption was an important reason for chronic revenue shortage of the government. On the other hand, if the visiting official was arbitrary and uncooperative, he might raise the tax obligation to the chagrin of the farmers.

Another method was the jomen (fixed amount) system where the rice tax was unchanged for three or five years based on the average output of the preceding years. Under this system, the government could expect a more stable tax revenue and also minimize the inspection cost. Farmers borne a greater risk for crop failure, but incentive to produce was also greater (if they worked hard, additional output was all theirs). According to Prof. Tanaka, farmers often preferred the jomen system because they did not want to cope with corrupt officials every year.

During the Edo period, agricultural development underwent two phases: from quantitative expansion to qualitative intensification.

Table 2-1
Estimated Land under Cultivation

 (unit: thousand hectare)

930 AD

862

1450 AD

946

1600 AD

1,635

1720 AD

2,970

1874 AD

3,050

Source: S. Oishi (1977).

From the mid 15th century to the late 17th century (this includes the previous Sengoku Jidai (warring period) as well as the early Edo period), there was an enormous expansion of farmland (especially rice paddies). Earlier, rice was produced in narrow valleys where mountains ended and plains began–this was the only place where constant water supply was available. But during this period, large-scale water projects were carried out all over Japan by daimyos and private farmers to control floods and use rivers for irrigation. As a result, land under cultivation expanded dramatically. The plains, which had hitherto been uninhabitable marshlands, were turned into productive paddy fields. The population increased rapidly (such population growth was very unusual for a pre-modern society). Prof. Shinzaburo Oishi calls this “The Great Age of Opening Fields.”

After the late 17th century, land expansion came to a halt. The rapid growth of farmland in the previous period also brought some negative effects, including (i) shortage of labor force; and (ii) deforestation and frequent occurrence of floods. From this period onward (even today), Japanese agriculture emphasized intensive cultivation with large inputs of labor and technology, instead of quantitative expansion.

 

Agricultural technology in the Edo period

From the 18th century onward, the area of cultivation and population remained relatively stable, but rice output continued to grow thanks to increased productivity. Contributing factors included double cropping, new species of rice, fertilizer (dried fish was popular), and invention of new farming tools. Many guidebooks were published to teach farmers how to produce crops more effectively and efficiently.

At the beginning of the Edo period (17th century), peasants produced mainly for family consumption. They ate what they produced and their living standards were at subsistence levels. However, from the middle Edo period, as productivity rose, agricultural surplus was created and peasants began to sell their rice and other crops to the market (which was nationally integrated). Cash crops increased and commercial agriculture began.

Officially, all farmers were supposed to belong to (or be tied to) pre-assigned land. But in the 19th century as landless farmers increased, the landlord-tenant relationship began to emerge.

Farmers’ uprisings (ikki) frequently occurred, especially at the time of famine and toward the end of the Edo period. They were unhappy with taxes, inflation, famine, corrupt officials, or government policies.

Budget and money

The Bakufu’s revenue sources included the following:

–Rice tax from land directly held by Bakufu (land not distributed to other daimyos)
–Monopoly on mining, foreign trade and minting money
–Direct control on major cities (Edo, Kyoto, Osaka, Nagasaki, Sakai, etc)
–Financial contributions from merchants in exchange for monopoly & cartel permission
–Charges on and borrowings from rich merchants (sometimes not repaid)
–In addition, the Bakufu assigned hans to various public works, as noted above

Hans’ revenue included the following:

–Rice tax from its territory
–Revenues from local industries (if industrial promotion was successful)

The entire fiscal system was based on the rice tax. The unit of fiscal account was “koku” (about 180 liters of rice). The han’s economic size was measured in koku and samurai’s salaries were paid in rice (but of course they had to convert it to cash to buy things). Rice was physically collected from each village and transported to the major rice markets (Osaka was the most important national rice market), then redistributed to the rest of the country. The “koku” size of each han was based on cultivated areas at the beginning, but as new fields were opened and productivity rose, the official “koku” size and the actual “koku” size of each han deviated.

This rice-based system had the following consequences:

(1) Since rice had to be actually shipped across regions, this tax system required a nationally unified transportation and distribution mechanism. Private merchants provided such services but the Bakufu and han governments often guided and supported them. Land transportation (on horseback) was very costly and inefficient, so sea and river transportation was mainly used.

(2) Economic activity gradually shifted from subsistence farming to commercial agriculture and handicraft industries. But the government’s tax base basically remained on rice. There were some taxes on commerce but this did not become the reliable tax base. As a result, the Bakufu and han governments faced fiscal crisis while farmers and merchants were allowed to increase their income and wealth.

(3) Faced with chronic fiscal crisis, the Bakufu responded in the following ways: monetary debasement (similar to printing money, which leads to inflation), spending cuts, tax increases, price controls, administrative reforms. Some commercial policies were tried, including providing certain merchants with the exclusive right to market a product (i.e. monopoly) in exchange for financial contribution to the government.

Money consisted of both gold and silver. Gold was popular in Edo and silver was mainly used in Osaka. Copper money was also used for small transactions. Hans could also issue local paper money. Inflation rose at the time of famine and accelerated toward the end of the Edo period (especially after international trade was resumed).

Transportation and commerce

 

Tokaido “Highway”

The Bakufu designated five official highways and opened major sea lanes. But private inns, restaurants, shippers, baggage carriers, etc. provided the necessary service. Farming villages near the highway were required to provide horses when necessary (part of their nontax obligation). Sankin kotai (bi-annual commuting by daimyos) also stimulated the development of the road system. At the same time, due to military reasons, Bakufu did not encourage free movement of people and merchandise. At major check points, sekisho (passport controls) were created. Some rivers were left without bridges, intentionally and for military reasons. Hans were not allowed to build ships or maintain navy.

As noted above, from the beginning, the Edo tax system presupposed a nationally unified rice market. Development of cash crops and handicrafts also stimulated nationwide commerce. Osaka was the commercial center with many rich merchants and money lenders, while Edo was a political center and consumption city. Naturally, the sea lane between the two cities was well developed. In Osaka, the futures market in rice emerged (this is said to be the first futures market in the world).

The Bakufu’s policy towards commerce and industry was variable and inconsistent. Sometimes the central government tried to control and tax private businesses. Other times free economy was permitted. Cartels were sometimes imposed and other times prohibited. Among historians, opinions differ as to whether the Edo economy was more dynamic under free market policy or pro-cartel policy. Prof. Tetsuji Okazaki (Tokyo University) tries to show that estimated GDP grew faster during the time when cartels were permitted than when they were banned. He argues that trade cartels were a positive factor for the development of the Edo economy rather than an impediment. However, his data and regressions may be too crude to be decisive.

Toward the end of the Edo period, many hans and local cities developed economically. As a result, direct trading among them (without the intervention of Osaka merchants) began. The center of economic activity gradually moved eastward, from Kansai (Osaka, Kyoto) to Edo and Eastern Japan. Many markets (not just rice, but almost everything) were nationally integrated.

Industry

As agriculture and commerce grew, pre-modern manufacturing (handicrafts, food processing) also began to develop. For example, the following products were produced:

tea, tobacco, wax, indigo, salt, knives, sword, pottery, lacquer ware, silk, cotton, soy sauce, sake, paper, stone cutting, medicine, chemicals

 

Cotton weaving factory in Owari (Nagoya). No steam engines or electricity yet, but division of labor was underway.

In order to enrich local population and increase tax revenue, many hans promoted local industries, and some even succeeded (S. Nishikawa and M. Amano, 1989). For example,

Tokushima han (indigo): Farmers produced indigo along the Yoshino River and their output gradually grew. But indigo distribution was monopolized by Osaka merchants who imposed high interest on loans. In order to protect local farmers and encourage local merchants, the han government created an indigo exchange and provided financial and distribution services. But the Bakufu objected to this move, prohibiting such official support (the Bakufu wanted to protect Osaka merchants who contributed financially to the central government). So the han privatized the indigo exchange and other services.

Takamatsu han (sugar): The Takamatsu government issued han’s paper money to promote various industries but failed, and its money depreciated. After many such failed attempts, the han finally succeeded in research on sugar production (from sugar beets) and commercialized the technology. As sugar production greatly increased, the han promoted inter-han trade (direct trade between hans). But again, the Bakufu tried to discourage such trade not brokered by Osaka merchants.

Satsuma han (military technology): This han in southern Kyushu imported new technology from the West and produced blast furnace, cannons and western ships. It was also engaged in illegal trade with Ryukyu (Okinawa), which was very profitable. By increasing wealth and military capability, Satsuma han later played the key role in toppling the Bakufu government and establishing the Meiji government.

These are just a few examples. Many other hans were engaged in industrial promotion, including Choshu han (paper, wax), Yonezawa han (safflower, lacquer wax), Akita han (silk and silk dress), Hizen han (pottery, coal), Higo han (lumber, silk), and so on. But we should not forget that there were many hans which were less successful and deeply in debt. They borrowed money from big private merchants but never repaid.

Education

   

Bakufu school at Yushima Seido (Ochanomizu, Tokyo). Confucianism was taught to the sons of bakufu samurais.

Professional school (enacted)

The popularity of education in the Edo period is often cited as the cause of fast industrialization in later periods. Education in this period ranged from the recondite study of Chinese philosophy and literature at public schools to children’s primary education at private schools. More specifically, four types of learning institutions were important.

(1) Bakufu schools

The bakufu’s schools mainly taught Confucianism, an ancient Chinese philosophy started by Confucius in the 6th to 5th century BC. It emphasized social order, proper rituals, the way of good political leader, and respect for elderly and superior. The Edo government vigorously promoted Confucianism as an ideology to legitimize and maintain the class society. Seika Fujiwara and Razan Hayashi were the leading bakufu scholars. Students had to memorize and interpret ancient Chinese books. How to modify this foreign doctrine to fit the Japanese reality was one of the important theoretical questions. There were also bakufu schools for European language (Dutch) and technology (medicine, navigation, military technology, etc).

(2) Han schools

Hans also established schools to educate their young samurais. The curriculums were basically the same as bakufu schools with Confucianism at the center of learning. Toward the end of the Edo period, han schools were expanded to emphasize practical skills such as military training and foreign language. Some even accepted non-samurai students. Many han schools were transformed into education institutions in the following Meiji period.

(3) Private professional schools

An eminent scholar often established his school and recruited students. Depending on the instructor, various subjects were taught: Confucianism, research on ancient Japanese literature (later leading to nationalism and anti-foreigner movement), Western language (Dutch, later also English), medicine, science, technology, and so on. These schools accepted both samurai and non-samurai students. In the late Edo period, they often attracted talented and hot-hearted young people with the desire to contribute to the country. Their eyes were opened to the international situation and Japan&#